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Sample records for 18f-labeled rgd dimer

  1. Imaging integrin alpha-v-beta-3 expression in tumors with an 18F-labeled dimeric RGD peptide

    PubMed Central

    Dijkgraaf, Ingrid; Terry, Samantha; McBride, William J.; Goldenberg, David M.; Laverman, Peter; Franssen, Gerben M.; Oyen, Wim J. G.; Boerman, Otto C.

    2014-01-01

    Integrin αvβ3 receptors are expressed on activated endothelial cells during neovascularization to maintain tumor growth. Many radiolabeled probes utilize the tight and specific association between the arginine-glycine-aspartatic acid (RGD) peptide and integrin αvβ3, but one main obstacle for any clinical application of these probes is the laborious multistep radiosynthesis of 18F. In this study, the dimeric RGD peptide, E-[c(RGDfK)]2, was conjugated with NODAGA and radiolabeled with 18F in a simple one-pot process with a radiolabeling yield of 20%; the whole process lasting only 45 min. NODAGA-E-[c(RGDfK)]2 labeled with 18F at a specific activity of 1.8 MBq/nmol and a radiochemical purity of 100% could be achieved. Log P value of 18F-labeled NODAGA-E-[c(RGDfK)]2 was −4.26 ± 0.02. In biodistribution studies, 18F-NODAGA-E-[c(RGDfK)]2 cleared rapidly from the blood with 0.03 ± 0.01 %ID/g in the blood at 2 h p.i., mainly via the kidneys and showed good in vivo stability. Tumor uptake of 18F-NODAGA-E-[c(RGDfK)]2 (3.44 ± 0.20 %ID/g, 2 h p.i.) was significantly lower than that of reference compounds 68Ga-labeled NODAGA-E-[c(RGDfK)]2 (6.26 ± 0.76 %ID/g; P <0.001) and 111In-labeled NODAGA-E-[c(RGDfK)]2 (4.99 ± 0.64 %ID/g; P < 0.01). Co-injection of an excess of unlabeled NODAGA-E-[c(RGDfK)]2 along with 18F-NODAGA-E-[c(RGDfK)]2 resulted in significantly reduced radioactivity concentrations in the tumor (0.85 ± 0.13 %ID/g). The αvβ3 integrin-expressing SK-RC-52 tumor could be successfully visualized by microPET with 18F-labeled NODAGA-E-[c(RGDfK)]2. In conclusion, NODAGA-E-[c(RGDfK)]2 could be labeled rapidly with 18F using a direct aqueous, one-pot method and it accumulated specifically in αvβ3 integrin-expressing SK-RC-52 tumors, allowing for visualization by microPET. PMID:23606427

  2. 18F-Labeling Using Click Cycloadditions

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Tobias L.

    2014-01-01

    Due to expanding applications of positron emission tomography (PET) there is a demand for developing new techniques to introduce fluorine-18 (t1/2 = 109.8 min). Considering that most novel PET tracers are sensitive biomolecules and that direct introduction of fluorine-18 often needs harsh conditions, the insertion of 18F in those molecules poses an exceeding challenge. Two major challenges during 18F-labeling are a regioselective introduction and a fast and high yielding way under mild conditions. Furthermore, attention has to be paid to functionalities, which are usually present in complex structures of the target molecule. The Cu-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) and several copper-free click reactions represent such methods for radiolabeling of sensitive molecules under the above-mentioned criteria. This minireview will provide a quick overview about the development of novel 18F-labeled prosthetic groups for click cycloadditions and will summarize recent trends in copper-catalyzed and copper-free click 18F-cycloadditions. PMID:25003110

  3. One-step (18)F labeling of biomolecules using organotrifluoroborates.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhibo; Lin, Kuo-Shyan; Bénard, François; Pourghiasian, Maral; Kiesewetter, Dale O; Perrin, David M; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2015-09-01

    Herein we present a general protocol for the functionalization of biomolecules with an organotrifluoroborate moiety so that they can be radiolabeled with aqueous (18)F fluoride ((18)F(-)) and used for positron emission tomography (PET) imaging. Among the β(+)-emitting radionuclides, fluorine-18 ((18)F) is the isotope of choice for PET, and it is produced, on-demand, in many hospitals worldwide. Organotrifluoroborates can be (18)F-labeled in one step in aqueous conditions via (18)F-(19)F isotope exchange. This protocol features a recently designed ammoniomethyltrifluoroborate, and it describes the following: (i) a synthetic strategy that affords modular synthesis of radiolabeling precursors via a copper-catalyzed 'click' reaction; and (ii) a one-step (18)F-labeling method that obviates the need for HPLC purification. Within 30 min, (18)F-labeled PET imaging probes, such as peptides, can be synthesized in good chemical and radiochemical purity (>98%), satisfactory radiochemical yield of 20-35% (n > 20, non-decay corrected) and high specific activity of 40-111 GBq/μmol (1.1-3.0 Ci/μmol). The entire procedure, including the precursor preparation and (18)F radiolabeling, takes 7-10 d. PMID:26313478

  4. 18F-Labelled Intermediates for Radiosynthesis by Modular Build-Up Reactions: Newer Developments

    PubMed Central

    Ermert, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    This brief review gives an overview of newer developments in 18F-chemistry with the focus on small 18F-labelled molecules as intermediates for modular build-up syntheses. The short half-life (<2 h) of the radionuclide requires efficient syntheses of these intermediates considering that multistep syntheses are often time consuming and characterized by a loss of yield in each reaction step. Recent examples of improved synthesis of 18F-labelled intermediates show new possibilities for no-carrier-added ring-fluorinated arenes, novel intermediates for tri[18F]fluoromethylation reactions, and 18F-fluorovinylation methods. PMID:25343144

  5. New Glucocyclic RGD Dimers for Positron Emission Tomography Imaging of Tumor Integrin Receptors.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ji Woong; Park, Ji-Ae; Lee, Yong Jin; Shin, Un Chol; Kim, Suhng Wook; Kim, Byung Il; Lim, Sang Moo; An, Gwang Il; Kim, Jung Young; Lee, Kyo Chul

    2016-08-01

    Most studies of radiolabeled arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) peptides have shown in vitro affinity for integrin ανβ3, allowing for the targeting of receptor-positive tumors in vivo. However, major differences have been found in the pharmacokinetic profiles of different radiolabeled RGD peptide analogs. The purposes of this study were to prepare (64)Cu-DOTA-gluco-E[c(RGDfK)]2 (R8), (64)Cu-NOTA-gluco-E[c(RGDfK)]2 (R9), and (64)Cu-NODAGA-gluco-E[c(RGDfK)]2 (R10) and compare their pharmacokinetics and tumor imaging properties using small-animal positron emission tomography (PET). All three compounds were produced with high specific activity within 10 minutes. The IC50 values were similar for all the substances, and their affinities were greater than that of c(RGDyK). R8, R9, and R10 were stable for 24 hours in human and mouse serums and showed high uptake in U87MG tumors with high tumor-to-blood ratios. Compared to the control, a cyclic RGD peptide dimer without glucosamine, R10, showed low uptake in the liver. Because of their good imaging qualities and improved pharmacokinetics, (64)Cu-labeled dimer RGD conjugates (R8, R9, and R10) may have potential applications as PET radiotracers. R9 (NOTA) with highly in vivo stability consequentially showed an improved PET tumor uptake than R8 (DOTA) or R10 (NODAGA). PMID:27403677

  6. F-18 Labeled RGD Probes Based on Bioorthogonal Strain-Promoted Click Reaction for PET Imaging

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    A series of fluorine-substituted monomeric and dimeric cRGD peptide derivatives, such as cRGD-ADIBOT-F (ADIBOT = azadibenzocyclooctatriazole), di-cRGD-ADIBOT-F, cRGD-PEG5-ADIBOT-F, and di-cRGD-PEG5-ADIBOT-F, were prepared by strain-promoted alkyne azide cycloaddition (SPAAC) reaction of the corresponding aza-dibenzocyclooctyne (ADIBO) substituted peptides with a fluorinated azide 3. Among these cRGD derivatives, di-cRGD-PEG5-ADIBOT-F had the highest binding affinity in a competitive binding assay compared to other derivatives and even the original cRGDyk. On the basis of the in vitro study results, di-cRGD-PEG5-ADIBOT-18F was prepared from a SPAAC reaction with 18F-labeled azide and subsequent chemo-orthogonal scavenger-assisted separation without high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) purification in 92% decay-corrected radiochemical yield (dcRCY) with high specific activity for further in vivo positron emission tomography (PET) imaging study. In vivo PET imaging study and biodistribution data showed that this radiotracer allowed successful visualization of tumors with good tumor-to-background contrast and significantly higher tumor uptake compared to other major organs. PMID:25893040

  7. Synthesis of dimeric cyclic RGD based near-infrared probe for in vivo tumor diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Jie; Wan, Shunan; Tian, Junmei; Chi, Xuemei; Du, Changli; Deng, Dawei; Chen, Wei R.; Gu, Yueqing

    2012-03-01

    Cell adhesion molecule integrin αvβ3 is an excellent target for tumor interventions because of its unique expression on the surface of several types of solid tumor cells and on almost all sprouting tumor vasculatures. In this manuscript, we describe the synthesis of near-infrared (NIR) fluorochrome ICG-Der-02-labeled dimeric cyclic RGD peptides (ICG-Der-02-c(RGDyK)2) for in vivo tumor integrin targeting. The optical properties and structure of the probe were intensively characterized. Afterwards, the integrin specificity of the fluorescent probe was tested in vitro for receptor binding assay and fluorescence microscopy and in vivo for subcutaneous MDA-MB-231 and U87MG tumor targeting. The results indicated that after labeling RGD peptide, the optical properties of ICG-Der-02 showed no obvious change. Besides, in vitro and in vivo tumor targeting experiment indicated that the ICG-Der-02-c(RGDyK)2 probe with high integrin affinity showed excellent tumor activity accumulation. Noninvasive NIR fluorescence imaging is able to detect tumor integrin expression based upon the highly potent RGD peptide probe.

  8. Convergent synthesis and evaluation of 18F-labeled azulenic COX2 probes for cancer imaging

    PubMed Central

    Nolting, Donald D.; Nickels, Michael; Tantawy, Mohammed N.; Yu, James Y. H.; Xie, Jingping; Peterson, Todd E.; Crews, Brenda C.; Marnett, Larry; Gore, John C.; Pham, Wellington

    2013-01-01

    The overall objectives of this research are to (i) develop azulene-based positron emission tomography (PET) probes and (ii) image COX2 as a potential biomarker of breast cancer. Several lines of research have demonstrated that COX2 is overexpressed in breast cancer and that its presence correlates with poor prognoses. While other studies have reported that COX2 inhibition can be modulated and used beneficially as a chemopreventive strategy in cancer, no viable mechanism for achieving that approach has yet been developed. This shortfall could be circumvented through in vivo imaging of COX2 activity, particularly using sensitive imaging techniques such as PET. Toward that goal, our laboratory focuses on the development of novel 18F-labled COX2 probes. We began the synthesis of the probes by transforming tropolone into a lactone, which was subjected to an [8 + 2] cycloaddition reaction to yield 2-methylazulene as the core ring of the probe. After exploring numerous synthetic routes, the final target molecule and precursor PET compounds were prepared successfully using convergent synthesis. Conventional 18F labeling methods caused precursor decomposition, which prompted us to hypothesize that the acidic protons of the methylene moiety between the azulene and thiazole rings were readily abstracted by a strong base such as potassium carbonate. Ultimately, this caused the precursors to disintegrate. This observation was supported after successfully using an 18F labeling strategy that employed a much milder phosphate buffer. The 18F-labeled COX2 probe was tested in a breast cancer xenograft mouse model. The data obtained via successive whole-body PET/CT scans indicated probe accumulation and retention in the tumor. Overall, the probe was stable in vivo and no defluorination was observed. A biodistribution study and Western blot analysis corroborate with the imaging data. In conclusion, this novel COX2 PET probe was shown to be a promising agent for cancer imaging and

  9. Enhanced Aqueous Suzuki–Miyaura Coupling Allows Site-Specific Polypeptide 18F-Labeling

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The excesses of reagents used in protein chemistry are often incompatible with the reduced or even inverse stoichiometries used for efficient radiolabeling. Analysis and screening of aqueous Pd(0) ligand systems has revealed the importance of a guanidine core and the discovery of 1,1-dimethylguanidine as an enhanced ligand for aqueous Suzuki–Miyaura cross-coupling. This novel Pd catalyst system has now allowed the labeling of small molecules, peptides, and proteins with the fluorine-18 prosthetic [18F]4-fluorophenylboronic acid. These findings now enable site-specific protein 18F-labeling under biologically compatible conditions using a metal-triggered reaction. PMID:23991754

  10. (18)F-labeling syntheses and preclinical evaluation of functionalized nanoliposomes for Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Rokka, Johanna; Snellman, Anniina; Kaasalainen, Martti; Salonen, Jarno; Zona, Cristiano; La Ferla, Barbara; Nicotra, Francesco; Re, Francesca; Masserini, Massimo; Forsback, Sarita; Lopez-Picon, Francisco; Rinne, Juha O; Haaparanta-Solin, Merja; Solin, Olof

    2016-06-10

    The aim of the present study was to synthesize functionalized (18)F-labeled NLs ((18)F-NLs) and evaluate their biological behavior in mouse models of Alzheimer's disease (AD) using positron emission tomography (PET) and ex vivo brain autoradiography. (18)F-fluorine was introduced to (18)F-NLs either by using a core forming (18)F-lipid or by encapsulating a (18)F-tracer, (18)F-treg-curcumin inside the NLs. Phosphatidic acid (PA) and curcumin derivative (Curc) functionalized (18)F-NLs with or without additional mApoE functionalization were produced using thin film hydration. The biodistribution and β-amyloid plaque-binding ability of (18)F-NLs were studied in wild type mice and AD mouse models using in vivo PET imaging and ex vivo brain autoradiography at 60min after (18)F-NL injection. Functionalized (18)F-NLs were successfully synthesized. The preclinical evaluation in mice showed that the functional group affected the biodistribution of (18)F-NLs. Further functionalization with mApoE increased the brain-to-blood ratio of (18)F-NLs but the overall brain uptake remained low with all functionalized (18)F-NLs. The liposomal encapsulation of (18)F-treg-curcumin was not successful and preclinical results of encapsulated (18)F-treg-curcumin and plain (18)F-treg-curcumin were identical. Although the studied functionalized (18)F-NLs were not suitable for PET imaging as such, the synthesis techniques introduced in this study can be utilized to modify the biological behavior of (18)F-labeled NLs. PMID:26993963

  11. High-yielding aqueous 18F-labeling of peptides via Al18F chelation.

    PubMed

    D'Souza, Christopher A; McBride, William J; Sharkey, Robert M; Todaro, Louis J; Goldenberg, David M

    2011-09-21

    The coordination chemistry of a new pentadentate bifunctional chelator (BFC), NODA-MPAA 1, containing the 1,4,7-triazacyclononane-1,4-diacetate (NODA) motif with a methylphenylacetic acid (MPAA) backbone, and its ability to form stable Al(18)F chelates were investigated. The organofluoroaluminates were easily accessible from the reaction of 1 and AlF(3). X-ray diffraction studies revealed aluminum at the center of a slightly distorted octahedron, with fluorine occupying one of the axial positions. The tert-butyl protected prochelator 7, which can be synthesized in one step, is useful for coupling to biomolecules on solid phase or in solution. High yield (55-89%) aqueous (18)F-labeling was achieved in 10-15 min with a tumor-targeting peptide 4 covalently linked to 1. Defluorination was not observed for at least 4 h in human serum at 37 °C. These results demonstrate the facile application of Al(18)F chelation using BFC 1 as a versatile labeling method for radiofluorinating other heat-stable peptides for positron emission imaging. PMID:21805975

  12. Improving Tumor-Targeting Capability and Pharmacokinetics of 99mTc-Labeled Cyclic RGD Dimers with PEG4 Linkers

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lijun; Shi, Jiyun; Kim, Young-Seung; Zhai, Shizhen; Jia, Bing; Zhao, Huiyun; Liu, Zhaofei; Wang, Fan; Chen, Xiaoyuan; Liu, Shuang

    2009-01-01

    This report describes the synthesis of two cyclic RGD (Arg-Gly-Asp) conjugates, HYNIC-2PEG4-dimer (HYNIC = 6-hydrazinonicotinyl; 2PEG4-dimer = E[PEG4-c(RGDfK)]2; and PEG4 = 15-amino-4,7,10,13-tetraoxapentadecanoic acid) and HYNIC-3PEG4-dimer (3PEG4-dimer = PEG4-E[PEG4-c(RGDfK)]2), and evaluation of their 99mTc complexes [99mTc(HYNIC-2PEG4-dimer)(tricine)(TPPTS)] (99mTc-2PEG4-dimer: TPPTS = trisodium triphenylphosphine-3,3′,3″-trisulfonate) and [99mTc(HYNIC-3PEG4-dimer)(tricine)(TPPTS)] (99mTc-3PEG4-dimer) as novel radiotracers for imaging integrin αvβ3 expression in athymic nude mice bearing U87MG glioma and MDA-MB-435 breast cancer xenografts. The integrin αvβ3 binding affinities of RGD peptides were determined by competitive displacement of 125I-c(RGDyK) on U87MG glioma cells. It was found that the two PEG4 linkers between RGD motifs in HYNIC-2PEG4-dimer (IC50 = 2.8 ± 0.5 nM) and HYNIC-3PEG4-dimer (IC50 = 2.4 ± 0.7 nM) are responsible for their higher integrin αvβ3 binding affinity than that of HYNIC-PEG4-dimer (PEG4-dimer = PEG4-E[c(RGDfK)]2; IC50 = 7.5 ± 2.3 nM). Addition of extra PEG4 linker in HYNIC-3PEG4-dimer has little impact on integrin αvβ3 binding affinity. 99mTc-2PEG4-dimer and 99mTc-3PEG4-dimer were prepared in high yield with >95% radiochemical purity and the specific activity of > 10 Ci/μmol. Biodistribution studies clearly demonstrated that PEG4 linkers are particularly useful for improving the tumor uptake and clearance kinetics of 99mTc-2PEG4-dimer and 99mTc-3PEG4-dimer from non-cancerous organs. It was also found that there was a linear relationship between the tumor size and radiotracer tumor uptake expressed as %ID (percentage of the injected dose) in U87MG glioma and MDA-MB-435 breast tumor models. The blocking experiment showed that the tumor uptake of 99mTc-2PEG4-dimer is integrin αvβ3-mediated. In the metabolism study, 99mTc-2PEG4-dimer had high metabolic stability during its excretion from renal and hepatobiliary routes

  13. Synthesis and characterization of (18)F-labeled active site inhibited factor VII (ASIS).

    PubMed

    Erlandsson, Maria; Nielsen, Carsten H; Jeppesen, Troels E; Kristensen, Jesper B; Petersen, Lars C; Madsen, Jacob; Kjaer, Andreas

    2015-05-15

    Activated factor VII blocked in the active site with Phe-Phe-Arg-chloromethyl ketone (active site inhibited factor VII (ASIS)) is a 50-kDa protein that binds with high affinity to its receptor, tissue factor (TF). TF is a transmembrane glycoprotein that plays an important role in, for example, thrombosis, metastasis, tumor growth, and tumor angiogenesis. The aim of this study was to develop an (18)F-labeled ASIS derivative to assess TF expression in tumors. Active site inhibited factor VII was labeled using N-succinimidyl-4-[(18)F]fluorobenzoate, and the [(18)F]ASIS was purified on a PD-10 desalting column. The radiochemical yield was 25 ± 6%, the radiochemical purity was >97%, and the pseudospecific radioactivity was 35 ± 9 GBq/µmol. The binding efficacy was evaluated in pull-down experiments, which monitored the binding of unlabeled ASIS and [(18)F]ASIS to TF and to a specific anti-factor VII antibody (F1A2-mAb). No significant difference in binding efficacy between [(18)F]ASIS and ASIS could be detected. Furthermore, [(18)F]ASIS was relatively stable in vitro and in vivo in mice. In conclusion, [(18)F]ASIS has for the first time been successfully synthesized as a possible positron emission tomography tracer to image TF expression levels. In vivo positron emission tomography studies to evaluate the full potential of [(18)F]ASIS are in progress. PMID:25820758

  14. sup 18 F-labeled insulin: A prosthetic group methodology for incorporation of a positron emitter into peptides and proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Shai, Y.; Kirk, K.L.; Channing, M.A.; Dunn, B.B.; Lesniak, M.A.; Eastman, R.C.; Finn, R.D.; Roth, J.; Jacobson, K.A. )

    1989-05-30

    In the present study we synthesize {sup 18}F-labeled insulin of high specific radioactivity. A new prosthetic group methodology, in which ({sup 18}F)fluoride displaces a bromide group of 4-(bromomethyl)-benzoylamine intermediates, was used. The 4-(fluoromethyl)benzoyl product was chemically stable. {sup 18}F-Labeled insulin retains the essential biological properties of native insulin, as measured in vitro by binding to insulin receptors on human cells and stimulation of glucose metabolism in rat adipocytes. The overall process can be carried out speedily to yield a product of sufficient purity to permit in vivo studies. The method appears to be applicable to a wide variety of peptides.

