Science.gov

Sample records for 180-day generic exclusivity

  1. 78 FR 30390 - Applications Delayed More Than 180 Days

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Applications Delayed More Than 180 Days AGENCY... Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation, East Building, PHH-30, 1200 New Jersey Avenue...

  2. Respiratory mechanics after 180 days space mission (EUROMIR'95)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venturoli, Daniele; Semino, Paola; Negrini, Daniela; Miserocchi, Giuseppe

    The present study reports data on respiratory function of lung and chest wall following the 180 days long European — Russian EuroMir '95 space mission. Data reported refer to two subjects studied before the mission, on day 9 and 175 in flight and on days 1, 10, 12, 27 and 120 after return. In-flight vital capacity (VC) and expiratory reserve volume (ERV) were similar to those in supine posture, namely ~ 5% and ~ 30% less than in sitting posture. On day 1 after return, VC was reduced by ~30 % in both postures. This reflected a decrease in ERV (~0.5 L) and in IC (inspiratory capacity, ~ 1.7 L) that could be attributed to a marked weakening of the respiratory muscles. Regain of normal preflight values barely occurred 120 days after return. Post-flight pressure-volume curves of the lung, chest wall and total respiratory system are equal to preflight ones. The pressure-volume curve of the lung in supine posture is displaced to the right relative to sitting posture and shows a lower compliance. As far as the lung in-flight condition resembles that occurring in supine posture, this implies a lower compliance, a greater amount of blood in the pulmonary microvascular bed, a more homogeneous lung perfusion and therefore a greater microvascular filtration rate towards lung interstitium.

  3. 78 FR 12417 - List of Special Permit Applications Delayed 180 Days

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-22

    ... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration List of Special Permit Applications Delayed 180 Days AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), DOT. ACTION: List of applications... of Hazardous Materials Special Permits and Approvals, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials...

  4. 76 FR 19902 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Decision and Order Granting 180-Day Extension...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-11

    ..., DOE published a notice in the Federal Register (76 FR 17755) which announced receipt of petitions... (75 FR 64621) from the following 27 companies: (1) Adams Manufacturing Company; (2) Allied Air... 180-Day Extension of Compliance Date for Residential Furnaces and Boilers Test Procedure...

  5. 49 CFR 24.401 - Replacement housing payment for 180-day homeowner-occupants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...) Has actually owned and occupied the displacement dwelling for not less than 180 days immediately prior... displacement dwelling or, in the case of condemnation, the date the full amount of the estimate of just... homeowner-occupant is paid for the displacement dwelling, or the date a comparable replacement dwelling...

  6. 49 CFR 24.401 - Replacement housing payment for 180-day homeowner-occupants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Replacement housing payment for 180-day homeowner-occupants. 24.401 Section 24.401 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation UNIFORM RELOCATION ASSISTANCE AND REAL PROPERTY ACQUISITION FOR FEDERAL AND FEDERALLY-ASSISTED PROGRAMS Replacement...

  7. 49 CFR 24.401 - Replacement housing payment for 180-day homeowner-occupants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Replacement housing payment for 180-day homeowner-occupants. 24.401 Section 24.401 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation UNIFORM RELOCATION ASSISTANCE AND REAL PROPERTY ACQUISITION FOR FEDERAL AND FEDERALLY-ASSISTED PROGRAMS Replacement...

  8. A subchronic (180-day) oral toxicity study of ethyl tertiary-butyl ether, a bioethanol, in rats.

    PubMed

    Miyata, Katsumi; Koga, Takayuki; Aso, Sunao; Hoshuyama, Satsuki; Ajimi, Syozo; Furukawa, Kotaro

    2014-07-01

    A subchronic (180-day) toxicity study was conducted to evaluate the effects of ethyl tertiary-butyl ether (ETBE), a biomass fuel, in male and female rats. ETBE was administered at dose levels of 0, 5, 25, 100 and 400 mg/kg/body weight (b.w.)/day by gavage. No treatment-related adverse effects were observed at 5, 25 or 100 mg/kg. Centrilobular hypertrophy of hepatocytes was observed in males and females and their relative liver weights were increased, suggesting enhanced metabolic activity. From these results, we concluded that the no observed adverse effect level of ETBE was 100 mg/kg b.w./day under the conditions tested. PMID:24252074

  9. An Administrative Meter Maid: Using Inter Partes Review and Post-Grant Review to Curb Exclusivity Parking via the "Failure to Market" Provision of the Hatch-Waxman Act.

    PubMed

    Apel, Brian T

    2015-01-01

    Congress created the unique Hatch-Waxman framework in 1984 to increase the availability of low-cost generic drugs while preserving patent incentives for new drug development. The Hatch-Waxman Act rewards generic drug companies that successfully challenge a pharmaceutical patent: 180 days of market exclusivity before any other generic firm can enter the market. When a generic firm obtains this reward, sometimes drug developers agree to pay generic firms to delay entering the market. These pay-for-delay agreements give rise to exclusivity parking and run counter to congressional intent by delaying full generic drug competition. The Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement, and Modernization Act created several statutory forfeiture provisions that proved only marginally effective at curbing the practice of exclusivity parking. More recently, Congress created new quasi-judicial administrative proceedings that effectively replace certain kinds of district court patent litigation. This Note describes the complex statutory scheme that gave rise to exclusivity parking, explains why previous and current attempts to curtail exclusivity parking were and remain ineffective, and suggests amending the "failure to market" provision to include these new administrative proceedings as a way to help curb exclusivity parking. PMID:26394458

  10. Extended Healing Validation of an Artificial Tendon to Connect the Quadriceps Muscle to the Tibia: 180-day Study

    PubMed Central

    Melvin, Alan J.; Litsky, Alan S.; Mayerson, Joel L.; Stringer, Keith; Juncosa-Melvin, Natalia

    2011-01-01

    Whenever a tendon or its bone insertion is disrupted or removed, existing surgical techniques provide a temporary connection or scaffolding to promote healing, but the interface of living to nonliving materials soon breaks down under the stress of these applications, if it must bear the load more than acutely. Patients are thus disabled whose prostheses, defect size, or mere anatomy limit the availability or outcomes of such treatments. Our group developed the OrthoCoupler™ device to join skeletal muscle to prosthetic or natural structures without this interface breakdown. In this study, the goat knee extensor mechanism (quadriceps tendon, patella, and patellar tendon) was removed from the right hind limb in 16 goats. The device connected the quadriceps muscle to a stainless steel bone plate on the tibia. Mechanical testing and histology specimens were collected from each operated leg and contra lateral unoperated control legs at 180 days. Maximum forces in the operated leg (vs. unoperated) were 1400± 93N (vs. 1179± 61 N), linear stiffnesses were 33± 3 N/mm (vs. 37 ± 4N/mm), and elongations at failure were 92.1 ± 5.3 mm (vs. 68.4 ± 3.8 mm; mean ± SEM). Higher maximum forces (p = 0.02) and elongations at failure (p = 0.008) of legs with the device versus unoperated controls were significant; linear stiffnesses were not (p = 0.3). We believe this technology will yield improved procedures for clinical challenges in orthopaedic oncology, revision arthroplasty, tendon transfer, and tendon injury reconstruction. PMID:22179930

  11. 49 CFR 24.502 - Replacement housing payment for 180-day mobile homeowner displaced from a mobile home, and/or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Replacement housing payment for 180-day mobile... ACQUISITION FOR FEDERAL AND FEDERALLY-ASSISTED PROGRAMS Mobile Homes § 24.502 Replacement housing payment for... payment, not to exceed $22,500, under § 24.401 if: (1) The person occupied the mobile home on...

  12. 49 CFR 24.502 - Replacement housing payment for 180-day mobile homeowner displaced from a mobile home, and/or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Replacement housing payment for 180-day mobile... ACQUISITION FOR FEDERAL AND FEDERALLY-ASSISTED PROGRAMS Mobile Homes § 24.502 Replacement housing payment for... payment, not to exceed $22,500, under § 24.401 if: (1) The person occupied the mobile home on...

  13. 49 CFR 24.502 - Replacement housing payment for 180-day mobile homeowner displaced from a mobile home, and/or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Replacement housing payment for 180-day mobile... Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation UNIFORM RELOCATION ASSISTANCE AND REAL PROPERTY ACQUISITION FOR FEDERAL AND FEDERALLY-ASSISTED PROGRAMS Mobile Homes § 24.502 Replacement housing payment...

  14. 49 CFR 24.502 - Replacement housing payment for 180-day mobile homeowner displaced from a mobile home, and/or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Replacement housing payment for 180-day mobile... Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation UNIFORM RELOCATION ASSISTANCE AND REAL PROPERTY ACQUISITION FOR FEDERAL AND FEDERALLY-ASSISTED PROGRAMS Mobile Homes § 24.502 Replacement housing payment...

  15. 49 CFR 24.502 - Replacement housing payment for 180-day mobile homeowner displaced from a mobile home, and/or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Replacement housing payment for 180-day mobile... Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation UNIFORM RELOCATION ASSISTANCE AND REAL PROPERTY ACQUISITION FOR FEDERAL AND FEDERALLY-ASSISTED PROGRAMS Mobile Homes § 24.502 Replacement housing payment...

  16. Can Chronic Pain Patients Be Adequately Treated Using Generic Pain Medications to the Exclusion of Brand-Name Ones?

    PubMed

    Candido, Kenneth D; Chiweshe, Joseph; Anantamongkol, Utchariya; Knezevic, Nebojsa Nick

    2016-01-01

    According to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) reports, approximately 8 in 10 prescriptions filled in the United States are for generic medications, with an expectation that this number will increase over the next few years. The impetus for this emphasis on generics is the cost disparity between them and brand-name products. The use of FDA-approved generic drugs saved 158 billion dollars in 2010 alone. In the current health care climate, there is continually increasing pressure for prescribers to write for generic alternative medications, occasionally at the expense of best clinical practices. This creates a conflict wherein both physicians and patients may find brand-name medications clinically superior but nevertheless choose generic ones. The issue of generic versus brand medications is a key component of the discussion of health payers, physicians and their patients. This review evaluates some of the important medications in the armamentarium of pain physicians that are frequently used in the management of chronic pain, and that are currently at the forefront of this issue, including Opana (oxymorphone; Endo Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Malvern, PA), Gralise (gabapentin; Depomed, Newark, CA), and Horizant (gabapentin enacarbil; XenoPort, Santa Clara, CA) that are each available in generic forms as well. We also discuss the use of Lyrica (pregabalin; Pfizer, New York, NY), which is currently unavailable as generic medication, and Cymbalta (duloxetine; Eli Lilly, Indianapolis, IN), which has been recently FDA approved to be available in a generic form. It is clear that the use of generic medications results in large financial savings for the cost of prescriptions on a national scale. However, cost-analysis is only part of the equation when treating chronic pain patients and undervalues the relationships of enhanced compliance due to single-daily dosing and stable and reliable pharmacokinetics associated with extended-duration preparations using either retentive

  17. A call for a moratorium on the .health generic top-level domain: preventing the commercialization and exclusive control of online health information.

    PubMed

    Mackey, Tim K; Eysenbach, Gunther; Liang, Bryan A; Kohler, Jillian C; Geissbuhler, Antoine; Attaran, Amir

    2014-01-01

    In just a few weeks, the Internet could be expanded to include a new .health generic top-level domain name run by a for-profit company with virtually no public health credentials - unless the international community intervenes immediately. This matters to the future of global public health as the "Health Internet" has begun to emerge as the predominant source of health information for consumers and patients. Despite this increasing use and reliance on online health information that may have inadequate quality or reliability, the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) recently announced it intends to move forward with an auction to award the exclusive, 10 year rights to the .health generic top-level domain name. This decision is being made over the protests of the World Medical Association, World Health Organization, and other stakeholders, who have called for a suspension or delay until key questions can be resolved. However, rather than engage in constructive dialogue with the public health community over its concerns, ICANN chose the International Chamber of Commerce-a business lobbying group for industries to adjudicate the .health concerns. This has resulted in a rejection of challenges filed by ICANN's own independent watchdog and others, such that ICANN's Board decided in June 2014 that there are "no noted objections to move forward" in auctioning the .health generic top-level domain name to the highest bidder before the end of the year. This follows ICANN's award of several other health-related generic top-level domain names that have been unsuccessfully contested. In response, we call for an immediate moratorium/suspension of the ICANN award/auction process in order to provide the international public health community time to ensure the proper management and governance of health information online. PMID:25283176

  18. Exposure to Pb, Cd, and As mixtures potentiates the production of oxidative stress precursors: 30-day, 90-day, and 180-day drinking water studies in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Whittaker, Margaret H.; Wang, Gensheng; Chen Xueqing; Lipsky, Michael; Smith, Donald; Gwiazda, Roberto; Fowler, Bruce A.

    2011-07-15

    Exposure to chemical mixtures is a common and important determinant of toxicity and is of particular concern due to their appearance in sources of drinking water. Despite this, few in vivo mixture studies have been conducted to date to understand the health impact of chemical mixtures compared to single chemicals. Interactive effects of lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd) and arsenic (As) were evaluated in 30-, 90-, and 180-day factorial design drinking water studies in rats designed to test the hypothesis that ingestion of such mixtures at individual component Lowest-Observed-Effect-Levels (LOELs) results in increased levels of the pro-oxidant delta aminolevulinic acid (ALA), iron, and copper. LOEL levels of Pb, Cd, and As mixtures resulted in the increased presence of mediators of oxidative stress such as ALA, copper, and iron. ALA increases were followed by statistically significant increases in kidney copper in the 90- and 180-day studies. Statistical evidence of interaction was identified for six biologically relevant variables: blood delta aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD), kidney ALAD, urinary ALA, urinary iron, kidney iron, and kidney copper. The current investigations underscore the importance of considering interactive effects that common toxic agents such as Pb, Cd, and As may have upon one another at low-dose levels. The interactions between known toxic trace elements at biologically relevant concentrations shown here demonstrate a clear need to rigorously review methods by which national/international agencies assess health risks of chemicals, since exposures may commonly occur as complex mixtures.

  19. ADATSA Follow-Up Study of Extended Outpatient Care: A Comparison of 90 Days versus 180 Days of Outpatient Treatment for Clients of Washington State's Alcoholism and Drug Addiction Treatment and Support Act.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Der Hyde, Vincent A.; And Others

    This study was designed to compare outcomes for two groups of alcohol and substance abuse clients (N=230): a control group assigned to regular 90 days of outpatient treatment, and an experimental group assigned to 180 days of extended outpatient care. Outcomes were compared in the following nine categories: (1) relapse, measured as reported…

  20. Age Discrimination--Notice--Filing Notice of Intent to Sue Within 180 Days After the Alleged Violation Is a Jurisdictional Prerequisite to an Action Under the Age Discrimination in Employment Act. Hiscott v. General Elec. Co., 521 F. 2d 632 (6th Cir. 1975)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stiltner, L. Del

    1976-01-01

    The Hiscott decision indicates that the court will require notice to meet specific standards before an individual's right to maintain a civil action under the ADEA becomes operative. It also suggests that strict compliance with the 180-day notice provision will continue to be a condition precedent to suit. (Author/LBH)

  1. Drug patent expirations and the speed of generic entry.

    PubMed Central

    Bae, J P

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Using recent data, to analyze the generic drug entry phenomenon to determine the factors that influence the speed and likelihood of generic drug entries. DATA SOURCES: Data for 81 drugs that have lost patent between 1987 and 1994. Patent and exclusive marketing rights expiration dates: Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) Approved Drug Products with Therapeutic Equivalent Evaluations (1986-1989). Generic entry dates: FDA Drug and Device Product Approvals (Jan. 1987-Dec. 1994). Numbers of pending generic applications: FDA Office of Generic Drugs Quantitative Report-ANDAs and AADAs (Nov. 1990-Jan. 1993). Sales revenue: Pharmaceutical Data Services, Walsh-America. STUDY DESIGN: This study appropriately recognizes generic entry as a survival problem, and uses a proportional hazard method for analysis. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: (1) There is a negative relationship between an innovative drug's sales revenue and the time to generic entry. (2) Entries of generics tend to be slower for drugs that have either very few or a very large number of competing brands in the marketplace. (3) The time to generic entry increased overall between 1987 and 1994. (4) Drugs that primarily treat chronic symptoms tend to enter faster than the types of drugs that primarily treat acute illnesses. CONCLUSIONS: The analysis shows that the generic industry is targeting large-revenue products and chronic drug markets. Entry of a generic drug is influenced by the existing branded substitutes in the marketplace. Surprisingly, the generic drug entry process has slowed despite many changes that would facilitate entry. PMID:9108806

  2. Generic prescribing of antidepressants.

    PubMed

    Bruck, P; Antao, C A; Henry, J A

    1992-11-01

    Analysis of National Health Service prescription data for the antidepressants from 1980 to 1989 shows a consistent secular trend towards the increased use of generic names on prescriptions for this group of drugs. This apparently reflects national trends for all drugs, and was similar for most antidepressants. However, generic prescribing had by 1989 increased significantly more rapidly with fluvoxamine, which was introduced in 1987. The two drugs introduced in 1989, fluoxetine and amoxapine, also had a high generic prescribing rate in their year of introduction. Increased generic prescribing may become a feature with further new drugs. However, the use of the generic name on the prescription has relatively little influence on what is dispensed to the patient. Pharmacists may dispense a brand name when given a generic prescription. Moreover, pressures on doctors to write generic names on prescriptions may have limited relevance for some drugs; generic alternatives were available for only four out of 22 antidepressants. PMID:1474553

  3. Conceptual Distinctions amongst Generics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prasada, Sandeep; Khemlani, Sangeet; Leslie, Sarah-Jane; Glucksberg, Sam

    2013-01-01

    Generic sentences (e.g., bare plural sentences such as "dogs have four legs" and "mosquitoes carry malaria") are used to talk about "kinds" of things. Three experiments investigated the conceptual foundations of generics as well as claims within the formal semantic approaches to generics concerning the roles of prevalence, cue validity and…

  4. INL Generic Robot Architecture

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2005-03-30

    The INL Generic Robot Architecture is a generic, extensible software framework that can be applied across a variety of different robot geometries, sensor suites and low-level proprietary control application programming interfaces (e.g. mobility, aria, aware, player, etc.).

