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Sample records for 18f-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission

  1. [Basic principles of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography].

    PubMed

    Standke, R

    2002-01-01

    Positron emission tomography uses photons to receive regional information about dynamic, physiologic, and biochemical processes in the living body. A positron decay is measured indirectly by the simultaneous registration of both gamma rays created by the annihilation. The event is counted, if two directly opposite located detectors register gamma rays in coincidence. Unfortunately the detectors of a positron emission tomography system do not register only true coincident events. There are also scattered and random coincidences. Different types of positron tomographs are presented and scintillation crystals, which are in use for positron emission tomography are discussed. The 2D- and 3D-acquisition methods are described as well as preprocessing methods, such as correction for attenuation, scatter and dead time. For quantification the relative parameter standard uptake value (SUV) is explained. Finally hybrid systems, such as combined positron emission tomography/computed tomography scanners and the use of computed tomography data for attenuation correction are introduced. PMID:12506765

  2. Predicting Outcome in Patients with Rhabdomyosarcoma: Role of [{sup 18}F]Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Casey, Dana L.; Wexler, Leonard H.; Fox, Josef J.; Dharmarajan, Kavita V.; Schoder, Heiko; Price, Alison N.; Wolden, Suzanne L.

    2014-12-01

    Purpose: To evaluate whether [{sup 18}F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) response of the primary tumor after induction chemotherapy predicts outcomes in rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS). Methods and Materials: After excluding those with initial tumor resection, 107 patients who underwent FDG-PET after induction chemotherapy at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center from 2002 to 2013 were reviewed. Local control (LC), progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS) were calculated according to FDG-PET response and maximum standardized uptake value (SUV) at baseline (PET1/SUV1), after induction chemotherapy (PET2/SUV2), and after local therapy (PET3/SUV3). Receiver operator characteristic curves were used to determine the optimal cutoff for dichotomization of SUV1 and SUV2 values. Results: The SUV1 (<9.5 vs ≥9.5) was predictive of PFS (P=.02) and OS (P=.02), but not LC. After 12 weeks (median) of induction chemotherapy, 45 patients had negative PET2 scans and 62 had positive scans: 3-year PFS was 72% versus 44%, respectively (P=.01). The SUV2 (<1.5 vs ≥1.5) was similarly predictive of PFS (P=.005) and was associated with LC (P=.02) and OS (P=.03). A positive PET3 scan was predictive of worse PFS (P=.0009), LC (P=.05), and OS (P=.03). Conclusions: [{sup 18}F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography is an early indicator of outcomes in patients with RMS. Future prospective trials may incorporate FDG-PET response data for risk-adapted therapy and early assessment of new treatment regimens.

  3. 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography/CT Scanning in Diagnosing Vascular Prosthetic Graft Infection

    PubMed Central

    Saleem, Ben R.; Pol, Robert A.; Slart, Riemer H. J. A.; Reijnen, Michel M. P. J.; Zeebregts, Clark J.

    2014-01-01

    Vascular prosthetic graft infection (VPGI) is a severe complication after vascular surgery. CT-scan is considered the diagnostic tool of choice in advanced VPGI. The incidence of a false-negative result using CT is relatively high, especially in the presence of low-grade infections. 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (18F-FDG PET) scanning has been suggested as an alternative for the diagnosis and assessment of infectious processes. Hybrid 18F-FDG PET/CT has established the role of 18F-FDG PET for the assessment of suspected VPGI, providing accurate anatomic localization of the site of infection. However, there are no clear guidelines for the interpretation of the uptake patterns of 18F-FDG as clinical tool for VPGI. Based on the available literature it is suggested that a linear, diffuse, and homogeneous uptake should not be regarded as an infection whereas focal or heterogeneous uptake with a projection over the vessel on CT is highly suggestive of infection. Nevertheless, 18F-FDG PET and 18F-FDG PET/CT can play an important role in the detection of VPGI and monitoring response to treatment. However an accurate uptake and pattern recognition is warranted and cut-off uptake values and patterns need to be standardized before considering the technique to be the new standard. PMID:25210712

  4. The Role of 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography in Thyroid Neoplasms

    PubMed Central

    Law, Tsz Ting

    2011-01-01

    18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) has established itself as an important imaging modality in many oncological and nononcological specialties and, as a consequence, it is increasingly being used in clinical practice. Since the first report of FDG being taken up by metastatic differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) cells >20 years ago, various groups of investigators have explored the potential role of FDG-PET scanning in patients with benign and malignant thyroid neoplasms. With the increasing demand for FDG-PET scanning, clinicians are faced with the challenge of managing an increasing number of FDG-PET–detected thyroid incidentalomas because their significance remains unclear. The aims of this review are to address some of these issues, specifically, the clinical significance of FDG-PET–detected thyroid incidentalomas, the ability of FDG-PET to characterize thyroid nodules, especially those with indeterminate fine needle aspiration cytology results, and the role of FDG-PET in patients with confirmed primary DTC and with suspected recurrent DTC, by reviewing the current literature. PMID:21378078

  5. Detecting Metastatic Bladder Cancer Using 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron-Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Öztürk, Hakan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to retrospectively investigate the contribution of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography (18F-FDG-PET/CT) to detection of metastatic bladder cancer. Materials and Methods The present study included 79 patients (69 men and 10 women) undergoing 18F-FDG-PET/CT upon suspicion of metastatic bladder cancer between July 2007 and April 2013. The mean age was 66.1 years with a standard deviation of 10.7 years (range, 21 to 85 years). Patients were required to fast for 6 hours prior to scanning, and whole-body PET scanning from the skull base to the upper thighs was performed approximately 1 hour after intravenous injection of 555 MBq of 18F-FDG. Whole body CT scanning was performed in the cranio-caudal direction. FDG-PET images were reconstructed using CT data for attenuation correction. Suspicious recurrent or metastatic lesions were confirmed by histopathology or clinical follow-up. Results The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy of 18F-FDG-PET/CT were 89%, 78%, 90%, 75%, and 86%, respectively. Conclusion 18F-FDG-PET/CT can detect metastases with high sensitivity and positive predictive values in patients with metastatic bladder carcinoma. PMID:25687863

  6. 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography, aging, and apolipoprotein E genotype in cognitively normal persons

    PubMed Central

    Knopman, David S.; Jack, Clifford R.; Wiste, Heather J.; Lundt, Emily S.; Weigand, Stephen D.; Vemuri, Prashanthi; Lowe, Val J.; Kantarci, Kejal; Gunter, Jeffrey L.; Senjem, Matthew L.; Mielke, Michelle M.; Roberts, Rosebud O.; Boeve, Bradley F.; Petersen, Ronald C.

    2014-01-01

    Our objective was to examine associations between glucose metabolism, as measured by 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG PET), and age and to evaluate the impact of carriage of an apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 allele on glucose metabolism and on the associations between glucose metabolism and age. We studied 806 cognitively normal (CN) and 70 amyloid-imaging-positive cognitively impaired participants (35 with mild cognitive impairment and 35 with Alzheimer’s disease [AD] dementia) from the Mayo Clinic Study of Aging, Mayo Alzheimer’s Disease Research Center and an ancillary study who had undergone structural MRI, FDG PET, and 11C-Pittsburgh compound B (PiB) PET. Using partial volume corrected and uncorrected FDG PET glucose uptake ratios, we evaluated associations of regional FDG ratios with age and carriage of an APOE ε4 allele in CN participants between the ages of 30 and 95 years, and compared those findings with the cognitively impaired participants. In region-of-interest (ROI) analyses, we found modest but statistically significant declines in FDG ratio in most cortical and subcortical regions as a function of age. We also found a main effect of APOE ε4 genotype on FDG ratio, with greater uptake in ε4 noncarriers compared with carriers but only in the posterior cingulate and/or precuneus, lateral parietal, and AD-signature meta-ROI. The latter consisted of voxels from posterior cingulate and/or precuneus, lateral parietal, and inferior temporal. In age- and sex-matched CN participants the magnitude of the difference in partial volume corrected FDG ratio in the AD-signature meta-ROI for APOE ε4 carriers compared with noncarriers was about 4 times smaller than the magnitude of the difference between age- and sex-matched elderly APOE ε4 carrier CN compared with AD dementia participants. In an analysis in participants older than 70 years (31.3% of whom had elevated PiB), there was no interaction between PiB status and APOE ε4 genotype

  7. Clinical usefulness of post-operative 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography in canine hemangiosarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Gahyun; Kwon, Seong Young; Son, Kyuyeol; Park, Seungjo; Lee, Ju-hwan; Cho, Kyoung-Oh; Min, Jung-Joon

    2016-01-01

    This report describes the usefulness of positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) for evaluating recurrent or residual tumors following surgery. CT and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose PET-CT were pre- and post-operatively applied to multiple masses in a dog with hemangiosarcoma. The distinction between the left subcutaneous mass and the peritoneum was clarified on pre-operative CT examination, and malignancy was suspected based on PET-CT. A recurrent or residual tumor in the left subcutaneous region was suspected on post-operative PET-CT, and confirmed through histopathologic examination. PMID:26645332

  8. 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography/Magnetic Resonance in Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Giraudo, Chiara; Raderer, Markus; Karanikas, Georgios; Weber, Michael; Kiesewetter, Barbara; Dolak, Werner; Simonitsch-Klupp, Ingrid; Mayerhoefer, Marius E.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to compare 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/magnetic resonance (MR) (with and without diffusion-weighted imaging [DWI]) to 18F-FDG PET/computed tomography (CT), with regard to the assessment of nodal and extranodal involvement, in patients with Hodgkin lymphoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma, without restriction to FDG-avid subytpes. Materials and Methods Patients with histologically proven lymphoma were enrolled in this prospective, institutional review board–approved study. After a single 18F-FDG injection, patients consecutively underwent 18F-FDG PET⁄CT and 18F-FDG PET/MR on the same day for staging or restaging. Three sets of images were analyzed separately: 18F-FDG PET/CT, 18F-FDG PET/MR without DWI, and 18F-FDG PET/MR with DWI. Region-based agreement and examination-based sensitivity and specificity were calculated for 18F-FDG PET/CT, 18F-FDG PET/MR without DWI, and 18F-FDG PET/MR DWI. Maximum and mean standardized uptake values (SUVmax, SUVmean) on 18F-FDG PET/CT and 18F-FDG PET/MR were compared and correlated with minimum and mean apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCmin, ADCmean). Results Thirty-four patients with a total of 40 examinations were included. Examination-based sensitivities for 18F-FDG PET/CT, 18F-FDG PET/MR, and 18F-FDG PET/MR DWI were 82.1%, 85.7%, and 100%, respectively; specificities were 100% for all 3 techniques; and accuracies were 87.5%, 90%, and 100%, respectively. 18F-FDG PET/CT was false negative in 5 of 40 examinations (all with mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma), and 18F-FDG PET/MR (without DWI) was false negative in 4 of 40 examinations. Region-based percentages of agreement were 99% (κ, 0.95) between 18F-FDG PET/MR DWI and 18F-FDG PET/CT, 99.2% (κ, 0.96) between 18F-FDG PET/MR and 18F-FDG PET/CT, and 99.4% (κ, 0.97) between 18F-FDG PET/MR DWI and 18F-FDG PET/MR. There was a strong correlation between 18F-FDG PET/CT and 18F-FDG PET/MR for SUVmax (r = 0

  9. Realizing the potential of positron emission tomography with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose to improve the treatment of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Foster, Norman L; Wang, Angela Y; Tasdizen, Tolga; Fletcher, P Thomas; Hoffman, John M; Koeppe, Robert A

    2008-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG-PET) thus far rarely has been used to advance the development of new treatments for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Now that FDG-PET with standard acquisition protocols for dementia is widely available, change in cerebral glucose metabolism is a feasible outcome variable for clinical drug trials. Individual analysis of FDG-PET results also might prove valuable. FDG-PET can detect metabolic changes very early in the course of AD and identify subjects for earlier treatment. FDG-PET reliably distinguishes AD from frontotemporal dementia so that only those most likely to benefit are enrolled in trials. Finally, objectively identifying phenotypic variations of AD with FDG-PET might have pathogenic and prognostic implications that can be used for personalized treatment approaches. The judicious use of FDG-PET is needed to accelerate the evaluation of promising new drugs and more rationally target treatments for dementing diseases. PMID:18631997

  10. Surgical strategy for aortic prosthetic graft infection with (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Yamanaka, Katsuhiro; Matsueda, Takashi; Miyahara, Shunsuke; Nomura, Yoshikatsu; Sakamoto, Toshihito; Morimoto, Naoto; Inoue, Takeshi; Matsumori, Masamichi; Okada, Kenji; Okita, Yutaka

    2016-09-01

    A 30-year-old man with Marfan syndrome who underwent Crawford type II extension aneurysm repair about 9 years ago was referred to our hospital with persistent fever. Computed tomography (CT) showed air around the mid-descending aortic prosthetic graft. Because the air did not disappear in spite of intravenous antibiotics, (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) was performed. FDG-PET/CT revealed four high-uptake lesions. After dissecting the aortic graft particularly focusing on the high-uptake lesions, this patient underwent in situ graft re-replacement of descending aortic graft with a rifampicin-bonded gelatin-impregnated Dacron graft and omentopexy. The patient remains well without recurrent infection at 3 months after surgery. PMID:25563707

  11. Forced diuresis 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/contrast enhanced in detection of carcinoma of urinary bladder diverticulum

    PubMed Central

    Soundararajan, Ramya; Singh, Harmandeep; Arora, Saurabh; Nayak, Brusabhanu; Shamim, Shamim Ahmed; Bal, Chandrasekhar; Kumar, Rakesh

    2015-01-01

    Urinary bladder diverticular carcinomas are uncommon with a lesser incidence of 0.8–10% and its diagnosis still remains a challenge. Cystoscopy is the most reliable method, but evaluating diverticulum with narrow orifices is difficult. Before the initiation of appropriate treatment, proper detection of bladder diverticular carcinoma and its locoregional and distant sites of involvement is necessary. Here, we present a case of 48-year-old male with urinary bladder diverticular carcinoma detected by forced diuretic 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computerized tomography (18F-FDG PET/CT). This case also highlights the significance of forced diuretic 18F-FDG PET/CT in the detection, staging, and response evaluation of bladder diverticular carcinoma. PMID:25589819

  12. Regional cerebral metabolic alterations in dementia of the Alzheimer type: positron emission tomography with (/sup 18/F)fluorodeoxyglucose

    SciTech Connect

    Friedland, R.P.; Budinger, T.F.; Ganz, E.; Yano, Y.; Mathis, C.A.; Koss, B.; Ober, B.A.; Huesman, R.H.; Derenzo, S.E.

    1983-08-01

    Alzheimer disease is the most common cause of dementia in adults. Despite recent advances in our understanding of its anatomy and chemistry, we remain largely ignorant of its pathogenesis, physiology, diagnosis, and treatment. Dynamic positron emission tomography using (/sup 18/F)fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) was performed on the Donner 280-crystal ring in 10 subjects with dementia of the Alzheimer type and six healthy age-matched controls. Ratios comparing mean counts per resolution element in frontal, temporoparietal, and entire cortex regions in brain sections 10 mm thick obtained 40-70 min following FDG injection showed relatively less FDG uptake in the temporoparietal cortex bilaterally in all the Alzheimer subjects (p less than 0.01). Left-right alterations were less prominent than the anteroposterior changes. This diminished uptake was due to lowered rates of FDG use and suggests that the metabolic effects of Alzheimer disease are most concentrated in the temporoparietal cortex. Positron emission tomography is a most powerful tool for the noninvasive in vivo assessment of cerebral pathophysiology in dementia.

  13. Gaussian Mixture Models and Model Selection for [18F] Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography Classification in Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Li, Rui; Perneczky, Robert; Yakushev, Igor; Förster, Stefan; Kurz, Alexander; Drzezga, Alexander; Kramer, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    We present a method to discover discriminative brain metabolism patterns in [18F] fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (PET) scans, facilitating the clinical diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease. In the work, the term "pattern" stands for a certain brain region that characterizes a target group of patients and can be used for a classification as well as interpretation purposes. Thus, it can be understood as a so-called "region of interest (ROI)". In the literature, an ROI is often found by a given brain atlas that defines a number of brain regions, which corresponds to an anatomical approach. The present work introduces a semi-data-driven approach that is based on learning the characteristics of the given data, given some prior anatomical knowledge. A Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM) and model selection are combined to return a clustering of voxels that may serve for the definition of ROIs. Experiments on both an in-house dataset and data of the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) suggest that the proposed approach arrives at a better diagnosis than a merely anatomical approach or conventional statistical hypothesis testing. PMID:25919662

  14. [(18)F]-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography of the cat brain: A feasibility study to investigate osteoarthritis-associated pain.

    PubMed

    Guillot, Martin; Chartrand, Gabriel; Chav, Ramnada; Rousseau, Jacques; Beaudoin, Jean-François; Martel-Pelletier, Johanne; Pelletier, Jean-Pierre; Lecomte, Roger; de Guise, Jacques A; Troncy, Eric

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this pilot study was to investigate central nervous system (CNS) changes related to osteoarthritis (OA)-associated chronic pain in cats using [(18)F]-fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) imaging. The brains of five normal, healthy (non-OA) cats and seven cats with pain associated with naturally occurring OA were imaged using (18)FDG-PET during a standardized mild anesthesia protocol. The PET images were co-registered over a magnetic resonance image of a cat brain segmented into several regions of interest. Brain metabolism was assessed in these regions using standardized uptake values. The brain metabolism in the secondary somatosensory cortex, thalamus and periaqueductal gray matter was increased significantly (P ≤ 0.005) in OA cats compared with non-OA cats. This study indicates that (18)FDG-PET brain imaging in cats is feasible to investigate CNS changes related to chronic pain. The results also suggest that OA is associated with sustained nociceptive inputs and increased activity of the descending modulatory pathways. PMID:25951988

  15. Irbesartan attenuates atherosclerosis in Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic rabbits: noninvasive imaging of inflammation by 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yan; Fukao, Keita; Zhao, Songji; Watanabe, Ayahisa; Hamada, Tadateru; Yamasaki, Kazuaki; Shimizu, Yoichi; Kubo, Naoki; Ukon, Naoyuki; Nakano, Toru; Tamaki, Nagara; Kuge, Yuji

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the usefulness of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (18F-FDG PET) in evaluating the antiatherogenic effects of irbesartan, an angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker. Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic rabbits were divided into the irbesartan-treated group (75 mg/kg/d; n  =  14) and the control group (n  =  14). After a 9-month treatment, rabbits underwent 18F-FDG PET. Using the aortic lesions, autoradiography and histologic examinations were performed. PET imaging clearly visualized the thoracic lesions of control rabbits and showed a significant decrease in the 18F-FDG uptake level of irbesartan-treated rabbits (78.8% of controls; p < .05). Irbesartan treatment significantly reduced the plaque size (43.1% of controls) and intraplaque macrophage infiltration level (48.1% of controls). The 18F-FDG uptake level in plaques positively correlated with the plaque size (r  =  .65, p < .05) and macrophage infiltration level (r  =  .57, p < .05). Noninvasive imaging by 18F-FDG PET is useful for evaluating the therapeutic effects of irbesartan and reflects inflammation, a key factor involved in the therapeutic effects. PMID:25812568

  16. Gaussian Mixture Models and Model Selection for [18F] Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography Classification in Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Yakushev, Igor; Förster, Stefan; Kurz, Alexander; Drzezga, Alexander; Kramer, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    We present a method to discover discriminative brain metabolism patterns in [18F] fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (PET) scans, facilitating the clinical diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease. In the work, the term “pattern” stands for a certain brain region that characterizes a target group of patients and can be used for a classification as well as interpretation purposes. Thus, it can be understood as a so-called “region of interest (ROI)”. In the literature, an ROI is often found by a given brain atlas that defines a number of brain regions, which corresponds to an anatomical approach. The present work introduces a semi-data-driven approach that is based on learning the characteristics of the given data, given some prior anatomical knowledge. A Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM) and model selection are combined to return a clustering of voxels that may serve for the definition of ROIs. Experiments on both an in-house dataset and data of the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) suggest that the proposed approach arrives at a better diagnosis than a merely anatomical approach or conventional statistical hypothesis testing. PMID:25919662

  17. Pulmonary suture abscess with false-positive 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission scan mimicking lung cancer recurrence.

    PubMed

    Iwasaki, Teruo; Nakagawa, Katsuhiro; Katsura, Hiroshi; Nakane, Shigeru; Kawahara, Kunimitsu; Fukuda, Haruyuki

    2006-08-01

    We present the case of a 57-year-old woman with pulmonary suture abscess. She had undergone right S3 segmentectomy for early lung adenocarcinoma 7 years before and right breast-conserving surgery for invasive ductal carcinoma 5 months previously, followed by irradiation plus endocrine therapy. Chest radiography and computed tomography revealed an irregular mass (3.5 cm in diameter) between the residual S1 segment and the middle lobe, neighboring the staple line of the segmentectomy. 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose uptake into the mass increased, seen by positron emission scans. Therefore, we could not rule out the possibility of local recurrence of lung cancer and resected it. Pathologically and microbiologically, the mass was a suture abscess arising around the nylon suture of the previous segmentectomy. This lesion was the result of a foreign-body reaction, as confirmed by polarized microscopy. Moreover, titanium staples at the segmentectomy and breast-conserving surgery may also have contributed to this condition. PMID:16972643

  18. Clinical significance of focal and diffuse thyroid diseases identified by (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography.

    PubMed

    Salvatori, M; Melis, L; Castaldi, P; Maussier, M L; Rufini, V; Perotti, G; Rubello, D

    2007-09-01

    (18)F-Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) thyroid incidentalomas are defined abnormal FDG uptake in the thyroid gland found at PET scan performed as part of a staging protocol and follow-up of patients with various kinds of malignancies. In the present study we report two cases of FDG PET thyroid incidentalomas, and review the literature with regard to the meaning of this new category of thyroid "disease". Since the advent of whole body FDG PET scan, a relatively high incidence of cases of thyroid FDG uptake has been reported as an incidental finding as in one of our patient. Focal uptake was found to be more likely associated to a malignant lesion, while a diffuse thyroid uptake to a benign thyroid disease. However, differential diagnosis is difficult, and reported data in literature are somewhat discordant. A focal thyroid uptake of FDG incidentally discovered at PET scan cannot be invariably considered a malignant thyroid nodule, however a prompt and complete work-up including laboratory examinations, ultrasonography and fine needle aspiration cytology, should be obtained to exclude a thyroid carcinoma. On the other hand, patients with a PET finding of diffuse FDG uptake can be considered at low risk of malignancy, being more likely associated to chronic thyroiditis or diffuse thyroid autonomy. PMID:17604940

  19. 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography might be useful for diagnosis of hepatic amyloidosis

    PubMed Central

    Tawada, Akinobu; Kanda, Tatsuo; Oide, Takashi; Tsuyuguchi, Toshio; Imazeki, Fumio; Nakatani, Yukio; Yokosuka, Osamu

    2014-01-01

    We report on a woman with hepatic involvement of primary systemic (immunoglobulin light chain, AL) amyloidosis. Her diagnosis was confirmed by liver biopsy. Clinical symptoms of hepatic amyloidosis are generally mild at its first stage, with most frequent findings being hepatomegaly and alkaline phosphatase elevation. Recent advances in the understanding of the pathophysiology of systemic amyloidosis have made several treatments available. However, its prognosis is occasionally poor. Because liver biopsy is not always safe, other modalities for the diagnosis are needed. Of interest was that fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake into the liver was observed, compared with that into the spleen, in this patient, indicating that FDG positron emission tomography and computed tomography might be useful for the diagnosis of hepatic amyloidosis with mild liver dysfunction. PMID:25018655

  20. The use of molecular sieves to simulate hot lesions in (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose--positron emission tomography imaging.

    PubMed

    Matheoud, R; Secco, C; Ridone, S; Inglese, E; Brambilla, M

    2008-04-21

    We investigated the use of a kind of zeolite, the Bowie chabazite, to produce radioactive sources of different shapes, dimensions and activity concentrations that can be used for lesion simulation in positron emission tomography (PET) imaging. The (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG) uptake of a group of 12 zeolites was studied as a function of their weight (120-1,520 mg) and of the activity concentration of the (18)F-FDG solution (1-37 MBq ml(-1)), using a multiple linear regression model. The reproducibility, homogeneity and stability over time of the (18)F-FDG uptake were assessed. The fit of the regression model is good (r(2) = 0.83). This relation allows the production of zeolites of a desired (18)F-FDG activity using knowledge of the concentration of the soaking solution and the weight of the zeolite. The reproducibility of the (18)F-FDG uptake after heating the zeolites is elevated (CV% = 3.68). The almost complete regeneration of the zeolites allows us to reuse them in successive experiments. The stability of the (18)F-FDG uptake on zeolites is far from ideal. When placed in a saline solution the 'activated' zeolites release the (18)F-FDG with an effective half-time of 53 min. The sealing of the zeolites in plastic film bags has been demonstrated to be effective in preventing any release of (18)F-FDG. These features, together with their variable dimensions and shapes, make them ideal (18)F-FDG sources with a fixed target-to-background ratio that can be placed anywhere in a phantom to study lesion detectability in PET imaging. PMID:18379022

  1. 30. Follow-up of Patients with Single Pulmonary Nodules and Negative 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography Scans.

    PubMed

    Abou-Zied; Zubeldia; Nabi

    2000-07-01

    Purpose: Positron Emission Tomography with 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose (18FDG-PET) is becoming the noninvasive test of choice to evaluate patients with single pulmonary nodules (SPN). While positive scans yield a high sensitivity for malignancy, the significance of negative scans remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prognostic value of negative 18FDG-PET in patients with SPN.Methods: From January 1998 to January 2000, 59 patients with non-calcified parenchymal SPN underwent 18FDG-PET evaluations. From a total of 14 pathologically proven tumors 12 patients had positive 18FDG-PET scans (sensitivity 86%, PPV 100%) with a mean SUV of 5.6. A total of 24 patients (41%) with negative 18FDG-PET scans were followed up with serial chest x-ray (CXR) and/or Computed tomography (CT) for a period of 6 to 24 months (mean 10.4 months). Histology specimens were available in 5 patients. Two patients had a second PET scan.Results: Nineteen of the 24 negative 18FDG-PET patients (79.2%) had no evidence of intrathoracic neoplasia at subsequent follow up by CT and/or CXR, for an overall NPV of 86.3%. Two patients (8.3%) had transthoracic needle biopsies that were positive for malignancy after the PET scan. The remaining 3 patients developed intrathoracic malignancies during the follow up period (6, 6, and 9 months respectively) by CT and/or CXR. Repeat 18FDG-PET scans were positive in 2 patients.Conclusion: 18FDG-PET appears to effectively characterize patients at low risk for malignant transformation of SPN discovered by CT. Blinded, randomized controlled trials are needed for further evaluation. PMID:11150787

  2. (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography in diagnosis of post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder.

    PubMed

    Panagiotidis, Emmanouil; Quigley, Ann-Marie; Pencharz, Deborah; Ardeshna, Kirit; Syed, Rizwan; Sajjan, Rakesh; Bomanji, Jamshed

    2014-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography ((18)F-FDG PET/CT) in the diagnosis of post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD), a serious complication of solid organ and bone marrow transplant. Between January 2004 and January 2012, 40 patients (22 males; median age 52 ± 17.4 years, range 11-77 years) underwent (18)F-FDG PET/CT scans in our department for diagnostic evaluation of PTLD. Twenty-three (57.5%) patients had negative (18)F-FDG PET/CT and 17 (42.5%) had a positive examination. In five patients PET/CT revealed extranodal disease (adrenal, pleural, spleen, liver, lung, esophagus and bone involvement). On the basis of our results, (18)F-FDG PET/CT had a sensitivity of 88.2% (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.62-0.98), a specificity of 91.3% (CI 0.70-0.98), a positive predictive value of 88.2% (CI 0.62-0.98) and a negative predictive value of 91.3% (CI 0.70-0.98). The diagnostic performance of CT in patient-based analysis was: a sensitivity of 87.5% (CI 0.60-0.97), a specificity of 88.8% (CI 0.64-0.98), a positive predictive value of 87.5% (CI 0.60-0.97) and a negative predictive value of 88.8% (CI 0.64-0.98). PET/CT in five cases revealed more findings than CT, upstaging the disease, and revealed three extranodal findings, not visualized in conventional imaging. (18)F-FDG PET/CT plays a significant role in the setting of PTLD diagnosis, demonstrating its high accuracy in detecting PTLD. PMID:23772644

  3. 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography and the risk of subsequent aortic complications in giant-cell arteritis

    PubMed Central

    de Boysson, Hubert; Liozon, Eric; Lambert, Marc; Parienti, Jean-Jacques; Artigues, Nicolas; Geffray, Loïk; Boutemy, Jonathan; Ollivier, Yann; Maigné, Gwénola; Ly, Kim; Huglo, Damien; Hachulla, Eric; Hatron, Pierre-Yves; Aouba, Achille; Manrique, Alain; Bienvenu, Boris

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Previous studies reported a 2- to 17-fold higher risk of aortic complications (dilation or dissection) in patients with giant-cell arteritis (GCA). We aimed to determine whether or not GCA patients with large-vessel involvement demonstrated by positron emission tomography with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose combined with computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) have a higher risk of aortic complications. We conducted a retrospective multicenter study between 1995 and 2014. Patients were included if they fulfilled at least 3 American College of Rheumatology criteria for GCA, or 2 criteria associated with extratemporal biopsy-proven giant-cell vasculitis; they underwent at least 1 FDG-PET/CT scan at diagnosis or during follow-up; and the morphology of the aorta was assessed by medical imaging at diagnosis. Patients with an aortic complication at the time of diagnosis were excluded. Of the 130 patients included [85 women (65%), median age 70 (50–86)], GCA was biopsy proven in 77 (59%). FDG-PET/CT was performed at diagnosis in 63 (48%) patients and during the follow-up period in the 67 (52%) remaining patients. FDG-PET/CT was positive in 38/63 (60%) patients at diagnosis and in 31/67 (46%) patients when performed during follow-up (P = NS). One hundred four patients (80%) underwent at least 1 morphological assessment of the aorta during follow-up. Nine (9%) patients developed aortic complications (dilation in all and dissection in 1) at a median time of 33 (6–129) months after diagnosis. All of them displayed large-vessel inflammation on previous FDG-PET/CT. A positive FDG-PET/CT was significantly associated with a higher risk of aortic complications (P = 0.004). In our study, a positive FDG-PET/CT was associated with an increased risk of aortic complications at 5 years. PMID:27367985

  4. Occupational per-patient radiation dose from a conservative protocol for veterinary (18) F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Nicole E; Kraft, Susan L; Gibbons, Debra S; Arceneaux, Billie K; Stewart, Jeffrey A; Mama, Khursheed R; Johnson, Thomas E

    2012-01-01

    The occupational external radiation dose to human medical personnel from positron emission tomography (PET) radiopharmaceuticals has been documented, but to date no corresponding veterinary staff dose data are available. Electronic personal dosimeters (EPDs) were used in this study to measure the per-patient external radiation doses to veterinary staff using a PET/CT (PET combined with computed tomography) protocol in which the patient radiopharmaceutical dose was injected after anesthetic induction. Radiation doses were recorded for the nuclear medicine technologists, the on-duty anesthesiology technologist, and an occasional observer from 19 veterinary (18) F-fluorodeoxyglucose PET/CT studies. Patient mass range was 2.8 to 61.0 kg (22.3 kg mean) and injected activity averaged 6 MBq kg(-1) . The dose range received by nuclear medicine technologists per procedure was 0-30 μSv (9.1 μSv mean), by anesthetists 1-22 μSv (8.2 μSv mean), and by the observer 0-2 μSv (0.5 μSv mean). In both feline and canine studies, placement of the EPD on staff was a significant predictor of radiation dose. Additional significant predictors of staff radiation dose from canine studies included job position and injected activity. The per-patient occupational radiation doses to veterinary PET/CT technologists were slightly greater than those reported for human nuclear medicine PET/CT technologists, but were comparable to estimated radiation doses for nurses caring for nonambulatory human PET/CT patients. Efforts toward maintaining staff radiation doses as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) will be important as veterinary PET/CT caseload increases. PMID:22703227

  5. Role of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography in the Evaluation of Cytologically Indeterminate Thyroid Nodules

    PubMed Central

    Buyukdereli, Gulgun; Aktar, Yasemin; Kara, Ertan; Uguz, Aysun; Sonmez, Husnu

    2016-01-01

    Background: Thyroid nodules with indeterminate fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) results remain a diagnostic dilemma, because 70 - 85% of these nodules have been found to be benign after thyroid surgery. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) in the preoperative diagnosis of cytologically indeterminate nodules. Patients and Methods: Forty-six patients were included in this study. These individuals had undergone FDG PET/CTs for the preoperative evaluation of thyroid nodules with indeterminate FNAB results. The results of the preoperative PET/CT scans were compared with the postoperative pathological results and statistically analyzed. Results: Of the 46 patients included in our study, the histopathology of the surgical specimens revealed thyroid cancer in 17 individuals (37%, 17/46). The PET/CT scan showed a positive result in 27 patients. Of these, 16 patients (59.3%) were found to have thyroid carcinomas. In addition, the PET/CT scan was considered to be negative in 19 patients, 18 (94.7%) of whom had benign lesions. For the detection of malignant lesions, the values for the sensitivity and specificity, and the positive predictive and negative predictive values were 94%, 62%, 59%, and 95%, respectively. Conclusion: The FDG PET/CT showed a high sensitivity and a high negative predictive value for identifying malignancies in thyroid nodules with indeterminate FNAB results. Therefore, the FDG PET/CT may be a helpful tool in the clinical management of these nodules. When an FDG positive lesion is detected, further examination is recommended. PMID:27110335

  6. Simultaneous whole body 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography magnetic resonance imaging for evaluation of pediatric cancer: Preliminary experience and comparison with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography computed tomography

    PubMed Central

    Pugmire, Brian S; Guimaraes, Alexander R; Lim, Ruth; Friedmann, Alison M; Huang, Mary; Ebb, David; Weinstein, Howard; Catalano, Onofrio A; Mahmood, Umar; Catana, Ciprian; Gee, Michael S

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To describe our preliminary experience with simultaneous whole body 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance imaging (PET-MRI) in the evaluation of pediatric oncology patients. METHODS: This prospective, observational, single-center study was Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act-compliant, and institutional review board approved. To be eligible, a patient was required to: (1) have a known or suspected cancer diagnosis; (2) be under the care of a pediatric hematologist/oncologist; and (3) be scheduled for clinically indicated 18F-FDG positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) examination at our institution. Patients underwent PET-CT followed by PET-MRI on the same day. PET-CT examinations were performed using standard department protocols. PET-MRI studies were acquired with an integrated 3 Tesla PET-MRI scanner using whole body T1 Dixon, T2 HASTE, EPI diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and STIR sequences. No additional radiotracer was given for the PET-MRI examination. Both PET-CT and PET-MRI examinations were reviewed by consensus by two study personnel. Test performance characteristics of PET-MRI, for the detection of malignant lesions, including FDG maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) and minimum apparent diffusion coefficient (ADCmin), were calculated on a per lesion basis using PET-CT as a reference standard. RESULTS: A total of 10 whole body PET-MRI exams were performed in 7 pediatric oncology patients. The mean patient age was 16.1 years (range 12-19 years) including 6 males and 1 female. A total of 20 malignant and 21 benign lesions were identified on PET-CT. PET-MRI SUVmax had excellent correlation with PET-CT SUVmax for both benign and malignant lesions (R = 0.93). PET-MRI SUVmax > 2.5 had 100% accuracy for discriminating benign from malignant lesions using PET-CT reference. Whole body DWI was also evaluated: the mean ADCmin of malignant lesions (780.2 + 326.6) was

  7. Late metastatic recurrence of penile carcinoma after 10 years: Demonstration with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Punit

    2016-01-01

    Penile cancer is rare cancer. While inguinal and pelvic nodal metastasis is common, distant metastasis is rare. We here present the interesting case of a 59-year-old male patient with penile carcinoma, previously treated with penectomy and inguinal lymphadenectomy 10 years earlier. He presented with bone pains and given history of malignancy he was referred for an 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT). PET/CT demonstrated multiple 18F-FDG avid bone and lung metastases. No locoregional disease was seen. Biopsy from a lung nodule confirmed the diagnosis, and the patient was started on palliative chemotherapy. PMID:27385892

  8. Endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration of hilar and mediastinal lymph nodes detected on 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography

    PubMed Central

    Minami, Daisuke; Takigawa, Nagio; Oda, Naohiro; Ninomiya, Takashi; Kubo, Toshio; Ohashi, Kadoaki; Sato, Akiko; Hotta, Katsuyuki; Tabata, Masahiro; Kaji, Mitsumasa; Tanimoto, Mitsune; Kiura, Katsuyuki

    2016-01-01

    Objective Endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration is of diagnostic value in hilar/mediastinal (N1/N2) lymph node staging. We assessed the utility of endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration in lung cancer patients with N1/N2 lymph nodes detected on 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography. Methods Fifty lung cancer patients with N1/N2 disease on 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography underwent endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration for pathological lymph nodes between November 2012 and April 2015. The diagnostic performance of endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration, lymph node site and size, number of needle passes and complications were evaluated retrospectively from patients' medical records. Malignancy was defined as a maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) >2.5. Results The median longest diameter of the 61 lymph nodes (29 subcarinal, 21 right lower paratracheal, 6 left lower paratracheal, 4 right hilar and 1 upper paratracheal) was 23.4 mm (range: 10.4–45.7); the median number of needle passes was 2 (range: 1–5). There were no severe complications. A definitive diagnosis was made by endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration in 39 patients (31 adenocarcinomas, 3 small-cell carcinomas, 2 squamous-cell carcinomas, 3 large-cell neuroendocrine carcinomas). In the remaining 11 patients, the diagnosis was indefinite: insufficient endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration material was collected in two patients and non-specific lymphadenopathy was confirmed by endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration or thoracotomy in the other nine patients. The mean lymph node SUVmax was 7.09 (range: 2.90–26.9) and was significantly higher in true-positive than in false-positive nodes (P < 0.05, t-test). Non-specific lymphadenopathy was

  9. 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography in a case of malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor: An unusual presentation

    PubMed Central

    D’souza, Maria M; Jaimini, Abhinav; Kumar Dhali, Tapan; D'souza, Paschal; Saw, Sanjiv; Sharma, Rajnish; Mondal, Anupam

    2013-01-01

    Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs) are rare tumors, with an estimated incidence of 0.1/100,000/year. They are regarded as a rare variety of soft-tissue sarcomas that derive from peripheral nerves or from cells associated with the nerve sheath. Until 50% of observed MPNSTs occur in patients with neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1). The typical presenting signs and symptoms of a PNST are a palpable mass involving a peripheral nerve, loss of nerve function and/or pain. Recently, positron emission tomography (PET) has been used to detect 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose uptake in these tumors. Most of the PET studies have been reported in patients with NF1. We report a case of sporadic MPNST masquerading as infectious dermatoses, with an unusual PET/computed tomography presentation. PMID:24250026

  10. 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography-Positive Lymph Node Endometriosis Masquerading as Lymph Node Metastasis of a Malignant Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Mori, Taisuke; Matsushima, Hiroshi; Sawada, Morio

    2014-01-01

    Endometriosis is defined as the presence of endometrium-like tissues at extrauterine sites, most commonly in the abdominal cavity. Lymph node endometriosis is a rare but clinically important type of endometriosis that can mimic lymph node metastasis of a malignant tumor. 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) is a useful tool for diagnosing malignant tumors, although it occasionally shows false positive results in tissues with high metabolic activity caused by severe inflammation. In the present report, we describe a case of lymph node endometriosis that mimicked lymph node metastasis of a malignant tumor and showed a positive result on 18F-FDG PET/CT. The findings of the present case suggest that lymph node endometriosis could present as swollen lymph nodes with 18F-FDG PET/CT-positive results and provide important information for determining an appropriate treatment strategy. PMID:25180115

  11. Multiple 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography Scans Showing Progression of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Tsuruda, Toshihiro; Nagamachi, Shigeki; Nishimura, Masanori; Nakamura, Kunihide; Kitamura, Kazuo

    2016-05-01

    Although the precise mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) remain unclear, aortic wall inflammation has been implicated in AAA development. Several studies have reported the use of fluoro-deoxyglucose (F-FDG)/positron emission tomography (PET) to assess the nature of AAA.We present a case of 77-year-old Japanese male with juxta-anastomotic AAA who was followed up with multiple F-FDG-PET/CT scans over 7 years. The scans revealed chronological changes in aortic wall inflammation leading to progress and eventual rupture.This case supports a notion that aortic wall inflammation plays a role in AAA progression and rupture. PMID:27175690

  12. Interim 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: qualitative or quantitative interpretation--where do we stand?

    PubMed

    Meignan, Michel; Itti, Emmanuel; Gallamini, Andrea; Haioun, Corinne

    2009-11-01

    Interim 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography performed early during the course of therapy in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma is highly predictive of outcome and now used in many clinical trials to validate risk-adapted strategies. However, interpretation criteria of interim PET are not yet appropriately defined for the evaluation of tumor response and chemosensitivity. From the results of our studies, a quantitative approach based on SUV(max) reduction between baseline PET (PET0) and interim PET demonstrated a higher predictive value than visual analysis when PET was performed at two cycles (PET2) but was equivalent to visual analysis at four cycles (PET4). The SUV(max) reduction index at PET2 seems to be the best predictor of the response compared to clinical or molecular prognostic indices. When visual analysis is necessary, the use of an online independent reading network may solve the interobserver variability, but the hurdles of visual analysis deserve an international validation study to confirm the newly proposed criteria. PMID:19863178

  13. 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron-Emission Tomography Findings with Anti-N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptor Encephalitis that Showed Variable Degrees of Catatonia: Three Cases Report

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Eun Mi; Kang, Joong Koo; Oh, Jungsu S.; Kim, Jae Seung; Shin, Yong-Wook; Kim, Chang-Yoon

    2014-01-01

    Catatonia is one of the main symptoms of anti-N-Methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis. However, it is unknown whether metabolic changes observed with 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose positron-emission tomography (FDG-PET) are correlated with the severity of the catatonic symptoms and clinical course. Three patients with anti-NMDAR encephalitis showing variable degrees of catatonia were performed with FDG-PET scans during the acute and recovery phase. PET findings showed hypermetabolism in the frontotemporoparietal regions and bilateral basal ganglia in the patient with mild catatonia, but more widespread hypermetabolic regions including the thalamus and brainstem were observed in the patients with more severe catatonia. Follow-up PET scans in one patient showed mild hypermetabolism in the right basal ganglia that correlated with mild rigidity and tonic posturing in the left extremities. Extent of cerebral metabolic changes correlates with the severity of catatonia accompanied by behavioural, motor, autonomic, and breathing abnormalities in anti-NMDAR encephalitis. PMID:25625091

  14. Detection of bone marrow involvement in newly diagnosed post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder: (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography versus bone marrow biopsy.

    PubMed

    Gheysens, Olivier; Thielemans, Sanne; Morscio, Julie; Boeckx, Nancy; Goffin, Karolien E; Deroose, Christophe M; Sagaert, Xavier; Wlodarska, Iwona; Verhoef, Gregor; Dierickx, Daan; Tousseyn, Thomas

    2016-10-01

    Detecting bone marrow involvement (BMI) in lymphoma is important as it adversely affects stage. Bone marrow biopsy (BMB) remains the standard to detect BMI but is prone to sampling error. We retrospectively investigated whether (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography with computed tomography ((18)F-FDG-PET/CT) could identify BMI in patients with post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) with sufficient accuracy in comparison with staging BMB. Twenty-five patients diagnosed with PTLD who underwent (18)F-FDG-PET/CT and BMB within one month were evaluated. Based on our criteria, six patients (24%) were considered positive for BMI on (18)F-FDG-PET/CT compared to one by BMB. Although we cannot completely exclude false positive results on (18)F-FDG-PET/CT, our data indicate a significantly higher sensitivity of (18)F-FDG-PET/CT compared to BMB (100% vs 17%) but similar specificity. These data confirm the high diagnostic performance of (18)F-FDG-PET/CT for detecting BMI, but prospective studies are needed to determine whether (18)F-FDG-PET/CT could indeed replace staging BMB in PTLD. PMID:26854937

  15. Bone Scan or 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography; Which Modality Better Shows Bone Metastases of Breast Cancer?

    PubMed Central

    Balci, Tansel A.; Koc, Zehra P.; Komek, Halil

    2012-01-01

    Background In this multicenter study, we aimed to compare concurrent 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG PET/CT) and bone scan results of breast cancer patient. Patients and Methods 162 patients with breast cancer (158 female, 4 male; mean age 50.6 years) were included in the study. FDG PET/CT examination was performed in all patients, and concurrent bone scintigraphy in 68 patients. The results of FDG PET/CT and bone scan were compared. Results 132 of the 162 patients were operated on because of breast cancer. 89 patients had metastasis, and 4 had recurrent disease according to FDG PET/CT results. Metastatic sites in order of frequency were lymph nodes, bone, lung, liver, adrenal gland, local skin or muscle, brain, and peritoneum (peritonitis carcinomatosa). The sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and negative and positive predictive value of bone scintigraphy versus FDG PET/CT were 96 vs. 100%, 100 vs. 98%, 100 vs. 83%, 100 vs. 100%, and 90 vs. 100%, respectively. Conclusion Although the 2 modalities were in concordance with each other, in 5 (21%) cases, FDG PET/CT could not show bone metastasis which were detected on bone scintigraphy. Hence, bone scintigraphy was superior to FDG PET/CT in the determination of bone metastasis derived from breast cancer. However, FDG PET/CT should be considered for soft tissue metastasis. PMID:24647778

  16. 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography for primary thyroid langerhans histiocytosis: A case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Long, Qi; Shaoyan, Wang; Hui, Wang

    2015-01-01

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a rare clonal proliferative disease, with an incidence rate of 4.0-5.4/1 million individuals. LCH encompasses a spectrum of disorders with diverse clinical presentations ranging from a single organ to multiple organ involvement. LCH rarely involves the thyroid gland. We presented a case with LCH of thyroid gland. The patient had painless progressive neck enlargement and then diabetes insipidus. Ultrasonic scan and magnetic resonance imaging scan revealed nodular goiter and pituitary stalk enlargement, respectively. Histopathological analysis revealed features of histiocytoid cells. 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) was performed in order to rule out the presence of whole body infiltration. 18F-FDG PET/CT also demonstrated increased uptake in the thickening pituitary stalk and maxillofacial skin lesion, in addition to the bilateral thyroid nodules, CT showed the left lung nodule and the skull destruction without 18F-FDG uptake. This report emphasizes the role of 18F-FDG PET/CT in multiple organs involvement of patients with LCH. PMID:26430317

  17. 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography for primary thyroid langerhans histiocytosis: A case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Long, Qi; Shaoyan, Wang; Hui, Wang

    2015-01-01

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a rare clonal proliferative disease, with an incidence rate of 4.0–5.4/1 million individuals. LCH encompasses a spectrum of disorders with diverse clinical presentations ranging from a single organ to multiple organ involvement. LCH rarely involves the thyroid gland. We presented a case with LCH of thyroid gland. The patient had painless progressive neck enlargement and then diabetes insipidus. Ultrasonic scan and magnetic resonance imaging scan revealed nodular goiter and pituitary stalk enlargement, respectively. Histopathological analysis revealed features of histiocytoid cells. 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) was performed in order to rule out the presence of whole body infiltration. 18F-FDG PET/CT also demonstrated increased uptake in the thickening pituitary stalk and maxillofacial skin lesion, in addition to the bilateral thyroid nodules, CT showed the left lung nodule and the skull destruction without 18F-FDG uptake. This report emphasizes the role of 18F-FDG PET/CT in multiple organs involvement of patients with LCH. PMID:26430317

  18. Impact of {sup 18}F-Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography Before and After Definitive Radiation Therapy in Patients With Apparently Solitary Plasmacytoma

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Paul J.; Hicks, Rodney J.; Wirth, Andrew; Ryan, Gail; Seymour, John F.; Prince, H. Miles

    2009-07-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the impact of {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) on management of patients with apparently isolated plasmacytoma. Methods and Materials: Twenty-one patients with apparently solitary plasmacytoma who underwent FDG-PET for staging or restaging were identified from a central PET database. They were either candidates for or had received definitive radiation therapy (RT). Results: Seventeen patients had initial staging scans for bone (n = 11) or soft tissue (n = 6) plasmacytomas, and 11 had PET scans after RT. Only 1 of 14 known untreated sites of plasmacytoma was not identified on staging PET (lesion sensitivity = 93%). Three plasmacytomas were excised before PET. Staging PET influenced management in 6 of 17 patients (35%) by showing multiple myeloma (n = 1), discouraging RT after complete resection (n = 1), excluding plasmacytoma at a second site (n = 1), by increasing RT fields (n = 2), or by suggesting sarcoidosis (n = 1). Fifteen of 17 patients with initial staging PET scans received definitive RT. Restaging PET scans after RT showed complete metabolic response in 8 of 11 cases and progressive disease in 2. Two patients with either no response or partial metabolic response had late responses. Staging sestamibi and PET scans were concordant in five of six occasions (one sestamibi scan was false negative). Conclusions: FDG-PET has value for staging and RT planning in plasmacytoma and potentially could have a role in response-assessment after RT. Slow resolution of FDG uptake posttreatment does not necessarily imply an adverse prognosis.

  19. Use of dynamic (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography to investigate choroid plexus function in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Daouk, Joël; Bouzerar, Roger; Chaarani, Bader; Zmudka, Jadwiga; Meyer, Marc-Etienne; Balédent, Olivier

    2016-05-01

    Choroid plexuses (CPs) are structures involved in CSF production and cerebral regulation and present atypical glucose metabolism. In addition, CPs impairment may be related to Alzheimer disease (AD). In the present study, we present the first results pointing out glucose metabolism in the CP with dynamic fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (dynamic (18)F-FDG-PET). We studied 47 elderly adults who were classified into three classes: healthy subjects (HS), amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and AD. All participants have undergone dynamic (18)F-FDG-PET for 45min. Acquisitions were divided into 34 frames to extract tissue time-activity curves (TTACs) in various structures including CSF and CPs. Results showed a decreased CPs (18)F-FDG metabolism in AD compared with aMCI and HS. Conversely, dynamic uptake was higher in CSF for AD compared with the other groups. ROC analysis showed that CPs TTACs are a promising tool as it yielded sensitivity of 85.7% and a specificity of 83.3%. Our study showed a disturbance of glucose exchange at the blood-CSF barrier level which is in favour of a key-role of the CPs in AD. PMID:26899566

  20. Quantification of the activity of tritium produced during the routine synthesis of (18)F fluorodeoxyglucose for positron emission tomography.

    PubMed

    Marshall, C; Talboys, M A; Bukhari, S; Evans, W D

    2014-06-01

    Gamma emitting radioactive by-products generated during the cyclotron irradiation of (18)O labelled water by protons to produce (18)FDG (fluorodeoxyglucose) for positron emission tomography are well characterised. However, the production of tritium ((3)H) through the (18)O(p,t)(16)O nuclear reaction has not been investigated in detail. The aim of this study was to measure tritium activity produced during a large number of (18)FDG production runs in order to obtain a better perspective on its impact on radioactive waste management, particularly as regards storage and disposal. Tritium was assayed by liquid scintillation counting in recovered (18)O water from 24 separate production runs. The mean (SD) values of activity and activity concentration were 170 (20) kBq and 81 (8) kBq ml(-1) respectively. Both quantities were positively correlated with the activity of (18)F. Tritium was detected in much lower concentration in water used to rinse the target vessel. The activity of tritium is such that it is exempt from regulatory control and may be combined with bulk non-active waste for disposal as Very Low Level Waste. However, variations in the irradiation conditions or the procedures for the collection of recovered water might result in its classification as Low Level Waste, necessitating a more complex disposal regime. PMID:24894021

  1. {sup 18}-F-Fluorodeoxyglucose-Positron Emission Tomography Evaluation of Early Metabolic Response During Radiation Therapy for Cervical Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Schwarz, Julie K.; Lin, Lillie L.; Siegel, Barry A.; Miller, Tom R.; Grigsby, Perry W.

    2008-12-01

    Purpose: To document changes in cervical tumor {sup 18}-F-fluorodeoxyglocose (FDG) uptake during radiation therapy and to correlate those changes with post-treatment tumor response and survival outcome. Methods and Materials: A total of 36 patients with Stage Ib1 to IIIb cervical cancer were enrolled in an institutional protocol examining the use of fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) for brachytherapy treatment planning. As part of this study, FDG-PET or PET/computed tomograpy (CT) images were obtained before, during, and after the completion of radiation therapy. Tumor metabolic responses were assessed qualitatively and semi-quantitatively by measurement of the maximal standardized uptake value (SUV{sub max}). Results: Post-treatment FDG-PET images were obtained for 36 patients in this study. Of the patients, 29 patients had a complete metabolic response on the post-treatment PET, 4 had a partial metabolic response, and 3 had new sites of FDG uptake. Six patients had a complete metabolic response observed during radiation therapy, 26 had a partial metabolic response and 4 had stable or increased tumor metabolic activity. For patients with complete metabolic response during radiation therapy, median time to complete response was 29.5 days (range, 18-43 days). The mean cervical tumor SUV{sub max} decreased from 11.2 (SD, 6.3; range, 2.1-38.0) pretreatment to 2.4 (SD, 2.7; range, 0-8.8) mid treatment, and 0.5 (SD, 1.7; range, 0-8.3) post-treatment. Conclusions: During radiation therapy for cervical cancer, FDG-PET can be used to monitor treatment response. Complete metabolic response during radiation therapy was observed for a subset of patients. Recommendations regarding the optimal timing of FDG-PET during treatment for cervical cancer will require further systematic study.

  2. Thoracic [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose uptake measured by positron emission tomography/computed tomography in pulmonary hypertension.

    PubMed

    Frille, Armin; Steinhoff, Karen Geva; Hesse, Swen; Grachtrup, Sabine; Wald, Alexandra; Wirtz, Hubert; Sabri, Osama; Seyfarth, Hans-Juergen

    2016-06-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) visualizes increased cellular [F]fluorodeoxyglucose ([F]FDG) uptake. Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is conceived of a proliferative disease of the lung vessels. Increased glucose uptake can be quantified as pulmonary [F]FDG uptake via PET imaging. Because the angioproliferative mechanisms in PH are still in need of further description, the aim of the present study was to investigate whether [F]FDG PET/CT imaging can elucidate these pathophysiologic mechanisms in different etiologies of PH.Patients (n = 109) with end-stage pulmonary disease being evaluated for lung transplant were included in this observational study. Mean standardized uptake value (SUVmean) of predefined regions of interest in lung parenchyma (LP), left (LV), and right ventricle (RV) of the heart, and SUVmax in pulmonary artery (PA) were determined and normalized to liver uptake. These SUV ratios (SUVRs) were compared with results from right heart catheterization (mean pulmonary artery pressure [mPAP], pulmonary vascular resistance [PVR]), and serum N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide. Group comparisons were performed and Pearson correlation coefficients (r) were calculated.The [F]FDG uptake ratios in LP, RV, RV/LV, and PA, but not in LV, were found to be significantly higher in both patients with mPAP ≥25 mm Hg (P = 0.013, P = 0.006, P = 0.049, P = 0.002, P = 0.68, respectively) and with PVR ≥480 dyn·s/cm (P < 0.001, P = 0.045, P < 0.001, P < 0.001, P = 0.26, respectively). The [F]FDG uptake in these regions positively correlated also with mPAP, PVR, and N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide. The SUVR of PA positively correlated with the SUVR of LP and RV (r = 0.55, r = 0.42, respectively).Pulmonary and cardiac [F]FDG uptake in PET imaging positively correlated with the presence and severity of PH in patients with end-stage pulmonary disease. Increased glucose metabolism in the central PAs seems to

  3. Prognostic value of volumetric metabolic parameters measured by [18F]Fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography in patients with small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background We evaluated the prognostic value of volume-based metabolic positron emission tomography (PET) parameters in patients with small cell lung cancer (SCLC) compared with other factors. Methods The subjects were 202 patients with pathologically proven SCLC who underwent pretreatment 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET/computed tomography (CT). Volumetric metabolic parameters of intrathoracic malignant hypermetabolic lesions, including maximum and average standardized uptake value, sum of metabolic tumor volume (MTV), and sum of total lesion glycolysis (TLG) were measured. Results 164 patients had died during follow-up (median 17.4 months) and median overall survival was 14 months. On univariate survival analysis, age, stage, treatment modality, sum of MTV (cutoff = 100 cm3), and sum of TLG (cutoff = 555) were significant predictors of survival. There was a very high correlation between the sum of MTV and the sum of TLG (r = 0.963, P < 0.001). On multivariate survival analysis, age (HR = 1.04, P < 0.001), stage (HR = 2.442, P < 0.001), and sum of MTV (HR = 1.662, P = 0.002) were independent prognostic factors. On subgroup analysis based on limited disease (LD) and extensive disease (ED), sum of MTV and sum of TLG were significant prognostic factors only in LD. Conclusion Both sum of MTV and sum of TLG of intrathoracic malignant hypermetabolic lesions are important independent prognostic factors for survival in patients with SCLC, in addition to age and clinical stage. However, it may be more useful in limited disease rather than in extensive disease. PMID:25609313

  4. 12. Patterns of Adrenal Gland Involvement from Lung Cancer Shown by 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography Compared to Computed Tomography and Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    PubMed

    Zubeldia; Abou-Zied; Nabi

    2000-07-01

    Purpose: The frequency of adrenal metastases from non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) varies between 4 to 25%. Adrenal metastases are frequently missed (78%) by Computed Tomography (CT) and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). The purpose of this study was to characterize the patterns of adrenal gland involvement from lung cancer by 18-F-Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography (18FDG-PET).Methods: Retrospective review of patients evaluated for known or suspected lung carcinoma. Results of 18FDG-PET, CT, MRI, and scans were compared.Results: From February 1996 to May 2000, 91 patients with known (85 patients) or suspected (6 patients) lung cancer were evaluated with 18FDG-PET scan. Twenty-two patients (mean age 63, range 38-88 years) had abnormal adrenal glands by either 18FDG-PET (16 patients), CT (12 patients) or MRI (1 patient). In 13 cases 18FDG-PET scan was ordered to clarify CT or MRI findings. Only 7 patients showed adrenal gland involvement: 5 patients (5.5%) with unilateral disease and 2 patients (2.2%) with bilateral disease. PET depicted unsuspected findings in 9 patients: 8 patients (8.8%) with unilateral disease and 1 patient (1.1%) with bilateral disease.(18)FDG-PET upstaged 9 patients from limited (N1M0) to widespread disease (M1), thus obviating surgical intervention.Conclusion: This study demonstrates the potential of 18FDG-PET scanning in revealing unsuspected adrenal metastases in patients with early stages of NSCLC as well as characterizing CT or MRI equivocal adrenal masses. PMID:11150769

  5. [{sup 18}F]Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography (PET/CT) Physiologic Imaging of Choroidal Melanoma: Before and After Ophthalmic Plaque Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Finger, Paul T.; Chin, Kimberly J.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate changes in [{sup 18}F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) standardized uptake values (SUV) in uveal melanoma before and after plaque brachytherapy. Methods and Materials: A cohort of 217 patients diagnosed with uveal melanoma and eligible for ophthalmic plaque brachytherapy underwent preoperative PET/CT to evaluate their intraocular tumor and screen for metastasis. Subsequent to undergoing plaque brachytherapy, patients' PET/CT SUV were periodically reevaluated over 42 months. Results: In this series, 37 (17%) choroidal melanoma patients were found to have an SUV of >2.0. Of these, 18 patients were able to undergo interval follow-up PET/CT scanning. There were 3 patients with T2, 11 patients with T3, and 4 patients with T4 melanomas according to 7th edition AJCC-UICC criteria. Mean apical thickness was 8.8 mm (range, 3-12.3 mm), and the largest mean tumor diameter was 15.1 mm (range, 12-19.9 mm). The mean initial SUV was 3.7 (range, 2.1-7.3). Patients were followed for a median 16 months (range, 6-42 months). The median time to a tumor SUV of 0 was 8.0 months (range, 6-18 months). There was one case of one interval increase in SUV that diminished after circumferential laser treatment. Conclusions: Intraocular PET/CT imaging provides a physiological assessment of tumor metabolism that can be used to evaluate changes after treatment. In this study, ophthalmic plaque radiation therapy was associated with extinguished tumor PET/CT SUV over time. PET/CT imaging can be used to assess choroidal melanomas for their response to treatment.

  6. Clinical Usefulness of {sup 18}F-Fluorodeoxyglucose-Positron Emission Tomography in Patients With Locally Advanced Pancreatic Cancer Planned to Undergo Concurrent Chemoradiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Jee Suk; Choi, Seo Hee; Lee, Youngin; Kim, Kyung Hwan; Park, Jeong Youp; Song, Si Young; Cho, Arthur; Yun, Mijin; Lee, Jong Doo; Seong, Jinsil

    2014-09-01

    Purpose: To assess the role of coregistered {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) in detecting radiographically occult distant metastasis (DM) at staging in patients with locally advanced pancreatic cancer (LAPC) and to study whether FDG-PET parameters can predict relatively long-term survival in patients who are more likely to benefit from chemoradiation therapy (CRT). Methods and Materials: From our institutional database, we identified 388 LAPC patients with M0 on conventional computed tomography (CT) who were planned to undergo CRT. Coregistered FDG-PET staging was offered to all patients, and follow-up FDG-PET was used at the clinical discretion of the physician. Results: FDG-PET detected unsuspected CT-occult DM in 33% of all 388 patients and allowed them to receive systemic therapy immediately. The remaining 260 patients (PET-M0) underwent CRT selectively as an initial treatment. Early DM arose in 13.1% of 260 patients, and the 1-year estimated locoregional recurrence rate was 5.4%. Median overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) were 14.6 and 9.3 months, respectively, at a median follow-up time of 32.3 months (range, 10-99.1 months). Patients with a baseline standardized uptake value (SUV) <3.5 and/or SUV decline ≥60% had significantly better OS and PFS than those having none, even after adjustment for all potential confounding variables (all P<.001). Conclusions: FDG-PET can detect radiographically occult DM at staging in one-third of patients and spare them from the potentially toxic therapy. Additionally, FDG-PET parameters including baseline SUV and SUV changes may serve as useful clinical markers for predicting the prognosis in LAPC patients.

  7. Impact of Pretransplantation (18)F-Fluorodeoxyglucose-Positron Emission Tomography on Survival Outcomes after T Cell-Depleted Allogeneic Transplantation for Hodgkin Lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Reyal, Yasmin; Kayani, Irfan; Bloor, Adrian J C; Fox, Christopher P; Chakraverty, Ronjon; Sjursen, Ann-Marie; Fielding, Adele K; Ben Taylor, Marcus; Bishton, Mark J; Morris, Emma C; Thomson, Kirsty J; Russell, Nigel; Mackinnon, Stephen; Peggs, Karl S

    2016-07-01

    Pretransplant (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography status is an important prognostic factor for outcomes after autologous stem cell transplantation (SCT) in Hodgkin lymphoma (HL), but its impact on outcomes after allogeneic SCT remains unclear. We retrospectively evaluated outcomes after T cell-depleted allogeneic SCT of 116 patients with nonprogressive HL according to pretransplant Deauville scores. Endpoints were overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), relapse rate (RR), and nonrelapse-related mortality (NRM). OS, PFS, and RR did not differ significantly between the Deauville 1 to 2 and Deauville 3 to 5 cohorts (OS: 77.5% versus 67.3%, P = .49; PFS: 59.4% versus 55.7%, P = .43; RR: 20.9% versus 22.6%, P = .28 at 4 years). Differences in PFS remained statistically nonsignificant when comparisons were made between Deauville 1 to 3 and Deauville 4 to 5 cohorts (60.9% versus 51.4%, P = .10), and RR remained very similar (21.5% versus 23.8%, P = .42). Multivariate analyses demonstrated trends toward significance for an effect of Deauville score on PFS (hazard ratio 1.82 for Deauville 4 to 5, P = .06) and for number of lines of prior therapy on OS (hazard ratio 2.34 for >5 lines, P = .10). The latter effect appeared to be driven by higher NRM rather than increased RR. Our findings suggest that Deauville score before allogeneic SCT in patients with nonprogressive HL has a relatively modest impact on survival outcomes in comparison with the impact in autologous SCT and that predictive values for the individual patient remain low, indicating that residual FDG-avid disease should not preclude allogeneic SCT. Furthermore, our findings bring into question the importance of attainment of metabolic complete response in this setting if it is at the expense of increasing NRM risk. PMID:27095691

  8. Clinical Significance of Postradiotherapy [{sup 18}F]-Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography Imaging in Management of Head-and-Neck Cancer-A Long-Term Outcome Report

    SciTech Connect

    Yao Min Smith, Russell B.; Hoffman, Henry T.; Funk, Gerry F.; Lu Minggen; Menda, Yusuf; Graham, Michael M.; Buatti, John M.

    2009-05-01

    Purpose: To determine the accuracy and prognostic significance of post-treatment [{sup 18}F]-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) in head-and-neck squamous cell carcinoma after radiotherapy (RT). Methods and Materials: This was a retrospective study of 188 patients with head-and-neck squamous cell carcinoma who had undergone FDG-PET within 12 months after completing RT. All living patients had {>=}1 year of follow-up after FDG-PET. All patients had undergone intensity-modulated RT, 128 with definitive and 60 with postoperative intensity-modulated RT. Results: For all patients, the median follow-up after RT completion was 32.6 months and after FDG-PET was 29.2 months. For the neck, 171 patients had negative FDG-PET findings. Of these results, two were falsely negative. Seventeen patients had positive FDG-PET findings, of which 12 were true-positive findings. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value for FDG-PET in the assessment of the treatment response in the neck was 86%, 97%, 71%, and 99%, respectively. For the primary site, 151 patients had negative FDG-PET findings, of which two were falsely negative. Thirty-seven patients had positive FDG-PET findings, of which 12 were true-positive findings. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value for FDG-PET in the assessment of the treatment response in the primary site was 86%, 86%, 32.4%, and 98.7%, respectively. Patients with positive post-RT PET findings had significantly worse 3-year overall survival and disease-free survival. Conclusion: The results of our study have shown that the findings of post-RT FDG-PET have a high negative predictive value and are a significant prognostic factor. It can provide guidance for the management of head-and-neck cancer after definitive treatment.

  9. Diagnostic Accuracy of 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography-Computed Tomography in the Evaluation of Carcinoma of Unknown Primary

    PubMed Central

    Riaz, Saima; Nawaz, Muhammad Khalid; Faruqui, Zia S; Saeed Kazmi, Syed Ather; Loya, Asif; Bashir, Humayun

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Detection of primary tumor site in patients with carcinoma of unknown primary (CUP) syndrome has always been a diagnostic dilemma, necessitating extensive workup. Early detection of primary tumor site coupled with specific therapy improves prognosis. The low detection rate of the primary tumor site can be attributed to the biological behavior or the small size of the primary tumor to be detected by conventional imaging. The objective of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) in detecting CUP. Methods: A retrospective, cross-sectional analysis of 100 PET-CT scans of patients with CUP syndrome between November 2009 and December 2013 was performed. Eighteen patients whose final histopathology results could not be obtained for correlation were excluded from analysis. The hypermetabolic sites were assessed in correlation with histopathology. The diagnostic accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive values were assessed for PET-CT. Results: Out of the 82 patients, primary tumor was correctly identified in 57.3% patients by 18F-FDG PET-CT (true positive). The PET-CT scan results were negative for primary site localization in 15% of patients (false negative). While 21% had true negative results, 7.3% displayed false positive results. PET-CT scan upstaged the disease in 27% cases. Overall, the diagnostic accuracy was found to be 78%, sensitivity 80%, specificity 74%, positive predictive value 88.7% and negative predictive value 59%. Conclusion: Our data supports the utility of 18F-FDG PET-CT scan in the localization and staging of CUP syndrome.

  10. The Clinical Usefulness of 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography (PET) to Predict Oncologic Outcomes and PET-Based Radiotherapeutic Considerations in Locally Advanced Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Hong In; Kim, Kyung Hwan; Lee, Jeongshim; Roh, Yun Ho; Yun, Mijin; Cho, Byoung Chul; Lee, Chang Geol; Keum, Ki Chang

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We investigated 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (PET)-derived parameters as prognostic indices for disease progression and survival in locally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) and the effect of high-dose radiotherapy for a subpopulation with PET-based poor prognoses. Materials and Methods Ninety-seven stage III and Iva-b NPC patients who underwent definitive treatment and PET were reviewed. For each primary, nodal, and whole tumor, maximum standardized uptake value, metabolic tumor volume, and total lesion glycolysis (TLG) were evaluated. Results Based on the C-index (0.666) and incremental area under the curve (0.669), the whole tumor TLGwas the most useful predictorfor progression-free survival (PFS); thewhole tumor TLG cut-off value showing the best predictive performance was 322.7. In multivariate analysis, whole tumor TLG was a significant prognostic factor for PFS (hazard ratio [HR], 0.3; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.14 to 0.65; p=0.002) and OS (HR, 0.29; 95% CI, 0.11 to 0.79; p=0.02). Patients with low whole tumor TLG showed the higher 5-year PFS in the subgroup for only patients receiving intensity modulated radiotherapy (77.4% vs. 53.0%, p=0.01). In the subgroup of patients with high whole tumor TLG, patients receiving an EQD2 ≥ 70 Gy showed significantly greater complete remission rates (71.4% vs. 33.3%, p=0.03) and higher 5-year OS (74.7% vs. 19.6%, p=0.02). Conclusion Our findings demonstrated that whole tumor TLG could be an independent prognostic factor and high-dose radiotherapy could improve outcomes for NPC showing high whole tumor TLG. PMID:26693913

  11. Impact of Pretreatment Combined {sup 18}F-Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography Staging on Radiation Therapy Treatment Decisions in Locally Advanced Breast Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, Sweet Ping; David, Steven; Alamgeer, Muhammad; Ganju, Vinod

    2015-09-01

    Purpose: To assess the diagnostic performance of pretreatment {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography ({sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT) and its impact on radiation therapy treatment decisions in patients with locally advanced breast cancer (LABC). Methods and Materials: Patients with LABC with Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status <2 and no contraindication to neoadjuvant chemotherapy, surgery, and adjuvant radiation therapy were enrolled on a prospective trial. All patients had pretreatment conventional imaging (CI) performed, including bilateral breast mammography and ultrasound, bone scan, and CT chest, abdomen, and pelvis scans performed. Informed consent was obtained before enrolment. Pretreatment whole-body {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT scans were performed on all patients, and results were compared with CI findings. Results: A total of 154 patients with LABC with no clinical or radiologic evidence of distant metastases on CI were enrolled. Median age was 49 years (range, 26-70 years). Imaging with PET/CT detected distant metastatic disease and/or locoregional disease not visualized on CI in 32 patients (20.8%). Distant metastatic disease was detected in 17 patients (11.0%): 6 had bony metastases, 5 had intrathoracic metastases (pulmonary/mediastinal), 2 had distant nodal metastases, 2 had liver metastases, 1 had pulmonary and bony metastases, and 1 had mediastinal and distant nodal metastases. Of the remaining 139 patients, nodal disease outside conventional radiation therapy fields was detected on PET/CT in 15 patients (10.8%), with involvement of ipsilateral internal mammary nodes in 13 and ipsilateral level 5 cervical nodes in 2. Conclusions: Imaging with PET/CT provides superior diagnostic and staging information in patients with LABC compared with CI, which has significant therapeutic implications with respect to radiation therapy management. Imaging with PET/CT should be considered in all patients undergoing primary

  12. Usefulness of 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography for Follow-Up of 13-cis-Retinoic Acid Treatment for Residual Neuroblastoma After Myeloablative Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Yuya; Kurosawa, Hidemitsu; Sakamoto, Setsu; Kuwashima, Shigeko; Hashimoto, Teisuke; Okamoto, Kentaro; Tsuchioka, Takashi; Fukushima, Keitaro; Arisaka, Osamu

    2015-01-01

    Abstract 13-cis-retinoic acid (13-cis-RA) treatment is used as a second-line treatment for residual or recurrent neuroblastoma. However, determining the duration of 13-cis-RA treatment for residual and recurrent neuroblastoma can be a problem because it is difficult to evaluate the effectiveness of the treatment. We performed 13-cis-RA treatment to remove residual active neuroblastoma cells in an 8-year-old boy with stage 4 neuroblastoma that developed from a left sympathetic ganglion and had been treated with chemotherapy, surgery, autologous peripheral blood stem-cell transplantation, and radiotherapy. 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (18F-FDG-PET) and iodine-123 metaiodobenzylguanidine (123I-MIBG) scintigraphy obtained immediately before 13-cis-RA treatment both showed positive findings in the area of the primary lesion. At 18 months after 13-cis-RA treatment, there was accumulation on 123I-MIBG scintigraphy but no uptake on 18F-FDG-PET, and 13-cis-RA treatment was suspended. The patient has been in complete remission for 3 years. In comparing the effectiveness of the 2 imaging modalities for monitoring the response to 13-cis-RA treatment, we considered that 18F-FDG-PET was superior to 123I-MIBG scintigraphy because 18F-FDG-PET images were not affected by the cell differentiation induced by 13-cis-RA treatment in our case. Thus, 18F-FDG-PET was useful for determining the treatment response and outcomes. We have reported a case of residual neuroblastoma treated with differentiation-inducing 13-cis-RA therapy. Different results were produced with 18F-FDG-PET and 123I-MIBG scintigraphy. The cessation of 13-cis-RA treatment was based on 18F-FDG-PET findings and there has been no relapse for 3 years. PMID:26252303

  13. Diagnostic importance of contrast enhanced 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission computed tomography in patients with tumor induced osteomalacia: Our experience

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Avani S.; Shelley, Simon; Muthukrishnan, Indirani; Kalal, Shilpa; Amalachandran, Jaykanth; Chandran, Sureshkumar

    2016-01-01

    Aims and Objectives: To assess the diagnostic utility of contrast-enhanced 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography (FDG PET-ceCT) in localization of tumors in patients with clinical diagnosis of tumor-induced osteomalacia (TIO), in correlation with histopathological results. Materials and Methods: Eight patients (five male and three female) aged 24–60 (mean 42) years with a clinical diagnosis of TIO were included in this prospective study. They underwent whole body (head to toe) FDG PET-ceCT following a standard protocol on Philips GEMINI TF PET-CT scanner. The FDG PET-ceCT results were correlated with postoperative histology findings and clinical follow-up. Results: All the patients had an abnormal PET-ceCT study. The sensitivity of PET-ceCT was 87.5%, and positive predictive value was 100%. The tumor was located in the craniofacial region in 6/8 patients and in bone in 2/8 patients. Hemangiopericytoma was the most common reported histology. All patients underwent surgery, following which they demonstrated clinical improvement. However, one patient with atypical findings on histology did not show any clinical improvement, hence, underwent 68Gallium-DOTANOC PET-ceCT scan for relocalization of the site of the tumor. Conclusion: The tumors causing TIO are small in size and usually located in obscure sites in the body. Hence, head to toe protocol should be followed for FDG PET-ceCT scans with the inclusion of upper limbs. Once the tumor is localized, regional magnetic resonance imaging can be performed for better characterization of soft tissue lesion. Imaging with FDG PET-ceCT plays an important role in detecting the site of the tumor and thereby facilitating timely management. PMID:26917888

  14. Using 18F Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography (FDG PET) to Monitor Clinical Outcomes in Patients Treated with Neoadjuvant Chemo-Radiotherapy for Locally Advanced Pancreatic Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Minsig; Heilbrun, Lance K.; Venkatramanamoorthy, Raghu; Lawhorn-Crews, Jawana M.; Zalupski, Mark M.; Shields, Anthony F.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Pancreatic cancer ranks as the fourth leading cause of cancer death in the United States with five year survival ranging from 1-5%. Positron emission tomography (PET) is a metabolic imaging system that is widely used for the initial staging of cancer and detecting residual disease after treatment. There are limited data, however, on the use of this molecular imaging technique to assess early tumor response after treatment in pancreatic cancer. METHODS The objective of the study was to explore the relationship of early treatment response using the 18 F- fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET with surgical outcome and overall survival in patients with locally advanced pancreatic cancer. FDG-PET measurements of maximum standardized uptake value (SUV) and kinetic parameters were compared to the clinical outcome. RESULTS Twenty patients were enrolled in the study evaluating neoadjuvant induction chemotherapy followed by concurrent chemoradiotherapy (chemo-RT) for locally advanced pancreatic cancer. All twenty patients had pre-study PET scans and a total of fifty PET scans were performed. Among patients who were PET responders (≥50% decrease in SUV after cycle 1), 100% (2/2) had complete surgical resection. Only 6% (1/16) had surgical resection in the PET non-responders (<50% decrease). Two patients did not have the second PET scan due to clinical progression or treatment toxicity. Mean survival was 23.2 months for PET responders and 11.3 months for non-responders (p=0.234). Similar differences in survival were also noted when response was measured using Patlak analysis. CONCLUSION FDG-PET can aid in monitoring the clinical outcome of patients with locally advanced pancreatic cancer treated with neoadjuvant chemo-RT. FDG-PET may be used to aid patients who could have complete surgical resection as well as prognosticate patients’ survival. PMID:19806035

  15. Integrated 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/dynamic contrast-enhanced computed tomography to phenotype non-small cell lung carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Shastry, Manu; Miles, Kenneth A; Win, Thida; Janes, Sam M; Endozo, Raymond; Meagher, Marie; Ell, Peter J; Groves, Ashley M

    2012-01-01

    We applied modern molecular and functional imaging to the pretreatment assessment of lung cancer using combined dynamic contrast-enhanced computed tomography (DCE-CT) and (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography ((18)F-FDG-PET) to phenotype tumors. Seventy-four lung cancer patients were prospectively recruited for (18)F-FDG-PET/DCE-CT using PET/64-detector CT. After technical failures, there were 64 patients (35 males, 29 females; mean age [± SD] 67.5 ± 7.9 years). DCE-CT yielded tumor peak enhancement (PE) and standardized perfusion value (SPV). The uptake of (18)F-FDG quantified on PET as the standardized uptake value (SUV(max)) assessed tumor metabolism. The median values for SUV(max) and SPV were used to define four vascular-metabolic phenotypes. There were associations (Spearman rank correlation [rs]) between tumor size and vascular-metabolic parameters: SUV(max) versus size (rs  =  .40, p  =  .001) and SUV/PE versus size (r  =  .43, p < .001). Patients with earlier-stage (I-IIA, n  =  30) disease had mean (± SD) SUV/PE 0.36 ± 0.28 versus 0.56 ± 0.32 in later-stage (stage IIB-IV, n  =  34) disease (p  =  .007). The low metabolism with high vascularity phenotype was significantly more common among adenocarcinomas (p  =  .018), whereas the high metabolism with high vascularity phenotype was more common among squamous cell carcinomas (p  =  .024). Other non-small cell lung carcinoma tumor types demonstrated a high prevalence of the high metabolism with low vascularity phenotype (p  =  .028). We show that tumor subtypes have different vascular-metabolic associations, which can be helpful clinically in managing lung cancer patients to hone targeted therapy. PMID:22954179

  16. Changes in 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose Uptake in the Spinal Cord in a Healthy Population on Serial Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Chong, Ari; Byun, Byung-Hyun; Hong, Sun-Pyo; Min, Jung-Joon; Bom, Hee-Seung; Ha, Jung-Min; Lee, Jung-Kil

    2013-01-01

    We aimed to determine the changes in 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake in the spinal cord on two serial positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) scans in a healthy population. We retrospectively enrolled healthy people who underwent PET/CT twice for cancer screening. We excluded those who had degenerative vertebral disease, neurologic disease, or a history of a vertebral operation. The standardized uptake value (SUVmax) of the spinal cord of each mid-vertebral body was obtained by drawing a region of interest on an axial image of PET/CT. For analysis, the cord-to-background ratio (CTB) was used (CTB=SUVmax of each level/SUVmax of L5 level). Differences in pattern, sex, age, and intervals of the two serial PET/CT scans were analyzed. A total of 60 PET/CT images of 30 people were analyzed. The mean interval between the two PET/CT imaging studies was 2.80±0.94 years. On the follow-up PET/CT, significant change was shown only at the level of the C6 and T10 vertebrae (p<0.005). Mean CTB showed a decreasing pattern from cervical to lumbar vertebrae. There were two peaks at the lower cervical level (C4-6) and at the lower thoracic level (T12). Neither sex nor age significantly affected CTB. The FDG uptake of the spinal cord changed significantly on follow-up PET/CT only at the level of the C6 and T10 vertebrae. This finding is valuable as a baseline reference in the follow-up of metabolic changes in the spinal cord. PMID:23678476

  17. Efficacy of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography in restaging muscle-invasive bladder cancer following radical cystectomy

    PubMed Central

    ÖZTÜRK, HAKAN; KARAPOLAT, İNANÇ

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to retrospectively evaluate the contribution and effectiveness of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography (18F-FDG-PET/CT) scans in the restaging of patients following radical cystectomy due to muscle-invasive bladder carcinoma (MIBC). A total of 51 patients (45 males and six females) who underwent radical cystectomy due to invasive bladder cancer, and had an 18F-FDG-PET/CT scan for restaging between July 2007 and April 2013, were included in the present study. The mean age was 62.3±9.79 years (range, 40–82 years). Patients underwent a six-hour fast prior to scanning, and whole-body PET scanning from the skull base to the upper thighs was performed ~1 h after the intravenous injection of 555 MBq 18F-FDG. Whole-body CT scanning was performed in a cranio-caudal direction. 18F-FDG-PET images were reconstructed using CT data for attenuation correction. Histopathology or clinical follow-up was used to confirm any suspicious recurrent or metastatic lesions. The results for sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value and accuracy of 18F-FDG-PET/CT were 92, 83, 94, 77 and 90%, respectively. In conclusion, 18F-FDG-PET/CT efficiently detects local recurrence and distant metastases with high sensitivity and PPV in the restaging of patients who underwent radical cystectomy due to invasive bladder cancer. This procedure could play an important role in rendering decisions regarding radiotherapy or chemotherapy and post-operative follow-up, and could influence the entire decision-making process. PMID:25667618

  18. 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography in patients with Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease: a nine-case series in China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jun; Dong, Meng-Jie; Liu, Kan-Feng; Xu, Li-Ming; Zhao, Kui; Yang, Jun; Weng, Wan-Wen; Qiu, Hong; Lin, Li-Li; Zhu, Yang-Jun

    2015-01-01

    This study observed the image characteristics and clinico-imaging relationships of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (18F-FDG PET/CT) in the patients with Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease (KFD). Nine consecutive patients with histologically proven KFD who underwent 18F-FDG PET/CT were recruited. The 18F-FDG uptakes of bone marrow (BM), spleen and lymph nodes (LNs) were systematically evaluated and maximum standardized uptake values (SUVmax) were measured. The number, locations and size factors of LNs were also assessed. The correlations were calculated between 18F-FDG uptake and laboratory data and size factors of LNs, and the findings of LNs were compared between subgroups with different clinical features. 18F-FDG uptakes were positive in the BM (SUVmax, 3.2 ± 1.2), spleen (SUVmax, 2.8 ± 0.7) and 122 affected LNs (SUVmax, 4.2 ± 2.2) for all patients. The affected LNs presented a systemically (region, 4 ± 1), multiple (number, 14 ± 5) and small-sized (long axis diameter, 11.4 ± 2.7 mm; short axis diameter, 8.0 ± 2.1 mm; area, 81.1 ± 44.6 mm2) pattern. The SUVmax of BM correlated to neutrophil count, and the SUVmax of affected LNs correlated to size factors and was lower in patients with long imaging interval and positive anti-nuclear antibody (ANA) (P < 0.05). We conclude that 18F-FDG PET/CT can be characterized by the generalized distribution of relatively small-sized LNs and involvement of BM and spleen with high 18F-FDG avidity in patients with KFD. The imaging interval, neutrophil count and ANA level should be synthetically considered during imaging evaluation. PMID:26885034

  19. Using {sup 18}F-Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography to Estimate the Length of Gross Tumor in Patients With Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Esophagus

    SciTech Connect

    Zhong Xiaojun; Yu Jinming Zhang Baijiang; Mu Dianbin; Zhang Weidi; Li Daotang; Han Anqin; Song Pingping; Li Hui; Yang Guoren; Kong Fengming; Fu Zheng

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the optimal method of using {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) to estimate gross tumor length in esophageal carcinoma. Methods and Materials: Thirty-six patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma treated with radical surgery were enrolled. Gross tumor volumes (GTVs) were delineated using three different methods: visual interpretation, standardized uptake value (SUV) 2.5, and 40% of maximum standard uptake value (SUV{sub max}) on FDG-PET imaging. The length of tumors on PET scan were measured and recorded as Length{sub vis}, Length{sub 2.5}, and Length{sub 40}, respectively, and compared with the length of gross tumor in the resected specimen (Length{sub gross}). All PET data were reviewed again postoperatively, and the GTV was delineated using various percentages of SUV{sub max}. The optimal-threshold SUV was generated when the length of PET matched the Length{sub gross}. Results: The mean ({+-}SD) Length{sub gross} was 5.48 {+-} 1.98 cm. The mean Length{sub vis}, Length{sub 2.5}, and Length{sub 40} were 5.18 {+-} 1.93 cm, 5.49 {+-} 1.79 cm, and 4.34 {+-} 1.54 cm, respectively. The mean Length{sub vis} (p = 0.123) and Length{sub 2.5} (p = 0.957) were not significantly different from Length{sub gross}, and Length{sub 2.5} seems more approximate to Length{sub gross.} The mean Length{sub 40} was significantly shorter than Length{sub gross} (p < 0.001). The mean optimal threshold was 23.81% {+-} 11.29% for all tumors, and it was 19.78% {+-} 8.59%, 30.92% {+-} 12.28% for tumors {>=}5 cm, and <5 cm, respectively (p = 0.009). The correlation coefficients of the optimal threshold were -0.802 and -0.561 with SUV{sub max} and Length{sub gross}, respectively. Conclusions: The optimal PET method to estimate the length of gross tumor varies with tumor length and SUV{sub max}; an SUV cutoff of 2.5 provided the closest estimation in this study.