  15. Synthesis of [18F]-labelled Maltose Derivatives as PET Tracers for Imaging Bacterial Infection

    PubMed Central

    Namavari, Mohammad; Gowrishankar, Gayatri; Hoehne, Aileen; Jouannot, Erwan; Gambhir, Sanjiv S

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To develop novel positron emission tomography (PET) agents for visualization and therapy monitoring of bacterial infections. Procedures It is known that maltose and maltodextrins are energy sources for bacteria. Hence, 18F-labelled maltose derivatives could be a valuable tool for imaging bacterial infections. We have developed methods to synthesize 4-O-(α-D-glucopyranosyl)-6-deoxy-6-[18F]fluoro-D-glucopyranoside (6-[18F]fluoromaltose) and 4-O-(α-D-glucopyranosyl)-1-deoxy-1-[18F]fluoro-D-glucopyranoside (1-[18F]fluoromaltose) as bacterial infection PET imaging agents. 6-[18F]fluoromaltose was prepared from precursor 1,2,3-tri-O-acetyl-4-O-(2′,3′,-di-O-acetyl-4′,6′-benzylidene-α-D-glucopyranosyl)-6-deoxy-6-nosyl-D-glucopranoside (5). The synthesis involved the radio-fluorination of 5 followed by acidic and basic hydrolysis to give 6-[18F]fluoromaltose. In an analogous procedure, 1-[18F]fluoromaltose was synthesized from 2,3, 6-tri-O-acetyl-4-O-(2′,3′,4′,6-tetra-O-acetyl-α-D-glucopyranosyl)-1-deoxy-1-O-triflyl-D-glucopranoside (9). Stability of 6-[18F]fluoromaltose in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) and human and mouse serum at 37 °C was determined. Escherichia coli uptake of 6-[18F]fluoromaltose was examined. Results A reliable synthesis of 1- and 6-[18F]fluoromaltose has been accomplished with 4–6 and 5–8 % radiochemical yields, respectively (decay-corrected with 95 % radiochemical purity). 6-[18F]fluoromaltose was sufficiently stable over the time span needed for PET studies (~96 % intact compound after 1-h and ~65 % after 2-h incubation in serum). Bacterial uptake experiments indicated that E. coli transports 6-[18F]fluoromaltose. Competition assays showed that the uptake of 6-[18F]fluoromaltose was completely blocked by co-incubation with 1 mM of the natural substrate maltose. Conclusion We have successfully synthesized 1- and 6-[18F]fluoromaltose via direct fluorination of appropriate protected maltose precursors. Bacterial uptake

  16. Impact of Multiple Negative Charges on Blood Clearance and Biodistribution Characteristics of 99mTc-Labeled Dimeric Cyclic RGD Peptides

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    This study sought to evaluate the impact of multiple negative charges on blood clearance kinetics and biodistribution properties of 99mTc-labeled RGD peptide dimers. Bioconjugates HYNIC-P6G-RGD2 and HYNIC-P6D-RGD2 were prepared by reacting P6G-RGD2 and P6D-RGD2, respectively, with excess HYNIC-OSu in the presence of diisopropylethylamine. Their IC50 values were determined to be 31 ± 5 and 41 ± 6 nM, respectively, against 125I-echistatin bound to U87MG glioma cells in a whole-cell displacement assay. Complexes [99mTc(HYNIC-P6G-RGD2)(tricine)(TPPTS)] (99mTc-P6G-RGD2) and [99mTc(HYNIC-P6D-RGD2)(tricine)(TPPTS)] (99mTc-P6D-RGD2) were prepared in high radiochemical purity (RCP > 95%) and specific activity (37–110 GBq/μmol). They were evaluated in athymic nude mice bearing U87MG glioma xenografts for their biodistribution. The most significant difference between 99mTc-P6D-RGD2 and 99mTc-P6G-RGD2 was their blood radioactivity levels and tumor uptake. The initial blood radioactivity level for 99mTc-P6D-RGD2 (4.71 ± 1.00%ID/g) was ∼5× higher than that of 99mTc-P6G-RGD2 (0.88 ± 0.05%ID/g), but this difference disappeared at 60 min p.i. 99mTc-P6D-RGD2 had much lower tumor uptake (2.20–3.11%ID/g) than 99mTc-P6G-RGD2 (7.82–9.27%ID/g) over a 2 h period. Since HYNIC-P6D-RGD2 and HYNIC-P6G-RGD2 shared a similar integrin αvβ3 binding affinity (41 ± 6 nM versus 31 ± 5 nM), the difference in their blood activity and tumor uptake is most likely related to the nine negative charges and high protein binding of 99mTc-P6D-RGD2. Despite its low uptake in U87MG tumors, the tumor uptake of 99mTc-P6D-RGD2 was integrin αvβ3-specific. SPECT/CT studies were performed using 99mTc-P6G-RGD2 in athymic nude mice bearing U87MG glioma and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer xenografts. The SPECT/CT data demonstrated the tumor-targeting capability of 99mTc-P6G-RGD2, and its tumor uptake depends on the integrin αvβ3 expression levels on tumor cells and neovasculature. It was concluded that

  17. SPECT/CT Imaging of High-Risk Atherosclerotic Plaques using Integrin-Binding RGD Dimer Peptides

    PubMed Central

    Sun Yoo, Jung; Lee, Jonghwan; Ho Jung, Jae; Seok Moon, Byung; Kim, Soonhag; Chul Lee, Byung; Eun Kim, Sang

    2015-01-01

    Vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques with unique biological signatures are responsible for most major cardiovascular events including acute myocardial infarction and stroke. However, current clinical diagnostic approaches for atherosclerosis focus on anatomical measurements such as the degree of luminal stenosis and wall thickness. An abundance of neovessels with elevated expression of integrin αvβ3 is closely associated with an increased risk of plaque rupture. Herein we evaluated the potential of an αvβ3 integrin-targeting radiotracer, 99mTc-IDA-D-[c(RGDfK)]2, for SPECT/CT imaging of high-risk plaque in murine atherosclerosis models. In vivo uptake of 99mTc-IDA-D-[c(RGDfK)]2 was significantly higher in atherosclerotic aortas than in relatively normal aortas. Comparison with the negative-control peptide, 99mTc-IDA-D-[c(RADfK)]2, proved specific binding of 99mTc-IDA-D-[c(RGDfK)]2 for plaque lesions in in vivo SPECT/CT and ex vivo autoradiographic imaging. Histopathological characterization revealed that a prominent SPECT signal of 99mTc-IDA-D-[c(RGDfK)]2 corresponded to the presence of high-risk plaques with a large necrotic core, a thin fibrous cap, and vibrant neoangiogenic events. Notably, the RGD dimer based 99mTc-IDA-D-[c(RGDfK)]2 showed better imaging performance in comparison with the common monomeric RGD peptide probe 123I-c(RGDyV) and fluorescence tissue assay corroborated this. Our preclinical data demonstrated that 99mTc-IDA-D-[c(RGDfK)]2 SPECT/CT is a sensitive tool to noninvasively gauge atherosclerosis beyond vascular anatomy by assessing culprit plaque neovascularization. PMID:26123253

  18. Comparison of two site-specifically (18)F-labeled affibodies for PET imaging of EGFR positive tumors.

    PubMed

    Su, Xinhui; Cheng, Kai; Jeon, Jongho; Shen, Bin; Venturin, Gianina Teribele; Hu, Xiang; Rao, Jianghong; Chin, Frederick T; Wu, Hua; Cheng, Zhen

    2014-11-01

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) serves as an attractive target for cancer molecular imaging and therapy. Our previous positron emission tomography (PET) studies showed that the EGFR-targeting affibody molecules (64)Cu-DOTA-ZEGFR:1907 and (18)F-FBEM-ZEGFR:1907 can discriminate between high and low EGFR-expression tumors and have the potential for patient selection for EGFR-targeted therapy. Compared with (64)Cu, (18)F may improve imaging of EGFR-expression and is more suitable for clinical application, but the labeling reaction of (18)F-FBEM-ZEGFR:1907 requires a long synthesis time. The aim of the present study is to develop a new generation of (18)F labeled affibody probes (Al(18)F-NOTA-ZEGFR:1907 and (18)F-CBT-ZEGFR:1907) and to determine whether they are suitable agents for imaging of EGFR expression. The first approach consisted of conjugating ZEGFR:1907 with NOTA and radiolabeling with Al(18)F to produce Al(18)F-NOTA-ZEGFR:1907. In a second approach the prosthetic group (18)F-labeled-2-cyanobenzothiazole ((18)F-CBT) was conjugated to Cys-ZEGFR:1907 to produce (18)F-CBT-ZEGFR:1907. Binding affinity and specificity of Al(18)F-NOTA-ZEGFR:1907 and (18)F-CBT-ZEGFR:1907 to EGFR were evaluated using A431 cells. Biodistribution and PET studies were conducted on mice bearing A431 xenografts after injection of Al(18)F-NOTA-ZEGFR:1907 or (18)F-CBT-ZEGFR:1907 with or without coinjection of unlabeled affibody proteins. The radiosyntheses of Al(18)F-NOTA-ZEGFR:1907 and (18)F-CBT-ZEGFR:1907 were completed successfully within 40 and 120 min with a decay-corrected yield of 15% and 41% using a 2-step, 1-pot reaction and 2-step, 2-pot reaction, respectively. Both probes bound to EGFR with low nanomolar affinity in A431 cells. Although (18)F-CBT-ZEGFR:1907 showed instability in vivo, biodistribution studies revealed rapid and high tumor accumulation and quick clearance from normal tissues except the bones. In contrast, Al(18)F-NOTA-ZEGFR:1907 demonstrated high in

  19. Efficient 18F-Labeling of Large 37-Amino Acid pHLIP Peptide Analogues and their Biological Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Daumar, Pierre; Wanger-Baumann, Cindy A.; Pillarsetty, NagaVaraKishore; Fabrizio, Laura; Carlin, Sean D.; Andreev, Oleg A.; Reshetnyak, Yana K.; Lewis, Jason S.

    2012-01-01

    Solid tumors often develop an acidic microenvironment, which plays a critical role in tumor progression and is associated with increased level of invasion and metastasis. The 37-residue pH (low) insertion peptide (pHLIP®) is under study as an imaging platform because of its unique ability to insert into cell membranes at a low extracellular pH (pHe<7). Labeling of peptides with [18F]-fluorine is usually performed via prosthetic groups using chemoselective coupling reactions. One of the most successful procedures involves the alkyne-azide copper(I) catalyzed cycloaddition (CuAAC). However, none of the known “click” methods have been applied to peptides as large as pHLIP. We designed a novel prosthetic group and extended the use of the CuAAC “click chemistry” for the simple and efficient 18F-labeling of large peptides. For the evaluation of this labeling approach, a D-amino acid analogue of WT-pHLIP and a L-amino acid control peptide K-pHLIP, both functionalized at the N-terminus with 6-azidohexanoic acid, were used. The novel 6-[18F]fluoro-2-ethynylpyridine prosthetic group, was obtained via nucleophilic substitution on the corresponding bromo-precursor after 10 min at 130 °C with a radiochemical yield of 27.5 ± 6.6% (decay corrected) with high radiochemical purity ≥ 98%. The subsequent CuI catalyzed “click” reaction with the azido functionalized pHLIP peptides was quantitative within 5 min at 70 °C in a mixture of water and ethanol using Cu-acetate and sodium L-ascorbate. [18F]-D-WT-pHLIP and [18F]-L-K-pHLIP were obtained with total radiochemical yields of 5–20% after HPLC purification. The total reaction time was only 85 min including formulation. In vitro stability tests revealed high stability of the [18F]-D-WT-pHLIP in human and mouse plasma after 120 min, with the parent tracer remaining intact at 65 and 85%, respectively. PET imaging and biodistribution studies in LNCaP and PC-3 xenografted mice with the [18F]-D-WT-pHLIP and the negative

  20. Radiosynthesis and preliminary biological evaluation of a new (18)F-labeled triethylene glycol derivative of triphenylphosphonium.

    PubMed

    Tominaga, Takahiro; Ito, Hiroaki; Ishikawa, Yoichi; Iwata, Ren; Ishiwata, Kiichi; Furumoto, Shozo

    2016-03-01

    Delocalized lipophilic cations such as [(18)F]fluorobenzyltriphenylphosphonium ([(18)F]FBnTP) can accumulate in mitochondria and have been used in myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI). In this study, we established a simplified method for [(18)F]FBnTP synthesis using triphenylphosphine hydrobromide (PPh3 •HBr) without preparing an intermediate that contains benzyl bromide structure. Applying this new method, we synthesized and evaluated a novel (18)F-labeled PEGylated BnTP derivative ([(18)F]FPEGBnTP). In vitro cellular uptake study demonstrated that [(18)F]FPEGBnTP accumulated in cells in proportion to the relative intensity of mitochondrial membrane potential. Biodistribution study revealed that the heart : liver uptake ratio of [(18)F]FPEGBnTP (4.00 at 60 min) was superior to that of [(18)F]FBnTP (1.50 at 60 min). However, [(18)F]FPEGBnTP showed slow blood clearance and high radioactivity uptake in bone at 120-min post-injection. These results imply the possibility of [(18)F]FPEGBnTP being used as a MPI agent. However, there is a need of further structural optimization and flow-dependent uptake study. PMID:26861736

  1. Design, synthesis and evaluation of (18)F-labeled bradykinin B1 receptor-targeting small molecules for PET imaging.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhengxing; Kuo, Hsiou-Ting; Lau, Joseph; Jenni, Silvia; Zhang, Chengcheng; Zeisler, Jutta; Bénard, François; Lin, Kuo-Shyan

    2016-08-15

    Two fluorine-18 ((18)F) labeled bradykinin B1 receptor (B1R)-targeting small molecules, (18)F-Z02035 and (18)F-Z02165, were synthesized and evaluated for imaging with positron emission tomography (PET). Z02035 and Z02165 were derived from potent antagonists, and showed high binding affinity (0.93±0.44 and 2.80±0.50nM, respectively) to B1R. (18)F-Z02035 and (18)F-Z02165 were prepared by coupling 2-[(18)F]fluoroethyl tosylate with their respective precursors, and were obtained in 10±5 (n=4) and 22±14% (n=3), respectively, decay-corrected radiochemical yield with >99% radiochemical purity. (18)F-Z02035 and (18)F-Z02165 exhibited moderate lipophilicity (LogD7.4=1.10 and 0.59, respectively), and were stable in mouse plasma. PET imaging and biodistribution studies in mice showed that both tracers enabled visualization of the B1R-positive HEK293T::hB1R tumor xenografts with better contrast than control B1R-negative HEK293T tumors. Our data indicate that small molecule antagonists can be used as pharmacophores for the design of B1R-targeting PET tracers. PMID:27390067

  2. Synthesis of a Potent Aminopyridine-Based nNOS-Inhibitor by Two Recent No-Carrier-Added (18)F-Labelling Methods.

    PubMed

    Drerup, Christian; Ermert, Johannes; Coenen, Heinz H

    2016-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO), an important multifunctional signaling molecule, is produced by three isoforms of NO-synthase (NOS) and has been associated with neurodegenerative disorders. Selective inhibitors of the subtypes iNOS (inducible) or nNOS (neuronal) are of great interest for decoding neurodestructive key factors, and (18)F-labelled analogues would allow investigating the NOS-function by molecular imaging with positron emission tomography. Especially, the highly selective nNOS inhibitor 6-((3-((3-fluorophenethylamino)methyl)phenoxy)methyl)-4-methylpyridin-2-amine (10) lends itself as suitable compound to be (18)F-labelled in no-carrier-added (n.c.a.) form. For preparation of the (18)F-labelled nNOS-Inhibitor [(18)F]10 a "build-up" radiosynthesis was developed based on a corresponding iodonium ylide as labelling precursor. The such activated phenethyl group of the compound was efficiently and regioselectively labelled with n.c.a. [(18)F]fluoride in 79% radiochemical yield (RCY). After conversion by reductive amination and microwave assisted displacement of the protecting groups, the desired nNOS-inhibitor was obtained in about 15% total RCY. Alternatively, for a simplified "late-stage" (18)F-labelling procedure a corresponding boronic ester precursor was synthesized and successfully used in a newer, copper(II) mediated n.c.a. (18)F-fluoro-deboroniation reaction, achieving the same total RCY. Thus, both methods proved comparatively suited to provide the highly selective NOS-inhibitor [(18)F]10 as probe for preclinical in vivo studies. PMID:27598109

  3. A high-affinity [18F]-labeled phosphoramidate peptidomimetic PSMA-targeted inhibitor for PET imaging of prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ganguly, Tanushree; Dannoon, Shorouk; Hopkins, Mark R.; Murphy, Stephanie; Cahaya, Hendry; Blecha, Joseph E.; Jivan, Salma; Drake, Christopher R.; Barinka, Cyril; Jones, Ella F.; VanBrocklin, Henry F.; Berkman, Clifford E.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction In this study, a structurally modified phosphoramidate scaffold, with improved prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) avidity, stability and in vivo characteristics, as a PET imaging agent for prostate cancer (PCa), was prepared and evaluated. Methods p-Fluorobenzoyl-aminohexanoate and 2-(3-hydroxypropyl)glycine were introduced into the PSMA-targeting scaffold yielding phosphoramidate 5. X-ray crystallography was performed on the PSMA/5 complex. [18F]5 was synthesized, and cell uptake and internalization studies were conducted in PSMA(+) LNCaP and CWR22Rv1 cells and PSMA(−) PC-3 cells. In vivo PET imaging and biodistribution studies were performed at 1 and 4 h post injection in mice bearing CWR22Rv1 tumor, with or without blocking agent. Results The crystallographic data showed interaction of the p-fluorobenzoyl group with an arene-binding cleft on the PSMA surface. In vitro studies revealed elevated uptake of [18F]5 in PSMA(+) cells (2.2% in CWR22Rv1 and 12.1% in LNCaP) compared to PSMA(−) cells (0.08%) at 4 h. In vivo tumor uptake of 2.33% ID/g and tumor-to-blood ratio of 265:1 was observed at 4 h. Conclusions We have successfully synthesized, radiolabeled and evaluated a new PSMA-targeted PET agent. The crystal structure of the PSMA/5 complex highlighted the interactions within the arene-binding cleft contributing to the overall complex stability. The high target uptake and rapid non-target clearance exhibited by [18F]5 in PSMA(+) xenografts substantiates its potential use for PET imaging of PCa. Advances in Knowledge The only FDA-approved imaging agent for PCa, Prostascint®, targets PSMA but suffers from inherent shortcomings. The data acquired in this manuscript confirmed that our new generation of [18F]-labeled PSMA inhibitor exhibited promising in vivo performance as a PET imaging agent for PCa and is well-positioned for subsequent clinical trials. Implications for Patient Care Our preliminary data demonstrate that this tracer possesses

  4. Synthesis and Bio-Evaluation of New (18) F-Labeled Pyridaben Analogs with Improved Stability for Myocardial Perfusion Imaging in Mice.

    PubMed

    Mou, Tiantian; Zhao, Zuoquan; Zhang, Pu; Fang, Wei; Peng, Cheng; Lu, Jie; Wang, Qian; Ma, Yunchuan; Zhang, Xianzhong

    2015-09-01

    To improve the stability of (18) F-labeled pyridaben analogs for myocardial perfusion imaging, three new analogs of pyridaben ([(18) F]FPTP2, [(18) F]FPTP-P2, and [(18) F]FPTP-P3) were synthesized with 'side chain' modifications. The radiolabeled tracers and corresponding non-radioactive compounds were obtained by substituting tosyl group with (18/19) F. The effect of structure modification on myocardial targeting and physicochemical properties of new tracers were evaluated in vitro and in vivo. The total radiosynthesis time of these tracers was approximately 70-90 min with high decay-corrected radiochemical yields (36-65%) and good radiochemical purity (> 98%). These lipophilic tracers exhibited obvious improved stability in water. Studies of their biodistribution in normal Kunming mice demonstrated that [(18) F]FPTP2 exhibited very high initial heart uptake (39.70 ± 2.81 %ID/g at 2 min after injection) and low background in the liver, blood, and soft tissues. The heart-to-liver, heart-to-lung, and heart-to-blood ratios were 3.59, 19.34, and 67.34 at 15 min postinjection, respectively. Favorable myocardial targeting property and remarkable improvement of stability of [(18) F]FPTP2 suggest that the substitution of the phenyl 'sidechain' with other non-phenyl rings has no effect on the myocardial targeting property of (18) F-labeled pyridaben analogs. PMID:25529021

  5. Preparation of 18F-labeled peptides using the copper(I)-catalyzed azide-alkyne 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition.

    PubMed

    Gill, Herman S; Marik, Jan

    2011-11-01

    An optimized procedure for preparing fluorine-18 ((18)F)-labeled peptides by the copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne 1,3-dipolar cyloaddition (CuAAC) is presented here. The two-step radiosynthesis begins with the microwave-assisted nucleophilic (18)F-fluorination of a precursor containing a terminal p-toluenesulfonyl, terminal azide and polyethylene glycol backbone. The resulting (18)F-fluorinated azide-containing building block is coupled to an alkyne-decorated peptide by the CuAAC. The reaction is accelerated by the copper(I)-stabilizing ligand bathophenanthroline disulfonate and can be performed in either reducing or nonreducing conditions (e.g., to preserve disulfide bonds). After an HPLC purification, (18)F-labeled peptide can be obtained with a 31 ± 6% radiochemical yield (n = 4, decay-corrected from (18)F-fluoride elution) and a specific activity of 39.0 ± 12.4 Ci μmol(-1) within 77 ± 4 min. PMID:22011654

  6. In vivo biodistribution of two [18F]-labelled muscarinic cholinergic receptor ligands: 2-[18F]- and 4-[18F]-fluorodexetimide.

    PubMed

    Wilson, A A; Scheffel, U A; Dannals, R F; Stathis, M; Ravert, H T; Wagner, H N

    1991-01-01

    Two [18F]-labelled analogues of the potent muscarinic cholinergic receptor (m-AChR) antagonist, dexetimide, were evaluated as potential ligands for imaging m-AChR by positron emission tomography (PET). Intravenous administration of both 2-[18F]- or 4-[18F]-fluorodexetimide resulted in high brain uptake of radioactivity in mice. High binding levels were observed in m-AChR rich areas, such as cortex and striatum, with low levels in the receptor-poor cerebellum. Uptake of radioactivity was saturable and could be blocked by pre-administration of dexetimide or atropine. Drugs with different sites of action were ineffective at blocking receptor binding. The results indicate that both radiotracers are promising candidates for use in PET studies. PMID:2008155

  7. Synthesis and Evaluation of 4-[18F]Fluoropropoxy-3-iodobenzylguanidine ([18F]FPOIBG): A Novel 18F-labeled Analogue of MIBG

    PubMed Central

    Vaidyanathan, Ganesan; McDougald, Darryl; Koumarianou, Eftychia; Choi, Jaeyeon; Hens, Marc; Zalutsky, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Radioiodinated meta-iodobenzylguanidine (MIBG), a norepinephrine transporter (NET) substrate, has been extensively used as an imaging agent to study the pathophysiology of the heart and for the diagnosis and treatment of neuroendocrine tumors. The goal of this study was to develop an 18F-labeled analogue of MIBG that like MIBG itself could be synthesized in a single radiochemical step. Towards this end, we designed 4-fluoropropoxy-3-iodobenzylguanidine (FPOIBG). Methods Standards of FPOIBG and 4-fluoropropoxy-3-bromobenzylguanidine (FPOBBG) as well as their tosylate precursors for labeling with 18F, and a tin precursor for the preparation of radioiodinated FPOIBG were synthesized. Radiolabeled derivatives were synthesized by nucleophilic substitution and electrophilic iododestannylation from the corresponding precursors. Labeled compounds were evaluated for NET transporter recognition in in vitro assays using three NET-expressing cell lines and in biodistribution experiments in normal mice, with all studies performed in a paired-label format. Competitive inhibition of [125I]MIBG uptake by unlabeled benzylguanidine compounds was performed in UVW-NAT cell line to determine IC50 values. Results [18F]FPOIBG was synthesized from the corresponding tosylate precursor in 5.2 ± 0.5% (n = 6) overall radiochemical yields starting with aqueous fluoride in about 105 min. In a paired-label in vitro assay, the uptake of [18F]FPOIBG at 2 h was 10.2 ± 1.5%, 39.6 ± 13.4%, and 13.3 ± 2.5%, in NET-expressing SK-N-SH, UVW-NAT, and SK-N-BE(2c) cells, respectively, while these values for [125I]MIBG were 57.3 ± 8.1%, 82.7 ± 8.9%, and 66.3 ± 3.6%. The specificity of uptake of both tracers was demonstrated by blocking with desipramine. The 125I-labeled congener of FPOIBG gave similar results. On the other hand, [18F]FPOBBG, a compound recently reported in the literature, demonstrated much higher uptake, albeit less than that of co-incubated [125I]MIBG. IC50 values for

  8. Synthesis and pre-clinical evaluation of an 18F-labeled single-chain antibody fragment for PET imaging of epithelial ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Sai Kiran; Wuest, Melinda; Way, Jenilee D; Bouvet, Vincent R; Wang, Monica; Wuest, Frank R

    2016-01-01

    Anti-CA125 antibodies have been used in immunoassays to quantify levels of shed antigen in the serum of patients who are under surveillance for epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). However, there is currently no molecular imaging probe in the clinic for the assessment of CA125 expression in vivo. The present study describes the development of an 18F-labeled single-chain variable fragment (scFv) for PET imaging of CA125 in preclinical EOC models. Anti-CA125 scFv was derived from MAb-B43.13 by recombinant expression of the fragment in E.coli. Fragment scFv-B43.13 was purified via immobilized metal affinity chromatography and characterized for antigen binding via immuno-staining and flow cytometry. Prosthetic group N-succinimidyl 4-[18F]fluorobenzoate ([18F]SFB) was used for radiolabeling of scFv-B43.13. Preclinical ovarian cancer models were developed based on ovarian cancer cell lines OVCAR3 (CA125-positive) and SKOV3 (CA125-negative) in NIH-III mice. The radiopharmacological profile of 18F-labeled scFv-B43.13 ([18F]FBz-scFv-B43.13) was studied with PET. [18F]FBz-scFv-B43.13 was prepared in radiochemical yields of 3.7 ± 1.8% (n = 5) at an effective specific activity of 3.88 ± 0.76 GBq/µmol (n = 5). The radiotracer demonstrated selective uptake in CA125-positive OVCAR3 cells and virtually no uptake in CA125-negative SKOV3 cells. Standardized uptake values (SUV) of radioactivity uptake in OVCAR3 tumors was 0.5 (n = 3) and 0.3 (n = 2) in SKOV3 tumors after 60 min post injection (p.i.). PMID:27508105

  9. Synthesis and pre-clinical evaluation of an (18)F-labeled single-chain antibody fragment for PET imaging of epithelial ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Sai Kiran; Wuest, Melinda; Way, Jenilee D; Bouvet, Vincent R; Wang, Monica; Wuest, Frank R

    2016-01-01

    Anti-CA125 antibodies have been used in immunoassays to quantify levels of shed antigen in the serum of patients who are under surveillance for epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). However, there is currently no molecular imaging probe in the clinic for the assessment of CA125 expression in vivo. The present study describes the development of an (18)F-labeled single-chain variable fragment (scFv) for PET imaging of CA125 in preclinical EOC models. Anti-CA125 scFv was derived from MAb-B43.13 by recombinant expression of the fragment in E.coli. Fragment scFv-B43.13 was purified via immobilized metal affinity chromatography and characterized for antigen binding via immuno-staining and flow cytometry. Prosthetic group N-succinimidyl 4-[(18)F]fluorobenzoate ([(18)F]SFB) was used for radiolabeling of scFv-B43.13. Preclinical ovarian cancer models were developed based on ovarian cancer cell lines OVCAR3 (CA125-positive) and SKOV3 (CA125-negative) in NIH-III mice. The radiopharmacological profile of (18)F-labeled scFv-B43.13 ([(18)F]FBz-scFv-B43.13) was studied with PET. [(18)F]FBz-scFv-B43.13 was prepared in radiochemical yields of 3.7 ± 1.8% (n = 5) at an effective specific activity of 3.88 ± 0.76 GBq/µmol (n = 5). The radiotracer demonstrated selective uptake in CA125-positive OVCAR3 cells and virtually no uptake in CA125-negative SKOV3 cells. Standardized uptake values (SUV) of radioactivity uptake in OVCAR3 tumors was 0.5 (n = 3) and 0.3 (n = 2) in SKOV3 tumors after 60 min post injection (p.i.). PMID:27508105

  10. Radiosynthesis and evaluation of an 18F-labeled positron emission tomography (PET) radioligand for metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 4 (mGlu4).