  5. Generic phytosanitary irradiation treatments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The history of the development of generic phytosanitary irradiation (PI) treatments is discussed beginning with its initial proposal in 1986. Generic PI treatments in use today are 150 Gy for all hosts of Tephritidae, 250 Gy for all arthropods on mango and papaya shipped from Australia to New Zeala...

  6. Generic antibiotics in Japan.

    PubMed

    Fujimura, Shigeru; Watanabe, Akira

    2012-08-01

    Generic drugs have been used extensively in many developed countries, although their use in Japan has been limited. Generic drugs reduce drug expenses and thereby national medical expenditure. Because generic drugs provide advantages for both public administration and consumers, it is expected that they will be more widely used in the future. However, the diffusion rate of generic drugs in Japan is quite low compared with that of other developed countries. An investigation on generic drugs conducted by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare in Japan revealed that 17.2 % of doctors and 37.2 % of patients had not used generic drugs. The major reasons for this low use rate included distrust of off-patent products and lower drug price margin compared with the brand name drug. The generic drugs available in the market include external drugs such as wet packs, antihypertensive agents, analgesics, anticancer drugs, and antibiotics. Among them, antibiotics are frequently used in cases of acute infectious diseases. When the treatment of these infections is delayed, the infection might be aggravated rapidly. The pharmacokinetics-pharmacodynamics (PK-PD) theory has been adopted in recent chemotherapy, and in many cases, the most appropriate dosage and administration of antibiotics are determined for individual patients considering renal function; high-dosage antibiotics are used preferably for a short duration. Therefore, a highly detailed antimicrobial agent is necessary. However, some of the generic antibiotics have less antibacterial potency or solubility than the brand name products. We showed that the potency of the generic products of vancomycin and teicoplanin is lower than that of the branded drugs by 14.6 % and 17.3 %, respectively. Furthermore, we confirmed that a generic meropenem drug for injection required about 82 s to solubilize in saline, whereas the brand product required only about 21 s. It was thought that the cause may be the difference in size of bulk

  7. Product, generic, and random generic quantum satisfiability

    SciTech Connect

    Laumann, C. R.; Sondhi, S. L.; Laeuchli, A. M.; Moessner, R.; Scardicchio, A.

    2010-06-15

    We report a cluster of results on k-QSAT, the problem of quantum satisfiability for k-qubit projectors which generalizes classical satisfiability with k-bit clauses to the quantum setting. First we define the NP-complete problem of product satisfiability and give a geometrical criterion for deciding when a QSAT interaction graph is product satisfiable with positive probability. We show that the same criterion suffices to establish quantum satisfiability for all projectors. Second, we apply these results to the random graph ensemble with generic projectors and obtain improved lower bounds on the location of the SAT-unSAT transition. Third, we present numerical results on random, generic satisfiability which provide estimates for the location of the transition for k=3 and k=4 and mild evidence for the existence of a phase which is satisfiable by entangled states alone.

  8. What makes a generic medication generic?

    PubMed

    Howland, Robert H

    2009-12-01

    By law, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) can approve generic versions of brand-name drugs without requiring that research be conducted to prove them safe and effective. However, compared with a brand-name drug, a generic drug must demonstrate that it (a) contains the same active ingredients; (b) is identical in strength, dosage form, and route of administration; (c) is bioequivalent; (d) has the same clinical use indications; (e) meets the same batch requirements for identity, strength, purity, and quality; and (f) is manufactured according to the same FDA regulations. The most important aspect of generic drug development are the concepts of bioavailability and bioequivalence. According to the concept of bioequivalence, if a drug product contains an active ingredient that is chemically identical and is delivered to the site of action at the same rate and extent as another drug product, then it is considered to be clinically equivalent and can be substituted for that drug product. PMID:20000278

  9. Developing Competitive and Sustainable Polish Generic Medicines Market

    PubMed Central

    Simoens, Steven

    2009-01-01

    Aim To descriptively analyze the policy environment surrounding the Polish generic medicines retail market. Method The policy analysis was based on an international literature review. Also, a simulation exercise was carried out to compute potential savings from substituting generic for originator medicines in Poland using IMS Health pharmaceutical intelligence data. Results Poland has a mature, high-volume, low-value generic medicines market, primarily driven by the establishment of the reference price at the price of the cheapest medicine in combination with pricing regulation and the low level of medicine prices. The practice of discounting in the distribution chain implies that the National Health Fund and patients do not capture the potential savings from a generic medicines market where companies compete on price. This high-volume market has benefited in the past from the limited availability of originator medicines and a short data exclusivity period, even though there are no incentives for physicians to prescribe generic medicines and a financial disincentive for pharmacists to dispense generic medicines. Increased generic substitution would be expected to reduce public expenditure on originator medicines by 21%. Conclusion To develop a competitive and sustainable market, Poland needs to consider moving away from competition by discount to competition by price. This could be achieved by replacing maximum distribution margins by fixed margins. Also, Poland may wish to raise reference prices as a temporary measure to boost market entry for medicine classes with few generic medicines. PMID:19839067

  10. Generic POCC architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    This document describes a generic POCC (Payload Operations Control Center) architecture based upon current POCC software practice, and several refinements to the architecture based upon object-oriented design principles and expected developments in teleoperations. The current-technology generic architecture is an abstraction based upon close analysis of the ERBS, COBE, and GRO POCC's. A series of three refinements is presented: these may be viewed as an approach to a phased transition to the recommended architecture. The third refinement constitutes the recommended architecture, which, together with associated rationales, will form the basis of the rapid synthesis environment to be developed in the remainder of this task. The document is organized into two parts. The first part describes the current generic architecture using several graphical as well as tabular representations or 'views.' The second part presents an analysis of the generic architecture in terms of object-oriented principles. On the basis of this discussion, refinements to the generic architecture are presented, again using a combination of graphical and tabular representations.

  11. Generic Airspace Survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mogford, Richard H.; Bridges, Wayne; Gujarl, Vimmy; Lee, Paul U.; Preston, William

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on an extension of generic airspace research to explore the amount of memorization and specialized skills required to manage sectors with specific characteristics or factors. Fifty-five retired controllers were given an electronic survey where they rated the amount of memorization or specialized skills needed for sixteen generic airspace factors. The results suggested similarities in the pattern of ratings between different areas of the US (East, Central, and West). The average of the ratings for each area also showed some differences between regions, with ratings being generally higher in the East area. All sixteen factors were rated as moderately to highly important and may be useful for future research on generic airspace, air traffic controller workload, etc.

  12. Generic robot architecture

    SciTech Connect

    Bruemmer, David J; Few, Douglas A

    2010-09-21

    The present invention provides methods, computer readable media, and apparatuses for a generic robot architecture providing a framework that is easily portable to a variety of robot platforms and is configured to provide hardware abstractions, abstractions for generic robot attributes, environment abstractions, and robot behaviors. The generic robot architecture includes a hardware abstraction level and a robot abstraction level. The hardware abstraction level is configured for developing hardware abstractions that define, monitor, and control hardware modules available on a robot platform. The robot abstraction level is configured for defining robot attributes and provides a software framework for building robot behaviors from the robot attributes. Each of the robot attributes includes hardware information from at least one hardware abstraction. In addition, each robot attribute is configured to substantially isolate the robot behaviors from the at least one hardware abstraction.

  13. Generic Kalman Filter Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lisano, Michael E., II; Crues, Edwin Z.

    2005-01-01

    The Generic Kalman Filter (GKF) software provides a standard basis for the development of application-specific Kalman-filter programs. Historically, Kalman filters have been implemented by customized programs that must be written, coded, and debugged anew for each unique application, then tested and tuned with simulated or actual measurement data. Total development times for typical Kalman-filter application programs have ranged from months to weeks. The GKF software can simplify the development process and reduce the development time by eliminating the need to re-create the fundamental implementation of the Kalman filter for each new application. The GKF software is written in the ANSI C programming language. It contains a generic Kalman-filter-development directory that, in turn, contains a code for a generic Kalman filter function; more specifically, it contains a generically designed and generically coded implementation of linear, linearized, and extended Kalman filtering algorithms, including algorithms for state- and covariance-update and -propagation functions. The mathematical theory that underlies the algorithms is well known and has been reported extensively in the open technical literature. Also contained in the directory are a header file that defines generic Kalman-filter data structures and prototype functions and template versions of application-specific subfunction and calling navigation/estimation routine code and headers. Once the user has provided a calling routine and the required application-specific subfunctions, the application-specific Kalman-filter software can be compiled and executed immediately. During execution, the generic Kalman-filter function is called from a higher-level navigation or estimation routine that preprocesses measurement data and post-processes output data. The generic Kalman-filter function uses the aforementioned data structures and five implementation- specific subfunctions, which have been developed by the user on

  14. Generic phytosanitary irradiation treatments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallman, Guy J.

    2012-07-01

    The history of the development of generic phytosanitary irradiation (PI) treatments is discussed beginning with its initial proposal in 1986. Generic PI treatments in use today are 150 Gy for all hosts of Tephritidae, 250 Gy for all arthropods on mango and papaya shipped from Australia to New Zealand, 300 Gy for all arthropods on mango shipped from Australia to Malaysia, 350 Gy for all arthropods on lychee shipped from Australia to New Zealand and 400 Gy for all hosts of insects other than pupae and adult Lepidoptera shipped to the United States. Efforts to develop additional generic PI treatments and reduce the dose for the 400 Gy treatment are ongoing with a broad based 5-year, 12-nation cooperative research project coordinated by the joint Food and Agricultural Organization/International Atomic Energy Agency Program on Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture. Key groups identified for further development of generic PI treatments are Lepidoptera (eggs and larvae), mealybugs and scale insects. A dose of 250 Gy may suffice for these three groups plus others, such as thrips, weevils and whiteflies.

  15. Generic Sentences in English and French.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herschensohn, Julia

    Previous accounts of "generic" have been either too broad in including several sentence types as generic, or too narrow in limiting the definition of generic to the noun or verb alone. This research critically examines data and previous treatments of the generic verb, generic noun, and generic sentence. Because every generic sentence may also have…

  16. Bioavailability and generic prescribing.

    PubMed

    Mindel, J S

    1976-01-01

    Although oral drug bioinequivalence has been attributed to a number of causes (excipients, dosage form, variation in dissolution time, and aging) less is known about bioavailability problems of topical medications in ophthalmology. Factors that can alter drug absorption from solutions (pH, partition coefficient, container impurities, contact time, etc.) are noted, and cases in which bioavailability problems should be considered as causes of therapeutic failure are discussed. Various attitudes representing pharmaceutical companies, the federal government, pharmacists, consumers and physicians toward the related problems of bioinequivalence and generic prescribing are examined. Techniques for in vivo and in vitro drug testing and for establishing uniform conditions of drug manufacture and storage can contribute to identification and minimization of bioavailability problems. A rational program based on a combination of such techniques could, ultimately, lead to establishment of the terms "generic equivalency" and "therapeutic equivalency" as synonymous. PMID:13505

  17. The Safe Drinking Water Act First 180 Days

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehr, Jay H.

    1975-01-01

    The Safe Drinking Water Act protects our drinking and ground water resources. The Water Advisory Council interprets and implements the law. Implementation principles include high priorities for public health, cost considerations, state and local participation, environmental impact, decentralized decision making, and use of federal and state…

  18. Generic Distributed Simulation Architecture

    SciTech Connect

    Booker, C.P.

    1999-05-14

    A Generic Distributed Simulation Architecture is described that allows a simulation to be automatically distributed over a heterogeneous network of computers and executed with very little human direction. A prototype Framework is presented that implements the elements of the Architecture and demonstrates the feasibility of the concepts. It provides a basis for a future, improved Framework that will support legacy models. Because the Framework is implemented in Java, it may be installed on almost any modern computer system.

  19. Generic safety documentation model

    SciTech Connect

    Mahn, J.A.

    1994-04-01

    This document is intended to be a resource for preparers of safety documentation for Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico facilities. It provides standardized discussions of some topics that are generic to most, if not all, Sandia/NM facilities safety documents. The material provides a ``core`` upon which to develop facility-specific safety documentation. The use of the information in this document will reduce the cost of safety document preparation and improve consistency of information.

  20. Generics: keep a balanced view.

    PubMed

    2014-02-01

    Once the different kinds of commercial protection (patents, etc.) granted to the manufacturer of an "originator" drug have expired, the drug in question may be copied by other companies. These copies are known as generics. The characteristics and pharmaceutical quality of generics are governed by international standards. The marketing authorisation procedure for generic drugs dispenses with preclinical and clinical trials, which already exist for the originator drug. In contrast, proof of bioequivalence must be provided. In practice, this means demonstrating that the effects of the generic are similar (but not necessarily identical) to those of the originator drug. Slight differences between a generic and its brand-name counterpart are allowed, provided they do not markedly affect the efficacy or adverse effect profile in comparison to the originator drug. The accepted degree of difference between a generic and the original brand-name drug is the same as the acceptable difference between two batches of the originator drug. The rules governing generic manufacturing conditions are identical to those applying to originator drugs. And issues raised by drug production abroad, particularly to Asian countries, apply to originator just as much as to generic drugs. Generics represent a significant source of financial savings for society. In France, various measures have been introduced to encourage doctors, pharmacists and patients, respectively, to prescribe, dispense and use generics. Criticisms of the efficacy or quality of generics are often unfounded and sometimes deliberately orchestrated. Smear campaigns conducted by drug companies that market originator drugs, and also by some healthcare professionals, sow confusion, to the detriment of generic use. There is no tangible proof that generics are less safe than originator drugs, provided they are chosen wisely, taking into account factors such as their packaging quality. It is up to healthcare professionals to decide

  1. Generic image matching system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Zhongjie T.

    1992-05-01

    The generic imaging matching system (GIMS) provides an optimal systematic solution to any problem of color image processing in printing and publishing that can be classified as or modeled to the generic image matching problem defined. Typical GIMS systems/processes include color matching from different output devices, color conversion, color correction, device calibration, colorimetric scanner, colorimetric printer, colorimetric color reproduction, and image interpolation from scattered data. GIMS makes color matching easy for the user and maximizes operational flexibility allowing the user to obtain the degree of match wanted while providing the capability to achieve the best balance with respect to the human perception of color, color fidelity, and preservation of image information and color contrast. Instead of controlling coefficients in a transformation formula, GIMS controls the mapping directly in a standard device-independent color space, so that color can be matched, conceptually, to the highest possible accuracy. An optimization algorithm called modified vector shading was developed to minimize the matching error and to perform a 'near-neighborhood' gamut compression. An automatic error correction algorithm with a multidirection searching procedure using correlated re-initialization was developed to avoid local minimum failures. Once the mapping for color matching is generated, it can be utilized by a multidimensional linear interpolator with a small look-up-table (LUT) implemented by either software, a hardware interpolator or a digital-signal-processor.