  20. Positron emission tomography response criteria in solid tumours criteria for quantitative analysis of [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography with integrated computed tomography for treatment response assessment in metastasised solid tumours: All that glitters is not gold.

    PubMed

    Willemsen, Annelieke E C A B; Vlenterie, Myrella; van Herpen, Carla M L; van Erp, Nielka P; van der Graaf, Winette T A; de Geus-Oei, Lioe-Fee; Oyen, Wim J G

    2016-03-01

    For solid tumours, quantitative analysis of [(18)F]-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography with integrated computed tomography potentially can have significant value in early response assessment and thereby discrimination between responders and non-responders at an early stage of treatment. Standardised strategies for this analysis have been proposed, and the positron emission tomography response criteria in solid tumours (PERCIST) criteria can be regarded as the current standard to perform quantitative analysis in a research setting, yet is not implemented in daily practice. However, several exceptions and limitations limit the feasibility of PERCIST criteria. In this article, we point out dilemmas that arise when applying proposed criteria like PERCIST on an expansive set of patients with metastasised solid tumours. Clinicians and scientists should be aware of these limitations to prevent that methodological issues impede successful introduction of research data into clinical practice. Therefore, to deliver on the high potential of quantitative imaging, consensus should be reached on a standardised, feasible and clinically useful analysis methodology. This methodology should be applicable in the majority of patients, tumour types and treatments. PMID:26808297

  1. Prognostic value of the standardized uptake value maximum change calculated by dual-time-point 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography imaging in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Feng; Zhu, Hui; Fu, Zheng; Kong, Li; Yu, Jinming

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to investigate the prognostic value of the standardized uptake value maximum (SUVmax) change calculated by dual-time-point 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (PET) imaging in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Patients and methods We conducted a retrospective review of 115 patients with advanced NSCLC who underwent pretreatment dual-time-point 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose PET acquired at 1 and 2 hours after injection. The SUVmax from early images (SUVmax1) and SUVmax from delayed images (SUVmax2) were recorded and used to calculate the SUVmax changes, including the SUVmax increment (ΔSUVmax) and percent change of the SUVmax (%ΔSUVmax). Progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were determined by the Kaplan–Meier method and were compared with the studied PET parameters, and the clinicopathological prognostic factors in univariate analyses and multivariate analyses were constructed using Cox proportional hazards regression. Results One hundred and fifteen consecutive patients were reviewed, and the median follow-up time was 12.5 months. The estimated median PFS and OS were 3.8 and 9.6 months, respectively. In univariate analysis, SUVmax1, SUVmax2, ΔSUVmax, %ΔSUVmax, clinical stage, and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) scores were significant prognostic factors for PFS. Similar results were significantly correlated with OS, except %ΔSUVmax. In multivariate analysis, ΔSUVmax and %ΔSUVmax were significant factors for PFS. On the other hand, ECOG scores were only identified as independent predictors of OS. Conclusion Our results demonstrated the prognostic value of the SUVmax change in predicting the PFS of patients with advanced NSCLC. However, SUVmax change could not predict OS. PMID:27284249

  2. Volume-Based Parameters of {sup 18}F-Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography Improve Disease Recurrence Prediction in Postmastectomy Breast Cancer Patients With 1 to 3 Positive Axillary Lymph Nodes

    SciTech Connect

    Nakajima, Naomi; Kataoka, Masaaki; Sugawara, Yoshifumi; Ochi, Takashi; Kiyoto, Sachiko; Ohsumi, Shozo; Mochizuki, Teruhito

    2013-11-15

    Purpose: To determine whether volume-based parameters on pretreatment {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography in breast cancer patients treated with mastectomy without adjuvant radiation therapy are predictive of recurrence. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively analyzed 93 patients with 1 to 3 positive axillary nodes after surgery, who were studied with {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography for initial staging. We evaluated the relationship between positron emission tomography parameters, including the maximum standardized uptake value, metabolic tumor volume (MTV), and total lesion glycolysis (TLG), and clinical outcomes. Results: The median follow-up duration was 45 months. Recurrence was observed in 11 patients. Metabolic tumor volume and TLG were significantly related to tumor size, number of involved nodes, nodal ratio, nuclear grade, estrogen receptor (ER) status, and triple negativity (TN) (all P values were <.05). In receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, MTV and TLG showed better predictive performance than tumor size, ER status, or TN (area under the curve: 0.85, 0.86, 0.79, 0.74, and 0.74, respectively). On multivariate analysis, MTV was an independent prognostic factor of locoregional recurrence-free survival (hazard ratio 34.42, 95% confidence interval 3.94-882.71, P=.0008) and disease-free survival (DFS) (hazard ratio 13.92, 95% confidence interval 2.65-103.78, P=.0018). The 3-year DFS rate was 93.8% for the lower MTV group (<53.1; n=85) and 25.0% for the higher MTV group (≥53.1; n=8; P<.0001, log–rank test). The 3-year DFS rate for patients with both ER-positive status and MTV <53.1 was 98.2%; and for those with ER-negative status and MTV ≥53.1 it was 25.0% (P<.0001). Conclusions: Volume-based parameters improve recurrence prediction in postmastectomy breast cancer patients with 1 to 3 positive nodes. The addition of MTV to ER status or TN has

  3. The relative prognostic utility of standardized uptake value, gross tumor volume, and metabolic tumor volume in oropharyngeal cancer patients treated with platinum based concurrent chemoradiation with a pre-treatment [18F] fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography scan

    PubMed Central

    Romesser, Paul B.; Lim, Remy; Spratt, Daniel E.; Setton, Jeremy; Riaz, Nadeem; Lok, Benjamin; Rao, Shyam; Sherman, Eric J.; Schöder, Heiko; Lee, Nancy Y.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study compared the relative prognostic utility of the gross tumor volume (GTV), maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax), and metabolic tumor volume (MTV) in a uniform cohort of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) patients treated with platinum-based concurrent chemoradiation therapy (CCRT). Methods and Materials One-hundred OPSCC with a pretreatment [18F] fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography positron-emission tomography computed-tomography (PET-CT) were treated with CCRT. Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox proportional hazard models were generated. Results When dichotomized by the median, a smaller MTV correlated with improved 5-year locoregional control (LRC) (98.0% versus 87.0%, p = .049), freedom from distant metastasis (FDM) (91.7% versus 65.0%, p = .005), progression-free survival (PFS) (80.3% versus 56.7%, p = .015), and overall survival (OS) (84.1% versus 57.8%, p = .008), whereas a smaller GTV correlated with improved PFS (80.3% versus 57.4%, p = .040) and OS (82.1% versus 60.1%, p = .025). SUVmax failed to correlate with any outcome. On multivariate analysis, when adjusted for GTV, T-stage, and N-stage a smaller MTV remained independently correlated with improved FDM, PFS, and OS. GTV failed to reach significance in the multivariate model. Conclusions A smaller MTV correlates with improved LRC, FDM, PFS, and OS in OPSCC patients undergoing platinum-based CCRT. PMID:25043882

  4. A rare case of extensive skeletal muscle metastases in adenocarcinoma cervix identified by 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography scan

    PubMed Central

    Vishnoi, Madan Gopal; Jain, Anurag; John, Arun Ravi; Paliwal, Dharmesh

    2016-01-01

    Adenocarcinoma cervix is an uncommon histological subtype of carcinoma cervix; further incidence of skeletal muscle metastases is even rarer. We report the identification of extensive fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) avid metastatic skeletal muscle deposits in a known case of adenocarcinoma cervix. The largest lesion representative of muscle deposit in the right deltoid was histopathologically confirmed to be metastatic poorly differentiated carcinoma. This report also serves to highlight the importance of 18F-FDG positron emission tomography/computed tomography (CT) as compared to conventional imaging modalities such as CT and ultrasonography and comments better over the description of invasiveness as well as the extent of disease in carcinoma cervix. PMID:27385895

  5. Hypertrophic pulmonary osteoarthropathy on bone scintigraphy and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography in a patient with lung adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Cengiz, Arzu; Eren, Mine Şencan; Polatli, Mehmet; Yürekli, Yakup

    2015-01-01

    Hypertrophic pulmonary osteoarthropathy (HPOA) is not an uncommon paraneoplastic syndrome that is frequently associated with lung cancer. A 54-year-old male patient with lung adenocarcinoma underwent bone scintigraphy and fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) scanning for initial staging. Bone scintigraphy revealed increased periosteal activity in lower extremities. FDG PET/CT revealed hypermetabolic right lung mass, mediastinal lymph nodes, and mildly increased periosteal FDG uptake in both femurs and tibias. The findings in lower extremities on bone scan and FDG PET/CT were interpreted as HPOA. PMID:26170569

  6. Hypertrophic pulmonary osteoarthropathy on bone scintigraphy and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography in a patient with lung adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Cengiz, Arzu; Eren, Mine Şencan; Polatli, Mehmet; Yürekli, Yakup

    2015-01-01

    Hypertrophic pulmonary osteoarthropathy (HPOA) is not an uncommon paraneoplastic syndrome that is frequently associated with lung cancer. A 54-year-old male patient with lung adenocarcinoma underwent bone scintigraphy and fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) scanning for initial staging. Bone scintigraphy revealed increased periosteal activity in lower extremities. FDG PET/CT revealed hypermetabolic right lung mass, mediastinal lymph nodes, and mildly increased periosteal FDG uptake in both femurs and tibias. The findings in lower extremities on bone scan and FDG PET/CT were interpreted as HPOA. PMID:26170569

  7. False-positive 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography in a patient with metallic implants following chondrosarcoma resection

    PubMed Central

    ZHOU, PU; TANG, JINLIANG; ZHANG, DONG; LI, GUANGHUI

    2016-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) with fluorine-18-labeled fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) has been used for the staging and evaluation of recurrence in cancer patients. We herein report a false-positive result of 18F-FDG PET/computed tomography (CT) scan in a patient following chondrosarcoma resection and metallic implanting. A 35-year-old male patient with chondrosarcoma of the left iliac bone underwent radical resection, metal brace implanting and radiotherapy. A high uptake of 18F-FDG was observed in the metallic implants and adjacent tissue during PET/CT scanning in the 5th year of follow-up. Tissue biopsy and follow-up examination identified no tumor recurrence or infection at these sites, suggesting that the results of 18F-FDG PET/CT must be interpreted with caution in cancer patients with metallic implants. PMID:27123290

  8. Cost-effectiveness of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography in the assessment of early dementia from a Belgian and European perspective.

    PubMed

    Moulin-Romsee, G; Maes, A; Silverman, D; Mortelmans, L; Van Laere, K

    2005-04-01

    (18)F-fluoro-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG PET) can aid to predict AD in an early stage. The aim of this study was to estimate the economic effects of incorporating FDG PET in the diagnostic work-up of AD in a Belgian and European setting. A decision tree analysis was followed comparing a conventional algorithm using diagnostic clinical criteria and one that also incorporates PET. Major outcome terms were overall cost per patient in either strategy; diagnostic accuracy and cost per accurate diagnosis. A sensitivity analysis was performed for four critical variables: cost of PET, sensitivity and specificity of PET and delay in cognitive decline because of appropriate medication. Cost-savings per accurate diagnosis ranged from 623-6110 Euro in favour of the proposed algorithm with PET. For the same cost, more accurate diagnoses were made, resulting in benefit for patients and society. The positive results were maintained over a wide range of values for the critical variables and were expandable to other European countries with a similar health system. Therefore, incorporation of FDG PET into the clinical diagnostic work up of patients with early symptoms of cognitive decline can be advocated. PMID:15804241

  9. Characterization of the image-derived carotid artery input function using independent component analysis for the quantitation of [18F] fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, K.; Chen, X.; Renaut, R.; Alexander, G. E.; Bandy, D.; Guo, H.; Reiman, E. M.

    2007-12-01

    We previously developed a noninvasive technique for the quantification of fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) images using an image-derived input function obtained from a manually drawn carotid artery region. Here, we investigate the use of independent component analysis (ICA) for more objective identification of the carotid artery and surrounding tissue regions. Using FDG PET data from 22 subjects, ICA was applied to an easily defined cubical region including the carotid artery and neighboring tissue. Carotid artery and tissue time activity curves and three venous samples were used to generate spillover and partial volume-corrected input functions and to calculate the parametric images of the cerebral metabolic rate for glucose (CMRgl). Different from a blood-sampling-free ICA approach, the results from our ICA approach are numerically well matched to those based on the arterial blood sampled input function. In fact, the ICA-derived input functions and CMRgl measurements were not only highly correlated (correlation coefficients >0.99) to, but also highly comparable (regression slopes between 0.92 and 1.09), with those generated using arterial blood sampling. Moreover, the reliability of the ICA-derived input function remained high despite variations in the location and size of the cubical region. The ICA procedure makes it possible to quantify FDG PET images in an objective and reproducible manner. Image-derived input function by ICA for FDG-PET.

  10. Usefulness of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography scan in the assessment of periprosthetic collections: report of 2 cases with opposite management.

    PubMed

    Choufani, Camille; Pierret, Charles; Gontier, Eric; Mlynski, Amélie; de Kerangal, Xavier; Chapuis, Olivier

    2014-04-01

    Vascular prosthetic infection is a rare but serious complication of vascular surgery that requires rapid diagnosis and treatment. It is associated with high rates of amputation and death. The diagnosis is difficult when faced with a chronic nonspecific clinical presentation. We report 2 cases showing the diagnostic usefulness of positron emission tomography (PET). In 1 case, PET excluded with certainty the septic character of a periprosthetic collection fistulized with the skin by showing a periprosthetic fixation insufficient to diagnose an infection. In the other case, it confirmed the prosthetic infection in association with an evocative clinical picture by revealing a pathologic periprosthetic hyperfixation. PET scan therefore drew aside the diagnosis of prosthetic infection faced with a mild clinical and paraclinical presentation in the first case, and made it possible to pose it with certainty in the second case. This examination made it possible to save valuable time in 1 case and to elucidate the periprosthetic collection in the other case. Therefore, the rule of surgical explantation of any prosthesis with flow or periprosthetic collection is no more univocal. PMID:24211410

  11. 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography Accuracy in the Staging of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: Review and Cost-Effectiveness

    PubMed Central

    Gómez León, Nieves; Escalona, Sofía; Bandrés, Beatriz; Belda, Cristobal; Callejo, Daniel; Blasco, Juan Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Aim of the performed clinical study was to compare the accuracy and cost-effectiveness of PET/CT in the staging of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Material and Methods. Cross-sectional and prospective study including 103 patients with histologically confirmed NSCLC. All patients were examined using PET/CT with intravenous contrast medium. Those with disease stage ≤IIB underwent surgery (n = 40). Disease stage was confirmed based on histology results, which were compared with those of PET/CT and positron emission tomography (PET) and computed tomography (CT) separately. 63 patients classified with ≥IIIA disease stage by PET/CT did not undergo surgery. The cost-effectiveness of PET/CT for disease classification was examined using a decision tree analysis. Results. Compared with histology, the accuracy of PET/CT for disease staging has a positive predictive value of 80%, a negative predictive value of 95%, a sensitivity of 94%, and a specificity of 82%. For PET alone, these values are 53%, 66%, 60%, and 50%, whereas for CT alone they are 68%, 86%, 76%, and 72%, respectively. Incremental cost-effectiveness of PET/CT over CT alone was €17,412 quality-adjusted life-year (QALY). Conclusion. In our clinical study, PET/CT using intravenous contrast medium was an accurate and cost-effective method for staging of patients with NSCLC. PMID:25431665

  12. The Accuracy of 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography in the Evaluation of Bone Lesions of Undetermined Origin

    PubMed Central

    Tamam, Cuneyt; Tamam, Muge; Mulazimoglu, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to determine the diagnostic accuracy of whole-body fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) in detecting carcinoma of unknown primary (CUP) with bone metastases. We evaluated 87 patients who were referred to FDG-PET/CT imaging and reported to have skeletal lesions with suspicion of malignancy. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy were calculated. The median survival rate was measured to evaluate the prognostic value of the FDG-PET/CT findings. In the search for a primary, FDG-PET/CT findings correctly diagnosed lesions as the site of the primary true positive (TP) in 64 (73%) cases, 4 (5%) findings diagnosed no site of a primary, and none were subsequently proven to be true negative (TN); 14 (16%) diagnoses were false positive (FP) and 5 (6%) diagnoses were false negative (FN). Life expectancy was between 2 months and 25 months. Whole-body FDG-PET/CT imaging may be a useful method in assessing the bone lesions with suspicion of bone metastases. PMID:27134563

  13. Contrast-enhanced [18F] fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography-computed tomography as an initial imaging modality in patients presenting with metastatic malignancy of undefined primary origin

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Avani; Srivastava, Madhur Kumar; Pawaskar, Alok Suresh; Shelley, Simon; Elangovan, Indirani; Jain, Hasmukh; Pandey, Somnath; Kalal, Shilpa; Amalachandran, Jaykanth

    2015-01-01

    Background: To evaluate the advantages of contrast enhanced F-18-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-contrast enhanced CT [CECT]) when used as an initial imaging modality in patients presenting with metastatic malignancy of undefined primary origin (MUO). Materials and Methods: A total of 243 patients with fine needle aspiration cytology/biopsy proven MUO were included in this prospective study. Patients who were thoroughly evaluated for primary or primary tumor was detected by any other investigation were excluded from the analysis. Totally, 163 patients with pathological diagnosis of malignancy but no apparent sites of the primary tumor were finally selected for analysis. The site of probable primary malignancy suggested by PET-CECT was confirmed by biopsy/follow-up. Results: PET-CECT suggested probable site of primary in 128/163 (78.52%) patients. In 30/35 remaining patients, primary tumor was not detected even after extensive work-up. In 5 patients, where PET-CECT was negative, primary was found on further extensive investigations or follow-up. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of the study were 95.76%, 66.67%, 88.28% and 85.71% respectively. Conclusions: F-18 FDG PET-CECT aptly serves the purpose of initial imaging modality owing to high sensitivity, negative and positive predictive value. PET-CECT not only surveys the whole body for the primary malignancy but also stages the disease accurately. Use of contrast improves the diagnostic utility of modality as well as help in staging of the primary tumor. Although benefits of using PET-CECT as initial diagnostic modality are obvious from this study, there is a need for a larger study comparing conventional methods for diagnosing primary in patients with MUO versus PET-CECT. PMID:26170563

  14. Contrast-Enhanced [{sup 18}F]fluorodeoxyglucose-Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography for Staging and Radiotherapy Planning in Patients With Anal Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Bannas, Peter; Weber, Christoph; Adam, Gerhard; Frenzel, Thorsten; Derlin, Thorsten; Mester, Janos; Klutmann, Susanne

    2011-10-01

    Purpose: The practice of surgical staging and treatment of anal cancer has been replaced by noninvasive staging and combined modality therapy. For appropriate patient management, accurate lymph node staging is crucial. The present study evaluated the feasibility and diagnostic accuracy of contrast-enhanced [{sup 18}F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose ([{sup 18}F]FDG)-positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) for staging and radiotherapy planning of anal cancer. Methods and Materials: A total of 22 consecutive patients (median age, 61 years old) with anal cancer underwent complete staging evaluation including physical examination, biopsy of the primary tumor, and contrast-enhanced (ce)-PET/CT. Patients were positioned as they would be for their subsequent radiotherapy. PET and CT images were evaluated independently for detectability and localization of the primary tumor, pelvic and inguinal lymph nodes, and distant metastasis. The stage, determined by CT or PET alone, and the proposed therapy planning were compared with the stage and management determined by ce-PET/CT. Data from ce-PET/CT were used for radiotherapy planning. Results: ce-PET/CT revealed locoregional lymph node metastasis in 11 of 22 patients (50%). After simultaneous reading of PET and CT data sets by experienced observers, 3 patients (14%) were found to have sites of disease not seen on CT that were identified on PET. Two patients had sites of disease not seen on PET that were identified on CT. In summary, 2 patients were upstaged, and 4 patients were downstaged due to ce-PET/CT. However, radiotherapy fields were changed due to the results from ce-PET/CT in 23% of cases compared to CT or PET results alone. Conclusions: ce-PET/CT is superior to PET or CT alone for staging of anal cancer, with significant impact on therapy planning.

  15. Usefulness of 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography for Follow-Up of 13-cis-Retinoic Acid Treatment for Residual Neuroblastoma After Myeloablative Chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Sato, Yuya; Kurosawa, Hidemitsu; Sakamoto, Setsu; Kuwashima, Shigeko; Hashimoto, Teisuke; Okamoto, Kentaro; Tsuchioka, Takashi; Fukushima, Keitaro; Arisaka, Osamu

    2015-08-01

    13-cis-retinoic acid (13-cis-RA) treatment is used as a second-line treatment for residual or recurrent neuroblastoma. However, determining the duration of 13-cis-RA treatment for residual and recurrent neuroblastoma can be a problem because it is difficult to evaluate the effectiveness of the treatment.We performed 13-cis-RA treatment to remove residual active neuroblastoma cells in an 8-year-old boy with stage 4 neuroblastoma that developed from a left sympathetic ganglion and had been treated with chemotherapy, surgery, autologous peripheral blood stem-cell transplantation, and radiotherapy. F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (F-FDG-PET) and iodine-123 metaiodobenzylguanidine (I-MIBG) scintigraphy obtained immediately before 13-cis-RA treatment both showed positive findings in the area of the primary lesion. At 18 months after 13-cis-RA treatment, there was accumulation on I-MIBG scintigraphy but no uptake on F-FDG-PET, and 13-cis-RA treatment was suspended. The patient has been in complete remission for 3 years. In comparing the effectiveness of the 2 imaging modalities for monitoring the response to 13-cis-RA treatment, we considered that F-FDG-PET was superior to I-MIBG scintigraphy because F-FDG-PET images were not affected by the cell differentiation induced by 13-cis-RA treatment in our case. Thus, F-FDG-PET was useful for determining the treatment response and outcomes.We have reported a case of residual neuroblastoma treated with differentiation-inducing 13-cis-RA therapy. Different results were produced with F-FDG-PET and I-MIBG scintigraphy. The cessation of 13-cis-RA treatment was based on F-FDG-PET findings and there has been no relapse for 3 years. PMID:26252303

  16. In vivo monitoring of parathyroid hormone treatment after myocardial infarction in mice with [68Ga]annexin A5 and [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography.

    PubMed

    Lehner, Sebastian; Todica, Andrei; Vanchev, Yordan; Uebleis, Christopher; Wang, Hao; Herrler, Tanja; Wängler, Carmen; Cumming, Paul; Böning, Guido; Franz, Wolfgang M; Bartenstein, Peter; Hacker, Marcus; Brunner, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    [68Ga]Annexin A5 positron emission tomography (PET) reveals the externalization of phosphatidylserine as a surrogate marker for apoptosis. We tested this technique for therapy monitoring in a murine model of myocardial infarction (MI) including parathyroid hormone (PTH) treatment. MI was induced in mice, and they were assigned to the saline or the PTH group. On day 2, they received [68Ga]annexin A5 PET or histofluorescence TUNEL staining. Mice had 2-deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-d-glucose (FDG)-PET examinations on days 6 and 30 for calculation of the left ventricular ejection fraction and infarct area. [68Ga]Annexin A5 uptake was 7.4 ± 1.3 %ID/g within the infarction for the controls and 4.5 ± 1.9 %ID/g for the PTH group (p  =  .013). TUNEL staining revealed significantly more apoptotic cells in the infarct area on day 2 in the controls (64 ± 9%) compared to the treatment group (52 ± 4%; p  =  .045). FDG-PET revealed a significant decrease in infarct size in the treatment group and an increase in the controls. Examinations of left ventricular ejection fraction on days 6 and 30 did not reveal treatment effects. [68Ga]Annexin A5 PET can detect the effects of PTH treatment as a marker of apoptosis 2 days after MI; ex vivo examination confirmed significant rescue of myocardiocytes. FDG-PET showed a small but significant reduction in infarct size but no functional improvement. PMID:25249170

  17. Prognostic Significance of Tumor Response as Assessed by Sequential {sup 18}F-Fluorodeoxyglucose-Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography During Concurrent Chemoradiation Therapy for Cervical Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Oh, Dongryul; Lee, Jeong Eun; Huh, Seung Jae; Park, Won; Nam, Heerim; Choi, Joon Young; Kim, Byung-Tae

    2013-11-01

    Purpose: To investigate the prognostic role of metabolic response by the use of serial sets of positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) in patients with cervical cancer who were treated with concurrent chemoradiation therapy (CCRT). Methods and Materials: A total of 60 patients who were treated with CCRT between February 2009 and December 2010 were analyzed. Three sequential PET/CT images were acquired for each patient: pre-CCRT, during-CCRT at 4 weeks of CCRT, and 1 month post-CCRT PET/CT. Metabolic responses were assessed qualitatively. The percentage changes in the maximum values of standardized uptake value (ΔSUV{sub max}%) from the PET/CT images acquired pre-CCRT and during-CCRT were calculated. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was performed to evaluate whether ΔSUV{sub max}% could predict complete response (CR) on the post-CCRT PET/CT and to identify the best cutoff value. Prognostic factors of progression-free survival (PFS) were analyzed. Results: During-CCRT PET/CT showed that 8 patients (13%) had CR, and the other 52 patients (87%) had partial response (PR). On the post-CCRT PET/CT, 43 patients (73%) had CR, 12 patients (20%) had PR, and 4 patients (7%) had progressive disease. The average SUV{sub max} in primary tumors was 16.3 (range, 6.4-53.0) on the pre-CCRT PET/CT images and 5.3 (range, 0-19.4) on the during-CCRT PET/CT images. According to ROC curve analysis, ΔSUV{sub max}% could predict CR response on post-CCRT PET/CT (P<.001, cutoff value of 59.7%). In all patients, the PFS rate was 71.9% at 2 years. Multivariate analysis showed that ΔSUV{sub max}% ≥60% (P=.045) and CR response on the post-CCRT PET/CT (P=.012) were statistically significant predictors of PFS. Conclusion: Metabolic responses on the during-CCRT images at 4 weeks of treatment and 1-month post-CCRT PET/CT images may predict treatment outcomes in patients with cervical cancer. ΔSUV{sub max}% ≥60% at 4 weeks of CCRT may predict CR response

  18. The role of positron emission tomography with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose integrated with computed tomography in the evaluation of patients with multiple myeloma undergoing allogeneic stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Patriarca, Francesca; Carobolante, Francesca; Zamagni, Elena; Montefusco, Vittorio; Bruno, Benedetto; Englaro, Emanuaela; Nanni, Cristina; Geatti, Onelio; Isola, Miriam; Sperotto, Alessandra; Buttignol, Silvia; Stocchi, Raffaella; Corradini, Paolo; Cavo, Michele; Fanin, Renato

    2015-06-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) integrated with computed tomography (PET/CT) has been reported to be useful for screening myelomatous lesions at diagnosis in patients with multiple myeloma (MM) and for monitoring response to autologous stem cell transplantation (auto-SCT). The aim of the study was to evaluate the prognostic significance of PET/CT in MM patients who received allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT). Patients who underwent upfront auto-SCT followed by allo-SCT, either as consolidation or salvage treatment, were studied with PET/CT before and/or within 6 months after allo-SCT. The number, the maximum standard uptake value (SUV), and the location (medullary or extramedullary) of focal lesions (FLs) were recorded and investigated as predictors of progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) by univariate and multivariate analyses. Fifty-four patients had a PET/CT scan before allo-SCT. Of these, 22 patients (41%) had a negative PET/CT scan, 11 patients (20%) showed 1 to 3 FLs, and 21 patients (39%) had either a diffuse bone marrow involvement or more than 3 FLs. SUV was >4.2 in 21 patients (39%) and extramedullary disease (EMD) was present in 6 patients (11%). Multivariate analysis of prognostic factors before allo-SCT showed that persistence of EMD at transplantation was an independent predictor of poor PFS, whereas OS was negatively influenced by unrelated donor and SUV > 4.2. Fifty-nine patients had a PET/CT scan within 6 months after allo-SCT. Multivariate analysis of post-treatment variables showed that persistence of EMD and failure to obtain complete response or very good partial response after allo-SCT were strongly associated with shorter PFS and OS. Of the 46 patients with evaluable PET/CT scans both before and 6 months after allo-SCT, the 23 patients who maintained or reached a PET complete remission showed a significantly prolonged PFS and OS compared with the 23 patients with persistence of any PET positivity (2-year

  19. A comparison study of 11C-methionine and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography scans in evaluation of patients with recurrent brain tumors

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Rajnish; D’Souza, Maria; Jaimini, Abhinav; Hazari, Puja Panwar; Saw, Sanjeev; Pandey, Santosh; Singh, Dinesh; Solanki, Yachna; Kumar, Nitin; Mishra, Anil K.; Mondal, Anupam

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: 11C-methonine ([11C]-MET) positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) is a well-established technique for evaluation of tumor for diagnosis and treatment planning in neurooncology. [11C]-MET reflects amino acid transport and has been shown to be more sensitive than magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in stereotactic biopsy planning. This study compared fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET-CT and MET PET-CT in the detection of various brain tumors. Materials and Methods: Sixty-four subjects of brain tumor treated by surgery, chemotherapy, and/or radiotherapy were subjected to [18F]-FDG, [11C]-MET, and MRI scan. The lesion was analyzed semiquantitatively using tumor to normal contralateral ratio. The diagnosis was confirmed by surgery, stereotactic biopsy, clinical follow-up, MRI, or CT scans. Results: Tumor recurrence was found in 5 out of 22 patients on [F-18] FDG scan while [11C]-MET was able to detect recurrence in 18 out of 22 patients in low-grade gliomas. Two of these patients were false positive for the presence of recurrence of tumor and later found to be harboring necrosis. Among oligodendroglioma, medulloblastoma and high-grade glioma out of 42 patients 39 were found to be concordant MET and FDG scans. On semiquantitative analysis, mean T/NT ratio was found to be 2.96 ± 0.94 for lesions positive for recurrence of tumors and 1.18 ± 0.74 for lesions negative for recurrence of tumor on [11C]-MET scan. While the ratio for FDG scan on semiquantitative analysis was found to be 2.05 ± 1.04 for lesions positive for recurrence of tumors and 0.52 ± 0.15 for lesions negative for recurrence of tumors. Conclusion: The study highlight that [11C]-MET is superior to [18F]-FDG PET scans to detect recurrence in low-grade glioma. A cut-off value of target to nontarget value of 1.47 is a useful parameter to distinguish benign from malignant lesion on an [11C]-MET Scan. Both [18F]-FDG and [11C]-MET scans were found to be useful in high-grade astrocytoma

  20. A Pilot Trial of Serial 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography in Patients With Medically Inoperable Stage I Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Treated With Hypofractionated Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, Mark A.; Hoopes, David J.; Fletcher, James W.; Lin, P.-F.; Tann, Mark; Yiannoutsos, Constantin T.; Williams, Mark D.; Fakiris, Achilles J.; McGarry, Ronald C.; Timmerman, Robert D.

    2010-03-01

    Purpose: Routine assessment was made of tumor metabolic activity as measured by 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) in Stage I non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). This report describes PET correlates prospectively collected after stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for patients with medically inoperable NSCLC. Methods and Materials: 14 consecutive patients with medically inoperable Stage I NSCLC were enrolled. All patients received SBRT to 60-66 Gy in three fractions. Patients underwent serial planned FDG-PET/computed tomography fusion imaging before SBRT and at 2, 26, and 52 weeks after SBRT. Results: With median follow-up of 30.2 months, no patients experienced local failure. One patient developed regional failure, 1 developed distant failure, and 1 developed a second primary. The median tumor maximum standardized uptake value (SUV{sub max}) before SBRT was 8.70. The median SUV{sub max} values at 2, 26, and 52 weeks after SBRT were 6.04, 2.80, and 3.58, respectively. Patients with low pre-SBRT SUV were more likely to experience initial 2-week rises in SUV, whereas patients with high pre-SBRT SUV commonly had SUV declines 2 weeks after treatment (p = 0.036). Six of 13 patients had primary tumor SUV{sub max} >3.5 at 12 months after SBRT but remained without evidence of local disease failure on further follow-up. Conclusions: A substantial proportion of patients may have moderately elevated FDG-PET SUV{sub max} at 12 months without evidence of local failure on further follow-up. Thus, slightly elevated PET SUV{sub max} should not be considered a surrogate for local treatment failure. Our data do not support routine serial FDG-PET/computed tomography for follow-up of patients receiving SBRT for Stage I NSCLC.

  1. Preoperative [18F]Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography Standardized Uptake Value of Neck Lymph Nodes Predicts Neck Cancer Control and Survival Rates in Patients With Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma and Pathologically Positive Lymph Nodes

    SciTech Connect

    Liao, C.-T.; Chang, J.T.-C.; Wang, H.-M.; Ng, S.-H.; Hsueh, C.; Lee, L.-Y.; Lin, C.-H.; Chen, I-H.; Huang, S.-F.

    2009-07-15

    Purpose: Survival in oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) depends heavily on locoregional control. In this prospective study, we sought to investigate whether preoperative maximum standardized uptake value of the neck lymph nodes (SUVnodal-max) may predict prognosis in OSCC patients. Methods and Materials: A total of 120 OSCC patients with pathologically positive lymph nodes were investigated. All subjects underwent a [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) scan within 2 weeks before radical surgery and neck dissection. All patients were followed up for at least 24 months after surgery or until death. Postoperative adjuvant therapy was performed in the presence of pathologic risk factors. Optimal cutoff values of SUVnodal-max were chosen based on 5-year disease-free survival (DFS), disease-specific survival (DSS), and overall survival (OS). Independent prognosticators were identified by Cox regression analysis. Results: The median follow-up for surviving patients was 41 months. The optimal cutoff value for SUVnodal-max was 5.7. Multivariate analyses identified the following independent predictors of poor outcome: SUVnodal-max {>=}5.7 for the 5-year neck cancer control rate, distant metastatic rate, DFS, DSS, and extracapsular spread (ECS) for the 5-year DSS and OS. Among ECS patients, the presence of a SUVnodal-max {>=}5.7 identified patients with the worst prognosis. Conclusion: A SUVnodal-max of 5.7, either alone or in combination with ECS, is an independent prognosticator for 5-year neck cancer control and survival rates in OSCC patients with pathologically positive lymph nodes.

  2. Proposal of new expanded selection criteria using total tumor size and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose - positron emission tomography/computed tomography for living donor liver transplantation in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma: The National Cancer Center Korea criteria

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seung Duk; Lee, Bora; Kim, Seong Hoon; Joo, Jungnam; Kim, Seok-Ki; Kim, Young-Kyu; Park, Sang-Jae

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To expand the living donor liver transplantation (LT) pool of eligible patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) using new morphological and biological criteria. METHODS: Patients with HCC who underwent living donor LT (LDLT) from March 2005 to May 2013 at the National Cancer Center Korea (NCCK) were enrolled. We performed the 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) before LDLT. Overall and disease-free survival analysis was done in patients to evaluate the usefulness of new NCCK criteria using PET/CT and total tumor size (10 cm). RESULTS: We enrolled a total of 280 patients who pathologically confirmed to have HCC and performed the PET/CT before transplantation. Among them, 164 (58.6%) patients fulfilled the NCCK criteria and 132 patients (47.1%) met the Milan criteria. Five-year overall and disease-free survival rates for patients who fulfilled the NCCK criteria showed 85.2% and 84.0%, respectively, and were significantly higher than those beyond the NCCK criteria (60.2% and 44.4%, respectively; P < 0.001). The correlation analysis between preoperative imaging tests and pathologic reports using Cohen’s Kappa demonstrated the better results in the NCCK criteria than those in the Milan criteria (0.850 vs 0.583). The comparison of disease-free analysis among the NCCK, Milan, and University of California, San Francisco (UCSF) criteria using the receiver operating characteristics curves revealed the similar area under the curve value criteria (NCCK vs Milan, P = 0.484; NCCK vs UCSF, P = 0.189 at 5-years). CONCLUSION: The NCCK criteria using hybrid concept of both morphological and biological parameters showed an excellent agreement between preoperative imaging and pathological results, and favorable survival outcomes. These new criteria might select the optimal patients with HCC waiting LDLT and expand the selection pool. PMID:27358787

  3. [18F] fluoromisonidazole and [18F] fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography in response evaluation after chemo-/radiotherapy of non-small-cell lung cancer: a feasibility study

    PubMed Central

    Gagel, Bernd; Reinartz, Patrick; Demirel, Cengiz; Kaiser, Hans J; Zimny, Michael; Piroth, Marc; Pinkawa, Michael; Stanzel, Sven; Asadpour, Branka; Hamacher, Kurt; Coenen, Heinz H; Buell, Ulrich; Eble, Michael J

    2006-01-01

    Background Experimental and clinical evidence suggest that hypoxia in solid tumours reduces their sensitivity to conventional treatment modalities modulating response to ionizing radiation or chemotherapeutic agents. The aim of the present study was to show the feasibility of determining radiotherapeutically relevant hypoxia and early tumour response by ([18F] Fluoromisonidazole (FMISO) and [18F]-2-fluoro-2'-deoxyglucose (FDG) PET. Methods Eight patients with non-small-cell lung cancer underwent PET scans. Tumour tissue oxygenation was measured with FMISO PET, whereas tumour glucose metabolism was measured with FDG PET. All PET studies were carried out with an ECAT EXACT 922/47® scanner with an axial field of view of 16.2 cm. FMISO PET consisted of one static scan of the relevant region, performed 180 min after intravenous administration of the tracer. The acquisition and reconstruction parameters were as follows: 30 min emission scanning and 4 min transmission scanning with 68-Ge/68-Ga rod sources. The patients were treated with chemotherapy, consisting of 2 cycles of gemcitabine (1200 mg/m2) and vinorelbine (30 mg/m2) followed by concurrent radio- (2.0 Gy/d; total dose 66.0 Gy) and chemotherapy with gemcitabine (300–500 mg/m2) every two weeks. FMISO PET and FDG PET were performed in all patients 3 days before and 14 days after finishing chemotherapy. Results FMISO PET allowed for the qualitative and quantitative definition of hypoxic sub-areas which may correspond to a localization of local recurrences. In addition, changes in FMISO and FDG PET measure the early response to therapy, and in this way, may predict freedom from disease, as well as overall survival. Conclusion These preliminary results warrant validation in larger trials. If confirmed, several novel treatment strategies may be considered, including the early use of PET to evaluate the effectiveness of the selected therapy. PMID:16515707

  4. 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emisson Tomography/Computed Tomography Guided Conformal Brachytherapy for Cervical Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Nam, Heerim; Huh, Seung Jae; Ju, Sang Gyu; Park, Won; Lee, Jeong Eun; Choi, Joon Young; Kim, Byung-Tae; Kim, Chan Kyo; Park, Byung Kwan

    2012-09-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT)-guided conformal brachytherapy treatment planning in patients with cervical cancer. Methods and Materials: Pretreatment FDG-PET/CT was performed for 12 patients with cervical cancer. Brachytherapy simulation was performed after an external-beam radiation therapy median dose of 4140 cGy. Patients underwent FDG-PET/CT scans with placement of tandem and ovoid applicators. The gross tumor volume (GTV) was determined by adjusting the window and level to a reasonable value and outlining the edge of the enhancing area, which was done in consultation with a nuclear medicine physician. A standardized uptake value profile of the tumor margin was taken for each patient relative to the maximum uptake value of each tumor and analyzed. The plan was designed to deliver 400 cGy to point A (point A plan) or to cover the clinical target volume (CTV) (PET/CT plan). Results: The median dose that encompassed 95% of the target volume (D95) of the CTV was 323.0 cGy for the point A plan vs 399.0 cGy for the PET/CT plan (P=.001). The maximum standardized uptake values (SUV{sub max}) of the tumors were reduced by a median of 57% (range, 13%-80%). All but 1 patient presented with discernable residual uptake within the tumors. The median value of the thresholds of the tumors contoured by simple visual analysis was 41% (range, 23%-71%). Conclusions: In this study, the PET/CT plan was better than the conventional point A plan in terms of target coverage without increasing the dose to the normal tissue, making optimized 3-dimensional brachytherapy treatment planning possible. In comparison with the previously reported study with PET or CT alone, we found that visual target localization was facilitated by PET fusion on indeterminate CT masses. Further studies are needed to characterize the metabolic activity detected during radiation therapy for more reliable targeting.

  5. Metabolic Response of Lymph Nodes Immediately After RT Is Related With Survival Outcome of Patients With Pelvic Node-Positive Cervical Cancer Using Consecutive [{sup 18}F]fluorodeoxyglucose-Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, Mee Sun; Ahn, Sung-Ja; Nah, Byung-Sik; Chung, Woong-Ki; Song, Ho-Chun; Yoo, Su Woong; Song, Ju-Young; Jeong, Jae-Uk; Nam, Taek-Keun

    2012-11-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the metabolic response of uterine cervix and pelvic lymph nodes (LNs) using consecutive {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) immediately after RT and to correlate survival outcome with the metabolic response. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively reviewed 48 patients with cervical cancer who had positive pelvic LNs by preradiation therapy (pre-RT) PET/CT. All patients underwent PET/CT scans immediately after RT (inter-RT PET/CT) after median 63 Gy to the gross LNs. The metabolic response of the LNs was assessed quantitatively and semiquantitatively by measurement of the maximal standardized uptake value (SUV{sub max}). Results: Classifying the metabolic response of all nodal lesions, 37 patients (77%) had LNs with complete metabolic response on the inter-RT PET/CT (LNCMRi), and 11 patients had a non-LNCMRi, including 4 patients with progressive metabolic disease. The overall 3-year survival rates were 83% for the patients with LNCMRi and 73% for the non-LNCMRi group (P=.038). The disease-free survival for patients with LNCMRi were significantly better than that for the non-LNCMRi group (71% vs 18%, respectively, P<.001). The 3-year distant metastasis-free survival rates were 79% for the patients with LNCMRi and 27% for the non-LNCMRi group (P<.001). There were no statistically significant differences in overall survival (76% vs 86%, respectively, P=.954) and disease-free survival rates (58% vs 61%, respectively, P=.818) between the CMR of primary cervical tumor and the non-CMR groups. Conclusions: The results showed a significant correlation between survival outcome and the interim metabolic response of pelvic LNs. CMR of nodal lesion on inter-RT PET/CT had excellent overall survival, disease-free survival and distant metastasis-free survival rates. This suggested that PET/CT immediately after RT can be a useful tool for the evaluation of the interim response of the LNs and identify a subset

  6. {sup 18}F-Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography-Based Radiotherapy Target Volume Definition in Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer: Delineation by Radiation Oncologists vs. Joint Outlining With a PET Radiologist?

    SciTech Connect

    Hanna, Gerard G.; Carson, Kathryn J.; Lynch, Tom; McAleese, Jonathan; Cosgrove, Vivian P.; Eakin, Ruth L.; Stewart, David P.; Zatari, Ashraf; O'Sullivan, Joe M.; Hounsell, Alan R.

    2010-11-15

    Purpose: {sup 18}F-Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) has benefits in target volume (TV) definition in radiotherapy treatment planning (RTP) for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC); however, an optimal protocol for TV delineation has not been determined. We investigate volumetric and positional variation in gross tumor volume (GTV) delineation using a planning PET/CT among three radiation oncologists and a PET radiologist. Methods and Materials: RTP PET/CT scans were performed on 28 NSCLC patients (Stage IA-IIIB) of which 14 patients received prior induction chemotherapy. Three radiation oncologists and one PET radiologist working with a fourth radiation oncologist independently delineated the GTV on CT alone (GTV{sub CT}) and on fused PET/CT images (GTV{sub PETCT}). The mean percentage volume change (PVC) between GTV{sub CT} and GTV{sub PETCT} for the radiation oncologists and the PVC between GTV{sub CT} and GTV{sub PETCT} for the PET radiologist were compared using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Concordance index (CI) was used to assess both positional and volume change between GTV{sub CT} and GTV{sub PETCT} in a single measurement. Results: For all patients, a significant difference in PVC from GTV{sub CT} to GTV{sub PETCT} exists between the radiation oncologist (median, 5.9%), and the PET radiologist (median, -0.4%, p = 0.001). However, no significant difference in median concordance index (comparing GTV{sub CT} and GTV{sub FUSED} for individual cases) was observed (PET radiologist = 0.73; radiation oncologists = 0.66; p = 0.088). Conclusions: Percentage volume changes from GTV{sub CT} to GTV{sub PETCT} were lower for the PET radiologist than for the radiation oncologists, suggesting a lower impact of PET/CT in TV delineation for the PET radiologist than for the oncologists. Guidelines are needed to standardize the use of PET/CT for TV delineation in RTP.

  7. Multiparametric [18F]Fluorodeoxyglucose/ [18F]Fluoromisonidazole Positron Emission Tomography/ Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Locally Advanced Cervical Cancer for the Non-Invasive Detection of Tumor Heterogeneity: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Andrzejewski, Piotr; Baltzer, Pascal; Polanec, Stephan H.; Sturdza, Alina; Georg, Dietmar; Helbich, Thomas H.; Karanikas, Georgios; Grimm, Christoph; Polterauer, Stephan; Poetter, Richard; Wadsak, Wolfgang; Mitterhauser, Markus; Georg, Petra

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To investigate fused multiparametric positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance imaging (MP PET/MRI) at 3T in patients with locally advanced cervical cancer, using high-resolution T2-weighted, contrast-enhanced MRI (CE-MRI), diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), and the radiotracers [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose ([18F]FDG) and [18F]fluoromisonidazol ([18F]FMISO) for the non-invasive detection of tumor heterogeneity for an improved planning of chemo-radiation therapy (CRT). Materials and Methods Sixteen patients with locally advanced cervix were enrolled in this IRB approved and were examined with fused MP [18F]FDG/ [18F]FMISO PET/MRI and in eleven patients complete data sets were acquired. MP PET/MRI was assessed for tumor volume, enhancement (EH)-kinetics, diffusivity, and [18F]FDG/ [18F]FMISO-avidity. Descriptive statistics and voxel-by-voxel analysis of MRI and PET parameters were performed. Correlations were assessed using multiple correlation analysis. Results All tumors displayed imaging parameters concordant with cervix cancer, i.e. type II/III EH-kinetics, restricted diffusivity (median ADC 0.80x10-3mm2/sec), [18F]FDG- (median SUVmax16.2) and [18F]FMISO-avidity (median SUVmax3.1). In all patients, [18F]FMISO PET identified the hypoxic tumor subvolume, which was independent of tumor volume. A voxel-by-voxel analysis revealed only weak correlations between the MRI and PET parameters (0.05–0.22), indicating that each individual parameter yields independent information and the presence of tumor heterogeneity. Conclusion MP [18F]FDG/ [18F]FMISO PET/MRI in patients with cervical cancer facilitates the acquisition of independent predictive and prognostic imaging parameters. MP [18F]FDG/ [18F]FMISO PET/MRI enables insights into tumor biology on multiple levels and provides information on tumor heterogeneity, which has the potential to improve the planning of CRT. PMID:27167829

  8. Predictive value of early 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) during salvage chemotherapy in relapsing/refractory Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) treated with high-dose chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Castagna, Luca; Bramanti, Stefania; Balzarotti, Monica; Sarina, Barbara; Todisco, Elisabetta; Anastasia, Antonella; Magagnoli, Massimo; Mazza, Rita; Nozza, Andrea; Giordano, Laura; Rodari, Marcello; Rinifilo, Eva; Chiti, Arturo; Santoro, Armando

    2009-05-01

    This retrospective study evaluated whether early 2-[fluorine-18]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) after two cycles of salvage chemotherapy (PET2) could predict survival after high-dose chemotherapy (HDC). Twenty-four Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) patients were included. PET2 was negative in 58% and positive in 42% of patients. Ninety per cent of patients (9/10) with positive PET2 relapsed after HDC while all but one patient with negative PET2 maintained a complete remission. The 2-year progression-free survival was 93% vs. 10% for patients with negative and positive PET2, respectively (P < 0.001). This study shows that interim PET can predict the outcome after high-dose chemotherapy in HL patients. PMID:19344403

  9. Benefits of adopting good radiation practices in reducing the whole body radiation dose to the nuclear medicine personnel during 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography imaging

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Shashwat; Kheruka, Subhash Chand; Maurya, Anil Kumar; Kumar, Narvesh; Gambhir, Sanjay; Kumari, Sarita

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Positron emission tomography has been established as an important imaging modality in the management of patients, especially in oncology. The higher gamma radiation energy of positron-emitting isotopes poses an additional radiation safety problem. Those working with this modality may likely to receive higher whole body doses than those working only in conventional nuclear medicine. The radiation exposure to the personnel occurs in dispensing the dose, administration of activity, patient positioning, and while removing the intravenous (i.v.) cannula. The estimation of radiation dose to Nuclear Medicine Physician (NMP) involved during administration of activity to the patient and technical staff assisting in these procedures in a positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) facility was carried out. Materials and Methods: An i.v access was secured for the patient by putting the cannula and blood sugar was monitored. The activity was then dispensed and measured in the dose calibrator and administered to the patient by NMP. Personnel doses received by NMP and technical staff were measured using electronic pocket dosimeter. The radiation exposure levels at various working locations were assessed with the help of gamma survey meter. Results and Discussion: The radiation level at working distance while administering the radioactivity was found to be 106–170 μSv/h with a mean value of 126.5 ± 14.88 μSv/h which was reduced to 4.2–14.2 μSv/h with a mean value of 7.16 ± 2.29 μSv/h with introduction of L-bench for administration of radioactivity. This shows a mean exposure level reduction of 94.45 ± 1.03%. The radiation level at working distance, while removing the i.v. cannula postscanning was found to be 25–70 μSv/h with a mean value of 37.4 ± 13.16 μSv/h which was reduced to 1.0–5.0 μSv/h with a mean value of 2.77 ± 1.3 μSv/h with introduction of L-bench for removal of i.v cannula. This shows a mean exposure level reduction of

  10. Pelvic Lymph Node Status Assessed by 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography Predicts Low-Risk Group for Distant Recurrence in Locally Advanced Cervical Cancer: A Prospective Study

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Sokbom; Park, Jung-Yeol; Lim, Myung-Chul; Song, Yong-Joong; Park, Se-Hyun; Kim, Seok-Ki; Chung, Dae-Chul; Seo, Sang-Soo; Kim, Joo-Young; Park, Sang-Yoon

    2011-03-01

    Purpose: To develop a prediction model to identify a low-risk group for distant recurrence in patients with locally advanced cervical cancer treated by concurrent chemoradiation. Methods and Materials: Prospectively, 62 patients with locally advanced cervical cancer were recruited as a training cohort. Clinical variables and parameters obtained from positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance imaging were analyzed by logistic regression. For the test set, 54 patients were recruited independently. To identify the low-risk group, negative likelihood ratio (LR) less than 0.2 was set to be a cutoff. Results: Among the training cohort, multivariate logistic analysis revealed that advanced International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage and a high serum squamous cancer cell (SCC) antigen level were significant risk factors (p = 0.015 and 0.025, respectively). Using the two parameters, criteria to determine a low-risk subset for distant recurrence were postulated: (1) FIGO Stage IIB or less and (2) pretreatment SCC < 2.4 (Model A). Positive pelvic node on PET completely predicted all cases with distant recurrence and thus was considered as another prediction model (Model B). In the test cohort, although Model A did not showed diagnostic performance, Model B completely predicted all cases with distant recurrence and showed a sensitivity of 100% with negative LR of 0. Across the training and test cohort (n = 116), the false negative rate was 0 (95% confidence interval 0%-7.6%). Conclusions: Positive pelvic node on PET is a useful marker in prediction of distant recurrence in patients with locally advanced cervical cancer who are treated with concurrent chemoradiation.

  11. Emission computed tomography of /sup 18/F-fluorodeoxyglucose and /sup 13/N-ammonia in stroke and epilepsy

    SciTech Connect

    Kuhl, D.E.; Phelps, M.E.; Engel, J. Jr.

    1980-01-01

    The ECAT Positron Tomograph was used to scan normal control subjects, stroke patients at various times during recovery, and patients with partial epilepsy during EEG monitoring. /sup 18/F-fluorodeoxyglucose (/sup 18/FDG) and /sup 13/N-Ammonia (/sup 13/NH/sub 3/) were used as indicators of abnormalities in local cerebral glucose utilization (LCMR/sub glc/) and relative perfusion, respectively. Hypometabolism, due to deactivation or minimal damage, was demonstrated with the /sup 18/FDG scan in deep structures and broad zones of cerebral cortex which appeared normal on x-ray CT (XCT) and /sup 99m/Tc pertechnetate scans. In patients with partial epilepsy, who had unilateral or focal electrical abnormalities, interictal /sup 18/FDG scan patterns clearly showed localized regions of decreased (20 to 50%) LCMR/sub glc/, which correlated anatomically with the eventual EEG localization.

  12. Change of Maximum Standardized Uptake Value Slope in Dynamic Triphasic [{sup 18}F]-Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography Distinguishes Malignancy From Postradiation Inflammation in Head-and-Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma: A Prospective Trial

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Carryn M.; Chang, Tangel; Graham, Michael M.; Marquardt, Michael D.; Button, Anna; Smith, Brian J.; Menda, Yusuf; Sun, Wenqing; Pagedar, Nitin A.; Buatti, John M.

    2015-03-01

    Purpose: To evaluate dynamic [{sup 18}F]-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake methodology as a post–radiation therapy (RT) response assessment tool, potentially enabling accurate tumor and therapy-related inflammation differentiation, improving the posttherapy value of FDG–positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT). Methods and Materials: We prospectively enrolled head-and-neck squamous cell carcinoma patients who completed RT, with scheduled 3-month post-RT FDG-PET/CT. Patients underwent our standard whole-body PET/CT scan at 90 minutes, with the addition of head-and-neck PET/CT scans at 60 and 120 minutes. Maximum standardized uptake values (SUV{sub max}) of regions of interest were measured at 60, 90, and 120 minutes. The SUV{sub max} slope between 60 and 120 minutes and change of SUV{sub max} slope before and after 90 minutes were calculated. Data were analyzed by primary site and nodal site disease status using the Cox regression model and Wilcoxon rank sum test. Outcomes were based on pathologic and clinical follow-up. Results: A total of 84 patients were enrolled, with 79 primary and 43 nodal evaluable sites. Twenty-eight sites were interpreted as positive or equivocal (18 primary, 8 nodal, 2 distant) on 3-month 90-minute FDG-PET/CT. Median follow-up was 13.3 months. All measured SUV endpoints predicted recurrence. Change of SUV{sub max} slope after 90 minutes more accurately identified nonrecurrence in positive or equivocal sites than our current standard of SUV{sub max} ≥2.5 (P=.02). Conclusions: The positive predictive value of post-RT FDG-PET/CT may significantly improve using novel second derivative analysis of dynamic triphasic FDG-PET/CT SUV{sub max} slope, accurately distinguishing tumor from inflammation on positive and equivocal scans.

  13. Feasibility of iodine contrast enhanced CT-scan during a 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houzard, C.; Tychyj, C.; Morelec, I.; Ricard, F.; Got, P.; Cotton, F.; Giammarile, F.; Maintas, D.

    2009-06-01

    OBJECTIVE: this prospective study evaluates the feasibility in current clinical practice of contrast enhanced CT-scan for diagnosis purpose, performed during 18FDG PET-CT study with a PET/CT tomography. METHOD: 25 patients underwent FDG imaging for lymphoma staging. The PET scan was done immediately after the usual low dose CT (lCT). A second CT scan was consequently acquired, by using classical diagnosis CT parameters (dCT) and iodinated contrast. For each patient, all CT attenuation correction (CTAC) PET images were visually compared. Density in Hounsfield units (HU) and maximum Standardized Uptake Value (SUVmax) were then measured on different organs and up to 5 specific lymphoma localizations (total of 294 measurements). RESULTS: Visual analysis was similar for the 2 modalities, without discordant interpretation for the pathologic sites. SUVmax means and standard deviation of each organ for lCTAC and dCTAC were comparable. The equation of the fitted multiple linear regression model was: dCT=0.0748191 + 1.17024*lCT (98.71%; p < 0.01). CONCLUSION: These first results allow the use of injected CT scan, before the PET scan acquisition for lymphoma staging with this PET-CT scan, not affected by the height atomic number and elevated density. A great benefit is therefore obtained on diagnostic, logistic and radioprotection purposes.

  14. Usefulness of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography in dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans on treatment with imatinib

    PubMed Central

    Kashyap, Raghava; Muddu, Vamshi Krishna; Anantamakula, Sameera; Sri, Satya

    2016-01-01

    Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans (DFSP) is a rare locally aggressive tumor with distant metastases being unusual. We present a case of metastatic DFSP treated with imatinib showing complete metabolic response to treatment. PMID:27385888

  15. Usefulness of (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography in dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans on treatment with imatinib.

    PubMed

    Kashyap, Raghava; Muddu, Vamshi Krishna; Anantamakula, Sameera; Sri, Satya

    2016-01-01

    Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans (DFSP) is a rare locally aggressive tumor with distant metastases being unusual. We present a case of metastatic DFSP treated with imatinib showing complete metabolic response to treatment. PMID:27385888

  16. Glucose Metabolism Gene Expression Patterns and Tumor Uptake of {sup 18}F-Fluorodeoxyglucose After Radiation Treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, George D.; Thibodeau, Bryan J.; Fortier, Laura E.; Pruetz, Barbara L.; Galoforo, Sandra; Baschnagel, Andrew M.; Chunta, John; Oliver Wong, Ching Yee; Yan, Di; Marples, Brian; Huang, Jiayi

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: To investigate whether radiation treatment influences the expression of glucose metabolism genes and compromises the potential use of {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) as a tool to monitor the early response of head and neck cancer xenografts to radiation therapy (RT). Methods and Materials: Low passage head and neck squamous cancer cells (UT14) were injected to the flanks of female nu/nu mice to generate xenografts. After tumors reached a size of 500 mm{sup 3} they were treated with either sham RT or 15 Gy in 1 fraction. At different time points, days 3, 9, and 16 for controls and days 4, 7, 12, 21, 30, and 40 after irradiation, 2 to 3 mice were assessed with dynamic FDG-PET acquisition over 2 hours. Immediately after the FDG-PET the tumors were harvested for global gene expression analysis and immunohistochemical evaluation of GLUT1 and HK2. Different analytic parameters were used to process the dynamic PET data. Results: Radiation had no effect on key genes involved in FDG uptake and metabolism but did alter other genes in the HIF1α and glucose transport–related pathways. In contrast to the lack of effect on gene expression, changes in the protein expression patterns of the key genes GLUT1/SLC2A1 and HK2 were observed after radiation treatment. The changes in GLUT1 protein expression showed some correlation with dynamic FDG-PET parameters, such as the kinetic index. Conclusion: {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography changes after RT would seem to represent an altered metabolic state and not a direct effect on the key genes regulating FDG uptake and metabolism.

  17. Single-Cell Analysis of [18F]Fluorodeoxyglucose Uptake by Droplet Radiofluidics

    PubMed Central

    Türkcan, Silvan; Nguyen, Julia; Vilalta, Marta; Shen, Bin; Chin, Frederick T.; Pratx, Guillem; Abbyad, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Radiolabels can be used to detect small biomolecules with high sensitivity and specificity, and without interfering with the biochemical activity of the labeled molecule. For instance, the radiolabeled glucose analogue, [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG), is routinely used in positron emission tomography (PET) scans for cancer diagnosis, staging and monitoring. However, despite their widespread usage, conventional radionuclide techniques are unable to measure the variability and modulation of FDG uptake in single cells. We present here a novel microfluidic technique, dubbed droplet radiofluidics, that can measure radiotracer uptake for single cells encapsulated into an array of microdroplets. The advantages of this approach are multiple. First, droplets can be quickly and easily positioned in a predetermined pattern for optimal imaging throughput. Second, droplet encapsulation reduces cell efflux as a confounding factor, because any effluxed radionuclide is trapped in the droplet. Last, multiplexed measurements can be performed using fluorescent labels. In this new approach, intracellular radiotracers are imaged on a conventional fluorescence microscope by capturing individual flashes of visible light that are produced as individual positrons, emitted during radioactive decay, traverse a scintillator plate placed below the cells. This method is used to measure the cell-to-cell heterogeneity in the uptake of tracers such as FDG in cell lines and cultured primary cells. The capacity of the platform to perform multiplexed measurements was demonstrated by measuring differential FDG uptake in single cells subjected to different incubation conditions and expressing different types of glucose transporters. This method opens many new avenues of research in basic cell biology and human disease by capturing the full range of stochastic variations in highly heterogeneous cell populations in a repeatable and high-throughput manner. PMID:26035453

  18. Single-Cell Analysis of [18F]Fluorodeoxyglucose Uptake by Droplet Radiofluidics.

    PubMed

    Türkcan, Silvan; Nguyen, Julia; Vilalta, Marta; Shen, Bin; Chin, Frederick T; Pratx, Guillem; Abbyad, Paul

    2015-07-01

    Radiolabels can be used to detect small biomolecules with high sensitivity and specificity without interfering with the biochemical activity of the labeled molecule. For instance, the radiolabeled glucose analogue, [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG), is routinely used in positron emission tomography (PET) scans for cancer diagnosis, staging, and monitoring. However, despite their widespread usage, conventional radionuclide techniques are unable to measure the variability and modulation of FDG uptake in single cells. We present here a novel microfluidic technique, dubbed droplet radiofluidics, that can measure radiotracer uptake for single cells encapsulated into an array of microdroplets. The advantages of this approach are multiple. First, droplets can be quickly and easily positioned in a predetermined pattern for optimal imaging throughput. Second, droplet encapsulation reduces cell efflux as a confounding factor, because any effluxed radionuclide is trapped in the droplet. Last, multiplexed measurements can be performed using fluorescent labels. In this new approach, intracellular radiotracers are imaged on a conventional fluorescence microscope by capturing individual flashes of visible light that are produced as individual positrons, emitted during radioactive decay, traverse a scintillator plate placed below the cells. This method is used to measure the cell-to-cell heterogeneity in the uptake of tracers such as FDG in cell lines and cultured primary cells. The capacity of the platform to perform multiplexed measurements was demonstrated by measuring differential FDG uptake in single cells subjected to different incubation conditions and expressing different types of glucose transporters. This method opens many new avenues of research in basic cell biology and human disease by capturing the full range of stochastic variations in highly heterogeneous cell populations in a repeatable and high-throughput manner. PMID:26035453

  19. 11. Evaluation of Patients with Known Mesothelioma with 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose and PET. Comparison with Computed Tomography.

    PubMed

    Zubeldia; Abou-Zied; Nabi

    2000-07-01

    Purpose: Positron Emission Tomography (PET) using 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose (18FDG) has been extensively used to stage patients with different malignancies. The purpose of our study was to compare 18FDG-PET to Computed Tomography (CT) in the management of patients with malignant mesothelioma.Methods: Eight patients (6 males, 2 females; mean age 67, range 53 to 78 years) underwent 18FDG-PET scan between March 1997 and November 1998. PET scan of the neck, thorax and upper abdomen was performed 45 minutes after the intravenous injection of 10 mCi of FDG in fasted patients; attenuation correction was applied in all cases. The findings were compared with CT and pathology.Results: PET and CT were concordant in 3 patients. PET was superior to CT in 5 cases (1 patient was downgraded from widespread to localized disease, 2 patients were upstaged from localized to widespread disease, PET confirmed equivocal findings by CT in 2 cases). In 1 patient PET and CT missed local spread of tumor to diaphragm and pericardium, showing instead disease confined to pleural space.Conclusions: Our results suggest that PET is more accurate than CT in the staging of patients with mesothelioma. PMID:11150768

  20. Association between histopathological subtype, 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose uptake and epidermal growth factor receptor mutations in lung adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    QIANG, GUANGLIANG; HUANG, WEI; LIANG, CHAOYANG; XU, RUI; YAN, JUE; XU, YANYAN; WANG, YE; DA, JIPING; SHI, BIN; GUO, YONGQING; LIU, DERUO

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between histopathological subtypes, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake in patients with lung adenocarcinoma (ADC). The cases of 97 patients with lung ADC who underwent 18F-FDG positron emission tomography-computed tomography prior to surgical resection were retrospectively reviewed. The patients were stratified according to the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer/American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society (IASLC/ATS/ERS) classification, and graded using a histopathological scoring system. EGFR mutations were identified. Clinicopathological characteristics associated with EGFR mutation status were evaluated using univariate and multivariate analyses. EGFR mutation was identified in 45.4% of the patients and was associated with gender, smoking history, maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) and histopathological score. ADC patients with a low SUVmax were more likely to exhibit EGFR mutations compared with patients with a high SUVmax (P=0.018). Patients with a lower histopathological score possessed a significantly lower SUVmax compared with patients with a higher score (P<0.001). Furthermore, the histopathological score and smoking history of the patients were identified to be independent predictors for EGFR mutations, according to multivariate logistic regression analysis. In conclusion, SUVmax and EGFR mutations were associated with lung ADC patients stratified according to the IASLC/ATS/ERS classification. Overall, SUVmax has the potential to be a useful marker in stratifying pre-operative patients with lung ADC and identifying EGFR mutations. PMID:26998075

  1. Localized 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose uptake at the pancreatic head during remission phase of autoimmune pancreatitis: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Yonenaga, Yoshikuni; Kushihata, Fumiki; Watanabe, Jota; Tohyama, Taiji; Inoue, Hitoshi; Sugita, Atsuro; Takada, Yasutsugu

    2016-01-01

    Autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) is a unique form of pancreatitis, histopathologically characterized by dense lymphoplasmacytic infiltration and fibrosis of the pancreas with obliterative phlebitis. AIP is associated with a good response to steroid therapy. Differentiation between AIP and pancreatic cancer to determine a preoperative diagnosis is often challenging, despite the use of various diagnostic modalities, including computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. It has been reported that 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG)-positron emission tomography (PET)/CT may be a useful tool for distinguishing between the two diseases. In the present case report, a 71-year-old male patient presented with a well-circumscribed, solitary, nodular and homogenous 18F-FDG uptake at the pancreatic head, while receiving maintenance steroid therapy in the remission phase of AIP; preoperatively, the patient had been strongly suspected of having pancreatic cancer. Pathological examination revealed post-treatment relapse of AIP. The present case highlights the diagnostic and management difficulties with AIP in the remission phase. In certain cases, it remains challenging to differentiate the two diseases, even using the latest modalities.

  2. [Clinicopathological study of small lung cancer (diameter of 2 cm or less) by uptake value of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose].

    PubMed

    Nakano, Tomoyuki; Endo, Shunsuke; Mitsuda, Sayaka; Endo, Tetsuya; Tezuka, Yasuhiro; Kanai, Yoshihiko; Otani, Shin-ichi; Yamamoto, Shin-ichi; Tetsuka, Kenji; Hasegawa, Tsuyoshi; Ishikawa, Shigemi; Saito, Noriko

    2012-01-01

    18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-positron emission tomography (PET) for lung cancer may be a biomarker for malignancy as well as a useful tool for detection of nodal involvement and distant metastasis. The goal of this study was to clarify a relationship between clinicopathological findings and maximum standardized uptake value( SUVmax) obtained by preoperative PET in patients with non-small cell lung cancer in diameter of 2 cm or less. Between January 2008 and April 2011, 124 patients( 54 men and 70 women) with non-small cell lung cancer in diameter of 2 cm or less undergoing lobectomy or segmentectomy were enrolled. The relationship between SUVmax and clinicopathological findings as tumor diameter, histological type, pleural invasion, vascular invasion, lymphatic permeation and nodal involvement were analyzed. Correlation between SUVmax and findings such as vascular invasion and lymphatic permeation showed relatively strong in the patients with adenocarcinoma, on the contrary to the correlation in the patients with non-adenocarcinoma. No tumor showing SUVmax of 2 or less showed vascular invasion and/or lymphatic permeation as well as nodal involvement in any patients with adenocarcinoma. SUVmax of the primary tumor in diameter of 2 cm or less, can be a useful biomarker which indicates a surgical candidate for sublobar pulmonary resection as well as mediastinal nodal dissection, especially in patients with adenocarcinoma. PMID:22314152

  3. Assessment of tumour response with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography using three-dimensional measures compared to SUVmax—a phantom study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boucek, J. A.; Francis, R. J.; Jones, C. G.; Khan, N.; Turlach, B. A.; Green, A. J.

