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Sample records for 188re labeled 17a-ethynylestradiol

  1. Non-carrier-added 186, 188Re labeled 17a-ethynylestradiol : a potential breast cancer imaging and therapy agent

    SciTech Connect

    Fassbender, M. E.; Phillips, Dennis R.; Peterson, E. J.; Ott, K. C.; Arterburn, J. B.

    2001-01-01

    Receptor-targeted radiopharmaceuticals constitute potential agents for the diagnosis and therapy of cancer. Breast cancer is the most prevalent form of diagnosed cancer in women in the United States, and it accounts for the second highest number of cases of cancer fatalities (1). In Approximately two-thirds of the breast tumors, estrogen and progesterone steroid hormone receptors can be found. Such tumors can often be treated successfully with anti-estrogen hormone therapy (2). Hence, the ability to determine the estrogen receptor (ER) contend of the breast tumor is essential for making the most appropriate choice of treatment for the patient. Along with this diagnostic aspect, steroid-based radiopharmaceuticals with high specific activity offer an encouraging prospect for therapeutic applications: {sup 186,188}Re labeled steroids binding to receptors expressed by cancer cells appear to be potential agents for the irradiation of small to medium-sized tumors. {sup 186}Re has been regarded as an ideal radionuclide for radiotherapy due to its appropriate half-live of 90 h and {beta}-energy of 1.07 MeV. Moreover, the {gamma}-emission of 137 keV that allows in vivo imaging while in therapy is an additional bonus. {sup 188}Re is obtained from a {sup 188}W/{sup 188}Re radionuclide generator system, representing an advantage for availability at radiopharmacy laboratory by daily elution. In addition, {sup 188}Re emits high energy beta particles with an average energy of 769 keV, and the emission of the 155 keV allows simultaneous imaging for biodistribution evaluation in vivo. In order to avoid competitive saturation of the binding sites of the ligand receptor, Re labeled steroids with high specific activity are required, and the removal of all excess unlabeled ligands is mandatory. {sup 188}Re is eluted from a {sup 188}W/{sup 188}Re generator produced and provided by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (3). This paper outlines the solid phase-supported preparation of an n

  2. 188Re-labeled hydroxyapatite particles for radiation synovectomy.

    PubMed

    Kothari, K; Suresh, S; Sarma, H D; Meera, V; Pillai, M R A

    2003-04-01

    A new procedure for labeling hydroxyapatite (HA) particles with 188Re for radiation synovectomy is described and standardized. The particles were labeled with 188Re in high yields (99%) in acidic medium. HA particle size remained unaffected by reaction conditions as checked by laser diffraction particle analyzer. 188Re-HA was found to be stable retaining 99% radiochemical purity after 4 days when stored in ascorbic acid solution (10mg/ml, pH 5). Intra-articular injection in rats revealed approximately 98% retention of 188Re-HA in the knee after 48-h pi. PMID:12672625

  3. Preparation and biodistribution of 188Re-labeled folate conjugated human serum albumin magnetic cisplatin nanoparticles (188Re-folate-CDDP/HSA MNPs) in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Qiu-Sha; Chen, Dao-Zhen; Xue, Wen-Qun; Xiang, Jing-Ying; Gong, Yong-Chi; Zhang, Li; Guo, Cai-Qin

    2011-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to develop intraperitoneal hyperthermic therapy based on magnetic fluid hyperthermia, nanoparticle-wrapped cisplatin chemotherapy, and magnetic particles of albumin. In addition, to combine the multiple-killing effects of hyperthermal targeting therapy, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy, the albumin-nanoparticle surfaces were linked with radionuclide 188Re-labeled folic acid ligand (188Re-folate-CDDP/HSA). Methods Human serum albumin was labeled with 188Re using the pre-tin method. Reaction time and optimal conditions of labeling were investigated. The particles were intravenously injected into mice, which were sacrificed at different time points. Radioactivity per gram of tissue of percent injected dose (% ID/g) was measured in vital organs. The biodistribution of 188Re-folate-CDDP/HAS magnetic nanoparticles was assessed. Results Optimal conditions for 188Re-labeled folate-conjugated albumin combined with cisplatin magnetic nanoparticles were: 0.1 mL of sodium gluconate solution (0.3 mol/L), 0.1 mL of concentrated hydrochloric acid with dissolved stannous chloride (10 mg/mL), 0.04 mL of acetic acid buffer solution (pH 5, 0.2 mol/L), 30 mg of folate-conjugated albumin combined with cisplatin magnetic nanoparticles, and 188ReO4 eluent (0.1 mL). The rate of 188Re-folate-CDDP-HSA magnetic nanoparticle formation exceeded 90%, and radiochemical purity exceeded 95%. The overall labeling rate was 83% in calf serum at 37°C. The major uptake tissues were the liver, kidney, intestine, and tumor after the 188Re-folate-CDDP/HSA magnetic nanoparticles were injected into nude mice. Uptake of 188Re-folate-CDDP/HSA magnetic nanoparticles increased gradually after injection, peaked at 8 hours with a value of 8.83 ± 1.71, and slowly decreased over 24 hours in vivo. Conclusion These results indicate that 188Re-folate-CDDP/HSA magnetic nanoparticles can be used in radionuclide-targeted cancer therapy. Surface-modified albumin nanoparticles with

  4. Pharmacokinetics of radioimmunotherapeutic agent of direct labeling mAb 188Re-HAb18

    PubMed Central

    Lou, Chao; Chen, Zhi-Nan; Bian, Hui-Jie; Li, Jie; Zhou, Shou-Bo

    2002-01-01

    AIM: To label anti-hepatoma monoclonal antibody (mAb) fragment HAb18 F(ab’)2 was labeled with 188Re for the pharmacokinetic model of 188Re-HAb18 F(ab’)2 and to evaluate its pharmacokinetic parameters in hepatoma-bearing nude mice. METHODS: HAb18 F(ab’)2 was directly labeled with 188Re using 2-mercaptoethanol (2-ME) as reducing agents. Labeling efficiency and immunoreactivity of 188Re-HAb18 F(ab’)2 were evaluated by Whatman 3MM paper chromatography and live cell assay, respectively. Biodistribution analysis was also conducted in nude mice bearing human hepatoma in which animals were sacrificed at different time points (1, 4, 18, 24 and 24 h) after 188Re-HAb18 F (ab’)2 was injected through tail-vein into hepatoma-bearing nude mice. The blood and radioactivity of organs and mass were measured. The concentrations of 188Re-HAb18 F(ab’)2 were evaluated with apharmacokinetic 3P97 software. RESULTS: The optimum labeling efficiency and immunoreactive fraction were 91.7% and 0.78% respectively. The parameters of 188Re-HAb18 F(ab’)2 were: T1/2, 2.29 h; Vd,1.49 × 10-9 L·Bq-1; AUC, 20. 49 × 109 Bq·h·L-1;CL, 0.45 × 10-3 L·h-1. 188Re-HAb18 F(ab’)2 could locate specially in hepatoma with high selective reactivity of HAb18 F(ab’)2. 188Re-HAb18 F(ab’)2 was mainly eliminated by kidney. The maximal tumor to blood ratio was at 48 h, and maximal tumor to liver ratio was at 18 h. CONCLUTION: The pharmacokinetics of 188Re-HAb18 F (ab’)2 fital-compartment model.188Re-HAb18 F(ab’)2 can be uptaken selectively at the hepatoma site. PMID:11833074

  5. NOTE: Monte Carlo microdosimetry of 188Re- and 131I-labelled anti-CD20

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres-García, E.; Garnica-Garza, H. M.; Ferro-Flores, G.

    2006-10-01

    The radiolabelled monoclonal antibody anti-CD20 has the property of binding to the CD20 antigen expressed on the cell surface of B-lymphocytes, thus making it a useful tool in the treatment of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. In this work, the event-by-event Monte Carlo code NOREC is used to calculate the single-event distribution function f1(z) in the cell nucleus using the beta spectra of the 188Re and 131I radionuclides. The simulated geometry consists of two concentric spheres representing the nucleus and the cell surface embedded in a semi-infinite water medium. An isotropic point source was placed on the cell surface to simulate the binding of the anti-CD20 labelled with either 188Re or 131I. The simulations were carried out for two combinations of cell surface and nucleus radii. A method was devised that allows one to calculate the contribution of betas of energy greater than 1 MeV, which cannot be simulated by the NOREC code, to the single-event distribution function. It is shown that disregarding this contribution leads to an overestimation of the frequency-mean specific energy of the order of 9 12%. In general, the antibody radiolabelled with 131I produces single-event distribution functions that yield higher frequency-mean specific energies.

  6. Novel and efficient preparation of precursor [188Re(OH2)3(CO)3]+ for the labeling of biomolecules.

    PubMed

    Park, Sang Hyun; Seifert, Sepp; Pietzsch, Hans-Jurgen

    2006-01-01

    A novel and efficient method for preparing 188Re(I) tricarbonyl precursor [188Re(OH2)3(CO)3]+ has been developed by reacting [188Re]perrhenate with Schibli's kit in the presence of borohydride exchange resin (BER) as a reducing agent and an anion scavenger. The precursor was produced in more than 97% yield by reacting a solution of tetrahydroborate exchange resin (BER, 3 mg), borane-ammonia (BH3.NH3, 3 mg), and potassium boranocarbonate (K2[H3BCO2], 3 mg) in 0.9% saline with a solution of sodium perrhenate (Na188ReO4) with up to 50 MBq and concentrated phosphoric acid (85%, 7 microL) at 60 degrees C for 15 min. HPLC and TLC revealed 0% unreacted [188Re]perrhenate ion and <3% of colloidal 188ReO2. Since the precursor is produced with high radiochemical purity and labeling efficiency under the milder conditions than those required for the conventional reducing agents, the latter can be replaced. PMID:16417272

  7. Radiation Pneumopathy in the Rat After Intravenous Application of {sup 188}Re-Labeled Microspheres

    SciTech Connect

    Liepe, Knut; Faulhaber, Diana; Wunderlich, Gerd; Andreeff, Michael; Haase, Michael; Jung, Roland; Oehme, Liane; Doerr, Wolfgang; Kotzerke, Joerg

    2011-10-01

    Purpose: To determine the dose dependence and kinetics of pneumopathy after systemic administration of rhenium-188 ({sup 188}Re)-labeled microspheres in a rat model. Methods and Materials: {sup 188}Re-microspheres were injected intravenously into adult Wistar rats (n = 54, age, 8 {+-} 2 months). The rats were divided into 6 groups according to the intended absorbed dose in the lung (maximum 60 Gy). Gamma camera scans were used to estimate the individual whole lung doses. One control group (n = 5) received nonlabeled microspheres. The breathing rate was measured before and weekly after the treatment using whole body plethysmography until 24 weeks. An increase in the breathing rate by 20% compared with the individual pretreatment control value was defined as the quantal endpoint for dose-effect analyses. Results: A biphasic increase in the breathing rate was observed. The first impairment of lung function occurred in Weeks 3-6. For late changes, the interval to onset was clearly dose dependent and was 17 weeks (10-30 Gy) and 10 weeks (50-60 Gy), respectively. The incidence of the response was highly dependent on the estimated lung dose. The median effective dose for an early and late response was virtually identical (19.9 {+-} 0.6 Gy and 20.4 {+-} 3.1 Gy, respectively). A significant correlation was found between the occurrence of an early and a late effect in the same rat, suggesting a strong consequential component. Conclusions: The effects of radiolabeled microspheres can be studied longitudinally in a rat model, using changes in the breathing rate as the functional, clinically relevant response. The isoeffective doses from the present study using radionuclide administration and those from published investigations of homogeneous external beam radiotherapy are almost similar.

  8. Therapeutic Efficacy of a {sup 188}Re-Labeled {alpha}-Melanocyte-Stimulating Hormone Peptide Analog in Murine and Human Melanoma-Bearing Mouse Models

    SciTech Connect

    Miao, Yubin; Owen, Nellie K.; Fisher, Darrell R.; Hoffman, Timothy J.; Quinn, Thomas P.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the therapeutic efficacy of {sup 188}Re-(Arg{sup 11})CCMSH in the B16/F1 murine melanoma and TXM13 human melanoma bearing mouse models. Method: (Arg11)CCMSH was synthesized and labeled with {sup 188}Re to form {sup 188}Re-(Agr{sup 11})CCMSH. B16/F1 melanoma tumor bearing mice were administrated with 200 Ci, 600 Ci and 2x400 Ci of {sup 188}Re-(Arg{sup 11})CCMSH via the tail vein, respectively. TXM13 melanoma tumor hearing mice were separately injected with 600 Ci, 2x400 Ci and 1000 Ci of 100Re-(Arg{sup 11})CCMSH through the tail vein. Two groups of 10 mice bearing either B16/F1 or TXM13 tumors were injected with saline as untreated controls. Results: In contrast to the untreated control group, {sup 188}Re(Arg11)CCMSH yielded rapid and lasting therapeutic effects in the treatment groups with either B16/F1 or TXM13 tumors. The tumor growth rate was reduced and the survival rate was prolonged in the treatment groups. Treatment with 2x400 Ci of {sup 188}Re-Arg{sup 11}CCMSH significantly extended the mean life of B16/F1 tumor mice (p<0.05), while the mean life of TXm13 tumor mice was significantly prolonged after treatment with 600 Ci and 1000 Ci doses of {sup 188}Re-(Arg{sup 11})CCMSH (p<0.05 High-dose {sup 188}Re-(Arg{sup 11}))CCMSH produced no observed normal-tissue toxicity. Conclusions: The therapy study results revealed that {sup 188}Re-Arg11 CCMSH yielded significant therapeutic effects in both B16/F1 murine melanoma and TXM13 human melanoma bearing mouse models. {sup 188}Re-(Arg{sup 11})CCMSH appears to be a promising radiolabeled peptide for targeted radionuclide therapy of melanoma.

  9. Evaluation of 188Re-labeled PEGylated nanoliposome as a radionuclide therapeutic agent in an orthotopic glioma-bearing rat model

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Feng-Yun J; Lee, Te-Wei; Chang, Chih-Hsien; Chen, Liang-Cheng; Hsu, Wei-Hsin; Chang, Chien-Wen; Lo, Jem-Mau

    2015-01-01

    Purpose In this study, the 188Re-labeled PEGylated nanoliposome (188Re-liposome) was prepared and evaluated as a therapeutic agent for glioma. Materials and methods The reporter cell line, F98luc was prepared via Lentivector expression kit system and used to set up the orthotopic glioma-bearing rat model for non-invasive bioluminescent imaging. The maximum tolerated dose applicable in Fischer344 rats was explored via body weight monitoring of the rats after single intravenous injection of 188Re-liposome with varying dosages before the treatment study. The OLINDA/EXM 1.1 software was utilized for estimating the radiation dosimetry. To assess the therapeutic efficacy, tumor-bearing rats were intravenously administered 188Re-liposome or normal saline followed by monitoring of the tumor growth and animal survival time. In addition, the histopathological examinations of tumors were conducted on the 188Re-liposome-treated rats. Results By using bioluminescent imaging, the well-established reporter cell line (F98luc) showed a high relationship between cell number and its bioluminescent intensity (R2=0.99) in vitro; furthermore, it could also provide clear tumor imaging for monitoring tumor growth in vivo. The maximum tolerated dose of 188Re-liposome in Fischer344 rats was estimated to be 333 MBq. According to the dosimetry results, higher equivalent doses were observed in spleen and kidneys while very less were in normal brain, red marrow, and thyroid. For therapeutic efficacy study, the progression of tumor growth in terms of tumor volume and/or tumor weight was significantly slower for the 188Re-liposome-treated group than the control group (P<0.05). As a result, the lifespan of glioma-bearing rats treated with 188Re-liposome was prolonged 10.67% compared to the control group. Conclusion The radiotherapeutic evaluation by dosimetry and survival studies have demonstrated that passive targeting 188Re-liposome via systemic administration can significantly prolong the

  10. Evaluation of (188)Re-labeled NGR-VEGI protein for radioimaging and radiotherapy in mice bearing human fibrosarcoma HT-1080 xenografts.

    PubMed

    Ma, Wenhui; Shao, Yahui; Yang, Weidong; Li, Guiyu; Zhang, Yingqi; Zhang, Mingru; Zuo, Changjing; Chen, Kai; Wang, Jing

    2016-07-01

    Vascular endothelial growth inhibitor (VEGI) is an anti-angiogenic protein, which includes three isoforms: VEGI-174, VEGI-192, and VEGI-251. The NGR (asparagine-glycine-arginine)-containing peptides can specifically bind to CD13 (Aminopeptidase N) receptor which is overexpressed in angiogenic blood vessels and tumor cells. In this study, a novel NGR-VEGI fusion protein was prepared and labeled with (188)Re for radioimaging and radiotherapy in mice bearing human fibrosarcoma HT-1080 xenografts. Single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) imaging results revealed that (188)Re-NGR-VEGI exhibits good tumor-to-background contrast in CD13-positive HT-1080 tumor xenografts. The CD13 specificity of (188)Re-NGR-VEGI was further verified by significant reduction of tumor uptake in HT-1080 tumor xenografts with co-injection of the non-radiolabeled NGR-VEGI protein. The biodistribution results demonstrated good tumor-to-muscle ratio (4.98 ± 0.25) of (188)Re-NGR-VEGI at 24 h, which is consistent with the results from SPECT imaging. For radiotherapy, 18.5 MBq of (188)Re-NGR-VEGI showed excellent tumor inhibition effect in HT-1080 tumor xenografts with no observable toxicity, which was confirmed by the tumor size change and hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining of major mouse organs. In conclusion, these data demonstrated that (188)Re-NGR-VEGI has the potential as a theranostic agent for CD13-targeted tumor imaging and therapy. PMID:26768609

  11. Radioimmunotherapy with [188Re]-labelled anti-CD66 antibody in the conditioning for allogeneic stem cell transplantation for high-risk acute myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Koenecke, Christian; Hofmann, Michael; Bolte, Oliver; Gielow, Peter; Dammann, Elke; Stadler, Michael; Franzke, Anke; Boerner, Anne Rose; Eder, Matthias; Ganser, Arnold; Knapp, Wolfram; Hertenstein, Bernd

    2008-05-01

    Between July 2000 and June 2003 a total of 21 patients with high-risk acute myeloid leukemia (AML; n = 14), AML after myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS; n = 6) or advanced MDS (n = 1) were treated with an 188-Re labelled anti-CD66 antibody in the conditioning regimen for allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Radioimmunotherapy (RIT) was followed by standard full-dose conditioning with busulfan and high-dose cyclophosphamide in 11 patients and reduced intensity conditioning regimen in 10 patients. All patients received an unmanipulated allogeneic graft from alternative donors (n = 15) or a HLA-identical familiy donor (n = 6). With a median follow up of 42 months (23-60) disease free survival for all patients was 43%. Nine patients are still alive and in ongoing complete hematological remission. The treatment related mortality was 28.6% (n = 6) and an equal number of patients died of relapsing disease within 30-385 days after transplantation. Late organ toxicity, monitored for more than 1 year, was mild and not clinically relevant. The combination of RIT with chemotherapeutic conditioning seems to be a therapy with an acceptable risk of treatment related morbidity and mortality as well as occurrence of severe acute GvHD. PMID:18415659

  12. Steps toward high specific activity labeling of biomolecules for therapeutic application: preparation of precursor [(188)Re(H(2)O)(3)(CO)(3)](+) and synthesis of tailor-made bifunctional ligand systems.

    PubMed

    Schibli, Roger; Schwarzbach, Rolf; Alberto, Roger; Ortner, Kirstin; Schmalle, Helmut; Dumas, Cécile; Egli, André; Schubiger, P August

    2002-01-01

    Two kit preparations of the organometallic precursor [(188)Re(H(2)O)(3)(CO)(3)](+) in aqueous media are presented. Method A uses gaseous carbon monoxide and amine borane (BH(3).NH(3)) as the reducing agent. In method B CO(g) is replaced by K(2)[H(3)BCO(2)] that releases carbon monoxide during hydrolysis. Both procedures afford the desired precursor in yields >85% after 10 min at 60 degrees C. HPLC and TLC analyses revealed 7 +/- 3% of unreacted (188)ReO(4)(-) and <5% of colloidal (188)ReO(2). Solutions of up to 14 GBq/mL Re-188 have been successfully carbonylated with these two methods. The syntheses of two tailor-made bifunctional ligand systems for the precursor [(188)Re(H(2)O)(3)(CO)(3)](+) are presented. The tridentate chelates consist of a bis[imidazol-2-yl]methylamine or an iminodiacetic acid moiety, respectively. Both types of ligand systems have been prepared with alkyl spacers of different length and a pendent primary amino or carboxylic acid functionality, enabling the amidic linkage to biomolecules. The tridentate coordination of the ligands to the rhenium-tricarbonyl core could be elucidated on the macroscopic level by X-ray structure analyses and 1D and 2D NMR experiments of two representative model complexes. On the nca level, the ligands allow labeling yields >95% with [(188)Re(H(2)O)(3)(CO)(3)](+) under mild reaction conditions (PBS buffer, 60 degrees C, 60 min) at ligand concentrations between 5 x 10(-4) M and 5 x 10(-5) M. Thus, specific activities of 22-220 GBq pe micromol of ligand could be achieved. Incubation of the corresponding Re-188 complexes in human serum at 37 degrees C revealed stabilities between 80 +/- 4% and 45 +/- 10% at 24 h, respectively, and 63 +/- 3% and 34 +/- 3% at 48 h postincubation in human serum depending on the chelating system. Decomposition product was mainly (188)ReO(4)(-). The routine kit-preparation of the precursor [(188)Re(H(2)O)(3)(CO)(3)](+) in combination with tailor-made ligand systems enables the

  13. Experimental pretargeting studies of cancer with a humanized anti-CEA x murine anti-[In-DTPA] bispecific antibody construct and a (99m)Tc-/(188)Re-labeled peptide.