    PubMed

    Kil, Kun-Eek; Poutiainen, Pekka; Zhang, Zhaoda; Zhu, Aijun; Choi, Ji-Kyung; Jokivarsi, Kimmo; Brownell, Anna-Liisa

    2014-11-13

    Four 4-phthalimide derivatives of N-(3-chlorophenyl)-2-picolinamide were synthesized as potential ligands for the PET imaging of mGlu4 in the brain. Of these compounds, N-(3-chloro-4-(4-fluoro-1,3-dioxoisoindolin-2-yl)phenyl)-2-picolinamide (3, KALB001) exhibited improved binding affinity (IC50 = 5.1 nM) compared with ML128 (1) and was subsequently labeled with (18)F. When finally formulated in 0.1 M citrate buffer (pH 4) with 10% ethanol, the specific activity of [(18)F]3 at the end of synthesis (EOS) was 233.5 ± 177.8 GBq/μmol (n = 4). The radiochemical yield of [(18)F]3 was 16.4 ± 4.8% (n = 4), and the purity was over 98%. In vivo imaging studies in a monkey showed that the radiotracer quickly penetrated the brain with the highest accumulation in the brain areas known to express mGlu4. Despite some unfavorable radiotracer properties like fast washout in rodent studies, [(18)F]3 is the first (18)F-labeled mGlu4 radioligand, which can be further modified to improve pharmacokinetics and brain penetrability for future human studies. PMID:25330258

  11. Design, Synthesis, and In Vitro and In Vivo Evaluation of an (18)F-Labeled Sphingosine 1-Phosphate Receptor 1 (S1P1) PET Tracer.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, Adam J; Liu, Hui; Jin, Hongjun; Yue, Xuyi; Riley, Sean; Brown, Steven J; Tu, Zhude

    2016-07-14

    Sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor 1 (S1P1) plays a pivotal signaling role in inflammatory response; because S1P1 modulation has been identified as a therapeutic target for various diseases, a PET tracer for S1P1 would be a useful tool. Fourteen fluorine-containing analogues of S1P ligands were synthesized and their in vitro binding potency measured; four had high potency and selectivity for S1P1 (S1P1 IC50 < 10 nM, >100-fold selectivity for S1P1 over S1P2 and S1P3). The most potent ligand, 28c (IC50 = 2.63 nM for S1P1) was (18)F-labeled and evaluated in a mouse model of LPS-induced acute liver injury to determine its S1P1-binding specificity. The results from biodistribution, autoradiography, and microPET imaging showed higher [(18)F]28c accumulation in the liver of LPS-treated mice than controls. Increased expression of S1P1 in the LPS model was confirmed by immunohistochemical analysis (IHC). These data suggest that [(18)F]28c is a S1P1 PET tracer with high potential for imaging S1P1 in vivo. PMID:27280499

  12. Synthesis and preliminary evaluation in tumor bearing mice of new (18)F-labeled arylsulfone matrix metalloproteinase inhibitors as tracers for positron emission tomography.

    PubMed

    Casalini, Francesca; Fugazza, Lorenza; Esposito, Giovanna; Cabella, Claudia; Brioschi, Chiara; Cordaro, Alessia; D'Angeli, Luca; Bartoli, Antonietta; Filannino, Azzurra M; Gringeri, Concetta V; Longo, Dario L; Muzio, Valeria; Nuti, Elisa; Orlandini, Elisabetta; Figlia, Gianluca; Quattrini, Angelo; Tei, Lorenzo; Digilio, Giuseppe; Rossello, Armando; Maiocchi, Alessandro

    2013-03-28

    New fluorinated, arylsulfone-based matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) inhibitors containing carboxylate as the zinc binding group were synthesized as radiotracers for positron emission tomography. Inhibitors were characterized by Ki for MMP-2 in the nanomolar range and by a fair selectivity for MMP-2/9/12/13 over MMP-1/3/14. Two of these compounds were obtained in the (18)F-radiolabeled form, with radiochemical purity and yield suitable for preliminary studies in mice xenografted with a human U-87 MG glioblastoma. Target density in xenografts was assessed by Western blot, yielding Bmax/Kd = 14. The biodistribution of the tracer was dominated by liver uptake and hepatobiliary clearance. Tumor uptake of (18)F-labeled MMP inhibitors was about 30% that of [(18)F]fluorodeoxyglucose. Accumulation of radioactivity within the tumor periphery colocalized with MMP-2 activity (evaluated by in situ zimography). However, specific tumor uptake accounted for only 18% of total uptake. The aspecific uptake was ascribed to the high binding affinity between the radiotracer and serum albumin. PMID:23458498

  13. Synthesis and evaluation of 18F-labeled ATP competitive inhibitors of topoisomerase II as probes for imaging topoisomerase II expression

    PubMed Central

    Daumar, Pierre; Zeglis, Brian M.; Ramos, Nicholas; Divilov, Vadim; Sevak, Kuntal Kumar; Pillarsetty, NagaVaraKishore; Lewis, Jason S.

    2015-01-01

    Type II topoisomerase (Topo-II) is an ATP-dependent enzyme that is essential in the transcription, replication, and chromosome segregation processes and, as such, represents an attractive target for cancer therapy. Numerous studies indicate that the response to treatment with Topo-II inhibitors is highly dependent on both the levels and the activity of the enzyme. Consequently, a non-invasive assay to measure tumoral Topo-II levels has the potential to differentiate responders from non-responders. With the ultimate goal of developing a radiofluorinated tracer for positron emission tomography (PET) imaging, we have designed, synthesized, and evaluated a set of fluorinated compounds based on the structure of the ATP-competitive Topo-II inhibitor QAP1. Compounds 18 and 19b showed inhibition of Topo-II in in vitro assays and exhibited moderate, Topo-II level dependent cytotoxicity in SK-BR-3 and MCF-7 cell lines. Based on these results, 18F-labeled analogs of these two compounds were synthesized and evaluated as PET probes for imaging Topo-II overexpression in mice bearing SK-BR-3 xenografts. [18F]-18 and [18F]-19b were synthesized from their corresponding protected tosylated derivatives by fluorination and subsequent deprotection. Small animal PET imaging studies indicated that both compounds do not accumulate in tumors and exhibit poor pharmacokinetics, clearing from the blood pool very rapidly and getting metabolized over. The insights gained from the current study will surely aid in the design and construction of future generations of PET agents for the non-invasive delineation of Topo-II expression. PMID:25240701

  14. Synthesis and evaluation of new (18)F-labelled acetamidobenzoxazolone-based radioligands for imaging of the translocator protein (18 kDa, TSPO) in the brain.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Anjani K; Fujinaga, Masayuki; Yui, Joji; Yamasaki, Tomoteru; Xie, Lin; Kumata, Katsushi; Mishra, Anil K; Shimoda, Yoko; Hatori, Akiko; Ji, Bin; Ogawa, Masanao; Kawamura, Kazunori; Wang, Feng; Zhang, Ming-Rong

    2014-12-21

    The visualization of the activated microglia/TSPO is one of the main aspects of neuroimaging. Here we describe two new (18)F-labelled molecules, 2-[5-(4-[(18)F]fluoroethoxyphenyl)- ([(18)F]2) and 2-[5-(4-[(18)F]fluoropropyloxyphenyl)- ([(18)F]3) -2-oxo-1,3-benzoxazol-3(2H)-yl]-N-methyl-N-phenylacetamide as novel PET ligands for imaging the translocator protein (18 kDa, TSPO) in the brain. The three-D pharmacophore evaluation and docking studies suggested their high affinity for the TSPO and in vitro binding assays of the TSPO showed binding affinities 6.6 ± 0.7 nM and 16.7 ± 2.5 nM for 2 and 3, respectively. The radiochemical yields for [(18)F]2 and [(18)F]3 were found to be 22 ± 4% (n = 8) and 5 ± 2% (n = 5), respectively at EOB. The radiochemical purity for both was found ≥98% and the specific activity was in the range of 98-364 GBq μmol(-1) at EOS. In vitro autoradiography with an ischemic rat brain showed significantly increased binding on the ipsilateral side compared to the contralateral side. The specificity of [(18)F]2 and [(18)F]3 for binding TSPO was confirmed using the TSPO ligands PK11195 and MBMP. The biodistribution patterns of both PET ligands were evaluated in normal mice by 1 h dynamic PET imaging. In the brain, regional radioactivity reached the maximum very rapidly within 0-4 min for both ligands, similar to (R)[(11)C]PK11195. The metabolite study of [(18)F]2 also favoured a more favourable profile for quantification in comparison to (R)[(11)C]PK11195. In summary, these data indicated that [(18)F]2 and [(18)F]3 have good potential to work as PET ligands, therefore there are merits to use these radioligands for the in vivo evaluation in animal models to see their efficacy in the living brain. PMID:25339090

  15. 18F-Labeled NaF PET-CT in Detection of Bone Metastases in Patients With Preoperative Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Liangjun; Zong, Zhen; Chen, Zhifeng; Wang, Xiaoyan; Shi, Xinchong; Yi, Chang; Zhang, Xiangsong

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We compared the diagnostic accuracy of 18F-labeled sodium fluoride (18F-NaF) PET-CT with 99m-technetium methylene diphosphonate (99mTc-MDP) single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) to detect bone metastases (BMs) in patients with preoperative lung cancer. Patients with lung cancer (n = 181) were examined with 18F-NaF PET-CT, and another 167 patients with lung cancer were examined with 99mTc-MDP SPECT. 18F-NaF PET-CT and 99mTc-MDP SPECT were evaluated by 2 experienced readers. Lesions were graded on a scale of 0 (degenerative lesion) to 4 (definite BM), and equivocal lesions were determined as indifferent (grade 3). Based on patient-based analysis, there were only 4 equivocal patients in 18F-NaF PET-CT detection. However, in 99mTc-MDP SPECT detection, there were 19 equivocal patients, which indicated a significant difference in terms of occurrence ratio (χ2 = 9.005, P = 0.03). Sensitivity and specificity of PET-CT was significantly better than that of SPECT when equivocal reading was categorized as malignant or benign (P < 0.05). Based on lesions-based analysis, SPECT produced 26 equivocal lesions of 333 lesions, but PET-CT produced only 5 equivocal lesions of 991 lesions. PET-CT was significantly better than SPECT in the aspect of producing equivocal patients (χ2 = 58.141, P < 0.001). Sensitivity and specificity of PET-CT was significantly better than that of SPECT when equivocal reading was categorized as malignant or benign (P < 0.05). 18F-NaF PET-CT is a highly sensitive and specific modality for the detection of BM in patients with preoperative lung cancer. It is better than conventional 99mTc-MDP SPECT in detecting BM in patients with preoperative lung cancer. PMID:27100456

  16. Radiosynthesis and preliminary PET evaluation of (18)F-labeled 2-(1-(3-fluorophenyl)-2-oxo-5-(pyrimidin-2-yl)-1,2-dihydropyridin-3-yl)benzonitrile for imaging AMPA receptors.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Gengyang; Jones, Graham B; Vasdev, Neil; Liang, Steven H

    2016-10-01

    To prompt the development of (18)F-labeled positron emission tomography (PET) tracers for the α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor, we have prepared (18)F-labeled 2-(1-(3-fluorophenyl)-2-oxo-5-(pyrimidin-2-yl)-1,2-dihydropyridin-3-yl)benzonitrile ([(18)F]8). The radiosynthesis was achieved by a one-pot two-step method that utilized a spirocyclic hypervalent iodine(III) mediated radiofluorination to prepare the (18)F-labeled 1-bromo-3-fluorobenzene ([(18)F]15) intermediate with K(18)F. A subsequent copper(I) iodide mediated coupling reaction was carried out with 2-(2-oxo-5-(pyrimidin-2-yl)-1,2-dihydropyridin-3-yl)benzonitrile (10) to [(18)F]8 in 10±2% uncorrected radiochemical yield relative to starting (18)F-fluoride with >99% radiochemical purity and 29.6±7.4Gbq/μmol specific activity at the time of injection. PET imaging studies with the title radiotracer in normal mice demonstrated good brain uptake (peak standardized uptake value (SUV)=2.3±0.1) and warrants further in vivo validation. PMID:27546294

  17. Distribution and binding of 18F-labeled and 125I-labeled analogues of ACI-80, a prospective molecular imaging biomarker of disease: a whole hemisphere post mortem autoradiography study in human brains obtained from Alzheimer's disease patients.

    PubMed

    Gulyás, Balázs; Spenger, Christian; Beliczai, Zsuzsa; Gulya, Károly; Kása, Péter; Jahan, Mahabuba; Jia, Zhisheng; Weber, Urs; Pfeifer, Andrea; Muhs, Andreas; Willbold, Dieter; Halldin, Christer

    2012-01-01

    One of the major pathological landmarks of Alzheimer's disease and other neurodegenerative diseases is the presence of amyloid deposits in the brain. The early non-invasive visualization of amyloid is a major objective of recent diagnostic neuroimaging approaches, including positron emission tomography (PET), with an eye on follow-up of disease progression and/or therapy efficacy. The development of molecular imaging biomarkers with binding affinity to amyloid in the brain is therefore in the forefront of imaging biomarker and radiochemistry research. Recently, a dodecamer peptide (amino acid sequence=QSHYRHISPAQV; denominated D1 or ACI-80) was identified as a prospective ligand candidate, binding with high ex vivo affinity to L-Aβ-amyloid (K(d): 0.4 μM). In order to assess the ligand's capacity to visualize amyloid in Alzheimer's disease (AD), two (125)I labeled and three (18)F labeled analogues of the peptide were synthesized and tested in post mortem human autoradiography experiments using whole hemisphere brain slices obtained from deceased AD patients and age matched control subjects. The (18)F-labeled radioligands showed more promising visualization capacity of amyloid that the (125)I-labeled radioligands. In the case of each (18)F radioligands the grey matter uptake in the AD brains was significantly higher than that in control brains. Furthermore, the grey matter: white matter uptake ratio was over ~2, the difference being significant for each (18)F-radioligands. The regional distribution of the uptake of the various radioligands systematically shows a congruent pattern between the high uptake regions and spots in the autoradiographic images and the disease specific signals obtained in adjacent or identical brain slices labeled with histological, immunohistochemical or autoradiographic stains for amyloid deposits or activated astrocytes. The present data, using post mortem human brain autoradiography in whole hemisphere human brains obtained from deceased

  18. 18F: Labeling Chemistry and Labeled Compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, T. L.; Wester, H. J.

    Positron emission tomography (PET) is a unique tool for the investigation, localization, and quantification of physiological activities in vivo by tracing the involved or accompanying biochemical processes. Because of its nuclear and chemical properties, fluorine-18, which is commonly produced by a cyclotron using the 18O(p,n)18F or the 20Ne(d,α)18F nuclear process, is a nearly ideal positron emitting radionuclide. Its half-life of 109.7 min permits tracer syntheses and imaging protocols extending over hours and allows distribution of 18F-radiopharmaceuticals to hospitals and facilities lacking a cyclotron. The low maximum positron energy of 635 keV results in low radiation doses, short ranges in tissue, and therefore in excellent imaging resolution. Introduction of 18F-fluorine, either via nucleophilic strategies using [18F]F- or electrophilic routes using molecular [18F]F2, permits the synthesis of a broad spectrum of compounds within a time compatible with the half-life. Although fluorine is only slightly larger than a hydrogen atom, changes in the physiological behavior of bioactive compounds as a result of alteration in metabolic stability, lipophilicity, affinity to the target, or other structures, etc., are often observed even after F-for-H or F-for-OH substitutions. In this chapter, an overview of the scope and limitations of the 18F-chemistry is given. Fluorination strategies, routes, and synthetic aspects are exemplified, as far as possible, by established and selected 18F-radiopharmaceuticals with clinical relevance or with potential for further clinical application.

  19. Noninvasive Visualization of the Activated αvβ3 Integrin in Cancer Patients by Positron Emission Tomography and [18F]Galacto-RGD

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Background The integrin αvβ3 plays an important role in angiogenesis and tumor cell metastasis, and is currently being evaluated as a target for new therapeutic approaches. Several techniques are being studied to enable noninvasive determination of αvβ3 expression. We developed [18F]Galacto-RGD, a 18F-labeled glycosylated αvβ3 antagonist, allowing monitoring of αvβ3 expression with positron emission tomography (PET). Methods and Findings Here we show by quantitative analysis of images resulting from a small-animal PET scanner that uptake of [18F]Galacto-RGD in the tumor correlates with αvβ3 expression subsequently determined by Western blot analyses. Moreover, using the A431 human squamous cell carcinoma model we demonstrate that this approach is sensitive enough to visualize αvβ3 expression resulting exclusively from the tumor vasculature. Most important, this study shows, that [18F]Galacto-RGD with PET enables noninvasive quantitative assessment of the αvβ3 expression pattern on tumor and endothelial cells in patients with malignant tumors. Conclusions Molecular imaging with [18F]Galacto-RGD and PET can provide important information for planning and monitoring anti-angiogenic therapies targeting the αvβ3 integrins and can reveal the involvement and role of this integrin in metastatic and angiogenic processes in various diseases. PMID:15783258

  20. N-Succinimidyl 3-((4-(4-[18F]fluorobutyl)-1H-1,2,3-triazol-1-yl)methyl)-5-(guanidinomethyl)benzoate ([18F]SFBTMGMB): A Residualizing Label for 18F-labeling of internalizing biomolecules

    PubMed Central

    Vaidyanathan, Ganesan; McDougald, Darryl; Choi, Jaeyeon; Pruszynski, Marek; Koumarianou, Eftychia; Zhou, Zhengyuan; Zalutsky, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    Residualizing labeling methods for internalizing peptides and proteins are designed to trap the radionuclide inside the cell after intracellular degradation of the biomolecule. The goal of this work was to develop a residualizing label for the 18F-labeling of internalizing biomolecules based on a template used successfully for radioiodination. N-succinimidyl 3-((4-(4-[18F]fluorobutyl)-1H-1,2,3-triazol-1-yl)methyl)-5-(bis-Boc-guanidinomethyl)benzoate (Boc2-[18F]SFBTMGMB) was synthesized by click reaction of an azide precursor and [18F]fluorohexyne in 8.5 ± 2.8% average decay-corrected radiochemical yield (n =15). An anti-HER2 nanobody 5F7 was labeled with 18F using [18F]SFBTMGMB ([18F]RL-I), obtained by the deprotection of Boc2-[18F]SFBTMGMB, in 31.2 ± 6.7% (n =5) conjugation efficiency. Thus labeled nanobody had a radiochemical purity of >95%, bound to the HER2-expressing BT474M1 breast cancer cells with an affinity of 4.7 ± 0.9 nM, and had an immunoreactive fraction of 62–80%. In summary, a novel residualizing prosthetic agent for labeling biomolecules with 18F has been developed. An anti-HER2 nanobody was labeled using this prosthetic group with retention of affinity and immunoreactivity to HER2. PMID:26645790

  1. Synthesis and in vitro and in vivo evaluation of SiFA-tagged bombesin and RGD peptides as tumor imaging probes for positron emission tomography.

