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Sample records for 17th world computer

  1. 17th World Food Day observed.

    PubMed

    1997-01-01

    The UN Food and Agriculture Organization has dubbed October 16 World Food Day in an effort to create awareness and generate interest in the efforts being made to alleviate hunger and malnutrition, and to increase food production. A flag-raising ceremony marked the 17th World Food Day, on investing in food security, in Accra, Ghana. The Vice-President of Ghana noted at the ceremony that his government has made agriculture its top priority and is determined to invest as much as needed to achieve significant growth in the sector. The government is also taking steps to make agriculture so attractive that both private individuals and companies will find it a profitable sector in which to partake. The government of Ghana will provide its fullest cooperation and support in all technical and logistical aspects of the production process to prospective investors in the sector. Enlightened government policies are needed to ensure a broader framework for improving food security through agricultural development. PMID:12348737

  2. 17th Edition of TOP500 List of World's Fastest SupercomputersReseased

    SciTech Connect

    Strohmaier, Erich; Meuer, Hans W.; Dongarra, Jack J.; Simon,Horst D.

    2001-06-21

    17th Edition of TOP500 List of World's Fastest Supercomputers Released MANNHEIM, GERMANY; KNOXVILLE, TENN.; BERKELEY, CALIF. In what has become a much-anticipated event in the world of high-performance computing, the 17th edition of the TOP500 list of the world's fastest supercomputers was released today (June 21). The latest edition of the twice-yearly ranking finds IBM as the leader in the field, with 40 percent in terms of installed systems and 43 percent in terms of total performance of all the installed systems. In second place in terms of installed systems is Sun Microsystems with 16 percent, while Cray Inc. retained second place in terms of performance (13 percent). SGI Inc. was third both with respect to systems with 63 (12.6 percent) and performance (10.2 percent).

  3. Computers in Libraries Annual Conference (17th, Washington, DC, March 13-15, 2002): Collected Presentations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nixon, Carol, Comp.

    This book contains presentations from the 17th annual Computers in Libraries Conference. Topics covered include: chatting with a librarian; verbots for library Web sites; collaborative IT (Information Technology) planning at Montgomery County Public Library (Maryland); designing a local government taxonomy; Weblogs; new roles for librarians in…

  4. Invitation to the 17th international congress on photosynthesis research in 2016: photosynthesis in a changing world.

    PubMed

    van Amerongen, Herbert; Croce, Roberta

    2016-02-01

    The 17th International Congress on Photosynthesis will be held from August 7 to 12, 2016 in Maastricht, The Netherlands. The congress will include an opening reception, 15 plenary lectures, 28 scientific symposia, many poster sessions, displays by scientific companies, excursions, congress dinner, social activities, and the first photosynthesis soccer world championship. See http://www.ps2016.com/ . The congress is organized as an official event of the International Society of Photosynthesis Research (see http://www.photosynthesisresearch.org/). PMID:26572769

  5. Anatomical Confirmation of Computed Tomography-Based Diagnosis of the Atherosclerosis Discovered in 17th Century Korean Mummy

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Myeung Ju; Kim, Yi-Suk; Oh, Chang Seok; Go, Jai-Hyang; Lee, In Sun; Park, Won-Kyu; Cho, Seok-Min; Kim, Soon-Kwan; Shin, Dong Hoon

    2015-01-01

    In the present study on a newly discovered 17th century Korean mummy, computed tomography (CT) revealed multiple aortic calcifications within the aortic wall that were indicative of ancient atherosclerosis. The CT-based findings were confirmed by our subsequent post-factum dissection, which exhibited possible signs of the disease including ulcerated plaques, ruptured hemorrhages, and intimal thickening where the necrotic core was covered by the fibrous cap. These findings are strong indicators that the mummy suffered from aortic atherosclerosis during her lifetime. The present study is a good example of how CT images of vascular calcifications can be a useful diagnostic tool in forming at least preliminary diagnoses of ancient atherosclerosis. PMID:25816014

  6. Cartier, Champlain, and the fruits of the New World: botanical exchange in the 16th and 17th centuries.

    PubMed

    Dickenson, Victoria

    2008-01-01

    Much has been written of the Columbian exchange, the transfer between New World and Old of people, pathogens, flora and fauna. The biota of two hemispheres, once seemingly irredeemably separated, were interpenetrated, both through accident and through human agency. Part of this exchange involved medicinal and food plants, discovered in the New World and adopted into the Old. This paper examines the translation of a number of New World plants that were part of the 'Cartierian' or 'Champlinian' exchange that followed the voyages to North America by Jacques Cartier (1491-1557) between 1534 and 1541, and the explorations and settlements undertaken by Samuel de Champlain (1580?-1635) from 1603 to his death at Quebec in 1635. During this period, a number of North American plants were propagated in European nurseries and even found their way into everyday use in gardens or kitchens. How were these new plants viewed on their introduction and how were they incorporated into Europe's "vegetable" consciousness? Where did these new plants fit in the classification of the edible and the exotic? PMID:19569386

  7. Scientific Misconduct and Theft: Case Report from 17th Century

    PubMed Central

    Fatović-Ferenčić, Stella

    2008-01-01

    Gjuro Armen Baglivi was one of the most famous medical authorities of the 17th century. Apart from his numerous books and publications, several extensive collections of his correspondence have been preserved and are available in libraries around the world. They provide new information about the 17th century scientific culture and place of Baglivi’s work in the scientific European context. Also, they shed light on his personality more than other writings intended for the public eye. In this paper I will present the case of a theft of intellectual property, which Baglivi described in one of his letters to Jean Jacques Manget. PMID:18293461

  8. World's Most Powerful Computer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The use of the Cray 2 supercomputer, the fastest computer in the world, at ARC is detailed. The Cray 2 can perform 250 million calculations per second and has 10 times the memory of any other computer. Ames researchers are shown creating computer simulations of aircraft airflow, waterflow around a submarine, and fuel flow inside of the Space Shuttle's engines. The video also details the Cray 2's use in calculating airflow around the Shuttle and its external rockets during liftoff for the first time and in the development of the National Aero Space Plane.

  9. Harvard Humanities Students Discover the 17th Century Online

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Jennifer

    2007-01-01

    This article profiles Harvard professor Stephen Greenblatt's new course, "Travel and Transformation in the Early 17th Century." The product of an intense, months-long collaboration between computing specialists, graduate students, librarians, and scholars, the course makes innovative use of all the tools and technical know-how a major university…

  10. Virtual Worlds in Computing Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crellin, Jonathan; Duke-Williams, Emma; Chandler, Jane; Collinson, Timothy

    2009-01-01

    This article reports on the use of a virtual world ("Second Life") in computing education, and identifies the precursors of current virtual world systems. The article reviews the potential for virtual worlds as tools in computing education. It describes two areas where "Second Life" has been used in computing education: as a development…

  11. 17th Annual School Construction Report, 2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abramson, Paul

    2012-01-01

    The 2012 "School Planning & Management"'s 17th Annual School Construction Report reports over the last two years although school construction had fallen from previous highs, the pipeline of projects funded before the recession was still full. And so, in 2009 total construction was a solid $16.4 billion. But the pipeline is not being…

  12. 17th International Conference on Arabidopsis Research

    SciTech Connect

    Judith Bender

    2006-07-01

    The 17th International Conference on Arabidopsis Research was held at the University of Madison, Wisconsin from June 27- July 2, 2006. ICAR-2006 included approximately 625 scientists from across the world. The scientific program was of excellent quality featuring 73 talks, including 30 from invited speakers. There were also 6 community-organized workshops (facilitated by conference staff) featuring additional talks on topics including ‘Submitting data to long-term repositories,’ ‘TAIR introductory workshop,’ ‘Web services and demonstration,’ ‘Public engagement: broadening the impact of your research,’ ‘Systems biology approaches to analysis of metabolic and regulatory networks of Arabidopsis,’ and ‘Mechanotransduction in Arabidopsis.’ Approximately 440 posters were presented in general topic areas including, among others, Development, Modeling/Other Systems, Energy, Environment, and Genetic/Epigenetic mechanisms. Graduate students, postdoctoral researchers, junior faculty, and underrepresented minorities made up a significant portion of the oral presentations thereby promoting the training of young scientists and facilitating important career development opportunities for speakers. Several poster sessions provided an opportunity for younger participants to freely meet with more established scientists. The North American Arabidopsis Steering Committee (NAASC) continued its outreach effort and again sponsored two special luncheons to encourage personal and professional development of young scientists and also underrepresented minorities. The ‘Emerging Scientists Luncheon’ featured 10 graduate students selected on the basis of scientific excellence of their submitted research abstracts. The ‘Minority Funding Luncheon,’ featured 8 awardees selected by the NAASC through a widely-publicized application process. This luncheon was established specifically to provide an opportunity for underrepresented minorities, and/or scientists from

  13. Computing in the Real World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watt, Dan

    1985-01-01

    Describes an innovative, tool-based high school computer literacy course that involves student use of productivity software to learn what computers do in the real world rather than programing. Several student projects, teacher qualifications and responsibilities, and the role of peer teaching are discussed. (MBR)

  14. 17th Space Photovoltaic Research and Technology Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenkins, Phillip (Compiler)

    2002-01-01

    The 17th Space Photovoltaic Research and Technology (SPRAT XVII) Conference was held September 11-13, 2001, at the Ohio Aerospace Institute (OAI) in Cleveland, Ohio. The SPRAT conference, hosted by the Photovoltaic and Space Environments Branch of the NASA Glenn Research Center, brought together representatives of the space photovoltaic community from around the world to share the latest advances in space solar technology. This year's conference continued to build on many of the trends shown in SPRAT XVI; the use of new high-efficiency cells for commercial use and the development of novel array concepts such as Boeing's Solar Tile concept. In addition, new information was presented on space environmental interactions with solar arrays.

  15. DIMMING OF THE 17TH CENTURY SUN

    SciTech Connect

    Foukal, Peter; Ortiz, Ada; Schnerr, Roald

    2011-06-01

    Reconstructions of total solar irradiance (TSI) rely mainly on linear relations between TSI variation and indices of facular area. When these are extrapolated to the prolonged 15th-17th century Spoerer and Maunder solar activity minima, the estimated solar dimming is insufficient to explain the mid-millennial climate cooling of the Little Ice Age. We draw attention here to evidence that the relation departs from linearity at the lowest activity levels. Imaging photometry and radiometry indicate an increased TSI contribution per unit area from small network faculae by a factor of 2-4 compared with larger faculae in and around active regions. Even partial removal of this more TSI-effective network at prolonged minima could enable climatically significant solar dimming, yet be consistent with the weakened but persistent 11 yr cycle observed in Be 10 during the Maunder Minimum. The mechanism we suggest would not alter previous findings that increased solar radiative forcing is insufficient to account for 20th century global warming.

  16. [Discovery of blood cells in the 17th century].

    PubMed

    Doubek, M

    2001-07-01

    Landmark works of the 17th century concerning observations of blood cells are quoted in the article. "Simple" and successively "compound" microscopes made their appearance in the late 16th century and early 17th century. In 1656, Frenchman Pierre Borel, physician-in-ordinary to the King Louis XIV, who first applied the microscope to medicine described a type of "worn" found in human blood. In 1657, Athanasius Kircher, a Jesuit priest and scientist from Germany, examined blood from plague victims, and described "worms" of plague. In 1661, 1664 and 1665, the blood cells were discerned by Marcello Malpighi. In 1678, the red blood corpuscles was described by Jan Swammerdam of Amsterdam, a Dutch naturalist and physician. The first complete account of the red cells was made by Anthony van Leeuwenhoek of Delft in the last quarter of the 17th century. PMID:11505724

  17. High Life: 17th Annual Residence Hall Construction Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agron, Joe

    2006-01-01

    Residence hall construction continues to be a priority for colleges and universities. With enrollments on the upswing, higher-education institutions are spending more and building larger facilities to entice students to live on campus. This article presents the findings of "American School & University's" 17th annual Residence Hall Construction…

  18. Jaguar: The World?s Most Powerful Computer

    SciTech Connect

    Bland, Arthur S Buddy; Rogers, James H; Kendall, Ricky A; Kothe, Douglas B; Shipman, Galen M

    2009-01-01

    The Cray XT system at ORNL is the world s most powerful computer with several applications exceeding one-petaflops performance. This paper describes the architecture of Jaguar with combined XT4 and XT5 nodes along with an external Lustre file system and external login nodes. We also present some early results from Jaguar.

  19. [Rules of hygiene and moral guidance in medical practice, 16th-17th centuries Spain].

    PubMed

    Ruiz Somavilla, María José

    2002-01-01

    In recent decades, we have seen how members of the illiterate, popular classes gained access to specific contents of elite culture by means of oral expression collected through texts. This development may be related to the target readership of medical texts published in Spain during the 16th and 17th centuries. The study also analyses how information about preventive measures in health care was passed on through medical books from professionals to lay-people. This represents one of the key methods used by medical practice in the modern world. PMID:12678024

  20. Pigment characterization of important golden age panel paintings of the 17th century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pięta, Ewa; Proniewicz, Edyta; Szmelter-Fausek, Bożena; Olszewska-Świetlik, Justyna; Proniewicz, Leonard M.

    2015-02-01

    Samples were obtained from two world-famous 17th century panel paintings of the Gdańsk school of panting: 'Seven Acts of Charity' (1607, in St. Mary's Church in Gdańsk, Poland) by Anton Möller and 'Angelic Concert' (1611, in Diocesan Museum in Pelplin, Poland) by Hermann Han. Micro-Raman spectroscopy (MRS), optical microscopy (OM), and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy studies of the samples were performed to characterize the pigments present in the individual painting layers (a rich palette of white, black, blue, red, and yellow pigments) and the pictorial techniques used by the artists.

  1. In the sign of Galileo: pictorial representation in the 17th-century Copernican debate.

    PubMed

    Remmert, Volker R

    2003-03-01

    After Galileo had discovered the four moons of Jupiter in 1609 he became increasingly convinced that the Copernican, heliocentric system of the world was correct. However, this ran against the opinions of the Church and a large number of contemporary astronomers and natural philosophers. The ensuing development culminated in the condemnation of the Copernican system by the Church in 1616 and of Galileo himself, who had propagated the Copernican system in his Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems (1632), in 1633. Nevertheless, there was a constant debate about the right world system during the whole 17th century. Pictorial representation played an important role in it and the illustrations used as book frontispieces were a significant medium for the dispute. PMID:12642143

  2. Anatomy and anatomists in Tuscany in the 17th century.

    PubMed

    Orlandini, Giovanni E; Paternostro, Ferdinando

    2010-01-01

    The 17th century was characterized by a real revolution in the field of scientific research due to the introduction of the experimental method, promoted by Galileo Galilei who was the most representative scientist of this period. Therefore, medical disciplines, particularly Anatomy, underwent innovative and deep changes shattering traditional culture and representing the background for the modern science. In this fermenting period, Tuscany played a significant role since numerous distinguished scientists were gathered by Medici Grand Dukes (especially Ferdinando the 2nd and Cosimo the 3rd) at Pisa University and at their court in Florence. Among them, it must be mentioned Giovanni Alfonso Borelli, creator of iathromechanics, Marcello Malpighi, founder of microscopic Anatomy, Francesco Redi, who denied the insect spontaneous generation, Nils Steensen who continued in Florence his anatomical studies on lymph nodes and salivary glands while setting also the bases of modern geology. Moreover, at the end of the 17th century, the anatomical wax modelling techniques arose and developed in Florence thanks to the work of Gaetano Zumbo (or Zummo), capable of creating some real masterpieces, still very well preserved and collected in the Museum of Natural Sciences "La Specola". PMID:21287970

  3. Laptop Computers for Third World Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierce, Alan

    2008-01-01

    The nonprofit organization One Laptop per Child (OLPC) has a mission that is easy to articulate but very challenging to achieve: Provide laptop computers to the almost 2 billion children who live in parts of the world where poverty and the lack of a structured educational system deprive them of an adequate education. To further complicate the…

  4. Anomalous solar rotation in the early 17th century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eddy, J. A.; Gilman, P. A.; Trotter, D. E.

    1977-01-01

    The character of solar rotation has been examined for two periods in the early 17th century for which detailed sunspot drawings are available: A.D. 1625 through 1626 and 1642 through 1644. The first period occurred 20 years before the start of the Maunder sunspot minimum, 1645 through 1715; the second occurred just at its commencement. Solar rotation in the earlier period was much like that of today. In the later period, the equatorial velocity of the sun was faster by 3 to 5 percent and the differential rotation was enhanced by a factor of 3. The equatorial acceleration with declining solar activity is in the same sense as that found in recent Doppler data. It seems likely that the change in rotation of the solar surface between 1625 and 1645 was associated with the onset of the Maunder Minimum.

  5. The low countries - 16th/17th century.

    PubMed

    De Broe, M E; De Weerdt, D L; Ysebaert, D K; Vercauteren, S R; De Greef, K E; De Broe, L C

    1999-01-01

    Andreas Vesalius and Jan Baptist Van Helmont are the two major personalities who contributed substantially and in a different way to the early development of renal anatomy/physiology of the 16th/17th century in the Southern Low Countries. The importance of A. Vesalius' publication 'de humani corporis fabrica libri septem' cannot be overestimated. The kidney was an intriguing organ to Vesalius, the function of which he could not fully grasp. J.B. Van Helmont was the first to demonstrate the importance of the measurement of the specific gravity of the urine and relating it to physiological and pathophysiological conditions. He made accurate clinical observations supported by autopsy examinations concerning the role of the kidney in the generation of dropsy. PMID:10213829

  6. JANNAF 17th Propulsion Systems Hazards Subcommittee Meeting. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cocchiaro, James E. (Editor); Gannaway, Mary T. (Editor); Rognan, Melanie (Editor)

    1998-01-01

    Volume 1, the first of two volumes is a compilation of 16 unclassified/unlimited technical papers presented at the 17th meeting of the Joint Army-Navy-NASA-Air Force (JANNAF) Propulsion Systems Hazards Subcommittee (PSHS) held jointly with the 35th Combustion Subcommittee (CS) and Airbreathing Propulsion Subcommittee (APS). The meeting was held on 7 - 11 December 1998 at Raytheon Systems Company and the Marriott Hotel, Tucson, AZ. Topics covered include projectile and shaped charge jet impact vulnerability of munitions; thermal decomposition and cookoff behavior of energetic materials; damage and hot spot initiation mechanisms with energetic materials; detonation phenomena of solid energetic materials; and hazard classification, insensitive munitions, and propulsion systems safety.

  7. Re-estimated fault model of the 17th century great earthquake off Hokkaido using tsunami deposit data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ioki, Kei; Tanioka, Yuichiro

    2016-01-01

    Paleotsunami researches revealed that a great earthquake occurred off eastern Hokkaido, Japan and generated a large tsunami in the 17th century. Tsunami deposits from this event have been found at far inland from the Pacific coast in eastern Hokkaido. Previous study estimated the fault model of the 17th century great earthquake by comparing locations of lowland tsunami deposits and computed tsunami inundation areas. Tsunami deposits were also traced at high cliff near the coast as high as 18 m above the sea level. Recent paleotsunami study also traced tsunami deposits at other high cliffs along the Pacific coast. The fault model estimated from previous study cannot explain the tsunami deposit data at high cliffs near the coast. In this study, we estimated the fault model of the 17th century great earthquake to explain both lowland widespread tsunami deposit areas and tsunami deposit data at high cliffs near the coast. We found that distributions of lowland tsunami deposits were mainly explained by wide rupture area at the plate interface in Tokachi-Oki segment and Nemuro-Oki segment. Tsunami deposits at high cliff near the coast were mainly explained by very large slip of 25 m at the shallow part of the plate interface near the trench in those segments. The total seismic moment of the 17th century great earthquake was calculated to be 1.7 ×1022 Nm (Mw 8.8). The 2011 great Tohoku earthquake ruptured large area off Tohoku and very large slip amount was found at the shallow part of the plate interface near the trench. The 17th century great earthquake had the same characteristics as the 2011 great Tohoku earthquake.

  8. Techniques of networking in the computer world.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, M L

    1985-09-01

    Networks can play an important role for nurses in user-to-user communication because they can be used both within and outside the health care delivery system. The choices include an information exchange, which can be an effective strategy for sharing personal concerns, problems, and achievements about the computer; commercial data bases with their vast sources of information and research data; or local area networks, effective in an office or campus setting. All of these networks can put worlds of information and services just a few words or keyboard strokes away, because they offer, outside of your own computer, a whole new dimension of retrieval, storage, reference, and communication capabilities. These networks can significantly enhance computing potential by providing an overall expansion of information. PMID:3903669

  9. Computer vision on the World Wide Web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, A. David

    1995-10-01

    The World Wide Web Initiative has provided a means for providing hypertext and multimedia based information across the whole Internet. Many applications have been developed on such http servers. One important and novel development on the World Wide Web (WWW) has been the development of computer vision and image processing related courseware facilities and indeed image processing packages. This ranges from the provision of on-line lecture notes, exercises and their solutions to more interactive packages suited primarily for teaching and demonstration packages. Within the WWW there are many pointers that highlight more research based activities. This paper addresses the issues of the implementation of the computer vision and image processing packages, the advantages gained from using a hypertext based system, and also relates the practical experiences of using the packages in a class environment. The paper addresses issues of how best to provide information in such a hypertext based system and how interactive image processing packages can be developed. A suite of multimedia based tools have been developed to facilitate such systems and these are described in the paper. A brief survey of related sources of information on the World Wide Web also is presented.

  10. A Mediterranean derecho: Catalonia (Spain), 17th August 2003

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López, J. Manuel

    2007-02-01

    At approximately 6:10 UTC in the morning of 17th August 2003, a squall line developed over south Catalonia (the northeast region of Spain). During the next 9 h, the squall moved rapidly northeast and crossed Catalonia and the French regions of Languedoc-Roussillon and Province, damaging and uprooting hundreds of trees and blocking trains in the region. Wind gusts reached were recoded up to 52 m/s with evidence of F2 intensity damage. This case study shows the characteristics of a derecho (widespread convectively induced windstorm). Radar observations of the evolving squall line show signatures often correlated with damaging surface winds, including: Bow echoes, Rear inflow notches, Rear inflow jets, Medium altitude radial convergence, Narrow gradient of very marked reflectivity, Development of isolated cells ahead of the convective line, A band of convection off the northern end of the line known as a "warm advection wing". When examining the different surface observations, satellite, radar imagery and cloud-to-ground lightning data, this case shows many similarities to those investigated in the United States. The derecho is a hybrid case, but has many characteristics of warm season derechoes. This emanates from a mesoscale convective complex (MCC) moving along a quasi-stationary, low-level thermal boundary in an environment characterized by high potential instability and relatively strong mid-tropospheric winds.

  11. Nostalgia in the Army (17th-19th Centuries).

    PubMed

    Battesti, Michèle

    2016-01-01

    People died from nostalgia in the army in the 17th-19th centuries. The term 'nostalgia', created by the doctor Johannes Hofer (1669-1752), from Mulhouse, came from the Germanic Heimweh, or 'homesickness'. It affected the young people enrolled in the army, such as Swiss mercenaries. Longing for their native land, they were consumed by an ongoing desire to return home. If it was impossible to do so, they sank into 'a sadness accompanied with insomnia, anorexia and other unpleasant symptoms' that could lead to death. Nostalgia became classified as a disease during the last quarter of the 18th century and ravaged the French army during the Revolution and the Napoleonic wars. However, as soon as the wars ended, it ceased to exist in the army (except the colonial army). It was removed from the nosology in the first half of the 19th century. Rapidly explained as an example of a misdiagnosis or a confusion between 'connection and cause', nostalgia needs to be assessed in regard to the medical debate between 'alienists' and 'organicists'. Creating much concern, nostalgia needs to be considered in the historical context of a society destabilized by modernity, with some individuals uprooted by the sudden transition from civil society to military life. It raises questions about the role that the army played in the creation of the French national union. Nostalgia may have also covered psychic traumatisms later designated as combat fatigue, war neurosis, or post-traumatic stress disorder. PMID:27035922

  12. The 17th International Conference on Antiviral Research.

    PubMed

    Buckheit, Robert W

    2004-09-01

    The focus of the 17th International Conference on Antiviral Research was the discovery and development of antiviral agents (chemistry, biology, animal models and clinical trial results) against a variety of human infectious agents including HIV, herpes viruses, hepatitis viruses, respiratory viruses and emerging/re-emerging pathogens. The meeting included the symposium 'Clinical Update on Antiviral Drugs', plenary sessions dedicated to each of the individual classes of infectious agents, a symposium on new developments surrounding emerging pathogens, and three special award lectures, which discussed the history of nucleotide antiviral agents, mechanisms of viral persistence and drug resistance, and the therapy of herpes virus infections. Within each infectious agent session the presentations included those describing the development of new and novel anti-infectives, including research based on the preclinical development of new molecules, and the results of animal modelling and clinical studies on advanced-stage antiviral agents. A summary of the meeting highlights, segregated by infectious agent, will be presented in this review. PMID:15330752

  13. World Knowledge in Computational Models of Discourse Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frank, Stefan L.; Koppen, Mathieu; Noordman, Leo G. M.; Vonk, Wietske

    2008-01-01

    Because higher level cognitive processes generally involve the use of world knowledge, computational models of these processes require the implementation of a knowledge base. This article identifies and discusses 4 strategies for dealing with world knowledge in computational models: disregarding world knowledge, "ad hoc" selection, extraction from…

  14. Computers in the World of College English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tannheimer, Charlotte

    This sabbatical report surveys some computer software presently being developed, already in use, and/or available, and describes computer use in several Massachusetts colleges. A general introduction to computers, word processors, artificial intelligence, and computer assisted instruction is provided, as well as a discussion of what computers can…

  15. Girls Save the World through Computer Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murakami, Christine

    2011-01-01

    It's no secret that fewer and fewer women are entering computer science fields. Attracting high school girls to computer science is only part of the solution. Retaining them while they are in higher education or the workforce is also a challenge. To solve this, there is a need to show girls that computer science is a wide-open field that offers…

  16. Students Develop Real-World Web and Pervasive Computing Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tappert, Charles C.

    In the academic year 2001-2002, Pace University (New York) Computer Science and Information Systems (CSIS) students developed real-world Web and pervasive computing systems for actual customers. This paper describes the general use of team projects in CSIS at Pace University, the real-world projects from this academic year, the benefits of…

  17. Otto von Guericke and 17th century cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knobloch, Eberhard

    Otto von Guericke's scientific method was based on reason and experimental science. His cosmology was embedded in theology and can be interpreted as a refutation of Descartes' worldview. He used Nicolaus Cusanus' theory of quantities in order to characterize space. The notion of space has to be distinguished from that of world or heaven. Forces play a crucial role in this respect described by Athanasius Kircher in his "Celestial Journey". Guericke read this work very diligently. In spite of some obvious similarities between Guericke's and Newton's scientific aims and methods there are crucial differences between the scientific convictions and results of these scholars.

  18. The Different World of Television and Computers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commager, Henry Steele

    1982-01-01

    The impact of television on mass culture and of computer technology on research in the social sciences and humanities is discussed. Questions are raised concerning the quality of research based on information available from computers. It is suggested that "a super-abundance of information is no substitute for wisdom." (PP)

  19. Modems: Hooking Your Computer to the World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miastkowski, Stan

    1982-01-01

    Discusses in detail the modem (short for modulator/demodulator), an electronic device which links one computer with another using telephone lines, and its importance to home computers. An extensive chart is included which gives purchasing information on low-speed and medium-speed modems. (JJD)

  20. Radiological Diagnosis of Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia in 17th Century Korean Mummy

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yi-Suk; Lee, In Sun; Jung, Go-Un; Kim, Myeung Ju; Oh, Chang Seok; Yoo, Dong Su; Lee, Won-Joon; Lee, Eunju; Cha, Soon Chul; Shin, Dong Hoon

    2014-01-01

    Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) is a birth defect of the diaphragm resulting in pulmonary sequelae that threaten the lives of infants. In computed tomography (CT) images of a 17th century middle-aged male mummy (the Andong mummy), we observed that the abdominal contents had protruded into the right thoracic cavity through the diaphragmatic defect, accompanied by a mediastinal shift to the left. On autopsy, the defect in the right posterolateral aspect of the diaphragm was reconfirmed, as was the herniation of the abdominal organs. The herniated contents included the right lobe of the liver, the pyloric part of the stomach, a part of the greater omentum, and the right colic flexure connecting the superior part of the ascending colon and the right part of the transverse colon. Taking our CT and autopsy results together, this case was diagnosed as the Bochdalek-type CDH. Herein we make the first ever report of a CT-assisted diagnosis of a pre-modern historical case of CDH. Our results show the promising utility of this modality in investigations of mummified human remains archaeologically obtained. PMID:24988465

  1. EDITORIAL The 17th Central European Workshop on Quantum Optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Man'ko, Margarita A.

    2011-02-01

    Although the origin of quantum optics can be traced back to the beginning of the 20th century, when the fundamental ideas about the quantum nature of the interaction between light and matter were put forward, the splendid blossoming of this part of physics began half a century later, after the invention of masers and lasers. It is remarkable that after another half a century the tree of quantum optics is not only very strong and spreading, but all its branches continue to grow, showing new beautiful blossoms and giving very useful fruits. A reflection of this progress has been the origin and development of the series of annual events called the Central European Workshops on Quantum Optics (CEWQO). They started at the beginning of the 1990s as rather small meetings of physicists from a few countries in central-eastern Europe, but in less than two decades they have transformed into important events, gathering 100 to 200 participants from practically all European countries. Moreover, many specialists from other continents like to attend these meetings, since they provide an excellent chance to hear about the latest results and new directions of research. Regarding this, it seems worth mentioning at least some of the most interesting and important areas of quantum optics that have attracted the attention of researchers for the past two decades. One of these areas is quantum information, which over the course of time has become an almost independent area of quantum physics. But it still maintains very close ties with quantum optics. The specific parts of this area are, in particular, quantum computing, quantum communication and quantum cryptography, and the problem of quantitative description of such genuine quantum phenomena as entanglement is one of the central items in the current stream of publications. Theory and experiment related to quantum tomography have also become important to contemporary quantum optics. They are closely related to the subject of so

  2. [Semantics of learned quackery in the 17th and 18th centuries].

    PubMed

    Füssel, Marian

    2004-06-01

    In the 17th and 18th century republic of letters the problem of scientific fraud was met with a discourse of charlatanism. Departing from Johann Burchhard Menckes famous treatise on the Charlatanry of the learned the following essay traces how the accusations of academic and scientific misconduct put in terms of 'charlatanry' primarily helped to produce the new species of the erudite 'charlatan'. Facing a growing complexity of scientific culture this new frame of meaning, structured by numerous examples of scientific misconduct offered a new way of orientation in the world of learning. But besides its cognitive impacts the discourse of charlatanry allowed to create symbolic boundaries, which determined decisions upon the affiliation or non affiliation to the new forming scientific community by separating honourable from dishonourable scientific personae. Speaking of charlatanry therefore always implied a social distinction as much as a scientific. The discourses on charlatanry also mirror differentiations within the scientific field. At first dominated by a critique built on courteous or bourgeois values, the scientific field later on developed its own criteria of appraisal like authorship, originality, transparency etc. Attracting the attention of a further growing public sphere, the explicit verbalisation of claims not relating to the value system of a republic of letters primarily concerned with the production and distribution of knowledge finally led up to a more implicit moral economy of science. A change that at a large scale level can be described both as an internalisation of the values of scientific conduct and differentiation between justiciable and unjusticiable transgressions of the norms set up by the scientific community. PMID:15338535

  3. Portuguese tin-glazed earthenware from the 17th century. Part 1: Pigments and glazes characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieira Ferreira, L. F.; Casimiro, T. M.; Colomban, Ph.

    2013-03-01

    Two sherds representative of the Portuguese faience production of the first and second halves of the 17th century were studied carefully with the use of non-invasive spectroscopies, namely: Ground State Diffuse Reflectance Absorption (GSDR), micro-Raman, Fourier-Transform Infrared (FT-IR), Laser Induced Luminescence (LIL) and Proton Induced X-ray (PIXE). These results were compared with the ones obtained for a Chinese Ming porcelain, Wanli period (16th/beginning of the 17th centuries), which served as an influence for the initial Lisbon's faience production. By combining information of the different non-destructive spectroscopic techniques used in this work, it was possible to conclude that: Co3O4 (Co II and Co III) can be found in the silicate matrix and is the blue pigment in the "Especieiro" sample (1st half of the 17th C.). Cobalt olivine silicate (Co2SiO4, Co II only) was clearly identified as the blue pigment in "Aranhões" sample (2nd half of the17th C.) - 824 cm-1 band in the micro-Raman-spectrum. Cobalt aluminate (CoAl2O4, Co II only) is the blue pigment in the Wanli plate - 203 and 512 cm-1 bands in the micro-Raman spectrum. The blue pigment in the 1st half 17th century of Lisbon's production was obtained by addition of a cobalt ore in low concentrations, which gives no specific Raman signature, because of complete dissolution in the glass. However, in most cases of the 2nd half 17th century, the Raman signature was quite evident, from a cobalt silicate. These findings point to the use of higher temperature kilns in the second case.

  4. My Experience with Alcohol, a 17th-Century Mathematician, and a Personal Decision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaton, Dennis R.; Rector, Sheila M.

    2009-01-01

    This writing shares the first author's personal experience with alcohol, the negative consequences of his choices, and the ultimate answering of the question, "Am I an alcoholic and should I drink again?" The decision-making process and the eventual answer come from Blaise Pascal, a 17th-century mathematician. This process is explained and…

  5. Propionibacterium acnes promotes Th17 and Th17/Th1 responses in acne patients.

    PubMed

    Kistowska, Magdalena; Meier, Barbara; Proust, Tatiana; Feldmeyer, Laurence; Cozzio, Antonio; Kuendig, Thomas; Contassot, Emmanuel; French, Lars E

    2015-01-01

    Propionibacterium acnes is a Gram-positive commensal bacterium thought to be involved in the pathogenesis of acne vulgaris. Although the ability of P. acnes in the initiation of pro-inflammatory responses is well documented, little is known about adaptive immune responses to this bacterium. The observation that infiltrating immune cells consist mainly of CD4(+) T cells in the perifollicular space of early acne lesions suggests that helper T cells may be involved in immune responses caused by the intra-follicular colonization of P. acnes. A recent report showing that P. acnes can induce IL-17 production by T cells suggests that acne might be a T helper type 17 (Th17)-mediated disease. In line with this, we show in this work that, in addition to IL-17A, both Th1 and Th17 effector cytokines, transcription factors, and chemokine receptors are strongly upregulated in acne lesions. Furthermore, we found that, in addition to Th17, P. acnes can promote mixed Th17/Th1 responses by inducing the concomitant secretion of IL-17A and IFN-γ from specific CD4(+) T cells in vitro. Finally, we show that both P. acnes-specific Th17 and Th17/Th1 cells can be found in the peripheral blood of patients suffering from acne and, at lower frequencies, in healthy individuals. We therefore identified P. acnes-responding Th17/Th1 cells as, to our knowledge, a previously unreported CD4(+) subpopulation involved in inflammatory acne. PMID:25010142

  6. Concurrent phenomena of science and history in the 17th century and their essential interdependence.

    PubMed

    Bloch, H

    1992-06-01

    The explanation for the explosion of science in the 17th century lies in history and medical historiography. Without this approach, it becomes fantasy, accidents, or success stories. Sigerist grasped the essential interdependence of science and history, and had no need for devised reasons or speculation. He realized that once the dark night of the Middle Ages was over, the sciences arose with undreamt of force and accelerated development. The advances in astronomy, mathematics, mechanics, and experimental science benefitted a society developing in seafaring, manufacture, and trade in the 17th century. Sigerist's views make the scientific explosion understandable in human and social terms. He did not overlook the capabilities of some extraordinary individuals, such as Paracelsus (1493-1541), to shape the course of medicine, nor the importance of the mechanistic philosophy in the 17th century. Man makes history and science; hence, we find concurrent phenomena of history and science essentially interdependent. The spirit of experimental science of 17th century England was inspired by the new needs of commercial enterprise for more means of transportation and communication. Likewise, the interest in the mechanics of the pump for waterworks and for the drainage of swamps led Harvey to think of the heart as a pump, and to explain the circulation of the blood in terms of its functioning. PMID:1608066

  7. Construction of a 17th Century Telescope: An Experiment in the History of Astronomy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gainer, Michael K.

    1981-01-01

    Describes the construction of a 17th-century telescope using old lenses and compares observations using this instrument with Galileo's observations. Describes experiments with modern eyepieces, the educational value of the activity, and given recommendations for construction of similar telescopes. (JN)

  8. Why "Worser" Is Better: The Double Comparative in 16th- to 17th-Century English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schluter, Julia

    2001-01-01

    Investigates the redundantly marked comparative "worser" in relation to its irregular, but etymologically justified, counterpart, "worse." Examines the diachronic development of the form as well as its distribution in the written language of the 16th and 17th centuries. (Author/VWL)

  9. Native American Games & European Religious Attitudes in the 16th & 17th Centuries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisen, George

    Some aspects of the white-Indian relationship are reflected in the writings of 16th and 17th century observers of Indian pastimes. The Noble Savage image was apparently accepted by French colonists as a consequence of an intellectual disappointment in the contemporary societies. In an age of absolutism and religious intolerance, the picture of the…

  10. Mosquito Vector Control and Biology in Latin America - A 17th Symposium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The 17th Annual Latin America American symposium presented by the American Mosquito Control Association (AMCA) was held as part of the 73rd Annual Meeting in Orlando, FL, in April 2007. The principal objective, as for the previous 16 symposia, was to promote participation in the AMCA by vector cont...

  11. Concurrent phenomena of science and history in the 17th century and their essential interdependence.

    PubMed Central

    Bloch, H.

    1992-01-01

    The explanation for the explosion of science in the 17th century lies in history and medical historiography. Without this approach, it becomes fantasy, accidents, or success stories. Sigerist grasped the essential interdependence of science and history, and had no need for devised reasons or speculation. He realized that once the dark night of the Middle Ages was over, the sciences arose with undreamt of force and accelerated development. The advances in astronomy, mathematics, mechanics, and experimental science benefitted a society developing in seafaring, manufacture, and trade in the 17th century. Sigerist's views make the scientific explosion understandable in human and social terms. He did not overlook the capabilities of some extraordinary individuals, such as Paracelsus (1493-1541), to shape the course of medicine, nor the importance of the mechanistic philosophy in the 17th century. Man makes history and science; hence, we find concurrent phenomena of history and science essentially interdependent. The spirit of experimental science of 17th century England was inspired by the new needs of commercial enterprise for more means of transportation and communication. Likewise, the interest in the mechanics of the pump for waterworks and for the drainage of swamps led Harvey to think of the heart as a pump, and to explain the circulation of the blood in terms of its functioning. PMID:1608066

  12. Power Relationships on the Unionized Campus. Proceedings, Annual Conference (17th, April 1989).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglas, Joel M., Ed.

    Papers from the 17th Annual Conference present observations and analysis of how the power equation has, or has not, been altered by the introduction of faculty and support staff unionism. The first section on power relationships between professors and senates contains: "The Academic as Political Man or Woman" (Seymour Lipset); "Governance: Senates…

  13. Nonmilitary applications of the rocket between the 17th and 20th centuries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharpe, M. R.

    1977-01-01

    Nonmilitary uses of the rocket through history were investigated. It was found that through the 17th century rockets were used in whaling as harpoon drives. In later years, rockets were used in lifesaving and in commercial signalling at sea. Rocket utilization was traced up to the present application of sending the first men to the moon.

  14. Solutions To the Problem of Impact in the 17th and 18th Centuries and Teaching Newton's Third Law Today.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gauld, Colin

    1998-01-01

    Compares the ideas of young people about Newton's third law, focusing on youth of today and youth of the 17th and 18th centuries. Examines the use of Newton's third law in understanding impact phenomena in the 17th and 18th centuries. Contains 46 references. (DDR)

  15. Acupuncture points & use of moxibustion, found in the popular literature & paintings of 17th century Japan.

    PubMed

    Omura, Y

    1984-01-01

    Acupuncture and moxibustion have long been an integral part of Far Eastern oriental medicine. Moxibustion and acupuncture cannot be discussed without each other since both use the same acupuncture point locations and nomenclatures. In the late 17th century, the famous travel diary of Basho, a Japanese master of haiku poetry, made reference to personal use of moxibustion on one of the well-known acupuncture points, stomach 36. Recently, the author found 2 paintings of a 17th century Kyoto geisha house and its surroundings in the Boston Museum of Fine Arts, painted in realistic color by Moronobu, the originator of the Ukiyoe style and a contemporary of Basho. Part of the scene depicts some professional porters at work; on their legs are white scars at some of the well-known acupuncture points, including stomach 36 and spleen 6. The scars appear to be the result of moxibustion. This may indicate the common use of moxibustion on well-known acupuncture points of the lower extremities in late 17th century Japan for professional porters and for people making extensive journeys. Further support of the relatively widespread use of acupuncture and moxibustion is even found in the popular, non-medical literature of late 17th century Japan. In one of the short stories about the life of average people, written by the novelist Saikaku, the details of a young woman giving moxibustion on the back of a young man is realistically described with illustrations. Reports written by some of the foreign physicians who visited Japan during this period were published, describing these methods with illustrations.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:6152509

  16. 17th Workshop on Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells and Modules: Materials and Processes; Workshop Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Sopori, B. L.

    2007-08-01

    The National Center for Photovoltaics sponsored the 17th Workshop on Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells & Modules: Materials and Processes, held in Vail, CO, August 5-8, 2007. This meeting provided a forum for an informal exchange of technical and scientific information between international researchers in the photovoltaic and relevant non-photovoltaic fields. The theme of this year's meeting was 'Expanding Technology for a Future Powered by Si Photovoltaics.'

  17. PREFACE: 17th International Conference on Microscopy of Semiconducting Materials 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walther, T.; Midgley, P. A.

    2011-11-01

    This volume contains invited and contributed papers from the 17th international conference on 'Microscopy of Semiconducting Materials' held at Churchill College, University of Cambridge, on 4-7 April 2011. The meeting was organised under the auspices of the Institute of Physics and supported by the Royal Microscopical Society as well as the Materials Research Society of the USA. This conference series deals with recent advances in semiconductor studies carried out by all forms of microscopy, with an emphasis on electron microscopy and related techniques with high spatial resolution. This time the meeting was attended by 131 delegates from 25 countries world-wide, a record in terms of internationality. As semiconductor devices shrink further new routes of device processing and characterisation need to be developed, and, for the latter, methods that offer sub-nanometre spatial resolution are particularly valuable. The various forms of imaging, diffraction and spectroscopy available in modern microscopes are powerful tools for studying the microstructure, the electronic structure, the chemistry and also electric fields in semiconducting materials. Recent advances in instrumentation, from lens aberration correction in both TEM and STEM instruments, to the development of a wide range of scanning probe techniques, as well as new methods of signal quantification have been presented at this conference. Two examples of topics at this meeting that have attracted a number of interesting studies were: the correlation of microstructural, optical and chemical information at atomic resolution with nanometre-scale resolved maps of the local electrical fields in (In,Al)GaN based semiconductors and tomographic approaches to characterise ensembles of nanowires and stacks of processed layers in devices Figure 1 Figure 1. Opening lecture by Professor Sir Colin J Humphreys. Each manuscript submitted for publication in this proceedings volume has been independently reviewed and revised

  18. Transient uplift after a 17th-century earthquake along the kuril subduction zone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sawai, Y.; Satake, K.; Kamataki, T.; Nasu, H.; Shishikura, M.; Atwater, B.F.; Horton, B.P.; Kelsey, H.M.; Nagumo, T.; Yamaguchi, M.

    2004-01-01

    In eastern Hokkaido, 60 to 80 kilometers above a subducting oceanic plate, tidal mudflats changed into freshwater forests during the first decades after a 17th-century tsunami. The mudflats gradually rose by a meter, as judged from fossil diatom assemblages. Both the tsunami and the ensuing uplift exceeded any in the region's 200 years of written history, and both resulted from a shallow plate-boundary earthquake of unusually large size along the Kuril subduction zone. This earthquake probably induced more creep farther down the plate boundary than did any of the region's historical events.

  19. Too Little too Soon: The Literature of Deaf Education in 17th-Century Britain (Part II).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoolihan, Christopher

    1985-01-01

    The article describes the growth in literature on deaf education in 17th century Britain. Noted is the work of John Wallis, William Holder, George Dalgarno, Anton Deusing, and Johann Conrad Amman. (CL)

  20. Food flora in 17th century northeast region of Brazil in Historia Naturalis Brasiliae

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This article reports historical ethnobotany research conducted from a study of the work Historia Naturalis Brasiliae (Natural History of Brazil), authored by Piso and Marcgrave and published in 1648, with main focus on Caatinga of northeast region of Brazil. Methods Focusing the content analysis on the section dedicated to plant species with multiple uses, Marcgrave's contribution to the aforementioned work, this research had the following objectives: the retrieval of 17th century knowledge about the food uses of the flora in the northeast region of Brazil, including the taxonomic classifications; the identification of plant parts, their modes of consumption and the ethnic group of consumers; and the verification of the use of these species over time. Results The use of 80 food species at the time of the publication of the work is indicated, some of which are endemic to the Caatinga, such as “umbu” (Spondias tuberosa Arruda), “mandacaru” (Cereus jamacaru DC.) and “carnauba” (Copernicia cerifera Mart.). It is noticeable that among the species listed by Marcgrave, some species still lack current studies indicating their real nutritional value. The present study is an unprecedented work because it introduces, in a systematic way, the food plants described in a study of 17th century Brazil. Conclusions Finally, this study makes information about plants consumed in the past accessible, aiming to provide material for studies that could develop new food products today. PMID:24965737

  1. The place of the 17th century in Jung's encounter with China.

    PubMed

    Cambray, Joe

    2005-04-01

    After recounting several dreams and related alchemical interests of Jung's tied to the 17(th) century, a contextualizing look at select scientific and philosophical developments of that century is presented. Several precursors of the contemporary debates on the mind/body relation are noted, with special reference to the work of Antonio Damasio. This in turn leads to a reconsideration of the work of the 17(th) century polymath Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, which Jung read as a major precursor to his formulation of synchronicity (via Leibniz's concept of 'pre-established harmony'). Leibniz was the first philosopher to articulate the mind/body relationship in terms of supervenience, sharing an accord with those contemporary philosophers and scientists who see the mind as being an emergent property of the body-brain. Similarly, these ideas are also consistent with a reformulation of synchronicity in terms of emergence. Tracing Leibniz's interest in China reveals another set of links to Jung and to emergentism. Jung's use of Taoist concepts in developing the synchronicity principle is well known. According to scholars, Leibniz was the first major Western intellect to study the I-Ching, through the assistance of a Jesuit missionary in Beijing, Fr. Joachim Bouvet. Some details of the Leibniz-Bouvet correspondence are discussed here. Despite Helmut Wilhelm's presenting aspects of this correspondence at an Eranos conference, Jung does not appear to have integrated it into his writing on synchronicity--a possible reason for this omission is suggested. PMID:15817042

  2. Raman spectroscopy analysis of pigments on 16-17th c. Persian manuscripts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muralha, Vânia S. F.; Burgio, Lucia; Clark, Robin J. H.