    2008-08-01

    SUVmax is currently the most common semi-quantitative method of response assessment on FDG PET. By defining the tumour volume of interest (VOI), a measure of total glycolytic volume (TGV) may be obtained. We aimed to comprehensively examine, in a phantom setting, the accuracy of TGV in reflecting actual lesion activity and to compare TGV with SUVmax for response assessment. The algorithms for VOI generation from which TGV was derived included fixed threshold techniques at 50% of maximum (MAX50), 70% of maximum (MAX70), an adaptive threshold of 50% of (maximum + background)/2 (BM50) and a semi-automated iterative region-growing algorithm, GRAB. Comparison with both actual lesion activity and response scenarios was performed. SUVmax correlated poorly with actual lesion activity (r = 0.651) and change in lesion activity (r = 0.605). In a response matrix scenario SUVmax performed poorly when all scenarios were considered, but performed well when only clinically likely scenarios were included. The TGV derived using MAX50 and MAX70 algorithms performed poorly in evaluation of lesion change. The TGV derived from BM50 and GRAB algorithms however performed extremely well in correlation with actual lesion activity (r = 0.993 and r = 0.982, respectively), change in lesion activity (r = 0.972 and r = 0.963, respectively) and in the response scenario matrix. TGVGRAB demonstrated narrow confidence bands when modelled with actual lesion activity. Measures of TGV generated by iterative algorithms such as GRAB show potential for increased sensitivity of metabolic response monitoring compared to SUVmax, which may have important implications for improved patient care.

  4. Assessment of tumour response with (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography using three-dimensional measures compared to SUVmax--a phantom study.

    PubMed

    Boucek, J A; Francis, R J; Jones, C G; Khan, N; Turlach, B A; Green, A J

    2008-08-21

    SUVmax is currently the most common semi-quantitative method of response assessment on FDG PET. By defining the tumour volume of interest (VOI), a measure of total glycolytic volume (TGV) may be obtained. We aimed to comprehensively examine, in a phantom setting, the accuracy of TGV in reflecting actual lesion activity and to compare TGV with SUVmax for response assessment. The algorithms for VOI generation from which TGV was derived included fixed threshold techniques at 50% of maximum (MAX50), 70% of maximum (MAX70), an adaptive threshold of 50% of (maximum + background)/2 (BM50) and a semi-automated iterative region-growing algorithm, GRAB. Comparison with both actual lesion activity and response scenarios was performed. SUVmax correlated poorly with actual lesion activity (r = 0.651) and change in lesion activity (r = 0.605). In a response matrix scenario SUVmax performed poorly when all scenarios were considered, but performed well when only clinically likely scenarios were included. The TGV derived using MAX50 and MAX70 algorithms performed poorly in evaluation of lesion change. The TGV derived from BM50 and GRAB algorithms however performed extremely well in correlation with actual lesion activity (r = 0.993 and r = 0.982, respectively), change in lesion activity (r = 0.972 and r = 0.963, respectively) and in the response scenario matrix. TGV(GRAB) demonstrated narrow confidence bands when modelled with actual lesion activity. Measures of TGV generated by iterative algorithms such as GRAB show potential for increased sensitivity of metabolic response monitoring compared to SUVmax, which may have important implications for improved patient care. PMID:18653927

  5. THE USE OF 18F-FLUORODEOXYGLUCOSE POSITRON EMISSION TOMOGRAPHY TO ASSESS CLINICAL OUTCOMES OF PATIENTS WITH BORDERLINE RESECTABLE PANCREATIC CANCER.

    PubMed

    Durmus, A; Yilmaz, A; Malya, F; Ozturk, G; Bektasoglu, H; Ertugrul, G; Karyagar, S; Karatepe, O

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of 18FDG PET on preoperative staging and clinical management of pancreatic cancer. Between December 2011 and February 2015, 28 consecutive patients with borderline resectable pancreatic cancer were evaluated with both 18FDG PET scans and conventional preoperative imaging studies. Medical records of all patients were noted prospectively. 18FDG PET findings were compared with conventional imaging studies and over-staging or down-staging rates with changes in clinical management were evaluated. The correlation of 18FDG PET with conventional imaging studies was evaluated with a kappa agreement coefficient. A number of 22 (78.5%) patients had pancreatic head cancer and 6 (21.4%) patients had pancreatic body and tail cancers. Based on 18FDG PET, additional lesions were found in 4 (14.28%) of the patients which were lung and peritoneal lesions as metastasis. No hepatic metastasis or supraclavicular lymph node involvement was confirmed in patients. Routine use of 18FDG PET for preoperative staging has not an effect on cancer management in 96.8% of our patients. In conclusion, 18FDG PET has additional value over conventional radiologic techniques for monitoring the treatment response in locally advanced pancreatic cancer patients. It is feasible to predict early metastasis and patient outcome early (after one course of IC) during therapy. PMID:27249430

  6. Impact of [{sup 18}F] Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography on Staging and Management of Early-Stage Follicular Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma

    SciTech Connect

    Wirth, Andrew Foo, Marcus; Seymour, John F.; MacManus, Michael P.; Hicks, Rodney J.

    2008-05-01

    Purpose: Accurate staging is critical to select patients with early-stage (I-II) follicular lymphoma (ESFL) suitable for involved-field radiotherapy (IFRT) and to define the radiotherapy portal. We evaluated the impact of fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET on staging, treatment, and outcome for patients with ESFL on conventional staging. Methods and Materials: Forty-two patients with untreated ESFL (World Health Organization Grade I-IIIa, or 'low grade') following a minimum of physical examination, computerized tomography, and bone marrow examination (conventional assessment) and who had staging PET from June 1997 to June 2006 were studied retrospectively. Stage allocation was based on routine imaging reports. Disease sites, stage, and management plan were recorded based on conventional assessment or conventional assessment plus PET. Results: FDG avidity was demonstrated in 97% of patients in whom disease was evident on conventional assessment after biopsy. PET findings suggested a change of stage or management in 19 patients: 13 (31%) who were upstaged to Stage III-IV, altering ideal management from IFRT to systemic therapy, and 6 (14%) who had the involved field enlarged, including 4 upstaged from Stage I to II. Of these 19 cases, PET findings were considered true positive in 8 patients, indeterminate in 10, and false positive in only 1 patient. Conclusions: Our data confirm that ESFL is usually FDG-avid. In routine practice, PET has the potential to upstage and thereby alter management in a high proportion of patients with apparent ESFL.

  7. Genetic deletion in uncoupling protein 3 augments 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose cardiac uptake in the ischemic heart

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background We investigated the effects of uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3) genetic deletion on 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) cardiac uptake by positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) dedicated animal system after permanent coronary artery ligation. Methods Cardiac 18F-FDG PET/CT was performed in UCP3 knockout (UCP3−/−) and wild-type (WT) mice one week after induction of myocardial infarction or sham procedure. Results In sham-operated mice no difference in left ventricular (LV) volume was detectable between WT and UCP3−/−. After myocardial infarction, LV volume was higher in both WT and UCP3−/− compared to sham animals, with a significant interaction (p < 0.05) between genotype and myocardial infarction. In sham-operated animals no difference in FDG standardized uptake value (SUV) was detectable between WT (1.8 ± 0.6) and UCP3−/− (1.8 ± 0.6). After myocardial infarction SUV was significantly higher in remote areas than in infarcted territories in both UCP3−/− and WT mice (both p < 0.01). Moreover, in remote areas, SUV was significantly higher (p < 0.001) in UCP3−/− as compared to WT, while in the infarcted territory SUV was comparable (p = 0.29). A significant relationship (r = 0.68, p < 0.001) between LV volume and SUV was found. Conclusions In a mice model of permanent coronary occlusion, UCP3 deficiency results in a metabolic shift that favored glycolytic metabolism and increased FDG uptake in remote areas. PMID:25103673

  8. Implication of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose uptake by affected lymph nodes in cases with differentiated thyroid cancer

    PubMed Central

    Fujii, Takaaki; Yajima, Reina; Tatsuki, Hironori; Kuwano, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated the usefulness of positron emission tomography using 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG-PET) to detect metastatic lymph nodes in differentiated thyroid cancer. We also investigated whether certain factors, including the size of the metastasis to the lymph nodes, are associated with FDG avidity. A total of 22 consecutive patients with differentiated thyroid cancer who underwent FDG-PET preoperatively were enrolled in this study. Lymph node metastasis was diagnosed in the final pathology in 10 of the 22 patients (45.5%). The mean maximum standardized uptake value of the metastatic lymph nodes was 4.53 (range, 0–23.5). The 22 cases with differentiated thyroid cancer were divided into two groups based on lymph node metastasis. Clinicopathological variables other than FDG uptake of metastatic lymph nodes were not predictors of lymph node metastasis of thyroid cancer. The sensitivity, specificity, overall accuracy and false-negative rates of preoperative FDG-PET in the prediction of lymph node status were 40.0, 100, 72.7 and 60.0%, respectively. The false-positive rate of FDG-PET evaluation was 0%. The mean largest dimension of metastasis was 23.0 mm for FDG-positive cases and 10.9 mm for FDG-negative cases. There was a marked difference in the size of metastases between FDG-positive and -negative cases; however, even in patients with node metastasis >10 mm, the false-negative rate was 50.0%. Therefore, FDG-PET imaging was not found to be sufficient for the evaluation of lymph node status, particularly in cases with small metastases. Our findings indicate that preoperative FDG-PET evaluation of the lymph nodes cannot be considered predictive of the final pathology. PMID:27600496

  9. Prognostic Impact of Ultrasonography Features and 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose Uptake in Patients With Papillary Thyroid Microcarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Ji Won; Hwang, Sang Hyun; Cho, Arthur; Lee, Hye Sun; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Moon, Hee Jung; Yoon, Jung Hyun; Kwak, Jin Young

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the prognostic impact of ultrasonography (US) features and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) uptake in patients with papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (PTMC). Methods This study included 74 patients with a single PTMC diagnosed pathologically. Patients underwent total thyroidectomy, or near-total thyroidectomy and staging thyroid US and positron emission tomography (PET) were performed prior to surgery. US features of thyroid nodules were reviewed retrospectively and the maximum standard uptake value (SUV) of nodules was semiquantitatively analyzed on 18F-FDG PET/computed tomography (CT). Patients were followed-up for recurrence, which was defined as PTC on cytology results, elevated serum thyroglobulin (Tg) or anti-Tg antibody levels, or uptake on whole-body scintigraphy. We used univariate and multivariate analyses to evaluate whether poor prognostic outcomes were associated with US features or SUV values derived from PET/CT of nodules. In addition, subjects were divided into 2 groups for subgroup analyses: one with nodules equal to or larger than 5 mm and one with nodules smaller than 5 mm. Results Among the 74 patients, there was no recurrence. Thus we evaluated the correlation between SUV value and US features with poor prognostic factors of PTMC which included extrathyroid extension, central and lateral lymph node (LN) metastasis. However no clinicopathologic factors were associated with extrathyroid extension, central LN metastasis, or lateral LN metastasis. Conclusion In patients with PTMC, US features and SUV values on FDG-PET were not related to extrathyroid extension or LN metastasis. However, future studies with a larger sample size and longer follow-up should be performed to verify the results of this study. PMID:26976029

  10. Conflict Processing in the Rat Brain: Behavioral Analysis and Functional μPET Imaging Using [18F]Fluorodeoxyglucose

    PubMed Central

    Marx, Christine; Lex, Björn; Calaminus, Carsten; Hauber, Wolfgang; Backes, Heiko; Neumaier, Bernd; Mies, Günter; Graf, Rudolf; Endepols, Heike

    2012-01-01

    Conflicts in spatial stimulus–response tasks occur when the task-relevant feature of a stimulus implies a response toward a certain location which does not match the location of stimulus presentation. This conflict leads to increased error rates and longer reaction times, which has been termed Simon effect. A model of dual route processing (automatic and intentional) of stimulus features has been proposed, predicting response conflicts if the two routes are incongruent. Although there is evidence that the prefrontal cortex, notably the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), plays a crucial role in conflict processing, the neuronal basis of dual route architecture is still unknown. In this study, we pursue a novel approach using positron emission tomography (PET) to identify relevant brain areas in a rat model of an auditory Simon task, a neuropsychological interference task, which is commonly used to study conflict processing in humans. For combination with PET we used the metabolic tracer [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose, which accumulates in metabolically active brain cells during the behavioral task. Brain areas involved in conflict processing are supposed to be activated when automatic and intentional route processing lead to different responses (dual route model). Analysis of PET data revealed specific activation patterns for different task settings applicable to the dual route model as established for response conflict processing. The rat motor cortex (M1) may be part of the automatic route or involved in its facilitation, while premotor (M2), prelimbic, and ACC seemed to be essential for inhibiting the incorrect, automatic response, indicating conflict monitoring functions. Our findings and the remarkable similarities to the pattern of activated regions reported during conflict processing in humans demonstrate that our rodent model opens novel opportunities to investigate the anatomical basis of conflict processing and dual route architecture. PMID:22363272

  11. Positron Emission Tomography.

    PubMed

    Lameka, Katherine; Farwell, Michael D; Ichise, Masanori

    2016-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) is a minimally invasive imaging procedure with a wide range of clinical and research applications. PET allows for the three-dimensional mapping of administered positron-emitting radiopharmaceuticals such as (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (for imaging glucose metabolism). PET enables the study of biologic function in both health and disease, in contrast to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT), that are more suited to study a body's morphologic changes, although functional MRI can also be used to study certain brain functions by measuring blood flow changes during task performance. This chapter first provides an overview of the basic physics principles and instrumentation behind PET methodology, with an introduction to the merits of merging functional PET imaging with anatomic CT or MRI imaging. We then focus on clinical neurologic disorders, and reference research on relevant PET radiopharmaceuticals when applicable. We then provide an overview of PET scan interpretation and findings in several specific neurologic disorders such as dementias, epilepsy, movement disorders, infection, cerebrovascular disorders, and brain tumors. PMID:27432667

  12. Physiologic [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose uptake of floor of mouth muscles in PET/CT imaging: a problem of body position during FDG uptake?

    PubMed Central

    Hany, Thomas F.; Ahmad, Nader; Burger, Irene; Huber, Gerhard F.; Schmid, Daniel T.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective: Assess the influence of 2 different patient positions during [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake phase on physiologic FDG accumulation of the floor of mouth (FOM) muscles. Study design: A prospective study design was used. Methods: Two hundred prospectively enrolled patients were included in the study: (a) head and neck cancer (HNC) patients in supine or (b) sitting position, (c) patients with other malignant tumours in supine or (d) sitting position. An intra-individual analysis was done on patients (b) and (d) when such scans were available. Maximum standardized uptake values without correction and corrected for blood pool activity were assessed. Results: The inter-individual analysis (sitting vs supine) revealed no significant differences (P = 0.17 and P = 0.56). The subgroup analysis on the patients with HNC (P = 0.56 and P = 0.15) and in patients with other malignancies (P = 0.14 and P = 0.08) revealed no significant difference; neither did the intra-individual analysis. Conclusions: The supine or sitting position during the uptake phase for FDG-positron emission tomography/computed tomography has no effect on the amount and distribution of physiologic FDG activity in the muscles of the FOM. PMID:23425816

  13. Clusters of Low (18)F-Fluorodeoxyglucose Uptake Voxels in Combat Veterans with Traumatic Brain Injury and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder.

    PubMed

    Buchsbaum, Monte S; Simmons, Alan N; DeCastro, Alex; Farid, Nikdokht; Matthews, Scott C

    2015-11-15

    Individuals with mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) show diminished metabolic activity when studied with positron emission tomography (PET) with (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG). Since blast injury may not be localized in the same specific anatomical areas in every patient or may be diffuse, significance probability mapping may be vulnerable to false-negative detection of abnormalities. To address this problem, we used an anatomically independent measure to assess PET scans: increased numbers of contiguous voxels that are 2 standard deviations below values found in an uninjured control group. We examined this in three age-matched groups of male patients: 16 veterans with a history of mild TBI, 17 veterans with both mild TBI and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and 15 veterans without either condition. After FDG administration, subjects performed a modified version of the California Verbal Learning Task. Clusters of low uptake voxels were identified by computing the mean and standard deviation for each voxel in the healthy combat veteran group and then determining the voxel-based z-score for the patient groups. Abnormal clusters were defined as those that contained contiguous voxels with a z-score <-2. Patients with mild TBI alone and patients with TBI+PTSD had larger clusters of low uptake voxels, and cluster size significantly differentiated the mild TBI groups from combat controls. Clusters were more irregular in shape in patients, and patients also had a larger number of low-activity voxels throughout the brain. In mild TBI and TBI+PTSD patients, but not healthy subjects, cluster volume was significantly correlated with verbal learning during FDG uptake. PMID:25915799

  14. Probe-guided localization of cancer deposits using [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose.

    PubMed

    Piert, M; Carey, J; Clinthorne, N

    2008-03-01

    In recent years, several probes have been developed to allow for the intraoperative detection of tumour tissue using [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG). Detector designs include high-energy gamma and beta probes, as well as combination devices with background rejection capabilities. Some laboratory prototypes and commercialized systems have demonstrated reasonable sensitivities for 511 keV photons and /or b particles emitted from 18F for in vivo use. This review focuses on the ability of these devices to detect tumour deposits in the low-contrast environment of the operating room . Important technical and biological factors that influence tumour-to-background contrast are discussed and potential future applications and developments are highlighted. In addition, we evaluate the limited data on absorbed doses resulting from [18F] FDG administration immediately prior to surgery that indicate acceptable levels of radiation exposure to operating room personnel. PMID:17657203

  15. Michaelis-Menten constraints improved cerebral glucose metabolism and regional lumped constant measurements with ( sup 18 F)fluorodeoxyglucose

    SciTech Connect

    Kuwabara, H.; Evans, A.C.; Gjedde, A. )

    1990-03-01

    In the three-compartment model of transfer of native glucose and (18F)fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) into brain, both transport across the blood-brain barrier and phosphorylation by hexokinase can be described by the Michaelis-Menten equation. This permits the use of fixed transport (tau = K*1/K1) and phosphorylation (psi = k*3/k3) ratios and a common partition volume (Ve = K1/k2) for tracer and glucose. By substituting transfer constants of FDG for those of glucose, using tau and psi, the lumped constant was determined directly by positron tomography. The same constraints also eliminated k*2 and k*3 from the model, thus limiting the parameters to K* (equivalent to K*1k*3/(k*2 + k*3)), K*1, and the cerebral vascular volume (Vo). In six healthy elderly men (aged 61 +/- 5 years), time-activity records of cerebral cortical regions were analyzed with tau = 1.1 and psi = 0.3. The results were compared with those of the conventional FDG method. At 20 min, the goodness of fit by the new equation was as good as that of the conventional method at 45 min. The estimates obtained by the constrained method had stable coefficients of variation. After 20 min, regional differences between the estimates were independent of time, although we observed steady decreases of K* and (k*3). The decrease strongly suggested dephosphorylation of FDG-6-phosphate, particularly after 20 min. All estimates of variables with the constrained method were more accurate than those of the conventional method, including the cerebral glucose metabolic rate itself, as well as physiologically more meaningful, particularly with respect to k*2 and k*3.

  16. Newer positron emission tomography radiopharmaceuticals for radiotherapy planning: an overview

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Anirban

    2016-01-01

    Positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) has changed cancer imaging in the last decade, for better. It can be employed for radiation treatment planning of different cancers with improved accuracy and outcomes as compared to conventional imaging methods. 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose remains the most widely used though relatively non-specific cancer imaging PET tracer. A wide array of newer PET radiopharmaceuticals has been developed for targeted imaging of different cancers. PET-CT with such new PET radiopharmaceuticals has also been used for radiotherapy planning with encouraging results. In the present review we have briefly outlined the role of PET-CT with newer radiopharmaceuticals for radiotherapy planning and briefly reviewed the available literature in this regard. PMID:26904575

  17. Long-term quality assurance of [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) manufacturing

    PubMed Central

    Gaspar, Ludovit; Reich, Michal; Kassai, Zoltan; Macasek, Fedor; Rodrigo, Luis; Kruzliak, Peter; Kovac, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Nine years of experience with 2286 commercial synthesis allowed us to deliver comprehensive information on the quality of 18F-FDG production. Semi-automated FDG production line using Cyclone 18/9 machine (IBA Belgium), TRACERLab MXFDG synthesiser (GE Health, USA) using alkalic hydrolysis, grade “A” isolator with dispensing robotic unit (Tema Sinergie, Italy), and automatic control system under GAMP5 (minus2, Slovakia) was assessed by TQM tools as highly reliable aseptic production line, fully compliant with Good Manufacturing Practice and just-in-time delivery of FDG radiopharmaceutical. Fluoride-18 is received in steady yield and of very high radioactive purity. Synthesis yields exhibited high variance connected probably with quality of disposable cassettes and chemicals sets. Most performance non-conformities within the manufacturing cycle occur at mechanical nodes of dispensing unit. The long-term monitoring of 2286 commercial synthesis indicated high reliability of automatic synthesizers. Shewhart chart and ANOVA analysis showed that minor non-compliances occurred were mostly caused by the declinations of less experienced staff from standard operation procedures, and also by quality of automatic cassettes. Only 15 syntheses were found unfinished and in 4 cases the product was out-of-specification of European Pharmacopoeia. Most vulnerable step of manufacturing was dispensing and filling in grade “A” isolator. Its cleanliness and sterility was fully controlled under the investigated period by applying hydrogen peroxide vapours (VHP). Our experience with quality assurance in the production of [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) at production facility of BIONT based on TRACERlab MXFDG production module can be used for bench-marking of the emerging manufacturing and automated manufacturing systems. PMID:27508102

  18. Long-term quality assurance of [(18)F]-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Gaspar, Ludovit; Reich, Michal; Kassai, Zoltan; Macasek, Fedor; Rodrigo, Luis; Kruzliak, Peter; Kovac, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Nine years of experience with 2286 commercial synthesis allowed us to deliver comprehensive information on the quality of (18)F-FDG production. Semi-automated FDG production line using Cyclone 18/9 machine (IBA Belgium), TRACERLab MXFDG synthesiser (GE Health, USA) using alkalic hydrolysis, grade "A" isolator with dispensing robotic unit (Tema Sinergie, Italy), and automatic control system under GAMP5 (minus2, Slovakia) was assessed by TQM tools as highly reliable aseptic production line, fully compliant with Good Manufacturing Practice and just-in-time delivery of FDG radiopharmaceutical. Fluoride-18 is received in steady yield and of very high radioactive purity. Synthesis yields exhibited high variance connected probably with quality of disposable cassettes and chemicals sets. Most performance non-conformities within the manufacturing cycle occur at mechanical nodes of dispensing unit. The long-term monitoring of 2286 commercial synthesis indicated high reliability of automatic synthesizers. Shewhart chart and ANOVA analysis showed that minor non-compliances occurred were mostly caused by the declinations of less experienced staff from standard operation procedures, and also by quality of automatic cassettes. Only 15 syntheses were found unfinished and in 4 cases the product was out-of-specification of European Pharmacopoeia. Most vulnerable step of manufacturing was dispensing and filling in grade "A" isolator. Its cleanliness and sterility was fully controlled under the investigated period by applying hydrogen peroxide vapours (VHP). Our experience with quality assurance in the production of [(18)F]-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) at production facility of BIONT based on TRACERlab MXFDG production module can be used for bench-marking of the emerging manufacturing and automated manufacturing systems. PMID:27508102

  19. The effect of nifedipine on myocardial perfusion and metabolism in systemic sclerosis. A positron emission tomographic study

    SciTech Connect

    Duboc, D.; Kahan, A.; Maziere, B.; Loc'h, C.; Crouzel, C.; Menkes, C.J.; Amor, B.; Strauch, G.; Guerin, F.; Syrota, A. )

    1991-02-01

    We assessed the effect of nifedipine on myocardial perfusion and metabolism in 9 patients with systemic sclerosis, using positron emission tomography with a perfusion tracer (potassium-38) and a metabolic tracer (18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18FDG)). Nifedipine, 20 mg 3 times daily for 1 week, induced a significant increase in 38K myocardial uptake, a significant decrease in 18FDG myocardial uptake, and a significant increase in the myocardial 38K: 18FDG ratio. These results indicate that the increase in myocardial perfusion is associated with modifications in myocardial energy metabolism, which probably result from a beneficial anti-ischemic effect of nifedipine in patients with systemic sclerosis.

  20. Integrated (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography magnetic resonance imaging ((18)F-FDG PET/MRI), a multimodality approach for comprehensive evaluation of dementia patients: A pictorial essay.

    PubMed

    Jena, Amarnath; Renjen, Pushpendra Nath; Taneja, Sangeeta; Gambhir, Aashish; Negi, Pradeep

    2015-01-01

    Dementia, caused by irreversible neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease or reversible non-degenerative conditions, is rapidly becoming one of the most alarming health problems in our aging society. This cognitive disorder associated with a multitude of clinical differentials with overlapping clinical, pathological, and imaging features is difficult to diagnose and treat, as it often presents late after significant neuronal damage has already occurred. Novel disease-modifying treatments being developed will have to be corroborated with innovative imaging biomarkers so that earlier reliable diagnosis can be made and treatment initiated upon. Along with new specific PET radiotracers, integrated PET/MRI with combined methodological advantage and simultaneously acquired structural-cum-functional information may help achieve this goal. The present pictorial essay details our experiences with PET/MRI in dementing disorders, along with reviewing recent advances and future scope. PMID:26752814

  1. Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome and non-Hodgkin lymphoma: what 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography can do in the management of these patients? Suggestions from a case report.

    PubMed

    Cistaro, A; Pazè, F; Durando, S; Cogoni, M; Faletti, R; Vesco, S; Vallero, S; Quartuccio, N; Treglia, G; Ramenghi, U

    2014-01-01

    A young patient with undefined autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS-U) and low back pain underwent a CT and MRI study that showed enhancing vertebral lesions, some pulmonary nodules and diffuse latero-cervical lymphadenopathy. A (18)F-FDG-PET/CT scan showed many areas of intense (18)F-FDG uptake in multiple vertebrae, in some ribs, in the sacrum, in the liver, in both lungs, in multiple lymph nodes spread in the cervical, thoracic and abdominal chains. A bone marrow biopsy showed a "lymphomatoid granulomatosis", a rare variant of B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). After the treatment, the (18)F-FDG-PET/CT scan showed a complete metabolic response. PMID:23845452

  2. Value of sequential 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG PET/CT) in prediction of the overall survival of esophageal cancer patients treated with chemoradiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yimin; Lin, Qin; Luo, Zuoming; Zhao, Long; Zhu, Luchao; Sun, Long; Wu, Hua

    2015-01-01

    This study is to investigate the value of the metabolic parameters measured by sequential FDG PET/CT in predicting the overall survival of patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). A total of 160 patients who were newly diagnosed as ESCC patients and treated with chemoradiotherapy were included in this study. The FDG PET/CT was carried out prior to radiotherapy (PET1), when the cumulative dose of radiotherapy reached 50 Gy (PET2), at the end of radiotherapy (PET3) and 1 month after radiotherapy (PET4). The max of the standard uptake value (SUVmax) of the primary tumor, the metabolic tumor volume (MTV) and the total lesion glycolisis (TLG) prior to treatment were measured. The correlation of the measured parameters and the derived parameters of SUVmax with the overall survival was analyzed. The relatively reduced percentage of the SUVmax of PET3 and PET4 to the SUVmax of PET1 and PET2, had predictive value for the overall survival. The area under researcher operation curve (ROC) was between 0.62 and 0.73 (P < 0.01). The MTV and TLG prior to treatment might be used to predict the overall survival, and the area under ROC were both 0.69 (P < 0.001). Sequential FDG PET/CT scanning is useful to predict the overall survival of chemoradiotherapy for ESCC. The metabolic parameters and the derived parameters of FDG PET/CT have predictive values for overall survival. PMID:26379889

  3. Value of sequential 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG PET/CT) in prediction of the overall survival of esophageal cancer patients treated with chemoradiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Li, Yimin; Lin, Qin; Luo, Zuoming; Zhao, Long; Zhu, Luchao; Sun, Long; Wu, Hua

    2015-01-01

    This study is to investigate the value of the metabolic parameters measured by sequential FDG PET/CT in predicting the overall survival of patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). A total of 160 patients who were newly diagnosed as ESCC patients and treated with chemoradiotherapy were included in this study. The FDG PET/CT was carried out prior to radiotherapy (PET1), when the cumulative dose of radiotherapy reached 50 Gy (PET2), at the end of radiotherapy (PET3) and 1 month after radiotherapy (PET4). The max of the standard uptake value (SUVmax) of the primary tumor, the metabolic tumor volume (MTV) and the total lesion glycolisis (TLG) prior to treatment were measured. The correlation of the measured parameters and the derived parameters of SUVmax with the overall survival was analyzed. The relatively reduced percentage of the SUVmax of PET3 and PET4 to the SUVmax of PET1 and PET2, had predictive value for the overall survival. The area under researcher operation curve (ROC) was between 0.62 and 0.73 (P < 0.01). The MTV and TLG prior to treatment might be used to predict the overall survival, and the area under ROC were both 0.69 (P < 0.001). Sequential FDG PET/CT scanning is useful to predict the overall survival of chemoradiotherapy for ESCC. The metabolic parameters and the derived parameters of FDG PET/CT have predictive values for overall survival. PMID:26379889

  4. pO polarography, contrast enhanced color duplex sonography (CDS), [18F] fluoromisonidazole and [18F] fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography: validated methods for the evaluation of therapy-relevant tumor oxygenation or only bricks in the puzzle of tumor hypoxia?

    PubMed Central

    Gagel, Bernd; Piroth, Marc; Pinkawa, Michael; Reinartz, Patrick; Zimny, Michael; Kaiser, Hans J; Stanzel, Sven; Asadpour, Branka; Demirel, Cengiz; Hamacher, Kurt; Coenen, Heinz H; Scholbach, Thomas; Maneschi, Payam; DiMartino, Ercole; Eble, Michael J

    2007-01-01

    Background The present study was conducted to analyze the value of ([18F] fluoromisonidazole (FMISO) and [18F]-2-fluoro-2'-deoxyglucose (FDG) PET as well as color pixel density (CPD) and tumor perfusion (TP) assessed by color duplex sonography (CDS) for determination of therapeutic relevant hypoxia. As a standard for measuring tissue oxygenation in human tumors, the invasive, computerized polarographic needle electrode system (pO2 histography) was used for comparing the different non invasive measurements. Methods Until now a total of 38 Patients with malignancies of the head and neck were examined. Tumor tissue pO2 was measured using a pO2-histograph. The needle electrode was placed CT-controlled in the tumor without general or local anesthesia. To assess the biological and clinical relevance of oxygenation measurement, the relative frequency of pO2 readings, with values ≤ 2.5, ≤ 5.0 and ≤ 10.0 mmHg, as well as mean and median pO2 were stated. FMISO PET consisted of one static scan of the relevant region, performed 120 min after intravenous administration. FMISO tumor to muscle ratios (FMISOT/M) and tumor to blood ratios (FMISOT/B) were calculated. FDG PET of the lymph node metastases was performed 71 ± 17 min after intravenous administration. To visualize as many vessels as possible by CDS, a contrast enhancer (Levovist®, Schering Corp., Germany) was administered. Color pixel density (CPD) was defined as the ratio of colored to grey pixels in a region of interest. From CDS signals two parameters were extracted: color hue – defining velocity (v) and color area – defining perfused area (A). Signal intensity as a measure of tissue perfusion (TP) was quantified as follows: TP = vmean × Amean. Results In order to investigate the degree of linear association, we calculated the Pearson correlation coefficient. Slight (|r| > 0.4) to moderate (|r| > 0.6) correlation was found between the parameters of pO2 polarography (pO2 readings with values ≤ 2.5, ≤ 5.0 and ≤ 10.0 mmHg, as well as median pO2), CPD and FMISOT/M. Only a slight correlation between TP and the fraction of pO2 values ≤ 10.0 mmHg, median and mean pO2 could be detected. After exclusion of four outliers the absolute values of the Pearson correlation coefficients increased clearly. There was no relevant association between mean or maximum FDG uptake and the different polarographic- as well as the CDS parameters. Conclusion CDS and FMISO PET represent different approaches for estimation of therapy relevant tumor hypoxia. Each of these approaches is methodologically limited, making evaluation of clinical potential in prospective studies necessary. PMID:17598907

  5. Differentiation between Polymyalgia Rheumatica (PMR) and Elderly-Onset Rheumatoid Arthritis Using 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography: Is Enthesitis a New Pathological Lesion in PMR?

    PubMed Central

    Wakura, Daisuke; Kotani, Takuya; Takeuchi, Tohru; Komori, Tsuyoshi; Yoshida, Shuzo; Makino, Shigeki; Hanafusa, Toshiaki

    2016-01-01

    Background It is difficult to differentiate polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR) from elderly-onset rheumatoid arthritis (EORA) in clinical practice. We compared FDG-PET/CT findings between patients with PMR and those with EORA and extracted factors useful for differentiating the two disorders. Methods We compared abnormal FDG accumulation sites and maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) between 15 patients with PMR and 7 with EORA in whom FDG-PET/CT was performed. Results The proportion of patients in the PMR group with abnormal FDG accumulation at the following 9 sites on FDG-PET/CT was significantly higher than that in the EORA group: periarticular region of the scapulohumeral joint, enthesis of the pectineus muscle, vicinity of the enthesis of the rectus femoris muscle, lateral side of the greater trochanter, ischial tuberosity, hip joint, spinous process of the lower cervical vertebra, intervertebral joint of the lumbar vertebra, and spinous process of the lumbar vertebra. The PET/CT score was evaluated at 9 sites consisting of the abovementioned sites. The median score in the PMR group was 8, which was significantly higher than that of 0 in the EORA group (P = 0.0003). ROC curve analysis was performed with the PET/CT scores, and a score of 5 was shown to maximize the area under the ROC curve (sensitivity: 86.7%, specificity: 86.7%). Conclusions FDG-PET/CT is useful for differentiating PMR from EORA. In patients with PMR, abnormal FDG accumulation was observed at the entheses, suggesting the presence of enthesitis in addition to bursitis and synovitis. PMID:27384410

  6. Integrated 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography magnetic resonance imaging (18F-FDG PET/MRI), a multimodality approach for comprehensive evaluation of dementia patients: A pictorial essay

    PubMed Central

    Jena, Amarnath; Renjen, Pushpendra Nath; Taneja, Sangeeta; Gambhir, Aashish; Negi, Pradeep

    2015-01-01

    Dementia, caused by irreversible neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease or reversible non-degenerative conditions, is rapidly becoming one of the most alarming health problems in our aging society. This cognitive disorder associated with a multitude of clinical differentials with overlapping clinical, pathological, and imaging features is difficult to diagnose and treat, as it often presents late after significant neuronal damage has already occurred. Novel disease-modifying treatments being developed will have to be corroborated with innovative imaging biomarkers so that earlier reliable diagnosis can be made and treatment initiated upon. Along with new specific PET radiotracers, integrated PET/MRI with combined methodological advantage and simultaneously acquired structural-cum-functional information may help achieve this goal. The present pictorial essay details our experiences with PET/MRI in dementing disorders, along with reviewing recent advances and future scope. PMID:26752814

  7. Utility of [18F] Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography (FDG PET/CT) in the Initial Staging and Response Assessment of Locally Advanced Breast Cancer Patients Receiving Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Hulikal, Narendra; Gajjala, Sivanath Reddy; Kalawat, Teck Chand; Kottu, Radhika; Amancharla Yadagiri, Lakshmi

    2015-12-01

    In India up to 50 % of breast cancer patients still present as locally advanced breast cancer (LABC). The conventional methods of metastatic work up include physical examination, bone scan, chest & abdominal imaging, and biochemical tests. It is likely that the conventional staging underestimates the extent of initial spread and there is a need for more sophisticated staging procedure. The PET/CT can detect extra-axillary and occult distant metastases and also aid in predicting response to chemotherapy at an early point in time. To evaluate the utility of FDG PET/CT in initial staging and response assessment of patients with LABC receiving NACT. A prospective study of all biopsy confirmed female patients diagnosed with LABC receiving NACT from April 2013 to May 2014. The conventional work up included serum chemistry, CECT chest and abdomen and bone scan. A baseline whole body PET/CT was done in all patients. A repeat staging evaluation and a whole body PET/CT was done after 2/3rd cycle of NACT in non-responders and after 3/4 cycles in clinical responders. The histopathology report of the operative specimen was used to document the pathological response. The FDG PET/CT reported distant metastases in 11 of 38 patients, where as conventional imaging revealed metastases in only 6. Almost all the distant lesions detected by conventional imaging were detected with PET/CT, which showed additional sites of metastasis in 3 patients. In 2 patients, PET/CT detected osteolytic bone metastasis which were not detected by bone scan. In 5 patients PET CT detected N3 disease which were missed on conventional imaging. A total of 14 patients had second PET/CT done to assess the response to NACT and 11 patients underwent surgery. Two patients had complete pathological response. Of these 1 patient had complete metabolic and morphologic response and other had complete metabolic and partial morphologic response on second PET/CT scan. The 18 FDG PET/CT can detect more number of metastasis as well as additional sites of metastasis compared to conventional methods. The response assessment resulted in change of treatment regimen in 14 % of patients. PMID:27065657

  8. Positron emission tomography in generalized seizures

    SciTech Connect

    Theodore, W.H.; Brooks, R.; Margolin, R.; Patronas, N.; Sato, S.; Porter, R.J.; Mansi, L.; Bairamian, D.; DiChiro, G.

    1985-05-01

    The authors used /sup 18/F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) to study nine patients with clinical absence or generalized seizures. One patient had only absence seizures, two had only generalized tonic-clonic seizures, and six had both seizure types. Interictal scans in eight failed to reveal focal or lateralized hypometabolism. No apparent abnormalities were noted. Two patients had PET scans after isotope injection during hyperventilation-induced generalized spike-wave discharges. Diffusely increased metabolic rates were found in one compared with an interictal scan, and in another compared with control values. Another patient had FDG injected during absence status: EEG showed generalized spike-wave discharges (during which she was unresponsive) intermixed with slow activity accompanied by confusion. Metabolic rates were decreased, compared with the interictal scan, throughout both cortical and subcortical structures. Interictal PET did not detect specific anatomic regions responsible for absence seizure onset in any patient, but the results of the ictal scans did suggest that pathophysiologic differences exist between absence status and single absence attacks.

  9. 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET/CT after two cycles of neoadjuvant therapy may predict response in HER2-negative, but not in HER2-positive breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Mo, Miao; Bao, Xiao; Zhang, Yingjian; Liu, Guangyu; Zhang, Jun; Geng, Daoying

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this prospective study was to assess the ability of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) scanning to predict pathological complete response (pCR) in breast cancer, and to investigate whether timing of the scan and trastuzumab treatment influence the accuracy of pCR prediction in human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) positive breast cancer patients. We treated 81 locally advanced breast cancer patients with four cycles of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC). HER2-negative breast cancer patients received NAC alone, while HER2-positive breast cancer patients received NAC plus trastuzumab. 18FDG PET/CT scans were scheduled at baseline and after the second cycle of NAC. Axillary lymph node (ALN) dissection was performed after the last cycle of neoadjuvant therapy. Relative changes in standardized uptake values (SUV) between the two PET/CT scans (ΔSUV) in primary tumors and ALN metastases were calculated. There were 75 patients with 150 PET/CT scans in the final analysis, including 41 HER2-negative and 34 HER2-positive cases. In the HER2-negative group, the ΔSUV predicted overall and ALN pCR; the receiver operating characteristics-areas under curve (ROC-AUC) were 0.87 and 0.80 (P = 0.0014 and 0.031, respectively) and the negative predictive values were 94% and 89% respectively. However, in the HER2-positive group, ΔSUV could predict neither overall nor ALN pCR; the ROC-AUCs were only 0.56 and 0.53, with P = 0.53 and 0.84, respectively. Hence, the ΔSUV after two cycles of neoadjuvant therapy could predict pCR in HER2-negative patients treated with NAC alone, but not in HER2-positive patients treated with NAC plus trastuzumab. PMID:26336821

  10. False-positive Uptake on Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography Immediately After Lung Biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Jung Min; Lee, Ho Yun; Choi, Joon Young

    2015-01-01

    Abstract 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (18F-FDG-PET) is an evolving tool in the field of oncology. 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose, however, is not a specific tool for malignant tumor that it may also accumulate in benign processes. To avoid false-positive interpretation of 18F-FDG-PET/computed tomography (CT), having knowledge of the potential pitfalls is important. The authors present a case of a patient with a lung mass who underwent fluoroscopy-guided transthoracic lung biopsy followed by 18F-FDG-PET/CT scan with a 4-hour interval between biopsy and scanning. Abnormally increased FDG uptake in the mass and pleural effusion was detected. Pathologic examination of the specimen, however, revealed only fibrous tissues with chronic inflammatory cells. On performing CT imaging, 1 month later, the mass and effusion had spontaneously resolved without treatment. Our findings suggest that PET/CT performed immediately following invasive procedures can result in false-positive results and thus mislead diagnosis. Therefore, the interval and order, in which PET/CT and invasive procedures are performed, should be carefully considered in oncologic work-up. PMID:26554786

  11. Assessment of sup 18 F gaseous releases during the production of sup 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose

    SciTech Connect

    Kleck, J.H.; Benedict, S.H.; Cook, J.S.; Birdsall, R.L.; Satyamurthy, N. )

    1991-05-01

    Fluorodeoxyglucose labeled with {sup 18}F ({sup 18}F-FDG) is the most commonly used radiopharmaceutical in positron emission tomography (PET). Fluorine-18-labeled FDG is used as a diagnostic tool in PET studies to monitor the physiology of the brain, diagnose heart function and disease, and to image cancerous tumors. At the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), three cyclotrons produce ({sup 18}F)-fluoride ion using {sup 18}O-enriched water targets. Fluorine-18, which has a half-life of 109.8 min, is produced using an {sup 18}O(p.n.){sup 18}F reaction and is chemically processed to yield {sup 18}F-FDG. This study presents data which demonstrate that during the radiochemical processes involved in the production of {sup 18}F-FDG, gaseous effluent containing {sup 18}F is released. Forty cyclotron production runs with average end of cyclotron bombardment activities of 15.9 +/- 1.88 GBq (430 +/- 50.8 mCi) and end of radiochemical synthesis activities of 5.40 +/- 1.27 GBq (146 +/- 34.3 mCi) yield {sup 18}F gaseous effluent releases ranging from 0 to 2560 MBq (0 to 69.2 mCi) with a mean of 437 MBq (11.8 mCi). Temporal correlation of the {sup 18}F gaseous releases during {sup 18}F-FDG radiochemical production has tied the {sup 18}F release to the addition of the glucose precursor (mannotriflate) and ethyl ether in the radiochemical processing. The results are presented in terms of activities released and dilution factors required from the release stack point to maintain controlled (occupational) and uncontrolled (public) area limits in accordance with the recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection and the regulatory requirements of the federal government.

  12. Greater left cerebral hemispheric metabolism in bulimia assessed by positron emission tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, J.C.; Hagman, J.; Buchsbaum, M.S.; Blinder, B.; Derrfler, M.; Tai, W.Y.; Hazlett, E.; Sicotte, N. )

    1990-03-01

    Eight women with bulimia and eight age- and sex-matched normal control subjects were studied with positron emission tomography using (18F)-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) as a tracer of brain metabolic rate. Subjects performed a visual vigilance task during FDG uptake. In control subjects, the metabolic rate was higher in the right hemisphere than in the left, but patients with bulimia did not have this normal asymmetry. Lower metabolic rates in the basal ganglia, found in studies of depressed subjects, and higher rates in the basal ganglia, reported in a study of anorexia nervosa, were not found. This is consistent with the suggestion that bulimia is a diagnostic grouping distinct from these disorders.

  13. Methods and applications of positron-based medical imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herzog, H.

    2007-02-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) is a diagnostic imaging method to examine metabolic functions and their disorders. Dedicated ring systems of scintillation detectors measure the 511 keV γ-radiation produced in the course of the positron emission from radiolabelled metabolically active molecules. A great number of radiopharmaceuticals labelled with 11C, 13N, 15O, or 18F positron emitters have been applied both for research and clinical purposes in neurology, cardiology and oncology. The recent success of PET with rapidly increasing installations is mainly based on the use of [ 18F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) in oncology where it is most useful to localize primary tumours and their metastases.

  14. The Next Generation of Positron Emission Tomography Radiopharmaceuticals in Oncology

    PubMed Central

    Rice, Samuel L.; Roney, Celeste A.; Daumar, Pierre; Lewis, Jason S.

    2015-01-01

    Although 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) is still the most widely used positron emission tomography (PET) radiotracer, there are a few well-known limitations to its use. The last decade has seen the development of new PET probes for in vivo visualization of specific molecular targets, along with important technical advances in the production of positron-emitting radionuclides and their related labeling methods. As such, a broad range of new PET tracers are in preclinical development or have recently entered clinical trials. The topics covered in this review include labeling methods, biological targets, and the most recent preclinical or clinical data of some of the next generation of PET radiopharmaceuticals. This review, which is by no means exhaustive, has been separated into sections related to the PET radionuclide used for radiolabeling: fluorine-18, for the labeling of agents such as FACBC, FDHT, choline, and Galacto-RGD; carbon-11, for the labeling of choline; gallium-68, for the labeling of peptides such as DOTATOC and bombesin analogs; and the long-lived radionuclides iodine-124 and zirconium-89 for the labeling of monoclonal antibodies cG250, and J591 and trastuzumab, respectively. PMID:21624561

  15. Corrections for the effects of accidental coincidences, Compton scatter, and object size in positron emission mammography (PEM) imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Raymond Raylman; Stanislaw Majewski; Randolph Wojcik; Andrew Weisenberger; Brian Kross; Vladimir Popov

    2001-06-01

    Positron emission mammography (PEM) has begun to show promise as an effective method for the detection of breast lesions. Due to its utilization of tumor-avid radiopharmaceuticals labeled with positron-emitting radionuclides, this technique may be especially useful in imaging of women with radiodense or fibrocystic breasts. While the use of these radiotracers affords PEM unique capabilities, it also introduces some limitations. Specifically, acceptance of accidental and Compton-scattered coincidence events can decrease lesion detectability. The authors studied the effect of accidental coincidence events on PEM images produced by the presence of 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose in the organs of a subject using an anthropomorphic phantom. A delayed-coincidence technique was tested as a method for correcting PEM images for the occurrence of accidental events. Also, a Compton scatter correction algorithm designed specifically for PEM was developed and tested using a compressed breast phantom.

  16. Kinetic Modeling and Graphical Analysis of 18F-Fluoromethylcholine (FCho), 18F-Fluoroethyltyrosine (FET) and 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET for the Fiscrimination between High-Grade Glioma and Radiation Necrosis in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Lybaert, Kelly; Moerman, Lieselotte; Descamps, Benedicte; Deblaere, Karel; Boterberg, Tom; Kalala, Jean-Pierre; Van den Broecke, Caroline; De Vos, Filip; Vanhove, Christian; Goethals, Ingeborg

    2016-01-01

    Background Discrimination between glioblastoma (GB) and radiation necrosis (RN) post-irradiation remains challenging but has a large impact on further treatment and prognosis. In this study, the uptake mechanisms of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG), 18F-fluoroethyltyrosine (18F-FET) and 18F-fluoromethylcholine (18F-FCho) positron emission tomography (PET) tracers were investigated in a F98 GB and RN rat model applying kinetic modeling (KM) and graphical analysis (GA) to clarify our previous results. Methods Dynamic 18F-FDG (GB n = 6 and RN n = 5), 18F-FET (GB n = 5 and RN n = 5) and 18F-FCho PET (GB n = 5 and RN n = 5) were acquired with continuous arterial blood sampling. Arterial input function (AIF) corrections, KM and GA were performed. Results The influx rate (Ki) of 18F-FDG uptake described by a 2-compartmental model (CM) or using Patlak GA, showed more trapping (k3) in GB (0.07 min-1) compared to RN (0.04 min-1) (p = 0.017). K1 of 18F-FET was significantly higher in GB (0.06 ml/ccm/min) compared to RN (0.02 ml/ccm/min), quantified using a 1-CM and Logan GA (p = 0.036). 18F-FCho was rapidly oxidized complicating data interpretation. Using a 1-CM and Logan GA no clear differences were found to discriminate GB from RN. Conclusions Based on our results we concluded that using KM and GA both 18F-FDG and 18F-FET were able to discriminate GB from RN. Using a 2-CM model more trapping of 18F-FDG was found in GB compared to RN. Secondly, the influx of 18F-FET was higher in GB compared to RN using a 1-CM model. Important correlations were found between SUV and kinetic or graphical measures for 18F-FDG and 18F-FET. 18F-FCho PET did not allow discrimination between GB and RN. PMID:27559736

  17. [{sup 18}F]fluorodeoxyglucose Uptake Patterns in Lung Before Radiotherapy Identify Areas More Susceptible to Radiation-Induced Lung Toxicity in Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Petit, Steven F.; Elmpt, Wouter J.C. van; Oberije, Cary J.G.; Vegt, Erik; Dingemans, Anne-Marie C.; Lambin, Philippe; Dekker, Andre L.A.J.; De Ruysscher, Dirk

    2011-11-01

    Purpose: Our hypothesis was that pretreatment inflammation in the lung makes pulmonary tissue more susceptible to radiation damage. The relationship between pretreatment [{sup 18}F]fluorodeoxyglucose ([{sup 18}F]FDG) uptake in the lungs (as a surrogate for inflammation) and the delivered radiation dose and radiation-induced lung toxicity (RILT) was investigated. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively studied a prospectively obtained cohort of 101 non-small-cell lung cancer patients treated with (chemo)radiation therapy (RT). [{sup 18}F]FDG-positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) scans used for treatment planning were studied. Different parameters were used to describe [{sup 18}F]FDG uptake patterns in the lungs, excluding clinical target volumes, and the interaction with radiation dose. An increase in the dyspnea grade of 1 (Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 3.0) or more points compared to the pre-RT score was used as an endpoint for analysis of RILT. The effect of [{sup 18}F]FDG and CT-based variables, dose, and other patient or treatment characteristics that effected RILT was studied using logistic regression. Results: Increased lung density and pretreatment [{sup 18}F]FDG uptake were related to RILT after RT with univariable logistic regression. The 95th percentile of the [{sup 18}F]FDG uptake in the lungs remained significant in multivariable logistic regression (p = 0.016; odds ratio [OR] = 4.3), together with age (p = 0.029; OR = 1.06), and a pre-RT dyspnea score of {>=}1 (p = 0.005; OR = 0.20). Significant interaction effects were demonstrated among the 80th, 90th, and 95th percentiles and the relative lung volume receiving more than 2 and 5 Gy. Conclusions: The risk of RILT increased with the 95th percentile of the [{sup 18}F]FDG uptake in the lungs, excluding clinical tumor volume (OR = 4.3). The effect became more pronounced as the fraction of the 5%, 10%, and 20% highest standardized uptake value voxels that

  18. Comparison of {sup 18}F-Fluorothymidine and {sup 18}F-Fluorodeoxyglucose PET/CT in Delineating Gross Tumor Volume by Optimal Threshold in Patients With Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Thoracic Esophagus

    SciTech Connect

    Han Dali; Yu Jinming; Yu Yonghua; Zhang Guifang; Zhong Xiaojun; Lu Jie; Yin Yong; Fu Zheng; Mu Dianbin; Zhang Baijiang; He Wei; Huo Zhijun; Liu Xijun; Kong Lei; Zhao Shuqiang; Sun Xiangyu

    2010-03-15

    Purpose: To determine the optimal method of using {sup 18}F-fluorothymidine (FLT) positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) simulation to delineate the gross tumor volume (GTV) in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma verified by pathologic examination and compare the results with those using {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET/CT. Methods and Materials: A total of 22 patients were enrolled and underwent both FLT and FDG PET/CT. The GTVs with biologic information were delineated using seven different methods in FLT PET/CT and three different methods in FDG PET/CT. The results were compared with the pathologic gross tumor length, and the optimal threshold was obtained. Next, we compared the simulation plans using the optimal threshold of FLT and FDG PET/CT. The radiation dose was prescribed as 60 Gy in 30 fractions with a precise radiotherapy technique. Results: The mean +- standard deviation pathologic gross tumor length was 4.94 +- 2.21 cm. On FLT PET/CT, the length of the standardized uptake value 1.4 was 4.91 +- 2.43 cm. On FDG PET/CT, the length of the standardized uptake value 2.5 was 5.10 +- 2.18 cm, both of which seemed more approximate to the pathologic gross tumor length. The differences in the bilateral lung volume receiving >=20 Gy, heart volume receiving >=40 Gy, and the maximal dose received by spinal cord between FLT and FDG were not significant. However, the values for mean lung dose, bilateral lung volume receiving >=5, >=10, >=30, >=40, and >=50 Gy, mean heart dose, and heart volume receiving >=30 Gy using FLT PET/CT-based planning were significant lower than those using FDG PET/CT. Conclusion: A standardized uptake value cutoff of 1.4 on FLT PET/CT and one of 2.5 on FDG PET/CT provided the closest estimation of GTV length. Finally, FLT PET/CT-based treatment planning provided potential benefits to the lungs and heart.

  19. SU-E-I-85: Exploring the 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose PET Characteristics in Staging of Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, C; Yin, Y

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to explore the characteristics derived from 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) PET image and assess its capacity in staging of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Methods: 26 patients with newly diagnosed ESCC who underwent 18F-FDG PET scan were included in this study. Different image-derived indices including the standardized uptake value (SUV), gross tumor length, texture features and shape feature were considered. Taken the histopathologic examination as the gold standard, the extracted capacities of indices in staging of ESCC were assessed by Kruskal-Wallis test and Mann-Whitney test. Specificity and sensitivity for each of the studied parameters were derived using receiver-operating characteristic curves. Results: 18F-FDG SUVmax and SUVmean showed statistically significant capability in AJCC and TNM stages. Texture features such as ENT and CORR were significant factors for N stages(p=0.040, p=0.029). Both FDG PET Longitudinal length and shape feature Eccentricity (EC) (p≤0.010) provided powerful stratification in the primary ESCC AJCC and TNM stages than SUV and texture features. Receiver-operating-characteristic curve analysis showed that tumor textural analysis can capability M stages with higher sensitivity than SUV measurement but lower in T and N stages. Conclusion: The 18F-FDG image-derived characteristics of SUV, textural features and shape feature allow for good stratification AJCC and TNM stage in ESCC patients.

  20. Functional imaging of the brain with/sup 18/F-fluorodeoxyglucose

    SciTech Connect

    Reivich, M; Greenberg, J; Alavi, A; Hand, P; Rintelmann, W; Rosenquist, A; Christman, D; Fowler, J; MacGregor, R; Wolf, A

    1980-01-01

    A techniques is reported by which it is possible to determine which regions of the human brain become functionally active in response to a specific stimulus. The method utilizes /sup 18/F-2-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose ((/sup 18/F)-FDG) administered as a bolus. (/sup 18/F)-FDG is used as a tracer for the exchange of glucose between plasma and brain and its phosphorylation. The subject is then scanned during administration of a physiologic stimulus by position emission tomography and the three-dimensional distribution of /sup 18/F activity in the brain determined. (ACR)

  1. High 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) uptake in microscopic peritoneal tumors requires physiological hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiao-Feng; Ma, Yuanyuan; Sun, Xiaorong; Humm, John L.; Ling, C. Clifton; O’Donoghue, Joseph A.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) uptake in microscopic tumors grown intraperitoneally in nude mice and to relate this to physiological hypoxia and glucose transporter-1 (GLUT-1) expression. Methods Human colon cancer HT29 and HCT-8 cells were injected intraperitoneally into nude mice to generate disseminated tumors of varying sizes. Following overnight fasting, animals, either breathing air or carbogen (95% O2+ 5% CO2), were intravenously administered 18F-FDG together with the hypoxia marker pimonidazole (PIMO) and the cellular proliferation marker bromodeoxyuridine (BrdUrd) one hour before sacrifice. Hoechst 33342, a perfusion marker, was administered one minute before sacrifice. Following sacrifice, the intratumoral distribution of 18F-FDG was assessed by digital autoradiography of frozen tissue sections. This was compared with the distributions of PIMO, GLUT-1 expression, BrdUrd and Hoechst 33342 as visualized by immunofluorescent microscopy. Results Small tumors (< 1 mm diameter) had high 18F-FDG accumulation and were severely hypoxic with high GLUT-1 expression. Larger tumors (1–4 mm diameter) generally had low 18F-FDG accumulation and were not significantly hypoxic with low GLUT1 expression. Carbogen breathing significantly decreased 18F-FDG accumulation and tumor hypoxia in microscopic tumors but had little effect on GLUT1 expression. Conclusion There was high 18F-FDG uptake in microscopic tumors which was spatially associated with physiological hypoxia and high GLUT-1 expression. This enhanced uptake was abrogated by carbogen breathing, indicating that in the absence of physiological hypoxia, high GLUT1 expression, by itself, was insufficient to ensure high 18F-FDG uptake. PMID:20351353

  2. Suivi in situ de cultures tridimensionnelles en bioreacteur a perfusion grace a la tomographie d'emission par positrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chouinard, Julie

    The continuous assessment of developing tissue substitutes is crucial to understand their evolution over time. However, this represents quite a challenge when thick samples must be evaluated with standard microscopy techniques. Common characterization methods are time consuming and usually result in the destruction of the culture. Real-time, in situ, non-invasive and non-destructives methods are needed to monitor the growth of large non-transparent constructs in tissue engineering. Medical imaging modalities, which can provide information on the structure and function of internal organs and tissues in living organisms, have the potential of allowing repetitive monitoring of these 3D cultures in vitro. The working hypothesis of this thesis was to establish standard noninvasive and nondestructive real-time bioreactor imaging protocols for in situ monitoring of the viability and metabolism of endothelial cells when grown in perfused 3D fibrin gel scaffolds. To achieve this goal, a culture chamber with hollow fibers was designed and a pulsatile perfusion bioreactor system, able to promote cell survival and proliferation, was constructed and validated. Standard imaging protocols in Positron Emission Tomography (PET) are not adapted to image bioreactor systems. A suitable method had to be devised using the well-known radiotracer 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose ( 18FDG), a marker of glucose metabolism. Optimal uptake conditions were determined using cell monolayers and the best parameters were then applied on perfused 3D cultures to evaluate perfusion, cell viability and emerging cell structures. After only 12 hours of culture, the cell density could be estimated and cell structures were localized within the fibrin gels after 1-2 weeks of culture. PET is a promising tool for tissue engineering with many specific tracers available that might eventually be able to reveal new information on tissue development. Key words: Endothelial cells, Perfusion bioreactor, Positron Emission

  3. Positron emission tomography/computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Townsend, David W

    2008-05-01

    Accurate anatomical localization of functional abnormalities obtained with the use of positron emission tomography (PET) is known to be problematic. Although tracers such as (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG) visualize certain normal anatomical structures, the spatial resolution is generally inadequate for accurate anatomic localization of pathology. Combining PET with a high-resolution anatomical imaging modality such as computed tomography (CT) can resolve the localization issue as long as the images from the two modalities are accurately coregistered. However, software-based registration techniques have difficulty accounting for differences in patient positioning and involuntary movement of internal organs, often necessitating labor-intensive nonlinear mapping that may not converge to a satisfactory result. Acquiring both CT and PET images in the same scanner obviates the need for software registration and routinely provides accurately aligned images of anatomy and function in a single scan. A CT scanner positioned in line with a PET scanner and with a common patient couch and operating console has provided a practical solution to anatomical and functional image registration. Axial translation of the couch between the 2 modalities enables both CT and PET data to be acquired during a single imaging session. In addition, the CT images can be used to generate essentially noiseless attenuation correction factors for the PET emission data. By minimizing patient movement between the CT and PET scans and accounting for the axial separation of the two modalities, accurately registered anatomical and functional images can be obtained. Since the introduction of the first PET/CT prototype more than 6 years ago, numerous patients with cancer have been scanned on commercial PET/CT devices worldwide. The commercial designs feature multidetector spiral CT and high-performance PET components. Experience has demonstrated an increased level of accuracy and confidence in the

  4. Increased uptake of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose in postischemic myocardium of patients with exercise-induced angina

    SciTech Connect

    Camici, P.; Araujo, L.I.; Spinks, T.; Lammertsma, A.A.; Kaski, J.C.; Shea, M.J.; Selwyn, A.P.; Jones, T.; Maseri, A.

    1986-07-01

    Regional myocardial perfusion and exogenous glucose uptake were assessed with rubidium-82 (82Rb) and 18F-2-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose (FDG) in 10 normal volunteers and 12 patients with coronary artery disease and stable angina pectoris by means of positron emission tomography. In patients at rest, the myocardial uptake of /sup 82/Rb and FDG did not differ significantly from that measured in normal subjects. The exercise test performed within the positron camera in eight patients produced typical chest pain and ischemic electrocardiographic changes in all. In each of the eight patients a region of reduced cation uptake was demonstrated in the /sup 82/Rb scan recorded at peak exercise, after which uptake of /sup 82/Rb returned to the control value 5 to 14 min after the end of the exercise. In these patients, FDG was injected in the recovery phase when all the variables that were altered during exercise, including regional myocardial /sup 82/Rb uptake, had returned to control values. In all but one patient, FDG accumulation in the regions of reduced /sup 82/Rb uptake during exercise was significantly higher than that in the nonischemic regions, i.e., the ones with a normal increment of /sup 82/Rb uptake on exercise. In the nonischemic areas, FDG uptake was not significantly different from that found in normal subjects after exercise. In conclusion, myocardial glucose transport and phosphorylation seem to be enhanced in the postischemic myocardium of patients with exercise-induced ischemia.

  5. Positron emission tomography in imaging evaluation of staging, restaging, treatment response, and prognosis in prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Jadvar, Hossein

    2016-05-01

    Prostate cancer is a prevalent public health problem worldwide. While imaging has played a major role in this disease, there still remain many challenges and opportunities. Positron emission tomography with various physiologically based radiotracers is fundamentally suited to interrogate this biologically and clinically heterogeneous disease along the course of its natural history. In this article, I review briefly the published evidence for the use of positron emission tomography with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose, 11C-acetate, and 18F- or 11C-choline in the imaging evaluation of prostate cancer. Although the focus of the article will be on these radiotracers given the accumulated experience with them, but I will also comment on the outlook for the use of other emerging PET radiotracers such as those targeted to the prostate-specific membrane antigen and the amino acid metabolism pathway. It is anticipated that PET will play major role in the evaluation of prostate cancer in the current evidence-based medicine environment. There will also be exciting novel prospects for the use of therapeutic-diagnostic (theransotic) pairs in the management of patients with prostate cancer. PMID:27193789

  6. The role of positron emission tomography-computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging in diagnosis and follow up of multiple myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Caers, Jo; Withofs, Nadia; Hillengass, Jens; Simoni, Paolo; Zamagni, Elena; Hustinx, Roland; Beguin, Yves

    2014-01-01

    Multiple myeloma is the second most common hematologic malignancy and occurs most commonly in elderly patients. Almost all multiple myeloma patients develop bone lesions in the course of their disease or have evidence of bone loss at initial diagnosis. Whole-body conventional radiography remains the gold standard in the diagnostic evaluation, but computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography are increasingly used as complementary techniques in the detection of bone lesions. Moreover, the number of lesions detected and the presence of extramedullary disease give strong prognostic information. These new techniques may help to assess treatment response in solitary plasmacytoma or in multiple myeloma. In this article, we review recent data on the different imaging techniques used at diagnosis and in the assessment of treatment response, and discuss some current issues. PMID:24688111

  7. A Novel Method to Evaluate Local Control of Lung Cancer in Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy (SBRT) Treatment Using 18F-FDG Positron Emission Tomography (PET)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kathriarachchi, Vindu Wathsala

    An improved method is introduced for prediction of local tumor control following lung stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for early stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients using 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (18F-FDG PET). A normalized background-corrected tumor maximum Standard Uptake Value (SUVcmax) is introduced using the mean uptake of adjacent aorta (SUVref), instead of the maximum uptake of lung tumor (SUVmax). This method minimizes the variations associated with SUVmax and objectively demonstrates a strong correlation between the low SUVcmax (< 2.5-3.0) and local control of post lung SBRT. The false positive rates of both SUVmax and SUVcmax increase with inclusion of early (<6 months) PET scans, therefore such inclusion is not recommended for assessing local tumor control of post lung SBRT.

  8. Evaluation of Simultaneous Dual-radioisotope SPECT Imaging Using 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose and 99mTc-tetrofosmin

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Yasuyuki; Mochiki, Mizuki; Koyama, Keiko; Ino, Toshihiko; Yamaji, Hiroyuki; Kawakami, Atsuko

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s): Use of a positron emission tomography (PET)/single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) system facilitates the simultaneous acquisition of images with fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) and technetium (99mTc)-tetrofosmin. However, 18F has a short half-life, and 511 keV Compton-scattered photons are detected in the 99mTc energy window. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to investigate the consequences of these facts. Methods: The crosstalk correction for images in the 99mTc energy window involved the dual energy window (DEW) subtraction method. In phantom studies, changes in the count of uniform parts in a phantom (due to attenuation from decay), signal detectability in the hot-rod part of the phantom, and the defect contrast ratio in a cardiac phantom were examined. Results: For 18F-FDG in the step-and-shoot mode, nearly a 9% difference was observed in the count of projection data between the start and end positions of acquisition in the uniform part of the phantom. Based on the findings, the detectability of 12 mm hot rods was relatively poor. In the continuous acquisition mode, the count difference was corrected, and detectability of the hot rods was improved. The crosstalk from 18F to the 99mTc energy window was approximately 13%. In the cardiac phantom, the defect contrast in 99mTc images from simultaneous dual-radionuclide acquisition was improved by approximately 9% after DEW correction; the contrast after correction was similar to acquisition with 99mTc alone. Conclusion: Based on the findings, the continuous mode is useful for 18F-FDG acquisition, and DEW crosstalk correction is necessary for 99mTc-tetrofosmin imaging. PMID:27408894

  9. Assessment of myocardial perfusion and viability by positron emission tomography.

    PubMed

    Anagnostopoulos, Constantinos; Georgakopoulos, Alexandros; Pianou, Nikoletta; Nekolla, Stephan G

    2013-09-01

    An important evolution has taken place recently in the field of cardiovascular Positron Emission Tomography (PET) imaging. Being originally a highly versatile research tool that has contributed significantly to advance our understanding of cardiovascular physiology and pathophysiology, PET has gradually been incorporated into the clinical cardiac imaging portfolio contributing to diagnosis and management of patients investigated for coronary artery disease (CAD). PET myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) has an average sensitivity and specificity around 90% for the detection of angiographically significant CAD and it is also a very accurate technique for prognostication of patients with suspected or known CAD. In clinical practice, Rubidium-82 ((82)Rb) is the most widely used radiopharmaceutical for MPI that affords also accurate and reproducible quantification in absolute terms (ml/min/g) comparable to that obtained by cyclotron produced tracers such as Nitrogen-13 ammonia ((13)N-ammonia) and Oxygen-15 labeled water ((15)O-water). Quantification increases sensitivity for detection of multivessel CAD and it may also be helpful for detection of early stages of atherosclerosis or microvascular dysfunction. PET imaging combining perfusion with myocardial metabolism using (18)F-Fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)F FDG), a glucose analog, is an accurate standard for assessment of myocardial hibernation and risk stratification of patients with left ventricular dysfunction of ischemic etiology. It is helpful for guiding management decisions regarding revascularization or medical treatment and predicting improvement of symptoms, exercise capacity and quality of life post-revascularization. The strengths of PET can be increased further with the introduction of hybrid scanners, which combine PET with computed tomography (PET/CT) or with magnetic resonance imaging (PET/MRI) offering integrated morphological, biological and physiological information and hence, comprehensive evaluation of

  10. Positron Emission Tomography Imaging of Cancer Biology: Current Status and Future Prospects

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Kai; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2011-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) is one of the most rapidly growing areas of medical imaging, with many applications in the clinical management of patients with cancer. The principal goal of PET imaging is to visualize, characterize, and measure biological processes at the cellular, subcellular, and molecular levels in living subjects using noninvasive procedures. PET imaging takes advantage of the traditional diagnostic imaging techniques and introduces positron-emitting probes to determine the expression of indicative molecular targets at different stages of cancer progression. Although [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose ([18F]FDG)-PET has been widely utilized for staging and restaging of cancer, evaluation of response to treatment, differentiation of post-therapy alterations from residual or recurrent tumor, and assessment of prognosis, [18F]FDG is not a target-specific PET tracer. Over the last decade, numerous target-specific PET tracers have been developed and evaluated in preclinical and clinical studies. This review provides an overview of the current status and trends in the development of non-[18F]FDG PET probes in oncology and their application in the investigation of cancer biology. PMID:21362517

  11. Positron emission tomography.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, E J; Phelps, M E

    1979-01-01

    Conventional nuclear imaging techniques utilizing lead collimation rely on radioactive tracers with little role in human physiology. The principles of imaging based on coincidence detection of the annihilation radiation produced in positron decay indicate that this mode of detection is uniquely suited for use in emission computed tomography. The only gamma-ray-emitting isotopes of carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen are positron emitters, which yield energies too high for conventional imaging techniques. Thus development of positron emitters in nuclear medicine imaging would make possible the use of a new class of physiologically active, positron-emitting radiopharmaceuticals. The application of these principles is described in the use of a physiologically active compound labeled with a positron emitter and positron-emission computed tomography to measure the local cerebral metabolic rate in humans. PMID:440173

  12. Positron emission tomographic studies of sensory stimuli, cognitive processes and anxiety.

    PubMed

    Reivich, M; Gur, R; Alavi, A

    1983-01-01

    Research in detecting regional changes in brain metabolism related to functional activity is reviewed and supplemented by original results from positron emission tomography (PET) and the 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose method (FDG). A formula for calculating the value of local cerebral glucose metabolism (LCMRGlc) is discussed. Results concerning auditory stimulation suggest that metabolic responses are determined by the stimulus content and analysis strategy used by the subject rather than the side of stimulation. Tactile stimulation of the hand and fingers caused asymmetrical increases in LCMRGlc confirming topographic maps of the postcentral gyrus and other functional studies. Data from visually stimulated normal subjects show how the visual hemifields project to the opposite calcarine cortex. Studies of patients with hemianopsia or various field defects demonstrated that metabolic scanning can reveal alterations of cortical function not detectable by CT scan. Data obtained reveal the ability of metabolic mapping to subdivide the occipital cortex into distinct regions. Such measurements may also anticipate the course of visual recovery. Findings of increased overall right-hemispheric metabolism during the performance of verbal and spatial cognitive tasks are consistent with earlier results from right-handed males. Results for the frontal eye fields provide the first experimental evidence that lateralized metabolic activity, produced by cognitive tasks, causes similarly lateralized activity within a motor region. It is further demonstrated that FDG is able to provide information on such states as vigilance and anxiety. PMID:6603451

  13. The metabolic landscape of cortico-basal ganglionic degeneration: regional asymmetries studied with positron emission tomography.

    PubMed Central

    Eidelberg, D; Dhawan, V; Moeller, J R; Sidtis, J J; Ginos, J Z; Strother, S C; Cederbaum, J; Greene, P; Fahn, S; Powers, J M

    1991-01-01

    Regional metabolic rate for glucose (rCMRGlc) was estimated using [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) and positron emission tomography (PET) in five patients (four men, one woman; mean age 68; mean disease duration 2.4 years) with clinical findings consistent with the syndrome of cortico-basal ganglionic degeneration (CBGD). Left-right rCMRGlc asymmetry, (L-R)/(L + R) x 100, was calculated for 13 grey matter regions and compared with regional metabolic data from 18 normal volunteers and nine patients with asymmetrical Parkinson's disease (PD). In the CBGD group mean metabolic asymmetry values in the thalamus, inferior parietal lobule and hippocampus were greater than those measured in normal control subjects and patients with asymmetrical PD (p less than 0.02). Parietal lobe asymmetry of 5% or more was evident in all CBGD patients, whereas in PD patients and normal controls, all regional asymmetry measures were less than 5% in absolute value. Measures of frontal, parietal and hemispheric metabolic asymmetry were found to be positively correlated with asymmetries in thalamic rCMRGlc (p less than 0.05). The presence of cortico-thalamic metabolic asymmetry is consistent with the focal neuropathological changes reported in CBGD brains. Our findings suggest that metabolic asymmetries detected with FDG/PET may support a diagnosis of CBGD in life. Images PMID:1744638

  14. Positron emission tomography in aging and dementia: effect of cerebral atrophy

    SciTech Connect

    Chawluk, J.B.; Alavi, A.; Dann, R.; Hurtig, H.I.; Bais, S.; Kushner, M.J.; Zimmerman, R.A.; Reivich, M.

    1987-04-01

    The spatial resolution of current positron emission tomography (PET) scanners does not allow a distinction between cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) containing spaces and contiguous brain tissue. Data analysis strategies which therefore purport to quantify cerebral metabolism per unit mass brain tissue are in fact measuring a value which may be artifactually reduced due to contamination by CSF. We studied cerebral glucose metabolism (CMRglc) in 17 healthy elderly individuals and 24 patients with Alzheimer's dementia using (/sup 18/F)fluorodeoxyglucose and PET. All subjects underwent x-ray computed tomography (XCT) scanning at the time of their PET study. The XCT scans were analyzed volumetrically, in order to determine relative areas for ventricles, sulci, and brain tissue. Global CMRglc was calculated before and after correction for contamination by CSF (cerebral atrophy). A greater increase in global CMRglc after atrophy correction was seen in demented individuals compared with elderly controls (16.9% versus 9.0%, p less than 0.0005). Additional preliminary data suggest that volumetric analysis of proton-NMR images may prove superior to analysis of XCT data in quantifying the degree of atrophy. Appropriate corrections for atrophy should be employed if current PET scanners are to accurately measure actual brain tissue metabolism in various pathologic states.

  15. Evaluation of Glucose Uptake in Normal and Cancer Cell Lines by Positron Emission Tomography.

    PubMed

    Maddalena, Francesca; Lettini, Giacomo; Gallicchio, Rosj; Sisinni, Lorenza; Simeon, Vittorio; Nardelli, Anna; Venetucci, Angela Assunta; Storto, Giovanni; Landriscina, Matteo

    2015-01-01

    To date, there is no definitive demonstration of the utility of positron emission tomography (PET) in studying glucose metabolism in cultured cell lines. Thus, this study was designed to compare PET to more standardized methods for the quantitative assessment of glucose uptake in nontransformed and transformed living cells and to validate PET for metabolic studies in vitro. Human colon and breast carcinoma cell lines and mouse embryo fibroblasts were evaluated for [(18)F]fluorodeoxyglucose ([(18)F]FDG) uptake by PET and autoradiography and 2-deoxyglucose (2-DG) incorporation by colorimetric assay and analyzed for the radiotoxic effects of [(18)F]FDG and the expression levels of glucose transporters. Indeed, [(18)F]FDG incorporation on PET was comparable to [(18)F]FDG uptake by autoradiography and 2-DG incorporation by colorimetric assay, although radiotracer-based methods exhibited more pronounced differences between individual cell lines. As expected, these data correlated with glucose transporters 1 to 4 and hexokinase II expression in tumor cell lines and mouse fibroblasts. Notably, [(18)F]FDG incorporation resulted in low apoptotic rates, with fibroblasts being slightly more sensitive to radiotracer-induced cell death. The quantitative analysis of [(18)F]FDG uptake in living cells by PET represents a valuable and reproducible method to study tumor cell metabolism in vitro, being representative of the differences in the molecular profile of normal and tumor cell lines. PMID:26461458

  16. Regional Cerebral Glucose Metabolism in Novelty Seeking and Antisocial Personality: A Positron Emission Tomography Study

    PubMed Central

    Park, So Hyeon; Park, Hyun Soo

    2016-01-01

    Novelty seeking (NS) and antisocial personality (ASP) are commonly exhibited by those who suffer from addictions, such as substance abuse. NS has been suggested to be a fundamental aspect of ASP. To investigate the neurobiological substrate of NS and ASP, we tested the relationship between regional cerebral glucose metabolism and the level of NS, determining the differences between individuals with and without ASP. Seventy-two healthy adults (43 males, mean age±SD=38.8±16.6 years, range=20~70 years; 29 females, 44.2±20.1 years, range=19~72 years) underwent resting-state brain positron emission tomography (PET) 40 minutes after 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) injection. Within 10 days of the FDG PET study, participants completed Cloninger's 240-item Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) to determine NS scores. Participants with and without ASP were grouped according to their TCI profiles. Statistical parametric mapping analysis was performed using the FDG PET and TCI profile data. NS scores positively correlated with metabolism in the left anterior cingulate gyrus and the insula on both sides of the brain and negatively correlated with metabolism in the right pallidum and putamen. Participants with ASP showed differences in cerebral glucose metabolism across various cortical and subcortical regions, mainly in the frontal and prefrontal areas. These data demonstrate altered regional cerebral glucose metabolism in individuals with NS and ASP and inform our understanding of the neurobiological substrates of problematic behaviors and personality disorders. PMID:27574485

  17. Regional Cerebral Glucose Metabolism in Novelty Seeking and Antisocial Personality: A Positron Emission Tomography Study.