  2. Commercial Generic Bioprocessing Apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    CGBA, a facility developed by BioServe Space Technologies, a NASA Commercial Generic Bioprocessing Space Center, allows a variety of sophisticated bioprocessing research to be performed using a common device. The Fluids Processing Apparatus is essentially a microgravity test tube that allows a variety of complex investigations to be performed in space. This is a glass barrel containing several chambers separated by rubber stoppers. Eight FPAs are placed together in a Group Activation Pack (GAP), which allows all of the research to be started simultaneously by turning a single crank. Eight GAPs, or similar-sized payloads, can be stored in a single CGBA temperature controlled locker, which now uses motor drives to automatically turn the cranks to start and stop experiments. On STS-95, research efforts cover eight major areas that will benefit Earth-based products ranging from the production of pharmaceuticals to fish hatcheries.

  3. A generic multibody simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hopping, K. A.; Kohn, W.

    1986-01-01

    Described is a dynamic simulation package which can be configured for orbital test scenarios involving multiple bodies. The rotational and translational state integration methods are selectable for each individual body and may be changed during a run if necessary. Characteristics of the bodies are determined by assigning components consisting of mass properties, forces, and moments, which are the outputs of user-defined environmental models. Generic model implementation is facilitated by a transformation processor which performs coordinate frame inversions. Transformations are defined in the initialization file as part of the simulation configuration. The simulation package includes an initialization processor, which consists of a command line preprocessor, a general purpose grammar, and a syntax scanner. These permit specifications of the bodies, their interrelationships, and their initial states in a format that is not dependent on a particular test scenario.

  4. Generic names in Magnaporthales.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ning; Luo, Jing; Rossman, Amy Y; Aoki, Takayuki; Chuma, Izumi; Crous, Pedro W; Dean, Ralph; de Vries, Ronald P; Donofrio, Nicole; Hyde, Kevin D; Lebrun, Marc-Henri; Talbot, Nicholas J; Tharreau, Didier; Tosa, Yukio; Valent, Barbara; Wang, Zonghua; Xu, Jin-Rong

    2016-06-01

    The order Magnaporthales comprises about 200 species and includes the economically and scientifically important rice blast fungus and the take-all pathogen of cereals, as well as saprotrophs and endophytes. Recent advances in phylogenetic analyses of these fungi resulted in taxonomic revisions. In this paper we list the 28 currently accepted genera in Magnaporthales with their type species and available gene and genome resources. The polyphyletic Magnaporthe 1972 is proposed for suppression, and Pyricularia 1880 and Nakataea 1939 are recommended for protection as the generic names for the rice blast fungus and the rice stem rot fungus, respectively. The rationale for the recommended names is also provided. These recommendations are made by the Pyricularia/Magnaporthe Working Group established under the auspices of the International Commission on the Taxonomy of Fungi (ICTF). PMID:27433445

  5. Generic concepts in Nectriaceae

    PubMed Central

    Lombard, L.; van der Merwe, N.A.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Crous, P.W.

    2015-01-01

    The ascomycete family Nectriaceae (Hypocreales) includes numerous important plant and human pathogens, as well as several species used extensively in industrial and commercial applications as biodegraders and biocontrol agents. Members of the family are unified by phenotypic characters such as uniloculate ascomata that are yellow, orange-red to purple, and with phialidic asexual morphs. The generic concepts in Nectriaceae are poorly defined, since DNA sequence data have not been available for many of these genera. To address this issue we performed a multi-gene phylogenetic analysis using partial sequences for the 28S large subunit (LSU) nrDNA, the internal transcribed spacer region and intervening 5.8S nrRNA gene (ITS), the large subunit of the ATP citrate lyase (acl1), the RNA polymerase II largest subunit (rpb1), RNA polymerase II second largest subunit (rpb2), α-actin (act), β-tubulin (tub2), calmodulin (cmdA), histone H3 (his3), and translation elongation factor 1-alpha (tef1) gene regions for available type and authentic strains representing known genera in Nectriaceae, including several genera for which no sequence data were previously available. Supported by morphological observations, the data resolved 47 genera in the Nectriaceae. We re-evaluated the status of several genera, which resulted in the introduction of six new genera to accommodate species that were initially classified based solely on morphological characters. Several generic names are proposed for synonymy based on the abolishment of dual nomenclature. Additionally, a new family is introduced for two genera that were previously accommodated in the Nectriaceae. PMID:26955195

  6. Generic concepts in Nectriaceae.

    PubMed

    Lombard, L; van der Merwe, N A; Groenewald, J Z; Crous, P W

    2015-03-01

    The ascomycete family Nectriaceae (Hypocreales) includes numerous important plant and human pathogens, as well as several species used extensively in industrial and commercial applications as biodegraders and biocontrol agents. Members of the family are unified by phenotypic characters such as uniloculate ascomata that are yellow, orange-red to purple, and with phialidic asexual morphs. The generic concepts in Nectriaceae are poorly defined, since DNA sequence data have not been available for many of these genera. To address this issue we performed a multi-gene phylogenetic analysis using partial sequences for the 28S large subunit (LSU) nrDNA, the internal transcribed spacer region and intervening 5.8S nrRNA gene (ITS), the large subunit of the ATP citrate lyase (acl1), the RNA polymerase II largest subunit (rpb1), RNA polymerase II second largest subunit (rpb2), α-actin (act), β-tubulin (tub2), calmodulin (cmdA), histone H3 (his3), and translation elongation factor 1-alpha (tef1) gene regions for available type and authentic strains representing known genera in Nectriaceae, including several genera for which no sequence data were previously available. Supported by morphological observations, the data resolved 47 genera in the Nectriaceae. We re-evaluated the status of several genera, which resulted in the introduction of six new genera to accommodate species that were initially classified based solely on morphological characters. Several generic names are proposed for synonymy based on the abolishment of dual nomenclature. Additionally, a new family is introduced for two genera that were previously accommodated in the Nectriaceae. PMID:26955195

  7. New generic indexing technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freeston, Michael

    1996-01-01

    There has been no fundamental change in the dynamic indexing methods supporting database systems since the invention of the B-tree twenty-five years ago. And yet the whole classical approach to dynamic database indexing has long since become inappropriate and increasingly inadequate. We are moving rapidly from the conventional one-dimensional world of fixed-structure text and numbers to a multi-dimensional world of variable structures, objects and images, in space and time. But, even before leaving the confines of conventional database indexing, the situation is highly unsatisfactory. In fact, our research has led us to question the basic assumptions of conventional database indexing. We have spent the past ten years studying the properties of multi-dimensional indexing methods, and in this paper we draw the strands of a number of developments together - some quite old, some very new, to show how we now have the basis for a new generic indexing technology for the next generation of database systems.

  8. Generic Optimization Program

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1998-07-01

    GenOpt is a generic optimization program for nonlinear, constrained optimization. For evaluating the objective function, any simulation program that communicates over text files can be coupled to GenOpt without code modification. No analytic properties of the objective function are used by GenOpt. ptimization algorithms and numerical methods can be implemented in a library and shared among users. Gencpt offers an interlace between the optimization algorithm and its kernel to make the implementation of new algorithmsmore » fast and easy. Different algorithms of constrained and unconstrained minimization can be added to a library. Algorithms for approximation derivatives and performing line-search will be implemented. The objective function is evaluated as a black-box function by an external simulation program. The kernel of GenOpt deals with the data I/O, result sotrage and report, interlace to the external simulation program, and error handling. An abstract optimization class offers methods to interface the GenOpt kernel and the optimization algorithm library.« less

  9. Implications of an SSRI generic step therapy pharmacy benefit design: an economic model in anxiety disorders.

    PubMed

    Panzer, Pat Ellen; Regan, Timothy S; Chiao, Evelyn; Sarnes, Matthew W

    2005-10-01

    As the antidepressant market continues to expand, it is important for healthcare decision makers to develop clinically and economically sound drug benefit designs. As such, the purpose of this study was to determine the economic implications of a generic step therapy (GST) formulary compared with an open formulary for selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) in patients with anxiety disorders. A model simulating the SSRI treatment patterns of patients diagnosed with an anxiety disorder in a hypothetical health plan with 1 million members was developed. Treatment options were generic SSRI agents (ie, fluoxetine, paroxetine immediate release, and citalopram) and branded SSRI agents (ie, sertraline, paroxetine controlled release, and escitalopram). After treatment initiation, patients could achieve 180 days or more of continuous therapy with no evidence of therapy change, achieve less than 180 days of therapy with no evidence of therapy change, or have a change in therapy. Consequently, patients incurred differential average annual medical and prescription costs. Model probabilities and costs were estimated from published literature and database analyses. The GST formulary resulted in a greater frequency of therapy change than the open formulary (41.3% vs 36.8%) and a lower frequency of continuous therapy for at least 6 months (25.3% vs 29.8%). Costs of SSRI medication were lower for the GST formulary than for the open formulary (11.6 million US dollars vs 14.8 million US dollars ). Medical costs were considerably greater for the GST formulary than for the open formulary, however (178.7 US dollars million vs 174.9 million US dollars, respectively), with a total cost of 190.3 US dollars million for the GST formulary versus 189.6 US dollars million for the open formulary. The incremental cost of implementing a GST formulary over 1 year was 684 360 US dollars , or 0.06 US dollars per member per month. A sensitivity analysis indicated that the model was most

  10. Generic Substitution Issues: Brand-generic Substitution, Generic-generic Substitution, and Generic Substitution of Narrow Therapeutic Index (NTI)/Critical Dose Drugs

    PubMed Central

    PAVELIU, Marian Sorin; BENGEA, Simona; PAVELIU, Fraga Silvia

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT Doctors accuse individual variability or lack of quality of generic drugs for adverse reactions or lack of efficacy. The variability of effect of generic substitution, although accepted by clinicians as possible, is little discussed or even understood by them. The situation is really serious in the case of generic substitution of drugs with narrow therapeutic index (NTI) or critical dose. In this paper we review the basic notions of variability and effectiveness of generic medication and change of attitude that would improve the use of these drugs. PMID:21977191

  11. The proprietary/generic debate

    PubMed Central

    1991-01-01

    Many of the different attitudes to the prescribing of drugs by proprietary or generic name are based on biased information from the pharmaceutical industry. A plea is made for a more scientific approach to the problem by doctors. PMID:19790798

  12. Hanford Generic Interim Safety Basis

    SciTech Connect

    Lavender, J.C.

    1994-09-09

    The purpose of this document is to identify WHC programs and requirements that are an integral part of the authorization basis for nuclear facilities that are generic to all WHC-managed facilities. The purpose of these programs is to implement the DOE Orders, as WHC becomes contractually obligated to implement them. The Hanford Generic ISB focuses on the institutional controls and safety requirements identified in DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Reports.

  13. Primordial nucleosynthesis with generic particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, T. P.; Kolb, E. W.; Turner, M. S.

    1986-01-01

    A revision of the standard model for Big Bang nucleosynthesis is discussed which allows for the presence of generic particle species. The primordial production of He-4 and D + He-3 is calculated as a function of the mass, spin degrees of freedom, and spin statistics of the generic particle for masses in the range 0.01-100 times the electron mass. The particular case of the Gelmini and Roncadelli majoron model for massive neutrinos is discussed.

  14. Impact of the Introduction of Generic Latanoprost on Glaucoma Medication Adherence

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Joshua D.; Shekhawat, Nakul; Talwar, Nidhi; Balkrishnan, Rajesh

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To determine whether enrollees with open-angle glaucoma who switched from brand name to generic prostaglandin analogues (PGAs) exhibited a change in medication adherence compared to those who remained on brand name products when generics became available Design Longitudinal cohort analysis Participants 8427 beneficiaries age >40 years with open-angle glaucoma continuously enrolled in a nationwide managed-care network from 2009–2012 who were taking PGAs prior to generic latanoprost availability Methods We calculated the mean adherence rates for topical PGAs during the 18 months prior to generic latanoprost availability (September 2009–February 2011). We then determined the mean adherence rates during the subsequent 18 months after generic latanoprost first became available (July 2011–December 2012) for those enrollees who were exclusively maintained on brand name PGAs and compared these adherence rates to those who switched exclusively to generic latanoprost. Multivariable logistic regression identified factors affecting adherence rates. Main Outcome Measures Mean medication adherence rates, odds of experiencing ≥25% improvement or worsening of adherence with 95% confidence intervals Results 8427 enrollees met the study eligibility criteria. Compared to enrollees who switched to generic latanoprost once it became available, enrollees remaining on brand name PGAs were 28% less likely to experience an improvement of adherence (odds ratio (OR)=0.72, 95% CI 0.55–0.94) and 39% more likely to experience worsening of adherence (OR=1.39, 95% CI 1.04–1.86). Other factors associated with improved adherence during the post-generic period included higher monthly medication copay during the pre-generic period (p=0.02), lower monthly medication copay during the post-generic period (p<0.0001), and black race (OR=1.25, 95% CI 1.04–1.50). A total of 612 patients (7.3%) completely discontinued all interventions for glaucoma at the time generic latanoprost became

  15. Generic Example Proving Criteria for All

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yopp, David; Ely, Rob; Johnson­-Leung, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    We review literature that discusses generic example proving and highlight ambiguities that pervade our research community's discourse about generic example arguments. We distinguish between pedagogical advice for choosing good examples that can serve as generic examples when teaching and advice for developing generic example arguments. We provide…

  16. The benefits from giving makers of conventional 'small molecule' drugs longer exclusivity over clinical trial data.

    PubMed

    Goldman, Dana P; Lakdawalla, Darius N; Malkin, Jesse D; Romley, John; Philipson, Tomas

    2011-01-01

    Pharmaceutical companies and generic drug manufacturers have long been at odds over "data exclusivity" regulations. These rules require a waiting period of at least five years before generic drug companies can access valuable clinical trial data necessary to bring less expensive forms of innovative drugs to market. Pharmaceutical companies want the data exclusivity period lengthened to protect their investment. Generic manufacturers want the period shortened so that they can bring less expensive versions of drugs to patients sooner. We examine the long-term effect of extending the data exclusivity period for conventional "small-molecule" drugs to twelve years--the same exclusivity period already extended to large-molecule biologic drugs under the Affordable Care Act. We conclude that Americans would benefit from a longer period of data exclusivity. PMID:21209443

  17. Generic medications for hepatitis C.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Donald M; Sebhatu, Phoebe; Reau, Nancy S

    2016-07-01

    The recent development and approval of expensive but highly effective oral agents against hepatitis C has led to restrictions and access limitations in many countries with limited healthcare budgets. Generic formulations of many of these agents are available at a fraction of the retail price in several countries because of generic licensure agreements. The discounted alternatives are only accessible in developing countries and require manufacturing and distribution regulations to ensure the quality and bioequivalence of the new drug formulations. The continued medication access limitations have driven great interest in the practice of personal drug importation of the generic formulations. This review and debate will address the medical and legal issues involved in the purchase and importation of these medicines. PMID:27306302

  18. Software synthesis using generic architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhansali, Sanjay

    1993-01-01

    A framework for synthesizing software systems based on abstracting software system designs and the design process is described. The result of such an abstraction process is a generic architecture and the process knowledge for customizing the architecture. The customization process knowledge is used to assist a designer in customizing the architecture as opposed to completely automating the design of systems. Our approach using an implemented example of a generic tracking architecture which was customized in two different domains is illustrated. How the designs produced using KASE compare to the original designs of the two systems, and current work and plans for extending KASE to other application areas are described.

  19. Generic Software Architecture for Launchers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carre, Emilien; Gast, Philippe; Hiron, Emmanuel; Leblanc, Alain; Lesens, David; Mescam, Emmanuelle; Moro, Pierre

    2015-09-01

    The definition and reuse of generic software architecture for launchers is not so usual for several reasons: the number of European launcher families is very small (Ariane 5 and Vega for these last decades); the real time constraints (reactivity and determinism needs) are very hard; low levels of versatility are required (implying often an ad hoc development of the launcher mission). In comparison, satellites are often built on a generic platform made up of reusable hardware building blocks (processors, star-trackers, gyroscopes, etc.) and reusable software building blocks (middleware, TM/TC, On Board Control Procedure, etc.). If some of these reasons are still valid (e.g. the limited number of development), the increase of the available CPU power makes today an approach based on a generic time triggered middleware (ensuring the full determinism of the system) and a centralised mission and vehicle management (offering more flexibility in the design and facilitating the long term maintenance) achievable. This paper presents an example of generic software architecture which could be envisaged for future launchers, based on the previously described principles and supported by model driven engineering and automatic code generation.

  20. Generic Information Can Retrieve Known Biological Associations: Implications for Biomedical Knowledge Discovery

    PubMed Central

    van Haagen, Herman H. H. B. M.; 't Hoen, Peter A. C.; Mons, Barend; Schultes, Erik A.