    2012-06-01

    The palette of four Persian manuscripts of the 16th and 17th centuries were established by Raman microscopy to include lazurite, red lead, vermilion, orpiment, a carbon-based black, lead white, malachite, haematite, indigo, carmine and pararealgar. The first five pigments were identified on all four manuscripts, as previously found for other Islamic manuscripts of this period. The findings were compared with information available in treatises on Persian painting techniques. Red lead, although identified on all of the manuscripts analysed in this study as the main red pigment, is seldom mentioned in the literature. Two unusual pigments were also identified: the intermediate phase between realgar and pararealgar in the manuscript Timur namah, and carmine in the manuscript Shah namah. Although the established palette comprises few pigments, it was found that the illuminations were enhanced by the use of pigment mixtures, the components of which could be identified by Raman microscopy.

  3. Biological Warfare Plan in the 17th Century—the Siege of Candia, 1648–1669

    PubMed Central

    Thalassinou, Eleni; Poulakou-Rebelakou, Effie; Hatzakis, Angelos

    2015-01-01

    A little-known effort to conduct biological warfare occurred during the 17th century. The incident transpired during the Venetian–Ottoman War, when the city of Candia (now Heraklion, Greece) was under siege by the Ottomans (1648–1669). The data we describe, obtained from the Archives of the Venetian State, are related to an operation organized by the Venetian Intelligence Services, which aimed at lifting the siege by infecting the Ottoman soldiers with plague by attacking them with a liquid made from the spleens and buboes of plague victims. Although the plan was perfectly organized, and the deadly mixture was ready to use, the attack was ultimately never carried out. The conception and the detailed cynical planning of the attack on Candia illustrate a dangerous way of thinking about the use of biological weapons and the absence of reservations when potential users, within their religious framework, cast their enemies as undeserving of humanitarian consideration. PMID:26894254

  4. Binary Star Measurements with a 17th Century, Long-Focal, Non-Achromatic Refractor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binder, Alan

    2010-10-01

    As part of the evaluation of my long-focal, non-achromatic refractor of the type developed during the first century, i.e., the 17th century, of optical astronomy, I have observed 175 double and multiple stars. After having observed most of these binary stars visually, I decided to see if it would be possible to measure their position angles and separations. Thus, I built a micrometer and began a program to determine if - and how accurately - I could measure the characteristics of these binaries. To my great surprise, the average error of the measured position angles is only 2 degrees and that of the separations is only 1 arc-second - values that are almost a good as modern measurements. These results further indicate that these very early and relatively primitive telescopes were much better that modern astronomical historians believe.

  5. Study of 2012 may 17th solar particle event with PAMELA experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mergè, Matteo

    The PAMELA (Payload for Antimatter Matter Exploration and Light-nuclei Astrophysics) satellite-borne experiment has been collecting data in orbit since July 2006, providing accurate measurements of the energy spectra and composition of the cosmic radiation from about one hundred MeV/n up to hundreds GeV/n. The energy interval explored makes PAMELA well suited to observe Solar Energetic Particle (SEP) events measuring their energy spectra and composition and overlapping with the ground based observation capability of neutron monitors (NM). In particular, on 17th of May 2012, a Ground Level Enhancement has been observed by PAMELA and many NMs in the polar regions, the event was classified as GLE 71. The high accuracy achieved in the measurement of the particle rigidity as well as the sampling of the spatial distribution of the trajectories for this event may contribute to the understanding of several issues of the injection and propagation of SEPs in the Heliosphere.

  6. Biological Warfare Plan in the 17th Century—the Siege of Candia, 1648–1669.

    PubMed

    Thalassinou, Eleni; Tsiamis, Costas; Poulakou-Rebelakou, Effie; Hatzakis, Angelos

    2015-12-01

    A little-known effort to conduct biological warfare occurred during the 17th century. The incident transpired during the Venetian–Ottoman War, when the city of Candia (now Heraklion, Greece) was under siege by the Ottomans (1648–1669). The data we describe, obtained from the Archives of the Venetian State, are related to an operation organized by the Venetian Intelligence Services, which aimed at lifting the siege by infecting the Ottoman soldiers with plague by attacking them with a liquid made from the spleens and buboes of plague victims. Although the plan was perfectly organized, and the deadly mixture was ready to use, the attack was ultimately never carried out. The conception and the detailed cynical planning of the attack on Candia illustrate a dangerous way of thinking about the use of biological weapons and the absence of reservations when potential users, within their religious framework, cast their enemies as undeserving of humanitarian consideration. PMID:26894254

  7. [Pharmacies in Rzeszów (17th-19th centuries)].

    PubMed

    Swieboda, J

    2000-01-01

    This dissertation is available thanks to many years investigation into the development of education and the history of the church in Galicia and the surrounding region. On the basis of gathered record materials and works concerning medical care, the author presents a history of drug stores in Rzezów in 17th-19th centuries. First, he deals with a pharmacy run by the Pijar monks in the years 1670-1697. There is a unique polychromy in it showing the different way of treating sick patients in the years 1695-1697. Next, he depicts the development of pharmacies according to Austrian law, when southern Poland came under the rule of the Habsburg family between 1772-1918. The lot of all pharmacies, the role of their owners, illustrious pharmacists, Polish - Austrian marriages among pharmacists, their connections with doctors and their position in society during this period are also described. PMID:11770491

  8. PREFACE: 17th International Conference on Textures of Materials (ICOTOM 17)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skrotzki, Werner; Oertel, Carl-Georg

    2015-04-01

    The 17th International Conference on Textures of Materials (ICOTOM 17) took place in Dresden, Germany, August 24-29, 2014. It belongs to the "triennial" series of ICOTOM meetings with a long tradition, starting in 1969 - Clausthal, 1971 - Cracow, 1973 - Pont-à-Mousson, 1975 - Cambridge, 1978 - Aachen, 1981 - Tokyo, 1984 - Noordwijkerhout, 1987 - Santa Fe, 1990 - Avignon, 1993 - Clausthal, 1996 - Xian, 1999 - Montreal, 2002 - Seoul, 2005 - Leuven, 2008 - Pittsburgh, 2011 - Mumbai, 2014 - Dresden. ICOTOM 17 was hosted by the Dresden University of Technology, Institute of Structural Physics. Following the tradition of the ICOTOM conferences, the main focus of ICOTOM-17 was to promote and strengthen the fundamental understanding of the basic processes that govern the formation of texture and its relation to the properties of polycrystalline materials. Nonetheless, it was the aim to forge links between basic research on model materials and applied research on engineering materials of technical importance. Thus, ICOTOM 17 provided a forum for the presentation and discussion of recent progress in research of texture and related anisotropy of mechanical and functional properties of all kinds of polycrystalline materials including natural materials like rocks. Particular attention was paid to recent advances in texture measurement and analysis as well as modeling of texture development for all kinds of processes like solidification, plastic deformation, recrystallization and grain growth, phase transformations, thin film deposition, etc. Hence, ICOTOM 17 was of great interest to materials scientists, engineers from many different areas and geoscientists. The topics covered by ICOTOM 17 were: 1. Mathematical, numerical and statistical methods of texture analysis 2. Deformation textures 3. Crystallization, recrystallization and growth textures 4. Transformation textures 5. Textures in functional materials 6. Textures in advanced materials 7. Textures in rocks 8. Texture

  9. Limits on efficient computation in the physical world

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aaronson, Scott Joel

    More than a speculative technology, quantum computing seems to challenge our most basic intuitions about how the physical world should behave. In this thesis I show that, while some intuitions from classical computer science must be jettisoned in the light of modern physics, many others emerge nearly unscathed; and I use powerful tools from computational complexity theory to help determine which are which. In the first part of the thesis, I attack the common belief that quantum computing resembles classical exponential parallelism, by showing that quantum computers would face serious limitations on a wider range of problems than was previously known. In particular, any quantum algorithm that solves the collision problem---that of deciding whether a sequence of n integers is one-to-one or two-to-one---must query the sequence O (n1/5) times. This resolves a question that was open for years; previously no lower bound better than constant was known. A corollary is that there is no "black-box" quantum algorithm to break cryptographic hash functions or solve the Graph Isomorphism problem in polynomial time. I also show that relative to an oracle, quantum computers could not solve NP-complete problems in polynomial time, even with the help of nonuniform "quantum advice states"; and that any quantum algorithm needs O (2n/4/n) queries to find a local minimum of a black-box function on the n-dimensional hypercube. Surprisingly, the latter result also leads to new classical lower bounds for the local search problem. Finally, I give new lower bounds on quantum one-way communication complexity, and on the quantum query complexity of total Boolean functions and recursive Fourier sampling. The second part of the thesis studies the relationship of the quantum computing model to physical reality. I first examine the arguments of Leonid Levin, Stephen Wolfram, and others who believe quantum computing to be fundamentally impossible. I find their arguments unconvincing without a "Sure

  10. ICOS-based chimeric antigen receptors program bipolar TH17/TH1 cells.

    PubMed

    Guedan, Sonia; Chen, Xi; Madar, Aviv; Carpenito, Carmine; McGettigan, Shannon E; Frigault, Matthew J; Lee, Jihyun; Posey, Avery D; Scholler, John; Scholler, Nathalie; Bonneau, Richard; June, Carl H

    2014-08-14

    With the notable exception of B-cell malignancies, the efficacy of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells has been limited, and CAR T cells have not been shown to expand and persist in patients with nonlymphoid tumors. Here we demonstrate that redirection of primary human T cells with a CAR containing the inducible costimulator (ICOS) intracellular domain generates tumor-specific IL-17-producing effector cells that show enhanced persistence. Compared with CARs containing the CD3ζ chain alone, or in tandem with the CD28 or the 4-1BB intracellular domains, ICOS signaling increased IL-17A, IL-17F, and IL-22 following antigen recognition. In addition, T cells redirected with an ICOS-based CAR maintained a core molecular signature characteristic of TH17 cells and expressed higher levels of RORC, CD161, IL1R-1, and NCS1. Of note, ICOS signaling also induced the expression of IFN-γ and T-bet, consistent with a TH17/TH1 bipolarization. When transferred into mice with established tumors, TH17 cells that were redirected with ICOS-based CARs mediated efficient antitumor responses and showed enhanced persistence compared with CD28- or 4-1BB-based CAR T cells. Thus, redirection of TH17 cells with a CAR encoding the ICOS intracellular domain is a promising approach to augment the function and persistence of CAR T cells in hematologic malignancies. PMID:24986688

  11. Guglielmo Riva (1627-1677) and the end of hepatocentrism: a 17th-century painting.

    PubMed

    Riva, Michele Augusto; Benedetti, Marta; Vaglienti, Francesca; Torre, Chiara; Baggieri, Gaspare; Cesana, Giancarlo

    2014-01-01

    During the seventeenth century, the description of the lymphatic system provided a decisive contribution to resolving the misconceptions of Galenic physiology concerning the production of blood in the liver. The transition from a liver-centered (hepatocentrism) to a heart-centered model (cardiocentrism) was fundamental in the history of medicine, since it allowed the role of the liver and of the heart in the bodily processes to be more correctly identified. The modification of the medical knowledge on the liver and its functions during that period is well represented in a 17th-century painting,"ll Fegato" ("The Liver"), probably belonging to the "anatomical museum" of the Roman surgeon Giovanni Guglielmo Riva (1627-1677). In particular, this Italian physician significantly contributed to the discovery of the lymphatic system and to the study of the hematopoiesis. Thus, this painting as well as the figure of Guglielmo Riva would deserve a major consideration in the history of medicine and of hepatology in particular. PMID:25739148

  12. Reconstructing early 17th century estuarine drought conditions from Jamestown oysters

    PubMed Central

    Harding, Juliana M.; Spero, Howard J.; Mann, Roger; Herbert, Gregory S.; Sliko, Jennifer L.

    2010-01-01

    Oysters (Crassostrea virginica) were a central component of the Chesapeake Bay ecosystem in 1607 when European settlers established Jamestown, VA, the first permanent English settlement in North America. These estuarine bivalves were an important food resource during the early years of the James Fort (Jamestown) settlement while the colonists were struggling to survive in the face of inadequate supplies and a severe regional drought. Although oyster shells were discarded as trash after the oysters were eaten, the environmental and ecological data recorded in the bivalve geochemistry during shell deposition remain intact over centuries, thereby providing a unique window into conditions during the earliest Jamestown years. We compare oxygen isotope data from these 17th century oyster shells with modern shells to quantify and contrast estuarine salinity, season of oyster collection, and shell provenance during Jamestown colonization (1609–1616) and the 21st century. Data show that oysters were collected during an extended drought between fall 1611 and summer 1612. The drought shifted the 14 psu isohaline above Jamestown Island, facilitating individual oyster growth and extension of oyster habitat upriver toward the colony, thereby enhancing local oyster food resources. Data from distinct well layers suggest that the colonists also obtained oysters from reefs near Chesapeake Bay to augment oyster resources near Jamestown Island. The oyster shell season of harvest reconstructions suggest that these data come from either a 1611 well with a very short useful period or an undocumented older well abandoned by late 1611. PMID:20534581

  13. A Possible Case of Cherubism in a 17th-Century Korean Mummy

    PubMed Central

    Spigelman, Mark; Sarig, Rachel; Lim, Do-Sun; Lee, In Sun; Oh, Chang Seok; May, Hila; Boaretto, Elisabetta; Kim, Yi-Suk; Lee, Soong Deok; Peled, Nathan; Kim, Myeung Ju; Toledano, Talya; Bar-Gal, Gila Kahila

    2014-01-01

    Cherubism is a benign fibro-osseous disease of childhood limited specifically to the maxilla and mandible. The progressive replacement of the jaw bones with expansile multilocular cystic lesions causes eventual prominence of the lower face, and hence the classic “cherubic” phenotype reflecting variable extents of jaw hypertrophy. Histologically, this condition has been characterized as replacement of the normal bone matrix with multicystic pockets of fibrous stroma and osteoclastic giant cells. Because of radiographic features common to both, primarily the presence of multiloculated lucencies with heterogeneous “ground-glass” sclerosis on CT imaging, cherubism was long mistaken for a craniofacial subtype of fibrous dysplasia. In 1999, however, the distinct genetic basis for cherubism was mapped to chromosome 4p16.3 and the SH-3 binding protein SH3BP2. But while there are already three suspected cases of fibrous dysplasia amongst archaeological populations, no definitive cases of cherubism have yet been reported in historical populations. In the current study we describe micro- and macro-structural changes in the face of a 17th century Joseon Dynasty Korean mummy which may coincide with the clinic-pathologic and radiologic features of cherubism. PMID:25093864

  14. Equatorial All Sky Imager Images from the Seychelles during the March 17th, 2015 geomagnetic storm.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curtis, B.

    2015-12-01

    An all sky imager was installed in the Seychelles earlier this year. The Seychelles islands are located northeast of Madagascar and east of Somalia in the equatorial Indian Ocean. The all sky imager is located on the island of Mahe (4.6667°S, 55.4667°E geographic), (10.55°S, 127.07°E geomagnetic), with filters of 557.7, 620.0, 630.0, 765.0 and 777.4 nm. Images with a 90 second exposure from Seychelles in 777.4nm and 630.0nm from the night before and night of the March 17th geomagnetic storm are discussed in comparison to solar wind measurements at ACE and the disturbance storm time (Dst) index. These images show line-of-sight intensities of photons received dependent on each filters wavelength. A time series of these images sometimes will show the movement of relatively dark areas, or depletions, in each emission. The depletion regions are known to cause scintillation in GPS signals. The direction and speed of movement of these depletions are related to changes observed in the solar wind.

  15. [Chemistry of life: ferments and fermentation in 17th-century iatrochemistry].

    PubMed

    Clericuzio, Antonio

    2003-01-01

    The concepts of ferment and fermentation played an important, though heretofore neglected, role in 17th-century physiology. Though these notions can be found in ancient philosophy and medicine, as well as in medieval medicine, they became integral part of the chemical medicine that was advocated by Paracelsus and his school. Paracelsians made fermentation a central concept in their successful effort to give chemical foundation to medicine. Jean Baptiste van Helmont and Sylvius used the concepts of ferment and fermentation to explain a variety of physiological processes in human body. Corpuscular philosophers like Robert Boyle and Thomas Willis reinterpreted these notions in corpuscular terms and separated the concept of ferment from that of fermentation. In the second half of the seventeenth century, physiologist tried to explain fermentation by means of chemical reactions, as for instance acid -alkali, and ruled out the notion of ferment as superfluous to their investigations. At the end of hte seventeenth century fermentation attracted the interest of physicists like Johannes Bernoulli and Isaac Newton, who tried to explain fermentative processes in terms of matter and motion (Bernoulli) and short-range forces (Newton). George Ernst Stahl devoted a work to fermentation: the Zymotechnia. He explained fermentation as the outcome of the reactions of molecules formed of saline, oily and earthy corpuscles with particles of water. He saw fermentation as a mechanical process, i.e. as collision of different kinds of corpuscles. PMID:15311436

  16. 76 FR 70178 - Investment Advisers Act of 1940; In the Matter of Creative Investment Research, Inc., 1050 17th...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Investment Advisers Act of 1940; In the Matter of Creative Investment Research, Inc., 1050 17th Street NW., Suite 1000, Washington, DC 20036; Notice of Intention to Cancel Registration Pursuant...

  17. A summary of ground motion effects at SLAC (Stanford Linear Accelerator Center) resulting from the Oct 17th 1989 earthquake

    SciTech Connect

    Ruland, R.E.

    1990-08-01

    Ground motions resulting from the October 17th 1989 (Loma Prieta) earthquake are described and can be correlated with some geologic features of the SLAC site. Recent deformations of the linac are also related to slow motions observed over the past 20 years. Measured characteristics of the earthquake are listed. Some effects on machine components and detectors are noted. 18 refs., 16 figs.

  18. 76 FR 67005 - Investment Advisers Act of 1940; In the Matter of Creative Investment Research, Inc., 1050 17th...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-28

    ... COMMISSION Investment Advisers Act of 1940; In the Matter of Creative Investment Research, Inc., 1050 17th... the Investment Advisers Act of 1940 (the ``Act''), cancelling the registration of Creative Investment... application for registration filed under that section, is no longer in existence, is not engaged in...

  19. The "System of Chymists" and the "Newtonian Dream" in Greek-Speaking Communities in the 17th-18th Centuries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bokaris, Efthymios P.; Koutalis, Vangelis

    2008-01-01

    The acceptance of new chemical ideas, before the Chemical Revolution of Lavoisier, in Greek-speaking communities in the 17th and 18th centuries did not create a discourse of chemical philosophy, as it did in Europe, but rather a "philosophy" of chemistry as it was formed through the evolution of didactic traditions of Chemistry. This…

  20. gLExec: gluing grid computing to the Unix world

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groep, D.; Koeroo, O.; Venekamp, G.

    2008-07-01

    The majority of compute resources in todays scientific grids are based on Unix and Unix-like operating systems. In this world, user and user-group management are based around the concepts of a numeric 'user ID' and 'group ID' that are local to the resource. In contrast, grid concepts of user and group management are centered around globally assigned identifiers and VO membership, structures that are independent of any specific resource. At the fabric boundary, these 'grid identities' have to be translated to Unix user IDs. New job submission methodologies, such as job-execution web services, community-deployed local schedulers, and the late binding of user jobs in a grid-wide overlay network of 'pilot jobs', push this fabric boundary ever further down into the resource. gLExec, a light-weight (and thereby auditable) credential mapping and authorization system, addresses these issues. It can be run both on fabric boundary, as part of an execution web service, and on the worker node in a late-binding scenario. In this contribution we describe the rationale for gLExec, how it interacts with the site authorization and credential mapping frameworks such as LCAS, LCMAPS and GUMS, and how it can be used to improve site control and traceability in a pilot-job system.

  1. World: A multipurpose GPS-network computer package

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grafarend, Erik W.; Lindlohr, Wolfgang

    WORLD is a multipurpose package to compute geodetic positions in geometry and gravity space. Here undifferenced GPS carrier beat phase observations are processed in the free network mode, namely by the prototype program called PUMA. Within two alternative model formulations, the classical Gauß-Markov Model and the so-called Mixed Model, simultaneously estimated / predicted parameters are those of type (i) Cartesian ground station coordinates (geodetic positioning), (ii) Cartesian satellite coordinates (orbit determination), (iii) receiver- and satellite-specific bias terms, (iv) initial epoch ambiguities and (v) proportional tropospheric corrections. The Mixed Model parameters appear from linearization as a point of stochastic prior information. Namely the weight matrices of stochastic prior information, e.g. for orbit parameters, is assumed to be known. Estimators of type BLUE and predictors of type inhom BLIP and hom BLUP are used. Chapter four discusses in all detail the real analysis of GPS satellite networks of free type. Most notable are the estimated bias terms α, β, γ, in a twofold classification model. The operability of PUMA is demonstrated by the use of multistation phase observations (Wild-Magnavox WM 101-receivers) in a local Berlin network (six station network). It is documented that in spite of the advanced phase observation modelling an internal relative baseline accuracy (utmost length 30 km) of the order of 3 to 5 ppm is achievable. In addition, the influence of orbital prior information on ground station measures, point position as well as accuracy, is demonstrated.

  2. Assessment of soil-gas contamination at the 17th Street landfill, Fort Gordon, Georgia, 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Falls, W. Fred; Caldwell, Andral W.; Guimaraes, Wladmir G.; Ratliff, W. Hagan; Wellborn, John B.; Landmeyer, James E.

    2012-01-01

    Assessments of contaminants in soil gas were conducted in two study areas at Fort Gordon, Georgia, in July and August of 2011 to supplement environmental contaminant data for previous studies at the 17th Street landfill. The two study areas include northern and eastern parts of the 17th Street landfill and the adjacent wooded areas to the north and east of the landfill. These study areas were chosen because of their close proximity to the surface water in Wilkerson Lake and McCoys Creek. A total of 48 soil-gas samplers were deployed for the July 28 to August 3, 2011, assessment in the eastern study area. The assessment mostly identified detections of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH), and gasoline- and diesel-range compounds, but also identified the presence of chlorinated solvents in six samplers, chloroform in three samplers, 2-methyl naphthalene in one sampler, and trimethylbenzene in one sampler. The TPH masses exceeded 0.02 microgram (μg) in all 48 samplers and exceeded 0.9 μg in 24 samplers. Undecane, one of the three diesel-range compounds used to calculate the combined mass for diesel-range compounds, was detected in 17 samplers and is the second most commonly detected compound in the eastern study area, exceeded only by the number of TPH detections. Six samplers had detections of toluene, but other gasoline compounds were detected with toluene in three of the samplers, including detections of ethylbenzene, meta- and para-xylene, and octane. All detections of chlorinated organic compounds had soil-gas masses equal to or less than 0.08 μg, including three detections of trichloroethene, three detections of perchloroethene, three chloroform detections, one 1,4-dichlorobenzene detection, and one 1,1,2-trichloroethane detection. Three methylated compounds were detected in the eastern study area, but were detected at or below method detection levels. A total of 32 soil-gas samplers were deployed for the August 11–24, 2011, assessment in the northern study

  3. Giacomo Castelvetro's salads. Anti-HER2 oncogene nutraceuticals since the 17th century?

    PubMed

    Colomer, R; Lupu, R; Papadimitropoulou, A; Vellón, L; Vázquez-Martín, A; Brunet, J; Fernández-Gutiérrez, A; Segura-Carretero, A; Menéndez, J A

    2008-01-01

    We are accumulating evidence to suggest that 17(th) century Renaissance foodways -largely based on the old "Mediterranean dietary traditions"- may provide new nutraceutical management strategies against HER2-positive breast cancer disease in the 21st century. Epidemiological and experimental studies begin to support the notion that "The Sacred Law of Salads" (i.e., "raw vegetables... plenty of generous (olive) oil") -originally proposed in 1614 by Giacomo Castelvetro in its book The Fruit, Herbs & Vegetables of Italy- might be considered the first (unintended) example of customised diets for breast cancer prevention based on individual genetic make-up (i.e., nutraceuticals against human breast carcinomas bearing HER2 oncogene amplification/overexpression). First, the so-called salad vegetables dietary pattern (i.e., a high consumption of raw vegetables and olive oil) appears to exert a protective effect mostly confined to the HER2-positive breast cancer subtype, with no significant influence on the occurrence of HER2-negative breast cancers. Second, all the main olive oil constituents (i.e., the omega-9 monounsaturated fatty acid oleic acid and polyphenolic compounds such as the secoiridoid oleuropein or the lignan 1-[+]-acetoxypinoresinol) dramatically reduce HER2 expression and specifically induce apoptotic cell death in cultured HER2- positive breast cancer cells, with marginal effects against HER2-negative cells. Third, an olive oil-rich diet negatively influences experimental mammary tumorigenesis in rats likewise decreasing HER2 expression levels. If early 1600s Castelvetro's salads can be used as dietary protocols capable to protecting women against biologically aggressive HER2-positive breast cancer subtypes is an intriguing prospect that warrants to be evaluated in human pilot studies in the future. Here, at least, we would like to recognise Giacomo Castelvetro as the father of modern nutritional genomics in oncology. PMID:18208790

  4. Plastic surgery in 17th century Europe. case study: Nicolae Milescu, the snub-nosed.

    PubMed

    Dumbravă, Daniela; Luchian, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    The rising and the existence of plastic and aesthetic surgery in early modern Europe did not have a specific pattern, but was completely different from one nation to another. Colleges of Physicians could only be found in some places in Europe; different Parliaments of Europe's nations did not always elevate being a surgeon to the dignity of a profession, and being a surgeon did not always come with corporate and municipal privileges, or with attractive stipends. Conversely, corporal punishments for treacherous surgeons were ubiquitous. Rhinoplasty falls into the category of what Ambroise Paré named "facial plastic surgery". The technique is a medical source from which many histories derive, one more fascinating than the other: the history of those whose nose was cut off (because of state betrayal, adultery, abjuration, or duelling with swords), the history of those who invented the surgery of nose reconstruction (e.g. SuSruta-samhita or Tagliacozzi?), the history of surgeries kept secret in early modern Europe (e.g. Tropea, Calabria, Leiden, Padua, Paris, Berlin), and so on. Where does the history of Nicolae Milescu the Snub-nosed fall in all of this? How much of this history do the Moldavian Chronicles record? Is there any "scholarly gossip" in the aristocratic and diplomatic environments at Constantinople? What exactly do the British ambassadors learn concerning Rhinoplasty when they meet Milescu? How do we "walk" within these histories, and why should we be interested at all? What is their stike for modernity? Such are the interrogations that this article seeks to provoke; its purpose is to question (and eventually, synchronise) histories, and not exclusively history, both in academic terms but also by reassessing the practical knowledge of the 17th century. PMID:24502038

  5. Forming, transfer and globalization of medical-pharmaceutical knowledge in South East Asian missions (17th to 18th c.) - historical dimensions and modern perspectives.

    PubMed

    Anagnostou, Sabine

    2015-06-01

    From the 17th to the 18th centuries, missionaries in Southeast Asia dedicated themselves to providing and establishing a professional medical-pharmaceutical supply for the local population and therefore explored the genuine Materia medica for easily available and affordable remedies, especially medicinal plants. In characteristic medical-pharmaceutical compendia, which can be classified as missionary pharmacopoeias, they laid down their knowledge to advise others and to guarantee a professional health care. As their knowledge often resulted from an exchange with indigenous communities, these compendia provide essential information about traditional plant uses of Southeast Asian people. Individual missionaries such as the Jesuit Georg Joseph Kamel (1661-1706) not only strove to explore medicinal plants but performed botanical studies and even composed comprehensive herbals. The Jesuit missionaries in particular played roles in both the order's own global network of transfer of medicinal drugs and knowledge about the application, and within the contemporary local and European scientific networks which included, for example, the famous Royal Society of London. The results of their studies were distributed all over the world, were introduced into the practical Materia medica of other regions, and contributed significantly to the academization of knowledge. In our article we will explain the different intentions and methods of exploring, the resulting works and the consequences for the forming of the pharmaceutical and scientific knowledge. Finally, we will show the options which the works of the missionaries can offer for the saving of traditional ethnopharmacological knowledge and for the development of modern phytotherapeutics and pharmaceutical supply. The publication is based on a comprehensive study on the phenomenon of missionary pharmacy which has been published as a book in 2011 (Anagnostou, 2011a) and shows now the potential of historical medical

  6. A Hard Look at the World of Educational Computing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grady, David

    1982-01-01

    Addresses various issues in educational computing, suggesting that the real crisis facing schools is not a software shortage but a hardware crunch accompanied by misconceptions about how computers can help children learn. (Author/JN)

  7. Analysis the flash floods occurred in the South Tyne river watershed (United Kingdom) on the 17th of July 2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bain, V.; Milan, D.; Preciso, E.; Gaume, E.

    2009-04-01

    On the 17th, 19th and 23rd of July 2007, a series of local thunderstorms induced flash floods in the upper part of the South Tyne river in Northumberland, a rural area located near the border between England and Scotland. These events led to moderate damages in the villages and losses of livestock in local farms. They were shadowed in comparison to the widespread lowland floods that occurred throughout the UK during the same period but were nevertheless extreme events for the region. One of the affected streams, the Thinhope Burn, has been surveyed by the University of Gloucestershire during recent years. It is an active river from a geomorphological point of view. A survey conducted after the 2007 flood revealed that many of the boulders along the banks of the river, which had been deposited 50 to 100 years before, had been displaced, indicating a high return period for the flood (see EGU abstract EGU2008-A-04713). A complementary survey was conducted in July 2008 with the objective of gathering information on the discharges, the rainfall amounts and the active runoff processes. 14 cross-sections were surveyed, pictures were collected enabling a validation of peak discharge estimates, 5 witnesses were interviewed and additional rainfall data and geomorphological evidence were collected. This survey revealed that the peak discharges exceeded 5 m3/s/km2 in the most affected areas. Unfortunately, no rainfall measurements are available that would enable further analysis, including the computation of runoff rates. Nevertheless, witness accounts and field observations give a good insight into the hydrological processes indicating a significant initial storage capacity of the peat layer covering the affected watersheds. Concerning the boulders, the field observations suggest surprising and unexplained transport processes. Blocks of up to one meter diameter were displaced over short distances and deposited on the river banks without any sign of established debris flow, as

  8. [The apothecaries of the quartier de la Harpe in Paris in the 16th and 17th centuries].

    PubMed

    Warolin, Christian

    2015-09-01

    Large families of apothecaries, some of them very famous, lived in the Quartier de la Harpe in Paris, on the left bank of Seine, from the 16th to the 17th century. The study confirms a well-established fact that apothecaries practised endogamy, in others words marriage within the same social class. The biographical research includes ten apothecaries, most of whom lived in the rue Saint-André-des-Arts. PMID:26529892

  9. WIRELESS Computing in Schools: Reach Out and Touch the World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Null, Linda; Teschner, Randy

    Many elementary and secondary schools tie with local colleges and universities and use modems to access the computing power available at these higher education facilities. To help alleviate the financial burden of long-distance phone charges, work had begun to use the airways instead of phone lines for computer communication. An interest in…

  10. An HCI Approach to Computing in the Real World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yardi, Sarita; Krolikowski, Pamela; Marshall, Taneshia; Bruckman, Amy

    2008-01-01

    We describe the implementation of a six-week course to teach Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) to high school students. Our goal was to explore the potential of HCI in motivating students to pursue future studies in related computing fields. Participants in our course learned to make connections between the types of technology they use in their…

  11. PREFACE: 17th International Conference on Textures of Materials (ICOTOM 17)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skrotzki, Werner; Oertel, Carl-Georg

    2015-04-01

    The 17th International Conference on Textures of Materials (ICOTOM 17) took place in Dresden, Germany, August 24-29, 2014. It belongs to the "triennial" series of ICOTOM meetings with a long tradition, starting in 1969 - Clausthal, 1971 - Cracow, 1973 - Pont-à-Mousson, 1975 - Cambridge, 1978 - Aachen, 1981 - Tokyo, 1984 - Noordwijkerhout, 1987 - Santa Fe, 1990 - Avignon, 1993 - Clausthal, 1996 - Xian, 1999 - Montreal, 2002 - Seoul, 2005 - Leuven, 2008 - Pittsburgh, 2011 - Mumbai, 2014 - Dresden. ICOTOM 17 was hosted by the Dresden University of Technology, Institute of Structural Physics. Following the tradition of the ICOTOM conferences, the main focus of ICOTOM-17 was to promote and strengthen the fundamental understanding of the basic processes that govern the formation of texture and its relation to the properties of polycrystalline materials. Nonetheless, it was the aim to forge links between basic research on model materials and applied research on engineering materials of technical importance. Thus, ICOTOM 17 provided a forum for the presentation and discussion of recent progress in research of texture and related anisotropy of mechanical and functional properties of all kinds of polycrystalline materials including natural materials like rocks. Particular attention was paid to recent advances in texture measurement and analysis as well as modeling of texture development for all kinds of processes like solidification, plastic deformation, recrystallization and grain growth, phase transformations, thin film deposition, etc. Hence, ICOTOM 17 was of great interest to materials scientists, engineers from many different areas and geoscientists. The topics covered by ICOTOM 17 were: 1. Mathematical, numerical and statistical methods of texture analysis 2. Deformation textures 3. Crystallization, recrystallization and growth textures 4. Transformation textures 5. Textures in functional materials 6. Textures in advanced materials 7. Textures in rocks 8. Texture

  12. PREFACE: 17th International Conference on Recent Progress in Many-Body Theories (MBT17)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinholz, Heidi; Boronat, Jordi

    2014-08-01

    These are the proceedings of the XVII International Conference on Recent Progress in Many-Body Theories, which was held from 8-13 September 2013 in Rostock, Germany. The conference continued the triennial series initiated in Trieste in 1978 and was devoted to new developments in the field of many-body theories. The conference series encourages the exchange of ideas between physicists working in such diverse areas as nuclear physics, quantum chemistry, lattice Hamiltonians or quantum uids. Many-body theories are an integral part in different fields of theoretical physics such as condensed matter, nuclear matter and field theory. Phase transitions and macroscopic quantum effects such as magnetism, Bose-Einstein condensation, super uidity or superconductivity have been investigated within ultra-cold gases, finite systems or various nanomaterials. The conference series on Recent Progress in Many-Body Theories is devoted to foster the interaction and to cross-fertilize between different fields and to discuss future lines of research. The topics of the 17th meeting were Cluster Physics Cold Gases High Energy Density Matter and Intense Lasers Magnetism New Developments in Many-Body Techniques Nuclear Many-Body and Relativistic Theories Quantum Fluids and Solids Quantum Phase Transitions Topological Insulators and Low Dimensional Systems. 109 participants from 20 countries participated. 44 talks and 61 posters werde presented. As a particular highlight of the conference, The Eugene Feenberg Memorial Medal for outstanding results in the field of many-body theory and The Hermann Kümmel Early Achievement Award in Many-Body Physics for young scientists in that field were awarded. The Feenberg Medal went jointly to Patrick Lee (MIT, USA) for his fundamental contributions to condensed-matter theory, especially in regard to the quantum Hall effect, to universal conductance uctuations, and to the Kondo effect in quantum dots, and Douglas Scalapino (UC Santa Barbara, USA) for his

  13. [Effects of the periodical spread of rinderpest on famine, epidemic, and tiger disasters in the late 17th Century].

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong Jin; Yoo, Han Sang; Lee, Hang

    2014-04-01

    This study clarifies the causes of the repetitive occurrences of such phenomena as rinderpest, epidemic, famine, and tiger disasters recorded in the Joseon Dynasty Chronicle and the Seungjeongwon Journals in the period of great catastrophe, the late 17th century in which the great Gyeongsin famine (1670~1671) and the great Eulbyeong famine (1695~1696) occurred, from the perspective that they were biological exchanges caused by the new arrival of rinderpest in the early 17th century. It is an objection to the achievements by existing studies which suggest that the great catastrophes occurring in the late 17th century are evidence of phenomena in a little ice age. First of all, rinderpest has had influence on East Asia as it had been spread from certain areas in Machuria in May 1636 through Joseon, where it raged throughout the nation, and then to the west part of Japan. The new arrival of rinderpest was indigenized in Joseon, where it was localized and spread periodically while it was adjusted to changes in the population of cattle with immunity in accordance with their life spans and reproduction rates. As the new rinderpest, which showed high pathogenicity in the early 17th century, was indigenized with its high mortality and continued until the late 17th century, it broke out periodically in general. Contrastively, epidemics like smallpox and measles that were indigenized as routine ones had occurred constantly from far past times. As a result, the rinderpest, which tried a new indigenization, and the human epidemics, which had been already indigenized long ago, were unexpectedly overlapped in their breakout, and hence great changes were noticed in the aspects of the human casualty due to epidemics. The outbreak of rinderpest resulted in famine due to lack of farming cattle, and the famine caused epidemics among people. The casualty of the human population due to the epidemics in turn led to negligence of farming cattle, which constituted factors that triggered

  14. Conference Abstracts: Fourth Annual World Conference on Computers in Education-Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baird, William E.

    1986-01-01

    Presented are abstracts from volume two of the World Conference on Computers in Education, 1985. Four topics are: (1) cognitive and visual style; (2) computer graphics and descriptive geometry; (3) LOGO and educational research; and (4) algorithms, programing, and computer literacy. (JM)

  15. Synchronization landscapes in small-world-connected computer networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guclu, Hasan

    In this thesis we study synchronization phenomena in natural and artificial coupled multi-component systems, applicable to the scalability of parallel discrete-event simulation for systems with asynchronous dynamics. We also study the role of various complex communication topologies as synchronization networks. We analyze the properties of the virtual time horizon or synchronization landscape (corresponding to the progress of the processing elements) of these networks by using the framework of non-equilibrium surface growth. When the communication topology mimics that of the short-range interacting underlying system, the virtual time horizon exhibits Kardar-Parisi-Zhang-like kinetic roughening. Although the virtual times, oil average, progress at a nonzero rate, their statistical spread diverges with the number of processing elements, hindering efficient data collection. We show that when the synchronization topology is extended to include quenched random communication links (small-world links) between the processing elements, they make a close-to-uniform progress with a nonzero rate, without global synchronization. This leads to a fully scalable parallel simulation for underlying systems with asynchronous dynamics and short-range interactions. We study both short-range and small-world synchronization topologies in one- and two-dimensional systems. We also provide a coarse-grained description for the small-world-synchronized virtual-time horizon and compare the findings to those obtained by "simulating the simulations" based on the exact algorithmic rules. We also present numerical results for the evolution of the virtual-tithe horizon oil scale-free Barabasi-Albert networks serving as communication topology among the processing elements. Finally, we investigate to what extent small-world couplings (extending the original local relaxational dynamics through the random links) lead to the suppression of extreme fluctuations in the synchronization landscape. In the

  16. Programs=data=first-class citizens in a computational world.

    PubMed

    Jones, Neil D; Simonsen, Jakob Grue

    2012-07-28

    From a programming perspective, Alan Turing's epochal 1936 paper on computable functions introduced several new concepts, including what is today known as self-interpreters and programs as data, and invented a great many now-common programming techniques. We begin by reviewing Turing's contribution from a programming perspective; and then systematize and mention some of the many ways that later developments in models of computation (MOCs) have interacted with computability theory and programming language research. Next, we describe the 'blob' MOC: a recent stored-program computational model without pointers. In the blob model, programs are truly first-class citizens, capable of being automatically compiled, or interpreted, or executed directly. Further, the blob model appears closer to being physically realizable than earlier computation models. In part, this is due to strong finiteness owing to early binding in the program; and a strong adjacency property: the active instruction is always adjacent to the piece of data on which it operates. The model is Turing complete in a strong sense: a universal interpretation algorithm exists that is able to run any program in a natural way and without arcane data encodings. Next, some of the best known among the numerous existing MOCs are described, and we develop a list of traits an 'ideal' MOC should possess from our perspective. We make no attempt to consider all models put forth since Turing's 1936 paper, and the selection of models covered concerns only models with discrete, atomic computation steps. The next step is to classify the selected models by qualitative rather than quantitative features. Finally, we describe how the blob model differs from an 'ideal' MOC, and identify some natural next steps to achieve such a model. PMID:22711860

  17. War of Ontology Worlds: Mathematics, Computer Code, or Esperanto?

    PubMed Central

    Rzhetsky, Andrey; Evans, James A.

    2011-01-01

    The use of structured knowledge representations—ontologies and terminologies—has become standard in biomedicine. Definitions of ontologies vary widely, as do the values and philosophies that underlie them. In seeking to make these views explicit, we conducted and summarized interviews with a dozen leading ontologists. Their views clustered into three broad perspectives that we summarize as mathematics, computer code, and Esperanto. Ontology as mathematics puts the ultimate premium on rigor and logic, symmetry and consistency of representation across scientific subfields, and the inclusion of only established, non-contradictory knowledge. Ontology as computer code focuses on utility and cultivates diversity, fitting ontologies to their purpose. Like computer languages C++, Prolog, and HTML, the code perspective holds that diverse applications warrant custom designed ontologies. Ontology as Esperanto focuses on facilitating cross-disciplinary communication, knowledge cross-referencing, and computation across datasets from diverse communities. We show how these views align with classical divides in science and suggest how a synthesis of their concerns could strengthen the next generation of biomedical ontologies. PMID:21980276

  18. Security Meets Real-World Computing. Building Digital Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huwe, Terence K.

    2005-01-01

    The author of this column describes several instances in which secure data on computers were compromised. In each of these instances, a different route was involved in gaining access to the secure data--one by office-based theft, one by hacking, and one by burglary. Is is proposed that the most difficult factor to guarantee in the protection of…

  19. PREFACE: 17th International Conference on the Physics of Highly Charged Ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2015-01-01

    The 17th edition of the International Conference on the Physics of Highly Charged Ions (HCI 2014) was held in San Carlos de Bariloche, in the southern region of Argentina known as Patagonia, from August 31 to September 5, 2014. This meeting corresponds to a series of HCI conferences, which has been held every other year since 1982 in cities in Europe, USA, Japan and China. This was the first time that the conference took place in Latin America. This edition was organized by a Local Committee made up of physicists mainly from the cities of Bariloche and Rosario and also from Buenos Aires and Bahía Blanca, all sites where research on Atomic Collisions is developed. The conference was attended by delegates coming from 18 countries, more that 23% of whom were women. The field of highly charged ions has seen in recent years a promising evolution originating from bold progress in theory and significant advances in experimental techniques. The HCI conferences aim at bringing together experimentalists and theoreticians from as wide a range of fields as, for instance, Fundamental Aspects, Structure and Spectroscopy, Collisions with Electrons, Ions, Atoms and Molecules, Interaction with Clusters, Surfaces and Solids, Interactions with Photons and Plasmas, Strong Field Processes, and Production, Experimental Developments and Applications. The Scientific Programme, selected by an International Advisory Board, included 5 Review Lectures, 11 Progress Reports, 1 Local Report and 24 Special Reports. In addition, the results of 132 contributed works were presented as poster communications and a Public Lecture on 'The wonders of the Southern Skies' was delivered by an Argentinean expert. Thus, a wide range of subjects comprising a balanced mix of topics was covered throughout the course of the conference. The HCI 2014 was a resounding success for the international and local communities, from both the scientific and social aspects, considering that the attendees and accompanying

  20. PREFACE: 17th International Conference on the Physics of Highly Charged Ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2015-01-01

    The 17th edition of the International Conference on the Physics of Highly Charged Ions (HCI 2014) was held in San Carlos de Bariloche, in the southern region of Argentina known as Patagonia, from August 31 to September 5, 2014. This meeting corresponds to a series of HCI conferences, which has been held every other year since 1982 in cities in Europe, USA, Japan and China. This was the first time that the conference took place in Latin America. This edition was organized by a Local Committee made up of physicists mainly from the cities of Bariloche and Rosario and also from Buenos Aires and Bahía Blanca, all sites where research on Atomic Collisions is developed. The conference was attended by delegates coming from 18 countries, more that 23% of whom were women. The field of highly charged ions has seen in recent years a promising evolution originating from bold progress in theory and significant advances in experimental techniques. The HCI conferences aim at bringing together experimentalists and theoreticians from as wide a range of fields as, for instance, Fundamental Aspects, Structure and Spectroscopy, Collisions with Electrons, Ions, Atoms and Molecules, Interaction with Clusters, Surfaces and Solids, Interactions with Photons and Plasmas, Strong Field Processes, and Production, Experimental Developments and Applications. The Scientific Programme, selected by an International Advisory Board, included 5 Review Lectures, 11 Progress Reports, 1 Local Report and 24 Special Reports. In addition, the results of 132 contributed works were presented as poster communications and a Public Lecture on 'The wonders of the Southern Skies' was delivered by an Argentinean expert. Thus, a wide range of subjects comprising a balanced mix of topics was covered throughout the course of the conference. The HCI 2014 was a resounding success for the international and local communities, from both the scientific and social aspects, considering that the attendees and accompanying

  1. Union catalogue of printed books of 15th, 16th and 17th centuries in European astronomical observatories.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grassi, G.

    This catalogue deals with the scientific subjects of that historical period such as astronomy, astrology, chemistry, mathematics, physics, historia naturalis and so forth, and contains extremely rare volumes such as the first printed editions of the eminent Arab, Latin, Greek and Persian scientists Albumasar, Albohazen Aly, Aristoteles, Ptolemaeus, Pliny the Elder and Ulugh Beig. In addition the catalogue contains the first works of such great astronomers of the 16th and 17th centuries as Copernicus, Kepler, Clavius, Regiomontanus, Sacrobosco, Mercator, Newton, Gassendi, Galilei and Hevelius, just to quote the most representative ones. The catalogue is followed by a chronological index and an index of printers and publishers.

  2. Teaching World History With Computers: Why Do I Do It and What's Involved.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Sara W.

    2002-01-01

    Identifies reasons for using computers to teach world history. Discusses how instructors can acquire and use digital classroom resources. Describes how to develop and use online courses and course Web pages. (PAL)

  3. Improving Teaching and Learning of Computer Programming through the Use of the Second Life Virtual World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esteves, Micaela; Fonseca, Benjamim; Morgado, Leonel; Martins, Paulo

    2011-01-01

    The emergence of new technologies such as three-dimensional virtual worlds brings new opportunities for teaching and learning. We conducted an action research approach to the analysis of how teaching and learning of computer programming at the university level could be developed within the Second Life virtual world. Results support the notion that…

  4. Non Destructive Investigation on the 17th/18th Century Sicilian Jewellery Collection at the Messina Regional Museum Using Mobile Raman Equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barone, G.; Bersani, D.; Jehlicka, J.; Lottici, P. P.; Mazzoleni, P.; Raneri, S.; Vandenabeele, P.; Di Giacomo, C.; Larinà, G.

    2014-06-01

    A handheld Raman spectrometer operating at 785 nm was used for the in situ analysis of the gems present in the 17th/18th century Sicilian jewelry collection preserved in the Messina Regional Museum (Italy).

  5. JANNAF 28th Propellant Development and Characterization Subcommittee and 17th Safety and Environmental Protection Subcommittee Joint Meeting. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cocchiaro, James E. (Editor); Mulder, Edwin J. (Editor); Gomez-Knight, Sylvia J. (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    This volume contains 37 unclassified/unlimited-distribution technical papers that were presented at the JANNAF 28th Propellant Development & Characterization Subcommittee (PDCS) and 17th Safety & Environmental Protection Subcommittee (S&EPS) Joint Meeting, held 26-30 April 1999 at the Town & Country Hotel and the Naval Submarine Base, San Diego, California. Volume II contains 29 unclassified/limited-distribution papers that were presented at the 28th PDCS and 17th S&EPS Joint Meeting. Volume III contains a classified paper that was presented at the 28th PDCS Meeting on 27 April 1999. Topics covered in PDCS sessions include: solid propellant rheology; solid propellant surveillance and aging; propellant process engineering; new solid propellant ingredients and formulation development; reduced toxicity liquid propellants; characterization of hypergolic propellants; and solid propellant chemical analysis methods. Topics covered in S&EPS sessions include: space launch range safety; liquid propellant hazards; vapor detection methods for toxic propellant vapors and other hazardous gases; toxicity of propellants, ingredients, and propellant combustion products; personal protective equipment for toxic liquid propellants; and demilitarization/treatment of energetic material wastes.