    PubMed

    Karacay, H; McBride, W J; Griffiths, G L; Sharkey, R M; Barbet, J; Hansen, H J; Goldenberg, D M

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to localize (99m)Tc and (188)Re radionuclides to tumors, using a bispecific antibody (bsMAb) in a two-step approach where the radionuclides are attached to novel peptides incorporating moieties recognized by one arm of the bsMAb. A chemically cross-linked human/murine bsMAb, hMN-14 x 734 (Fab' x Fab'), anti-carcinoembryonic antigen [CEA] x anti-indium-DTPA was prepared as a prelude to constructing a fully humanized bsMAb for future clinical application. N,N'-o-Phenylenedimaleimide was used to cross-link the Fab' fragments of the two antibodies at their hinge regions. This construct was shown to be >92% pure and fully reactive with CEA and a divalent (indium)DTPA-peptide. For pretargeting purposes, a peptide, IMP-192 [Ac-Lys(In-DTPA)-Tyr-Lys(In-DTPA)-Lys(TscG-Cys-)-NH(2) ¿TscG = 3-thiosemicarbazonylglyoxyl¿], with two indium-DTPAs and a chelate for selectively binding (99m)Tc or (188)Re, was synthesized. IMP-192 was formulated in a "single dose" kit and later radiolabeled with (99m)Tc (94-99%) at up to 1836 Ci/mmol and with (188)Re (97%) at 459-945 Ci/mmol of peptide. [(99m)Tc]IMP-192 was shown to be stable by extensive in vitro and in vivo testing and had no specific uptake in the tumor with minimal renal uptake. The biodistribution of the hMN-14 x murine 734 bsMAb was compared alone and in a pretargeting setting to a fully murine anti-CEA (F6) x 734 bsMAb that was reported previously [Gautherot, E., Bouhou, J., LeDoussal, J.-M., Manetti, C., Martin, M., Rouvier, E., and Barbet, J. (1997) Therapy for colon carcinoma xenografts with bispecific antibody-targeted, iodine-131-labeled bivalent hapten. Cancer 80 (Suppl.), 2618-2623]. Both bsMAbs maintained their integrity and dual binding specificity in vivo, but the hMN-14 x m734 was cleared more rapidly from the blood. This coincided with an increased uptake of the hMN-14 x m734 bsMAb in the liver and spleen, suggesting an active reticuloendothelial cell recognition mechanism of this mixed

  14. MicroSPECT/CT imaging and pharmacokinetics of 188Re-(DXR)-liposome in human colorectal adenocarcinoma-bearing mice.

    PubMed

    Chen, Min-Hua; Chang, Chih-Hsien; Chang, Ya-Jen; Chen, Liang-Cheng; Yu, Chia-Yu; Wu, Yu-Hsien; Lee, Wan-Chi; Yeh, Chung-Hsin; Lin, Feng-Huei; Lee, Te-Wei; Yang, Chung-Shi; Ting, Gann

    2010-01-01

    Nanoliposome can be designed as a drug delivery carrier to improve the pharmacological and therapeutic properties of drug administration. (188)Re-labeled nanoliposomes are useful for diagnostic imaging as well as for targeted radionuclide therapy. In this study, the in vivo nuclear imaging, pharmacokinetics and biodistribution of administered nanoliposomes were investigated as drug and radionuclide carriers for targeting solid tumor via intravenous (i.v.) administration. The radiotherapeutics ((188)Re-liposome) and radiochemotherapeutics ((188)Re-DXR-liposome) were i.v. administered to nude mice bearing human HT-29 colorectal adenocarcinoma xenografts. (188)Re-liposome and (188)Re-DXR-liposomes show similar biodistribution profile; both have higher tumor uptake, higher blood retention time, and lower excretion rate than (188)Re-N,N-bis(2-mercaptoethyl)-N',N'-diethylenediamine (BMEDA). In contrast to tumor uptake, the area under the curve (AUC) value of tumor for (188)Re-liposome and (188)Re-DXR-liposome was 16.5- and 11.5-fold higher than that of free (188)Re-BMEDA, respectively. Additionally, (188)Re-liposome and (188)Re-DXR-liposome had a higher tumor-to-muscle ratio at 24 h (14.4+/-2 .7 and 17.14+/-4.1, respectively) than (188)Re-BMEDA (1.6+/-0.1). The tumor targeting and distribution of (188)Re-(DXR)-liposome (representing (188)Re-DXR-liposome and (188)Re-liposome) can also be acquired by signal photon-emission computed tomography/computed tomography images as well as whole body autoradiograph. These results suggest that (188)Re-(DXR)-liposomes are potentially promising agents for passive targeting treatment of malignant disease. PMID:20150618

  15. Exploitation of nano alumina for the chromatographic separation of clinical grade 188Re from 188W: a renaissance of the 188W/188Re generator technology.

    PubMed

    Chakravarty, Rubel; Shukla, Rakesh; Ram, Ramu; Venkatesh, Meera; Tyagi, Avesh Kumar; Dash, Ashutosh

    2011-08-15

    The (188)W/(188)Re generator using an acidic alumina column for chromatographic separation of (188)Re has remained the most popular procedure world over. The capacity of bulk alumina for taking up tungstate ions is limited (∼50 mg W/g) necessitating the use of very high specific activity (188)W (185-370 GBq/g), which can be produced only in very few high flux reactors available in the world. In this context, the use of high-capacity sorbents would not only mitigate the requirement of high specific activity (188)W but also facilitate easy access to (188)Re. A solid state mechanochemical approach to synthesize nanocrystalline γ-Al(2)O(3) possessing very high W-sorption capacity (500 mg W/g) was developed. The structural and other investigations of the material were carried out using X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Brunauer Emmett Teller (BET) surface area analysis, thermogravimetric-differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA), and dynamic light scattering (DLS) techniques. The synthesized material had an average crystallite size of ∼5 nm and surface area of 252 ± 10 m(2)/g. Sorption characteristics such as distribution ratios (K(d)), capacity, breakthrough profile, and elution behavior were investigated to ensure quantitative uptake of (188)W and selective elution of (188)Re. A 11.1 GBq (300 mCi) (188)W/(188)Re generator was developed using nanocrystalline γ-Al(2)O(3), and its performance was evaluated for a period of 6 months. The overall yield of (188)Re was >80%, with >99.999% radionuclidic purity and >99% radiochemical purity. The eluted (188)Re possessed appreciably high radioactive concentration and was compatible for the preparation of (188)Re labeled radiopharmaceuticals. PMID:21726091

  16. Rhenium-188: availability from the (188)W/(188)Re generator and status of current applications.

    PubMed

    Pillai, M R A; Dash, Ashutosh; Knapp, F F

    2012-07-01

    Rhenium-188 is one of the most readily available generator derived and useful radionuclides for therapy emitting β(-) particles (2.12 MeV, 71.1% and 1.965 MeV, 25.6%) and imageable gammas (155 keV, 15.1%). The (188)W/(188)Re generator is an ideal source for the long term (4-6 months) continuous availability of no carrier added (nca) (188)Re suitable for the preparation of radiopharmaceuticals for radionuclide therapy. The challenges associated with the double neutron capture route of production of the parent (188)W radionuclide have been a major impediment in the progress of application of (188)Re. Tungsten-188 of adequate specific activity can be prepared only in 2-3 of the high flux reactors operating in the World. Several useful technologies have been developed for the preparation of clinical grade (188)W/(188)Re generators. Since the specific activity of (188)W used in the generator is relatively low 185 GBq( < 5 Ci)/g], the eluted (188)ReO(4)(-) can have low radioactive concentration often insufficient for radiopharmaceutical preparation. However, several efficient post elution concentration techniques have been developed that yield clinically useful (188)ReO(4)(-) solutions. Rhenium-188 has been used for the preparation of therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals for the management of diseases such as bone metastasis, rheumatoid arthritis and primary cancers. Several early phase clinical studies using radiopharmaceuticals based on (188)Re-labeled phosphonates, antibodies, peptides, lipiodol and particulates have been reported. This article reviews the availability and use of (188)Re including a discussion of why broader use of (188)Re has not progressed as expected as a popular radionuclide for therapy. PMID:22642385

  17. Rhenium-188: Availability from the W-188/Re-188 Generator and Status of Current Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Pillai, M R A; Dash, A; Knapp Jr, Russ F

    2012-01-01

    Rhenium-188 is one of the most readily available generator derived and useful radionuclides for therapy emitting - particles (2.12 MeV, 71.1% and 1.965 MeV, 25.6%) and imageable gammas (155 KeV, 15.1%). The 188W/188Re generator is an ideal source for the long term (4-6 months) continuous availability of no carrier added (nca) 188Re suitable for the preparation of radiopharmaceuticals for radionuclide therapy. The challenges associated with the double neutron capture route of production of the parent 188W radionuclide have been a major impediment in the progress of application of 188Re. Tungsten-188 of adequate specific activity can be prepared only in 2-3 of the high flux reactors operating in the World. Several useful technologies have been developed for the preparation of clinical grade 188W/188Re generator. Since the specific activity of 188W used in the generator is relatively low (<5 Ci/g), the eluted 188ReO4- can have low radioactive concentration often insufficient for radiopharmaceutical preparation. However, several efficient post elution concentration techniques have been developed that yield clinically useful 188ReO4-. Rhenium-188 has been used for the preparation of therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals for the management of diseases such as bone metastasis, rheumatoid arthritis and primary cancers. Several early phase clinical studies using radiopharmaceuticals based on 188Re-labeled phosphonates, antibodies, peptides, lipiodol and particulates have been reported. This article reviews the availability, and use of188Re including a discussion of why broader use of 188Re has not progressed as ecpected as a popular radionuclide for therapy.

  18. EFFECTS OF EUTROPHICATION ON VITELLOGENIN GENE EXPRESSION IN MALE FATHEAD MINNOWS (PIMEPHALES PROMELAS) EXPOSED TO 17A-ETHYNYLESTRADIOL IN FIELD MESOCOSMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study evaluated the effect of aquatic secondary nutrient supply levels (nitrogen and phosphorus) on the subcellular response of adult male fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) exposed to a single nominal concentration of 17a-ethynylestradiol (EE2), a potent synthetic estrog...

  19. 188Re-ethylene dicysteine: a novel agent for possible use in endovascular radiation therapy.

    PubMed

    Das, T; Banerjee, S; Samuel, G; Sarma, H D; Ramamoorthy, N; Pillai, M R

    2000-10-01

    Several agents, such as 188ReO4-, 188Re-MAG3 and 188Re-DTPA are currently under investigation as radiation sources in liquid-filled balloons for prevention of restenosis following coronary angioplasty. Bearing in mind the risk factor associated with leakage of radioactivity in the event of balloon rupture, the criteria sought in selecting suitable agents for endovascular radiation therapy (EVRT) are rapid clearance and low dose to vital organs. Since 99Tcm labelled ethylene dicysteine (EC) is a well established agent for renal tubular function imaging, the use of 186Re-ethylene dicysteine as a potential agent for prevention of restenosis after angioplasty has been evaluated previously. Therefore, it was of interest to evaluate the applicability of the more potential isotope of rhenium, 188Re, a high energy beta-emitter (Ebetamax = 2.12 MeV) with a suitable T 1/2 = 16.9 h, obtainable carrier-free from the 188W-188Re generator, as an attractive and alternative radionuclide for labelling with L,L-EC. In this paper, the preparation and pharmacological behaviour of the 188Re complex of ethylene dicysteine are reported. The complex can be prepared in high yields (99.5%) under optimized conditions of pH 2-3, at a ligand concentration of 15 mM, 50 microg (0.18 mM) carrier rhenium and using 2 mg x mL(-1) stannous chloride. On storage at 4 degrees C, the RC purity was more than 97% after 48 h when prepared under optimum conditions. Biodistribution studies in Wistar rats showed the desired characteristics of fast blood clearance and low retention of activity in the vital organs (< 2% in intestine, < 1% in stomach, < 0.5% in liver) with a high renal excretion (90.65+/-0.6%) at 3 h post-injection. These results confirm the advantages of using the 188Re-EC complex compared with perrhenate and other rhenium radiopharmaceuticals currently being used in balloons for EVRT. PMID:11130335

  20. Pharmacokinetics, micro-SPECT/CT imaging and therapeutic efficacy of (188)Re-DXR-liposome in C26 colon carcinoma ascites mice model.

    PubMed

    Chen, Liang-Cheng; Chang, Chih-Hsien; Yu, Chia-Yu; Chang, Ya-Jen; Wu, Yu-Hsien; Lee, Wan-Chi; Yeh, Chung-Hsin; Lee, Te-Wei; Ting, Gann

    2008-11-01

    The pharmacokinetics and internal radionuclide therapy of intraperitoneally administrated (188)Re-N,N-bis(2-mercaptoethyl)-N',N'-diethylethylenediamine (BMEDA)-labeled pegylated liposomal doxorubicin ((188)Re-DXR-liposome) were investigated in the C26 murine colon carcinoma ascites mouse model. After intraperitoneal administration of the nanotargeted bimodality (188)Re-DXR-liposome, the ascites and tumor accumulation of the radioactivity were observed, the levels of radioactivity within the ascites were maintained at relatively higher levels before 48 h and the levels of radioactivity in the tumor were maintained at steady levels after 4 h. The AUC((o-->infinity)) of (188)Re-DXR-liposome in blood, ascites and tumor was 9.3-, 4.2- and 4.7-fold larger than that of (188)Re-BMEDA, respectively. The maximum tolerated dose of intraperitoneally administrated (188)Re-DXR-liposome was determined in normal BALB/c mice. The survival, tumor and ascites inhibition of mice after (188)Re-DXR-liposome (22.2 MBq of (188)Re, 5 mg/kg of DXR) treatment were evaluated. Consequently, radiochemotherapeutics of (188)Re-DXR-liposome attained better survival time, tumor and ascites inhibition (decreased by 49% and 91% at 4 days after treatment; P<.05) in mice than radiotherapeutics of (188)Re-liposome or chemotherapeutics of Lipo-Dox did. Therefore, intraperitoneal administration of novel (188)Re-DXR-liposome could provide a benefit and promising strategy for delivery of passive nanotargeted bimodality radiochemotherapeutics in oncology applications. PMID:19026950

  1. Pharmacokinetics, dosimetry and comparative efficacy of 188Re-liposome and 5-FU in a CT26-luc lung-metastatic mice model.

    PubMed

    Chen, Liang-Cheng; Wu, Yu-Hsien; Liu, I-Hshiang; Ho, Chung-Li; Lee, Wan-Chi; Chang, Chih-Hsien; Lan, Keng-Li; Ting, Gann; Lee, Te-Wei; Shien, Jui-Hung

    2012-01-01

    The biodistribution, pharmacokinetics, dosimetry and comparative therapeutic efficacy of intravenously administrated (188)Re-N,N-bis(2-mercaptoethyl)-N',N'-diethylethylenediamine (BMEDA)-labeled pegylated liposome ((188)Re-liposome) and 5-FU were investigated in a CT26-luc lung-metastatic model. After intravenous administration of (188)Re-liposome, tumor accumulation from the radioactivity was observed. Levels of radioactivity in tumors were maintained at steady levels (from 5.40 to 5.67 %ID/g) after 4 to 24 h. In pharmacokinetics, the AUC((0→∞)), MRT((0→∞)) and Cl of (188)Re-liposome in blood via intravenous route were 998 h %ID/ml, 28.7 h and 0.1 ml/h, respectively. The total excreted fractions of feces and urine were 0.61 and 0.26, respectively. Absorbed doses for (188)Re-liposome in the liver and red marrow were 0.31 and 0.08 mSv/MBq, respectively. Tumor-absorbed doses for (188)Re-liposome ranged from 48.4 to 1.73 mGy/MBq at 10 to 300 g tumor spheres. In therapeutic efficacy, the survival times of mice after (188)Re-liposome [80% maximum tolerated dose (MTD); 29.6 MBq], 5-FU (80% MTD; 144 mg/kg), liposome or normal saline treatments were evaluated. Consequently, radiotherapeutics of (188)Re-liposome attained a longer lifespan (increase of 34.9%; P=.005) in mice than in the normal saline group. The increase in lifespan of the (188)Re-liposome group was 2.5-fold greater than that of the 5-FU group. Therefore, intravenous administration of (188)Re-liposome could provide a benefit and it is a promising strategy for delivery of passive nanotargeted radiotherapeutics in oncology applications. PMID:21958858

  2. Specific energy from Auger and conversion electrons of 131I, 188Re-anti-CD20 to a lymphocyte's nucleus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres-García, E.; Carrillo-Cazares, T. A.

    2011-01-01

    The typical radionuclides used to label anti-CD20 in the treatment of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma are 90Y, 131I, and 188Re, with the emission of beta particles, Auger electrons, and conversion electrons for the latter two. The aim of the present work was to calculate the contribution of high linear energy transfer radiation as Auger electrons (AE) and conversion electrons (CE) of 131I and 188Re-anti-CD20 to mean specific energy into the cell nucleus by Monte Carlo simulation (MCS), so as to infer therapeutic effectiveness on a dosimetric basis. MCS was used to quantify the frequency-mean specific energy into the cell nucleus, where the cell was modeled by two concentric spheres, considering two cell models. The results showed that 10% and 33% of the mean-specific energies (z¯) per disintegration imparted to the cell nucleus for both geometries are due to AE and CE; on the other hand, if the hit of AE and CE occurs, the contribution to (z¯) is about 64% and 86% for 131I and 188Re, respectively. According to the amount of specific energy from AE and CE into the cell nucleus by positive event, they can cause catastrophic effects in the nuclear DNA in the treatment of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma with 131I, 188Re-anti-CD20.

  3. Levels of 188Re nucleus populated in thermal neutron capture reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Běrziņš, J.; Krasta, T.; Simonova, L.; Balodis, M.; Bondarenko, V.; Jentschel, M.; Urban, W.; Tomandl, I.

    2016-03-01

    Levels of 188Re populated in thermal neutron capture reaction with enriched 187Re targets have been studied. Single γ-ray spectrum of 188Re, measured with the high-resolution crystal diffraction spectrometer GAMS5, as well as γγ-coincidence experiments performed with high efficiency Ge detectors, allowed to develop model-independent level scheme of the doubly-odd 188Re nucleus up to ˜ 1.5 MeV excitation energy. Analysis of the established 188Re level scheme in terms of the quasiparticle-plus-rotor model indicates coexistence of axially-deformed and triaxial structures in the energy range above 400 keV.

  4. Three-dimensional personalized dosimetry for 188Re liver selective internal radiation therapy based on quantitative post-treatment SPECT studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shcherbinin, S.; Grimes, J.; Bator, A.; Cwikla, J. B.; Celler, A.

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate that accurate patient-specific distributions of microspheres labeled with 188Re and resulting absorbed doses can be obtained from single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) studies performed after 188Re selective internal radiation therapy when accurate correction methods are employed in image reconstruction. Our quantitative image reconstruction algorithm includes corrections for attenuation, resolution degradations and scatter as well as a window-based compensation for contamination. The procedure has been validated using four phantom experiments containing an 18 ml cylindrical source (82-93 MBq of 188Re activity) simulating a liver tumor. In addition, we applied our approach to post-therapy SPECT studies of ten patients with progressive primary or metastatic liver carcinomas. Our quantitative algorithm accurately (within 9%) recovered 188Re activity from four phantom experiments. In addition, for two patients that received three scans, deviations remained consistent between the measured and the reconstructed activities that were determined from studies with differing severity of the dead-time effect. The analysis of absorbed doses for patient studies allowed us to hypothesize that D90 (the minimum dose received by 90% of the tumor volume) may be a reliable metric relating therapy outcomes to the calculated doses. Among several considered metrics, only D90 showed statistically significant correlation with the overall survival.