    PubMed

    Park, So Hyeon; Park, Hyun Soo; Kim, Sang Eun

    2016-08-01

    Novelty seeking (NS) and antisocial personality (ASP) are commonly exhibited by those who suffer from addictions, such as substance abuse. NS has been suggested to be a fundamental aspect of ASP. To investigate the neurobiological substrate of NS and ASP, we tested the relationship between regional cerebral glucose metabolism and the level of NS, determining the differences between individuals with and without ASP. Seventy-two healthy adults (43 males, mean age±SD=38.8±16.6 years, range=20~70 years; 29 females, 44.2±20.1 years, range=19~72 years) underwent resting-state brain positron emission tomography (PET) 40 minutes after (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) injection. Within 10 days of the FDG PET study, participants completed Cloninger's 240-item Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) to determine NS scores. Participants with and without ASP were grouped according to their TCI profiles. Statistical parametric mapping analysis was performed using the FDG PET and TCI profile data. NS scores positively correlated with metabolism in the left anterior cingulate gyrus and the insula on both sides of the brain and negatively correlated with metabolism in the right pallidum and putamen. Participants with ASP showed differences in cerebral glucose metabolism across various cortical and subcortical regions, mainly in the frontal and prefrontal areas. These data demonstrate altered regional cerebral glucose metabolism in individuals with NS and ASP and inform our understanding of the neurobiological substrates of problematic behaviors and personality disorders. PMID:27574485

  18. Positron emission tomography neuroimaging in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: what is new?

    PubMed

    Quartuccio, N; Van Weehaeghe, D; Cistaro, A; Jonsson, C; Van Laere, K; Pagani, M

    2014-12-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease involving upper and lower motor neurons, extra-motor neurons, microglia and astrocytes. The neurodegenerative process results in progressive muscle paralysis and even in cognitive impairment. Within the complex diagnostic work-up, positron emission tomography (PET) represents a valuable imaging tool in the assessment of patients with ALS. PET, by means of different radiotracers (i.e. 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose, 6-[18F]fluoro-L-dopa, [11C]flumazenil) can assess the status of the wide range of brain regions and neural circuits, which can be affected by ALS. Furthermore, experimental radiocompounds have been developed for the evaluation of white matter, which plays a role in the progression of the disease. Here we present a comprehensive review including in different sections the most relevant PET studies: studies investigating ALS and ALS-mimicking conditions (especially primary lateral sclerosis and other neurodegenerative diseases), articles selecting specific subsets of patients (with bulbar or spinal onset), studies investigating patients with familial type of ALS, studies evaluating the role of the white matter in ALS and papers evaluating the diagnostic sensitivity of PET in ALS patients. PMID:25375229

  19. Permeability of gloves used in nuclear medicine departments to [(99m)Tc]-pertechnetate and [(18)F]-fluorodeoxyglucose: radiation protection considerations.

    PubMed

    Ridone, S; Matheoud, R; Valzano, S; Di Martino, R; Vigna, L; Brambilla, M

    2013-09-01

    In order to evaluate the safety of the individual protection devices, the permeability of four different types of disposable gloves, commonly used in hospitals, was tested in relation to [(99m)Tc]-pertechnetate and to [(18)F]-fluorodeoxyglucose ([(18)F]-FDG). From these radiopharmaceutical solutions, a drop was deposited on the external surface of the glove which was opened and stretched with the external surface placed upward. The smear test technique permitted to evaluate the activity onto the inner surface of the glove at different times. The smear tests were measured in a well sodium iodide detector calibrated in efficiency for (99m)Tc and (18)F. The permeability was tested on ten samples of each type of gloves and was expressed as the ratio of the activity onto the inner surface at each time interval to the activity deposited on the external surface of the glove. For each type of gloves and for each sampling time, mean value, standard deviation and percentage coefficient of variation of permeability were evaluated. One type of gloves showed a low resistance to permeation of both radiopharmaceuticals, while another one only to pertechnetate. The other gloves were good performers. The results of this study suggest to test permeability for gloves used for handling radiopharmaceuticals, before their adoption in the clinical routine. This practice will provide a more careful service of radiation protection for nuclear medicine department staff. PMID:23419926

  20. Positron emission tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Y. Lucas; Thompson, Christopher J.; Diksic, Mirko; Meyer, Ernest; Feindel, William H.

    One of the most exciting new technologies introduced in the last 10 yr is positron emission tomography (PET). PET provides quantitative, three-dimensional images for the study of specific biochemical and physiological processes in the human body. This approach is analogous to quantitative in-vivo autoradiography but has the added advantage of permitting non-invasive in vivo studies. PET scanning requires a small cyclotron to produce short-lived positron emitting isotopes such as oxygen-15, carbon-11, nitrogen-13 and fluorine-18. Proper radiochemical facilities and advanced computer equipment are also needed. Most important, PET requires a multidisciplinary scientific team of physicists, radiochemists, mathematicians, biochemists and physicians. This review analyzes the most recent trends in the imaging technology, radiochemistry, methodology and clinical applications of positron emission tomography.

  1. Tumor Hypoxia Detected by Positron Emission Tomography with 60Cu-ATSM as a Predictor of Response and Survival in Patients Undergoing Neoadjuvant Chemoradiotherapy for Rectal Carcinoma: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Dietz, David W.; Dehdashti, Farrokh; Grigsby, Perry W.; Malyapa, Robert S.; Myerson, Robert J.; Picus, Joel; Ritter, Jon; Lewis, Jason S.; Welch, Michael J.; Siegel, Barry A.

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE The response of rectal cancers to neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy is variable. Tumor hypoxia reduces the effectiveness of both radiation therapy and chemotherapy and is a well-known risk factor for tumor radioresistence. We hypothesized that imaging with the novel hypoxia-detecting agent, 60Cu-diacetyl-bis (N4-methylthiosemicarbazone) (60Cu-ATSM), previously validated in cervical and lung cancers, would predict the response of rectal cancers to neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy and prognosis. METHODS Patients with locally invasive (T2–4) primary or node-positive rectal cancer located <12 cm from the anal verge were recruited for this pilot study. Pretreatment tumor size and stage were determined by endorectal ultrasonography, CT, and magnetic resonance imaging. Eleven patients also underwent clinical positron emission tomography with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose at the discretion of the treating clinician. The primary tumor was imaged by positron emission tomography with 60Cu-ATSM, and accumulation of the tracer was measured semiquantitatively by determining the tumor-to-muscle activity ratio. Neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy was then administered (within 2 weeks of 60Cu-ATSM-positron emission tomography) and consisted of 45 Gy given in 25 fractions to the pelvis with continuous intravenous infusion of 5-fluorouracil (225 mg/m2/day). Proctectomy was performed six to eight weeks after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy and the tumor submitted to pathology for size measurement and staging. Tumor-to-muscle activity ratios were compared with tumor 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose uptake, tumor response to neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy, and with patient survival. RESULTS Nineteen patients were enrolled in the study, two of whom were excluded from final analysis (1 death during neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy and 1 tumor perforation during neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy requiring emergent surgery). Of the 17 remaining patients, 14 had a reduction in tumor size and 13 were downstaged. The

  2. Evaluation of pulmonary nodules and lung cancer with one-inch crystal gamma coincidence positron emission tomography/CT versus dedicated positron emission tomography/CT.

    PubMed

    Moodie, K; Cherk, M H; Lau, E; Turlakow, A; Skinner, S; Hicks, R J; Kelly, M J; Kalff, V

    2009-02-01

    Dedicated positron emission tomography (PET)/CT scanners using BGO and related detectors (d-PET) have become standard imaging instruments in many malignancies. Hybrid gamma camera systems using NaI detectors in coincidence mode (g-PET) have been compared to d-PET but reported usefulness has been variable when gamma cameras with half-inch to three-fourth-inch thick crystals have been used without CT. Our aim was to compare g-PET with a 1-in.-thick crystal and inbuilt CT for lesion localization and attenuation correction (g-PET/CT) and d-PET/CT in patients presenting with potential and confirmed lung malignancies. One hour after (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG), patients underwent BGO d-PET/CT from jaw to proximal thigh. This was followed by one to two bed position g-PET/CT 194 +/- 27 min after FDG. Each study pair was independently analysed with concurrent CT. d-PET/CT was interpreted by a radiologist experienced in both PET and CT, and g-PET/CT by consensus reading of an experienced PET physician and an experienced CT radiologist. A TNM score was assigned and studies were then unblinded and compared. Fifty-seven patients underwent 58 scan pairs over 2 years. Eighty-nine per cent concordance was shown between g-PET/CT and d-PET/CT for the assessment of intrapulmonary lesions, with 100% concordance for intrapulmonary lesions >10 mm (36 of 36). Eighty-eight per cent (51 of 58) concordance was shown between g-PET/CT and d-PET/CT for TNM staging. Coincidence imaging using an optimized dual-head 1-in.-thick crystal gamma camera with inbuilt CT compares reasonably well with dedicated PET/CT for evaluation of indeterminate pulmonary lesions and staging of pulmonary malignancies and may be of some value when d-PET/CT is not readily available. PMID:19453526

  3. Influence of the partial volume correction method on 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose brain kinetic modelling from dynamic PET images reconstructed with resolution model based OSEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowen, Spencer L.; Byars, Larry G.; Michel, Christian J.; Chonde, Daniel B.; Catana, Ciprian

    2013-10-01

    Kinetic parameters estimated from dynamic 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) PET acquisitions have been used frequently to assess brain function in humans. Neglecting partial volume correction (PVC) for a dynamic series has been shown to produce significant bias in model estimates. Accurate PVC requires a space-variant model describing the reconstructed image spatial point spread function (PSF) that accounts for resolution limitations, including non-uniformities across the field of view due to the parallax effect. For ordered subsets expectation maximization (OSEM), image resolution convergence is local and influenced significantly by the number of iterations, the count density, and background-to-target ratio. As both count density and background-to-target values for a brain structure can change during a dynamic scan, the local image resolution may also concurrently vary. When PVC is applied post-reconstruction the kinetic parameter estimates may be biased when neglecting the frame-dependent resolution. We explored the influence of the PVC method and implementation on kinetic parameters estimated by fitting 18F-FDG dynamic data acquired on a dedicated brain PET scanner and reconstructed with and without PSF modelling in the OSEM algorithm. The performance of several PVC algorithms was quantified with a phantom experiment, an anthropomorphic Monte Carlo simulation, and a patient scan. Using the last frame reconstructed image only for regional spread function (RSF) generation, as opposed to computing RSFs for each frame independently, and applying perturbation geometric transfer matrix PVC with PSF based OSEM produced the lowest magnitude bias kinetic parameter estimates in most instances, although at the cost of increased noise compared to the PVC methods utilizing conventional OSEM. Use of the last frame RSFs for PVC with no PSF modelling in the OSEM algorithm produced the lowest bias in cerebral metabolic rate of glucose estimates, although by less than 5% in most

  4. Feasibility study of the use of similarity maps in the evaluation of oncological dynamic positron emission tomography images.

    PubMed

    Thireou, T; Kontaxakis, G; Strauss, L G; Dimitrakopoulou-Strauss, A; Pavlopoulos, S; Santos, A

    2005-01-01

    A preliminary study is presented on the potential role of similarity mapping (SM) in the evaluation of oncological dynamic 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography studies, mainly in lesion localisation and detectability. Similarity maps were calculated using previously described (correlation coefficient (COR) and normalised correlation coefficient (NCOR)) and newly introduced similarity measures (sum of squares coefficient (SSQ), squared sum coefficient (SQS), sum of cubes coefficient (SC) and cubed sum coefficient (CS)). The results were evaluated using simulated and clinical data. The study revealed that the best-suited similarity measure for such applications was the CS similarity coefficient, which provided the best parametric images, delineating structures of interest and supporting the visual interpretation of data sets. It was shown that SM and standardised uptake value (SUV) images had comparable diagnostic performance, although SM was able to offer additional time-related information in a single image. For the case of colorectal recurrences (17 cases), the measured contrast values for the CS and SUV images were 2.36 +/- 0.47 and 4.12 +/- 0.42, respectively, whereas, for three cases of giant cell tumours, these values were 11.6 +/- 2.1 and 11.9 +/- 1.8, respectively. PMID:15742716

  5. Interrogating Tumor Metabolism and Tumor Microenvironments Using Molecular Positron Emission Tomography Imaging. Theranostic Approaches to Improve Therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Jacobson, Orit

    2013-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) is a noninvasive molecular imaging technology that is becoming increasingly important for the measurement of physiologic, biochemical, and pharmacological functions at cellular and molecular levels in patients with cancer. Formation, development, and aggressiveness of tumor involve a number of molecular pathways, including intrinsic tumor cell mutations and extrinsic interaction between tumor cells and the microenvironment. Currently, evaluation of these processes is mainly through biopsy, which is invasive and limited to the site of biopsy. Ongoing research on specific target molecules of the tumor and its microenvironment for PET imaging is showing great potential. To date, the use of PET for diagnosing local recurrence and metastatic sites of various cancers and evaluation of treatment response is mainly based on [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose ([18F]FDG), which measures glucose metabolism. However, [18F]FDG is not a target-specific PET tracer and does not give enough insight into tumor biology and/or its vulnerability to potential treatments. Hence, there is an increasing need for the development of selective biologic radiotracers that will yield specific biochemical information and allow for noninvasive molecular imaging. The possibility of cancer-associated targets for imaging will provide the opportunity to use PET for diagnosis and therapy response monitoring (theranostics) and thus personalized medicine. This article will focus on the review of non-[18F]FDG PET tracers for specific tumor biology processes and their preclinical and clinical applications. PMID:24064460

  6. Early astrocytosis in autosomal dominant Alzheimer’s disease measured in vivo by multi-tracer positron emission tomography

    PubMed Central

    Schöll, Michael; Carter, Stephen F.; Westman, Eric; Rodriguez-Vieitez, Elena; Almkvist, Ove; Thordardottir, Steinunn; Wall, Anders; Graff, Caroline; Långström, Bengt; Nordberg, Agneta

    2015-01-01

    Studying autosomal dominant Alzheimer’s disease (ADAD), caused by gene mutations yielding nearly complete penetrance and a distinct age of symptom onset, allows investigation of presymptomatic pathological processes that can identify a therapeutic window for disease-modifying therapies. Astrocyte activation may occur in presymptomatic Alzheimer’s disease (AD) because reactive astrocytes surround β-amyloid (Aβ) plaques in autopsy brain tissue. Positron emission tomography was performed to investigate fibrillar Aβ, astrocytosis and cerebral glucose metabolism with the radiotracers 11C-Pittsburgh compound-B (PIB), 11C-deuterium-L-deprenyl (DED) and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) respectively in presymptomatic and symptomatic ADAD participants (n = 21), patients with mild cognitive impairment (n = 11) and sporadic AD (n = 7). Multivariate analysis using the combined data from all radiotracers clearly separated the different groups along the first and second principal components according to increased PIB retention/decreased FDG uptake (component 1) and increased DED binding (component 2). Presymptomatic ADAD mutation carriers showed significantly higher PIB retention than non-carriers in all brain regions except the hippocampus. DED binding was highest in presymptomatic ADAD mutation carriers. This suggests that non-fibrillar Aβ or early stage plaque depostion might interact with inflammatory responses indicating astrocytosis as an early contributory driving force in AD pathology. The novelty of this finding will be investigated in longitudinal follow-up studies. PMID:26553227

  7. Cardiac positron emission tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Geltman, E.M.

    1985-12-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) is a new technique for noninvasively assessing myocardial metabolism and perfusion. It has provided new insight into the dynamics of myocardial fatty acid and glucose metabolism in normal subjects, patients with ischemic heart disease and those with cardiomyopathies, documenting regionally depressed fatty acid metabolism during myocardial ischemia and infarction and spatial heterogeneity of fatty acid metabolism in patients with cardiomyopathy. Regional myocardial perfusion has been studied with PET using water, ammonia and rubidium labeled with positron emitters, permitting the noninvasive detection of hypoperfused zones at rest and during vasodilator stress. With these techniques the relationship between perfusion and the metabolism of a variety of substrates has been studied. The great strides that have been made in developing faster high-resolution instruments and producing new labeled intermediates indicate the promise of this technique for facilitating an increase in the understanding of regional metabolism and blood flow under normal and pathophysiologic conditions. 16 references, 9 figures, 2 tables.

  8. Positron Emission Tomography (PET)

    SciTech Connect

    Welch, M.J.

    1990-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) assesses biochemical processes in the living subject, producing images of function rather than form. Using PET, physicians are able to obtain not the anatomical information provided by other medical imaging techniques, but pictures of physiological activity. In metaphoric terms, traditional imaging methods supply a map of the body's roadways, its, anatomy; PET shows the traffic along those paths, its biochemistry. This document discusses the principles of PET, the radiopharmaceuticals in PET, PET research, clinical applications of PET, the cost of PET, training of individuals for PET, the role of the United States Department of Energy in PET, and the futures of PET. 22 figs.

  9. Positron Emission Tomography (PET)

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Welch, M. J.

    1990-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) assesses biochemical processes in the living subject, producing images of function rather than form. Using PET, physicians are able to obtain not the anatomical information provided by other medical imaging techniques, but pictures of physiological activity. In metaphoric terms, traditional imaging methods supply a map of the body's roadways, its, anatomy; PET shows the traffic along those paths, its biochemistry. This document discusses the principles of PET, the radiopharmaceuticals in PET, PET research, clinical applications of PET, the cost of PET, training of individuals for PET, the role of the United States Department of Energy in PET, and the futures of PET.

  10. Positron emission tomography (PET) for assessing aerosol deposition of orally inhaled drug products.

    PubMed

    Dolovich, Myrna B; Bailey, Dale L

    2012-12-01

    The topical distribution of inhaled therapies in the lung can be viewed using radionuclides and imaging. Positron emission tomography (PET) is a three-dimensional functional imaging technique providing quantitatively accurate localization of the quantity and distribution of an inhaled or injected PET radiotracer in the lung. A series of transaxial slices through the lungs are obtained, comparable to an X-ray computed tomography (CT) scan. Subsequent reformatting allows coronal and sagittal images of the distribution of radioactivity to be viewed. This article describes procedures for administering [(18)F]-fluorodeoxyglucose aerosol to human subjects for the purpose of determining dose and distribution following inhalation from an aerosol drug delivery device (ADDD). The advantages of using direct-labeled PET drugs in the ADDD are discussed with reference to the literature. The methods for designing the inhalation system, determining proper radiation shielding, calibration, and validation of administered radioactivity, scanner setup, and data handling procedures are described. Obtaining an X-ray CT or radionuclide transmission scan to provide accurate geometry of the lung and also correct for tissue attenuation of the PET radiotracer is discussed. Protocols for producing accurate images, including factors that need to be incorporated into the data calibration, are described, as well as a proposed standard method for partitioning the lung into regions of interest. Alternate methods are described for more detailed assessments. Radiation dosimetry/risk calculations for the procedures are appended, as well as a sample data collection form and spreadsheet for calculations. This article should provide guidance for those interested in using PET to determine quantity and distribution of inhaled therapeutics. PMID:23215847

  11. Four-Dimensional Positron Emission Tomography: Implications for Dose Painting of High-Uptake Regions

    SciTech Connect

    Aristophanous, Michalis; Killoran, Joseph H.; Chen, Aileen B.; Berbeco, Ross I.

    2011-07-01

    Purpose: To investigate the behavior of tumor subvolumes of high [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake as seen on clinical four-dimensional (4D) FDG-positron emission tomography (PET) scans. Methods and Materials: Four-dimensional FDG-PET/computed tomography scans from 13 patients taken before radiotherapy were available. The analysis was focused on regions of high uptake that are potential dose-painting targets. A total of 17 lesions (primary tumors and lymph nodes) were analyzed. On each one of the five phases of the 4D scan a classification algorithm was applied to obtain the region of highest uptake and segment the tumor volume. We looked at the behavior of both the high-uptake subvolume, called 'Boost,' and the segmented tumor volume, called 'Target.' We measured several quantities that characterize the Target and Boost volumes and quantified correlations between them. Results: The behavior of the Target could not always predict the behavior of the Boost. The shape deformation of the Boost regions was on average 133% higher than that of the Target. The gross to internal target volume expansion was on average 27.4% for the Target and 64% for the Boost, a statistically significant difference (p < 0.05). Finally, the inhale-to-exhale phase (20%) had the highest shape deformation for the Boost regions. Conclusions: A complex relationship between the measured quantities for the Boost and Target volumes is revealed. The results suggest that in cases in which advanced therapy techniques such as dose painting are being used, a close examination of the 4D PET scan should be performed.

  12. Positron emission mammography imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Moses, William W.

    2003-10-02

    This paper examines current trends in Positron Emission Mammography (PEM) instrumentation and the performance tradeoffs inherent in them. The most common geometry is a pair of parallel planes of detector modules. They subtend a larger solid angle around the breast than conventional PET cameras, and so have both higher efficiency and lower cost. Extensions to this geometry include encircling the breast, measuring the depth of interaction (DOI), and dual-modality imaging (PEM and x-ray mammography, as well as PEM and x-ray guided biopsy). The ultimate utility of PEM may not be decided by instrument performance, but by biological and medical factors, such as the patient to patient variation in radiotracer uptake or the as yet undetermined role of PEM in breast cancer diagnosis and treatment.

  13. Assessment of accuracy of PET utilizing a 3-D phantom to simulate the activity distribution of ( sup 18 F)fluorodeoxyglucose uptake in the human brain

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, E.J.; Cutler, P.D.; Guerrero, T.M.; Digby, W.M.; Mazziotta, J.C. )

    1991-03-01

    A three-dimensional brain phantom has been developed to simulate the activity distributions found in human brain studies currently employed in positron emission tomography (PET). The phantom has a single contiguous chamber and utilizes thin layers of lucite to provide apparent relative concentrations of 5, 1, and 0 for gray matter, white matter, and CSF structures, respectively. The phantom and an ideal image set were created from the same set of data. Thus, the user has a basis for comparing measured images with an ideal set that allows a quantitative evaluation of errors in PET studies with an activity distribution similar to that found in patients. The phantom was employed in a study of the effect of deadtime and scatter on accuracy in quantitation on a current PET system. Deadtime correction factors were found to be significant (1.1-2.5) at count rates found in clinical studies. Deadtime correction techniques were found to be accurate to within 5%. Scatter in emission and attenuation correction data consistently caused 5-15% errors in quantitation, whereas correction for scatter in both types of data reduced errors in accuracy to less than 5%.

  14. Synthesis and preliminary evaluation in tumor bearing mice of new (18)F-labeled arylsulfone matrix metalloproteinase inhibitors as tracers for positron emission tomography.

    PubMed

    Casalini, Francesca; Fugazza, Lorenza; Esposito, Giovanna; Cabella, Claudia; Brioschi, Chiara; Cordaro, Alessia; D'Angeli, Luca; Bartoli, Antonietta; Filannino, Azzurra M; Gringeri, Concetta V; Longo, Dario L; Muzio, Valeria; Nuti, Elisa; Orlandini, Elisabetta; Figlia, Gianluca; Quattrini, Angelo; Tei, Lorenzo; Digilio, Giuseppe; Rossello, Armando; Maiocchi, Alessandro

    2013-03-28

    New fluorinated, arylsulfone-based matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) inhibitors containing carboxylate as the zinc binding group were synthesized as radiotracers for positron emission tomography. Inhibitors were characterized by Ki for MMP-2 in the nanomolar range and by a fair selectivity for MMP-2/9/12/13 over MMP-1/3/14. Two of these compounds were obtained in the (18)F-radiolabeled form, with radiochemical purity and yield suitable for preliminary studies in mice xenografted with a human U-87 MG glioblastoma. Target density in xenografts was assessed by Western blot, yielding Bmax/Kd = 14. The biodistribution of the tracer was dominated by liver uptake and hepatobiliary clearance. Tumor uptake of (18)F-labeled MMP inhibitors was about 30% that of [(18)F]fluorodeoxyglucose. Accumulation of radioactivity within the tumor periphery colocalized with MMP-2 activity (evaluated by in situ zimography). However, specific tumor uptake accounted for only 18% of total uptake. The aspecific uptake was ascribed to the high binding affinity between the radiotracer and serum albumin. PMID:23458498

  15. Comparison of Positron Emission Tomography Scanning and Sentinel Node Biopsy in the Detection of Inguinal Node Metastases in Patients With Anal Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Mistrangelo, Massimiliano; Pelosi, Ettore; Bello, Marilena; Castellano, Isabella; Cassoni, Paola; Ricardi, Umberto; Munoz, Fernando; Racca, Patrizia; Contu, Viviana; Beltramo, Giancarlo; Morino, Mario; Mussa, Antonio

    2010-05-01

    Background: Inguinal lymph node metastases in patients with anal cancer are an independent prognostic factor for local failure and overall mortality. Inguinal lymph node status can be adequately assessed with sentinel node biopsy, and the radiotherapy strategy can subsequently be changed. We compared this technique vs. dedicated 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (PET) to determine which was the better tool for staging inguinal lymph nodes. Methods and Materials: In our department, 27 patients (9 men and 18 women) underwent both inguinal sentinel node biopsy and PET-CT. PET-CT was performed before treatment and then at 1 and 3 months after treatment. Results: PET-CT scans detected no inguinal metastases in 20 of 27 patients and metastases in the remaining 7. Histologic analysis of the sentinel lymph node detected metastases in only three patients (four PET-CT false positives). HIV status was not found to influence the results. None of the patients negative at sentinel node biopsy developed metastases during the follow-up period. PET-CT had a sensitivity of 100%, with a negative predictive value of 100%. Owing to the high number of false positives, PET-CT specificity was 83%, and positive predictive value was 43%. Conclusions: In this series of patients with anal cancer, inguinal sentinel node biopsy was superior to PET-CT for staging inguinal lymph nodes.

  16. A follow-up analysis of positron emission tomography/computed tomography in detecting hidden malignancies at the time of diagnosis of membranous nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Zhonglin; Wang, Shuxia; Huang, Yanlin; Liang, Xinling; Shi, Wei; Zhang, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Membranous nephropathy (MN) is the most common kidney disease reported in a variety of malignant diseases. Search for an occult malignancy in MN has presented special challenges. 124 MN patients with a physical examination not suspicious for cancer underwent screening for an occult malignancy with either 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) scanning (n = 49) or conventional screening (n = 75) at the time of diagnosis of MN, and were followed up (median,28 months). 154 patients who refused to undergo any screening were followed up (median, 30 months). In FDG-PET/CT cohort, 5 (10.20%) patients were screened and confirmed as malignancy, in contrast, 1 (1.33%) patient in conventional screening cohort. During follow-up, none of malignancy was detected in FDG-PET/CT cohort, 3(4.05%) patients in conventional screening cohort, and 8(5.19%) patients in no-screening cohort. All 6 cases of cancer were detected at early stages and underwent curative resection, and after the resection, proteinuria decreased. In contrast, 11 cases of cancer detected during follow-up died without any remission of proteinuria. These preliminary data provide the first evidence for a potential cancer surveillance that the malignancy screening either through conventional or by PET-CT at the diagnosis of MN led to an early diagnosis and curative treatment. PMID:27009881

  17. The Synthesis and Evaluations of the 68Ga-Lissamine Rhodamine B (LRB) as a New Radiotracer for Imaging Tumors by Positron Emission Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xuena; Yin, Yafu; Du, Bulin; Li, Na; Li, Yaming

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. The aim of this study is to synthesize and evaluate 68Ga-labeled Lissamine Rhodamine B (LRB) as a new radiotracer for imaging MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells induced tumor mice by positron emission tomography (PET). Methods. Firstly, we performed the radio synthesis and microPET imaging of 68Ga(DOTA-LRB) in athymic nude mice bearing MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 human breast cancer xenografts. Additionally, the evaluations of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG), as a glucose metabolism radiotracer for imaging tumors in the same xenografts, have been conducted as a comparison. Results. The radiochemical purity of 68Ga(DOTA-LRB) was >95%. MicroPET dynamic imaging revealed that the uptake of 68Ga(DOTA-LRB) was mainly in normal organs, such as kidney, heart, liver, and brain and mainly excreted from kidney. The MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 tumors were not clearly visible in PET images at 5, 15, 30, 40, 50, and 60 min after injection of 68Ga(DOTA-LRB). The tumor uptake values of 18F-FDG were 3.79 ± 0.57 and 1.93 ± 0.48%ID/g in MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 tumor xenografts, respectively. Conclusions. 68Ga(DOTA-LRB) can be easily synthesized with high radiochemical purity and stability; however, it may be not an ideal PET radiotracer for imaging of MDR-positive tumors. PMID:26949707

  18. [Fundamentals of positron emission tomography].

    PubMed

    Ostertag, H

    1989-07-01

    Positron emission tomography is a modern radionuclide method of measuring physiological quantities or metabolic parameters in vivo. The method is based on: (1) radioactive labelling with positron emitters; (2) the coincidence technique for the measurement of the annihilation radiation following positron decay; (3) analysis of the data measured using biological models. The basic aspects and problems of the method are discussed. The main fields of future research are the synthesis of new labelled compounds and the development of mathematical models of the biological processes to be investigated. PMID:2667029

  19. Instrumentation for positron emission tomography.

    PubMed

    Budinger, T F; Derenzo, S E; Huesman, R H

    1984-01-01

    Positron emission tomography with a spatial resolution of 2 mm full width at half maximum for quantitation in regions of interest 4 mm in diameter will become possible with the development of detectors that achieve ultrahigh resolution. Improved resolution will be possible using solid-state photodetectors for crystal identification or photomultiplier tubes with many small electron multipliers . Temporal resolution of 2 seconds and gating of cyclic events can be accomplished if statistical requirements are met. The major physical considerations in achieving high-resolution positron emission tomography are the degradation in resolution resulting from positron range, emission angle, parallax error, detector sampling density, the sensitivity of various detector materials and packing schemes, and the trade off between temporal resolution and statistical accuracy. The accuracy of data required for physiological models depends primarily on the fidelity of spatial sampling independent of statistical constraints. PMID:6611124

  20. 18F-FLT Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography Imaging in Pancreatic Cancer: Determination of Tumor Proliferative Activity and Comparison with Glycolytic Activity as Measured by 18F-FDG Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Debebe, Senait Aknaw; Goryawala, Mohammed; Adjouadi, Malek; Mcgoron, Anthony J.; Güleç, Seza A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This phase-I imaging study examined the imaging characteristic of 3’-deoxy-3’-(18F)-fluorothymidine (18F-FLT) positron emission tomography (PET) in patients with pancreatic cancer and comparisons were made with (18F)-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG). The ultimate aim was to develop a molecular imaging tool that could better define the biologic characteristics of pancreas cancer, and to identify the patients who could potentially benefit from surgical resection who were deemed inoperable by conventional means of staging. Methods: Six patients with newly diagnosed pancreatic cancer underwent a combined FLT and FDG computed tomography (CT) PET/CT imaging protocol. The FLT PET/CT scan was performed within 1 week of FDG PET/CT imaging. Tumor uptake of a tracer was determined and compared using various techniques; statistical thresholding (z score=2.5), and fixed standardized uptake value (SUV) thresholds of 1.4 and 2.5, and applying a threshold of 40% of maximum SUV (SUVmax) and mean SUV (SUVmean). The correlation of functional tumor volumes (FTV) between 18F-FDG and 18F-FLT was assessed using linear regression analysis. Results: It was found that there is a correlation in FTV due to metabolic and proliferation activity when using a threshold of SUV 2.5 for FDG and 1.4 for FLT (r=0.698, p=ns), but a better correlation was obtained when using SUV of 2.5 for both tracers (r=0.698, p=ns). The z score thresholding (z=2.5) method showed lower correlation between the FTVs (r=0.698, p=ns) of FDG and FLT PET. Conclusion: Different tumor segmentation techniques yielded varying degrees of correlation in FTV between FLT and FDG-PET images. FLT imaging may have a different meaning in determining tumor biology and prognosis. PMID:27299286

  1. Radiation Dose from Whole-Body F-18 Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography: Nationwide Survey in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Hyun Woo; Kim, Jong Phil; Lee, Hong Jae; Paeng, Jin Chul; Lee, Jae Sung; Cheon, Gi Jeong; Lee, Dong Soo; Chung, June-Key; Kang, Keon Wook

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate average radiation exposure from (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) examinations and to analyze possible factors affecting the radiation dose. A nation-wide questionnaire survey was conducted involving all institutions that operate PET/CT scanners in Korea. From the response, radiation doses from injected FDG and CT examination were calculated. A total of 105 PET/CT scanners in 73 institutions were included in the analysis (response rate of 62.4%). The average FDG injected activity was 310 ± 77 MBq and 5.11 ± 1.19 MBq/kg. The average effective dose from FDG was estimated to be 5.89 ± 1.46 mSv. The average CT dose index and dose-length product were 4.60 ± 2.47 mGy and 429.2 ± 227.6 mGy∙cm, which corresponded to 6.26 ± 3.06 mSv. The radiation doses from FDG and CT were significantly lower in case of newer scanners than older ones (P < 0.001). Advanced PET technologies such as time-of-flight acquisition and point-spread function recovery were also related to low radiation dose (P < 0.001). In conclusion, the average radiation dose from FDG PET/CT is estimated to be 12.2 mSv. The radiation dose from FDG PET/CT is reduced with more recent scanners equipped with image-enhancing algorithms. PMID:26908992

  2. Radiation Dose from Whole-Body F-18 Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography: Nationwide Survey in Korea

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate average radiation exposure from 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) examinations and to analyze possible factors affecting the radiation dose. A nation-wide questionnaire survey was conducted involving all institutions that operate PET/CT scanners in Korea. From the response, radiation doses from injected FDG and CT examination were calculated. A total of 105 PET/CT scanners in 73 institutions were included in the analysis (response rate of 62.4%). The average FDG injected activity was 310 ± 77 MBq and 5.11 ± 1.19 MBq/kg. The average effective dose from FDG was estimated to be 5.89 ± 1.46 mSv. The average CT dose index and dose-length product were 4.60 ± 2.47 mGy and 429.2 ± 227.6 mGy∙cm, which corresponded to 6.26 ± 3.06 mSv. The radiation doses from FDG and CT were significantly lower in case of newer scanners than older ones (P < 0.001). Advanced PET technologies such as time-of-flight acquisition and point-spread function recovery were also related to low radiation dose (P < 0.001). In conclusion, the average radiation dose from FDG PET/CT is estimated to be 12.2 mSv. The radiation dose from FDG PET/CT is reduced with more recent scanners equipped with image-enhancing algorithms. PMID:26908992

  3. Diagnostic FDG and FDOPA positron emission tomography scans distinguish the genomic type and treatment outcome of neuroblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Hsiu-Hao; Lu, Ching-Chu; Lin, Dong-Tsamn; Jou, Shiann-Tarng; Yang, Yung-Li; Lee, Ya-Ling; Huang, Shiu-Feng; Jeng, Yung-Ming; Lee, Hsinyu; Miser, James S.; Lin, Kai-Hsin; Liao, Yung-Feng; Hsu, Wen-Ming; Tzen, Kai-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Neuroblastoma (NB) is a heterogeneous childhood cancer that requires multiple imaging modalities for accurate staging and surveillances. This study aims to investigate the utility of positron emission tomography (PET) with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) and 18F-fluoro-dihydroxyphenylalanine (FDOPA) in determining the prognosis of NB. During 2007–2014, forty-two NB patients (male:female, 28:14; median age, 2.0 years) undergoing paired FDG and FDOPA PET scans at diagnosis were evaluated for the maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) of FDG or FDOPA by the primary tumor. Patients with older age, advanced stages, or MYCN amplification showed higher FDG and lower FDOPA SUVmax (all P < 0.02). Receiver operating characteristics analysis identified FDG SUVmax≥ 3.31 and FDOPA SUVmax < 4.12 as an ultra-high-risk feature (PET-UHR) that distinguished the most unfavorable genomic types, i.e. segmental chromosomal alterations and/or MYCN amplification, at a sensitivity of 81.3% (54.4%–96.0%) and a specificity of 93.3% (68.1%–99.8%). Considering with age, stage, MYCN status, and anatomical image-defined risk factor, PET-UHR was an independent predictor of inferior event-free survival (multivariate hazard ratio, 4.9 [1.9–30.1]; P = 0.012). Meanwhile, the ratio between FDG and FDOPA SUVmax (G:D) correlated positively with HK2 (Spearman's ρ = 0.86, P < 0.0001) and negatively with DDC (ρ = −0.58, P = 0.02) gene expression levels, which might suggest higher glycolytic activity and less catecholaminergic differentiation in NB tumors taking up higher FDG and lower FDOPA. In conclusion, the intensity of FDG and FDOPA uptake on diagnostic PET scans may predict the tumor behavior and complement the current risk stratification systems of NB. PMID:26959748

  4. Instrumentation in positron emission tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-03-11

    Positron emission tomography (PET) is a three-dimensional medical imaging technique that noninvasively measures the concentration of radiopharmaceuticals in the body that are labeled with positron emitters. With the proper compounds, PET can be used to measure metabolism, blood flow, or other physiological values in vivo. The technique is based on the physics of positron annihilation and detection and the mathematical formulations developed for x-ray computed tomography. Modern PET systems can provide three-dimensional images of the brain, the heart, and other internal organs with resolutions on the order of 4 to 6 mm. With the selectivity provided by a choice of injected compounds, PET has the power to provide unique diagnostic information that is not available with any other imaging modality. This is the first five reports on the nature and uses of PET that have been prepared for the American Medical Association's Council on Scientific Affairs by an authoritative panel.

  5. A Gaussian mixture model for definition of lung tumor volumes in positron emission tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Aristophanous, Michalis; Penney, Bill C.; Martel, Mary K.; Pelizzari, Charles A.

    2007-11-15

    The increased interest in {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) in radiation treatment planning in the past five years necessitated the independent and accurate segmentation of gross tumor volume (GTV) from FDG-PET scans. In some studies the radiation oncologist contours the GTV based on a computed tomography scan, while incorporating pertinent data from the PET images. Alternatively, a simple threshold, typically 40% of the maximum intensity, has been employed to differentiate tumor from normal tissue, while other researchers have developed algorithms to aid the PET based GTV definition. None of these methods, however, results in reliable PET tumor segmentation that can be used for more sophisticated treatment plans. For this reason, we developed a Gaussian mixture model (GMM) based segmentation technique on selected PET tumor regions from non-small cell lung cancer patients. The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility of using a GMM-based tumor volume definition in a robust, reliable and reproducible way. A GMM relies on the idea that any distribution, in our case a distribution of image intensities, can be expressed as a mixture of Gaussian densities representing different classes. According to our implementation, each class belongs to one of three regions in the image; the background (B), the uncertain (U) and the target (T), and from these regions we can obtain the tumor volume. User interaction in the implementation is required, but is limited to the initialization of the model parameters and the selection of an 'analysis region' to which the modeling is restricted. The segmentation was developed on three and tested on another four clinical cases to ensure robustness against differences observed in the clinic. It also compared favorably with thresholding at 40% of the maximum intensity and a threshold determination function based on tumor to background image intensities proposed in a recent paper. The parts of

  6. Respective roles of thyroglobulin, radioiodine imaging, and positron emission tomography in the assessment of thyroid cancer.

    PubMed

    Lind, Peter; Kohlfürst, Susanne

    2006-07-01

    Depending on the iodine supply of an area, the incidence of thyroid cancer ranges between 4 and 12/100,000 per year. To detect thyroid cancer in an early stage, the assessment of thyroid nodules includes ultrasonography, ultrasonography-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy, and conventional scintigraphic methods using (99m)Tc-pertechnetate, (99m)Tc-sestamibi or -tetrofosmin, and (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) in selected cases. After treatment of thyroid cancer, a consequent follow-up is necessary over a period of several years. For following up low-risk patients, recombinant thyroid-stimulating hormone-stimulated thyroglobulin and ultrasonography is sufficient in most cases. After total thyroidectomy and radioiodine ablation therapy, thyroid-stimulating hormone-stimulated thyroglobulin should be below the detection limit (eg, <0.5 ng/mL, R: 70-130). An increase of thyroglobulin over time is suspicious for recurrent or metastatic disease. Especially in high-risk patients, aside from the use of ultrasonography for the detection of local recurrence and cervial lymph node metastases, nuclear medicine methods such as radioiodine imaging and FDG-PET are the methods of choice for localizing metastatic disease. Radioiodine imaging detects well-differentiated recurrences and metastases with a high specificity but only moderate sensitivity. The sensitivity of radioiodine imaging depends on the activity administered. Therefore a low activity diagnostic (131)I whole-body scan (74-185 MBq) has a lower detection rate than a high activity post-therapy scan (3700-7400 MBq). In patients with low or dedifferentiated thyroid cancer and after several courses of radioiodine therapy caused by metastatic disease, iodine negative metastases may develop. In these cases, despite clearly elevated levels of thyroglobulin, radioiodine imaging is negative or demonstrates only faint iodine uptake. The method of choice to image these iodine negative metastases is

  7. Diagnostic Performance of Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography Using Fluorine-18 Fluorodeoxyglucose in Detecting Locoregional Nodal Involvement in Patients with Anal Canal Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Annunziata, Salvatore; Treglia, Giorgio; Sadeghi, Ramin; Ayati, Narjes; Giovanella, Luca

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. The diagnostic performance of positron emission tomography using 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG-PET) in detecting nodal involvement in patients with anal canal cancer (ACC) has been investigated by several studies with conflicting results. The aim of our study is to systematically review and meta-analyze published data about this topic. Methods. A comprehensive computer literature search of PubMed/MEDLINE, Scopus, and Embase databases was carried out on July 10 to find relevant articles concerning the diagnostic performance of FDG-PET in detecting locoregional nodal involvement in patients with ACC. No language restriction was used. Pooled diagnostic performance on a lesion-based analysis was calculated. Results. Seven retrospective and five prospective studies have been reviewed. Six studies allowed assessing pooled sensitivity; five studies allowed assessing pooled specificity. Sensitivity and specificity values of FDG-PET/CT on a lesion-based analysis ranged from 31 to 100% and from 53 to 98%, with pooled estimates of 56% (95% CI: 45–67%) and 90% (95% CI: 86–93%), respectively. Conclusions. Our meta-analysis demonstrates that FDG-PET is a specific diagnostic tool in detecting locoregional lymph node involvement in patients with ACC. Low sensitivity is a major concern; however, higher sensitivity could be reached combining FDG-PET with MR scan. PMID:24672298

  8. Positron emission tomography and autoradiography

    SciTech Connect

    Mazziotta, J.; Schelbert, H.R.

    1985-01-01

    This a text on cerebral and myocardial imaging using positron emission tomography and autoradiography. Authorities in nuclear medicine and biophysics define the central principles of these complex and rapidly evolving imagine technologies-their theoretical foundations, the nature of the biochemical events being measured, the basis for constructing tracer kinetic models, the criteria governing radiopharmaceutical design, and the rationale for PET in the clinical setting. After reviewing the characteristics of cerebral and myocardial hemodynamics, transport, and metabolism, the contributors detail the theory of PET and autoradiography, the instrumentation required, and the procedures involved.

  9. Positron Emission Mammotomography with Dual Planar Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Mark Smith; Raymond Raylman; Stanislaw Majewski

    2003-06-29

    Positron emission mammography (PEM) is usually performed with two stationary planar detectors above and below a compressed breast. There is image blurring normal to the detectors due to the limited angular range of the lines of response. Positron emission mammotomography (PEM-T) with dual planar detectors rotating about the breast can obtain complete angular sampling and has the potential to improve activity estimation.

  10. Glial cell-mediated deterioration and repair of the nervous system after traumatic brain injury in a rat model as assessed by positron emission tomography.

    PubMed

    Yu, Iwae; Inaji, Motoki; Maeda, Jun; Okauchi, Takashi; Nariai, Tadashi; Ohno, Kikuo; Higuchi, Makoto; Suhara, Tetsuya

    2010-08-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is one of the most acute degenerative pathologies in the central nervous system, and in vivo indices enabling an assessment of TBI on a mechanistic basis have yet to be established. The aim of this work was to pursue neuroinflammatory changes and their link to functional disruptions of traumatically-damaged neurons in a rat model of TBI by longitudinal positron emission tomographic (PET) assays. TBI was induced in the unilateral frontal cortex of craniotomied rats according to a lateral fluid percussion brain injury protocol. The use of [(18)F]fluoroethyl-DAA1106 as a PET tracer for translocator protein (TSPO) permitted demonstration of the inflammatory response to the injury, peaking at 1 week after impact. This alteration was parallel to metabolic deficits assessed by PET with [(18)F]fluorodeoxyglucose, but the difference in TSPO levels between impacted and non-impacted frontal cortices was more than threefold of the interlateral metabolic difference, indicating superiority of TSPO imaging for sensitive detection of post-traumatic pathologies. Comparative PET, autoradiographic. and immunohistochemical investigations illustrated the primary contribution of hypertrophic microglia and macrophages to acute TSPO signals in the vicinity of the impact. Astrocytes also formed a TSPO-positive glial scar encompassing necrotic inflammation, and were clustered with PET-detectable TSPO signals in the bilateral external and internal capsules at late stages, putatively reacting with diffuse axonal injury. These observations support the applicability of TSPO-PET as an imaging-based preclinical and clinical biomarker assay in TBI, and indicate its potential capability to clarify aggressive and protective roles of glial responses to injury when combined with emerging anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory treatments. PMID:20504160

  11. ⁶⁴Cu-Doped PdCu@Au Tripods: A Multifunctional Nanomaterial for Positron Emission Tomography and Image-Guided Photothermal Cancer Treatment.

    PubMed

    Pang, Bo; Zhao, Yongfeng; Luehmann, Hannah; Yang, Xuan; Detering, Lisa; You, Meng; Zhang, Chao; Zhang, Lei; Li, Zhi-Yuan; Ren, Qiushi; Liu, Yongjian; Xia, Younan

    2016-03-22

    This article reports a facile synthesis of radiolabeled PdCu@Au core-shell tripods for use in positron emission tomography (PET) and image-guided photothermal cancer treatment by directly incorporating radioactive (64)Cu atoms into the crystal lattice. The tripod had a unique morphology determined by the PdCu tripod that served as a template for the coating of Au shell, in addition to well-controlled specific activity and physical dimensions. The Au shell provided the nanostructure with strong absorption in the near-infrared region and effectively prevented the Cu and (64)Cu atoms in the core from oxidization and dissolution. When conjugated with D-Ala1-peptide T-amide (DAPTA), the core-shell tripods showed great enhancement in targeting the C-C chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5), a newly identified theranostic target up-regulated in triple negative breast cancer (TNBC). Specifically, the CCR5-targeted tripods with an arm length of about 45 nm showed 2- and 6-fold increase in tumor-to-blood and tumor-to-muscle uptake ratios, respectively, relative to their nontargeted counterpart in an orthotopic mouse 4T1 TNBC model at 24 h postinjection. The targeting specificity was further validated via a competitive receptor blocking study. We also demonstrated the use of these targeted, radioactive tripods for effective photothermal treatment in the 4T1 tumor model as guided by PET imaging. The efficacy of treatment was confirmed by the significant reduction in tumor metabolic activity revealed through the use of (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose PET/CT imaging. Taken together, we believe that the (64)Cu-doped PdCu@Au tripods could serve as a multifunctional platform for both PET imaging and image-guided photothermal cancer therapy. PMID:26824412

  12. Imaging local brain function with emission computed tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Kuhl, D.E.

    1984-03-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) using /sup 18/F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) was used to map local cerebral glucose utilization in the study of local cerebral function. This information differs fundamentally from structural assessment by means of computed tomography (CT). In normal human volunteers, the FDG scan was used to determine the cerebral metabolic response to conrolled sensory stimulation and the effects of aging. Cerebral metabolic patterns are distinctive among depressed and demented elderly patients. The FDG scan appears normal in the depressed patient, studded with multiple metabolic defects in patients with multiple infarct dementia, and in the patients with Alzheimer disease, metabolism is particularly reduced in the parietal cortex, but only slightly reduced in the caudate and thalamus. The interictal FDG scan effectively detects hypometabolic brain zones that are sites of onset for seizures in patients with partial epilepsy, even though these zones usually appear normal on CT scans. The future prospects of PET are discussed.

  13. Positron emission tomography wrist detector

    DOEpatents

    Schlyer, David J.; O'Connor, Paul; Woody, Craig; Junnarkar, Sachin Shrirang; Radeka, Veljko; Vaska, Paul; Pratte, Jean-Francois

    2006-08-15

    A method of serially transferring annihilation information in a compact positron emission tomography (PET) scanner includes generating a time signal representing a time-of-occurrence of an annihilation event, generating an address signal representing a channel detecting the annihilation event, and generating a channel signal including the time and address signals. The method also includes generating a composite signal including the channel signal and another similarly generated channel signal concerning another annihilation event. An apparatus that serially transfers annihilation information includes a time signal generator, address signal generator, channel signal generator, and composite signal generator. The time signal is asynchronous and the address signal is synchronous to a clock signal. A PET scanner includes a scintillation array, detection array, front-end array, and a serial encoder. The serial encoders include the time signal generator, address signal generator, channel signal generator, and composite signal generator.

  14. Scintillators for positron emission tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Moses, W.W.; Derenzo, S.E.

    1995-09-01

    Like most applications that utilize scintillators for gamma detection, Positron Emission Tomography (PET) desires materials with high light output, short decay time, and excellent stopping power that are also inexpensive, mechanically rugged, and chemically inert. Realizing that this ``ultimate`` scintillator may not exist, this paper evaluates the relative importance of these qualities and describes their impact on the imaging performance of PET. The most important PET scintillator quality is the ability to absorb 511 keV photons in a small volume, which affects the spatial resolution of the camera. The dominant factor is a short attenuation length ({le} 1.5 cm is required), although a high photoelectric fraction is also important (> 30% is desired). The next most important quality is a short decay time, which affects both the dead time and the coincidence timing resolution. Detection rates for single 511 keV photons can be extremely high, so decay times {le} 500 ns are essential to avoid dead time losses. In addition, positron annihilations are identified by time coincidence so {le}5 ns fwhm coincidence pair timing resolution is required to identify events with narrow coincidence windows, reducing contamination due to accidental coincidences. Current trends in PET cameras are toward septaless, ``fully-3D`` cameras, which have significantly higher count rates than conventional 2-D cameras and so place higher demands on scintillator decay time. Light output affects energy resolution, and thus the ability of the camera to identify and reject events where the initial 511 keV photon has undergone Compton scatter in the patient. The scatter to true event fraction is much higher in fully-3D cameras than in 2-D cameras, so future PET cameras would benefit from scintillators with a 511 keV energy resolution < 10--12% fwhm.

  15. Addiction Studies with Positron Emission Tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Joanna Fowler

    2008-10-13

    Brookhaven scientist Joanna Fowler describes Positron Emission Technology (PET) research at BNL which for the past 30 years has focused in the integration of basic research in radiotracer chemistry with the tools of neuroscience to develop new scientific

  16. Addiction Studies with Positron Emission Tomography

    ScienceCinema

    Joanna Fowler

    2010-01-08

    Brookhaven scientist Joanna Fowler describes Positron Emission Technology (PET) research at BNL which for the past 30 years has focused in the integration of basic research in radiotracer chemistry with the tools of neuroscience to develop new scientific

  17. Regional kinetic constants and cerebral metabolic rate for glucose in normal human volunteers determined by dynamic positron emission tomography of (/sup 18/F)-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose

    SciTech Connect

    Heiss, W.D.; Pawlik, G.; Herholz, K.; Wagner, R.; Goeldner, H.; Wienhard, K.

    1984-06-01

    Using dynamic (18F)fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography with a high-resolution, seven-slice positron camera, the kinetic constants of the original three-compartment model of Sokoloff and co-workers (1977) were determined in 43 distinct topographic brain regions of seven healthy male volunteers aged 28-38 years. Regional averages of the cerebral metabolic rate for glucose (CMRglu) were calculated both from individually fitted rate constants (CMRglukinetic) and from activity maps recorded 30-40 min after FDG injection, employing a four-parameter operational equation with standard rate constants from the literature (CMRgluautoradiographic). Metabolic rates and kinetic constants varied significantly among regions and subjects, but not between hemispheres. k1 ranged between 0.0485 +/- 0.00778 min-1 in the oval center and 0.0990 +/- 0.01347 min-1 in the primary visual cortex. k2 ranged from 0.1198 +/- 0.01533 min-1 in the temporal white matter to 0.1472 +/- 0.01817 min-1 in the cerebellar dentate nucleus. k3 was lowest (0.0386 +/- 0.01482 min-1) in temporal white matter and highest (0.0823 +/- 0.02552 min-1) in the caudate nucleus. Maximum likelihood cluster analysis revealed four homogeneous groups of brain regions according to their respective kinetic constants: (1) white matter and mixed brainstem structures; (2) cerebellar gray matter and hippocampal formations; (3) basal ganglia and frontolateral and primary visual cortex; and (4) other cerebral cortex and thalamus. Across the entire brain, k1 and k2 were positively correlated (r . 0.79); k1 and k3 showed some correlation (r . 0.59); but no significant linear association was found between k2 and k3. A strong correlation with CMRglu could be demonstrated for k1 (r . 0.88) and k3 (r . 0.90), but k2 was loosely correlated (r . 0.56).

  18. Positron annihilation induced Auger electron emission

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, A.; Jibaly, M.; Lei, Chun; Mehl, D.; Mayer, R.; Lynn, K.G.

    1988-01-01

    We report on measurements of Auger electron emission from Cu and Fe due to core hole excitations produced by the removal of core electrons by matter-antimatter annihilation. Estimates are developed of the probability of positrons annihilating with a 3p electron in these materials. Several important advantages of Positron annihilation induced Auger Electron Spectroscopy (PAES) for surface analysis are suggested. 10 refs., 2 figs.

  19. Advanced Instrumentation for Positron Emission Tomography [PET

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Derenzo, S. E.; Budinger, T. F.

    1985-04-01

    This paper summarizes the physical processes and medical science goals that underlay modern instrumentation design for Positron Emission Tomography. The paper discusses design factors such as detector material, crystalphototube coupling, shielding geometry, sampling motion, electronics design, time-of-flight, and the interrelationships with quantitative accuracy, spatial resolution, temporal resolution, maximum data rates, and cost.

  20. Positron emission tomography - a new approach to brain chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobson, H.G.

    1988-11-11

    Positron emission tomography permits examination of the chemistry of the brain in living beings. Until recently, positron emission tomography had been considered a research tool, but it is rapidly moving into clinical practice. This report describes the uses and applications of positron emission tomography in examinations of patients with strokes, epilepsy, malignancies, dementias, and schizophrenia and in basic studies of synaptic neurotransmission.

  1. Positron emission tomography: An overview

    PubMed Central

    Shukla, A. K.; Kumar, Utham

    2006-01-01

    The rate of glucose utilization in tumor cells is significantly enhanced as compared to normal cells and this biochemical characteristic is utilized in PET imaging using FDG as a major workhorse. The PET systems as well as cyclotrons producing positron emitting radiopharmaceuticals have undergone continuous technological refinements. While PET (CT) systems enable fusion images as well as precise attenuation correction, the self-shielded cyclotrons developed provide dedicated systems for in-house production of a large number of PET radiopharmaceuticals. The application of PET images in oncology includes those of pulmonary, colorectal, breast, lymphoma, head & neck, bone, ovarian and GI cancers. The PET has been recognized as promising diagnostic tool to predict biological and physiological changes at the molecular level and hence offer a potential area for future applications including Stem Cell research. PMID:21206635

  2. 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose PET/CT for detection of disease in patients with prostate-specific antigen relapse following radical treatment of a local-stage prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    ÖZTÜRK, HAKAN; KARAPOLAT, İNANÇ

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to retrospectively review the contribution of 18F-fluorodeoxygluose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography (18F-FDG PET/CT) in the assessment of biochemical recurrence in patients with a diagnosis of local-stage prostate cancer (PCa) who underwent radical prostatectomy (RP) or received external beam radiation therapy (EBRT). A total of 28 patients who underwent RP or received EBRT for PCa between July 2007 and April 2013, and who underwent 18F-FDG PET/CT scanning for re-staging due to biochemical recurrence were included in the present study. The mean age of the patients was 65.07 years and the standard deviation was 7.51 years (range, 51–82 years). Of the 28 patients, 23 (82.1%) underwent RP and 5 (17.9%) received definitive EBRT. Prior to scanning, all patients were required to fast for 6 h, and ~1 h after the intravenous injection of 555 MBq 18F-FDG, whole-body PET scans were performed from the skull base to the upper thighs. Whole-body CT scans were performed in the craniocaudal direction. 18F-FDG PET images were reconstructed using CT data for attenuation correction. Histopathology examination or clinical follow-up was used to confirm any suspicious recurrent or metastatic lesions. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and accuracy of 18F-FDG PET/CT were 61.6, 75.0, 61.6, 75.0 and 71.4%, respectively. 18F-FDG PET/CT can detect local and distant metastases with a high accuracy in the assessment of biochemical recurrence, thus detecting occult metastases and allowing the re-staging of PCa in the patients receiving definitive treatment. It is considered that 18F-FDG PET/CT may be useful in re-assessing the patients with PCa receiving definitive treatment. PMID:26870210

  3. A New Brain Positron Emission Tomography Scanner With Semiconductor Detectors for Target Volume Delineation and Radiotherapy Treatment Planning in Patients With Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Katoh, Norio; Yasuda, Koichi; Shiga, Tohru; Hasegawa, Masakazu; Onimaru, Rikiya; Shimizu, Shinichi; Bengua, Gerard; Ishikawa, Masayori; Tamaki, Nagara; Shirato, Hiroki

    2012-03-15

    Purpose: We compared two treatment planning methods for stereotactic boost for treating nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC): the use of conventional whole-body bismuth germanate (BGO) scintillator positron emission tomography (PET{sub CONV}WB) versus the new brain (BR) PET system using semiconductor detectors (PET{sub NEW}BR). Methods and Materials: Twelve patients with NPC were enrolled in this study. [{sup 18}F]Fluorodeoxyglucose-PET images were acquired using both the PET{sub NEW}BR and the PET{sub CONV}WB system on the same day. Computed tomography (CT) and two PET data sets were transferred to a treatment planning system, and the PET{sub CONV}WB and PET{sub NEW}BR images were coregistered with the same set of CT images. Window width and level values for all PET images were fixed at 3000 and 300, respectively. The gross tumor volume (GTV) was visually delineated on PET images by using either PET{sub CONV}WB (GTV{sub CONV}) images or PET{sub NEW}BR (GTV{sub NEW}) images. Assuming a stereotactic radiotherapy boost of 7 ports, the prescribed dose delivered to 95% of the planning target volume (PTV) was set to 2000 cGy in 4 fractions. Results: The average absolute volume ({+-}standard deviation [SD]) of GTV{sub NEW} was 15.7 ml ({+-}9.9) ml, and that of GTV{sub CONV} was 34.0 ({+-}20.5) ml. The average GTV{sub NEW} was significantly smaller than that of GTV{sub CONV} (p = 0.0006). There was no statistically significant difference between the maximum dose (p = 0.0585) and the mean dose (p = 0.2748) of PTV. The radiotherapy treatment plan based on the new gross tumor volume (PLAN{sub NEW}) significantly reduced maximum doses to the cerebrum and cerebellum (p = 0.0418) and to brain stem (p = 0.0041). Conclusion: Results of the present study suggest that the new brain PET system using semiconductor detectors can provide more accurate tumor delineation than the conventional whole-body BGO PET system and may be an important tool for functional and molecular radiotherapy

  4. Positron Emission Tomography: Its 65 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Guerra, A.; Belcari, N.; Bisogni, M.

    2016-04-01

    Positron Emission Tomography (PET) is a well-established imaging technique for in vivo molecular imaging. In this review after a brief history of PET there are presented its physical principles and the technology that has been developed for bringing PET from a bench experiment to a clinical indispensable instrument. The limitations and performance of the PET tomographs are discussed, both as for the hardware and software aspects. The status of art of clinical, pre-clinical and hybrid scanners (, PET/CT and PET/MR) is reported. Finally the actual trend and the recent and future technological developments are fully illustrated.

  5. Neurologic applications of positron emission tomography.

    PubMed

    Lenzi, G L; Pantano, P

    1984-11-01

    The impact of computerized neuroimaging in the neurologic sciences has been so dramatic that it has completely changed our approach to the individual patient. Further changes may be expected from the newborn positron emission tomography (PET) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) in order to help the reader digest a large bulk of data and fully realize the present state of the art of PET, the authors have shaped this review mainly on results rather than on methods and on published reports rather than on future potential. PMID:6335222

  6. Positron emission tomography imaging of coronary atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Moss, Alastair J; Adamson, Philip D; Newby, David E; Dweck, Marc R

    2016-07-01

    Inflammation has a central role in the progression of coronary atherosclerosis. Recent developments in cardiovascular imaging with the advent of hybrid positron emission tomography have provided a window into the molecular pathophysiology underlying coronary plaque inflammation. Using novel radiotracers targeted at specific cellular pathways, the potential exists to observe inflammation, apoptosis, cellular hypoxia, microcalcification and angiogenesis in vivo. Several clinical studies are now underway assessing the ability of this hybrid imaging modality to inform about atherosclerotic disease activity and the prediction of future cardiovascular risk. A better understanding of the molecular mechanisms governing coronary atherosclerosis may be the first step toward offering patients a more stratified, personalized approach to treatment. PMID:27322032

  7. Malignant pheochromocytoma of the anterior mediastinum: PET findings with [{sup 18}F]FDG and {sup 82}Rb

    SciTech Connect

    Neumann, D.R.; Basile, K.E.; Chen, E.Q.; Go, R.T.; Bravo, E.L.

    1996-03-01

    A case of a malignant pheochromocytoma arising from the anterior mediastinum is presented. We report the use of positron emission tomography with {sup 82}Rb, and [{sup 18}F]fluorodeoxyglucose to successfully image this neoplasm. 17 refs., 7 figs.

  8. Positron emission tomography tracers for imaging angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Beer, Ambros J.; Wang, Hui; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2013-01-01

    Position emission tomography imaging of angiogenesis may provide non-invasive insights into the corresponding molecular processes and may be applied for individualized treatment planning of antiangiogenic therapies. At the moment, most strategies are focusing on the development of radiolabelled proteins and antibody formats targeting VEGF and its receptor or the ED-B domain of a fibronectin isoform as well as radiolabelled matrix metalloproteinase inhibitors or αvβ3 integrin antagonists. Great efforts are being made to develop suitable tracers for different target structures. All of the major strategies focusing on the development of radiolabelled compounds for use with positron emission tomography are summarized in this review. However, because the most intensive work is concentrated on the development of radiolabelled RGD peptides for imaging αvβ3 expression, which has successfully made its way from bench to bedside, these developments are especially emphasized. PMID:20559632

  9. Single-photon emission tomography.

    PubMed

    Goffin, Karolien; van Laere, Koen

    2016-01-01

    Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is a functional nuclear imaging technique that allows visualization and quantification of different in vivo physiologic and pathologic features of brain neurobiology. It has been used for many years in diagnosis of several neurologic and psychiatric disorders. In this chapter, we discuss the current state-of-the-art of SPECT imaging of brain perfusion and dopamine transporter (DAT) imaging. Brain perfusion SPECT imaging plays an important role in the localization of the seizure onset zone in patients with refractory epilepsy. In cerebrovascular disease, it can be useful in determining the cerebrovascular reserve. After traumatic brain injury, SPECT has shown perfusion abnormalities despite normal morphology. In the context of organ donation, the diagnosis of brain death can be made with high accuracy. In neurodegeneration, while amyloid or (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) are the nuclear diagnostic tools of preference for early and differential diagnosis of dementia, perfusion SPECT imaging can be useful, albeit with slightly lower accuracy. SPECT imaging of the dopamine transporter system is widely available in Europe and Asia, but since recently also in the USA, and has been accepted as an important diagnostic tool in the early and differential diagnosis of parkinsonism in patients with unclear clinical features. The combination of perfusion SPECT (or FDG-PET) and DAT imaging provides differential diagnosis between idiopathic Parkinson's disease, Parkinson-plus syndromes, dementia with Lewy bodies, and essential tremor. PMID:27432669

  10. Use of micro-positron emission tomography with 18F-fallypride to measure the levels of dopamine receptor-D2 and 18F-FDG as molecular imaging tracer in the pituitary glands and prolactinomas of Fischer-344 rats

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ping; Gui, Songbai; Cao, Lei; Gao, Hua; Bai, Jiwei; Li, Chuzhong; Zhang, Yazhuo

    2016-01-01

    Dopamine receptor-D2 (DRD2) is the most important drug target in prolactinoma. The aim of this current study was to investigate the role of using micro-positron emission tomography (micro-PET) with 18F-fallypride and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) as molecular imaging tracer in the pituitary glands and prolactinomas of Fischer-344 (F344) rats and detect the difference of the levels of DRD2 in the pituitary glands and prolactinomas of F344 rat prolactinoma models. Female F344 rat prolactinoma models were established by subcutaneous administration of 15 mg 17β-estradiol for 8 weeks. The growth of tumors was monitored by the small-animal magnetic resonance imaging and micro-PET. A series of molecular biological experiments were also performed 4 and 6 weeks after pump implantation. The micro-PET molecular imaging with 18F-fallypride revealed a decreased expression of DRD2 in F344 rat prolactinoma models, but the micro-PET molecular imaging with 18F-FDG presented an increased uptake in the prolactinoma compared with the pituitary gland. A decreasing trend of levels of DRD2 in F344 rat prolactinoma models was also detected by molecular biological experiments. From this, we can conclude that micro-PET with 18F-fallypride and 18F-FDG can be used to assess tumorigenesis of the prolactinomas in vivo and molecular imaging detection of DRD2 level in prolactinoma may be an indication of treatment effect in the animal experiment. PMID:27103832

  11. Use of micro-positron emission tomography with (18)F-fallypride to measure the levels of dopamine receptor-D2 and (18)F-FDG as molecular imaging tracer in the pituitary glands and prolactinomas of Fischer-344 rats.

    PubMed

    Li, Ping; Gui, Songbai; Cao, Lei; Gao, Hua; Bai, Jiwei; Li, Chuzhong; Zhang, Yazhuo

    2016-01-01

    Dopamine receptor-D2 (DRD2) is the most important drug target in prolactinoma. The aim of this current study was to investigate the role of using micro-positron emission tomography (micro-PET) with (18)F-fallypride and (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG) as molecular imaging tracer in the pituitary glands and prolactinomas of Fischer-344 (F344) rats and detect the difference of the levels of DRD2 in the pituitary glands and prolactinomas of F344 rat prolactinoma models. Female F344 rat prolactinoma models were established by subcutaneous administration of 15 mg 17β-estradiol for 8 weeks. The growth of tumors was monitored by the small-animal magnetic resonance imaging and micro-PET. A series of molecular biological experiments were also performed 4 and 6 weeks after pump implantation. The micro-PET molecular imaging with (18)F-fallypride revealed a decreased expression of DRD2 in F344 rat prolactinoma models, but the micro-PET molecular imaging with (18)F-FDG presented an increased uptake in the prolactinoma compared with the pituitary gland. A decreasing trend of levels of DRD2 in F344 rat prolactinoma models was also detected by molecular biological experiments. From this, we can conclude that micro-PET with (18)F-fallypride and (18)F-FDG can be used to assess tumorigenesis of the prolactinomas in vivo and molecular imaging detection of DRD2 level in prolactinoma may be an indication of treatment effect in the animal experiment. PMID:27103832

  12. Imaging Tumor Metabolism Using Positron Emission Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, David Y.; Soloviev, Dmitry; Brindle, Kevin M.

    2015-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) is an extraordinarily sensitive clinical imaging modality for interrogating tumor metabolism. Radiolabelled PET substrates can be traced at sub-physiological concentrations, allowing non-invasive imaging of metabolism and intra-tumoral heterogeneity in systems ranging from advanced cancer models to cancer patients in the clinic. There are a wide range of novel and more established PET radiotracers, which can be used to investigate various aspects of tumor metabolism, including carbohydrate, amino acid and fatty acid metabolism. In this review we will briefly discuss the more established metabolic tracers and describe recent work on the development of new tracers. Some of the unanswered questions in tumor metabolism will be considered alongside new technical developments, such as combined PET/MRI machines, that could provide new imaging solutions to some of the outstanding diagnostic challenges facing modern cancer medicine. PMID:25815854

  13. Positron Emission Tomography of the Heart

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Schelbert, H. R.; Phelps, M. E.; Kuhl, D. E.

    1979-01-01

    Positron emission computed tomography (PCT) represents an important new tool for the noninvasive evaluation and, more importantly, quantification of myocardial performance. Most currently available techniques permit assessment of only one aspect of cardiac function, i.e., myocardial perfusion by gamma scintillation camera imaging with Thallium-201 or left ventricular function by echocardiography or radionuclide angiocardiography. With PCT it may become possible to study all three major segments of myocardial performance, i.e., regional blood flow, mechanical function and, most importantly, myocardial metabolism. Each of these segments can either be evaluated separately or in combination. This report briefly describes the principles and technological advantages of the imaging device, reviews currently available radioactive tracers and how they can be employed for the assessment of flow, function and metabolism; and, lastly, discusses possible applications of PCT for the study of cardiac physiology or its potential role in the diagnosis of cardiac disease.

  14. Imaging tumor metabolism using positron emission tomography.

    PubMed

    Lewis, David Y; Soloviev, Dmitry; Brindle, Kevin M

    2015-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) is an extraordinarily sensitive clinical imaging modality for interrogating tumor metabolism. Radiolabeled PET substrates can be traced at subphysiological concentrations, allowing noninvasive imaging of metabolism and intratumoral heterogeneity in systems ranging from advanced cancer models to patients in the clinic. There are a wide range of novel and more established PET radiotracers, which can be used to investigate various aspects of the tumor, including carbohydrate, amino acid, and fatty acid metabolism. In this review, we briefly discuss the more established metabolic tracers and describe recent work on the development of new tracers. Some of the unanswered questions in tumor metabolism are considered alongside new technical developments, such as combined PET/magnetic resonance imaging scanners, which could provide new imaging solutions to some of the outstanding diagnostic challenges facing modern cancer medicine. PMID:25815854

  15. Compact conscious animal positron emission tomography scanner

    DOEpatents

    Schyler, David J.; O'Connor, Paul; Woody, Craig; Junnarkar, Sachin Shrirang; Radeka, Veljko; Vaska, Paul; Pratte, Jean-Francois; Volkow, Nora

    2006-10-24

    A method of serially transferring annihilation information in a compact positron emission tomography (PET) scanner includes generating a time signal for an event, generating an address signal representing a detecting channel, generating a detector channel signal including the time and address signals, and generating a composite signal including the channel signal and similarly generated signals. The composite signal includes events from detectors in a block and is serially output. An apparatus that serially transfers annihilation information from a block includes time signal generators for detectors in a block and an address and channel signal generator. The PET scanner includes a ring tomograph that mounts onto a portion of an animal, which includes opposing block pairs. Each of the blocks in a block pair includes a scintillator layer, detection array, front-end array, and a serial encoder. The serial encoder includes time signal generators and an address signal and channel signal generator.

  16. Instrumentation optimization for positron emission mammography

    SciTech Connect

    Moses, William W.; Qi, Jinyi

    2003-06-05

    The past several years have seen designs for PET cameras optimized to image the breast, commonly known as Positron Emission Mammography or PEM cameras. The guiding principal behind PEM instrumentation is that a camera whose field of view is restricted to a single breast has higher performance and lower cost than a conventional PET camera. The most common geometry is a pair of parallel planes of detector modules, although geometries that encircle the breast have also been proposed. The ability of the detector modules to measure the depth of interaction (DOI) is also a relevant feature. This paper finds that while both the additional solid angle coverage afforded by encircling the breast and the decreased blurring afforded by the DOI measurement improve performance, the ability to measure DOI is more important than the ability to encircle the breast.

  17. Positron Emission Tomography with improved spatial resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Drukier, A.K.

    1990-04-01

    Applied Research Corporation (ARC) proposed the development of a new class of solid state detectors called Superconducting Granular Detectors (SGD). These new detectors permit considerable improvements in medical imaging, e.g. Positron Emission Tomography (PET). The biggest impact of this technique will be in imaging of the brain. It should permit better clinical diagnosis of such important diseases as Altzheimer's or schizophrenia. More specifically, we will develop an improved PET-imager; a spatial resolution 2 mm may be achievable with SGD. A time-of-flight capability(t {approx} 100 psec) will permit better contrast and facilitate 3D imaging. In the following, we describe the results of the first 9 months of the development.

  18. Tumor Quantification in Clinical Positron Emission Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Bing; Bading, James; Conti, Peter S

    2013-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) is used extensively in clinical oncology for tumor detection, staging and therapy response assessment. Quantitative measurements of tumor uptake, usually in the form of standardized uptake values (SUVs), have enhanced or replaced qualitative interpretation. In this paper we review the current status of tumor quantification methods and their applications to clinical oncology. Factors that impede quantitative assessment and limit its accuracy and reproducibility are summarized, with special emphasis on SUV analysis. We describe current efforts to improve the accuracy of tumor uptake measurements, characterize overall metabolic tumor burden and heterogeneity of tumor uptake, and account for the effects of image noise. We also summarize recent developments in PET instrumentation and image reconstruction and their impact on tumor quantification. Finally, we offer our assessment of the current development needs in PET tumor quantification, including practical techniques for fully quantitative, pharmacokinetic measurements. PMID:24312151

  19. Positron emission tomography and radiation oncology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fullerton, PhD, Gary D.; Fox, MD, Peter; Phillips, MD, William T.

    2001-10-01

    Medical physics research is providing new avenues for addressing the fundamental problem of radiation therapy-how to provide a tumor-killing dose while reducing the dose to a non-lethal level for critical organs in adjacent portions of the patient anatomy. This talk reviews the revolutionary impact of Positron Emission Tomography on the practice of radiation oncology. The concepts of PET imaging and the development of "tumor" imaging methods using 18F-DG flouro-deoxyglucose are presented to provide the foundation for contemporary research and application to therapy. PET imaging influences radiation therapy decisions in multiple ways. Imaging of occult but viable tumor metastases eliminates misguided therapy attempts. The ability to distinguish viable tumor from scar tissue and necroses allows reduction of treatment portals and more selective treatments. Much research remains before the clinical benefits of these advances are fully realized.

  20. Imaging tumour hypoxia with positron emission tomography

    PubMed Central

    Fleming, I N; Manavaki, R; Blower, P J; West, C; Williams, K J; Harris, A L; Domarkas, J; Lord, S; Baldry, C; Gilbert, F J

    2015-01-01

    Hypoxia, a hallmark of most solid tumours, is a negative prognostic factor due to its association with an aggressive tumour phenotype and therapeutic resistance. Given its prominent role in oncology, accurate detection of hypoxia is important, as it impacts on prognosis and could influence treatment planning. A variety of approaches have been explored over the years for detecting and monitoring changes in hypoxia in tumours, including biological markers and noninvasive imaging techniques. Positron emission tomography (PET) is the preferred method for imaging tumour hypoxia due to its high specificity and sensitivity to probe physiological processes in vivo, as well as the ability to provide information about intracellular oxygenation levels. This review provides an overview of imaging hypoxia with PET, with an emphasis on the advantages and limitations of the currently available hypoxia radiotracers. PMID:25514380

  1. Recent Developments in Positron Emission Tomography (PET) Instrumentation

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Derenzo, S. E.; Budinger, T. F.

    1986-04-01

    This paper presents recent detector developments and perspectives for positron emission tomography (PET) instrumentation used for medical research, as well as the physical processes in positron annihilation, photon scattering and detection, tomograph design considerations, and the potentials for new advances in detectors.

  2. Cervical Gross Tumor Volume Dose Predicts Local Control Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging/Diffusion-Weighted Imaging—Guided High-Dose-Rate and Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography—Guided Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Dyk, Pawel; Jiang, Naomi; Sun, Baozhou; DeWees, Todd A.; Fowler, Kathryn J.; Narra, Vamsi; Garcia-Ramirez, Jose L.; Schwarz, Julie K.; Grigsby, Perry W.

    2014-11-15

    Purpose: Magnetic resonance imaging/diffusion weighted-imaging (MRI/DWI)-guided high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy and {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) — positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT)-guided intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for the definitive treatment of cervical cancer is a novel treatment technique. The purpose of this study was to report our analysis of dose-volume parameters predicting gross tumor volume (GTV) control. Methods and Materials: We analyzed the records of 134 patients with International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stages IB1-IVB cervical cancer treated with combined MRI-guided HDR and IMRT from July 2009 to July 2011. IMRT was targeted to the metabolic tumor volume and lymph nodes by use of FDG-PET/CT simulation. The GTV for each HDR fraction was delineated by use of T2-weighted or apparent diffusion coefficient maps from diffusion-weighted sequences. The D100, D90, and Dmean delivered to the GTV from HDR and IMRT were summed to EQD2. Results: One hundred twenty-five patients received all irradiation treatment as planned, and 9 did not complete treatment. All 134 patients are included in this analysis. Treatment failure in the cervix occurred in 24 patients (18.0%). Patients with cervix failures had a lower D100, D90, and Dmean than those who did not experience failure in the cervix. The respective doses to the GTV were 41, 58, and 136 Gy for failures compared with 67, 99, and 236 Gy for those who did not experience failure (P<.001). Probit analysis estimated the minimum D100, D90, and Dmean doses required for ≥90% local control to be 69, 98, and 260 Gy (P<.001). Conclusions: Total dose delivered to the GTV from combined MRI-guided HDR and PET/CT-guided IMRT is highly correlated with local tumor control. The findings can be directly applied in the clinic for dose adaptation to maximize local control.