    PubMed

    Lindner, Simon; Michler, Christina; Leidner, Stephanie; Rensch, Christian; Wängler, Carmen; Schirrmacher, Ralf; Bartenstein, Peter; Wängler, Björn

    2014-04-16

    approach for the generation of novel potent (18)F-labeled imaging agents. PMID:24666287

  2. Novel Method for Radiolabeling and Dimerizing Thiolated Peptides Using (18)F-Hexafluorobenzene.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Orit; Yan, Xuefeng; Ma, Ying; Niu, Gang; Kiesewetter, Dale O; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2015-10-21

    Hexafluorobenzene (HFB) reacts with free thiols to produce a unique and selective perfluoroaromatic linkage between two sulfurs. We modified this chemical reaction to produce dimeric (18)F-RGD-tetrafluorobenzene (TFB)-RGD, an integrin αvβ3 receptor ligand. (18)F-HFB was prepared by a fluorine exchange reaction using K(18)F/K2.2.2 at room temperature. The automated radiofluorination was optimized to minimize the amount of HFB precursor and, thus, maximize the specific activity. (18)F-HFB was isolated by distillation and subsequently reacted with thiolated c(RGDfk) peptide under basic and reducing conditions. The resulting (18)F-RGD-TFB-RGD demonstrated integrin receptor specific binding, cellular uptake, and in vivo tumor accumulation.(18)F-HFB can be efficiently incorporated into thiol-containing peptides at room temperature to provide novel imaging agents. PMID:26086295

  3. RGD-based Therapy: Principles of Selectivity.

    PubMed

    Rubtsov, Mikhail A; Syrkina, Marina S; Aliev, Gjumrakch

    2016-01-01

    Design of selective anticancer drugs that are targeting RGD-binding integrin receptors which are known to be one of the perspective directions in the field of oncology. Significant progress in the development and application of these types compounds is already demonstrated. The accumulating body of basic and clinical evidence demonstrates potential significant effects on both in vitro and in vivo experimental models. However, the specific mechanism of action of these compounds is generally not a fully elucidated or the exact target responsible for the achievement of stated effects hasn't yet been defined sufficiently. To date eight types of integrin receptors, which are capable to recognize RGD-motif in natural ligands, has in fact been identified as (namely αIIbβ3, αvβ1, αvβ3, αvβ5, αvβ6, αvβ8, α5β1, α8β1). Even so, the estimation of the affinity of one particular RGD-bearing anticancer agent is often based on the determination of the binding efficacy to only one or rarely two integrin receptors. Traditionally the range of targets is restricted by the integrins, which are known to be highly expressed in a particular model system. While potential interactions of such an agent with other RGD-recognizing receptors usually remain beyond the research. Nonetheless, such interactions may also affect the viability and behavior of cancer cells. In this review we attempt to critically analyze the principles of selectivity achievement in the case of RGD-bearing natural ligands and the applicability of these principles in the context of the anticancer drug design. PMID:26648463

  4. Radiolabeled multimeric cyclic RGD peptides as integrin alphavbeta3 targeted radiotracers for tumor imaging.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shuang

    2006-01-01

    Integrin alphavbeta3 plays a significant role in tumor angiogenesis and is a receptor for the extracellular matrix proteins with the exposed arginine-glycine-aspartic (RGD) tripeptide sequence. These include vitronectin, fibronectin, fibrinogen, lamin, collagen, Von Willibrand's factor, osteoponin, and adenovirus particles. Integrin alphavbeta3 is expressed at low levels on epithelial cells and mature endothelial cells, but it is overexpressed on the activated endothelial cells of tumor neovasculature and some tumor cells. The highly restricted expression of integrin alphavbeta3 during tumor growth, invasion, and metastasis presents an interesting molecular target for both early detection and treatment of rapidly growing solid tumors. In the past decade, many radiolabeled linear and cyclic RGD peptide antagonists have been evaluated as the integrin alphavbeta3 targeted radiotracers. Significant progress has been made on their use for imaging tumors of different origin by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) or positron emission tomography (PET) in several tumor-bearing animal models. [18F]Galacto-RGD is under clinical investigation as the first integrin alphavbeta3 targeted radiotracer for noninvasive visualization of the activated integrin alphavbeta3 in cancer patients. This review will focus on the radiolabeled multimeric cyclic RGD peptides (dimers and tetramers) useful as radiotracers to image the tumor integrin alphavbeta3 expression by SPECT and PET, and some fundamental aspects for the development of integrin alphavbeta3 targeted radiotracers. These include the choice of radionuclide and bifunctional chelators, selection of targeting biomolecules, and factors influencing the integrin alphavbeta3 binding affinity and tumor uptake, as well as different approaches for modification of radiotracer pharmacokinetics. PMID:17009846

  5. Dimeric Sesquiterpenoids.

    PubMed

    Liao, Shang-Gao; Yue, Jian-Min

    2016-01-01

    It is widely accepted that a large number of proteins that are responsible for cellular function exist as dimers or need to be activated by dimerization before mediating certain signaling pathways. Simultaneously targeting both monomeric moieties of the dimeric proteins has shown potential in the development of various therapeutic agents. As dimeric molecules might be able to act on both moieties of a dimeric protein, dimeric sesquiterpenoids (DSs), which are generated biogenetically from coupling of two sesquiterpenoid molecules, are in essence potential biologically active molecules, and have attracted in recent years great attention for their peculiar structures and biological activities. In fact, a number of DSs are more potent than their monomeric precursors for some activities such as anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor, immunosuppressive, potassium channel blocking, antimalarial, anti-virus, and neurotrophic activities.The complex and diversified structures of DSs also attracted attention of chemists in their isolation, structural elucidation, and synthetic construction.In the contribution, a general view of the classification and distribution of DSs will be provided. Strategies for the structural elucidation of DSs and their analogues is presented. Chemical strategies for the convergence of the two sesquiterpenoid units is reviewed. Biological activities are discussed under each type of activity. PMID:26659108

  6. Advantages of RGD peptides for directing cell association with biomaterials

    PubMed Central

    Bellis, Susan L.

    2011-01-01

    Despite many years of in vitro research confirming the effectiveness of RGD in promoting cell attachment to a wide variety of biomaterials, animal studies evaluating tissue responses to implanted RGD-functionalized substrates have yielded more variable results The goals of this report are to present some of the reasons why cell culture studies may not always reliably predict in vivo responses, and more importantly, to highlight potential applications that may benefit from the use of RGD peptides. PMID:21515168

  7. Internalization of RGD peptide conjugates of near-infrared fluorescent probes in different cell lines occurs via different integrin receptor subtypes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloch, S.; Xu, B.; Ye, Y.; Liang, K.; Achilefu, S.

    2006-02-01

    Expression of integrin α vβ 3 is upregulated in a number of cancers including colon, pancreas, lung and breast. Previous studies demonstrated that near infrared (NIR) fluorescent probes designed to target α vβ 3 accumulated both in vitro and in vivo in α vβ 3-positive tumor cells. To evaluate the selectivity of some NIR-labeled RGD peptides for α vβ 3, the molecular probes were incubated in different cells, including the α vβ 3-positive U87 and A549 cells, and α vβ 3-negative HT29 cells. Whereas the RGD compounds tested internalized in the A549 cells, their uptake by the HT29 cell line, which is positive for α vβ 5 and α vβ 6, was low. The uptake of these probes in U87 depended on the structural features of the compounds. Further studies with functional blocking antibodies showed that the internalization in the α vβ 3-positive cells may be mediated by different integrin receptor subtypes. The preliminary results suggest that the internalization of linear RGD peptides is mediated by the α vβ 3 heterodimer but rearrangement of the peptide sequence could alter the selectivity of the molecular probes for different integrin subunits in the dimeric α and β proteins. Thus, a careful choice of RGD peptides can be used to monitor the functional status of different integrins in cells and tissues.

  8. Galloyl-RGD as a new cosmetic ingredient

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The cosmetics market has rapidly increased over the last years. For example, in 2011 it reached 242.8 billion US dollars, which was a 3.9% increase compared to 2010. There have been many recent trials aimed at finding the functional ingredients for new cosmetics. Gallic acid is a phytochemical derived from various herbs, and has anti-fungal, anti-viral, and antioxidant properties. Although phytochemicals are useful as cosmetic ingredients, they have a number of drawbacks, such as thermal stability, residence time in the skin, and permeability through the dermal layer. To overcome these problems, we considered conjugation of gallic acid with a peptide. Results We synthesized galloyl-RGD, which represents a conjugate of gallic acid and the peptide RGD, purified it by HPLC and characterized by MALDI-TOF with the aim of using it as a new cosmetic ingredient. Thermal stability of galloyl-RGD was tested at alternating temperatures (consecutive 4°C, 20°C, or 40°C for 8 h each) on days 2, 21, 41, and 61. Galloyl-RGD was relatively safe to HaCaT keratinocytes, as their viability after 48 h incubation with 500 ppm galloyl-RGD was 93.53%. In the group treated with 50 ppm galloyl-RGD, 85.0% of free radicals were removed, whereas 1000 ppm galloyl-RGD suppressed not only L-DOPA formation (43.8%) but also L-DOPA oxidation (54.4%). Conclusions Galloyl-RGD is a promising candidate for a cosmetic ingredient. PMID:25103826

  9. 18F-Labeled Silicon-Based Fluoride Acceptors: Potential Opportunities for Novel Positron Emitting Radiopharmaceuticals

    PubMed Central

    Bernard-Gauthier, Vadim; Wängler, Carmen; Wängler, Bjoern; Schirrmacher, Ralf

    2014-01-01

    Background. Over the recent years, radiopharmaceutical chemistry has experienced a wide variety of innovative pushes towards finding both novel and unconventional radiochemical methods to introduce fluorine-18 into radiotracers for positron emission tomography (PET). These “nonclassical” labeling methodologies based on silicon-, boron-, and aluminium-18F chemistry deviate from commonplace bonding of an [18F]fluorine atom (18F) to either an aliphatic or aromatic carbon atom. One method in particular, the silicon-fluoride-acceptor isotopic exchange (SiFA-IE) approach, invalidates a dogma in radiochemistry that has been widely accepted for many years: the inability to obtain radiopharmaceuticals of high specific activity (SA) via simple IE. Methodology. The most advantageous feature of IE labeling in general is that labeling precursor and labeled radiotracer are chemically identical, eliminating the need to separate the radiotracer from its precursor. SiFA-IE chemistry proceeds in dipolar aprotic solvents at room temperature and below, entirely avoiding the formation of radioactive side products during the IE. Scope of Review. A great plethora of different SiFA species have been reported in the literature ranging from small prosthetic groups and other compounds of low molecular weight to labeled peptides and most recently affibody molecules. Conclusions. The literature over the last years (from 2006 to 2014) shows unambiguously that SiFA-IE and other silicon-based fluoride acceptor strategies relying on 18F− leaving group substitutions have the potential to become a valuable addition to radiochemistry. PMID:25157357

  10. Single-scan rest/stress imaging 18F-labeled flow tracers

    PubMed Central

    Alpert, Nathaniel; Dean Fang, Yu-Hua; Fakhri, Georges El

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The authors report a novel measurement strategy to obtain both rest and stress blood flow during a single, relatively short, scan session. Methods: Measurement of rest-stress myocardial blood flow with long-lived tracers usually requires separate scan sessions to remove the confounding effects of residual radioactivity concentration in the blood and tissue. The innovation of this method is to treat the rest-stress scan as a single entity in which the flow parameters change due to pharmacological challenge. With this approach the fate of a tracer molecule is naturally accounted for, no matter if it was introduced during the rest or stress phase of the study. Two new dual-injection kinetic models are considered that represent the response to pharmacological stress as a transitional or transient increase of myocardial blood flow. The authors present the theory of the method followed by the specific application of the theory to 18F-Flurpiridaz, a new myocardial flow-imaging agent. Results: Myocardial blood flow was accurately and precisely estimated from a single-scan rest/stress study for the long half-lived tracer 18F-Flurpiridaz. By accounting for the time-dependence of the kinetic parameters, the proposed models achieved good accuracy and precision (5%) under different vasodilators and different ischemic states. Conclusions: Detailed simulations predict that accurate and precise rest-stress blood flow measurements can be obtained in 20–30 min. PMID:23127055

  11. An improved strategy for the synthesis of [18F]-labeled arabinofuranosyl nuclosides

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hanwen; Cantorias, Melchor V.; Pillarsetty, NagaVaraKishore; Burnazi, Eva M.; Cai, Shangde; Lewis, Jason S.

    2012-01-01

    The expression of the herpes simplex virus type-1 thymidine kinase (HSV1-tk) gene can be imaged efficaciously using a variety of 2′-[18F]fluoro-2′-deoxy-1-b-D-arabinofuranosyl-uracil derivatives [[18F]-FXAU, X= I(iodo), E(ethyl), and M(methyl)]. However, the application of these derivatives in clinical and translational studies has been impeded by their complicated and long syntheses (3–5 h). To remedy these issues, in the study at hand we have investigated whether microwave or combined catalysts could facilitate the coupling reaction between sugar and nucleobase and, further, have probed the feasibility of establishing a novel approach for [18F]-FXAU synthesis. We have demonstrated that the rate of the trimethylsilyl trifluoromethanesulfonate (TMSOTf)-catalyzed coupling reaction between the 2-deoxy-sugar and uracil derivatives at 90°C can be significantly accelerated by microwave-driven heating or by the addition of Lewis acid catalyst (SnCl4). Further, we have observed that the stability of the α- and β-anomers of [18F]-FXAU derivatives differs during the hydrolysis step. Using the microwave-driven heating approach, overall decay-corrected radiochemical yields of 19–27% were achieved for [18F]-FXAU in 120 min at a specific activity of >22 MBq/nmol (595 Ci/mmol). Ultimately, we believe that these high yielding syntheses of [18F]-FIAU, [18F]-FMAU and [18F]-FEAU will facilitate routine production for clinical applications. PMID:22819195

  12. Synthesis and evaluation of 18F labeled alanine derivatives as potential tumor imaging agents

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Limin; Zha, Zhihao; Qu, Wenchao; Qiao, Hongwen; Lieberman, Brian P.; Plössl, Karl; Kung, Hank F.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction This paper reports the synthesis and labeling of 18F alanine derivatives. We also investigate their biological characteristics as potential tumor imaging agents mediated by alanine-serine-cysteine preferring (ASC) transporter system. Methods Three new 18F alanine derivatives were prepared from corresponding tosylate-precursors through a two-step labelling reaction. In vitro uptake studies to evaluate and to compare these three analogs were carried out in 9L glioma and PC-3 prostate cancer cell lines. Potential transport mechanisms, protein incorporation and stability of 3-(1-[18F]fluoromethyl)-L-alanine (L[18F]FMA) were investigated in 9L glioma cells. Its biodistribution was determined in a rat-bearing 9L tumor model. PET imaging studies were performed on rat bearing 9L glioma tumors and transgenic mouse carrying spontaneous generated M/tomND tumor (mammary gland adenocarcinoma). Results New 18F alanine derivatives were prepared with 7–34% uncorrected radiochemical yields, excellent enantiomeric purity (>99%) and good radiochemical purity (>99%). In vitro uptake of the L-[18F]FMA in 9L glioma and PC-3 prostate cancer cells was higher than those observed for other two alanine derivatives and [18F]FDG in first 1 h. Inhibition of cell uptake studies suggested that L-[18F]FMA uptake in 9L glioma was predominantly via transport system ASC. After entering into cells, L-[18F]FMA remained stable and was not incorporated into protein within 2 h. In vivo biodistribution studies demonstrated that L-[18F]FMA had relatively high uptake in liver and kidney. Tumor uptake was fast, reaching a maximum within 30 min. The tumor-to-muscle, tumor-to-blood and tumor-to-brain ratios at 60 min post injection were 2.2, 1.9 and 3.0, respectively. In PET imaging studies, tumors were visualized with L-[18F]FMA in both 9L rat and transgenic mouse. Conclusion L-[18F]FMA showed promising properties as a PET imaging agent for up-regulated ASC transporter associated with tumor proliferation. PMID:22542392

  13. Synthesis and evaluation of 18F labeled FET prodrugs for tumor imaging

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Limin; Lieberman, Brian P.; Ploessl, Karl; Kung, Hank F.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction O-(2-[18F]fluoroethyl)-L-tyrosine (FET, [18F]1) is a useful amino-acid-based imaging agent for brain tumors. This paper reports the synthesis and evaluation of three FET prodrugs, O-(2-[18F]fluoroethyl)-L-tyrosyl-L-glycine (FET-Gly, [18F]2), O-(2-[18F]fluoroethyl)-L-tyrosyl-L-alanine (FET-Ala, [18F]3) and N-acetyl O-(2-[18F]fluoroethyl)-L-tyrosine (AcFET, [18F]4), which could be readily hydrolyzed to FET in vivo for tumor imaging. We investigated their metabolism in the blood and imaging properties in comparison to FET ([18F]1). Methods Three new [18F]FET derivatives, 2 – 4, were prepared from their corresponding tosylate-precursors through nucleophilic fluorination and subsequent deprotection reactions. In vitro uptake studies were carried out in 9L glioma cancer cell lines. In vitro and in vivo hydrolysis studies were conducted to evaluate the hydrolysis of FET prodrugs in blood and in Fisher 344 rats. Biodistribution and PET imaging studies were then performed in rats bearing 9L tumors. Results New FET prodrugs were prepared with 3 – 28 % decay corrected radiochemical yields, good enantiomeric purity (> 95 %) and high radiochemical purity (> 95 %). FET-Gly ([18F]2), FET-Ala ([18F]3), and AcFET ([18F]4) exhibited negligible uptake in comparison to the high uptake of FET ([18F]1) in 9L cells. Metabolism studies of FET-Gly ([18F]2), FET-Ala ([18F]3), and AcFET ([18F]4) in rat and human blood showed that FET-Ala ([18F]3) was hydrolyzed to FET ([18F]1) faster than FET-Gly ([18F]2) or AcFET ([18F]4). Most of the FET-Ala (79 %) was converted to FET ([18F]1) within 5 min in blood in vivo. Biodistribution studies demonstrated that FET-Ala ([18F]3) displayed the highest tumor uptake. The tumor-to-background ratios of FET-Ala ([18F]3) and FET ([18F]1) were comparable and appeared to be better than those of FET-Gly ([18F]2) and AcFET ([18F]4). PET imaging studies showed that both FET ([18F]1) and FET-Ala ([18F]3) could visualize tumors effectively, and that they share similar imaging characteristics. Conclusions FET-Ala ([18F]3) demonstrated promising properties as a prodrug of FET ([18F]1), which could be used in PET imaging of tumor amino acid metabolism. PMID:24183614

  14. Rapid (18)F-labeling and loading of PEGylated gold nanoparticles for in vivo applications.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jun; Chin, Joshua; Wängler, Carmen; Wängler, Bjoern; Lennox, R Bruce; Schirrmacher, Ralf

    2014-06-18

    Water-soluble 3 nm maleimide-terminated PEGylated gold nanoparticles (maleimide-AuNP) were synthesized in both partially hydrolyzed and nonhydrolyzed forms. Both of these maleimide-AuNPs, when reacted with the silicon-fluorine prosthetic group [(18)F]SiFA-SH, resulted in radiolabeled AuNPs. These NPs were readily purified with high radiochemical yields (RCY) of 60-80% via size exclusion chromatography. Preliminary small animal positron emission tomography (PET) measurements in healthy rats gives information about the pathway of excretion and the stability of the radioactive label in vivo. The partially hydrolyzed [(18)F]SiFA-maleimide-AuNPs shows uptake in the brain region of interest (ROI) (> 0.13%ID/g) which was confirmed by ex vivo examination of the thoroughly perfused rat brain. The multiple maleimide end groups on the AuNP surface also allows for the simultaneous incorporation of [(18)F]SiFA-SH and a bioactive peptide (cysteine-modified octreotate, cys-TATE, which can bind to somatostatin receptor subtypes 2 and 5) in a proof-of-concept study. The well-defined Michael addition reaction between various thiol containing molecules and the multifunctionalized maleimide-AuNPs thus offers an opportunity to develop a new bioconjugation platform for new diagnostics as well as therapeutics. PMID:24807200

  15. Improved 18F labeling of peptides with a fluoride-aluminum-chelate complex.

    PubMed

    McBride, William J; D'Souza, Christopher A; Sharkey, Robert M; Karacay, Habibe; Rossi, Edmund A; Chang, Chien-Hsing; Goldenberg, David M

    2010-07-21

    We reported previously the feasibility to radiolabel peptides with fluorine-18 ((18)F) using a rapid one-pot method that first mixes (18)F(-) with Al(3+) and then binds the (Al(18)F)(2+) complex to a NOTA ligand on the peptide. In this report, we examined several new NOTA ligands and determined how temperature, reaction time, and reagent concentration affected the radiolabeling yield. Four structural variations of the NOTA ligand had isolated radiolabeling yields ranging from 5.8% to 87% under similar reaction conditions. All of the Al(18)F NOTA complexes were stable in vitro in human serum, and those that were tested in vivo also were stable. The radiolabeling reactions were performed at 100 degrees C, and the peptides could be labeled in as little as 5 min. The IMP467 peptide could be labeled up to 115 GBq/micromol (3100 Ci/mmol), with a total reaction and purification time of 30 min without chromatographic purification. PMID:20540570

  16. A dimeric PR-1-type pathogenesis-related protein interacts with ToxA and potentially mediates ToxA-induced necrosis in sensitive wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A dimeric PR-1-type pathogenesis-related protein (PR-1-5) recently identified in wheat was found to interact with Stagonospora nodorum ToxA in both yeast two-hybrid and co-immunoprecipitation assays. Site-specific mutational analyses revealed that the RGD motif of ToxA is not targeted by PR-1-5, wh...

  17. RGD based peptide amphiphiles as drug carriers for cancer targeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saraf, Poonam S.

    Specific interactions of ligands with receptors is one of the approaches for active targeting of anticancer drugs to cancer cells. Over expression of integrin receptors is a physiological manifestation in several cancers and is associated with cancer progression and metastasis, which makes it an attractive target for cancer chemotherapy. The peptide sequence for this integrin recognition is the Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD). Self-assembly offers a unique way of presenting ligands to target receptors for recognition and binding. This study focuses on development of integrin specific peptide amphiphile self-assemblies as carriers for targeted delivery of paclitaxel to αvbeta 3 integrin overexpressing cancers. Amphiphiles composed of conjugates of different analogs of RGD (linear, cyclic or glycosylated) and aliphatic fatty acid with or without 8-amino-3,6-dioxaoctanoic acid (ADA) as linker were synthesized and characterized. The amphiphiles exhibited Critical Micellar Concentration in the range of 7-30 μM. Transmission electron microscopy images revealed the formation of spherical micelles in the size range of 10-40 nm. Forster Resonance Energy Transfer studies revealed entrapment of hydrophobic dyes within a tight micellar core and provided information regarding the cargo exchange within micelles. The RGD micelles exhibited competitive binding with 55% displacement of a bound fluorescent probe by the cyclic RGD micelles. The internalization of fluorescein isothiocynate (FITC) loaded RGD micelles was significantly higher in A2058 melanoma cells compared to free FITC within 20 minutes of incubation at 37°C. The same micelles showed significantly lower internalization at 4°C and on pretreatment with 0.45M sucrose confirming endocytotic uptake of the RGD micellar carriers. The IC50 of paclitaxel in A2058 melanoma cells was lower when treated within RGD micelles as compared to treatment of free drug. On the other hand, IC50 values increased by 2 to 9 fold for micellar treatment

  18. D-dimer test

    MedlinePlus

    D-dimer tests are used to check for blood clotting problems. Blood clots can cause health problems, such ... that you probably do not have problems with blood clotting. If you are getting the D-dimer test ...

  19. Identification of Angiogenesis Rich-Viable Myocardium using RGD Dimer based SPECT after Myocardial Infarction.

    PubMed

    Lee, Min Su; Park, Hyun Soo; Lee, Byung Chul; Jung, Jae Ho; Yoo, Jung Sun; Kim, Sang Eun

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac healing after myocardial ischemia is a complex biological process. Advances in understanding of wound healing response have paved the way for clinical testing of novel molecular imaging to improve clinical outcomes. A key factor for assessing myocardial viability after ischemic injury is the evaluation of angiogenesis accompanying increased expression of integrin αvβ3. Here, we describe the capability of an αvβ3 integrin-targeting SPECT agent, (99m)Tc-IDA-D-[c(RGDfK)]2, for identification of ischemic but viable myocardium, i.e., hibernating myocardium which is crucial to predict functional recovery after revascularization, the standard care of cardiovascular medicine. In vivo SPECT imaging of rat models with transient coronary occlusion showed significantly high uptake of (99m)Tc-IDA-D-[c(RGDfK)]2 in the ischemic region. Comparative measurements with (201)Tl SPECT and (18)F-FDG PET, then, proved that such prominent uptake of (99m)Tc-IDA-D-[c(RGDfK)]2 exactly matched the hallmark of hibernation, i.e., the perfusion-metabolism mismatch pattern. The uptake of (99m)Tc-IDA-D-[c(RGDfK)]2 was non-inferior to that of (18)F-FDG, confirmed by time-course variation analysis. Immunohistochemical characterization revealed that an intense signal of (99m)Tc-IDA-D-[c(RGDfK)]2 corresponded to the vibrant angiogenic events with elevated expression of αvβ3 integrin. Together, these results establish that (99m)Tc-IDA-D-[c(RGDfK)]2 SPECT can serve as a sensitive clinical measure for myocardial salvage to identify the patients who might benefit most from revascularization. PMID:27283041

  20. Identification of Angiogenesis Rich-Viable Myocardium using RGD Dimer based SPECT after Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Min Su; Park, Hyun Soo; Lee, Byung Chul; Jung, Jae Ho; Yoo, Jung Sun; Kim, Sang Eun

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac healing after myocardial ischemia is a complex biological process. Advances in understanding of wound healing response have paved the way for clinical testing of novel molecular imaging to improve clinical outcomes. A key factor for assessing myocardial viability after ischemic injury is the evaluation of angiogenesis accompanying increased expression of integrin αvβ3. Here, we describe the capability of an αvβ3 integrin-targeting SPECT agent, 99mTc-IDA-D-[c(RGDfK)]2, for identification of ischemic but viable myocardium, i.e., hibernating myocardium which is crucial to predict functional recovery after revascularization, the standard care of cardiovascular medicine. In vivo SPECT imaging of rat models with transient coronary occlusion showed significantly high uptake of 99mTc-IDA-D-[c(RGDfK)]2 in the ischemic region. Comparative measurements with 201Tl SPECT and 18F-FDG PET, then, proved that such prominent uptake of 99mTc-IDA-D-[c(RGDfK)]2 exactly matched the hallmark of hibernation, i.e., the perfusion-metabolism mismatch pattern. The uptake of 99mTc-IDA-D-[c(RGDfK)]2 was non-inferior to that of 18F-FDG, confirmed by time-course variation analysis. Immunohistochemical characterization revealed that an intense signal of 99mTc-IDA-D-[c(RGDfK)]2 corresponded to the vibrant angiogenic events with elevated expression of αvβ3 integrin. Together, these results establish that 99mTc-IDA-D-[c(RGDfK)]2 SPECT can serve as a sensitive clinical measure for myocardial salvage to identify the patients who might benefit most from revascularization. PMID:27283041

  1. microPET Imaging of Glioma Integrin (alpha-v, beta-3) Expression Using Cu-64-Labeled Tetrameric RGD Peptide

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Yun; Zhang, , Xianzhong; Xiong, , Zhengming; Cheng, Zhen; Fisher, Darrell R.; Liu, Shu-hong; Gambhir, Sanjiv S.; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2005-10-01

    Integrins ?v?3 and ?v?5 play a critical role in tumor-induced angiogenesis and metastasis, and have become promising diagnostic indicators and therapeutic targets of tumors. Radiolabeled RGD peptides that are integrin-specific may be used for non-invasive imaging of integrin expression level as well as for integrin-targeted radionuclide therapy. We previously conjugated a series of mono- and dimeric RGD peptides with 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-N, N?,N??,N???-tetraacetic acid (DOTA) and labeled these with copper-64 for microPET imaging in various mouse xenograft models. The copper-64 tracers showed ?v?3-selective tumor uptake, but the magnitude of tumor uptake was relatively low, the tumor washout was rapid, and non-target organ/tissue retention was high. In this study we developed a tetrameric RGD peptide tracer 64Cu-DOTA-E{l_brace}E[c(RGDfK)]2{r_brace}2 for positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of integrin ?v?3 expression in a subcutaneous U87MG glioma xenograft model in female athymic nude mice. The RGD tetramer showed significantly higher integrin binding affinity than the corresponding mono- and dimeric RGD analogs, most likely due to polyvalency effect. The radiolabeled peptide showed rapid blood clearance (0.61 ? 0.01%ID/g at 30 min and 0.21 ? 0.01 %ID/g at 4 h postinjection (p.i.), respectively) and predominantly renal excretion. Tumor uptake was rapid and high and the tumor washout was slow (9.93 ? 1.05 %ID/g at 30 min p.i. and 4.56 ? 0.51 %ID/g at 24 h post-injection). The metabolic stability of 64Cu-DOTA-E{l_brace}E[c(RGDfK)]2{r_brace}2 was determined in mouse blood, urine, and liver and kidney homogenates at different times after tracer injection. The average fractions of intact tracer in these organs at 1 h were approximately 70, 58, 51 and 26 percent, respectively. Non-invasive microPET imaging studies showed significant tumor uptake and good contrast in the subcutaneous tumor-bearing mice, which agreed well with the biodistribution results

  2. Interfacial adsorption of fibrinogen and its inhibition by RGD peptide: a combined physical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armstrong, Johanna; Salacinski, Henryk J.; Mu, Qingshan; Seifalian, Alex M.; Peel, Louise; Freeman, Neville; Holt, Cathy M.; Lu, Jian R.