  5. Evaluation of a Proposed Biodegradable 188Re Source for Brachytherapy Application: A Review of Dosimetric Parameters.

    PubMed

    Khorshidi, Abdollah; Ahmadinejad, Marjan; Hamed Hosseini, S

    2015-07-01

    This study aimed to evaluate dosimetric characteristics based on Monte Carlo (MC) simulations for a proposed beta emitter bioglass 188Re seed for internal radiotherapy applications. The bioactive glass seed has been developed using the sol-gel technique. The simulations were performed for the seed using MC radiation transport code to investigate the dosimetric factors recommended by the AAPM Task Group 60 (TG-60). Dose distributions due to the beta and photon radiation were predicted at different radial distances surrounding the source. The dose rate in water at the reference point was calculated to be 7.43 ± 0.5 cGy/h/μCi. The dosimetric factors consisting of the reference point dose rate, D(r0,θ0), the radial dose function, g(r), the 2-dimensional anisotropy function, F(r,θ), the 1-dimensional anisotropy function, φan(r), and the R90 quantity were estimated and compared with several available beta-emitting sources. The element 188Re incorporated in bioactive glasses produced by the sol-gel technique provides a suitable solution for producing new materials for seed implants applied to brachytherapy applications in prostate and liver cancers treatment. Dose distribution of 188Re seed was greater isotropic than other commercially attainable encapsulated seeds, since it has no end weld to attenuate radiation. The beta radiation-emitting 188Re source provides high doses of local radiation to the tumor tissue and the short range of the beta particles limit damage to the adjacent normal tissue. PMID:26181543

  6. Evaluation of a Proposed Biodegradable 188Re Source for Brachytherapy Application

    PubMed Central

    Khorshidi, Abdollah; Ahmadinejad, Marjan; Hamed Hosseini, S.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This study aimed to evaluate dosimetric characteristics based on Monte Carlo (MC) simulations for a proposed beta emitter bioglass 188Re seed for internal radiotherapy applications. The bioactive glass seed has been developed using the sol-gel technique. The simulations were performed for the seed using MC radiation transport code to investigate the dosimetric factors recommended by the AAPM Task Group 60 (TG-60). Dose distributions due to the beta and photon radiation were predicted at different radial distances surrounding the source. The dose rate in water at the reference point was calculated to be 7.43 ± 0.5 cGy/h/μCi. The dosimetric factors consisting of the reference point dose rate, D(r0,θ0), the radial dose function, g(r), the 2-dimensional anisotropy function, F(r,θ), the 1-dimensional anisotropy function, φan(r), and the R90 quantity were estimated and compared with several available beta-emitting sources. The element 188Re incorporated in bioactive glasses produced by the sol-gel technique provides a suitable solution for producing new materials for seed implants applied to brachytherapy applications in prostate and liver cancers treatment. Dose distribution of 188Re seed was greater isotropic than other commercially attainable encapsulated seeds, since it has no end weld to attenuate radiation. The beta radiation-emitting 188Re source provides high doses of local radiation to the tumor tissue and the short range of the beta particles limit damage to the adjacent normal tissue. PMID:26181543

  7. The dosimetry for a coronary artery stent coated with radioactive 188Re and 32P

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fox, R. A.; Henson, P. W.

    2000-12-01

    Radiation dose distributions have been calculated for 188Re and 32P activity on a coronary artery stent. The doses have been calculated both as a function of position along the stent and of depth into the artery wall. Comparisons of the dose from identical activities of 188Re and 32P on the stent show that the major differences arise from the different half-lives of the two activities. Coating the activity onto three surfaces of the stent rather than just the outside surface is found to reduce the dose by approximately 8 to 9%. Similarly, the effect of ignoring the attenuation in the stainless steel of the stent is to increase doses by 11 to 17%. Consideration is also given to the effect of the prolonged treatment times associated with a radioactive stent compared with the more common treatment over several minutes. It is shown that extended treatment may require between two and eight times the single dose to achieve the same effect depending on factors such as the radionuclide used, the dose required and the assumed cell survival curve. On the assumption that an instantaneous dose of 18 Gy at a depth of 1 mm into the artery would be required for successful prevention of neointimal hyperplasia, activities required for a stent coated with 188Re and 32P are tabulated.

  8. Initial Study of Radiological and Clinical Efficacy Radioembolization Using 188Re-Human Serum Albumin (HSA) Microspheres in Patients with Progressive, Unresectable Primary or Secondary Liver Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Nowicki, Mirosław L.; Ćwikła, Jarosław B.; Sankowski, Artur J.; Shcherbinin, Sergey; Grimes, Josh; Celler, Anna; Buscombe, John R.; Bator, Andrzej; Pech, Maciej; Mikołajczak, Renata; Pawlak, Dariusz

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of this initial study was to evaluate the clinical and radiological effectiveness of radioembolization (RE) using 188Re-Human Serum Albumin (HSA) microspheres in patients with advanced, progressive, unresectable primary or secondary liver cancers, not suitable to any other form of therapy. Material/Methods Overall, we included 13 patients with 20 therapy sessions. Clinical and radiological responses were assessed at 6 weeks after therapy, and then every 3 months. The objective radiological response was classified according to Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) v.1.0 by sequential MRI. Adverse events were evaluated using NCI CTCAE v.4.03. Results There were 4 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), 6 with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC), 2 with neuroendocrine carcinoma (NEC), and 1 patient with ovarian carcinoma. Mean administered activity of 188Re HSA was 7.24 GBq (range 3.8–12.4) A high microspheres labeling efficacy of over 97±2.1% and low urinary excretion of 188Re (6.5±2.3%) during first 48-h follow-up. Median overall survival (OS) for all patients was 7.1 months (CI 6.2–13.3) and progression-free survival (PFS) was 5.1 months (CI 2.4–9.9). In those patients who had a clinical partial response (PR), stable disease (SD), and disease progression (DP) as assessed 6 weeks after therapy, the median OS was 9/5/4 months, respectively, and PFS was 5/2/0 months, respectively. The treatment adverse events (toxicity) were at an acceptable level. Initially and after 6 weeks, the CTC AE was grade 2, while after 3 months it increased to grade 3 in 4 subjects. This effect was mostly related to rapid cancer progression in this patient subgroup. Conclusions The results of this preliminary study indicate that RE using 188Re HSA is feasible and a viable option for palliative therapy in patients with extensive progressive liver cancer. It was well tolerated by most patients, with a low level of toxicity during the 3 months of

  9. Development of semi-automated system for preparation of (188)Re aqueous solutions of high and reproducible activity concentrations.

    PubMed

    Jäckel, B; Cripps, R; Güntay, S; Bruchertseifer, H

    2005-09-01

    A semi-automated system has been developed for elution and concentration of the (188)Re-eluate from 111 GBq (3 Ci) (188)W/(188)Re-generators to provide a dissolved beta-source of high (188)Re-activity per unit volume. The elution progress and concentration were precisely and continuously monitored by use of collimated diode detectors. By using ion exchange cartridges, small eluate volumes (2-3 ml) of maximum 40 GBq, (188)Re/ml activity concentration were routinely prepared. The concentrated (188)Re solutions were used to beta-irradiate aqueous suspensions and solutions of iodine species to evaluate a simulation of the extent of radiolytic decomposition of chemical species (AgI and CH(3)I) expected to accumulate in the containment sump of a nuclear reactor in the event of a severe accident with reproducible dose rates of up to 0.4 Gys(-1). Results have shown that AgI colloidal particles decompose to varying extents, depending on conditions, and in proportion to their initial mass, which indicates surface oxidation. Experiments have also confirmed CH(3)I decomposition in proportion to initial aqueous concentration. PMID:15963728

  10. A YAP camera for the biodistribution of 188Re conjugated with Hyaluronic-Acid in “in vivo” systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antoccia, A.; Baldazzi, G.; Banzato, A.; Bello, M.; Boccaccio, P.; Bollini, D.; De Notaristefani, F.; Mazzi, U.; Alafort, L. M.; Moschini, G.; Navarria, F. L.; Pani, R.; Perrotta, A.; Rosato, A.; Tanzarella, C.; Uzunov, N. M.

    2007-02-01

    The aim of the SCINTIRAD experiment is to determine the radio-response of 188Rhenium (Re) in in vitro cells and the biodistribution in different organs of in vivo mice, and subsequently to assess the therapeutic effect on liver tumours induced in mice. Both the γ- and β- emissions of 188Re have been exploited in the experiment. The in vivo biodistribution in mice was studied also with a γ-camera using different parallel hole collimators. In the 188Re spectrum, while the 155 keV γ-peak is useful for imaging, the photons emitted at larger energies and the β-particles act as noise in the image reconstruction. The γ-cameras previously used to image biodistributions obtained with 99Tc are, therefore, not optimized for use with 188Re. A new setup of the γ-camera has been studied for 188Re: 66×66 YAP:Ce crystals (0.6×0.6×10 mm 3, 5 μm optical insulation) guarantee a FOV of 40×40 mm 2, a Hamamatsu R2486 PSPMT, 3 in. diameter, converts their light into an electrical signal and allows reconstructing the spatial coordinates of the light spot; incoming photon directions are selected through a lead collimator with 1.5 mm diameter hexagonal holes, 0.18 mm septa, 40 mm thickness. Using this setup, results have been obtained both with 99Tc filled and 188Re filled capillaries and wells. The energy spectrum of the collected photons and the spatial resolutions obtainable with the 188Re source will be presented.

  11. Pharmacokinetics of 99Tcm-pertechnetate and 188Re-perrhenate after oral administration of perchlorate: option for subsequent care after the use of liquid 188Re in a balloon catheter.

    PubMed

    Kotzerke, J; Fenchel, S; Guhlmann, A; Stabin, M; Rentschler, M; Knapp, F F; Reske, S N

    1998-08-01

    Radioactive wires and other linear sources are currently being used in clinical trials as endovascular brachytherapy to prevent restenosis after percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty. A new concept is the use of a liquid-filled balloon containing a beta-emitting radioisotope. A major advantage is optimal delivery of the radioactivity to the vessel wall. Rhenium-188 (188Re) is a high-energy beta-emitter that is routinely available from a 188W/188Re generator in liquid form. Since 188Re-perrhenate could be released in the unlikely event of balloon rupture, we investigated whether, in analogy to pertechnetate, subsequent use of perchlorate can reduce the uptake of perrhenate in the thyroid. We performed static (n = 9) and dynamic (n = 11) thyroid scintigraphy with 99Tcm-pertechnetate to estimate the overall reduction in activity within 30 min and the washout from the thyroid after oral administration of 600 mg perchlorate (T1/2). In two patients, 188Re was injected to estimate the whole-body distribution and the discharge of thyroid activity after perchlorate use. Based on MIRD Dose Estimate Report No. 8 (valid for 99Tcm-pertechnetate), the radiation burden was calculated for intravenous administration of 188Re and competitive blocking with perchlorate. In 20 patients, 99Tcm uptake by the thyroid was reduced by 85% within 30 min by perchlorate. The mean (+/- S.D.) washout rate (T1/2) was 8 +/- 2 min in 11 patients. Perrhenate showed a whole-body distribution similar to that of pertechnetate and the thyroid activity could be displaced (T1/2 = 6.3 and 9.3 min, respectively) by oral administration of perchlorate, with reductions in uptake of 83% and 75% within 30 min, respectively. Whole-body scanning demonstrated no regional accumulation of 188Re-perrhenate with excretion by urine. Dose estimates gave an effective dose equivalent of 0.42 mSv MBq-1, which decreased to 0.16 mSv MBq-1 after perchlorate blocking. 188Re has favourable properties for endovascular

  12. A comprehensive study on the blockage of thyroid and gastric uptakes of 188Re-perrhenate in endovascular irradiation using liquid-filled balloon to prevent restenosis.

    PubMed

    Lin, W Y; Hsieh, J F; Tsai, S C; Yen, T C; Wang, S J; Knapp, F F

    2000-01-01

    188Re-perrhenate has been reported effective in preventing restenosis after percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty. However, if the balloon ruptures, 188Re-perrhenate is released into the circulation, causing high radiation dosing to the thyroid and stomach. In this study, we evaluated the effects of perchlorate or iodide given at different times and in different ways for blocking the uptake of 188Re-perrhenate in the thyroid glands and the stomach to find the best method to apply clinically to reduce the radiation dose in case of balloon rupture. Sodium perchlorate, sodium iodide, or potassium iodide was given orally or intravenously to rats before, during, and after the injection of 188Re-perrhenate. The rats were sacrificed and we calculated the concentration of 188Re-perrhenate in various organs to evaluate the preblocking, mixed formula, and postblocking effects of perchlorate or iodide. Our data showed that the preblocking method effectively reduced the uptake of 188Re-perrhenate in both the thyroid and the stomach. The mixed formula method also demonstrated good blocking effect. The postblocking method showed obvious depression of thyroid uptake of perrhenate but its blocking effect on the stomach was not satisfactory. PMID:10755650

  13. A Freeze-Dried Kit for the Preparation of (188)Re-HEDP for Bone Pain Palliation: Preparation and Preliminary Clinical Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Mallia, Madhava B; Shinto, Ajit Sugunan; Kameswaran, Mythili; Kamaleshwaran, Koramadai Karuppusamy; Kalarikal, Radhakrishnan; Aswathy, K K; Banerjee, Sharmila

    2016-05-01

    (188)Re-HEDP is an established radiopharmaceutical used for pain palliation in patients with osseous metastasis. Considering commercial availability of (188)W/(188)Re generator, the accessibility to a lyophilized kit would make preparation of this radiopharmaceutical feasible at the hospital radiopharmacy having access to a generator. A protocol for the preparation of a single-vial lyophilized hydroxyethane 1,1-diphosphonic acid (HEDP) kit was developed and its consistency was checked by preparing six batches. Each sterile lyophilized kit prepared as per the protocol contained 9 mg of HEDP, 3 mg of gentisic acid, and 4 mg of SnCl2.2H2O. Randomly selected kits from all six batches were subjected to thorough quality control tests that were passed by all batches. (188)Re-HEDP could be prepared by addition of 1 mL of freshly eluted Na(188)ReO4 (up to 3700 MBq) containing 1 μmol of carrier ReO4(-) (perrhenate) and heating at 100°C for 15 minutes. (188)Re-HEDP with >95% radiochemical purity could be consistently prepared using the lyophilized kits. Sterile (188)Re-HEDP prepared using the lyophilized kit was evaluated in patients with osseous metastasis. Post-therapy images of the patient were compared with (99m)Tc-MDP bone scan and found to be satisfactory. The bone-to-background as well as tumor-to-normal bone uptake ratio was found to be significant. All patients who received therapy reported significant pain relief within a week to 10 days post-administration of (188)Re-HEDP. PMID:27183437

  14. Monte Carlo Calculation of Radioimmunotherapy with 90Y-, 177Lu-, 131I-, 124I-, and 188Re-Nanoobjects: Choice of the Best Radionuclide for Solid Tumour Treatment by Using TCP and NTCP Concepts

    PubMed Central

    Lucas, S.; Feron, O.; Gallez, B.; Masereel, B.; Michiels, C.; Vander Borght, T.

    2015-01-01

    Radioimmunotherapy has shown that the use of monoclonal antibodies combined with a radioisotope like 131I or 90Y still remains ineffective for solid and radioresistant tumour treatment. Previous simulations have revealed that an increase in the number of 90Y labelled to each antibody or nanoobject could be a solution to improve treatment output. It now seems important to assess the treatment output and toxicity when radionuclides such as 90Y, 177Lu, 131I, 124I, and 188Re are used. Tumour control probability (TCP) and normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) curves versus the number of radionuclides per nanoobject were computed with MCNPX to evaluate treatment efficacy for solid tumours and to predict the incidence of surrounding side effects. Analyses were carried out for two solid tumour sizes of 0.5 and 1.0 cm radius and for nanoobject (i.e., a radiolabelled antibody) distributed uniformly or nonuniformly throughout a solid tumour (e.g., Non-small-cell-lung cancer (NSCLC)). 90Y and 188Re are the best candidates for solid tumour treatment when only one radionuclide is coupled to one carrier. Furthermore, regardless of the radionuclide properties, high values of TCP can be reached without toxicity if the number of radionuclides per nanoobject increases. PMID:26136812

  15. 188Re-SSS/Lipiodol: Development of a Potential Treatment for HCC from Bench to Bedside

    PubMed Central

    Lepareur, Nicolas; Ardisson, Valérie; Noiret, Nicolas; Garin, Etienne

    2012-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the 5th most common tumour worldwide and has a dark prognosis. For nonoperable cases, metabolic radiotherapy with Lipiodol labelled with β-emitters is a promising therapeutic option. The Comprehensive Cancer Centre Eugène Marquis and the National Graduate School of Chemistry of Rennes (ENSCR) have jointly developed a stable and efficient labelling of Lipiodol with rhenium-188 (Eβmax = 2.1 MeV) for the treatment of HCC. The major “milestones” of this development, from the first syntheses to the recent first injection in man, are described. PMID:22518301

  16. Sodium Iodide Symporter (NIS)-Mediated Radionuclide (131I, 188Re) Therapy of Liver Cancer After Transcriptionally Targeted Intratumoral in Vivo NIS Gene Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Klutz, Kathrin; Willhauck, Michael J.; Wunderlich, Nathalie; Zach, Christian; Anton, Martina; Senekowitsch-Schmidtke, Reingard; Göke, Burkhard

    2011-01-01

    Abstract We reported the therapeutic efficacy of 131I in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells stably expressing the sodium iodide symporter (NIS) under the control of the tumor-specific α-fetoprotein (AFP) promoter. In the current study we investigated the efficacy of adenovirus-mediated in vivo NIS gene transfer followed by 131I and 188Re administration for the treatment of HCC xenografts. We used a replication-deficient adenovirus carrying the human NIS gene linked to the mouse AFP promoter (Ad5-AFP-NIS) for in vitro and in vivo NIS gene transfer. Functional NIS expression was confirmed by in vivo γ-camera imaging, followed by analysis of NIS protein and mRNA expression. Human HCC (HepG2) cells infected with Ad5-AFP-NIS concentrated 50% of the applied activity of 125I, which was sufficiently high for a therapeutic effect in an in vitro clonogenic assay. Four days after intratumoral injection of Ad5-AFP-NIS (3×109 plaque-forming units) HepG2 xenografts accumulated 14.5% injected dose (ID)/g 123I with an effective half-life of 13 hr (tumor-absorbed dose, 318 mGy/MBq 131I). In comparison, 9.2% ID/g 188Re was accumulated in tumors with an effective half-life of 12.8 hr (tumor-absorbed dose, 545 mGy/MBq). After adenovirus-mediated NIS gene transfer in HepG2 xenografts administration of a therapeutic dose of 131I or 188Re (55.5 MBq) resulted in a significant delay in tumor growth and improved survival without a significant difference between 188Re and 131I. In conclusion, a therapeutic effect of 131I and 188Re was demonstrated in HepG2 xenografts after tumor-specific adenovirus-mediated in vivo NIS gene transfer. PMID:21488714

  17. Evaluation of Beta-Absorbed Fractions in a Mouse Model for 90Y, 188Re, 166Ho, 149Pm, 64Cu, and 177Lu Radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, William H.; Hartmann-Siantar, Christine; Fisher, Darrell R.; Descalle, Marie-Anne; Daly, Tom; Lehmann, Joerg; Lewis, Michael R.; Hoffman, Timothy J.; Smith, Jeff; Situ, Peter D.; Volkert, Wynn A.

    2005-08-01

    Several short-lived, high-energy beta emitters are being proposed as the radionuclide components for molecular-targeted potential cancer therapeutic agents. The laboratory mice used to determine the efficacy of these new agents have organs that are relatively small compared to the ranges of these high-energy particles. The dosimetry model developed by Hui et al. was extended to provide realistic beta-dose estimates for organs in mice that received therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals containing 90Y, 188Re, 166Ho, 149Pm, 64Cu, and 177 Lu. Major organs in this model included the liver, spleen, kidneys, lungs, heart, stomach, small and large bowel, thyroid, pancreas, bone, marrow, carcass, and a 0.025-g tumor. The study as reported in this paper verifies their results for 90Y and extends them by using their organ geometry factors combined with newly calculated organ self-absorbed fractions from PEREGRINE and MCNP. PEREGRINE and MCNP agree to within 8% for the worst-case organ with average differences (averaged over all organs) decreasing from 5% for 90Y to 1% for 177Lu. When used with typical biodistribution data, the three different models predict doses that are in agreement to within 5% for the worst-case organ. The beta-absorbed fractions and cross-organ-deposited energy provided in this paper can be used by researchers to predict mouse-organ doses and should contribute to an improved understanding of the relationship between dose and radiation toxicity in mouse models where use of these isotopes is favorable.

  18. Evaluation of beta-absorbed fractions in a mouse model for 90Y, 188Re, 166Ho, 149Pm, 64Cu, and 177Lu radionuclides.

    PubMed

    Miller, William H; Hartmann-Siantar, Christine; Fisher, Darrell; Descalle, Marie-Anne; Daly, Tom; Lehmann, Joerg; Lewis, Michael R; Hoffman, Timothy; Smith, Jeff; Situ, Peter D; Volkert, Wynn A

    2005-08-01

    Several short-lived, high-energy beta emitters are being proposed as the radionuclide components for molecular- targeted potential cancer therapeutic agents. The laboratory mice used to determine the efficacy of these new agents have organs that are relatively small compared to the ranges of these high-energy particles. The dosimetry model developed by Hui et al. was extended to provide realistic beta-dose estimates for organs in mice that received therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals containing (90)Y, (188)Re, (166)Ho, (149)Pm, (64)Cu, and (177)Lu. Major organs in this model included the liver, spleen, kidneys, lungs, heart, stomach, small and large bowel, thyroid, pancreas, bone, marrow, carcass, and a 0.025-g tumor. The study as reported in this paper verifies their results for (90)Y and extends them by using their organ geometry factors combined with newly calculated organ self-absorbed fractions from PEREGRINE and MCNP. PEREGRINE and MCNP agree to within 8% for the worst-case organ with average differences (averaged over all organs) decreasing from 5% for (90)Y to 1% for (177)Lu. When used with typical biodistribution data, the three different models predict doses that are in agreement to within 5% for the worst-case organ. The beta-absorbed fractions and cross-organ-deposited energy provided in this paper can be used by researchers to predict mouse-organ doses and should contribute to an improved understanding of the relationship between dose and radiation toxicity in mouse models where use of these isotopes is favorable. PMID:16114992

  19. Production of radiolabeled monoclonal antibody conjugates by photoaffinity labeling

    SciTech Connect

    Volkert, W.A.; Ketring, A.R.; Kuntz, R.R.; Holmes, R.A.; Mitchell, E.P. ); Feldbush, T.L. )

    1990-06-01

    This report discusses activities and progress that has occurred since initiation of this project on September 1, 1989. We have synthesized ethyl N,N{prime}-bis(benzoylmercaptoacetyl)-2,3-diaminopropanoate, a ligand to be used as a bifunctional chelating agent (BFCA), to form {sup 186}Re or {sup 188}Re ({sup 186}Re/{sup 188}Re) complexes. {sup 186}Re/{sup 188}Re, in reducing media, reacts with this ligand to form {sup 186}Re/{sup 188}Re-CO{sub 2}DADS chelates that will be used to formulate new radiolabeled photoaffinity labels (RPALs). Initial steps have been taken to synthesize R-As-dithiol compounds. This approach will be used to produce {sup 77}As-RPALs or covalently link {sup 77}As directly to monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). The R group will contain a group that can be used for conjugation reactions. Spectral and photochemical properties of various types of photoaffinity labels (PALs) have been studied. Acrylo-azido compounds and 9-azido acridine have been studied as well as several other photoprobes. The binding characteristics of the azido-based PALs to HSA have been studied and progress has been made on developing techniques for efficiently separating of non-covalently sound PALs. The Nd-YAG laser was purchased and arrived in 1990. It has been assembled and tested and is now operational.