    2013-01-01

    Motivation Weighted semantic networks built from text-mined literature can be used to retrieve known protein-protein or gene-disease associations, and have been shown to anticipate associations years before they are explicitly stated in the literature. Our text-mining system recognizes over 640,000 biomedical concepts: some are specific (i.e., names of genes or proteins) others generic (e.g., ‘Homo sapiens’). Generic concepts may play important roles in automated information retrieval, extraction, and inference but may also result in concept overload and confound retrieval and reasoning with low-relevance or even spurious links. Here, we attempted to optimize the retrieval performance for protein-protein interactions (PPI) by filtering generic concepts (node filtering) or links to generic concepts (edge filtering) from a weighted semantic network. First, we defined metrics based on network properties that quantify the specificity of concepts. Then using these metrics, we systematically filtered generic information from the network while monitoring retrieval performance of known protein-protein interactions. We also systematically filtered specific information from the network (inverse filtering), and assessed the retrieval performance of networks composed of generic information alone. Results Filtering generic or specific information induced a two-phase response in retrieval performance: initially the effects of filtering were minimal but beyond a critical threshold network performance suddenly drops. Contrary to expectations, networks composed exclusively of generic information demonstrated retrieval performance comparable to unfiltered networks that also contain specific concepts. Furthermore, an analysis using individual generic concepts demonstrated that they can effectively support the retrieval of known protein-protein interactions. For instance the concept “binding” is indicative for PPI retrieval and the concept “mutation abnormality” is

  1. 27 CFR 4.24 - Generic, semi-generic, and non-generic designations of geographic significance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Generic, semi-generic, and non-generic designations of geographic significance. 4.24 Section 4.24 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING...

  2. Mylan to Offer Generic EpiPen

    MedlinePlus

    ... news/fullstory_160669.html Mylan to Offer Generic EpiPen Manufacturer responds to mounting criticism about price hikes ... cheaper generic version of the emergency allergy treatment EpiPen will be made available within the next few ...

  3. Generic Competency Frameworks: A Brief Historical Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jolee; Chapman, Elaine

    2010-01-01

    Significant efforts have now been made to identify the generic competencies required to succeed across different workplace contexts. The aims of this paper were to: (i) outline factors that contributed to the increased demand for generic competencies seen over the last three decades; and (ii) review the early generic competency frameworks…

  4. Generic Language and Judgements about Category Membership: Can Generics Highlight Properties as Central?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollander, Michelle A.; Gelman, Susan A.; Raman, Lakshmi

    2009-01-01

    Many languages distinguish generic utterances (e.g., "Tigers are ferocious") from non-generic utterances (e.g., "Those tigers are ferocious"). Two studies examined how generic language specially links properties and categories. We used a novel-word extension task to ask if 4- to 5-year-old children and adults distinguish between generic and…

  5. Automated analysis in generic groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fagerholm, Edvard

    This thesis studies automated methods for analyzing hardness assumptions in generic group models, following ideas of symbolic cryptography. We define a broad class of generic and symbolic group models for different settings---symmetric or asymmetric (leveled) k-linear groups --- and prove ''computational soundness'' theorems for the symbolic models. Based on this result, we formulate a master theorem that relates the hardness of an assumption to solving problems in polynomial algebra. We systematically analyze these problems identifying different classes of assumptions and obtain decidability and undecidability results. Then, we develop automated procedures for verifying the conditions of our master theorems, and thus the validity of hardness assumptions in generic group models. The concrete outcome is an automated tool, the Generic Group Analyzer, which takes as input the statement of an assumption, and outputs either a proof of its generic hardness or shows an algebraic attack against the assumption. Structure-preserving signatures are signature schemes defined over bilinear groups in which messages, public keys and signatures are group elements, and the verification algorithm consists of evaluating ''pairing-product equations''. Recent work on structure-preserving signatures studies optimality of these schemes in terms of the number of group elements needed in the verification key and the signature, and the number of pairing-product equations in the verification algorithm. While the size of keys and signatures is crucial for many applications, another aspect of performance is the time it takes to verify a signature. The most expensive operation during verification is the computation of pairings. However, the concrete number of pairings is not captured by the number of pairing-product equations considered in earlier work. We consider the question of what is the minimal number of pairing computations needed to verify structure-preserving signatures. We build an

  6. Children's interpretation of generic noun phrases.

    PubMed

    Hollander, Michelle A; Gelman, Susan A; Star, Jon

    2002-11-01

    Generic utterances (e.g., "Cows say 'moo'") have 2 distinctive semantic properties: (a) Generics are generally true, unlike indefinites (e.g., "Bears live in caves" is generic; "I saw some bears in the cave" is indefinite), and (b) generics need not be true of all category members, unlike universal quantifiers (e.g., all, every, each). This article examined whether preschool children and adults appreciate both these features, using a comprehension task (Study 1) and an elicited production task (Study 2). In both tasks, 4-year-old children--like adults--treated generics as distinct from both indefinites ("some") and universal quantifiers ("all"). In contrast, 3-year-olds did not differentiate among generics, "all," and "some." By 4 years of age, generics emerge as a distinct semantic device. PMID:12428701

  7. Generic Language in Parent-Child Conversations

    PubMed Central

    Gelman, Susan A.; Goetz, Peggy J.; Sarnecka, Barbara W.; Flukes, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    Generic knowledge concerns kinds of things (e.g., birds fly; a chair is for sitting; gold is a metal). Past research demonstrated that children spontaneously develop generic knowledge by preschool age. The present study examines when and how children learn to use the multiple devices provided by their language to express generic knowledge. We hypothesize that children assume, in the absence of specifying information or context, that nouns refer to generic kinds, as a default. Thus, we predict that (a) Children should talk about kinds from an early age. (b) Children should learn generic forms with only minimal parental scaffolding. (c) Children should recognize a variety of different linguistic forms as generic. Results from longitudinal samples of adult-child conversations support all three hypotheses. We also report individual differences in the use of generics, suggesting that children differ in their tendency to form the abstract generalizations so expressed. PMID:21765807

  8. Generic trending and analysis system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keehan, Lori; Reese, Jay

    1994-01-01

    The Generic Trending and Analysis System (GTAS) is a generic spacecraft performance monitoring tool developed by NASA Code 511 and Loral Aerosys. It is designed to facilitate quick anomaly resolution and trend analysis. Traditionally, the job of off-line analysis has been performed using hardware and software systems developed for real-time spacecraft contacts; then, the systems were supplemented with a collection of tools developed by Flight Operations Team (FOT) members. Since the number of upcoming missions is increasing, NASA can no longer afford to operate in this manner. GTAS improves control center productivity and effectiveness because it provides a generic solution across multiple missions. Thus, GTAS eliminates the need for each individual mission to develop duplicate capabilities. It also allows for more sophisticated tools to be developed because it draws resources from several projects. In addition, the GTAS software system incorporates commercial off-the-shelf tools software (COTS) packages and reuses components of other NASA-developed systems wherever possible. GTAS has incorporated lessons learned from previous missions by involving the users early in the development process. GTAS users took a proactive role in requirements analysis, design, development, and testing. Because of user involvement, several special tools were designed and are now being developed. GTAS users expressed considerable interest in facilitating data collection for long term trending and analysis. As a result, GTAS provides easy access to large volumes of processed telemetry data directly in the control center. The GTAS archival and retrieval capabilities are supported by the integration of optical disk technology and a COTS relational database management system.

  9. Descriptive Model of Generic WAMS

    SciTech Connect

    Hauer, John F.; DeSteese, John G.

    2007-06-01

    The Department of Energy’s (DOE) Transmission Reliability Program is supporting the research, deployment, and demonstration of various wide area measurement system (WAMS) technologies to enhance the reliability of the Nation’s electrical power grid. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) was tasked by the DOE National SCADA Test Bed Program to conduct a study of WAMS security. This report represents achievement of the milestone to develop a generic WAMS model description that will provide a basis for the security analysis planned in the next phase of this study.

  10. Generic magnetic fusion rocket model

    SciTech Connect

    Santarius, J.F.; Logan, B.G.

    1993-06-01

    A generic magnetic fusion rocket model is developed and used to explore the limits of fusion propulsion systems. Two fusion fuels are examined, D-T and D-(He-3), and the D-(He-3) fuel cycle is found to give a higher specific power in almost all parameter regimes. The key findings are that (1) magnetic fusion should ultimately be able to deliver specific powers of about 10 kW/kg and (2) specific powers of 15 kW/kg could be achieved with only modest extrapolations of present technology. 9 refs.

  11. GLAD: A Generic LAttice Debugger

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, M.J.

    1991-11-01

    Today, numerous simulation and analysis codes exist for the design, commission, and operation of accelerator beam lines. There is a need to develop a common user interface and database link to run these codes interactively. This paper will describe a proposed system, GLAD (Generic LAttice Debugger), to fulfill this need. Specifically, GLAD can be used to find errors in beam lines during commissioning, control beam parameters during operation, and design beam line optics and error correction systems for the next generation of linear accelerators and storage rings.

  12. The Controversy over Generic Antiepileptic Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Susan J.; Hartman, Adam L.

    2010-01-01

    As patent protection ends for the next generation of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), a complex debate continues over generic substitution of AEDs. On one hand, generic drug formulations provide cost savings for patients and society. On the other hand, patients with epilepsy and physicians are wary about the adequacy and efficacy of the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) standards for generics. This article reviews current and proposed bioequivalence test procedures, summarizes new generic AED formulations and their costs, and discusses potential pitfalls in the current standards. These shortcomings include certain pharmacokinetic factors and clinical pharmacologic factors that may affect bioequivalence of generic AEDs, and statistical limitations of the standards. While the drug concentration differences between the brand name drug and each generic formulation are unlikely to be substantial, the differences with generic-to-generic switches will be greater and potentially clinically significant. Conversely, owing to their more favorable pharmacokinetic profile, newer AEDs may be less prone to problems with generic substitution than older ones. Unfortunately, very few data are available to guide decisions regarding what is best for an individual patient. Based on new prediction methods, generic substitution should be safe for many patients but identifying them ultimately requires more rigorous study. PMID:22477799

  13. Patients’ beliefs about generic medicines in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Zhi Y.; Hassali, Mohamed A.; Alrasheedy, Alian A.; Saleem, Fahad; Yahaya, Abdul H.; Aljadhey, Hisham

    2014-01-01

    Background: Acceptance of generic medicines by patients is an essential factor given that they are the end users of these medicines. In fact, adequate knowledge and positive perceptions are prerequisite to patients’ acceptance and use of generic medicines. Objective: To assess the current belief and views of patients about generic medicines in Malaysia. Method: This was a self-administered questionnaire-based study. The study was conducted with patients visiting outpatient pharmacy department at a tertiary care hospital in Malaysia. The Malaysian version of Generic Medicines Scale (GMS) was used. The GMS consists of two subscales: efficacy and similarity of generic medicines to original brand medicines. The efficacy subscale consists of 10 items while the similarity subscale consists of 6 items. The responses to the items were framed as a five-point Likert scale (1=strongly disagree to 5=strongly agree). Results: A total of 202 out of 300 patients participated in the study, giving a response rate of 67.3%. In this study, only 49% of them (n=99) knew the term ‘generic medicine’. Moreover, only 53.5% of the respondents (n=108) believed that the efficacy of generic medicines was the same as original brand medicines. In terms of quality, only 44% of the respondents (n=89) disagreed that generic medicines were of a lower quality. About one third (n=65, 32.2%) believed that generic medicines were cheaper because they were less efficacious. In terms of side effects, 44.5% of the respondents (n=90) believed that generic medicines had the same side effect profile as original brand medicines. Conclusions: The study finding showed that almost half of the respondents had negative belief in generic medicines. Similarly, many patients were not aware of the similarities and differences between generic and original brand medicines. Therefore, there is a need to provide patients with adequate information about generic medicines. PMID:25580171

  14. Anticipated Impact of Generic Imatinib Market Entry on the Costs of Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Bloudek, Lisa M.; Makenbaeva, Dinara; Eaddy, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Background Imatinib was the first BCR-ABL tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) approved in the United States for the treatment of patients with chronic myelogenous leukemia and is currently the most prescribed TKI. The impending loss of patent exclusivity for imatinib has the potential to reduce costs for payers. Objective The primary objectives of this study were to estimate the economic impact of the loss of patent exclusivity for branded imatinib and to calculate the relative impact of requiring prior authorization (PA) for the use of generic imatinib before a branded TKI. The secondary objective was to evaluate the potential relative cost impact of using a preferred branded TKI in addition to the PA requirement for generic imatinib before a branded TKI. Methods A Microsoft Excel–based model was developed from the perspective of a US payer (commercial and Medicare) for a 2-year period. Data on utilization, patient out-of-pocket cost, and market share were obtained from an analysis of Truven Health MarketScan claims. It was assumed that the cost of generic imatinib would be 47.8% of the price of branded imatinib. It was assumed that 70% of patients receiving branded imatinib would shift to generic imatinib in year 1, and 95% would shift in year 2 after loss of patent exclusivity. Formulary management could be applied through PA requiring the use of generic imatinib before a branded TKI for patients newly prescribed TKI therapy. It was assumed that 74% of PA requests would be approved, and that the administrative cost of each would be $20. Results In a hypothetical 1 million member commercial plan, the loss of patent exclusivity for branded imatinib produced cost-savings of $6.8 million during 2 years, or 28.8% of the total pharmacy spending on the TKI class. The savings were even greater in a 1 million member Medicare plan, at $22.9 million (28.8%). Formulary management reduced incremental TKI spending by 1.1% and 2.2% for the commercial and Medicare plans

  15. Generic Hypersonic Inlet Module Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cockrell, Chares E., Jr.; Huebner, Lawrence D.

    2004-01-01

    A computational study associated with an internal inlet drag analysis was performed for a generic hypersonic inlet module. The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility of computing the internal drag force for a generic scramjet engine module using computational methods. The computational study consisted of obtaining two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) solutions using the Euler and parabolized Navier-Stokes (PNS) equations. The solution accuracy was assessed by comparisons with experimental pitot pressure data. The CFD analysis indicates that the 3D PNS solutions show the best agreement with experimental pitot pressure data. The internal inlet drag analysis consisted of obtaining drag force predictions based on experimental data and 3D CFD solutions. A comparative assessment of each of the drag prediction methods is made and the sensitivity of CFD drag values to computational procedures is documented. The analysis indicates that the CFD drag predictions are highly sensitive to the computational procedure used.

  16. Generic Airspace Concepts and Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mogford, Richard H.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate methods for reducing the training and memorization required to manage air traffic in mid-term, Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) airspace. We contrasted the performance of controllers using a sector information display and NextGen automation tools while working with familiar and unfamiliar sectors. The airspace included five sectors from Oakland and Salt Lake City Centers configured as a "generic center" called "West High Center." The Controller Information Tool was used to present essential information for managing these sectors. The Multi Aircraft Control System air traffic control simulator provided data link and conflict detection and resolution. There were five experienced air traffic controller participants. Each was familiar with one or two of the five sectors, but not the others. The participants rotated through all five sectors during the ten data collection runs. The results addressing workload, traffic management, and safety, as well as controller and observer comments, supported the generic sector concept. The unfamiliar sectors were comparable to the familiar sectors on all relevant measures.

  17. Skin rash during treatment with generic itraconazole

    PubMed Central

    De Vuono, Antonio; Palleria, Caterina; Scicchitano, Francesca; Squillace, Aida; De Sarro, Giovambattista; Gallelli, Luca

    2014-01-01

    Generic drugs have the same active substance, the same pharmaceutical form, the same therapeutic indications and a similar bioequivalence with the reference medicinal product (branded). Although a similar efficacy is postulated, some cases of clinical inefficacy during treatment with generic formulations have been reported. In this case, we describe a woman with onychomycosis that developed a skin rash during treatment with a generic formulation of itraconazole. Drug administration and its re-challenge confirmed the association between itraconazole and skin rash. Both Naranjo probability scale and World Health Organization causality assessment scale documented a probable association between generic-itraconazole and skin rash. The switch from generic formulation to brand one induced an improvement of symptoms. Since we are unable to evaluate the role of each excipient in the development of skin rash, we cannot rule out their involvement. However, more data are necessary to better define the similarities or differences between branded and generic formulations. PMID:24799820

  18. Generic domain models in software engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maiden, Neil

    1992-01-01

    This paper outlines three research directions related to domain-specific software development: (1) reuse of generic models for domain-specific software development; (2) empirical evidence to determine these generic models, namely elicitation of mental knowledge schema possessed by expert software developers; and (3) exploitation of generic domain models to assist modelling of specific applications. It focuses on knowledge acquisition for domain-specific software development, with emphasis on tool support for the most important phases of software development.