  6. PREFACE: 9th World Congress on Computational Mechanics and 4th Asian Pacific Congress on Computational Mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalili, N.; Valliappan, S.; Li, Q.; Russell, A.

    2010-07-01

    The use for mathematical models of natural phenomena has underpinned science and engineering for centuries, but until the advent of modern computers and computational methods, the full utility of most of these models remained outside the reach of the engineering communities. Since World War II, advances in computational methods have transformed the way engineering and science is undertaken throughout the world. Today, theories of mechanics of solids and fluids, electromagnetism, heat transfer, plasma physics, and other scientific disciplines are implemented through computational methods in engineering analysis, design, manufacturing, and in studying broad classes of physical phenomena. The discipline concerned with the application of computational methods is now a key area of research, education, and application throughout the world. In the early 1980's, the International Association for Computational Mechanics (IACM) was founded to promote activities related to computational mechanics and has made impressive progress. The most important scientific event of IACM is the World Congress on Computational Mechanics. The first was held in Austin (USA) in 1986 and then in Stuttgart (Germany) in 1990, Chiba (Japan) in 1994, Buenos Aires (Argentina) in 1998, Vienna (Austria) in 2002, Beijing (China) in 2004, Los Angeles (USA) in 2006 and Venice, Italy; in 2008. The 9th World Congress on Computational Mechanics is held in conjunction with the 4th Asian Pacific Congress on Computational Mechanics under the auspices of Australian Association for Computational Mechanics (AACM), Asian Pacific Association for Computational Mechanics (APACM) and International Association for Computational Mechanics (IACM). The 1st Asian Pacific Congress was in Sydney (Australia) in 2001, then in Beijing (China) in 2004 and Kyoto (Japan) in 2007. The WCCM/APCOM 2010 publications consist of a printed book of abstracts given to delegates, along with 247 full length peer reviewed papers published with

  7. Learning with Artificial Worlds: Computer-Based Modelling in the Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mellar, Harvey, Ed.; And Others

    With the advent of the British National Curriculum, computer-based modeling has become an integral part of the school curriculum. This book is about modeling in education and providing children with computer tools to create and explore representations of the world. Members of the London Mental Models Group contributed their research: (1)…

  8. Modeling behavior dynamics using computational psychometrics within virtual worlds

    PubMed Central

    Cipresso, Pietro

    2015-01-01

    In case of fire in a building, how will people behave in the crowd? The behavior of each individual affects the behavior of others and, conversely, each one behaves considering the crowd as a whole and the individual others. In this article, I propose a three-step method to explore a brand new way to study behavior dynamics. The first step relies on the creation of specific situations with standard techniques (such as mental imagery, text, video, and audio) and an advanced technique [Virtual Reality (VR)] to manipulate experimental settings. The second step concerns the measurement of behavior in one, two, or many individuals focusing on parameters extractions to provide information about the behavior dynamics. Finally, the third step, which uses the parameters collected and measured in the previous two steps in order to simulate possible scenarios to forecast through computational models, understand, and explain behavior dynamics at the social level. An experimental study was also included to demonstrate the three-step method and a possible scenario. PMID:26594193

  9. The 17th Annual Intelligent Ground Vehicle Competition: intelligent robots built by intelligent students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theisen, Bernard L.

    2010-01-01

    The Intelligent Ground Vehicle Competition (IGVC) is one of four unmanned systems student competitions that were founded by the Association for Unmanned Vehicle Systems International (AUVSI). The IGVC is a multidisciplinary exercise in product realization that challenges college engineering student teams to integrate advanced control theory, machine vision, vehicular electronics and mobile platform fundamentals to design and build an unmanned ground vehicle. Teams from around the world focus on developing a suite of dual-use technologies to equip their system of the future with intelligent driving capabilities. Over the past 17 years, the competition has challenged undergraduate, graduate and Ph.D. students with real world applications in intelligent transportation systems, the military and manufacturing automation. To date, teams from over 70 universities and colleges have participated. This paper describes some of the applications of the technologies required by this competition and discusses the educational benefits. The primary goal of the IGVC is to advance engineering education in intelligent vehicles and related technologies. The employment and professional networking opportunities created for students and industrial sponsors through a series of technical events over the four-day competition are highlighted. Finally, an assessment of the competition based on participation is presented.

  10. Genome-wide ancestry of 17th-century enslaved Africans from the Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, Hannes; Ávila-Arcos, María C; Malaspinas, Anna-Sapfo; Poznik, G David; Sandoval-Velasco, Marcela; Carpenter, Meredith L; Moreno-Mayar, José Víctor; Sikora, Martin; Johnson, Philip L F; Allentoft, Morten Erik; Samaniego, José Alfredo; Haviser, Jay B; Dee, Michael W; Stafford, Thomas W; Salas, Antonio; Orlando, Ludovic; Willerslev, Eske; Bustamante, Carlos D; Gilbert, M Thomas P

    2015-03-24

    Between 1500 and 1850, more than 12 million enslaved Africans were transported to the New World. The vast majority were shipped from West and West-Central Africa, but their precise origins are largely unknown. We used genome-wide ancient DNA analyses to investigate the genetic origins of three enslaved Africans whose remains were recovered on the Caribbean island of Saint Martin. We trace their origins to distinct subcontinental source populations within Africa, including Bantu-speaking groups from northern Cameroon and non-Bantu speakers living in present-day Nigeria and Ghana. To our knowledge, these findings provide the first direct evidence for the ethnic origins of enslaved Africans, at a time for which historical records are scarce, and demonstrate that genomic data provide another type of record that can shed new light on long-standing historical questions. PMID:25755263

  11. Genome-wide ancestry of 17th-century enslaved Africans from the Caribbean

    PubMed Central

    Schroeder, Hannes; Ávila-Arcos, María C.; Malaspinas, Anna-Sapfo; Sandoval-Velasco, Marcela; Carpenter, Meredith L.; Moreno-Mayar, José Víctor; Sikora, Martin; Johnson, Philip L. F.; Allentoft, Morten Erik; Samaniego, José Alfredo; Haviser, Jay B.; Dee, Michael W.; Stafford, Thomas W.; Salas, Antonio; Orlando, Ludovic; Willerslev, Eske; Bustamante, Carlos D.; Gilbert, M. Thomas P.

    2015-01-01

    Between 1500 and 1850, more than 12 million enslaved Africans were transported to the New World. The vast majority were shipped from West and West-Central Africa, but their precise origins are largely unknown. We used genome-wide ancient DNA analyses to investigate the genetic origins of three enslaved Africans whose remains were recovered on the Caribbean island of Saint Martin. We trace their origins to distinct subcontinental source populations within Africa, including Bantu-speaking groups from northern Cameroon and non-Bantu speakers living in present-day Nigeria and Ghana. To our knowledge, these findings provide the first direct evidence for the ethnic origins of enslaved Africans, at a time for which historical records are scarce, and demonstrate that genomic data provide another type of record that can shed new light on long-standing historical questions. PMID:25755263

  12. Finding ancient parasite larvae in a sample from a male living in late 17th century Korea.

    PubMed

    Shin, D H; Chai, J Y; Park, E A; Lee, W; Lee, H; Lee, J S; Choi, Y M; Koh, B J; Park, J B; Oh, C S; Bok, G D; Kim, W L; Lee, E; Lee, E J; Seo, M

    2009-06-01

    Parasitological examination of samples from tombs of the Korean Joseon Dynasty (1392-1910) could be helpful to researchers in understanding parasitic infection prevalence in pre-industrial Korean society. Whereas most of our previous parasitological studies revealed the presence of ancient parasite eggs in coprolites of Korean mummies, a sample from a man living in late 17th century Korea proved to be relatively unique in possessing what appeared to be several species of parasite larvae. The larvae identified included Strongyloides stercoralis and Trichostrongylus spp., along with eggs of Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, and Paragonimus westermani. Since ancient parasite larvae retain enough morphology to make proper species identification possible, even after long burial times, the examination of parasite larvae within ancient samples will be conducted more carefully in our future work. PMID:19071966

  13. International Society for Aerosols in Medicine, 17th congress, 10-14 May 2009, Monterey, California, USA.

    PubMed

    Newman, Steve

    2009-08-01

    The 17th biennial congress of the International Society for Aerosols in Medicine (ISAM) was held in Monterey, California, between 10 and 14 May 2009. The congress was attended by approximately 300 delegates from 18 countries. Podium presentations were focused on advances in pulmonary drug delivery, but clearance of materials from the lungs by a variety of processes and the potential harmful effects of inhaled particles were also covered. There were > 100 proffered posters, and a commercial exhibition in which 20 companies displayed their products. There were excellent networking opportunities, and the inauguration of more formal networking groups will allow dialogue to continue. Abstracts of podium and poster presentations were provided in the Journal of Aerosol Medicine and Pulmonary Drug Delivery, and it is likely that some of the podium presentations will appear as full papers in that journal in due course. The next conference in this series takes place in Rotterdam, The Netherlands, in June 2011. PMID:19637975

  14. Footprints of the EADV: a meeting report from the 17th Congress of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

    PubMed

    Alexandroff, A B; Burd, R

    2009-05-01

    The 17th Congress of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology took place in Paris on 17-20 September 2008 and brought together nearly 11,000 participants. Various plenary lectures, subspecialty meetings, 'free communications', 'top ten', 'test yourself' and 'junior' sessions, 19 courses and 14 'lunches with the expert', six forums, 27 symposia and 45 workshops were pressed into the 4 days of the meeting. Over 1700 posters were presented and exhibited. The themes of a number of symposiums, workshops and sessions overlapped, offering additional educational opportunities despite a very busy schedule. The meeting was well organized. Aesthetic dermatology comprised a significant part of the meeting. It is impossible to encompass all important presentations and we highlight a few medical pearls presented at the meeting; however, our report is not intended as a substitute for reading the conference proceedings and related references quoted in this article. PMID:19309366

  15. Venetian Rule and Control of Plague Epidemics on the Ionian Islands during 17th and 18th Centuries

    PubMed Central

    Konstantinidou, Katerina; Mantadakis, Elpis; Sardi, Thalia; Samonis, George

    2009-01-01

    During the 17th and 18th centuries, measures were taken by the Venetian administration to combat plague on the Ionian Islands. At that time, although the scientific basis of plague was unknown, the Venetians recognized its infectious nature and successfully decreased its spread by implementing an information network. Additionally, by activating a system of inspection that involved establishing garrisons along the coasts, the Venetians were able to control all local movements in plague-infested areas, which were immediately isolated. In contrast, the neighboring coast of mainland Greece, which was under Ottoman rule, was a plague-endemic area during the same period. We conclude that even in the absence of scientific knowledge, close observation and social and political measures can effectively restrain infectious outbreaks to the point of disappearance. PMID:19116047

  16. Late Holocene history of Chaitén Volcano: new evidence for a 17th century eruption

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lara, Luis E.; Moreno, Rodrigo; Amigo, Álvaro; Hoblitt, Richard P.; Pierson, Thomas C.

    2013-01-01

    Prior to May 2008, it was thought that the last eruption of Chaitén Volcano occurred more than 5,000 years ago, a rather long quiescent period for a volcano in such an active arc segment. However, increasingly more Holocene eruptions are being identified. This article presents both geological and historical evidence for late Holocene eruptive activity in the 17th century (AD 1625-1658), which included an explosive rhyolitic eruption that produced pumice ash fallout east of the volcano and caused channel aggradation in the Chaitén River. The extents of tephra fall and channel aggradation were similar to those of May 2008. Fine ash, pumice and obsidian fragments in the pre-2008 deposits are unequivocally derived from Chaitén Volcano. This finding has important implications for hazards assessment in the area and suggests the eruptive frequency and magnitude should be more thoroughly studied.

  17. Immunology's first priority dispute--an account of the 17th-century Rudbeck-Bartholin feud.

    PubMed

    Ambrose, Charles T

    2006-07-01

    Modern immunology has been notably free of public disputes over credit for major discoveries in this discipline. But the early recognition of the lymphatic system witnessed two examples of heated priority feuds. The first in the 17th-century concerned the greater anatomical organization of the system, while the second in the 18th-century concerned its function. This essay reviews the earlier of the two disputes, in which a Swedish medical student (Ole Rudbeck) charged a respected Danish Professor (T. Bartholin) with plagiarism and antedating his observations. Thus ethical issues in immunology predate modern times. How this discipline reached this point in its history is another focus of this essay and also an excuse to review briefly the anatomy of the lymphatic system. The influence of nationalistic pride on priority disputes is also discussed. PMID:17083923

  18. Venetian rule and control of plague epidemics on the Ionian Islands during 17th and 18th centuries.

    PubMed

    Konstantinidou, Katerina; Mantadakis, Elpis; Falagas, Matthew E; Sardi, Thalia; Samonis, George

    2009-01-01

    During the 17th and 18th centuries, measures were taken by the Venetian administration to combat plague on the Ionian Islands. At that time, although the scientific basis of plague was unknown, the Venetians recognized its infectious nature and successfully decreased its spread by implementing an information network. Additionally, by activating a system of inspection that involved establishing garrisons along the coasts, the Venetians were able to control all local movements in plague-infested areas, which were immediately isolated. In contrast, the neighboring coast of mainland Greece, which was under Ottoman rule, was a plague-endemic area during the same period. We conclude that even in the absence of scientific knowledge, close observation and social and political measures can effectively restrain infectious outbreaks to the point of disappearance. PMID:19116047

  19. ICAS, Congress, 17th, Stockholm, Sweden, Sept. 9-14, 1990, Proceedings. Vols. 1 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    The present conference discusses issues in the fields of aeroelasticity, multidisciplinary design integration, slipstreams and jet interference, the aeroacoustics of advanced propellers, simulation technologies for human factors, boundary-layer testing, aircraft sensors and subsystems, high-alpha and vortex flows, rotorcraft design, novel test facilities, high-alpha flow over wings, buckling and postbuckling structural behavior, inlet and nozzle design, simulation and flighttesting, aeroelastic response, systems architecture and integration, unsteady aerodynamics, fatigue and fracture mechanics, and propulsion-system integration. Also discussed are CFD configurations, trajectory optimization and guidance, high-alpha dynamics, combustion phenomena, experimental techniques, structural dynamics and impact effects, computational aids for transport aircraft, drag reduction methods, high-temperature materials, aircraft control methods, impact and crash resistance, transport aircraft design integration, subsonic wings, hypersonic propulsion, structural testing, ATC, high-temperature structures, airworthiness and reliability, military aircraft, composite materials fabrication, nonlinear flight dynamics, and mathematical modeling.

  20. EDITORIAL: 17th International Summer School on Vacuum, Electron, and Ion Technologies (VEIT 2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van de Sanden, M. C. M.; Dimitrova, Miglena; Ghelev, Chavdar

    2012-03-01

    The International Summer School on Vacuum, Electron and Ion Technologies (VEIT) has been organized biennially since 1977, when the VEIT Summer School series was launched by the Institute of Electronics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences. The aim was to act as a forum for the exchange and dissemination of knowledge and ideas on the latest developments in electron-, ion- and plasma-assisted technologies. The organizers of the 2011 edition of the event were the Institute of Electronics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia, Bulgaria and the Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven, The Netherlands. Whilst the school initially provided a meeting place for researchers mainly from Eastern and Central European countries, its importance has grown issue by issue. The school is now a major scientific event and a meeting place for young scientists from Eastern and Western Europe involved in research and development associated with high-tech industries. Many former school participants have gone on to become leading scientists in research establishments and companies throughout the world. Leading international companies, such as High Voltage Engineering, Balzers, Varian, and Hauzer have used the VEIT forum to present their products through oral presentations, poster contributions and exhibits. The School Proceedings have been published in special issues of the international journals Vacuum, Plasma Processes and Polymers and Journal of Physics: Conference Series. The Seventeenth edition of VEIT was held in the Black Sea resort of Sunny Beach, Bulgaria on 19-23 September 2011. It was attended by 96 participants from 18 countries: Belgium, Brazil, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, The Netherlands, Romania, Russia, Serbia, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine, UK and USA. Following the tradition of publishing the VEIT Proceedings, a selection of papers presented at the event is published in this special issue of Journal of

  1. Insights from the 3rd World Congress on Integrated Computational Materials Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howe, D.; Goodlet, B.; Weaver, J.; Spanos, G.

    2016-05-01

    The 3rd World Congress on Integrated Computational Materials Engineering (ICME) was a forum for presenting the "state-of-the-art" in the ICME discipline, as well as for charting a path for future community efforts. The event concluded with in an interactive panel-led discussion that addressed such topics as integrating efforts between experimental and computational scientists, uncertainty quantification, and identifying the greatest challenges for future workforce preparation. This article is a summary of this discussion and the thoughts presented.

  2. EDITORIAL: 17th International Summer School on Vacuum, Electron, and Ion Technologies (VEIT 2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van de Sanden, M. C. M.; Dimitrova, Miglena; Ghelev, Chavdar

    2012-03-01

    The International Summer School on Vacuum, Electron and Ion Technologies (VEIT) has been organized biennially since 1977, when the VEIT Summer School series was launched by the Institute of Electronics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences. The aim was to act as a forum for the exchange and dissemination of knowledge and ideas on the latest developments in electron-, ion- and plasma-assisted technologies. The organizers of the 2011 edition of the event were the Institute of Electronics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia, Bulgaria and the Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven, The Netherlands. Whilst the school initially provided a meeting place for researchers mainly from Eastern and Central European countries, its importance has grown issue by issue. The school is now a major scientific event and a meeting place for young scientists from Eastern and Western Europe involved in research and development associated with high-tech industries. Many former school participants have gone on to become leading scientists in research establishments and companies throughout the world. Leading international companies, such as High Voltage Engineering, Balzers, Varian, and Hauzer have used the VEIT forum to present their products through oral presentations, poster contributions and exhibits. The School Proceedings have been published in special issues of the international journals Vacuum, Plasma Processes and Polymers and Journal of Physics: Conference Series. The Seventeenth edition of VEIT was held in the Black Sea resort of Sunny Beach, Bulgaria on 19-23 September 2011. It was attended by 96 participants from 18 countries: Belgium, Brazil, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, The Netherlands, Romania, Russia, Serbia, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine, UK and USA. Following the tradition of publishing the VEIT Proceedings, a selection of papers presented at the event is published in this special issue of Journal of

  3. Design Principles for "Thriving in Our Digital World": A High School Computer Science Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veletsianos, George; Beth, Bradley; Lin, Calvin; Russell, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    "Thriving in Our Digital World" is a technology-enhanced dual enrollment course introducing high school students to computer science through project- and problem-based learning. This article describes the evolution of the course and five lessons learned during the design, development, implementation, and iteration of the course from its…

  4. Tick-borne encephalitis as a notifiable disease--Status quo and the way forward. Report of the 17th annual meeting of the International Scientific Working Group on Tick-Borne Encephalitis (ISW-TBE).

    PubMed

    Kunze, Ursula

    2015-07-01

    The 17th meeting of the International Scientific Working Group on Tick-Borne Encephalitis (ISW-TBE), a group of neurologists, general practicioners, clinicians, travel physicians, virologists, pediatricians, and epidemiologists, was held under the title "Tick-borne encephalitis as a notifiable disease--status quo and the way forward". The conference agenda was divided into three parts on the first day: "Epidemiology & Risk areas", "Poster Walk: Epidemiological Update in Europe", and "News in TBE Research". On the second day, a World Café Working Session took place where the participants could choose three tables out of six to join for discussion. Key topics on current epidemiological developments and investigations, risk areas, cases, travel and mobility, TBE in children, vaccination rates, and latest news on vaccination were presented and extensively discussed. PMID:26025269

  5. Evidence for Precise Calendrical Observations in the 17th Century at the `Bruchhauser Steine', Olsberg, Northrhine-Westphalia, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinrücken, B.

    The `Bruchhauser Steine', four large rocks of volcanic origin in southern Westphalia, form perfect foresights for calendrical observations from the surrounding country. The ancient walls and embankments on the `Istenberg' with the rocks as cornerstones were built 500 BC. In the landscape are placed shrines with images of Christian saints, erected in the late 17th and the early 18th century. The positions of these shrines can be interpreted as observing sites with respect to the stones. The foresights reach several degrees to the sky, so variations in the astronomical refraction are strongly suppressed. The most impressive observing site with a shrine of 1699 (8o31'13'' E, 51o18'49'' N) is exactly at the position to observe the summer solstice sunrise at the topmost rock, the `Feldstein'. The solstice sun rises between two stones and grazes the Feldstein at 6:20 CEST. Today the sun is obstructed 2'-3' by the stone. Taking into account the slight variation of the obliquity of the ecliptic of 2' since 1699 the grazing procedure at the time of erection was perfect, without any obstruction of the suns disc. Similar shrines are placed at positions to observe the sunrise on May 1st in the identical manner (8o29'39'' E, 51o18'41'' N) and the lunar declination minimum on the meridian (8o32'44'' E, 51o20'33'' N). Some evidence indicates a prehistoric origin of this calendrical system.

  6. Tritium Packages and 17th RH Canister Categories of Transuranic Waste Stored Below Ground within Area G

    SciTech Connect

    Hargis, Kenneth Marshall

    2015-03-01

    A large wildfire called the Las Conchas Fire burned large areas near Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in 2011 and heightened public concern and news media attention over transuranic (TRU) waste stored at LANL’s Technical Area 54 (TA-54) Area G waste management facility. The removal of TRU waste from Area G had been placed at a lower priority in budget decisions for environmental cleanup at LANL because TRU waste removal is not included in the March 2005 Compliance Order on Consent (Reference 1) that is the primary regulatory driver for environmental cleanup at LANL. The Consent Order is a settlement agreement between LANL and the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) that contains specific requirements and schedules for cleaning up historical contamination at the LANL site. After the Las Conchas Fire, discussions were held by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) with the NMED on accelerating TRU waste removal from LANL and disposing it at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This report summarizes available information on the origin, configuration, and composition of the waste containers within the Tritium Packages and 17th RH Canister categories; their physical and radiological characteristics; the results of the radioassays; and potential issues in retrieval and processing of the waste containers.

  7. [Genealogical study of the Pijart dynasty, goldsmiths or apothecaries in Paris in the 16th and 17th centuries].

    PubMed

    Warolin, Christian

    2007-10-01

    The Pijart dynasty, established in Paris during the 16th and 17th centuries, included apothecaries and goldsmiths who had a common ancestor, Michel Pijart, warden of the goldsmith's guild (garde de l'orfèvrerie) in 1507. He was married to Jehanne Daumont and died 23rd July 1524. This couple had four sons, all goldsmiths, Pierre, Michel, Jehan and Nicolas. Pierre married twice. His first wife, Philippe Dusseau, was the sister of a famous apothecary. Only their eldest son, François, chose the profession of apothecary; the other three, Jacques, Jehan and Philibert, all followed their father's profession. By his second marriage to Marie de Mézières, Pierre had two sons, Claude the elder and Claude the younger, who both became goldsmiths. Thus, the goldsmith's trade became the favoured profession of the Pijart family. Professional endogamy prevailed in this dynasty, after the fashion of merchants belonging to the six most prestigious guilds (Six-Corps de métiers). Goldsmiths and apothecaries retained strong family ties, demonstrated by family reunions (baptisms, betrothals, etc.). It is undisputable that the renown of this dynasty is based on the fame of its goldsmiths. However, through marriage, the Pijart's developed links with other families of apothecaries, of which the most outstanding were the Boulduc's. PMID:18348497

  8. Microscopy and Microanalysis of an Extreme Case of Salt and Biodegradation in 17th Century Wall Paintings.

    PubMed

    Gil, Milene; Martins, Maria Rosário; Carvalho, Maria Luisa; Souto, Cátia; Longelin, Stephane; Cardoso, Ana; Mirão, José; Candeias, António Estevão

    2015-06-01

    The present study characterizes the main deterioration mechanisms affecting the early 17th frescoes of Casa de Fresco, the only known example in Portugal of a semi-underground leisure room richly decorated with a balcony over a water well. Frescoes from the vault are at risk due to salt weathering and biodeterioration. The aim of the research was identification of the deterioration materials, determination of their origin, and their effect on the frescoes before future intervention. Scanning electron microscopy with an energy-dispersive X-ray detector (SEM-EDS) was used to determine salt morphology and microanalysis. The mineralogical characterization was performed by X-ray powder diffraction, complemented with µ-Raman and µ-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Biological assessment was evaluated with optical microscopy and SEM-EDS. Bacterial and fungal isolation and identification were performed using standard culture media and methods according to Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology and from the Compendium of Soil Fungi. The results show that Ca and Ca-Mg carbonates from the paint renderings are the predominant salt species affecting the site. Bacterial strains from the genera Bacillus and Pseudomonas and fungal strains from the Cladosporium spp. and Penicillium spp. were isolated in the salt formations, within and between the mortar layers. Azurite, malachite, and smalt paint layers are the most affected by the weathering conditions. PMID:26149345

  9. Parameter inference in small world network disease models with approximate Bayesian Computational methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, David M.; Allingham, David; Lee, Heung Wing Joseph; Small, Michael

    2010-02-01

    Small world network models have been effective in capturing the variable behaviour of reported case data of the SARS coronavirus outbreak in Hong Kong during 2003. Simulations of these models have previously been realized using informed “guesses” of the proposed model parameters and tested for consistency with the reported data by surrogate analysis. In this paper we attempt to provide statistically rigorous parameter distributions using Approximate Bayesian Computation sampling methods. We find that such sampling schemes are a useful framework for fitting parameters of stochastic small world network models where simulation of the system is straightforward but expressing a likelihood is cumbersome.

  10. Teaching Science in Art: Technical Examination of 17th-Century Dutch Painting as Interdisciplinary Coursework for Science Majors and Nonmajors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uffelman, Erich S.

    2007-01-01

    Two linked courses examining conservation science and art history of 17th-century Dutch painting are described. The two courses have been taught on campus and, most recently, as study-abroad courses in collaboration with the Center for European Studies, Universiteit Maastricht, The Netherlands. The highly interdisciplinary courses are intense, yet…

  11. Providing Quality Education and Training for Rural Australians. SPERA National Conference Proceedings (17th, Wagga Wagga, New South Wales, Australia, July 8-11, 2001).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemmings, Brian, Ed.; Boylan, Colin, Ed.

    This proceedings of the 17th annual conference of the Society for the Provision of Education in Rural Australia (SPERA) contains 28 keynote addresses and conference papers. Major conference themes were vocational education and training (VET) in rural schools, small schools, flexible rural delivery systems, and the community as a resource and…

  12. Scientific computation of big data in real-world clinical research.

    PubMed

    Li, Guozheng; Zuo, Xuewen; Liu, Baoyan

    2014-09-01

    The advent of the big data era creates both opportunities and challenges for traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). This study describes the origin, concept, connotation, and value of studies regarding the scientific computation of TCM. It also discusses the integration of science, technology, and medicine under the guidance of the paradigm of real-world, clinical scientific research. TCM clinical diagnosis, treatment, and knowledge were traditionally limited to literature and sensation levels; however, primary methods are used to convert them into statistics, such as the methods of feature subset optimizing, multi-label learning, and complex networks based on complexity, intelligence, data, and computing sciences. Furthermore, these methods are applied in the modeling and analysis of the various complex relationships in individualized clinical diagnosis and treatment, as well as in decision-making related to such diagnosis and treatment. Thus, these methods strongly support the real-world clinical research paradigm of TCM. PMID:25190349

  13. Computer software requirements specification for the world model light duty utility arm system

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, J.E.

    1996-02-01

    This Computer Software Requirements Specification defines the software requirements for the world model of the Light Duty Utility Arm (LDUA) System. It is intended to be used to guide the design of the application software, to be a basis for assessing the application software design, and to establish what is to be tested in the finished application software product. (This deploys end effectors into underground storage tanks by means of robotic arm on end of telescoping mast.)

  14. Landscape paintings of the 17th and 19th century as a tool for coastal zone management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jungerius, P. D.; van den Ancker, J.

    2012-04-01

    For more than fifty years many Dutch landscapes suffered severe damage. For their management, it is valuable to know what they looked like in the past. Historic maps give inadequate information, and landscape and aerial photographs are scarcely available until the 1940s. Before then landscapes have been documented chiefly by landscape painters. Interpreted with care, Dutch landscape paintings of the 17th and 19th century are an invaluable geoheritage archive and also hold information that is relevant for present-day landscape management. We present paintings of the Dutch coastal zone as an example. The coastal zone of the Netherlands is geomorphologically well developed, with beaches, foredunes, medieval 'Young dunes', and 5000 year old beach ridges with several anthropic modifications. Each of these terrains attracted landscape painters. Representative paintings can be found in museums and art galleries. We evaluated hundreds of paintings of the collection of Simonis & Buunk, an art gallery in Ede specialised in 19th and early 20th century landscape paintings, for the geoheritage information they contain. The collection, which is the largest on the subject on¬line available in Europe, can be freely consulted (www.simonis--buunk.com). The freedom taken by the painters to adjust reality for compositional or stylistic reasons is still subject of discussion. The paintings became more realistic in the middle of the 19th century when paints became available in tubes and the painters could leave their studio to work in the field. We selected paintings that are sufficiently realistic to be translated in real landscape features, including geomorphological processes and elements. Some insights: • Because of the overriding control of marine and eolian processes, the appearance of the beaches has not changed since the 16th century. • The difference between the flat beaches of the Netherlands and the steeper beaches is accurately registered by the painters. • On a coast

  15. Programmed death-1 pathway in host tissues ameliorates Th17/Th1-mediated experimental chronic graft-versus-host disease.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Hideaki; Maeda, Yoshinobu; Kobayashi, Koichiro; Nishimori, Hisakazu; Matsuoka, Ken-Ichi; Fujii, Nobuharu; Kondo, Eisei; Tanaka, Takehiro; Chen, Lieping; Azuma, Miyuki; Yagita, Hideo; Tanimoto, Mitsune

    2014-09-01

    Chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is a major cause of late death and morbidity after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation, but its pathogenesis remains unclear. We investigated the role of the programmed death-1 (PD-1) pathway in chronic GVHD using a well-defined mouse model of B10.D2 (H-2(d)) donor to BALB/c (H-2(d)) recipients. PD-1 expression on allogeneic donor T cells was upregulated continuously in chronic GVHD development, whereas PD-L1 expression in host tissues was transiently upregulated and declined to basal levels in the late posttransplant period. Blockade of the PD-1 pathway by anti-PD-1, anti-PD-L1, or anti-PD-L2 mAbs exacerbated clinical and pathologic chronic GVHD. Chimeric mice revealed that PD-L1 expression in host tissues suppressed expansion of IL-17(+)IFN-γ(+) T cells, and that PD-L1 expression on hematopoietic cells plays a role in the development of regulatory T cells only during the early transplantation period but does not affect the severity of chronic GVHD. Administration of the synthetic retinoid Am80 overcame the IL-17(+)IFN-γ(+) T cell expansion caused by PD-L1 deficiency, resulting in reduced chronic GVHD damage in PD-L1(-/-) recipients. Stimulation of the PD-1 pathway also alleviated chronic GVHD. These results suggest that the PD-1 pathway contributes to the suppression of Th17/Th1-mediated chronic GVHD and may represent a new target for the prevention or treatment of chronic GVHD. PMID:25080485

  16. Floods of the Lower Tisza from the late 17th century onwards: frequency, magnitude, seasonality and great flood events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiss, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    The present paper is based on a recently developed database including contemporary original, administrative, legal and private source materials (published and archival) as well as media reports related to the floods occurred on the lower sections of the Tisza river in Hungary, with special emphasis on the area of Szeged town. The study area is well-represented by contemporary source evidence from the late 17th century onwards, when the town and its broader area was reoccupied from the Ottoman Turkish Empire. Concerning the applied source materials, the main bases of investigation are the administrative (archival) sources such as town council protocols of Szeged and county meeting protocols of Csanád and Csongrád Counties. In these (legal-)administrative documents damaging events (natural/environmental hazards) were systematically recorded. Moreover, other source types such as taxation-related damage accounts as well as private and official reports, letters and correspondence (published, unpublished) were also included. Concerning published evidence, a most important source is flood reports in contemporary newspapers as well as town chronicles and other contemporary narratives. In the presentation the main focus is on the analysis of flood-rich flood-poor periods of the last ca. 330 years; moreover, the seasonality distribution as well as the magnitude of Tisza flood events are also discussed. Another important aim of the poster is to provide a short overview, in the form of case studies, on the greatest flood events (e.g. duration, magnitude, damages, multi-annual consequences), and their further impacts on the urban and countryside development as well as on (changes in) flood defence strategies. In this respect, especially two flood events, the great (1815-)1816 and the catastrophic 1879 flood (shortly with causes and consequences) - that practically erased Szeged town from the ground - are presented in more detail.

  17. Hydrometeorological extremes reconstructed from documentary evidence for the Jihlava region in the 17th-19th centuries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolak, Lukas; Brazdil, Rudolf; Chroma, Katerina; Valasek, Hubert; Belinova, Monika; Reznickova, Ladislava

    2016-04-01

    Different documentary evidence (taxation records, chronicles, insurance reports etc.) is used for reconstruction of hydrometeorological extremes (HMEs) in the Jihlava region (central part of the recent Czech Republic) in the 17th-19th centuries. The aim of the study is description of the system of tax alleviation in Moravia, presentation of utilization of early fire and hail damage insurance claims and application of the new methodological approaches for the analysis of HMEs impacts. During the period studied more than 400 HMEs were analysed for the 16 estates (past basic economic units). Late frost on 16 May 1662 on the Nove Mesto na Morave estate, which destroyed whole cereals and caused damage in the forests, is the first recorded extreme event. Downpours causing flash floods and hailstorms are the most frequently recorded natural disasters. Moreover, floods, droughts, windstorms, blizzards, late frosts and lightning strikes starting fires caused enormous damage as well. The impacts of HMEs are classified into three categories: impacts on agricultural production, material property and the socio-economic impacts. Natural disasters became the reasons of losses of human lives, property, supplies and farming equipment. HMEs caused damage to fields and meadows, depletion of livestock and triggered the secondary consequences as lack of seeds and finance, high prices, indebtedness, poverty and deterioration in field fertility. The results are discussed with respect to uncertainties associated with documentary evidences and their spatiotemporal distribution. Archival records, preserved in the Moravian Land Archives in Brno and other district archives, create a unique source of data contributing to the better understanding of extreme events and their impacts.

  18. [Scholarly life in the late 17th century: the Giessen professor of medicine Michael Bernhard Valentini (1657-1729)].

    PubMed

    Enke, Ulrike

    2007-01-01

    Towards the end of the 17th century the university of Giessen was--compared to, for example, Leipzig or the newly founded university of Halle--a rather small university in terms of student numbers. Situated in a provincial town of about 5,000 inhabitants and far away from the capital, Darmstadt, the university was a firmly denominational, i.e. orthodox Lutheran, counter-foundation against the neighbouring university of Marburg in Calvinist Hesse-Kassel. This paper describes under what circumstances Michael Bernhard Valentini (1657-1729), a typical and well-known scholar in his time, became successful and influential in the early Enlightenment. Born in 1657 as the son of a university servant (Pedell) and therefore underprivileged, he succeeded in becoming dean of the medical faculty and eventually rector of Giessen University. He was professor of Physica naturalis as well as of medicine and gained importance and influence by establishing experimental physics in Giessen. Numerous publications, not only in medicine but also in natural history and about curiosities, attracted the attention of many scientific societies whose membership he obtained. Valentini had studied philosophy and medicine in Giessen at a time when the curricula in medicine and natural philosophy were still taught in the traditional scholastic manner. After having worked as a medical practitioner, he made an educational tour through Western Europe in 1686, during which he met Robert Boyle in London. In 1687 Valentini became professor of physics in Giessen. In the same year, he bought several physical instruments--including an air pump from the Musschenbroek workshop in Leiden, at that time a centre of technical and scientific innovation. Thanks to Valentini Giessen became the third university in Germany (after Altdorf and Marburg) that offered the "new" experimental physics in its curriculum. PMID:18196757

  19. The ``System of Chymists'' and the ``Newtonian dream'' in Greek-speaking Communities in the 17th-18th Centuries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bokaris, Efthymios P.; Koutalis, Vangelis

    2008-06-01

    The acceptance of new chemical ideas, before the Chemical Revolution of Lavoisier, in Greek-speaking communities in the 17th and 18th centuries did not create a discourse of chemical philosophy, as it did in Europe, but rather a “philosophy” of chemistry as it was formed through the evolution of didactic traditions of Chemistry. This “philosophical” chemistry was not based on the existence of any academic institutions, it was focused on the ontology of principles and forces governing the analysis/synthesis of matter and formulated two didactic traditions. The one, named “the system of chymists”, close to the Boylean/Cartesian tradition, accepted, contrary to Aristotelianism, the five “chymical” principles and also the analytical ideal, but the “chymical” principles were not under a conceptual and experimental investigation, as they were in Europe. Also, a crucial issue for this tradition remained the “mechanical” principles which were under the influence of the metaphysical nature of the Aristotelian principles. The other, close to the Boylean/Newtonian tradition, was the integrated presentation of the Newtonian “dream”, which maintained a discursive attitude with reference to the “chemical attractions”-“chemical affinities” and actualised the mathematical atomism of Boscovich, according to which the elementary texture of matter could be causally explained within this complex architecture of mathematical “ punkta”. In this tradition also coexisted, in a discursive synthesis, the “chemical element” of Lavoisier and the arguments of the new theory and its opposition to the phlogiston theory, but the “chemical affinities” were under the realm of the “physical element” as “metaphysical point”.

  20. World

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilinc, M.; Beringer, J.; Hutley, L.; Kurioka, K.; Wood, S.; D'Argent, N.; Martin, D.; McHugh, I.; Tapper, N.; McGuire, D.

    2009-04-01

    Natural forests store vast amounts of carbon in the terrestrial biosphere, and play an important role in the global carbon cycle. Given the significance of natural forests, there is a lack of carbon accounting of primary forests that are undisturbed by human activities. One reason for this lack of interest stems from ecological orthodoxy that suggests that primary forests should be close to dynamic equilibrium, in that Net Ecosystem Production (NEP) approaches zero. However, recent results from the northern hemisphere and tropics, using eddy covariance flux towers, indicate that primary forests are a greater sink than first thought. The role of evergreen primary forests in Australian carbon balance studies remain uncertain and hence may function differently to their deciduous counterparts in the Northern Hemisphere. In order to address the lack of baseline carbon accounts, an undisturbed, 300 year old Mountain Ash (Eucalyptus regnans) ecosystem, located in the Central Highlands of Victoria (Australia) was selected as a permanent study site to investigate carbon and water budgets over diurnal, seasonal and annual cycles. Mountain Ash trees are the world's tallest angiosperms (flowering plants), and one of the largest carbon reservoirs in the biosphere, with an estimated 1900 tC ha-1. A 110 m tall micrometeorological tower that includes eddy covariance instrumentation was installed in August 2005. An independent biometric approach quantifying the annual net gain or loss of carbon was also made within close proximity to the flux tower. Analysis of NEP in 2006 suggests that the ecosystem acted as a carbon sink of 2.5 tC ha-1 yr-1. Woody and soil biomass increment for the same year was estimated to be 2.8 tC ha-1yr-1, in which nearly half of the biomass production was partitioned into the aboveground woody tissue. These results indicate that temperate primary forests act as carbon sinks, and are able to maintain their carbon sink status due to their uneven stand

  1. Trip Report: Second World Conference on Computers in Education of the International Federation for Information Processing (Marseille, France, September 1975)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Diane D.

    At the Second World Conference on Computers in Education nearly 150 papers were presented. The author gives an overview of the conference, and selects a few of the papers for further discussion. Vendor-supplied computer education, "information science" as a high school elective, and computer-assisted instruction in a broader spectrum of course…

  2. The historical archaeology of the 17th- and 18th-century Jewish community of Nevis, British West Indies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terrell, Michelle M.

    2000-11-01

    This is an historical archaeological examination of a 17th- and 18th-century Jewish community on the island of Nevis in the British West Indies. Unlike earlier archaeological studies of the Jewish Caribbean Diaspora that focused on single sites, this investigation used a community-wide approach to elucidate the daily experience of Sephardic Jews within the colonial Caribbean. This project included an archaeological excavation at the purported location of the community's synagogue, an electrical resistivity survey of the surviving cemetery, the construction of a map of property ownership in 18th-century Charlestown, and archival research. This study was carded out within a multiscalar and contextual framework that emphasized the importance of understanding the diaspora that brought the Jews to the West Indies, the development of the colonial Caribbean, and the surrounding environs of the port city of Charlestown, Nevis. The archaeological analysis of the supposed site of the synagogue proved that it was in fact that of a late 18th-century townhouse, but the associated land record research revealed the actual location of the community's former synagogue. Furthermore, the reconstruction of the physical layout of colonial-period Charlestown from the land records indicated the presence of a distinct Jewish quarter in the undesirable southern portion of the town. Evidence from the public records of Nevis and the social history of the members of the Jewish population unveiled external social and political pressures placed upon the Sephardim as well as internal religious and ethnic ties dig bound the community together. It is argued in closing that the archival evidence, in conjunction with the continued presence of a clustered settlement pattern like that of European Jewish communities during the medieval period, indicates that the Jews of the Caribbean were not fully integrated socially or politically into British colonial society. This examination of the Nevis community

  3. Quantifying early 17th century changes in Chesapeake Bay estuarine carbon dynamics from James River, VA oyster geochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimm, B. L.; Spero, H. J.; Harding, J. M.

    2012-12-01

    same shells provide seasonal signals and also show an offset from modern that is consistent with drought conditions during the early 17th century. These high fidelity records allow for a direct, high-resolution comparison of the residence time of carbon in the environment immediately prior to European colonization and during the first century of land use change in mid-Atlantic North America.

  4. Cosmic ray composition between 10 to the 15th power - 10 to the 17th power eV obtained by air shower experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muraki, Y.

    1985-01-01

    Based on the air shower data, the chemical composition of the primary cosmic rays in the energy range 10 to the 15th power - 10 to the 17th power eV was obtained. The method is based on a well known N sub e-N sub mu and N sub e-N sub gamma. The simulation is calibrated by the CERN SPS pp collider results.

  5. Toward a computational approach for collision avoidance with real-world scenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keil, Matthias S.; Rodriguez-Vazquez, Angel

    2003-04-01

    In the central nervous systems of animals like pigeons and locusts, neurons were identified which signal objects approaching the animal on a direct collision course. In order to timely initiate escape behavior, these neurons must recognize a possible approach (or at least differentiate it from similar but non-threatening situations), and estimate the time-to-collision (ttc). Unraveling the neural circuitry for collision avoidance, and identifying the underlying computational principles, should thus be promising for building vision-based neuromorphic architectures, which in the near future could find applications in cars or planes. Unfortunately, a corresponding computational architecture which is able to handle real-situations (e.g. moving backgrounds, different lighting conditions) is still not available (successful collision avoidance of a robot was demonstrated only for a closed environment). Here we present two computational models for signalling impending collision. These models are parsimonious since they possess only the minimum number of computational units which are essential to reproduce corresponding biological data. Our models show robust performance in adverse situations, such as with approaching low-contrast objects, or with highly textured backgrounds. Furthermore, a condition is proposed under which the responses of our models match the so-called eta-function. We finally discuss which components need to be added to our model to convert it into a full-fledged real-world-environment collision detector.

  6. Spider World: A Robot Language for Learning to Program. Assessing the Cognitive Consequences of Computer Environments for Learning (ACCCEL).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalbey, John; Linn, Marcia

    Spider World is an interactive program designed to help individuals with no previous computer experience to learn the fundamentals of programming. The program emphasizes cognitive tasks which are central to programming and provides significant problem-solving opportunities. In Spider World, the user commands a hypothetical robot (called the…

  7. World Wide Web interface for advanced SPECT reconstruction algorithms implemented on a remote massively parallel computer.

    PubMed

    Formiconi, A R; Passeri, A; Guelfi, M R; Masoni, M; Pupi, A; Meldolesi, U; Malfetti, P; Calori, L; Guidazzoli, A

    1997-11-01

    Data from Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) studies are blurred by inevitable physical phenomena occurring during data acquisition. These errors may be compensated by means of reconstruction algorithms which take into account accurate physical models of the data acquisition procedure. Unfortunately, this approach involves high memory requirements as well as a high computational burden which cannot be afforded by the computer systems of SPECT acquisition devices. In this work the possibility of accessing High Performance Computing and Networking (HPCN) resources through a World Wide Web interface for the advanced reconstruction of SPECT data in a clinical environment was investigated. An iterative algorithm with an accurate model of the variable system response was ported on the Multiple Instruction Multiple Data (MIMD) parallel architecture of a Cray T3D massively parallel computer. The system was accessible even from low cost PC-based workstations through standard TCP/IP networking. A speedup factor of 148 was predicted by the benchmarks run on the Cray T3D. A complete brain study of 30 (64 x 64) slices was reconstructed from a set of 90 (64 x 64) projections with ten iterations of the conjugate gradients algorithm in 9 s which corresponds to an actual speed-up factor of 135. The technique was extended to a more accurate 3D modeling of the system response for a true 3D reconstruction of SPECT data; the reconstruction time of the same data set with this more accurate model was 5 min. This work demonstrates the possibility of exploiting remote HPCN resources from hospital sites by means of low cost workstations using standard communication protocols and an user-friendly WWW interface without particular problems for routine use. PMID:9506406

  8. A Computing Environment to Support Repeatable Scientific Big Data Experimentation of World-Wide Scientific Literature

    SciTech Connect

    Schlicher, Bob G; Kulesz, James J; Abercrombie, Robert K; Kruse, Kara L

    2015-01-01

    A principal tenant of the scientific method is that experiments must be repeatable and relies on ceteris paribus (i.e., all other things being equal). As a scientific community, involved in data sciences, we must investigate ways to establish an environment where experiments can be repeated. We can no longer allude to where the data comes from, we must add rigor to the data collection and management process from which our analysis is conducted. This paper describes a computing environment to support repeatable scientific big data experimentation of world-wide scientific literature, and recommends a system that is housed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in order to provide value to investigators from government agencies, academic institutions, and industry entities. The described computing environment also adheres to the recently instituted digital data management plan mandated by multiple US government agencies, which involves all stages of the digital data life cycle including capture, analysis, sharing, and preservation. It particularly focuses on the sharing and preservation of digital research data. The details of this computing environment are explained within the context of cloud services by the three layer classification of Software as a Service , Platform as a Service , and Infrastructure as a Service .

  9. [The beginnings of the nursing profession : the complementary relationship between secular caregivers and hospital nuns in France in the 17th and 18th centuries].

    PubMed

    Diebolt, Evelyne

    2013-06-01

    The words used for designating the caregivers are ambiguous. Little by little, the word "nurse" becomes widely used, mainly in the feminine form due to the need of specialized staff. Health care structures are developing in the 17th and 18 centuries, the remains of which you can find in today hospitals (Salpêtrière hospital, Hôtel-Dieu hospital in Paris). The government of Louis XIV cares for the poor sick people, the vagabonds and the beggars. It opens new general hospitals as it will be the case later in all Europe. In the 17th century, the staff of the general hospital in Paris is entirely secular. The Paris general hospital is headed by the magistrates of Paris Parliament. The healthcare institutions employ both secular and religious staff for example the Hotel Dieu in Paris and the one in Marseilles. In the 17th century, there are 2000 secular caregivers in France. The order of the "Filles de la Charité" (grey sisters) is not submitted to the rule of enclosure. They renew their vows every year. For their founders Vincent de Paul and Louise de Marcillac, their monastery should be the cells of the sick, their cloister should be the rooms of the hospitals or the streets of the town. The secular or religious caregivers are excellent in the apothecary and they open a network of small dispensaries. It improves the health of the French population and allows fighting against the epidemics. This activity allowed some women to have a rewarding activity and a social status of which they were apparently satisfied. PMID:23923734

  10. Portuguese tin-glazed earthenware from the 17th century. Part 2: A spectroscopic characterization of pigments, glazes and pastes of the three main production centers.