  20. 90Y labeled phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomer for pretargeting radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guozheng; Dou, Shuping; Liu, Yuxia; Wang, Yuzhen; Rusckowski, Mary; Hnatowich, Donald J

    2011-12-21

    While (188)Re has been used successfully in mice for tumor radiotherapy by MORF/cMORF pretargeting, previous radiolabeling of the amine-derivatized cMORF with (90)Y, a longer physical half-life nuclide, was not very successful. After developing a method involving a prepurification heating step during conjugation that increases labeling efficiency and label stability, the biodistribution of (90)Y-DOTA-Bn-SCN-cMORF ((90)Y-DOTA-cMORF) was measured in normal mice and in MORF-CC49 pretargeted mice that bear LS174T tumors. Absorbed radiation doses were then estimated and compared to those estimated for (188)Re. The pharmacokinetics of the (90)Y-DOTA-cMORF in normal mice and in the pretargeted nude mice was similar to that observed previously with (99m)Tc- and (188)Re-MAG(3)-cMORFs. While the (90)Y-DOTA-cMORF cleared rapidly from normal tissues, tumor clearance was very slow and tumor radioactivity accumulation was constant for at least 7 days such that the tumor/blood (T/B) ratio increased linearly from 6 to 25 over this period. Therefore, by extrapolation, normal tissue toxicities following administration of therapeutic doses of (90)Y may be comparable to that observed for (188)Re in which the T/B increased from 5 to 20. In conclusion, radiolabeling of DOTA-cMORF with (90)Y was improved by introducing a prepurification heating step during conjugation. The (90)Y-DOTA-cMORF provided a similar T/B ratio and biodistribution to that of (188)Re-MAG(3)-cMORF and was retained well in the tumor pretargeted with MORF-CC49. Because of the longer physical half-life, the T/NT absorbed radiation dose ratios were improved in most organs and especially in blood. PMID:21985267

  1. A 90Y labeled phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomer for pretargeting radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Guozheng; Dou, Shuping; Liu, Yuxia; Wang, Yuzhen; Rusckowski, Mary; Hnatowich, Donald J

    2011-01-01

    While 188Re has been used successfully in mice for tumor radiotherapy by MORF/cMORF pretargeting, previous radiolabeling of the 18 mer amine-derivatized cMORF with 90Y, a longer physical half life nuclide, was not very successful. After developing a method involving a pre-purification heating step during conjugation that increases labeling efficiency and label stability, the biodistribution of 90Y-DOTA-Bn-SCN-cMORF was measured in normal mice and in MORF-CC49 pretargeted mice that bear LS174T tumors. Absorbed radiation doses were then estimated and compared to those estimated for 188Re. The pharmacokinetics of the 90Y-DOTA-cMORF in normal mice and in the pretargeted nude mice was similar to that observed previously with 99mTc- and 188Re-MAG3-cMORFs. While the 90Y-DOTA-cMORF cleared rapidly from normal tissues, tumor clearance was very slow and tumor radioactivity accumulation was constant for at least 7 days such that the tumor/blood (T/B) ratio increased linearly from 6 to 25 over this period. Therefore by extrapolation, normal tissue toxicities following administration of therapeutic doses of 90Y may be comparable to that observed for 188Re in which the T/B increased from 5 to 20. In conclusion, radiolabeling of DOTA-cMORF with 90Y was improved by introducing a prepurification heating step during conjugation. The 90Y-DOTA-cMORF provided a similar T/B ratio and biodistribution to that of 188Re-MAG3-cMORF and retained well in the tumor pretargeted with MORF-CC49. Because of the longer physical half life, the T/NT absorbed radiation dose ratios were improved in most organs and especially in blood. PMID:21985267

  2. Evaluation of S-values and dose distributions for {sup 90}Y, {sup 131}I, {sup 166}Ho, and {sup 188}Re in seven lobes of the rat liver

    SciTech Connect

    Xie Tianwu; Liu Qian; Zaidi, Habib

    2012-03-15

    Purpose: Rats have been widely used in radionuclide therapy research for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). This has created the need to assess rat liver absorbed radiation dose. In most dose estimation studies, the rat liver is considered as a homogeneous integrated target organ with a tissue composition assumed to be similar to that of human liver tissue. However, the rat liver is composed of several lobes having different anatomical and chemical characteristics. To assess the overall impact on rat liver dose calculation, the authors use a new voxel-based rat model with identified suborgan regions of the liver. Methods: The liver in the original cryosectional color images was manually segmented into seven individual lobes and subsequently integrated into a voxel-based computational rat model. Photon and electron particle transport was simulated using the MCNPX Monte Carlo code to calculate absorbed fractions and S-values for {sup 90}Y, {sup 131}I, {sup 166}Ho, and {sup 188}Re for the seven liver lobes. The effect of chemical composition on organ-specific absorbed dose was investigated by changing the chemical composition of the voxel filling liver material. Radionuclide-specific absorbed doses at the voxel level were further assessed for a small spherical hepatic tumor. Results: The self-absorbed dose for different liver lobes varied depending on their respective masses. A maximum difference of 3.5% was observed for the liver self-absorbed fraction between rat and human tissues for photon energies below 100 keV. {sup 166}Ho and {sup 188}Re produce a uniformly distributed high dose in the tumor and relatively low absorbed dose for surrounding tissues. Conclusions: The authors evaluated rat liver radiation doses from various radionuclides used in HCC treatments using a realistic computational rat model. This work contributes to a better understanding of all aspects influencing radiation transport in organ-specific radiation dose evaluation for

  3. May bone-targeted radionuclide therapy overcome PRRT-refractory osseous disease in NET? A pilot report on 188Re-HEDP treatment in progressive bone metastases after 177Lu-octreotate

    PubMed Central

    Sabet, Amir; Khalaf, Feras; Mahjoob, Soha; Al-Zreiqat, Abdullah; Biersack, Hans-Jürgen; Ezziddin, Samer

    2014-01-01

    Bone metastases (BM) of gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumours (GEP-NET) can be effectively controlled by peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT). Eventually, however, BM may become refractory and determine survival. We aimed to assess the clinical benefit of bone-targeted radionuclide therapy (BTRT) in this subgroup of patients failing PRRT. A small cohort of n=6 patients with progressive BM failing PRRT with 177Lu-octreotate (mean cumulative activity, 46.7 GBq) were treated with a total of 11 cycles BTRT using 2.6-3.3 GBq 188Re-HEDP per cycle and a median cumulative activity of 5.9 GBq. Pain palliation was quantified applying the visual analogue scale (VAS). The mean VAS decreased from 6.6 (range 5-8) to 3.7 (range 2-7). Five patients experienced partial resolution of bone pain (≥ 2 steps reduction on the VAS for at least 2 weeks) and one patient had no significant improvement. Flare phenomena occurred in 2 patients and lasted for 2-3 days. Tumor response consisted of stable disease in 2 and progressive disease in 4 patients. No regression of bone metastases has been observed. The median overall survival was 5 months (range 2-9). Relevant myelosuppression (grade 3-4; self-limited with no interventions or hospitalization), occurred 4-6 weeks post-treatment, and after 2 (18.1%) administrations or in 1 (16.7%) patient. No other relevant toxicities or treatment-related death was observed. 188Re-HEDP may be safely applied in patients with bone metastatic GEP-NET previously treated with 177Lu-octreotate. While acceptable pain relief may be expected, no tumor-regression or long-term disease stabilization with apparent survival benefit has been observed. This disputes the use of BTRT as salvage anti-tumor therapy in PRRT-refractory neuroendocrine bone metastases. PMID:24380048

  4. Rhenium-188 Labeled Tungsten Disulfide Nanoflakes for Self-Sensitized, Near-Infrared Enhanced Radioisotope Therapy.

    PubMed

    Chao, Yu; Wang, Guanglin; Liang, Chao; Yi, Xuan; Zhong, Xiaoyan; Liu, Jingjing; Gao, Min; Yang, Kai; Cheng, Liang; Liu, Zhuang

    2016-08-01

    Radioisotope therapy (RIT), in which radioactive agents are administered or implanted into the body to irradiate tumors from the inside, is a clinically adopted cancer treatment method but still needs improvement to enhance its performances. Herein, it is found that polyethylene glycol (PEG) modified tungsten disulfide (WS2 ) nanoflakes can be easily labeled by (188) Re, a widely used radioisotope for RIT, upon simple mixing. Like other high-Z elements acting as radiosensitizers, tungsten in the obtained (188) Re-WS2 -PEG would be able to absorb ionization radiation generated from (188) Re, enabling ''self-sensitization'' to enhance the efficacy of RIT as demonstrated in carefully designed in vitro experiments of this study. In the meanwhile, the strong NIR absorbance of WS2 -PEG could be utilized for NIR light-induced photothermal therapy (PTT), which if applied on tumors would be able to greatly relieve their hypoxia state and help to overcome hypoxia-associated radioresistance of tumors. Therefore, with (188) Re-WS2 -PEG as a multifunctional agent, which shows efficient passive tumor homing after intravenous injection, in vivo self-sensitized, NIR-enhanced RIT cancer treatment is realized, achieving excellent tumor killing efficacy in a mouse tumor model. This work presents a new concept of applying nanotechnology in RIT, by delivering radioisotopes into tumors, self-sensitizing the irradiation-induced cell damage, and modulating the tumor hypoxia state to further enhance the therapeutic outcomes. PMID:27345460

  5. Activation cross sections for 190Os( n, p) 190m,gRe, 188Os( n, p) 188Re and 190Os( n, n') 190mOs reactions from 13.5 to 14.8 MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Junhua; Zhang, Zhirong; Tian, Weisong; Tuo, Fei; Kong, Xiangzhong; Liu, Rong; Jiang, Li

    2009-04-01

    Cross sections for ( n, p) and ( n, n') reactions have been measured on osmium isotopes at the neutron energies from 13.5 to 14.8 MeV using the activation technique in combination with high-resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy. Neutrons were produced via the 3H( d, n) 4He reaction using solid TiT. The neutron fluences were determined using the monitor reaction 93Nb( n,2 n) 92mNb. Data are reported for the following reactions: 190Os( n, p) 190mRe, 190Os( n, p) 190gRe, 190Os( n, p) 190Re, 188Os( n, p) 188Re and 190Os( n, n') 190mOs. Nuclear model calculations using the code HFTT, which employs the Hauser-Feshbach (statistical model) and exciton model (precompound effects) formalisms, were undertaken to describe the formation of the products. The cross sections were discussed and compared with experimental data found in the literature, with values of model calculations including the pre-equilibrium contribution, and with evaluation data of JEFF-3.1/A.

  6. Elution of Re-188 from W-188/Re-188 generators with salts of weak acids permits efficient concentration to low volumes using a new tandem cation/anion exchange system

    SciTech Connect

    Guhlke, S. |; Beets, A.L.; Knapp, F.F. Jr.

    1997-05-01

    Re-188, available from a W-188/Re-188 generator, is an important therapeutic radioisotope for bone pain palliation, cancer therapy and intravascular brachytherapy, etc. Because of the relatively low specific activity of reactor-produced W-188 (ORNL HFIR, 296-370 MBq mCi/mg W-186 for 2 cycles), methods of concentrating the Re-188 bolus (10-12 mL) from clinical scale (18.5-37 BGq W-188) generators (5-6 gm alumina) are thus very important. We demonstrate for the first time a new strategy of generator elution with salts of weak acids and specific perrhenate anion {open_quotes}trapping{close_quotes} with QMA anion columns. Re-188 perrhenate is efficiently eluted (65-75%) from the alumina-based generator with 0.15-0.3 M ammonium acetate. An acetic acid solution of Re-188 perrhenic acid is obtained by subsequent on-line passage of the generator eluant through a DOWEX AG 50Wx8 (200-400 mesh, H{sup +} form) column. Since acetic acid is not ionized (< 0.001%) at this pH (< pK{sub a} = 4.76) the perrhenate anion is then specifically trapped on a QMA {open_quotes}Light{close_quotes} anion extraction column. QMA elution with 0.9% NaCl, provides Re-188 perrhenate solution in <1 mL. Concentration of 10-20 mL of Re-188 solution (> 15 BGq) in <1 mL has been demonstrated using this simple new approach, which is also effective for concentration of Tc-99m from low specific activity Mo-99 (n,y) generators. The cation/anion tandem system is inexpensive and disposable and use can be easily automated. The availability of this very simple, efficient system is important for broad use of rhenium-188.

  7. Development of a Computational Model for Female Fathead Minnows Exposed to 17a-ethynylestradiol and 17B-trenbolone

    EPA Science Inventory

    The fathead minnow (FHM) is a valuable small fish model for genomic research in ecotoxicology. Our recent studies have successfully used genomic and metabolomic analyses to evaluate responses to endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) in urine of the FHM, but these results indicate...

  8. 17A-ETHYNYLESTRADIOL-INDUCED VITELLOGENIN GENE TRANSCRIPTION QUANTIFIED IN LIVERS OF ADULT MALES, LARVAE, AND GILLS OF FATHEAD MINNOW (PIMEPHALES PROMELAS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    We have applied a method for quantifying relative levels of messenger RNA (mRNA) transcription to assess chemically-induced gene expression in fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas). Synthetic oligonucleotides designed for the fathead minnow vitellogenin gene transcription (Vg) p...

  9. 17-A ETHYNYLESTRADIOL-INDUCED VITELLOGENIN GENE TRANSCRIPTION QUANTIFIED IN LIVERS OF ADULT MALES, LARVAE, AND GILLS OF FATHEAD MINNOW (PIMEPHALES PROMELAS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    We have applied a method for quantifying relative levels of messenger RNA (mRNA) transcription to assess chemically-induced gene expression in fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas). Synthetic oligonucleotides designed for the fathead minnow vitellogenin gene transcription (Vg) p...

  10. Reduction of intimal hyperplasia with Re-188-labeled stents in a rabbit model at 7 and 26 weeks: an experimental study.

    PubMed

    Tepe, Gunnar; Dietrich, Tobias; Grafen, Franziska; Brehme, Ute; Muschick, Peter; Dinkelborg, Ludger M; Greschniok, Annette; Claussen, Claus D; Duda, Stephan H

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the feasibility of (188)Re-labeled stents to reduce neointimal formation in a rabbit atherosclerosis model and to test the long-term effects at 7 and 26 weeks. Fifty-nine male New Zealand White rabbits were fed a 0.5% cholesterol diet for 4 weeks before balloon angioplasty and insertion of Palmaz stents in the infrarenal aorta. The animals were sacrificed 7 and 26 weeks after stent implantation. Control stents were compared with (188)Re stents: (dose 1) 11.3 +/- 1.8 MBq; (dose 2) 37.3 +/- 4.2 MBq, and (dose 3) 80.1 +/- 7.8 MBq. Each activity group consisted of a short-term (7 weeks) and a long-term group (26 weeks), resulting in a total of eight study groups. No thrombotic occlusion was observed. The neointimal formation in the control group was 2.11 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.68--6.52] mm(2) at 7 weeks and 2.10 (0.62--7.11) at 26 weeks. In the treatment groups, neointima reduction was detectable at 7 weeks [dose 1: 0.33 (0.09--1.22) mm(2); dose 2: 0.17 (0.05--0.57) mm(2); dose 3: 0.03 (0.01--0.13) mm(2)]. After 26 weeks, a catch-up of neointimal formation in the radioactive groups was most obvious in the low-dose group [dose 1: 0.80 (0.28--2.29) mm(2); dose 2: 0.18([0.06--0.52) mm(2); dose 3: 0.50 (0.17--1.42) mm(2)]. Compared to the long-term control group, neointimal reduction was still >60%. No induction of neointimal formation was observed at the edges of the stents. Radiation resulted in delayed re-endothelialization. (188)Re stents were capable to reduce intimal hyperplasia and did not cause thrombosis. The edge effect, which was the major limitation of (32)P stents, was not observed in (188)Re stents. PMID:16059762

  11. Nutrition Labeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metzger, Lloyd E.

    Nutrition labeling regulations differ in countries around the world. The focus of this chapter is on nutrition labeling regulations in the USA, as specified by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). A major reason for analyzing the chemical components of foods in the USA is nutrition labeling regulations. Nutrition label information is not only legally required in many countries, but also is of increasing importance to consumers as they focus more on health and wellness.

  12. Mental Labels and Tattoos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyatt, I. Ralph

    1977-01-01

    Discusses the ease with which mental labels become imprinted in our system, six basic axioms for maintaining negative mental tattoos, and psychological processes for eliminating mental tattoos and labels. (RK)

  13. Semiotic labelled deductive systems

    SciTech Connect

    Nossum, R.T.

    1996-12-31

    We review the class of Semiotic Models put forward by Pospelov, as well as the Labelled Deductive Systems developed by Gabbay, and construct an embedding of Semiotic Models into Labelled Deductive Systems.

  14. Expression profile of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (CD106) in inflammatory foci using rhenium-188 labelled monoclonal antibody in mice.

    PubMed

    Kairemo, K J; Strömberg, S; Nikula, T K; Karonen, S L

    1998-06-01

    Rhenium (Re)-188 is a generator (W-188/Re-188) produced high energy beta-emitter suitable for radionuclide therapy (T1/2 is 16.9 hrs and Emax 2.1 MeV (range 11 mm)). We have labelled monoclonal antibody (MAb) raised against vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) with Re-188 using glucoheptonate chelation technique and SnCl2 as reducing agent. The labelling efficiency, free perrhenate and reduced Re were controlled with thin layer chromatography and the purification of Re-188-MoAbs was performed using gel filtration. Our results indicate that Re-188-labelled antibodies remain in vitro stable and the labelling purity is > 90%. We also have applied these Re-188-MoAbs for detection of inflammatory disease in a mouse. The effective half-lives of organs of interest after an injection of Re-188-anti-VCAM1 were as follows: blood 5.2 hr, kidney 4.7 hr, and liver 9.6 hr. Re-188-anti-VCAM-1 was found to accumulate mainly in kidney and liver. One hour after the injection, the kidney contained in average as high as 12.5% and the liver 2.8 ID/g tissue. After 6 hr, the kidney contained 5.5% ID/g and the liver 2.6% ID/g. At 24 hr, the kidney uptake was 0.5% ID/g and the liver uptake 0.8% ID/g, respectively. The inflamed foci, subcutaneous lesions in the footpad skin, were visualized using gamma camera. From the distribution data the uptakes in the inflamed foci as follows: at 1 hr 2.18 (inflammation) and 1.72% ID/g (control), at 6 hr 1.42 (inflammation) and 0.85% ID/g (control), and at 24 hr 0.17 (inflammation) and 0.084% ID/g (control), respectively. Anti-VCAM-1 MAb showed better targeting as compared to control MoAbs in inflammation (caused by E.coli lipoplysaccaride). In conclusion, Re-188 is suitable for MAb labelling, and MAb against VCAM-1 may be used for detection of local inflammatory disease. PMID:9762472

  15. Bar Code Labels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    American Bar Codes, Inc. developed special bar code labels for inventory control of space shuttle parts and other space system components. ABC labels are made in a company-developed anodizing aluminum process and consecutively marketed with bar code symbology and human readable numbers. They offer extreme abrasion resistance and indefinite resistance to ultraviolet radiation, capable of withstanding 700 degree temperatures without deterioration and up to 1400 degrees with special designs. They offer high resistance to salt spray, cleaning fluids and mild acids. ABC is now producing these bar code labels commercially or industrial customers who also need labels to resist harsh environments.

  16. Labeling and Delinquency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Mike S.; Robertson, Craig T.; Gray-Ray, Phyllis; Ray, Melvin C.