    2004-07-01

    The Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) peptide sequence is known as a cell recognition site for numerous adhesive proteins present in the extracellular matrix (ECM) and in blood. Whilst surface immobilized RGD groups enhance cell attachment, RGD components present in solution can effectively inhibit cell attachment by competing with endogenous ligands for the same recognition site. In contrast to the widely reported binding to cell integrin, this study demonstrates a new RGD feature: its inhibitive effect on fibrinogen adsorption. Through a combined analysis of spectroscopic ellipsometry, neutron reflection and dual polarization interferometry, we show that the kinetic process of fibrinogen adsorption as a model pro-coagulant at the silica/solution interface and in the absence of any cells can be substantially reduced by the addition of RGD in solution and that the extent of the reduction is dependent on the relative concentration of RGD.

  3. The modulation of MSC integrin expression by RGD presentation

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Jonathan; Segura, Tatiana

    2013-01-01

    Biomaterials designed to mimic the intricate native extracellular matrix (ECM) can use a variety of techniques to control the behavior of encapsulated cells. Common methods include controlling the mechanical properties of the material, incorporating bioactive signals, spatially patterning bioactive signals, and controlling the time-release of bioactive signals. Further design parameters like bioactive signal distribution can be used to manipulate cell behavior. Efforts on clustering adhesion peptides have focused on seeding cells on top of a biomaterial. Here we report the effect of clustering the adhesion peptide RGD on mouse mesenchymal stem cells encapsulated inside three-dimensional hyaluronic acid hydrogels. The clustered bioactive signals resulted in significant differences in both cell spreading and integrin expression. These results indicate that signal RGD peptide clustering is an additional hydrogel design parameter can be used to influence and guide the behavior of encapsulated cells. PMID:23465825

  4. Enzymatic transhalogenation of dendritic RGD peptide constructs with the fluorinase.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Stephen; Fleming, Ian N; O'Hagan, David

    2016-03-21

    The substrate scope of fluorinase enzyme mediated transhalogenation reactions is extended. Substrate tolerance allows a peptide cargo to be tethered to a 5'-chloro-5'-deoxynucleoside substrate for transhalogenation by the enzyme to a 5'-fluoro-5'-deoxynucleoside. The reaction is successfully extended from that previously reported for a monomeric cyclic peptide (cRGD) to cargoes of dendritic scaffolds carrying two and four cyclic peptide motifs. The RGD peptide sequence is known to bind upregulated αVβ3 integrin motifs on the surface of cancer cells and it is demonstrated that the fluorinated products have a higher affinity to αVβ3 integrin than their monomeric counterparts. Extending the strategy to radiolabelling of the peptide cargoes by tagging the peptides with [(18)F]fluoride was only moderately successful due to the poor water solubility of these higher order peptide scaffolds although the strategy holds promise for peptide constructs with improved solubility. PMID:26906931

  5. The RGD finger of Del-1 is a unique structural feature critical for integrin binding

    SciTech Connect

    Schürpf, Thomas; Chen, Qiang; Liu, Jin-huan; Wang, Rui; Springer, Timothy A.; Wang, Jia-huai

    2012-11-13

    Developmental endothelial cell locus-1 (Del-1) glycoprotein is secreted by endothelial cells and a subset of macrophages. Del-1 plays a regulatory role in vascular remodeling and functions in innate immunity through interaction with integrin {alpha}{sub V}{beta}{sub 3}. Del-1 contains 3 epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like repeats and 2 discoidin-like domains. An Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) motif in the second EGF domain (EGF2) mediates adhesion by endothelial cells and phagocytes. We report the crystal structure of its 3 EGF domains. The RGD motif of EGF2 forms a type II' {beta} turn at the tip of a long protruding loop, dubbed the RGD finger. Whereas EGF2 and EGF3 constitute a rigid rod via an interdomain calcium ion binding site, the long linker between EGF1 and EGF2 lends considerable flexibility to EGF1. Two unique O-linked glycans and 1 N-linked glycan locate to the opposite side of EGF2 from the RGD motif. These structural features favor integrin binding of the RGD finger. Mutagenesis data confirm the importance of having the RGD motif at the tip of the RGD finger. A database search for EGF domain sequences shows that this RGD finger is likely an evolutionary insertion and unique to the EGF domain of Del-1 and its homologue milk fat globule-EGF 8. The RGD finger of Del-1 is a unique structural feature critical for integrin binding.

  6. The NMR solution structure of recombinant RGD-hirudin

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Xia; Mo, Wei; Liu, Xingang; Zhu, Lina; Yan, Xiaomin; Song, Houyan . E-mail: hysong@shmu.edu.cn; Dai, Linsen . E-mail: lsdai@fudan.edu.cn

    2007-08-17

    The solution structure of a new recombinant RGD-hirudin, which has the activities of anti-thrombin and anti-platelet aggregation, was determined by {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and compared with the conformations of recombinant wild-type hirudin and hirudin (variant 2, Lys47) of the hirudin thrombin complex. On the basis of total 1284 distance and dihedral angle constraints derived from a series of NMR spectra, 20 conformers were computed with ARIA/CNS programs. The structure of residues 3-30 and 37-48 form a molecular core with two antiparallel {beta}-sheets as the other two hirudins. However, significant differences were found in the surface electrostatic charge distributions among the three hirudins, especially in the RGD segment of recombinant RGD-hirudin. This difference may be greatly beneficial to its additional function of anti-platelet aggregation. The difference in extended C-terminal makes its both ionic and hydrophobic interactions with the fibrinogen recognition exosite of thrombin more effective.

  7. Therapeutic efficacy of an oncolytic adenovirus containing RGD ligand in minor capsid protein IX and Fiber, Δ24DoubleRGD, in an ovarian cancer model

    PubMed Central

    Gamble, Lena J.; Ugai, Hideyo; Wang, Minghui; Borovjagin, Anton V.; Matthews, Qiana L.

    2013-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is the leading cause of gynecological disease death despite advances in medicine. Therefore, novel strategies are required for ovarian cancer therapy. Conditionally replicative adenoviruses (CRAds), genetically modified as anti-cancer therapeutics, are one of the most attractive candidate agents for cancer therapy. However, a paucity of coxsackie B virus and adenovirus receptor (CAR) expression on the surface of ovarian cancer cells has impeded treatment of ovarian cancer using this approach. This study sought to engineer a CRAd with enhanced oncolytic ability in ovarian cancer cells, “Δ24DoubleRGD.” Δ24DoubleRGD carries an arginine-glycine-aspartate (RGD) motif incorporated into both fiber and capsid protein IX (pIX) and its oncolytic efficacy was evaluated in ovarian cancer. In vitro analysis of cell viability showed that infection of ovarian cancer cells with Δ24DoubleRGD leads to increased cell killing relative to the control CRAds. Data from this study suggested that not only an increase in number of RGD motifs on the CRAd capsid, but also a change in the repertoir of targeted integrins could lead to enhanced oncolytic potency of Δ24DoubleRGD in ovarian cancer cells in vitro. In an intraperitoneal model of ovarian cancer, mice injected with Δ24DoubleRGD showed, however, a similar survival rate as mice treated with control CRAds. PMID:23998042

  8. Use new PLGL-RGD-NGF nerve conduits for promoting peripheral nerve regeneration

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Nerve conduits provide a promising strategy for peripheral nerve injury repair. However, the efficiency of nerve conduits to enhance nerve regeneration and functional recovery is often inferior to that of autografts. Nerve conduits require additional factors such as cell adhesion molecules and neurotrophic factors to provide a more conducive microenvironment for nerve regeneration. Methods In the present study, poly{(lactic acid)-co-[(glycolic acid)-alt-(L-lysine)]} (PLGL) was modified by grafting Gly-Arg-Gly-Asp-Gly (RGD peptide) and nerve growth factor (NGF) for fabricating new PLGL-RGD-NGF nerve conduits to promote nerve regeneration and functional recovery. PLGL-RGD-NGF nerve conduits were tested in the rat sciatic nerve transection model. Rat sciatic nerves were cut off to form a 10 mm defect and repaired with the nerve conduits. All of the 32 Wistar rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: group PLGL-RGD-NGF, group PLGL-RGD, group PLGL and group autograft. At 3 months after surgery, the regenerated rat sciatic nerve was evaluated by footprint analysis, electrophysiology, and histologic assessment. Experimental data were processed using the statistical software SPSS 10.0. Results The sciatic function index value of groups PLGL-RGD-NGF and autograft was significantly higher than those of groups PLGL-RGD and PLGL. The nerve conduction velocities of groups PLGL-RGD-NGF and autograft were significantly faster than those of groups PLGL-RGD and PLGL. The regenerated nerves of groups PLGL-RGD-NGF and autograft were more mature than those of groups PLGL-RGD and PLGL. There was no significant difference between groups PLGL-RGD-NGF and autograft. Conclusions PLGL-RGD-NGF nerve conduits are more effective in regenerating nerves than both PLGL-RGD nerve conduits and PLGL nerve conduits. The effect is as good as that of an autograft. This work established the platform for further development of the use of PLGL-RGD-NGF nerve conduits for clinical nerve repair

  9. Activatable iRGD-based peptide monolith: Targeting, internalization, and fluorescence activation for precise tumor imaging.

    PubMed

    Cho, Hong-Jun; Lee, Sung-Jin; Park, Sung-Jun; Paik, Chang H; Lee, Sang-Myung; Kim, Sehoon; Lee, Yoon-Sik

    2016-09-10

    A disulfide-bridged cyclic RGD peptide, named iRGD (internalizing RGD, c(CRGDK/RGPD/EC)), is known to facilitate tumor targeting as well as tissue penetration. After the RGD motif-induced targeting on αv integrins expressed near tumor tissue, iRGD encounters proteolytic cleavage to expose the CendR motif that promotes penetration into cancer cells via the interaction with neuropilin-1. Based on these proteolytic cleavage and internalization mechanism, we designed an iRGD-based monolithic imaging probe that integrates multiple functions (cancer-specific targeting, internalization and fluorescence activation) within a small peptide framework. To provide the capability of activatable fluorescence signaling, we conjugated a fluorescent dye to the N-terminal of iRGD, which was linked to the internalizing sequence (CendR motif), and a quencher to the opposite C-terminal. It turned out that fluorescence activation of the dye/quencher-conjugated monolithic peptide probe requires dual (reductive and proteolytic) cleavages on both disulfide and amide bond of iRGD peptide. Furthermore, the cleavage of the iRGD peptide leading to fluorescence recovery was indeed operative depending on the tumor-related angiogenic receptors (αvβ3 integrin and neuropilin-1) in vitro as well as in vivo. Compared to an 'always fluorescent' iRGD control probe without quencher conjugation, the dye/quencher-conjugated activatable monolithic peptide probe visualized tumor regions more precisely with lower background noise after intravenous injection, owing to the multifunctional responses specific to tumor microenvironment. All these results, along with minimal in vitro and in vivo toxicity profiles, suggest potential of the iRGD-based activatable monolithic peptide probe as a promising imaging agent for precise tumor diagnosis. PMID:27349354

  10. Dimeric Cinchona alkaloids.

    PubMed

    Boratyński, Przemysław J

    2015-05-01

    Nature is full of dimeric alkaloids of various types from many plant families, some of them with interesting biological properties. However, dimeric Cinchona alkaloids were not isolated from any species but were products of designed partial chemical synthesis. Although the Cinchona bark is amongst the sources of oldest efficient medicines, the synthetic dimers found most use in the field of asymmetric synthesis. Prominent examples include the Sharpless dihydroxylation and aminohydroxylation ligands, and dimeric phase transfer catalysts. In this article the syntheses of Cinchona alkaloid dimers and oligomers are reviewed, and their structure and applications are outlined. Various synthetic routes exploit reactivity of the alkaloids at the central 9-hydroxyl group, quinuclidine, and quinoline rings, as well as 3-vinyl group. This availability of reactive sites, in combination with a plethora of linker molecules, contributes to the diversity of the products obtained. PMID:25586655

  11. Enhanced Transduction and Replication of RGD-Fiber Modified Adenovirus in Primary T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sengupta, Sadhak; Ulasov, Ilya V.; Thaci, Bart; Ahmed, Atique U.; Lesniak, Maciej S.

    2011-01-01

    Background Adenoviruses are often used as vehicles to mediate gene delivery for therapeutic purposes, but their research scope in hematological cells remains limited due to a narrow choice of host cells that express the adenoviral receptor (CAR). T cells, which are attractive targets for gene therapy of numerous diseases, remain resistant to adenoviral infection because of the absence of CAR expression. Here, we demonstrate that this resistance can be overcome when murine or human T cells are transduced with an adenovirus incorporating the RGD-fiber modification (Ad-RGD). Methodology/Principal Finding A luciferase-expressing replication-deficient Ad-RGD infected 3-fold higher number of activated primary T cells than an adenovirus lacking the RGD-fiber modification in vitro. Infection with replication-competent Ad-RGD virus also caused increased cell cycling, higher E1A copy number and enriched hexon antigen expression in both human and murine T cells. Transduction with oncolytic Ad-RGD also resulted in higher titers of progeny virus and enhanced the killing of T cells. In vivo, 35–45% of splenic T cells were transduced by Ad-RGD. Conclusions Collectively, our results prove that a fiber modified Ad-RGD successfully transduces and replicates in primary T cells of both murine and human origin. PMID:21464908

  12. Anti-tumor effect of RGD modified PTX loaded liposome on prostatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Yunjie; Zhou, Yaojun; Zhuang, Qianfeng; Cui, Li; Xu, Xianlin; Xu, Renfang; He, Xiaozhou

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we report an active targeting liposomal formulation directed by a novel peptide (RGD) that specifically binds to the integrins receptors overexpressed on prostatic cancer cells. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo tumor drug targeting delivery of RGD modified liposomes on PC-3 cells and DU145 cells. The uptake efficiency of RGD-LP was 5.2 times higher than that of LP on PC-3 cells. The uptake efficiency of RGD-LP was 3.2 times higher than that of LP on DU145 cells. The anti-proliferative activity of RGD-LP-PTX against PC-3 cells and DU145 cells were much stronger compared to that of LP-PTX and free PTX, respectively. The tumor spheroids experiment revealed that RGD-LP-PTX was more efficaciously internalized into tumor spheroids than LP in both PC-3 cells and DU145 cells. Compared to LP-PTX and free PTX, RGD-LP-PTX showed the greatest tumor growth inhibitory effect in vivo. In brief, the RGD-LP may be an efficient targeting drug delivery system for prostatic cancer. PMID:26550128

  13. Biofunctionalization of polycaprolactone scaffolds with RGD peptides for the better cells integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matveeva, V. G.; Seifalian, A. M.; Antonova, L. V.; Velikanova, E. A.; Sergeeva, E. A.; Krivkina, E. O.; Glushkova, T. V.; Kudryavtseva, Yu. A.; Barbarash, O. L.; Barbarash, L. S.

    2016-08-01

    Here we tested in vitro electrospun polycaprolactone (PCL) scaffolds carbodiimide linkage with RGD peptides and their unconjugated counterparts. The scaffolds possessed highly porous structure and were formed by randomly distributed fibers. Orange II staining and ninhydrin test confirmed successful amination of the PCL. For the assessment of cell adhesion, we colonized scaffolds with primary human fibroblasts and counted the number of alive and dead cells. After 6 days of incubation, the number of fibroblasts on the scaffolds modified by RGD peptides significantly exceeded the number on unmodified scaffolds; however, the distribution of the cells on functionalized scaffolds was uneven, possibly due to uneven distribution of RGD peptides. The percentage of dead cells on the scaffolds with RGD peptides was significantly lower compared to their unmodified counterparts. Therefore, conjugation of PCL scaffolds with RGD peptides improves their integration with cells. This can be used in regenerative medicine.

  14. RGD-Targeted Ultrasound Contrast Agent for Longitudinal Assessment of Hep-2 Tumor Angiogenesis In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Qiao; Wang, Xiao-Yan; Kang, Li-Ke; Wei, Hai-Ming; Xu, Chun-Mei; Wang, Tao; Wen, Zong-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Objective To prepare arginine-glycine-aspartate (RGD)-targeted ultrasound contrast microbubbles (MBs) and explore the feasibility of their use in assessing dynamic changes in αvβ3 integrin expression in a murine model of tumor angiogenesis. Methods RGD peptides were conjugated to the surfaces of microbubbles via biotin-avidin linkage. Microbubbles bearing RADfK peptides were prepared as controls. The RGD-MBs were characterized using an Accusizer 780 and optical microscopy. The binding specificity of the RGD-MBs for ανβ3-expressing endothelial cells (bEnd.3) was demonstrated in vitro by a competitive inhibition experiment. In an in vivo study, mice bearing tumors of three different stages were intravenously injected with RGD-MBs and subjected to targeted, contrast-enhanced, high-frequency ultrasound. Subsequently, tumors were harvested and sectioned for immunofluorescence analysis of ανβ3 expression. Results The mean size of the RGD-MBs was 2.36 ± 1.7 μm. The RGD-MBs showed significantly higher adhesion levels to bEnd.3 cells compared to control MBs (P < 0.01). There was rarely binding of RGD-MBs to αvβ3-negative MCF-7 cells. Adhesion of the RGD-MBs to the bEnd.3 cells was significantly inhibited following treatment with anti-alpha(v) antibodies. The quantitative acoustic video intensity for high-frequency, contrast-enhanced ultrasound imaging of subcutaneous human laryngeal carcinoma (Hep-2) tumor xenografts was significantly higher in small tumors (19.89 ± 2.49) than in medium tumors (11.25 ± 2.23) and large tumors (3.38 ± 0.67) (P < 0.01). Conclusions RGD-MBs enable noninvasive in vivo visualization of changes in tumor angiogenesis during tumor growth in subcutaneous cancer xenografts. PMID:26862757

  15. Targeting In-Stent-Stenosis with RGD- and CXCL1-Coated Mini-Stents in Mice.

    PubMed

    Simsekyilmaz, Sakine; Liehn, Elisa A; Weinandy, Stefan; Schreiber, Fabian; Megens, Remco T A; Theelen, Wendy; Smeets, Ralf; Jockenhövel, Stefan; Gries, Thomas; Möller, Martin; Klee, Doris; Weber, Christian; Zernecke, Alma

    2016-01-01

    Atherosclerotic lesions that critically narrow the artery can necessitate an angioplasty and stent implantation. Long-term therapeutic effects, however, are limited by excessive arterial remodeling. We here employed a miniaturized nitinol-stent coated with star-shaped polyethylenglycole (star-PEG), and evaluated its bio-functionalization with RGD and CXCL1 for improving in-stent stenosis after implantation into carotid arteries of mice. Nitinol foils or stents (bare metal) were coated with star-PEG, and bio-functionalized with RGD, or RGD/CXCL1. Cell adhesion to star-PEG-coated nitinol foils was unaltered or reduced, whereas bio-functionalization with RGD but foremost RGD/CXCL1 increased adhesion of early angiogenic outgrowth cells (EOCs) and endothelial cells but not smooth muscle cells when compared with bare metal foils. Stimulation of cells with RGD/CXCL1 furthermore increased the proliferation of EOCs. In vivo, bio-functionalization with RGD/CXCL1 significantly reduced neointima formation and thrombus formation, and increased re-endothelialization in apoE-/- carotid arteries compared with bare-metal nitinol stents, star-PEG-coated stents, and stents bio-functionalized with RGD only. Bio-functionalization of star-PEG-coated nitinol-stents with RGD/CXCL1 reduced in-stent neointima formation. By supporting the adhesion and proliferation of endothelial progenitor cells, RGD/CXCL1 coating of stents may help to accelerate endothelial repair after stent implantation, and thus may harbor the potential to limit the complication of in-stent restenosis in clinical approaches. PMID:27192172

  16. Targeting In-Stent-Stenosis with RGD- and CXCL1-Coated Mini-Stents in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Weinandy, Stefan; Schreiber, Fabian; Megens, Remco T. A.; Theelen, Wendy; Smeets, Ralf; Jockenhövel, Stefan; Gries, Thomas; Möller, Martin; Klee, Doris; Weber, Christian; Zernecke, Alma

    2016-01-01

    Atherosclerotic lesions that critically narrow the artery can necessitate an angioplasty and stent implantation. Long-term therapeutic effects, however, are limited by excessive arterial remodeling. We here employed a miniaturized nitinol-stent coated with star-shaped polyethylenglycole (star-PEG), and evaluated its bio-functionalization with RGD and CXCL1 for improving in-stent stenosis after implantation into carotid arteries of mice. Nitinol foils or stents (bare metal) were coated with star-PEG, and bio-functionalized with RGD, or RGD/CXCL1. Cell adhesion to star-PEG-coated nitinol foils was unaltered or reduced, whereas bio-functionalization with RGD but foremost RGD/CXCL1 increased adhesion of early angiogenic outgrowth cells (EOCs) and endothelial cells but not smooth muscle cells when compared with bare metal foils. Stimulation of cells with RGD/CXCL1 furthermore increased the proliferation of EOCs. In vivo, bio-functionalization with RGD/CXCL1 significantly reduced neointima formation and thrombus formation, and increased re-endothelialization in apoE-/- carotid arteries compared with bare-metal nitinol stents, star-PEG-coated stents, and stents bio-functionalized with RGD only. Bio-functionalization of star-PEG-coated nitinol-stents with RGD/CXCL1 reduced in-stent neointima formation. By supporting the adhesion and proliferation of endothelial progenitor cells, RGD/CXCL1 coating of stents may help to accelerate endothelial repair after stent implantation, and thus may harbor the potential to limit the complication of in-stent restenosis in clinical approaches. PMID:27192172