    PubMed

    Vieira Ferreira, L F; Ferreira, D P; Conceição, D S; Santos, L F; Pereira, M F C; Casimiro, T M; Ferreira Machado, I

    2015-01-01

    Sherds representative of the three Portuguese faience production centers of the 17th century - Lisbon, Coimbra and Vila Nova were studied with the use of mostly non-invasive spectroscopies, namely: ground state diffuse reflectance absorption (GSDR), micro-Raman, Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) and proton induced X-ray (PIXE) or X-ray fluorescence emission (XRF). X-ray diffraction (XRD) experiments were also performed. The obtained results evidence a clear similarity in the pastes of the pottery produced Vila Nova and some of the ceramic pastes from Lisbon, in accordance with documental sources that described the use of Lisbon clays by Vila Nova potters, at least since mid 17th century. Quartz and Gehlenite are the main components of the Lisbon's pastes, but differences between the ceramic pastes were detected pointing out to the use of several clay sources. The spectroscopic trend exhibited Coimbra's pottery is remarkably different, Quartz and Diopside being the major components of these pastes, enabling one to well define a pattern for these ceramic bodies. The blue pigment from the Lisbon samples is a cobalt oxide that exists in the silicate glassy matrix, which enables the formation of detectable cobalt silicate microcrystals in most productions of the second half of the 17th century. No micro-Raman cobalt blue signature could be detected in the Vila Nova and Coimbra blue glazes. This is in accordance with the lower kiln temperatures in these two production centers and with Co(2+) ions dispersed in the silicate matrix. In all cases the white glaze is obtained with the use of tin oxide. Hausmannite was detected as the manganese oxide mineral used to produce the purple glaze (wine color "vinoso") in Lisbon. PMID:25965511

  11. Determination of droughts and high floods of the Bermejo River (Argentina) based on documentary evidence (17th to 20th century)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prieto, M. R.; Rojas, F.

    2015-10-01

    This study reconstructs a series of droughts and high flow volumes of the Bermejo River from the 17th to 20th century based on a content analysis of historic documentary evidence, which is calibrated with instrumental climate data. The historic data series shows an increase in the frequency of extraordinarily high waters beginning in the 19th century and a significant decrease in extreme droughts beginning in 1890. The data are compared to variations in the Mendoza River for the same period, which show that there was a long-standing lack of correlation between the rivers.

  12. Traces and echoes of De Architectura by Marcus Vitruvius Pollio in the work of Xu Guangqi in 17th century China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cigola, Michela; Fang, Yibing

    2016-03-01

    This study aims to investigate the role played by Xu Guangqi (1562-1633), minister of the Ming Dynasty, in the development of European scientific and technical knowledge in China between the 16th and 17th centuries by analyzing a book of Western technology that he wrote, namely, Taixi Shuifa ( On Western Hydraulics). Several Western books related to machine knowledge are searched to trace the source of the illustrations in Taixi Shuifa. We found that Archimedes' screw and Ctesibius' machine, which are included in Vitruvius' De Architectura volumes, also appear in the work of Xu Guangqi.

  13. Visualizing the 17th century underpainting in Portrait of an Old Man by Rembrandt van Rijn using synchrotron-based scanning macro-XRF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alfeld, Matthias; Siddons, D. Peter; Janssens, Koen; Dik, Joris; Woll, Arthur; Kirkham, Robin; van de Wetering, Ernst

    2013-04-01

    In 17th century Old Master Paintings, the underpainting generally refers to the first sketch of a composition. The underpainting is applied to a prepared ground using a monochrome, brown oil paint to roughly indicate light, shade and contours. So far, methods to visualize the underpainting—other than in localized cross-sections—have been very limited. Neither infrared reflectography nor neutron induced autoradiography have proven to be practical, adequate visualization tools. Thus, although of fundamental interest in the understanding of a painting's genesis, the underpainting has virtually escaped all imaging efforts. In this contribution we will show that 17th century underpainting may consist of a highly heterogeneous mixture of pigments, including copper pigments. We suggest that this brown pigment mixture is actually the recycled left-over of a palette scraping. With copper as the heaviest exclusive elemental component, we will hence show in a case study on a Portrait of an Old Man attributed to Rembrandt van Rijn how scanning macro-XRF can be used to efficiently visualize the underpainting below the surface painting and how this information can contribute to the discussion of the painting's authenticity.

  14. Using the computer-driven VR environment to promote experiences of natural world immersion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frank, Lisa A.

    2013-03-01

    In December, 2011, over 800 people experienced the exhibit, <1>:"der"//pattern for a virtual environment, created for the fully immersive CAVETM at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. This exhibition took my nature-based photographic work and reinterpreted it for virtual reality (VR).Varied responses such as: "It's like a moment of joy," or "I had to see it twice," or "I'm still thinking about it weeks later" were common. Although an implied goal of my 2D artwork is to create a connection that makes viewers more aware of what it means to be a part of the natural world, these six VR environments opened up an unexpected area of inquiry that my 2D work has not. Even as the experience was mediated by machines, there was a softening at the interface between technology and human sensibility. Somehow, for some people, through the unlikely auspices of a computer-driven environment, the project spoke to a human essence that they connected with in a way that went beyond all expectations and felt completely out of my hands. Other interesting behaviors were noted: in some scenarios some spoke of intense anxiety, acrophobia, claustrophobia-even fear of death when the scene took them underground. These environments were believable enough to cause extreme responses and disorientation for some people; were fun, pleasant and wonder-filled for most; and were liberating, poetic and meditative for many others. The exhibition seemed to promote imaginative skills, creativity, emotional insight, and environmental sensitivity. It also revealed the CAVETM to be a powerful tool that can encourage uniquely productive experiences. Quite by accident, I watched as these nature-based environments revealed and articulated an essential relationship between the human spirit and the physical world. The CAVETM is certainly not a natural space, but there is clear potential to explore virtual environments as a path to better and deeper connections between people and nature. We've long associated

  15. The European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) - 17th Annual European Congress of Rheumatology (June 8-11, 2016 - London, UK).

    PubMed

    Walker, G; Croasdell, G

    2016-06-01

    The 2016 Annual European Congress of Rheumatology, an annual conference organized by the European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR), took place in London, U.K. Over 4,000 abstracts were submitted this year with over 199 sessions and poster tours on offer. The congress has become a major event in the field of rheumatology with participants attending from around the world. The oral sessions, poster displays and lectures cover a broad spectrum of topics, including the latest understanding of disease processes, as well as recent advances in diagnosis and patient care. PMID:27458612

  16. The Phylogeographic History of the New World Screwworm Fly, Inferred by Approximate Bayesian Computation Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Azeredo-Espin, Ana Maria L.

    2013-01-01

    Insect pest phylogeography might be shaped both by biogeographic events and by human influence. Here, we conducted an approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) analysis to investigate the phylogeography of the New World screwworm fly, Cochliomyia hominivorax, with the aim of understanding its population history and its order and time of divergence. Our ABC analysis supports that populations spread from North to South in the Americas, in at least two different moments. The first split occurred between the North/Central American and South American populations in the end of the Last Glacial Maximum (15,300-19,000 YBP). The second split occurred between the North and South Amazonian populations in the transition between the Pleistocene and the Holocene eras (9,100-11,000 YBP). The species also experienced population expansion. Phylogenetic analysis likewise suggests this north to south colonization and Maxent models suggest an increase in the number of suitable areas in South America from the past to present. We found that the phylogeographic patterns observed in C. hominivorax cannot be explained only by climatic oscillations and can be connected to host population histories. Interestingly we found these patterns are very coincident with general patterns of ancient human movements in the Americas, suggesting that humans might have played a crucial role in shaping the distribution and population structure of this insect pest. This work presents the first hypothesis test regarding the processes that shaped the current phylogeographic structure of C. hominivorax and represents an alternate perspective on investigating the problem of insect pests. PMID:24098436

  17. Open Walls to a Larger World: What Handheld Computing Can Do for School Libraries and Media Centers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Embrey Theresa A. R.

    2005-01-01

    Handheld computers give students access to the larger world of information beyond the classroom. Wireless access allows students real time access to all networks resources, including downloading e-books and documents, searching the library media centres catalog and searching databases to which the library has subscribed.

  18. Error Analysis in Japanese Writing and Its Implementation in a Computer Assisted Language Learning System on the World Wide Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Jie Chi; Akahori, Kanji

    1998-01-01

    Describes development and evaluation of an error analysis procedure for a computer-assisted language learning program using natural language processing techniques. The program can be used for learning passive voice in Japanese on any World Wide Web browser. The program enables learners to type sentences freely, detects errors, and displays…

  19. International Symposium on Space Technology and Science, 17th, Tokyo, Japan, May 20-25, 1990, Proceedings. Vols. 1 & 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuriki, Kyoichi

    Various papers on space technology and science are presented. The general topics addressed include: national space programs; propulsion; materials and structure, flight dynamics and astrodynamics; fluid dynamics; thermal environment and thermochemistry; electronic components and devices; computer and data systems; guidance, navigation, and control; robotics; systems engineering. Also discussed are: space transportation systems; spacecraft systems; space station and manned flight; balloons; satellite communications and broadcasting; lunar and planetary exploration; space science; earth observations; space medicine; space biology; microgravity; space industrialization; space law and international cooperation.

  20. Collaborations in population-based health research: the 17th annual HMO Research Network Conference, March 23-25, 2011, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

    PubMed

    Lieu, Tracy A; Hinrichsen, Virginia L; Moreira, Andrea; Platt, Richard

    2011-11-01

    The HMO Research Network (HMORN) is a consortium of 16 health care systems with integrated research centers. Approximately 475 people participated in its 17(th) annual conference, hosted by the Department of Population Medicine, Harvard Pilgrim Health Care Institute and Harvard Medical School. The theme, "Collaborations in Population-Based Health Research," reflected the network's emphasis on collaborative studies both among its members and with external investigators. Plenary talks highlighted the initial phase of the HMORN's work to establish the NIH-HMO Collaboratory, opportunities for public health collaborations, the work of early career investigators, and the state of the network. Platform and poster presentations showcased a broad spectrum of innovative public domain research in areas including disease epidemiology and treatment, health economics, and information technology. Special interest group sessions and ancillary meetings provided venues for informal conversation and structured work among ongoing groups, including networks in cancer, cardiovascular diseases, lung diseases, medical product safety, and mental health. PMID:22090515

  1. [[The apothecaries of the district of Les Halles in Paris in the 17th century. Molière's ancestors in Les Halles].

    PubMed

    Warolin, Christian

    2016-03-01

    Les Halles were created by King Louis VI at the begining of the 12th century as a central market for food and trade. Apothecaries conducted their trade there from that time. In the 17th century, eleven apothecaries were established in this district, bordered on the south by the rue Saint-Honoré, on the east by the rue Saint-Denis, on the west by the rue de la Tonnellerie, and the north by the rue Montmartre. Their biographies have been analysed, and the data that has been collected has enabled their précise location to be fixed on a map of 1700. Molière's ancestors, both maternal (the Cressé family) and paternal (the Pocquelin's), lived in this district. Details of their relationships with their apothecary neighbours have been revealed. PMID:27281935

  2. Historical and Metallurgical Characterization of a "Falchion" Sword Manufactured in Caino (Brescia, Italy) in the Early 17th Century A.D.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tonelli, G.; Faccoli, M.; Gotti, R.; Roberti, R.; Cornacchia, G.

    2016-04-01

    A historical and metallurgical characterization of a "falchion" sword manufactured in Caino (Brescia, northern Italy) and dating from the early 17th century was performed to understand the manufacture methods of a Renaissance sword. At first, a set of size measurements was carried out to look for the existence of constant and/or recurring macroscopic sizes, which would indicate a standardized production, or of any type of proportionality between different parts of a sword, which would prove an intentional design activity. Light optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, quantometer analyses, and Vickers microhardness tests were then employed to analyze the microstructure and obtain the mechanical properties. All the metallurgical work is supported by an accurate study on the chemical composition of both metal-matrix and nonmetallic inclusions, which allowed for rebuilding and evaluating the efficiency of the whole production process.

  3. Towards a Global Service Registry for the World-Wide LHC Computing Grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Field, Laurence; Alandes Pradillo, Maria; Di Girolamo, Alessandro

    2014-06-01

    The World-Wide LHC Computing Grid encompasses a set of heterogeneous information systems; from central portals such as the Open Science Grid's Information Management System and the Grid Operations Centre Database, to the WLCG information system, where the information sources are the Grid services themselves. Providing a consistent view of the information, which involves synchronising all these informations systems, is a challenging activity that has lead the LHC virtual organisations to create their own configuration databases. This experience, whereby each virtual organisation's configuration database interfaces with multiple information systems, has resulted in the duplication of effort, especially relating to the use of manual checks for the handling of inconsistencies. The Global Service Registry aims to address this issue by providing a centralised service that aggregates information from multiple information systems. It shows both information on registered resources (i.e. what should be there) and available resources (i.e. what is there). The main purpose is to simplify the synchronisation of the virtual organisation's own configuration databases, which are used for job submission and data management, through the provision of a single interface for obtaining all the information. By centralising the information, automated consistency and validation checks can be performed to improve the overall quality of information provided. Although internally the GLUE 2.0 information model is used for the purpose of integration, the Global Service Registry in not dependent on any particular information model for ingestion or dissemination. The intention is to allow the virtual organisation's configuration databases to be decoupled from the underlying information systems in a transparent way and hence simplify any possible future migration due to the evolution of those systems. This paper presents the Global Service Registry architecture, its advantages compared to the

  4. TV-view-into-reality metaphor: introducing computer vision into virtual worlds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freund, Eckhard; Knoche, Horst; Rossmann, Juergen

    1998-10-01

    Smart man machine interfaces turn out to be a key technology for service robots, for automation applications in industrial environments as well as in future scenarios for applications in space. For either field, the use of virtual reality (VR) techniques showed a great potential. At the IRF a virtual reality system was developed and implemented which allows the intuitive control of a multi-robot system and different automation systems under one unified VR framework. As the developed multi-robot system is also employed for space application, the intuitive commanding of inspection and teleoperation sequences is of great interest. In order to facilitate teleoperation and inspection, we make use of several metaphors and a vision system as an `intelligent sensor'. One major metaphor to be presented in the paper is the `TV-view into reality', where a TV-set is displayed in the virtual world with images of the real world being mapped onto the screen as textures. The user can move the TV-set in the virtual world and, as the image generating camera is carried by a robot, the camera-viewpoint changes accordingly. Thus the user can explore the physical world `behind' the virtual world, which is ideal for inspection and teleoperation tasks. By means of real world images and with different measurement-services provided by the underlying 3D vision system, the user can thus interactively build up or refine the virtual world according to the physical world he is watching through the TV-set.

  5. Bridging the Two Worlds: A Universal Interface between Enzymatic and DNA Computing Systems

    PubMed Central

    Mailloux, Shay; Gerasimova, Yulia V.; Guz, Nataliia; Kolpashchikov, Dmitry M.; Katz, Evgeny

    2015-01-01

    Molecular computing based on enzymes or nucleic acids has attracted a great deal of attention due to the perspectives of controlling living systems in a way we control electronic computers. Enzyme-based computational systems can respond to a great variety of small molecule inputs. They have an advantage of signal amplification and highly specific recognition. DNA computing systems are most often controlled by oligonucleotide inputs/outputs and are capable of sophisticated computing, as well as controlling gene expressions. Here, we developed an interface that enables communication of otherwise incompatible nucleic acid and enzyme computational systems. The enzymatic system processes small molecules as inputs and produces NADH as an output. The NADH output triggers electrochemical release of an oligonucleotide, which is accepted by a DNA computational system as an input. This interface is universal since the enzymatic and DNA computing systems are independent of each other in composition and complexity. PMID:25864379

  6. Bridging the Two Worlds: A Universal Interface between Enzymatic and DNA Computing Systems.

    PubMed

    Mailloux, Shay; Gerasimova, Yulia V; Guz, Nataliia; Kolpashchikov, Dmitry M; Katz, Evgeny

    2015-05-26

    Molecular computing based on enzymes or nucleic acids has attracted a great deal of attention due to the perspectives of controlling living systems in the way we control electronic computers. Enzyme-based computational systems can respond to a great variety of small molecule inputs. They have the advantage of signal amplification and highly specific recognition. DNA computing systems are most often controlled by oligonucleotide inputs/outputs and are capable of sophisticated computing as well as controlling gene expressions. Here, we developed an interface that enables communication of otherwise incompatible nucleic-acid and enzyme-computational systems. The enzymatic system processes small molecules as inputs and produces NADH as an output. The NADH output triggers electrochemical release of an oligonucleotide, which is accepted by a DNA computational system as an input. This interface is universal because the enzymatic and DNA computing systems are independent of each other in composition and complexity. PMID:25864379

  7. Semantic network mapping of religious material: testing multi-agent computer models of social theories against real-world data.

    PubMed

    Lane, Justin E

    2015-11-01

    Agent-based modeling allows researchers to investigate theories of complex social phenomena and subsequently use the model to generate new hypotheses that can then be compared to real-world data. However, computer modeling has been underutilized in regard to the understanding of religious systems, which often require very complex theories with multiple interacting variables (Braxton et al. in Method Theory Study Relig 24(3):267-290, 2012. doi: 10.1163/157006812X635709 ; Lane in J Cogn Sci Relig 1(2):161-180, 2013). This paper presents an example of how computer modeling can be used to explore, test, and further understand religious systems, specifically looking at one prominent theory of religious ritual. The process is continuous: theory building, hypothesis generation, testing against real-world data, and improving the model. In this example, the output of an agent-based model of religious behavior is compared against real-world religious sermons and texts using semantic network analysis. It finds that most religious materials exhibit unique scale-free small-world properties and that a concept's centrality in a religious schema best predicts its frequency of presentation. These results reveal that there adjustments need to be made to existing models of religious ritual systems and provide parameters for future models. The paper ends with a discussion of implications for a new multi-agent model of doctrinal ritual behaviors as well as propositions for further interdisciplinary research concerning the multi-agent modeling of religious ritual behaviors. PMID:25851082

  8. The World through Glass: Developing Novel Methods with Wearable Computing for Urban Videographic Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paterson, Mark; Glass, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    Google Glass was deployed in an Urban Studies field course to gather videographic data for team-based student research projects. We evaluate the potential for wearable computing technology such as Glass, in combination with other mobile computing devices, to enhance reflexive research skills, and videography in particular, during field research.…

  9. Apple Seeks To Regain Its Stature in World of Academic Computing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jeffrey R.; Blumenstyk, Goldie

    1998-01-01

    Managers of Apple Computer, the company that pioneered campus personal computing and later lost most of its share of the market, are again focusing energies on academic buyers. Campus technology officials, even those fond of Apples, are greeting the company's efforts with caution. Some feel it may be too late for Apple to regain a significant…

  10. Personal computer-based data visualization system for use in the World Wide Web environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Philip C.

    1998-05-01

    A current personal computer has a high clock speed, large cache and disc memory, and it can run graphics and multimedia software systems that were originally designed for graphics workstations exclusively. The goal of the current research is to investigate a personal computer-based visualization system that has its own data visualization software, processing units, and data storage units. The architecture of this personal computer-based visualization system is similar to that of a visualization system using a graphics workstation. Since the personal computer used in the current visualization system is a laptop computer; it is highly portable, and with its network capability, it can be used for some realtime simulation and interactive applications wherever an internet access is available. The data visualization software system is AVS/Express, which can run on personal computers and workstations as well. In this paper, designed considerations of a personal computer-based visualization system will be examined. Performances of this system with a workstation-based visuali system will be compared. Integrated visualization and web techniques with tools such as VRML and JAVA for interactive and cooperative visualization practices will be explored. A visualization case study with data generated by a numerical simulation model will be presented. A live visualization session using a laptop personal computer will be demonstrated.

  11. Polyhedral Sculpture: The Path from Computational Artifact to Real-World Mathematical Object.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenberg, Michael; Nishioka, Ann

    Mathematics educators often despair at math's austere, "abstract" reputation. This paper describes recent work in developing an application named "HyperGami," which is designed to integrate both the abstract and"real-world" aspects of mathematics by allowing children to design and construct polyhedral models and sculptures. Children use formal…

  12. Genotyping Yersinia pestis in Historical Plague: Evidence for Long-Term Persistence of Y. pestis in Europe from the 14th to the 17th Century

    PubMed Central

    Seifert, Lisa; Wiechmann, Ingrid; Harbeck, Michaela; Thomas, Astrid; Grupe, Gisela; Projahn, Michaela; Scholz, Holger C.; Riehm, Julia M.

    2016-01-01

    Ancient DNA (aDNA) recovered from plague victims of the second plague pandemic (14th to 17th century), excavated from two different burial sites in Germany, and spanning a time period of more than 300 years, was characterized using single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis. Of 30 tested skeletons 8 were positive for Yersinia pestis-specific nucleic acid, as determined by qPCR targeting the pla gene. In one individual (MP-19-II), the pla copy number in DNA extracted from tooth pulp was as high as 700 gene copies/μl, indicating severe generalized infection. All positive individuals were identical in all 16 SNP positions, separating phylogenetic branches within nodes N07_N10 (14 SNPs), N07_N08 (SNP s19) and N06_N07 (s545), and were highly similar to previously investigated plague victims from other European countries. Thus, beside the assumed continuous reintroduction of Y. pestis from central Asia in multiple waves during the second pandemic, long-term persistence of Y. pestis in Europe in a yet unknown reservoir host has also to be considered. PMID:26760973

  13. Composition of Façon de Venise glass from early 17th century London in comparison with luxury glass of the same age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cagno, S.; De Raedt, I.; Jeffries, T.; Janssens, K.

    SEM-EDX and LA-ICP-MS analyses were performed on a set of early 17th century London glass fragments. The samples originate from two archaeological sites (Aldgate and Old Broad Street) where glass workshops were active in this period. The great majority of the samples are made of soda glass. Two distinct compositional groups are observed, each typical of one site of provenance. The samples originating from the Old Broad Street excavation feature a silica-soda-lime composition, with a moderate amount of potash. The samples from Aldgate are richer in potassium and feature higher amounts of trace elements such as Rb, Zr and Cu. The distinction between the two groups stems from different flux and silica sources used for glassmaking. A comparison with different European glass compositions of that time reveals no resemblance with genuine Venetian production, yet the composition of the Old Broad Street glass shows a close similarity to that of fragments produced `à la façon de Venise' in Antwerp at the end of the 16th century. This coincides with historical sources attesting the arrival of glassworkers from the Low Countries in England and suggests that a transfer of technology took place near the turn of the century.

  14. Genotyping Yersinia pestis in Historical Plague: Evidence for Long-Term Persistence of Y. pestis in Europe from the 14th to the 17th Century.

    PubMed

    Seifert, Lisa; Wiechmann, Ingrid; Harbeck, Michaela; Thomas, Astrid; Grupe, Gisela; Projahn, Michaela; Scholz, Holger C; Riehm, Julia M

    2016-01-01

    Ancient DNA (aDNA) recovered from plague victims of the second plague pandemic (14th to 17th century), excavated from two different burial sites in Germany, and spanning a time period of more than 300 years, was characterized using single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis. Of 30 tested skeletons 8 were positive for Yersinia pestis-specific nucleic acid, as determined by qPCR targeting the pla gene. In one individual (MP-19-II), the pla copy number in DNA extracted from tooth pulp was as high as 700 gene copies/μl, indicating severe generalized infection. All positive individuals were identical in all 16 SNP positions, separating phylogenetic branches within nodes N07_N10 (14 SNPs), N07_N08 (SNP s19) and N06_N07 (s545), and were highly similar to previously investigated plague victims from other European countries. Thus, beside the assumed continuous reintroduction of Y. pestis from central Asia in multiple waves during the second pandemic, long-term persistence of Y. pestis in Europe in a yet unknown reservoir host has also to be considered. PMID:26760973

  15. Quantification of the Early Small-Scale Fishery in the North-Eastern Baltic Sea in the Late 17th Century

    PubMed Central

    Verliin, Aare; Ojaveer, Henn; Kaju, Katre; Tammiksaar, Erki

    2013-01-01

    Historical perspectives on fisheries and related human behaviour provide valuable information on fishery resources and their exploitation, helping to more appropriately set management targets and determine relevant reference levels. In this study we analyse historical fisheries and fish trade at the north-eastern Baltic Sea coast in the late 17th century. Local consumption and export together amounted to the annual removal of about 200 tonnes of fish from the nearby sea and freshwater bodies. The fishery was very diverse and exploited altogether one cyclostome and 17 fish species with over 90% of the catch being consumed locally. The exported fish consisted almost entirely of high-valued species with Stockholm (Sweden) being the most important export destination. Due to rich political history and natural features of the region, we suggest that the documented evidence of this small-scale fishery should be considered as the first quantitative summary of exploitation of aquatic living resources in the region and can provide a background for future analyses. PMID:23861914

  16. Identification of resinous materials on 16th and 17th century reverse-glass objects by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumer, Ursula; Dietemann, Patrick; Koller, Johann

    2009-07-01

    Objects of hinterglasmalerei, reverse-glass paintings, are painted on the back side of glass panels. Obviously, the paint layers are applied in reverse order, starting with the uppermost layer. The finished hinterglas painting is viewed through the glass, thus revealing an impressive gloss and depth of colour. The binding media of two precious objects of hinterglasmalerei from the 16th and 17th century have been identified as almost exclusively resinous. Identification was performed by a special optimised analysis procedure, which is discussed in this paper: solvent extracts are analysed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, both with and without derivatisation or hydrolysis. In an additional step, oxalic acid is added to the methanol extracts prior to injection. This attenuates the peaks of the non-acidic compounds, whereas the acids elute with good resolution. The non-acidic compounds are emphasised after injection of the underivatised extracts. This approach minimises compositional changes caused by the sample preparation and derivatisation steps. Chromatograms of aged samples with a very complex composition are simplified, which allows a more reliable and straightforward identification of significant markers for various materials. The binding media of the hinterglas objects were thus shown to consist of mixtures of different natural resins, larch turpentine, heat-treated Pinaceae resin or mastic. Typical compounds of dragon's blood, a natural red resin, were also detectable in red glazes by the applied analysis routine. Identification of the binding media provides valuable information that can be used in the development of an adequate conservation treatment.

  17. The Shaping of the Lutheran Teaching Profession and Lutheran Families of Teachers in the 16th and 17th Centuries (Illustrated by the Example of the Trencín, Liptov and Orava Superintendency)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernát, Libor

    2012-01-01

    The article deals with changes in the status of teachers and the shaping of Lutheran families of teachers in the 16th and 17th centuries in the Trencín, Liptov and Orava districts of the superintendency. It describes the formation of the families and their background.

  18. The Teaching of Russian Language and Literature in Europe = L'enseignement de la langue et de la litterature russes en Europe = Prepodavanie russkogo yaeyka i literatury v Europe. Proceedings of the AIMAV Seminar (17th, Brussels, Belgium, 1986).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blankoff, Jean, Ed.; And Others

    Papers from the Proceedings of the 17th meeting of the AIMAV (Association internationale pour le developpement de la communication interculturelle) are collected in this volume. Conference papers appear either in English, in French, or in Russian. For purposes of this abstract, all titles below have been translated into English. The…

  19. Medical computing over the World Wide Web: use of forms and CGI scripts for constructing medical algorithm Web pages.

    PubMed

    Doyle, D J; Jarvis, B A; Ruskin, K J; Engel, T P

    1997-01-01

    The development of the World Wide Web has led to an explosion of educational and clinical resources available via the Internet with minimal effort or special training. However, most of these Web pages contain only static information; few offer dynamic information shaped around clinical or laboratory test findings. In this report we show how this goal can be achieved with the design and construction of Medical Algorithm Web Pages (MAWP). Specifically, using Internet technologies known as forms and CGI scripts we demonstrate how one can implement medical algorithms remotely over the Internet's World Wide Web. To use a MAWP, one enters the URL for the site and then enters information according to the instructions presented there, usually by entering numbers and other information into fields displayed on screen. When all the data is entered, the user clicks on the SUBMIT icon, resulting in a new Web page being constructed "on-the-fly" containing diagnostic calculations and other information pertinent to the patient's clinical management. Four sample applications are presented in detail to illustrate the concept of a Medical Algorithm Web page: Computation of the alveolar-arterial oxygen tension difference using the alveolar gas equation; Computation of renal creatinine clearance; drug infusion calculation (micrograms/kilogram/minute); Computation of the renal failure index. PMID:10179110

  20. Use of a virtual world computer environment for international distance education: lessons from a pilot project using Second Life

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Virtual worlds (VWs), in which participants navigate as avatars through three-dimensional, computer-generated, realistic-looking environments, are emerging as important new technologies for distance health education. However, there is relatively little documented experience using VWs for international healthcare training. The Geneva Foundation for Medical Education and Research (GFMER) conducted a VW training for healthcare professionals enrolled in a GFMER training course. This paper describes the development, delivery, and results of a pilot project undertaken to explore the potential of VWs as an environment for distance healthcare education for an international audience that has generally limited access to conventionally delivered education. PMID:24555833

  1. The future of voice-processing technology in the world of computers and communications.

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Y

    1995-01-01

    This talk, which was the keynote address of the NAS Colloquium on Human-Machine Communication by Voice, discusses the past, present, and future of human-machine communications, especially speech recognition and speech synthesis. Progress in these technologies is reviewed in the context of the general progress in computer and communications technologies. PMID:7479726

  2. Computer Assisted Comprehension of Distant Worlds: Understanding Hunger Dynamics in Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moseley, William G.

    2001-01-01

    Describes a computer program called RiskMap. Explains that after completing an assignment on rural economics and hunger dynamics in Africa, students showed an increased level of understanding and felt that using RiskMap was helpful in learning the material. Includes references. (DAJ)

  3. A Future of Reversals: Dyslexic Talents in a World of Computer Visualization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Thomas G.

    1992-01-01

    This paper proposes that those traits which handicap visually oriented dyslexics in a verbally oriented educational system may confer advantages in new fields which rely on visual methods of analysis, especially those in computer applications. It is suggested that such traits also characterized Albert Einstein, Michael Faraday, James Maxwell, and…

  4. Taking Interpersonal Communication out of the Classroom into the World of Computer Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gantt, Vernon W.

    The emergence of the information society introduces the academic community to the most significant revolution since the invention of the printing press. The growing use of computers can lead to a depreciation of self-worth. Since the machine can handle complex logical applications with considerably more speed and accuracy than most people, many…

  5. [Louis XIV's Ginseng: Shaping of Knowledge on an Herbal Medicine in the Late 17th and the Early 18th Century France].

    PubMed

    Lee, Hye-Min

    2016-04-01

    This article aims to investigate the shaping of knowledge and discourse on ginseng, especially among physicians and botanists, since its introduction to France from the 17th century until the early 18th century. In France, knowledge on herbal medicine, including that of ginseng, was shaped under the influence of the modern state's policy and institution: mercantilism and the Académie royale des sciences. The knowledge of herbal medicine developed as an important part of the mercantilist policy supported systematically by the Académie. The East Asian ginseng, renowned as a panacea, was first introduced into France in the 17th century, initially in a roundabout way through transportation and English and Dutch publications of travel tales from various foreign countries. The publication activity was mainly conducted by Thévenot company with the intention to meet the needs of French mercantilism promoted by Colbert. It also implied interests on medicine in order to bolster the people's health. The Thévenot company's activity thus offered vital information on plants and herbs abroad, one of which was ginseng. Furthermore, with Louis XIV's dispatching of the Jesuit missionaries to East Asia, the Frenchmen were able to directly gather information on ginseng. These information became a basis for research of the Académie. In the Académie, founded in 1666 by Colbert, the king's physicians and botanists systematically and collectively studied on exotic plants and medical herbs including ginseng. They were also key figures of the Jardin du Roi. These institutions bore a striking contrast to the faculty of medicine at the University of Paris which has been a center of the traditional Galenic medicine. The research of the Académie on ginseng was greatly advanced, owing much to the reports and samples sent from China and Canada by Jartoux, Sarrazin, and Lapitau. From the early 18th century, the conservative attitude of the University of Paris, which was a stronghold of

  6. Stellar Occultations by Large TNOs on 2012: The February 3rd by (208996) 2003 AZ84, and the February 17th by (50000) Quaoar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braga Ribas, Felipe; Sicardy, B.; Ortiz, J. L.; Duffard, R.; Camargo, J. I. B.; Lecacheux, J.; Colas, F.; Vachier, F.; Tanga, P.; Sposetti, S.; Brosch, N.; Kaspi, S.; Manulis, I.; Baug, T.; Chandrasekhar, T.; Ganesh, S.; Jain, J.; Mohan, V.; Sharma, A.; Garcia-Lozano, R.; Klotz, A.; Frappa, E.; Jehin, E.; Assafin, M.; Vieira Martins, R.; Behrend, R.; Roques, F.; Widemann, T.; Morales, N.; Thirouin, A.; Mahasena, P.; Benkhaldoun, Z.; Daassou, A.; Rinner, C.; Ofek, E. O.

    2012-10-01

    On February 2012, two stellar occultation's by large Trans-neptunian Objects (TNO's) were observed by our group. On the 3rd, an event by (208996) 2003 AZ84 was recorded from Mont Abu Observatory and IUCAA Girawali Observatory in India and from Weizmann Observatory in Israel. On the 17th, a stellar occultation by (50000) Quaoar was observed from south France and Switzerland. Both occultations are the second observed by our group for each object, and will be used to improve the results obtained on the previous events. The occultation by 2003 AZ84 is the first multi-chord event recorded for this object. From the single chord event on January 8th 2011, Braga-Ribas et al. 2011 obtained a lower limit of 573 +/- 21 km. From the 2012 occultation the longest chord has a size of 662 +/- 50 km. The other chords will permit to determine the size and shape of the TNO, and derive other physical parameters, such as the geometric albedo. The Quaoar occultation was observed from south of France (Observatoire de la Côte d'Azur, TAROT telescope and Valensole) and from Gnosca, Switzerland. Unfortunately, all three sites in France are almost at the same Quaoar's latitude, so in practice, we have two chords that can be used to fit Quaoar's limb. The resulting fit will be compared with the results obtained by Braga-Ribas et al. 2011. Braga-Ribas F., Sicardy B., et al. 2011, EPSC-DPS2011, 1060.Ribas F., Sicardy B., et al. 2011, EPSC-DPS2011, 1060.

  7. N-acetylglucosamine inhibits T-helper 1 (Th1)/T-helper 17 (Th17) cell responses and treats experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Grigorian, Ani; Araujo, Lindsey; Naidu, Nandita N; Place, Dylan J; Choudhury, Biswa; Demetriou, Michael

    2011-11-18

    Current treatments and emerging oral therapies for multiple sclerosis (MS) are limited by effectiveness, cost, and/or toxicity. Genetic and environmental factors that alter the branching of Asn (N)-linked glycans result in T cell hyperactivity, promote spontaneous inflammatory demyelination and neurodegeneration in mice, and converge to regulate the risk of MS. The sugar N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) enhances N-glycan branching and inhibits T cell activity and adoptive transfer experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Here, we report that oral GlcNAc inhibits T-helper 1 (Th1) and T-helper 17 (Th17) responses and attenuates the clinical severity of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG)-induced EAE when administered after disease onset. Oral GlcNAc increased expression of branched N-glycans in T cells in vivo as shown by high pH anion exchange chromatography, MALDI-TOF mass spectroscopy and FACS analysis with the plant lectin l-phytohemagglutinin. Initiating oral GlcNAc treatment on the second day of clinical disease inhibited MOG-induced EAE as well as secretion of interferon-γ, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-17, and interleukin-22. In the more severe 2D2 T cell receptor transgenic EAE model, oral GlcNAc initiated after disease onset also inhibits clinical disease, except for those with rapid lethal progression. These data suggest that oral GlcNAc may provide an inexpensive and nontoxic oral therapeutic agent for MS that directly targets an underlying molecular mechanism causal of disease. PMID:21965673

  8. Social differences in oral health: Dental status of individuals buried in and around Trakai Church in Lithuania (16th-17th c.c.).

    PubMed

    Miliauskienė, Žydrūnė; Jankauskas, Rimantas

    2015-01-01

    The evaluation of social differences in dental health is based on the assumption that individuals belonging to a higher social class consumed a different diet than a common people. The aim of our study was to analyse and compare dental health of 16(th) - 17(th) c. individuals, buried inside and around the Roman Catholic Church in Trakai (Lithuania). All material (189 adult individuals) was divided in two samples of a presumably different social status: the Churchyard (ordinary townsmen) and the Presbytery (elite). Dental status analysis included that of tooth loss, tooth wear, caries, abscesses and calculus. Results revealed higher prevalence of dental disease in the Churchyard sample compared to the Presbytery. Individuals buried around the church had statistically higher prevalence of caries, antemortem tooth loss and abscesses compared to those who were buried inside the church. The Churchyard sample was also characterised by a higher increase in severity of caries with age, and a more rapid tooth wear. Differences in dental health between the samples the most probably reflect different dietary habits of people from different social groups: poor quality carbohydrate based diet of laymen buried in the churchyard and more varied diet with proteins and of a better quality of local elite, buried inside the church. Substantial sex differences in dental health were found only in the Churchyard sample: males had statistically higher prevalence of abscesses and calculus, while females had higher prevalence of caries and AMTL (antemortem tooth loss). Females were also characterised by a higher increase in the number of dental decay and tooth loss with age and had higher prevalence of gross caries, which indicates a more rapid progression of the disease. Worse dental health of females could be a result of culturally based dietary differences between females (more carbohydrates) and males (more proteins) and different physiological demands (hormonal fluctuations and

  9. PREFACE: 17th International School on Condensed Matter Physics (ISCMP): Open Problems in Condensed Matter Physics, Biomedical Physics and their Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimova-Malinovska, Doriana; Nesheva, Diana; Pecheva, Emilia; Petrov, Alexander G.; Primatarowa, Marina T.

    2012-12-01

    We are pleased to introduce the Proceedings of the 17th International School on Condensed Matter Physics: Open Problems in Condensed Matter Physics, Biomedical Physics and their Applications, organized by the Institute of Solid State Physics of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences. The Chairman of the School was Professor Alexander G Petrov. Like prior events, the School took place in the beautiful Black Sea resort of Saints Constantine and Helena near Varna, going back to the refurbished facilities of the Panorama hotel. Participants from 17 different countries delivered 31 invited lecturers and 78 posters, contributing through three sessions of poster presentations. Papers submitted to the Proceedings were refereed according to the high standards of the Journal of Physics: Conference Series and the accepted papers illustrate the diversity and the high level of the contributions. Not least significant factor for the success of the 17 ISCMP was the social program, both the organized events (Welcome and Farewell Parties) and the variety of pleasant local restaurants and beaches. Visits to the Archaeological Museum (rich in valuable gold treasures of the ancient Thracian culture) and to the famous rock monastery Aladja were organized for the participants from the Varna Municipality. These Proceedings are published for the second time by the Journal of Physics: Conference Series. We are grateful to the Journal's staff for supporting this idea. The Committee decided that the next event will take place again in Saints Constantine and Helena, 1-5 September 2014. It will be entitled: Challenges of the Nanoscale Science: Theory, Materials and Applications. Doriana Dimova-Malinovska, Diana Nesheva, Emilia Pecheva, Alexander G Petrov and Marina T Primatarowa Editors

  10. Millisecond precision psychological research in a world of commodity computers: new hardware, new problems?

    PubMed

    Plant, Richard R; Turner, Garry

    2009-08-01

    Since the publication of Plant, Hammond, and Turner (2004), which highlighted a pressing need for researchers to pay more attention to sources of error in computer-based experiments, the landscape has undoubtedly changed, but not necessarily for the better. Readily available hardware has improved in terms of raw speed; multi core processors abound; graphics cards now have hundreds of megabytes of RAM; main memory is measured in gigabytes; drive space is measured in terabytes; ever larger thin film transistor displays capable of single-digit response times, together with newer Digital Light Processing multimedia projectors, enable much greater graphic complexity; and new 64-bit operating systems, such as Microsoft Vista, are now commonplace. However, have millisecond-accurate presentation and response timing improved, and will they ever be available in commodity computers and peripherals? In the present article, we used a Black Box ToolKit to measure the variability in timing characteristics of hardware used commonly in psychological research. PMID:19587169

  11. The world problem: on the computability of the topology of 4-manifolds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    vanMeter, J. R.

    2005-01-01

    Topological classification of the 4-manifolds bridges computation theory and physics. A proof of the undecidability of the homeomorphy problem for 4-manifolds is outlined here in a clarifying way. It is shown that an arbitrary Turing machine with an arbitrary input can be encoded into the topology of a 4-manifold, such that the 4-manifold is homeomorphic to a certain other 4-manifold if and only if the corresponding Turing machine halts on the associated input. Physical implications are briefly discussed.

  12. Small-World Synchronized Computing Networks for Scalable Parallel Discrete-Event Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guclu, Hasan; Korniss, Gyorgy; Toroczkai, Zoltan; Novotny, Mark A.

    We study the scalability of parallel discrete-event simulations for arbitrary short-range interacting systems with asynchronous dynamics. When the synchronization topology mimics that of the short-range interacting underlying system, the virtual time horizon (corresponding to the progress of the processing elements) exhibits Kardar-Parisi-Zhang-like kinetic roughening. Although the virtual times, on average, progress at a nonzero rate, their statistical spread diverges with the number of processing elements, hindering efficient data collection. We show that when the synchronization topology is extended to include quenched random communication links between the processing elements, they make a close-to-uniform progress with a nonzero rate, without global synchronization. We discuss in detail a coarse-grained description for the small-world synchronized virtual time horizon and compare the findings to those obtained by simulating the simulations based on the exact algorithmic rules.

  13. Computed tomographic evidence of atherosclerosis in the mummified remains of humans from around the world.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Randall C; Allam, Adel H; Zink, Albert; Wann, L Samuel; Lombardi, Guido P; Cox, Samantha L; Frohlich, Bruno; Sutherland, M Linda; Sutherland, James D; Frohlich, Thomas C; King, Samantha I; Miyamoto, Michael I; Monge, Janet M; Valladolid, Clide M; El-Halim Nur El-Din, Abd; Narula, Jagat; Thompson, Adam M; Finch, Caleb E; Thomas, Gregory S

    2014-06-01

    Although atherosclerosis is widely thought to be a disease of modernity, computed tomographic evidence of atherosclerosis has been found in the bodies of a large number of mummies. This article reviews the findings of atherosclerotic calcifications in the remains of ancient people-humans who lived across a very wide span of human history and over most of the inhabited globe. These people had a wide range of diets and lifestyles and traditional modern risk factors do not thoroughly explain the presence and easy detectability of this disease. Nontraditional risk factors such as the inhalation of cooking fire smoke and chronic infection or inflammation might have been important atherogenic factors in ancient times. Study of the genetic and environmental risk factors for atherosclerosis in ancient people may offer insights into this common modern disease. PMID:25667088

  14. A two-class brain computer interface to freely navigate through virtual worlds.

    PubMed

    Ron-Angevin, Ricardo; Díaz-Estrella, Antonio; Velasco-Alvarez, Francisco

    2009-06-01

    A brain computer interface that enables navigation through a virtual environment (VE) using four different navigation commands (turn right, turn left, move forward and move back) is presented. A graphical interface allows subjects to select a specific command. In this interface, the different navigation commands are surrounding a circle. A bar in the center of the circle is continuously rotating. The subject controls, by only two mental tasks, the bar extension to reach the chosen command. In this study, after an initial training based on three sessions, 8 out of 15 naive subjects were able to navigate through the VE discriminating between imagination of right-hand movements and relaxed state. All subjects (except one) improved their performance in each run and a mean error rate of 23.75% was obtained. PMID:19469662

  15. Computer Simulator of Glycine Receptor Activity: A New Window into a Virtual World.

    PubMed

    Boronovsky, S E; Nartsissov, Y R

    2016-07-01

    Our study reports computer software that simulates the work of a single glycine receptor (GlyR). GlyRs have been found in various types of tissues, but their most important role seems to be in neurons, where they hyperpolarise membranes by opening chloride transmembrane channels. The software is based on a combination of two blocks. One block describes the Brownian dynamics of charged particle motion in a dielectric medium, and the other block determines the probability and timing of receptor activation. Using this software, the voltage-current dependencies and time curves of the transmembrane current were obtained. The mean value of the simulated anion current (4.5 ± 0.3 pA) is in good agreement with measured values under identical conditions ([Formula: see text] pA). It was shown that there is a condition under which the GlyR anion channel remains active despite a negligible chloride gradient. Virtual experiments allow evaluation of the value of half maximal effective concentration (EC[Formula: see text]) of the GlyR ([Formula: see text] [Formula: see text]M) and confirm that this receptor activates according to a mechanism involving three ligand binding sites. The advantage of the model is the ability to adjust parameters to the precise demands of experimental researchers. Moreover, the introduced algorithm has low computational power demands; therefore, it can be used as a research tool for assistance with structural experiments and applied aspects of neurophysiology. PMID:27412156

  16. Glacier length fluctuations in southern Norway back to the 17th century based on historical data: opposite behaviour compared to the Alps?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nussbaumer, S. U.; Luterbacher, J.; Nesje, A.; Wanner, H.; Zumbühl, H. J.

    2009-04-01

    The understanding of past and present glacier variations is a key task for evaluating current climate change. Historical and proxy-records have documented a partly asynchronous evolution in temperature, precipitation and glacial variations between European regions during the Little Ice Age (LIA), with the causes of these temporal anomalies yet being poorly understood. The comparison between the Alps and Scandinavia allows an assessment of the spatial distribution of glacier fluctuations in the studied areas during the last few centuries. Here we present temporally high-resolved glacier reconstructions for southern Norway covering the period back to the 17th century, based on newly discovered historical material. Length changes were determined by the interpretation of high-quality historical documents such as drawings, paintings, prints, photographs, maps and written sources that are abundant for selected glaciers in the area (Folgefonna, Jostedalsbreen). Historical material is only available in adequate quantity for those glaciers which drew the attention of travellers, scientists and artists through their reputation and scenic attraction, reflecting also the glacier perception at that time. A critical quality check of the documentary data was necessary in order to get reliable information on past glacier extents. The glacier extents obtained were finally compared with existing moraine findings in the glacier forefield. Results from outlet glaciers from Folgefonna (Bondhusbreen, Buerbreen) and Jostedalsbreen (Briksdalsbreen, Bøyabreen, Suphellebreen, Bergsetbreen, Nigardsbreen, Lodalsbreen) indicate a highly different glacier evolution compared to the Alps. According to the historical record, the maximum glacier extent occurred at Folgefonna at around 1890, and at Jostedalsbreen at around 1750, respectively. In the Alps, existing glacier length records (e.g. for Unterer Grindelwaldgletscher, Switzerland, or Mer de Glace, France) show glacier advances around 1600

  17. Paleoclimate Reconstruction during the 17th to 18th Century Using Fossil Coral Tsunami Boulders from Ishigaki Island, the Ryukyus, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuzuki, K.; Yokoyama, Y.; Seki, A.; Kawakubo, Y.; Araoka, D.; Suzuki, A.