  19. Children's generic interpretation of pretense.

    PubMed

    Baer, Carolyn; Friedman, Ori

    2016-10-01

    We report two experiments investigating how 3- to 5-year-olds learn general knowledge from pretend play-how they learn about kinds of things (e.g., information about dogs) from information about particular individuals in pretend play (a certain dog in a pretend scenario). Children watched pretend-play enactments in which animals showed certain behaviors or heard utterances conveying the same information. When children were subsequently asked about who shows the behavior, children who watched pretend play were more likely to give generic responses than were children who heard the utterances. These findings show that children generalize information from pretend play to kinds even without being prompted to think about kinds, that pretend play can be informative about familiar kinds, and also that pretend play is a more potent source for general knowledge than are utterances about individuals. PMID:27268159

  20. Generic Propellants Transfer Unit (GPTU)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Christopher A.

    1992-01-01

    The Generic Propellants Transfer Unit (GPTU) is being designed to support spacecraft liquid propellant operations at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Eastern Test Range (ETR). The GPTU will have a 500 gallon capacity and be Department Of Transportation (DOT) approved for over-the-road transportation of hypergolic propellants. The use of these containers will allow the users to increase efficiency and reduce the following costs: design/construction, transportation (to/from the launch site), propellant transfer operations, and decontamination operations. The user also acquires the flexibility of transporting to an offsite location for processing or storage without obtaining special exemptions or permits. These containers will incorporate their own quantity gaging and temperature sensing systems, and be integrated onto a transport trailer which contains work platforms and a fluid transfer system.

  1. Pharmaceutical policy regarding generic drugs in Belgium.

    PubMed

    Simoens, Steven; De Bruyn, Kristien; Bogaert, Marc; Laekeman, Gert

    2005-01-01

    Pressure to control pharmaceutical expenditure and price competition among pharmaceutical companies are fuelling the development of generic drug markets in EU countries. However, in Belgium, the market for generic drugs is underdeveloped compared with other countries. To promote the use of generic drugs, the government introduced a reference pricing (RP) scheme in 2001. The aim of this paper is to discuss Belgian pharmaceutical policy regarding generic drugs and to analyse how the Belgian drug market has evolved following initiation of the RP scheme. The market share held by generic drugs increased following implementation of the RP scheme. Focusing on volume, average market share (by semester) for generic drugs amounted to 2.05% of the total pharmaceutical market from January 1998 to June 2001, compared with 6.11% from July 2001 to December 2003. As new generic drugs are introduced, their market share tends to increase in the first couple of months, after which it levels off. Faced with increasing generic competition, some manufacturers have launched new variants of their original drug, thereby effectively extending the period of patent protection. Strategies consisting of price reductions in return for the abolition of prescribing conditions and the launch of new dosages or formulations appear to have been successful in maintaining the market share of original drugs. Nevertheless, the introduction of the RP scheme was associated with savings amounting to 1.8% of pharmaceutical expenditure by the third-party payer in 2001 and 2.1% in 2002. The findings of this paper indicate that the RP scheme has stimulated the Belgian generic drug market. However, existing policy has largely failed to take into account the role that physicians and pharmacists can play in stimulating generic drug use. Therefore, further development of the Belgian generic drug market seems to hinge on the creation of appropriate incentives for physicians to prescribe, and for pharmacists to

  2. Generic Quarantine Radiation Treatment; The Next Steps

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2006, USDA-APHIS published a landmark rule providing generic radiation quarantine treatments. The rule approved irradiation doses of 150 Gy for any tephritid fruit fly and 400 Gy for all other insects except the pupa and adult stages of Lepidoptera. The generic radiation treatments apply to all f...

  3. Generic scalar potentials in geometric scalar gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kan, Nahomi; Shiraishi, Kiyoshi

    2016-06-01

    We discuss a generic form of the scalar potential appearing in the geometric scalar theory of gravity. We find the conditions on the potential by considering weak and strong gravity. The modified black hole solutions are obtained for generic potentials and the inverse problems on a black hole and on a spherical body (`pseudo-gravastar') are investigated.

  4. Generic Language Facilitates Children's Cross-Classification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Simone P.; Gelman, A.

    2012-01-01

    Four studies examined the role of generic language in facilitating 4- and 5-year-old children's ability to cross-classify. Participants were asked to classify an item into a familiar (taxonomic or script) category, then cross-classify it into a novel (script or taxonomic) category with the help of a clue expressed in either generic or specific…

  5. 40 CFR 721.450 - Hydrofluorochloroalkene (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.450 Hydrofluorochloroalkene (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a hydrofluorochloroalkene...

  6. 40 CFR 721.450 - Hydrofluorochloroalkene (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.450 Hydrofluorochloroalkene (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a hydrofluorochloroalkene...

  7. Defining Generic Skills. At a Glance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research, Leabrook (Australia).

    Generic skills--skills that apply across a variety of jobs and life contexts--are taking on increased importance in Australia and internationally. There is a high demand for generic skills in the workplace because employers seek to ensure business success by recruiting and retaining employees who have a variety of skills and personal attributes as…

  8. Developmental Changes in the Understanding of Generics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gelman, Susan A.; Bloom, Paul

    2007-01-01

    Generic sentences (such as "Birds lay eggs") are important in that they refer to kinds (e.g., birds as a group) rather than individuals (e.g., the birds in the henhouse). The present set of studies examined aspects of how generic nouns are understood by English speakers. Adults and children (4- and 5-year-olds) were presented with scenarios about…

  9. HTGR generic technology program plan (FY 80)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    Purpose of the program is to develop base technology and to perform design and development common to the HTGR Steam Cycle, Gas Turbine, and Process Heat Plants. The generic technology program breaks into the base technology, generic component, pebble-bed study, technology transfer, and fresh fuel programs. (DLC)

  10. Children's Interpretation of Generic Noun Phrases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollander, Michelle A.; Gelman, Susan A.; Star, Jon

    2002-01-01

    Two studies used a comprehension task and an elicited production task to examine whether preschool children and adults appreciated the semantic properties of generic utterances. Findings indicated that in both tasks, 4-year-olds and adults treated generics ("bears live in caves") as distinct from both indefinites ("some") and universal quantifiers…

  11. Generic Skills. Keys to Job Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Arthur De W.

    The generic skills studies in Canada have as their objectives the formulation of generic skills, the identification of their uses for certain occupational groups, and the preparation of specifications for instructional modules in an attempt to provide greater flexibility to workers, employers, and vocational training programs. Another objective of…

  12. Mapping Generic Skills Curricula: A Recommended Methodology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robley, Will; Whittle, Sue; Murdoch-Eaton, Deborah

    2005-01-01

    Since the 1997 Dearing Report, generic skills development has become an essential part of higher education in the UK. Generic skills programmes are, in the main, either run in parallel with existing curricula or "embedded" within them. In 1993 the General Medical Council introduced student selected components (SSCs) into the UK medical curriculum…

  13. [Should the ophthalmologist prescribe generic drugs?].

    PubMed

    Nordmann, J-P

    2003-10-01

    It seems obvious that an ophthalmologist should encourage the use of generic drugs. However, it is important to know the exact definition of a generic drug and the type of studies to be conducted before a generic drug is released on the market. A generic drug is a drug that has the same composition quantitatively as well as qualitatively of the active compound as the original drug. It also has the same pharmaceutical mode of action and the same bioavailability, as determined with bioavailability studies. Ophthalmic drops contain both an active compound and many adjuvants used to stabilize the drug. Globally speaking, the active compound corresponds to the efficacy of a topical drug and the adjuvant to its tolerance. It is likely that the efficacy of a generic drug is identical to that of the brand-name drug, even though only bioavailability studies in non-human models are required to evaluate tolerance which is less likely to be identical, as adjuvants can differ. A survey of 520 French ophthalmologists has recently been conducted. It shows that doctors rarely think of prescribing generic drugs, as they do not consider cost as a major issue in treating glaucoma. However, they see no reason not to prescribe generic drugs. This mixed perception is shared by patients who willingly accept that doctors prescribe a generic drug, but do not wish the pharmacist to take the initiative of filling a prescription with a generic drug, which sometimes gives patients the impression of being less well treated. The use of generic drugs should be encouraged, keeping in mind that good tolerance should be ensured. PMID:14646825

  14. 78 FR 56621 - Draft Waste Confidence Generic Environmental Impact Statement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-13

    ... Impact Statement AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Draft generic environmental impact... issuing for public comment the draft generic environmental impact statement (DGEIS), NUREG-2157, ``Waste Confidence Generic Environmental Impact Statement,'' that forms the regulatory basis for the...

  15. Generic OPC UA Server Framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikiel, Piotr P.; Farnham, Benjamin; Filimonov, Viatcheslav; Schlenker, Stefan

    2015-12-01

    This paper describes a new approach for generic design and efficient development of OPC UA servers. Development starts with creation of a design file, in XML format, describing an object-oriented information model of the target system or device. Using this model, the framework generates an executable OPC UA server application, which exposes the per-design OPC UA address space, without the developer writing a single line of code. Furthermore, the framework generates skeleton code into which the developer adds the necessary logic for integration to the target system or device. This approach allows both developers unfamiliar with the OPC UA standard, and advanced OPC UA developers, to create servers for the systems they are experts in while greatly reducing design and development effort as compared to developments based purely on COTS OPC UA toolkits. Higher level software may further benefit from the explicit OPC UA server model by using the XML design description as the basis for generating client connectivity configuration and server data representation. Moreover, having the XML design description at hand facilitates automatic generation of validation tools. In this contribution, the concept and implementation of this framework is detailed along with examples of actual production-level usage in the detector control system of the ATLAS experiment at CERN and beyond.

  16. Distinguishability of generic quantum states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puchała, Zbigniew; Pawela, Łukasz; Życzkowski, Karol

    2016-06-01

    Properties of random mixed states of dimension N distributed uniformly with respect to the Hilbert-Schmidt measure are investigated. We show that for large N , due to the concentration of measure, the trace distance between two random states tends to a fixed number D ˜=1 /4 +1 /π , which yields the Helstrom bound on their distinguishability. To arrive at this result, we apply free random calculus and derive the symmetrized Marchenko-Pastur distribution, which is shown to describe numerical data for the model of coupled quantum kicked tops. Asymptotic value for the root fidelity between two random states, √{F }=3/4 , can serve as a universal reference value for further theoretical and experimental studies. Analogous results for quantum relative entropy and Chernoff quantity provide other bounds on the distinguishablity of both states in a multiple measurement setup due to the quantum Sanov theorem. We study also mean entropy of coherence of random pure and mixed states and entanglement of a generic mixed state of a bipartite system.

  17. Generic theory for channel sinuosity.

    PubMed

    Lazarus, Eli D; Constantine, José Antonio

    2013-05-21

    Sinuous patterns traced by fluid flows are a ubiquitous feature of physical landscapes on Earth, Mars, the volcanic floodplains of the Moon and Venus, and other planetary bodies. Typically discussed as a consequence of migration processes in meandering rivers, sinuosity is also expressed in channel types that show little or no indication of meandering. Sinuosity is sometimes described as "inherited" from a preexisting morphology, which still does not explain where the inherited sinuosity came from. For a phenomenon so universal as sinuosity, existing models of channelized flows do not explain the occurrence of sinuosity in the full variety of settings in which it manifests, or how sinuosity may originate. Here we present a generic theory for sinuous flow patterns in landscapes. Using observations from nature and a numerical model of flow routing, we propose that flow resistance (representing landscape roughness attributable to topography or vegetation density) relative to surface slope exerts a fundamental control on channel sinuosity that is effectively independent of internal flow dynamics. Resistance-dominated surfaces produce channels with higher sinuosity than those of slope-dominated surfaces because increased resistance impedes downslope flow. Not limited to rivers, the hypothesis we explore pertains to sinuosity as a geomorphic pattern. The explanation we propose is inclusive enough to account for a wide variety of sinuous channel types in nature, and can serve as an analytical tool for determining the sinuosity a landscape might support. PMID:23610390

  18. Generic physical protection logic trees

    SciTech Connect

    Paulus, W.K.

    1981-10-01

    Generic physical protection logic trees, designed for application to nuclear facilities and materials, are presented together with a method of qualitative evaluation of the trees for design and analysis of physical protection systems. One or more defense zones are defined where adversaries interact with the physical protection system. Logic trees that are needed to describe the possible scenarios within a defense zone are selected. Elements of a postulated or existing physical protection system are tagged to the primary events of the logic tree. The likelihood of adversary success in overcoming these elements is evaluated on a binary, yes/no basis. The effect of these evaluations is propagated through the logic of each tree to determine whether the adversary is likely to accomplish the end event of the tree. The physical protection system must be highly likely to overcome the adversary before he accomplishes his objective. The evaluation must be conducted for all significant states of the site. Deficiencies uncovered become inputs to redesign and further analysis, closing the loop on the design/analysis cycle.

  19. Generic theory for channel sinuosity

    PubMed Central

    Lazarus, Eli D.; Constantine, José Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Sinuous patterns traced by fluid flows are a ubiquitous feature of physical landscapes on Earth, Mars, the volcanic floodplains of the Moon and Venus, and other planetary bodies. Typically discussed as a consequence of migration processes in meandering rivers, sinuosity is also expressed in channel types that show little or no indication of meandering. Sinuosity is sometimes described as “inherited” from a preexisting morphology, which still does not explain where the inherited sinuosity came from. For a phenomenon so universal as sinuosity, existing models of channelized flows do not explain the occurrence of sinuosity in the full variety of settings in which it manifests, or how sinuosity may originate. Here we present a generic theory for sinuous flow patterns in landscapes. Using observations from nature and a numerical model of flow routing, we propose that flow resistance (representing landscape roughness attributable to topography or vegetation density) relative to surface slope exerts a fundamental control on channel sinuosity that is effectively independent of internal flow dynamics. Resistance-dominated surfaces produce channels with higher sinuosity than those of slope-dominated surfaces because increased resistance impedes downslope flow. Not limited to rivers, the hypothesis we explore pertains to sinuosity as a geomorphic pattern. The explanation we propose is inclusive enough to account for a wide variety of sinuous channel types in nature, and can serve as an analytical tool for determining the sinuosity a landscape might support. PMID:23610390

  20. Generic Magnetic Fusion Reactor Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheffield, John; Milora, Stanley

    2015-11-01

    The original Generic Magnetic Fusion Reactor paper was published in 1986. This update describes what has changed in 30 years. Notably, the construction of ITER is providing important benchmark numbers for technologies and costs. In addition, we use a more conservative neutron wall flux and fluence. But these cost-increasing factors are offset by greater optimism on the thermal-electric conversion efficiency and potential availability. The main examples show the cost of electricity (COE) as a function of aspect ratio and neutron flux to the first wall. The dependence of the COE on availability, thermo-electric efficiency, electrical power output, and the present day's low interest rates is also discussed. Interestingly, at fixed aspect ratio there is a shallow minimum in the COE at neutron flux around 2.5 MW/m2. The possibility of operating with only a small COE penalty at even lower wall loadings (to 1.0 MW/m2 at larger plant size) and the use of niobium-titanium coils are also investigated. J. Sheffield was supported by ORNL subcontract 4000088999 with the University of Tennessee.

  1. Generic antibiotic drugs: is effectiveness guaranteed?

    PubMed

    Gauzit, R; Lakdhari, M

    2012-04-01

    There are recently published arguments suggesting all generic antibiotic drugs do not present the full reliability needed to claim therapeutic equivalence with branded drugs. The problem is especially crucial for generic intravenous drugs, which do not need any bioequivalence study before they can be marketed. The evaluation of generic antibiotic drug effectiveness yields an important dispersion of results according to antibiotic agents and for the same antibiotic agent all generic drugs are not equivalent. There are differences at all levels: drug components, levels of impurity, pharmacokinetics, pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic relationship, in vitro effectiveness, therapeutic effectiveness in experimental models, etc. So that finally, the specifications approved in the initial submission file of a brand name drugs are not always respected by a generic drug. There is also a specific problem of taste and treatment acceptability for pediatric oral antibiotic drugs. Available data on clinical effectiveness is excessively rare. The marketing of a great number of generic drugs of the same specialty is followed by a sometimes very important increase of their use, even in countries where consumption is low. The corollary of this increase in consumption is an increase of resistance, and this is especially true for oral fluoroquinolones. Even if most of this information needs to be verified, it seems necessary to review regulations for marketing authorization of generic antibiotic drugs. PMID:22480963

  2. Perception of Generic Prescription Drugs and Utilization of Generic Drug Discount Programs

    PubMed Central

    Omojasola, Anthony; Hernandez, Mike; Sansgiry, Sujit; Jones, Lovell

    2012-01-01

    Objective Our study aimed to assess patient’s perceptions of generic drugs and utilization of generic drug discount programs. Design, Setting and Participants A survey was administered to adult participants at community health centers and community-based organizations in Houston, Texas, USA (n=525). Main Outcome Measures Multivariate logistic regression was used to quantify the strength of association between generic drug perception and utilization of generic drug discount programs. Results Respondents who agreed that “Generic prescription drugs are as effective as brand name prescription drugs,” were 3 times as likely to utilize generic drug discount programs (AOR: 3.0, 95% CI: 1.8–4.8, P<.001). Compared to non-Hispanic Whites, African Americans (OR: 10.2; 95% CI: 1.4–76.4) and Hispanics (OR: 10.3; 95% CI: 1.3–79.4) were 10 times as likely to agree that generic drugs have more side effects than brand name drugs. Conclusion Race/ethnicity had no impact in utilization of generic drug discount programs, despite racial disparities in perception toward generic drugs’ side effects and generic drugs being inferior to brand name drugs. PMID:23140080

  3. [Economy of generic drugs in Latin America].