  17. Noninvasive In Vivo Diagnosis of Brain Glioma Using RGD-Decorated Fluorescent Carbonaceous Nanospheres.

    PubMed

    Ruan, Shaobo; Chen, Jiantao; Cun, Xingli; Long, Yang; Tang, Jie; Qian, Jun; Shen, Shun; Jiang, Xinguo; Zhu, Jianhua; He, Qin; Gao, Huile

    2015-12-01

    Fluorescent carbonaceous nanospheres (CDs) have gained significant attention because of their promising applications, especially in biology and medicine, due to their unique properties. However, the application of CDs in the noninvasive imaging of diseased tissues has been restricted by the poor targeting efficiency of CDs. In this study, CDs were prepared from sucrose and glutamic acid with a particle size of 122.5 nm. Due to quantum confinement in the nanoparticles, CDs exhibited emission from 450 to 600 nm upon excitation at approximately 400 nm. This feature made it possible to use the CDs for low-background bioimaging of deep diseased tissues. RGD, a ligand that can target α(v)β3, which is highly expressed on most tumor and neovascular cells, was decorated onto the CDs after PEGylation. The product, RGD-PEG-CDs, possessed low cytotoxicity, as determined by MTT assay. In vitro, RGD-PEG-CDs targeted U87 (a human brain glioma cell line) cells with a higher cellular uptake intensity than CDs and PEGylated CDs (PEG-CDs), and endosomes were involved in the uptake procedure. The internalization of RGD-PEG-CDs, PEG-CDs and CDs all were primarily mediated by macropinocytosis and a clathrin-mediated pathway, which were energy-dependent. Additionally, the uptake of RGD-PEG-CDs could be significantly inhibited by free RGD, indicating that the uptake was mediated by the receptor of RGD. In vivo, RGD-PEG-CDs accumulated in U87 glioma at high intensity, at values that were 1.67- and 1.64-fold higher than those of PEG-CDs and CDs. Furthermore, RGD-PEG-CDs exhibited good colocalization with neovasculature. In conclusion, RGD-PEG-CDs could be successfully used for noninvasive U87 glioma imaging. PMID:26510309

  18. Tc-99m-labeled RGD-conjugated alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone hybrid peptides with reduced renal uptake

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jianquan; Hu, Chien-An

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether the replacement of the positively-charged Lys or Arg linker with a neutral linker could reduce the renal uptake of Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD)-conjugated alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH) hybrid peptide. The RGD motif {cyclic(Arg-Gly-Asp-dTyr-Asp)} was coupled to [Cys3,4,10, d-Phe7, Arg11]α-MSH3–13 {(Arg11)CCMSH} through the neutral βAla or Ahx {aminohexanoic acid} linker (replacing the Lys or Arg linker) to generate novel RGD-βAla-(Arg11)CCMSH and RGD-Ahx-(Arg11)CCMSH hybrid peptides. The receptor binding affinity and cytotoxicity of RGD-βAla-(Arg11)CCMSH and RGD-Ahx-(Arg11)CCMSH were determined in B16/F1 melanoma cells. The melanoma targeting and imaging properties of 99mTc-RGD-βAla-(Arg11)CCMSH and 99mTc-RGD-Ahx-(Arg11)CCMSH were determined in B16/F1 melanoma-bearing C57 mice. The replacement of the Lys or Arg linker with the βAla or Ahx linker retained nanomolar receptor binding affinities and remarkable cytotoxicity of RGD-βAla-(Arg11)CCMSH and RGD-Ahx-(Arg11)CCMSH. The receptor binding affinities of RGD-βAla-(Arg11)CCMSH and RGD-Ahx-(Arg11)CCMSH were 0.8 and 1.3 nM. Three-hour incubation with 0.1 µM of RGD-βAla-(Arg11)CCMSH and RGD-Ahx-(Arg11)CCMSH decreased the survival percentages of B16/F1 cells by 71 and 67% as compared to the untreated control cells five days post the treatment. The replacement of the Arg linker with the βAla or Ahx linker reduced the non-specific renal uptake of 99mTc-RGD-βAla-(Arg11)CCMSH and 99mTc-RGD-Ahx-(Arg11)CCMSH by 62% and 61% at 2 h post-injection. 99mTc-RGD-βAla-(Arg11)CCMSH displayed higher melanoma uptake than 99mTc-RGD-Ahx-(Arg11)CCMSH at 0.5, 2, 4 and 24 h post-injection. Enhanced tumor to kidney uptake ratio of 99mTc-RGD-βAla-(Arg11)CCMSH warranted the further evaluation of 188Re-labeled RGD-βAla-(Arg11)CCMSH as a novel MC1 receptor-targeting therapeutic peptide for melanoma treatment in the future. PMID:25557051

  19. Dimerization of lipocalin allergens

    PubMed Central

    Niemi, Merja H.; Rytkönen-Nissinen, Marja; Miettinen, Ilja; Jänis, Janne; Virtanen, Tuomas; Rouvinen, Juha

    2015-01-01

    Lipocalins are one of the most important groups of inhalant animal allergens. The analysis of structural features of these proteins is important to get insights into their allergenicity. We have determined two different dimeric crystal structures for bovine dander lipocalin Bos d 2, which was earlier described as a monomeric allergen. The crystal structure analysis of all other determined lipocalin allergens also revealed oligomeric structures which broadly utilize inherent structural features of the β-sheet in dimer formation. According to the moderate size of monomer-monomer interfaces, most of these dimers would be transient in solution. Native mass spectrometry was employed to characterize quantitatively transient dimerization of two lipocalin allergens, Bos d 2 and Bos d 5, in solution. PMID:26346541

  20. A rapid and simple one-step F-18 labeling of peptides

    PubMed Central

    Jacobson, Orit; Zhu, Lei; Ma, Ying; Weiss, Ido D.; Sun, Xilin; Niu, Gang; Kiesewetter, Dale O.; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Labeling biomolecules with 18F is usually done through coupling with prosthetic groups, which requires several time-consuming radiosynthesis steps and therefore results in low labeling yield. In this study we designed a simple one-step 18F-labeling strategy to replace the conventional complex and long process of multiple-step radiolabeling procedure. Methods Both Monomeric and dimeric cyclic RGD peptides were modified to contain 4-NO2-3-CF3 arene as precursors for direct 18F labeling. Binding of the two functionalized peptides to integrin αvβ3 was tested in vitro using MDA-MB-435 human breast cell line. The most promising functionalized peptide, the dimeric cyclic RGD, was further evaluated in vivo in an orthotopic MDA-MB-435 tumor xenograft model. Results The use of relatively low amount of precursor (~0.5μmol), gave reasonable yield, ranging from 7–23% (decay corrected, calculated from start of synthesis) after HPLC purification. Overall reaction time was 40 min and the specific activity of the labeled peptide was high. Modification of RGD peptides did not significantly change the biological binding affinities of the modified peptides. Small animal PET and biodistribution studies revealed integrin specific tumor uptake and favorable biokinetics. Conclusions We have developed a novel one-step 18F radiolabeling strategy for peptides that contain a specific arene group, which shortens reaction time and labor significantly, requires low amount of precursor and results in specific activity of 79 ± 13 GBq/μmol. Successful introduction of 4-fluoro-3-trifluoromethylbenzamide into RGD peptides may be a general strategy applicable to other biologically active peptides and proteins. PMID:21338096

  1. A High-Adhesive Lysine-Cyclic RGD Peptide Designed for Selective Cell Retention Technology.

    PubMed

    Luo, Keyu; Mei, Tieniu; Li, Zhiqiang; Deng, Moyuan; Zhang, Zehua; Hou, Tianyong; Dong, Shiwu; Xie, Zhao; Xu, Jianzhong; Luo, Fei

    2016-06-01

    Cell adhesion is an important property of biomaterials used in selective cell retention (SCR) technology, which fabricates bone grafts rapidly in clinical settings. This could be improved by physical and biologic manipulations. To facilitate retention of the cells on the scaffold, especially osteoprogenitors from bone marrow in the convenient SCR procedure, a lysine-cyclic RGD (LcRGD) peptide was here designed to coordinate positively charged amino acids and the RGD sequence to enhance the adhesion performance of the scaffold. Demineralized bone matrix (DBM) is an important therapeutic resource, but its cell adhesion ability and osteoinductive capacity are low because of its processing. These capabilities can be increased to enhance the performance of DBM when used in SCR technology. Here, LcRGD peptide was used to modify DBM and produce a DBM/LcRGD composite. This composite exhibited enhanced adhesion performance on cultured human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells and retained more osteoprogenitors from bone marrow than other materials did. The DBM/LcRGD composite displayed a preferable osteoinduction in vitro and osteogenic capacity in vivo. Thus, LcRGD peptide as a commendable modifier of DBM applied in SCR technology can improve bone transplantation. PMID:27154386

  2. Biomimetic Hybrid Nanofiber Sheets Composed of RGD Peptide-Decorated PLGA as Cell-Adhesive Substrates

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Yong Cheol; Lee, Jong Ho; Kim, Min Jeong; Park, Ji Hoon; Kim, Sung Eun; Kim, Jin Su; Oh, Jin-Woo; Han, Dong-Wook

    2015-01-01

    In biomedical applications, there is a need for tissue engineering scaffolds to promote and control cellular behaviors, including adhesion, proliferation and differentiation. In particular, the initial adhesion of cells has a great influence on those cellular behaviors. In this study, we concentrate on developing cell-adhesive substrates applicable for tissue engineering scaffolds. The hybrid nanofiber sheets were prepared by electrospinning poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) and M13 phage, which was genetically modified to enhance cell adhesion thru expressing RGD peptides on their surface. The RGD peptide is a specific motif of extracellular matrix (ECM) for integrin receptors of cells. RGD peptide-decorated PLGA (RGD-PLGA) nanofiber sheets were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, immunofluorescence staining, contact angle measurement and differential scanning calorimetry. In addition, the initial adhesion and proliferation of four different types of mammalian cells were determined in order to evaluate the potential of RGD-PLGA nanofiber sheets as cell-adhesive substrates. Our results showed that the hybrid nanofiber sheets have a three-dimensional porous structure comparable to the native ECM. Furthermore, the initial adhesion and proliferation of cells were significantly enhanced on RGD-PLGA sheets. These results suggest that biomimetic RGD-PLGA nanofiber sheets can be promising cell-adhesive substrates for application as tissue engineering scaffolds. PMID:26034884

  3. Novel Approach to Prepare {sup 99m}Tc-Based Multivalent RGD Peptides

    SciTech Connect

    Shuang Liu

    2012-10-24

    This project presents a novel approach to prepare the {sup 99m}Tc-bridged multivalent RGD (arginine-glycine-aspartate) peptides. This project will focus on fundamentals of {sup 99m}Tc radiochemistry. The main objective of this project is to demonstrate the proof-of-principle for the proposed radiotracers. Once a kit formulation is developed for preparation of the {sup 99m}Tc-bridged multivalent RGD peptides, various tumor-bearing animal models will be used to evaluate their potential for SPECT (single photon-emission computed tomography) imaging of cancer. We have demonstrated that (1) multimerization of cyclic RGD peptides enhances the integrin {alpha}{sub v}{beta}{sub 3} bonding affinity and radiotracer tumor uptake; (2) addition of G{sub 3} or PEG{sub 4} linkers makes it possible for two RGD motifs in 3P-RGD{sub 2} and 3G-RGD{sub 2} to achieve simultaneous integrin {alpha}{sub v}{beta}{sub 3} binding; and (3) multimers are actually bivalent (not multivalent), the presence of extra RGD motifs can enhance the tumor retention time of the radiotracer.

  4. Synthesis, In Vitro and In Vivo Evaluation of 18F-labeled PET Ligands for Imaging the Vesicular Acetylcholine Transporter

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Zhude; Efange, Simon M. N.; Xu, Jinbin; Li, Shihong; Jones, Lynne A.; Parsons, Stanley M.; Mach, Robert H.

    2009-01-01

    A new class of vesicular acetylcholine transporter inhibitor that incorporates a carbonyl group into the benzovesamicol structure was synthesized and analogs were evaluated in vitro. (±)-trans-2-Hydroxy-3-(4-(4-[18F]fluorobenzoyl)piperidino)tetralin (9e) has Ki values of 2.70 nM for VAChT, 191 nM for σ1 and 251 nM for σ2. The racemic precursor (9d) was resolved via chiral HPLC and (±)-[18F]9e, (-)-[18F]9e, and (+)-[18F]9e were respectively radiolabeled via microwave irradiation of the appropriate precursors with [18F]/F- and Kryptofix/K2CO3 in DMSO with radiochemical yields ∼50-60% and specific activities >2000 mCi/μmol. (-)-[18F]9e uptake in rat brain was consistent with in vivo selectivity for the VAChT with an initial uptake of 0.911 %ID/g in rat striatum and a striatum: cerebellum ratio of 1.88 by 30 min p.i.. MicroPET imaging of macaques demonstrated a 2.1 ratio of (-)-[18F]9e in putamen versus cerebellum at 2 h. p.i. (-)-[18F]9e has potential to be a PET tracer for clinical imaging of the VAChT. PMID:19203271

  5. Novel 18F labeling strategy for polyester-based NPs for in vivo PET-CT imaging.

    PubMed

    Di Mauro, Primiano Pio; Gómez-Vallejo, Vanessa; Baz Maldonado, Zuriñe; Llop Roig, Jordi; Borrós, Salvador

    2015-03-18

    Drug-loaded nanocarriers and nanoparticulate systems used for drug release require a careful in vivo evaluation in terms of physicochemical and pharmacokinetic properties. Nuclear imaging techniques such as positron emission tomography (PET) are ideal and noninvasive tools to investigate the biodistribution and biological fate of the nanostructures, but the incorporation of a positron emitter is required. Here we describe a novel approach for the (18)F-radiolabeling of polyester-based nanoparticles. Our approach relies on the preparation of the radiolabeled active agent 4-[(18)F]fluorobenzyl-2-bromoacetamide ([(18)F]FBBA), which is subsequently coupled to block copolymers under mild conditions. The labeled block copolymers are ultimately incorporated as constituent elements of the NPs by using a modified nano coprecipitation method. This strategy has been applied in the current work to the preparation of peptide-functionalized NPs with potential applications in drug delivery. According to the measurements of particle size and zeta potential, the radiolabeling process did not result in a statistically significant alteration of the physicochemical properties of the NPs. Moreover, radiochemical stability studies showed no detachment of the radioactivity from NPs even at 12 h after preparation. The radiolabeled NPs enabled the in vivo quantification of the biodistribution data in rats using a combination of imaging techniques, namely, PET and computerized tomography (CT). Low accumulation of the nanoparticles in the liver and their elimination mainly via urine was found. The different biodistribution pattern obtained for the "free" radiolabeled polymer suggests chemical and radiochemical integrity of the NPs under investigation. The strategy reported here may be applied to any polymeric NPs containing polymers bearing a nucleophile, and hence our novel strategy may find application for the in vivo and noninvasive investigation of a wide range of NPs. PMID:25710619

  6. 18F-labeled Single-Stranded DNA Aptamer for PET Imaging of Protein Tyrosine Kinase-7 Expression

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lu; Wang, Zhe; Yang, Xiangyu; Dewhurst, Andrew; Ma, Ying; Zhu, Guizhi; Niu, Gang; Kiesewetter, Dale O.; Vasdev, Neil; Liang, Steven H.; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2016-01-01

    Protein tyrosine kinase-7 (PTK7), a member of receptor tyrosine kinase superfamily initially identified as colon carcinoma kinase-4 (CCK-4), is highly expressed in various human malignancies. Its expression was found to correlate with aggressive biological behaviors such as increased cell proliferation, invasiveness and migration. Despite the importance and unmet need of imaging PTK7 in vivo, there is currently no clinically-relevant method to visualize tumoral PTK7 expression noninvasively such as PET or SPECT. This study aims to develop a specific, selective and high affinity PET radioligand based on single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) aptamer to address this challenge. Methods Sgc8, a 41-oligonucleotide that targets to PTK7, was labeled with F-18 using a two-step radiochemical synthesis, which featured a direct one-step radiofluorination on the distinctive spirocyclic hypervalent iodine(III) precursor to give 18F-fluorobenzyl azide followed by copper mediated “click” conjugation with Sgc8-alkyne. 18F-Sgc8 was evaluated in vitro and in vivo in two cell lines, HCT116 and U87MG, which express high and low amounts of PTK7, respectively. Results Sgc8 was labeled efficiently with F-18 in an isolated radiochemical yield of 62 ± 2%, non-decay-corrected (ndc) based on 18F-fluorobenzyl azide. 18F-Tr-Sgc8 was found to possess high affinity binding to both cell lines, with IC50 values for HCT116 as 2.7 ± 0.6 nM and U87MG as 16.9 ± 2.1 nM. In vivo PET imaging clearly visualized PTK7 expression in HCT116 xenografted mice with tumor uptake of 0.76 ± 0.09 %ID/g at 30 min post-injection (p.i.) for the subcutaneous tumor model and greater than 1.5 %ID/g for the liver metastasis model. U87MG xenograft tumors had much lower tracer accumulation (0.13 ± 0.06 %ID/g at 30 min p.i.), which was consistent with the lower expression of PTK7 in this tumor model. The labeled aptamer was rapidly cleared from the blood through the kidneys and bladder to give high tumor-to-blood and tumor-to-muscle ratios of 7.29 ± 1.51 and 10.25 ± 2.08, respectively. Conclusions The F-18 radiolabeling methodology shown here is a very robust procedure for labeling aptamers and similar chemical moieties, and can be applied to many different targets. Quantification of PTK7 using 18F-Tr-Sgc8 may be suitable for clinical translation and might help in the future to select and monitor appropriate therapies. PMID:26315836

  7. Dosimetry of 18F-Labeled Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor SKI-249380, a Dasatinib-Tracer for PET Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Dunphy, Mark P. S.; Zanzonico, Pat; Veach, Darren; Somwar, Romel; Pillarsetty, Nagavarakishore; Lewis, Jason; Larson, Steven

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To obtain estimates of human normal-organ radiation doses of 18F-SKI-249380, as a prerequisite step towards first-in-human trial. 18F-SKI-249380 is a first-of-its-kind PET tracer for imaging the in vivo pharmacokinetics of dasatinib, an investigational targeted therapy for solid malignancies. Procedures Isoflurane-anesthetized mice received tracer dose via tail vein. Organ time-integrated activity coefficients, fractional urinary and hepatobiliary excretion, and total-body clearance kinetics were derived from PET data, with allometric extrapolation to the Standard Man anatomic model and normal-organ-absorbed dose calculations using OLINDA/EXM software. Results The human effective dose was 0.031 mSv/MBq. The critical organ was the upper large intestine, with a dose equivalent of 0.25 mSv/MBq. A 190-MBq administered activity of 18F-SKI-249380 is thus predicted to expose an adult human to radiation doses generally comparable to those of routinely used diagnostic radiopharmaceuticals. Conclusions Animal-based human dose estimates support first-in-human testing of 18F-SKI-249380. PMID:21161687

  8. Synthesis, uptake mechanism characterization and biological evaluation of 18F labeled fluoroalkyl phenylalanine analogs as potential PET imaging agents

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Limin; Qu, Wenchao; Lieberman, Brian P.; Plössl, Karl; Kung, Hank F.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Amino acids based tracers represent a promising class of tumor metabolic imaging agents with successful clinical applications. Two new phenylalanine derivatives, p-(2-[18F]fluoroethyl)-L-phenylalanine (FEP, [18F]2) and p-(3-[18F]fluoropropyl)-L-phenylalanine (FPP, [18F]3) were synthesized and evaluated in comparison to clinically utilized O-(2-[18F]fluoroethyl)-L-tyrosine (FET, [18F]1). Methods FEP ([18F]2) and FPP ([18F]3) were successfully synthesized by a rapid and efficient two-step nucleophilic fluorination of tosylate precursors and deprotection reaction. In vitro cell uptake studies were carried out in 9L glioma cells. In vivo studies, 9L tumor xenografts were implanted in Fisher 344 rats. Results FEP ([18F]2) and FPP ([18F]3) could be efficiently labeled within 90 min with good enantiomeric purity (>95%), good yield (11–37%) and high specific activity (21–69 GBq/μmol). Cell uptake studies showed FEP had higher uptake than FPP as well as reference ligand FET ([18F]1). Uptake mechanism studies suggested that FEP is a selective substrate for system L and prefers its subtype LAT1. In vivo biodistribution studies demonstrated FEP had specific accumulation in tumor cells and tumor to background ratio reached 1.45 at 60 min. Small animal PET imaging studies showed FEP was comparable to FET for imaging rats bearing 9L tumor model. FEP had high uptake in 9L tumor compared to surrounding tissue and was quickly excreted through urinary tract. Conclusion Biological evaluations indicate that FEP ([18F]2) is a potential useful tracer for tumor imaging with PET. PMID:21220129

  9. One-step (18)F-labeling of peptides for positron emission tomography imaging using the SiFA methodology.

    PubMed

    Wängler, Carmen; Niedermoser, Sabrina; Chin, Joshua; Orchowski, Katy; Schirrmacher, Esther; Jurkschat, Klaus; Iovkova-Berends, Liuba; Kostikov, Alexey P; Schirrmacher, Ralf; Wängler, Björn

    2012-11-01

    Here we present a procedure to label peptides with the positron-emitting radioisotope fluorine-18 ((18)F) using the silicon-fluoride acceptor (SiFA) labeling methodology. Positron emission tomography (PET) has gained high importance in noninvasive imaging of various diseases over the past decades, and thus new specific imaging probes for PET imaging, especially those labeled with (18)F, because of the advantageous properties of this nuclide, are highly sought after. N-terminally SiFA-modified peptides can be labeled with (18)F(-) in one step at room temperature (20-25 °C) or below without forming side products, thereby producing satisfactory radiochemical yields of 46 ± 1.5% (n = 10). The degree of chemoselectivity of the (18)F-introduction, which is based on simple isotopic exchange, allows for a facile cartridge-based purification fully devoid of HPLC implementation, thereby yielding peptides with specific activities between 44.4 and 62.9 GBq μmol(-1) (1,200-1,700 Ci mmol(-1)) within 25 min. PMID:23037309

  10. RGD-functionalized spherulites as targeted vectors captured by adherent cultured cells.

    PubMed

    Chenevier, P; Delord, B; Amédée, J; Bareille, R; Ichas, F; Roux, D

    2002-12-16

    Spherulites are multilamellar vesicles consisting of concentric shells that can encapsulate small organic molecules or macromolecules. We investigate the possibility of targeting neutral spherulites to adherent culture cells by functionalizing their surface with RGD-containing ligands. The strength and specificity of association of RGD spherulites with several cell lines (EAhy 926 endothelial cell line, human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) and human osteoprogenitor (HOP) primary cells) was studied, and the molecular interaction of RGD spherulites with the EAhy 926 cell surface was investigated. We show that, after binding to cells, spherulites are internalized. PMID:12431780

  11. RGD-functionalized ultrasmall iron oxide nanoparticles for targeted T1-weighted MR imaging of gliomas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Yu; Yang, Jia; Yan, Yu; Li, Jingchao; Shen, Mingwu; Zhang, Guixiang; Mignani, Serge; Shi, Xiangyang