    2014-12-01

    Resolution Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry) to reconstruct paleo SST during LIA (Kawakubo et al., 2014). LA-HR-ICPMS enables us to measure the long coral core rapidly. Our result shows SST variation in 17th-18th century in this area and SST declined in around 1700. This result reveals the response of Little Ice Age in the northwestern Pacific.

  18. The Fate of the World is in your hands: computer gaming for multi-faceted climate change education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bedford, D. P.

    2015-12-01

    Climate change is a multi-faceted (or 'wicked') problem. True climate literacy therefore requires understanding not only the workings of the climate system, but also the current and potential future impacts of climate change and sea level rise on individuals, communities and countries around the world, as noted in the US Global Change Research Program's (2009) Climate Literacy: The Essential Principles of Climate Sciences. The asymmetric nature of climate change impacts, whereby the world's poorest countries have done the least to cause the problem but will suffer disproportionate consequences, has also been widely noted. Education in climate literacy therefore requires an element of ethics in addition to physical and social sciences. As if addressing these multiple aspects of climate change were not challenging enough, polling data has repeatedly shown that many members of the public tend to see climate change as a far away problem affecting people remote from them at a point in the future, but not themselves. This perspective is likely shared by many students. Computer gaming provides a possible solution to the combined problems of, on the one hand, addressing the multi-faceted nature of climate change, and, on the other hand, making the issue real to students. Fate of the World, a game produced by the company Red Redemption, has been used on several occasions in a small (20-30 students) introductory level general education course on global warming at Weber State University. Players are required to balance difficult decisions about energy investment while managing regional political disputes and attempting to maintain minimum levels of development in the world's poorer countries. By providing a realistic "total immersion" experience, the game has the potential to make climate change issues more immediate to players, and presents them with the ethical dilemmas inherent in climate change. This presentation reports on the use of Fate of the World in an educational

  19. Utilizing computed tomography scans for analysis of motorcycle helmets in real-world crashes - biomed 2011.

    PubMed

    Loftis, Kathryn L; Moreno, Daniel P; Tan, Joshua; Gabler, Hampton C; Stitzel, Joel D

    2011-01-01

    In 2008, there were more than 5,000 motorcycle crash fatalities in the United States. Many states have motorcycle helmet laws that are meant to protect riders during a crash. After recruiting motorcycle occupants injured in crashes, a protocol was established to scan three different types of motorcycle helmets commonly worn (cap, ¾ shield, and full face shield) using a computed tomography (CT) scanner. The protocol developed was for a GE 64 slice PET/CT Discovery VCT scanner with axial images from anterior to posterior helmet acquired in helical mode. It had 512x512 resolution and the full face and ¾ face shield helmets were scanned with greater voxels in the axial plane compared to the skull cap helmets. New helmets were scanned as exemplary images for comparison with helmets involved in motorcycle crashes. After CT scans were gathered, three-dimensional reconstructions were made to visualize scratches and impacts to the exterior of the helmets. Initial work was also conducted in analyzing interior components, and a trend was seen in decreased thickness between the interior foam and shell with sides of the exterior helmet thought to have contacted roadside barriers or the ground during motorcycle crashes. These helmet analysis methods have been established, and will be used to investigate multiple motorcycle crashes in conjunction with occupant injuries and direct head impacts to improve helmet design and the understanding of head injuries. This work also establishes the basis for development of finite element models of three of the most common helmet types. PMID:21525626

  20. Envisioning a Future of Computational Geoscience in a Data Rich Semantic World

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, P.; Elag, M.; Jiang, P.; Marini, L.

    2015-12-01

    Advances in observational systems and reduction in their cost are allowing us to explore, monitor, and digitally represent our environment in unprecedented details and over large areas. Low cost in situ sensors, unmanned autonomous vehicles, imaging technologies, and other new observational approaches along with airborne and space borne systems are allowing us to measure nearly everything, almost everywhere, and at almost all the time. Under the aegis of observatories they are enabling an integrated view across space and time scales ranging from storms to seasons to years and, in some cases, decades. Rapid increase in the convergence of computational, communication and information systems and their inter-operability through advances in technologies such as semantic web can provide opportunities to further facilitate fusion and synthesis of heterogeneous measurements with knowledge systems. This integration can enable us to break disciplinary boundaries and bring sensor data directly to desktop or handheld devices. We describe CyberInfrastructure effort that is being developed through projects such as Earthcube Geosemantics (http://geosemantics.hydrocomplexity.net), (SEAD (http://sead-data.net/), and Browndog (http://browndog.ncsa.illinois.edu/)s o that data across all of earth science can be easily shared and integrated with models. This also includes efforts to enable models to become interoperable among themselves and with data using technologies that enable human-out-of-the-loop integration. Through such technologies our ability to use real time information for decision-making and scientific investigations will increase multifold. The data goes through a sequence of steps, often iterative, from collection to long-term preservation. Similarly the scientific investigation and associated outcomes are composed of a number of iterative steps from problem identification to solutions. However, the integration between these two pathways is rather limited. We describe

  1. Computational and Functional Analysis of the Virus-Receptor Interface Reveals Host Range Trade-Offs in New World Arenaviruses

    PubMed Central

    Kerr, Scott A.; Jackson, Eleisha L.; Lungu, Oana I.; Meyer, Austin G.; Demogines, Ann; Ellington, Andrew D.; Georgiou, George

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Animal viruses frequently cause zoonotic disease in humans. As these viruses are highly diverse, evaluating the threat that they pose remains a major challenge, and efficient approaches are needed to rapidly predict virus-host compatibility. Here, we develop a combined computational and experimental approach to assess the compatibility of New World arenaviruses, endemic in rodents, with the host TfR1 entry receptors of different potential new host species. Using signatures of positive selection, we identify a small motif on rodent TfR1 that conveys species specificity to the entry of viruses into cells. However, we show that mutations in this region affect the entry of each arenavirus differently. For example, a human single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in this region, L212V, makes human TfR1 a weaker receptor for one arenavirus, Machupo virus, but a stronger receptor for two other arenaviruses, Junin and Sabia viruses. Collectively, these findings set the stage for potential evolutionary trade-offs, where natural selection for resistance to one virus may make humans or rodents susceptible to other arenavirus species. Given the complexity of this host-virus interplay, we propose a computational method to predict these interactions, based on homology modeling and computational docking of the virus-receptor protein-protein interaction. We demonstrate the utility of this model for Machupo virus, for which a suitable cocrystal structural template exists. Our model effectively predicts whether the TfR1 receptors of different species will be functional receptors for Machupo virus entry. Approaches such at this could provide a first step toward computationally predicting the “host jumping” potential of a virus into a new host species. IMPORTANCE We demonstrate how evolutionary trade-offs may exist in the dynamic evolutionary interplay between viruses and their hosts, where natural selection for resistance to one virus could make humans or rodents susceptible

  2. Registration and Scheduling at NIU (Implementing Commercial Software at a Large University.) College and University Machine Records Annual Conference (17th, Columbus, Ohio, May 1972).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karabinus, Robert A.; Boris, Richard

    This document describes the development and implementation of a computer based registration and scheduling information system at Northern Illinois University. Because of personnel shortages, the University sought and received help from commercial computer firms. Implementation of scheduling, registration, and billing systems was accomplished in a…

  3. [Pierre and Philippe Ranquet, father and son, apothecaries in rue Saint-Honoré, Paris in the 17th century, suppliers to the duchess of Vendôme].

    PubMed

    Warolin, Christian

    2008-05-01

    This research concerns two apothecaries in Paris living in the rue Saint-Honoré in the 17th century. Pierre Ranquet, father of Philippe Ranquet, was apothecary to the Duchess of Mercoeur and her daughter the Duchess of Vendôme, members of the nobility. Philippe was a member of the community of apothecary-grocers of Paris, keeping shop and dispensing drugs to a large clientele in the Saint-Honoré district, including many noblemen and women. He became supplier to the Duchess of Vendôme following the death of his father in 1652. PMID:19069198

  4. Michael Mästlin as a Tübingen professor - academic everyday life at the beginning of the 17th century. (German Title: Michael Mästlin als Tübinger Professor - akademischer Alltag an der Schwelle zum 17. Jahrhundert)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wischnath, Johannes Michael

    This contribution elucidates everyday academic at Tübingen University at the beginning of the 17th century, which formed a framework for Michael Mästlin's life as a teacher ad researcher. These activities included administrative tasks, meetings and negotiations, disputations and examinations, church services, academic festivities, group ceremonies and meals. This reconstruction is not only based on unpublished files and minutes of the university and the faculty of arts, but also on the diary of the Greek scholar Martin Crusius, which contains numerous surprising and colourful details from the life of the astronomer.

  5. Quantum computers and reality: Deutsch's anti-positivist campaign for explanations-in-general, apart from his Many Worlds Interpretation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Donnell, Thomas W.

    2002-04-01

    David Deutsch (Oxford University) is known for ``Deutsch's algorithmm"---for going beyond the initial ideas about quantum computing (QC) of Benioff, Bennett and Feynman, to describe a quantum Turing machine, and sparking today's widespread experimental research to actually build one. Deutsch does not accept the standard Copenhagen Interpretation (CI) of quantum mechanics (QM); he supports the Many Worlds Interpretation (MWI) and credits it for his insights. In his book, The Fabric of Reality, and numerous articles and talks, he argues that the the adoption of the MWI is phnecessary for making the advances required for quantum computing. His argues that physicists must resolutely take a ``realistic" viewpoint to its logical conclusions, and, that the MWI is phthe realistic theory. In response to ubiquitous assertions by the majority of physicists that ``both systems give the same numbers," and ``all physics does (or can do) is to predict the outcome of experiments," he argues strenuously for the importance of explanations in quantum physics, and to scientific progress in general. Hence, I argue that there are two, reasonably separable, layers here: (i) opposition to positivist and instrumentalist arguments against the validity and/or value of phany explanation(s) phas such, and (ii) an argument about just what is the correct explanation: the MWI over the CI. While establishing the validity of (i) may possibly undermine CI's spirit, nevertheless (i) can be strongly validated independent from complicatons of an overlap with issues of the interpretation of QM. I develop some simple, historical contradictions regarding point (i), (without passing judgement on Deutsch's MWI or involving the CI). For example, the majority viewpoint identifies its seemingly ``non- philosophical" and non-``methaphysical" mindset as archtypically ``scientific", while seemingly quite unaware of the theoretical difficuties with positivist notions of truth, such as the fact that the foundations

  6. Worlds and Systems in Early Modern Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayala, L.

    2013-04-01

    The structure, formation and evolution of the Universe were some of the main topics in the scientific debates during the 17th and 18th centuries in Europe. They involved novel ideas on the cosmos, which concerned aspects that were not considered before so emphatically, and which were fundamental for the future development of astronomy. This paper presents a brief account of several milestones within the gradual definition of pre-galactic systems: the historical role of the tradition of the plurality of worlds, the significance of Descartes, and the introduction of the Milky Way and nebulae in the discourses around the cosmic structure.

  7. Archaeological remains accounting for the presence and exploitation of the North Atlantic right whale Eubalaena glacialis on the Portuguese Coast (Peniche, West Iberia), 16th to 17th Century.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, António; Venâncio, Rui; Brito, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    The former occurrence of the North Atlantic right whale Eubalaena glacialis on the Portuguese coast may be inferred from the historical range of that species in Europe and in NW Africa. It is generally accepted that it was the main prey of coastal whaling in the Middle Ages and in the pre-modern period, but this assumption still needs firming up based on biological and archaeological evidence. We describe the skeletal remains of right whales excavated at Peniche in 2001-2002, in association with archaeological artefacts. The whale bones were covered by sandy sediments on the old seashore and they have been tentatively dated around the 16th to 17th centuries. This study contributes material evidence to the former occurrence of E. glacialis in Portugal (West Iberia). Some whale bones show unequivocal man-made scars. These are associated to wounds from instruments with a sharp-cutting blade. This evidence for past human interaction may suggest that whaling for that species was active at Peniche around the early 17th century. PMID:24505251

  8. Archaeological Remains Accounting for the Presence and Exploitation of the North Atlantic Right Whale Eubalaena glacialis on the Portuguese Coast (Peniche, West Iberia), 16th to 17th Century

    PubMed Central

    Teixeira, António; Venâncio, Rui; Brito, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    The former occurrence of the North Atlantic right whale Eubalaena glacialis on the Portuguese coast may be inferred from the historical range of that species in Europe and in NW Africa. It is generally accepted that it was the main prey of coastal whaling in the Middle Ages and in the pre-modern period, but this assumption still needs firming up based on biological and archaeological evidence. We describe the skeletal remains of right whales excavated at Peniche in 2001–2002, in association with archaeological artefacts. The whale bones were covered by sandy sediments on the old seashore and they have been tentatively dated around the 16th to 17th centuries. This study contributes material evidence to the former occurrence of E. glacialis in Portugal (West Iberia). Some whale bones show unequivocal man-made scars. These are associated to wounds from instruments with a sharp-cutting blade. This evidence for past human interaction may suggest that whaling for that species was active at Peniche around the early 17th century. PMID:24505251

  9. Current topics in shock waves; Proceedings of the International Symposium on Shock Waves and Shock Tubes, 17th, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, PA, July 17-21, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Y.W.

    1990-01-01

    Various papers on shock waves are presented. The general topics addressed include: shock formation, focusing, and implosion; shock reflection and diffraction; turbulence; laser-produced plasmas and waves; ionization and shock-plasma interaction; chemical kinetics, pyrolysis, and soot formation; experimental facilities, techniques, and applications; ignition of detonation and combustion; particle entrainment and shock propagation through particle suspension; boundary layers and blast simulation; computational methods and numerical simulation.

  10. BMI and Risk of Serious Upper Body Injury Following Motor Vehicle Crashes: Concordance of Real-World and Computer-Simulated Observations

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Shankuan; Kim, Jong-Eun; Ma, Xiaoguang; Shih, Alan; Laud, Purushottam W.; Pintar, Frank; Shen, Wei; Heymsfield, Steven B.; Allison, David B.

    2010-01-01

    Background Men tend to have more upper body mass and fat than women, a physical characteristic that may predispose them to severe motor vehicle crash (MVC) injuries, particularly in certain body regions. This study examined MVC-related regional body injury and its association with the presence of driver obesity using both real-world data and computer crash simulation. Methods and Findings Real-world data were from the 2001 to 2005 National Automotive Sampling System Crashworthiness Data System. A total of 10,941 drivers who were aged 18 years or older involved in frontal collision crashes were eligible for the study. Sex-specific logistic regression models were developed to analyze the associations between MVC injury and the presence of driver obesity. In order to confirm the findings from real-world data, computer models of obese subjects were constructed and crash simulations were performed. According to real-world data, obese men had a substantially higher risk of injury, especially serious injury, to the upper body regions including head, face, thorax, and spine than normal weight men (all p<0.05). A U-shaped relation was found between body mass index (BMI) and serious injury in the abdominal region for both men and women (p<0.05 for both BMI and BMI2). In the high-BMI range, men were more likely to be seriously injured than were women for all body regions except the extremities and abdominal region (all p<0.05 for interaction between BMI and sex). The findings from the computer simulation were generally consistent with the real-world results in the present study. Conclusions Obese men endured a much higher risk of injury to upper body regions during MVCs. This higher risk may be attributed to differences in body shape, fat distribution, and center of gravity between obese and normal-weight subjects, and between men and women. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary PMID:20361024

  11. 1985 Nuclear Science Symposium, 32nd, and 1985 Symposium on Nuclear Power Systems, 17th, San Francisco, CA, October 23-25, 1985, Proceedings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The present conference ranges over topics in high energy physics instrumentation, detectors, nuclear medical applications, health physics and environmental monitoring, reactor instrumentation, nuclear spacecraft instrumentation, the 'Fastbus' data acquisition system, circuits and systems for nuclear research facilities, and the development status of nuclear power systems. Specific attention is given to CCD high precision detectors, a drift chamber preamplifier, a Cerenkov ring imaging detector, novel scintillation glasses and scintillating fibers, a modular multidrift vertex detector, radial wire drift chambers, liquid argon polarimeters, a multianode photomultiplier, the reliability of planar silicon detectors, the design and manufacture of wedge and strip anodes, ultrafast triode photodetectors, photomultiplier tubes, a barium fluoride plastic scintillator, a fine grained neutron hodoscope, the stability of low leakage silicon photodiodes for crystal calorimeters, and X-ray proportional counters. Also considered are positron emission tomography, single photon emission computed tomography, nuclear magnetic resonance imaging, Geiger-Muller detectors, nuclear plant safeguards, a 32-bit Fastbus computer, an advanced light water reactor, and nuclear plant maintenance.

  12. 1985 Nuclear Science Symposium, 32nd, and 1985 Symposium on Nuclear Power Systems, 17th, San Francisco, CA, October 23-25, 1985, Proceedings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1986-02-01

    The present conference ranges over topics in high energy physics instrumentation, detectors, nuclear medical applications, health physics and environmental monitoring, reactor instrumentation, nuclear spacecraft instrumentation, the 'Fastbus' data acquisition system, circuits and systems for nuclear research facilities, and the development status of nuclear power systems. Specific attention is given to CCD high precision detectors, a drift chamber preamplifier, a Cerenkov ring imaging detector, novel scintillation glasses and scintillating fibers, a modular multidrift vertex detector, radial wire drift chambers, liquid argon polarimeters, a multianode photomultiplier, the reliability of planar silicon detectors, the design and manufacture of wedge and strip anodes, ultrafast triode photodetectors, photomultiplier tubes, a barium fluoride plastic scintillator, a fine grained neutron hodoscope, the stability of low leakage silicon photodiodes for crystal calorimeters, and X-ray proportional counters. Also considered are positron emission tomography, single photon emission computed tomography, nuclear magnetic resonance imaging, Geiger-Muller detectors, nuclear plant safeguards, a 32-bit Fastbus computer, an advanced light water reactor, and nuclear plant maintenance.

  13. Editorial on “Broadly neutralizing antibodies abrogate established hepatitis C virus infection” published in Science Translational Medicine on 17th September 2014

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a blood borne pathogen that causes chronic liver disease and afflicts 170 million people world-wide. While direct acting antivirals now provide a highly effective means to cure those infected with HCV, there is no vaccine to prevent infection. Published in Science Translational Medicine, de Jong et al. [2014] show that highly potent neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) directed to one of the surface glycoproteins of HCV, E2, can not only prevent infection but can also eliminate established infection in experimental animal models of HCV. They provide compelling evidence that for HCV to maintain a chronic infection, it must infect new hepatocytes; infection cannot be sustained in reservoirs of infected cells alone and that E2-specific NAbs are sufficient to cure an infection. In addition, the manuscript further supports the importance of NAbs in preventing, controlling and possibly curing HCV. Thus NAbs are not only essential to the development of prophylactic vaccines but may yet have a role in therapeutic approaches to HCV treatment. PMID:26046093

  14. When Learning about the Real World is Better Done Virtually: A Study of Substituting Computer Simulations for Laboratory Equipment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finkelstein, N. D.; Adams, W. K.; Keller, C. J.; Kohl, P. B.; Perkins, K. K.; Podolefsky, N. S.; Reid, S.; LeMaster, R.

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines the effects of substituting a computer simulation for real laboratory equipment in the second semester of a large-scale introductory physics course. The direct current circuit laboratory was modified to compare the effects of using computer simulations with the effects of using real light bulbs, meters, and wires. Two groups of…

  15. Wood Densitometry in 17th and 18th Century Dutch, German, Austrian and French Violins, Compared to Classical Cremonese and Modern Violins

    PubMed Central

    Stoel, Berend C.; Borman, Terry M.; de Jongh, Ronald

    2012-01-01

    Classical violins produced by makers such as Antonio Stradivari and Guarneri del Gesu have long been considered the epitome of the luthier's art and the expressive tool of choice for the most celebrated violinists. It has been speculated these makers had access to wood that was unique in some way and that this was responsible for their acclaimed tonal characteristics. In an attempt to discern whether the above conjecture is true, we analyzed 17 modern and classical Dutch, German, Austrian and French violins by wood densitometry using computed tomography and correlated these results with our previous study of modern and Cremonese violins; in all studying 30 instruments of the violin family. In order to make this comparison possible we developed methods to cross calibrate results from different CT manufacturers using calibration wood pieces. We found no significant differences in median densities between modern and classical violins, or between classical violins from different origins. These results suggest that it is unlikely classical Cremonese makers had access to wood with significantly different wood density characteristics than that available to contemporaneous or modern makers. PMID:23071602

  16. Simulating materials failure by using up to one billion atoms and the world's fastest computer: Brittle fracture

    PubMed Central

    Abraham, Farid F.; Walkup, Robert; Gao, Huajian; Duchaineau, Mark; Diaz De La Rubia, Tomas; Seager, Mark

    2002-01-01

    We describe the first of two large-scale atomic simulation projects on materials failure performed on the 12-teraflop ASCI (Accelerated Strategic Computing Initiative) White computer at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. This is a multimillion-atom simulation study of crack propagation in rapid brittle fracture where the cracks travel faster than the speed of sound. Our finding centers on a bilayer solid that behaves under large strain like an interface crack between a soft (linear) material and a stiff (nonlinear) material. We verify that the crack behavior is dominated by the local (nonlinear) wave speeds, which can be in excess of the conventional sound speeds of a solid. PMID:16578876

  17. FuturICT: Participatory computing to understand and manage our complex world in a more sustainable and resilient way

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helbing, D.; Bishop, S.; Conte, R.; Lukowicz, P.; McCarthy, J. B.

    2012-11-01

    We have built particle accelerators to understand the forces that make up our physical world. Yet, we do not understand the principles underlying our strongly connected, techno-socio-economic systems. We have enabled ubiquitous Internet connectivity and instant, global information access. Yet we do not understand how it impacts our behavior and the evolution of society. To fill the knowledge gaps and keep up with the fast pace at which our world is changing, a Knowledge Accelerator must urgently be created. The financial crisis, international wars, global terror, the spreading of diseases and cyber-crime as well as demographic, technological and environmental change demonstrate that humanity is facing serious challenges. These problems cannot be solved within the traditional paradigms. Moving our attention from a component-oriented view of the world to an interaction-oriented view will allow us to understand the complex systems we have created and the emergent collective phenomena characterising them. This paradigm shift will enable new solutions to long-standing problems, very much as the shift from a geocentric to a heliocentric worldview has facilitated modern physics and the ability to launch satellites. The FuturICT flagship project will develop new science and technology to manage our future in a complex, strongly connected world. For this, it will combine the power of information and communication technology (ICT) with knowledge from the social and complexity sciences. ICT will provide the data to boost the social sciences into a new era. Complexity science will shed new light on the emergent phenomena in socially interactive systems, and the social sciences will provide a better understanding of the opportunities and risks of strongly networked systems, in particular future ICT systems. Hence, the envisaged FuturICT flagship will create new methods and instruments to tackle the challenges of the 21st century. FuturICT could indeed become one of the most

  18. Our World Their World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brisco, Nicole

    2011-01-01

    Build, create, make, blog, develop, organize, structure, perform. These are just a few verbs that illustrate the visual world. These words create images that allow students to respond to their environment. Visual culture studies recognize the predominance of visual forms of media, communication, and information in the postmodern world. This…

  19. Comparing the cognitive differences resulting from modeling instruction: Using computer microworld and physical object instruction to model real world problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oursland, Mark David

    This study compared the modeling achievement of students receiving mathematical modeling instruction using the computer microworld, Interactive Physics, and students receiving instruction using physical objects. Modeling instruction included activities where students applied the (a) linear model to a variety of situations, (b) linear model to two-rate situations with a constant rate, (c) quadratic model to familiar geometric figures. Both quantitative and qualitative methods were used to analyze achievement differences between students (a) receiving different methods of modeling instruction, (b) with different levels of beginning modeling ability, or (c) with different levels of computer literacy. Student achievement was analyzed quantitatively through a three-factor analysis of variance where modeling instruction, beginning modeling ability, and computer literacy were used as the three independent factors. The SOLO (Structure of the Observed Learning Outcome) assessment framework was used to design written modeling assessment instruments to measure the students' modeling achievement. The same three independent factors were used to collect and analyze the interviews and observations of student behaviors. Both methods of modeling instruction used the data analysis approach to mathematical modeling. The instructional lessons presented problem situations where students were asked to collect data, analyze the data, write a symbolic mathematical equation, and use equation to solve the problem. The researcher recommends the following practice for modeling instruction based on the conclusions of this study. A variety of activities with a common structure are needed to make explicit the modeling process of applying a standard mathematical model. The modeling process is influenced strongly by prior knowledge of the problem context and previous modeling experiences. The conclusions of this study imply that knowledge of the properties about squares improved the students

  20. The 17th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The proceedings of the Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium are reported. Technological areas covered include space lubrication, aerodynamic devices, spacecraft/Shuttle latches, deployment, positioning, and pointing. Devices for spacecraft tether, magnetic bearing suspension, explosive welding, and a deployable/retractable mast are also described.

  1. 17th Annual ALS Users' Association Meeting

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, Art; Tamura, Lori

    2004-11-29

    It's not exactly Russian roulette, but scheduling October events outdoors is not risk-free, even in usually sunny California. An overflow crowd of more than 400 registered users, ALS staff, and vendors enjoyed a full indoor program featuring science highlights and workshops spread over two and a half days from October 18 to October 20. However, a major storm, heralding the onset of the San Francisco Bay Area rainy season, posed a few weather challenges for the events on the ALS patio.

  2. 17th International Microgravity Measurements Group Meeting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeLombard, Richard

    1998-01-01

    The Seventeenth International Microgravity Measurements Group (MGMG) meeting was held 24-26 March 1998 at the Ohio Aerospace Institute (OAI) in Brook Park, Ohio. This meeting focused on the transition of microgravity science research from the Shuttle, Mir, and free flyers to the International Space Station. The MGMG series of meetings are conducted by the Principal Investigator Microgravity Services project of the Microgravity Science Division at the NASA Lewis Research Center. The MGMG meetings provide a forum for the exchange of information and ideas about the microgravity environment and microgravity acceleration research in the Microgravity Research Program. The meeting had participation from investigators in all areas of microgravity research. The attendees included representatives from: NASA centers; National Space Development Agency of Japan; European Space Agency; Daimler Benz Aerospace AG; Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt; Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales; Canadian Space Agency, national research institutions; Universities in U.S., Italy, Germany, and Russia; and commercial companies in the U.S. and Russia. Several agencies presented summaries of the measurement, analysis, and characterization of the microgravity environment of the Shuttle, Mir, and sounding rockets over the past fifteen years. This extensive effort has laid a foundation for pursuing a similar course during future microgravity science experiment operations on the ISS. Future activities of microgravity environment characterization were discussed by several agencies who plan to operate on the ISS.

  3. The 17th Project Integration Meeting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdonald, R. R.

    1981-01-01

    Progress made by the Low-Cost Solar Array Project during the period September 1980 to February 1981 is described. Included are reports on project analysis and integration; technology development in silicon material, large-area silicon sheet and encapsulation; production process and equipment development; engineering, and operations. A report on and copies of visual presentations made at the Project Integration Meeting held at Pasadena, California on February 4 and 5, 1981 are also included.

  4. A combined Raman microscopy, XRF and SEM-EDX study of three valuable objects - A large painted leather screen and two illuminated title pages in 17th century books of ordinances of the Worshipful Company of Barbers, London

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaplin, Tracey D.; Clark, Robin J. H.; Martinón-Torres, Marcos

    2010-07-01

    Raman microscopy has been used to identify the pigments decorating three valuable items owned by the Worshipful Company of Barbers (established in 1308 in London), one being a large leather screen dating to before 1712, the other two being illuminated title pages of books of ordinances of the Company dating to 1605 and 1658. Pigments which could not be fully characterised by this technique (particularly the green paints) have also been subject to XRF or SEM-EDX analysis. The combined analytical approach has shown that the pigments identified on all three items are typical of those in use as artists' pigments in the 17th C and include azurite, indigo, vermilion, red lead, pink and yellow lakes, verdigris, lead white, calcite (and chalk), gypsum, carbon-based black, and gold and silver leaf. However in the case of the screen alone, restoration in the 1980s has been carried out with different pigments - haematite, phthalocyanine green, rutile, and a mixture of azurite, malachite and barium sulfate. This work constitutes the first in-depth study of painted leatherwork and demonstrates that the palette used for this purpose is similar to that used on other works of art of the same date. It has also allowed the original colour schemes of the decorations to be determined where pigment degradation has occurred. The combined analysis has also provided a more complete understanding of the materials used for, or on, objects to which access is limited.

  5. Intelligent computer aided training systems in the real world: Making the technology accessible to the educational mainstream

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kovarik, Madeline

    1993-01-01

    Intelligent computer aided training systems hold great promise for the application of this technology to mainstream education and training. Yet, this technology, which holds such a vast potential impact for the future of education and training, has had little impact beyond the enclaves of government research labs. This is largely due to the inaccessibility of the technology to those individuals in whose hands it can have the greatest impact, teachers and educators. Simply throwing technology at an educator and expecting them to use it as an effective tool is not the answer. This paper provides a background into the use of technology as a training tool. MindLink, developed by HyperTech Systems, provides trainers with a powerful rule-based tool that can be integrated directly into a Windows application. By embedding expert systems technology it becomes more accessible and easier to master.

  6. A computational tool for evaluating THz imaging performance in brownout or whiteout conditions at land sites throughout the world

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiorino, Steven T.; Bartell, Richard J.; Krizo, Matthew J.; Marek, Seth L.; Bohn, Matthew J.; Randall, Robb M.; Cusumano, Salvatore J.

    2009-05-01

    This study quantifies terahertz (THz) or sub-millimeter imaging performance during simulated rotary-wing brownout or whiteout environments based on geographic location and recent/current atmospheric weather conditions. The atmospheric conditions are defined through the Air Force Institute of Technology Center for Directed Energy (AFIT/CDE) Laser Environmental Effects Definition and Reference or LEEDR model. This model enables the creation of vertical profiles of temperature, pressure, water vapor content, optical turbulence, and atmospheric particulates and hydrometeors as they relate to line-by-line layer extinction coefficient magnitude at wavelengths from the UV to the RF. Optical properties and realistic particle size distributions for the brownout and whiteout particulates have been developed for and incorporated into LEEDR for this study. The expected imaging performance is assessed primarily at a wavelength of 454 μm (0.66 THz) in brownout conditions at selected geographically diverse land sites throughout the world. Seasonal and boundary layer variations (summer and winter) and time of day variations for a range of relative humidity percentile conditions are considered to determine optimum employment techniques to exploit or defeat the environmental conditions. Each atmospheric particulate/hydrometeor is evaluated based on its wavelength-dependent forward and off-axis scattering characteristics and absorption effects on the imaging environment. In addition to realistic vertical profiles of molecular and aerosol absorption and scattering, correlated optical turbulence profiles in probabilistic (percentile) format are used. Most evaluated scenarios are brownout environments over ranges up to 50 meters. At submillimeter wavelengths and the short ranges studied, preliminary results indicate the main source of image degradation in brownout conditions is water vapor content, even with visibility less than 10 m and strong optical turbulence.

  7. Catalogue and Index to the Computer-Stored Data and the SIRE Microfiche Series Relating to the UNESCO Third World Conference on Adult Education (Tokyo, 1972). International Bureau of Education Reference Service 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

    This catalog, a result of the program of Unesco's Adult Education Division to set up an information system in the field of adult education, contains a print-out of the computer-stored data on the Third World Conference on Adult Education - national reports, working papers, and the final report. A computer-compiled index directs the user to the…

  8. A Multi-Analytical Approach for the Evaluation of the Efficiency of the Conservation-Restoration Treatment of Moroccan Historical Manuscripts Dating to the 16th, 17th, and 18th Centuries.

    PubMed

    Hajji, Latifa; Boukir, Abdellatif; Assouik, Jamal; Kerbal, Abdelali; Kajjout, Mohamed; Doumenq, Pierre; De Carvalho, Maria Luisa

    2015-08-01

    The most critical steps during the conservation-restoration treatment applied in Moroccan libraries are the deacidification using immersion in a saturated aqueous calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) solution and the consolidation of degraded manuscripts using Japanese paper. The present study aims to assess the efficiency of this restoration method using a multi-analytical approach. For this purpose, three ancient Arabic Moroccan manuscript papers dating back to the 16th, 17th, and 18th centuries were investigated to characterize the paper support and make a comparative study between pre-restoration and post-restoration states. Three structural and molecular characterization techniques including solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy on (13)C with cross-polarization and magic-angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance ((13)C CP-MAS NMR), attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR FT-IR), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to elucidate the cellulose main features, to identify the inorganic composition of the papers, and to study the crystallinity of the samples. Inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) allowed us to obtain a qualitative and quantitative characterization of the mineral fillers used in the manufacturing of the papers. Scanning electron microscopy coupled to energy dispersive spectrometry (SEM-EDS) ascertained the state of conservation of the different papers and helped us to study the elemental composition of the samples. After restoration, it was shown that the deacidification improved the stability of papers by providing an important alkaline buffer, as demonstrated using FT-IR and energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS) results. However, XRD and ICP-AES did not confirm the pertinence of the treatment for all samples because of the unequal distribution of Ca on the paper surface during the restoration. The consolidation process was studied using SEM analysis; its effectiveness in restoring

  9. Computer Stimulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, John W.; Moore, Elizabeth

    1977-01-01

    Discusses computer simulation approach of Limits to Growth, in which interactions of five variables (population, pollution, resources, food per capita, and industrial output per capita) indicate status of the world. Reviews other books that predict future of the world. (CS)

  10. World Energy Projection System Plus Model Documentation: World Electricity Model

    EIA Publications

    2011-01-01

    This report documents the objectives, analytical approach and development of the World Energy Projection System Plus (WEPS ) World Electricity Model. It also catalogues and describes critical assumptions, computational methodology, parameter estimation techniques, and model source code.

  11. Cloud Computing

    SciTech Connect

    Pete Beckman and Ian Foster

    2009-12-04

    Chicago Matters: Beyond Burnham (WTTW). Chicago has become a world center of "cloud computing." Argonne experts Pete Beckman and Ian Foster explain what "cloud computing" is and how you probably already use it on a daily basis.

  12. Trends of Students of the College of Basic Science towards Teaching the Course of Athletics and Health by Using Computer Technology in the World Islamic Sciences and Education University (WISE)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salameh, Ibrahim Abdul Ghani; Khawaldeh, Mohammad Falah Ali

    2014-01-01

    The Study aimed at identifying the trends of the students of basic sciences College in the World Islamic Sciences and Education University towards teaching health and sport course by using computer technology as a teaching method, and to identify also the impact of the variables of academic level and the gender on the students' trends. The study…

  13. Alice in the Real World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Tom

    2012-01-01

    As a fifth-grade mathematics teacher, the author tries to create authentic problem-solving activities that connect to the world in which his students live. He discovered a natural connection to his students' real world at a computer camp. A friend introduced him to Alice, a computer application developed at Carnegie Mellon, under the leadership of…

  14. Distributed Pervasive Worlds: The Case of Exergames

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laine, Teemu H.; Sedano, Carolina Islas

    2015-01-01

    Pervasive worlds are computing environments where a virtual world converges with the physical world through context-aware technologies such as sensors. In pervasive worlds, technology is distributed among entities that may be distributed geographically. We explore the concept, possibilities, and challenges of distributed pervasive worlds in a case…

  15. World gravity standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uotila, U. A.

    1978-01-01

    In order to use gravity anomalies in geodetic computations and geophysical interpretations, the observed gravity values from which anomalies are derived should be referred to one consistent world wide system. The International Gravity Standardization Net 1971 was adapted by the International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics at Moscow in 1971, the network was result of extensive cooperation by many organizations and individuals around the world. The network contains more than 1800 stations around the world. The data used in the adjustment included more than 25,000 gravimetry, pendulum and absolute measurements.

  16. Complex Demands on Teaching Require Innovation: Case Method & Other Techniques. Selected Papers of the International Conference on Case Method Research & Application (17th, Budapest, Hungary, July 2-5, 2000).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Hans E., Ed.

    This book presents a selection of papers from the annual, international, interdisciplinary conference of the World Association for Case Method Research & Application. Papers are categorized into six areas: (1) "Case Studies and Research" (e.g., subjectivity as a source of insight in case study research, evolution of a teaching case, and preserving…

  17. Superhabitable worlds.

    PubMed

    Heller, René; Armstrong, John

    2014-01-01

    To be habitable, a world (planet or moon) does not need to be located in the stellar habitable zone (HZ), and worlds in the HZ are not necessarily habitable. Here, we illustrate how tidal heating can render terrestrial or icy worlds habitable beyond the stellar HZ. Scientists have developed a language that neglects the possible existence of worlds that offer more benign environments to life than Earth does. We call these objects "superhabitable" and discuss in which contexts this term could be used, that is to say, which worlds tend to be more habitable than Earth. In an appendix, we show why the principle of mediocracy cannot be used to logically explain why Earth should be a particularly habitable planet or why other inhabited worlds should be Earth-like. Superhabitable worlds must be considered for future follow-up observations of signs of extraterrestrial life. Considering a range of physical effects, we conclude that they will tend to be slightly older and more massive than Earth and that their host stars will likely be K dwarfs. This makes Alpha Centauri B, which is a member of the closest stellar system to the Sun and is supposed to host an Earth-mass planet, an ideal target for searches for a superhabitable world. PMID:24380533

  18. "Discover New Worlds with Technology". Proceedings of the Annual College and University Computer Users Conference (37th, Miami, Florida, May 3-6, 1992).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miami-Dade Community Coll., FL.

    This book contains 37 papers on computer use in higher education originally presented at a May, 1992, conference of college and university computer users. Most of the papers describe programs or systems implemented at particular institutions and cover the following: systems for career planning, automating purchasing and financial commitments,…

  19. World Dynamics: A Note

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Reports a test of the stability of the model used in Jay Forrester's World Dynamics''. When Forrester's fundamentally Malthusian assumptions were replaced by technological-optimist views, computer simulations predicted a stable population with increasing quality of life, rather than a population crash and decreasing quality of life. (AL)

  20. Science World Activities Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin Academy of Sciences, Arts and Letters, Madison.

    This document consists of three sections. Section I contains 19 activities developed by master teachers for the Science World '84 summer science program. These activities focus on studies involving airplane controls, trash bag kites, computers, meteorology, compass orienteering, soils, aquatic ecosystems, bogs, and others. Objectives, materials…

  1. Real World Graph Connectivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lind, Joy; Narayan, Darren

    2009-01-01

    We present the topic of graph connectivity along with a famous theorem of Menger in the real-world setting of the national computer network infrastructure of "National LambdaRail". We include a set of exercises where students reinforce their understanding of graph connectivity by analysing the "National LambdaRail" network. Finally, we give…

  2. Physical World Hyperlinking: Can Computer-Based Instruction in a K-6 Educational Setting Be Easily Accessed through Tangible Tagged Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parton, Becky Sue; Hancock, Robert; Mihir, Mihir

    2010-01-01

    This paper examined multiple types of physical world hyperlinking hardware configurations for the purpose of determining an optimal reader/tag combination for K-6 student use. Both traditional barcode tags and two types of RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) tags were placed on tangible items. Students ranging from kindergarten to sixth grade…

  3. World Reaction to Virtual Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    DRaW Computing developed virtual reality software for the International Space Station. Open Worlds, as the software has been named, can be made to support Java scripting and virtual reality hardware devices. Open Worlds permits the use of VRML script nodes to add virtual reality capabilities to the user's applications.

  4. World Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ceres, 1978

    1978-01-01

    Presents a report that deals with several topics from different parts of the world. A system for creating more meaningful maps, the recycling of organic wastes in agriculture in China, and producing pigs and poultry without pollution problems are among the topics presented. (HM)

  5. Our World?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuelsson, Ingrid Pramling, Ed.

    Authored by individuals from five Nordic countries, this book focuses on questions about the child's right to live in and learn about an ecologically sustainable world. The first five chapters are theoretical in character, while the final six chapters are derived from work done by early childhood teachers together with children. The goal of the…

  6. A method of assessing the efficacy of memory rehabilitation techniques using a "real-world" memory task: learning a computer language.

    PubMed

    Prevey, M L; Delaney, R C; De l'Aune, W; Mattson, R H

    1991-01-01

    A software program developed to assess the effectiveness of memory rehabilitation techniques is described. This project addresses current weaknesses in the research literature on memory rehabilitation: 1) remediation strategies are evaluated in terms of performance on a practical, real-world memory task, rather than a laboratory learning task; 2) the program allows maximum flexibility in assessing a wide variety of remediation strategies and training schedules; and, 3) the software, which provides sensitive outcome measures and detailed feedback about performance, is adaptable to the needs of patients with widely varying degrees of memory impairment. The results of a demonstration project are included to illustrate the use of this technology in determining the usefulness of different mnemonic strategies for patients with specific patterns of memory deficit. The importance of assessing maintenance of rehabilitation training over time is stressed. PMID:1941650

  7. Computer graphics synthesis for inferring artist studio practice: an application to Diego Velázquez's Las Meninas[

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stork, David G.; Furuichi, Yasuo

    2009-02-01

    Diego Velázquez's Las meninas (1656) has been called by some art experts "the most important painting of the 17th century," "a theology of painting," and even "the world's greatest painting"; it has been the subject of intensive study. The work depicts a complex scene in the Alcázar palace of King Philip IV of Spain, and includes mirror reflections of the king and queen, apparently standing in place of the viewer, as well as the artist himself standing before an enormous canvas on an easel. Nevertheless, questions remain about the studio and the proper viewing configuration: Is the artist looking toward the perspectivally correct position of the viewer in the museum space (center of projection), outside the picture space? Does the perspectivally correct position correspond to the locations of the king and queen seen reflected in the mirror? Is the bright illumination on the king and queen (as revealed in the mirror) consistent with the lighting in the tableau itself? We addressed these questions in a new way: by building a full computer graphics model of the figures and tableau as well as the viewer's space outside the painting. In our full model, the painting itself is represented as a translucent window onto which the picture space is projected toward the center of projection, that is, the viewer. Our geometric and (new) lighting evidence confirm Janson's and Snyder's contention that the plane mirror on the back wall reflects the other side of the large painting depicted within the tableau, not the king and queen themselves in the studio. We believe our computer graphics synthesis of both the tableau within the painting and the viewer's space in the real world is the first of its kind to address such problems in the history of art.

  8. An exploration of computer game-based instruction in the "world history" class in secondary education: a comparative study in China.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zhonggen; Yu, Wei Hua; Fan, Xiaohui; Wang, Xiao

    2014-01-01

    So far, many studies on educational games have been carried out in America and Europe. Very few related empirical studies, however, have been conducted in China. This study, combining both quantitative with qualitative research methods, possibly compensated for this regret. The study compared data collected from two randomly selected classes (out of 13 classes) under computer game-based instruction (CGBI) and non-computer game-based instruction (NCGBI), respectively, in a senior high school located in Nanjing, Capital of Jiangsu Province, in China. The participants were 103 students, composed of 52 boys and 51 girls (aged 17-18 years old). The following conclusion was reached: (1) participants under CGBI obtained significantly greater learning achievement than those under NCGBI; (2) participants were significantly more motivated by CGBI compared with NCGBI; (3) there were no significant differences in learning achievement between boys and girls; although (4) boys were significantly more motivated by CGBI than girls. Both disadvantages and advantages were discussed, together with directions for future research. PMID:24816635

  9. An Exploration of Computer Game-Based Instruction in the “World History” Class in Secondary Education: A Comparative Study in China

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Zhonggen; Yu, Wei Hua; Fan, Xiaohui; Wang, Xiao

    2014-01-01

    So far, many studies on educational games have been carried out in America and Europe. Very few related empirical studies, however, have been conducted in China. This study, combining both quantitative with qualitative research methods, possibly compensated for this regret. The study compared data collected from two randomly selected classes (out of 13 classes) under computer game-based instruction (CGBI) and non-computer game-based instruction (NCGBI), respectively, in a senior high school located in Nanjing, Capital of Jiangsu Province, in China. The participants were 103 students, composed of 52 boys and 51 girls (aged 17-18 years old). The following conclusion was reached: (1) participants under CGBI obtained significantly greater learning achievement than those under NCGBI; (2) participants were significantly more motivated by CGBI compared with NCGBI; (3) there were no significant differences in learning achievement between boys and girls; although (4) boys were significantly more motivated by CGBI than girls. Both disadvantages and advantages were discussed, together with directions for future research. PMID:24816635

  10. World Link.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joseph, Linda C.

    This training manual written for elementary and secondary school teachers in the Columbus, Ohio, Public Schools, explains how to use the Internet. An introduction explains how computers in different locations can be connected and provides a general description of telecommunications software. How to log in and how to use various Internet tools are…

  11. Hello Worlds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirschenbaum, Matthew

    2009-01-01

    The author advocates that humanities scholars should seek and study programming languages. He believes that, increasingly, an appreciation of how complex ideas can be imagined and expressed as a set of formal procedures--rules, models, algorithms--in the virtual space of a computer will be an essential element of a humanities education. Students…

  12. Small-world networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strogatz, Steven

    Everyone is familiar with the small-world phenomenon: soon after meeting a stranger, we are often suprised to discover that we have a mutual friend, or that we are somehow linked by a short chain of friends. In this talk, I'll present evidence that the small-world phenomenon is more than a curiosity of social networks — it is actually a general property of large, sparse networks whose topology is neither completely regular nor completely random. To check this idea, Duncan Watts and I have analyzed three networks of scientific interest: the neural network of the nematode worm C. elegans, the electrical power grid of the western United States, and the collaboration graph of actors in feature films. All three are small worlds, in the sense that the average number of "handshakes" separating any two members is extremely small (close to the theoretical lower limit set by a random graph). Yet at the same time, all three networks exhibit much more local clustering than a random net, demonstrating that they are not random. I'll also discuss a class of model networks that interpolate between regular lattices and random graphs. Previous theoretical research on complex systems in a wide range of disciplines has focused almost exclusively on networks that are either regular or random. Real networks often lie somewhere in between. Our mathematical model shows that networks in this middle ground tend to exhibit the small-world phenomenon, thanks to the presence of a few long-range edges that link parts of the graph that would otherwise be far apart. Furthermore, we find that when various dynamical systems are coupled in a small-world fashion, they exhibit much greater propagation speed, computational power, and synchronizability than their locally connected, regular counterparts. We explore the implications of these results for simple models of disease spreading, global computation in cellular automata, and collective locking of biological oscillators.

  13. Ocean Worlds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaltenegger, Lisa; Sasselov, Dimitar

    2013-04-01

    The existence of Earth-size planets covered completely by a water envelope (water planets) has long fascinated scientists and the general public alike (Kuchner 2003; Leger et al. 2004). Sometimes referred to as "ocean planets", stemming from the implicit assumption of Habitable Zone (HZ) temperatures and a liquid water surface, water planets are a much broader class. Here we present a general approach to computing surface and atmospheric conditions on water planets in the HZ.

  14. A linguistic analysis of grooming strategies of online child sex offenders: Implications for our understanding of predatory sexual behavior in an increasingly computer-mediated world.