    2003-01-01

    Index comprised of six contrasting descriptive adjectives was used to measure incarcerated youths' perceived negative labeling from the perspective of parents, teachers, and peers. Results provided partial support for hypothesis that juveniles who choose a greater number of negative labels will report more frequent delinquent involvement. Labeling…

  17. OR Specimen Labeling.

    PubMed

    Zervakis Brent, Mary Ann

    2016-02-01

    Mislabeled surgical specimens jeopardize patient safety and quality care. The purpose of this project was to determine whether labeling surgical specimens with two patient identifiers would result in an 80% reduction in specimen labeling errors within six months and a 100% reduction in errors within 12 months. Our failure mode effects analysis found that the lack of two patient identifiers per label was the most unsafe step in our specimen handling process. We piloted and implemented a new process in the OR using the Plan-Do-Check-Act conceptual framework. The audit process included collecting data and making direct observations to determine the sustainability of the process change; however, the leadership team halted the direct observation audit after four months. The total number of surgical specimen labeling errors was reduced by only 60% within six months and 62% within 12 months; therefore, the goal of the project was not met. However, OR specimen labeling errors were reduced. PMID:26849982

  18. Label fusion strategy selection.

    PubMed

    Robitaille, Nicolas; Duchesne, Simon

    2012-01-01

    Label fusion is used in medical image segmentation to combine several different labels of the same entity into a single discrete label, potentially more accurate, with respect to the exact, sought segmentation, than the best input element. Using simulated data, we compared three existing label fusion techniques-STAPLE, Voting, and Shape-Based Averaging (SBA)-and observed that none could be considered superior depending on the dissimilarity between the input elements. We thus developed an empirical, hybrid technique called SVS, which selects the most appropriate technique to apply based on this dissimilarity. We evaluated the label fusion strategies on two- and three-dimensional simulated data and showed that SVS is superior to any of the three existing methods examined. On real data, we used SVS to perform fusions of 10 segmentations of the hippocampus and amygdala in 78 subjects from the ICBM dataset. SVS selected SBA in almost all cases, which was the most appropriate method overall. PMID:22518113

  19. Nanovehicles based Bioassay Labels

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Guodong; Wang, Jun; Wu, Hong; Lin, Ying-Ying; Lin, Yuehe

    2007-04-01

    In this article, we review recent advances of our group in nanoparticle labels based bioassay. Apoferritin and silica nanoparticles have been used as nanovehicles to load large amount of markers for highly sensitive bioassay. Markers loaded apoferritin, apoferritin-templated metallic phosphate nanoparticles, and poly [guanine] coated silica nanoparticles have been prepared, characterized and used as labels for highly sensitive bioassay of protein and DNA. Dissociation and reconstitution characteristics at different pH as well as the special cavity structure of apoferritin nanovehicle provides a simple and convenient route to prepare versatile nanoparticle labels and avoid the complicated and tedious synthesis process of conventional nanoparticle labels. The optical and electrochemical characteristics of the prepared nanoparticle labels are easily controlled by loading different optical or electrochemical markers. Additionally, the use of apoferritin nanovehicle as template for synthesis of metallic phosphate nanoparticle labels offers fast route to prepare uniform-size metallic nanoparticle labels for electrochemical bioassay and avoids the traditional harsh dissolution conditions to dissolve metallic nanoparticle tags (that is, the strong-acid dissolution of quantum dots and gold nanoparticles) during the stripping analysis step. Silica nanoparticle has also been used as nanovehicle to carry thousands of poly [guanine] tracers, which was used to enhance the oxidation current of Ru(bpy)32+, resulting in enhanced sensitivity of electrochemical immunoassay. The new nanovehicle-based labels have been used for highly sensitive electrochemical detection of DNA and protein biomarkers, such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-a). The high sensitivity and selectivity make these labels a useful addition to the armory of nanoparticle-based bioassay. The new nanovehicles based labels hold great promise for multiplex protein and DNA detection and for enhancing the sensitivity

  20. How to Read Drug Labels

    MedlinePlus

    ... and alternative medicine Healthy Aging How to read drug labels Printer-friendly version How to Read Drug ... read drug labels How to read a prescription drug label View a text version of this picture. ...

  1. Nutrition Facts: Reading the Label

    MedlinePlus

    ... My Go4Life Get Free Stuff Be a Partner Nutrition Facts: Reading the Label Reading labels can help ... of information on their labels or packaging about nutrition and food safety. Product dates . You might see ...

  2. Noise labeling in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Araujo, Marco A. N.; Massarani, Paulo M.; de Azevedo, Jose A. J.; Gerges, Samir N. Y.

    2002-11-01

    The Brazilian Silence Program, created in 1990 by the Brazilian Ministry of Environment, advocates the production and use of equipment with lower noise level. The subcommittee of Noise Labeling of the Brazilian Committee of Certification is composed of INMETRO acoustic specialists to organize and implement the Brazilian Labeling Program. This subcommittee elaborated the label form and test procedure. The noise-labeling program will first concentrate on the following household devices, both manufactured in Brazil or imported from abroad; mixers, blenders, hairdryers, refrigerators, and vacuum cleaners. The label should contain the sound-power level in dBA. INMETRO or other credited laboratories are responsible for the measurements. The ISO 4871, 3740 (1 to 5), ISO 8960, and IEC 704 (1 to 4) and also the equivalent Brazilian standards are used for the measurements, such as ABNT NBR 13910-1. The main objective of the label is to inform the consumer about the emitted noise level. The label offers the noise parameter to be used by the consumer when comparing devices, considering price, performance, and now also noise. No restriction for noise level was established.

  3. Capacitive label reader

    DOEpatents

    Arlowe, H. Duane

    1985-01-01

    A capacitive label reader includes an outer ring transmitting portion, an inner ring transmitting portion, and a plurality of insulated receiving portions. A label is the mirror-image of the reader except that identifying portions corresponding to the receiving portions are insulated from only one of two coupling elements. Positive and negative pulses applied, respectively, to the two transmitting rings biased a CMOS shift register positively to either a 1 or 0 condition. The output of the CMOS may be read as an indication of the label.

  4. Capacitive label reader

    DOEpatents

    Arlowe, H.D.

    1985-11-12

    A capacitive label reader includes an outer ring transmitting portion, an inner ring transmitting portion, and a plurality of insulated receiving portions. A label is the mirror-image of the reader except that identifying portions corresponding to the receiving portions are insulated from only one of two coupling elements. Positive and negative pulses applied, respectively, to the two transmitting rings biased a CMOS shift register positively to either a 1 or 0 condition. The output of the CMOS may be read as an indication of the label. 5 figs.

  5. Capacitive label reader

    DOEpatents

    Arlowe, H.D.

    1983-07-15

    A capacitive label reader includes an outer ring transmitting portion, an inner ring transmitting portion, and a plurality of insulated receiving portions. A label is the mirror-image of the reader except that identifying portions corresponding to the receiving portions are insulated from only one of two coupling elements. Positive and negative pulses applied, respectively, to the two transmitting rings biased a CMOS shift register positively to either a 1 or 0 condition. The output of the CMOS may be read as an indication of the label.

  6. Like your labels?

    PubMed

    Field, Michele

    2010-01-01

    The descriptive “conventions” used on food labels are always evolving. Today, however, the changes are so complicated (partly driven by legislation requiring disclosures about environmental impacts, health issues, and geographical provenance) that these labels more often baffle buyers than enlighten them. In a light-handed manner, the article points to how sometimes reading label language can be like deciphering runes—and how if we are familiar with the technical terms, we can find a literal meaning, but still not see the implications. The article could be ten times longer because food labels vary according to cultures—but all food-exporting cultures now take advantage of our short attention-span when faced with these texts. The question is whether less is more—and if so, in this contest for our attention, what “contestant” is voted off. PMID:21539053

  7. Off-Label Drug Use

    MedlinePlus

    ... Your Local Offices Close + - Text Size Off-label Drug Use What is off-label drug use? In the United States new drugs are ... unapproved use of a drug. Is off-label drug use legal? The off-label use of FDA- ...

  8. Spectral Label Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Wachinger, Christian; Golland, Polina

    2012-01-01

    We present a new segmentation approach that combines the strengths of label fusion and spectral clustering. The result is an atlas-based segmentation method guided by contour and texture cues in the test image. This offers advantages for datasets with high variability, making the segmentation less prone to registration errors. We achieve the integration by letting the weights of the graph Laplacian depend on image data, as well as atlas-based label priors. The extracted contours are converted to regions, arranged in a hierarchy depending on the strength of the separating boundary. Finally, we construct the segmentation by a region-wise, instead of voxel-wise, voting, increasing the robustness. Our experiments on cardiac MRI show a clear improvement over majority voting and intensity-weighted label fusion. PMID:23286157

  9. Spin labeling EPR.

    PubMed

    Klare, Johann P; Steinhoff, Heinz-Jürgen

    2009-01-01

    Site-directed spin labeling in combination with electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy has emerged as an efficient tool to elucidate the structure and conformational dynamics of biomolecules under native-like conditions. This article summarizes the basics as well as recent progress of site-directed spin labeling. Continuous wave EPR spectra analyses and pulse EPR techniques are reviewed with special emphasis on applications to the sensory rhodopsin-transducer complex mediating the photophobic response of the halophilic archaeum Natronomonas pharaonis and the photosynthetic reaction center from Rhodobacter sphaeroides R26. PMID:19728138

  10. Tc-99m-labeled RGD-conjugated alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone hybrid peptides with reduced renal uptake

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jianquan; Hu, Chien-An

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether the replacement of the positively-charged Lys or Arg linker with a neutral linker could reduce the renal uptake of Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD)-conjugated alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH) hybrid peptide. The RGD motif {cyclic(Arg-Gly-Asp-dTyr-Asp)} was coupled to [Cys3,4,10, d-Phe7, Arg11]α-MSH3–13 {(Arg11)CCMSH} through the neutral βAla or Ahx {aminohexanoic acid} linker (replacing the Lys or Arg linker) to generate novel RGD-βAla-(Arg11)CCMSH and RGD-Ahx-(Arg11)CCMSH hybrid peptides. The receptor binding affinity and cytotoxicity of RGD-βAla-(Arg11)CCMSH and RGD-Ahx-(Arg11)CCMSH were determined in B16/F1 melanoma cells. The melanoma targeting and imaging properties of 99mTc-RGD-βAla-(Arg11)CCMSH and 99mTc-RGD-Ahx-(Arg11)CCMSH were determined in B16/F1 melanoma-bearing C57 mice. The replacement of the Lys or Arg linker with the βAla or Ahx linker retained nanomolar receptor binding affinities and remarkable cytotoxicity of RGD-βAla-(Arg11)CCMSH and RGD-Ahx-(Arg11)CCMSH. The receptor binding affinities of RGD-βAla-(Arg11)CCMSH and RGD-Ahx-(Arg11)CCMSH were 0.8 and 1.3 nM. Three-hour incubation with 0.1 µM of RGD-βAla-(Arg11)CCMSH and RGD-Ahx-(Arg11)CCMSH decreased the survival percentages of B16/F1 cells by 71 and 67% as compared to the untreated control cells five days post the treatment. The replacement of the Arg linker with the βAla or Ahx linker reduced the non-specific renal uptake of 99mTc-RGD-βAla-(Arg11)CCMSH and 99mTc-RGD-Ahx-(Arg11)CCMSH by 62% and 61% at 2 h post-injection. 99mTc-RGD-βAla-(Arg11)CCMSH displayed higher melanoma uptake than 99mTc-RGD-Ahx-(Arg11)CCMSH at 0.5, 2, 4 and 24 h post-injection. Enhanced tumor to kidney uptake ratio of 99mTc-RGD-βAla-(Arg11)CCMSH warranted the further evaluation of 188Re-labeled RGD-βAla-(Arg11)CCMSH as a novel MC1 receptor-targeting therapeutic peptide for melanoma treatment in the future. PMID:25557051

  11. A Deceiving Label?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lum, Lydia

    2009-01-01

    The author reports on the growing debate among educators on whether the umbrella Asian Pacific Islander label conceals disparities among Asian American students or provides political power in numbers. Nationally, experts say that support services aimed at not only Southeast Asians, but all Asian Pacific Islander students, remain scarce in higher…

  12. Labeling the Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krasner, William

    The report describes research on the effects of labeling children from minority groups as retarded and includes a review of a system of multiculturalistic pluralistic assessment (SOMPA), an instrument for evaluating the abilities and potentialities of children based on different aspects of performance. Listed among findings of the Riverside study,…

  13. Labeling lake water with tritium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frederick, B.J.

    1963-01-01

    A method of packaging tritiated water in a manner that facilitates safe handling in environmental labeling operations, and procedures followed in labeling a large body of water with a small volume of tritiated water are described. ?? 1963.

  14. Decode the Sodium Label Lingo

    MedlinePlus

    ... For Preschooler For Gradeschooler For Teen Decode the Sodium Label Lingo Published January 24, 2013 Print Email Reading food labels can help you slash sodium. Here's how to decipher them. "Sodium free" or " ...

  15. 99m tc labeled liposomes

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, W.T.; Klipper, R.W.; Timmons, J.H.; Rudolph, A.S.

    1992-10-27

    This patent describes a method of preparing stable gamma-emitting radionuclide-labeled alkyleneamine oxime, the incubating being for a period of time sufficient to form labeled liposome-encapsulated protein.

  16. Learning with imperfectly labeled patterns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chittineni, C. B.

    1979-01-01

    The problem of learning in pattern recognition using imperfectly labeled patterns is considered. The performance of the Bayes and nearest neighbor classifiers with imperfect labels is discussed using a probabilistic model for the mislabeling of the training patterns. Schemes for training the classifier using both parametric and non parametric techniques are presented. Methods for the correction of imperfect labels were developed. To gain an understanding of the learning process, expressions are derived for success probability as a function of training time for a one dimensional increment error correction classifier with imperfect labels. Feature selection with imperfectly labeled patterns is described.

  17. 16 CFR 460.12 - Labels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ....12 Labels. If you are a manufacturer, you must label all packages of your insulation. The labels must...) If installation instructions are included on the label or with the package, add this statement:...

  18. 16 CFR 460.12 - Labels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ....12 Labels. If you are a manufacturer, you must label all packages of your insulation. The labels must...) If installation instructions are included on the label or with the package, add this statement:...

  19. 16 CFR 460.12 - Labels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ....12 Labels. If you are a manufacturer, you must label all packages of your insulation. The labels must...) If installation instructions are included on the label or with the package, add this statement:...

  20. 16 CFR 460.12 - Labels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ....12 Labels. If you are a manufacturer, you must label all packages of your insulation. The labels must...) If installation instructions are included on the label or with the package, add this statement:...

  1. 16 CFR 460.12 - Labels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ....12 Labels. If you are a manufacturer, you must label all packages of your insulation. The labels must...) If installation instructions are included on the label or with the package, add this statement:...

  2. 9 CFR 412.1 - Label approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    .... Jan. 6, 2014) § 412.1 Label approval. (a) No final label may be used on any product unless the label... for a corporation may submit only one label application for a product produced in other establishments...) The proposed label would not misrepresent the product; (ii) The use of the label would not present...

  3. Supplementing national menu labeling.

    PubMed

    Hodge, James G; White, Lexi C

    2012-12-01

    The US Food and Drug Administration's forthcoming national menu labeling regulations are designed to help curb the national obesity epidemic by requiring calorie counts on restaurants' menus. However, posted calories can be easily ignored or misunderstood by consumers and fail to accurately describe the healthiness of foods. We propose supplemental models that include nutritional information (e.g., fat, salt, sugar) or specific guidance (e.g., "heart-healthy" graphics). The goal is to empower restaurant patrons with better data to make healthier choices, and ultimately to reduce obesity prevalence. PMID:23078494

  4. Supplementing National Menu Labeling

    PubMed Central

    White, Lexi C.

    2012-01-01

    The US Food and Drug Administration’s forthcoming national menu labeling regulations are designed to help curb the national obesity epidemic by requiring calorie counts on restaurants’ menus. However, posted calories can be easily ignored or misunderstood by consumers and fail to accurately describe the healthiness of foods. We propose supplemental models that include nutritional information (e.g., fat, salt, sugar) or specific guidance (e.g., “heart-healthy” graphics). The goal is to empower restaurant patrons with better data to make healthier choices, and ultimately to reduce obesity prevalence. PMID:23078494

  5. Label and Label-Free Detection Techniques for Protein Microarrays

    PubMed Central

    Syahir, Amir; Usui, Kenji; Tomizaki, Kin-ya; Kajikawa, Kotaro; Mihara, Hisakazu

    2015-01-01

    Protein microarray technology has gone through numerous innovative developments in recent decades. In this review, we focus on the development of protein detection methods embedded in the technology. Early microarrays utilized useful chromophores and versatile biochemical techniques dominated by high-throughput illumination. Recently, the realization of label-free techniques has been greatly advanced by the combination of knowledge in material sciences, computational design and nanofabrication. These rapidly advancing techniques aim to provide data without the intervention of label molecules. Here, we present a brief overview of this remarkable innovation from the perspectives of label and label-free techniques in transducing nano-biological events.

  6. Label scrambling during CID of covalently labeled peptide ions.

    PubMed

    Borotto, Nicholas B; Degraan-Weber, Nicholas; Zhou, Yuping; Vachet, Richard W

    2014-10-01

    Covalent labeling along with mass spectrometry is finding more use as a means of studying the higher order structure of proteins and protein complexes. Diethylpyrocarbonate (DEPC) is an increasingly used reagent for these labeling experiments because it is capable of modifying multiple residues at the same time. Pinpointing DEPC-labeled sites on proteins is typically needed to obtain more resolved structural information, and tandem mass spectrometry after protein proteolysis is often used for this purpose. In this work, we demonstrate that in certain instances, scrambling of the DEPC label from one residue to another can occur during collision-induced dissociation (CID) of labeled peptide ions, resulting in ambiguity in label site identity. From a preliminary study of over 30 labeled peptides, we find that scrambling occurs in about 25% of the peptides and most commonly occurs when histidine residues are labeled. Moreover, this scrambling appears to occur more readily under non-mobile proton conditions, meaning that low charge-state peptide ions are more prone to this reaction. For all peptides, we find that scrambling does not occur during electron transfer dissociation, which suggests that this dissociation technique is a safe alternative to CID for correct label site identification. PMID:25056863

  7. Co-Labeling for Multi-View Weakly Labeled Learning.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xinxing; Li, Wen; Xu, Dong; Tsang, Ivor W

    2016-06-01

    It is often expensive and time consuming to collect labeled training samples in many real-world applications. To reduce human effort on annotating training samples, many machine learning techniques (e.g., semi-supervised learning (SSL), multi-instance learning (MIL), etc.) have been studied to exploit weakly labeled training samples. Meanwhile, when the training data is represented with multiple types of features, many multi-view learning methods have shown that classifiers trained on different views can help each other to better utilize the unlabeled training samples for the SSL task. In this paper, we study a new learning problem called multi-view weakly labeled learning, in which we aim to develop a unified approach to learn robust classifiers by effectively utilizing different types of weakly labeled multi-view data from a broad range of tasks including SSL, MIL and relative outlier detection (ROD). We propose an effective approach called co-labeling to solve the multi-view weakly labeled learning problem. Specifically, we model the learning problem on each view as a weakly labeled learning problem, which aims to learn an optimal classifier from a set of pseudo-label vectors generated by using the classifiers trained from other views. Unlike traditional co-training approaches using a single pseudo-label vector for training each classifier, our co-labeling approach explores different strategies to utilize the predictions from different views, biases and iterations for generating the pseudo-label vectors, making our approach more robust for real-world applications. Moreover, to further improve the weakly labeled learning on each view, we also exploit the inherent group structure in the pseudo-label vectors generated from different strategies, which leads to a new multi-layer multiple kernel learning problem. Promising results for text-based image retrieval on the NUS-WIDE dataset as well as news classification and text categorization on several real-world multi

  8. Laser labeling, a safe technology to label produce

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Laser labeling of fruits and vegetables is an alternative means to label produce. Low energy CO2 laser beams etch the surface showing the contrasting underlying layer. These etched surfaces can promote water loss and potentially allow for entry of decay organisms. The long-term effects of laser labe...

  9. Laser labeling, a safe technology to label produce

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Labeling of the produce has gained marked attention in recent years. Laser labeling technology involves the etching of required information on the surface using a low energy CO2 laser beam. The etching forms alphanumerical characters by pinhole dot matrix depressions. These openings can lead to wat...

  10. 76 FR 75809 - Prior Label Approval System: Generic Label Approval

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-05

    ... limited types of labels (e.g., labels for raw, single ingredient meat and poultry products) (48 FR 11410... poultry products will take effect January 1, 2012 (75 FR 82148, Dec. 29, 2010). These mandatory features... Agency. On March 25, 1992, FSIS published an Advance Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (ANPRM) (57 FR...

  11. 78 FR 66826 - Prior Label Approval System: Generic Label Approval

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-07

    ... the Agency (76 FR 75809). FSIS also proposed to combine the regulations that provide for the approval... preamble (76 FR 75814), FSIS wrote: . . . statements on labels that are defined in FSIS's regulations or... ``Product Labeling: Definition of the Term ``Natural'' and related materials (71 FR 70503, Dec. 5, 2006)...

  12. Labeled Cocaine Analogs

    DOEpatents

    Goodman, Mark M.; Shi, Bing Zhi; Keil, Robert N.

    1999-03-30

    Novel methods for positron emission tomography or single photon emission spectroscopy using tracer compounds having the structure: ##STR1## where X in .beta. configuration is phenyl, naphthyl; 2,3 or 4-iodophenyl; 2,3 or 4-(trimethylsilyl)phenyl; 3,4,5 or 6-iodonaphthyl; 3,4,5 or 6-(trimethylsilyl)naphthyl; 2,3 or 4-(trialkylstannyl)phenyl; or 3,4,5 or 6-(trialkylstannyl)napthyl Y in .beta. configuration is 2-fluoroethoxy, 3-fluoropropoxy, 4-fluorobutoxy, 2-fluorocyclopropoxy, 2 or 3-fluorocyclobutoxy, R,S 1'-fluoroisopropoxy, R 1'-fluoroisopropoxy, S 1'-fluoroisopropoxy, 1',3'-difluoroisopropoxy, R,S 1'-fluoroisobutoxy, R 1'-fluoroisobutoxy, S 1'-fluoroisobutoxy, R,S 4'-fluoroisobutoxy, R 4'-fluoroisobutoxy, S 4'-fluoroisobutoxy, or 1',1'-di(fluoromethyl)isobutoxy, The compounds bind dopamine transporter protein and can be labeled with .sup.18 F or .sup.123 I for imaging.