    2015-08-01

    We report a convenient approach to prepare ultrasmall Fe3O4 nanoparticles (NPs) functionalized with an arginylglycylaspartic acid (RGD) peptide for in vitro and in vivo magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of gliomas. In our work, stable sodium citrate-stabilized Fe3O4 NPs were prepared by a solvothermal route. Then, the carboxylated Fe3O4 NPs stabilized with sodium citrate were conjugated with polyethylene glycol (PEG)-linked RGD. The formed ultrasmall RGD-functionalized nanoprobe (Fe3O4-PEG-RGD) was fully characterized using different techniques. We show that these Fe3O4-PEG-RGD particles with a size of 2.7 nm are water-dispersible, stable, cytocompatible and hemocompatible in a given concentration range, and display targeting specificity to glioma cells overexpressing αvβ3 integrin in vitro. With the relatively high r1 relaxivity (r1 = 1.4 mM-1 s-1), the Fe3O4-PEG-RGD particles can be used as an efficient nanoprobe for targeted T1-weighted positive MR imaging of glioma cells in vitro and the xenografted tumor model in vivo via an active RGD-mediated targeting pathway. The developed RGD-functionalized Fe3O4 NPs may hold great promise to be used as a nanoprobe for targeted T1-weighted MR imaging of different αvβ3 integrin-overexpressing cancer cells or biological systems.We report a convenient approach to prepare ultrasmall Fe3O4 nanoparticles (NPs) functionalized with an arginylglycylaspartic acid (RGD) peptide for in vitro and in vivo magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of gliomas. In our work, stable sodium citrate-stabilized Fe3O4 NPs were prepared by a solvothermal route. Then, the carboxylated Fe3O4 NPs stabilized with sodium citrate were conjugated with polyethylene glycol (PEG)-linked RGD. The formed ultrasmall RGD-functionalized nanoprobe (Fe3O4-PEG-RGD) was fully characterized using different techniques. We show that these Fe3O4-PEG-RGD particles with a size of 2.7 nm are water-dispersible, stable, cytocompatible and hemocompatible in a given concentration

  12. RGD and polyhistidine tumor homing peptides potentiates the action of human Maspin as an antineoplastic candidate.

    PubMed

    Yin, Runting; Guo, Le; Zhang, Jie; Liu, Guangzhao; Yao, Wenjuan; Zhu, Hongyan; Xu, Xiaole; Zhang, Wei

    2016-07-01

    Maspin, a non-inhibitory member of serine protease family, acts as an effective tumor suppressor by inhibiting cell inhesion and mobility. We found that exogenous wild-type rMaspin had a low effect on tumor growth in vivo. However, when the peptide Arg-Gly-Asp-hexahistidine (RGD-6His) was introduced into rMaspin, the modified rMaspin showed significant inhibitory activity in angiogenic assays and tumor-bearing animal models. Overall, our data suggested that both the RGD and hexahistidine fragments contributed to improve the fusion protein activity and polyhistidine peptide could be considered as flexible linker to separate RGD and Maspin moieties to avoid function interference. Besides, it is an efficient tag to achieve purified recombinant proteins. Furthermore, rMaspin fusing with RGD and hexahistidine could be a viable anticancer candidate. PMID:26846625

  13. In vitro fibrinolysis and antithrombosis characterizations of novel recombinant microplasminogen with RGD and GPRP peptides.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wu; Li, Yi; Chen, Pin; Wu, Maocai; Wang, Lihua; Zhang, Hua; Wang, Laiyou

    2016-07-01

    Microplasminogen (μPlg), a truncated form of human plasminogen, has considerable potential as a direct-acting thrombolytic agent. To further develop μPlg into a thrombolytic agent with anti-thrombus properties, we constructed two μPlg variants containing tripeptide Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) and tetrapeptide Gly-Pro-Arg-Pro (GPRP) by site-directed mutagenesis. The recombinant cDNAs were expressed in yeast (Pichia pastoris) and purified to high homogeneity by Ni-NTA affinity chromatography. The specific activities of RGD-μPlg and GPRP-μPlg were 7.7 and 13.3 U/mg, respectively, as determined using the fibrin-plate method. RGD-μPlg significantly inhibited ADP-induced platelet aggregation, which was 33.6- and 14.1-fold higher than the native μPlg and GPRP-μPlg, respectively. On the other hand, GPRP-μPlg prolonged thrombin-initialized fibrinogen polymerization in a concentration-dependent manner, which was 9.2- and 5.7-fold stronger than μPlg and RGD-μPlg, respectively. Under activation by urokinase, μPlg, RGD-μPlg, and GPRP-μPlg all showed over 80 % conversions to their active enzyme in 24 h. The structure models that docked RGD-μPlg and μPlg activation loops into the enzymatic active site of urokinase showed that Pro559 to Asp559 mutation of RGD-μPlg led to an alteration in the interaction, which possibly explains the slowed activation of RGD-μPlg by urokinase over an 80-min period. In conclusion, this study has presented two recombinant μPlg variants with anti-platelet aggregation and anti-fibrinogen clotting activity, thus suggesting the anti-thrombosis properties of these two μPlg derivatives. PMID:26814674

  14. The Human Metapneumovirus Fusion Protein Mediates Entry via an Interaction with RGD-Binding Integrins

    PubMed Central

    Cox, Reagan G.; Livesay, S. Brent; Johnson, Monika; Ohi, Melanie D.

    2012-01-01

    Paramyxoviruses use a specialized fusion protein to merge the viral envelope with cell membranes and initiate infection. Most paramyxoviruses require the interaction of two viral proteins to enter cells; an attachment protein binds cell surface receptors, leading to the activation of a fusion (F) protein that fuses the viral envelope and host cell plasma membrane. In contrast, human metapneumovirus (HMPV) expressing only the F protein is replication competent, suggesting a primary role for HMPV F in attachment and fusion. We previously identified an invariant arginine-glycine-aspartate (RGD) motif in the HMPV F protein and showed that the RGD-binding integrin αVβ1-promoted HMPV infection. Here we show that both HMPV F-mediated binding and virus entry depend upon multiple RGD-binding integrins and that HMPV F can mediate binding and fusion in the absence of the viral attachment (G) protein. The invariant F-RGD motif is critical for infection, as an F-RAE virus was profoundly impaired. Further, F-integrin binding is required for productive viral RNA transcription, indicating that RGD-binding integrins serve as receptors for the HMPV fusion protein. Thus, HMPV F is triggered to induce virus-cell fusion by interactions with cellular receptors in a manner that is independent of the viral G protein. These results suggest a stepwise mechanism of HMPV entry mediated by the F protein through its interactions with cellular receptors, including RGD-binding integrins. PMID:22933271

  15. Characterization of bioactive RGD peptide immobilized onto poly(acrylic acid) thin films by plasma polymerization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Hyun Suk; Ko, Yeong Mu; Shim, Jae Won; Lim, Yun Kyong; Kook, Joong-Ki; Cho, Dong-Lyun; Kim, Byung Hoon

    2010-11-01

    Plasma surface modification can be used to improve the surface properties of commercial pure Ti by creating functional groups to produce bioactive materials with different surface topography. In this study, a titanium surface was modified with acrylic acid (AA) using a plasma treatment and immobilized with bioactive arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) peptide, which may accelerate the tissue integration of bone implants. Both terminals containing the -NH2 of RGD peptide sequence and -COOH of poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) thin film were combined with a covalent bond in the presence of 1-ethyl-3-3-dimethylaminopropyl carbodiimide (EDC). The chemical structure and morphology of AA film and RGD immobilized surface were investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). All chemical analysis showed full coverage of the Ti substrate with the PAA thin film containing COOH groups and the RGD peptide. The MC3T3-E1 cells were cultured on each specimen, and the cell alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity were examined. The surface-immobilized RGD peptide has a significantly increased the ALP activity of MC3T3-E1 cells. These results suggest that the RGD peptide immobilization on the titanium surface has an effect on osteoblastic differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells and potential use in osteo-conductive bone implants.

  16. Angiogenesis Imaging Using (68)Ga-RGD PET/CT: Therapeutic Implications.

    PubMed

    Eo, Jae Seon; Jeong, Jae Min

    2016-09-01

    Angiogenesis imaging is important for diagnostic and therapeutic treatment of various malignant and nonmalignant diseases. The Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) sequence has been known to bind with the αvβ3 integrin that is expressed on the surface of angiogenic blood vessels or tumor cells. Thus, various radiolabeled derivatives of RGD peptides have been developed for angiogenesis imaging. Among the various radionuclides, (68)Ga was the most widely studied for RGD peptide imaging because of its excellent nuclear physical properties, easy-to-label chemical properties, and cost-effectiveness owing to the availability of a (68)Ge-(68)Ga generator. Thus, various (68)Ga-labeled RGD derivatives have been developed and applied for preclinical and clinical studies. Clinical trials were performed for both malignant and nonmalignant diseases. Breast cancer, glioma, and lung cancer were malignant, and myocardial infarction, atherosclerosis, and moyamoya disease were nonmalignant among the investigated diseases. Further, these (68)Ga-labeled RGD derivatives could be applied to assess the effects of antiangiogenic treatment or theragnosis or both, of cancers. In conclusion, the angiogenesis imaging technology using (68)Ga-labeled RGD derivatives might be useful for the development of new therapeutic assessments, and for diagnostic and theragnostic applications. PMID:27553467

  17. Influence of PEGylation and RGD loading on the targeting properties of radiolabeled liposomal nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Rangger, Christine; Helbok, Anna; von Guggenberg, Elisabeth; Sosabowski, Jane; Radolf, Thorsten; Prassl, Ruth; Andreae, Fritz; Thurner, Gudrun C; Haubner, Roland; Decristoforo, Clemens

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Liposomes have been proposed to be a means of selectively targeting cancer sites for diagnostic and therapeutic applications. The focus of this work was the evaluation of radiolabeled PEGylated liposomes derivatized with varying amounts of a cyclic arginyl–glycyl–aspartic acid (RGD) peptide. RGD peptides are known to bind to αvβ3 integrin receptors overexpressed during tumor-induced angiogenesis. Methods Several liposomal nanoparticles carrying the RGD peptide targeting sequence (RLPs) were synthesized using a combination of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, cholesterol, diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid-derivatized lipids for radiolabeling, a polyethylene glycol (PEG) building block, and a lipid-based RGD building block. Relative amounts of RGD and PEG building blocks were varied. In vitro binding affinities were determined using isolated αvβ3 integrin receptors incubated with different concentrations of RLPs in competition with iodine-125-labeled cyclo-(-RGDyV-). Binding of the indium-111-labeled RLPs was also evaluated. Biodistribution and micro single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography imaging studies were performed in nude mice using different tumor xenograft models. Results RLPs were labeled with indium-111 with high radiochemical yields. In vitro binding studies of RLPs with different RGD/PEG loading revealed good binding to isolated receptors, which was dependent on the extent of RGD and PEG loading. Binding increased with higher RGD loading, whereas reduced binding was found with higher PEG loading. Biodistribution showed increased circulating time for PEGylated RLPs, but no dependence on RGD loading. Both biodistribution and micro single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography imaging studies revealed low, nonspecific tumor uptake values. Conclusion In this study, RLPs for targeting angiogenesis were described. Even though good binding to αvβ3 integrin receptors was found in vitro

  18. RGD Motif of Lipoprotein T, Involved in Adhesion of Mycoplasma conjunctivae to Lamb Synovial Tissue Cells ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Zimmermann, Liza; Peterhans, Ernst; Frey, Joachim

    2010-01-01

    Lipoprotein T (LppT), a membrane-located 105-kDa lipoprotein of Mycoplasma conjunctivae, the etiological agent of infectious keratoconjunctivitis (IKC) of domestic sheep and wild Caprinae, was characterized. LppT was shown to promote cell attachment to LSM 192 primary lamb joint synovial cells. Adhesion of M. conjunctivae to LSM 192 cells is inhibited by antibodies directed against LppT. The RGD (Arg-Gly-Asp) motif of LppT was found to be a specific site for binding of M. conjunctivae to these eukaryotic host cells. Recombinant LppT fixed to polymethylmethacrylate slides binds LSM 192 cells, whereas LppT lacking the RGD site is deprived of binding capacity to LSM 192, and LppT containing RGE rather than RGD shows reduced binding. Synthetic nonapeptides derived from LppT containing RGD competitively inhibit binding of LSM 192 cells to LppT-coated slides, whereas nonapeptides containing RAD rather than RGD do not inhibit. RGD-containing, LppT-derived nonapeptides are able to directly inhibit binding of M. conjunctivae to LSM 192 cells by competitive inhibition, whereas the analogous nonapeptide containing RAD rather than RGD or the fibronectin-derived RGD hexapeptide has no inhibitory effect. These results reveal LppT as the first candidate of a RGD lectin in Mycoplasma species that is assumed to bind to β integrins. PMID:20494988

  19. Improving Drug Penetrability with iRGD Leverages the Therapeutic Response to Sorafenib and Doxorubicin in Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Schmithals, Christian; Köberle, Verena; Korkusuz, Hüdayi; Pleli, Thomas; Kakoschky, Bianca; Augusto, Eduardo Alonso; Ibrahim, Ahmed Atef; Arencibia, Jose M; Vafaizadeh, Vida; Groner, Bernd; Korf, Horst-Werner; Kronenberger, Bernd; Zeuzem, Stefan; Vogl, Thomas J; Waidmann, Oliver; Piiper, Albrecht

    2015-08-01

    iRGD is a derivative of the integrin-binding peptide RGD, which selectively increases the penetrability of tumor tissue to various coadministered substances in several preclinical models. In this study, we investigated the ability of iRGD to improve the delivery of sorafenib and doxorubicin therapy in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) using established mouse models of the disease. A contrast-enhanced MRI method was developed in parallel to assess the in vivo effects of iRGD in this setting. We found that iRGD improved the delivery of marker substances to the tumors of HCC-bearing mice about three-fold without a parallel increase in normal tissues. Control peptides lacking the critical CendR motif had no effect. Similarly, iRGD also selectively increased the signal intensity from tumors in Gd-DTPA-enhanced MRI. In terms of antitumor efficacy, iRGD coadministration significantly augmented the individual inhibitory effects of sorafenib and doxorubicin without increasing systemic toxicity. Overall, our results offered a preclinical proof of concept for the use of iRGD coadministration as a strategy to widen the therapeutic window for HCC chemotherapy, as monitored by Gd-DTPA-enhanced MRI as a noninvasive, clinically applicable method to identify iRGD-reactive tumors. PMID:26239478

  20. iRGD peptide conjugation potentiates intraperitoneal tumor delivery of paclitaxel with polymersomes.

    PubMed

    Simón-Gracia, Lorena; Hunt, Hedi; Scodeller, Pablo; Gaitzsch, Jens; Kotamraju, Venkata Ramana; Sugahara, Kazuki N; Tammik, Olav; Ruoslahti, Erkki; Battaglia, Giuseppe; Teesalu, Tambet

    2016-10-01

    Polymersomes are versatile nanoscale vesicles that can be used for cytoplasmic delivery of payloads. Recently, we demonstrated that pH-sensitive polymersomes exhibit an intrinsic selectivity towards intraperitoneal tumor lesions. A tumor homing peptide, iRGD, harbors a cryptic C-end Rule (CendR) motif that is responsible for neuropilin-1 (NRP-1) binding and for triggering extravasation and tumor penetration of the peptide. iRGD functionalization increases tumor selectivity and therapeutic efficacy of systemic drug-loaded nanoparticles in many tumor models. Here we studied whether intraperitoneally administered paclitaxel-loaded iRGD-polymersomes show improved efficacy in the treatment of peritoneal carcinomatosis. First, we demonstrated that the pH-sensitive polymersomes functionalized with RPARPAR (a prototypic CendR peptide) or iRGD internalize in the cells that express NRP-1, and that internalized polymersomes release their cargo inside the cytosol. CendR-targeted polymersomes loaded with paclitaxel were more cytotoxic on NRP-1-positive cells than on NRP-1-negative cells. In mice bearing peritoneal tumors of gastric (MKN-45P) or colon (CT26) origin, intraperitoneally administered RPARPAR and iRGD-polymersomes showed higher tumor-selective accumulation and penetration than untargeted polymersomes. Finally, iRGD-polymersomes loaded with paclitaxel showed improved efficacy in peritoneal tumor growth inhibition and in suppression of local dissemination compared to the pristine paclitaxel-polymersomes or Abraxane. Our study demonstrates that iRGD-functionalization improves efficacy of paclitaxel-polymersomes for intraperitoneal treatment of peritoneal carcinomatosis. PMID:27472162

  1. Osteoblastic potency of bone marrow cells cultivated on functionalized biometals with cyclic RGD-peptide.

    PubMed

    Jäger, M; Böge, C; Janissen, R; Rohrbeck, D; Hülsen, T; Lensing-Höhn, S; Krauspe, R; Herten, M

    2013-10-01

    The fixation of cementless endoprostheses requires excellent fixation at the bone implant interface. Although the surface structures of these implants are designed to promote osteoblastic differentiation, poor bone quality may prevent or delay osseointegration. There is evidence that RGD peptides known as recognition motifs for various integrins, promote cellular adhesion, influence cellular proliferation, and differentiation of local cells. In this study, five different metal surfaces were analyzed: Sandblasted (TiSa) and polished (TiPol) Ti6Al4V, porocoated (CCPor) and polished (CCPol) cobalt chrome and polished stainless steel (SS) were coated by ethanol amine and poly(ethylene glycol) to attach covalently RGD peptides. Human mesenchymal stromal cells of healthy donors were cultivated onto prior functionalized metal surfaces for 14 days without osteogenic stimulation. Cell proliferation and differentiation were quantitatively evaluated for native (I), NaOH pre-activated (II), NaOH pre-activated, and PEG-coated (III) as well as for RGD (IV) coated surfaces. The RGD immobilization efficiency was analyzed by epi-fluorescence spectroscopy, cell morphology was documented by light and scanning electron microscopy. The RGD-binding efficiency was TiSa > TiPol > SS > CCPor > CCPol. RGD coated surfaces showed the highest average cell proliferation on CCPol > SS > CCPor > TiSa ≥ TiPol, whereas cellular differentiation mostly correlated with the observed proliferation results, such as CCPol > TiSa > SS > CCPor > TiPol. Considering statistical analyses (significance level of α = 0.05), the RGD-coating of all biometals in comparison and in respect of their particular controls showed no significant improvement in cellular proliferation and osteoblastic differentiation. PMID:23529934

  2. Systemic Administration of siRNA via cRGD-containing Peptide

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yuanyu; Wang, Xiaoxia; Huang, Weiyan; Cheng, Qiang; Zheng, Shuquan; Guo, Shutao; Cao, Huiqing; Liang, Xing-Jie; Du, Quan; Liang, Zicai

    2015-01-01

    Although small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) have been demonstrated to specifically silence their target genes in disease models and clinical trials, in vivo siRNA delivery is still the technical bottleneck that limits their use in therapeutic applications. In this study, a bifunctional peptide named RGD10-10R was designed and tested for its ability to deliver siRNA in vitro and in vivo. Because of their electrostatic interactions with polyarginine (10R), negatively charged siRNAs were readily complexed with RGD10-10R peptides, forming spherical RGD10-10R/siRNA nanoparticles. In addition to enhancing their serum stability by preventing RNase from attacking siRNA through steric hindrance, peptide binding facilitated siRNA transfection into MDA-MB-231 cells, as demonstrated by FACS and confocal microscopy assays and by the repressed expression of target genes. When RGD10 peptide, a receptor competitor of RGD10-10R, was added to the transfection system, the cellular internalization of RGD10-10R/siRNA was significantly compromised, suggesting a mechanism of ligand/receptor interaction. Tissue distribution assays indicated that the peptide/siRNA complex preferentially accumulated in the liver and in several exocrine/endocrine glands. Furthermore, tumor-targeted delivery of siRNA was also demonstrated by in vivo imaging and cryosection assays. In summary, RGD10-10R might constitute a novel siRNA delivery tool that could potentially be applied in tumor treatment. PMID:26300278

  3. The Relative Importance of Topography and RGD Ligand Density for Endothelial Cell Adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Le Saux, Guillaume; Magenau, Astrid; Böcking, Till; Gaus, Katharina; Gooding, J. Justin

    2011-01-01

    The morphology and function of endothelial cells depends on the physical and chemical characteristics of the extracellular environment. Here, we designed silicon surfaces on which topographical features and surface densities of the integrin binding peptide arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) could be independently controlled. We used these surfaces to investigate the relative importance of the surface chemistry of ligand presentation versus surface topography in endothelial cell adhesion. We compared cell adhesion, spreading and migration on surfaces with nano- to micro-scaled pyramids and average densities of 6×102–6×1011 RGD/mm2. We found that fewer cells adhered onto rough than flat surfaces and that the optimal average RGD density for cell adhesion was 6×105 RGD/mm2 on flat surfaces and substrata with nano-scaled roughness. Only on surfaces with micro-scaled pyramids did the topography hinder cell migration and a lower average RGD density was optimal for adhesion. In contrast, cell spreading was greatest on surfaces with 6×108 RGD/mm2 irrespectively of presence of feature and their size. In summary, our data suggest that the size of pyramids predominately control the number of endothelial cells that adhere to the substratum but the average RGD density governs the degree of cell spreading and length of focal adhesion within adherent cells. The data points towards a two-step model of cell adhesion: the initial contact of cells with a substratum may be guided by the topography while the engagement of cell surface receptors is predominately controlled by the surface chemistry. PMID:21779342

  4. Metalloporphines: Dimers and Trimers.

    PubMed

    Jentzen, Walter; Shelnutt, John A; Scheidt, W Robert

    2016-06-20

    Procedures for the purification and subsequent crystallization of the slightly soluble four-coordinate metallporphines, the simplest possible porphyrin derivatives, are described. Crystals of the porphine derivatives of cobalt(II), copper(II), platinum(II), and two polymorphs of zinc(II) were obtained. Analysis of the crystal and molecular structures shows that all except the platinum(II) derivative form an unusual trimeric species in the solid state. The isomorphous cobalt(II), copper(II), and one zinc(II) polymorph pack in the unit cell to form dimers as well as the trimers. Interplanar spacings between porphine rings are similar in both the dimers and trimers and range between 3.24 and 3.37 Å. Porphine rings are strongly overlapped with lateral shifts between ring centers in both the dimers and trimers with values between 1.52 and 1.70 Å or in Category S as originally defined by Scheidt and Lee. Periodic trends in the M-Np bond distances parallel those observed previously for tetraphenyl- and octaethylporphyrin derivatives. PMID:27276239

  5. Functionalization of reactive polymer multilayers with RGD and an antifouling motif: RGD density provides control over human corneal epithelial cell-substrate interactions.

    PubMed

    Tocce, Elizabeth J; Broderick, Adam H; Murphy, Kaitlin C; Liliensiek, Sara J; Murphy, Christopher J; Lynn, David M; Nealey, Paul F

    2012-01-01

    Our study demonstrates that substrates fabricated using a "reactive" layer-by-layer approach promote well-defined cell-substrate interactions of human corneal epithelial cells. Specifically, crosslinked and amine-reactive polymer multilayers were produced by alternating "reactive" deposition of an azlactone-functionalized polymer [poly(2-vinyl-4,4-dimethylazlactone)] (PVDMA) and a primary amine-containing polymer [branched poly(ethylene imine)] (PEI). Advantages of our system include a 5- to 30-fold decrease in deposition time compared to traditional polyelectrolyte films and direct modification of the films with peptides. Our films react with mixtures of an adhesion-promoting peptide containing Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) and the small molecule D-glucamine, a chemical motif which is nonfouling. Resulting surfaces prevent protein adsorption and promote cell attachment through specific peptide interactions. The specificity of cell attachment via immobilized RGD sequences was verified using both a scrambled RDG peptide control as well as soluble-RGD competitive assays. Films were functionalized with monotonically increasing surface densities of RGD which resulted in both increased cell attachment and the promotion of a tri-phasic proliferative response of a human corneal epithelial cell line (hTCEpi). The ability to treat PEI/PVDMA films with peptides for controlled cell-substrate interactions enables the use of these films in a wide range of biological applications. PMID:21972074

  6. Functionalization of reactive polymer multilayers with RGD and an anti-fouling motif: RGD density provides control over human corneal epithelial cell-substrate interactions

    PubMed Central

    Tocce, Elizabeth J.; Broderick, Adam H.; Murphy, Kaitlin C.; Liliensiek, Sara J.; Murphy, Christopher J.; Lynn, David M.; Nealey, Paul F.