    PubMed

    Black, Pamela J; Wollis, Melissa; Woodworth, Michael; Hancock, Jeffrey T

    2015-06-01

    There is a large body of evidence to suggest that child sex offenders engage in grooming to facilitate victimization. It has been speculated that this step-by-step grooming process is also used by offenders who access their underage victims online; however, little research has been done to examine whether there are unique aspects of computer-mediated communication that impact the traditional face-to-face grooming process. This study considered the similarities and differences in the grooming process in online environments by analyzing the language used by online offenders when communicating with their victims. The transcripts of 44 convicted online offenders were analyzed to assess a proposed theory of the online grooming process (O'Connell, 2003). Using a stage-based approach, computerized text analysis examined the types of language used in each stage of the offender-victim interaction. The transcripts also were content analyzed to examine the frequency of specific techniques known to be employed by both face-to-face and online offenders, such as flattery. Results reveal that while some evidence of the strategies used by offenders throughout the grooming process are present in online environments, the order and timing of these stages appear to be different. The types (and potential underlying pattern) of strategies used in online grooming support the development of a revised model for grooming in online environments. PMID:25613089

  15. World's forests

    SciTech Connect

    Sedjo, R.A.; Clawson, M.

    1982-10-01

    An appropriate rate of deforestation is complicated because forests are associated with many problems involving local economic and social needs, the global need for wood, and the environmental impact on climates and the biological genetic pool. Stable forest land exists in the developed regions of North America, Europe, the USSR, Oceania, and China in the Temperate Zone. Tropical deforestation, however, is estimated at 0.58% per year, with the pressure lowest on virgin forests. While these data omit plantation forests, the level of replacement does not offset the decline. There is some disagreement over the rate and definition of deforestation, but studies showing that the world is in little danger of running out of forests should not discourage tropical areas where forests are declining from making appropriate responses to the problem. 3 references. (DCK)

  16. Shell worlds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Kenneth I.; Kennedy, Robert G., III; Fields, David E.

    2013-02-01

    The traditional concept of terraforming assumes ready availability of candidate planets with acceptable qualities: orbiting a star in its "Goldilocks zone", liquid water, enough mass, years longer than days, magnetic field, etc. But even stipulating affordable interstellar travel, we still might never find a good candidate elsewhere. Whatever we found likely would require centuries of heavy terraforming, just as Mars or Venus would here. Our increasing appreciation of the ubiquity of life suggests that any terra nova would already possess it. We would then face the dilemma of introducing alien life forms (us, our microbes) into another living world. Instead, we propose a novel method to create habitable environments for humanity by enclosing airless, sterile, otherwise useless planets, moons, and even large asteroids within engineered shells, which avoids the conundrum. These shells are subject to two opposing internal stresses: compression due to the primary's gravity, and tension from atmospheric pressure contained inside. By careful design, these two cancel each other resulting in zero net shell stress. Beneath the shell an Earth-like environment could be created similar in almost all respects to that of Home, except for gravity, regardless of the distance to the sun or other star. Englobing a small planet, moon, or even a dwarf planet like Ceres, would require astronomical amounts of material (quadrillions of tons) and energy, plus a great deal of time. It would be a quantum leap in difficulty over building Dyson Dots or industrializing our solar system, perhaps comparable to a mission across interstellar space with a living crew within their lifetime. But when accomplished, these constructs would be complete (albeit small) worlds, not merely large habitats. They could be stable across historic timescales, possibly geologic. Each would contain a full, self-sustaining ecology, which might evolve in curious directions over time. This has interesting implications

  17. Democratizing Computer Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Margolis, Jane; Goode, Joanna; Ryoo, Jean J.

    2015-01-01

    Computer science programs are too often identified with a narrow stratum of the student population, often white or Asian boys who have access to computers at home. But because computers play such a huge role in our world today, all students can benefit from the study of computer science and the opportunity to build skills related to computing. The…

  18. Neal Lane: Science in a Flat World

    ScienceCinema

    Neal Lane

    2010-09-01

    Lane discusses the changes that have taken place in the world since World War II that have made it "flatter," referring to Thomas L. Friedman's book, The World is Flat. Friedman's main premise is that inexpensive telecommunications is bringing about unhampered international competition, the demise of economic stability, and a trend toward outsourcing services, such as computer programming, engineering and science research.

  19. Neal Lane: Science in a Flat World

    SciTech Connect

    Neal Lane

    2006-09-12

    Lane discusses the changes that have taken place in the world since World War II that have made it "flatter," referring to Thomas L. Friedman's book, The World is Flat. Friedman's main premise is that inexpensive telecommunications is bringing about unhampered international competition, the demise of economic stability, and a trend toward outsourcing services, such as computer programming, engineering and science research.

  20. World-systems analysis.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Amanda M.

    2007-12-01

    Jamaica sloops were vernacular watercraft designed, built, and utilized by Caribbean colonists beginning in the late-17th century. Despite their popularity, no design or construction records or even a specific definition of their form survive, and many sources simply describe them as an early version of the Bermuda sloop. Vernacular Jamaica sloops were a unique adaptation by English colonists to combat the effects of piracy, and their design was specific to the economic, geographic, and political circumstances of colonial Jamaica. This article proposes a set of characteristics that can be used to define vernacular Jamaica sloops, firstly to distinguish them from the eighteenth-century naval Jamaica-class sloops but also to better understand them as a social response to external stimuli within the complex relationship between maritime economy, piracy and colonial control executed through the navy.

  1. An Interactive Immersive Serious Game Application for Kunyu Quantu World Map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, S.-T.; Hsu, S.-Y.; Hsieh, K.-C.

    2015-08-01

    In recent years, more and more digital technologies and innovative concepts are applied on museum education. One of the concepts applied is "Serious game." Serious game is not designed for entertainment purpose but allows users to learn real world's cultural and educational knowledge in the virtual world through game-experiencing. Technologies applied on serious game are identical to those applied on entertainment game. Nowadays, the interactive technology applications considering users' movement and gestures in physical spaces are developing rapidly, which are extensively used in entertainment games, such as Kinect-based games. The ability to explore space via Kinect-based games can be incorporated into the design of serious game. The ancient world map, Kunyu Quantu, from the collection of the National Palace Museum is therefore applied in serious game development. In general, the ancient world map does not only provide geological information, but also contains museum knowledge. This particular ancient world map is an excellent content applied in games as teaching material. In the 17th century, it was first used by a missionary as a medium to teach the Kangxi Emperor of the latest geologic and scientific spirits from the West. On this map, it also includes written biological knowledge and climate knowledge. Therefore, this research aims to present the design of the interactive and immersive serious game based installation that developed from the rich content of the Kunyu Quantu World Map, and to analyse visitor's experience in terms of real world's cultural knowledge learning and interactive responses.

  2. 17th DOE nuclear air cleaning conference: proceedings. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    First, M.W.

    1983-02-01

    Volume 2 contains papers presented at the following sessions: adsorption; noble gas treatment; personnel education and training; filtration and filter testing; measurement and instrumentation; air cleaning equipment response to accident related stress; containment venting air cleaning; and an open end session. Twenty-eight papers were indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Data Base. Ten papers had been entered earlier.

  3. 17th Environmental Quality Index: Troubling Times with Toxics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Wildlife, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Presents a subjective analysis of the status of United States' natural resources, reviewing 1985's key environmental events, problems, and successes. Reports current conditions and/or dilemmas concerning wildlife, air, water, energy, forests, and soils. Provides both a public rating of the quality of life and a priority ranking of environmental…

  4. [Jan Swammerdam, physician and naturalist of the 17th century].

    PubMed

    Hoerni, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    Jan Swammerdam (1637-1680) was a physician and a naturalist who clarified some details of human anatomy and who made many microscopic observations on insects and their metamorphosis. His life was marked by spirituality and a malaria which caused his death and prevented him from publishing his works which were edited after a long delay. PMID:26050429

  5. Athanasius Kircher: The 17th Century Science at the Crossroads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buonanno, R.

    2011-06-01

    Athanasius Kircher, who entered the Society of Jesus in 1628, is a peculiar scientist who is in love with everything he sees and with everything he thinks he sees. He is a non-Galilean scientist whose general attitude is not obscurantism but rather a defense of established faith. He arrives in Rome in the fall of 1633 when he is in his thirties. Even if at the epoch Kircher has already written some of his many books, it is amazing that Galileo does not even quote him in the letters he will wrote in the rest of his life. In spite of having stridden along a minor scientific path, opposite of that shown by Galileo, it is nonetheless surprising to find out that Athanasius Kircher was gifted with remarkable intuition, and was in some cases even decades in advance with respect to the age he lived in.

  6. Deafness in the 17th Century: Into Empiricism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conrad, R; Weiskrantz, Barbara C.

    1984-01-01

    Recounts the history of deaf education in Britain and of studies into the abilities of those born deaf, beginning with the influence of Kenelm Digby's "Treatise on the Nature of Bodies" published in 1644 to about 100 years later when Henry Baker became the first professional teacher of the deaf in Britain. (SED)

  7. The 17th Symposium on Biotechnology for Fuels and Chemicals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    This volume contains the abstracts of oral and poster presentations made at the Seventeenth Symposium on Biotechnology for Fuels and Chemicals. Session titles include Thermal, Chemical, and Biological Processing; Applied Biological Research; Bioprocessing Research; Special Topics Discussion Groups; Process Economics and Commercialization; and Environmental Biotechnology.

  8. Final Report: 17th international Symposium on Plant Lipids

    SciTech Connect

    Christoph Benning

    2007-03-07

    This meeting covered several emerging areas in the plant lipid field such as the biosynthesis of cuticle components, interorganelle lipid trafficking, the regulation of lipid homeostasis, and the utilization of algal models. Stimulating new insights were provided not only based on research reports based on plant models, but also due to several excellent talks by experts from the yeast field.

  9. IL-17/Th17 Pathway Is Activated in Acne Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Kelhälä, Hanna-Leena; Palatsi, Riitta; Fyhrquist, Nanna; Lehtimäki, Sari; Väyrynen, Juha P.; Kallioinen, Matti; Kubin, Minna E.; Greco, Dario; Tasanen, Kaisa; Alenius, Harri; Bertino, Beatrice; Carlavan, Isabelle; Mehul, Bruno; Déret, Sophie; Reiniche, Pascale; Martel, Philippe; Marty, Carine; Blume-Peytavi, Ulrike; Voegel, Johannes J.; Lauerma, Antti

    2014-01-01

    The mechanisms of inflammation in acne are currently subject of intense investigation. This study focused on the activation of adaptive and innate immunity in clinically early visible inflamed acne lesions and was performed in two independent patient populations. Biopsies were collected from lesional and non-lesional skin of acne patients. Using Affymetrix Genechips, we observed significant elevation of the signature cytokines of the Th17 lineage in acne lesions compared to non-lesional skin. The increased expression of IL-17 was confirmed at the RNA and also protein level with real-time PCR (RT-PCR) and Luminex technology. Cytokines involved in Th17 lineage differentiation (IL-1β, IL-6, TGF-β, IL23p19) were remarkably induced at the RNA level. In addition, proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines (TNF-α, IL-8, CSF2 and CCL20), Th1 markers (IL12p40, CXCR3, T-bet, IFN-γ), T regulatory cell markers (Foxp3, IL-10, TGF-β) and IL-17 related antimicrobial peptides (S100A7, S100A9, lipocalin, hBD2, hBD3, hCAP18) were induced. Importantly, immunohistochemistry revealed significantly increased numbers of IL-17A positive T cells and CD83 dendritic cells in the acne lesions. In summary our results demonstrate the presence of IL-17A positive T cells and the activation of Th17-related cytokines in acne lesions, indicating that the Th17 pathway is activated and may play a pivotal role in the disease process, possibly offering new targets of therapy. PMID:25153527

  10. A World View Sampler.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willard, Timothy; And Others

    1984-01-01

    An overview of topics discussed at the World View '84 conference, sponsored by the World Future Society, is provided. Topics include technology, the economy, the Third World, the environment, world order, and outer space. (RM)

  11. Virtual Worlds for Virtual Organizing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhoten, Diana; Lutters, Wayne

    The members and resources of a virtual organization are dispersed across time and space, yet they function as a coherent entity through the use of technologies, networks, and alliances. As virtual organizations proliferate and become increasingly important in society, many may exploit the technical architecture s of virtual worlds, which are the confluence of computer-mediated communication, telepresence, and virtual reality originally created for gaming. A brief socio-technical history describes their early origins and the waves of progress followed by stasis that brought us to the current period of renewed enthusiasm. Examination of contemporary examples demonstrates how three genres of virtual worlds have enabled new arenas for virtual organizing: developer-defined closed worlds, user-modifiable quasi-open worlds, and user-generated open worlds. Among expected future trends are an increase in collaboration born virtually rather than imported from existing organizations, a tension between high-fidelity recreations of the physical world and hyper-stylized imaginations of fantasy worlds, and the growth of specialized worlds optimized for particular sectors, companies, or cultures.

  12. Real-World Field Trips.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldsworthy, Richard

    1997-01-01

    In addition to virtual field trips, technology can play a role in planning for real-world field trips. Describes how students at the Woodbridge Academy in Lexington, Kentucky planned a field trip to Washington, DC, using the Internet and computer software to research, administer, and report their experiences. Provides the addresses of related Web…

  13. Why Teach the World English?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Robert B.

    This paper contends that the World War II settlements, the birth of the United Nations, the invention of the computer, and the geometric growth of science and technology, all occurring accidentally at the same time, created the conditions which made English an important language. The paper notes the financial incentives in servicing international…

  14. World Natural Gas Model

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1994-12-01

    RAMSGAS, the Research and Development Analysis Modeling System World Natural Gas Model, was developed to support planning of unconventional gaseoues fuels research and development. The model is a scenario analysis tool that can simulate the penetration of unconventional gas into world markets for oil and gas. Given a set of parameter values, the model estimates the natural gas supply and demand for the world for the period from 1980 to 2030. RAMSGAS is based onmore » a supply/demand framwork and also accounts for the non-renewable nature of gas resources. The model has three fundamental components: a demand module, a wellhead production cost module, and a supply/demand interface module. The demand for gas is a product of total demand for oil and gas in each of 9 demand regions and the gas share. Demand for oil and gas is forecast from the base year of 1980 through 2030 for each demand region, based on energy growth rates and price-induced conservation. For each of 11 conventional and 19 unconventional gas supply regions, wellhead production costs are calculated. To these are added transportation and distribution costs estimates associated with moving gas from the supply region to each of the demand regions and any economic rents. Based on a weighted average of these costs and the world price of oil, fuel shares for gas and oil are computed for each demand region. The gas demand is the gas fuel share multiplied by the total demand for oil plus gas. This demand is then met from the available supply regions in inverse proportion to the cost of gas from each region. The user has almost complete control over the cost estimates for each unconventional gas source in each year and thus can compare contributions from unconventional resources under different cost/price/demand scenarios.« less

  15. Application of matrix-assisted laser desorption and ionization time of flight mass spectrometry to the study of the proteinaceous binders in paint: blue paint composition in the series "The Life of Virgin" by Alonso Cano (17th century) as a case study.

    PubMed

    Romero-Pastor, Julia; Natalia Navas, Natalia Navas; Rodríguez-Simón, Luís; Lario-Simón, Antonio; Kuckova, Stepanka; Manzano, Eloísa

    2015-01-01

    The identification of proteinaceous materials in paint constituents provides very valuable information regarding the techniques used by the painter and the most suitable procedures for conserving and restoring their works. Although the analysis of proteinaceous materials is nowadays a common task when dealing with works of art, the reliable detection and identification of protein traces is still complicated, particularly when very small samples can be taken that may contain a mixture of different organic materials (oils, waxes, resins, gums etc.). We therefore proposed a proteomic approach to investigate protein materials in paintings at trace levels in order to obtain a better understanding of the painter's technique. After trypsin digestion of the paint samples, mass spectra were obtained by matrix-assisted laser desorption and ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) and they were compared with the Mascot database and with theoretical digested proteins. This study contributes to the knowledge about the technique used by Alonso Cano (Granada, Spain, 1601-1667), one of the most original and brilliant artists from the Spanish Golden Age (17th century), in the series called the Life of the Virgin (six paintings), part of the iconographic program about the life of the Virgin Mary, nowadays seen in the main chapel of Granada Cathedral. The objective of the present study was to test the use of proteinaceous material, mainly egg yolk, in the paint used by Cano, as suggested in previous research, although this would have been unusual at that time when most artists used oil paints. Based on the results of the analysis here presented, the use of protein in the binding media can most likely be excluded. PMID:25906031

  16. Ubiquitous Complete in a Web 2.0 World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bull, Glen; Ferster, Bill

    2006-01-01

    In the third wave of computing, people will interact with multiple computers in multiple ways in every setting. The value of ubiquitous computing is enhanced and reinforced by another trend: the transition to a Web 2.0 world. In a Web 2.0 world, applications and data reside on the Web itself. Schools are not yet approaching a ratio of one…

  17. World Energy Projection System Plus Model Documentation: Industrial Model

    EIA Publications

    2011-01-01

    This report documents the objectives, analytical approach and development of the World Energy Projection System Plus (WEPS ) World Industrial Model (WIM). It also catalogues and describes critical assumptions, computational methodology, parameter estimation techniques, and model source code.

  18. Evolutionary Computing

    SciTech Connect

    Patton, Robert M; Cui, Xiaohui; Jiao, Yu; Potok, Thomas E

    2008-01-01

    The rate at which information overwhelms humans is significantly more than the rate at which humans have learned to process, analyze, and leverage this information. To overcome this challenge, new methods of computing must be formulated, and scientist and engineers have looked to nature for inspiration in developing these new methods. Consequently, evolutionary computing has emerged as new paradigm for computing, and has rapidly demonstrated its ability to solve real-world problems where traditional techniques have failed. This field of work has now become quite broad and encompasses areas ranging from artificial life to neural networks. This chapter focuses specifically on two sub-areas of nature-inspired computing: Evolutionary Algorithms and Swarm Intelligence.

  19. Virtual Labs and Virtual Worlds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boehler, Ted

    2006-12-01

    Virtual Labs and Virtual Worlds Coastline Community College has under development several virtual lab simulations and activities that range from biology, to language labs, to virtual discussion environments. Imagine a virtual world that students enter online, by logging onto their computer from home or anywhere they have web access. Upon entering this world they select a personalized identity represented by a digitized character (avatar) that can freely move about, interact with the environment, and communicate with other characters. In these virtual worlds, buildings, gathering places, conference rooms, labs, science rooms, and a variety of other “real world” elements are evident. When characters move about and encounter other people (players) they may freely communicate. They can examine things, manipulate objects, read signs, watch video clips, hear sounds, and jump to other locations. Goals of critical thinking, social interaction, peer collaboration, group support, and enhanced learning can be achieved in surprising new ways with this innovative approach to peer-to-peer communication in a virtual discussion world. In this presentation, short demos will be given of several online learning environments including a virtual biology lab, a marine science module, a Spanish lab, and a virtual discussion world. Coastline College has been a leader in the development of distance learning and media-based education for nearly 30 years and currently offers courses through PDA, Internet, DVD, CD-ROM, TV, and Videoconferencing technologies. Its distance learning program serves over 20,000 students every year. sponsor Jerry Meisner

  20. Computer vision

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    This paper discusses material from areas such as artificial intelligence, psychology, computer graphics, and image processing. The intent is to assemble a selection of this material in a form that will serve both as a senior/graduate-level academic text and as a useful reference to those building vision systems. This book has a strong artificial intelligence flavour, emphasising the belief that both the intrinsic image information and the internal model of the world are important in successful vision systems. The book is organised into four parts, based on descriptions of objects at four different levels of abstraction. These are: generalised images-images and image-like entities; segmented images-images organised into subimages that are likely to correspond to interesting objects; geometric structures-quantitative models of image and world structures; relational structures-complex symbolic descriptions of image and world structures. The book contains author and subject indexes.

  1. Computer viruses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denning, Peter J.

    1988-01-01

    The worm, Trojan horse, bacterium, and virus are destructive programs that attack information stored in a computer's memory. Virus programs, which propagate by incorporating copies of themselves into other programs, are a growing menace in the late-1980s world of unprotected, networked workstations and personal computers. Limited immunity is offered by memory protection hardware, digitally authenticated object programs,and antibody programs that kill specific viruses. Additional immunity can be gained from the practice of digital hygiene, primarily the refusal to use software from untrusted sources. Full immunity requires attention in a social dimension, the accountability of programmers.

  2. Virtual Laboratories and Virtual Worlds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hut, Piet

    2008-05-01

    Since we cannot put stars in a laboratory, astrophysicists had to wait till the invention of computers before becoming laboratory scientists. For half a century now, we have been conducting experiments in our virtual laboratories. However, we ourselves have remained behind the keyboard, with the screen of the monitor separating us from the world we are simulating. Recently, 3D on-line technology, developed first for games but now deployed in virtual worlds like Second Life, is beginning to make it possible for astrophysicists to enter their virtual labs themselves, in virtual form as avatars. This has several advantages, from new possibilities to explore the results of the simulations to a shared presence in a virtual lab with remote collaborators on different continents. I will report my experiences with the use of Qwaq Forums, a virtual world developed by a new company (see http://www.qwaq.com).

  3. World Foods. Can the World Feed Us?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hindman, Wanda; And Others

    This teacher's guide contains resources to facilitate the study of the world food situation in home economics classes. It provides terms, historical elements of famine, and the effects of hunger and dietary deficiency on humans. Brief overviews of the basic factors influencing the world food situation and some of the proposed measures to solve the…

  4. Teaching World Religions without Teaching "World Religions"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Locklin, Reid B.; Tiemeier, Tracy; Vento, Johann M.

    2012-01-01

    Tomoko Masuzawa and a number of other contemporary scholars have recently problematized the categories of "religion" and "world religions" and, in some cases, called for its abandonment altogether as a discipline of scholarly study. In this collaborative essay, we respond to this critique by highlighting three attempts to teach world religions…

  5. Divergence of Digital World of Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uzunboylu, Huseyin; Tuncay, Nazime

    2010-01-01

    There exists great diversity in the teachers' digital world. Teachers are being discriminated based on numerous educational gaps. This paper seeks to assess the extent of the digital divide among the North Cyprus vocational teachers along the four axes: age, Internet access, computer access, and performance (computing knowledge/experience). A…

  6. History of respiratory mechanics prior to World War II.

    PubMed

    West, John B

    2012-01-01

    The history of respiratory mechanics is reviewed over a period of some 2,500 years from the ancient Greeks to World War II. A cardinal early figure was Galen (130-199 AD) who made remarkably perceptive statements on the diaphragm and the anatomy of the phrenic nerves. The polymath Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519) contributed observations on pulmonary mechanics including the pleural space and bronchial airflow that still make good reading. Vesalius (1514-1564) produced magnificent illustrations of the lung, ribcage, and diaphragm. In the 17th century, the Oxford School including Boyle, Hooke, Lower, and Mayow were responsible for many contributions on mechanical functions including the intercostal muscles and the pleura. Hales (1677-1761) calculated the size and surface area of the alveoli, the time spent by the blood in the pulmonary capillaries, and intrathoracic pressures. Poiseuille (1799-1869) carried out classical studies of fluid mechanics including one of the first demonstrations of flow limitation in collapsible vessels. The culmination of the pre-World War II period was the outstanding contributions of Rohrer (1888-1926) and his two Swiss countrymen, Wirz (1896-1978) and von Neergaard (1887-1947). Rohrer developed the first comprehensive, quantitative treatment of respiratory mechanics in the space of 10 years including an analysis of flow in airways, and the pressure-volume behavior of the respiratory system. von Neergaard performed landmark studies on the effects of surface tension on pressure-volume behavior. Progress over the 2,500 years was slow and erratic at times, but by 1940 the stage was set for the spectacular developments of the next 70 years. PMID:23728981

  7. Computational scalability of large size image dissemination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kooper, Rob; Bajcsy, Peter

    2011-01-01

    We have investigated the computational scalability of image pyramid building needed for dissemination of very large image data. The sources of large images include high resolution microscopes and telescopes, remote sensing and airborne imaging, and high resolution scanners. The term 'large' is understood from a user perspective which means either larger than a display size or larger than a memory/disk to hold the image data. The application drivers for our work are digitization projects such as the Lincoln Papers project (each image scan is about 100-150MB or about 5000x8000 pixels with the total number to be around 200,000) and the UIUC library scanning project for historical maps from 17th and 18th century (smaller number but larger images). The goal of our work is understand computational scalability of the web-based dissemination using image pyramids for these large image scans, as well as the preservation aspects of the data. We report our computational benchmarks for (a) building image pyramids to be disseminated using the Microsoft Seadragon library, (b) a computation execution approach using hyper-threading to generate image pyramids and to utilize the underlying hardware, and (c) an image pyramid preservation approach using various hard drive configurations of Redundant Array of Independent Disks (RAID) drives for input/output operations. The benchmarks are obtained with a map (334.61 MB, JPEG format, 17591x15014 pixels). The discussion combines the speed and preservation objectives.

  8. Women Technophobia and Computers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naiman, Adeline

    1982-01-01

    Microcomputers are viewed as bridges between the traditional world defined for women and the male-dominated world of technology. The view expressed is that female use of computers helps to lessen fear of technology and microcomputers can be a beginning supportive step. (MP)

  9. World Literature Tomorrow.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clements, Robert J.

    The development of a curriculum for graduate-level education in world literature, a logical extension of comparative literature, poses many problems. Among these is the misinterpretation and misuse of the term "world literature," which should be defined as literature from all over the world that is taught by those who read it in the original…

  10. World Council-OMEP.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiser, Margaret

    1990-01-01

    Details the 1990 meeting of the World Council of the World Organization for Early Childhood Education (OMEP) in Lagos, Nigeria. OMEP's Statement to the World Summit for Children is provided. The conditions of Nigerian children and female children in India are considered. (BG)

  11. Virtual Worlds? "Outlook Good"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelton, AJ

    2008-01-01

    Many people believed that virtual worlds would end up like the eight-track audiotape: a memory of something no longer used (or useful). Yet today there are hundreds of higher education institutions represented in three-dimensional (3D) virtual worlds such as Active Worlds and Second Life. The movement toward the virtual realm as a viable teaching…

  12. Science in a Flat World (George B. Pegram Lecture Series)

    SciTech Connect

    Lane, Neal

    2006-09-12

    Lane discusses the changes that have taken place in the world since World War II that have made it "flatter," referring to Thomas L. Friedman's book, The World is Flat. Friedman's main premise is that inexpensive telecommunications is bringing about unhampered international competition, the demise of economic stability, and a trend toward outsourcing services, such as computer programming, engineering and science research.

  13. Closing the Digital Divide: Evaluation of the World Links Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozma, Robert; McGhee, Ray; Quellmalz, Edys; Zalles, Dan

    2004-01-01

    In response to this digital divide between developed and developing countries in their use of computers to prepare students for the global economy, the World Bank and, subsequently, the World Links organization provided schools in developing countries with networked computers and training that supports integration of ICT into teaching. This…

  14. Computational mechanics

    SciTech Connect

    Goudreau, G.L.

    1993-03-01

    The Computational Mechanics thrust area sponsors research into the underlying solid, structural and fluid mechanics and heat transfer necessary for the development of state-of-the-art general purpose computational software. The scale of computational capability spans office workstations, departmental computer servers, and Cray-class supercomputers. The DYNA, NIKE, and TOPAZ codes have achieved world fame through our broad collaborators program, in addition to their strong support of on-going Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) programs. Several technology transfer initiatives have been based on these established codes, teaming LLNL analysts and researchers with counterparts in industry, extending code capability to specific industrial interests of casting, metalforming, and automobile crash dynamics. The next-generation solid/structural mechanics code, ParaDyn, is targeted toward massively parallel computers, which will extend performance from gigaflop to teraflop power. Our work for FY-92 is described in the following eight articles: (1) Solution Strategies: New Approaches for Strongly Nonlinear Quasistatic Problems Using DYNA3D; (2) Enhanced Enforcement of Mechanical Contact: The Method of Augmented Lagrangians; (3) ParaDyn: New Generation Solid/Structural Mechanics Codes for Massively Parallel Processors; (4) Composite Damage Modeling; (5) HYDRA: A Parallel/Vector Flow Solver for Three-Dimensional, Transient, Incompressible Viscous How; (6) Development and Testing of the TRIM3D Radiation Heat Transfer Code; (7) A Methodology for Calculating the Seismic Response of Critical Structures; and (8) Reinforced Concrete Damage Modeling.

  15. Computer vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gennery, D.; Cunningham, R.; Saund, E.; High, J.; Ruoff, C.

    1981-01-01

    The field of computer vision is surveyed and assessed, key research issues are identified, and possibilities for a future vision system are discussed. The problems of descriptions of two and three dimensional worlds are discussed. The representation of such features as texture, edges, curves, and corners are detailed. Recognition methods are described in which cross correlation coefficients are maximized or numerical values for a set of features are measured. Object tracking is discussed in terms of the robust matching algorithms that must be devised. Stereo vision, camera control and calibration, and the hardware and systems architecture are discussed.

  16. State of the World 1984

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singer, S. Fred

    Long before Ronald Reagan asked voters whether they were better off today than they were 4 years ago, many thoughtful people were asking whether the world as a whole was becoming a better place to live. The Malthusian point of view, restated by the Club of Rome's Limits to Growth, made an enormous impact on the world when it appeared in 1972. Its simplistic message, disguised in computer models, was that exponential growth cannot be maintained forever. Specifically, it predicted imminent exhaustion of food and natural resources and death from evergrowing pollution. Its successor volume, Global 2000, published with the encouragement of the Carter White House in 1980, was more restrained but also predicted general doom. It was responded to by The Resourceful Earth (sponsored by the Heritage Foundation), which views the future as rosy and contradicts Global 2000 on almost every point.

  17. Brief: Touch the world through Internet

    SciTech Connect

    Woolley, T.C. )

    1994-06-01

    Internet is the world's largest computer network. Access to Internet allows users to communicate with colleagues around the world, to access vast software archives, to visit university and public libraries, to search on-line databases, to participate in lively discussions on thousands of topics, to receive electronic journals, and much more. This paper describes Internet and discusses its current and future uses, ways to obtain access, and some of the resources available.

  18. Nature, computation and complexity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binder, P.-M.; Ellis, G. F. R.

    2016-06-01

    The issue of whether the unfolding of events in the world can be considered a computation is explored in this paper. We come to different conclusions for inert and for living systems (‘no’ and ‘qualified yes’, respectively). We suggest that physical computation as we know it exists only as a tool of complex biological systems: us.

  19. Common world model for unmanned systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dean, Robert Michael S.

    2013-05-01

    The Robotic Collaborative Technology Alliance (RCTA) seeks to provide adaptive robot capabilities which move beyond traditional metric algorithms to include cognitive capabilities. Key to this effort is the Common World Model, which moves beyond the state-of-the-art by representing the world using metric, semantic, and symbolic information. It joins these layers of information to define objects in the world. These objects may be reasoned upon jointly using traditional geometric, symbolic cognitive algorithms and new computational nodes formed by the combination of these disciplines. The Common World Model must understand how these objects relate to each other. Our world model includes the concept of Self-Information about the robot. By encoding current capability, component status, task execution state, and histories we track information which enables the robot to reason and adapt its performance using Meta-Cognition and Machine Learning principles. The world model includes models of how aspects of the environment behave, which enable prediction of future world states. To manage complexity, we adopted a phased implementation approach to the world model. We discuss the design of "Phase 1" of this world model, and interfaces by tracing perception data through the system from the source to the meta-cognitive layers provided by ACT-R and SS-RICS. We close with lessons learned from implementation and how the design relates to Open Architecture.

  20. My World Indoors: My Health My World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tharp, Barbara; Dresden, Judith; Denk, James; Moreno, Nancy

    This curriculum guide for students in grades K-4 is part of the My Health My World series which explores environmental health issues. Focusing on indoor environmental health, it includes (1) an activities guide for teachers which focuses on physical science, life science, and the environment and health, presenting activity based lessons that…

  1. Chapter 6: after Galen Late Antiquity and the Islamic world.

    PubMed

    Russell, Gül A

    2010-01-01

    It is usually assumed that after Galen there was nothing new until the Renaissance. Contrary to this view, there were significant modifications of the inherited legacy in Late Antiquity, followed by fundamental changes within the Arabic/Islamic world. Their formative influence extends from the medieval period of transmission to the Renaissance and the 17th century. The increasing emphasis on the primacy of the brain initiated the beginnings of ventricular localization of function in Late Antiquity, which was subsequently developed into a theory and transmitted to the West via Arabic. Following the unprecedented translation movement in 9th-century Baghdad, the cumulative Greek and Hellenistic knowledge of the brain, nerves, and the senses from diverse sources were brought together in the systematic, logically unified Arabic medical compendia of encyclopedic proportions, which embody divergence from accepted views and new diagnostic observations. Their Latin versions became standard texts in medical schools. The oldest extant schematic diagrams relevant to neurology (the eye, the ventricles, the visual system, and the nerves) date from this period, and served as models for the medieval Latin West. The development of coherent descriptions of the motor and sensory systems, and related clinical disorders, by analogy with the mechanisms of hydraulic automata, foreshadows some of the explanatory methods associated with the 17th century. Furthermore, an entirely new approach resulted in a paradigm shift in theory and methodology through the experimental studies on the physics of light and vision of Ibn al-Haytham (d. 1040), who showed that what is sensed is not the object itself, but a punctate optical "image" due to light reflected from its surface to the eye. This revolutionary approach to vision destroyed the viability of the Greek tradition of holistic forms and tactile sensory impressions. Ibn al-Haytham's theory of point-to-point correspondence formed the basis of

  2. Ballooning dispersal using silk: world fauna, phylogenies, genetics and models.

    PubMed

    Bell, J R; Bohan, D A; Shaw, E M; Weyman, G S

    2005-04-01

    Aerial dispersal using silk ('ballooning') has evolved in spiders (Araneae), spider mites (Acari) and in the larvae of moths (Lepidoptera). Since the 17th century, over 500 observations of ballooning behaviours have been published, yet there is an absence of any evolutionary synthesis of these data. In this paper the literature is reviewed, extensively documenting the known world fauna that balloon and the principal behaviours involved. This knowledge is then incorporated into the current evolutionary phylogenies to examine how ballooning might have arisen. Whilst it is possible that ballooning co-evolved with silk and emerged as early as the Devonian (410-355 mya), it is arguably more likely that ballooning evolved in parallel with deciduous trees, herbaceous annuals and grasses in the Cretaceous (135-65 mya). During this period, temporal (e.g. bud burst, chlorophyll thresholds) and spatial (e.g. herbivory, trampling) heterogeneities in habitat structuring predominated and intensified into the Cenozoic (65 mya to the present). It is hypothesized that from the ancestral launch mechanism known as 'suspended ballooning', widely used by individuals in plant canopies, 'tip-toe' and 'rearing' take-off behaviours were strongly selected for as habitats changed. It is contended that ballooning behaviour in all three orders can be described as a mixed Evolutionary Stable Strategy. This comprises individual bet-hedging due to habitat unpredictability, giving an underlying randomness to individual ballooning, with adjustments to the individual ballooning probability being conferred by more predictable habitat changes or colonization strategies. Finally, current methods used to study ballooning, including modelling and genetic research, are illustrated and an indication of future prospects given. PMID:15877859

  3. Land and World Order.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mische, Patricia, Ed.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    The papers in this publication discuss the land and how what happens to the land affects us. The publication is one in a series of monographs that examine the linkages between local and global concerns and explore alternative world futures. Examples of topics discussed in the papers follow. The paper "Land and World Order" examines implications of…

  4. The World without Us

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duchesne, Ricardo

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author reviews several books on world history from the 1920s to the 1940s. These include books authored by a diverse group: H.G. Wells, "Outline of History" (Macmillan, 1920); James Henry Breasted, "Ancient Times, A History of the Early World" (published in 1916 by Ginn and Company and largely rewritten in 1935); M.…

  5. Scriptures of the World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, William, Ed.

    1998-01-01

    This theme issue of "Research and Creative Activity" features 10 articles on Indiana University faculty members whose work on various campuses continues to broaden and advance knowledge about "Scriptures of the World" and their meaning in human life. The articles are as follows: "Why Scriptures of the World Still Matter (William Jackson); Reading…

  6. Towards Developmental World Englishes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolton, Kingsley; Graddol, David; Meierkord, Christiane

    2011-01-01

    Over the last three decades scholars promoting the world Englishes paradigm (WE) have worked towards establishing a more positive attitude towards international varieties of English. However, despite the best intentions of Western linguists working in this field, there is an obvious imbalance between the developed and developing world in many…

  7. Soap. Third World Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Natalie; Hughes, Wyn

    This unit, developed by the Third World Science Project, is designed to add a multicultural element to existing science syllabi (for students aged 11-16) in the United Kingdom. The project seeks to develop an appreciation of the: boundless fascination of the natural world; knowledge, skills, and expertise possessed by men/women everywhere;…

  8. Xchanging the World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blythe, Chris; Richards, Dave

    This activity pack goes beyond exposing the low prices paid to commodity producers and explores broader structures that govern world trade and produce poverty and inequality. The pack encourages young people to look beyond the labels and consider the responsibilities consumers have toward the people who feed and clothe the world, or make the…

  9. Christina's World: Andrew Wyeth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niceley, H. T.

    1990-01-01

    Describes and illustrates "Christina's World" by Andrew Wyeth. Provides background information on Wyeth's life and compares "Christina's World" to Wyeth's "Siri." Suggests activities to help all levels of art students understand use of color, mood, and composition. Introduces related activities designed specifically for elementary school students.…

  10. World commercial aircraft accidents

    SciTech Connect

    Kimura, C.Y.

    1993-01-01

    This report is a compilation of all accidents world-wide involving aircraft in commercial service which resulted in the loss of the airframe or one or more fatality, or both. This information has been gathered in order to present a complete inventory of commercial aircraft accidents. Events involving military action, sabotage, terrorist bombings, hijackings, suicides, and industrial ground accidents are included within this list. Included are: accidents involving world commercial jet aircraft, world commercial turboprop aircraft, world commercial pistonprop aircraft with four or more engines and world commercial pistonprop aircraft with two or three engines from 1946 to 1992. Each accident is presented with information in the following categories: date of the accident, airline and its flight numbers, type of flight, type of aircraft, aircraft registration number, construction number/manufacturers serial number, aircraft damage, accident flight phase, accident location, number of fatalities, number of occupants, cause, remarks, or description (brief) of the accident, and finally references used. The sixth chapter presents a summary of the world commercial aircraft accidents by major aircraft class (e.g. jet, turboprop, and pistonprop) and by flight phase. The seventh chapter presents several special studies including a list of world commercial aircraft accidents for all aircraft types with 100 or more fatalities in order of decreasing number of fatalities, a list of collision accidents involving commercial aircrafts, and a list of world commercial aircraft accidents for all aircraft types involving military action, sabotage, terrorist bombings, and hijackings.

  11. World Religions. Senior Division.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ontario Dept. of Education, Toronto.

    This curriculum guide provides a general view of the various considerations governing a senior year or high school course in world religions. An early section on objectives sets out some of the aims of a course in world religions. It states that the particular aim should be the development of a sympathetic understanding of the meaning of different…

  12. World Music Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beegle, Amy C.

    2012-01-01

    Access to world music resources such as videos and sound recordings have increased with the advent of YouTube and the efforts of music educators working closely with ethnomusicologists to provide more detailed visual and audio information about various musical practices. This column discusses some world music resources available for music…

  13. On Observing World English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urdang, Lawrence

    1990-01-01

    Reviews the current state of World English. Subjects addressed include standard accents and dialects, prejudicial attitudes toward nonstandard "local" usages, the use of English as the language of diplomacy, American influences on the language, and the fracturing of English in non-English-speaking countries around the world. (17 references) (JL)

  14. Bioregions and World Order.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breakthrough, 1985

    1985-01-01

    What bioregions can do to contribute to world order and security is discussed in this newsletter. A bioregion is defined as an identifiable geographical area of interacting life-systems that is relatively self-sustaining in the ever-renewing processes of nature. Articles included are: "Bioregionalism and World Order" (Gerald Mische); "Bioregions:…

  15. Is World History Teachable?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, Ross E.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the views of Paul Gagnon and his book "Democracy's Untold Story." Examines the drawbacks of teaching the type of Western civilization course advocated by Gagnon and argues that schools should continue the quest for a teachable approach to world history. Includes suggestions for improving the typical world history course. (GEA)

  16. Benchmarking the World's Best

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Marc S.

    2012-01-01

    A century ago, the United States was a world leader in industrial benchmarking. However, after World War II, once no one could compete with the U.S., it became complacent. Many industrialized countries now have higher student achievement and more equitable and efficient education systems. A higher proportion of young people in their workforces…

  17. Salt. Third World Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Natalie; Hughes, Wyn

    This unit, developed by the Third World Science Project, is designed to add a multicultural element to existing science syllabi (for students aged 11-16) in the United Kingdom. The project seeks to develop an appreciation of the: boundless fascination of the natural world; knowledge, skills, and expertise possessed by men/women everywhere;…

  18. Charcoal. Third World Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Natalie; Hughes, Wyn

    This unit, developed by the Third World Science Project, is designed to add a multicultural element to existing science syllabi (for students aged 11-16) in the United Kingdom. The project seeks to develop an appreciation of the: boundless fascination of the natural world; knowledge, skills, and expertise possessed by men/women everywhere;…

  19. Fermentation. Third World Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Natalie; Hughes, Wyn

    This unit, developed by the Third World Science Project, is designed to add a multicultural element to existing science syllabi (for students aged 11-16) in the United Kingdom. The project seeks to develop an appreciation of the: boundless fascination of the natural world; knowledge, skills, and expertise possessed by men/women everywhere;…

  20. Housing. Third World Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Natalie; Hughes, Wyn

    This unit, developed by the Third World Science Project, is designed to add a multicultural element to existing science syllabi (for students aged 11-16) in the United Kingdom. The project seeks to develop an appreciation of the: boundless fascination of the natural world; knowledge, skills, and expertise possessed by men/women everywhere;…

  1. World Braille Usage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Library of Congress, Washington, DC. National Library Service for the Blind and Physically Handicapped.

    This guide is the result of a survey of the world situation of the braille system undertaken with the aim of establishing world braille uniformity. Eighty-five countries are listed alphabetically, along with specific information about braille activities and braille codes. For each country, information provided includes the alphabet in braille…

  2. Virtual Worlds for Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dembo, Steve

    2008-01-01

    This article describes an online experience that has not only created a fantasy world for the general public but has enabled some tech-savvy educators to create virtual educational opportunities. Second Life, or SL, is a 3-D Internet-based virtual world created by Linden Lab and populated by nearly 1,000,000 active users worldwide since 2003.…

  3. World-Class Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinstein, Margery

    2012-01-01

    Future leaders' creativity and problem-solving skills have been honed in leadership courses, but that doesn't mean they are ready to use those skills to further a company's place in the world. With emerging markets in Asia, South America, and other areas of the world, a workforce needs to have an understanding of and interest in cultures beyond…

  4. World War II Homefront.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Rachel

    2002-01-01

    Presents an annotated bibliography that provides Web sites focusing on the U.S. homefront during World War II. Covers various topics such as the homefront, Japanese Americans, women during World War II, posters, and African Americans. Includes lesson plan sources and a list of additional resources. (CMK)

  5. World Music Ensemble: Kulintang

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beegle, Amy C.

    2012-01-01

    As instrumental world music ensembles such as steel pan, mariachi, gamelan and West African drums are becoming more the norm than the exception in North American school music programs, there are other world music ensembles just starting to gain popularity in particular parts of the United States. The kulintang ensemble, a drum and gong ensemble…

  6. World of Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McHale, Magda Cordell; And Others

    1979-01-01

    This bulletin takes a broad view of children in history, their current problems and needs throughout the world, and directions to be taken for fulfilling those needs. The world population of children under age 15 is projected to increase by 500 million to 1.9 billion in the year 2000. Despite the bonds created by global communications, large…

  7. Distillation. Third World Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Natalie; Hughes, Wyn

    This unit, developed by the Third World Science Project, is designed to add a multicultural element to existing science syllabi (for students aged 11-16) in the United Kingdom. The project seeks to develop an appreciation of the: boundless fascination of the natural world; knowledge, skills, and expertise possessed by men/women everywhere;…

  8. Education and World Order

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Phillip W.

    2007-01-01

    The impact on educational analysis of mainstream international relations (IR) theories is yet to realize its full potential. The problem of education in relation to the construction of world order is considered in relation to core developments in IR theory since the Second World War. In particular, the global architecture of education is seen as a…

  9. Among the New Worlds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Algeo, John; Algeo, Adele

    1989-01-01

    Presents definitions and examples of usage of late-twentieth century American words and terms, including: bite, dramedy, photo op, photo opportunist, safe computer practice, sound bite, teflon, trapdoor, vaccination program, computer virus, and wait state. (CB)

  10. Conversational Agents in Virtual Worlds: Bridging Disciplines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veletsianos, George; Heller, Robert; Overmyer, Scott; Procter, Mike

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the effective deployment of conversational agents in virtual worlds from the perspective of researchers/practitioners in cognitive psychology, computing science, learning technologies and engineering. From a cognitive perspective, the major challenge lies in the coordination and management of the various channels of information…

  11. Russian Universities Educate World's Top Student Programmers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chronicle of Higher Education, 2000

    2000-01-01

    Reports that student computer programmers from Russian universities, despite outdated equipment, poor facilities, and meager salaries, recently dominated the International Collegiate Programming Contest World Finals with the team from St. Petersburg State University winning first place. Western companies are developing arrangements with Russian…

  12. When Worlds Collide: An Augmented Reality Check

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villano, Matt

    2008-01-01

    The technology is simple: Mobile technologies such as handheld computers and global positioning systems work in sync to create an alternate, hybrid world that mixes virtual characters with the actual physical environment. The result is a digital simulation that offers powerful game-playing opportunities and allows students to become more engaged…

  13. Corporate Learning in a Virtual World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Anne; Berge, Zane L.

    2009-01-01

    Corporate training professionals led the explosion of e-learning solutions in the 1990s. Yet in 2008, as new generations of technology-savvy, computer games-oriented employees are entering the workforce, corporate training departments are far behind universities in exploring the use of virtual worlds like Second Life or Protosphere as platforms…

  14. Cellphones and Real-World Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bugeja, Michael

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the author shares his views on cellphones and real-world communication. He claims that the cellphone has changed society more than the home computer, which it has assimilated. Cellphones sound during worship, wakes, births, graduations, hearings, trials, and accreditation meetings--interrupting life-changing spiritual or secular…

  15. Harnessing health information in the Third World.

    PubMed

    Coghlan, S E; Khan, M S

    1993-01-01

    The provision of technical information on health in developing countries is discussed, with particular reference to the Diarrhoeal Diseases Information Services Centre in Bangladesh. Progress towards meeting the pressing needs of the Third World in this field can undoubtedly be made by increasing the use of micrographic, computer and videodisc technologies and by reorganizing and promoting the facilities on offer. PMID:8397746

  16. Hello! Kids Network around the World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynes, Kristine

    1996-01-01

    Describes Kids Network, an educational network available from the National Geographic Society that allows students in grades four through six to become part of research teams that include students from around the world. Computer hardware requirements and a list of Kids Network research questions are listed in a sidebar. (JMV)

  17. Number Concepts with "Number Worlds": Thickening Understandings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liljedahl, Peter; Sinclair, Nathalie; Zazkis, Rina

    2006-01-01

    This study focuses on the nature of preservice elementary school teachers' understandings of several concepts in elementary number theory that are evoked by a computer-based microworld called "Number Worlds". In particular, the focus is on the concepts of factor, multiple and prime number. The notion of "thickness" is examined with respect to…

  18. Statistical characterization of real-world illumination.

    PubMed

    Dror, Ron O; Willsky, Alan S; Adelson, Edward H

    2004-09-28

    Although studies of vision and graphics often assume simple illumination models, real-world illumination is highly complex, with reflected light incident on a surface from almost every direction. One can capture the illumination from every direction at one point photographically using a spherical illumination map. This work illustrates, through analysis of photographically acquired, high dynamic range illumination maps, that real-world illumination possesses a high degree of statistical regularity. The marginal and joint wavelet coefficient distributions and harmonic spectra of illumination maps resemble those documented in the natural image statistics literature. However, illumination maps differ from typical photographs in that illumination maps are statistically nonstationary and may contain localized light sources that dominate their power spectra. Our work provides a foundation for statistical models of real-world illumination, thereby facilitating the understanding of human material perception, the design of robust computer vision systems, and the rendering of realistic computer graphics imagery. PMID:15493972

  19. World energy resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clerici, A.; Alimonti, G.

    2015-08-01

    As energy is the main "fuel" for social and economic development and since energy-related activities have significant environmental impacts, it is important for decision-makers to have access to reliable and accurate data in an user-friendly format. The World Energy Council (WEC) has for decades been a pioneer in the field of energy resources and every three years publishes its flagship report Survey of Energy Resources. A commented analysis in the light of latest data summarized in such a report, World Energy Resources (WER) 2013, is presented together with the evolution of the world energy resources over the last twenty years.