  3. Diagnostic and prognostic evaluation of fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography and its correlation with serum cancer antigen-125 (CA125) in a large cohort of ovarian cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Evangelista, Laura; Palma, Maurizia Dalla; Gregianin, Michele; Nardin, Margherita; Roma, Anna; Nicoletto, Maria Ornella; Nardelli, Giovanni Battista; Zagonel, Vittorina

    2015-01-01

    Objective We evaluated the efficacy of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) in recurrent disease, response to therapy, and long-term follow-up of ovarian cancer (OC) patients in relation to cancer antigen-125 (CA125) levels and the prognostic meaning of this modality in this subset of subjects. Material and Methods Between 2005 and 2015, we retrospectively evaluated 125 patients affected by OC who underwent FDG PET/CT imaging at our institution. The indications for PET/CT were recurrence of disease in 78 patients, therapy response assessment in 29, and follow-up in 18. The results of FDG PET/CT were compared with those of histopathology and clinical and radiological progression during follow-up for at least 6 months. The median long-term follow-up was 33 months. The diagnostic accuracies for the different clinical settings were evaluated. The relationships among global survival (GS), FDG PET/CT results, and CA125 levels were evaluated by both Kaplan–Meier and Cox regression analysis. Results CA125 results were positive (>35 UI/mL) in 62 patients and negative in 63 (49% vs. 51%). The sensitivity and specificity of CA125 were 72% and 91%, respectively. PET/CT imaging showed a sensitivity of 98.6% and a specificity of 77.8% for the assessment of recurrent disease, and a sensitivity of 72.7% and a specificity of 88.9% for therapy evaluation. Meanwhile, in 18 patients evaluated during follow-up, the specificity was 82.3%. GS was significantly higher in case of negative CA125 values at the time of FDG PET/CT, of a negative PET/CT scan and when no evidence of peritoneum recurrence and distant metastases was determined by PET. Multivariate regression analysis showed that only age and peritoneum recurrence as determined by PET were identified as independent predictors of poor prognosis. Conclusion Metabolic imaging with FDG PET/CT proved useful in patients where OC recurrence was suspected, even when the value of tumor

  4. Utility of positron emission tomography in schwannomatosis.

    PubMed

    Lieber, Bryan; Han, ByoungJun; Allen, Jeffrey; Fatterpekar, Girish; Agarwal, Nitin; Kazemi, Noojan; Zagzag, David

    2016-08-01

    Schwannomatosis is characterized by multiple non-intradermal schwannomas with patients often presenting with a painful mass in their extremities. In this syndrome malignant transformation of schwannomas is rare in spite of their large size at presentation. Non-invasive measures of assessing the biological behavior of plexiform neurofibromas in neurofibromatosis type 1 such as positron emission tomography (PET), CT scanning and MRI are well characterized but little information has been published on the use of PET imaging in schwannomatosis. We report a unique clinical presentation portraying the use of PET imaging in schwannomatosis. A 27-year-old woman presented with multiple, rapidly growing, large and painful schwannomas confirmed to be related to a constitutional mutation in the SMARCB1 complex. Whole body PET/MRI revealed numerous PET-avid tumors suggestive of malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors. Surgery was performed on multiple tumors and none of them had histologic evidence of malignant transformation. Overall, PET imaging may not be a reliable predictor of malignant transformation in schwannomatosis, tempering enthusiasm for surgical interventions for tumors not producing significant clinical signs or symptoms. PMID:26960263

  5. Positron Emission Tomography Imaging of Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Orbay, Hakan; Hong, Hao; Zhang, Yin; Cai, Weibo

    2013-01-01

    Atherosclerosis-related cardiovascular events are the leading causes of death in the industrialized world. Atherosclerosis develops insidiously and the initial manifestation is usually sudden cardiac death, stroke, or myocardial infarction. Molecular imaging is a valuable tool to identify the disease at an early stage before fatal manifestations occur. Among the various molecular imaging techniques, this review mainly focuses on positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of atherosclerosis. The targets and pathways that have been investigated to date for PET imaging of atherosclerosis include: glycolysis, cell membrane metabolism (phosphatidylcholine synthesis), integrin αvβ3, low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptors (LDLr), natriuretic peptide clearance receptors (NPCRs), fatty acid synthesis, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), macrophages, platelets, etc. Many PET tracers have been investigated clinically for imaging of atherosclerosis. Early diagnosis of atherosclerotic lesions by PET imaging can help to prevent the premature death caused by atherosclerosis, and smooth translation of promising PET tracers into the clinic is critical to the benefit of patients. PMID:24312158

  6. Data acquisition with a positron emission tomograph

    SciTech Connect

    Freifelder, R.; Karp, J.S.

    1997-12-31

    Positron Emission Tomography (PET) is a clinical imaging modality used in Nuclear Medicine. PET measures functionality rather than anatomical features and is therefore invaluable in the treatment of diseases which are characterized by functional changes in organs rather than anatomical changes. Typical diseases for which PET is used are cancer, epilepsy, and heart disease. While the scanners are not very complex, the performance demands on the devices are high. Excellent spatial resolution, 4-5 mm, and high sensitivity are key to maintaining high image quality. Compensation or suppression of scattered radiation is also necessary for good image quality. The ability to acquire data under high counting rates is also necessary in order to minimize the injected dose to the patient, minimize the patient`s time in the scanner, and finally to minimize blurring due to patient motion. We have adapted various techniques in our data acquisition system which will be reported on in this talk. These include pulse clipping using lumped delay lines, flash ADCs with short sampling time, the use of a local positioning algorithm to limit the number of data words being used in subsequent second level software triggers and calculations, and finally the use of high speed dedicated calculator boards for on-line rebinning and reduction of the data. Modifications to the system to allow for transmission scanning will also be discussed.

  7. Resistive plate chambers in positron emission tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crespo, Paulo; Blanco, Alberto; Couceiro, Miguel; Ferreira, Nuno C.; Lopes, Luís; Martins, Paulo; Ferreira Marques, Rui; Fonte, Paulo

    2013-07-01

    Resistive plate chambers (RPC) were originally deployed for high energy physics. Realizing how their properties match the needs of nuclear medicine, a LIP team proposed applying RPCs to both preclinical and clinical positron emission tomography (RPC-PET). We show a large-area RPC-PET simulated scanner covering an axial length of 2.4m —slightly superior to the height of the human body— allowing for whole-body, single-bed RPC-PET acquisitions. Simulations following NEMA (National Electrical Manufacturers Association, USA) protocols yield a system sensitivity at least one order of magnitude larger than present-day, commercial PET systems. Reconstruction of whole-body simulated data is feasible by using a dedicated, direct time-of-flight-based algorithm implemented onto an ordered subsets estimation maximization parallelized strategy. Whole-body RPC-PET patient images following the injection of only 2mCi of 18-fluorodesoxyglucose (FDG) are expected to be ready 7 minutes after the 6 minutes necessary for data acquisition. This compares to the 10-20mCi FDG presently injected for a PET scan, and to the uncomfortable 20-30minutes necessary for its data acquisition. In the preclinical field, two fully instrumented detector heads have been assembled aiming at a four-head-based, small-animal RPC-PET system. Images of a disk-shaped and a needle-like 22Na source show unprecedented sub-millimeter spatial resolution.

  8. Functional cardiac imaging: positron emission tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Mullani, N.A.; Gould, K.L.

    1984-02-01

    Dynamic cardiovascular imaging plays a vital role in the diagnosis and treatment of cardiac disease by providing information about the function of the heart. During the past 30 years, cardiovascular imaging has evolved from the simple chest x-ray and fluoroscopy to such sophisticated techniques as invasive cardiac angiography and cinearteriography and, more recently, to noninvasive cardiac CT scanning, nuclear magnetic resonance, and positron emission tomography, which reflect more complex physiologic functions. As research tools, CT, NMR, and PET provide quantitative information on global as well as regional ventricular function, coronary artery stenosis, myocardial perfusion, glucose and fatty acid metabolism, or oxygen utilization, with little discomfort or risk to the patient. As imaging modalities become more sophisticated and more oriented toward clinical application, the prospect of routinely obtaining such functional information about the heart is becoming realistic. However, these advances are double-edged in that the interpretation of functional data is more complex than that of the anatomic imaging familiar to most physicians. They will require an enhanced understanding of the physiologic and biochemical processes, as well as of the instrumentation and techniques for analyzing the data. Of the new imaging modalities that provide functional information about the heart, PET is the most useful because it quantitates the regional distribution of radionuclides in vivo. Clinical applications, interpretation of data, and the impact of PET on our understanding of cardiac pathophysiology are discussed. 5 figures.

  9. Amorphous silicon detectors in positron emission tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Conti, M. Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA ); Perez-Mendez, V. )

    1989-12-01

    The physics of the detection process is studied and the performances of different Positron Emission Tomography (PET) system are evaluated by theoretical calculation and/or Monte Carlo Simulation (using the EGS code) in this paper, whose table of contents can be summarized as follows: a brief introduction to amorphous silicon detectors and some useful equation is presented; a Tantalum/Amorphous Silicon PET project is studied and the efficiency of the systems is studied by Monte Carlo Simulation; two similar CsI/Amorphous Silicon PET projects are presented and their efficiency and spatial resolution are studied by Monte Carlo Simulation, light yield and time characteristics of the scintillation light are discussed for different scintillators; some experimental result on light yield measurements are presented; a Xenon/Amorphous Silicon PET is presented, the physical mechanism of scintillation in Xenon is explained, a theoretical estimation of total light yield in Xenon and the resulting efficiency is discussed altogether with some consideration of the time resolution of the system; the amorphous silicon integrated electronics is presented, total noise and time resolution are evaluated in each of our applications; the merit parameters {epsilon}{sup 2}{tau}'s are evaluated and compared with other PET systems and conclusions are drawn; and a complete reference list for Xenon scintillation light physics and its applications is presented altogether with the listing of the developed simulation programs.

  10. The Role of Chemistry in Positron Emission Tomography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feliu, Anthony L.

    1988-01-01

    Investigates use of positron emission tomography (PET) to study in-vivo metabolic processes. Discusses methodology of PET and medical uses. Outlines the production of different radioisotopes used in PET radiotracers. Includes selected bibliography. (ML)

  11. Future direction of renal positron emission tomography.

    PubMed

    Szabo, Zsolt; Xia, Jinsong; Mathews, William B; Brown, Phillip R

    2006-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) is perfectly suited for quantitative imaging of the kidneys, and the recent improvements in detector technology, computer hardware, and image processing software add to its appeal. Multiple positron emitting radioisotopes can be used for renal imaging. Some, including carbon-11, nitrogen-13, and oxygen-15, can be used at institutions with an on-site cyclotron. Other radioisotopes that may be even more useful in a clinical setting are those that either can be obtained from radionuclide generators (rubidium-82, copper-62) or have a sufficiently long half-life for transportation (fluorine-18). The clinical use of functional renal PET studies (blood flow, glomerular filtration rate) has been slow, in part because of the success of concurrent technologies, including single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and planar gamma camera imaging. Renal blood flow studies can be performed with O-15-labeled water, N-13-labeled ammonia, rubidium-82, and copper-labeled PTSM. With these tracers, renal blood flow can be quantified using a modified microsphere kinetic model. Glomerular filtration can be imaged and quantified with gallium-68 EDTA or cobalt-55 EDTA. Measurements of renal blood flow with PET have potential applications in renovascular disease, in transplant rejection or acute tubular necrosis, in drug-induced nephropathies, ureteral obstruction, before and after revascularization, and before and after the placement of ureteral stents. The most important clinical application for imaging glomerular function with PET would be renovascular hypertension. Molecular imaging of the kidneys with PET is rather limited. At present, research is focused on the investigation of metabolism (acetate), membrane transporters (organic cation and anion transporters, pepT1 and pepT2, GLUT, SGLT), enzymes (ACE), and receptors (AT1R). Because many nephrological and urological disorders are initiated at the molecular and organelle levels and may

  12. Positron Emission Mammography with Multiple Angle Acquisition

    SciTech Connect

    Mark F. Smith; Stan Majewski; Raymond R. Raylman

    2002-11-01

    Positron emission mammography (PEM) of F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake in breast tumors with dedicated detectors typically has been accomplished with two planar detectors in a fixed position with the breast under compression. The potential use of PEM imaging at two detector positions to guide stereotactic breast biopsy has motivated us to use PEM coincidence data acquired at two or more detector positions together in a single image reconstruction. Multiple angle PEM acquisition and iterative image reconstruction were investigated using point source and compressed breast phantom acquisitions with 5, 9, 12 and 15 mm diameter spheres and a simulated tumor:background activity concentration ratio of 6:1. Image reconstruction was performed with an iterative MLEM algorithm that used coincidence events between any two detector pixels on opposed detector heads at each detector position. This present study compared two acquisition protocols: 2 angle acquisition with detector angular positions of -15 and +15 degrees and 11 angle acquisition with detector positions spaced at 3 degree increments over the range -15 to +15 degrees. Three- dimensional image resolution was assessed for the point source acquisitions, and contrast and signal-to-noise metrics were evaluated for the compressed breast phantom with different simulated tumor sizes. Radial and tangential resolutions were similar for the two protocols, while normal resolution was better for the 2 angle acquisition. Analysis is complicated by the asymmetric point spread functions. Signal- to-noise vs. contrast tradeoffs were better for 11 angle acquisition for the smallest visible 9 mm sphere, while tradeoff results were mixed for the larger and more easily visible 12 mm and 15 mm diameter spheres. Additional study is needed to better understand the performance of limited angle tomography for PEM. PEM tomography experiments with complete angular sampling are planned.

  13. Positron Emission Mammography with Multiple Angle Acquisition

    SciTech Connect

    Mark F. Smith; Stan Majewski; Raymond R. Raylman

    2002-11-01

    Positron emission mammography (PEM) of F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FbG) uptake in breast tumors with dedicated detectors typically has been accomplished with two planar detectors in a fixed position with the breast under compression. The potential use of PEM imaging at two detector positions to guide stereotactic breast biopsy has motivated us to use PEM coincidence data acquired at two or more detector positions together in a single image reconstruction. Multiple angle PEM acquisition and iterative image reconstruction were investigated using point source and compressed breast phantom acquisitions with 5, 9, 12 and 15 mm diameter spheres and a simulated tumor:background activity concentration ratio of 6:1. Image reconstruction was performed with an iterative MLEM algorithm that used coincidence events between any two detector pixels on opposed detector heads at each detector position. This present study compared two acquisition protocols: 2 angle acquisition with detector angular positions of -15 and +15 degrees and 11 angle acquisition with detector positions spaced at 3 degree increments over the range -15 to +15 degrees. Three-dimensional image resolution was assessed for the point source acquisitions, and contrast and signal-to-noise metrics were evaluated for the compressed breast phantom with different simulated tumor sizes. Radial and tangential resolutions were similar for the two protocols, while normal resolution was better for the 2 angle acquisition. Analysis is complicated by the asymmetric point spread functions. Signal- to-noise vs. contrast tradeoffs were better for 11 angle acquisition for the smallest visible 9 mm sphere, while tradeoff results were mixed for the larger and more easily visible 12 mm and 15 mm diameter spheres. Additional study is needed to better understand the performance of limited angle tomography for PEM. PEM tomography experiments with complete angular sampling are planned.

  14. Application of mathematical removal of positron range blurring in Positron Emission Tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Haber, S.F.; Derenzo, S.E.; Uber, D.

    1990-04-01

    The range of positrons in tissue is an important limitation to the ultimate spatial resolution achievable in Positron Emission Tomography. In this work we applied a Fourier deconvolution technique to remove range blurring in images taken by the Donner 600-Crystal Positron Tomograph. Using phantom data, we found significant improvement in the image quality and the FWHM for both {sup 68}Ga and {sup 82}Rb. These were successfully corrected so that the images and FWHM almost matched those of {sup 18}F which has negligible positron range. However, statistical noise was increased by the deconvolution process and it was not practical to recover the full spatial resolution of the tomograph. 10 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. Application of mathematical removal of positron range blurring in positron emission tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Haber, S.F.; Derenzo, S.E.; Uber, D. )

    1990-06-01

    The range of positrons in tissue is an important limitation to the ultimate spatial resolution achievable in positron emission tomography. In this work the authors have applied a Fourier deconvolution technique to remove range blurring in images taken by the Donner 600-crystal positron tomograph. Using phantom data, the authors have found significant improvement in the image quality and the FWHM for both {sup 68}Ga and {sup 82}Rb. These were successfully corrected so that the images and FWHM almost matched those of {sup 18}F which has negligible positron range. However, statistical noise was increased by the deconvolution process and it was not practical to recover the full spatial resolution of the tomograph.

  16. Positron emission tomographic imaging of tumors using monoclonal antibodies

    SciTech Connect

    Zalutsky, M.R.

    1992-08-01

    This research project is developing methods for utilizing positron emission tomography (PET) to increase the clinical potential of radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). This report describes the development of methods for labeling MAbs and their fragments with positron-emitting halogen nuclides, fluorine-18 and iodine-124. These nulides were selected because of the widespread availability of F-18 and because of our extensive experience in the development of new protein radiohalogenation methods.

  17. Positron emission tomography and bone metastases.

    PubMed

    Fogelman, Ignac; Cook, Gary; Israel, Ora; Van der Wall, Hans

    2005-04-01

    The use of 2-[18F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) in the evaluation and management of patients with malignancy continues to increase. However, its role in the identification of bone metastases is far from clear. FDG has the advantage of demonstrating all metastatic sites, and in the skeleton it is assumed that its uptake is directly into tumor cells. It is probable that for breast and lung carcinoma, FDG-PET has similar sensitivity, although poorer specificity, when compared with the isotope bone scan, although there is conflicting evidence, with several articles suggesting that it is less sensitive than conventional imaging in breast cancer. There is convincing evidence that for prostate cancer, FDG-PET is less sensitive than the bone scan and this may be tumor specific. There is very little data relating to lymphoma, but FDG-PET seems to perform better than the bone scan. There is an increasing body of evidence relating to the valuable role of FDG-PET in myeloma, where it is clearly better than the bone scan, presumably because FDG is identifying marrow-based disease at an early stage. There are, however, several other important variables that should be considered. The morphology of the metastasis itself appears to be relevant. At least in breast cancer, different patterns of FDG uptake have been shown in sclerotic, lytic, or lesions with a mixed pattern, Furthermore, the precise localization of a metastasis in the skeleton may be important with regard to the extent of the metabolic response induced. Previous treatment is highly relevant and it has been found that although the majority of untreated bone metastases are positive on PET scans and have a lytic pattern on computed tomography (CT), after treatment, incongruent CT-positive/PET-negative lesions are significantly more prevalent and generally are blastic, which presumably reflects a direct effect of treatment. Finally, the aggressiveness of the tumor itself may be relevant

  18. Positron Emission Tomography/Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Gastrointestinal Cancers.

    PubMed

    Goh, Vicky; Prezzi, Davide; Mallia, Andrew; Bashir, Usman; Stirling, J James; John, Joemon; Charles-Edwards, Geoff; MacKewn, Jane; Cook, Gary

    2016-08-01

    As an integrated system, hybrid positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance imaging (PET/MRI) is able to provide simultaneously complementary high-resolution anatomic, molecular, and functional information, allowing comprehensive cancer phenotyping in a single imaging examination. In addition to an improved patient experience by combining 2 separate imaging examinations and streamlining the patient pathway, the superior soft tissue contrast resolution of MRI and the ability to acquire multiparametric MRI data is advantageous over computed tomography. For gastrointestinal cancers, this would improve tumor staging, assessment of neoadjuvant response, and of the likelihood of a complete (R0) resection in comparison with positron emission tomography or computed tomography. PMID:27342899

  19. Positron emission tomographic imaging of cardiac sympathetic innervation and function

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, D.S.; Chang, P.C.; Eisenhofer, G.; Miletich, R.; Finn, R.; Bacher, J.; Kirk, K.L.; Bacharach, S.; Kopin, I.J. )

    1990-05-01

    Sites of uptake, storage, and metabolism of ({sup 18}F)fluorodopamine and excretion of ({sup 18}F)fluorodopamine and its metabolites were visualized using positron emission tomographic (PET) scanning after intravenous injection of the tracer into anesthetized dogs. Radioactivity was concentrated in the renal pelvis, heart, liver, spleen, salivary glands, and gall bladder. Uptake of 18F by the heart resulted in striking delineation of the left ventricular myocardium. Pretreatment with desipramine markedly decreased cardiac positron emission, consistent with dependence of the heart on neuronal uptake (uptake-1) for removal of circulating catecholamines. In reserpinized animals, cardiac positron emission was absent within 30 minutes after injection of ({sup 18}F)-6-fluorodopamine, demonstrating that the emission in untreated animals was from radioactive labeling of the sympathetic storage vesicles. Decreased positron emission from denervated salivary glands confirmed that the tracer was concentrated in sympathetic neurons. Radioactivity in the gall bladder and urinary system depicted the hepatic and renal excretion of the tracer and its metabolites. Administration of tyramine or nitroprusside increased and ganglionic blockade with trimethaphan decreased the rate of loss of myocardial radioactivity. The results show that PET scanning after administration of ({sup 18}F)fluorodopamine can be used to visualize sites of sympathetic innervation, follow the metabolism and renal and hepatic excretion of catecholamines, and examine cardiac sympathetic function.

  20. Probable Syphilitic Aortitis Documented by Positron Emission Tomography.

    PubMed

    Joseph Davey, Dvora; Acosta, Lourdes Del Rocio Carrera; Gupta, Pawan; Konda, Kelika A; Caceres, Carlos F; Klausner, Jeffrey D

    2016-03-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) has been used to aid in diagnosis of inflammatory and infectious disease. We describe the case of a patient with early latent syphilis with increased metabolic activity along the aorta detected via PET, suggesting probable aortitis. Three months after treatment, the PET showed apparent resolution of the aortitis. PMID:26859808

  1. Positron Emission Tomography: Human Brain Function and Biochemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phelps, Michael E.; Mazziotta, John C.

    1985-01-01

    Describes the method, present status, and application of positron emission tomography (PET), an analytical imaging technique for "in vivo" measurements of the anatomical distribution and rates of specific biochemical reactions. Measurements and image dynamic biochemistry link basic and clinical neurosciences with clinical findings suggesting…

  2. Reduction of Positron Range Effects by the Application of a Magnetic Field: for Use with Positron Emission Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raylman, Raymond Robert

    The process of positron emission tomography has become a valuable medical research tool. This procedure involves the administration of a radiopharmaceutical labelled with a positron-emitting isotope to a living organism. Upon the emission and subsequent annihilation of a positron, the gamma rays produced are detected to create an image of metabolic activity within the subject. Many factors such as Compton scattering and photoelectric absorption of the gamma rays tend to limit the quality of these images. Another important limitation is the non-negligible distance the positron travels prior to annihilation. This phenomenon leads to the misplacement of data in the final image. A method for reducing this effect utilizing a magnetic field has been tested and evaluated. The application of a magnetic field constrains the positrons to travel in helical paths instead of their relatively straight courses. Thus, the effective distance the positrons travel from their point of emission is reduced. Results indicate that this technique is successful in reducing the blurring caused in PET images by positron range. The results also indicate that the amount of resolution improvement depends upon the choice of positron emitter and scanner resolution. Reduction of this blurring helps to produce clearer PET images which can allow for more precise localization of tumors, in addition to better measurement of metabolic rate constants. The use of a magnetic field to reduce the range of positrons will lead to more useful images produced by positron emission tomography.

  3. Positron emission tomographic imaging of tumors using monoclonal antibodies

    SciTech Connect

    Zalutsky, M.R. . Dept. of Radiology)

    1989-12-01

    The overall objective of this research project is to develop methods for utilizing positron emission tomography (PET) to increase the clinical potential of radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). Both diagnostic and therapeutic applications of labeled MAbs could be improved as a result of knowledge obtained through the exploitation of the advantageous imaging characteristics associated with PET. By labeling MAbs with positron-emitting nuclides, it should be possible to quantitate the dynamics of their three-dimensional distribution in vivo. Our long-term goals are to apply this approach. 3 tabs.

  4. Positron Emission Tomography: Principles, Technology, and Recent Developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziegler, Sibylle I.

    2005-04-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) is a nuclear medical imaging technique for quantitative measurement of physiologic parameters in vivo (an overview of principles and applications can be found in [P.E. Valk, et al., eds. Positron Emission Tomography. Basic Science and Clinical Practice. 2003, Springer: Heidelberg]), based on the detection of small amounts of posi-tron-emitter-labelled biologic molecules. Various radiotracers are available for neuro-logical, cardiological, and oncological applications in the clinic and in research proto-cols. This overview describes the basic principles, technology, and recent develop-ments in PET, followed by a section on the development of a tomograph with ava-lanche photodiodes dedicated for small animal imaging as an example of efforts in the domain of high resolution tomographs.

  5. Pure hemidystonia with basal ganglion abnormalities on positron emission tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Perlmutter, J.S.; Raichle, M.E.

    1984-03-01

    We present a patient with hemidystonia and an abnormality of the contralateral basal ganglion seen only with positron emission tomography. A 50-year-old sinistral man suffered minor trauma to the right side of his head and neck. Within 20 minutes he developed paroxysmal intermittent dystonic posturing of his right face, forearm, hand, and foot, with weaker contractions of the left foot, lasting several seconds and recurring every few minutes. Neurological findings between spells were normal. The following were also normal: electrolyte, calcium, magnesium, and arterial blood gas levels, and findings of drug screen, cerebrospinal fluid examination, electroencephalography with nasopharyngeal leads, computed tomographic scanning (initially and four weeks later), and cerebral angiography. Positron emission tomographic scanning revealed abnormalities in the left basal ganglion region, including decreased oxygen metabolism, decreased oxygen extraction, increased blood volume, and increased blood flow.

  6. Positron emission tomographic map reconstruction using fuzzy-median filter

    SciTech Connect

    Mondal, Partha Pratim

    2006-10-09

    Positron emission tomography is widely used in medical physics for the reconstruction of the distribution of radionuclei molecules for analyzing regional physiological functions. The existing maximum a posteriori reconstruction methodologies produce artifacts such as oversmoothing and streaking. In this letter, the author proposes a potential function based on fuzzy-median filter for noise-free image reconstruction. The reconstruction methodology is therefore very useful for obtaining artifact-free reconstruction of biomedical specimens.

  7. A novel clustering approach to positron emission particle tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiggins, Cody; Santos, Roque; Ruggles, Arthur

    2016-03-01

    A novel approach to positron emission particle tracking is presented based on determining regions of space with high density of line of response crossing via clustering. The method is shown to be able to accurately track multiple particles in systems where the number of particles is unknown and in which particles can enter and leave the field of view of the scanning system. This method is explored in various environments and its parametric dependence is studied.

  8. Studying the pulmonary circulation with positron emission tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Schuster, D.P.; Mintun, M.A.

    1988-01-01

    Positron emission tomography and appropriately labeled, short-lived radiopharmaceuticals can be used to study a variety of physiologic processes within the lung. Recently, methods have been developed to measure regional pulmonary blood flow and pulmonary vascular permeability to protein macromolecules. The advantages of these techniques include accurate quantitation, regional data available in an image format, noninvasiveness, and repeatability. These methods have recently been applied to studies of hypoxic vasoconstriction, pulmonary edema, and chronic obstructive lung disease in man and large experimental animals. Although the technology is complex and requires the integration of people from a variety of disciplines, these methods offer a unique opportunity to study in vivo lung physiology.

  9. Quantitative simultaneous positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance imaging

    PubMed Central

    Ouyang, Jinsong; Petibon, Yoann; Huang, Chuan; Reese, Timothy G.; Kolnick, Aleksandra L.; El Fakhri, Georges

    2014-01-01

    Abstract. Simultaneous positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance imaging (PET-MR) is an innovative and promising imaging modality that is generating substantial interest in the medical imaging community, while offering many challenges and opportunities. In this study, we investigated whether MR surface coils need to be accounted for in PET attenuation correction. Furthermore, we integrated motion correction, attenuation correction, and point spread function modeling into a single PET reconstruction framework. We applied our reconstruction framework to in vivo animal and patient PET-MR studies. We have demonstrated that our approach greatly improved PET image quality. PMID:26158055

  10. Quantitative simultaneous positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Jinsong; Petibon, Yoann; Huang, Chuan; Reese, Timothy G; Kolnick, Aleksandra L; El Fakhri, Georges

    2014-10-01

    Simultaneous positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance imaging (PET-MR) is an innovative and promising imaging modality that is generating substantial interest in the medical imaging community, while offering many challenges and opportunities. In this study, we investigated whether MR surface coils need to be accounted for in PET attenuation correction. Furthermore, we integrated motion correction, attenuation correction, and point spread function modeling into a single PET reconstruction framework. We applied our reconstruction framework to in vivo animal and patient PET-MR studies. We have demonstrated that our approach greatly improved PET image quality. PMID:26158055

  11. Efficient photon transport in positron emission tomography simulations using VMC++

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawrakow, I.; Mitev, K.; Gerganov, G.; Madzhunkov, J.; Kirov, A.

    2008-02-01

    vmcPET, a VMC++ based fast code for simulating photon transport through the patient geometry for use in positron emission tomography related calculations, is presented. vmcPET is shown to be between 250 and 425 times faster than GATE in completely analog mode and up to 50000 times faster when using advanced variance reduction techniques. Excellent agreement between vmcPET and EGSnrc and GATE benchmarks is found. vmcPET is coupled to GATE via phase-space files of particles emerging from the patient geometry.

  12. Flow visualization in porous media via Positron Emission Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalili, A.; Basu, A. J.; Pietrzyk, U.

    1998-04-01

    We demonstrate here the use of a non-invasive technique based on Positron Emission Tomography (PET) in visualizing and in making quantitative measurements of scalar transport through natural opaque permeable sediments. Along with various other possibilities, this technique has the potential to help improve the understanding of processes that take place at the seabeds between the porewater and the overlying water, which result in exchange of nutrients, toxins and solute. Unlike many other methods, PET is able to produce full three-dimensional pictures of the percolation of fluid through not only "constructed" but also natural porous media.

  13. Positron Emission Tomography Findings in Atypical Polypoid Adenomyoma

    PubMed Central

    Fukami, Tatsuya; Yoshikai, Tomonori; Tsujioka, Hiroshi; Tohyama, Atsushi; Sorano, Sumire; Matsuoka, Sakiko; Yamamoto, Hiroko; Nakamura, Sumie; Goto, Maki; Matsuoka, Ryoei; Oya, Masafumi; Torii, Yoshikuni; Eguchi, Fuyuki

    2016-01-01

    Atypical polypoid adenomyoma (APAM) is a rare polypoid tumor of the uterus composed of atypical endometrial glands surrounded by smooth muscle. A 29-year-old nulligravida, was clinically diagnosed with endocervical myoma and underwent trans-uterine cervical resection with hysteroscope. The histopathological diagnosis of specimens was APAM. Eight months later, she diagnosed recurrent uterine tumor. The positron emission tomography (PET-CT) imaging showed an increased fluorodeoxyglucose uptake. She has performed hysterectomy and was diagnosed APAM. Therapy for APAM depends on multiple factors such as age at presentation and desire for childbearing among others. This is the first report of PET-CT findings in APAM. PMID:27134711

  14. Atlas of positron emission tomography of the brain

    SciTech Connect

    Heiss, W.; Beil, C.; Herholz, K.; Pavlik, G.; Wagner, R.; Weinhard, K.

    1985-01-01

    The aim and scope of this atlas are expressed in its title. The text and legends of the book are presented in both German and English. The book contains 12 high-quality color illustrations culled from nine tomography centers across Europe and North America. Almost two-thirds of the book is devoted to the measurement of regional cerebral glucose metabolism and cerebral blood flow. The remainder manages to cover all of the other cerebral applications of positron emission tomography (PET). The authors discuss that PET is being used principally in research and that its future, although theoretically unlimited, depends on the development of ''further labeled compounds.''

  15. Positron emission tomography: physics, instrumentation, and image analysis.

    PubMed

    Porenta, G

    1994-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) is a noninvasive diagnostic technique that permits reconstruction of cross-sectional images of the human body which depict the biodistribution of PET tracer substances. A large variety of physiological PET tracers, mostly based on isotopes of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and fluorine is available and allows the in vivo investigation of organ perfusion, metabolic pathways and biomolecular processes in normal and diseased states. PET cameras utilize the physical characteristics of positron decay to derive quantitative measurements of tracer concentrations, a capability that has so far been elusive for conventional SPECT (single photon emission computed tomography) imaging techniques. Due to the short half lives of most PET isotopes, an on-site cyclotron and a radiochemistry unit are necessary to provide an adequate supply of PET tracers. While operating a PET center in the past was a complex procedure restricted to few academic centers with ample resources, PET technology has rapidly advanced in recent years and has entered the commercial nuclear medicine market. To date, the availability of compact cyclotrons with remote computer control, automated synthesis units for PET radiochemistry, high-performance PET cameras, and user-friendly analysis workstations permits installation of a clinical PET center within most nuclear medicine facilities. This review provides simple descriptions of important aspects concerning physics, instrumentation, and image analysis in PET imaging which should be understood by medical personnel involved in the clinical operation of a PET imaging center. PMID:7941595

  16. 77 FR 71802 - Guidance on Investigational New Drug Applications for Positron Emission Tomography Drugs...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-04

    ... announced in the Federal Register on February 14, 2012 (77 FR 8262), and Docket No. FDA-2012-D- 0081 was... Positron Emission Tomography Drugs; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice... ``Investigational New Drug Applications for Positron Emission Tomography (PET) Drugs.'' The guidance is intended...

  17. Neutrino emissivity from electron-positron annihilation in hot matter in a strong magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Amsterdamski, P.; Haensel, P. )

    1990-10-15

    The neutrino emissivity due to electron-positron annihilation in a strong magnetic field is computed. A strong magnetic field can significantly increase the neutrino emissivity at {ital T}{similar to}10{sup 9} K.

  18. Differential diagnosis of depression: relevance of positron emission tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, J.M.; Baxter, L.R. Jr.; Mazziotta, J.C.; Gerner, R.H.; Phelps, M.E.

    1987-09-11

    The proper differential diagnosis of depression is important. A large body of research supports the division of depressive illness into bipolar and unipolar subtypes with respect to demographics, genetics, treatment response, and neurochemical mechanisms. Optimal treatment is different for unipolar and bipolar depressions. Treating a patient with bipolar depression as one would a unipolar patient may precipitate a serious manic episode or possibly even permanent rapid cycling disorder. The clinical distinction between these disorders, while sometimes difficult, can often be achieved through an increased diagnostic suspicion concerning a personal or family history of mania. Positron emission tomography and the FDG method, which allow in vivo study of the glucose metabolic rates for discrete cerebral structures, provide new evidence that bipolar and unipolar depression are two different disorders.

  19. Development of the LBNL positron emission mammography camera

    SciTech Connect

    Huber, Jennifer S.; Choong, Woon-Seng; Wang, Jimmy; Maltz, Jonathon S.; Qi, Jinyi; Mandelli, Emanuele; Moses, William W.

    2002-12-19

    We present the construction status of the LBNL Positron Emission Mammography (PEM) camera, which utilizes a PET detector module with depth of interaction measurement consisting of 64 LSO crystals (3x3x30 mm3) coupled on one end to a single photomultiplier tube (PMT) and on the opposite end to a 64 pixel array of silicon photodiodes (PDs). The PMT provides an accurate timing pulse, the PDs identify the crystal of interaction, the sum provides a total energy signal, and the PD/(PD+PMT) ratio determines the depth of interaction. We have completed construction of all 42 PEM detector modules. All data acquisition electronics have been completed, fully tested and loaded onto the gantry. We have demonstrated that all functions of the custom IC work using the production rigid-flex boards and data acquisition system. Preliminary detector module characterization and coincidence data have been taken using the production system, including initial images.

  20. Positron Emission Tomography: state of the art and future developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pizzichemi, M.

    2016-08-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) plays a fundamental role in medical imaging, with a wide range of applications covering, among the others, oncology, neurology and cardiology. PET has undergone a steady technological evolution since its introduction in mid 20th century, from the development of 3D PET in the late 1980s, to the invention of PET/CT in the 1990s and more recently with the introduction of PET/MR scanners. The current research topics aiming to develop the next generation of PET scanners are summarized in this paper, focusing on the efforts to increase the sensitivity of the detectors, as long as improving their timing, spatial and energy resolutions, with the final goal of reducing the amount of radioactive dose received by the patients and the duration of the exams while improving at the same time the detectability of lesions.

  1. Studies of the brain cannabinoid system using positron emission tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Gatley, S.J.; Volkow, N.D.

    1995-10-01

    Studies using radiolabeled psychoactive drugs in conjunction with positron emission tomography (PET) have permitted the imaging of binding sites in the human brain. Similar studies of marijuana have been hampered by the unsuitability of radiolabeled THC for PET studies, and the current unavailability of other in vivo imaging agents for cannabinoid receptors. Recent developments in medicinal chemistry suggest that a PET radiotracer for cannabinoid receptors will soon become available. This chapter briefly reviews these developments, together with the results of PET studies of the effects of marijuana and other abused drugs on brain metabolism. It also reviews PET studies of cocaine binding sites, to demonstrate the kind of investigations that will be possible when a cannabinoid receptor PET radioligand becomes available.

  2. Lesion detection and quantitation of positron emission mammography

    SciTech Connect

    Qi, Jinyi; Huesman, Ronald H.

    2001-12-01

    A Positron Emission Mammography (PEM) scanner dedicated to breast imaging is being developed at our laboratory. We have developed a list mode likelihood reconstruction algorithm for this scanner. Here we theoretically study the lesion detection and quantitation. The lesion detectability is studied theoretically using computer observers. We found that for the zero-order quadratic prior, the region of interest observer can achieve the performance of the prewhitening observer with a properly selected smoothing parameter. We also study the lesion quantitation using the test statistic of the region of interest observer. The theoretical expressions for the bias, variance, and ensemble mean squared error of the quantitation are derived. Computer simulations show that the theoretical predictions are in good agreement with the Monte Carlo results for both lesion detection and quantitation.

  3. Current good manufacturing practice for positron emission tomography drugs.

    PubMed

    2009-12-10

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is issuing regulations on current good manufacturing practice (CGMP) for positron emission tomography (PET) drugs. The regulations are intended to ensure that PET drugs meet the requirements of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (the act) regarding safety, identity, strength, quality, and purity. In this final rule, we are establishing CGMP regulations for approved PET drugs. For investigational and research PET drugs, the final rule states that the requirement to follow CGMP may be met by complying with these regulations or by producing PET drugs in accordance with the United States Pharmacopeia (USP) general chapter on compounding PET radiopharmaceuticals. We are establishing these CGMP requirements for PET drugs under the provisions of the Food and Drug Administration Modernization Act of 1997 (the Modernization Act). Elsewhere in this issue of the Federal Register, we are announcing the availability of a guidance entitled "PET Drugs--Current Good Manufacturing Practice (CGMP)." PMID:20169678

  4. FDG positron emission computed tomography in a study of aphasia

    SciTech Connect

    Metter, E.J.; Wasterlain, C.G.; Kuhl, D.E.; Hanson, W.R.; Phelps, M.E.

    1981-08-01

    Positron emission computed tomography (PECT) using 18F-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) was used to investigate the correlations between clinical status, anatomy (as described by CT), and metabolism in five patients with stable aphasia resulting from ischemic cerebral infarction. Local cerebral metabolic activity was diminished in an area larger than the area of infarction demonstrated by CT. In one patient, FDG PECT revealed a metabolic lesion that probably caused the aphasic syndrome and was not apparent by CT. The data suggest that reliance on CT in delineating the extent of the brain lesion in aphasia or other neuropsychological defects can be misleading; FDG PECT may provide important additional information. Two patients with similar metabolic lesions had very different clinical syndromes, showing that even when currently available methods are combined, major gaps remain in clinicoanatomical correlations in aphasia.

  5. Temporoparietal cortex in aphasia. Evidence from positron emission tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Metter, E.J.; Hanson, W.R.; Jackson, C.A.; Kempler, D.; van Lancker, D.; Mazziotta, J.C.; Phelps, M.E. )

    1990-11-01

    Forty-four aphasic patients were examined with (F18)-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography in a resting state to determine whether consistent glucose metabolic abnormalities were present. Ninety-seven percent of subjects showed metabolic abnormalities in the angular gyrus, 89% in the supramarginal gyrus, and 87% in the lateral and transverse superior temporal gyrus. Pearson product moment correlations were calculated between regional metabolic measures and performance on the Western Aphasia Battery. No significant correlations were found between the Western Aphasia Battery scores and right hemisphere metabolic measures. Most left hemisphere regions correlated with more than one score from the Western Aphasia Battery. Temporal but not frontal regions had significant correlations to the comprehension score. The left temporoparietal region was consistently affected in these subjects, suggesting that common features in the aphasias were caused by left temporoparietal dysfunction, while behavioral differences resulted from (1) the extent of temporoparietal changes, and (2) dysfunction elsewhere in the brain, particularly the left frontal and subcortical areas.

  6. A Review on Segmentation of Positron Emission Tomography Images

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Brent; Bagci, Ulas; Mansoor, Awais; Xu, Ziyue; Mollura, Daniel J.

    2014-01-01

    Positron Emission Tomography (PET), a non-invasive functional imaging method at the molecular level, images the distribution of biologically targeted radiotracers with high sensitivity. PET imaging provides detailed quantitative information about many diseases and is often used to evaluate inflammation, infection, and cancer by detecting emitted photons from a radiotracer localized to abnormal cells. In order to differentiate abnormal tissue from surrounding areas in PET images, image segmentation methods play a vital role; therefore, accurate image segmentation is often necessary for proper disease detection, diagnosis, treatment planning, and follow-ups. In this review paper, we present state-of-the-art PET image segmentation methods, as well as the recent advances in image segmentation techniques. In order to make this manuscript self-contained, we also briefly explain the fundamentals of PET imaging, the challenges of diagnostic PET image analysis, and the effects of these challenges on the segmentation results. PMID:24845019

  7. Central Nervous System Drug Evaluation Using Positron Emission Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Maeda, Jun; Shimada, Hitoshi; Nogami, Tsuyoshi; Arakawa, Ryosuke; Takano, Harumasa; Higuchi, Makoto; Ito, Hiroshi; Okubo, Yoshiro; Suhara, Tetsuya

    2011-01-01

    In conventional pharmacological research in the field of mental disorders, pharmacological effect and dose have been estimated by ethological approach and in vitro data of affinity to the site of action. In addition, the frequency of administration has been estimated from drug kinetics in blood. However, there is a problem regarding an objective index of drug effects in the living body. Furthermore, the possibility that the concentration of drug in blood does not necessarily reflect the drug kinetics in target organs has been pointed out. Positron emission tomography (PET) techniques have made progress for more than 20 years, and made it possible to measure the distribution and kinetics of small molecule components in living brain. In this article, we focused on rational drug dosing using receptor occupancy and proof-of-concept of drugs in the drug development process using PET. PMID:23431048

  8. Chelators for copper radionuclides in positron emission tomography radiopharmaceuticals†

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Zhengxin; Anderson, Carolyn J.

    2014-01-01

    The development of chelating agents for copper radionuclides in positron emission tomography radiopharmaceuticals has been a highly active and important area of study in recent years. The rapid evolution of chelators has resulted in highly specific copper chelators that can be readily conjugated to biomolecules and efficiently radiolabeled to form stable complexes in vivo. Chelators are not only designed for conjugation to monovalent biomolecules but also for incorporation into multivalent targeting ligands such as theranostic nanoparticles. These advancements have strengthened the role of copper radionuclides in the fields of nuclear medicine and molecular imaging. This review emphasizes developments of new copper chelators that have most greatly advanced the field of copper-based radiopharmaceuticals over the past 5 years. PMID:24347474

  9. Wilson's disease studied with FDG and positron emission tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Hawkins, R.A.; Mazziotta, J.C.; Phelps, M.E.

    1987-11-01

    Four patients with Wilson's disease and eight normal controls were studied with 2-deoxy-2-(/sup 18/F)fluoro-D-glucose (FDG) and positron emission tomography (PET). The patients had diffusely reduced glucose metabolism in all brain regions evaluated compared with controls, with the exception of the thalamus. The ratio of the cerebral metabolic rate for glucose in the lenticular nuclei to hemispheres declined from 1.23 (+/- 0.14 SD) in controls to 1.03 (+/- 0.06) (p less than 0.025) in Wilson's disease patients. Compared with Huntington's disease, the PET FDG results in Wilson's disease indicate relatively less focal involvement of the caudate nucleus, more severe focal changes in the lenticular nuclei, and more significant global changes in glucose metabolism.

  10. [TUBERCULOUS CONSTRICTIVE PERICARDITIS DETECTED ON POSITRON EMISSION TOMOGRAPHY].

    PubMed

    Takakura, Hiroki; Sunada, Kouichi; Shimizu, Kunihiko

    2016-02-01

    A 72-year-old man presented with fever, dyspnea, and weight loss. He was referred to our hospital for further examination of the cause of the pleural effusions. Chest computed tomography showed pleural effusions, a pericardial effusion, and enlarged lymph nodes in the carina tracheae. We administered treatment for heart failure and conducted analyses for a malignant tumor. The pericardial effusion improved, but the pericardium was thickened. Positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) showed fluorine-18 deoxyglucose accumulation at the superior fovea of the right clavicle, carina tracheae, superior mediastinum lymph nodes, and a thickened pericardium. Because these findings did not suggest malignancy, we assumed this was a tuberculous lesion. Echocardiography confirmed this finding as constrictive pericarditis; therefore, pericardiolysis was performed. Pathological examination showed features of caseous necrosis and granulomatous changes. Hence, the patient was diagnosed with tuberculous constrictive pericarditis. PET-CT serves as a useful tool for the diagnosis of tuberculous pericarditis. PMID:27263228

  11. Integrated telemedicine applications and services for oncological positron emission tomography.

    PubMed

    Kontaxakis, George; Visvikis, Dimitris; Ohl, Roland; Sachpazidis, Ilias; Suarez, Juan Pablo; Selby, Peter; Cheze-Le Rest, Catherine; Santos, Andres; Ortega, Fernando; Diaz, Javier; Pan, Leyun; Strauss, Ludwig; Dimitrakopoulou-Strauss, Antonia; Sakas, Georgios; Pozo, Miguel Angel

    2006-01-01

    TENPET (Trans European Network for Positron Emission Tomography) aims to evaluate the provision of integrated teleconsultation and intelligent computer supported cooperative work services for clinical positron emission tomography (PET) in Europe at its current stage, as it is a multi-centre project financially supported by the European Commission (Information Society, eTEN Program). It addresses technological challenges by linking PET centres and developing supporting services that permit remote consultation between professionals in the field. The technological platform (CE-marked) runs on Win2000/NT/XP systems and incorporates advanced techniques for image visualization, analysis and fusion, as well as for interactive communication and message handling for off-line communications. Four PET Centres from Spain, France and Germany participate to the pilot system trials. The performance evaluation of the system is carried out via log files and user-filled questionnaires on the frequency of the teleconsultations, their duration and efficacy, quality of the images received, user satisfaction, as well as on privacy, ethical and security issues. TENPET promotes the co-operation and improved communication between PET practitioners that are miles away from their peers or on mobile units, offering options for second opinion and training and permitting physicians to remotely consult patient data if they are away from their centre. It is expected that TENPET will have a significant impact in the development of new skills by PET professionals and will support the establishment of peripheral PET units. To our knowledge, TENPET is the first telemedicine service specifically designed for oncological PET. This report presents the technical innovations incorporated in the TENPET platform and the initial pilot studies at real and diverse clinical environments in the field of oncology. PMID:16525707

  12. Impact of [{sup 18}F]Fluorodeoxyglucose PET-CT Staging on Treatment Planning in Radiotherapy Incorporating Elective Nodal Irradiation for Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer: A Prospective Study;Non-small-cell lung cancer; PET; Radiotherapy; Elective nodal irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Kolodziejczyk, Milena; Kepka, Lucyna; Dziuk, Miroslaw; Zawadzka, Anna; Szalus, Norbert; Gizewska, Agnieszka; Bujko, Krzysztof

    2011-07-15

    Purpose: To evaluate prospectively how positron emission tomography (PET) information changes treatment plans for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients receiving or not receiving elective nodal irradiation (ENI). Methods and Materials: One hundred consecutive patients referred for curative radiotherapy were included in the study. Treatment plans were carried out with CT data sets only. For stage III patients, mediastinal ENI was planned. Then, patients underwent PET-CT for diagnostic/planning purposes. PET/CT was fused with the CT data for final planning. New targets were delineated. For stage III patients with minimal N disease (N0-N1, single N2), the ENI was omitted in the new plans. Patients were treated according to the PET-based volumes and plans. The gross tumor volume (GTV)/planning tumor volume (PTV) and doses for critical structures were compared for both data sets. The doses for areas of potential geographical misses derived with the CT data set alone were compared in patients with and without initially planned ENI. Results: In the 75 patients for whom the decision about curative radiotherapy was maintained after PET/CT, there would have been 20 cases (27%) with potential geographical misses by using the CT data set alone. Among them, 13 patients would receive ENI; of those patients, only 2 patients had the PET-based PTV covered by 90% isodose by using the plans based on CT alone, and the mean of the minimum dose within the missed GTV was 55% of the prescribed dose, while for 7 patients without ENI, it was 10% (p = 0.006). The lung, heart, and esophageal doses were significantly lower for plans with ENI omission than for plans with ENI use based on CT alone. Conclusions: PET/CT should be incorporated in the planning of radiotherapy for NSCLC, even in the setting of ENI. However, if PET/CT is unavailable, ENI may to some extent compensate for an inadequate dose coverage resulting from diagnostic uncertainties.

  13. Dynamic Positron Emission Tomography Imaging of Renal Clearable Gold Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Chen, Feng; Goel, Shreya; Hernandez, Reinier; Graves, Stephen A; Shi, Sixiang; Nickles, Robert J; Cai, Weibo

    2016-05-01

    Optical imaging has been the primary imaging modality for nearly all of the renal clearable nanoparticles since 2007. Due to the tissue depth penetration limitation, providing accurate organ kinetics non-invasively has long been a huge challenge. Although a more quantitative imaging technique has been developed by labeling nanoparticles with single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) isotopes, the low temporal resolution of SPECT still limits its potential for visualizing the rapid dynamic process of renal clearable nanoparticles in vivo. The dynamic positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of renal clearable gold (Au) nanoparticles by labeling them with copper-64 ((64) Cu) to form (64) Cu-NOTA-Au-GSH is reported. Systematic nanoparticle synthesis and characterizations are performed to demonstrate the efficient renal clearance of as-prepared nanoparticles. A rapid renal clearance of (64) Cu-NOTA-Au-GSH is observed (>75%ID at 24 h post-injection) with its elimination half-life calculated to be less than 6 min, over 130 times shorter than previously reported similar nanoparticles. Dynamic PET imaging not only addresses the current challenges in accurately and non-invasively acquiring the organ kinetics, but also potentially provides a highly useful tool for studying renal clearance mechanism of other ultra-small nanoparticles, as well as the diagnosis of kidney diseases in the near future. PMID:27062146

  14. [Understanding positon emission tomography (PET) with [18F]-FDG in clinical oncology. Informations dedicated to patients and relatives].

    PubMed

    Bourguet, Patrick; Brusco, Sylvie; Corone, Corinne; Devillers, Anne; Foehrenbach, Hervé; Lumbroso, Jean-Daniel; Maszelin, Philippe; Montravers, Françoise; Moretti, Jean-Luc; Rain, Jean-Didier; Talbot, Jean-Noël; Carretier, Julien; Leichtnam-Dugarin, Line; Delavigne, Valérie; Philip, Thierry; Fervers, Béatrice

    2005-07-01

    In response to the evolution of the information-seeking behaviour of patients and concerns from health professionals regarding cancer patient information, the French National Federation of Comprehensive Cancer Centres (FNCLCC) introduced, in 1998, an information and education program dedicated to patients and relatives, the SOR SAVOIR PATIENT program (SSP). The methodology of this program adheres to established quality criteria regarding the elaboration of patient information. Cancer patient information, developed in this program, is based on clinical practice guidelines produced by the FNCLCC and the twenty French regional cancer centres, the National League against Cancer, the French Hospital Federation, the National Oncology Federation of Regional and University Hospitals, the French Oncology Federation of General Hospitals, many learned societies, as well as an active participation of patients, former patients and caregivers. The guidelines, "Standards, Options: Recommendations" (SOR) are used as primary information sources. The handbook SOR SAVOIR PATIENT Understanding positron emission tomography (PET) with [18F]-FDG in clinical oncology, integrally published in this issue of the Bulletin du Cancer, is an adapted version of the clinical practice guidelines (CPG) Standards, Options and Recommendations for positron emission tomography (PET) with [18F]-FDG in clinical oncology. The main objectives of this article are to allow persons affected by cancer and their close relatives to better understand this medical imaging technique and its implementation. This document also offers health professionals a synthetic evidence-based patient information source that should help them communicate that information during the physician-patient encounter. Positron emission tomography (PET) is a scintigraphy technique using a radiotracer, [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose (abbreviated [18F]-FDG), administered intravenously into the patient's arm. This tracer, similar to glucose (sugar

  15. Single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography in lung cancer and malignant lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Schillaci, Orazio

    2006-10-01

    In nuclear oncology, despite the fast-growing diffusion of (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET), single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) studies can still play an useful clinical role in several applications. The main limitation of SPECT imaging with tumor-seeking agents is the lack of the structural delineation of the pathologic processes they detect; this drawback sometimes renders SPECT interpretation difficult and can diminish its diagnostic accuracy. Fusion with morphological studies can overcome this limitation by giving an anatomical map to scintigraphic data. In the past, software-based fusion of independently performed SPECT and CT images proved to be time-consuming and impractical for routine use. The recent development of dual-modality integrated imaging systems that provide functional (SPECT) and anatomical (CT) images in the same scanning session, with the acquired images coregistered by means of the hardware, has opened a new era in this field. The first reports indicate that SPECT/CT is very useful in cancer imaging because it is able to provide further information of clinical value in several cases. In SPECT, studies of lung cancer and malignant lymphomas using different radiopharmaceutical, hybrid images are of value in providing the correct localization of tumor sites, with a precise detection of the involved organs, and the definition of their functional status, and in allowing the exclusion of disease in sites of physiologic tracer uptake. Therefore, in lung cancer and lymphomas, hybrid SPECT/CT can play a role in the diagnosis of the primary tumor, in the staging of the disease, in the follow-up, in the monitoring of therapy, in the detection of recurrence, and in dosimetric estimations for target radionuclide therapy. PMID:16950145

  16. The methodology of TSPO imaging with positron emission tomography

    PubMed Central

    Turkheimer, Federico E.; Rizzo, Gaia; Bloomfield, Peter S.; Howes, Oliver; Zanotti-Fregonara, Paolo; Bertoldo, Alessandra; Veronese, Mattia

    2015-01-01

    The 18-kDA translocator protein (TSPO) is consistently elevated in activated microglia of the central nervous system (CNS) in response to a variety of insults as well as neurodegenerative and psychiatric conditions. It is therefore a target of interest for molecular strategies aimed at imaging neuroinflammation in vivo. For more than 20 years, positron emission tomography (PET) has allowed the imaging of TSPO density in brain using [11C]-(R)-PK11195, a radiolabelled-specific antagonist of the TSPO that has demonstrated microglial activation in a large number pathological cohorts. The significant clinical interest in brain immunity as a primary or comorbid factor in illness has sparked great interest in the TSPO as a biomarker and a surprising number of second generation TSPO radiotracers have been developed aimed at improving the quality of TSPO imaging through novel radioligands with higher affinity. However, such major investment has not yet resulted in the expected improvement in image quality. We here review the main methodological aspects of TSPO PET imaging with particular attention to TSPO genetics, cellular heterogeneity of TSPO in brain tissue and TSPO distribution in blood and plasma that need to be considered in the quantification of PET data to avoid spurious results as well as ineffective development and use of these radiotracers. PMID:26551697

  17. European health telematics networks for positron emission tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kontaxakis, George; Pozo, Miguel Angel; Ohl, Roland; Visvikis, Dimitris; Sachpazidis, Ilias; Ortega, Fernando; Guerra, Pedro; Cheze-Le Rest, Catherine; Selby, Peter; Pan, Leyun; Diaz, Javier; Dimitrakopoulou-Strauss, Antonia; Santos, Andres; Strauss, Ludwig; Sakas, Georgios

    2006-12-01

    A pilot network of positron emission tomography centers across Europe has been setup employing telemedicine services. The primary aim is to bring all PET centers in Europe (and beyond) closer, by integrating advanced medical imaging technology and health telematics networks applications into a single, easy to operate health telematics platform, which allows secure transmission of medical data via a variety of telecommunications channels and fosters the cooperation between professionals in the field. The platform runs on PCs with Windows 2000/XP and incorporates advanced techniques for image visualization, analysis and fusion. The communication between two connected workstations is based on a TCP/IP connection secured by secure socket layers and virtual private network or jabber protocols. A teleconsultation can be online (with both physicians physically present) or offline (via transmission of messages which contain image data and other information). An interface sharing protocol enables online teleconsultations even over low bandwidth connections. This initiative promotes the cooperation and improved communication between nuclear medicine professionals, offering options for second opinion and training. It permits physicians to remotely consult patient data, even if they are away from the physical examination site.

  18. Variation in Positron Emission Tomography Use After Colon Cancer Resection

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Christina E.; Hu, Chung-Yuan; You, Y. Nancy; Kaur, Harmeet; Ernst, Randy D.; Chang, George J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Colon cancer surveillance guidelines do not routinely include positron emission tomography (PET) imaging; however, its use after surgical resection has been increasing. We evaluated the secular patterns of PET use after surgical resection of colon cancer among elderly patients and identified factors associated with its increasing use. Patients and Methods: We used the SEER-linked Medicare database (July 2001 through December 2009) to establish a retrospective cohort of patients age ≥ 66 years who had undergone surgical resection for colon cancer. Postoperative PET use was assessed with the test for trends. Patient, tumor, and treatment characteristics were analyzed using univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses. Results: Of the 39,221 patients with colon cancer, 6,326 (16.1%) had undergone a PET scan within 2 years after surgery. The use rate steadily increased over time. The majority of PET scans had been performed within 2 months after surgery. Among patients who had undergone a PET scan, 3,644 (57.6%) had also undergone preoperative imaging, and 1,977 (54.3%) of these patients had undergone reimaging with PET within 2 months after surgery. Marriage, year of diagnosis, tumor stage, preoperative imaging, postoperative visit to a medical oncologist, and adjuvant chemotherapy were significantly associated with increased PET use. Conclusion: PET use after colon cancer resection is steadily increasing, and further study is needed to understand the clinical value and effectiveness of PET scans and the reasons for this departure from guideline-concordant care. PMID:25852143

  19. Simultaneous in vivo positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Catana, Ciprian; Procissi, Daniel; Wu, Yibao; Judenhofer, Martin S; Qi, Jinyi; Pichler, Bernd J; Jacobs, Russell E; Cherry, Simon R

    2008-03-11

    Positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are widely used in vivo imaging technologies with both clinical and biomedical research applications. The strengths of MRI include high-resolution, high-contrast morphologic imaging of soft tissues; the ability to image physiologic parameters such as diffusion and changes in oxygenation level resulting from neuronal stimulation; and the measurement of metabolites using chemical shift imaging. PET images the distribution of biologically targeted radiotracers with high sensitivity, but images generally lack anatomic context and are of lower spatial resolution. Integration of these technologies permits the acquisition of temporally correlated data showing the distribution of PET radiotracers and MRI contrast agents or MR-detectable metabolites, with registration to the underlying anatomy. An MRI-compatible PET scanner has been built for biomedical research applications that allows data from both modalities to be acquired simultaneously. Experiments demonstrate no effect of the MRI system on the spatial resolution of the PET system and <10% reduction in the fraction of radioactive decay events detected by the PET scanner inside the MRI. The signal-to-noise ratio and uniformity of the MR images, with the exception of one particular pulse sequence, were little affected by the presence of the PET scanner. In vivo simultaneous PET and MRI studies were performed in mice. Proof-of-principle in vivo MR spectroscopy and functional MRI experiments were also demonstrated with the combined scanner. PMID:18319342

  20. Usefulness of positron emission tomographic studies for gliomas.

    PubMed

    Miyake, Keisuke; Ogawa, Daisuke; Okada, Masaki; Hatakeyama, Tetsuhiro; Tamiya, Takashi

    2016-07-15

    Non-invasive positron emission tomography (PET) enables the measurement of metabolic and molecular processes with high sensitivity. PET plays a significant role in the diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment of brain tumors and predominantly detects brain tumors by detecting their metabolic alterations, including energy metabolism, amino acids, nucleic acids, and hypoxia. Glucose metabolic tracers are related to tumor cell energy and exhibit good sensitivity but poor specificity for malignant tumors. Amino acid metabolic tracers provide a better delineation of tumors and cellular proliferation. Nucleic acid metabolic tracers have a high sensitivity for malignant tumors and cellular proliferation. Hypoxic metabolism tracers are useful for detecting resistance to radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Therefore, PET imaging techniques are useful for detecting biopsy-targeting points, deciding on tumor resection, radiotherapy planning, monitoring therapy, and distinguishing brain tumor recurrence or progression from post-radiotherapy effects. However, it is not possible to use only one PET tracer to make all clinical decisions because each tracer has both advantages and disadvantages. This study focuses on the different kinds of PET tracers and summarizes their recent applications in patients with gliomas. Combinational uses of PET tracers are expected to contribute to differential diagnosis, prognosis, treatment targeting, and monitoring therapy. PMID:27250577

  1. Automated identification of the lung contours in positron emission tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nery, F.; Silvestre Silva, J.; Ferreira, N. C.; Caramelo, F. J.; Faustino, R.

    2013-03-01

    Positron Emission Tomography (PET) is a nuclear medicine imaging technique that permits to analyze, in three dimensions, the physiological processes in vivo. One of the areas where PET has demonstrated its advantages is in the staging of lung cancer, where it offers better sensitivity and specificity than other techniques such as CT. On the other hand, accurate segmentation, an important procedure for Computer Aided Diagnostics (CAD) and automated image analysis, is a challenging task given the low spatial resolution and the high noise that are intrinsic characteristics of PET images. This work presents an algorithm for the segmentation of lungs in PET images, to be used in CAD and group analysis in a large patient database. The lung boundaries are automatically extracted from a PET volume through the application of a marker-driven watershed segmentation procedure which is robust to the noise. In order to test the effectiveness of the proposed method, we compared the segmentation results in several slices using our approach with the results obtained from manual delineation. The manual delineation was performed by nuclear medicine physicians that used a software routine that we developed specifically for this task. To quantify the similarity between the contours obtained from the two methods, we used figures of merit based on region and also on contour definitions. Results show that the performance of the algorithm was similar to the performance of human physicians. Additionally, we found that the algorithm-physician agreement is similar (statistically significant) to the inter-physician agreement.

  2. Characterization of nontransmural myocardial infarction by positron-emission tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Geltman, E.M.; Biello, D.; Welch, M.J.; Ter-Pogossian, M.M.; Roberts, R.; Sobel, B.E.

    1982-04-01

    The present study was performed to determine whether positron emission tomography (PET) performed after i.v. 11C-palmitate permits detection and characterization of nontransmural myocardial infarction. PET was performed after the i.v. injection of 11C-palmitate in 10 normal subjects, 24 patients with initial nontransmural myocardial infarction (defined electrocardiographically), and 22 patients with transmural infarction. Depressed accumulation of 11C-palmitate was detected with sagittal, coronal and transverse reconstructions, and quantified based on 14 contiguous transaxial reconstructions. Defects with homogeneously intense depression of accumulation of tracer were detected in all 22 patients with transmural infarction (100%). Abnormalities of the distribution of 11C-palmitate in the myocardium were detected in 23 patients with nontransmural infarction (96%). Thallium scintigrams were abnormal in only 11 of 18 patients with nontransmural infarction (61%). Tomographically estimated infarct size was greater among patients with transmural infarction (50.4 +/- 7.8 PET-g-Eq/m2 (+/- SEM SEM)) compared with those with nontransmural infarction (19 +/- 4 PET-g-Eq, p less than 0.01). Residual accumulation of 11C-palmitate within regions of infarction was more intensely depressed among patients with transmural compared to nontransmural infarction (33 +/- 1 vs 39 +/- 1% maximal myocardial radioactivity, p less than 0.01). Thus, PET and metabolic imaging with 11C-palmitate is a sensitive means of detecting, quantifying and characterizing nontransmural and transmural myocardial infarction.

  3. Microfluidics for Positron Emission Tomography (PET) Imaging Probe Development

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ming-Wei; Lin, Wei-Yu; Liu, Kan; Masterman-Smith, Michael; Shen, Clifton Kwang-Fu

    2012-01-01

    Due to increased needs for Positron Emission Tomography (PET) scanning, high demands for a wide variety of radiolabeled compounds will have to be met by exploiting novel radiochemistry and engineering technologies to improve the production and development of PET probes. The application of microfluidic reactors to perform radiosyntheses is currently attracting a great deal of interest because of their potential to deliver many advantages over conventional labeling systems. Microfluidic-based radiochemistry can lead to the use of smaller quantities of precursors, accelerated reaction rates and easier purification processes with greater yield and higher specific activity of desired probes. Several ‘proof-of-principle’ examples, along with basics of device architecture and operation, and potential limitations of each design are discussed here. Along with the concept of radioisotope distribution from centralized cyclotron facilities to individual imaging centers and laboratories (“decentralized model”), an easy-to-use, standalone, flexible, fully-automated radiochemical microfluidic platform can open up to simpler and more cost-effective procedures for molecular imaging using PET. PMID:20643021

  4. Silicon as an unconventional detector in positron emission tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clinthorne, Neal; Brzezinski, Karol; Chesi, Enrico; Cochran, Eric; Grkovski, Milan; Grošičar, Borut; Honscheid, Klaus; Huh, Sam; Kagan, Harris; Lacasta, Carlos; Linhart, Vladimir; Mikuž, Marko; Smith, D. Shane; Stankova, Vera; Studen, Andrej; Weilhammer, Peter; Žontar, Dejan

    2013-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) is a widely used technique in medical imaging and in studying small animal models of human disease. In the conventional approach, the 511 keV annihilation photons emitted from a patient or small animal are detected by a ring of scintillators such as LYSO read out by arrays of photodetectors. Although this has been successful in achieving ˜5 mm FWHM spatial resolution in human studies and ˜1 mm resolution in dedicated small animal instruments, there is interest in significantly improving these figures. Silicon, although its stopping power is modest for 511 keV photons, offers a number of potential advantages over more conventional approaches including the potential for high intrinsic spatial resolution in 3D. To evaluate silicon in a variety of PET "magnifying glass" configurations, an instrument was constructed that consists of an outer partial-ring of PET scintillation detectors into which various arrangements of silicon detectors are inserted to emulate dual-ring or imaging probe geometries. Measurements using the test instrument demonstrated the capability of clearly resolving point sources of 22Na having a 1.5 mm center-to-center spacing as well as the 1.2 mm rods of a 18F-filled resolution phantom. Although many challenges remain, silicon has potential to become the PET detector of choice when spatial resolution is the primary consideration.

  5. Simultaneous in vivo positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance imaging

    PubMed Central

    Catana, Ciprian; Procissi, Daniel; Wu, Yibao; Judenhofer, Martin S.; Qi, Jinyi; Pichler, Bernd J.; Jacobs, Russell E.; Cherry, Simon R.

    2008-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are widely used in vivo imaging technologies with both clinical and biomedical research applications. The strengths of MRI include high-resolution, high-contrast morphologic imaging of soft tissues; the ability to image physiologic parameters such as diffusion and changes in oxygenation level resulting from neuronal stimulation; and the measurement of metabolites using chemical shift imaging. PET images the distribution of biologically targeted radiotracers with high sensitivity, but images generally lack anatomic context and are of lower spatial resolution. Integration of these technologies permits the acquisition of temporally correlated data showing the distribution of PET radiotracers and MRI contrast agents or MR-detectable metabolites, with registration to the underlying anatomy. An MRI-compatible PET scanner has been built for biomedical research applications that allows data from both modalities to be acquired simultaneously. Experiments demonstrate no effect of the MRI system on the spatial resolution of the PET system and <10% reduction in the fraction of radioactive decay events detected by the PET scanner inside the MRI. The signal-to-noise ratio and uniformity of the MR images, with the exception of one particular pulse sequence, were little affected by the presence of the PET scanner. In vivo simultaneous PET and MRI studies were performed in mice. Proof-of-principle in vivo MR spectroscopy and functional MRI experiments were also demonstrated with the combined scanner. PMID:18319342

  6. Application of silicon photomultipliers to positron emission tomography.

    PubMed

    Roncali, Emilie; Cherry, Simon R

    2011-04-01

    Historically, positron emission tomography (PET) systems have been based on scintillation crystals coupled to photomultipliers tubes (PMTs). However, the limited quantum efficiency, bulkiness, and relatively high cost per unit surface area of PMTs, along with the growth of new applications for PET, offers opportunities for other photodetectors. Among these, small-animal scanners, hybrid PET/MRI systems, and incorporation of time-of-flight information are of particular interest and require low-cost, compact, fast, and magnetic field compatible photodetectors. With high quantum efficiency and compact structure, avalanche photodiodes (APDs) overcome several of the drawbacks of PMTs, but this is offset by degraded signal-to-noise and timing properties. Silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) offer an alternative solution, combining many of the advantages of PMTs and APDs. They have high gain, excellent timing properties and are insensitive to magnetic fields. At the present time, SiPM technology is rapidly developing and therefore an investigation into optimal design and operating conditions is underway together with detailed characterization of SiPM-based PET detectors. Published data are extremely promising and show good energy and timing resolution, as well as the ability to decode small scintillator arrays. SiPMs clearly have the potential to be the photodetector of choice for some, or even perhaps most, PET systems. PMID:21321792

  7. Cerebral perfusion reserve indexes determined by fluoromethane positron emission scanning

    SciTech Connect

    Levine, R.L.; Sunderland, J.J.; Lagreze, H.L.; Nickles, R.J.; Rowe, B.R.; Turski, P.A.

    1988-01-01

    An index of cerebral perfusion reserve (RES%), defined as the percent change of regional cerebral blood flow over baseline per mm Hg of end-tidal CO/sub 2/ tension, was determined for each middle cerebral artery (MCA) territory in patients with unilateral carotid distribution transient ischemic attacks or minor cerebrovascular accidents and was compared with that of age-matched, neurologically normal volunteers. Vasodilator responses to induced hypercapnia were tested during inhalation of 5% CO/sub 2/ in 95% O/sub 2/ while regional cerebral blood flow was measured by fluoromethane inhalation positron emission tomography. Mean RES% for 24 normal MCA territories was 5.2 +/- 0.8%. Mean RES% for 15 patient nonischemic MCA territories was 3.8 +/- 1.3% and for 15 ischemic MCA territories was 2.8 +/- 1.9% (both p less than 0.001). Individual RES% values and symmetry ratios between ischemic and nonischemic regions were also determined and compared with angiographic data. Areas of diminished, asymmetric, or paradoxical (two patients) CO/sub 2/ reactivity appear to correspond to areas of compensatory vasodilation. We found this technique to be a safe and reproducible method for defining and recording localized areas of cerebral tissue at apparent risk for hemodynamically related damage.

  8. Imaging Cellular Proliferation in Prostate Cancer with Positron Emission Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Jadvar, Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Prostate cancer remains a major public health problem worldwide. Imaging plays an important role in the assessment of disease at all its clinical phases, including staging, restaging after definitive therapy, evaluation of therapy response, and prognostication. Positron emission tomography with a number of biologically targeted radiotracers has been demonstrated to have potential diagnostic and prognostic utility in the various clinical phases of this prevalent disease. Given the remarkable biological heterogeneity of prostate cancer, one major unmet clinical need that remains is the non-invasive imaging-based characterization of prostate tumors. Accurate tumor characterization allows for image-targeted biopsy and focal therapy as well as facilitates objective assessment of therapy effect. PET in conjunction with radiotracers that track the thymidine salvage pathway of DNA synthesis may be helpful to fulfill this necessity. We review briefly the preclinical and pilot clinical experience with the two major cellular proliferation radiotracers, [18F]-3’-deoxy-3’-fluorothymidine and [18F]-2’-fluoro-5-methyl-1-beta-D-arabinofuranosyluracil in prostate cancer. PMID:27408885

  9. Positron emission tomography in patients with clinically diagnosed Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed Central

    McGeer, P L; Kamo, H; Harrop, R; Li, D K; Tuokko, H; McGeer, E G; Adam, M J; Ammann, W; Beattie, B L; Calne, D B

    1986-01-01

    Fourteen patients who had clinically diagnosed Alzheimer's disease with mild to severe dementia (mean age 69.1 years) were evaluated by calculation of local cerebral metabolic rate for glucose (LCMR-gl) based on uptake of 18F-2-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose (FDG) detected with positron emission tomography (PET). PET scanning showed that the patients had significantly lower LCMR-gl values than 11 age-matched neurologically normal volunteers (mean age 66.3 years). The differences were most marked in the temporal cortex, followed by the frontal, parietal and occipital cortex. In each case the LCMR-gl value was below the lowest control value in at least one cortical area and usually in several; the reduction in LCMR-gl and the number of regions involved in the patients increased with the severity of the dementia. Deficits noted in neuropsychologic testing generally correlated with those predicted from loss of regional cortical metabolism. The patients with Alzheimer's disease were also examined with magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography or both; the degree of atrophy found showed only a poor correlation with the neuropsychologic deficit. Significant atrophy was also noted in some of the controls. A detailed analysis of LCMR-gl values in selected cerebral regions of various sizes refuted the hypothesis that the reduction in cortical glucose metabolism in Alzheimer's disease is due to the filling by metabolically inert cerebrospinal fluid of space created by tissue atrophy. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 PMID:3512063

  10. The methodology of TSPO imaging with positron emission tomography.

    PubMed

    Turkheimer, Federico E; Rizzo, Gaia; Bloomfield, Peter S; Howes, Oliver; Zanotti-Fregonara, Paolo; Bertoldo, Alessandra; Veronese, Mattia

    2015-08-01

    The 18-kDA translocator protein (TSPO) is consistently elevated in activated microglia of the central nervous system (CNS) in response to a variety of insults as well as neurodegenerative and psychiatric conditions. It is therefore a target of interest for molecular strategies aimed at imaging neuroinflammation in vivo. For more than 20 years, positron emission tomography (PET) has allowed the imaging of TSPO density in brain using [(11)C]-(R)-PK11195, a radiolabelled-specific antagonist of the TSPO that has demonstrated microglial activation in a large number pathological cohorts. The significant clinical interest in brain immunity as a primary or comorbid factor in illness has sparked great interest in the TSPO as a biomarker and a surprising number of second generation TSPO radiotracers have been developed aimed at improving the quality of TSPO imaging through novel radioligands with higher affinity. However, such major investment has not yet resulted in the expected improvement in image quality. We here review the main methodological aspects of TSPO PET imaging with particular attention to TSPO genetics, cellular heterogeneity of TSPO in brain tissue and TSPO distribution in blood and plasma that need to be considered in the quantification of PET data to avoid spurious results as well as ineffective development and use of these radiotracers. PMID:26551697

  11. Comparison of scintillators for positron emission mammography (PEM) systems

    SciTech Connect

    Raymond Raylman; Stanislaw Majewski; Mark Smith; Randolph Wojcik; Andrew Weisenberger; Brian Kross; Vladimir Popov; Jamal J. Derakhshan

    2003-02-01

    Positron emission mammography (PEM) has promise as an effective method for the detection of breast lesions. Perhaps the most significant design feature of a PEM system is the choice of scintillator material. In this investigation we compared three scintillators for use in PEM: NaI(Tl), gadolinium oxyorthosilicate (GSO), and lutetium-gadolinium oxyorthosilicate (LGSO). The PEM systems consisted of two 30/spl times/30 arrays of pixelated scintillators (3/spl times/3/spl times/10 mm/sup 3/ for GSO and LGSO and 3/spl times/3/spl times/19 mm/sup 3/ for NaI(Tl)) coupled to arrays of square position-sensitive photomultiplier tubes. The Compton scatter fraction, system energy resolution, spatial resolution, spatial resolution uniformity, and detection sensitivity were compared. Compton scatter fractions for the systems were comparable, between 8% and 9%. The NaI(Tl) system produced the best system energy resolution (18.2%), the GSO system had the worst system energy resolution (28.7%).

  12. Positron Emission Tomography Detector Development for Plant Biology

    SciTech Connect

    Weisenberger, A G; McKisson, J; Stolin, A; Zorn, C; Howell, C R; Crowell, A S; Reid, C D; Majewski, S; Smith, M F

    2010-01-01

    There are opportunities for the development of new tools to advance plant biology research through the use of radionuclides. Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Duke University, West Virginia University and the University of Maryland are collaborating on the development of radionuclide imaging technologies to facilitate plant biology research. Biological research into optimizing plant productivity under various environmental constraints, biofuel and carbon sequestration research are areas that could potentially benefit from new imaging technologies. Using 11CO2 tracers, the investigators at Triangle University Nuclear Laboratory / Duke University Phytotron are currently researching the dynamical responses of plants to environmental changes forecasted from increasing greenhouse trace gases involved in global change. The biological research primary focus is to investigate the impact of elevated atmospheric CO2 and nutrients limitation on carbon and nitrogen dynamics in plants. We report here on preliminary results of 11CO2 plant imaging experiments involving barley plants using Jefferson Lab dual planar positron emission tomography detectors to image 11CO2 in live barley plants. New detector designs will be developed based on the preliminary studies reported here and further planned.