  13. Meat and Poultry Labeling Terms

    MedlinePlus

    ... Food Standards and Labels: The Facts Labeling and Marketing Information [ Top of Page ] OVEN PREPARED: Product is fully cooked and ready to eat. [ Top of Page ] YOUNG TURKEY: Turkeys of either sex that are less than 8 months of age according to present regulations. [ Top of Page ] Last ...

  14. Nutrition Marketing on Food Labels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colby, Sarah E.; Johnson, LuAnn; Scheett, Angela; Hoverson, Bonita

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This research sought to determine how often nutrition marketing is used on labels of foods that are high in saturated fat, sodium, and/or sugar. Design and Setting: All items packaged with food labels (N = 56,900) in all 6 grocery stores in Grand Forks, ND were surveyed. Main Outcome Measure(s): Marketing strategy, nutrient label…

  15. 21 CFR 201.70 - Calcium labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium labeling. 201.70 Section 201.70 Food and... LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.70 Calcium labeling. (a) The labeling of over-the-counter (OTC) drug products intended for oral ingestion shall contain the calcium content...

  16. 21 CFR 201.72 - Potassium labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium labeling. 201.72 Section 201.72 Food and... LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.72 Potassium labeling. (a) The labeling of over-the-counter (OTC) drug products intended for oral ingestion shall contain the potassium...

  17. 21 CFR 201.72 - Potassium labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potassium labeling. 201.72 Section 201.72 Food and... LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.72 Potassium labeling. (a) The labeling of over-the-counter (OTC) drug products intended for oral ingestion shall contain the potassium...

  18. 21 CFR 201.72 - Potassium labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium labeling. 201.72 Section 201.72 Food and... LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.72 Potassium labeling. (a) The labeling of over-the-counter (OTC) drug products intended for oral ingestion shall contain the potassium...

  19. 21 CFR 201.72 - Potassium labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium labeling. 201.72 Section 201.72 Food and... LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.72 Potassium labeling. (a) The labeling of over-the-counter (OTC) drug products intended for oral ingestion shall contain the potassium...

  20. 21 CFR 201.72 - Potassium labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium labeling. 201.72 Section 201.72 Food and... LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.72 Potassium labeling. (a) The labeling of over-the-counter (OTC) drug products intended for oral ingestion shall contain the potassium...

  1. 21 CFR 201.71 - Magnesium labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Magnesium labeling. 201.71 Section 201.71 Food and... LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.71 Magnesium labeling. (a) The labeling of over-the-counter (OTC) drug products intended for oral ingestion shall contain the magnesium...

  2. 21 CFR 201.64 - Sodium labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... contains sodium bicarbonate, sodium phosphate, or sodium biphosphate as an active ingredient for oral... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium labeling. 201.64 Section 201.64 Food and... LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.64 Sodium labeling. (a) The labeling...

  3. 21 CFR 201.64 - Sodium labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... contains sodium bicarbonate, sodium phosphate, or sodium biphosphate as an active ingredient for oral... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium labeling. 201.64 Section 201.64 Food and... LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.64 Sodium labeling. (a) The labeling...

  4. 21 CFR 201.64 - Sodium labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... contains sodium bicarbonate, sodium phosphate, or sodium biphosphate as an active ingredient for oral... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium labeling. 201.64 Section 201.64 Food and... LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.64 Sodium labeling. (a) The labeling...

  5. 21 CFR 201.64 - Sodium labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... contains sodium bicarbonate, sodium phosphate, or sodium biphosphate as an active ingredient for oral... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium labeling. 201.64 Section 201.64 Food and... LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.64 Sodium labeling. (a) The labeling...

  6. Synthesis Of Labeled Metabolites

    DOEpatents

    Martinez, Rodolfo A.; Silks, III, Louis A.; Unkefer, Clifford J.; Atcher, Robert

    2004-03-23

    The present invention is directed to labeled compounds, for example, isotopically enriched mustard gas metabolites including: [1,1',2,2'-.sup.13 C.sub.4 ]ethane, 1,1'-sulfonylbis[2-(methylthio); [1,1',2,2'-.sup.13 C.sub.4 ]ethane, 1-[[2-(methylsulfinyl)ethyl]sulfonyl]-2-(methylthio); [1,1',2,2'-.sup.13 C.sub.4 ]ethane, 1,1'-sulfonylbis[2-(methylsulfinyl)]; and, 2,2'-sulfinylbis([1,2-.sup.13 C.sub.2 ]ethanol of the general formula ##STR1## where Q.sup.1 is selected from the group consisting of sulfide (--S--), sulfone (--S(O)--), sulfoxide (--S(O.sub.2)--) and oxide (--O--), at least one C* is .sup.13 C, X is selected from the group consisting of hydrogen and deuterium, and Z is selected from the group consisting of hydroxide (--OH), and --Q.sup.2 --R where Q.sup.2 is selected from the group consisting of sulfide (--S--), sulfone(--S(O)--), sulfoxide (--S(O.sub.2)--) and oxide (--O--), and R is selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, a C.sub.1 to C.sub.4 lower alkyl, and amino acid moieties, with the proviso that when Z is a hydroxide and Q.sup.1 is a sulfide, then at least one X is deuterium.

  7. Labeled Cocaine Analogs

    DOEpatents

    Goodman, Mark M.; Shi, Bing Zhi; Keil, Robert N.

    1999-01-26

    Novel compounds having the structure: ##STR1## where X in .beta. configuration is phenyl, naphthyl; 2,3 or 4-iodophenyl; 2,3 or 4-(trimethylsilyl)phenyl; 3,4,5 or 6-iodonaphthyl; 3,4,5 or 6-(trimethylsilyl)naphthyl; 2,3 or 4-(trialkylstannyl)phenyl; or 3,4,5 or 6-(trialkylstannyl)naphthyl Y in .beta. configuration is Y.sub.1 or Y.sub.2, where Y.sub.1 is 2-fluoroethoxy, 3-fluoropropoxy, 4-fluorobutoxy, 2-fluorocyclopropoxy, 2 or 3-fluorocyclobutoxy, R,S 1'-fluoroisopropoxy, R 1'-fluoroisopropoxy, S 1'-fluoroisopropoxy, 1',3'-difluoroisopropoxy, R,S 1'-fluoroisobutoxy, R 1'-fluoroisobutoxy, S 1'-fluoroisobutoxy, R,S 4'-fluoroisobutoxy, R 4'-fluoroisobutoxy, S 4'-fluoroisobutoxy, or 1',1'-di(fluoromethyl)isobutoxy, and Y.sub.2 is 2-methanesulfonyloxy ethoxy, 3-methanesulfonyloxy propoxy, 4-methanesulfonyloxy butoxy, 2-methanesulfonyloxy cyclopropoxy, 2 or 3-methanesulfonyloxy cyclobutoxy, 1'methanesulfonyloxy isopropoxy, 1'-fluoro, 3'-methanesulfonyloxy isopropoxy, 1'-methanesulfonyloxy, 3'-fluoro isopropoxy, 1'-methanesulfonyloxy isobutoxy, or 4'-methanesulfonyloxy isobutoxy bind dopamine transporter protein and can be labeled with .sup.18 F or .sup.123 I for imaging.

  8. 27 CFR 19.517 - Statements required on labels under an exemption from label approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... labels under an exemption from label approval. 19.517 Section 19.517 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... PLANTS Liquor Bottle, Label, and Closure Requirements Labeling Requirements § 19.517 Statements required on labels under an exemption from label approval. If a proprietor bottles spirits for domestic...

  9. 27 CFR 19.517 - Statements required on labels under an exemption from label approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... labels under an exemption from label approval. 19.517 Section 19.517 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... PLANTS Liquor Bottle, Label, and Closure Requirements Labeling Requirements § 19.517 Statements required on labels under an exemption from label approval. If a proprietor bottles spirits for domestic...

  10. 27 CFR 19.517 - Statements required on labels under an exemption from label approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... labels under an exemption from label approval. 19.517 Section 19.517 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... PLANTS Liquor Bottle, Label, and Closure Requirements Labeling Requirements § 19.517 Statements required on labels under an exemption from label approval. If a proprietor bottles spirits for domestic...

  11. 27 CFR 19.517 - Statements required on labels under an exemption from label approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... labels under an exemption from label approval. 19.517 Section 19.517 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... PLANTS Liquor Bottle, Label, and Closure Requirements Labeling Requirements § 19.517 Statements required on labels under an exemption from label approval. If a proprietor bottles spirits for domestic...

  12. Selective chemical labeling of proteins.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xi; Wu, Yao-Wen

    2016-06-28

    Over the years, there have been remarkable efforts in the development of selective protein labeling strategies. In this review, we deliver a comprehensive overview of the currently available bioorthogonal and chemoselective reactions. The ability to introduce bioorthogonal handles to proteins is essential to carry out bioorthogonal reactions for protein labeling in living systems. We therefore summarize the techniques that allow for site-specific "installation" of bioorthogonal handles into proteins. We also highlight the biological applications that have been achieved by selective chemical labeling of proteins. PMID:26940577

  13. How to read food labels

    MedlinePlus

    ... 1 serving. You should also pay attention to trans fats on any food label. These fats raise "bad" ... foods and desserts. Many fast food restaurants use trans fats for frying. If a food has these fats, ...

  14. Dietary Supplement Label Database (DSLD)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Print Report Error T he Dietary Supplement Label Database (DSLD) is a joint project of the National ... participants in the latest survey in the DSLD database (NHANES): The search options: Quick Search, Browse Dietary ...

  15. Food Labels Tell the Story!

    MedlinePlus

    ... Environment Kids Health Topics Environment & Health Healthy Living Pollution Reduce, Reuse, Recycle Science – How It Works The ... Pay close attention to serving sizes. Products labeled "light" or "lite" must have 1/3 fewer calories ...

  16. LabeledIn: cataloging labeled indications for human drugs.

    PubMed

    Khare, Ritu; Li, Jiao; Lu, Zhiyong

    2014-12-01

    Drug-disease treatment relationships, i.e., which drug(s) are indicated to treat which disease(s), are among the most frequently sought information in PubMed®. Such information is useful for feeding the Google Knowledge Graph, designing computational methods to predict novel drug indications, and validating clinical information in EMRs. Given the importance and utility of this information, there have been several efforts to create repositories of drugs and their indications. However, existing resources are incomplete. Furthermore, they neither label indications in a structured way nor differentiate them by drug-specific properties such as dosage form, and thus do not support computer processing or semantic interoperability. More recently, several studies have proposed automatic methods to extract structured indications from drug descriptions; however, their performance is limited by natural language challenges in disease named entity recognition and indication selection. In response, we report LabeledIn: a human-reviewed, machine-readable and source-linked catalog of labeled indications for human drugs. More specifically, we describe our semi-automatic approach to derive LabeledIn from drug descriptions through human annotations with aids from automatic methods. As the data source, we use the drug labels (or package inserts) submitted to the FDA by drug manufacturers and made available in DailyMed. Our machine-assisted human annotation workflow comprises: (i) a grouping method to remove redundancy and identify representative drug labels to be used for human annotation, (ii) an automatic method to recognize and normalize mentions of diseases in drug labels as candidate indications, and (iii) a two-round annotation workflow for human experts to judge the pre-computed candidates and deliver the final gold standard. In this study, we focused on 250 highly accessed drugs in PubMed Health, a newly developed public web resource for consumers and clinicians on prevention

  17. Therapeutic and scintigraphic applications of polymeric micelles: combination of chemotherapy and radiotherapy in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Shih, Ying-Hsia; Peng, Cheng-Liang; Chiang, Ping-Fang; Lin, Wuu-Jyh; Luo, Tsai-Yueh; Shieh, Ming-Jium

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated a multifunctional micelle simultaneously loaded with doxorubicin (Dox) and labeled with radionuclide rhenium-188 ((188)Re) as a combined radiotherapy and chemotherapy treatment for hepatocellular carcinoma. We investigated the single photon emission computed tomography, biodistribution, antitumor efficacy, and pathology of (188)Re-Dox micelles in a murine orthotopic luciferase-transfected BNL tumor cells hepatocellular carcinoma model. The single photon emission computed tomography and computed tomography images showed high radioactivity in the liver and tumor, which was in agreement with the biodistribution measured by γ-counting. In vivo bioluminescence images showed the smallest size tumor (P<0.05) in mice treated with the combined micelles throughout the experimental period. In addition, the combined (188)Re-Dox micelles group had significantly longer survival compared with the control, (188)ReO4 alone (P<0.005), and Dox micelles alone (P<0.01) groups. Pathohistological analysis revealed that tumors treated with (188)Re-Dox micelles had more necrotic features and decreased cell proliferation. Therefore, (188)Re-Dox micelles may enable combined radiotherapy and chemotherapy to maximize the effectiveness of treatment for hepatocellular carcinoma. PMID:26719687

  18. Therapeutic and scintigraphic applications of polymeric micelles: combination of chemotherapy and radiotherapy in hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Shih, Ying-Hsia; Peng, Cheng-Liang; Chiang, Ping-Fang; Lin, Wuu-Jyh; Luo, Tsai-Yueh; Shieh, Ming-Jium

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated a multifunctional micelle simultaneously loaded with doxorubicin (Dox) and labeled with radionuclide rhenium-188 (188Re) as a combined radiotherapy and chemotherapy treatment for hepatocellular carcinoma. We investigated the single photon emission computed tomography, biodistribution, antitumor efficacy, and pathology of 188Re-Dox micelles in a murine orthotopic luciferase-transfected BNL tumor cells hepatocellular carcinoma model. The single photon emission computed tomography and computed tomography images showed high radioactivity in the liver and tumor, which was in agreement with the biodistribution measured by γ-counting. In vivo bioluminescence images showed the smallest size tumor (P<0.05) in mice treated with the combined micelles throughout the experimental period. In addition, the combined 188Re-Dox micelles group had significantly longer survival compared with the control, 188ReO4 alone (P<0.005), and Dox micelles alone (P<0.01) groups. Pathohistological analysis revealed that tumors treated with 188Re-Dox micelles had more necrotic features and decreased cell proliferation. Therefore, 188Re-Dox micelles may enable combined radiotherapy and chemotherapy to maximize the effectiveness of treatment for hepatocellular carcinoma. PMID:26719687

  19. Multi-focus cluster labeling.

    PubMed

    Eikvil, Line; Jenssen, Tor-Kristian; Holden, Marit

    2015-06-01

    Document collections resulting from searches in the biomedical literature, for instance, in PubMed, are often so large that some organization of the returned information is necessary. Clustering is an efficient tool for organizing search results. To help the user to decide how to continue the search for relevant documents, the content of each cluster can be characterized by a set of representative keywords or cluster labels. As different users may have different interests, it can be desirable with solutions that make it possible to produce labels from a selection of different topical categories. We therefore introduce the concept of multi-focus cluster labeling to give users the possibility to get an overview of the contents through labels from multiple viewpoints. The concept for multi-focus cluster labeling has been established and has been demonstrated on three different document collections. We illustrate that multi-focus visualizations can give an overview of clusters along axes that general labels are not able to convey. The approach is generic and should be applicable to any biomedical (or other) domain with any selection of foci where appropriate focus vocabularies can be established. A user evaluation also indicates that such a multi-focus concept is useful. PMID:25869415

  20. 16 CFR 306.12 - Labels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Labels. 306.12 Section 306.12 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS AUTOMOTIVE FUEL RATINGS, CERTIFICATION AND POSTING Label Specifications § 306.12 Labels. All labels must meet the following specifications: (a) Layout—(1) For gasoline...

  1. 16 CFR 306.12 - Labels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Labels. 306.12 Section 306.12 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS AUTOMOTIVE FUEL RATINGS, CERTIFICATION AND POSTING Label Specifications § 306.12 Labels. All labels must meet the following specifications: (a) Layout—(1) For gasoline...

  2. 49 CFR 172.426 - OXIDIZER label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.426 OXIDIZER label. (a) Except for size and color, the OXIDIZER label must be as follows: EC02MR91.027 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.407, the background color on the OXIDIZER label must be yellow....

  3. 49 CFR 172.426 - OXIDIZER label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.426 OXIDIZER label. (a) Except for size and color, the OXIDIZER label must be as follows: EC02MR91.027 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.407, the background color on the OXIDIZER label must be yellow....

  4. 49 CFR 172.426 - OXIDIZER label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.426 OXIDIZER label. (a) Except for size and color, the OXIDIZER label must be as follows: EC02MR91.027 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.407, the background color on the OXIDIZER label must be yellow....

  5. 49 CFR 172.426 - OXIDIZER label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.426 OXIDIZER label. (a) Except for size and color, the OXIDIZER label must be as follows: EC02MR91.027 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.407, the background color on the OXIDIZER label must be yellow....

  6. 21 CFR 610.61 - Package label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... GENERAL BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS STANDARDS Labeling Standards § 610.61 Package label. The following items shall appear on the label affixed to each package containing a product: (a) The proper name of the product; (b... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Package label. 610.61 Section 610.61 Food...

  7. 40 CFR 211.108 - Sample label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sample label. 211.108 Section 211.108 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS PRODUCT NOISE LABELING General Provisions § 211.108 Sample label. Examples of labels conforming to the requirements...

  8. 40 CFR 211.108 - Sample label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sample label. 211.108 Section 211.108 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS PRODUCT NOISE LABELING General Provisions § 211.108 Sample label. Examples of labels conforming to the requirements...

  9. 40 CFR 211.108 - Sample label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sample label. 211.108 Section 211.108 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS PRODUCT NOISE LABELING General Provisions § 211.108 Sample label. Examples of labels conforming to the requirements...

  10. 21 CFR 610.61 - Package label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... GENERAL BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS STANDARDS Labeling Standards § 610.61 Package label. The following items shall appear on the label affixed to each package containing a product: (a) The proper name of the product; (b... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Package label. 610.61 Section 610.61 Food...

  11. 21 CFR 610.61 - Package label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS STANDARDS Labeling Standards § 610.61 Package label. The following items shall appear on the label affixed to each package containing a product: (a) The proper name of the product; (b) The... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Package label. 610.61 Section 610.61 Food and...

  12. 40 CFR 211.108 - Sample label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sample label. 211.108 Section 211.108 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS PRODUCT NOISE LABELING General Provisions § 211.108 Sample label. Examples of labels conforming to the requirements...

  13. 21 CFR 610.61 - Package label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... GENERAL BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS STANDARDS Labeling Standards § 610.61 Package label. The following items shall appear on the label affixed to each package containing a product: (a) The proper name of the product; (b... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Package label. 610.61 Section 610.61 Food...

  14. 21 CFR 610.61 - Package label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... GENERAL BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS STANDARDS Labeling Standards § 610.61 Package label. The following items shall appear on the label affixed to each package containing a product: (a) The proper name of the product; (b... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Package label. 610.61 Section 610.61 Food...

  15. 40 CFR 211.108 - Sample label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Sample label. 211.108 Section 211.108 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS PRODUCT NOISE LABELING General Provisions § 211.108 Sample label. Examples of labels conforming to the requirements...

  16. 40 CFR 1033.135 - Labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... THAT IT IS REMANUFACTURED, EXCEPT AS ALLOWED BY 40 CFR 1033.750.” (3) Label diesel-fueled locomotives... that contrasts with the background of the label. (iii) The label must include all the following... same engine part. (ii) The label must be lettered in the English language using a color that...

  17. 40 CFR 156.10 - Labeling requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Labeling requirements. 156.10 Section 156.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS LABELING REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES AND DEVICES General Provisions § 156.10 Labeling requirements. (a) General—(1) Contents of the label. Every...

  18. 30 CFR 74.15 - Approval labels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Approval labels. 74.15 Section 74.15 Mineral... DUST SAMPLING DEVICES General Requirements for All Devices § 74.15 Approval labels. (a) Certificate of... reproductions of approval labels and a sketch or description of the position of the labels on each...

  19. 49 CFR 172.430 - POISON label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false POISON label. 172.430 Section 172.430... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.430 POISON label. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON label must be as follows: EC02MR91.029 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.407, the background on the POISON label...

  20. 49 CFR 172.430 - POISON label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false POISON label. 172.430 Section 172.430... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.430 POISON label. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON label must be as follows: EC02MR91.029 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.407, the background on the POISON label...

  1. 49 CFR 172.430 - POISON label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false POISON label. 172.430 Section 172.430... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.430 POISON label. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON label must be as follows: EC02MR91.029 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.407, the background on the POISON label...

  2. 49 CFR 172.430 - POISON label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false POISON label. 172.430 Section 172.430... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.430 POISON label. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON label must be as follows: EC02MR91.029 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.407, the background on the POISON label...

  3. 49 CFR 172.430 - POISON label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false POISON label. 172.430 Section 172.430... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.430 POISON label. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON label must be as follows: EC02MR91.029 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.407, the background on the POISON label...

  4. Nutrition Labeling Using a Computer Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metzger, Lloyd E.

    The 1990 Nutrition Labeling and Education Act mandated nutritional labeling of most foods. As a result, a large portion of food analysis is performed for nutritional labeling purposes. A food labeling guide and links to the complete nutritional labeling regulations are available online at http://vm.cfsan.fda.gov/˜dms/flg-toc.html. However, interpretation of these regulations and the appropriate usage of rounding rules, available nutrient content claims, reference amounts, and serving size can be difficult.