    PubMed

    Tobar, Federico

    2008-01-01

    In terms of economics, implementing generic drug policy is nothing other than consolidating (or even, creating) drug markets that set competitive prices, the result of which favors public access to essential drugs. This article approaches the topic of generic drugs from the economic perspective by examining various regulatory models in order to evaluate and leverage generic drug policy implementation options as a mechanism for battling some of the markets' specific weaknesses. The conclusion is that there is no single unequivocal method for promoting the use of generic drugs, and that the most favorable way to integrate markets may be through a broad combination of alternatives. These alternatives are grouped and analyzed according to the market issues or challenges that must be overcome. Several options are then identified based on the degree of market consolidation to be obtained. PMID:18291074

  4. Generic substitution: issues for problematic drugs.

    PubMed

    Henderson, J D; Esham, R H

    2001-01-01

    The methodology and criteria for bioequivalence testing have been firmly established by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). For certain drugs with a narrow therapeutic index (e.g., digoxin, levothyroxine, warfarin), generic substitution may not be advisable or even allowable, depending on the substitution laws of individual states. Digoxin and levothyroxine tablets are examples of drugs for which no New Drug Applications (NDAs) currently exist. However, commercially available generic products for both of these drugs have not been determined by the FDA to be therapeutically equivalent to the innovator products. Generic versions of warfarin have been approved by the FDA as being therapeutically equivalent to the innovator products, as have generic versions of the rescue inhaler albuterol. Yet, misinformation and myths persist regarding the adequacy and proven reliability of the FDA's determination of bioequivalence for these products. PMID:11213935

  5. Hydrodynamic design of generic pump components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eastland, A. H. J.; Dodson, H. C.

    1991-01-01

    Inducer and impellar base geometries were defined for a fuel pump for a generic generator cycle. Blade surface data and inlet flowfield definition are available in sufficient detail to allow computational fluid dynamic analysis of the two components.

  6. 10 CFR 781.52 - Exclusive and partially exclusive licenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Exclusive and partially exclusive licenses. 781.52 Section 781.52 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY DOE PATENT LICENSING REGULATIONS Types of Licenses and Conditions for Licensing § 781.52 Exclusive and partially exclusive licenses. (a) Availability of licenses. The Department may grant exclusive or...

  7. Higgs central exclusive production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cudell, J. R.; Dechambre, A.; Hernández, O. F.

    2012-01-01

    Using the CHIDe model, we tune the calculation of central exclusive Higgs production to the recent CDF central exclusive dijet data, and predict the cross section for the exclusive production of Higgs boson at the LHC. In this model, due to different choices of the scale in the Sudakov form factor for dijet and Higgs production, it is always below 1 fb, and below 0.3 fb after experimental cuts.

  8. Generic hypersonic vehicle performance model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chavez, Frank R.; Schmidt, David K.

    1993-01-01

    An integrated computational model of a generic hypersonic vehicle was developed for the purpose of determining the vehicle's performance characteristics, which include the lift, drag, thrust, and moment acting on the vehicle at specified altitude, flight condition, and vehicular configuration. The lift, drag, thrust, and moment are developed for the body fixed coordinate system. These forces and moments arise from both aerodynamic and propulsive sources. SCRAMjet engine performance characteristics, such as fuel flow rate, can also be determined. The vehicle is assumed to be a lifting body with a single aerodynamic control surface. The body shape and control surface location are arbitrary and must be defined. The aerodynamics are calculated using either 2-dimensional Newtonian or modified Newtonian theory and approximate high-Mach-number Prandtl-Meyer expansion theory. Skin-friction drag was also accounted for. The skin-friction drag coefficient is a function of the freestream Mach number. The data for the skin-friction drag coefficient values were taken from NASA Technical Memorandum 102610. The modeling of the vehicle's SCRAMjet engine is based on quasi 1-dimensional gas dynamics for the engine diffuser, nozzle, and the combustor with heat addition. The engine has three variable inputs for control: the engine inlet diffuser area ratio, the total temperature rise through the combustor due to combustion of the fuel, and the engine internal expansion nozzle area ratio. The pressure distribution over the vehicle's lower aft body surface, which acts as an external nozzle, is calculated using a combination of quasi 1-dimensional gas dynamic theory and Newtonian or modified Newtonian theory. The exhaust plume shape is determined by matching the pressure inside the plume, calculated from the gas dynamic equations, with the freestream pressure, calculated from Newtonian or Modified Newtonian theory. In this manner, the pressure distribution along the vehicle after body

  9. 42 CFR 447.506 - Authorized generic drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Authorized generic drugs. 447.506 Section 447.506... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS PAYMENTS FOR SERVICES Payment for Drugs § 447.506 Authorized generic drugs. (a) Authorized generic drug defined. For the purposes of this subpart, an authorized generic...

  10. 42 CFR 447.506 - Authorized generic drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Authorized generic drugs. 447.506 Section 447.506... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS PAYMENTS FOR SERVICES Payment for Drugs § 447.506 Authorized generic drugs. (a) Authorized generic drug defined. For the purposes of this subpart, an authorized generic...

  11. 42 CFR 447.506 - Authorized generic drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Authorized generic drugs. 447.506 Section 447.506... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS PAYMENTS FOR SERVICES Payment for Drugs § 447.506 Authorized generic drugs. (a) Authorized generic drug defined. For the purposes of this subpart, an authorized generic...

  12. 42 CFR 447.506 - Authorized generic drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Authorized generic drugs. 447.506 Section 447.506... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS PAYMENTS FOR SERVICES Payment for Drugs § 447.506 Authorized generic drugs. (a) Authorized generic drug defined. For the purposes of this subpart, an authorized generic...

  13. 42 CFR 447.506 - Authorized generic drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Authorized generic drugs. 447.506 Section 447.506... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS PAYMENTS FOR SERVICES Payment for Drugs § 447.506 Authorized generic drugs. (a) Authorized generic drug defined. For the purposes of this subpart, an authorized generic...

  14. Generic guidelines versus site-specific assessments: Does marriage make sense?

    SciTech Connect

    Gaudet, C.L.; Keenleyside, K.A.; Smith, S.L.; Kent, R.A.; Wong, M.P.

    1995-12-31

    The maintenance, protection and restoration of a high level of environmental quality requires the availability of practical scientific tools. Environmental quality guidelines (also called criteria) are one such scientific tool that help measure progress towards these goals. These guidelines provide scientific benchmarks that can offer consistency and clarity in defining scientific measures for environmental quality that are easily understood, communicated, and implemented as the basis for management decisions. At the same time, debate exists over the use of generic guidelines versus site-specific risk assessments. It is the contention that generic and site-specific approaches are not mutually exclusive, but complementary decision-support tools and that any apparent controversy stems from an incomplete understanding of the nature and intent of generic environmental quality guidelines or from the use of guidelines in the absence of a coherent framework. The authors advocate an approach that marries the strengths of the generic and site-specific approaches and promotes consistent, scientifically-defensible decisions that support broad societal goals for environmental protection. Using Canadian environmental quality guidelines as an example, they provide an overview of the role of environmental quality guidelines in decision-making, with concrete examples of their implementation in addressing specific environmental quality issues.

  15. Generic medicines: issues and relevance for global health.

    PubMed

    Rana, Proteesh; Roy, Vandana

    2015-12-01

    Generic medicine is a pharmaceutical product which is bioequivalent to the innovator product in terms of dosage form, strength, route of administration, quality, safety, performance characteristics, and intended use. Generic medicines are a cornerstone for providing affordable medicines to patients. The major generic markets in the world include United States of America followed by European Union, Canada, Japan, and Australia. The major suppliers of generic medicines China and India are showing tremendous growth in the generic medicine sector. There are many legal and regulatory issues along with quality concerns associated with the use of the generic products. Lately, bilateral international agreements called free trade agreements, delaying tactics by originator companies like strategic patenting and litigations on generic manufacturers, have been a major setback for the generic medicine industry. These issues need to be addressed to optimize the use of generic medicines. The sustainability of generic medicine sector is crucial for improving access to essential medicines for the worldwide. PMID:26405851

  16. Enhanced Information Exclusion Relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Yunlong; Jing, Naihuan; Li-Jost, Xianqing

    2016-07-01

    In Hall’s reformulation of the uncertainty principle, the entropic uncertainty relation occupies a core position and provides the first nontrivial bound for the information exclusion principle. Based upon recent developments on the uncertainty relation, we present new bounds for the information exclusion relation using majorization theory and combinatoric techniques, which reveal further characteristic properties of the overlap matrix between the measurements.

  17. Enhanced Information Exclusion Relations.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Yunlong; Jing, Naihuan; Li-Jost, Xianqing

    2016-01-01

    In Hall's reformulation of the uncertainty principle, the entropic uncertainty relation occupies a core position and provides the first nontrivial bound for the information exclusion principle. Based upon recent developments on the uncertainty relation, we present new bounds for the information exclusion relation using majorization theory and combinatoric techniques, which reveal further characteristic properties of the overlap matrix between the measurements. PMID:27460975

  18. Central Exclusive Dijet Production

    SciTech Connect

    Dechambre, A.; Cudell, J. R.; Ivanov, I. P.; Hernandez, O.

    2008-08-29

    The ingredients of central exclusive production cross section include large perturbative corrections and soft quantities that must be parametrized and fitted to data. In this talk, we summarize the results of a study of the uncertainties coming from these ingredients, in the case of exclusive dijet production.

  19. A Generic Expert Scheduling System Architecture and Toolkit: GUESS (Generically Used Expert Scheduling System)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liebowitz, Jay; Krishnamurthy, Vijaya; Rodens, Ira; Houston, Chapman; Liebowitz, Alisa; Baek, Seung; Radko, Joe; Zeide, Janet

    1996-01-01

    Scheduling has become an increasingly important element in today's society and workplace. Within the NASA environment, scheduling is one of the most frequently performed and challenging functions. Towards meeting NASA's scheduling needs, a research version of a generic expert scheduling system architecture and toolkit has been developed. This final report describes the development and testing of GUESS (Generically Used Expert Scheduling System).

  20. 77 FR 30560 - Proposed Generic Communication; Generic Letter on Seismic Risk Evaluations for Operating Reactors

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-23

    ... Operating Reactors'' published on September 1, 2011 (76 FR 54507). The draft Generic Letter, ``Seismic Risk...: On September 1, 2011 (76 FR 54507), the NRC published for public comment Draft Generic Letter 2011-XX..., 2011 (76 FR 57767), the NRC issued a correction and extended the public comment period to November...

  1. Children's Group Nous: Understanding and Applying Peer Exclusion Within and Between Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abrams, Dominic; Rutland, Adam; Pelletier, Joseph; Ferrell, Jennifer M.

    2009-01-01

    In Study 1, 167 English children aged 6-8 or 9-11 evaluated peer English or French soccer fans that were loyal or partially disloyal. In Study 2, 149 children aged 5-11 made judgments about generic inclusion norms between and within competitive groups. In both studies, children's understanding of intergroup inclusion/exclusion norms (group nous)…

  2. Expression-invariant three-dimensional face reconstruction from a single image by facial expression generic elastic models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moeini, Ali; Faez, Karim; Moeini, Hossein

    2014-09-01

    An efficient method for expression-invariant three-dimensional (3-D) face reconstruction from a frontal face image with a variety of facial expressions (FE) using the FE generic elastic model (GEM) is proposed. Three generic models are employed for FE modeling in the generic elastic model (GEM) framework, which are combined based on the similarity distance around the lips. Exclusively, FE-GEM demonstrated that it is more precisely able to estimate a 3-D model of a frontal face, attaining a more robust and better quality 3-D face reconstruction under a variety of FEs compared to the original GEM approach. It is tested on an available 3-D face database and its accuracy and robustness are demonstrated compared to the GEM approach under a variety of FEs. Also, the FE-GEM method is tested on available two-dimensional face databases and a new synthesized pose is generated from gallery images for handling pose variations in face recognition.

  3. Generic Rigidity for Circle Diffeomorphisms with Breaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kocić, Saša

    2016-06-01

    We prove that {C^r}-smooth ({r > 2}) circle diffeomorphisms with a break, i.e., circle diffeomorphisms with a single singular point where the derivative has a jump discontinuity, are generically, i.e., for almost all irrational rotation numbers, not {C^{1+\\varepsilon}}-rigid, for any {\\varepsilon > 0}. This result complements our recent proof, joint with Khanin (Geom Funct Anal 24:2002-2028, 2014), that such maps are generically {C^1}-rigid. It stands in remarkable contrast to the result of Yoccoz (Ann Sci Ec Norm Sup 17:333-361, 1984) that {C^r}-smooth circle diffeomorphisms are generically {C^{r-1-κ}}-rigid, for any {κ > 0}.

  4. Generic language facilitates children's cross-classification

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Simone P.; Gelman, Susan A.

    2012-01-01

    Four studies examined the role of generic language in facilitating 4- and 5-year-old children's ability to cross-classify. Participants were asked to classify an item into a familiar (taxonomic or script) category, then cross-classify it into a novel (script or taxonomic) category with the help of a clue expressed in either generic or specific language. Experiment 1 showed that generics facilitate 5-year-olds' and adults' cross-classification when expressed at an appropriate level of generalization (e.g., “foods,” “birthday party things”), whereas Experiment 2 showed that such effects disappeared when labels were at an inappropriate level of generalization (e.g., “pizzas,” “balloons”). Experiments 3 and 4 offered additional controls. Taken together, the findings demonstrate that language can guide and direct children's multiple categorizations. PMID:22888182

  5. Generic Rigidity for Circle Diffeomorphisms with Breaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kocić, Saša

    2016-05-01

    We prove that C^r -smooth (r > 2 ) circle diffeomorphisms with a break, i.e., circle diffeomorphisms with a single singular point where the derivative has a jump discontinuity, are generically, i.e., for almost all irrational rotation numbers, not C^1+ɛ -rigid, for any ɛ > 0 . This result complements our recent proof, joint with Khanin (Geom Funct Anal 24:2002-2028, 2014), that such maps are generically C^1 -rigid. It stands in remarkable contrast to the result of Yoccoz (Ann Sci Ec Norm Sup 17:333-361, 1984) that C^r -smooth circle diffeomorphisms are generically C^r-1-κ -rigid, for any κ > 0.

  6. Objective evaluation of generic drug information.

    PubMed

    Iijima, Hisashi; Kamei, Miwako; Koshimizu, Toshimasa; Shiragami, Makoto

    2004-06-01

    Pharmacists active in health care venues need to be able to evaluate generic drugs in terms of effectiveness, safety, and economy to ensure that they are used appropriately. As part of the ongoing study of these factors, we carried out an objective evaluation of information provided for generics. A minimum of 20 commercially available products was considered for each pharmaceutical ingredient. The information subjected to evaluation consisted of the text of drug package inserts and information noted on interview forms. Using our own criteria for evaluating drug information, we attempted to quantify the amounts of information provided. Then, based on the numerical values obtained, we calculated information quantities with reference to drug prices to study the relationship between prices and available information for original drugs and their later-developed, generic equivalents. A total of 14 different pharmaceutical ingredients (327 product items) were considered, with the information quantity for generics amounting to 27.9+/-17.8-46.3+/-21.4% (Mean+/-S.D.) that for the original drugs. Examined on the basis of individual pharmaceutical companies, the corresponding ratio came to 15.1+/-7.8-62.4+/-6.4% (Mean+/-S.D.). For generics, the relationship between drug price (expressed against a value of 1.0 for original drugs) and information quantity (Qua(i)) came to 0.79+/-0.46-1.90+/-0.79% (Mean+/-S.D.). These results clearly point to the importance of evaluating information quantity for generic drugs on a maker-by-maker basis. PMID:15170069

  7. Generic health/safety/environment cases

    SciTech Connect

    Kelland, A.N.; Primrose, M.; Pickles, J.C.