  13. Usefulness of Positron Emission Tomographic Studies for Gliomas

    PubMed Central

    MIYAKE, Keisuke; OGAWA, Daisuke; OKADA, Masaki; HATAKEYAMA, Tetsuhiro; TAMIYA, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    Non-invasive positron emission tomography (PET) enables the measurement of metabolic and molecular processes with high sensitivity. PET plays a significant role in the diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment of brain tumors and predominantly detects brain tumors by detecting their metabolic alterations, including energy metabolism, amino acids, nucleic acids, and hypoxia. Glucose metabolic tracers are related to tumor cell energy and exhibit good sensitivity but poor specificity for malignant tumors. Amino acid metabolic tracers provide a better delineation of tumors and cellular proliferation. Nucleic acid metabolic tracers have a high sensitivity for malignant tumors and cellular proliferation. Hypoxic metabolism tracers are useful for detecting resistance to radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Therefore, PET imaging techniques are useful for detecting biopsy-targeting points, deciding on tumor resection, radiotherapy planning, monitoring therapy, and distinguishing brain tumor recurrence or progression from post-radiotherapy effects. However, it is not possible to use only one PET tracer to make all clinical decisions because each tracer has both advantages and disadvantages. This study focuses on the different kinds of PET tracers and summarizes their recent applications in patients with gliomas. Combinational uses of PET tracers are expected to contribute to differential diagnosis, prognosis, treatment targeting, and monitoring therapy. PMID:27250577

  14. Anaesthesia for positron emission tomography scanning of animal brains.

    PubMed

    Alstrup, Aage Kristian Olsen; Smith, Donald F

    2013-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) provides a means of studying physiological and pharmacological processes as they occur in the living brain. Mice, rats, dogs, cats, pigs and non-human primates are often used in studies using PET. They are commonly anaesthetized with ketamine, propofol or isoflurane in order to prevent them from moving during the imaging procedure. The use of anaesthesia in PET studies suffers, however, from the drawback of possibly altering central neuromolecular mechanisms. As a result, PET findings obtained in anaesthetized animals may fail to correctly represent normal properties of the awake brain. Here, we review findings of PET studies carried out either in both awake and anaesthetized animals or in animals given at least two different anaesthetics. Such studies provide a means of estimating the extent to which anaesthesia affects the outcome of PET neuroimaging in animals. While no final conclusion can be drawn concerning the 'best' general anaesthetic for PET neuroimaging in laboratory animals, such studies provide findings that can enhance an understanding of neurobiological mechanisms in the living brain. PMID:23349451

  15. 76 FR 47593 - Guidance for Small Business Entities on Current Good Manufacturing Practice for Positron Emission...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-05

    ... a guidance for small business entities entitled ``PET Drugs--Current Good Manufacturing Practice... entitled ``PET Drugs--Current Good Manufacturing Practice (CGMP); Small Entity Compliance Guide.'' This... Manufacturing Practice for Positron Emission Tomography Drugs; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug...

  16. Fuzzy-rule-based image reconstruction for positron emission tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mondal, Partha P.; Rajan, K.

    2005-09-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) and single-photon emission computed tomography have revolutionized the field of medicine and biology. Penalized iterative algorithms based on maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimation eliminate noisy artifacts by utilizing available prior information in the reconstruction process but often result in a blurring effect. MAP-based algorithms fail to determine the density class in the reconstructed image and hence penalize the pixels irrespective of the density class. Reconstruction with better edge information is often difficult because prior knowledge is not taken into account. The recently introduced median-root-prior (MRP)-based algorithm preserves the edges, but a steplike streaking effect is observed in the reconstructed image, which is undesirable. A fuzzy approach is proposed for modeling the nature of interpixel interaction in order to build an artifact-free edge-preserving reconstruction. The proposed algorithm consists of two elementary steps: (1) edge detection, in which fuzzy-rule-based derivatives are used for the detection of edges in the nearest neighborhood window (which is equivalent to recognizing nearby density classes), and (2) fuzzy smoothing, in which penalization is performed only for those pixels for which no edge is detected in the nearest neighborhood. Both of these operations are carried out iteratively until the image converges. Analysis shows that the proposed fuzzy-rule-based reconstruction algorithm is capable of producing qualitatively better reconstructed images than those reconstructed by MAP and MRP algorithms. The reconstructed images are sharper, with small features being better resolved owing to the nature of the fuzzy potential function.

  17. Positron bunching and electrostatic transport system for the production and emission of dense positronium clouds into vacuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aghion, S.; Amsler, C.; Ariga, A.; Ariga, T.; Belov, A. S.; Bonomi, G.; Bräunig, P.; Bremer, J.; Brusa, R. S.; Cabaret, L.; Caccia, M.; Caravita, R.; Castelli, F.; Cerchiari, G.; Chlouba, K.; Cialdi, S.; Comparat, D.; Consolati, G.; Demetrio, A.; Di Noto, L.; Doser, M.; Dudarev, A.; Ereditato, A.; Evans, C.; Fesel, J.; Fontana, A.; Forslund, O. K.; Gerber, S.; Giammarchi, M.; Gligorova, A.; Gninenko, S.; Guatieri, F.; Haider, S.; Holmestad, H.; Huse, T.; Jernelv, I. L.; Jordan, E.; Kaltenbacher, T.; Kellerbauer, A.; Kimura, M.; Koetting, T.; Krasnicky, D.; Lagomarsino, V.; Lebrun, P.; Lansonneur, P.; Lehner, S.; Liberadzka, J.; Malbrunot, C.; Mariazzi, S.; Marx, L.; Matveev, V.; Mazzotta, Z.; Nebbia, G.; Nedelec, P.; Oberthaler, M.; Pacifico, N.; Pagano, D.; Penasa, L.; Petracek, V.; Pistillo, C.; Prelz, F.; Prevedelli, M.; Ravelli, L.; Rienäcker, B.; Røhne, O. M.; Rosenberger, S.; Rotondi, A.; Sacerdoti, M.; Sandaker, H.; Santoro, R.; Scampoli, P.; Sorrentino, F.; Spacek, M.; Storey, J.; Strojek, I. M.; Testera, G.; Tietje, I.; Vamosi, S.; Widmann, E.; Yzombard, P.; Zavatarelli, S.; Zmeskal, J.

    2015-11-01

    We describe a system designed to re-bunch positron pulses delivered by an accumulator supplied by a positron source and a Surko-trap. Positron pulses from the accumulator are magnetically guided in a 0.085 T field and are injected into a region free of magnetic fields through a μ -metal field terminator. Here positrons are temporally compressed, electrostatically guided and accelerated towards a porous silicon target for the production and emission of positronium into vacuum. Positrons are focused in a spot of less than 4 mm FWTM in bunches of ∼8 ns FWHM. Emission of positronium into the vacuum is shown by single shot positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy.

  18. Bone metabolism induced by denture insertion in positron emission tomography.

    PubMed

    Suenaga, H; Chen, J; Yamaguchi, K; Sugazaki, M; Li, W; Swain, M; Li, Q; Sasaki, K

    2016-03-01

    18F-fluoride positron emission tomogra-phy (PET) can identify subtle functional variation prior to the major structural change detectable by X-ray. This study aims to investigate the mechanobiological bone reaction around the abutment tooth and in the residual ridge, induced by insertion of removable partial denture (RPD) within two different groups of patients: patients without denture experience (Group 1) and patients with denture experience before (Group 2), using 18F-fluoride PET imaging technique. 18F-fluoride PET/computerised tomography (CT) scan was performed to examine the bone metabolic change in mandible before and after the RPD treatment. Region of interests (ROIs) were placed in alveolar bone around abutment tooth and in residual bone beneath the RPD. Standardised uptake value (SUV), reflecting the accumulation of 18F-fluoride, was measured for each ROI. In all subjects of Group 1, SUVs after insertion were higher than before in both alveolar bone and residual bone, while there was less significant change in SUV in subjects of Group 2. This study demonstrated using longitudinal 18F-fluoride PET scans to effectively examine the bone metabolic change in mandible induced by occlusal loading after RPD insertion. Using this technique, within the six subjects in this study, it was shown that bone metabolism around abutment tooth and residual ridge increased after RPD insertion in case of first-time denture user, while there was no big change in the patient with experience of denture before. This study revealed the effectiveness of applying PET to evaluate bone metabolic activity as mechanobiolo-gical reaction. PMID:26431672

  19. Positron-emission tomography pitfalls related to oral prosthesis.

    PubMed

    More, Yogesh; Dusing, Reginald; Counts, Shaheen; Bond, Justin; Tsue, Terrance; Girod, Douglas

    2013-02-01

    This case report describes false-positive positron-emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) findings related to oral prostheses and its implications in cancer surveillance. In head and neck cancer management, F18-flurodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET/CT is widely accepted for evaluating treatment response and detecting recurrence. Interpretation of FDG PET/CT images in this setting is often challenging due to various prostheses and reconstruction methods. Following surgery for squamous cell carcinoma of the maxillary alveolus, a 61-year-old female had a FDG PET/CT scan on a 7-month follow-up that showed high FDG uptake along the resection site. Clinical examination showed no signs of inflammation or recurrence. Repeat FDG PET/CT without the prosthesis was normal. The PET/CT attenuation-corrected images demonstrated high FDG uptake (standardized uptake value: 11.6) along the resection site corresponding to contrast-enhanced CT images of the lesion. PET/CT nonattenuation-corrected images also confirmed increased activity. Repeat PET/CT without the prosthesis was normal. FDG is not tumor specific; it can accumulate in inflammation, infection, and post-therapy settings. Metallic and high-density prostheses show radial artifacts on CT and falsely elevated FDG uptake on PET/ CT in adjacent areas. Salivary pooling may concentrate FDG. The presence of oral prostheses has not been described as a cause of this high level of activity. PET/CT images that demonstrate intense activity corresponding to dense structures should be viewed with caution. A detailed history and physical exam as well as knowledge of artifacts are pertinent for the managing physician. Laryngoscope, 2012. PMID:22778055

  20. [Positron emission tomography to study central pain integration].

    PubMed

    Laurent, B; Peyron, R; Garcia Larrea, L; Mauguière, F

    2000-04-01

    The study of pain integration, in vivo, within the human brain has been largely improved by the functional neuro-imaging techniques available for about 10 years. Positron Emission Tomography (PET), complemented by laser evoked potentials (LEP) and functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) can nowadays generate maps of physiological or neuropathic pain-related brain activity. LEP and fMRI complement PET by their better temporal resolution and the possibility of individual subject analyze. Recent advances in our knowledge of pain mechanisms concern physiological acute pain, neuropathic pain and investigation of analgesic mechanisms. The sixteen studies using PET have demonstrated pain-related activations in thalamus, insula/SII, anterior cingulate and posterior parietal cortices Activity in right pre-frontal and posterior parietal cortices, anterior cingulate and thalami can be modulated by attention (hypnosis, chronic pain, diversion, selective attention to pain) and probably subserve attentional processes rather than pain analysis. Responses in insula/SII cortex presumably subserve discriminative aspects of pain perception while SI cortex is particularly involved in particular aspects of pain discrimination (movement, contact.) In patients, neuropathic pain, angina and atypical facial pain result in PET abnormalities whose significance remain obscure but which are localized in thalamus and anterior cingulate cortices suggesting their distribution is not random while discriminative responses remain detectable in insula/SII. Drug or stimulation induced analgesia are associated with normalization of basal thalamic abnormalities associated with many chronic pains. The need to investigate the significance of these responses, their neuro-chemical correlates (PET), their time course, the individual strategies by which they have been generated by correlating PET data with LEP and fMRI results, are the challenges that remain to be addressed in the next few years by

  1. Noninvasive imaging of islet grafts using positron-emission tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Yuxin; Dang, Hoa; Middleton, Blake; Zhang, Zesong; Washburn, Lorraine; Stout, David B.; Campbell-Thompson, Martha; Atkinson, Mark A.; Phelps, Michael; Gambhir, Sanjiv Sam; Tian, Jide; Kaufman, Daniel L.

    2006-07-01

    Islet transplantation offers a potential therapy to restore glucose homeostasis in type 1 diabetes patients. However, islet transplantation is not routinely successful because most islet recipients gradually lose graft function. Furthermore, serological markers of islet function are insensitive to islet loss until the latter stages of islet graft rejection. A noninvasive method of monitoring islet grafts would aid in the assessment of islet graft survival and the evaluation of interventions designed to prolong graft survival. Here, we show that recombinant adenovirus can engineer isolated islets to express a positron-emission tomography (PET) reporter gene and that these islets can be repeatedly imaged by using microPET after transplantation into mice. The magnitude of signal from engineered islets implanted into the axillary cavity was directly related to the implanted islet mass. PET signals attenuated over the following weeks because of the transient nature of adenovirus-mediated gene expression. Because the liver is the preferred site for islet implantation in humans, we also tested whether islets could be imaged after transfusion into the mouse liver. Control studies revealed that both intrahepatic islet transplantation and hyperglycemia altered the biodistribution kinetics of the PET probe systemically. Although transplanted islets were dispersed throughout the liver, clear signals from the liver region of mice receiving PET reporter-expressing islets were detectable for several weeks. Viral transduction, PET reporter expression, and repeated microPET imaging had no apparent deleterious effects on islet function after implantation. These studies lay a foundation for noninvasive quantitative assessments of islet graft survival using PET. diabetes | transplantation

  2. How Is Vasculitis Diagnosed?

    MedlinePlus

    ... whether vasculitis is affecting your abdominal organs. Computed Tomography Scan A computed tomography (to-MOG-rah-fee) scan, or CT scan, ... that vein or artery. 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) identifies areas that show higher glucose ...

  3. Differences in lateral hemispheric asymmetries of glucose utilization between early- and late-onset Alzheimer-type dementia

    SciTech Connect

    Koss, E.; Friedland, R.P.; Ober, B.A.; Jagust, W.J.

    1985-05-01

    Positron emission tomography with (/sup 18/F)fluorodeoxyglucose revealed greater right than left hemispheric impairment of cortical glucose metabolism in patients with probable Alzheimer's disease who were younger than 65 but not in those over 65. This asymmetry was related to poor visuospatial performance.

  4. Positron emission tomography displacement sensitivity: predicting binding potential change for positron emission tomography tracers based on their kinetic characteristics.

    PubMed

    Morris, Evan D; Yoder, Karmen K

    2007-03-01

    There is great interest in positron emission tomography (PET) as a noninvasive assay of fluctuations in synaptic neurotransmitter levels, but questions remain regarding the optimal choice of tracer for such a task. A mathematical method is proposed for predicting the utility of any PET tracer as a detector of changes in the concentration of an endogenous competitor via displacement of the tracer (a.k.a., its 'vulnerability' to competition). The method is based on earlier theoretical work by Endres and Carson and by the authors. A tracer-specific predictor, the PET Displacement Sensitivity (PDS), is calculated from compartmental model simulations of the uptake and retention of dopaminergic radiotracers in the presence of transient elevations of dopamine (DA). The PDS predicts the change in binding potential (DeltaBP) for a given change in receptor occupancy because of binding by the endogenous competitor. Simulations were performed using estimates of tracer kinetic parameters derived from the literature. For D(2)/D(3) tracers, the calculated PDS indices suggest a rank order for sensitivity to displacement by DA as follows: raclopride (highest sensitivity), followed by fallypride, FESP, FLB, NMSP, and epidepride (lowest). Although the PDS takes into account the affinity constant for the tracer at the binding site, its predictive value cannot be matched by either a single equilibrium constant, or by any one rate constant of the model. Values for DeltaBP have been derived from published studies that employed comparable displacement paradigms with amphetamine and a D(2)/D(3) tracer. The values are in good agreement with the PDS-predicted rank order of sensitivity to displacement. PMID:16788713

  5. Micro-positron emission tomography imaging of rat brain metabolism during expression of contextual conditioning.

    PubMed

    Luyten, Laura; Casteels, Cindy; Vansteenwegen, Debora; van Kuyck, Kris; Koole, Michel; Van Laere, Koen; Nuttin, Bart

    2012-01-01

    Using (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose microPET imaging, we investigated the neurocircuitry of contextual anxiety versus control in awake, conditioned rats (n = 7-10 per group). In addition, we imaged a group expressing cued fear. Simultaneous measurements of startle amplitude and freezing time were used to assess conditioning. To the best of our knowledge, no neuroimaging studies in conditioned rats have been conducted thus far, although visualizing and quantifying the metabolism of the intact brain in behaving animals is clearly of interest. In addition, more insight into the neurocircuitry involved in contextual anxiety may stimulate the development of new treatments for anxiety disorders. Our main finding was hypermetabolism in a cluster comprising the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST) in rats expressing contextual anxiety compared with controls. Analysis of a subset of rats showing the best behavioral results (n = 5 per subgroup) confirmed this finding. We also observed hypermetabolism in the same cluster in rats expressing contextual anxiety compared with rats expressing cued fear. Our results provide novel evidence for a role of the BST in the expression of contextual anxiety. PMID:22219287

  6. Positron emission tomography oncology research in the UK: a comparison with USA and Europe.

    PubMed

    Fleming, Ian N; Regel, Sabine J; Pike, Lucy C; Marsden, Paul K; Gilbert, Fiona J

    2012-04-01

    PET imaging with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) has become a valuable procedure in oncology patient management and drug development. The availability of non-FDG radiotracers to study different aspects of cancer biology presents new opportunities to improve healthcare outcomes and develop new therapeutics. An investigation has been carried out to determine the extent of the use of non-FDG tracers in the UK, assess overall oncology PET research activity and document current UK PET infrastructure. There has been significant recent investment in PET facilities, increasing the UK's capacity to undertake PET research. Nevertheless, the UK still has a lower level of PET equipment compared with Europe and the USA. Despite the increase in PET imaging capacity in UK research centres, there has not been an increase in non-FDG research, with most studies utilizing FDG at multiple sites. Most non-FDG trials are single-centre studies at well established centres. High tracer prices, a limited range of non-FDG tracers and restricted geographical availability make multicentre trials with non-FDG radiotracers difficult. Several solutions have been identified: formation of purchasing consortia for 18F-labelled radiotracers, production of radiotracers with longer half-lives and establishment of production at regional supply centres. PMID:22367857

  7. Routine radiopharmaceutical production for positron emission tomography in a clinical setting

    SciTech Connect

    Barrio, J.R.; Bida, G.T.; Satyamurthy, N.; Phelps, M.E.

    1985-11-01

    With the development of positron emission tomography (PET), many cellular processes can now be investigated in humans. To perform this task, positron-emitting radioisotopes, which decay by emission of coincidence photons externally detected after positron annihilation, are used in PET. Thus, biochemically and pharmacologically active compounds can be labeled with cyclotron-produced positron-emitting radioisotopes of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and fluorine to probe enzyme reaction rates, membrane transport, metabolism, synthesis processes, and various pharmacological parameters. The development of PET technology for clinical applications requires not only the development of a minicyclotron technology, but also the targetry and reliable synthetic procedures for labeled compounds, all of which must be finally integrated into automated delivery systems. Although an integrated unit (cyclotron, chemistry, imaging device) specially designed for PET in clinical settings has never been developed, the work in progress in this area indicates that its implementation is immediately possible.

  8. Calorimetry in Medical Applications: Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography and Positron Emission Tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, C.-T.

    2006-10-27

    Positron emission tomography (PET) and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), two nuclear medicine imaging modalities broadly used in clinics and research, share many common instrumentation, detector, and electronics technology platforms with calorimetry in high-energy physics, astronomy, and other physics sciences. Historically, advances made in calorimetry had played major roles in the development of novel approaches and critical technologies essential to the evolution of PET and SPECT. There have also been examples in which PET/SPECT developments had led to new techniques in calorimetry for other application areas. In recent years, several innovations have propelled advances in both calorimetry in general and PET/SPECT in particular. Examples include time-of-flight (TOF) measurements, silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs), etc.

  9. Clinical positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance imaging applications.

    PubMed

    von Schulthess, Gustav K; Kuhn, Felix Pierre; Kaufmann, Philipp; Veit-Haibach, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Although clinical positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) applications were obvious and have completely replaced PET in oncology, clinical applications of PET/magnetic resonance (MR) are currently not clearly defined. This is due to the lack of clinical data, which is mainly because PET/MR technology is not clinically mature at this point. Open issues are technical and concern ease of obtaining PET attenuation correction maps, dealing with, for example, MR surface coil metal in the PET field-of-view and appropriate workflows leading to a cost-effective examination. All issues can be circumvented by using a shuttle-connected PET/CT-MR system, but the penalty is that simultaneous PET and MR imaging are not possible and potential motion between examinations may occur. Clinically, some systems installed worldwide start to have a reasonable bulk of clinical data. Preliminary results suggest that in oncology, PET/MR may have advantages over PET/CT in head and neck imaging. In liver imaging, more PET-positive lesions are seen on MR than on CT, but that does not mean that PET/MR is superior to PET/CT. Possibly in some settings where a contrast-enhanced PET/CT is needed to be diagnostic, PET/MR can be done without contrast media. Although PET/CT has virtually no role in brain imaging, this may be an important domain for PET/MR, particularly in dementia imaging. The role of PET/MR in the heart is as yet undefined, and much research will have to be done to elucidate this role. At this point, it is also not clear where the simultaneity afforded by a fully integrated PET/MR is really needed. Sequential data acquisition even on separate systems and consecutive software image fusion may well be appropriate. With the increasing installed base of systems, clinical data will be forthcoming and define more clearly where there is clinical value in PET/MR at an affordable price. PMID:23178084

  10. Positron Emission Tomography Imaging Using Radiolabeled Inorganic Nanomaterials

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xiaolian; Cai, Weibo; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2015-01-01

    CONSPECTUS Positron emission tomography (PET) is a radionuclide imaging technology that plays an important role in preclinical and clinical research. With administration of a small amount of radiotracer, PET imaging can provide a noninvasive, highly sensitive, and quantitative readout of its organ/tissue targeting efficiency and pharmacokinetics. Various radiotracers have been designed to target specific molecular events. Compared with antibodies, proteins, peptides, and other biologically relevant molecules, nanoparticles represent a new frontier in molecular imaging probe design, enabling the attachment of different imaging modalities, targeting ligands, and therapeutic payloads in a single vector. We introduce the radiolabeled nanoparticle platforms that we and others have developed. Due to the fundamental differences in the various nanoparticles and radioisotopes, most radiolabeling methods are designed case-by-case. We focus on some general rules about selecting appropriate isotopes for given types of nanoparticles, as well as adjusting the labeling strategies according to specific applications. We classified these radiolabeling methods into four categories: (1) complexation reaction of radiometal ions with chelators via coordination chemistry; (2) direct bombardment of nanoparticles via hadronic projectiles; (3) synthesis of nanoparticles using a mixture of radioactive and nonradioactive precursors; (4) chelator-free postsynthetic radiolabeling. Method 1 is generally applicable to different nanomaterials as long as the surface chemistry is well-designed. However, the addition of chelators brings concerns of possible changes to the physicochemical properties of nanomaterials and detachment of the radiometal. Methods 2 and 3 have improved radiochemical stability. The applications are, however, limited by the possible damage to the nanocomponent caused by the proton beams (method 2) and harsh synthetic conditions (method 3). Method 4 is still in its infancy

  11. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis detects cerebral amyloid-β accumulation earlier than positron emission tomography

    PubMed Central

    Mattsson, Niklas

    2016-01-01

    See Rabinovici (doi:10.1093/brain/aww025) for a scientific commentary on this article. Cerebral accumulation of amyloid-β is thought to be the starting mechanism in Alzheimer’s disease. Amyloid-β can be detected by analysis of cerebrospinal fluid amyloid-β42 or amyloid positron emission tomography, but it is unknown if any of the methods can identify an abnormal amyloid accumulation prior to the other. Our aim was to determine whether cerebrospinal fluid amyloid-β42 change before amyloid PET during preclinical stages of Alzheimer’s disease. We included 437 non-demented subjects from the prospective, longitudinal Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) study. All underwent 18F-florbetapir positron emission tomography and cerebrospinal fluid amyloid-β42 analysis at baseline and at least one additional positron emission tomography after a mean follow-up of 2.1 years (range 1.1–4.4 years). Group classifications were based on normal and abnormal cerebrospinal fluid and positron emission tomography results at baseline. We found that cases with isolated abnormal cerebrospinal fluid amyloid-β and normal positron emission tomography at baseline accumulated amyloid with a mean rate of 1.2%/year, which was similar to the rate in cases with both abnormal cerebrospinal fluid and positron emission tomography (1.2%/year, P = 0.86). The mean accumulation rate of those with isolated abnormal cerebrospinal fluid was more than three times that of those with both normal cerebrospinal fluid and positron emission tomography (0.35%/year, P = 0.018). The group differences were similar when analysing yearly change in standardized uptake value ratio of florbetapir instead of percentage change. Those with both abnormal cerebrospinal fluid and positron emission tomography deteriorated more in memory and hippocampal volume compared with the other groups (P < 0.001), indicating that they were closer to Alzheimer’s disease dementia. The results were replicated after

  12. Novel pulsed particle accelerator for energy dependent positron re-emission experiments.

    PubMed

    Grill, Niklas; Piochacz, Christian; Zimnik, Samantha; Hugenschmidt, Christoph

    2016-05-01

    We report on a novel device for particle acceleration based on elevation of the potential energy of beam pulses. This so-called energy elevator is particularly beneficial if both the particle source and the sample have to be near ground potential due to experimental constraints. We applied this new technique to enable depth dependent measurements of re-emitted positrons using the surface spectrometer at the NEPOMUC positron beam facility. First, a two-stage bunching system is used to generate positron pulses with a repetition rate of 5 MHz and a duration of 1.663(5) ns before their energy is raised to several keV. The whole system was shown to work with an exceptional efficiency of 88%. We demonstrated the usability of our setup by investigating the positron re-emission spectra of Ni and Pd as function of positron implantation energy. For Ni the positron work function could be determined to be ΦNi (+)=-1.4(2)eV. In addition, as predicted by theory, our experimental findings imply a positive positron work function for Pd. PMID:27250411

  13. Distinguishing tumor recurrence from irradiation sequelae with positron emission tomography in patients treated for larynx cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Greven, K.M.; Williams, D.W. III; Keyes, J.W. Jr.; McGuirt, W.F.; Harkness, B.A.; Watson, N.E. Jr.; Raben, M.; Frazier, L.C.; Geisinger, K.R.; Capellari, J.O.

    1994-07-01

    Distinguishing persistent or recurrent tumor from postradiation edema, or soft tissue/cartilage necrosis in patients treated for carcinoma of the larynx can be difficult. Because recurrent tumor is often submucosal, multiple deep biopsies may be necessary before a diagnosis can be established. Positron emission tomography with 18F-2-fluro-2-deoxglucose (FDG) was studied for its ability to aid in this problem. Positron emission tomography (18FDG) scans were performed on 11 patients who were suspected of having persistent or recurrent tumor after radiation treatment for carcinoma of the larynx. Patients underwent thorough history and physical examinations, scans with computerized tomography, and pathologic evaluation when indicated. Standard uptake values were used to quantitate the FDG uptake in the larynx. The time between completion of radiation treatment and positron emission tomography examination ranged from 2 to 26 months with a median of 6 months. Ten patients underwent computed tomography (CT) of the larynx, which revealed edema of the larynx (six patients), glottic mass (four patients), and cervical nodes (one patient). Positron emission tomography scans revealed increased FDG uptake in the larynx in five patients and laryngectomy confirmed the presence of carcinoma in these patients. Five patients had positron emission tomography results consistent with normal tissue changes in the larynx, and one patient had increased FDG uptake in neck nodes. This patient underwent laryngectomy, and no cancer was found in the primary site, but nodes were pathologically positive. One patient had slightly elevated FDG uptake and negative biopsy results. The remaining patients have been followed for 11 to 14 months since their positron emission studies and their examinations have remained stable. In patients without tumor, average standard uptake values of the larynx ranged from 2.4 to 4.7, and in patients with tumor, the range was 4.9 to 10.7. 18 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  14. The 511 keV emission from positron annihilation in the Galaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Prantzos, N.; Boehm, C.; Bykov, A. M.; Diehl, R.; Ferriere, K.; Guessoum, N.; Jean, P.; Knoedlseder, J.; Marcowith, A.; Moskalenko, I. V.; Strong, A.; Weidenspointner, G.

    2011-07-01

    The first {gamma}-ray line originating from outside the Solar System that was ever detected is the 511 keV emission from positron annihilation in the Galaxy. Despite 30 years of intense theoretical and observational investigation, the main sources of positrons have not been identified up to now. Observations in the 1990s with OSSE/CGRO (Oriented Scintillation Spectrometer Experiment on GRO satellite/Compton Gamma Ray Observatory) showed that the emission is strongly concentrated toward the Galactic bulge. In the 2000s, the spectrometer SPI aboard the European Space Agency's (ESA) International Gamma Ray Astrophysics Laboratory (INTEGRAL) allowed scientists to measure that emission across the entire Galaxy, revealing that the bulge-to-disk luminosity ratio is larger than observed at any other wavelength. This mapping prompted a number of novel explanations, including rather ''exotic'' ones (e.g., dark matter annihilation). However, conventional astrophysical sources, such as type Ia supernovae, microquasars, or x-ray binaries, are still plausible candidates for a large fraction of the observed total 511 keV emission of the bulge. A closer study of the subject reveals new layers of complexity, since positrons may propagate far away from their production sites, making it difficult to infer the underlying source distribution from the observed map of 511 keV emission. However, in contrast to the rather well-understood propagation of high-energy (>GeV) particles of Galactic cosmic rays, understanding the propagation of low-energy ({approx}MeV) positrons in the turbulent, magnetized interstellar medium still remains a formidable challenge. The spectral and imaging properties of the observed 511 keV emission are reviewed and candidate positron sources and models of positron propagation in the Galaxy are critically discussed.

  15. Molecular Imaging of Transporters with Positron Emission Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antoni, Gunnar; Sörensen, Jens; Hall, Håkan

    Positron emission tomography (PET) visualization of brain components in vivo is a rapidly growing field. Molecular imaging with PET is also increasingly used in drug development, especially for the determination of drug receptor interaction for CNS-active drugs. This gives the opportunity to relate clinical efficacy to per cent receptor occupancy of a drug on a certain targeted receptor and to relate drug pharmacokinetics in plasma to interaction with target protein. In the present review we will focus on the study of transporters, such as the monoamine transporters, the P-glycoprotein (Pgp) transporter, the vesicular monoamine transporter type 2, and the glucose transporter using PET radioligands. Neurotransmitter transporters are presynaptically located and in vivo imaging using PET can therefore be used for the determination of the density of afferent neurons. Several promising PET ligands for the noradrenaline transporter (NET) have been labeled and evaluated in vivo including in man, but a really useful PET ligand for NET still remains to be identified. The most promising tracer to date is (S,S)-[18F]FMeNER-D2. The in vivo visualization of the dopamine transporter (DAT) may give clues in the evaluation of conditions related to dopamine, such as Parkinson's disease and drug abuse. The first PET radioligands based on cocaine were not selective, but more recently several selective tracers such as [11C]PE2I have been characterized and shown to be suitable as PET radioligands. Although there are a large number of serotonin transporter inhibitors used today as SSRIs, it was not until very recently, when [11C]McN5652 was synthesized, that this transporter was studied using PET. New candidates as PET radioligands for the SERT have subsequently been developed and [11C]DASB and [11C]MADAM and their analogues are today the most promising ligands. The existing radioligands for Pgp transporters seem to be suitable tools for the study of both peripheral and central drug

  16. [Value of positron emission tomography and computer tomography (PET/CT) for urologic malignancies].

    PubMed

    Boujelbene, N; Prior, J O; Boubaker, A; Azria, D; Schaffer, M; Gez, E; Jichlinski, P; Meuwly, J-Y; Mirimanoff, R O; Ozsahin, M; Zouhair, A

    2011-07-01

    Positron emission tomography is a functional imaging technique that allows the detection of the regional metabolic rate, and is often coupled with other morphological imaging technique such as computed tomography. The rationale for its use is based on the clearly demonstrated fact that functional changes in tumor processes happen before morphological changes. Its introduction to the clinical practice added a new dimension in conventional imaging techniques. This review presents the current and proposed indications of the use of positron emission/computed tomography for prostate, bladder and testes, and the potential role of this exam in radiotherapy planning. PMID:21507695

  17. Maturational changes in cerebral function in infants determined by /sup 18/FDG positron emission tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Chugani, H.T.; Phelps, M.E.

    1986-02-21

    2-Deoxy-2(/sup 18/F)fluro-D-glucose positron emission tomography performed in human infants during development revealed progressive changes in local cerebral glucose utilization. In infants 5 weeks of age and younger, glucose utilization was highest in the sensorimotor cortex, thalamus, midbrain-brainstem, and cerebellar vermis. By 3 months, glucose metabolic activity had increased in the parietal, temporal, and occipital cortices and the basal ganglia, with subsequent increases in frontal and various association regions occurring by 8 months. These functional changes measured with positron emission tomography are in agreement with behavioral, neurophysiological, and anatomical alterations known to occur during infant development. 32 references, 2 figures, 1 table.

  18. Positron Emission Tomography for the Assessment of Myocardial Viability

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Executive Summary Objective The objective was to update the 2001 systematic review conducted by the Institute For Clinical Evaluative Sciences (ICES) on the use of positron emission tomography (PET) in assessing myocardial viability. The update consisted of a review and analysis of the research evidence published since the 2001 ICES review to determine the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of PET in detecting left ventricular (LV) viability and predicting patient outcomes after revascularization in comparison with other noninvasive techniques. Background Left Ventricular Viability Heart failure is a complex syndrome that impairs the contractile ability of the heart to maintain adequate blood circulation, resulting in poor functional capacity and increased risk of morbidity and mortality. It is the leading cause of hospitalization in elderly Canadians. In more than two-thirds of cases, heart failure is secondary to coronary heart disease. It has been shown that dysfunctional myocardium resulting from coronary heart disease (CAD) may recover contractile function (i.e. considered viable). Dysfunctional but viable myocardium may have been stunned by a brief episode of ischemia, followed by restoration of perfusion, and may regain function spontaneously. It is believed that repetitive stunning results in hibernating myocardium that will only regain contractile function upon revascularization. For people with CAD and severe LV dysfunction (left ventricular ejection fraction [LVEF] <35%) refractory to medical therapy, coronary artery bypass and heart transplantation are the only treatment options. The opportunity for a heart transplant is limited by scarcityof donor hearts. Coronary artery bypass in these patients is associated with high perioperative complications; however, there is evidence that revascularization in the presence of dysfunctional but viable myocardium is associated with survival benefits and lower rates of cardiac events. The assessment of left

  19. Stability of regional cerebral glucose metabolism in the normal brain measured by positron emission tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Tyler, J.L.; Strother, S.C.; Zatorre, R.J.; Alivisatos, B.; Worsley, K.J.; Diksic, M.; Yamamoto, Y.L.

    1988-05-01

    Cerebral glucose utilization (LCMRGI) was measured using the (/sup 18/F)fluorodeoxyglucose method with PET in two groups of ten healthy young volunteers, each scanned in a resting state under different methodological conditions. In addition, five subjects had a second scan within 48 hr. Mean hemispheric values averaged 45.8 +/- 3.3 mumol/100 g/min in the right cerebral hemisphere and 47.0 +/- 3.7 mumol/100 g/min in the left hemisphere. A four-way analysis of variance (group, sex, region, hemisphere) was carried out on the results using three different methods of data manipulation: (a) the raw values of glucose utilization, (b) LCMRGI values normalized by the mean hemispheric gray matter LCMRGI value, and (c) log transformed LCMRGI values. For all analysis techniques, significantly higher LCMRGI values were consistently seen in the left mid and posterior temporal area and caudate nucleus relative to the right, and in the right occipital region relative to the left. The coefficient of variation of intrasubject regional differences (9.9%) was significantly smaller than the coefficient of variation for regions between subjects (16.5%). No differences were noted between the sexes and no effect of repeat procedures was seen in subjects having multiple scans. In addition, inter-regional LCMRGI correlations were examined both in values from the 20 normal subjects, as well as in a set of hypothetical abnormal values. Results were compared with those reported from other PET centers; despite certain methodological differences, the intersubject and inter-regional variation of LCMRGI is fairly constant.

  20. Attention Performance in Autism and Regional Brain Metabolic Rate Assessed by Positron Emission Tomography. Brief Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchsbaum, M. S.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    This evaluation of seven high functioning adults with autism utilized positron emission tomography on a visual vigilance task. Although the subjects, as a group, did as well as normal controls on the task, there was a lack of normal hemispheric asymmetry in glucose metabolic rate. A heterogeneous etiology for autism is suggested to explain…

  1. Brain tumor imaging with synthesized /sup 18/F-fluorophenylalanine and positron emission tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Mineura, K.; Kowada, M.; Shishido, F.

    1989-06-01

    Two patients with cerebral gliomas were studied with 18F-fluorophenylalanine, newly synthesized by the electrophilic substitution reaction, using positron emission tomography. The tracer accumulated markedly in the tumor lesion and delineated the extent of the lesion. This new tracer will be promising in the diagnosis of gliomas.

  2. Positron Emission Tomography in Cochlear Implant and Auditory Brainstem Implant Recipients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miyamoto, Richard T.; Wong, Donald

    2001-01-01

    Positron emission tomography imaging was used to evaluate the brain's response to auditory stimulation, including speech, in deaf adults (five with cochlear implants and one with an auditory brainstem implant). Functional speech processing was associated with activation in areas classically associated with speech processing. (Contains five…

  3. The Neural Correlates of Driving Performance Identified Using Positron Emission Tomography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horikawa, E.; Okamura, N.; Tashiro, M.; Sakurada, Y.; Maruyama, M.; Arai, H.; Yamaguchi, K.; Sasaki, H.; Yanai, K.; Itoh, M.

    2005-01-01

    Driving is a complex behavior involving multiple cognitive domains. To identify neural correlates of driving performance, [^1^5O]H"2O positron emission tomography was performed using a simulated driving task. Compared with the resting condition, simulated driving increased regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in the cerebellum, occipital, and…

  4. 77 FR 8262 - Draft Guidance on Investigational New Drug Applications for Positron Emission Tomography Drugs...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-14

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance on Investigational New Drug Applications for Positron Emission Tomography Drugs; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of a draft...

  5. Positron emission tomography and autoradiography: Principles and applications for the brain and heart

    SciTech Connect

    Phelps, M.E.; Mazziotta, J.; Schelbert, H.R.

    1985-01-01

    This is a text on cerebral and myocardial imaging using positron emission tomography and autoradiography. Contributors in nuclear medicine and biophysics define the central principles of these complex and rapidly evolving imaging technologies - their theoretical foundations, the nature of biochemical events being measured, the basis for constructing tracer kinetic models, the criteria governing radiopharmaceutical design, and the rationale for PET in the clinical setting.

  6. Diffuse nesidioblastosis diagnosed on a Ga-68 DOTATATE positron emission tomography/computerized tomography.

    PubMed

    Arun, Sasikumar; Rai Mittal, Bhagwant; Shukla, Jaya; Bhattacharya, Anish; Kumar, Praveen

    2013-07-01

    The authors describe a 50 days old pre-term infant with persistent hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia of infancy in whom Ga-68 DOTATATE positron emission tomography/computerized tomography scan showed diffusely increased tracer uptake in the entire pancreas with no abnormal tracer uptake anywhere else in the body, suggestive of a diffuse variant of nesidioblastosis. PMID:24250024

  7. Positron Emission Tomography Methods with Potential for Increased Understanding of Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sundaram, Senthil K.; Chugani, Harry T.; Chugani, Diane C.

    2005-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) is a technique that enables imaging of the distribution of radiolabeled tracers designed to track biochemical and molecular processes in the body after intravenous injection or inhalation. New strategies for the use of radiolabeled tracers hold potential for imaging gene expression in the brain during development…

  8. Radiolabeled γ-AApeptides: A New Class of Tracers for Positron Emission Tomography†

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yunan; Niu, Youhong; Hong, Hao; Wu, Haifan; Zhang, Yin; Engle, Jonathan W.; Barnhart, Todd E.; Cai, Jianfeng; Cai, Weibo

    2012-01-01

    A γ-AApeptide-based tracer for positron emission tomography imaging of integrin αvβ3 is reported. Despite its shorter sequence and linear nature, this tracer had comparable integrin αvβ3 binding affinity as the cyclic arginine-glycine-aspartic acid peptide but significantly higher resistance to enzymatic degradation and better stability. PMID:22785080

  9. Functional-Lesion Investigation of Developmental Stuttering with Positron Emission Tomography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingham, Roger J.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Analysis of use of positron emission tomographic measurements of resting-state regional cerebral blood flow in 29 men, 10 of whom stuttered, did not support the idea that developmental stuttering is associated with abnormalities of blood flow at rest. Findings did suggest an essentially normal functional brain terrain with a small number of minor…

  10. Positron emission imaging device and method of using the same

    DOEpatents

    Bingham, Philip R.; Mullens, James Allen

    2013-01-15

    An imaging system and method of imaging are disclosed. The imaging system can include an external radiation source producing pairs of substantially simultaneous radiation emissions of a picturization emission and a verification emissions at an emission angle. The imaging system can also include a plurality of picturization sensors and at least one verification sensor for detecting the picturization and verification emissions, respectively. The imaging system also includes an object stage is arranged such that a picturization emission can pass through an object supported on said object stage before being detected by one of said plurality of picturization sensors. A coincidence system and a reconstruction system can also be included. The coincidence can receive information from the picturization and verification sensors and determine whether a detected picturization emission is direct radiation or scattered radiation. The reconstruction system can produce a multi-dimensional representation of an object imaged with the imaging system.

  11. A Pilot Study Treatment of Malignant Tumors Using [18F] Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-08-18

    Radiosensitive Stage IV Solid and Hematological Tumors With High FDG Uptake Not Responding to Standard of Care; Lung Cancer, Head and Neck Cancer, Breast Cancer, Gastric Cancer, Pancreatic Cancer, Colon Cancer, Lymphomas, Sarcomas, Etc

  12. Age and sex differences in cerebral glucose consumption measured by pet using (18-F) fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)

    SciTech Connect

    Duara, R.; Barker, W.; Chang, J.; Apicella, A.; Finn, R.; Gilson, A.

    1985-05-01

    Resting cerebral glucose metabolic rates (CMRglc) were measured in 23 subjects by PET using FDG. Subjects were divided into several groups (mean age +- S.D.) 5 young males (YM) (27 +- 6); 6 young females (YF)(33 +9); 5 elderly males (EM)(73 +- 5); 7 elderly females (EF)(69 +- 7). Additionally, from these groups 4 YM, 3YF, 5EM and 4EF were studied again within 6 weeks under identical conditions. CMRglc in the YF group again was significantly hider than YM (p 0.05). No obvious relationships of CMRglc to the phase of the menstrual cycle was found in this small group. There was a trend (p=0.06) toward a higher CMRglc in YF than EF. These results support the findings of higher CBF in YF versus YM. The differences between the results of Kuhl et al (J. Cereb. and a reduction of CMRglc with age was found in a mixed group of males and females (58and female), and where no age effect was found the males, are also resolved by these findings. The authors suggest that the apparent age effect, in females in this study, is principally a hormonal one.

  13. 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose PET/CT in Langerhans cell histiocytosis: spectrum of manifestations.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Krishan Kant; Seth, Rachna; Behra, Abhishek; Jana, Manisha; Kumar, Rakesh

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this article is to provide an illustrative tutorial highlighting the utility of 18F-FDG PET/CT imaging to detect the spectrum of manifestations in patients with Langerhans cell histiocytosis. FDG PET/CT is a powerful tool for making an early diagnosis; it allows higher diagnostic confidence with regard to lesions, measuring the extent of disease (staging) and assessing disease activity, and is consequently useful for evaluating the response to therapy in patients with Langerhans cell histiocytosis. PMID:26759026

  14. Asymmetric 511 keV Positron Annihilation Line Emission from the Inner Galactic Disk

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skinner, Gerry; Weidenspointner, Georg; Jean, Pierre; Knodlseder, Jurgen; Ballmoos, Perer von; Bignami, Giovanni; Diehl, Roland; Strong, Andrew; Cordier, Bertrand; Schanne, Stephane; Winkler, Christoph

    2008-01-01

    A recently reported asymmetry in the 511 keV gamma-ray line emission from the inner galactic disk is unexpected and mimics an equally unexpected one in the distribution of LMXBs seen at hard X-ray energies. A possible conclusion is that LMXBs are an important source of the positrons whose annihilation gives rise to the line. We will discuss these results, their statistical significance and that of any link between the two. The implication of any association between LMXBs and positrons for the strong annihilation radiation from the galactic bulge will be reviewed.

  15. Determination of the positron diffusion length in Kapton by analysing the positronium emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palacio, C. A.; De Baerdemaeker, J.; Dauwe, C.

    2008-10-01

    Doppler profile spectroscopy and Compton-to-peak ratio analysis have been used to study the positronium (Ps) emission from the Kapton surface as a function of the positron implantation energy E. Two different positions for the sample have been performed in the experiment. In the first case the sample and the Ge-detector are perpendicular to the positron beam. With this geometry the emission of para-positronium (p-Ps) is detected as a narrow central peak. In the second case, by rotating the sample 45° with respect to the beam axis, the emission of p-Ps is detected as a blue-shifted fly away peak. The implantation of the positrons is described by the Makhov profile, where we used the modified median implantation for polymers as given by Algers et al. [J. Algers, P. Sperr, W. Egger, G. Kögel, F.H.J. Maurer, Phys. Rev. B 67 (2003) 125404]. Thermalised positrons can diffuse to the surface and may pick up an electron to be emitted as Ps. We found a thermal and or epithermal positron diffusion length L+ = 5.43 ± 0.71 nm and L+ = 5.51 ± 0.28 nm correspondingly for both cases, which is much more than the one found by Brusa et al. [R.S. Brusa, A. Dupasquier, E. Galvanetto, A. Zecca, Appl. Phys. A 54 (1992) 233]. The respective efficiency for the emission of Ps by picking up an electron from the surface is found to be fpu = 0.247 ± 0.012 and fpu = 0.156 ± 0.003.

  16. Positron Emission Tomography: Current Challenges and Opportunities for Technological Advances in Clinical and Preclinical Imaging Systems.

    PubMed

    Vaquero, Juan José; Kinahan, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging is based on detecting two time-coincident high-energy photons from the emission of a positron-emitting radioisotope. The physics of the emission, and the detection of the coincident photons, give PET imaging unique capabilities for both very high sensitivity and accurate estimation of the in vivo concentration of the radiotracer. PET imaging has been widely adopted as an important clinical modality for oncological, cardiovascular, and neurological applications. PET imaging has also become an important tool in preclinical studies, particularly for investigating murine models of disease and other small-animal models. However, there are several challenges to using PET imaging systems. These include the fundamental trade-offs between resolution and noise, the quantitative accuracy of the measurements, and integration with X-ray computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. In this article, we review how researchers and industry are addressing these challenges. PMID:26643024

  17. Positron emission tomography detects tissue metabolic activity in myocardial segments with persistent thallium perfusion defects

    SciTech Connect

    Brunken, R.; Schwaiger, M.; Grover-McKay, M.; Phelps, M.E.; Tillisch, J.; Schelbert, H.R.

    1987-09-01

    Positron emission tomography with /sup 13/N-ammonia and /sup 18/F-2-deoxyglucose was used to assess myocardial perfusion and glucose utilization in 51 myocardial segments with a stress thallium defect in 12 patients. Myocardial infarction was defined by a concordant reduction in segmental perfusion and glucose utilization, and myocardial ischemia was identified by preservation of glucose utilization in segments with rest hypoperfusion. Of the 51 segments studied, 36 had a fixed thallium defect, 11 had a partially reversible defect and 4 had a completely reversible defect. Only 15 (42%) of the 36 segments with a fixed defect and 4 (36%) of the 11 segments with a partially reversible defect exhibited myocardial infarction on study with positron tomography. In contrast, residual myocardial glucose utilization was identified in the majority of segments with a fixed (58%) or a partially reversible (64%) thallium defect. All of the segments with a completely reversible defect appeared normal on positron tomography. Apparent improvement in the thallium defect on delayed images did not distinguish segments with ischemia from infarction. Thus, positron emission tomography reveals evidence of persistent tissue metabolism in the majority of segments with a fixed or partially resolving stress thallium defect, implying that markers of perfusion alone may underestimate the extent of viable tissue in hypoperfused myocardial segments.

  18. Persistence of cerebral metabolic abnormalities in chronic schizophrenia as determined by positron emission tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Wolkin, A.; Jaeger, J.; Brodie, J.D.; Wolf, A.P.; Fowler, J.; Rotrosen, J.; Gomez-Mont, F.; Cancro, R.

    1985-05-01

    Local cerebral metabolic rates were determined by positron emission tomography and the deoxyglucose method in a group of 10 chronic schizophrenic subjects before and after somatic treatment and in eight normal subjects. Before treatment, schizophrenic subjects had markedly lower absolute metabolic activity than did normal controls in both frontal and temporal regions and a trend toward relative hyperactivity in the basal ganglia area. After treatment, their metabolic rates approached those seen in normal subjects in nearly all regions except frontal. Persistence of diminished frontal metabolism was manifested as significant relative hypofrontality. These findings suggest specific loci of aberrant cerebral functioning in chronic schizophrenia and the utility of positron emission tomography in characterizing these abnormalities.

  19. Brain metabolism in autism. Resting cerebral glucose utilization rates as measured with positron emission tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Rumsey, J.M.; Duara, R.; Grady, C.; Rapoport, J.L.; Margolin, R.A.; Rapoport, S.I.; Cutler, N.R.

    1985-05-01

    The cerebral metabolic rate for glucose was studied in ten men (mean age = 26 years) with well-documented histories of infantile autism and in 15 age-matched normal male controls using positron emission tomography and (F-18) 2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose. Positron emission tomography was completed during rest, with reduced visual and auditory stimulation. While the autistic group as a whole showed significantly elevated glucose utilization in widespread regions of the brain, there was considerable overlap between the two groups. No brain region showed a reduced metabolic rate in the autistic group. Significantly more autistic, as compared with control, subjects showed extreme relative metabolic rates (ratios of regional metabolic rates to whole brain rates and asymmetries) in one or more brain regions.

  20. High uptake in schneiderian papillomas of the maxillary sinus on positron-emission tomography using fluorodeoxyglucose.

    PubMed

    Lin, F Y; Genden, E M; Lawson, W L; Som, P; Kostakoglu, L

    2009-02-01

    Schneiderian papillomas are benign tumors of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses often asymptomatic in their early stages. We report a case of a maxillary sinus oncocytic schneiderian papilloma first detected by positron-emission tomography by using fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG). Schneiderian papillomas demonstrate increased FDG uptake, similar to that of other oncocytic tumors, making it important for otolaryngologists and radiologists to realize that high uptake of FDG does not necessarily indicate a malignant lesion. PMID:18768722

  1. Dynamic Positron Emission Tomography [PET] in Man Using Small Bismuth Germanate Crystals

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Derenzo, S. E.; Budinger, T. F.; Huesman, R. H.; Cahoon, J. L.

    1982-04-01

    Primary considerations for the design of positron emission tomographs for medical studies in humans are the need for high imaging sensitivity, whole organ coverage, good spatial resolution, high maximum data rates, adequate spatial sampling with minimum mechanical motion, shielding against out of plane activity, pulse height discrimination against scattered photons, and timing discrimination against accidental coincidences. We discuss the choice of detectors, sampling motion, shielding, and electronics to meet these objectives.

  2. Transcutaneous measurement of the arterial input function in positron emission tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Litton, J.E.; Eriksson, L. )

    1990-04-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) provides a powerful tool in medical research. Biochemical function can be both precisely localized and quantitatively measured. To achieve reliable quantitation it is necessary to know the time course of activity concentration in the arterial blood during the measurement. In this study the arterial blood curve from the brachial artery is compared to the activity measured in the internal carotid artery with a new transcutaneous detector.

  3. Noninvasive measurement of regional myocardial glucose metabolism by positron emission computed tomography. [Dogs

    SciTech Connect

    Schelbert, H.R.; Phelps, M.E.

    1980-06-01

    While the results of regional myocardial glucose metabolism measurements using positron emission computed tomography (/sup 13/N-ammonia) are promising, their utility and value remains to be determined in man. If this technique can be applied to patients with acute myocardial ischemia or infarction it may permit delineation of regional myocardial segments with altered, yet still active metabolism. Further, it may become possible to evaluate the effects of interventions designed to salvage reversibly injured myocardium by this technique.

  4. Assessment of regional myocardial and renal blood flow with copper-PTSM and positron emission tomography.

    PubMed

    Shelton, M E; Green, M A; Mathias, C J; Welch, M J; Bergmann, S R

    1990-09-01

    We recently demonstrated in isolated, perfused hearts that radiolabeled pyruvaldehyde bis(N4-methylthiosemicarbazonato)copper(II) (Cu-PTSM) is well extracted throughout a range of conditions including ischemia, hypoxia, and hyperemia. Once extracted, binding of radioactivity by the isolated heart was essentially irreversible, giving this tracer microspherelike qualities. Because Cu-PTSM can be readily prepared with the generator-produced positron-emitting copper 62 and other gamma- or positron-emitting copper radionuclides, we evaluated its usefulness for measuring regional myocardial and renal blood flow in vivo in intact dogs at rest, after ischemia, or after coronary hyperemia was induced by intravenous administration of dipyridamole. After intravenous administration of radiolabeled Cu-PTSM, the tracer cleared rapidly from the blood. Myocardial uptake of single photon-emitting 67Cu-labeled Cu-PTSM was measured directly in myocardial samples 15 minutes after tracer administration, and it increased proportionally with blood flow throughout the flow range (estimated concomitantly with radiolabeled microspheres) of 0.0-6.0 ml/g/min (n = 340 samples from 17 dogs, r = 0.99, Ycopper radioactivity = 85Xmicrosphere flow -7 chi 2 + 17). Renal uptake of radiolabeled Cu-PTSM was also proportional to blood flow. Positron emission tomography was performed in four intact dogs after intravenous administration of 64Cu-labeled Cu-PTSM (19% positron decay, t1/2 = 12.8 hours). High-quality images of heart and kidney were obtained. Accordingly, radiolabeled Cu-PTSM should be a useful, generator-produced tracer for estimating regional myocardial and renal blood flow with positron emission tomography. PMID:2394015

  5. Targeted positron emission tomography imaging of CXCR4 expression in patients with acute myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Herhaus, Peter; Habringer, Stefan; Philipp-Abbrederis, Kathrin; Vag, Tibor; Gerngross, Carlos; Schottelius, Margret; Slotta-Huspenina, Julia; Steiger, Katja; Altmann, Torben; Weißer, Tanja; Steidle, Sabine; Schick, Markus; Jacobs, Laura; Slawska, Jolanta; Müller-Thomas, Catharina; Verbeek, Mareike; Subklewe, Marion; Peschel, Christian; Wester, Hans-Jürgen; Schwaiger, Markus; Götze, Katharina; Keller, Ulrich

    2016-08-01

    Acute myeloid leukemia originates from leukemia-initiating cells that reside in the protective bone marrow niche. CXCR4/CXCL12 interaction is crucially involved in recruitment and retention of leukemia-initiating cells within this niche. Various drugs targeting this pathway have entered clinical trials. To evaluate CXCR4 imaging in acute myeloid leukemia, we first tested CXCR4 expression in patient-derived primary blasts. Flow cytometry revealed that high blast counts in patients with acute myeloid leukemia correlate with high CXCR4 expression. The wide range of CXCR4 surface expression in patients was reflected in cell lines of acute myeloid leukemia. Next, we evaluated the CXCR4-specific peptide Pentixafor by positron emission tomography imaging in mice harboring CXCR4 positive and CXCR4 negative leukemia xenografts, and in 10 patients with active disease. [(68)Ga]Pentixafor-positron emission tomography showed specific measurable disease in murine CXCR4 positive xenografts, but not when CXCR4 was knocked out with CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing. Five of 10 patients showed tracer uptake correlating well with leukemia infiltration assessed by magnetic resonance imaging. The mean maximal standard uptake value was significantly higher in visually CXCR4 positive patients compared to CXCR4 negative patients. In summary, in vivo molecular CXCR4 imaging by means of positron emission tomography is feasible in acute myeloid leukemia. These data provide a framework for future diagnostic and theranostic approaches targeting the CXCR4/CXCL12-defined leukemia-initiating cell niche. PMID:27175029

  6. Targeted positron emission tomography imaging of CXCR4 expression in patients with acute myeloid leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Herhaus, Peter; Habringer, Stefan; Philipp-Abbrederis, Kathrin; Vag, Tibor; Gerngross, Carlos; Schottelius, Margret; Slotta-Huspenina, Julia; Steiger, Katja; Altmann, Torben; Weißer, Tanja; Steidle, Sabine; Schick, Markus; Jacobs, Laura; Slawska, Jolanta; Müller-Thomas, Catharina; Verbeek, Mareike; Subklewe, Marion; Peschel, Christian; Wester, Hans-Jürgen; Schwaiger, Markus; Götze, Katharina; Keller, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    Acute myeloid leukemia originates from leukemia-initiating cells that reside in the protective bone marrow niche. CXCR4/CXCL12 interaction is crucially involved in recruitment and retention of leukemia-initiating cells within this niche. Various drugs targeting this pathway have entered clinical trials. To evaluate CXCR4 imaging in acute myeloid leukemia, we first tested CXCR4 expression in patient-derived primary blasts. Flow cytometry revealed that high blast counts in patients with acute myeloid leukemia correlate with high CXCR4 expression. The wide range of CXCR4 surface expression in patients was reflected in cell lines of acute myeloid leukemia. Next, we evaluated the CXCR4-specific peptide Pentixafor by positron emission tomography imaging in mice harboring CXCR4 positive and CXCR4 negative leukemia xenografts, and in 10 patients with active disease. [68Ga]Pentixafor-positron emission tomography showed specific measurable disease in murine CXCR4 positive xenografts, but not when CXCR4 was knocked out with CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing. Five of 10 patients showed tracer uptake correlating well with leukemia infiltration assessed by magnetic resonance imaging. The mean maximal standard uptake value was significantly higher in visually CXCR4 positive patients compared to CXCR4 negative patients. In summary, in vivo molecular CXCR4 imaging by means of positron emission tomography is feasible in acute myeloid leukemia. These data provide a framework for future diagnostic and theranostic approaches targeting the CXCR4/CXCL12-defined leukemia-initiating cell niche. PMID:27175029

  7. Stable confinement of positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance agents within carbon nanotubes for bimodal imaging

    PubMed Central

    Cisneros, Brandon T; Law, Justin J; Matson, Michael L; Azhdarinia, Ali; Sevick-Muraca, Eva M; Wilson, Lon J

    2014-01-01

    Aims Simultaneous positron emission tomography/MRI has recently been introduced to the clinic and dual positron emission tomography/MRI probes are rare and of growing interest. We have developed a strategy for producing multimodal probes based on a carbon nanotube platform without the use of chelating ligands. Materials & methods Gd3+ and 64Cu2+ ions were loaded into ultra-short single-walled carbon nanotubes by sonication. Normal, tumor-free athymic nude mice were injected intravenously with the probe and imaged over 48 h. Results & conclusion The probe was stable for up to 24 h when challenged with phosphate-buffered saline and mouse serum. Positron emission tomography imaging also confirmed the stability of the probe in vivo for up to 48 h. The probe was quickly cleared from circulation, with enhanced accumulation in the lungs. Stable encapsulation of contrast agents within ultra-short single-walled carbon nanotubes represents a new strategy for the design of advanced imaging probes with variable multimodal imaging capabilities. PMID:24628687

  8. High-resolution PET [Positron Emission Tomography] for Medical Science Studies

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Budinger, T. F.; Derenzo, S. E.; Huesman, R. H.; Jagust, W. J.; Valk, P. E.

    1989-09-01

    One of the unexpected fruits of basic physics research and the computer revolution is the noninvasive imaging power available to today's physician. Technologies that were strictly the province of research scientists only a decade or two ago now serve as the foundations for such standard diagnostic tools as x-ray computer tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), ultrasound, single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), and positron emission tomography (PET). Furthermore, prompted by the needs of both the practicing physician and the clinical researcher, efforts to improve these technologies continue. This booklet endeavors to describe the advantages of achieving high resolution in PET imaging.

  9. High-resolution PET (positron emission tomography) for medical science studies

    SciTech Connect

    Budinger, T.F.; Derenzo, S.E.; Huesman, R.H.; Jagust, W.J.; Valk, P.E. )

    1989-09-01

    One of the unexpected fruits of basic physics research and the computer revolution is the noninvasive imaging power available to today's physician. Technologies that were strictly the province of research scientists only a decade or two ago now serve as the foundations for such standard diagnostic tools as x-ray computer tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), ultrasound, single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), and positron emission tomography (PET). Furthermore, prompted by the needs of both the practicing physician and the clinical researcher, efforts to improve these technologies continue. This booklet endeavors to describe the advantages of achieving high resolution in PET imaging. 6 refs., 21 figs.

  10. Brain energy metabolism and dopaminergic function in Huntington's disease measured in vivo using positron emission tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Leenders, K.L.; Frackowiak, R.S.; Quinn, N.; Marsden, C.D.

    1986-01-01

    A 48-year-old man with typical Huntington's disease was investigated with computed tomography (CT) and positron emission tomography. Regional cerebral blood flow, oxygen extraction, oxygen and glucose utilization, L-Dopa uptake, and dopamine (D2) receptor binding were measured using several positron-labelled tracers. CT showed slight atrophy of the head of caudate but no cortical atrophy, although distinct frontal lobe dysfunction was present on psychometric testing. Oxygen and glucose metabolism and cerebral blood flow were decreased in the striata and to a lesser extent in frontal cortex. Cerebral blood flow was in the low normal range throughout the remainder of the brain. A normal metabolic ratio was found in all regions, since the changes in glucose utilization paralleled those in oxygen consumption. The capacity of the striatum to store dopamine as assessed by L-( YF)-fluorodopa uptake was normal, but dopamine (D2) receptor binding was decreased when compared to normal subjects.

  11. Cosmic ray electrons, positrons and the synchrotron emission of the Galaxy: consistent analysis and implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Bernardo, Giuseppe; Evoli, Carmelo; Gaggero, Daniele; Grasso, Dario; Maccione, Luca

    2013-03-01

    A multichannel analysis of cosmic ray electron and positron spectra and of the diffuse synchrotron emission of the Galaxy is performed by using the DRAGON code. This study is aimed at probing the interstellar electron source spectrum down to E lesssim 1GeV and at constraining several propagation parameters. We find that above 4GeV the e- source spectrum is compatible with a power-law of index ~ 2.5. Below 4GeV instead it must be significantly suppressed and the total lepton spectrum is dominated by secondary particles. The positron spectrum and fraction measured below a few GeV are consistently reproduced only within low reacceleration models. We also constrain the scale-height zt of the cosmic-ray distribution using three independent (and, in two cases, original) arguments, showing that values of zt lesssim 2kpc are excluded. This result may have strong implications for particle dark matter searches.

  12. Enhancement of molecular sensitivity in positron emission tomography with quantum correlation of γ-ray photons

    SciTech Connect

    Sato, K.; Kobayashi, Y.

    2015-05-15

    Enhancement of molecular sensitivity in positron emission tomography (PET) has long been discussed with respect to imaging instrumentation and algorithms for data treatment. Here, the molecular sensitivity in PET is discussed on the basis of 2-dimensional coincident measurements of 511 keV γ ray photons resultant from two-photon annihilation. Introduction of an additional selection window based on the energy sum and difference of the coincidently measured γ ray photons, without any significant instrumental and algorithmic changes, showed an improvement in the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) by an order of magnitude. Improvement of performance characteristics in the PET imaging system was demonstrated by an increase in the noise equivalent count rate (NECR) which takes both the SNR and the detection efficiency into consideration. A further improvement of both the SNR and the NECR is expected for the present system in real clinical and in-vivo environments, where much stronger positron sources are employed.

  13. ROC (Receiver Operating Characteristics) study of maximum likelihood estimator human brain image reconstructions in PET (Positron Emission Tomography) clinical practice

    SciTech Connect

    Llacer, J.; Veklerov, E.; Nolan, D. ); Grafton, S.T.; Mazziotta, J.C.; Hawkins, R.A.; Hoh, C.K.; Hoffman, E.J. )

    1990-10-01

    This paper will report on the progress to date in carrying out Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) studies comparing Maximum Likelihood Estimator (MLE) and Filtered Backprojection (FBP) reconstructions of normal and abnormal human brain PET data in a clinical setting. A previous statistical study of reconstructions of the Hoffman brain phantom with real data indicated that the pixel-to-pixel standard deviation in feasible MLE images is approximately proportional to the square root of the number of counts in a region, as opposed to a standard deviation which is high and largely independent of the number of counts in FBP. A preliminary ROC study carried out with 10 non-medical observers performing a relatively simple detectability task indicates that, for the majority of observers, lower standard deviation translates itself into a statistically significant detectability advantage in MLE reconstructions. The initial results of ongoing tests with four experienced neurologists/nuclear medicine physicians are presented. Normal cases of {sup 18}F -- fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) cerebral metabolism studies and abnormal cases in which a variety of lesions have been introduced into normal data sets have been evaluated. We report on the results of reading the reconstructions of 90 data sets, each corresponding to a single brain slice. It has become apparent that the design of the study based on reading single brain slices is too insensitive and we propose a variation based on reading three consecutive slices at a time, rating only the center slice. 9 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  14. FEASIBILITY OF POSITRON EMISSION TOMOGRAPHY OF DOSE DISTRIBUTION IN PROTON BEAM CANCER THERAPY.

    SciTech Connect

    BEEBE - WANG,J.J.; DILMANIAN,F.A.; PEGGS,S.G.; SCHLYEER,D.J.; VASKA,P.

    2002-06-03

    Proton therapy is a treatment modality of increasing utility in clinical radiation oncology mostly because its dose distribution conforms more tightly to the target volume than x-ray radiation therapy. One important feature of proton therapy is that it produces a small amount of positron-emitting isotopes along the beam-path through the non-elastic nuclear interaction of protons with target nuclei such as {sup 12}C, {sup 14}N, and {sup 16}O. These radioisotopes, mainly {sup 11}C, {sup 13}N and {sup 15}O, allow imaging the therapy dose distribution using positron emission tomography (PET). The resulting PET images provide a powerful tool for quality assurance of the treatment, especially when treating inhomogeneous organs such as the lungs or the head-and-neck, where the calculation of the dose distribution for treatment planning is more difficult. This paper uses Monte Carlo simulations to predict the yield of positron emitters produced by a 250 MeV proton beam, and to simulate the productions of the image in a clinical PET scanner.

  15. Positron emission tomographic imaging of tumors using monoclonal antibodies. Progress report, April 15, 1992--October 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Zalutsky, M.R.

    1992-08-01

    This research project is developing methods for utilizing positron emission tomography (PET) to increase the clinical potential of radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). This report describes the development of methods for labeling MAbs and their fragments with positron-emitting halogen nuclides, fluorine-18 and iodine-124. These nulides were selected because of the widespread availability of F-18 and because of our extensive experience in the development of new protein radiohalogenation methods.

  16. Femoral head viability following resurfacing arthroplasty. A clinical positron emission tomography study.

    PubMed

    Ullmark, Gösta; Sundgren, Kent; Milbrink, Jan; Nilsson, Olle

    2011-01-01

    Hip resurfacing (HR) carries attendant risks of avascular necrosis (AVN) and femoral neck fracture. We used fluoride positron emission tomography (PET) scans to analyze bone metabolism 2-5 years after surgery in 35 cases. Three of the patients had been clinical failures. Using PET scans in the remaining 32 cases, 7 were found to have an area of non-viable bone in the femoral head. This was seen following both posterior and antero lateral approaches. Fluoride PET is a sensitive and useful method for evaluating bone metabolism following HR. PMID:21298626

  17. Clinical correlates of decreased anteroposterior metabolic gradients in positron emission tomography (PET) of schizophrenic patients

    SciTech Connect

    DeLisi, L.E.; Buchsbaum, M.S.; Holcomb, H.H.; Dowling-Zimmerman, S.; Pickar, D.; Boronow, J.; Morihisa, J.M.; van Kammen, D.P.; Carpenter, W.; Kessler, R.

    1985-01-01

    The finding in schizophrenic patients of a reversal of the normal frontal to posterior pattern of brain metabolic activity with positron emission tomography (PET) is of interest, but its relevance to psychopathology is unknown. Using PET, the authors studied 21 patients with chronic schizophrenia and 21 age- and sex-matched control subjects. Although eight of the 21 patients and only one of the control subjects showed a relatively lower anteroposterior metabolic gradient, no clinical correlates of this finding were noted. In addition, cerebral atrophy, as determined by CAT scan, was not associated with this aberrant metabolic pattern.

  18. Distributed Microprocessor Automation Network for Synthesizing Radiotracers Used in Positron Emission Tomography [PET

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Russell, J. A. G.; Alexoff, D. L.; Wolf, A. P.

    1984-09-01

    This presentation describes an evolving distributed microprocessor network for automating the routine production synthesis of radiotracers used in Positron Emission Tomography. We first present a brief overview of the PET method for measuring biological function, and then outline the general procedure for producing a radiotracer. The paper identifies several reasons for our automating the syntheses of these compounds. There is a description of the distributed microprocessor network architecture chosen and the rationale for that choice. Finally, we speculate about how this network may be exploited to extend the power of the PET method from the large university or National Laboratory to the biomedical research and clinical community at large. (DT)

  19. Clinical and research applications of simultaneous positron emission tomography and MRI

    PubMed Central

    Fraioli, F

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Evaluation of the molecular processes responsible for disease pathogenesis and progression represents the new frontier of clinical radiology. Multimodality imaging lies at the cutting edge, combining the power of MRI for tissue characterization, microstructural appraisal and functional assessment together with new positron emission tomography (PET) tracers designed to target specific metabolic processes. The recent commercial availability of an integrated clinical whole-body PET-MRI provides a hybrid platform for exploring and exploiting the synergies of multimodal imaging. First experiences on the clinical and research application of hybrid PET-MRI are emerging. This article reviews the rapidly evolving field and speculates on the potential future direction. PMID:24234585

  20. Flip-flop phenomenon in systemic sclerosis on fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Oksuzoglu, Kevser; Ozen, Gulsen; Inanir, Sabahat; Direskeneli, Rafi Haner

    2015-01-01

    Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a rare autoimmune disease, which may affect multiple organ systems. Fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) can demonstrate the degree and anatomical extent of involvement in the entire body and coexisting malignancies in connective tissue diseases. We present a case of SSc with an increased 18F-FDG uptake in the cutaneous and subcutaneous tissues even higher than the neighboring skeletal muscles ("flip-flop phenomenon," that is, an increased 18F-FDG uptake in the skin but a decreased 18F-FDG uptake in the skeletal muscles). PMID:26430324

  1. Using Positron Emission Tomography to Study Transporter-Mediated Drug–Drug Interactions in Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Wulkersdorfer, B; Wanek, T; Bauer, M; Zeitlinger, M; Müller, M; Langer, O

    2014-01-01

    Drug disposition is highly regulated by membrane transporters. Some transporter-mediated drug–drug interactions (DDIs) may not manifest themselves in changes in systemic exposure but rather in changes in tissue exposure of drugs. To better assess the impact of transporter-mediated DDIs in tissues, positron emission tomography (PET)—a noninvasive imaging method—plays an increasingly important role. In this article, we provide examples of how PET can be used to assess transporter-mediated DDIs in different organs. PMID:24682030

  2. Recurrent angina caused by coronary subclavian steal syndrome confirmed by positron emission tomography.

    PubMed

    Rezende, Paulo Cury; da Costa, Leandro Menezes Alves; Scudeler, Thiago Luis; Nakamura, Debora; Giorgi, Maria Clementina P; Hueb, Whady

    2015-01-01

    Coronary subclavian steal syndrome is a rare cause of recurrent angina after coronary artery bypass grafting. Identification of the myocardial ischemic region is crucial because it guides revascularization interventions to improve symptoms and myocardial ischemia. Positron emission computed tomography (PET) with rubidium might be a helpful tool because it identifies ischemia, localizes more precisely the ischemic region, and evaluates coronary flow reserve. Here, we report a case of recurrence of angina after coronary artery bypass grafting caused by an obstruction in the left subclavian artery and consequently by coronary steal syndrome confirmed by PET. PMID:25952243

  3. Evidence for a dopaminergic deficit in sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis on positron emission scanning

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, Hirohide; Snow, B.J.; Bhatt, M.H.; Peppard, R.; Eisen, A.; Calne, D.B. )

    1993-10-23

    Although rare, the chronic neurodegenerative disorders amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and idiopathic parkinsonism coexist to a greater degree than expected by chance. This suggests that patients with ALS may have subclinical lesions of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathway. To study this hypothesis, the authors did positron emission tomography with 6-fluorodopa on 16 patients with sporadic ALS and without extrapyramidal disease, and compared the results with age-matched controls. They found a significant progressive fall in 6-fluorodopa uptake with time since diagnosis, and reduced dopaminergic function in 3 patients with ALS of long duration. This supports the hypothesis that ALS and IP may share pathogenesis, and, perhaps, etiology.

  4. Positron emission tracking of individual particles in particle-laden rimming flow

    SciTech Connect

    Denissenko, P. Thomas, P. J.; Guyez, E.; Parker, D. J.; Seville, J. P. K.

    2014-05-15

    The motion of a single tracer particle in particle-laden rimming flows is investigated experimentally by means of Positron Emission Particle Tracking (PEPT). Semi-dilute suspensions, with a volume fraction of 8% of heavy particles are considered. The trajectory of the tracer particle is monitored for several thousand cylinder revolutions and related to the optically recorded drift of the large-scale granular segregation bands developing in the cylinder. Results of the data analysis provide first insights into the relation between behaviour of individual particles and the spatiotemporal dynamics displayed by the macroscopic particle-segregation patterns.

  5. Count rate capability considerations and results for a positron emission tomograph

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, S.; Amano, M.; Hirose, Y.; Iida, H.; Miura, S.; Kanno, I.

    1989-02-01

    Count rate capability is an important characteristic for quantitative measurements in positron emission tomography (PET), especially for fast dynamic studies. Insufficient count rate capability reduces effective sensitivity and counting statistics of images at high count rate as well as quantification. Count rate capability is affected by many factors. The factors are categorized as follows: (1) factor of object size to be scanned, (2) factor of geometrical design of PET, (3) factor on electronics of PET. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate system count rate capabilities by changing these factors, and to estimate dominant ones.

  6. Positron Emission Tomography-Scanner at Children`s Hospital of Michigan at Detroit, Michigan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-31

    The Department of Energy has prepared an environmental assessment (EA), DOE/EA-0795, to support the DOE decision to provide a grant of $7,953,600 to be used in support of a proposed Positron Emission Tomography Scanner at Children`s Hospital of Michigan at Detroit, Michigan. Based upon the analysis in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affected the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA). Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement is not required and DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

  7. A multislice positron emission computed tomograph (PETT IV) yielding transverse and longitudinal images.

    PubMed

    Ter-Pogossian, M M; Mullani, N A; Hood, J; Higgins, C S; Currie, C M

    1978-08-01

    We designed, built, and tested a positron emission tomograph (PETT IV) capable of providing seven slices of the human body simultaneously. PETT IV utilizes a moving hexagonal array of 48 scintillation detectors placed around the subject. Each detector consists of a cylindrical activated sodium iodide crystal optically coupled to two photomultiplier tubes. The multislice capability is achieved by comparing the light outputs of the two photomultiplier tubes in each detector. The images are displayed either as transverse or as longitudinal tomographic sections. This system provides high sensitivity and resolution, and permits rapid and accurate three-dimensional imaging of the head and body. PMID:663264

  8. Radiolabeled Phosphonium Salts as Mitochondrial Voltage Sensors for Positron Emission Tomography Myocardial Imaging Agents.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong-Yeon; Min, Jung-Joon

    2016-09-01

    Despite substantial advances in the diagnosis of cardiovascular disease, (18)F-labeled positron emission tomography (PET) radiopharmaceuticals remain necessary to diagnose heart disease because clinical use of current PET tracers is limited by their short half-life. Lipophilic cations such as phosphonium salts penetrate the mitochondrial membranes and accumulate in mitochondria of cardiomyocytes in response to negative inner-transmembrane potentials. Radiolabeled tetraphenylphosphonium cation derivatives have been developed as myocardial imaging agents for PET. In this review, a general overview of these radiotracers, including their radiosynthesis, in vivo characterization, and evaluation is provided and clinical perspectives are discussed. PMID:27540422

  9. [18F]-fluoride positron emission tomography for imaging condylar hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Laverick, S; Bounds, G; Wong, Wai Lup

    2009-04-01

    The management of condylar hyperplasia depends on the diagnosis of continued growth in the affected condyle, and there is currently no satisfactory way of imaging it. [(18)F]-fluoride positron emission tomography (PET) was included in the investigation of 5 patients who were suspected of having condylar hyperplasia, and the results were correlated with the operative findings. The technique correctly identified condylar hyperplasia in all patients. Our results suggest that [(18)F]-fluoride PET is a valid way of assessing patients with condylar hyperplasia. PMID:18926607

  10. Brain dopaminergic system changes in drug addiction: a review of positron emission tomography findings.

    PubMed

    Hou, Haifeng; Wang, Chunyan; Jia, Shaowei; Hu, Shu; Tian, Mei

    2014-10-01

    Dopamine (DA) is considered crucial for the rewarding effects of drugs of abuse, but its role in addiction remains unclear. Positron emission tomography (PET) is the first technology used for in vivo measurement of components of the dopaminergic system in the human brain. In this article, we review the major findings from PET imaging studies on the involvement of DA in drug addiction, including presynaptic DA synthesis, vesicular monoamine transporter 2, the DA transporter, and postsynaptic DA receptors. These results have corroborated the role of DA in addiction and increased the understanding of its underlying mechanisms. PMID:25260796

  11. Economic analysis of clinical positron emission tomography of the heart with rubidium-82

    SciTech Connect

    Gould, K.L.; Goldstein, R.A.; Mullani, N.A.