  5. Label-free drug discovery

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Ye

    2014-01-01

    Current drug discovery is dominated by label-dependent molecular approaches, which screen drugs in the context of a predefined and target-based hypothesis in vitro. Given that target-based discovery has not transformed the industry, phenotypic screen that identifies drugs based on a specific phenotype of cells, tissues, or animals has gained renewed interest. However, owing to the intrinsic complexity in drug–target interactions, there is often a significant gap between the phenotype screened and the ultimate molecular mechanism of action sought. This paper presents a label-free strategy for early drug discovery. This strategy combines label-free cell phenotypic profiling with computational approaches, and holds promise to bridge the gap by offering a kinetic and holistic representation of the functional consequences of drugs in disease relevant cells that is amenable to mechanistic deconvolution. PMID:24723889

  6. Metrics for Labeled Markov Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desharnais, Josee; Jagadeesan, Radha; Gupta, Vineet; Panangaden, Prakash

    1999-01-01

    Partial Labeled Markov Chains are simultaneously generalizations of process algebra and of traditional Markov chains. They provide a foundation for interacting discrete probabilistic systems, the interaction being synchronization on labels as in process algebra. Existing notions of process equivalence are too sensitive to the exact probabilities of various transitions. This paper addresses contextual reasoning principles for reasoning about more robust notions of "approximate" equivalence between concurrent interacting probabilistic systems. The present results indicate that:We develop a family of metrics between partial labeled Markov chains to formalize the notion of distance between processes. We show that processes at distance zero are bisimilar. We describe a decision procedure to compute the distance between two processes. We show that reasoning about approximate equivalence can be done compositionally by showing that process combinators do not increase distance. We introduce an asymptotic metric to capture asymptotic properties of Markov chains; and show that parallel composition does not increase asymptotic distance.

  7. Positron emitter labeled enzyme inhibitors

    DOEpatents

    Fowler, J.S.; MacGregor, R.R.; Wolf, A.P.

    1987-05-22

    This invention involved a new strategy for imaging and mapping enzyme activity in the living human and animal body using positron emitter-labeled suicide enzyme inactivators or inhibitors which become covalently bound to the enzyme as a result of enzymatic catalysis. Two such suicide in activators for monoamine oxidase have been labeled with carbon-11 and used to map the enzyme subtypes in the living human and animal body using PET. By using positron emission tomography to image the distribution of radioactivity produced by the body penetrating radiation emitted by carbon-11, a map of functionally active monoamine oxidase activity is obtained. Clorgyline and L-deprenyl are suicide enzyme inhibitors and irreversibly inhibit monoamine oxidase. When these inhibitors are labeled with carbon-11 they provide selective probes for monoamine oxidase localization and reactivity in vivo using positron emission tomography. 2 figs.

  8. Positron emitter labeled enzyme inhibitors

    DOEpatents

    Fowler, Joanna S.; MacGregor, Robert R.; Wolf, Alfred P.; Langstrom, Bengt

    1990-01-01

    This invention involves a new strategy for imaging and mapping enzyme activity in the living human and animal body using positron emitter-labeled suicide enzyme inactivators or inhibitors which become covalently bound to the enzyme as a result of enzymatic catalysis. Two such suicide inactivators for monoamine oxidase have been labeled with carbon-11 and used to map the enzyme subtypes in the living human and animal body using PET. By using positron emission tomography to image the distribution of radioactivity produced by the body penetrating radiation emitted by carbon-11, a map of functionally active monoamine oxidase activity is obtained. Clorgyline and L-deprenyl are suicide enzyme inhibitors and irreversibly inhibit monoamine oxidase. When these inhibitors are labeled with carbon-11 they provide selective probes for monoamine oxidase localization and reactivity in vivo using positron emission tomography.

  9. Positron emitter labeled enzyme inhibitors

    SciTech Connect

    Fowler, J.S.; MacGregor, R.R.; Wolf, A.P.; Langstrom, B.

    1990-04-03

    This invention involves a new strategy for imaging and mapping enzyme activity in the living human and animal body using positron emitter-labeled suicide enzyme inactivators or inhibitors which become covalently bound to the enzyme as a result of enzymatic catalysis. Two such suicide inactivators for monoamine oxidase have been labeled with carbon-11 and used to map the enzyme subtypes in the living human and animal body using PET. By using positron emission tomography to image the distribution of radioactivity produced by the body penetrating radiation emitted by carbon-11, a map of functionally active monoamine oxidase activity is obtained. Clorgyline and L-deprenyl are suicide enzyme inhibitors and irreversibly inhibit monoamine oxidase. When these inhibitors are labeled with carbon-11 they provide selective probes for monoamine oxidase localization and reactivity in vivo using positron emission tomography.

  10. Replacement of Lys Linker with Arg Linker Resulting in Improved Melanoma Uptake and Reduced Renal Uptake of Tc-99m-Labeled Arg-Gly-Asp-Conjugated Alpha-Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone Hybrid Peptide

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jianquan; Guo, Haixun; Padilla, R. Steve; Berwick, Marianne; Miao, Yubin

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to reduce the non-specific renal uptake of Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD)-conjugated alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH) hybrid peptide through structural modification or L-lysine co-injection. The RGD motif {cyclic(Arg-Gly-Asp-dTyr-Asp)} was coupled to [Cys3,4,10, d-Phe7, Arg11]α-MSH3-13 {(Arg11)CCMSH} through the Arg linker (substituting the Lys linker) to generate a novel RGD-Arg-(Arg11)CCMSH hybrid peptide. The melanoma targeting and pharmacokinetic properties of 99mTc-RGD-Arg-(Arg11)CCMSH were determined in B16/F1 melanoma-bearing C57 mice. The effect of L-lysine co-injection on the renal uptake was determined through the co-injection of L-lysine with 99mTc-RGD-Arg-(Arg11)CCMSH or 99mTc-RGD-Lys-(Arg11)CCMSH. Replacement of the Lys linker with an Arg linker exhibited a profound effect in reducing the non-specific renal uptake of 99mTc-RGD-Arg-(Arg11)CCMSH, as well as increasing the tumor uptake of 99mTc-RGD-Arg-(Arg11)CCMSH compared to 99mTc-RGD-Lys-(Arg11)CCMSH. 99mTc-RGD-Arg-(Arg11)CCMSH exhibited high tumor uptake (21.41 ± 3.74% ID/g at 2 h post-injection) and prolonged tumor retention (6.81 ± 3.71% ID/g at 24 h post-injection) in B16/F1 melanoma-bearing mice. The renal uptake values of 99mTc-RGD-Arg-(Arg11)CCMSH were 40.14-64.08% of those of 99mTc-RGD-Lys-(Arg11)CCMSH (p<0.05) at 0.5, 2, 4 and 24 h post-injection. Co-injection of L-lysine was effective in decreasing the renal uptakes of 99mTc-RGD-Arg-(Arg11)CCMSH by 27.7% and 99mTc-RGD-Lys-(Arg11)CCMSH by 52.1% at 2 h post-injection. Substitution of the Lys linker with an Arg linker dramatically improved the melanoma uptake and reduced the renal uptake of 99mTc-RGD-Arg-(Arg11)CCMSH, warranting the further evaluation of 188Re-labeled RGD-Arg-(Arg11)CCMSH as a novel MC1 receptor-targeting therapeutic peptide for melanoma treatment in the future. PMID:20728365

  11. Labeling: A Dilemma or Solution?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perusin, Adriano

    1998-01-01

    Reviews the pros and cons of labeling within the classroom, including the effects on self-concept and peer relationships. Argues that integration can be successful, if implemented by an effective and prepared instructor and that activities which are accommodating may allow integration to be successful. (Author/CR)

  12. When Diagnostic Labels Mask Trauma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foltz, Robert; Dang, Sidney; Daniels, Brian; Doyle, Hillary; McFee, Scott; Quisenberry, Carolyn

    2013-01-01

    A growing body of research shows that many seriously troubled children and adolescents are reacting to adverse life experiences. Yet traditional diagnostic labels are based on checklists of surface symptoms. Distracted by disruptive behavior, the common response is to medicate, punish, or exclude rather than respond to needs of youth who have…

  13. Nutrition Marketing on Food Labels

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nutrition marketing may influence purchasing behavior and thereby be a factor in the obesity epidemic. Very little peer-reviewed research has been published which investigates the relationship between nutrition marketing on food labels and consumer behavior. The purpose of this paper was to give an ...

  14. The Labelling Approach to Deviance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rains, Prudence M.; Kitsuse, John L.; Duster, Troy; Freidson, Eliot

    2003-01-01

    This reprint of one chapter from the 1975 text, "Issues in the Classification of Children" by Nicholas Hobbs and others, addresses the theoretical, methodological, and empirical issues involved in the "labeling" approach to the sociology of deviance. It examines the social process of classification, the use of classification in social agencies,…

  15. Revisiting Labels: "Hearing" or Not?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhoades, Ellen A.

    2010-01-01

    This position paper briefly presents evidence-based findings pertaining to the language of labels for people with hearing loss that relate to stigma, expectation levels, stereotypes, and self-fulfilling prophecies. These constructs are important for auditory-based practitioners, administrators, policymakers, students, families, and persons with…

  16. Psychological effectiveness of carbon labelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beattie, Geoffrey

    2012-04-01

    Despite the decision by supermarket-giant Tesco to delay its plan to add carbon-footprint information onto all of its 70,000 products, carbon labelling, if carefully designed, could yet change consumer behaviour. However, it requires a new type of thinking about consumers and much additional work.

  17. The labeling debate in the United States.

    PubMed

    Marchant, Gary E; Cardineau, Guy A

    2013-01-01

    The mandatory labeling of genetically modified (GM) food has become the predominant policy issue concerning biotechnology in the United States. The controversy over GM labeling is being debated at several different levels and branches of government. At the federal level, the Food and Drug Administration, which has primary jurisdiction over food safety and labeling, has steadfastly refused to require labeling of GM foods since 1992 based on its conclusion that GM foods as a category present no unique or higher risks than other foods. Proposed legislation has been repeatedly introduced in the US. Congress over the years to mandate GM labeling, but has made very little progress. With federal labeling requirements apparently stalled, the main activity has switched to the state level, where numerous individual states are considering mandatory GM labeling, either through legislation or proposition. The debate over GM labeling, at both the federal and state levels, has focused on five issues: (1) public opinion; (2) the legality of labeling requirements; (3) the risks and benefits of GM foods; (4) the costs and burdens of GM labeling; and (5) consumer choice. While the pro-labeling forces argue that all of these factors weigh in favor of mandatory GM labeling, a more careful evaluation of the evidence finds that all five factors weigh decisively against mandatory GM labeling requirements. PMID:23982076

  18. 27 CFR 19.437 - Labels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... affix a label showing the following information: (1) The proprietor's name and plant number; (2) The... paragraph (a) of this section is not required when the sample container bears a label approved under part...

  19. 27 CFR 19.704 - Labels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... containers bear an approved label pursuant to 27 CFR Part 5 and subpart S of this part and the sample is... spirits to be withdrawn under the provisions of § 19.701, the proprietor shall affix a label showing...

  20. 27 CFR 19.437 - Labels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... affix a label showing the following information: (1) The proprietor's name and plant number; (2) The... paragraph (a) of this section is not required when the sample container bears a label approved under part...

  1. 27 CFR 19.437 - Labels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... affix a label showing the following information: (1) The proprietor's name and plant number; (2) The... paragraph (a) of this section is not required when the sample container bears a label approved under part...

  2. 27 CFR 19.437 - Labels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... affix a label showing the following information: (1) The proprietor's name and plant number; (2) The... paragraph (a) of this section is not required when the sample container bears a label approved under part...

  3. 21 CFR 640.94 - Labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Plasma Protein Fraction (Human) § 640.94 Labeling. In addition... package labels shall contain the following information: (a) The osmotic equivalent in terms of plasma,...

  4. 21 CFR 640.94 - Labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Plasma Protein Fraction (Human) § 640.94 Labeling. In addition... package labels shall contain the following information: (a) The osmotic equivalent in terms of plasma,...

  5. 21 CFR 640.94 - Labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Plasma Protein Fraction (Human) § 640.94 Labeling. In addition... package labels shall contain the following information: (a) The osmotic equivalent in terms of plasma,...

  6. 21 CFR 640.94 - Labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Plasma Protein Fraction (Human) § 640.94 Labeling. In addition... package labels shall contain the following information: (a) The osmotic equivalent in terms of plasma,...

  7. 21 CFR 640.94 - Labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Plasma Protein Fraction (Human) § 640.94 Labeling. In addition... package labels shall contain the following information: (a) The osmotic equivalent in terms of plasma,...

  8. 7 CFR 65.400 - Labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... origin declarations can either be in the form of a placard, sign, label, sticker, band, twist tie, pin... declaration of the country of origin (e.g., placard, sign, label, sticker, band, twist tie, pin tag, or...

  9. 40 CFR 1033.135 - Labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... THAT IT IS REMANUFACTURED, EXCEPT AS ALLOWED BY 40 CFR 1033.750.” (3) Label diesel-fueled locomotives... locomotives certified for use with both LSD and ULSD. (c) Engine labels. (1) For engines not...

  10. 40 CFR 1033.135 - Labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... THAT IT IS REMANUFACTURED, EXCEPT AS ALLOWED BY 40 CFR 1033.750.” (3) Label diesel-fueled locomotives... locomotives certified for use with both LSD and ULSD. (c) Engine labels. (1) For engines not...

  11. 40 CFR 1033.135 - Labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... THAT IT IS REMANUFACTURED, EXCEPT AS ALLOWED BY 40 CFR 1033.750.” (3) Label diesel-fueled locomotives... locomotives certified for use with both LSD and ULSD. (c) Engine labels. (1) For engines not...

  12. Ivabradine: A Review of Labeled and Off-Label Uses.

    PubMed

    Oliphant, Carrie S; Owens, Ryan E; Bolorunduro, Oluwaseyi B; Jha, Sunil K

    2016-10-01

    Ivabradine is a unique medication recently approved in the USA for the treatment of select heart failure patients. It was first approved for use in several countries around the world over a decade ago as an anti-anginal agent, with subsequent approval for use in heart failure patients. Since ivabradine has selective activity blocking the I f currents in the sinus node, it can reduce heart rate without appreciable effects on blood pressure. Given this heart-rate-specific effect, it has been investigated in many off-label indications as an alternative to traditional heart-rate-reducing medications such as beta blockers and calcium channel blockers. We conducted searches of PubMed and Google Scholar for ivabradine, heart failure, HFrEF, HFpEF, angina, coronary artery disease, inappropriate sinus tachycardia, postural orthostatic hypotension, coronary computed tomography angiography and atrial fibrillation. We reviewed and included studies, case reports, and case series published between 1980 and June 2016 if they provided information relevant to the practicing clinician. In many cases, larger clinical trials are needed to solidify the benefit of ivabradine, although studies indicate benefit in most therapeutic areas explored to date. The purpose of this paper is to review the current labeled and off-label uses of ivabradine, with a focus on clinical trial data. PMID:27405864

  13. 99mTc: Labeling Chemistry and Labeled Compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alberto, R.; Abram, U.

    This chapter reviews the radiopharmaceutical chemistry of technetium related to the synthesis of perfusion agents and to the labeling of receptor-binding biomolecules. To understand the limitations of technetium chemistry imposed by future application of the complexes in nuclear medicine, an introductory section analyzes the compulsory requirements to be considered when facing the incentive of introducing a novel radiopharmaceutical into the market. Requirements from chemistry, routine application, and market are discussed. In a subsequent section, commercially available 99mTc-based radiopharmaceuticals are treated. It covers the complexes in use for imaging the most important target organs such as heart, brain, or kidney. The commercially available radiopharmaceuticals fulfill the requirements outlined earlier and are discussed with this background. In a following section, the properties and perspectives of the different generations of radiopharmaceuticals are described in a general way, covering characteristics for perfusion agents and for receptor-specific molecules. Technetium chemistry for the synthesis of perfusion agents and the different labeling approaches for target-specific biomolecules are summarized. The review comprises a general introduction to the common approaches currently in use, employing the N x S4-x , [3+1] and 2-hydrazino-nicotinicacid (HYNIC) method as well as more recent strategies such as the carbonyl and the TcN approach. Direct labeling without the need of a bifunctional chelator is briefly reviewed as well. More particularly, recent developments in the labeling of concrete targeting molecules, the second generation of radiopharmaceuticals, is then discussed and prominent examples with antibodies/peptides, neuroreceptor targeting small molecules, myocardial imaging agents, vitamins, thymidine, and complexes relevant to multidrug resistance are given. In addition, a new approach toward peptide drug development is described. The section

  14. 30 CFR 47.43 - Label alternatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Label alternatives. 47.43 Section 47.43 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING HAZARD COMMUNICATION (HazCom) Container Labels and Other Forms of Warning § 47.43 Label alternatives. The operator...

  15. 30 CFR 47.43 - Label alternatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Label alternatives. 47.43 Section 47.43 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING HAZARD COMMUNICATION (HazCom) Container Labels and Other Forms of Warning § 47.43 Label alternatives. The operator...

  16. 30 CFR 47.43 - Label alternatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Label alternatives. 47.43 Section 47.43 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING HAZARD COMMUNICATION (HazCom) Container Labels and Other Forms of Warning § 47.43 Label alternatives. The operator...

  17. 30 CFR 47.43 - Label alternatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Label alternatives. 47.43 Section 47.43 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING HAZARD COMMUNICATION (HazCom) Container Labels and Other Forms of Warning § 47.43 Label alternatives. The operator...

  18. 30 CFR 47.43 - Label alternatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Label alternatives. 47.43 Section 47.43 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING HAZARD COMMUNICATION (HazCom) Container Labels and Other Forms of Warning § 47.43 Label alternatives. The operator...

  19. China`s environmental labeling program

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, J.; Xia, Q.

    1999-09-01

    China`s environmental labeling program was created because the government wanted to improve environmental management, and some Chinese enterprises expected that labeling would help eliminate non-tariff barriers for their exports and allow them to expand their domestic market shares. The labeling program, which is managed by the Chinese government, is a voluntary third-party certification system based on labeling procedures developed in Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development countries. Thus far, China`s labeling program has increased consumer awareness of labeled products and encouraged some enterprises to adopt cleaner technologies in products that have close relationships with consumers` health. However, the effectiveness of the program is very limited because only a small number of product categories are included in the program, consumers` purchasing behavior in China has been influenced by environmental labels for only several types of products, and relatively few enterprises participate in this program. The following measures would improve the effectiveness of the labeling program: enhancing public awareness of environmental labeling and environmental protection, increasing the number of product categories involved in environmental labeling, displaying more information on labels, and integrating the labeling program into China`s efforts to promote cleaner production and to encourage compliance with ISO 14000 standards.

  20. 21 CFR 660.55 - Labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Labeling. 660.55 Section 660.55 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Anti-Human Globulin § 660.55 Labeling. In addition to the applicable labeling requirements...

  1. 27 CFR 18.55 - Label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... TREASURY ALCOHOL PRODUCTION OF VOLATILE FRUIT-FLAVOR CONCENTRATE Operations § 18.55 Label. Each container of concentrate will have affixed thereto, before transfer, a label identifying the product and... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Label. 18.55 Section...

  2. 47 CFR 15.19 - Labelling requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...), and the resulting product is not separately tested: ER09DE03.001 (2) Label text and information should... label on these products shall be permanently affixed to the product and shall be readily visible to the... label shall be located in a conspicuous location on the device and shall contain the...

  3. 21 CFR 610.60 - Container label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... following items shall appear on the label affixed to each container of a product capable of bearing a full label: (1) The proper name of the product; (2) The name, address, and license number of manufacturer; (3... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Container label. 610.60 Section 610.60 Food...

  4. 47 CFR 15.19 - Labelling requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...), and the resulting product is not separately tested: ER09DE03.001 (2) Label text and information should... label on these products shall be permanently affixed to the product and shall be readily visible to the... label shall be located in a conspicuous location on the device and shall contain the...

  5. 47 CFR 15.19 - Labelling requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...), and the resulting product is not separately tested: ER09DE03.001 (2) Label text and information should... label on these products shall be permanently affixed to the product and shall be readily visible to the... label shall be located in a conspicuous location on the device and shall contain the...

  6. 27 CFR 19.604 - Caution label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Caution label. 19.604... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Containers and Marks Marks § 19.604 Caution label... denaturer may be printed on such label, but no other extraneous matter will be permitted thereon without...

  7. 47 CFR 15.19 - Labelling requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...), and the resulting product is not separately tested: ER09DE03.001 (2) Label text and information should... label on these products shall be permanently affixed to the product and shall be readily visible to the... label shall be located in a conspicuous location on the device and shall contain the...

  8. 40 CFR 763.171 - Labeling requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... cannot be removed without defacing or destroying them. Product labels shall appear as in paragraph (d)(2... packaging, the label must be attached to the innermost layer adjacent to the product. If the innermost layer... product's innermost layer of product wrapping or packaging, or a label must be attached to the next...

  9. 40 CFR 211.105 - Label format.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Label format. 211.105 Section 211.105 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS PRODUCT NOISE LABELING General Provisions § 211.105 Label format. (a) Unless specified otherwise in other...

  10. 27 CFR 18.55 - Label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... TREASURY ALCOHOL PRODUCTION OF VOLATILE FRUIT-FLAVOR CONCENTRATE Operations § 18.55 Label. Each container of concentrate will have affixed thereto, before transfer, a label identifying the product and... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Label. 18.55 Section...

  11. 21 CFR 610.60 - Container label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... following items shall appear on the label affixed to each container of a product capable of bearing a full label: (1) The proper name of the product; (2) The name, address, and license number of manufacturer; (3... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Container label. 610.60 Section 610.60 Food...

  12. 21 CFR 606.121 - Container label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Container label. 606.121 Section 606.121 Food and... CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR BLOOD AND BLOOD COMPONENTS Finished Product Control § 606.121 Container label. (a) The container label requirements are designed to facilitate the use of a...