  20. How Infants Learn About the Visual World

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Scott P.

    2010-01-01

    The visual world of adults consists of objects at various distances, partly occluding one another, substantial and stable across space and time. The visual world of young infants, in contrast, is often fragmented and unstable, consisting not of coherent objects but rather surfaces that move in unpredictable ways. Evidence from computational modeling and from experiments with human infants highlights three kinds of learning that contribute to infants' knowledge of the visual world: learning via association, learning via active assembly, and learning via visual-manual exploration. Infants acquire knowledge by observing objects move in and out of sight, forming associations of these different views. In addition, the infant's own self-produced behavior—oculomotor patterns and manual experience, in particular—are important means by which infants discover and construct their visual world. PMID:21116440

  1. Computers in Education: A Brief History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molnar, Andrew R.

    1997-01-01

    Provides an overview of computers in education: early computers and computer languages, computer-assisted instruction, micro worlds, microcomputers, intelligent tutors, intelligent tools, symbol systems, computer graphics, virtual reality, distance education via the Internet, distance mentoring, learning-on-demand, organizational learning via…

  2. WORLD WATER ASSESSMENT PROGRAMME

    EPA Science Inventory

    The overall objective of the World Water Assessment Programme is to support the building of global security - food, environment, economic, social and political security -- through an integrated comprehensive freshwater assessment.The specific objectives within the assessment pr...

  3. The World Food Prospect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Lester R.

    1975-01-01

    Cites evidence to support the theory that the world food shortage will become a chronic condition. Describes the depletion of surplus food supplies and the increasing dependence on North America for food supplies. (MLH)

  4. Monitoring the world's agriculture.

    PubMed

    Sachs, Jeffrey; Remans, Roseline; Smukler, Sean; Winowiecki, Leigh; Andelman, Sandy J; Cassman, Kenneth G; Castle, David; DeFries, Ruth; Denning, Glenn; Fanzo, Jessica; Jackson, Louise E; Leemans, Rik; Lehmann, Johannes; Milder, Jeffrey C; Naeem, Shahid; Nziguheba, Generose; Palm, Cheryl A; Pingali, Prabhu L; Reganold, John P; Richter, Daniel D; Scherr, Sara J; Sircely, Jason; Sullivan, Clare; Tomich, Thomas P; Sanchez, Pedro A

    2010-07-29

    To feed the world without further damaging the planet, Jeffrey Sachs and 24 foodsystem experts call for a global data collection and dissemination network to track the myriad impacts of different farming practices. PMID:20671691

  5. The world's coastline

    SciTech Connect

    Bird, C.F.; Schwartz, M.L.

    1985-01-01

    This is the first documentation of coastal geomorphology on a global scale. It locates, describes, and illustrates geomorphological features of particular interest from the coastline of the entire world.

  6. The Scientist's World

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Bernard D.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes the features of the world of science, and it compares that world briefly with that of politics and the law. It also discusses some “postmodern” trends in philosophy and sociology that have been undermining confidence in the objectivity of science and thus have contributed indirectly to public mistrust. The paper includes broader implications of interactions of government and science. PMID:10704471

  7. World apheresis association--world apheresis registry.

    PubMed

    Stegmayr, B G; Ivanovich, P; Korach, J M; Rock, G; Norda, R; Ramlow, W

    2005-04-01

    In 2002 WAA decided to start a world-wide apheresis registry to gain insight into the extent of treatment, adverse events, and to facilitate contacts among centers when treatment indications are rare and experience limited. Stem cell and other blood products collections intended for therapeutic application can also be entered. The WAA planned to use the French Registry. Its translation into English has not been accomplished and the fiscal obligations for that registry has not, as yet, been determined or considered and approved by the WAA Board. From Dec 2002 the proposed registry (a merged version of the French, Canadian and Swedish registries) can be immediately implemented. We now cordially invite all centers to join that registry. Please, also inform colleagues at other centers in your country to join. E-mail and address lists of colleagues in your country who have not registered will be welcomed. The site is at: Go to World Apheresis Registry; Login code to test the Registry is: al61tms. Then apply for a specific login code for your center. We welcome you to this registry for your input of data. You will not be charged any registration fee. The registry includes a randomization system that can be used for local or multi center studies (randomization by in-center basis allows you to make your own studies). It includes a formula that increases the chance to get a more even distribution between groups also for smaller sample sizes. PMID:15784455

  8. Second Life, a 3-D Animated Virtual World: An Alternative Platform for (Art) Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Hsiao-Cheng

    2011-01-01

    3-D animated virtual worlds are no longer only for gaming. With the advance of technology, animated virtual worlds not only are found on every computer, but also connect users with the internet. Today, virtual worlds are created not only by companies, but also through the collaboration of users. Online 3-D animated virtual worlds provide a new…

  9. When Virtual Worlds Expand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bainbridge, William Sims

    The future of a virtual world depends on whether it can grow in subjective size, cultural content, and numbers of human participants. In one form of growth, exemplified by Second Life, the scope of a world increases gradually as new sponsors pay for new territory and inhabitants create content. A very different form of growth is sudden expansion, as when World of Warcraft (WoW) added entire new continents in its Burning Crusade and Lich King expansions (Lummis and Kern 2006, 2008; Corneliussen and Rettberg 2008; Sims et al. 2008). Well-established gamelike worlds have often undergone many expansions. Both the pioneer science fiction game Anarchy Online, which was launched in 2001, and Star Wars Galaxies dating from 2003, have had three, and EVE Online also from 2003 has had nine, although smaller ones. This chapter reports research on WoW's 2008 Lich King expansion, using both quantitative and qualitative methods, in order to develop theoretical ideas of the implications of expansion for virtual worlds.

  10. A social implications of computing course which teaches computer ethics

    SciTech Connect

    Pulliam, S.C.

    1994-12-31

    Computers are integral to today`s world, forming our society as well as responding to it, In recognition of this interaction, as well as in response to requirements by the Computer Science Accrediting Board (CSAB), many schools are incorporating computer ethics and values and addressing the social implications of computing within their curriculum. The approach discussed here is through a separate course, rather than relying on the integration of specific topics throughout the curriculum.

  11. World Energy Projection System Plus Model Documentation: Refinery Model

    EIA Publications

    2011-01-01

    This report documents the objectives, analytical approach and development of the World Energy Projection System Plus (WEPS ) Refinery Model. It also catalogues and describes critical assumptions, computational methodology, parameter estimation techniques, and model source code.

  12. World Energy Projection System Plus Model Documentation: Refinery Model

    EIA Publications

    2016-01-01

    This report documents the objectives, analytical approach and development of the World Energy Projection System Plus (WEPS ) Refinery Model. It also catalogues and describes critical assumptions, computational methodology, parameter estimation techniques, and model source code.

  13. World Energy Projection System Plus Model Documentation: Natural Gas Model

    EIA Publications

    2011-01-01

    This report documents the objectives, analytical approach and development of the World Energy Projection System Plus (WEPS ) Natural Gas Model. It also catalogues and describes critical assumptions, computational methodology, parameter estimation techniques, and model source code.

  14. World Energy Projection System Plus Model Documentation: Main Model

    EIA Publications

    2011-01-01

    This report documents the objectives, analytical approach and development of the World Energy Projection System Plus (WEPS ) Main Model. It also catalogues and describes critical assumptions, computational methodology, parameter estimation techniques, and model source code.

  15. World Energy Projection System Plus Model Documentation: District Heat Model

    EIA Publications

    2011-01-01

    This report documents the objectives, analytical approach and development of the World Energy Projection System Plus (WEPS ) District Heat Model. It also catalogues and describes critical assumptions, computational methodology, parameter estimation techniques, and model source code.

  16. World Energy Projection System Plus Model Documentation: Residential Model

    EIA Publications

    2011-01-01

    This report documents the objectives, analytical approach and development of the World Energy Projection System Plus (WEPS ) Residential Model. It also catalogues and describes critical assumptions, computational methodology, parameter estimation techniques, and model source code.

  17. World Energy Projection System Plus Model Documentation: Greenhouse Gases Model

    EIA Publications

    2011-01-01

    This report documents the objectives, analytical approach and development of the World Energy Projection System Plus (WEPS ) Greenhouse Gases Model. It also catalogues and describes critical assumptions, computational methodology, parameter estimation techniques, and model source code.

  18. World Energy Projection System Plus Model Documentation: Coal Model

    EIA Publications

    2011-01-01

    This report documents the objectives, analytical approach and development of the World Energy Projection System Plus (WEPS ) Coal Model. It also catalogues and describes critical assumptions, computational methodology, parameter estimation techniques, and model source code.

  19. Cryptanalysis in World War II--and Mathematics Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilton, Peter

    1984-01-01

    Hilton describes the team of cryptanalysts who tried to decipher German and Japanese codes during the Second World War. The work of Turing, essentially developing the computer, is reported, as well as inferences about pure and applied mathematics. (MNS)

  20. A closer look at the World Health Organization's prescribing indicators

    PubMed Central

    Ofori-Asenso, Richard

    2016-01-01

    This communication focuses on the World Health Organization's prescribing indicators. It describes the methods for computing the indicators and highlights their applicability as well as limitations in evaluating the patterns of medicines usage. PMID:27127400

  1. World Energy Projection System Plus Model Documentation: Transportation Model

    EIA Publications

    2011-01-01

    This report documents the objectives, analytical approach and development of the World Energy Projection System Plus (WEPS ) International Transportation model. It also catalogues and describes critical assumptions, computational methodology, parameter estimation techniques, and model source code.

  2. World Energy Projection System Plus Model Documentation: Commercial Model

    EIA Publications

    2011-01-01

    This report documents the objectives, analytical approach and development of the World Energy Projection System Plus (WEPS ) Commercial Model. It also catalogues and describes critical assumptions, computational methodology, parameter estimation techniques, and model source code.

  3. The new world disorder.

    PubMed

    Checa, Nicolas; Maguire, John; Barney, Jonathan

    2003-08-01

    On January 1, 1995, representatives from 76 countries signed the World Trade Organization charter, which for years had been part of a temporary trade agreement. The WTO's emergence as a fully empowered supranational body seemed to reflect the triumph of what the first President Bush had described as the "new world order." That order was based on two assumptions: that a healthy economy and a sound financial system make for political stability, and that countries in business together do not fight each other. The number one priority of U.S. foreign policy was thus to encourage the former Communist countries of Europe and the developing nations in Latin America, Asia, and Africa to adopt business-friendly policies. Private capital would flow from the developed world into these countries, creating economic growth. It sounded too good to be true, and so it proved. The new world order of Bush père and his successor, Bill Clinton, has been replaced by the new world disorder of Bush fils. Under the second Bush's administration, the economic and political rationale-behind the Washington consensus of the 1990s has unraveled, forcing a radical change in our perceptions of which countries are safe for business. Negotiating this new environment will require companies to more rigorously evaluate political events and more carefully assess the links between political, economic, and financial risk factors. They'll need to be more selective about which markets to enter, and they'll need to think differently about how to position themselves in those markets. The geopolitical events of the past year, the Bush administration's global war on terror, as well as ongoing convulsions in traditional political and economic relationships must be understood and managed by corporate leaders worldwide. With careful analysis, business leaders can increase their companies' visibility and better respond to the uncertainties of the new world disorder. PMID:12884669

  4. Computers and Computer Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bitter, Gary

    1980-01-01

    This resource directory provides brief evaluative descriptions of six popular home computers and lists selected sources of educational software, computer books, and magazines. For a related article on microcomputers in the schools, see p53-58 of this journal issue. (SJL)

  5. Physics World turns 20

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durrani, Matin

    2008-10-01

    Welcome to this special issue marking our 20th birthday Physics World first appeared in October 1988 as the successor to - for those who remember it - Physics Bulletin. Since then, Physics World has grown in importance and stature, and, without wishing to blow our own trumpet too much, it is now one of the best specialist science magazines around. Its success is largely due to the talented teams of staff who have worked for the magazine over the last two decades - in particular founding editor Philip Campbell and his successor Peter Rodgers - and to the editorial independence given to us by our publishers, the Institute of Physics.

  6. The RNA–Protein World

    PubMed Central

    Altman, Sidney

    2013-01-01

    Following the naming of the RNA World for the hypothetical biochemical world during very early life forms, the current world was named the Protein World. However, the astonishing high level of transcripts from virtually all chromosomes in an organism now found in eucaryotes, as well as their extensive roles in regulating gene expression, suggests that today’s world should be labeled as the RNA–Protein World. PMID:23592800

  7. Constructing Knowledge in the Context of BioWorld.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lajoie, Susanne P.; Lavigne, Nancy C.; Guerrera, Claudia; Munsie, Steven D.

    2001-01-01

    BioWorld is a computer-based environment for the high school biology curriculum that provides a hospital simulation where students can apply what they have learned to solve problems about diseases. Analyses of student actions and verbal dialogue were conducted to pinpoint within BioWorld that were most conducive to learning and scientific…

  8. Factors Contributing to the Adoption of Virtual Worlds by Librarians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Valerie J.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine factors that may or may not contribute to the adoption of the innovation of virtual worlds by librarians. Using Everett Rogers' Diffusion Theory as a framework, the study sought to identify librarians with avatars (computer simulated representations of themselves) in the virtual world of Second Life,…

  9. World Energy Projection System Plus (WEPS ): Global Activity Module

    EIA Publications

    2013-01-01

    World Energy Projection System Plus Model Documentation: Global Activity Module Documents the objectives, analytical approach, and development of the World Energy Projection Plus (WEPS ) Global Activity Module (GAM) used to develop the International Energy Outlook for 2013 (IEO2013). The report catalogues and describes the module assumptions, computations, methodology, parameter estimation techniques, and mainframe source code.

  10. A Computer Curve to Doomsday

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sterling, Claire

    1972-01-01

    An essay review of World Dynamics (Forrester), a book describing the computer simulation of a worldwide dynamic model relating the effects of population, capital investment, geographical space, natural resources, food production and pollution. (AL)

  11. Real-World Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borja, Rhea R.

    2006-01-01

    This article presents IISME, a U.S. program that can give educators a real-world experience and that can deepen their subject-matter knowledge. It also presents the experiences of some teachers who are into this program. IISME's summer-fellowship program started out with 40 teachers and 12 companies. The group's growth picked up in 2001, when it…

  12. Confronting World Hunger.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huddleston, Barbara

    1983-01-01

    The idea that food should be a universally accepted human right has been the focus of worldwide attention aimed primarily at increasing production at the national level and on reducing price fluctuations in world markets. However, the problem of individual human needs must be simultaneously addressed. The largest number of hungry people live in…

  13. A Morally Deep World

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Lawrence E.

    1993-01-01

    Lawrence Johnson advocates a major change in our attitude toward the nonhuman world. He argues that nonhuman animals, and ecosystems themselves, are morally significant beings with interests and rights. The author considers recent work in environmental ethics in the introduction and then presents his case with the utmost precision and clarity.

  14. Exploring New Geometric Worlds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nirode, Wayne

    2015-01-01

    When students work with a non-Euclidean distance formula, geometric objects such as circles and segment bisectors can look very different from their Euclidean counterparts. Students and even teachers can experience the thrill of creative discovery when investigating these differences among geometric worlds. In this article, the author describes a…

  15. Windows to the World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Amy

    2004-01-01

    Using an Around the World unit to introduce students to over 30 nations, Wilson proposes "trail mix" over "melting pot" as a metaphor for multiculturalism in this article. Students kept a travel journal as they explored different cultures, and a school-wide celebration of diversity included trying out the dress, music, and language of each.…

  16. One World: Service Bees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomason, Rhonda

    2009-01-01

    Bees are a vital part of the ecology. People of conscience are a vital part of society. In Nina Frenkel's "One World" poster, the bee is also a metaphor for the role of the individual in a diverse society. This article presents a lesson that uses Frenkel's poster to help early-grades students connect these ideas and explore both the importance of…

  17. Where in the World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Intercom, 1982

    1982-01-01

    Presents three lessons which demonstrate to junior high students in geography courses that knowledge of "where things are happening" is essential to an understanding of global issues. Students use the basic tools of geography to examine population distribution, world resources, and the water crisis. (RM)

  18. Stepping into Students' Worlds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baeder, Amy

    2010-01-01

    Teachers rarely live in the same neighborhoods as their students and the natural connections that once came from living nearby have eroded. This change makes it hard for educators to get to know students' families beyond formal connections like Back to School Night. The gap between teachers' and students' worlds is especially worrisome when there…

  19. World-Smart Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Vivien

    2008-01-01

    American education must prepare students for a world where the opportunities for success require the ability to compete and cooperate on a global scale. The federal government has played a critical role in fostering foreign language and area studies expertise at the post-secondary level. Now is the time for the federal government to engage in a…

  20. The World of Daycare.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Child Resource World Review, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Articles contained in this first issue of the journal "Child Resource World Review" present information from a worldwide network of day care professionals. Specifically, Alice Honig compares child care in different countries. Sherrie K. Akinsanya reports on stressful aspects of early schooling for children in Nigeria. Sue Owen discusses…

  1. Arab World Almanac 1993.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nucho, Leslie S., Ed.; Hurd, Robert, Ed.

    This document is a collection of three lessons to assist high school teachers in introducing the Arab world to their classrooms. The intended purpose of the lessons is to promote greater cross cultural awareness, understanding of the interdependence of peoples and nations, and appreciation for the different approaches other cultures may choose in…

  2. The World's Writing Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniels, Peter T., Ed.; Bright, William, Ed.

    This survey of the world's written languages consists of a series of historical sketches of different languages, each including a table of signforms in their standard order and their variations, but focusing primarily on how the sounds of the language are represented in writing. A brief text in the language(s) the script is used for is also…

  3. World Studies: Selected Organizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Social Studies Development Center, Bloomington, IN.

    Descriptive information is given for 80 organizations. The organizations are concerned with world studies ranging from global population concerns to specific cultural societies. They represent global issues concerning education and teaching, international education, population and food, war and peace, religion, economics, and ocean education.…

  4. Jog around the World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tenoschok, Mike

    1993-01-01

    "Jog around the World" is an interdisciplinary, schoolwide activity. Each class collaborates to jog the equivalent of the earth's circumference during the school year, learning about the different areas as they go. The program develops cardiovascular fitness, builds responsibility, and is a unifying force within the school. (SM)

  5. World Future Society. Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Future Society, Washington, DC.

    The monthly bulletin, directed toward professional futurists, is supplemental to the Futurist magazine. Typical items include information about selected papers, letters, publications, and news with a view toward the future world in the areas of business, international community, space, history, science, technology, sociology, and other social…

  6. World Hunger Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Czarra, Fred R.; Long, Cathryn J., Eds.

    1983-01-01

    Activities help high school students become aware of the extent of world hunger and the place of population control in the fight against hunger. The materials offer the student background information and a variety of viewpoints. The aim of each activity is to increase the student's own informed decision making. (CS)

  7. Caught between Two Worlds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Debates over school funding sources are not typical high school lunchroom conversations, but they can be when your dad is the business manager and then superintendent in the community where you attend school. Growing up between the two worlds of school district management and adolescent survival, the author had a unique insight into what his…

  8. Worlds of Meaning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perlin, Ruth R.

    1998-01-01

    Summarizes the lives and pursuits of four U.S. artists: Winslow Homer, John Frederick Peto, George Bellows, and Joan Mitchell. Explains the concepts apparent in the four works of art and shows how the artists created these works through expressing their perceptions of the world around them. Lists questions for further exploration. (CMK)

  9. Focus on World Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullican, James S., Ed.

    1974-01-01

    This issue of the "Indiana English Journal" contains four articles: "Value Clarification through World Literature" by R. Baird Shuman; "Polynesian Literature: Coming to Life in the Classroom" (with bibliography) by Barbara M. Elkington and Ruth P. Smith; "The Deirdre Legend in Three Irish Plays" by Ronald L. Baker; and "Teaching Asian Literature"…

  10. World weather program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    A brief description of the Global Weather Experiment is presented. The world weather watch program plan is described and includes a global observing system, a global data processing system, a global telecommunication system, and a voluntary cooperation program. A summary of Federal Agency plans and programs to meet the challenges of international meteorology for the two year period, FY 1980-1981, is presented.

  11. World Natural Gas, 1978

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-07-01

    World marketed production of natural gas in 1978 totaled 51.749 trillion CF (up from 50.1 TCF in 1977); this 3.3% increase, however, was slightly lower than 1977's 3.7% rise. US production, which fell 0.3% dropped to 38.6% of the world total, while the USSR share (13.137 TCF) accounted for 25.4% (for a growth rate of 7.5%). Of the world gross production of 62.032 TCF, 69.7% came from gas wells; the remainder was associated with oil. Thirty-one percent of the 10.282 TCF difference between gross and marketed gas production was used for oil reservoir repressuring, while the balance (7.094 TCF) was vented and flared. Internationally traded gas movements rose to 11.6% of production. The Netherlands, the USSR, and Canada accounted for 30.6%, 20.1% and 14.7%, respectively, of total 1978 exports. At 0.956 TCF, LNG shipments accounted for 15.9% of world trade, a 35.2% higher share than in 1977; most of this growth was due to increased Indonesia-to-Japan volumes.

  12. What Is World History?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornton, Stephen J.

    2011-01-01

    In the United States, survey courses in world history have been staples of school programs for almost a century. But no consensus has emerged on the exact goals toward which these courses should be directed. Nor is there agreement on what topics to include or in what order topics should be studied. This article introduces some of the reasons for…

  13. Sharing a World Vision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payne, Janet

    2008-01-01

    With her "head, hand, and heart," artist Betty LaDuke impacts the world as an artist, educator, and humanitarian. As a retired professor of art emeritus of Southern Oregon University in Ashland, Oregon, LaDuke has pursued her art as a mission with passion and generosity of spirit. This article describes how LaDuke uses art as a conduit for…

  14. Where in the World?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finken, Helen

    1980-01-01

    Presents an introductory activity for a unit on the People's Republic of China. Students identify the country through four sets of clues about China's cultural characteristics, such as, where in the world would you find books being printed for Ghana schools, barefoot doctors, and Peonybrand toilet paper. (Author/KC)

  15. Outline of World Cultures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murdock, George Peter

    This outline supplements the topical classification of the "Outline of Cultural Materials" with a new outline organizing and classifying the known cultures of the world. The new system: (1) expedites the beginning of actual processing of information into the Human Relations Area Files, (2) permits excerpting of sources processed that pertain to…

  16. A world in motion

    SciTech Connect

    Boynton, J.A.

    1994-12-31

    A World in Motion is a physical science curriculum supplement for grades four, five, and six which responds to the need to promote and teach sound science and mathematics concepts. Using the A World in Motion kits, teachers work in partnership with practicing engineer or scientists volunteers to provide students with fun, exciting, and relevant hands-on science and math experiences. During the A World in Motion experience, students work together in {open_quotes}Engineering Design Teams{close_quotes} exploring physics concepts through a series of activities. Each student is assigned a role as either a facilities engineer, development engineer, test engineer, or project engineer and is given responsibilities paralleling those of engineers in industry. The program culminates in a {open_quotes}Design Review{close_quotes} where students can communicate their results, demonstrate their designs, and receive recognition for their efforts. They are given a chance to take on responsibility and build self-esteem. Since January 1991, over 12,000 volunteers engineers have been involved with the program, with a distribution of 20,000 A World in Motion kit throughout the U.S. and Canada.

  17. Ohio and the World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, Michael J.

    The 28 lessons for use in secondary social studies courses will help increase student awareness and understanding of the growing ties between life in Ohio and in their hometowns and life in villages and cities around the world. Although written specifically for use in Ohio schools, the lessons can easily be adapted for use in other states. Most of…

  18. Exploring Worlds Together

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castle, Lisa; Breen, Susan; Tandy, Lynne

    2006-01-01

    At Waite End Primary School in Waterlooville, Hampshire, the authors are involved in a research project with the University of Winchester and the pharmaceutical company Astra- Zeneca called "Teachers and young children exploring their worlds together". The project focuses around their belief that "the younger a child is the more scientifically…

  19. Literacy in Virtual Worlds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merchant, Guy

    2009-01-01

    Introducing new digital literacies into classroom settings is an important and challenging task, and one that is encouraged by both policy-makers and educators. This paper draws on a case study of a 3D virtual world which aimed to engage and motivate primary school children in an immersive and literacy-rich on-line experience. Planning decisions,…

  20. In a Perfect World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Jeannette

    2010-01-01

    In a perfect world, all children should live at home with their family, play with the kids in their neighborhood, walk or ride the school bus to a community-based school--after affectionately kissing or hugging their parents goodbye. They should receive adequate classroom services and return home at 3 p.m. or thereabouts. They may even…

  1. Wanted: New Worlds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daughtrey, Taz

    1980-01-01

    Described is a high school astronomy course developed by gifted students. Students are asked to apply contemporary astronomical principles in designing a consistent and scientifically plausible world in orbit around a nearby star. The course can be used in traditional high school settings and with students not initially favorably inclined toward…

  2. Peoria and the World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Kay; And Others

    A unit is described in which fourth and eighth graders in Peoria, Illinois, gained understanding of the world through careful and critical reading of their local daily newspaper. The focus was on news about local international involvement. The teachers who developed the unit believe that study of local newspapers enriches information about the…

  3. The World We Want

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Handler, Philip

    1970-01-01

    This is the text of the Damon lecture which the author presented as the keynote address on the theme of the 1970 NSTA Annual Meeting. The great world problems of over-population, hunger, environmental pollution, and war and peace are discussed. The relationships between science, technology, and society are reviewed. The author asserts that…

  4. Story as World Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Short, Kathy G.

    2012-01-01

    Stories are woven so tightly into the fabric of our everyday lives that it's easy to overlook their significance in framing how we think about ourselves and the world. Stories are meaning making, providing a means of structuring and reflecting on our experiences in order to understand their significance. Story is also life making, a way of…

  5. Virtual Worlds, Real Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyers, Eric M.

    2009-01-01

    Many children between the ages of four and twelve log in to Web-based virtual play spaces each day, and these virtual worlds are quickly becoming an important aspect of their out-of-school lives. Consequently, educators' challenge is to see how they can leverage virtual spaces, such as the virtual play spaces, for learning and literacy. Over the…

  6. Climates of the World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (DOC), Washington, DC. Environmental Data Service.

    The principal features of climates of all the continents are discussed briefly. Worldwide temperatures and precipitation are illustrated by maps. Monthly and annual temperatures and precipitation, including extreme temperatures, are presented in tabular form for approximately 800 stations throughout the world. (Author/CP)

  7. A World Core Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muller, Robert

    1993-01-01

    Robert Muller's "World Core Curriculum" is designed to give children: a good picture of planet Earth and the universe; a correct picture of the commonalities and diversity of the human family; an accurate picture of the time period into which they are born; and a sense of their own importance and the role that they can play in society. (MDM)

  8. Spirituality and World Order.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mische, Patricia, Ed.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Ten thematic articles explore the spiritual implications for the creation of a world of greater justice and peace. Examples of topics discussed in the articles follow. Some rather startling implications of recent findings in psychological and psychic research which suggest that we are at the threshold of new and deeper public understanding of the…

  9. World Presidents Organization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    Members of the World Presidents' Organization enjoy exhibits at StenniSphere, the museum and visitor center at NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center during a tour of the space facility Jan. 26. WPO members from several states toured Stennis facilities during a daylong visit that included a presentation by Apollo 13 astronaut Fred Haise of Biloxi.

  10. The World Science Festival

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pazmino, John

    2011-05-01

    New York City in the late 20th century rose to be a planetary capital for the sciences, not just astronomy. This growth is mainly in the academic sector but a parallel growth occurred in the public and home field. With the millennium crossing scientists in New York agitated for a celebration of the City as a place for a thriving science culture. In 2008 they began World Science Festival. 2011 is the fourth running, on June 1st-5th, following AAVSO/AAS. World Science Festival was founded by Dr Brian Greene, Columbia University, and is operated thru World Science Foundation. The Festival is 'saturation science' all over Manhattan in a series of lectures, shows, exhibits, performances. It is staged in 'science' venues like colleges and musea, but also in off-science spaces like theaters and galleries. It is a blend of hard science, with lectures like those by us astronomers to science-themed works of art, dance, music. Events are fitted for the public, either for free or a modest fee. While almost all events are on Manhattan, effort is done to geographicly disperse them, even to the outer boros. The grand finale of World Science Festival is a street fair in Washington Square. Science centers in booths, tents, pavilions highlight their work. This fair drew in past years 100,000 to 150,000 visitors. The entire Festival attracts about a quarter million. NYSkies is a proud participant at the Washington Square fair. It interprets the 'Earth to the Universe' display, debuting during IYA-2009. Attendance at 'Earth ...' on just the day of the fair plausibly is half of all visitors in America. The presentation shows the scale and scope of World Science Festival, its relation to the City, and how our astronomers work with it.

  11. Manifesting the Quantum World

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohrhoff, Ulrich

    2014-06-01

    In resisting attempts to explain the unity of a whole in terms of a multiplicity of interacting parts, quantum mechanics calls for an explanatory concept that proceeds in the opposite direction: from unity to multiplicity. Being part of the Scientific Image of the world, the theory concerns the process by which (the physical aspect of) what Sellars called the Manifest Image of the world comes into being. This process consists in the progressive differentiation of an intrinsically undifferentiated entity. By entering into reflexive spatial relations, this entity gives rise to (i) what looks like a multiplicity of relata if the reflexive quality of the relations is not taken into account, and (ii) what looks like a substantial expanse if the spatial quality of the relations is reified. If there is a distinctly quantum domain, it is a non-spatial and non-temporal dimension across which the transition from the unity of this entity to the multiplicity of the world takes place. Instead of being constituents of the physical world, subatomic particles, atoms, and molecules are instrumental in its manifestation. These conclusions are based on the following interpretive principle and its more direct consequences: whenever the calculation of probabilities calls for the addition of amplitudes, the distinctions we make between the alternatives lack objective reality. Applied to alternatives involving distinctions between regions of space, this principle implies that, owing to the indefiniteness of positions, the spatiotemporal differentiation of the physical world is incomplete: the existence of a real-valued spatiotemporal background is an unrealistic idealization. This guarantees the existence of observables whose values are real per se, as against "real by virtue of being indicated by the values of observables that are real per se." Applied to alternatives involving distinctions between things, it implies that, intrinsically, all fundamental particles are numerically

  12. The World Science Festival

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pazmino, J.

    2012-06-01

    (Abstract only) New York City in the late 20th century rose to be a planetary capital for the sciences, not just astronomy. This growth was mainly in the academic sector but a parallel growth occurred in the public and home field. With the millennium crossing, scientists in New York agitated for a celebration of the City as a place for a thriving science culture. In 2008 they began World Science Festival. 2011 is the fourth running, on June 1-5, following the AAVSO/AAS meetings. World Science Festival was founded by Dr. Brian Greene, Columbia University, and is operated through the World Science Foundation. The Festival is "saturation science" all over Manhattan in a series of lectures, shows, exhibits, performances. It is staged in "science" venues like colleges and musea, but also in off-science spaces like theaters and galleries. It is a blend from hard science, with lectures like those by us astronomers, to science-themed works of art, dance, music. Events are fitted for the public, either for free or a modest fee. While almost all events are on Manhattan, effort has been made to geographically disperse them, even to the outer boroughs. The grand finale of World Science Festival is a street fair in Washington Square. Science centers in booths, tents, and pavilions highlight their work. In past years this fair drew 100,000 to 150,000 visitors. The entire Festival attracts about a quarter-million attendees. NYSkies is a proud participant at the Washington Square fair. It interprets the "Earth to the Universe" display, debuting during IYA-2009. Attendance at "Earth..." on just the day of the fair plausibly is half of all visitors in America. The presentation shows the scale and scope of World Science Festival, its relation to the City, and how our astronomers work with it.

  13. Using Raspberry Pi to Teach Computing "Inside Out"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaokar, Ajit

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses the evolution of computing education in preparing for the next wave of computing. With the proliferation of mobile devices, most agree that we are living in a "post-PC" world. Using the Raspberry Pi computer platform, based in the UK, as an example, the author discusses computing education in a world where the…

  14. (Some) Computer Futures: Mainframes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joseph, Earl C.

    Possible futures for the world of mainframe computers can be forecast through studies identifying forces of change and their impact on current trends. Some new prospects for the future have been generated by advances in information technology; for example, recent United States successes in applied artificial intelligence (AI) have created new…

  15. Computer Augmented Physics Lab

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geller, Kenneth N.; Newstein, Herman

    1972-01-01

    Experiments are designed with application to phenomena of the real world for use in a third-quarter introductory college physics course in wave motion, sound, and light. The computer is used to process and analyze experimental data and to extend experimental observations through simulation. (Author/TS)

  16. Low-Carbon Computing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hignite, Karla

    2009-01-01

    Green information technology (IT) is grabbing more mainstream headlines--and for good reason. Computing, data processing, and electronic file storage collectively account for a significant and growing share of energy consumption in the business world and on higher education campuses. With greater scrutiny of all activities that contribute to an…

  17. IBM PC enhances the world's future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cox, Jozelle

    1988-01-01

    Although the purpose of this research is to illustrate the importance of computers to the public, particularly the IBM PC, present examinations will include computers developed before the IBM PC was brought into use. IBM, as well as other computing facilities, began serving the public years ago, and is continuing to find ways to enhance the existence of man. With new developments in supercomputers like the Cray-2, and the recent advances in artificial intelligence programming, the human race is gaining knowledge at a rapid pace. All have benefited from the development of computers in the world; not only have they brought new assets to life, but have made life more and more of a challenge everyday.

  18. A microbased shared virtual world prototype

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pitts, Gerald; Robinson, Mark; Strange, Steve

    1993-01-01

    Virtual reality (VR) allows sensory immersion and interaction with a computer-generated environment. The user adopts a physical interface with the computer, through Input/Output devices such as a head-mounted display, data glove, mouse, keyboard, or monitor, to experience an alternate universe. What this means is that the computer generates an environment which, in its ultimate extension, becomes indistinguishable from the real world. 'Imagine a wraparound television with three-dimensional programs, including three-dimensional sound, and solid objects that you can pick up and manipulate, even feel with your fingers and hands.... 'Imagine that you are the creator as well as the consumer of your artificial experience, with the power to use a gesture or word to remold the world you see and hear and feel. That part is not fiction... three-dimensional computer graphics, input/output devices, computer models that constitute a VR system make it possible, today, to immerse yourself in an artificial world and to reach in and reshape it.' Our research's goal was to propose a feasibility experiment in the construction of a networked virtual reality system, making use of current personal computer (PC) technology. The prototype was built using Borland C compiler, running on an IBM 486 33 MHz and a 386 33 MHz. Each game currently is represented as an IPX client on a non-dedicated Novell server. We initially posed the two questions: (1) Is there a need for networked virtual reality? (2) In what ways can the technology be made available to the most people possible?

  19. Learning Experience with Virtual Worlds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Christian

    2008-01-01

    Virtual worlds create a new opportunity to enrich the educational experience through media-rich immersive learning. Virtual worlds have gained notoriety in games such as World of Warcraft (WoW), which has become the most successful online game ever, and in "general purpose" worlds, such as Second Life (SL), whose participation levels (more than 10…

  20. A World Worth Living in

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Jane

    2011-01-01

    Adult educators from across the world met at the eighth World Assembly of the International Council for Adult Education (ICAE) in Malmo in June. A significant question at the World Assembly was, "What kind of lifelong learning is needed in a climate-changing world?" Discussions addressing this strand immediately revealed that responses depend on…

  1. Redesigning courses for the World Wide Web.

    PubMed

    Carr, Katherine Camacho; Farley, Cynthia L

    2003-01-01

    The use of computer-based instructional technologies has become almost ubiquitous in education, including health professions education. In addition, clinical practice requires the use of digital information, networking, and continued learning. Faculty, students, and clinicians must be prepared to use computer-based technologies and telecommunications. Many faculty members in the health professions need assistance with the transfer of traditional (campus-based) courses or course material to the World Wide Web. This article presents the instructional design and pedagogical aspects of redesigning a traditional campus-based course for the World Wide Web. Specific steps and a template are identified. The development of a virtual community of learners is also discussed as a critical element of on-line teaching and learning. PMID:14660946

  2. Petascale Computing: Impact on Future NASA Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, Walter

    2006-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews NASA's use of a new super computer, called Columbia, capable of operating at 62 Tera Flops. This computer is the 4th fastest computer in the world. This computer will serve all mission directorates. The applications that it would serve are: aerospace analysis and design, propulsion subsystem analysis, climate modeling, hurricane prediction and astrophysics and cosmology.

  3. Convergence: Computing and communications

    SciTech Connect

    Catlett, C.

    1996-12-31

    This paper highlights the operations of the National Center for Supercomputing Applications (NCSA). NCSA is developing and implementing a national strategy to create, use, and transfer advanced computing and communication tools and information technologies for science, engineering, education, and business. The primary focus of the presentation is historical and expected growth in the computing capacity, personal computer performance, and Internet and WorldWide Web sites. Data are presented to show changes over the past 10 to 20 years in these areas. 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  4. Third World debts

    SciTech Connect

    Sweet, W.

    1980-07-25

    World oil prices are responsible for new concerns about the health of the international banking system, particularly the $60 billion in annual deficits of the developing countries. If the banks continue lending money to these countries in hopes of repayment in better times, they could jeopardize their financial position; but if they stop the loans, they will jeopardize repayment of the present debts. High US interest rates, heavy goods and technology, economic sanctions imposed by the US in response to Russia's invasion of Afghanistan, and the unregulated Eurocurrency market have contributed to the problem. No one knows how great a loss the capital markets can sustain and still survive. New banking arrangements by the World Bank and other institutions are still unproven. 19 references. (DCK)

  5. Virtual World Astrosociology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bainbridge, William Sims

    2010-01-01

    This essay introduces the opportunity for theory development and even empirical research on some aspects of astrosociology through today's online virtual worlds. The examples covered present life on other planets or in space itself, in a manner that can be experienced by the user and where the user's reactions may simulate to some degree future human behavior in real extraterrestrial environments: Tabula Rasa, Anarchy Online, Entropia Universe, EVE Online, StarCraft and World of Warcraft. Ethnographic exploration of these computerized environments raises many questions about the social science both of space exploration and of direct contact with extraterrestrials. The views expressed in this essay do not necessarily represent the views of the National Science Foundation or the United States.

  6. Water world 2000.

    PubMed Central

    Tibbetts, J

    2000-01-01

    Today, at least one-fifth of all people worldwide lack access to safe drinking water, a problem that will almost certainly worsen as the earth's population grows. Although the vast majority of industrial discharges into waterways are regulated and treated, and most cities and towns effectively monitor and treat their sewage for chemical contaminants, problems such as arsenic contamination and dangerous microorganisms still trouble public water supplies in wealthy nations. In developing countries, most cities discharge 80-90% of their untreated sewage directly into rivers and streams, which are used for drinking, bathing, and washing. This lack of sewage treatment has allowed dangerous microorganisms to spread, posing one of the greatest threats to human health in the developing world: waterborne diseases caused by deadly microbes in water. Contamination isn't the only problem: in many areas of the world, drinkable water is a scarce resource available to many only at high cost, when it is available at all. PMID:10656865

  7. Militarism and world health.

    PubMed

    Kiefer, C W

    1992-04-01

    Militarism is a rapidly growing factor in that complex network of social, political and economic causes of ill health among the world's poor. This complex of causes is driving a spiral of class inequality, political instability, and military repression in many less developed nations. These nations share a uniform security doctrine, which has major health impacts. Here five impacts are noted: diversion of resources, suppression of dissent, military classism, environment damage, and crime and terrorism. The demand stimulated by the recent Persian Gulf War for expensive, high-technology weapons may deepen Third World debt and fuel the cycle of poverty, ill health, social unrest, and military oppression. International health workers need to take account of the causes and effects of militarism in their studies of health problems. Their work could be aided by organizations that promote disarmament and environment preservation. PMID:1604366

  8. Brane-World Gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maartens, Roy; Koyama, Kazuya

    2010-09-01

    The observable universe could be a 1+3-surface (the "brane") embedded in a 1+3+d-dimensional spacetime (the "bulk"), with Standard Model particles and fields trapped on the brane while gravity is free to access the bulk. At least one of the d extra spatial dimensions could be very large relative to the Planck scale, which lowers the fundamental gravity scale, possibly even down to the electroweak (˜TeV) level. This revolutionary picture arises in the framework of recent developments in M theory. The 1+10-dimensional M theory encompasses the known 1+9-dimensional superstring theories, and is widely considered to be a promising potential route to quantum gravity. At low energies, gravity is localized at the brane and general relativity is recovered, but at high energies gravity “leaks” into the bulk, behaving in a truly higher-dimensional way. This introduces significant changes to gravitational dynamics and perturbations, with interesting and potentially testable implications for high-energy astrophysics, black holes, and cosmology. Brane-world models offer a phenomenological way to test some of the novel predictions and corrections to general relativity that are implied by M theory. This review analyzes the geometry, dynamics and perturbations of simple brane-world models for cosmology and astrophysics, mainly focusing on warped 5-dimensional brane-worlds based on the Randall-Sundrum models. We also cover the simplest brane-world models in which 4-dimensional gravity on the brane is modified at low energies - the 5-dimensional Dvali-Gabadadze-Porrati models. Then we discuss co-dimension two branes in 6-dimensional models.

  9. [World deliberations in Rio].

    PubMed

    Annis, B

    1991-01-01

    The United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) was held in Rio de Janeiro in June 1992 and dealt with world trade, environmental education, environmental emergencies, the transfer of technology and financial resources, and the restructuring of international systems for tackling environmental problems. Other issues on the agenda were the protection of the atmosphere, the ozone shield, deforestation, the conservation of biological diversity, sustainable urban and rural development, and the safeguarding of human health and quality of life. The preparation for the conference took place through a series of meetings, which also featured the problems of rural areas in the Americas. Some environmental organizations based in Washington, D.C. had become impassive over the years and promoted bipartisan and apolitical issues in order to obtain funds. Nonetheless, some groups criticized the projects of the World Bank. In 1990 the World Bank established the World Environmental Program for developing countries, which envisioned the execution of 15 projects and 11 technical assistance proposals. Nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) were also active in this effort. The Interamerican Development Bank also launched a forest policy for preserving forest resources. This was the consequence of the 1982 scheme that aimed at protecting forest populations and promoting sustainable forest industries. At another conference of development specialists the discrimination against women was cited as a major factor in the deleterious use of natural resources. A new development concept was urged that would incorporate the rights and participation of women as a central strategy in solving the global environmental crisis. The global population is growing at a rate of 95 million people per year, which underlines the need for better representation of women, poor people, and rural areas in state agencies and multilateral and environmental organizations for promoting sustainable

  10. View on world market

    SciTech Connect

    Poulsen, J.

    1996-12-31

    Opinions on the world market for wind power are presented in this paper. Reasons contributing to a potential growth in wind power are cited. Increased demand is expected to arise due to increased energy needs and environmental concerns. Barriers, primarily political, to the development of wind energy are assessed. Development is predicted to occur first in countries with a demand for new capacity and political decisions to protect the environment.

  11. Feeding a future world.

    PubMed

    Hinrichsen, D

    1998-01-01

    This article provides an overview of future prospects for feeding the world's growing population. The discussion focuses on obstacles such as limited agricultural land, degraded soil and water, and water shortages. The evidence suggests that sustainability is declining, especially in poor, food-deficit countries with growing populations. The world is segregated into the haves, the poor have-nots, and the rich have-nots. North America, Europe, and Australia have enough cropland to feed their populations. The poor have-nots are located mostly in sub-Saharan Africa, 7 countries each in the Middle East and Latin America, 6 in Oceania, and the rest in Central and South Asia. The poor have-nots amount to 3 billion out of 6 billion total population. The rich have-nots include countries such as Japan and Singapore, plus China, Indonesia, Peru, Chile, and Saudi Arabia and other Gulf states. The rich have-nots must import food. The world grain harvest is no longer tripling. Per person yields have declined. Increasing food productivity must rely on existing lands. The size of family farms has declined. Almost 2 billion hectares of crop and grazing land is degraded. Yields from irrigated land that are 33% of world food supply have declined. In 1990, 28 countries with 335 million people faced chronic water shortages or scarcity. Water is being polluted. Fish stocks are being depleted. Genetic diversity is being lost. In 182 food deficit countries, population growth must be slowed, and agriculture must be sustainable. Food is neither produced nor consumed equitably. Malnutrition is caused by poverty. Food security cannot be achieved if land and water become increasingly degraded or lost. PMID:12348766

  12. World Presidents Organization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    Members of the World Presidents' Organization enjoy a buffet luncheon during a Jan. 26 visit to NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center. WPO members from several states toured Stennis facilities during a daylong visit that included a river ride with Special Boat Team 22, the U.S. Navy's elite boat warriors group that trains at Stennis. Visiting president also had an opportunity to learn about the ongoing work of the nation's premier rocket engine testing site.

  13. World Presidents Organization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    Members of the World Presidents' Organization enjoy exhibits at StenniSphere, the visitor center and museum at NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center during a Jan. 26 visit to the site. WPO members from several states spent the day touring Stennis facilities and learning about the work of the nation's premier rocket engine testing site. Exhibits enjoyed included a mockup of the International Space Station and the interactive Science on a Sphere globe.

  14. World Presidents Organization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    Members of the World Presidents' Organization take a try at 'piloting' a mock-up of the space shuttle cockpit during a Jan. 26 visit to StenniSphere, the museum and visitor center at NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center. WPO members from several states spent the day touring Stennis facilities and learning about the work of the nation's premier rocket engine testing site.

  15. World Presidents Organization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    Mississippi Gov. Haley Barbour speaks to members of the World Presidents' Organization during the group's visit to NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center on Jan. 26. WPO members from several states spent the day touring Stennis facilities and learning about the work of the nation's premier rocket engine testing site. Barbour visited with group members during a morning session in StenniSphere, the center's visitors center and museum.

  16. Third World Ballistic missiles

    SciTech Connect

    Nolan, J.E.; Wheelon, A.D.

    1990-08-01

    Ballistic missiles and other means of long-range destruction, traditionally limited to a handful of industrialized nations, are fast becoming a fixture in many regional conflicts. The Third World military buildup is perhaps even more worrisome than its First World prototype, for it is far more likely to find expression in war. There are several reasons why this should be so. In the past decade the number of countries in the missile club has more than doubled, to 18. Many of the new members have been at war or are embroiled in disputes. Unlike the major powers, these countries have not had time enough to perfect systems of command and control over their new strategic forces. They have had little time to learn to manage the complexities of military brinksmanship. Finally, because many regional conflicts overlap, an escalation in the arms race tends to convey itself from one area of tension to another. For many years the big industrialized countries ignored the proliferation of ballistic missiles and sought political advantage by arming their clients. In doing so, they presumed that the bipolar alignment of power would restrain regional conflicts. The preoccupation with East-West issues overshadowed problems in the Third World. Smaller industrialized powers sold missiles to generate revenues to support their own military industries. Meanwhile the developing countries eagerly acquired missiles for the same reasons that had motivated their predecessors: to deter attack, intimidate enemies, build a technological base and win prestige.