    1989-05-01

    This report describes a cost analysis for clinical positron emission tomography (PET) of the heart using generator produced rubidium-82 (/sup 82/Rb). Considered sequentially are the clinical problem, current noninvasive radionuclide methods, positron emission tomograph, and the cost of PET per study. Also analyzed are the costs of PET versus thallium imaging in the management of chest pain, for screening asymptomatic men at high risk for coronary artery disease and for evaluating myocardial viability after myocardial infarction or thrombolytic therapy. Noninvasive assessment of coronary artery stenosis and myocardial ischemia/viability in symptomatic or asymptomatic subjects remains a major medical problem because the sensitivity and specificity of thallium imaging are only 70-85% and 50-70%, respectively, in recent studies. Cardiac positron imaging has an accuracy for noninvasive diagnosis of coronary artery disease in symptomatic or asymptomatic patients with a sensitivity and specificity of 95-98%. It can also be used for assessing physiologic stenosis severity, for imaging myocardial infarction and viability, for assessing effects of interventions such as thrombolysis, percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) or bypass surgery on myocardial perfusion, metabolism or coronary flow reserve, for assessing collateral function noninvasively in man, and for diagnosing cardiomyopathy not due to coronary artery disease. Although the cost for cardiac PET with /sup 82/Rb may be modestly higher than for /sup 201/Tl, the greater diagnostic yield of PET results in comparable or lower overall medical management costs than no diagnostic tests/interventions and lower overall costs compared to thallium imaging for evaluating patients with chest pain, asymptomatic high risk males, and patients after acute myocardial infarction/thrombolysis for myocardial viability.

  12. Performance of Positron Emission Tomography and Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography Using Fluorine-18-Fluorodeoxyglucose for the Diagnosis, Staging, and Recurrence Assessment of Bone Sarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Fanxiao; Zhang, Qingyu; Zhu, Dezhi; Li, Zhenfeng; Li, Jianmin; Wang, Boim; Zhou, Dongsheng; Dong, Jinlei

    2015-01-01

    Abstract To investigate the performance of fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) and PET/computed tomography (CT) in the diagnosis, staging, restaging, and recurrence surveillance of bone sarcoma by systematically reviewing and meta-analyzing the published literature. To retrieve eligible studies, we searched the MEDLINE, Embase, and the Cochrane Central library databases using combinations of following Keywords: “positron emission tomography” or “PET,” and “bone tumor” or “bone sarcoma” or “sarcoma.” Bibliographies from relevant articles were also screened manually. Data were extracted and the pooled sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic odds ratio (DOR), on an examination-based or lesion-based level, were calculated to appraise the diagnostic accuracy of 18F-FDG PET and PET/CT. All statistical analyses were performed using Meta-Disc 1.4. Forty-two trials were eligible. The pooled sensitivity and specificity of PET/CT to differentiate primary bone sarcomas from benign lesions were 96% (95% confidence interval [CI], 93–98) and 79% (95% CI, 63–90), respectively. For detecting recurrence, the pooled results on an examination-based level were sensitivity 92% (95% CI, 85–97), specificity 93% (95% CI, 88–96), positive likelihood ratio (PLR) 10.26 (95% CI, 5.99–17.60), and negative likelihood ratio (NLR) 0.11 (95% CI, 0.05–0.22). For detecting distant metastasis, the pooled results on a lesion-based level were sensitivity 90% (95% CI, 86–93), specificity 85% (95% CI, 81–87), PLR 5.16 (95% CI, 2.37–11.25), and NLR 0.15 (95% CI, 0.11–0.20). The accuracies of PET/CT for detecting local recurrence, lung metastasis, and bone metastasis were satisfactory. Pooled outcome estimates of 18F-FDG PET were less complete compared with those of PET/CT. 18F-FDG PET and PET/CT showed a high sensitivity for diagnosing primary bone sarcoma. Moreover, PET/CT demonstrated excellent accuracy for the staging

  13. Brain tumor evaluation using /sup 82/Rb and positron emission tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Yen, C.K.; Yano, Y.; Budinger, T.F.; Friedland, R.P.; Derenzo, S.E.; Huesman, R.H.; O'Brien, H.A.

    1982-06-01

    Positron emission tomography of the brain with 75-sec rubidium-82 obtained from a portable generator (25-day /sup 82/Sr leads to /sup 82/Rb) was used to evaluate the integrity of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) in patients with brain tumors. Rubidium is normally excluded from the central nervous system by the intact BBB, but when the BBB is disrupted by a tumor. Rb enters and pools in the extravascular spaces of the central nervous system. Since Rb is also rapidly cleared from the blood, a high tissue-to-blood ratio of the /sup 82/Rb tracer is achieved in regions of BBB disruption after intravenous injection. With dynamic positron emission tomographic imaging, the extravasation of the Rb tracer can be evaluated independent of the intravascular Rb concentration, and very small changes in the BBB permeability can be detected. The results of our studies in eight patients show that this technique is a promising method for evaluation of the BBB integrity in brain-tumor patients.

  14. Muscarinic cholinergic receptor in the human heart evidenced under physiological conditions by positron emission tomography.

    PubMed Central

    Syrota, A; Comar, D; Paillotin, G; Davy, J M; Aumont, M C; Stulzaft, O; Maziere, B

    1985-01-01

    The muscarinic receptor was studied in vivo in the human heart by a noninvasive method, positron emission tomography (PET). The study showed that the binding sites of 11C-labeled methiodide quinuclidinyl benzilate [( 11C]-MQNB), a muscarinic antagonist, were mainly distributed in the ventricular septum (98 pmol/cm3 of heart) and in the left ventricular wall (89 pmol/cm3), while the atria were not visualized. A few minutes after a bolus intravenous injection, the concentration of [11C]MQNB in blood fell to a negligible level (less than 100th of the concentration measured in the ventricular septum). When injected at high specific radioactivity, the concentration of [11C]MQNB in the septum rapidly increased and then remained constant with time. This result was explained by rebinding of the ligand to receptors. It was the major difference observed between the kinetics of binding of [11C]MQNB to receptor sites after intravenous injection in vivo and that of [3H]MQNB to heart homogenates in vitro. The MQNB concentrations in the ventricular septum of different individuals were found to be highest when the heart rate at the time of injection was slow. This result suggests that the antagonist binding site is related to a low-affinity conformational state of the receptor under predominant vagal stimulation. Thus, positron emission tomography might be the ideal method to study the physiologically active form of the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor in man. Images PMID:3871527

  15. Clinical evaluation of a high-resolution (2. 6-mm) positron emission tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Valk, P.E.; Jagust, W.J.; Derenzo, S.E.; Huesman, R.H.; Geyer, A.B.; Budinger, T.F. )

    1990-09-01

    The intrinsic resolution of the Donner 600-crystal positron emission tomograph (PET 600) is 2.6 mm full width at half maximum (FWHM) in-plane and 6 mm FWHM axially. More than 100 patients with glioma, radiation necrosis, Alzheimer disease, or epilepsy have been studied with this system. Approximately 1 million events are acquired in 15 minutes, starting 1 hour after injection of 10 mCi (370 MBq) of fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose. Normal structures as small as the superior colliculi and the external capsule have been resolved. Improved separation of the cortical ribbon from adjacent white matter has allowed more accurate determination of cortical metabolic rate. In two of 15 patients undergoing evaluation for recurrent glioma, the PET 600 images showed tumor uptake that was not apparent on a lower-resolution study. A high-activity orbiting transmission source with electronic collimation allows accurate, short-duration transmission measurements to be made after radiopharmaceutical administration. The anatomic detail seen on the transmission images can be used for reproducible patient positioning with an accuracy of 1-2 mm perpendicular to the image plane. These findings demonstrate the practicality and clinical effectiveness of high-resolution positron emission tomography.

  16. Pixelated CdTe detectors to overcome intrinsic limitations of crystal based positron emission mammographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Lorenzo, G.; Chmeissani, M.; Uzun, D.; Kolstein, M.; Ozsahin, I.; Mikhaylova, E.; Arce, P.; Cañadas, M.; Ariño, G.; Calderón, Y.

    2013-01-01

    A positron emission mammograph (PEM) is an organ dedicated positron emission tomography (PET) scanner for breast cancer detection. State-of-the-art PEMs employing scintillating crystals as detection medium can provide metabolic images of the breast with significantly higher sensitivity and specificity with respect to standard whole body PET scanners. Over the past few years, crystal PEMs have dramatically increased their importance in the diagnosis and treatment of early stage breast cancer. Nevertheless, designs based on scintillators are characterized by an intrinsic deficiency of the depth of interaction (DOI) information from relatively thick crystals constraining the size of the smallest detectable tumor. This work shows how to overcome such intrinsic limitation by substituting scintillating crystals with pixelated CdTe detectors. The proposed novel design is developed within the Voxel Imaging PET (VIP) Pathfinder project and evaluated via Monte Carlo simulation. The volumetric spatial resolution of the VIP-PEM is expected to be up to 6 times better than standard commercial devices with a point spread function of 1 mm full width at half maximum (FWHM) in all directions. Pixelated CdTe detectors can also provide an energy resolution as low as 1.5% FWHM at 511 keV for a virtually pure signal with negligible contribution from scattered events.

  17. Positron emission tomography for measurement of copper fluxes in live organisms.

    PubMed

    Peng, Fangyu

    2014-05-01

    Copper is an essential nutrient for the physiology of live organisms, but excessive copper can be harmful. Copper radioisotopes are used for measurement of copper fluxes in live organisms using a radioactivity assay of body fluids or whole-body positron emission tomography (PET). Hybrid positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET/CT) is a versatile tool for real-time measurement of copper fluxes combining the high sensitivity and quantification capability of PET and the superior spatial resolution of CT for anatomic localization of radioactive tracer activity. Kinetic analysis of copper metabolism in the liver and extrahepatic tissues of Atp7b(-/-) knockout mice, a mouse model of Wilson's disease, demonstrated the feasibility of measuring copper fluxes in live organisms with PET/CT using copper-64 chloride ((64) CuCl2 ) as a radioactive tracer ((64) CuCl2 -PET/CT). (64) CuCl2 -PET/CT holds potential as a useful tool for the diagnosis of inherited and acquired human copper metabolism disorders and for monitoring the effects of copper-modulating therapy. PMID:24628290

  18. Sensitivity estimation in time-of-flight list-mode positron emission tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Herraiz, J. L.; Sitek, A.

    2015-11-15

    Purpose: An accurate quantification of the images in positron emission tomography (PET) requires knowing the actual sensitivity at each voxel, which represents the probability that a positron emitted in that voxel is finally detected as a coincidence of two gamma rays in a pair of detectors in the PET scanner. This sensitivity depends on the characteristics of the acquisition, as it is affected by the attenuation of the annihilation gamma rays in the body, and possible variations of the sensitivity of the scanner detectors. In this work, the authors propose a new approach to handle time-of-flight (TOF) list-mode PET data, which allows performing either or both, a self-attenuation correction, and self-normalization correction based on emission data only. Methods: The authors derive the theory using a fully Bayesian statistical model of complete data. The authors perform an initial evaluation of algorithms derived from that theory and proposed in this work using numerical 2D list-mode simulations with different TOF resolutions and total number of detected coincidences. Effects of randoms and scatter are not simulated. Results: The authors found that proposed algorithms successfully correct for unknown attenuation and scanner normalization for simulated 2D list-mode TOF-PET data. Conclusions: A new method is presented that can be used for corrections for attenuation and normalization (sensitivity) using TOF list-mode data.

  19. Positron emission tomography: a technology assessment of PET imaging--past, present, and future.

    PubMed

    Frazee, David

    2004-01-01

    Emerging from its origins in the basements of research laboratories, positron emission tomography (PET), has established itself as a premier clinical imaging modality. It just took 50 years to get there. PET and the ever-popular, dual imaging modality combination of positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) have taken hold of the spotlight at the national meetings of the Radiological Society of North America (RSNA) and the Society of Nuclear Medicine (SNM)--and they are not about to give it up. Many major imaging manufacturers--those companies that make up the majority of imaging sales in the US--now offer some type of PET and or PET/CT scanner. The technology of PET imaging continues to improve in image resolution, speed, and acceptance by its skeptical, but continually growing, referral base. With the increasing number of regional cyclotron facilities throughout the US each year, the abundance of mobile PET companies competing for business, and, most important, the number of clinical procedures that now qualify for reimbursement, more facilities now have the ability to implement PETimaging. This article discusses the progress of PET, from its beginnings 50 years ago, to where it is today--and the direction it is headed in the future. PMID:15633509

  20. A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qingxuan; Chen, Endong; Cai, Yefeng; Zhang, Xiangjian; Li, Quan; Zhang, Xiaohua

    2016-01-01

    Abstract 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography—an established modality for evaluating malignancies—exhibits increased uptake under inflammatory conditions. A 21-year-old man came to our hospital with persistent pain in his right lower quadrant of abdomen for more than 1 month, but had no diarrhea, fever, chills, weight loss, or other constitutional symptoms. Colonoscopy analysis showed no organic diseases in his colorectum. Ultrasound results revealed multiple enlarged lymph nodes in the bilateral neck, axilla, and groin. Positron emission tomography analysis was performed and showed intense 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose accumulation in the bilateral neck, supraclavicular, pulmonary hilar, mediastinum, gastric paracardial, and mesenterium lymph node. These findings were considered typical for lymphoma. To confirm the diagnosis, we obtained a diagnostic biopsy in the left supraclavicular lymph node. The diagnosis of tuberculosis was confirmed in the final pathology. This uncommon case underscores the necessity of considering lymph node tuberculosis as a possible differential diagnosis in lymphoma. PMID:26945389

  1. Positron emission tomography in the quantification of cellular and biochemical responses to intrapulmonary particulates

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Hazel A. . E-mail: hazel.jones@imperial.ac.uk; Hamacher, Kurt; Clark, John C.; Schofield, John B.; Krausz, Thomas; Haslett, Christopher; Boobis, Alan R.

    2005-09-01

    Inhaled mineral dusts and fibres can cause chronic pulmonary inflammation, often leading to permanent scarring with loss of function, but the mechanisms involved remain obscure. There are currently no good methods for monitoring inflammatory processes in situ. Positron emission tomography (PET) of suitable intravenously injected radiolabelled markers provides non-invasive and repeatable methods of quantifying biochemical and cellular responses. We have developed animal models of fibrotic and non-fibrotic pulmonary response to particulate instillation and characterised these by histology. Different components of the inflammatory response have been investigated by PET: (1) [{sup 18}F]-labelled fluoro-deoxyglucose, a positron emitting glucose analogue, accumulates in cells in proportion to their glucose uptake; ex vivo microautoradiography indicates that neutrophils are the cells responsible for an increased signal during pulmonary inflammation; a persistently high uptake is associated with lung scarring. (2) The radioligand [{sup 11}C]-R-PK11195 binds to benzodiazepine-like receptors abundant in macrophages; following particulate instillation, the [{sup 11}C]-R-PK11195 PET signal tracks with lung macrophage accumulation and also localises to regions consistent with macrophage clearance; poor macrophage clearance is associated with fibrosis. (3) [{sup 18}F]-fluoroproline is likely a substrate for extracellular matrix production, especially proline-rich collagen; during active scarring, the rate of lung uptake of fluoroproline is elevated. Localisation of radioactivity in the lung has been validated ex vivo by microautoradiography of tritium analogues of each of the positron emitting tracers. The use of PET to monitor different inflammatory processes by repeated scanning of the same animal or individual is helping to identify key events in the fibrotic process.

  2. Prostate-specific antigen-negative prostate cancer recurrence?

    PubMed

    Froehner, Michael; Abolmaali, Nasreddin; Wirth, Manfred P

    2013-02-01

    We describe a patient with bone metastases occurring shortly after radical prostatectomy for organ-confined prostate cancer. The medical history and immunohistochemical findings suggested prostate cancer recurrence to the skeleton. Undetectable serum prostate-specific antigen levels, however, raised doubts about this diagnosis. A whole body (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography scan was obtained and revealed a right-sided breast cancer as the primary site of metastatic spread. PMID:23374851

  3. Gastric large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma with venous tumor thrombus: the value of PET/CT and contrast-enhanced computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Song, Le; Jin, Zhu; Zhang, Weifang; Zhang, Yanyan

    2015-01-01

    Venous involvement is commonly detected microscopically on gastric neuroendocrine carcinomas (NECs), but related imaging studies have been rarely documented. We report a rare case of gastric large cell NEC with tumor thrombi in gastric and splenic veins, elevated serum alpha fetoprotein, and multiple hepatic nodules. In this case, (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography combined with contrast-enhanced computed tomography provided valuable information on tumor staging. PMID:25496669

  4. Primary central nervous system lymphoma with lymphomatosis cerebri in an immunocompetent child: MRI and 18F-FDG PET-CT findings.

    PubMed

    Jain, Tarun K; Sharma, Punit; Suman, Sudhir K C; Faizi, Nauroze A; Bal, Chandrasekhar; Kumar, Rakesh

    2013-01-01

    Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) is extremely rare in immunocompetent children. We present the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG) positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) findings of such a case in a 14-year old immunocompetent boy. In this patient, PCNSL was associated with lymphomatosis cerebri. Familiarity with the findings of this rare condition will improve the diagnostic confidence of the nuclear radiologist and avoid misdiagnosis. PMID:23743243

  5. The Norepinephrine Transporter in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Investigated With Positron Emission Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Rami-Mark, Christina; Savli, Markus; Höflich, Anna; Kranz, Georg S.; Hahn, Andreas; Kutzelnigg, Alexandra; Traub-Weidinger, Tatjana; Mitterhauser, Markus; Wadsak, Wolfgang; Hacker, Marcus; Volkow, Nora D.; Kasper, Siegfried; Lanzenberger, Rupert

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) research has long focused on the dopaminergic system’s contribution to pathogenesis, although the results have been inconclusive. However, a case has been made for the involvement of the noradrenergic system, which modulates cognitive processes, such as arousal, working memory, and response inhibition, all of which are typically affected in ADHD. Furthermore, the norepinephrine transporter (NET) is an important target for frequently prescribed medication in ADHD. Therefore, the NET is suggested to play a critical role in ADHD. OBJECTIVE To explore the differences in NET nondisplaceable binding potential (NET BPND) using positron emission tomography and the highly selective radioligand (S,S)-[18F]FMeNER-D2 [(S,S)-2-(α-(2-[18F]fluoro[2H2]methoxyphenoxy)benzyl)morpholine] between adults with ADHD and healthy volunteers serving as controls. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Twenty-two medication-free patients with ADHD (mean [SD] age, 30.7 [10.4] years; 15 [68%] men) without psychiatric comorbidities and 22 age- and sex-matched healthy controls (30.9 [10.6] years; 15 [68%] men) underwent positron emission tomography once. A linear mixed model was used to compare NET BPND between groups. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES The NET BPND in selected regions of interest relevant for ADHD, including the hippocampus, putamen, pallidum, thalamus, midbrain with pons (comprising a region of interest that includes the locus coeruleus), and cerebellum. In addition, the NET BPND was evaluated in thalamic subnuclei (13 atlas-based regions of interest). RESULTS We found no significant differences in NET availability or regional distribution between patients with ADHD and healthy controls in all investigated brain regions (F1,41 < 0.01; P = .96). Furthermore, we identified no significant association between ADHD symptom severity and regional NET availability. Neither sex nor smoking status influenced NET availability. We determined

  6. Evaluation of blood-brain barrier permeability changes in rhesus monkeys and man using 82Rb and positron emission tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Yen, C.K.; Budinger, T.F.

    1981-12-01

    Dynamic positron tomography of the brain with /sup 82/Rb, obtained from a portable generator (/sup 82/Sr (25 days) - /sup 82/Rb (76 sec)), provides a means of studying blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability in physiological and clinical investigations. The BBB in rhesus monkeys was opened unilaterally be intracarotid infusion of 3 M urea. This osmotic barrier opening allowed entry into the brain of intravenously administered rubidium chloride. The BBB opening was demonstrated noninvasively using /sup 82/Rb and positron emission tomography and corroborated by the accumulation of /sup 86/Rb in tissue samples. Positron emission tomography studies can be repeated every 5 min and indicate that dynamic tomography or static imaging can be used to study BBB permeability changes induced by a wide variety of noxious stimuli. Brain tumors in human subjects are readily detected because of the usual BBB permeability disruption in and around the tumors.

  7. Cosmic ray electrons, positrons and the synchrotron emission of the Galaxy: consistent analysis and implications

    SciTech Connect

    Bernardo, Giuseppe Di; Evoli, Carmelo; Gaggero, Daniele; Grasso, Dario; Maccione, Luca E-mail: carmelo.evoli@desy.de E-mail: dario.grasso@pi.infn.it

    2013-03-01

    A multichannel analysis of cosmic ray electron and positron spectra and of the diffuse synchrotron emission of the Galaxy is performed by using the DRAGON code. This study is aimed at probing the interstellar electron source spectrum down to E ∼< 1GeV and at constraining several propagation parameters. We find that above 4GeV the e{sup −} source spectrum is compatible with a power-law of index ∼ 2.5. Below 4GeV instead it must be significantly suppressed and the total lepton spectrum is dominated by secondary particles. The positron spectrum and fraction measured below a few GeV are consistently reproduced only within low reacceleration models. We also constrain the scale-height z{sub t} of the cosmic-ray distribution using three independent (and, in two cases, original) arguments, showing that values of z{sub t} ∼< 2kpc are excluded. This result may have strong implications for particle dark matter searches.

  8. Measurement of human cerebral blood flow with (15O)butanol and positron emission tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Berridge, M.S.; Adler, L.P.; Nelson, A.D.; Cassidy, E.H.; Muzic, R.F.; Bednarczyk, E.M.; Miraldi, F. )

    1991-09-01

    Although H2(15)O is widely used for CBF measurement by positron tomography, it underestimates CBF, especially at elevated flow rates. Several tracers, including butanol, overcome this problem, but the short half-life of 15O provides advantages that cause water to remain the tracer of choice. The authors report the first use and evaluation of 15O-labeled butanol for CBF measurement. Flow measurements made in a similar fashion with water and butanol at 10-min intervals were compared in normal volunteers under resting and hypercapnic conditions. Regional analysis showed good agreement between the tracers at low flows, and significant underestimation of flow by water relative to butanol in regions of elevated flow. The observed relationship between the tracers and the curve-fitted permeability-surface area product for water (133 ml.100 g-1.min-1) follow the known relationship between water and true flow. These observations indicate that (15O)-butanol provided accurate measurements of human regional CBF under conditions of elevated perfusion. They conclude that butanol is a convenient and accurate method for routine CBF determination by positron emission tomography.

  9. Evaluation of positron emission tomography as a method to visualize subsurface microbial processes

    SciTech Connect

    Kinsella K.; Schlyer D.; Kinsella, K.; Schlyer, D.J.; Fowler, J.S.; Martinez, R.J.; Sobecky, P.A.

    2012-01-18

    Positron emission tomography (PET) provides spatiotemporal monitoring in a nondestructive manner and has higher sensitivity and resolution relative to other tomographic methods. Therefore, this technology was evaluated for its application to monitor in situ subsurface bacterial activity. To date, however, it has not been used to monitor or image soil microbial processes. In this study, PET imaging was applied as a 'proof-of-principle' method to assess the feasibility of visualizing a radiotracer labeled subsurface bacterial strain (Rahnella sp. Y9602), previously isolated from uranium contaminated soils and shown to promote uranium phosphate precipitation. Soil columns packed with acid-purified simulated mineral soils were seeded with 2-deoxy-2-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-d-glucose ({sup 18}FDG) labeled Rahnella sp. Y9602. The applicability of [{sup 18}F]fluoride ion as a tracer for measuring hydraulic conductivity and {sup 18}FDG as a tracer to identify subsurface metabolically active bacteria was successful in our soil column studies. Our findings indicate that positron-emitting isotopes can be utilized for studies aimed at elucidating subsurface microbiology and geochemical processes important in contaminant remediation.

  10. Positron computed tomography studies of cerebral metabolic responses to complex motor tasks

    SciTech Connect

    Phelps, M.E.; Mazziotta, J.C.

    1984-01-01

    Human motor system organization was explored in 8 right-handed male subjects using /sup 18/F-fluorodeoxyglucose and positron computed tomography to measure cerebral glucose metabolism. Five subjects had triple studies (eyes closed) including: control (hold pen in right hand without moving), normal size writing (subject repeatedly writes name) and large (10-15 X normal) name writing. In these studies normal and large size writing had a similar distribution of metabolic responses when compared to control studies. Activations (percent change from control) were in the range of 12-20% and occurred in the striatum bilaterally > contralateral Rolandic cortex > contralateral thalamus. No significant activations were observed in the ipsilateral thalamus, Rolandic cortex or cerebellum (supplementary motor cortex was not examined). The magnitude of the metabolic response in the striatum was greater with the large versus normal sized writing. This differential response may be due to an increased number and topographic distribution of neurons responding with the same average activity between tasks or an increase in the functional activity of the same neuronal population between the two tasks (present spatial resolution inadequate to differentiate). When subjects (N=3) performed novel sequential finger movements, the maximal metabolic response was in the contralateral Rolandic cortex > striatum. Such studies provide a means of exploring human motor system organization, motor learning and provide a basis for examining patients with motor system disorders.

  11. Optical imaging of reporter gene expression using a positron-emission-tomography probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hongguang; Ren, Gang; Liu, Shuanglong; Zhang, Xiaofen; Chen, Luxi; Han, Peizhen; Cheng, Zhen

    2010-11-01

    Reporter gene/reporter probe technology is one of the most important techniques in molecular imaging. Lately, many reporter gene/reporter probe systems have been coupled to different imaging modalities such as positron emission tomography (PET) and optical imaging (OI). It has been recently found that OI techniques could be used to monitor radioactive tracers in vitro and in living subjects. In this study, we further demonstrate that a reporter gene/nuclear reporter probe system [herpes simplex virus type-1 thymidine kinase (HSV1-tk) and 9-(4-18F-fluoro-3-[hydroxymethyl] butyl) guanine ([18F]FHBG)] could be successfully imaged by OI in vitro and in vivo. OI with radioactive reporter probes will facilitate and broaden the applications of reporter gene/reporter probe techniques in medical research.

  12. Prediction of survival in glioma patients by means of positron emission tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Patronas, N.J.; Di Chiro, G.; Kufta, C.; Bairamian, D.; Kornblith, P.L.; Simon, R.; Larson, S.M.

    1985-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether positron emission tomography (PET) with fluorine-18 (18F)-2-deoxyglucose (FDG) can be used as a prognostic test in patients with high-grade cerebral gliomas, regardless of the treatment given. Forty-five patients with astrocytoma Grade III or IV were included in this analysis. The mean survival time of patients with tumors exhibiting high glucose utilization as determined by PET-FDG was 5 months, whereas patients with gliomas showing lower glucose utilization had a mean survival period of 19 months. It is postulated that PET-FDG scans reflect the biological behavior of high-grade astrocytomas and may be used to predict the survival time of patients harboring such neoplasms.

  13. Myelin imaging with C-11 labeled diphenylmethanol and positron emission tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Herscovitch, P.; Dischino, D.D.; Kilbourn, M.R.; Welch, M.J.; Raichle, M.E.

    1985-05-01

    The authors have recently studied several C-11-labeled radiopharmaceuticals for their suitability as myelin imaging agents with positron emission tomography (PET). C-11 diphenylmethanol (DPM) was selected on the basis of its in vivo metabolic stability and high extraction and lipophilicity. PET studies were performed in three normal subjects and in one patient with multiple sclerosis (MS). Myelin distribution was imaged following the bolus intravenous administration of 25-30 mCi of C-11 DPM. Sequential scans were obtained after radiotracer administration to measure the DPM distribution as a function of time. In addition, regional cerebral blood flow was measured after the bolus intravenous injection of 0-15 water. A tomographic slice through the centrum semiovale was used to obtain regional data for gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM).

  14. Use of positron emission tomography (PET) for the diagnosis of large-vessel vasculitis.

    PubMed

    Loricera, J; Blanco, R; Hernández, J L; Martínez-Rodríguez, I; Carril, J M; Lavado, C; Jiménez, M; González-Vela, C; González-Gay, M Á

    2015-01-01

    The term vasculitis encompasses a heterogeneous group of diseases that share the presence of inflammatory infiltrates in the vascular wall. The diagnosis of large-vessel vasculitis is often a challenge because the presenting clinical features are nonspecific in many cases and they are often shared by different types of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases including other systemic vasculitides. Moreover, the pathogenesis of large-vessel vasculitis is not fully understood. Nevertheless, the advent of new imaging techniques has constituted a major breakthrough to establish an early diagnosis and a promising tool to monitor the follow-up of patients with largevessel vasculitis. This is the case of the molecular imaging with the combination of positron emission tomography with computed tomography (PET/CT) using different radiotracers, especially the (18)F-fluordeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG). In this review we have focused on the contribution of (18)F-FDG PET in the diagnosis of large-vessel vasculitis. PMID:26272121

  15. An 8×8 Row-Column Summing Readout Electronics for Preclinical Positron Emission Tomography Scanners.

    PubMed

    Shih, Y C; Sun, F W; Macdonald, L R; Otis, B P; Miyaoka, R S; McDougald, W; Lewellen, T K

    2009-10-24

    This work presents a row/column summing readout electronics for an 8×8 silicon photomultiplier array. The summation circuit greatly reduces the number of electronic channels, which is desirable for pursuing higher resolution positron emission tomography scanners. By using a degenerated common source topology in the summation circuit, more fan-in is possible and therefore a greater reduction in the number of electronic channels can be achieved. The timing signal is retrieved from a common anode, which allows the use of a single fast-sampling analog to digital converter (ADC) for the timing channel and slower, lower power ADCs for the 64 spatial channels. Preliminary results of one row summation of the 8×8 readout electronics exhibited FWHM energy resolution of 17.8% and 18.3% with and without multiplexing, respectively. The measured timing resolution is 2.9ns FWHM. PMID:20729983

  16. A case of sarcoidosis diagnosed by positron emission tomography/computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Aksoy, Sabire Yilmaz; Özdemir, Elif; Sentürk, Aysegül; Türkölmez, Seyda

    2016-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is a multisystem granulomatous disorder of unknown cause which may affect any organ or system but primarily involve the lungs and the lymphatic system. Extrapulmonary sarcoidosis represents approximately 30-50% of patients. We report the case of a 51-year-old female who presented with increasing complaints of a cough, weakness, weight loss, and chest pain and who was found to have a suspicious lesion on thorax computed tomography(CT). Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/CT performed for diagnostic purposes demonstrated increased FDG accumulation at the bilateral enlarged parotid and lacrimal gland and in the reticulonodular infiltration area located in the left lung as well as multiple lymphadenopathies with increased FDG accumulation. There were also hepatosplenomegaly and splenic uptake. Skin biopsy showed noncaseating granulomas, and the patient was diagnosed as stage 2 sarcoidosis. PMID:27385890

  17. Nicotine Blocks Brain Estrogen Synthase (Aromatase): In Vivo Positron Emission Tomography Studies in Female Baboons

    SciTech Connect

    Biegon, A.; Biegon, A.; Kim, S.-W.; Logan, J.; Hooker, J.M.; Muench, L.; Fowler, J.S.

    2010-01-12

    Cigarette smoking and nicotine have complex effects on human physiology and behavior, including some effects similar to those elicited by inhibition of aromatase, the last enzyme in estrogen biosynthesis. We report the first in vivo primate study to determine whether there is a direct effect of nicotine administration on brain aromatase. Brain aromatase availability was examined with positron emission tomography and the selective aromatase inhibitor [{sup 11}C]vorozole in six baboons before and after exposure to IV nicotine at .015 and .03 mg/kg. Nicotine administration produced significant, dose-dependent reductions in [{sup 11}C]vorozole binding. The amygdala and preoptic area showed the largest reductions. Plasma levels of nicotine and its major metabolite cotinine were similar to those found in cigarette smokers. Nicotine interacts in vivo with primate brain aromatase in regions involved in mood, aggression, and sexual behavior.

  18. Precision control of eluted activity from a Sr/Rb generator for cardiac positron emission tomography.

    PubMed

    Klein, R; Adler, A; Beanlands, R S; deKemp, R A

    2004-01-01

    A rubidium-82 (/sup 82/Rb) elution system is described for use with clinical positron emission tomography. The system is self-calibrating with 1.4% repeatability, independent of generator activity and elution flow rate. Saline flow is switched between a /sup 82/Sr//sup 82/Rb generator and a bypass line to achieve a constant activity elution of /sup 82/Rb. In the present study, pulse width modulation (PWM) of a solenoid valve is compared to simple threshold control as a means to simulate a proportional valve. A predictive-corrective control algorithm is developed which produces a constant activity elution within the constraints of long feedback delay and short elution time. Accurate constant-activity elutions of 10-70% of the total generator activity were demonstrated using the threshold comparison control. The adaptive-corrective control of the PWM valve provided a substantial improvement in precision of the steady-state output. PMID:17271953

  19. Regional brain glucose metabolism in chronic schizophrenia. A positron emission transaxial tomographic study

    SciTech Connect

    Farkas, T.; Wolf, A.P.; Jaeger, J.; Brodie, J.D.; Christman, D.R.; Fowler, J.S.

    1984-03-01

    Thirteen diagnosed schizophrenics and 11 normal controls were studied with a method using the PETT III positron emission tomograph (PET) and fluorodeoxyglucose labeled with fluorine 18. Each subject also had a computed tomographic (CT) scan. For each subject, two brain levels, one through the basal ganglia and one through the semioval center, were analyzed for the mean regional metabolic glucose rate. Specifically, relationships between frontal and posterior regions were evaluated. The CT scans of matching levels were superimposed on the functional PET images to provide anatomic criteria for region of interest selection. While no whole-slice metabolic differences were apparent between groups, schizophrenics had significantly lower activity in the frontal lobes, relative to posterior regions. The medicated and drug-free groups did not differ from one another in these regards. Trait v state dependency of the phenomenon was analyzed, and several technological limitations were considered.

  20. Receptor-specific positron emission tomography radiopharmaceuticals: /sup 75/Br-labeled butyrophenone neuroleptics

    SciTech Connect

    Moerlein, S.M.; Stoecklin, G.; Weinhard, K.; Pawlik, G.; Heiss, W.D.

    1985-11-01

    Cerebral dopaminergic D/sub 2/ receptors are involved in several common disease states, such as schizophrenia, Parkinson's disease, and Huntington's chorea. The use of radiolabeled D/sub 2/ receptor-binding ligands with positron emission tomography (PET) to noninvasively quantitate D/sub 2/ receptor densities thus has potential application in medicine. Butyrophenone neuroleptics have a high in vitro and in vivo binding affinity for cerebral D/sub 2/ receptors, and due to the useful chemical and nuclear decay properties of /sup 74/Br (76% ..beta../sup +/, half-life = 1.6 h), the authors have evaluated radiobrominated bromospiperone (BSP), brombenperidol (BBP), and bromperidol (BP) as radiopharmaceuticals for use with PET.

  1. Performance figures and images from the therascan 3128 positron emission tomograph

    SciTech Connect

    Cooke, B.E.; Alarie, K.; Evans, A.C.; Fanthome, E.O.; Sendyk, A.M.

    1984-02-01

    The THERASCAN 3128 system has been designed to study cerebral function using positron emission tomography (PET) methods. Two rings of bismuth germanate (BGO) detectors define three image planes per scan. For the low resolution mode image resolution is 19 mm x 19 mm x 20 mm (axial) and the direct slice sensitivity for true coincidences is 88 kcps/(..mu..Ci.cm/sup -3/). In the high resolution mode image resolution is 12 mm x 12 mm x 12 mm with a sensitivity of 33 kcps/(..mu..Ci.cm/sup -3/). Deconvolution methods used to remove scattered events have been verified by repeated imaging of a phantom designed to provide a wide variation in contrast with time. Clinical images from /sup 18/F-2-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) and /sup 15/O studies are presented as practical examples of system performance and to illustrate the useful information obtained from coronal/sagittal sectioning of closely spaced transverse images.

  2. Effect of gender on glucose utilization rates in healthy humans: A positron emission tomography study

    SciTech Connect

    Miura, S.A.; Schapiro, M.B.; Grady, C.L.; Kumar, A.; Salerno, J.A.; Kozachuk, W.E.; Wagner, E.; Rapoport, S.I.; Horwitz, B. )

    1990-12-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) was used with 18fluorodeoxyglucose to see if gender differences in resting cerebral glucose utilization could be detected. Thirty-two healthy subjects (15 women and 17 men; age range: 21-38 yr) were examined using a high-resolution PET scanner to determine the regional cerebral metabolic rate for glucose (CMRglc) in 65 gray matter regions of interest. Whole brain CMRglc did not differ significantly between the two genders, nor did any of the regional CMRglc values. Only 1 of 65 ratios of regional-to-whole brain CMRglc differed significantly between men and women, which is consistent with chance. These results indicate that there are no differences in resting regional cerebral glucose utilization between young men and women.

  3. Caffeine and human cerebral blood flow: A positron emission tomography study

    SciTech Connect

    Cameron, O.G.; Modell, J.G.; Hariharan, M. )

    1990-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) was used to quantify the effect of caffeine on whole brain and regional cerebral blood flow (CBF) in humans. A mean dose of 250 mg of caffeine produced approximately a 30% decrease in whole brain CBF; regional differences in caffeine effect were not observed. Pre-caffeine CBF strongly influenced the magnitude of the caffeine-induced decrease. Caffeine decreased p{sub a}CO{sub 2} and increased systolic blood pressure significantly; the change in p{sub a}CO{sub 2} did not account for the change in CBF. Smaller increases in diastolic blood pressure, heart rate, plasma epinephrine and norepinephrine, and subjectively reported anxiety were also observed.

  4. Photo essay. MRI and positron emission tomography findings in Heidenhain variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Sashank; Lee, Edward B; Woo, John H; Alavi, Abass; Galetta, Steven L

    2010-09-01

    The typical presentation of Heidenhain variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) is a rapidly progressive visual loss in the setting of a relatively normal ophthalmologic examination. At presentation, patients with this uniformly fatal illness frequently demonstrate only minor cortical abnormalities on MRI. Here, we document the clinical presentation and imaging results of a patient with Heidenhain variant CJD in whom abnormalities on positron emission tomographic imaging were more evident than changes on MRI. These changes were present in striate cortex and visual association areas, providing clinical-anatomical correlation with our patient's visual deficits. Nuclear imaging provides a considerably more sensitive measure of neural dysfunction early in the course of this disease. PMID:20581692

  5. Clinical use of amyloid-positron emission tomography neuroimaging: Practical and bioethical considerations.

    PubMed

    Witte, Michael M; Foster, Norman L; Fleisher, Adam S; Williams, Monique M; Quaid, Kimberly; Wasserman, Michael; Hunt, Gail; Roberts, J Scott; Rabinovici, Gil D; Levenson, James L; Hake, Ann Marie; Hunter, Craig A; Van Campen, Luann E; Pontecorvo, Michael J; Hochstetler, Helen M; Tabas, Linda B; Trzepacz, Paula T

    2015-09-01

    Until recently, estimation of β-amyloid plaque density as a key element for identifying Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology as the cause of cognitive impairment was only possible at autopsy. Now with amyloid-positron emission tomography (amyloid-PET) neuroimaging, this AD hallmark can be detected antemortem. Practitioners and patients need to better understand potential diagnostic benefits and limitations of amyloid-PET and the complex practical, ethical, and social implications surrounding this new technology. To complement the practical considerations, Eli Lilly and Company sponsored a Bioethics Advisory Board to discuss ethical issues that might arise from clinical use of amyloid-PET neuroimaging with patients being evaluated for causes of cognitive decline. To best address the multifaceted issues associated with amyloid-PET neuroimaging, we recommend this technology be used only by experienced imaging and treating physicians in appropriately selected patients and only in the context of a comprehensive clinical evaluation with adequate explanations before and after the scan. PMID:27239516

  6. Combined positron emission tomography and computed tomography to visualize and quantify fluid flow in sedimentary rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernø, M. A.; Gauteplass, J.; Hauge, L. P.; Abell, G. E.; Adamsen, T. C. H.; Graue, A.

    2015-09-01

    Here we show for the first time the combined positron emission tomography (PET) and computed tomography (CT) imaging of flow processes within porous rocks to quantify the development in local fluid saturations. The coupling between local rock structure and displacement fronts is demonstrated in exploratory experiments using this novel approach. We also compare quantification of 3-D temporal and spatial water saturations in two similar CO2 storage tests in sandstone imaged separately with PET and CT. The applicability of each visualization technique is evaluated for a range of displacement processes, and the favorable implementation of combining PET/CT for laboratory core analysis is discussed. We learn that the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is over an order of magnitude higher for PET compared with CT for the studied processes.

  7. The prognostic value of interim positron emission tomography scan in patients with classical Hodgkin lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Oki, Yasuhiro; Chuang, Hubert; Chasen, Beth; Jessop, Aaron; Pan, Tinsu; Fanale, Michelle; Dabaja, Bouthaina; Fowler, Nathan; Romaguera, Jorge; Fayad, Luis; Hagemeister, Fredrick; Rodriguez, Maria Alma; Neelapu, Sattva; Samaniego, Felipe; Kwak, Larry; Younes, Anas

    2014-04-01

    The prognostic value of interim positron emission tomography (PET) was evaluated after 2 cycles of doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastin and dacarbazine in classical Hodgkin lymphoma patients (n = 229), based on Deauville criteria. In early stage non-bulky disease, bulky stage II disease, advanced stage low International Prognostic Score (IPS ≤2) and advanced stage (IPS ≥3), 3-year progression-free survival rates in PET2-negative vs. PET2-positive groups were 95·9% vs. 76·9% (P < 0·0018), 83·3% vs. 20·0% (P = 0·017), 77·0% vs. 30·0% (P < 0·001) and 71·0% vs. 44·4%(P = 0·155), respectively. The outcome after positive PET2 was better than previously reported. The results from non-randomized studies of PET2-guided therapy would be valuable with careful interpretation. PMID:24386943

  8. Sparse representation and dictionary learning penalized image reconstruction for positron emission tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shuhang; Liu, Huafeng; Shi, Pengcheng; Chen, Yunmei

    2015-01-01

    Accurate and robust reconstruction of the radioactivity concentration is of great importance in positron emission tomography (PET) imaging. Given the Poisson nature of photo-counting measurements, we present a reconstruction framework that integrates sparsity penalty on a dictionary into a maximum likelihood estimator. Patch-sparsity on a dictionary provides the regularization for our effort, and iterative procedures are used to solve the maximum likelihood function formulated on Poisson statistics. Specifically, in our formulation, a dictionary could be trained on CT images, to provide intrinsic anatomical structures for the reconstructed images, or adaptively learned from the noisy measurements of PET. Accuracy of the strategy with very promising application results from Monte-Carlo simulations, and real data are demonstrated.

  9. 18F-FDG positron emission tomography in oncology: main indications.

    PubMed

    Vercher-Conejero, J L; Gámez Cenzano, C

    2016-01-01

    The development of molecular and functional imaging with new imaging techniques such as computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and positron emission tomography (PET) among others, has greatly improved the detection of tumors, tumor staging, and the detection of possible recurrences. Furthermore, the combination of these different imaging modalities and the continual development of radiotracers for PET have advanced our understanding and knowledge of the different pathophysiological processes in cancer, thereby helping to make treatment more efficacious, improving patients' quality of life, and increasing survival. PET is one of the imaging techniques that has attracted the most interest in recent years for its diagnostic capabilities. Its ability to anatomically locate pathologic foci of metabolic activity has revolutionized the detection and staging of many tumors, exponentially broadening its potential indications not only in oncology but also in other fields such as cardiology, neurology, and inflammatory and infectious diseases. PMID:27184919

  10. Time sequence image analysis of positron emission tomography using wavelet transformation.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Chih-Yu; Lai, Yeong-Lin; Chen, Chih-Cheng; Lee, Yu-Tzu; Tseng, Kuo-Kun; Lai, Yeong-Kang; Zheng, Chun-Yi; Jheng, Huai-Cian

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the time sequence image analysis technique of positron emission tomography (PET) using a wavelet transformation method. The abdominal cavity of a person taking [18F]Fluoro-2-deoxy-2-D-glucose (18F-FDG) was scanned by the dynamic PET. The organ selection with dynamic PET images was conducted by the wavelet transformation to implement automatic selection of the region of interest (ROI). The image segmentation was carried out by the processes of sampling, wavelet transformation, erosion, dilation, and superimposition. Wavelet constructed image (WCI) contours were created by sampling 512 images from 1960 consecutive dynamic sequence PET images. The image segmentation technology developed can help doctors automatically select ROI, accurately identify lesion locations of organs, and thus effectively reduce human operation time and errors. PMID:26578275

  11. Positron emission tomography imaging as a key enabling technology in drug development.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, T J

    2007-01-01

    The use of positron emission tomography (PET) in drug development has become more common in the pharmaceutical industry in recent years. One of the biggest challenges to gaining acceptance of this technology is for project teams to understand when to use PET. This chapter reviews the usage of PET in drug development in the context of target, mechanism and efficacy biomarkers. Examples are drawn from a number of therapeutic areas, but we also show that the relative penetration of this technology beyond CNS and oncology applications has been relatively small. However, with the increasing availability of PET and development of novel radiotracers it is expected that the utilization will be much broader in future years, with the additional expectation that the use of PET as an efficacy biomarker will also become more evident. PMID:17172162

  12. Unusual case of infantile fibrosarcoma evaluated on F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Bedmutha, Akshay; Singh, Natasha; Shivdasani, Divya; Gupta, Nitin

    2016-01-01

    Infantile fibrosarcoma (IFS) is a rare soft-tissue sarcoma originating from extremities and occasionally from axial soft tissue. The prognosis is good with favorable long-term survival. It is rarely metastasizing tumor, the chances being lesser with IFS originating from extremities. Use of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) as a treatment regime further reduces the chances of local relapse and distant metastasis. The organs commonly affected in metastatic IFS are lungs and lymph nodes. We report an unusual case of an IFS originating from extremity, which received NACT, yet presented with an early metastatic disease involving soft tissues and sparing lungs and lymph nodes, as demonstrated on fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography. PMID:27385891

  13. Unusual case of infantile fibrosarcoma evaluated on F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography

    PubMed Central

    Bedmutha, Akshay; Singh, Natasha; Shivdasani, Divya; Gupta, Nitin

    2016-01-01

    Infantile fibrosarcoma (IFS) is a rare soft-tissue sarcoma originating from extremities and occasionally from axial soft tissue. The prognosis is good with favorable long-term survival. It is rarely metastasizing tumor, the chances being lesser with IFS originating from extremities. Use of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) as a treatment regime further reduces the chances of local relapse and distant metastasis. The organs commonly affected in metastatic IFS are lungs and lymph nodes. We report an unusual case of an IFS originating from extremity, which received NACT, yet presented with an early metastatic disease involving soft tissues and sparing lungs and lymph nodes, as demonstrated on fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography. PMID:27385891

  14. Regional cerebral glucose metabolic rate in human sleep assessed by positron emission tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Buchsbaum, M.S.; Wu, J.; Hazlett, E.; Sicotte, N.; Bunney, W.E. Jr. ); Gillin, J.C. )

    1989-01-01

    The cerebral metabolic rate of glucose was measured during nighttime sleep in 36 normal volunteers using positron emission tomography and fluorine-18-labeled 2-deoxyglucose (FDG). In comparison to waking controls, subjects given FDG during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep showed about a 23% reduction in metabolic rate across the entire brain. This decrease was greater for the frontal than temporal or occipital lobes, and greater for basal ganglia and thalamus than cortex. Subjects in rapid eye movement (REM) sleep tended to have higher cortical metabolic rates than walking subjects. The cingulate gyrus was the only cortical structure to show a significant increase in glucose metabolic rate in REM sleep in comparison to waking. The basal ganglia were relatively more active on the right in REM sleep and symmetrical in NREM sleep.

  15. A case of sarcoidosis diagnosed by positron emission tomography/computed tomography

    PubMed Central

    Aksoy, Sabire Yilmaz; Özdemir, Elif; Sentürk, Aysegül; Türkölmez, Seyda

    2016-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is a multisystem granulomatous disorder of unknown cause which may affect any organ or system but primarily involve the lungs and the lymphatic system. Extrapulmonary sarcoidosis represents approximately 30-50% of patients. We report the case of a 51-year-old female who presented with increasing complaints of a cough, weakness, weight loss, and chest pain and who was found to have a suspicious lesion on thorax computed tomography(CT). Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/CT performed for diagnostic purposes demonstrated increased FDG accumulation at the bilateral enlarged parotid and lacrimal gland and in the reticulonodular infiltration area located in the left lung as well as multiple lymphadenopathies with increased FDG accumulation. There were also hepatosplenomegaly and splenic uptake. Skin biopsy showed noncaseating granulomas, and the patient was diagnosed as stage 2 sarcoidosis. PMID:27385890

  16. Kinetic filtering of [18F]Fluorothymidine in positron emission tomography studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gray, Katherine R.; Contractor, Kaiyumars B.; Kenny, Laura M.; Al-Nahhas, Adil; Shousha, Sami; Stebbing, Justin; Wasan, Harpreet S.; Coombes, R. Charles; Aboagye, Eric O.; Turkheimer, Federico E.; Rosso, Lula

    2010-02-01

    [18F]Fluorothymidine (FLT) is a cell proliferation marker that undergoes predominantly hepatic metabolism and therefore shows a high level of accumulation in the liver, as well as in rapidly proliferating tumours. Furthermore, the tracer's uptake is substantial in other organs including the heart. We present a nonlinear kinetic filtering technique which enhances the visualization of tumours imaged with FLT positron emission tomography (FLT-PET). A classification algorithm to isolate cancerous tissue from healthy organs was developed and validated using 29 scan data from patients with locally advanced or metastatic breast cancer. A large reduction in signal from the liver and heart of 80% was observed following application of the kinetic filter, whilst the majority of signal from both primary tumours and metastases was retained. A scan acquisition time of 60 min has been shown to be sufficient to obtain the necessary kinetic data. The algorithm extends utility of FLT-PET imaging in oncology research.

  17. Simultaneous fluorescence and positron emission tomography for in vivo imaging of small animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Bin; Liu, Shuangquan; Liu, Fei; Zhang, Xiaochun; Xu, Yanyan; Luo, Jianwen; Shan, Baoci; Bai, Jing

    2011-12-01

    Simultaneous positron emission tomography (PET) and fluorescence tomography (FT) for in vivo imaging of small animals is proposed by a dual-modality system. This system combines a charge-coupled device-based near-infrared fluorescence imaging with a planar detector pair-based PET. With [18F]-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose radioactive tracer and the protease activated fluorescence probe, on the one hand, the simultaneous metabolic activity and protease activity in tumor region are revealed by the PET and FT, respectively. On the other hand, the protease activity both on the surface layer and the deep tissue of the tumor is provided by the fluorescence reflection imaging and FT, respectively.

  18. Hemiballismus: Study of a case using positron emission tomography with 18fluoro-2-deoxyglucose

    SciTech Connect

    Dubinsky, R.M.; Greenberg, M.; Di Chiro, G.; Baker, M.; Hallett, M. )

    1989-01-01

    A 64-year-old man had right-sided persistent hemiballismus. Cerebral computed tomography (CT) and 0.5-T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed no abnormalities, but 1.5-T MRI showed decreased signal intensity of the putamina, greater on the left than on the right. The subthalamic area was normal on CT and MRI. Positron emission tomography with 18fluoro2-deoxyglucose showed marked hypometabolism of the left putamen (60% of the right) and hypermetabolism of the left parietal lobe (138% of the right). The decreased metabolism of the left putamen may indicate a reduction in neuronal firing. The pathophysiology of the hemiballismus in this case may be loss of tonic inhibition of the lateral globus pallidus from the putamen, leading in turn to greater inhibition of the subthalamic nucleus, less excitation of the medial globus pallidus, and less inhibition of the thalamus and motor cortex, and thus allowing expression of the ballistic movements.

  19. Patterns of brain activity in normals and schizophrenics with positron emission tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Volkow, N.D.; Wolf, A.P.; Gomez-Mont, F.; Brodie, J.D.; Canero, R.; Van Gelder, P.; Russell, J.A.G.

    1985-05-01

    The authors investigated the functional interaction among brain areas under baseline and upon activation by a visual task to compare the response of normal subjects from the ones of chronic schizophrenics. Cerebral metabolic images were obtained on twelve healthy volunteers an eighteen schizophrenics with positron emission tomography and 11-C-Deoxyglucose. Correlation coefficients among the relative metabolic values (region of interest divided by the average of whole brain gray matter) of 11 brain regions; frontal, parietal, temporal and occipital left and right lobes, left and right basal ganglia and thalamus were computed for the baseline and for the task. Under baseline, normals showed more functional correlations than schizophrenics. Both groups showed a thalamo-occipital (positive) and thalamo-frontal (negative) interaction. The highest correlations among homologous brain areas were the frontal, occipital and basal ganglia.

  20. Design and evaluation of HEADTOME-IV, a whole-body positron emission tomograph

    SciTech Connect

    Iida, H.; Miura, S.; Kanno, I.; Murakami, M.; Takahashi, K.; Uemura, K.

    1989-02-01

    A whole body positron emission tomograph HEADTOME-IV has been developed, and its physical performances were investigated. The in-plane spatial resolution of 4.5 mm was realized with stationary-sampling at the center of the field-of-view. The axial slice thickness was 9.5 and 9.0-mm for direct and cross planes, respectively. By moving the gantry framework axially, transaxial images of 14 or 21 slices are obtained quasi-simultaneously. The realtime-operation large-scale cache memory system was effective to realize realtime corrections for deadtime and radionuclide decay, and realtime weighted integration for the purpose of a rapid calculation of rate-constant images.

  1. An Application of Micro-channel Plate Photomultiplier Tube to Positron Emission Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Kim, H.; Chen, C.-T.; Frisch, H.; Tang, F.; Kao, C.-M.

    2012-01-01

    We are developing a Time-of-Flight Positron Emission Tomography detector using flat panel micro-channel plate photomultiplier tubes (MCP PMT). The high-speed waveform sampling data acquisition is adopted to exploit the fast time response of MCP PMT efficiently by using transmission-line readout scheme. To demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed detector, prototype detector modules were built using Photonis XP85022 MCP PMT, transmission-line board (TL), and high-speed waveform sampling electronics equipped with DRS4 chips. The MCP/TL module was coupled to single LYSO crystal, and experimental tests have been conducted in a coincidence setup to measure the responses to 511 keV annihilation photon. The details of the prototype module, experimental setup, and the preliminary results are presented and discussed. PMID:23227135

  2. Positron emission tomography imaging approaches for external beam radiation therapies: current status and future developments

    PubMed Central

    Price, P M; Green, M M

    2011-01-01

    In an era in which it is possible to deliver radiation with high precision, there is a heightened need for enhanced imaging capabilities to improve tumour localisation for diagnostic, planning and delivery purposes. This is necessary to increase the accuracy and overall efficacy of all types of external beam radiotherapy (RT), including particle therapies. Positron emission tomography (PET) has the potential to fulfil this need by imaging fundamental aspects of tumour biology. The key areas in which PET may support the RT process include improving disease diagnosis and staging; assisting tumour volume delineation; defining tumour phenotype or biological tumour volume; assessment of treatment response; and in-beam monitoring of radiation dosimetry. The role of PET and its current developmental status in these key areas are overviewed in this review, highlighting the advantages and drawbacks. PMID:21427180

  3. Measurement of blood-brain barrier permeability with positron emission tomography and (68Ga)EDTA

    SciTech Connect

    Kessler, R.M.; Goble, J.C.; Bird, J.H.; Girton, M.E.; Doppman, J.L.; Rapoport, S.I.; Barranger, J.A.

    1984-09-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) was employed to examine time-dependent changes in blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability to (68Ga)ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA) in the rhesus monkey, following reversible barrier opening by intracarotid infusion of a hypertonic mannitol solution. The PET technique, when combined with measurements of plasma radioactivity, provided a quantitative measure of the cerebrovascular permeability-area product (PA) at different times following mannitol infusion. Hypertonic mannitol treatment reversibly increased PA to (68Ga)EDTA more than 10-fold; much of the barrier effect was over by 10 min after mannitol treatment. The results show that PET can be used to measure transient changes in BBB integrity in specific brain regions, under in vivo, noninvasive conditions.

  4. Micropixel avalanche photodiodes and the possibility for their application in positron-emission tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anfimov, N. V.; Selyunin, A. S.

    2012-12-01

    Micropixel avalanche photodiodes (MAPDs) are new instruments for detecting low-intensity light. They consist of many microcounters (pixels integrated on a common silicon wafer). A unique design by the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR) (Z. Sadygov)—deep-microwell MAPD—provides an order of larger pixel densities without losses in photon-detection efficiency. These instruments are beginning to find use in precision electromagnetic calorimetry. MAPDs can be most widely applied as photodetectors in scanners for positron-emission tomographs (PETs), particularly the time-of-flight PETs becoming popular now. The possibility of using MAPDs in PETs is shown, and the time resolution of a pair of quanta detected by Lutetium Fine Silicate scintillation crystals with MAPD readout is obtained at the level of 400 ps.

  5. [Inflammatory activity in Takayasu arteritis. Detection through positron emission tomography (PET)].

    PubMed

    Alexánderson, Erick; Soto, María Elena; Ricalde, Alejandro; Meave, Aloha; Reyes, Pedro

    2005-01-01

    Takayasu arteritis (TA) is a chronic disease that affects mainly the aorta. Its etiology is still unknown, nevertheless it predominates in women and initiates primarily in the youth. This disease seems to have two different stages, an early stage that is characterized by an inflammatory process and a later stage characterized by vascular occlusion. Unitl now, diagnosis and classification of TA are made clinically, based on ACR; criteria and imaging studies as computed tomography and aorta angiographies. Currently, new imaging, non invasive studies, such as magnetic resonance (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET) are being used. PET technique could be helpful in the diagnosis and detection of inflammatory activity in patients with TA because of its capacity to detect increased metabolism. We present the case of a female patient with TA diagnosis, which demonstrated clinical inflammatory activity that was corroborated by laboratory studies, MRI and PET. PMID:15909745

  6. Post-Mortem evaluation of amyloid-dopamine terminal positron emission tomography dementia classifications.

    PubMed

    Albin, Roger L; Fisher-Hubbard, Amanda; Shanmugasundaram, Krithika; Koeppe, Robert A; Burke, James F; Camelo-Piragua, Sandra; Lieberman, Andrew P; Giordani, Bruno; Frey, Kirk A

    2015-11-01

    Clinical classification of early dementia and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is imprecise. We reported previously that molecular imaging classification of early dementia and MCI with dual amyloid and dopamine terminal positron emission tomography differs significantly from expert clinical classification. We now report pathological diagnoses in a substantial subset of our previously imaged subjects. Among 36 subjects coming to autopsy, imaging classifications and pathological diagnosis were concordant in 33 cases (κ = 0.85). This approach enhanced specificity of Alzheimer's disease diagnosis. The strong concordance of imaging-based classifications and pathological diagnoses suggests that this imaging approach will be useful in establishing more accurate and convenient classification biomarkers for dementia research. PMID:26183692

  7. An Application of Micro-channel Plate Photomultiplier Tube to Positron Emission Tomography.

    PubMed

    Kim, H; Chen, C-T; Frisch, H; Tang, F; Kao, C-M

    2012-01-01

    We are developing a Time-of-Flight Positron Emission Tomography detector using flat panel micro-channel plate photomultiplier tubes (MCP PMT). The high-speed waveform sampling data acquisition is adopted to exploit the fast time response of MCP PMT efficiently by using transmission-line readout scheme. To demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed detector, prototype detector modules were built using Photonis XP85022 MCP PMT, transmission-line board (TL), and high-speed waveform sampling electronics equipped with DRS4 chips. The MCP/TL module was coupled to single LYSO crystal, and experimental tests have been conducted in a coincidence setup to measure the responses to 511 keV annihilation photon. The details of the prototype module, experimental setup, and the preliminary results are presented and discussed. PMID:23227135

  8. Positron emission tomography radioligands for in vivo imaging of Aβ plaques

    PubMed Central

    Mason, N. Scott; Mathis, Chester A.; Klunk, William E.

    2014-01-01

    The development of positron emission tomography (PET) radioligands for the non-invasive imaging of amyloid-β plaque burden has been the focus of intense research efforts over the last decade. A variety of structural backbones have been investigated and several radiolabeled molecules have been evaluated in phase I (and later) clinical studies. These efforts have been driven by the desire not only to develop a suitable diagnostic imaging agent but also to develop a means to evaluate potential therapies for Alzheimer’s disease. This review focuses on the development of these ligands, as well as the radiochemistry and current regulatory status of these PET radioligands. Particular attention is given to those ligands that have progressed to the later stages of drug development (phase II/III clinical trial studies) or approved New Drug Application status. PMID:24285314

  9. Delineation and quantitation of brain lesions by fuzzy clustering in positron emission tomography.

    PubMed

    Boudraa, A E; Champier, J; Cinotti, L; Bordet, J C; Lavenne, F; Mallet, J J

    1996-01-01

    In this study, we investigate the application of the fuzzy clustering to the anatomical localization and quantitation of brain lesions in Positron Emission Tomography (PET) images. The method is based on the Fuzzy C-Means (FCM) algorithm. The algorithm segments the PET image data points into a given number of clusters. Each cluster is an homogeneous region of the brain (e.g. tumor). A feature vector is assigned to a cluster which has the highest membership degree. Having the label affected by the FCM algorithm to a cluster, one may easily compute the corresponding spatial localization, area and perimeter. Studies concerning the evolution of a tumor after different treatments in two patients are presented. PMID:8891420

  10. Primary Cardiac Angiosarcoma Treated With Positron Emission Tomography/Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Guided Adaptive Radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Elsayad, Khaled; Lehrich, Philipp; Yppaerilae-Wolters, Heidi; Dieckmann, Chantal; Kriz, Jan; Haverkamp, Uwe; Eich, Hans Theodor

    2016-06-01

    Radiotherapy (RT) for inoperable patients with primary cardiac sarcomas or residual tumor is often limited by the sensitivity of the heart and lung to radiation injury. We describe a novel treatment modality with adaptive radiotherapy (ART) using tumor volume tracking in a 37-year-old woman who presented with unresectable primary cardiac angiosarcoma. The patient was treated using positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance imaging-guided ART with 55.8 Gy concomitant with paclitaxel chemotherapy. In conclusion, the treatment was well tolerated, and a significant tumor volume reduction of ∼ 57% was achieved during radiotherapy, suggesting the effectiveness and tolerability of ART in combination with paclitaxel-based chemotherapy. PMID:26514752

  11. Imaging of transplanted islets by positron emission tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and ultrasonography

    PubMed Central

    Sakata, Naoaki; Yoshimatsu, Gumpei; Tsuchiya, Haruyuki; Aoki, Takeshi; Mizuma, Masamichi; Motoi, Fuyuhiko; Katayose, Yu; Kodama, Tetsuya; Egawa, Shinichi; Unno, Michiaki

    2013-01-01

    While islet transplantation is considered a useful therapeutic option for severe diabetes mellitus (DM), the outcome of this treatment remains unsatisfactory. This is largely due to the damage and loss of islets in the early transplant stage. Thus, it is important to monitor the condition of the transplanted islets, so that a treatment can be selected to rescue the islets from damage if needed. Recently, numerous trials have been performed to investigate the efficacy of different imaging modalities for visualizing transplanted islets. Positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are the most commonly used imaging modalities for this purpose. Some groups, including ours, have also tried to visualize transplanted islets by ultrasonography (US). In this review article, we discuss the recent progress in islet imaging. PMID:24231367

  12. Image properties of list mode likelihood reconstruction for a rectangular positron emission mammography with DOI measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Qi, Jinyi; Klein, Gregory J.; Huesman, Ronald H.

    2000-10-01

    A positron emission mammography scanner is under development at our Laboratory. The tomograph has a rectangular geometry consisting of four banks of detector modules. For each detector, the system can measure the depth of interaction information inside the crystal. The rectangular geometry leads to irregular radial and angular sampling and spatially variant sensitivity that are different from conventional PET systems. Therefore, it is of importance to study the image properties of the reconstructions. We adapted the theoretical analysis that we had developed for conventional PET systems to the list mode likelihood reconstruction for this tomograph. The local impulse response and covariance of the reconstruction can be easily computed using FFT. These theoretical results are also used with computer observer models to compute the signal-to-noise ratio for lesion detection. The analysis reveals the spatially variant resolution and noise properties of the list mode likelihood reconstruction. The theoretical predictions are in good agreement with Monte Carlo results.

  13. 18F-Fluoride bone positron emission tomography demonstrating changes related to finger clubbing and hypertrophic osteoarthropathy.

    PubMed

    Kashyap, Raghava; Ali, Mirza Athar; Nagaraju, Madhusudhan; Muntimadugu, Babaiah

    2014-04-01

    Hypertrophic pulmonary osteoarthropathy is manifested by clubbing and periostitis of bones. We present a very rare documentation of increased F18-sodium fluoride uptake in the distal phalanges of both hands correlating to clubbing of the fingers in a 55-year-old female patient with carcinoma of lung in whom bone positron emission tomography was performed for metastatic work-up. PMID:24761070

  14. Detection of lung cancer in patients with pneumoconiosis by fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography: four cases.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hua; Zhang, Hua; Wang, Yanli; Cui, Xinjian; Han, Jiankui

    2013-01-01

    We report 4 cases of lung cancer in patients with pneumoconiosis detected by F18-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT), which could differentiate lung cancer and pneumoconiosis. FDG-PET/CT may be useful in cancer screening for patients with pneumoconiosis. PMID:23369632

  15. Integration of Quantitative Positron Emission Tomography Absolute Myocardial Blood Flow Measurements in the Clinical Management of Coronary Artery Disease.

    PubMed

    Gewirtz, Henry; Dilsizian, Vasken

    2016-05-31

    In the >40 years since planar myocardial imaging with(43)K-potassium was introduced into clinical research and management of patients with coronary artery disease (CAD), diagnosis and treatment have undergone profound scientific and technological changes. One such innovation is the current state-of-the-art hardware and software for positron emission tomography myocardial perfusion imaging, which has advanced it from a strictly research-oriented modality to a clinically valuable tool. This review traces the evolving role of quantitative positron emission tomography measurements of myocardial blood flow in the evaluation and management of patients with CAD. It presents methodology, currently or soon to be available, that offers a paradigm shift in CAD management. Heretofore, radionuclide myocardial perfusion imaging has been primarily qualitative or at best semiquantitative in nature, assessing regional perfusion in relative terms. Thus, unlike so many facets of modern cardiovascular practice and CAD management, which depend, for example, on absolute values of key parameters such as arterial and left ventricular pressures, serum lipoprotein, and other biomarker levels, the absolute levels of rest and maximal myocardial blood flow have yet to be incorporated into routine clinical practice even in most positron emission tomography centers where the potential to do so exists. Accordingly, this review focuses on potential value added for improving clinical CAD practice by measuring the absolute level of rest and maximal myocardial blood flow. Physiological principles and imaging fundamentals necessary to understand how positron emission tomography makes robust, quantitative measurements of myocardial blood flow possible are highlighted. PMID:27245647

  16. Investigation of Abnormal Left Temporal Functioning in Dyslexia through rCBF, Auditory Evoked Potentials, and Positron Emission Tomography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Frank; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Investigates the proposed left hemisphere dysfunction in dyslexia by reviewing four studies using regional cerebral blood flow (RCBF) and combined auditory evoked responses with positron emission tomography. Emphasizes methodological issues. Finds that dyslexics showed a positive correlation between Heschl's gyrus activation and phonemic…

  17. Importance of assessing nonattenuation-corrected positron emission tomography images in treatment response evaluation of primary cutaneous lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Chandra, Piyush; Agrawal, Archi; Purandare, Nilendu; Shah, Sneha; Rangarajan, Venkatesh

    2016-01-01

    Studies have shown previously that nonattenuated corrected (AC) positron emission tomography (PET) images improve detection of superficial lesions when compared to AC images. We present a case of cutaneous lymphoma to demonstrate the importance of assessing nonattenuation-corrected PET images in treatment response evaluation. PMID:27385905

  18. Quantitative evaluation of benzodiazepine receptors in live Papio papio baboons using positron emission tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Brouillet, E.; Chavoix, C.; Khalili-Varasteh, M.; Bottlaender, M.; Hantraye, P.; Yorke, J.C.; Maziere, M. )

    1990-10-01

    The binding of the 11C-labeled benzodiazepine antagonist Ro 15-1788 (flumazenil) was measured in the neocortex of live Papio papio baboons by positron emission tomography. This allowed us to calculate in vivo (i.e., at physiological temperature, neurotransmitters concentrations, and ionic environment) the apparent density of available benzodiazepine receptors (B'max) and the dissociation constant of Ro 15-1788 (Kd). By coadministering increasing doses of unlabeled Ro 15-1788 with (11C)Ro 15-1788 and assuming that nonsaturable radioactivity indicated the free ligand concentration, we were able to obtain saturation isotherms. We showed that a state of quasiequilibrium was reached 50 min after the administration of the radioligand. Linear Scatchard plots allowed us to calculate B'max at 78 and 50 pmol/ml of cerebral tissue in the occipital and frontal cortices, respectively. In both these areas, Kd is on the order of 6 nM, with a Hill number very close to unity. This indicates that Ro 15-1788 binds in vivo with high affinity to an homogeneous population of saturable sites. A similar measurement was carried out on a naturally photosensitive P. papio baboon. Absolute values of B'max, Kd, and Hill number were similar to those of the control baboons. Although results concerning this baboon can only be considered as a case report, this similarity may suggest that its epileptic syndrome is not related to a large change in B'max or Kd, at least in occipital and frontal cortices. Our results showed that quantitative estimation by positron emission tomography of some characteristics of benzodiazepine receptors is possible in live baboons and may represent a supplementary tool for investigating further the molecular mechanisms of benzodiazepine receptor function in physiological and physiopathological conditions.

  19. Development of a dedicated positron emission tomography system for the detection and biopsy of breast cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Raylman, Raymond R; Majewski, Stan; Kross, Brian; Popov, Vladimir; Proffitt, James; Smith, Mark F; Weisenberger, Andrew G; Wojcik, Randolph

    2006-12-01

    Dedicated positron emission mammography breast imaging systems have shown great promise for the detection of small, radiotracer-avid lesions. Our group (a collaboration consisting of West Virginia University, Jefferson Lab and the University of Washington) is extending this work by developing a positron emission mammography-tomography (PEM-PET) system for imaging and biopsy of breast lesions. The system will have four planar detector heads that will rotate about the breast to acquire multi-view data suitable for tomographic reconstruction. Each detector head will consist of a 96x72 array of 2x2x15 mm{sup 3} LYSO detector elements (pitch=2.1 mm) mounted on a 3x4 array of 5x5 cm{sup 2} flat panel position-sensitive photomultiplier tubes. PEM-PET is expected to have approximately two-millimeter resolution and possess the ability to guide the needle biopsy of suspicious lesions seen on the PET images. Initial tests of the scintillator arrays yielded excellent results. Pixel maps for all four scintillator arrays demonstrated that separation of the LYSO elements was very good; all of the LYSO array elements were observed, even in areas between individual PSPMTs. System energy resolution was measured to be 25% FWHM at 511 keV. Future work includes the use of field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) to replace the current VME-based data acquisition system, a PSPMT gain normalization procedure to help improve response uniformity and energy resolution, and the addition of an x-ray source and detector to produce multi-modality PEM-PET-CT images of the breast.

  20. A Lower-Cost High-Resolution LYSO Detector Development for Positron Emission Mammography (PEM).

    PubMed

    Ramirez, Rocio A; Zhang, Yuxuan; Liu, Shitao; Li, Hongdi; Baghaei, Hossain; An, Shaohui; Wang, Chao; Jan, Meei-Ling; Wong, Wai-Hoi

    2009-10-01

    In photomultiplier-quadrant-sharing (PQS) geometry for positron emission tomography applications, each PMT is shared by four blocks and each detector block is optically coupled to four round PMTs. Although this design reduces the cost of high-resolution PET systems, when the camera consists of detector panels that are made up of square blocks, half of the PMT's sensitive window remains unused at the detector panel edge. Our goal was to develop a LYSO detector panel which minimizes the unused portion of the PMTs for a low-cost, high-resolution, and high-sensitivity positron emission mammography (PEM) camera. We modified the PQS design by using elongated blocks at panel edges and square blocks in the inner area. For elongated blocks, symmetric and asymmetrical reflector patterns were developed and PQS and PMT-half-sharing (PHS) arrangements were implemented in order to obtain a suitable decoding. The packing fraction was 96.3% for asymmetric block and 95.5% for symmetric block. Both of the blocks have excellent decoding capability with all crystals clearly identified, 156 for asymmetric and 144 for symmetric and peak-to-valley ratio of 3.0 and 2.3 respectively. The average energy resolution was 14.2% for the asymmetric block and 13.1% for the symmetric block. Using a modified PQS geometry and asymmetric block design, we reduced the unused PMT region at detector panel edges, thereby increased the field-of-view and the overall detection sensitivity and minimized the undetected breast region near the chest wall. This detector design and using regular round PMT allowed building a lower-cost, high-resolution and high-sensitivity PEM camera. PMID:20485510

  1. Regional myocardial metabolism in patients with acute myocardial infarction assessed by positron emission tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Schwaiger, M.; Brunken, R.; Grover-McKay, M.; Krivokapich, J.; Child, J.; Tillisch, J.H.; Phelps, M.E.; Schelbert, H.R.

    1986-10-01

    Positron emission tomography has been shown to distinguish between reversible and irreversible ischemic tissue injury. Using this technique, 13 patients with acute myocardial infarction were studied within 72 hours of onset of symptoms to evaluate regional blood flow and glucose metabolism with nitrogen (N)-13 ammonia and fluorine (F)-18 deoxyglucose, respectively. Serial noninvasive assessment of wall motion was performed to determine the prognostic value of metabolic indexes for functional tissue recovery. Segmental blood flow and glucose utilization were evaluated using a circumferential profile technique and compared with previously established semiquantitative criteria. Relative N-13 ammonia uptake was depressed in 32 left ventricular segments. Sixteen segments demonstrated a concordant decrease in flow and glucose metabolism. Regional function did not change over time in these segments. In contrast, 16 other segments with reduced blood flow revealed maintained F-18 deoxyglucose uptake consistent with remaining viable tissue. The average wall motion score improved significantly in these segments (p less than 0.01), yet the degree of recovery varied considerably among patients. Coronary anatomy was defined in 9 of 13 patients: patent infarct vessels supplied 8 of 10 segments with F-18 deoxyglucose uptake, while 10 of 13 segments in the territory of an occluded vessel showed concordant decreases in flow and metabolism (p less than 0.01). Thus, positron emission tomography reveals a high incidence of residual tissue viability in ventricular segments with reduced flow and impaired function during the subacute phase of myocardial infarction. Absence of residual tissue metabolism is associated with irreversible injury, while preservation of metabolic activity identifies segments with a variable outcome.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. Delivery of proteins to CNS as seen and measured by positron emission tomography

    PubMed Central

    Belov, V.; Fischman, A. J.; Belova, E.; Titus, J.; Gagne, M.; Gillooly, C.

    2013-01-01

    Presently, there are no effective treatments for several diseases involving the central nervous system (CNS). While several novel molecular approaches are being developed, many of them require delivery of macromolecular or supramolecular agents to the CNS tissues protected by the blood–brain and blood–arachnoid barriers. A variety of approaches that are being developed for overcoming or bypassing the barriers are based on complex transfer processes. The delivery of biopharmaceuticals and other macromolecules and particulates to the CNS, especially through the leptomeningeal (intrathecal) route, includes a variety of stages, such as leptomeningeal propagation, drainage to the systemic circulation, and penetration into the CNS. The investigation of complex pharmacokinetics that includes convective, as well as diffusional and active transfer processes, greatly benefit from real-time non-invasive in vivo monitoring of the drug transport. Pharmacological positron emission tomography (PET) imaging, which enables such monitoring, plays an increasingly significant role in drug delivery and biopharmacology. PET is a powerful tool for quantitative in vivo tracking of molecules labeled with positron-emitting radionuclides. The high sensitivity, format, and accuracy of the data (similar to those of conventional tissue sampling biodistribution studies) make PET a readily adoptable pharmacological technique. In contrast to the conventional studies, PET also allows for longitudinal nonterminal same-animal studies. The latter may not only improve the data statistics, but also enable preclinical studies (especially in large and/or rare animals) not feasible under the conventional approach. This paper is intended to demonstrate the character of data that can be obtained by PET and to demonstrate how the main patterns of the leptomeningeal route pharmacokinetics can be investigated using this method. Examples of data processing are taken from our recent studies of five model

  3. Hyperventilation-induced reduction in cerebral blood flow: Assessment by positron emission tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Bednarczyk, E.M.; Rutherford, W.F.; Leisure, G.P.; Munger, M.A.; Panacek, E.A.; Miraldi, F.D.; Green, J.A. )

    1990-05-01

    The use of positron emission tomography (PET) has been well documented as a relatively noninvasive method of measuring cerebral blood flow (CBF), both globally and regionally. The utility of readily detecting alterations in CBF is apparent, particularly when applied to the evaluation of therapeutic interventions thought to influence CBF. We report the effects of hypocapnia, an experimental condition of known cerebral vasoconstriction, in ten normal volunteers. Subjects had brain blood flow evaluated utilizing H215O as the positron emitter before and after approximately five minutes of hyperventilation. Baseline CBF was measured as a mean +/- SD of 61.2 +/- 16.3 mL/min/100 g of tissue. Mean baseline arterial blood gas values were PaO2 107.4 +/- 14 mm Hg, PaCO2 37.7 +/- 0.89 mm Hg, and pH 7.39 (calculated from mean (H+)). Post hyperventilation, global CBF was measured as 31.1 +/- 10.8 mL/min/100 g. Mean arterial blood gas values were PaO2 141.7 +/- 21 mm Hg, PaCO2 19.7 +/- 5 mm Hg, and pH 7.63 (calculated from mean (H+)). CBF decreased by a mean of 49.5 +/- 11 percent. Data analysis using the Student's t-test showed a significant change over baseline in PaCO2 (p less than 0.001) and CBF (p less than 0.001), in the hyperventilated state. Correlations were noted between the decrease in CBF and change in PaCO2 (r = 0.81) as well as between hyperventilation PaCO2 and the change in CBF (r = 0.97). We conclude that, as measured by PET, CBF decreases significantly during a state of artificial hyperventilation to a degree consistent with results seen using other methods. PET appears to be a valuable tool in the assessment of interventions that could influence CBF.