  13. 27 CFR 18.55 - Label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... TREASURY LIQUORS PRODUCTION OF VOLATILE FRUIT-FLAVOR CONCENTRATE Operations § 18.55 Label. Each container of concentrate will have affixed thereto, before transfer, a label identifying the product and... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Label. 18.55 Section...

  14. 21 CFR 610.60 - Container label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... following items shall appear on the label affixed to each container of a product capable of bearing a full label: (1) The proper name of the product; (2) The name, address, and license number of manufacturer; (3... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Container label. 610.60 Section 610.60 Food...

  15. 9 CFR 116.3 - Label records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    .... Each label shall be identified as to: (1) Name and product code number as it appears on the product... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Label records. 116.3 Section 116.3..., SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS RECORDS AND REPORTS § 116.3 Label...

  16. 40 CFR 211.105 - Label format.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Label format. 211.105 Section 211.105 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS PRODUCT NOISE LABELING General Provisions § 211.105 Label format. (a) Unless specified otherwise in other...

  17. 21 CFR 610.60 - Container label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... following items shall appear on the label affixed to each container of a product capable of bearing a full label: (1) The proper name of the product; (2) The name, address, and license number of manufacturer; (3... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Container label. 610.60 Section 610.60 Food...

  18. 47 CFR 15.19 - Labelling requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...), and the resulting product is not separately tested: ER09DE03.001 (2) Label text and information should... label on these products shall be permanently affixed to the product and shall be readily visible to the... label shall be located in a conspicuous location on the device and shall contain the...

  19. 40 CFR 211.105 - Label format.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Label format. 211.105 Section 211.105 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS PRODUCT NOISE LABELING General Provisions § 211.105 Label format. (a) Unless specified otherwise in other...

  20. 9 CFR 116.3 - Label records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    .... Each label shall be identified as to: (1) Name and product code number as it appears on the product... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Label records. 116.3 Section 116.3..., SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS RECORDS AND REPORTS § 116.3 Label...

  1. 9 CFR 116.3 - Label records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    .... Each label shall be identified as to: (1) Name and product code number as it appears on the product... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Label records. 116.3 Section 116.3..., SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS RECORDS AND REPORTS § 116.3 Label...

  2. 27 CFR 18.55 - Label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... TREASURY LIQUORS PRODUCTION OF VOLATILE FRUIT-FLAVOR CONCENTRATE Operations § 18.55 Label. Each container of concentrate will have affixed thereto, before transfer, a label identifying the product and... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Label. 18.55 Section...

  3. 40 CFR 211.105 - Label format.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Label format. 211.105 Section 211.105 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS PRODUCT NOISE LABELING General Provisions § 211.105 Label format. (a) Unless specified otherwise in other...

  4. 27 CFR 18.55 - Label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... TREASURY LIQUORS PRODUCTION OF VOLATILE FRUIT-FLAVOR CONCENTRATE Operations § 18.55 Label. Each container of concentrate will have affixed thereto, before transfer, a label identifying the product and... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Label. 18.55 Section...

  5. 21 CFR 610.60 - Container label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... following items shall appear on the label affixed to each container of a product capable of bearing a full label: (1) The proper name of the product; (2) The name, address, and license number of manufacturer; (3... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Container label. 610.60 Section 610.60 Food...

  6. 9 CFR 116.3 - Label records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    .... Each label shall be identified as to: (1) Name and product code number as it appears on the product... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Label records. 116.3 Section 116.3..., SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS RECORDS AND REPORTS § 116.3 Label...

  7. 40 CFR 763.171 - Labeling requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... cannot be removed without defacing or destroying them. Product labels shall appear as in paragraph (d)(2... packaging, the label must be attached to the innermost layer adjacent to the product. If the innermost layer... product's innermost layer of product wrapping or packaging, or a label must be attached to the next...

  8. 40 CFR 211.105 - Label format.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Label format. 211.105 Section 211.105 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS PRODUCT NOISE LABELING General Provisions § 211.105 Label format. (a) Unless specified otherwise in other...

  9. 21 CFR 820.120 - Device labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Device labeling. 820.120 Section 820.120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES QUALITY SYSTEM REGULATION Labeling and Packaging Control § 820.120 Device labeling. Each...

  10. 21 CFR 820.120 - Device labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Device labeling. 820.120 Section 820.120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES QUALITY SYSTEM REGULATION Labeling and Packaging Control § 820.120 Device labeling. Each...

  11. 21 CFR 1271.250 - Labeling controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Labeling controls. 1271.250 Section 1271.250 Food..., AND CELLULAR AND TISSUE-BASED PRODUCTS Current Good Tissue Practice § 1271.250 Labeling controls. (a) General. You must establish and maintain procedures to control the labeling of HCT/Ps. You must...

  12. 21 CFR 1271.250 - Labeling controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Labeling controls. 1271.250 Section 1271.250 Food..., AND CELLULAR AND TISSUE-BASED PRODUCTS Current Good Tissue Practice § 1271.250 Labeling controls. (a) General. You must establish and maintain procedures to control the labeling of HCT/Ps. You must...

  13. 21 CFR 660.35 - Labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... matrix. (g) The package label or package insert shall state the blood group antigens that have been... STANDARDS FOR DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Reagent Red Blood Cells § 660.35 Labeling. In... container label of Group O cells shall state: “FOR USE IN DETECTION OF UNEXPECTED ANTIBODIES” or “FOR USE...

  14. 21 CFR 660.35 - Labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... STANDARDS FOR DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Reagent Red Blood Cells § 660.35 Labeling. In... or end of the label, oustide of the main panel. (2) If washing the cells is required by the manufacturer, the container label shall include appropriate instructions; if the cells should not be...

  15. 21 CFR 660.35 - Labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... STANDARDS FOR DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Reagent Red Blood Cells § 660.35 Labeling. In... or end of the label, oustide of the main panel. (2) If washing the cells is required by the manufacturer, the container label shall include appropriate instructions; if the cells should not be...

  16. 21 CFR 660.35 - Labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... STANDARDS FOR DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Reagent Red Blood Cells § 660.35 Labeling. In... or end of the label, oustide of the main panel. (2) If washing the cells is required by the manufacturer, the container label shall include appropriate instructions; if the cells should not be...

  17. 21 CFR 660.28 - Labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... panel. Blood grouping reagent Color of label paper Anti-A Blue. Anti-B Yellow. Slide and rapid tube test... STANDARDS FOR DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Blood Grouping Reagent § 660.28 Labeling. In... label—(1) Color coding. The final container label of all Blood Grouping Reagents shall be...

  18. 21 CFR 660.28 - Labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... panel. Blood grouping reagent Color of label paper Anti-A Blue. Anti-B Yellow. Slide and rapid tube test... STANDARDS FOR DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Blood Grouping Reagent § 660.28 Labeling. In... label—(1) Color coding. The final container label of all Blood Grouping Reagents shall be...

  19. 21 CFR 660.28 - Labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... panel. Blood grouping reagent Color of label paper Anti-A Blue. Anti-B Yellow. Slide and rapid tube test... STANDARDS FOR DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Blood Grouping Reagent § 660.28 Labeling. In... label—(1) Color coding. The final container label of all Blood Grouping Reagents shall be...

  20. 30 CFR 47.42 - Label contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Label contents. 47.42 Section 47.42 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING HAZARD COMMUNICATION (HazCom) Container Labels and Other Forms of Warning § 47.42 Label contents. When an operator...

  1. 30 CFR 47.42 - Label contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Label contents. 47.42 Section 47.42 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING HAZARD COMMUNICATION (HazCom) Container Labels and Other Forms of Warning § 47.42 Label contents. When an operator...

  2. 30 CFR 47.42 - Label contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Label contents. 47.42 Section 47.42 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING HAZARD COMMUNICATION (HazCom) Container Labels and Other Forms of Warning § 47.42 Label contents. When an operator...

  3. 30 CFR 47.42 - Label contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Label contents. 47.42 Section 47.42 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING HAZARD COMMUNICATION (HazCom) Container Labels and Other Forms of Warning § 47.42 Label contents. When an operator...

  4. 30 CFR 47.42 - Label contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Label contents. 47.42 Section 47.42 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING HAZARD COMMUNICATION (HazCom) Container Labels and Other Forms of Warning § 47.42 Label contents. When an operator...

  5. Learning Words from Labeling and Directive Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callanan, Maureen A.; Akhtar, Nameera; Sussman, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Despite the common intuition that labeling may be the best way to teach a new word to a child, systematic testing is needed of the prediction that children learn words better from labeling utterances than from directive utterances. Two experiments compared toddlers' label learning in the context of hearing words used in directive versus labeling…

  6. 10 CFR 431.31 - Labeling requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Labeling requirements. 431.31 Section 431.31 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Electric Motors Labeling § 431.31 Labeling requirements. (a) Electric motor nameplate—(1)...

  7. 10 CFR 431.31 - Labeling requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Labeling requirements. 431.31 Section 431.31 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Electric Motors Labeling § 431.31 Labeling requirements. (a) Electric motor nameplate—(1)...

  8. 10 CFR 431.31 - Labeling requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Labeling requirements. 431.31 Section 431.31 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Electric Motors Labeling § 431.31 Labeling requirements. (a) Electric motor nameplate—(1)...

  9. 10 CFR 431.31 - Labeling requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Labeling requirements. 431.31 Section 431.31 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Electric Motors Labeling § 431.31 Labeling requirements. (a) Electric motor nameplate—(1)...

  10. 10 CFR 431.31 - Labeling requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Labeling requirements. 431.31 Section 431.31 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Electric Motors Labeling § 431.31 Labeling requirements. (a) Electric motor nameplate—(1)...

  11. 21 CFR 1271.250 - Labeling controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Labeling controls. 1271.250 Section 1271.250 Food..., AND CELLULAR AND TISSUE-BASED PRODUCTS Current Good Tissue Practice § 1271.250 Labeling controls. (a) General. You must establish and maintain procedures to control the labeling of HCT/Ps. You must...

  12. 21 CFR 1271.250 - Labeling controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Labeling controls. 1271.250 Section 1271.250 Food..., AND CELLULAR AND TISSUE-BASED PRODUCTS Current Good Tissue Practice § 1271.250 Labeling controls. (a) General. You must establish and maintain procedures to control the labeling of HCT/Ps. You must...

  13. 21 CFR 820.120 - Device labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Device labeling. 820.120 Section 820.120 Food and... QUALITY SYSTEM REGULATION Labeling and Packaging Control § 820.120 Device labeling. Each manufacturer..., handling instructions, and any additional processing instructions. The release, including the date...

  14. 21 CFR 820.120 - Device labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Device labeling. 820.120 Section 820.120 Food and... QUALITY SYSTEM REGULATION Labeling and Packaging Control § 820.120 Device labeling. Each manufacturer..., handling instructions, and any additional processing instructions. The release, including the date...

  15. 40 CFR 600.301 - Labeling requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Labeling § 600.301 Labeling... each dealer shall maintain or cause to be maintained on each automobile: (1) A general fuel economy... vehicle for which a specific label is requested which has a combined FTP/HFET-based fuel economy value,...

  16. 21 CFR 820.120 - Device labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Device labeling. 820.120 Section 820.120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES QUALITY SYSTEM REGULATION Labeling and Packaging Control § 820.120 Device labeling. Each...

  17. 21 CFR 225.80 - Labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR MEDICATED FEEDS Packaging and Labeling § 225.80 Labeling. (a... adhered to, will assure that the article is safe and effective for its intended purposes. (b)(1) Labels... medicated feed and includes adequate information for the safe and effective use of the medicated feed....

  18. Fluorine-18 labeling of proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Kilbourn, M.R.; Dence, C.S.; Welch, M.J.; Mathias, C.J.

    1987-04-01

    Two fluorine-18-labeled reagents, methyl 3-(/sup 18/F)fluoro-5-nitrobenzimidate and 4-(/sup 18/F)fluorophenacyl bromide, have been prepared for covalent attachment of fluorine-18 to proteins. Both reagents can be prepared in moderate yields (30-50%, EOB) in synthesis times of 50-70 min. Reaction of these reagents with proteins (human serum albumin, human fibrinogen, and human immunoglobulin A) is pH independent, protein concentration dependent, and takes 5-60 min at mild pH (8.0) and temperature (25-37 degrees C), in yields up to 95% (corrected). The /sup 18/F-labeled proteins are purified by size exclusion chromatography.

  19. Automated labeling in document images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jongwoo; Le, Daniel X.; Thoma, George R.

    2000-12-01

    The National Library of Medicine (NLM) is developing an automated system to produce bibliographic records for its MEDLINER database. This system, named Medical Article Record System (MARS), employs document image analysis and understanding techniques and optical character recognition (OCR). This paper describes a key module in MARS called the Automated Labeling (AL) module, which labels all zones of interest (title, author, affiliation, and abstract) automatically. The AL algorithm is based on 120 rules that are derived from an analysis of journal page layouts and features extracted from OCR output. Experiments carried out on more than 11,000 articles in over 1,000 biomedical journals show the accuracy of this rule-based algorithm to exceed 96%.

  20. Isotope Labeling in Mammalian Cells

    PubMed Central

    Dutta, Arpana; Saxena, Krishna; Klein-Seetharaman, Judith

    2011-01-01

    Isotope labeling of proteins represents an important and often required tool for the application of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy to investigate the structure and dynamics of proteins. Mammalian expression systems have conventionally been considered to be too weak and inefficient for protein expression. However, recent advances have significantly improved the expression levels of these systems. Here, we provide an overview of some of the recent developments in expression strategies for mammalian expression systems in view of NMR investigations. PMID:22167668

  1. 78 FR 24211 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Safety Considerations for Container Labels and Carton Labeling...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-24

    ... closure design (December 13, 2012, 77 FR 74196), and the third guidance will focus on minimizing risks... Container Labels and Carton Labeling Design To Minimize Medication Errors; Availability AGENCY: Food and... Labels and Carton Labeling Design to Minimize Medication Errors.'' The draft guidance focuses on...

  2. 40 CFR 168.65 - Pesticide export label and labeling requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... policy. (3) No statements which appear on any of the product labels or labeling add new uses or claims or... paragraph (b) of this section which are not met by the immediate product labels. Supplemental labeling will... CFR 180.910, 180.920, 180.930, and 180.950, and the dye must not be a List 1 inert. (List 1 inerts...

  3. 40 CFR 168.65 - Pesticide export label and labeling requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... policy. (3) No statements which appear on any of the product labels or labeling add new uses or claims or... paragraph (b) of this section which are not met by the immediate product labels. Supplemental labeling will... CFR 180.910, 180.920, 180.930, and 180.950, and the dye must not be a List 1 inert. (List 1 inerts...

  4. 27 CFR 19.642 - Statements required on labels under an exemption from label approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... meaning given, and be stated in the manner provided in 27 CFR part 5. (Sec. 201, Pub. L. 85-859, 72 Stat... labels under an exemption from label approval. 19.642 Section 19.642 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... PLANTS Liquor Bottle and Label Requirements Bottle Label Requirements § 19.642 Statements required...

  5. Stigma of a label: educational expectations for high school students labeled with learning disabilities.

    PubMed

    Shifrer, Dara

    2013-01-01

    Poorer outcomes for youth labeled with learning disabilities (LDs) are often attributed to the student's own deficiencies or cumulative disadvantage; but the more troubling possibility is that special education placement limits rather than expands these students' opportunities. Labeling theory partially attributes the poorer outcomes of labeled persons to stigma related to labels. This study uses data on approximately 11,740 adolescents and their schools from the Education Longitudinal Survey of 2002 to determine if stigma influences teachers' and parents' educational expectations for students labeled with LDs and labeled adolescents' expectations for themselves. Supporting the predictions of labeling theory, teachers and parents are more likely to perceive disabilities in, and hold lower educational expectations for labeled adolescents than for similarly achieving and behaving adolescents not labeled with disabilities. The negative effect of being labeled with LDs on adolescents' educational expectations is partially mechanized through parents' and particularly teachers' lower expectations. PMID:24311756

  6. Beta emitters rhenium-188 and lutetium-177 are equally effective in radioimmunotherapy of HPV-positive experimental cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Phaeton, Rebecca; Jiang, Zewei; Revskaya, Ekaterina; Fisher, Darrell R; Goldberg, Gary L; Dadachova, Ekaterina

    2016-01-01

    Cervical cancer caused by the infection with the human papillomavirus (HPV) remains the fourth leading killer of women worldwide. Therefore, more efficacious treatments are needed. We are developing radioimmunotherapy (RIT) of HPV-positive cervical cancers by targeting E6 and E7 viral oncoproteins expressed by the cancer cells with the radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). To investigate the influence of different radionuclides on the RIT efficacy-we performed RIT of experimental cervical cancer with Rhenium-188 ((188) Re) and Lutetium-177 ((177) Lu)-labeled mAb C1P5 to E6. The biodistribution of (188) Re- and (177) Lu-labeled C1P5 was performed in nude female mice bearing CasKi cervical cancer xenografts and the radiation dosimetry calculations for the tumors and organs were carried out. For RIT the mice were treated with 7.4 MBq of either (188) Re-C1P5 or (177) Lu-C1P5 or left untreated, and observed for their tumor size for 28 days. The levels of (188) Re- and (177) Lu-C1P5 mAbs-induced double-strand breaks in CasKi tumors were compared on days 5 and 10 post treatment by staining with anti-gamma H2AX antibody. The radiation doses to the heart and lungs were similar for both (177) Lu-C1P5 and (188) Re-C1P5. The dose to the liver was five times higher for (177) Lu-C1P5. The doses to the tumor were 259 and 181 cGy for (177) Lu-C1P5 and (188) Re-C1P5, respectively. RIT with either (177) Lu-C1P5 or (188) Re-C1P5 was equally effective in inhibiting tumor growth when each was compared to the untreated controls (P = 0.001). On day 5 there was a pronounced staining for gamma H2AX foci in (177) Lu-C1P5 group only and on day 10 it was observed in both (177) Lu-C1P5 and (188) Re-C1P5 groups. (188) Re- and (177) Lu-labeled mAbs were equally effective in arresting the growth of CasKi cervical tumors. Thus, both of these radionuclides are candidates for the clinical trials of this approach in patients with advanced, recurrent or metastatic cervical cancer. PMID:26625938

  7. Use of Symbols in Labeling. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2016-06-15

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or the Agency) is issuing this final rule revising its medical device and certain biological product labeling regulations to explicitly allow for the optional inclusion of graphical representations of information, or symbols, in labeling (including labels) without adjacent explanatory text (referred to in this document as "stand-alone symbols") if certain requirements are met. The final rule also specifies that the use of symbols, accompanied by adjacent explanatory text continues to be permitted. FDA is also revising its prescription device labeling regulations to allow the use of the symbol statement "Rx only" or "[rx] only" in the labeling for prescription devices. PMID:27311137

  8. Dengue virus growth, purification, and fluorescent labeling.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Summer; Chan, Kuan Rong; Tan, Hwee Cheng; Ooi, Eng Eong

    2014-01-01

    The early events of the dengue virus life cycle involve virus binding, internalization, trafficking, and fusion. Fluorescently labeled viruses can be used to visualize these early processes. As dengue virus has 180 identical copies of the envelope protein attached to the membrane surface and is surrounded by a lipid membrane, amine-reactive (Alexa Fluor) or lipophilic (DiD) dyes can be used for virus labeling. These dyes are highly photostable and are ideal for studies involving cellular uptake and endosomal transport. To improve virus labeling efficiency and minimize the nonspecific labeling of nonviral proteins, virus concentration and purification precede fluorescent labeling of dengue viruses. Besides using these viruses for single-particle tracking, DiD-labeled viruses can also be used to distinguish serotype-specific from cross-neutralizing antibodies. Here the details of virus concentration, purification, virus labeling, applications, and hints of troubleshooting are described. PMID:24696327

  9. Label free redox capacitive biosensing.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Flávio C Bedatty; Góes, Márcio S; Davis, Jason J; Bueno, Paulo R

    2013-12-15

    A surface confined redox group contributes to an interfacial charging (quantifiable by redox capacitance) that can be sensitively probed by impedance derived capacitance spectroscopy. In generating mixed molecular films comprising such redox groups, together with specific recognition elements (here antibodies), this charging signal is able to sensitively transduce the recognition and binding of specific analytes. This novel transduction method, exemplified here with C-reactive protein, an important biomarker of cardiac status and general trauma, is equally applicable to any suitably prepared interfacial combination of redox reporter and receptor. The assays are label free, ultrasensitive, highly specific and accompanied by a good linear range. PMID:23896524

  10. Tritium labeling of detonation nanodiamonds.

    PubMed

    Girard, Hugues A; El-Kharbachi, Abdelouahab; Garcia-Argote, Sébastien; Petit, Tristan; Bergonzo, Philippe; Rousseau, Bernard; Arnault, Jean-Charles

    2014-03-18

    For the first time, the radioactive labeling of detonation nanodiamonds was efficiently achieved using a tritium microwave plasma. According to our measurements, the total radioactivity reaches 9120 ± 120 μCi mg(-1), with 93% of (3)H atoms tightly bonded to the surface and up to 7% embedded into the diamond core. Such (3)H doping will ensure highly stable radiolabeled nanodiamonds, on which surface functionalization is still allowed. This breakthrough opens the way to biodistribution and pharmacokinetics studies of nanodiamonds, while this approach can be scalable to easily treat bulk quantities of nanodiamonds at low cost. PMID:24492594