    1996-12-31

    A desire to implement HSE Management Systems including HSE Cases in all Shell companies operations prompted the development of a relational data base software package (THESIS) to provide a structured way of preparing an HSE Case. The software includes features which facilitate the management of {open_quotes}Keeping the Case Alive{close_quotes}, enabling the dissemination of tasks and hazard information to the workplace. During the software development it was recognized that a significant reduction could be made in the resources which would be required to prepare an HSE Case for each and every operation by the building of {open_quotes}Generic HSE Cases{close_quotes} addressing specific activities which were repeated across the Company`s operations. This was recognized to be particularly valid for the smaller Single String Venture type of operations. The activities selected for the initial Generic HSE Case development include Land Drilling Operations, Land Seismic Acquisition, and Land Transport. To establish the Generic HSE Case, the THESIS data base is populated with data for a generic operation, identifying all the hazards and activities associated with that operation including all the associated controls, with established formats for the textual sections. In effect, the Generic Case defines the standards required for that type of operation. To generate an operation specific HSE Case, the Generic Case thereafter requires to be modified/adapted so that it represents the actual situation in the operation which it defines. This process includes itemization of all the operation specific details, and may involve the inclusion/deletion of any additional/existing activities or hazards together with their associated controls.

  8. Benefits of Digital Equipment Generic Qualification Activities

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, James E.; Steiman, Samuel C.

    2002-07-01

    As a result of nuclear power plant instrumentation and control obsolescence issues, there have been numerous activities during recent years relating to the qualification of digital equipment. Some of these activities have been 'generic' in nature in that the qualification was not limited to plant specific applications, but was intended to cover a broad base of potential applications of the digital equipment. These generic qualifications have been funded by equipment manufacturers and by utility groups and organizations. The generic activities sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) have been pilot projects for an overall generic qualification approach. The primary benefit resulting from the generic qualification work to date is that a number of digital platforms and digital devices are now available for use in various nuclear safety-related applications. Many of the tests and evaluations necessary to support plant specific applications have been completed. The amount of data and documentation that each utility must develop on a case by case basis has been significantly reduced. There are also a number of additional benefits resulting from these industry efforts. The challenges and difficulties in qualifying digital equipment for safety-related applications are now more clearly understood. EPRI has published a lessons learned document (EPRI Report 1001452, Generic Qualification of Commercial Grade Digital Devices: Lessons Learned from Initial Pilots, which covers several different qualification areas, including device selection, project planning, vendor surveys and design reviews, and electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) qualification. Application of the experience and lessons learned from the EPRI pilot activities should help reduce the effort and cost required for future qualification work. Most generic qualification activities for commercial equipment have been conducted using the approach of EPRI TR-106439, Guideline on Evaluation and Acceptance

  9. The formal verification of generic interpreters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Windley, P.; Levitt, K.; Cohen, G. C.

    1991-01-01

    The task assignment 3 of the design and validation of digital flight control systems suitable for fly-by-wire applications is studied. Task 3 is associated with formal verification of embedded systems. In particular, results are presented that provide a methodological approach to microprocessor verification. A hierarchical decomposition strategy for specifying microprocessors is also presented. A theory of generic interpreters is presented that can be used to model microprocessor behavior. The generic interpreter theory abstracts away the details of instruction functionality, leaving a general model of what an interpreter does.

  10. Generic Planning Target Margin for Rectal Cancer Treatment Setup Variation

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, John M. Campbell, Jonathon P.; Yan Di

    2009-08-01

    Purpose: To calculate the generic planning target margin (GPTM) for patients receiving radiation therapy (RT) for rectal cancer placed in a prone position with a customized cradle for small-bowel exclusion. Methods and Materials: A total of 25 consecutive rectal cancer patients were treated for 25 or 28 fractions in a prone position using a cradle to maximize small bowel exclusion. Treatment planning computed tomography (CT) scans were used to create orthogonally digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRRs) for portal image registration, which were compared with daily portal images from an electronic portal-imaging device (EPID). Translation values needed to align the DRRs and EPIDs were recorded for the superior to inferior (SI), right to left (RL), and anterior to posterior (AP) directions, and used to calculate the GPTM using the four-parameter model. Age, weight, and body mass index were tested compared with the setup variation using a Pearson correlation and a t test for significance. Gender versus setup variation was compared with a t test. Results: A total of 1,723 EPID images were reviewed. The GPTM was 10 mm superior, 8 mm inferior, 7 mm RL and 10 mm AP. Age and gender were unrelated to setup variation. Weight was significantly associated with systematic AP variation (p < 0.05). BMI was significantly associated with systematic SI (p < 0.05) and AP (p < 0.01) variation and random RL variation (p < 0.05). Conclusions: The GPTM for rectal cancer is asymmetric with a maximum of 10 mm in the superior, anterior and posterior dimensions. Body mass index may effect setup variation. Research using advanced treatment planning should include these margins in the planning target volume definition.

  11. 49 CFR 24.401 - Replacement housing payment for 180-day homeowner-occupants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... is reflected in the “acquisition cost” used when computing the replacement housing payment. (d..., who could be eligible for a replacement housing payment under paragraph (a) of this section but elects... compensation is deposited in the court; or (ii) The date the displacing Agency's obligation under § 24.204...

  12. 49 CFR 24.401 - Replacement housing payment for 180-day homeowner-occupants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... not exceed rates normal to similar real estate transactions in the area; (iii) The Agency determines..., safe, and sanitary replacement dwelling (defined at § 24.2(a)(8)); and (iii) The current fair market... assistance payment is based on a determination of market rent for the acquired dwelling compared to...

  13. 76 FR 17755 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Decision and Order Granting 180-Day Extension...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-31

    ... energy consumption. 75 FR 64621. More specifically, this test procedure final rule included a standby.../#!docketDetail ;dct=FR+PR+N+O+SR;rpp=10;po=0;D=EERE-2008-BT-TP-0020. The http://www.regulations.gov Web... Compliance Date for Residential Furnaces and Boilers Test Procedure Amendments AGENCY: Office of...

  14. Self-Efficacy and Illicit Opioid Use in a 180-Day Methadone Detoxification Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reilly, Patrick M.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Studied self-efficacy and treatment outcomes in a sample of opioid addicts. Results show self-efficacy influenced subsequent drug use in parallel with previous behavior. Suggests that psychological constructs like self-efficacy may hold promise for understanding and decreasing illicit opioid use during long-term methadone detoxification treatment.…

  15. Should Physicians be Encouraged to use Generic Names and to Prescribe Generic Drugs?

    PubMed

    Riaz, Haris; Krasuski, Richard A

    2016-06-01

    While using the brand names seems like a trivial issue at the outset, using these names is inherently problematic. Cardiovascular drugs remain the most commonly prescribed drugs by the physicians. The junior doctors are likely to introject practices of their seniors and consequently to reciprocate from the experiences learnt from their preceptors. Using the generic names may be one way to facilitate prescription of the generic drugs who have a better cost profile and similar efficacy than the more expensive branded drugs. In this editorial, we have outlined several arguments to suggest the importance of using the generic names in academic discussions and clinical documentation. PMID:27179932

  16. Towards One Generic Name for Monophyletic Lineages

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    With the integration of asexually reproducing fungi into meaningful phylogenies, the need to use the same generic name for a monophyletic lineage has become urgent. At present Article 59 of the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature (ICBN) requires the use of a sexual state name for sexually r...

  17. Baldrige Theory into Practice: A Generic Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arif, Mohammed

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The education system globally has moved from a push-based or producer-centric system to a pull-based or customer centric system. Malcolm Baldrige Quality Award (MBQA) model happens to be one of the latest additions to the pull based models. The purpose of this paper is to develop a generic framework for MBQA that can be used by…

  18. Using a Generic Invasion Game for Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, Stephen

    2007-01-01

    Tactical approaches to teaching are, arguably, still under-utilized in physical education settings, and this may be due to the lack of pertinent assessment materials. The purpose of this article is to present a generic invasion-game unit and to link it to a variety of assessment materials using three tactical components from the Game Performance…

  19. Australian Universities, Generic Skills and Lifelong Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pitman, Tim; Broomhall, Susan

    2009-01-01

    The concept of lifelong learning implies a cycle where the learner contributes prior learning into a new learning environment and sees that learning upgraded. In recent years, a range of internal and external pressures have encouraged Australian universities to identify the meta or generic skills embedded in tertiary study. Using a content…

  20. "Generic" Multiculturalism: Hybrid Texts, Cultural Contexts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behling, Laura L.

    2003-01-01

    Argues that issues of generic hybridity embody multicultural literature while promoting another kind of multiculturalism that reflects the current debates about literary canons in general and the field of American literature in particular. Considers how a reading of texts that relies on all of their component parts allows literature to perform a…

  1. Generic Irradiation Quarantine Treatments: The Next Steps

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2006, USDA-APHIS published a landmark rule providing generic irradiation quarantine treatments. The rule approved irradiation doses of 150 Gy for any tephritid fruit fly and 400 Gy for all other insects except the pupa and adult stages of Lepidoptera. Therefore, if a pest risk assessment demonstr...

  2. [Generic drugs in psychopharmacology: pros and cons].

    PubMed

    Cuenca, E; Zaragozá, F

    1999-01-01

    Legislation to facilitate process for generic products has been enacted and generic drugs have entered the market soon after the patent for the brand-name agent have expired. In every instance, the rationale has been economic since it is generally assumed that the copies are not only therapeutically equivalent but also a great deal less expensive than the original. Sometimes this may be so. In this short review several comments are made in order to establish the variables that may influence bioequivalence between the brand-name drug and its generics. Among them emphasis is given to the particle sizes, pharmaceutical supply, choice of the right excipient, in order to avoid possible interactions with the drug, ingredient quality and purity, etc. All these variables must be carefully controlled. Even so a patient who is changed from a trade name product to a generic drug (or vice versa) may respond a little differently, which is important in Psychopharmacology. Two or more products should be considered biologically equivalent only when it can demonstrated that they fulfil three conditions: that they have the same pharmaceutical properties; that they are equally effective in therapeutic use and that they are tolerated equally by patients being treated for the indicated uses. Regulatory agencies could require subsequent versions of an original therapeutic product the type of data regarding pharmacology, toxicology and chemical assessment that was mandatory for the introduction of the original. PMID:10611558

  3. Generic queries for meeting clinical information needs.

    PubMed Central

    Cimino, J J; Aguirre, A; Johnson, S B; Peng, P

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes a model for automated information retrieval in which questions posed by clinical users are analyzed to establish common syntactic and semantic patterns. The patterns are used to develop a set of general-purpose questions called generic queries. These generic queries are used in responding to specific clinical information needs. Users select generic queries in one of two ways. The user may type in questions, which are then analyzed, using natural language processing techniques, to identify the most relevant generic query; or the user may indicate patient data of interest and then pick one of several potentially relevant questions. Once the query and medical concepts have been determined, an information source is selected automatically, a retrieval strategy is composed and executed, and the results are sorted and filtered for presentation to the user. This work makes extensive use of the National Library of Medicine's Unified Medical Language System (UMLS): medical concepts are derived from the Metathesaurus, medical queries are based on semantic relations drawn from the UMLS Semantic Network, and automated source selection makes use of the Information Sources Map. The paper describes research currently under way to implement this model and reports on experience and results to date. PMID:8472005

  4. A Generic Biokinetic Model for C-14

    SciTech Connect

    Manger, Ryan P

    2011-01-01

    The generic biokinetic model currently recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) for the treatment of systemic radiocarbon assumes uniform distribution of activity in tissues and a biological half-time of 40 d. This model is intended to generate cautiously high estimates of dose per unit intake of C-14 and, in fact, generally predicts a much higher effective dose than systemic models that have been developed on the basis of biokinetic studies of specific carbon compounds. The simplistic model formulation precludes its application as a bioassay model or adjustment to fit case-specific bioassay data. This paper proposes a new generic biokinetic model for systemic radiocarbon that is less conservative than the current ICRP model but maintains sufficient conservatism to overestimate the effective dose coefficients generated by most radiocarbon-compound-specific models. The proposed model includes two systemic pools with different biological half-times representing an initial systemic form of absorbed radiocarbon, a submodel describing the behaviour of labelled carbon dioxide produced in vivo, and three excretion pathways: breath, urine and faeces. Generic excretion rates along each path are based on multi-phase excretion curves observed in experimental studies of radiocarbons. The generic model structure is designed so that the user may adjust the level of dosimetric conservatism to fit the information at hand and may adjust parameter values for consistency with subject-specific or site-specific bioassay data.

  5. Generic Certificates. Agricultural Economic Report Number 594.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glauber, Joseph W.

    The Food Security Act of 1985 authorizes the U.S. Department of Agriculture to issue generic certificates in lieu of cash payments due to program participants and merchants of agricultural products under provisions of several programs. The certificates may be used to acquire stocks held as collateral on government loans or owned by the Commodity…

  6. Comparison of Generic Accelerated Nursing Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaddorura, Mahmood; Williams, Collette

    2012-01-01

    Case study pedagogy is a teaching strategy in which teachers hope to help students develop and use critical thinking (CT) abilities. This study compared CT skills of 75 second year generic accelerated baccalaureate nursing students during their Fundamentals of Nursing course before and after being educated using case study pedagogical method.…

  7. A Generic Archive Protocol and an Implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordan, J. M.; Jennings, D. G.; McGlynn, T. A.; Ruggiero, N. G.; Serlemitsos, T. A.

    1993-01-01

    Archiving vast amounts of data has become a major part of every scientific space mission today. GRASP, the Generic Retrieval/Ar\\-chive Services Protocol, addresses the question of how to archive the data collected in an environment where the underlying hardware archives and computer hosts may be rapidly changing.

  8. Enhanced Information Exclusion Relations

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Yunlong; Jing, Naihuan; Li-Jost, Xianqing

    2016-01-01

    In Hall’s reformulation of the uncertainty principle, the entropic uncertainty relation occupies a core position and provides the first nontrivial bound for the information exclusion principle. Based upon recent developments on the uncertainty relation, we present new bounds for the information exclusion relation using majorization theory and combinatoric techniques, which reveal further characteristic properties of the overlap matrix between the measurements. PMID:27460975

  9. 40 CFR 721.10460 - Azo nickel complex (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Azo nickel complex (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10460 Azo nickel complex (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as azo nickel complex (PMN...

  10. 40 CFR 721.10460 - Azo nickel complex (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Azo nickel complex (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10460 Azo nickel complex (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as azo nickel complex (PMN...

  11. 40 CFR 721.10551 - Bisphenol S mono ether (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Bisphenol S mono ether (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10551 Bisphenol S mono ether (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as bisphenol S mono ether (PMN...

  12. 40 CFR 721.10551 - Bisphenol S mono ether (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Bisphenol S mono ether (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10551 Bisphenol S mono ether (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as bisphenol S mono ether (PMN...

  13. Generic Skills in Vocational Education and Training: Research Readings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibb, Jennifer, Ed.

    2004-01-01

    Possessing generic or employability skills is vital in the current labour market. The vocational education and training (VET) sector, like other education sectors, must ensure its clients gain and develop generic skills. This volume of readings summarises NCVER managed research into generic skills undertaken in 2001 and 2002. The work covers four…

  14. 40 CFR 721.3080 - Substituted phosphate ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Substituted phosphate ester (generic... Substances § 721.3080 Substituted phosphate ester (generic). (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a substituted phosphate...

  15. 40 CFR 721.3080 - Substituted phosphate ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Substituted phosphate ester (generic... Substances § 721.3080 Substituted phosphate ester (generic). (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a substituted phosphate...

  16. 40 CFR 721.10431 - Phosphoric acid esters (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Phosphoric acid esters (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10431 Phosphoric acid esters (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as phosphoric acid esters (PMNs...

  17. 40 CFR 721.10255 - Vinyl carboxylic acid ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Vinyl carboxylic acid ester (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10255 Vinyl carboxylic acid ester (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as...

  18. 40 CFR 721.10255 - Vinyl carboxylic acid ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Vinyl carboxylic acid ester (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10255 Vinyl carboxylic acid ester (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as...

  19. 40 CFR 721.10255 - Vinyl carboxylic acid ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Vinyl carboxylic acid ester (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10255 Vinyl carboxylic acid ester (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as...

  20. 40 CFR 721.5546 - Halogen substituted oxetanes (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Halogen substituted oxetanes (generic... Substances § 721.5546 Halogen substituted oxetanes (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as halogen substituted...

  1. 40 CFR 721.5546 - Halogen substituted oxetanes (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Halogen substituted oxetanes (generic... Substances § 721.5546 Halogen substituted oxetanes (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as halogen substituted...

  2. 40 CFR 721.5546 - Halogen substituted oxetanes (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Halogen substituted oxetanes (generic... Substances § 721.5546 Halogen substituted oxetanes (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as halogen substituted...