  4. Vision 20/20: Positron emission tomography in radiation therapy planning, delivery, and monitoring.

    PubMed

    Parodi, Katia

    2015-12-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) is increasingly considered as an effective imaging method to support several stages of radiation therapy. The combined usage of functional and morphological imaging in state-of-the-art PET/CT scanners is rapidly emerging to support the treatment planning process in terms of improved tumor delineation, and to assess the tumor response in follow-up investigations after or even during the course of fractionated therapy. Moreover, active research is being pursued on new tracers capable of providing different insights into tumor function, in order to identify areas of the planning volume which may require additional dosage for improved probability of tumor control. In this respect, major progresses in the next years will likely concern the development and clinical investigation of novel tracers and image processing techniques for reliable thresholding and segmentation, of treatment planning and beam delivery approaches integrating the PET imaging information, as well as improved multimodal clinical instrumentation such as PET/MR. But especially in the rapidly emerging case of ion beam therapy, the usage of PET is not only limited to the imaging of external tracers injected to the patient. In fact, a minor amount of positron emitters is formed in nuclear fragmentation reactions between the impinging ions and the tissue, bearing useful information for confirmation of the delivered treatment during or after therapeutic irradiation. Different implementations of unconventional PET imaging for therapy monitoring are currently being investigated clinically, and major ongoing research aims at new dedicated detector technologies and at challenging applications such as real-time imaging and time-resolved in vivo verification of motion compensated beam delivery. This paper provides an overview of the different areas of application of PET in radiation oncology and discusses the most promising perspectives in the years to come for radiation therapy

  5. Vision 20/20: Positron emission tomography in radiation therapy planning, delivery, and monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Parodi, Katia

    2015-12-15

    Positron emission tomography (PET) is increasingly considered as an effective imaging method to support several stages of radiation therapy. The combined usage of functional and morphological imaging in state-of-the-art PET/CT scanners is rapidly emerging to support the treatment planning process in terms of improved tumor delineation, and to assess the tumor response in follow-up investigations after or even during the course of fractionated therapy. Moreover, active research is being pursued on new tracers capable of providing different insights into tumor function, in order to identify areas of the planning volume which may require additional dosage for improved probability of tumor control. In this respect, major progresses in the next years will likely concern the development and clinical investigation of novel tracers and image processing techniques for reliable thresholding and segmentation, of treatment planning and beam delivery approaches integrating the PET imaging information, as well as improved multimodal clinical instrumentation such as PET/MR. But especially in the rapidly emerging case of ion beam therapy, the usage of PET is not only limited to the imaging of external tracers injected to the patient. In fact, a minor amount of positron emitters is formed in nuclear fragmentation reactions between the impinging ions and the tissue, bearing useful information for confirmation of the delivered treatment during or after therapeutic irradiation. Different implementations of unconventional PET imaging for therapy monitoring are currently being investigated clinically, and major ongoing research aims at new dedicated detector technologies and at challenging applications such as real-time imaging and time-resolved in vivo verification of motion compensated beam delivery. This paper provides an overview of the different areas of application of PET in radiation oncology and discusses the most promising perspectives in the years to come for radiation therapy

  6. Towards a practical implementation of the MLE algorithm for Positron Emission Tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Llacer, J.; Andreae, S.; Veklerov, E.; Hoffman, E.J.

    1985-10-01

    Recognizing that the quality of images obtained by application of the Maximum Likelihood Estimator (MLE) to Positron Emission Tomography (PET) and Single Photon Emission Tomography (SPECT) appears to be substantially better than those obtained by conventional methods, we have started to develop methods that will facilitate the necessary research for a good evaluation of the algorithm and may lead to its practical application for research and routine tomography. We have found that the non-linear MLE algorithm can be used with pixel sizes which are smaller than the sampling distance, without interpolation, obtaining excellent resolution and no noticeable increase in noise. We have studied the role of symmetry in reducing the amount of matrix element storage requirements for full size applications of the algorithm and have used that concept to carry out two reconstructions of the Derenzo phantom with data from the ECAT-III instrument. The results show excellent signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio, particularly for data with low total counts, excellent sharpness, but low contrast at high frequencies when using the Shepp-Vardi model for probability matrices. 12 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs.

  7. Simulation study of respiratory-induced errors in cardiac positron emission tomography/computed tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Fitzpatrick, Gianna M.; Wells, R. Glenn

    2006-08-15

    Heart disease is a leading killer in Canada and positron emission tomography (PET) provides clinicians with in vivo metabolic information for diagnosing heart disease. Transmission data are usually acquired with {sup 68}Ge, although the advent of PET/CT scanners has made computed tomography (CT) an alternative option. The fast data acquisition of CT compared to PET may cause potential misregistration problems, leading to inaccurate attenuation correction (AC). Using Monte Carlo simulations and an anthropomorphic dynamic computer phantom, this study determines the magnitude and location of respiratory-induced errors in radioactivity uptake measured in cardiac PET/CT. A homogeneous tracer distribution in the heart was considered. The AC was based on (1) a time-averaged attenuation map (2) CT maps from a single phase of the respiratory cycle, and (3) CT maps phase matched to the emission data. Circumferential profiles of the heart uptake were compared and differences of up to 24% were found between the single-phase CT-AC method and the true phantom values. Simulation results were supported by a PET/CT canine study which showed differences of up to 10% in the heart uptake in the lung-heart boundary region when comparing {sup 68}Ge- to CT-based AC with the CT map acquired at end inhalation.

  8. Analysis of optimum diameter of orbit of transmission line source in positron emission tomograph

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, S.; Amano, M.; Hirose, Y.; Muira, S.; Kanno, I.

    1989-02-01

    Accurate attenuation correction is one of the most important factors to achieve quantitative measurements in positron emission tomography (PET). A transmission scan is most commonly used technique for the attenuation correction in PET. A difficulty in transmission scan is relatively long period to obtain a data with good signal-to-noise ratio. Insufficient signal-to-noise ratio of the transmission data limits that of emission data. Several approaches were reported to improve the transmission data. Those were (1) optimizing of detector threshold, (2) processing delayed coincidence sinogram before subtraction, filtering of transmission sinogram before performing attenuation correction, and (3) rejection of random and scatter coincidence by using rotating line source and information of its position. In some of these methods, additional calculation time or processing hardware is needed. The authors have estimated a relationship between ring diameter of a transmission line source and signal to noise ratio of the transmission dat. This paper aimes to analyze optimum diameter of the orbit of transmission line source in concerning to signal to noise ratio in transmission data.

  9. Graphics processing unit (GPU)-accelerated particle filter framework for positron emission tomography image reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Yu, Fengchao; Liu, Huafeng; Hu, Zhenghui; Shi, Pengcheng

    2012-04-01

    As a consequence of the random nature of photon emissions and detections, the data collected by a positron emission tomography (PET) imaging system can be shown to be Poisson distributed. Meanwhile, there have been considerable efforts within the tracer kinetic modeling communities aimed at establishing the relationship between the PET data and physiological parameters that affect the uptake and metabolism of the tracer. Both statistical and physiological models are important to PET reconstruction. The majority of previous efforts are based on simplified, nonphysical mathematical expression, such as Poisson modeling of the measured data, which is, on the whole, completed without consideration of the underlying physiology. In this paper, we proposed a graphics processing unit (GPU)-accelerated reconstruction strategy that can take both statistical model and physiological model into consideration with the aid of state-space evolution equations. The proposed strategy formulates the organ activity distribution through tracer kinetics models and the photon-counting measurements through observation equations, thus making it possible to unify these two constraints into a general framework. In order to accelerate reconstruction, GPU-based parallel computing is introduced. Experiments of Zubal-thorax-phantom data, Monte Carlo simulated phantom data, and real phantom data show the power of the method. Furthermore, thanks to the computing power of the GPU, the reconstruction time is practical for clinical application. PMID:22472843

  10. A Prospective Pilot Study of 89Zr-J591/Prostate Specific Membrane Antigen Positron Emission Tomography in Men with Localized Prostate Cancer Undergoing Radical Prostatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Osborne, Joseph R.; Green, David A.; Spratt, Daniel E.; Lyashchenko, Serge; Fareedy, Shoaib B.; Robinson, Brian D.; Beattie, Bradley J.; Jain, Manu; Lewis, Jason S.; Christos, Paul; Larson, Steven M.; Bander, Neil H.; Scherr, Douglas S.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose In this pilot study we explored the feasibility of 89Zr labeled J591 monoclonal antibody positron emission tomography of localized prostate cancer. Materials and Methods Before scheduled radical prostatectomy 11 patients were injected intravenously with 89Zr-J591, followed 6 days later by whole body positron emission tomography. Patients underwent surgery the day after imaging. Specimens were imaged by ex vivo micro positron emission tomography and a custom 3 Tesla magnetic resonance scanner coil. Positron emission tomography images and histopathology were correlated. Results Median patient age was 61 years (range 47 to 68), median prostate specific antigen was 5.2 ng/ml (range 3.5 to 12.0) and median biopsy Gleason score of the 11 index lesions was 7 (range 7 to 9). On histopathology 22 lesions were identified. Median lesion size was 5.5 mm (range 2 to 21) and median Gleason score after radical prostatectomy was 7 (range 6 to 9). Eight of 11 index lesions (72.7%) were identified by in vivo positron emission tomography. Lesion identification improved with increasing lesion size for in vivo and ex vivo positron emission tomography (each p <0.0001), and increasing Gleason score (p = 0.14 and 0.01, respectively). Standardized uptake values appeared to correlate with increased Gleason score but not significantly (p = 0.19). Conclusions To our knowledge this is the first report of 89Zr-J591/prostate specific membrane antigen positron emission tomography in localized prostate cancer cases. In this setting 89Zr-J591 bound to tumor foci in situ and positron emission tomography identified primarily Gleason score 7 or greater and larger tumors, likely corresponding to clinically significant disease warranting definitive therapy. A future, larger clinical validation trial is planned to better define the usefulness of 89Zr-J591 positron emission tomography for localized prostate cancer. PMID:24135437

  11. Applications of Beta Particle Detection for Synthesis and Usage of Radiotracers Developed for Positron Emission Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dooraghi, Alex Abreu

    Positron Emission Tomography (PET) is a noninvasive molecular imaging tool that requires the use of a radioactive compound or radiotracer which targets a molecular pathway of interest. We have developed and employed three beta particle radiation detection systems to advance PET. Specifically, the goals of these systems are to: 1. Automate dispensing of solutions containing a positron emitting isotope. 2. Monitor radioactivity on-chip during synthesis of a positron emitting radiotracer. 3. Assay cellular uptake on-chip of a positron emitting radiotracer. Automated protocols for measuring and dispensing solutions containing radioisotopes are essential not only for providing an optimum environment for radiation workers, but also to ensure a quantitatively accurate workflow. For the first project, we describe the development and performance of a system for automated radioactivity distribution of beta particle emitting radioisotopes such as fluorine-18 (F-18). Key to the system is a radiation detector in-line with a peristaltic pump. The system demonstrates volume accuracy within 5 % for volumes of 20 muL or greater. When considering volumes of 20 muL or greater, delivered radioactivity is in agreement with the requested radioactivity as measured with the dose calibrator. The integration of the detector and pump leads to a flexible system that can accurately dispense solutions containing F-18 in radioactivity concentrations directly produced from a cyclotron (~ 0.1-1 mCi/muL), to low activity concentrations intended for preclinical mouse scans (~ 1-10 muCi/muL), and anywhere in between. Electrowetting on dielectric (EWOD) is an attractive microfluidic platform for batch synthesis of PET radiotracers. Visualization of radioisotopes on-chip is critical for synthesis optimization and technological development. For the second project, we describe the development and performance of a Cerenkov/real-time imaging system for PET radiotracer synthesis on EWOD. We also investigate

  12. Positron emission tomography during transcranial magnetic stimulation does not require mu-metal shielding.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae Sung; Narayana, Shalini; Lancaster, Jack; Jerabek, Paul; Lee, Dong Soo; Fox, Peter

    2003-08-01

    Recording brain activity using positron emission tomography (PET) during the stimulation of different parts of the brain by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) permits the mapping of neural connections in the living human brain. However, controversy remains regarding the need for micro-metal shielding of the PET scanner during magnetic stimulation. The aim of this study was to test the effects of magnetic fields generated by TMS on PET data acquisition. With TMS-on and -off in the PET field of view, transmission scans with a (68)Ge/(68)Ga pin source and emission scans with an uniform phantom filled with water and (18)F were acquired. The frequency and intensity of stimulation were set at 3-5 Hz and 70-80% of the maximum output of the stimulator, respectively. The TMS coil was placed at several locations inside the PET gantry, and the main field direction of the TMS coil was varied between parallel and perpendicular orientation to the scanner's axis. Qualitative and quantitative evaluation of the sinograms of transmission PET scans and reconstructed emission images indicated no measurable differences between TMS-on and -off and post-TMS conditions for any position or orientation. The long distance between the TMS coil and the detector block in the PET scanner, as well as the rapid reduction of the magnetic field with distance (3% of maximum field at 10 cm, in air), could explain the lack of TMS interference. The brief duration (approximately 250 micros) of the TMS pulses relative to the total PET acquisition time would also explain the lack of TMS effects. The lack of TMS effects on the PET scanner, as well as PET imaging without any shielding, has been reported by other laboratories. PMID:12948735

  13. ON THE MORPHOLOGY OF THE ELECTRON-POSITRON ANNIHILATION EMISSION AS SEEN BY SPI/INTEGRAL

    SciTech Connect

    Bouchet, L.; Roques, J. P.; Jourdain, E.

    2010-09-10

    The 511 keV positron annihilation emission remains a mysterious component of the high energy emission of our Galaxy. Its study was one of the key scientific objectives of the SPI spectrometer on board the International Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory satellite. In fact, a lot of observing time has been dedicated to the Galactic disk with a particular emphasis on the central region. A crucial issue in such an analysis concerns the reduction technique used to treat this huge quantity of data, and more particularly the background modeling. Our method, after validation through a variety of tests, is based on detector pattern determination per {approx}6 month period, together with a normalization variable on a few hour timescale. The Galactic bulge is detected at a level of {approx}70{sigma}, allowing more detailed investigations. The main result is that the bulge morphology can be modeled with two axisymmetric Gaussians of 3.{sup 0}2 and 11.{sup 0}8 FWHM and respective fluxes of 2.5 and 5.4 x10{sup -4} photons cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}. We found a possible shift of the bulge center toward negative longitude at l = -0.{sup 0}6 {+-} 0.{sup 0}2. In addition to the bulge, a more extended structure is detected significantly with flux ranging from 1.7 to 2.9 x10{sup -3} photons cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} depending on its assumed geometry (pure disk or disk plus halo). The disk emission is also found to be symmetric within the limits of the statistical errors.

  14. Noninvasive quantification of muscarinic receptors in vivo with positron emission tomography in the dog heart

    SciTech Connect

    Delforge, J.; Janier, M.; Syrota, A.; Crouzel, C.; Vallois, J.M.; Cayla, J.; Lancon, J.P.; Mazoyer, B.M. )

    1990-10-01

    The in vivo quantification of myocardial muscarinic receptors has been obtained in six closed-chest dogs by using positron emission tomography. The dogs were injected with a trace amount of 11C-labeled methylquinuclidinyl benzilate (MQNB), a nonmetabolized antagonist of the muscarinic receptor. This was followed 30 minutes later by an injection of an excess of unlabeled MQNB (displacement experiment). Two additional injections of unlabeled MQNB with (11C)MQNB and without (11C)MQNB (second displacement experiment) were administered after 70 and 120 minutes, respectively. This protocol allowed a separate evaluation of the quantity of available receptors (B'max) as well as the association and dissociation rate constants (k+1 and k-1) in each dog. The parameters were calculated by using a nonlinear mathematical model in regions of interest over the left ventricle and the interventricular septum. The average value of B'max was 42 +/- 11 pmol/ml tissue, the rate constants k+1, k-1, and Kd were 0.6 +/- 0.1 ml.pmol-1.min-1, 0.27 +/- 0.03 ml.pmol-1.min-1, and 0.49 +/- 0.14 pmol.ml-1, respectively, taking into account the MQNB reaction volume estimated to 0.15 ml/ml tissue. Although (11C)MQNB binding would appear irreversible, our findings indicate that the association of the antagonist is very rapid and that the dissociation is far from negligible. The dissociated ligand, however, has a high probability of rebinding to a free receptor site instead of escaping into the microcirculation. We deduce that the positron emission tomographic images obtained after injecting a trace amount of (11C)MQNB are more representative of blood flow than of receptor density or affinity. We also suggest a simplified protocol consisting of a tracer injection of (11C)MQNB and a second injection of an excess of cold MQNB, which is sufficient to measure B'max and Kd in humans.

  15. High-speed digitization readout of silicon photomultipliers for time of flight positron emission tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Ronzhin, A.; Los, S.; Martens, M.; Ramberg, E.; Kim, H.; Chen, C.; Kao, C.; Niessen, K.; Zatserklyaniy, A.; Mazzillo, M.; Carbone, B.; /SGS Thomson, Catania

    2011-02-01

    We report on work to develop a system with about 100 picoseconds (ps) time resolution for time of flight positron emission tomography [TOF-PET]. The chosen photo detectors for the study were Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPM's). This study was based on extensive experience in studying timing properties of SiPM's. The readout of these devices used the commercial high speed digitizer DRS4. We applied different algorithms to get the best time resolution of 155 ps Guassian (sigma) for a LYSO crystal coupled to a SiPM. We consider the work as a first step in building a prototype TOF-PET module. The field of positron-emission-tomography (PET) has been rapidly developing. But there are significant limitations in how well current PET scanners can reconstruct images, related to how fast data can be acquired, how much volume they can image, and the spatial and temporal resolution of the generated photons. Typical modern scanners now include multiple rings of detectors, which can image a large volume of the patient. In this type of scanner, one can treat each ring as a separate detector and require coincidences only within the ring, or treat the entire region viewed by the scanner as a single 3 dimensional volume. This 3d technique has significantly better sensitivity since more photon pair trajectories are accepted. However, the scattering of photons within the volume of the patient, and the effect of random coincidences limits the technique. The advent of sub-nanosecond timing resolution detectors means that there is potentially much better rejection of scattered photon events and random coincidence events in the 3D technique. In addition, if the timing is good enough, then the origin of photons pairs can be determined better, resulting in improved spatial resolution - so called 'Time-of-Flight' PET, or TOF-PET. Currently a lot of activity has occurred in applications of SiPMs for TOF-PET. This is due to the devices very good time resolution, low profile, lack of high voltage

  16. Injectable silver nanosensors: in vivo dosimetry for external beam radiotherapy using positron emission tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christensen, A. N.; Rydhög, J. S.; Søndergaard, R. V.; Andresen, T. L.; Holm, S.; Munck Af Rosenschöld, P.; Conradsen, K.; Jølck, R. I.

    2016-05-01

    Development of safe and efficient radiotherapy routines requires quantification of the delivered absorbed dose to the cancer tissue in individual patients. In vivo dosimetry can provide accurate information about the absorbed dose delivered during treatment. In the current study, a novel silver-nanosensor formulation based on poly(vinylpyrrolidinone)-coated silver nanoparticles formulated in a gelation matrix composed of sucrose acetate isobutyrate has been developed for use as an in vivo dosimeter for external beam radiotherapy. In situ photonuclear reactions trigger the formation of radioactive 106Ag, which enables post treatment verification of the delivered dose using positron emission tomography imaging. The silver-nanosensor was investigated in a tissue equivalent thorax phantom using clinical settings and workflow for both standard fractionated radiotherapy (2 Gy) and stereotactic radiotherapy (10- and 22 Gy) in a high-energy beam setting (18 MV). The developed silver-nanosensor provided high radiopacity on the planning CT-scans sufficient for patient positioning in image-guided radiotherapy and provided dosimetric information about the absorbed dose with a 10% and 8% standard deviation for the stereotactic regimens, 10 and 22 Gy, respectively.Development of safe and efficient radiotherapy routines requires quantification of the delivered absorbed dose to the cancer tissue in individual patients. In vivo dosimetry can provide accurate information about the absorbed dose delivered during treatment. In the current study, a novel silver-nanosensor formulation based on poly(vinylpyrrolidinone)-coated silver nanoparticles formulated in a gelation matrix composed of sucrose acetate isobutyrate has been developed for use as an in vivo dosimeter for external beam radiotherapy. In situ photonuclear reactions trigger the formation of radioactive 106Ag, which enables post treatment verification of the delivered dose using positron emission tomography imaging. The

  17. Modeling and simulation of Positron Emission Mammography (PEM) based on double-sided CdTe strip detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozsahin, I.; Unlu, M. Z.

    2014-03-01

    Breast cancer is the most common leading cause of cancer death among women. Positron Emission Tomography (PET) Mammography, also known as Positron Emission Mammography (PEM), is a method for imaging primary breast cancer. Over the past few years, PEMs based on scintillation crystals dramatically increased their importance in diagnosis and treatment of early stage breast cancer. However, these detectors have significant limitations like poor energy resolution resulting with false-negative result (missed cancer), and false-positive result which leads to suspecting cancer and suggests an unnecessary biopsy. In this work, a PEM scanner based on CdTe strip detectors is simulated via the Monte Carlo method and evaluated in terms of its spatial resolution, sensitivity, and image quality. The spatial resolution is found to be ~ 1 mm in all three directions. The results also show that CdTe strip detectors based PEM scanner can produce high resolution images for early diagnosis of breast cancer.

  18. Development of EndoTOFPET-US, a multi-modal endoscope for ultrasound and time of flight positron emission tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pizzichemi, M.

    2014-02-01

    The EndoTOFPET-US project aims at delevoping a multi-modal imaging device that combines Ultrasound with Time-Of-Flight Positron Emission Tomography into an endoscopic imaging device. The goal is to obtain a coincidence time resolution of about 200 ps FWHM and sub-millimetric spatial resolution for the PET head, integrating the components in a very compact detector suitable for endoscopic use. The scanner will be exploited for the clinical test of new bio-markers especially targeted for prostate and pancreatic cancer as well as for diagnostic and surgical oncology. This paper focuses on the status of the Time-Of-Flight Positron Emission Tomograph under development for the EndoTOFPET-US project.

  19. Test-Retest Repeatability of Myocardial Blood Flow Measurements using Rubidium-82 Positron Emission Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Efseaff, Matthew

    Rubidium-82 positron emission tomography (PET) imaging has been proposed for routine myocardial blood flow (MBF) quantification. Few studies have investigated the test-retest repeatability of this method. Same-day repeatability of rest MBF imaging was optimized with a highly automated analysis program using image-derived input functions and a dual spillover correction (SOC). The effects of heterogeneous tracer infusion profiles and subject hemodynamics on test-retest repeatability were investigated at rest and during hyperemic stress. Factors affecting rest MBF repeatability included gender, suspected coronary artery disease, and dual SOC (p < 0.001). The best repeatability coefficient for same-day rest MBF was 0.20 mL/min/g using a six-minute scan-time, iterative reconstruction, dual SOC, resting rate-pressure-product (RPP) adjustment, and a left atrium image-derived input function. The serial study repeatabilities of the optimized protocol in subjects with homogeneous RPPs and tracer infusion profiles was 0.19 and 0.53 mL/min/g at rest and stress, and 0.95 for stress / rest myocardial flow reserve (MFR). Subjects with heterogeneous tracer infusion profiles and hemodynamic conditions had significantly less repeatable MBF measurements at rest, stress, and stress/rest flow reserve (p < 0.05).

  20. Iterative reconstruction using a Monte Carlo based system transfer matrix for dedicated breast positron emission tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Saha, Krishnendu; Straus, Kenneth J.; Glick, Stephen J.; Chen, Yu.

    2014-08-28

    To maximize sensitivity, it is desirable that ring Positron Emission Tomography (PET) systems dedicated for imaging the breast have a small bore. Unfortunately, due to parallax error this causes substantial degradation in spatial resolution for objects near the periphery of the breast. In this work, a framework for computing and incorporating an accurate system matrix into iterative reconstruction is presented in an effort to reduce spatial resolution degradation towards the periphery of the breast. The GATE Monte Carlo Simulation software was utilized to accurately model the system matrix for a breast PET system. A strategy for increasing the count statistics in the system matrix computation and for reducing the system element storage space was used by calculating only a subset of matrix elements and then estimating the rest of the elements by using the geometric symmetry of the cylindrical scanner. To implement this strategy, polar voxel basis functions were used to represent the object, resulting in a block-circulant system matrix. Simulation studies using a breast PET scanner model with ring geometry demonstrated improved contrast at 45% reduced noise level and 1.5 to 3 times resolution performance improvement when compared to MLEM reconstruction using a simple line-integral model. The GATE based system matrix reconstruction technique promises to improve resolution and noise performance and reduce image distortion at FOV periphery compared to line-integral based system matrix reconstruction.

  1. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Positron Emission Tomography (PET)/MRI for Lung Cancer Staging.

    PubMed

    Ohno, Yoshiharu; Koyama, Hisanobu; Lee, Ho Yun; Yoshikawa, Takeshi; Sugimura, Kazuro

    2016-07-01

    Tumor, lymph node, and metastasis (TNM) classification of lung cancer is typically performed with the TNM staging system, as recommended by the Union Internationale Contre le Cancer (UICC), the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC), and the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer (IASLC). Radiologic examinations for TNM staging of lung cancer patients include computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), positron emission tomography with 2-[fluorine-18] fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG-PET), and FDG-PET combined with CT (FDG-PET/CT) and are used for pretherapeutic assessments. Recent technical advances in MR systems, application of fast and parallel imaging and/or introduction of new MR techniques, and utilization of contrast media have markedly improved the diagnostic utility of MRI in this setting. In addition, FDG-PET can be combined or fused with MRI (PET/MRI) for clinical practice. This review article will focus on these recent advances in MRI as well as on PET/MRI for lung cancer staging, in addition to a discussion of their potential and limitations for routine clinical practice in comparison with other modalities such as CT, FDG-PET, and PET/CT. PMID:27075745

  2. High-resolution positron emission tomography/computed tomography imaging of the mouse heart.

    PubMed

    Greco, Adelaide; Fiumara, Giovanni; Gargiulo, Sara; Gramanzini, Matteo; Brunetti, Arturo; Cuocolo, Alberto

    2013-03-01

    Different animal models have been used to reproduce coronary heart disease, but in recent years mice have become the animals of choice, because of their short life cycle and the possibility of genetic manipulation. Various techniques are currently used for cardiovascular imaging in mice, including high-resolution ultrasound, X-ray computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging and nuclear medicine procedures. In particular, molecular imaging with cardiac positron emission tomography (PET) allows non-invasive evaluation of changes in myocardial perfusion, metabolism, apoptosis, inflammation and gene expression or measurement of changes in left ventricular functional parameters. With technological advances, dedicated small laboratory PET/CT imaging has emerged in cardiovascular research, providing in vivo a non-invasive, serial and quantitative assessment of left ventricular function, myocardial perfusion and metabolism at a molecular level. This non-invasive methodology might be useful in longitudinal studies to monitor cardiac biochemical parameters and might facilitate studies to assess the effect of different interventions after acute myocardial ischaemia. PMID:23118016

  3. Radiation dose to positron emission tomography technologists during quantitative versus qualitative studies.

    PubMed

    McCormick, V A; Miklos, J A

    1993-05-01

    Positron emission tomography technologists were monitored with thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) during qualitative and quantitative studies. Doses to technologists during specific tasks were also measured. The technologists received at least twice as much radiation during the quantitative as the qualitative studies. The average dose per study for qualitative studies was 0.017 mSv (1.7 mrem) shallow and 0.014 mSv (1.4 mrem) deep. The average dose per study for the quantitative studies was 0.05 mSv (5 mrem) shallow and 0.04 mSv (4 mrem) deep. The average dose per study was based on the TLD dose accumulated over studies conducted over four 2-mo and one 1-mo intervals. The dose incurred by the technologists each time they drew a radioactive dose was 0.002 mSv (0.2 mrem) shallow and 0.001 mSv (0.1 mrem) deep. The doses received during injection were 0.014 mSv (1.4 mrem) shallow and 0.007 mSv (0.7 mrem) deep. Doses received during blood sampling were 0.016 mSv (1.6 mrem) shallow and 0.014 mSv (1.4 mrem) deep. During quantitative studies, the technologist received a much greater dose than during its qualitative counterpart due to the blood sampling process and increased time in the room with the radioactive patient. PMID:8478709

  4. Oxygen extraction fraction measurement using quantitative susceptibility mapping: Comparison with positron emission tomography.

    PubMed

    Kudo, Kohsuke; Liu, Tian; Murakami, Toshiyuki; Goodwin, Jonathan; Uwano, Ikuko; Yamashita, Fumio; Higuchi, Satomi; Wang, Yi; Ogasawara, Kuniaki; Ogawa, Akira; Sasaki, Makoto

    2016-08-01

    The purposes of this study are to establish oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) measurements using quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and to compare QSM-OEF data with the gold standard (15)O positron emission tomography (PET). Twenty-six patients with chronic unilateral internal carotid artery or middle cerebral artery stenosis or occlusion, and 15 normal subjects were included. MRI scans were conducted using a 3.0 Tesla scanner with a three-dimensional spoiled gradient recalled sequence. QSM images were created using the morphology-enabled dipole inversion method, and OEF maps were generated from QSM images using extraction of venous susceptibility induced by deoxygenated hemoglobin. Significant correlation of relative OEF ratio to contra-lateral hemisphere between QSM-OEF and PET-OEF was observed (r = 0.62, p < 0.001). The local (intra-section) correlation was also significant (r = 0.52, p < 0.001) in patients with increased PET-OEF. The sensitivity and specificity of OEF increase in QSM was 0.63 (5/8) and 0.89 (16/18), respectively, in comparison with PET. In conclusion, good correlation was achieved between QSM-OEF and PET-OEF in the identification of elevated OEF in affected hemispheres of patients with unilateral chronic steno-occlusive disease. PMID:26661168

  5. Injectable silver nanosensors: in vivo dosimetry for external beam radiotherapy using positron emission tomography.

    PubMed

    Christensen, A N; Rydhög, J S; Søndergaard, R V; Andresen, T L; Holm, S; Munck Af Rosenschöld, P; Conradsen, K; Jølck, R I

    2016-06-01

    Development of safe and efficient radiotherapy routines requires quantification of the delivered absorbed dose to the cancer tissue in individual patients. In vivo dosimetry can provide accurate information about the absorbed dose delivered during treatment. In the current study, a novel silver-nanosensor formulation based on poly(vinylpyrrolidinone)-coated silver nanoparticles formulated in a gelation matrix composed of sucrose acetate isobutyrate has been developed for use as an in vivo dosimeter for external beam radiotherapy. In situ photonuclear reactions trigger the formation of radioactive (106)Ag, which enables post treatment verification of the delivered dose using positron emission tomography imaging. The silver-nanosensor was investigated in a tissue equivalent thorax phantom using clinical settings and workflow for both standard fractionated radiotherapy (2 Gy) and stereotactic radiotherapy (10- and 22 Gy) in a high-energy beam setting (18 MV). The developed silver-nanosensor provided high radiopacity on the planning CT-scans sufficient for patient positioning in image-guided radiotherapy and provided dosimetric information about the absorbed dose with a 10% and 8% standard deviation for the stereotactic regimens, 10 and 22 Gy, respectively. PMID:27174233

  6. Quality Assurance of Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography for Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Xing Lei

    2008-05-01

    Recent advances in radiation delivery techniques, such as intensity-modulated radiation therapy, provide unprecedented ability to exquisitely control three-dimensional dose distribution. Development of on-board imaging and other image-guidance methods significantly improved our ability to better target a radiation beam to the tumor volume. However, in reality, accurate definition of the location and boundary of the tumor target is still problematic. Biologic and physiologic imaging promises to solve the problem in a fundamental way and has a more and more important role in patient staging, treatment planning, and therapeutic assessment in radiation therapy clinics. The last decade witnessed a dramatic increase in the use of positron emission tomography and computed tomography in radiotherapy practice. To ensure safe and effective use of nuclide imaging, a rigorous quality assurance (QA) protocol of the imaging tools and integration of the imaging data must be in place. The application of nuclide imaging in radiation oncology occurs at different levels of sophistication. Quantitative use of the imaging data in treatment planning through image registration and standardized uptake value calculation is often involved. Thus, QA should not be limited to the performance of the scanner, but should also include the process of implementing image data in treatment planning, such as data transfer, image registration, and quantitation of data for delineation of tumors and sensitive structures. This presentation discusses various aspects of nuclide imaging as applied to radiotherapy and describes the QA procedures necessary for the success of biologic image-guided radiation therapy.

  7. [Recent technical research hot spots and development progresses in medical whole-body positron emission tomography].

    PubMed

    Shi, Han; Du, Dong; Su, Zhihong; Xu, Jianfeng; Zou, Yirong; Peng, Qiyu

    2015-02-01

    Medical whole-body positron emission tomography (PET), one of the most successful molecular imaging technologies, has been widely used in the fields of cancer diagnosis, cardiovascular disease diagnosis and cranial nerve study. But, on the other hand, the sensitivity, spatial resolution and signal-noise-ratio of the commercial medical whole-body PET systems still have some shortcomings and a great room for improvement. The sensitivity, spatial resolution and signal-noise-ratio of PET system are largely affected by the performances of the scintillators and the photo detectors. The design of a PET system is usually a trade-off in cost and performance. A better image quality can be achieved by optimizing and balancing the key components which affect the system performance the most without dramatically increases in cost. With the development of the scintillator, photo-detector and high speed electronic system, the performance of medical whole-body PET system would be dramatically improved. In this paper, we report current progresses and discuss future directions of the developments of technologies in medical whole-body PET system. PMID:25997296

  8. Performance evaluation of a dual-crystal APD-based detector modules for positron emission tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pepin, Catherine M.; Bérard, Philippe; Cadorette, Jules; Tétrault, Marc-André; Leroux, Jean-Daniel; Michaud, Jean-Baptiste; Robert, Stéfan; Dautet, Henri; Davies, Murray; Fontaine, Réjean; Lecomte, Roger

    2006-03-01

    Positron Emission Tomography (PET) scanners dedicated to small animal studies have seen a swift development in recent years. Higher spatial resolution, greater sensitivity and faster scanning procedures are the leading factors driving further improvements. The new LabPET TM system is a second-generation APD-based animal PET scanner that combines avalanche photodiode (APD) technology with a highly integrated, fully digital, parallel electronic architecture. This work reports on the performance characteristics of the LabPET quad detector module, which consists of LYSO/LGSO phoswich assemblies individually coupled to reach-through APDs. Individual crystals 2×2×~10 mm 3 in size are optically coupled in pair along one long side to form the phoswich detectors. Although the LYSO and LGSO photopeaks partially overlap, the good energy resolution and decay time difference allow for efficient crystal identification by pulse-shape discrimination. Conventional analog discrimination techniques result in significant misidentification, but advanced digital signal processing methods make it possible to circumvent this limitation, achieving virtually error-free decoding. Timing resolution results of 3.4 ns and 4.5 ns FWHM have been obtained for LYSO and LGSO, respectively, using analog CFD techniques. However, test bench measurements with digital techniques have shown that resolutions in the range of 2 to 4 ns FWHM can be achieved.

  9. Positron Emission Tomography Imaging of Tumor Cell Metabolism and Application to Therapy Response Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Challapalli, Amarnath; Aboagye, Eric O.

    2016-01-01

    Cancer cells do reprogram their energy metabolism to enable several functions, such as generation of biomass including membrane biosynthesis, and overcoming bioenergetic and redox stress. In this article, we review both established and evolving radioprobes developed in association with positron emission tomography (PET) to detect tumor cell metabolism and effect of treatment. Measurement of enhanced tumor cell glycolysis using 2-deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-D-glucose is well established in the clinic. Analogs of choline, including [11C]choline and various fluorinated derivatives are being tested in several cancer types clinically with PET. In addition to these, there is an evolving array of metabolic tracers for measuring intracellular transport of glutamine and other amino acids or for measuring glycogenesis, as well as probes used as surrogates for fatty acid synthesis or precursors for fatty acid oxidation. In addition to providing us with opportunities for examining the complex regulation of reprogramed energy metabolism in living subjects, the PET methods open up opportunities for monitoring pharmacological activity of new therapies that directly or indirectly inhibit tumor cell metabolism. PMID:26973812

  10. Positron emission tomography (PET) studies of dopaminergic/cholinergic interactions in the baboon brain

    SciTech Connect

    Dewey, S.L.; Brodie, J.D.; Fowler, J.S.; MacGregor, R.R.; Schlyer, D.J.; King, P.T.; Alexoff, D.L.; Volkow, N.D.; Shiue, C.Y.; Wolf, A.P. )

    1990-01-01

    Interactions between the dopaminergic D2 receptor system and the muscarinic cholinergic system in the corpus striatum of adult female baboons (Papio anubis) were examined using positron emission tomography (PET) combined with (18F)N-methylspiroperidol (( 18F)NMSP) (to probe D2 receptor availability) and (N-11C-methyl)benztropine (to probe muscarinic cholinergic receptor availability). Pretreatment with benztropine, a long-lasting anticholinergic drug, bilaterally reduced the incorporation of radioactivity in the corpus striatum but did not alter that observed in the cerebellum or the rate of metabolism of (18F)NMSP in plasma. Pretreatment with unlabelled NMSP, a potent dopaminergic antagonist, reduced the incorporation of (N-11C-methyl)benztropine in all brain regions, with the greatest effect being in the corpus striatum greater than cortex greater than thalamus greater than cerebellum, but did not alter the rate of metabolism of the labelled benztropine in the plasma. These reductions in the incorporation of either (18F)NMSP or (N-11C-methyl)benztropine exceeded the normal variation in tracer incorporation in repeated studies in the same animal. This study demonstrates that PET can be used as a tool for investigating interactions between neurochemically different yet functionally linked neurotransmitters systems in vivo and provides insight into the consequences of multiple pharmacologic administration.

  11. Quantitative myocardial perfusion imaging by cardiovascular magnetic resonance and positron emission tomography.

    PubMed

    Bratis, K; Mahmoud, I; Chiribiri, A; Nagel, E

    2013-10-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that a detailed knowledge of the extent of angiographic coronary artery disease (CAD) is not a prerequisite for clinical decision making, and the clinical management of patients with CAD is more and more focused towards the identification of myocardial ischemia and the quantification of ischemic burden. In this view, non-invasive assessment of ischemia and in particular stress imaging techniques are emerging as preferred and non-invasive options. A quantitative assessment of regional myocardial perfusion can provide an objective estimate of the severity of myocardial injury and may help clinicians to discriminate regions of the heart that are at increased risk for myocardial infarction. Positron emission tomography (PET) has established itself as the reference standard for myocardial blood flow (MBF) and myocardial perfusion reserve (MPR) quantification. Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) is increasingly used to measure MBF and MPR by means of first-pass signals, with a well-defined diagnostic performance and prognostic value. The aim of this article is to review the currently available evidence on the use of both PET and CMR for quantification of MPR, with particular attention to the studies that directly compared these two diagnostic methods. PMID:23868071

  12. A Novel Technology for the Imaging of Acidic Prostate Tumors by Positron Emission Tomography

    PubMed Central

    V vere, Amy L.; Biddlecombe, Gráinne B.; Spees, William M.; Garbow, Joel R.; Wijesinghe, Dayanjali; Andreev, Oleg A.; Engelman, Donald M.; Reshetnyak, Yana K.; Lewis, Jason S.

    2009-01-01

    Solid tumors often develop an acidic environment due to the Warburg Effect. The effectiveness of diagnosis and therapy may therefore be enhanced by the design and use of pH-sensitive agents that target acidic tumors. Recently, a novel technology was introduced to target acidic tumors using pHLIP (pH Low Insertion Peptide), a peptide that inserts across cell membranes as an α-helix when the extracellular pH is acidic. In this study we expanded the application of the pHLIP technology to include positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of the acidic environment in prostate tumors using 64Cu conjugated to the pHLIP peptide (64Cu-DOTA-pHLIP). Studies demonstrated that this construct avidly accumulated in LNCaP and PC-3 tumors, with higher uptake and retention in the LNCaP tumors. Uptake correlated with differences in the bulk extracellular pH (pHe) of PC-3 and LNCaP tumors measured in MR spectroscopy experiments by the 31P chemical shift of the extracellular pH marker 3-aminopropylphosphonate. This manuscript introduces a novel class of non-invasive pH-selective PET imaging agents and opens new research directions in the diagnosis of acidic solid tumors. PMID:19417132

  13. Exploring the nature of atheroma and cardiovascular inflammation in vivo using positron emission tomography (PET).

    PubMed

    Buscombe, J R

    2015-09-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) has become widely established in oncology. Subsequently, a whole new “toolbox” of tracers have become available to look at different aspects of cancer cell function and dysfunction, including cell protein production, DNA synthesis, hypoxia and angiogenesis. In the past 5 years, these tools have been used increasingly to look at the other great killer of the developed world: cardiovascular disease. For example, inflammation of the unstable plaque can be imaged with 18-fludeoxyglucose (18F-FDG), and this uptake can be quantified to show the effect that statins have in reducing inflammation and explains how these drugs can reduce the risk of stroke. 18F-FDG has also become established in diagnosing and monitoring large-vessel vasculitis and has now entered routine practice. Other agents such as gallium-68 (68Ga) octreotide have been shown to identify vascular inflammation possibly more specifically than 18FFDG.Hypoxia within the plaque can be imaged with 18F-fluoromisonidazole and resulting angiogenesis with 18F-RGD peptides. Active calcification such as that found in unstable atheromatous plaques can be imaged with 18F-NaF. PET imaging enables us to understand the mechanisms by which cardiovascular disease, including atheroma, leads tomorbidity and death and thus increases the chance of finding new and effective treatments. PMID:26110339

  14. Brain regional pharmacokinetics of /sup 11/C-labeled diphenylhydantoin: positron emission tomography in humans

    SciTech Connect

    Baron, J.C.; Roeda, D.; Munari, C.; Crouzel, C.; Chodkiewicz, J.P.; Comar, D.

    1983-05-01

    We used positron emission tomography to study the regional cerebral pharmacokinetics of /sup 11/C-labeled diphenylhydantoin (/sup 11/C-DPH), which was given intravenously to 10 patients (8 intractable partial epileptics and 2 nonepileptics). In the nonaffected hemisphere, /sup 11/C-DPH concentration in gray matter reached equilibrium with blood within 20 minutes but was still rising at 60 minutes in white matter, where equilibrium was too slow to be detected owing to the fast physical decay of /sup 11/C. Brain-blood concentration ratios at 50 minutes were 1.37 and 1.06 in gray and white matter, respectively, similar but less variable than steady-state DPH ratios reported in human brain surgical samples. There was no indication that normal brain regions of medically resistant epileptics bind DPH less effectively than in nonepileptic patients. Brain and blood /sup 11/C-DPH concentrations were well correlated, confirming that the latter gives a reliable estimate of the former in unaffected brain regions.

  15. An investigation into positron emission tomography contouring methods across two treatment planning systems

    SciTech Connect

    Young, Tony; Som, Seu; Sathiakumar, Chithradevi; Holloway, Lois

    2013-04-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging has been used to provide additional information regarding patient tumor location, size, and staging for radiotherapy treatment planning purposes. This additional information reduces interobserver variability and produces more consistent contouring. It is well recognized that different contouring methodology for PET data results in different contoured volumes. The goal of this study was to compare the difference in PET contouring methods for 2 different treatment planning systems using a phantom dataset and a series of patient datasets. Contouring methodology was compared on the ADAC Pinnacle Treatment Planning System and the CMS XiO Treatment Planning System. Contours were completed on the phantom and patient datasets using a number of PET contouring methods—the standardized uptake value 2.5 method, 30%, 40%, and 50% of the maximum uptake method and the signal to background ratio method. Differences of >15% were observed for PET-contoured volumes between the different treatment planning systems for the same data and the same PET contouring methodology. Contoured volume differences between treatment planning systems were caused by differences in data formatting and display and the different contouring tools available. Differences in treatment planning system as well as contouring methodology should be considered carefully in dose-volume contouring and reporting, especially between centers that may use different treatment planning systems or those that have several different treatment planning systems.

  16. Attenuation correction with region growing method used in the positron emission mammography imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Xiao-Yue; Li, Lin; Yin, Peng-Fei; Yun, Ming-Kai; Chai, Pei; Huang, Xian-Chao; Sun, Xiao-Li; Wei, Long

    2015-10-01

    The Positron Emission Mammography imaging system (PEMi) provides a novel nuclear diagnosis method dedicated for breast imaging. With a better resolution than whole body PET, PEMi can detect millimeter-sized breast tumors. To address the requirement of semi-quantitative analysis with a radiotracer concentration map of the breast, a new attenuation correction method based on a three-dimensional seeded region growing image segmentation (3DSRG-AC) method has been developed. The method gives a 3D connected region as the segmentation result instead of image slices. The continuity property of the segmentation result makes this new method free of activity variation of breast tissues. The threshold value chosen is the key process for the segmentation method. The first valley in the grey level histogram of the reconstruction image is set as the lower threshold, which works well in clinical application. Results show that attenuation correction for PEMi improves the image quality and the quantitative accuracy of radioactivity distribution determination. Attenuation correction also improves the probability of detecting small and early breast tumors. Supported by Knowledge Innovation Project of The Chinese Academy of Sciences (KJCX2-EW-N06)

  17. Visual form discrimination from color or motion cues: functional anatomy by positron emission tomography.

    PubMed Central

    Gulyás, B; Heywood, C A; Popplewell, D A; Roland, P E; Cowey, A

    1994-01-01

    To explore the extent to which various cortical functional pathways are involved in processing and analyzing different types of information that yield the same perceptual entity, we mapped anatomical structures in the human brain participating in the discrimination of visual forms mediated either by motion or color cues. Changes in regional cerebral blood flow were measured in 10 young male volunteers with positron emission tomography and with [15O]butanol. During the measurements, the subjects performed four visual discrimination tasks (form-from-motion, motion alone, form-from-color, and color alone discrimination). The individual regional cerebral blood flow images were standardized in shape and size with the help of a computerized brain atlas. Subtraction images were determined and averaged across data from all subjects. The resulting images were analyzed for statistically significant changes between specific and reference tasks. The discrimination of form by means of motion cues activated functional fields bilaterally in the inferior and lateral occipital gyri, in the lingual, anterior cingulate, middle frontal and orbitofrontal gyri, and in the left fusiform and right inferior temporal gyri. Form discrimination by color cues resulted in activation bilaterally in the inferior temporal, lateral occipital, and orbitofrontal gyri, the left precuneus and intraparietal sulcus, and the right precentral gyrus. The regions engaged in the two kinds of form discrimination did not overlap, demonstrating that differences in visual forms mediated by color or motion cues are processed and analyzed by disparate networks of functional fields in human cerebral cortex. Images PMID:7937927

  18. Cerebral hypometabolism in progressive supranuclear palsy studied with positron emission tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, N.L.; Gilman, S.; Berent, S.; Morin, E.M.; Brown, M.B.; Koeppe, R.A.

    1988-09-01

    Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) is characterized by supranuclear palsy of gaze, axial dystonia, bradykinesia, rigidity, and a progressive dementia. Pathological changes in this disorder are generally restricted to subcortical structures, yet the type and range of cognitive deficits suggest the involvement of many cerebral regions. We examined the extent of functional impairment to cerebral cortical and subcortical structures as measured by the level of glucose metabolic activity at rest. Fourteen patients with PSP were compared to 21 normal volunteers of similar age using 18F-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose and positron emission tomography. Glucose metabolism was reduced in the caudate nucleus, putamen, thalamus, pons, and cerebral cortex, but not in the cerebellum in the patients with PSP as compared to the normal subjects. Analysis of individual brain regions revealed significant declines in cerebral glucose utilization in most regions throughout the cerebral cortex, particularly those in the superior half of the frontal lobe. Declines in the most affected regions of cerebral cortex were greater than those in any single subcortical structure. Although using conventional neuropathological techniques the cerebral cortex appears to be unaffected in PSP, significant and pervasive functional impairments in both cortical and subcortical structures are present. These observations help to account for the constellation of cognitive symptoms in individual patients with PSP and the difficulty encountered in identifying a characteristic psychometric profile for this group of patients.

  19. Dosimetric estimates for clinical positron emission tomographic scanning after injection of ( sup 18 F)-6-fluorodopamine

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, D.S.; Chang, P.C.; Smith, C.B.; Herscovitch, P.; Austin, S.M.; Eisenhofer, G.; Kopin, I.J. )

    1991-01-01

    Positron emission tomographic (PET) scanning after systemic i.v. injection of fluorine-18-6-fluorodopamine (({sup 18}F)-6F-DA) is a method for visualizing and measuring regional sympathetic nervous system innervation and function. Based on results of preclinical studies of rats and dogs and on previous literature about the fate of injected tracer-labeled catecholamines, dosimetric estimates for clinical studies are presented here. After injection of 1 mCi of ({sup 18}F)-F-DA, the radiation dose would be highest to the wall of the urinary bladder (1.40 rem/mCi), due to accumulation of radioactive metabolites of ({sup 18}F)-F-DA in urine. Radioactivity also would accumulate in bile. Organs receiving the next highest dose would be the kidneys (0.9 rem/mCi) and small intestine (0.2 rem/mCi). The parenchymal radiation dose would be lowest in the brain, since there is an effective blood-brain barrier for circulating catecholamines. Radiation doses to all organs after administration of 1 mCi of ({sup 18}F)-F-DA to humans would be less than 3 rem and, therefore, within current FDA guidelines.

  20. Positron Emission Tomography Reveals Abnormal Topological Organization in Functional Brain Network in Diabetic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Xiangzhe; Zhang, Yanjun; Feng, Hongbo; Jiang, Donglang

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated alterations in the topological organization of structural brain networks in diabetes mellitus (DM). However, the DM-related changes in the topological properties in functional brain networks are unexplored so far. We therefore used fluoro-D-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) data to construct functional brain networks of 73 DM patients and 91 sex- and age-matched normal controls (NCs), followed by a graph theoretical analysis. We found that both DM patients and NCs had a small-world topology in functional brain network. In comparison to the NC group, the DM group was found to have significantly lower small-world index, lower normalized clustering coefficients and higher normalized characteristic path length. Moreover, for diabetic patients, the nodal centrality was significantly reduced in the right rectus, the right cuneus, the left middle occipital gyrus, and the left postcentral gyrus, and it was significantly increased in the orbitofrontal region of the left middle frontal gyrus, the left olfactory region, and the right paracentral lobule. Our results demonstrated that the diabetic brain was associated with disrupted topological organization in the functional PET network, thus providing functional evidence for the abnormalities of brain networks in DM. PMID:27303259

  1. Imaging Multimodalities for Dissecting Alzheimer's Disease: Advanced Technologies of Positron Emission Tomography and Fluorescence Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Shimojo, Masafumi; Higuchi, Makoto; Suhara, Tetsuya; Sahara, Naruhiko

    2015-01-01

    The rapid progress in advanced imaging technologies has expanded our toolbox for monitoring a variety of biological aspects in living subjects including human. In vivo radiological imaging using small chemical tracers, such as with positron emission tomography, represents an especially vital breakthrough in the efforts to improve our understanding of the complicated cascade of neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's disease (AD), and it has provided the most reliable visible biomarkers for enabling clinical diagnosis. At the same time, in combination with genetically modified animal model systems, the most recent innovation of fluorescence imaging is helping establish diverse applications in basic neuroscience research, from single-molecule analysis to animal behavior manipulation, suggesting the potential utility of fluorescence technology for dissecting the detailed molecular-based consequence of AD pathophysiology. In this review, our primary focus is on a current update of PET radiotracers and fluorescence indicators beneficial for understanding the AD cascade, and discussion of the utility and pitfalls of those imaging modalities for future translational research applications. We will also highlight current cutting-edge genetic approaches and discuss how to integrate individual technologies for further potential innovations. PMID:26733795

  2. Positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance imaging: the next generation of multimodality imaging?

    PubMed

    Pichler, Bernd J; Wehrl, Hans F; Kolb, Armin; Judenhofer, Martin S

    2008-05-01

    Multimodal imaging is now well-established in routine clinical practice. Especially in the field of nuclear medicine, new positron emission tomography (PET) installations comprise almost exclusively combined PET/computed tomography (CT) scanners rather than PET-only systems. However, PET/CT has certain notable shortcomings, including the inability to perform simultaneous data acquisition and the significant radiation dose to the patient contributed by CT. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) offers, compared with CT, better contrast among soft tissues as well as functional-imaging capabilities. Therefore, the combination of PET with MRI provides many advantages that go far beyond simply combining functional PET information with structural MRI information. Many technical challenges, including possible interference between these modalities, have to be solved when combining PET and MRI, and various approaches have been adapted to resolving these issues. Here, we present an overview of current working prototypes of combined PET/MRI scanners from different groups. In addition, besides PET/MRI images of mice, the first such images of a rat acquired with the first commercial clinical PET/MRI scanner, are presented. The combination of PET and MRI is a promising tool in preclinical research and will certainly progress to clinical application. PMID:18396179

  3. Positron Emission Tomography (PET) Quantification of GABAA Receptors in the Brain of Fragile X Patients

    PubMed Central

    Van der Aa, Nathalie; Goffin, Karolien; Koole, Michel; Porke, Kathleen; Van De Velde, Marc; Rooms, Liesbeth; Van Paesschen, Wim; Van Esch, Hilde; Van Laere, Koen; Kooy, R. Frank

    2015-01-01

    Over the last several years, evidence has accumulated that the GABAA receptor is compromised in animal models for fragile X syndrome (FXS), a common hereditary form of intellectual disability. In mouse and fly models, agonists of the GABAA receptor were able to rescue specific consequences of the fragile X mutation. Here, we imaged and quantified GABAA receptors in vivo in brain of fragile X patients using Positron Emission Topography (PET) and [11C]flumazenil, a known high-affinity and specific ligand for the benzodiazepine site of GABAA receptors. We measured regional GABAA receptor availability in 10 fragile X patients and 10 control subjects. We found a significant reduction of on average 10% in GABAA receptor binding potential throughout the brain in fragile X patients. In the thalamus, the brain region showing the largest difference, the GABAA receptor availability was even reduced with 17%. This is one of the first reports of a PET study of human fragile X brain and directly demonstrates that the GABAA receptor availability is reduced in fragile X patients. The study reinforces previous hypotheses that the GABAA receptor is a potential target for rational pharmacological treatment of fragile X syndrome. PMID:26222316

  4. New Glucocyclic RGD Dimers for Positron Emission Tomography Imaging of Tumor Integrin Receptors.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ji Woong; Park, Ji-Ae; Lee, Yong Jin; Shin, Un Chol; Kim, Suhng Wook; Kim, Byung Il; Lim, Sang Moo; An, Gwang Il; Kim, Jung Young; Lee, Kyo Chul

    2016-08-01

    Most studies of radiolabeled arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) peptides have shown in vitro affinity for integrin ανβ3, allowing for the targeting of receptor-positive tumors in vivo. However, major differences have been found in the pharmacokinetic profiles of different radiolabeled RGD peptide analogs. The purposes of this study were to prepare (64)Cu-DOTA-gluco-E[c(RGDfK)]2 (R8), (64)Cu-NOTA-gluco-E[c(RGDfK)]2 (R9), and (64)Cu-NODAGA-gluco-E[c(RGDfK)]2 (R10) and compare their pharmacokinetics and tumor imaging properties using small-animal positron emission tomography (PET). All three compounds were produced with high specific activity within 10 minutes. The IC50 values were similar for all the substances, and their affinities were greater than that of c(RGDyK). R8, R9, and R10 were stable for 24 hours in human and mouse serums and showed high uptake in U87MG tumors with high tumor-to-blood ratios. Compared to the control, a cyclic RGD peptide dimer without glucosamine, R10, showed low uptake in the liver. Because of their good imaging qualities and improved pharmacokinetics, (64)Cu-labeled dimer RGD conjugates (R8, R9, and R10) may have potential applications as PET radiotracers. R9 (NOTA) with highly in vivo stability consequentially showed an improved PET tumor uptake than R8 (DOTA) or R10 (NODAGA). PMID:27403677

  5. Is there any role of positron emission tomography computed tomography for predicting resectability of gallbladder cancer?

    PubMed

    Kim, Jaihwan; Ryu, Ji Kon; Kim, Chulhan; Paeng, Jin Chul; Kim, Yong-Tae

    2014-05-01

    The role of integrated (18)F-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography computed tomography (PET-CT) is uncertain in gallbladder cancer. The aim of this study was to show the role of PET-CT in gallbladder cancer patients. Fifty-three patients with gallbladder cancer underwent preoperative computed tomography (CT) and PET-CT scans. Their medical records were retrospectively reviewed. Twenty-six patients underwent resection. Based on the final outcomes, PET-CT was in good agreement (0.61 to 0.80) with resectability whereas CT was in acceptable agreement (0.41 to 0.60) with resectability. When the diagnostic accuracy of the predictions for resectability was calculated with the ROC curve, the accuracy of PET-CT was higher than that of CT in patients who underwent surgical resection (P=0.03), however, there was no difference with all patients (P=0.12). CT and PET-CT had a discrepancy in assessing curative resection in nine patients. These consisted of two false negative and four false positive CT results (11.3%) and three false negative PET-CT results (5.1%). PET-CT was in good agreement with the final outcomes compared to CT. As a complementary role of PEC-CT to CT, PET-CT tended to show better prediction about resectability than CT, especially due to unexpected distant metastasis. PMID:24851025

  6. [(18)F]-Group 13 fluoride derivatives as radiotracers for positron emission tomography.

    PubMed

    Chansaenpak, Kantapat; Vabre, Boris; Gabbaï, François P

    2016-02-21

    The field of (18)F chemistry is rapidly expanding because of the use of this radionuclide in radiotracers for positron emission tomography (PET). Until recently, most [(18)F]-radiotracers were generated by the direct attachment of (18)F to a carbon in the organic backbone of the radiotracer. The past decade has witnessed the emergence of a new strategy based on the formation of an (18)F-group 13 element bond. This approach, which is rooted in the field of fluoride anion complexation/coordination chemistry, has led to the development of a remarkable family of boron, aluminium and gallium [(18)F]-fluoride anion complexing agents which can be conjugated with peptides and small molecules to generate disease specific PET radiotracers. This review is dedicated to the chemistry of these group 13 [(18)F]-fluorides anion complexing agents and their use in PET. Some of the key fluoride-binding motifs covered in this review include the trifluoroborate unit bound to neutral or cationic electron deficient backbones, the BF2 unit of BODIPY dyes, and AlF or GaF3 units coordinated to multidentate Lewis basic ligands. In addition to describing how these moieties can be converted into their [(18)F]-analogs, this review also dicusses their incorporation into bioconjugates for application in PET. PMID:26548467

  7. FPGA-Based Front-End Electronics for Positron Emission Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Haselman, Michael; DeWitt, Don; McDougald, Wendy; Lewellen, Thomas K.; Miyaoka, Robert; Hauck, Scott

    2010-01-01

    Modern Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) are capable of performing complex discrete signal processing algorithms with clock rates above 100MHz. This combined with FPGA’s low expense, ease of use, and selected dedicated hardware make them an ideal technology for a data acquisition system for positron emission tomography (PET) scanners. Our laboratory is producing a high-resolution, small-animal PET scanner that utilizes FPGAs as the core of the front-end electronics. For this next generation scanner, functions that are typically performed in dedicated circuits, or offline, are being migrated to the FPGA. This will not only simplify the electronics, but the features of modern FPGAs can be utilizes to add significant signal processing power to produce higher resolution images. In this paper two such processes, sub-clock rate pulse timing and event localization, will be discussed in detail. We show that timing performed in the FPGA can achieve a resolution that is suitable for small-animal scanners, and will outperform the analog version given a low enough sampling period for the ADC. We will also show that the position of events in the scanner can be determined in real time using a statistical positioning based algorithm. PMID:21961085

  8. Brain Metabolism of Less-Educated Patients With Alzheimer Dementia Studied by Positron Emission Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yu Ching; Yen, Pao Sheng; Wu, Shwu Tzy; Chen, Jung Tai; Hung, Gung Uei; Kao, Chia Hung; Chen, Tai Yee; Ho, Feng Ming

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Alzheimer dementia (AD) is the commonest form of dementia. Although illiteracy is associated with high prevalence of dementia of the Alzheimer type (DAT), their relationship is still unclear. Nevertheless, mild DAT in illiterate participants seems to be due to brain atrophy. In this study, we compared the impact of brain metabolism efficiency in healthy participants and less-educated patients with mild DAT using 2-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose (18F-FDG-PET) positron emission tomography. Out of 43 eligible less-educated participants with dementia, only 23 (14 women and 9 men) met Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM)-III-R or DSM-IV criteria for DAT and AD and were included. Participants with intracranial insults were excluded by brain magnetic resonance imaging and participants with metabolic or systemic conditions were excluded by blood sampling. In addition, 16 cognitively normal elderly (age >70 years), including 7 women and 9 men, were enrolled in the sham group. The PET imaging data were analyzed using statistical parametric mapping (SPM8) to determine reliability and specificity. Glucose metabolic rate was low in the DAT group, especially in the middle temporal gyrus, middle frontal gyrus, superior frontal gyrus, inferior frontal gyrus, posterior cingulate gyrus, angular gyrus, parahippocampal gyrus, middle occipital gyrus, rectal gyrus, and lingual gyrus. Our results showed that DAT patients with less education not only have prominent clinical signs and symptoms related to dementia but also decreased gray matter metabolism. PMID:26222866

  9. Photo-Detectors for Time of Flight Positron Emission Tomography (ToF-PET)

    PubMed Central

    Spanoudaki, Virginia Ch.; Levin⋆, Craig S.

    2010-01-01

    We present the most recent advances in photo-detector design employed in time of flight positron emission tomography (ToF-PET). PET is a molecular imaging modality that collects pairs of coincident (temporally correlated) annihilation photons emitted from the patient body. The annihilation photon detector typically comprises a scintillation crystal coupled to a fast photo-detector. ToF information provides better localization of the annihilation event along the line formed by each detector pair, resulting in an overall improvement in signal to noise ratio (SNR) of the reconstructed image. Apart from the demand for high luminosity and fast decay time of the scintillation crystal, proper design and selection of the photo-detector and methods for arrival time pick-off are a prerequisite for achieving excellent time resolution required for ToF-PET. We review the two types of photo-detectors used in ToF-PET: photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) and silicon photo-multipliers (SiPMs) with a special focus on SiPMs. PMID:22163482

  10. TOPICAL REVIEW: Biological imaging in radiation therapy: role of positron emission tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nestle, Ursula; Weber, Wolfgang; Hentschel, Michael; Grosu, Anca-Ligia

    2009-01-01

    In radiation therapy (RT), staging, treatment planning, monitoring and evaluation of response are traditionally based on computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). These radiological investigations have the significant advantage to show the anatomy with a high resolution, being also called anatomical imaging. In recent years, so called biological imaging methods which visualize metabolic pathways have been developed. These methods offer complementary imaging of various aspects of tumour biology. To date, the most prominent biological imaging system in use is positron emission tomography (PET), whose diagnostic properties have clinically been evaluated for years. The aim of this review is to discuss the valences and implications of PET in RT. We will focus our evaluation on the following topics: the role of biological imaging for tumour tissue detection/delineation of the gross tumour volume (GTV) and for the visualization of heterogeneous tumour biology. We will discuss the role of fluorodeoxyglucose-PET in lung and head and neck cancer and the impact of amino acids (AA)-PET in target volume delineation of brain gliomas. Furthermore, we summarize the data of the literature about tumour hypoxia and proliferation visualized by PET. We conclude that, regarding treatment planning in radiotherapy, PET offers advantages in terms of tumour delineation and the description of biological processes. However, to define the real impact of biological imaging on clinical outcome after radiotherapy, further experimental, clinical and cost/benefit analyses are required.

  11. Role of positron emission tomography-computed tomography in non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Garg, Pankaj Kumar; Singh, Saurabh Kumar; Prakash, Gaurav; Jakhetiya, Ashish; Pandey, Durgatosh

    2016-03-26

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Non-small cell carcinoma and small cell carcinoma are the main histological subtypes and constitutes around 85% and 15% of all lung cancer respectively. Multimodality treatment plays a key role in the successful management of lung cancer depending upon the histological subtype, stage of disease, and performance status. Imaging modalities play an important role in the diagnosis and accurate staging of the disease, in assessing the response to neoadjuvant therapy, and in the follow-up of the patients. Last decade has witnessed voluminous upsurge in the use of positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT); role of PET-CT has widened exponentially in the management of lung cancer. The present article reviews the role of 18-fluoro-deoxyglucose PET-CT in the management of non small cell lung cancer with emphasis on staging of the disease and the assessment of response to neoadjuvant therapy based on available literature. PMID:27018223

  12. Clinical Utility of Positron Emission Tomography Magnetic Resonance Imaging (PET-MRI) in Gastrointestinal Cancers.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Robert; Choi, Minsig

    2016-01-01

    Anatomic imaging utilizing both CT (computed tomography) and MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) limits the assessment of cancer metastases in lymph nodes and distant organs while functional imaging like PET (positron emission tomography) scan has its limitation in spatial resolution capacity. Hybrid imaging utilizing PET-CT and PET-MRI are novel imaging modalities that are changing the current landscape in cancer diagnosis, staging, and treatment response. MRI has shown to have higher sensitivity in soft tissue, head and neck pathology, and pelvic disease, as well as, detecting small metastases in the liver and bone compared to CT. Combining MRI with PET allows for detection of metastases that may have been missed with current imaging modalities. In this review, we will examine the clinical utility of FDG PET-MRI in the diagnosis and staging of gastrointestinal cancers with focus on esophageal, stomach, colorectal, and pancreatic cancers. We will also explore its role in treatment response and future directions associated with it. PMID:27618106

  13. Novel electro-optical coupling technique for magnetic resonance-compatible positron emission tomography detectors.

    PubMed

    Olcott, Peter D; Peng, Hao; Levin, Craig S

    2009-01-01

    A new magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-compatible positron emission tomography (PET) detector design is being developed that uses electro-optical coupling to bring the amplitude and arrival time information of high-speed PET detector scintillation pulses out of an MRI system. The electro-optical coupling technology consists of a magnetically insensitive photodetector output signal connected to a nonmagnetic vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL) diode that is coupled to a multimode optical fiber. This scheme essentially acts as an optical wire with no influence on the MRI system. To test the feasibility of this approach, a lutetium-yttrium oxyorthosilicate crystal coupled to a single pixel of a solid-state photomultiplier array was placed in coincidence with a lutetium oxyorthosilicate crystal coupled to a fast photomultiplier tube with both the new nonmagnetic VCSEL coupling and the standard coaxial cable signal transmission scheme. No significant change was observed in 511 keV photopeak energy resolution and coincidence time resolution. This electro-optical coupling technology enables an MRI-compatible PET block detector to have a reduced electromagnetic footprint compared with the signal transmission schemes deployed in the current MRI/PET designs. PMID:19397853

  14. Mycosis fungoides: Positron emission tomography/computed tomography in staging and monitoring the effect of therapy

    PubMed Central

    D’Souza, Maria Mathew; D’Souza, Paschal; Sharma, Rajnish; Jaimini, Abhinav; Mondal, Anupam

    2015-01-01

    A 58-year-old woman, diagnosed as a case of mycosis fungoides (MF), underwent [18F]-fluoro-D-glucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG PET/CT) examination. The study revealed intense FDG uptake in a large ulceroproliferative right thigh lesion, indurated plaques in the chest wall and left thigh, along with multiple sites of cutaneous involvement, axillary and inguinal lymphadenopathy. The patient underwent chemotherapy with CHOP regimen, radiotherapy for the right thigh lesion, along with topical corticosteroids and emollients for the disseminated cutaneous involvement. Repeat [18F]-FDG PET/CT study performed a year later, showed near complete disease regression specifically of the ulceroproliferative lesion and indurated cutaneous plaques, no change in lymphadenopathy, and a subtle diffuse progression of the remaining cutaneous lesions. A multidisciplinary approach to the diagnosis, staging and treatment of MF has long been suggested for optimizing outcomes from management of patients with this disease. This case highlights the potential role of incorporating PET/CT as a single modality imaging technique in the staging and assessment of response to therapy. PMID:25829740

  15. Low background high efficiency radiocesium detection system based on positron emission tomography technology

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, Seiichi; Ogata, Yoshimune

    2013-09-15

    After the 2011 nuclear power plant accident at Fukushima, radiocesium contamination in food became a serious concern in Japan. However, low background and high efficiency radiocesium detectors are expensive and huge, including semiconductor germanium detectors. To solve this problem, we developed a radiocesium detector by employing positron emission tomography (PET) technology. Because {sup 134}Cs emits two gamma photons (795 and 605 keV) within 5 ps, they can selectively be measured with coincidence. Such major environmental gamma photons as {sup 40}K (1.46 MeV) are single photon emitters and a coincidence measurement reduces the detection limit of radiocesium detectors. We arranged eight sets of Bi{sub 4}Ge{sub 3}O{sub 12} (BGO) scintillation detectors in double rings (four for each ring) and measured the coincidence between these detectors using PET data acquisition system. A 50 × 50 × 30 mm BGO was optically coupled to a 2 in. square photomultiplier tube (PMT). By measuring the coincidence, we eliminated most single gamma photons from the energy distribution and only detected those from {sup 134}Cs at an average efficiency of 12%. The minimum detectable concentration of the system for the 100 s acquisition time is less than half of the food monitor requirements in Japan (25 Bq/kg). These results show that the developed radiocesium detector based on PET technology is promising to detect low level radiocesium.

  16. Hydrogen-bond promoted nucleophilic fluorination: concept, mechanism and applications in positron emission tomography.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ji-Woong; Oliveira, Maria Teresa; Jang, Hyeong Bin; Lee, Sungyul; Chi, Dae Yoon; Kim, Dong Wook; Song, Choong Eui

    2016-08-22

    Due to the tremendous interest in carbon-fluorine bond-forming reactions, research efforts in this area have been dedicated to the development of facile processes to synthesize small fluorine-containing organic molecules. Among others, PET (Positron Emission Tomography) is one of the most important applications of fluorine chemistry. Recognizing the specific requirements of PET processes, some groups have focused on fluorination reactions using alkali metal fluorides, particularly through SN2-type reactions. However, a common "misconception" about the role of protic solvents and hydrogen bonding interactions in this class of reactions has hampered the employment of these excellent promoters. Herein, we would like to review recent discoveries in this context, showing straightforward nucleophilic fluorination reactions using alkali metal fluorides promoted by protic solvents. Simultaneous dual activation of reacting partners by intermolecular hydrogen bonding and the enhancement of the "effective fluoride nucleophilicity", which is Nature's biocatalytic approach with the fluorinase enzyme, are the key to this unprecedentedly successful nucleophilic fluorination. PMID:27264160

  17. Digital signal processing applied to crystal identification in Positron Emission Tomography dedicated to small animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontaine, Réjean; Viscogliosi, Nicolas; Semmaoui, Hicham; Bélanger, François; Lemieux, François; Tétrault, Marc-André; Michaud, Jean-Baptiste; Bérard, Philippe; Cadorette, Jules; Pepin, Catherine M.; Lecomte, Roger

    2007-02-01

    The recent introduction of all-digital electronic architecture in Positron Emission Tomography (PET) scanners, enables new paradigms to be explored for extracting relevant information from the detector signals, such as energy, time and crystal identification. The LabPET™ small animal scanner, which implements free-running 45-MHz sampling directly at the output of the charge sensitive preamplifiers, provides an excellent platform to test such advanced digital algorithms. A real-time identification method, based on an Auto-Regressive Moving-Average (ARMA) scheme, was tested for discriminating between LYSO (t r˜40 ns) and LGSO (t r˜65 ns) scintillators in phoswich detectors, coupled to a single Avalanche Photodiode (APD). Even with a low energy threshold of 250 keV applied individually, error rates<4% can be achieved, as compared to >10%, typically with conventional analog pulse shape discrimination techniques. Such digital crystal identification techniques can be readily implemented with phoswich detectors for improving spatial resolution in PET, either by increasing crystal pixellization or by mitigating parallax errors through depth-of-interaction determination. It also allows to reduce the event rate presented to the real-time coincidence engine by applying a low energy limit at the crystal granularity and rejecting more Compton photons.

  18. Radiolabelling diverse positron emission tomography (PET) tracers using a single digital microfluidic reactor chip.

    PubMed

    Chen, Supin; Javed, Muhammad Rashed; Kim, Hee-Kwon; Lei, Jack; Lazari, Mark; Shah, Gaurav J; van Dam, R Michael; Keng, Pei-Yuin; Kim, Chang-Jin C J

    2014-03-01

    Radiotracer synthesis is an ideal application for microfluidics because only nanogram quantities are needed for positron emission tomography (PET) imaging. Thousands of radiotracers have been developed in research settings but only a few are readily available, severely limiting the biological problems that can be studied in vivo via PET. We report the development of an electrowetting-on-dielectric (EWOD) digital microfluidic chip that can synthesize a variety of (18)F-labeled tracers targeting a range of biological processes by confirming complete syntheses of four radiotracers: a sugar, a DNA nucleoside, a protein labelling compound, and a neurotransmitter. The chip employs concentric multifunctional electrodes that are used for heating, temperature sensing, and EWOD actuation. All of the key synthesis steps for each of the four (18)F-labeled tracers are demonstrated and characterized with the chip: concentration of fluoride ion, solvent exchange, and chemical reactions. The obtained fluorination efficiencies of 90-95% are comparable to, or greater than, those achieved by conventional approaches. PMID:24352530

  19. Whole body positron emission tomography imaging of simian immunodeficiency virus-infected rhesus macaques.

    PubMed Central

    Scharko, A M; Perlman, S B; Hinds PW2nd; Hanson, J M; Uno, H; Pauza, C D

    1996-01-01

    Pathogenesis of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection in rhesus macaques begins with acute viremia and then progresses to a distributed infection in the solid lymphoid tissues, which is followed by a process of cellular destruction leading to terminal disease and death. Blood and tissue specimens show the progress of infection at the cellular level but do not reveal the pattern of infection and host responses occurring throughout the body. The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether positron emission tomography (PET) imaging with intravenous 2-18F-2-deoxyglucose (FDG) could identify activated lymphoid tissues in a living animal and whether this pattern would reflect the extent of SIV infection. PET images from SIV-infected animals were distinguishable from uninfected controls and revealed a pattern consistent with widespread lymphoid tissue activation. Significant FDG accumulation in colon along with mesenteric and ileocaecal lymph nodes was found in SIV infection, especially during terminal disease stages. Areas of elevated FDG uptake in the PET images were correlated with productive SIV infection using in situ hybridization as a test for virus replication. PET-FDG images of SIV-infected animals correlated sites of virus replication with high FDG accumulation. These data show that the method can be used to evaluate the distribution and activity of infected tissues in a living animal without biopsy. Fewer tissues had high FDG uptake in terminal animals than midstage animals, and both were clearly distinguishable from uninfected animal scans. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:8692831

  20. In vivo positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of mesenchymal-epithelial transition (MET) receptor.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chunying; Tang, Zhe; Fan, Weiwen; Zhu, Wenxia; Wang, Changning; Somoza, Edurado; Owino, Norbert; Li, Ruoshi; Ma, Patrick C; Wang, Yanming

    2010-01-14

    We report the radiosynthesis and evaluation of 3-[3,5-dimethyl-4-(4-[11C]methylpiperazinecarbonyl)-1H-pyrrol-2-ylmethylene]-2-oxo-2,3-dihydro-1H-indole-5-sulfonic acid (3-chlorophenyl)methylamide, termed [11C]SU11274 ([11C]14) for in vivo imaging of mesenchymal-epithelial transition (MET) receptor by positron emission tomography (PET). Following the synthesis of the precursor (13) that was achieved in 10 steps with a total yield of 9.7%, [11C]14 was obtained through radiomethylation in a range of 5-10% radiochemical yield and over 95% radiochemical purity. For in vivo PET studies, two human lung cancer xenograft models were established using MET-positive NCI-H1975 and MET-negative NCI-H520 cell lines. Quantitative [11C]14-PET studies showed that the tumor uptake of [11C]14 in the NCI-H1975 xenografts was significantly higher than that in the NCI-H520 xenografts, which is consistent with their corresponding immunohistochemical tissue staining patterns of MET receptors from the same animals. These studies demonstrated that [11C]14-PET is an appropriate imaging marker for quantification of MET receptor in vivo, which can facilitate efficacy evaluation in the clinical development of MET-targeted cancer therapeutics. PMID:19968287