  17. World Cup Hopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    From May 31 to June 30 the biggest single-sport event in the world, the 2002 FIFA World Cup (tm), will be taking place in Asia. South Korea and Japan are acting as hosts for the event which is being held in Asia for the first time. This true-color image of the southern Korean peninsula and southern Japan was acquired on May 25, 2002, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra satellite. Thirty-two nations are represented at this year's Finals including the 1998 champion France, European powers England and Italy, tournament favorite Argentina, and the United States. The finals are the culmination of a 2-year qualifying process which started with 132 nations competing in regional qualification tournaments. In the round-robin first round of the World Cup, the U.S. team will be competing against teams from Portugal, Poland, and South Korea. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  18. Collective dynamics of `small-world' networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watts, Duncan J.; Strogatz, Steven H.

    1998-06-01

    Networks of coupled dynamical systems have been used to model biological oscillators, Josephson junction arrays,, excitable media, neural networks, spatial games, genetic control networks and many other self-organizing systems. Ordinarily, the connection topology is assumed to be either completely regular or completely random. But many biological, technological and social networks lie somewhere between these two extremes. Here we explore simple models of networks that can be tuned through this middle ground: regular networks `rewired' to introduce increasing amounts of disorder. We find that these systems can be highly clustered, like regular lattices, yet have small characteristic path lengths, like random graphs. We call them `small-world' networks, by analogy with the small-world phenomenon, (popularly known as six degrees of separation). The neural network of the worm Caenorhabditis elegans, the power grid of the western United States, and the collaboration graph of film actors are shown to be small-world networks. Models of dynamical systems with small-world coupling display enhanced signal-propagation speed, computational power, and synchronizability. In particular, infectious diseases spread more easily in small-world networks than in regular lattices.

  19. Intelligence Assessment with Computer Simulations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kroner, S.; Plass, J.L.; Leutner, D.

    2005-01-01

    It has been suggested that computer simulations may be used for intelligence assessment. This study investigates what relationships exist between intelligence and computer-simulated tasks that mimic real-world problem-solving behavior, and discusses design requirements that simulations have to meet in order to be suitable for intelligence…

  20. Should Children Be Computer Programmers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watt, Daniel

    1982-01-01

    Considers the impact of learning to program upon the intellectual and personal development of children. The excitement of computer mastery, the usefulness of programing as an introduction to "real world" problem solving, and computer programing as an aid to increased understanding of subject matter are discussed. (JL)

  1. (Computer) Vision without Sight

    PubMed Central

    Manduchi, Roberto; Coughlan, James

    2012-01-01

    Computer vision holds great promise for helping persons with blindness or visual impairments (VI) to interpret and explore the visual world. To this end, it is worthwhile to assess the situation critically by understanding the actual needs of the VI population and which of these needs might be addressed by computer vision. This article reviews the types of assistive technology application areas that have already been developed for VI, and the possible roles that computer vision can play in facilitating these applications. We discuss how appropriate user interfaces are designed to translate the output of computer vision algorithms into information that the user can quickly and safely act upon, and how system-level characteristics affect the overall usability of an assistive technology. Finally, we conclude by highlighting a few novel and intriguing areas of application of computer vision to assistive technology. PMID:22815563

  2. (Computer) Vision without Sight.

    PubMed

    Manduchi, Roberto; Coughlan, James

    2012-01-01

    Computer vision holds great promise for helping persons with blindness or visual impairments (VI) to interpret and explore the visual world. To this end, it is worthwhile to assess the situation critically by understanding the actual needs of the VI population and which of these needs might be addressed by computer vision. This article reviews the types of assistive technology application areas that have already been developed for VI, and the possible roles that computer vision can play in facilitating these applications. We discuss how appropriate user interfaces are designed to translate the output of computer vision algorithms into information that the user can quickly and safely act upon, and how system-level characteristics affect the overall usability of an assistive technology. Finally, we conclude by highlighting a few novel and intriguing areas of application of computer vision to assistive technology. PMID:22815563

  3. Deworming the world.

    PubMed

    Olds, G Richard

    2013-01-01

    Worms or helminths have historically infected more than half the world's population, but were largely neglected by medical science and public health interventions because they were considered non-fatal and of minimal clinical significance. During the 1980s, several oral drugs that were originally developed for veterinary use were discovered to cure, in a single dose, most human helminth infections. This allowed the first systematic population-based studies of the morbid sequelae of chronic worm infection and their potential reversibility after treatment. Based on these studies, we now know that almost all infected children and many adults, particularly pregnant and lactating women, suffer adverse effects from worms, including growth stunting, anemia, decreased cognitive development, and poor birth outcomes as well as poor school and work performance. Worm-infected people also respond less well to vaccinations and are more susceptible to several co-conditions such as HIV and cirrhosis. Based on these findings, several vertically organized national control programs were initiated in developing countries against schistosomiasis and the soil-transmitted helminths (hookworm, ascariasis, and whipworm). In 2005, the impact of helminth infections was redefined in terms of disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). All worm infections amenable to population-based mass chemotherapy are thought today to cause 30 million DALYs worldwide or very close to the worldwide impact of tuberculosis (TB) or malaria. In addition, almost all worm-induced DALYs are potentially reversible or preventable with periodic treatment. In 2001, the World Health Assembly advocated for mass deworming to reach 75% of the at-risk school-aged children of the world, but by 2011 only 13% had been reached. The recent large donations of anti-helminth drugs by major pharmaceutical companies linked to the inclusion of the "neglected tropical diseases" into current priorities for AIDS/TB and malaria now represent

  4. An optimum world population.

    PubMed

    Willey, D

    2000-01-01

    The optimum population of the world is the one that is most likely to make the option of a good quality of life available to everyone everywhere, both now and in the future. Establishing a consensus about the size of such a population would be an important step towards achieving it. Estimates of an optimum involve three main steps. First, estimate the maximum (carrying capacity) assuming a specified lifestyle. The main criteria are the maintenance of biodiversity, the availability of freshwater, and the availability of land--for agriculture, forestry and artificial systems but above all for the conversion of energy. (In applying the criteria, there are always two questions to ask: 'What is the maximum amount of consumption that the biosphere can stand?' and 'What is an adequate share of such consumption per person?') Second, convert the maximum (two to three billion) into an optimum by applying a far wider range of criteria, including personal liberty, mobility, recreation and political representation. Third, consider just two criteria (economies of scale and technological innovation) in order to ensure that the optimum (one to two billion) has not fallen below the minimum (half to one billion). The estimates are so low because of the need for a huge increase in median per capita consumption if everyone is to have the option of an adequate material standard of living. Opinion-formers are likely not to take much notice of such estimates, but it is probable that minds will be concentrated by an energy shock some time during the next decade. Achieving an optimum world population will not solve the world's major problems, but it would make them solvable. PMID:10824524

  5. Unstable world oil market

    SciTech Connect

    Adelman, M.A.

    1985-01-01

    The size of low-cost oil reserves available for development creates a permanent surplus that OPEC controls in order to maintain prices. The future is uncertain, however, because the cartel is clumsy and inclined to overreact. A quick rise in oil demand might help the cartel, but there is a better chance of movement the other way as economic recovery increases investment to discover and develop non-OPEC oil and gas reserves. A cartel of consuming nations can balance the exporters' cartel, but OPEC is likely to survive because the world market needs it.

  6. The World of Comets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guillemin, Amédée; Glaisher, James

    2010-10-01

    1. Beliefs and superstitions relative to comets; 2. Cometary astronomy up to the time of Newton; 3. The motions and orbits of comets; 4. Periodical comets; 5. Periodical comets; 6. The world of comets and cometary systems; 7. Physical and chemical constitution of comets; 8. Physical transformations of comets; 9. Mass and density of comets; 10. The light of comets; 11. Theory of cometary phenomena; 12. Comets and shooting stars; 13. Comets and the earth; 14. Physical influences of comets; 15. Some questions about comets; Tables.

  7. World's simplest electric train

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Criado, C.; Alamo, N.

    2016-01-01

    We analyze the physics of the "world's simplest electric train." The "train" consists of a AA battery with a strong magnet on each end that moves through a helical coil of copper wire. The motion of the train results from the interaction between the magnetic field created by the current in the wire and the magnetic field of the magnets. We calculate the force of this interaction and the terminal velocity of the train due to eddy currents and friction. Our calculations provide a good illustration of Faraday's and Lenz's laws, as well as of the concepts of the Lorentz force and eddy currents.

  8. World petroleum outlook. [Monograph

    SciTech Connect

    Cosso, J.C.

    1981-01-01

    Mr. Cosso projects the following: (1) petroleum consumption growth will decline during the 1980s, with the US recording the largest decline, while supplies will be adequate and price increases moderate; (2) fuel substitution and conservation will account for most of the drop in demand, but some will shift to developing countries; (3) excess refinery capacity will increase because of reduced demand, which will also moderate prices; and (4) energy projects will demand a large share of investment capital during the decade because of exploration and alternative energy sources. These forecasts are based on market statistics, world reserve estimates, refining capacity, and an analysis of the OPEC pricing plan. 8 tables. (DCK)

  9. World helicopter market study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cleary, B.; Pearson, R. W.; Greenwood, S. W.; Kaplan, L.

    1978-01-01

    The extent of the threat to the US helicopter industry posed by a determined effort by foreign manufacturers, European companies in particular, to supply their own domestic markets and also to penetrate export markets, including the USA is assessed. Available data on US and world markets for civil and military uses are collated and presented in both graphic and tabular form showing the past history of production and markets and, where forecasts are available, anticipated future trends. The data are discussed on an item-by-item basis and inferences are drawn in as much depth as appears justified.

  10. World Ocean Circulation Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clarke, R. Allyn

    1992-01-01

    The oceans are an equal partner with the atmosphere in the global climate system. The World Ocean Circulation Experiment is presently being implemented to improve ocean models that are useful for climate prediction both by encouraging more model development but more importantly by providing quality data sets that can be used to force or to validate such models. WOCE is the first oceanographic experiment that plans to generate and to use multiparameter global ocean data sets. In order for WOCE to succeed, oceanographers must establish and learn to use more effective methods of assembling, quality controlling, manipulating and distributing oceanographic data.

  11. Real World Robotics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Lisa J.

    2002-01-01

    Introduces a project for elementary school students in which students build a robot by following instructions and then write a computer program to run their robot by using LabView graphical development software. Uses ROBOLAB curriculum which is designed for grade levels K-12. (YDS)

  12. Physical Computing and Its Scope--Towards a Constructionist Computer Science Curriculum with Physical Computing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Przybylla, Mareen; Romeike, Ralf

    2014-01-01

    Physical computing covers the design and realization of interactive objects and installations and allows students to develop concrete, tangible products of the real world, which arise from the learners' imagination. This can be used in computer science education to provide students with interesting and motivating access to the different topic…

  13. Future Evolution of Virtual Worlds as Communication Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prisco, Giulio

    Extensive experience creating locations and activities inside virtual worlds provides the basis for contemplating their future. Users of virtual worlds are diverse in their goals for these online environments; for example, immersionists want them to be alternative realities disconnected from real life, whereas augmentationists want them to be communication media supporting real-life activities. As the technology improves, the diversity of virtual worlds will increase along with their significance. Many will incorporate more advanced virtual reality, or serve as major media for long-distance collaboration, or become the venues for futurist social movements. Key issues are how people can create their own virtual worlds, travel across worlds, and experience a variety of multimedia immersive environments. This chapter concludes by noting the view among some computer scientists that future technologies will permit uploading human personalities to artificial intelligence avatars, thereby enhancing human beings and rendering the virtual worlds entirely real.

  14. WATER-TRAPPED WORLDS

    SciTech Connect

    Menou, Kristen

    2013-09-01

    Although tidally locked habitable planets orbiting nearby M-dwarf stars are among the best astronomical targets to search for extrasolar life, they may also be deficient in volatiles and water. Climate models for this class of planets show atmospheric transport of water from the dayside to the nightside, where it is precipitated as snow and trapped as ice. Since ice only slowly flows back to the dayside upon accumulation, the resulting hydrological cycle can trap a large amount of water in the form of nightside ice. Using ice sheet dynamical and thermodynamical constraints, I illustrate how planets with less than about a quarter the Earth's oceans could trap most of their surface water on the nightside. This would leave their dayside, where habitable conditions are met, potentially dry. The amount and distribution of residual liquid water on the dayside depend on a variety of geophysical factors, including the efficiency of rock weathering at regulating atmospheric CO{sub 2} as dayside ocean basins dry up. Water-trapped worlds with dry daysides may offer similar advantages as land planets for habitability, by contrast with worlds where more abundant water freely flows around the globe.

  15. World Biofuels Study

    SciTech Connect

    Alfstad,T.

    2008-10-01

    This report forms part of a project entitled 'World Biofuels Study'. The objective is to study world biofuel markets and to examine the possible contribution that biofuel imports could make to help meet the Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) of the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA). The study was sponsored by the Biomass Program of the Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), U.S. Department of Energy. It is a collaborative effort among the Office of Policy and International Affairs (PI), Department of Energy and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). The project consisted of three main components: (1) Assessment of the resource potential for biofuel feedstocks such as sugarcane, grains, soybean, palm oil and lignocellulosic crops and development of supply curves (ORNL). (2) Assessment of the cost and performance of biofuel production technologies (NREL). (3) Scenario-based analysis of world biofuel markets using the ETP global energy model with data developed in the first parts of the study (BNL). This report covers the modeling and analysis part of the project conducted by BNL in cooperation with PI. The Energy Technology Perspectives (ETP) energy system model was used as the analytical tool for this study. ETP is a 15 region global model designed using the MARKAL framework. MARKAL-based models are partial equilibrium models that incorporate a description of the physical energy system and provide a bottom-up approach to study the entire energy system. ETP was updated for this study with biomass resource data and biofuel production technology cost and performance data developed by ORNL and NREL under Tasks 1 and 2 of this project. Many countries around the world are embarking on ambitious biofuel policies through renewable fuel standards and economic incentives. As a result, the global biofuel demand is expected to grow very rapidly over

  16. World Organisation for Animal Health

    MedlinePlus

    World Organisation for Animal Health Home About us Presentation Director general office Biography Photos Strategic plan Our ... Food safety and animal welfare History General organisation World Assembly Council Headquarters OIE Regional Representations OIE Regional ...

  17. The world's biggest census.

    PubMed

    Xu, J H

    1983-05-01

    The purpose of the 3rd national population census, taken 18 years after "New China's" 2nd census, was to ascertain accurate population figures for China and the spatial population distribution in order to carry out socialist modernization, improve the people's material and cultural lives, and draw up a population policy and program in light of China's actual conditions. The census questionnaire contained 19 items, including 13 for individuals; and 6 items about the household. Preparations for the census began at the end of 1979 even though the census would not begin until July 1, 1982. The preparatory stage included: drafting the Census Statute; conducting pilot censuses in certain areas; rectifying household registration; installing computers; training computer technicians; convening national census work conference and similar conferences at various levels; selecting and training field census workers; printing census forms; and conducting widespread publicity. Pilot censuses were conducted at central, provincial, and county levels in order to draw useful experience for the nationwide census. A large number of census workers were selected and trained. Among them were about a million staff members working in census offices at various levels, 1000 computer technical personnel, 4000 data entry personnel, 100,000 coders, and 1 million census supervisors. 8 million cadres and volunteers at the grassroots actively helped conduct the census. Enumeration and verification was completed between July 1 and July 15, 1982. The postenumeration check on a sample basis showed only a net overcount of 0.15/1000 with an overcount of 0.71/1000 and an undercount of 0.56/1000. All levels of the government, the Communist Party, Trade Unions, and Women's Federations were mobilized to take part in the census, and all mass media were utilized. All census information will be finally tabulated by computers before the end of 1984, and census reports will be compiled and submitted to the State

  18. Computers as tools

    SciTech Connect

    Eriksson, I.V.

    1994-12-31

    The following message was recently posted on a bulletin board and clearly shows the relevance of the conference theme: {open_quotes}The computer and digital networks seem poised to change whole regions of human activity -- how we record knowledge, communicate, learn, work, understand ourselves and the world. What`s the best framework for understanding this digitalization, or virtualization, of seemingly everything? ... Clearly, symbolic tools like the alphabet, book, and mechanical clock have changed some of our most fundamental notions -- self, identity, mind, nature, time, space. Can we say what the computer, a purely symbolic {open_quotes}machine,{close_quotes} is doing to our thinking in these areas? Or is it too early to say, given how much more powerful and less expensive the technology seems destinated to become in the next few decades?{close_quotes} (Verity, 1994) Computers certainly affect our lives and way of thinking but what have computers to do with ethics? A narrow approach would be that on the one hand people can and do abuse computer systems and on the other hand people can be abused by them. Weli known examples of the former are computer comes such as the theft of money, services and information. The latter can be exemplified by violation of privacy, health hazards and computer monitoring. Broadening the concept from computers to information systems (ISs) and information technology (IT) gives a wider perspective. Computers are just the hardware part of information systems which also include software, people and data. Information technology is the concept preferred today. It extends to communication, which is an essential part of information processing. Now let us repeat the question: What has IT to do with ethics? Verity mentioned changes in {open_quotes}how we record knowledge, communicate, learn, work, understand ourselves and the world{close_quotes}.

  19. Confronting world hunger.

    PubMed

    Huddleston, B

    1983-01-01

    In 1980, per capita food supplies were less than adequate in 53 developing countries. More than half of these were the predominantly rural, low income countries of South Asia, China, and Sub-Saharan Africa. Finding the proper balance between satisfying immediate human needs and building political and economic systems in which individuals can in the future acquire the means to satisfy their own requirements is the central issue facing those in the fight against world hunger. At the international level, developed countries have responded to world hunger by raising the minimum level of food aid provided when supplies are scarce and by creating a financing facility for cereal imports. The food and agriculture sector is receiving a highe priority than before in the allocation of international development assistance, and more attention is being given to the effects of both general food subsidies and targeted nutrition programs on future agricultural output. At the national level, over 40 developing countries have requested assistance from the World Food Council for the preparation of food sector strategies. Although such measures are important, they do not directly address local problems and individual needs. For example, dietary intake tends to be lower in urban than in rural households in Latin America at the same level of income. These urban groups require health and nutrition interventions that simultaneously address their immediate need for food, clean water, and health care and their more longterm need for employment. Longterm economic development that provides adequate income to all segments of the population is the best means to combat hunger, and income security also reduces incentives for large family size. The contribution of the international community should remain the transfer of resources and the provision of technical assistance. At the individual level, the need for targeted food distribution programs continues. Greater benefit can be obtained from

  20. Becoming Citizens of the World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Vivien

    2007-01-01

    The globalization of economies, the digitization of work, pressing health and security issues, and changing demographics have dramatically changed our world. Unlike previous generations, U.S. high school graduates will routinely buy from the world, sell to the world, work for international companies, manage employees from other cultures and…

  1. Diving into Real World Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saldana, Matt; Rodden, Leslie

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss how educators can engage students in real world learning using their academic knowledge and technical skills. They describe how school districts have discovered that the world of robotics can help students use technical skills to solve simulated problems found in the real world, while understanding the…

  2. The World Report on Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bickenbach, Jerome

    2011-01-01

    The World Report on Disability, a joint endeavor of the World Health Organization and the World Bank, launched in June 2011, is an astonishing achievement that will set the standard for disability studies research for evidence-informed policy for years to come. The product of collaborative and participatory work between organizations of persons…

  3. World AIDS Day 1998.

    PubMed

    1999-01-01

    Excerpts of speeches given at a public rally on World AIDS Day 1998 underscore the need to energize support for those living with HIV/AIDS, emphasize the importance of increasing public education efforts, and memorialize those lost to the disease. Reverend Pat Bumgardner stressed the need to educate children about practicing safe sex and the dangers of drug use. He also focused attention on AIDS as a worldwide crisis, with the 30 million people who have HIV or AIDS. Councilwoman Margarita Lopez spoke about achieving objectives and securing resources through activism. She also condemned New York City's Mayor for trying to hinder the rally. Anne Chelimsky, who did not speak at the rally but attended it, reflected on her new role as an activist, and on how the rally affected her. PMID:11367196

  4. Worlds Smaller than Saturn

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Computerized animations show the following: (1) an artist's conception of a Saturn-like extrasolar planet; (2) star and planet motion; and (3) young stellar disk and planet formation. Footage shows the outside of the Mauna Kea Observatories in Hawaii and Geoff Marcy and Paul Butler inside while they are processing information. Then a press conference,'Worlds Smaller than Saturn', is seen. Anne Kinney, Origins Science Director, NASA Headquarters, introduces Geoff Marcy, Paul Butler, Alan Boss, and Heidi Hammel. They discuss the discovery of the two new Saturn-sized extrasolar planets that are orbiting the stars HD46375 and 79 Seti, giving details on the search technique and size distribution. They then answer questions from the press.

  5. World Vaccine Congress.

    PubMed

    Arora, Ashoni

    2009-02-01

    This was the 10th year of the World Vaccine Congress. This event attracts a wide range of participants not only from traditional areas, such as biopharma, academia and government organizations, but also from associated fields, such as venture capital firms, law firms and consultants. The 2008 event began with a rocky start in the midst of the global financial meltdown. A premeeting day set aside to focus on investment opportunities and the financial aspects of vaccine development was thrown into turmoil as speakers from various investment houses had to withdraw as their various sponsors faced uncertain economic times. The next 3 days of the meeting contained the bulk of the scientific portions. As the number of oral presentations were too numerous to all be covered in this review, selected highlights will be discussed. PMID:19196191

  6. World nuclear outlook 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-01

    As part of the EIA program to provide energy information, this analysis report presents the current status and projections through 2010 of nuclear capacity, generation, and fuel cycle requirements for all countries in the world using nuclear power to generate electricity for commercial use. It also contains information and forecasts of developments in the uranium market. Long-term projections of US nuclear capacity, generation, and spent fuel discharges for three different scenarios through 2040 are developed for the Department of Energy`s Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM). In turn, the OCRWM provides partial funding for preparation of this report. The projections of uranium requirements are provided to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) for preparation of the Nuclear Energy Agency/OECD report, Summary of Nuclear Power and Fuel Cycle Data in OECD Member Countries.

  7. World nuclear outlook 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-29

    As part of the EIA program to provide energy information, this analysis report presents the current status and projections through 2015 of nuclear capacity, generation, and fuel cycle requirements for all countries in the world using nuclear power to generate electricity for commercial use. It also contains information and forecasts of developments in the uranium market. Long-term projections of US nuclear capacity, generation, and spent fuel discharges for two different scenarios through 2040 are developed for the Department of Energy`s Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM). In turn, the OCRWM provides partial funding for preparation of this report. The projections of uranium requirements are provided to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) for preparation of the Nuclear Energy Agency/OECD report, Summary of Nuclear Power and Fuel Cycle Data in OECD Member Countries.

  8. Worlds Smaller than Saturn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-03-01

    Computerized animations show the following: (1) an artist's conception of a Saturn-like extrasolar planet; (2) star and planet motion; and (3) young stellar disk and planet formation. Footage shows the outside of the Mauna Kea Observatories in Hawaii and Geoff Marcy and Paul Butler inside while they are processing information. Then a press conference,'Worlds Smaller than Saturn', is seen. Anne Kinney, Origins Science Director, NASA Headquarters, introduces Geoff Marcy, Paul Butler, Alan Boss, and Heidi Hammel. They discuss the discovery of the two new Saturn-sized extrasolar planets that are orbiting the stars HD46375 and 79 Seti, giving details on the search technique and size distribution. They then answer questions from the press.

  9. Other Worlds, Other Earths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sunbury, Susan; Gould, R. R.

    2011-05-01

    The Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics is developing a two-to-three week NSF-funded program for middle and high school students using telescope-based investigations of real world cutting edge scientific questions. The goal is to reveal and enhance students' understanding of core concepts in the physical sciences as well as to develop their proficiency in the practice of scientific inquiry. Specifically, students and teachers are joining scientists in the search for habitable worlds by exploring transiting exoplanets. Using robotic telescopes, image processing software and simulations, students take images and then measure the brightness of their target star to create a portrait of a transiting planet including how large it is; the tilt of its orbit; how far it is from its star and what its environment might be like. Once classes collect and analyze their own data, they can begin to compare, combine, and communicate their findings with others in the community. Interactive models help students predict what they might expect to find and interpret what they do find. During the past two years, the Center for Astrophysics has tested the concept in fifty middle-and high-school classrooms, enrichment classes and after school science clubs in 13 states across the United States. To date, astronomy, earth science, and physics students have successfully detected Jupiter-sized planets transiting stars such as TRES-3, HATP-10, and HATP-12. Preliminary results indicate that learning of core concept did occur. Gains in content were most significant in middle school students as this project delivered new information to them while it served primarily as a review of concepts and application of skills for advanced placement classes. A significant change also occurred in students’ self reported knowledge of exoplanets. There was also an increase in students’ awareness of exoplanets and attitudes about science after participating in this project.

  10. The world's water woes.

    PubMed

    Hinrichsen, D

    1996-01-01

    The Syr Darya River used to broaden into a rich delta at Kazalinsk, a town in central Asia's Kazakhstan, then dump into the Aral Sea, formerly the world's fourth largest lake. The Syr Darya River was once home to many species of fish and fowl, and a region of productive tugai forests. The river and lake, however, began shrinking in the 1960s as Soviet engineers and hydrologists siphoned off large amounts of water to irrigate cotton fields in Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan, in a drive to meet the Communist government's 5-year planning objectives regardless of environmental costs. By 1990, the Aral Sea had lost 66% of its original volume and the Syr Darya River now usually disappears into the desert west of town. Almost 1 million hectares of tugai wetlands were converted into desert between 1960 and 1990. Even though little remains alive in the Syr Darya as it passes through Kazalinsk, and what water remains is highly polluted by farms and cities to the east, the people of Kazalinsk still depend upon the Syr Darya for drinking water and other daily water needs, despite the health risks. Considerable morbidity in the region is attributed to this contaminated water supply. Water resources are being wasted everywhere in the interest of development. Like Syr Darya, and even in the US, many of the world's rivers no longer reach their former deltas. China especially has problems to resolve given its huge population and rapidly developing economic base. Approximately 300 major cities across northern and central China, including Beijing, already have critical water shortages. Wars may develop over access to freshwater sources. Water concerns in Egypt and the Jordan River Basin are noted. PMID:12294358

  11. Computer Music

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Perry R.

    This chapter covers algorithms, technologies, computer languages, and systems for computer music. Computer music involves the application of computers and other digital/electronic technologies to music composition, performance, theory, history, and the study of perception. The field combines digital signal processing, computational algorithms, computer languages, hardware and software systems, acoustics, psychoacoustics (low-level perception of sounds from the raw acoustic signal), and music cognition (higher-level perception of musical style, form, emotion, etc.).

  12. Using Virtual Worlds to Identify Multidimensional Student Engagement in High School Foreign Language Learning Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacob, Laura Beth

    2012-01-01

    Virtual world environments have evolved from object-oriented, text-based online games to complex three-dimensional immersive social spaces where the lines between reality and computer-generated begin to blur. Educators use virtual worlds to create engaging three-dimensional learning spaces for students, but the impact of virtual worlds in…

  13. Virtual Worlds for Language Learning: From Theory to Practice. Telecollaboration in Education. Volume 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadler, Randall

    2012-01-01

    This book focuses on one area in the field of Computer-Mediated Communication that has recently exploded in popularity--Virtual Worlds. Virtual Worlds are online multiplayer three-dimensional environments where avatars represent their real world counterparts. In particular, this text explores the potential for these environments to be used for…

  14. Computer Music

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Perry

    This chapter covers algorithms, technologies, computer languages, and systems for computer music. Computer music involves the application of computers and other digital/electronic technologies to music composition, performance, theory, history, and perception. The field combines digital signal processing, computational algorithms, computer languages, hardware and software systems, acoustics, psychoacoustics (low-level perception of sounds from the raw acoustic signal), and music cognition (higher-level perception of musical style, form, emotion, etc.). Although most people would think that analog synthesizers and electronic music substantially predate the use of computers in music, many experiments and complete computer music systems were being constructed and used as early as the 1950s.

  15. Application of physics engines in virtual worlds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norman, Mark; Taylor, Tim

    2002-03-01

    Dynamic virtual worlds potentially can provide a much richer and more enjoyable experience than static ones. To realize such worlds, three approaches are commonly used. The first of these, and still widely applied, involves importing traditional animations from a modeling system such as 3D Studio Max. This approach is therefore limited to predefined animation scripts or combinations/blends thereof. The second approach involves the integration of some specific-purpose simulation code, such as car dynamics, and is thus generally limited to one (class of) application(s). The third approach involves the use of general-purpose physics engines, which promise to enable a range of compelling dynamic virtual worlds and to considerably speed up development. By far the largest market today for real-time simulation is computer games, revenues exceeding those of the movie industry. Traditionally, the simulation is produced by game developers in-house for specific titles. However, off-the-shelf middleware physics engines are now available for use in games and related domains. In this paper, we report on our experiences of using middleware physics engines to create a virtual world as an interactive experience, and an advanced scenario where artificial life techniques generate controllers for physically modeled characters.

  16. Learning from the World and Learning for the World: An Essay on World Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenzie, Malcolm

    2012-01-01

    This essay draws on the author's personal experiences as a head of school on three continents, over 20 years, as well as on some of his recent writings and talks. From Martin Luther King Jr's idea of a world house is derived the concept of a "world school". This project charts a way for national schools to develop world-minded graduates. It is…

  17. Optimal alphabets for an RNA world.

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, Paul P; Holland, Barbara R; Moulton, Vincent; Hendy, Mike; Penny, David

    2003-01-01

    Experiments have shown that the canonical AUCG genetic alphabet is not the only possible nucleotide alphabet. In this work we address the question 'is the canonical alphabet optimal?' We make the assumption that the genetic alphabet was determined in the RNA world. Computational tools are used to infer the RNA secondary structure (shape) from a given RNA sequence, and statistics from RNA shapes are gathered with respect to alphabet size. Then, simulations based upon the replication and selection of fixed-sized RNA populations are used to investigate the effect of alternative alphabets upon RNA's ability to step through a fitness landscape. These results show that for a low copy fidelity the canonical alphabet is fitter than two-, six- and eight-letter alphabets. In higher copy-fidelity experiments, six-letter alphabets outperform the four-letter alphabets, suggesting that the canonical alphabet is indeed a relic of the RNA world. PMID:12816657

  18. Thematic World Wide Web Visualization System

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1996-10-10

    WebTheme is a system designed to facilitate world wide web information access and retrieval through visualization. It consists of two principal pieces, a WebTheme Server which allows users to enter in a query and automatocally harvest and process information of interest, and a WebTheme browser, which allows users to work with both Galaxies and Themescape visualizations of their data within a JAVA capable world wide web browser. WebTheme is an Internet solution, meaning that accessmore » to the server and the resulting visualizations can all be performed through the use of a WWW browser. This allows users to access and interact with SPIRE (Spatial Paradigm for Information Retrieval and Exploration) based visualizations through a web browser regardless of what computer platforms they are running on. WebTheme is specifically designed to create databases by harvesting and processing WWW home pages available on the Internet.« less

  19. When two worlds meet.

    PubMed

    Brahm, Lyndsey M

    2012-09-01

    The author is one of four American premedical students traveled to India to spend a month with Pallium India (palliumindia.org) to learn about palliative care at Trivandrum Institute of Palliative Sciences, in the south Indian state of Kerala. The program was arranged by Child Family Health International (cfhi.org). They attended classroom sessions and joined the palliative care team during home visits and hospital consultations. They learned not just what palliative care is, but also how to understand and adapt to another culture. It was shocking to learn that all health care expenses are often out-of-pocket for most of the developing world and to see the extent of the suffering involved in life-limiting diseases. The students saw how the medical professional could adopt a basic and simple approach to medicine, acting as a mix of scientist, humanist, and spiritualist. She concludes that we in the United States too seem to be learning the value of such an approach and to make better use of available resources to improve the quality of life of those who are suffering. PMID:22973919

  20. New Worlds Airship

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harness, Anthony; Cash, Webster; Shipley, Ann; Glassman, Tiffany; Warwick, Steve

    2013-09-01

    We review the progress on the New Worlds Airship project, which has the eventual goal of suborbitally mapping the Alpha Centauri planetary system into the Habitable Zone. This project consists of a telescope viewing a star that is occulted by a starshade suspended from an airship. The starshade suppresses the starlight such that fainter planetary objects near the star are revealed. A visual sensor is used to determine the position of the starshade and keep the telescope within the starshade's shadow. In the first attempt to demonstrate starshades through astronomical observations, we have built a precision line of sight position indicator and flew it on a Zeppelin in October (2012). Since the airship provider went out of business we have been redesigning the project to use Vertical Takeoff Vertical Landing rockets instead. These Suborbital Reusable Launch Vehicles will serve as a starshade platform and test bed for further development of the visual sensor. We have completed ground tests of starshades on dry lakebeds and have shown excellent contrast. We are now attempting to use starshades on hilltops to occult stars and perform high contrast imaging of outer planetary systems such as the debris disk around Fomalhaut.

  1. Pygmalion's Computer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peelle, Howard A.

    Computers have undoubtedly entered the educational arena, mainly in the areas of computer-assisted instruction (CAI) and artificial intelligence, but whether educators should embrace computers and exactly how they should use them are matters of great debate. The use of computers in support of educational administration is widely accepted.…

  2. World with Chips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoefflinger, Bernd

    Although we are well advised to look at the future 1 day at a time, we have seen in the chapters of this book, and they necessarily could cover only a selection on the features and applications of those tiny chips, that their potential continues to grow at the exceptional rates of the past. However, the new commitment has to be towards Sustainable Nanoelectronics, guided by creating sensing, computing, memory, and communication functions, which move just a few electrons per operation, each operation consuming energy less than one or a few femtojoule, less than any of the 1014 synapses in our brains. At these energy levels, chips can serve everywhere, making them ubiquitous, pervasive, certainly wireless, and often energy-autonomous. The expected six Billion users of these chips in 2020, through their mobile, intelligent companions, will benefit from global and largely equal access to information, education, knowledge, skills, and care.

  3. Visualization of N-body Simulations in Virtual Worlds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knop, Robert A.; Ames, J.; Djorgovski, G.; Farr, W.; Hut, P.; Johnson, A.; McMillan, S.; Nakasone, A.; Vesperini, E.

    2010-01-01

    We report on work to use virtual worlds for visualizing the results of N-body calculations, on three levels. First, we have written a demonstration 3-body solver entirely in the scripting language of the popularly used virtual world Second Life. Second, we have written a physics module for the open source virtual world OpenSim that performs N-body calculations as the physics engine for the server, allowing natural 3-d visualization of the solution as the solution is being performed. Finally, we give an initial report on the potential use of virtual worlds to visualize calculations which have previously been performed, or which are being performed in other processes and reported to the virtual world server. This work has been performed as part of the Meta-Institute of Computational Astrophysics (MICA). http://www.mica-vw.org

  4. Visions for the 20th International Epidemiological Association's World Congress of Epidemiology (WCE 2014).

    PubMed

    Monsour, B B; Johnston, J M; Hennessy, T W; Schmidt, M I; Krieger, N

    2012-03-01

    During August 17th-21st, 2014, the University of Alaska Anchorage, along with other local, state, and federal agencies throughout Alaska, will host the 20(th) International Epidemiological Association's (IEA) World Congress of Epidemiology (WCE 2014). The theme for this Congress is "Global Epidemiology in a Changing Environment: The Circumpolar Perspective." The changing environment includes the full range of environments that shape population health and health inequities from the physical to the social and economic. Our circumpolar perspective on these environments includes views on how political systems, work, immigration, Indigenous status, and gender relations and sexuality affect the global world and the health of its people. Suggestions and insights from the 3(rd) North American Congress of Epidemiology (2011) and the first-ever joint regional workshop co-organized by the IEA North American Region and the IEA Latin American and Caribbean Region held at the 19(th) IEA World Congress of Epidemiology (2011) have helped direct the focus for WCE 2014. Since the Arctic regions are feeling the effects of climate change first, we believe focusing on the emerging data on the health impacts of climate change throughout the world will be an important topic for this Congress. This will include a broad range of more traditional epidemiology areas such as infectious disease epidemiology, environmental epidemiology, health disparities, and surveillance and emergency preparedness. Addressing health inequities and promoting health equity is likewise a key concern of the Congress. This Congress will also host presentations on injury epidemiology, occupational health, infectious diseases, chronic diseases, maternal and child health, surveillance and field epidemiology, mental health, violence (from self-directed, e.g., suicide, to interpersonal to structural), psychoactive substance use (including tobacco), and measures of subjective health. Attention will be given to

  5. World uranium production in 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1996-06-01

    For the first time since the political and economic opening of the former Soviet Union and Eastern Europe, world uranium production actually increased in 1995. Preliminary estimates for 1996 continue this trend, indicating additional (if slight) production increases over 1995 levels. Natural uranium production increased by about 5% in 1995 to 34,218 tons uranium or 89 Mlbs U3O8. This is an increase of approximately 1700 tons of uranium or 4.3 Mlbs of U3O8 over the updated 1994 quantities. Data is presented for each of the major uranium producing countries, for each of the world`s largest uranium mines, for each of the world`s largest corporate producers, and for major regions of the world.

  6. Physics and the Real World

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellis, George F. R.

    2006-02-01

    Physics and chemistry underlie the nature of all the world around us, including human brains. Consequently some suggest that in causal terms, physics is all there is. However, we live in an environment dominated by objects embodying the outcomes of intentional design (buildings, computers, teaspoons). The present day subject of physics has nothing to say about the intentionality resulting in existence of such objects, even though this intentionality is clearly causally effective. This paper examines the claim that the underlying physics uniquely causally determines what happens, even though we cannot predict the outcome. It suggests that what occurs is the contextual emergence of complexity: the higher levels in the hierarchy of complexity have autonomous causal powers, functionally independent of lower level processes. This is possible because top-down causation takes place as well as bottom-up action, with higher level contexts determining the outcome of lower level functioning and even modifying the nature of lower level constituents. Stored information plays a key role, resulting in non-linear dynamics that is non-local in space and time. Brain functioning is causally affected by abstractions such as the value of money and the theory of the laser. These are realised as brain states in individuals, but are not equivalent to them. Consequently physics per se cannot causally determine the outcome of human creativity, rather it creates the possibility space allowing human intelligence to function autonomously. The challenge to physics is to develop a realistic description of causality in truly complex hierarchical structures, with top-down causation and memory effects allowing autonomous higher levels of order to emerge with genuine causal powers.

  7. WHO: World Health Assembly.

    PubMed

    McGregor, A

    1992-05-23

    1200 delegates from 175 member countries attended the 45th World Health Assembly in Geneva. Everyone at the Assembly ratified measures to prevent and control AIDS. 12 countries intended to do long term planning for community based care for AIDS patients. Further the Assembly denounced instances where countries and individuals denied the gravity of the AIDS pandemic. In fact, it expressed the importance for urgent and intensive action against HIV/AIDS. The assembly backed proposals to prevent and control sexually transmitted diseases that affect AIDS patients, especially hepatitis B. For example, in countries with hepatitis B prevalence 8% (many countries in Sub-Sahara Africa, Asia, the Pacific region, and South America), health officials should introduce hepatitis B vaccine into their existing immunization programs by 1995. By 1997, this vaccine should be part of all immunization programs. The Assembly was aware of the obstacles of establishing reliable cold chains for nationwide distribution, however. Delegates in Committee A objected to the fact that 50% of the populations of developing countries continued to have limited access to essential drugs. They also expressed disapproval in implementation of WHO's 1988 ethical criteria for promotion of drugs which WHO entrusted to the Council for International Organisations of Medical Sciences (CIOMS). CIOMS lacked WHO's status and thus could not effectively monitor drug advertising. In fact, the pharmaceutical industry as well as WHO provided the funds for a meeting of 25 experts to discuss principles included in the ethical criteria. At least 4 countries insisted that WHO have the ultimate authority in monitoring drug advertising. Delegates did adopt a compromise resolution on this topic which required that industry promotion methods be reported to the 1994 Assembly via the Executive Board. The Assembly requested WHO to establish an international advisory committee on nursing and midwifery and to improve the network of

  8. Rutherford's Nuclear World

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bingwa, Fidele

    2012-03-01

    The goals of the Center for History of Physics at the American Institute of Physics (AIP) are to preserve and make known the historical record of modern physics and allied science. 2011 marked the 100th anniversary of the discovery of the atomic Nucleus by Lord Rutherford which is why Center for History of Physics decided to create the ``Rutherford's Nuclear World'' web exhibit. Lord Rutherford was a great scientist and he is considered the father of Nuclear Physics. My research for the web exhibit focused on Lord Rutherford's early life and his time as director of the Cavendish Laboratory. For most scientific breakthroughs, only the scientists' names and the time of the breakthroughs seem to matter. The goal of my research was to put stories behind Rutherford's scientific discoveries, to know what was the atmosphere in his lab, what was going on in his personal life before and after the discovery, and also to understand the man he was by looking back at his early life, and the journey that made him one of the elites. All the information found during the research came from the resources of the Niels Bohr Library which include microfilms of Lord Rutherford's correspondence, oral history interviews of his closest collaborators, books written by his students and biographers, and pictures from the visual archives. The exhibit will highlight the importance of education in Rutherford's upbringing, his passion and enthusiasm for research, his scientific insight, his warm personality that made him a great educator, friend, and mentor. In addition, the exhibit, through Rutherford's interactions with fellow scientists, offers a unique perspective of the early 20^th century scientific community.

  9. World Cup Final

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    On July 9, hundreds of millions of fans worldwide will be glued to their television sets watching the final match of the 2006 FIFA World Cup, played in Berlin's Olympic stadium (Olympiastadion). The stadium was originally built for the 1936 Summer Olympics. The Olympic Stadium seats 76,000,; its roof rises 68 meters over the seats and is made up of transparent panels that allow sunlight to stream in during the day.

    With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

    Size: 12.1 by 15.9 kilometers (7.5 by 9.5 miles) Location: 52.5 degrees North latitude, 13.3 degrees East longitude Orientation: North at top Image Data: ASTER bands 3, 2, and 1 Original Data Resolution: 15 meters (49.2 feet) Dates Acquired: October 15, 2005

  10. Circulant Graph Modeling Deterministic Small-World Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Chenggui

    In recent years, many research works have revealed some technological networks including internet to be small-world networks, which is attracting attention from computer scientists. One can decide if or not a real network is Small-world by whether it has high local clustering and small average path distance which are the two distinguishing characteristics of small-world networks. So far, researchers have presented many small-world models by dynamically evolving a deterministic network into a small world one by stochastic adding vertices and edges to original networks. Rather few works focused on deterministic models. In this paper, as a important kind of Cayley graph, the circulant graph is proposed as models of deterministic small-world networks, thinking if its simple structures and significant adaptability. It shows circulant graph constructed in this document takes on the two expected characteristics of small word. This work should be useful because circulant graph has serviced as some models of communication and computer networks. The small world characteristic will be helpful to design and analysis of structure and performance.

  11. Science in the Muslim world

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Khalili, Jim

    2010-04-01

    There are more than a billion Muslims in the world today - over a fifth of the world's total population - spread over many more than the 57 member states of the Organisation of the Islamic Conference (OIC) in which Islam is the official religion. These include some of the world's wealthiest nations, such as Saudi Arabia and Kuwait, as well as some of the poorest, like Somalia and Sudan. The economies of some of these countries - such as the Gulf States, Iran, Turkey, Egypt, Morocco, Malaysia and Pakistan - have been growing steadily for a number of years, and yet, in comparison with the West, the Islamic world still appears somewhat disengaged from modern science.

  12. 2008 world direct reduction statistics

    SciTech Connect

    2009-07-01

    This supplement discusses total direct reduced iron (DRI) production for 2007 and 2008 by process. Total 2008 production by MIDREX(reg sign) direct reduction process plants was over 39.8 million tons. The total of all coal-based processes was 17.6 million tons. Statistics for world DRI production are also given by region for 2007 and 2008 and by year (1970-2009). Capacity utilization for 2008 by process is given. World DRI production by region and by process is given for 1998-2008 and world DRI shipments are given from the 1970s to 2008. A list of world direct reduction plants is included.

  13. Quantum probability and many worlds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemmo, Meir; Pitowsky, Itamar

    We discuss the meaning of probabilities in the many worlds interpretation of quantum mechanics. We start by presenting very briefly the many worlds theory, how the problem of probability arises, and some unsuccessful attempts to solve it in the past. Then we criticize a recent attempt by Deutsch to derive the quantum mechanical probabilities from the non-probabilistic parts of quantum mechanics and classical decision theory. We further argue that the Born probability does not make sense even as an additional probability rule in the many worlds theory. Our conclusion is that the many worlds theory fails to account for the probabilistic statements of standard (collapse) quantum mechanics.

  14. A guide to green computing

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, W.

    1996-03-01

    Computers are the fastest growing electrical load in the business world. In the last ten years, computer-related energy consumption has increased five-fold. Computer use is now estimated to account for 5 percent of all commercial electrical consumption; if nothing is done to reverse this trend, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) warns that this figure could jump to 10 percent by the year 2000. It`s not just the number of computers which is driving energy consumption upward. The way computers are used also adds to the increasing energy burden. Research reveals as many as 30 to 40 percent of the personal computers nationwide are left on continuously. The University at Buffalo alone could save about $150,000 per year by choosing and using computers wisely.

  15. Food and My World: My Health My World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tharp, Barbara; Dresden, Judith; Denk, James; Moreno, Nancy

    This curriculum guide for students in grades K-4 is part of the My Health My World Series. It explores environmental issues, focusing on food and the environment. The unit includes (1) an activities guide for teachers entitled, "Food and My World," which presents activity-based lessons that entice students to discover concepts in science,…

  16. Images of World Society: A Third World View.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gopal, Sarvepalli

    1982-01-01

    Discusses conditions in the Third World which prevent the development of a harmonious world society. The effects of nationalism, nuclear proliferation, racism, political and economic inequities, and social and religious conservatism on the growth of a global outlook are considered. (AM)

  17. When the Academic World and the Real World Meet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svetlik, David

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author relates the need for a complimentary relationship between the academic and real outside world. This is not to compare a college degree with outside work experience--the two are complementary. It is the world of business and industry that often cause changes. Students and practitioners of industrial automation are an…

  18. An Approach to World Order Studies and the World System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falk, Richard; Kim, Samuel S.

    This paper discusses an approach to world order studies which can be used to supplant traditional international relations courses. It is one of a series of working papers commissioned by the World Order Models Project (WOMP) in its effort to stimulate research, education, dialogue, and political action aimed at contributing to a movement for a…

  19. No Small World: Visions and Revisions of World Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, Michael Thomas, Ed.

    This collection of essays deals with world literature. The essays are focused on four primary goals: to map the conceptual and cultural problems inherent in common educational approaches to the subject which sometimes see world literature as a metanarrative of Western culture; to suggest new genres and perspectives; to consider specific curricular…

  20. Introduction to World Peace through World Law. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Grenville; Sohn, Louis

    Two models for changing existing international organizations into effective instruments of world governance are presented. The first model revises the present Charter of the United Nations; the second calls for a new world security and development organization which would supplement the existing machinery of the United Nations for peacekeeping,…