  3. 40 CFR 721.5546 - Halogen substituted oxetanes (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Halogen substituted oxetanes (generic... Substances § 721.5546 Halogen substituted oxetanes (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as halogen substituted...

  4. 40 CFR 721.5546 - Halogen substituted oxetanes (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Halogen substituted oxetanes (generic... Substances § 721.5546 Halogen substituted oxetanes (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as halogen substituted...

  5. Genericization: A Theory of Semantic Broadening in the Marketplace.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clankie, Shawn M.

    2000-01-01

    Genericization theory developed as a response to claims from outside of linguistics that generic use in brand names (for example, using Kleenex as a generic noun for all facial tissues, or Xerox for all photocopiers) is the result of marketing factors or misuse by consumers. This paper examines the linguistic factors that create an environment…

  6. 40 CFR 721.10069 - Ether amine phosphonate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Ether amine phosphonate (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10069 Ether amine phosphonate (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as ether amine phosphonate (PMN...

  7. 40 CFR 721.10069 - Ether amine phosphonate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ether amine phosphonate (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10069 Ether amine phosphonate (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as ether amine phosphonate (PMN...

  8. 40 CFR 721.10262 - Oxime, Me vinyl silane (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Oxime, Me vinyl silane (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10262 Oxime, Me vinyl silane (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as oxime, Me vinyl silane (PMN...

  9. 40 CFR 721.10053 - Alkyl silane methacrylate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Alkyl silane methacrylate (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10053 Alkyl silane methacrylate (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as alkyl...

  10. 40 CFR 721.10053 - Alkyl silane methacrylate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Alkyl silane methacrylate (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10053 Alkyl silane methacrylate (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as alkyl...

  11. 40 CFR 721.10262 - Oxime, Me vinyl silane (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Oxime, Me vinyl silane (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10262 Oxime, Me vinyl silane (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as oxime, Me vinyl silane (PMN...

  12. 40 CFR 721.10053 - Alkyl silane methacrylate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alkyl silane methacrylate (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10053 Alkyl silane methacrylate (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as alkyl...

  13. 40 CFR 721.10053 - Alkyl silane methacrylate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Alkyl silane methacrylate (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10053 Alkyl silane methacrylate (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as alkyl...

  14. 40 CFR 721.10262 - Oxime, Me vinyl silane (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Oxime, Me vinyl silane (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10262 Oxime, Me vinyl silane (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as oxime, Me vinyl silane (PMN...

  15. 40 CFR 721.10053 - Alkyl silane methacrylate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alkyl silane methacrylate (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10053 Alkyl silane methacrylate (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as alkyl...

  16. 40 CFR 721.555 - Alkyl amino nitriles (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Substances § 721.555 Alkyl amino nitriles (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as alkyl amino nitriles (PMNs P-96... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Alkyl amino nitriles (generic)....

  17. 40 CFR 721.10332 - Lithium metal phosphate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Lithium metal phosphate (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10332 Lithium metal phosphate (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as lithium metal phosphate (PMN...

  18. 40 CFR 721.10332 - Lithium metal phosphate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Lithium metal phosphate (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10332 Lithium metal phosphate (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as lithium metal phosphate (PMN...

  19. 40 CFR 721.10332 - Lithium metal phosphate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Lithium metal phosphate (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10332 Lithium metal phosphate (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as lithium metal phosphate (PMN...

  20. Defining and Comparing Generic Competences in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kallioinen, Outi

    2010-01-01

    In this article the author discusses the importance of defining generic competences in alignment with the European definitions. As a case study the generic competences defined by Laurea University of Applied Sciences are compared with European definitions of generic competences. The purpose is to open up the various perspectives within this…

  1. 40 CFR 721.10128 - Modified imidazole (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Modified imidazole (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10128 Modified imidazole (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as modified imidazole (PMN...

  2. 40 CFR 721.10128 - Modified imidazole (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Modified imidazole (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10128 Modified imidazole (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as modified imidazole (PMN...

  3. 40 CFR 721.10128 - Modified imidazole (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Modified imidazole (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10128 Modified imidazole (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as modified imidazole (PMN...

  4. 40 CFR 721.10128 - Modified imidazole (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Modified imidazole (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10128 Modified imidazole (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as modified imidazole (PMN...

  5. 40 CFR 721.10128 - Modified imidazole (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Modified imidazole (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10128 Modified imidazole (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as modified imidazole (PMN...

  6. 40 CFR 721.638 - Silyl amine, potassium salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Silyl amine, potassium salt (generic... Substances § 721.638 Silyl amine, potassium salt (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as silyl amine, potassium...

  7. 40 CFR 721.638 - Silyl amine, potassium salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Silyl amine, potassium salt (generic... Substances § 721.638 Silyl amine, potassium salt (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as silyl amine, potassium...

  8. 40 CFR 721.638 - Silyl amine, potassium salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Silyl amine, potassium salt (generic... Substances § 721.638 Silyl amine, potassium salt (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as silyl amine, potassium...

  9. 40 CFR 721.638 - Silyl amine, potassium salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Silyl amine, potassium salt (generic... Substances § 721.638 Silyl amine, potassium salt (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as silyl amine, potassium...

  10. 40 CFR 721.638 - Silyl amine, potassium salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Silyl amine, potassium salt (generic... Substances § 721.638 Silyl amine, potassium salt (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as silyl amine, potassium...

  11. 40 CFR 721.5905 - Modified phenolic resin (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Modified phenolic resin (generic). 721... Substances § 721.5905 Modified phenolic resin (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a modified phenolic resin...

  12. 40 CFR 721.5908 - Modified phenolic resin (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Modified phenolic resin (generic). 721... Substances § 721.5908 Modified phenolic resin (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as modified phenolic resin (PMN...

  13. 40 CFR 721.3110 - Polycarboxylic acid ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Polycarboxylic acid ester (generic... Substances § 721.3110 Polycarboxylic acid ester (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a polycarboxylic acid...

  14. 40 CFR 721.3110 - Polycarboxylic acid ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Polycarboxylic acid ester (generic... Substances § 721.3110 Polycarboxylic acid ester (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a polycarboxylic acid...

  15. 40 CFR 721.10163 - Chloro fluoro alkane (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Chloro fluoro alkane (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10163 Chloro fluoro alkane (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as chloro fluoro alkane (PMN...

  16. 40 CFR 721.10163 - Chloro fluoro alkane (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Chloro fluoro alkane (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10163 Chloro fluoro alkane (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as chloro fluoro alkane (PMN...

  17. 40 CFR 721.10250 - Zirconium lysine complex (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Zirconium lysine complex (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10250 Zirconium lysine complex (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as...

  18. 40 CFR 721.9973 - Zirconium dichlorides (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Zirconium dichlorides (generic). 721... Substances § 721.9973 Zirconium dichlorides (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as zirconium dichlorides (PMNs...

  19. 40 CFR 721.9973 - Zirconium dichlorides (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Zirconium dichlorides (generic). 721... Substances § 721.9973 Zirconium dichlorides (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as zirconium dichlorides (PMNs...

  20. 40 CFR 721.9973 - Zirconium dichlorides (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Zirconium dichlorides (generic). 721... Substances § 721.9973 Zirconium dichlorides (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as zirconium dichlorides (PMNs...

  1. 40 CFR 721.9973 - Zirconium dichlorides (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Zirconium dichlorides (generic). 721... Substances § 721.9973 Zirconium dichlorides (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as zirconium dichlorides (PMNs...

  2. 40 CFR 721.9973 - Zirconium dichlorides (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Zirconium dichlorides (generic). 721... Substances § 721.9973 Zirconium dichlorides (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as zirconium dichlorides (PMNs...

  3. 40 CFR 721.10250 - Zirconium lysine complex (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Zirconium lysine complex (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10250 Zirconium lysine complex (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as...

  4. 40 CFR 721.10250 - Zirconium lysine complex (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Zirconium lysine complex (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10250 Zirconium lysine complex (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as...

  5. The Development of a Generic Pharmaceutical Training Institute.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindeman, Lynn William; Boerner, Hank

    The manufacture of generic drugs is a growing industry, generally composed of small companies that are more dependent than brand-name companies on hiring entry-level workers. To provide standardized training for employees in the generic drug manufacturing field, the Generic Pharmaceutical Training Institute (GPTI) was established by a partnership…

  6. 40 CFR 721.6005 - Rare earth phosphate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Rare earth phosphate (generic). 721... Substances § 721.6005 Rare earth phosphate (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as rare earth phophate (PMNs...

  7. 40 CFR 721.6005 - Rare earth phosphate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Rare earth phosphate (generic). 721... Substances § 721.6005 Rare earth phosphate (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as rare earth phophate (PMNs...

  8. 40 CFR 721.6005 - Rare earth phosphate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Rare earth phosphate (generic). 721... Substances § 721.6005 Rare earth phosphate (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as rare earth phophate (PMNs...

  9. 40 CFR 721.5548 - Mixed metal oxide (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Mixed metal oxide (generic). 721.5548... Substances § 721.5548 Mixed metal oxide (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a mixed metal oxide (PMN P-97-956)...

  10. 40 CFR 721.10006 - Mixed metal oxide (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Mixed metal oxide (generic). 721.10006... Substances § 721.10006 Mixed metal oxide (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as mixed metal oxide (PMN...

  11. 40 CFR 721.10006 - Mixed metal oxide (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Mixed metal oxide (generic). 721.10006... Substances § 721.10006 Mixed metal oxide (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as mixed metal oxide (PMN...

  12. 40 CFR 721.5548 - Mixed metal oxide (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Mixed metal oxide (generic). 721.5548... Substances § 721.5548 Mixed metal oxide (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a mixed metal oxide (PMN P-97-956)...

  13. 40 CFR 721.10495 - Metal silicate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Metal silicate (generic). 721.10495... Substances § 721.10495 Metal silicate (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as metal silicate (PMN P-05-634) is subject...

  14. 40 CFR 721.10628 - Mixed metal oxalate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Mixed metal oxalate (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10628 Mixed metal oxalate (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as mixed metal oxalate (PMN...

  15. 40 CFR 721.10628 - Mixed metal oxalate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Mixed metal oxalate (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10628 Mixed metal oxalate (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as mixed metal oxalate (PMN...

  16. 40 CFR 721.4610 - Mixed metal oxides (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Mixed metal oxides (generic). 721.4610... Substances § 721.4610 Mixed metal oxides (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as mixed metal oxides (PMN...

  17. 40 CFR 721.10006 - Mixed metal oxide (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Mixed metal oxide (generic). 721.10006... Substances § 721.10006 Mixed metal oxide (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as mixed metal oxide (PMN...

  18. 40 CFR 721.4610 - Mixed metal oxides (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Mixed metal oxides (generic). 721.4610... Substances § 721.4610 Mixed metal oxides (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as mixed metal oxides (PMN...

  19. 40 CFR 721.4610 - Mixed metal oxides (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Mixed metal oxides (generic). 721.4610... Substances § 721.4610 Mixed metal oxides (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as mixed metal oxides (PMN...

  20. 40 CFR 721.5548 - Mixed metal oxide (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Mixed metal oxide (generic). 721.5548... Substances § 721.5548 Mixed metal oxide (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a mixed metal oxide (PMN P-97-956)...

  1. 40 CFR 721.10006 - Mixed metal oxide (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Mixed metal oxide (generic). 721.10006... Substances § 721.10006 Mixed metal oxide (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as mixed metal oxide (PMN...

  2. 40 CFR 721.4610 - Mixed metal oxides (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Mixed metal oxides (generic). 721.4610... Substances § 721.4610 Mixed metal oxides (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as mixed metal oxides (PMN...

  3. 40 CFR 721.10495 - Metal silicate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Metal silicate (generic). 721.10495... Substances § 721.10495 Metal silicate (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as metal silicate (PMN P-05-634) is subject...

  4. 40 CFR 721.10631 - Mixed metal borate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Mixed metal borate (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10631 Mixed metal borate (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as mixed metal borate (PMN...

  5. 40 CFR 721.5548 - Mixed metal oxide (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Mixed metal oxide (generic). 721.5548... Substances § 721.5548 Mixed metal oxide (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a mixed metal oxide (PMN P-97-956)...

  6. 40 CFR 721.10631 - Mixed metal borate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Mixed metal borate (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10631 Mixed metal borate (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as mixed metal borate (PMN...

  7. 40 CFR 721.10258 - Aromatic hydrocarbon (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Aromatic hydrocarbon (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10258 Aromatic hydrocarbon (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as aromatic hydrocarbon (PMN...

  8. 40 CFR 721.10258 - Aromatic hydrocarbon (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Aromatic hydrocarbon (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10258 Aromatic hydrocarbon (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as aromatic hydrocarbon (PMN...

  9. 40 CFR 721.10258 - Aromatic hydrocarbon (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Aromatic hydrocarbon (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10258 Aromatic hydrocarbon (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as aromatic hydrocarbon (PMN...

  10. 40 CFR 721.10689 - Organo zinc salts (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Organo zinc salts (generic). 721.10689... Substances § 721.10689 Organo zinc salts (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as organo zinc salts (PMN...

  11. 40 CFR 721.10302 - Zinc ammonium phosphate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Zinc ammonium phosphate (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10302 Zinc ammonium phosphate (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as zinc ammonium phosphate (PMN...

  12. 40 CFR 721.10302 - Zinc ammonium phosphate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Zinc ammonium phosphate (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10302 Zinc ammonium phosphate (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as zinc ammonium phosphate (PMN...

  13. 40 CFR 721.10302 - Zinc ammonium phosphate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Zinc ammonium phosphate (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10302 Zinc ammonium phosphate (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as zinc ammonium phosphate (PMN...

  14. 40 CFR 721.555 - Alkyl amino nitriles (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Substances § 721.555 Alkyl amino nitriles (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as alkyl amino nitriles (PMNs P-96... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alkyl amino nitriles (generic)....

  15. 40 CFR 721.10035 - Alkylbenzene sulfonate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Alkylbenzene sulfonate (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10035 Alkylbenzene sulfonate (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as alkylbenzene sulfonate...

  16. 40 CFR 721.10035 - Alkylbenzene sulfonate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alkylbenzene sulfonate (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10035 Alkylbenzene sulfonate (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as alkylbenzene sulfonate...

  17. 40 CFR 721.8660 - Propionic acid methyl ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Propionic acid methyl ester (generic... Substances § 721.8660 Propionic acid methyl ester (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a propionic acid methyl...

  18. 40 CFR 721.8660 - Propionic acid methyl ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Propionic acid methyl ester (generic... Substances § 721.8660 Propionic acid methyl ester (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a propionic acid methyl...

  19. 40 CFR 721.1680 - Substituted benzoic acid (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Substituted benzoic acid (generic... Substances § 721.1680 Substituted benzoic acid (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as substituted benzoic acid (PMN...

  20. 40 CFR 721.4610 - Mixed metal oxides (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mixed metal oxides (generic). 721.4610... Substances § 721.4610 Mixed metal oxides (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as mixed metal oxides (PMN...

  1. 40 CFR 721.324 - Alkoxylated acrylate polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alkoxylated acrylate polymer (generic... Substances § 721.324 Alkoxylated acrylate polymer (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as alkoxylated acrylate...

  2. 40 CFR 721.9959 - Polyurethane polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Polyurethane polymer (generic). 721... Substances § 721.9959 Polyurethane polymer (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a polyurethane polymer (PMN...

  3. 40 CFR 721.10506 - Alkylated phenols (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alkylated phenols (generic). 721.10506... Substances § 721.10506 Alkylated phenols (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as alkylated phenols (PMNs...

  4. 40 CFR 721.10249 - Disubstituted phenol (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Disubstituted phenol (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10249 Disubstituted phenol (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as disubstituted phenol (PMN...

  5. 40 CFR 721.10249 - Disubstituted phenol (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Disubstituted phenol (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10249 Disubstituted phenol (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as disubstituted phenol (PMN...

  6. 40 CFR 721.10387 - Substituted bis-phenol (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Substituted bis-phenol (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10387 Substituted bis-phenol (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as substituted bis-phenol (PMN...

  7. 40 CFR 721.10386 - Substituted phenol (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Substituted phenol (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10386 Substituted phenol (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as substituted phenol (PMN...

  8. 40 CFR 721.10387 - Substituted bis-phenol (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Substituted bis-phenol (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10387 Substituted bis-phenol (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as substituted bis-phenol (PMN...

  9. 40 CFR 721.10386 - Substituted phenol (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Substituted phenol (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10386 Substituted phenol (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as substituted phenol (PMN...

  10. 40 CFR 721.10249 - Disubstituted phenol (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Disubstituted phenol (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10249 Disubstituted phenol (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as disubstituted phenol (PMN...