    2011-01-01

    Our study demonstrates that substrates fabricated using a ‘reactive’ layer-by-layer approach promote well-defined cell-substrate interactions of human corneal epithelial cells. Specifically, crosslinked and amine-reactive polymer multilayers were produced by alternating ‘reactive’ deposition of an azlactone-functionalized polymer [poly(2-vinyl-4,4-dimethylazlactone)] and a primary amine-containing polymer [branched poly(ethylene imine)]. Advantages of our system include a 5 to 30-fold decrease in deposition time compared to traditional polyelectrolyte films and direct modification of the films with peptides. Our films react with mixtures of an adhesion-promoting peptide containing Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) and the small molecule d-glucamine, a chemical motif which is non-fouling. Resulting surfaces prevent protein adsorption and promote cell attachment through specific peptide interactions. The specificity of cell attachment via immobilized RGD sequences was verified using both a scrambled RDG peptide control as well as soluble-RGD competitive assays. Films were functionalized with monotonically increasing surface densities of RGD which resulted in both increased cell attachment and the promotion of a tri-phasic proliferative response of a human corneal epithelial cell line (hTCEpi). The ability to treat PEI/PVDMA films with peptides for controlled cell-substrate interactions enables the use of these films in a wide range of biological applications. PMID:21972074

  7. RGD-peptide conjugated inulin-ibuprofen nanoparticles for targeted delivery of Epirubicin.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Luzhong; Li, Guicai; Gao, Ming; Liu, Xin; Ji, Bing; Hua, Ruheng; Zhou, Youlang; Yang, Yumin

    2016-08-01

    Recently, chemotherapy-based polymeric nanoparticles have been extensively investigated for solid tumor treatment. Tumor targeted nanoparticles demonstrated great potential for improved accumulation in the tumor tissue, superior anticancer activity and reduced side effects. Thus, inulin-ibuprofen polymer was synthesized by esterification between inulin and ibuprofen, and RGD targeted epirubicin (EPB) loaded nanoparticles were prepared by the self-assembly of inulin-ibuprofen polymer and in situ encapsulation of EPB. RGD conjugated EPB loaded nanoparticles were characterized by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The EPB release from the nanoparticles showed pH-dependent profile and accelerated by the decreased pH value, which would favor the effective drug delivery in vivo. Intracellular uptake analysis suggested that RGD conjugated nanoparticles could be easily internalized by the cancer cells. In vitro cytotoxicity revealed that RGD conjugated EPB loaded nanoparticles exhibited the better antitumor efficacy compared with non-conjugated nanoparticles. More importantly, RGD conjugated EPB loaded nanoparticles showed superior anticancer effects and reduced toxicity than free EPB and non-conjugated nanoparticles by in vivo antitumor activity, EPB biodistribution and histology analysis. PMID:27070055

  8. Cell response to RGD density in cross-linked artificial extracellular matrix protein films.

    PubMed

    Liu, Julie C; Tirrell, David A

    2008-11-01

    This study examines the adhesion, spreading, and migration of human umbilical vein endothelial cells on cross-linked films of artificial extracellular matrix (aECM) proteins. The aECM proteins described here were designed for application in small-diameter grafts and are composed of elastin-like structural repeats and fibronectin cell-binding domains. aECM-RGD contains the RGD sequence derived from fibronectin; the negative control protein aECM-RDG contains a scrambled cell-binding domain. The covalent attachment of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) to aECM substrates reduced nonspecific cell adhesion to aECM-RDG-PEG but did not preclude sequence-specific adhesion of endothelial cells to aECM-RGD-PEG. Variation in ligand density was accomplished by the mixing of aECM-RGD-PEG and aECM-RDG-PEG prior to cross-linking. Increasing the density of RGD domains in cross-linked films resulted in more robust cell adhesion and spreading but did not affect cell migration speed. Control of cell-binding domain density in aECM proteins can thus be used to modulate cell adhesion and spreading and will serve as an important design tool as these materials are further developed for use in surgery, tissue engineering, and regenerative medicine. PMID:18826275

  9. Neural stem cell adhesion and proliferation on phospholipid bilayers functionalized with RGD peptides

    PubMed Central

    Ananthanarayanan, Badriprasad; Little, Lauren; Schaffer, David V.; Healy, Kevin E.; Tirrell, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    Peptide-functionalized materials show promise in controlling stem cell behavior by mimicking cell-matrix interactions. Supported lipid bilayers are an excellent platform for displaying peptides due to their ease of fabrication and low non-specific interactions with cells. In this paper, we report on the behavior of adult hippocampal neural stem cells (NSCs) on phospholipid bilayers functionalized with different RGD-containing peptides: either GGGNGEPRGDTYRAY (‘bsp-RGD(15)’) or GRGDSP. Fluid supported bilayers were prepared on glass surfaces by adsorption and fusion of small lipid vesicles incorporating synthetic peptide amphiphiles. NSCs adhered to bilayers with either GRGDSP or bsp-RGD(15) peptide. After 5 days in culture, NSCs formed neurosphere-like aggregates on GRGDSP bilayers, whereas on bsp-RGD(15) bilayers a large fraction of single adhered cells were observed, comparable to monolayer growth seen on laminin controls. NSCs retained their ability to differentiate into neurons and astrocytes on both peptide surfaces. This work illustrates the utility of supported bilayers in displaying peptide ligands and demonstrates that RGD peptides may be useful in synthetic culture systems for stem cells. PMID:20728935

  10. Effects of RGD immobilization on light-induced cell sheet detachment from TiO2 nanodots films.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Kui; Wang, Tiantian; Yu, Mengliu; Wan, Hongping; Lin, Jun; Weng, Wenjian; Wang, Huiming

    2016-06-01

    Light-induced cell detachment is reported to be a safe and effective cell sheet harvest method. In the present study, the effects of arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) immobilization on cell growth, cell sheet construction and cell harvest through light illumination are investigated. RGD was first immobilized on TiO2 nanodots films through simple physical adsorption, and then mouse pre-osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells were seeded on the films. It was found that RGD immobilization promoted cell adhesion and proliferation. It was also observed that cells cultured on RGD immobilized films showed relatively high level of pan-cadherin. Cells harvested with ultraviolet illumination (365nm) showed good viability on both RGD immobilized and unmodified TiO2 nanodot films. Single cell detachment assay showed that cells detached more quickly on RGD immobilized TiO2 nanodot films. That could be ascribed to the RGD release after UV365 illumination. The current study demonstrated that RGD immobilization could effectively improve both the cellular responses and light-induced cell harvest. PMID:27040216

  11. Probing cell-matrix interactions in RGD-decorated macroporous poly (ethylene glycol) hydrogels for 3D chondrocyte culture.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jingjing; Mujeeb, Ayeesha; Du, Yanan; Lin, Jianhao; Ge, Zigang

    2015-06-01

    Macroporous hydrogels have shown great promise as scaffolds for cartilage engineering by facilitating nutrition transport and tissue in growth. Cell-matrix adhesion-a fundamental process in tissue engineering-has shown a profound effect on subsequent cell phenotype, extracellular matrix (ECM) accumulation, and tissue reorganization. In this study, arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) was introduced to macroporous hydrogels of poly (ethylene glycol) (PEG) to fabricate PEG-G400 (with 0.4mM RGD) and PEG-G2000 (2mM RGD) to probe the cell-matrix interactions within hydrogels. Primary chondrocytes demonstrated a slightly stretched morphology with increasing RGD concentration and PEG-G2000 hydrogels boosted cell viability, proliferation, and deposition of collagen II and GAG, in comparison to the PEG-G400 and PEG-RED groups. Results also revealed chondrocytes within the cell aggregates underwent dedifferentiation and hypertrophy within RGD incorporated hydrogels, as evidenced by the high level of gene expression of collagen I on day 14 and strong immunohistological staining of collagen X and collagen I on day 35. Evidently, a high concentration of RGD (2mM RGD) enhanced cell-matrix interactions through elevating the expression of integrin β1 and vinculin. Thus, the integration of RGD in macroporous hydrogels with a concentration of 2 mM may be sufficient for improving cell functionality, with a slight probability of dedifferentiation and hypertrophy of chondrocytes. PMID:26107534

  12. Pokemon siRNA Delivery Mediated by RGD-Modified HBV Core Protein Suppressed the Growth of Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kong, Jing; Liu, Xiaoping; Jia, Jianbo; Wu, Jinsheng; Wu, Ning; Chen, Jun; Fang, Fang

    2015-10-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a deadly human malignant tumor that is among the most common cancers in the world, especially in Asia. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection has been well established as a high risk factor for hepatic malignance. Studies have shown that Pokemon is a master oncogene for HCC growth, suggesting it as an ideal therapeutic target. However, efficient delivery system is still lacking for Pokemon targeting treatment. In this study, we used core proteins of HBV, which is modified with RGD peptides, to construct a biomimetic vector for the delivery of Pokemon siRNAs (namely, RGD-HBc-Pokemon siRNA). Quantitative PCR and Western blot assays revealed that RGD-HBc-Pokemon siRNA possessed the highest efficiency of Pokemon suppression in HCC cells. In vitro experiments further indicated that RGD-HBc-Pokemon-siRNA exerted a higher tumor suppressor activity on HCC cell lines, evidenced by reduced proliferation and attenuated invasiveness, than Pokemon-siRNA or RGD-HBc alone. Finally, animal studies demonstrated that RGD-HBc-Pokemon siRNA suppressed the growth of HCC xenografts in mice by a greater extent than Pokemon-siRNA or RGD-HBc alone. Based on the above results, Pokemon siRNA delivery mediated by RGD-modified HBV core protein was shown to be an effective strategy of HCC gene therapy. PMID:26356810

  13. The impact of the RGD peptide on osteoblast adhesion and spreading on zinc-substituted hydroxyapatite surface.

    PubMed

    Mavropoulos, Elena; Hausen, Moema; Costa, Andrea M; Alves, Gutemberg; Mello, Alexandre; Ospina, C A; Mir, M; Granjeiro, José M; Rossi, Alexandre M

    2013-05-01

    The incorporation of zinc into the hydroxyapatite structure (ZnHA) has been proposed to stimulate osteoblast proliferation and differentiation. Another approach to improve cell adhesion and hydroxyapatite (HA) performance is coating HA with adhesive proteins or peptides such as RGD (arginine-glycine-aspartic acid). The present study investigated the adhesion of murine osteoblastic cells to non-sintered zinc-substituted HA disks before and after the adsorption of RGD. The incorporation of zinc into the HA structure simultaneously changed the topography of disk's surface on the nanoscale and the disk's surface chemistry. Fluorescence microscopy analyses using RGD conjugated to a fluorescein derivative demonstrated that ZnHA adsorbed higher amounts of RGD than non-substituted HA. Zinc incorporation into HA promoted cell adhesion and spreading, but no differences in the cell density, adhesion and spreading were detected when RGD was adsorbed onto ZnHA. The pre-treatment of disks with fetal bovine serum (FBS) greatly increased the cell density and cell surface area for all RGD-free groups, overcoming the positive contribution of zinc to cell adhesion. The presence of RGD on the ZnHA surface impaired the effects of FBS pre-treatment possibly due to competition between FBS proteins and RGD for surface binding sites. PMID:23494616

  14. Improved tumor-targeting MRI contrast agents: Gd(DOTA) conjugates of a cycloalkane-based RGD peptide

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Ji-Ae; Lee, Yong Jin; Ko, In Ok; Kim, Tae-Jeong; Chang, Yongmin; Lim, Sang Moo; Kim, Kyeong Min; Kim, Jung Young

    2014-12-12

    Highlights: • Development of improved tumor-targeting MRI contrast agents. • To increase the targeting ability of RGD, we developed cycloalkane-based RGD peptides. • Gd(DOTA) conjugates of cycloalkane-based RGD peptide show improved tumor signal enhancement in vivo MR images. - Abstract: Two new MRI contrast agents, Gd-DOTA-c(RGD-ACP-K) (1) and Gd-DOTA-c(RGD-ACH-K) (2), which were designed by incorporating aminocyclopentane (ACP)- or aminocyclohexane (ACH)-carboxylic acid into Gd-DOTA (gadolinium-tetraazacyclo dodecanetetraacetic acid) and cyclic RGDK peptides, were synthesized and evaluated for tumor-targeting ability in vitro and in vivo. Binding affinity studies showed that both 1 and 2 exhibited higher affinity for integrin receptors than cyclic RGDyK peptides, which were used as a reference. These complexes showed high relaxivity and good stability in human serum and have the potential to improve target-specific signal enhancement in vivo MR images.

  15. A Gene Expression-Based Comparison of Cell Adhesion to Extracellular Matrix and RGD-Terminated Monolayers

    PubMed Central

    Sobers, Courtney J.; Wood, Sarah E.; Mrksich, Milan

    2015-01-01

    This work uses global gene expression analysis to compare the extent to which model substrates presenting peptide adhesion motifs mimic the use of conventional extracellular matrix protein coated substrates for cell culture. We compared the transcriptional activities of genes in cells that were cultured on matrix-coated substrates with those cultured on self-assembled monolayers presenting either a linear or cyclic RGD peptide. Cells adherent to cyclic RGD were most similar to those cultured on native ECM, while cells cultured on monolayers presenting the linear RGD peptide had transcriptional activities that were more similar to cells cultured on the uncoated substrates. This study suggests that biomaterials presenting the cyclic RGD peptide are substantially better mimics of extracellular matrix than are uncoated materials or materials presenting the common linear RGD peptide. PMID:25818445

  16. Investigation of Schwann cell behaviour on RGD-functionalised bioabsorbable nanocomposite for peripheral nerve regeneration.

    PubMed

    Sedaghati, Tina; Jell, Gavin; Seifalian, Alexander

    2014-05-25

    Current commercially available nerve conduits fail to support nerve regeneration gaps larger than 30 mm in length due to the simple intra-luminal design of these conduits which are unable to biomimic the native neural environment. There is, therefore, a major clinical demand for new smart biomaterials, which can stimulate neuronal cell proliferation and migration, and facilitate nerve regeneration across these critical sized defects. In this study, we aimed to investigate Schwann cell (SC) behaviour seeded on the bioabsorbable version of the nanocomposite material, POSS modified poly (caprolactone) urea urethane (PCL), functionalised with arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) peptide. Successful synthesis of RGD peptide as well as the chemical structure of POSS-PCL nanocomposite film was investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Cell viability assay and morphological assessment were performed to investigate the cytocompatibility of the fabricated constructs. Successful immobilisation of RGD peptide onto the nanocomposite surface was confirmed by water contact angle, Brilliant Blue (BB) staining and thin layer chromatography. Both POSS-PCL and RGD-POSS-PCL nanocomposite scaffolds supported SC attachment, proliferation and morphological differentiation, important aspects for peripheral nerve regeneration. However, a significant increase in SC process length and morphological differentiation towards maturation was observed on the cells grown on RGD-POSS-PCL film. RGD-POSS-PCL nanocomposite demonstrated a significant improvement in SCs spreading and its integrin-dependent process outgrowth (P<0.05). Conduits made by POSS-nanocomposite may be suitable for the next generation of commercially available conduit required to meet current clinical demand in peripheral nerve regeneration and repair as they are currently undergoing in vivo preclinical study. PMID:24503165

  17. An Exploratory Study on 99mTc-RGD-BBN Peptide Scintimammography in the Assessment of Breast Malignant Lesions Compared to 99mTc-3P4-RGD2

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Qianqian; Ma, Qingjie; Chen, Minglong; Chen, Bin; Wen, Qiang; Jia, Bing; Wang, Fan; Sun, Butong; Gao, Shi

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study aimed to explore the diagnostic performance of single photon emission computed tomography / computerized tomography (SPECT/CT) using a new radiotracer 99mTc-RGD-BBN for breast malignant tumor compared with 99mTc-3P4-RGD2. Methods 6 female patients with breast malignant tumors diagnosed by fine needle aspiration cytology biopsy (FNAB) who were scheduled to undergo surgery were included in the study. 99mTc-3P4-RGD2 and 99mTc-RGD-BBN were performed with single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) at 1 hour after intravenous injection of 299 ± 30 MBq and 293 ± 32 MBq of radiotracers respectively at separate day. The results were evaluated by the Tumor to non-Tumor ratios (T/NT). 99mTc-RGD-BBN and 99mTc-3P4-RGD2 SPECT/CT images were interpreted independently by 3 experienced nuclear medicine physicians using a 3-point scale system. All of the samples were analyzed immunohistochemically to evaluate the integrin αvβ3 and gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRPR) expression. The safety, biodistribution and radiation dosimetry of 99mTc-RGD-BBN were also evaluated in the healthy volunteers. Results No serious adverse events were reported in any of the patients during the study. The effective radiation dose entirely conformed to the relevant standards. A total of 6 palpable malignant lesions were detected using 99mTc-RGD-BBN SPECT/CT with clear uptake. All malignant lesions were also detected using 99mTc-3P4-RGD2 SPECT/CT. The results showed that five malignant lesions were with clear uptake and the other one with barely an uptake. 4 malignant cases were found with both αvβ3 and GRPR expression, 1 case with only GRPR positive expression (integrin αvβ3 negative) and 1 case with only integrin αvβ3 positive expression (GRPR negative). Conclusion 99mTc-RGD-BBN is a safe agent for detecting breast cancer. 99mTc-RGD-BBN may have the potential to make up for the deficiency of 99mTc-3P4-RGD2 in the detection of breast cancer with only GRPR positive

  18. Varying RGD concentration and cell phenotype alters the expression of extracellular matrix genes in vocal fold fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Kosinski, Aaron M; Sivasankar, M Preeti; Panitch, Alyssa

    2015-09-01

    The impact of RGD integrin binding-peptide concentration and cell phenotype on directing extracellular matrix (ECM) gene expression in vocal fold fibroblasts is little understood. Less is known about cell response to RGD concentration on a biomaterial when fibroblasts are in a scar-like environment compared to a healthy environment. We investigated the effects of varying RGD integrin-binding peptide surface concentration on ECM gene expression of elastin, collagen type 3 alpha 1, decorin, fibronectin, hyaluronan synthase 2, and collagen type 1 alpha 2 in scarred and unscarred immortalized human vocal fold fibroblasts (I-HVFFs). Phenotype and RGD concentration affected ECM gene expression. Phenotype change from healthy to myofibroblast-like resulted in ECM gene up-regulation for all genes tested, except for decorin. Systematically altering RGD concentration affected the expression of elastin and collagen type 3 alpha 1 in a myofibroblast phenotype. Specifically greater up-regulation in gene expression was observed with higher RGD concentrations. This research demonstrates that controlling RGD concentration may influence ECM gene expression levels in fibroblasts. Such knowledge is critical in developing the next generation of bioactive materials that, when implanted into sites of tissue damage and scarring, will direct cells to regenerate healthy tissues with normal ECM ratios and morphologies. PMID:25778824

  19. cRGD-Modified Benzimidazole-based pH-Responsive Nanoparticles for Enhanced Tumor Targeted Doxorubicin Delivery.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jinjian; Liu, Qian; Yang, Cuihong; Sun, Yu; Zhang, Yumin; Huang, Pingsheng; Zhou, Junhui; Liu, Qiang; Chu, Liping; Huang, Fan; Deng, Liandong; Dong, Anjie; Liu, Jianfeng

    2016-05-01

    Finding a smart cancer drug delivery carrier with long blood circulation, enhanced cancer targeting, and quick drug release in tumors is critical for efficient cancer chemotherapy. Herein, we design a cRGD-polycarboxybetaine methacrylate-b-polybenzimidazole methacrylate (cRGD-PCB-b-PBBMZ) copolymer to self-assemble into smart drug-loaded nanoparticles (cRGD-PCM NPs) which can target αvβ3 integrin overexpressed cancer tissue by cRGD peptide unit and release drug quickly in cancer cells by protonation of benzimidazole groups. The outer PCB layer can resist protein adhesion, and there are only about 10% of proteins in mouse serum adhered to the surface of PCM NPs. With the pKa value of 5.08 of the benzimidazole units, DOX can be released from NPs in pH 5.0 PBS. cRGD-PCM NPs can bring more DOX into HepG2 cells than nontargeting PCM NPs, and there has high DOX release rate in HepG2 cells because of the protonation of benzimidazole groups in endosome and lysosome. MTT assay verifies that higher cellular uptake of DOX causes higher cytotoxicity. Furthermore, the results of ex vivo imaging studies confirm that cRGD-PCM/DOX NPs can successfully deliver DOX into tumor tissue from the injection site. Therefore, the multifunctional cRGD-PCM NPs show great potential as novel nanocarriers for targeting cancer chemotherapy. PMID:27058429

  20. Solution structure of gamma-bungarotoxin: the functional significance of amino acid residues flanking the RGD motif in integrin binding.

    PubMed

    Shiu, Jia-Hau; Chen, Chiu-Yueh; Chang, Long-Sen; Chen, Yi-Chun; Chen, Yen-Chin; Lo, Yu-Hui; Liu, Yu-Chen; Chuang, Woei-Jer

    2004-12-01

    Gamma-bungarotoxin, a snake venom protein isolated from Bungarus multicinctus, contains 68 amino acids, including 10 cysteine residues and a TAVRGDGP sequence at positions 30-37. The solution structure of gamma-bungarotoxin has been determined by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The structure is similar to that of the short-chain neurotoxins that contain three loops extending from a disulfide-bridged core. The tripeptide Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) sequence is located at the apex of the flexible loop and is similar to that of other RGD-containing proteins. However, gamma-bungarotoxin only inhibits platelet aggregations with an IC50 of 34 microM. To understand its weak activity in inhibiting platelet aggregation, we mutated the RGD loop sequences of rhodostomin, a potent platelet aggregation inhibitor, from RIPRGDMP to TAVRGDGP, resulting in a 196-fold decrease in activity. In addition, the average Calpha-to-Calpha distance between R33 and G36 of gamma-bungarotoxin is 6.02 A, i.e., shorter than that of other RGD-containing proteins that range from 6.55 to 7.46 A. These results suggested that the amino acid residues flanking the RGD motif might control the width of the RGD loop. This structural difference may be responsible for its decrease in platelet aggregation inhibition compared with other RGD-containing proteins. PMID:15390258

  1. The Disease Portals, disease–gene annotation and the RGD disease ontology at the Rat Genome Database

    PubMed Central

    Hayman, G. Thomas; Laulederkind, Stanley J. F.; Smith, Jennifer R.; Wang, Shur-Jen; Petri, Victoria; Nigam, Rajni; Tutaj, Marek; De Pons, Jeff; Dwinell, Melinda R.; Shimoyama, Mary

    2016-01-01

    The Rat Genome Database (RGD; http://rgd.mcw.edu/) provides critical datasets and software tools to a diverse community of rat and non-rat researchers worldwide. To meet the needs of the many users whose research is disease oriented, RGD has created a series of Disease Portals and has prioritized its curation efforts on the datasets important to understanding the mechanisms of various diseases. Gene-disease relationships for three species, rat, human and mouse, are annotated to capture biomarkers, genetic associations, molecular mechanisms and therapeutic targets. To generate gene–disease annotations more effectively and in greater detail, RGD initially adopted the MEDIC disease vocabulary from the Comparative Toxicogenomics Database and adapted it for use by expanding this framework with the addition of over 1000 terms to create the RGD Disease Ontology (RDO). The RDO provides the foundation for, at present, 10 comprehensive disease area-related dataset and analysis platforms at RGD, the Disease Portals. Two major disease areas are the focus of data acquisition and curation efforts each year, leading to the release of the related Disease Portals. Collaborative efforts to realize a more robust disease ontology are underway. Database URL: http://rgd.mcw.edu PMID:27009807

  2. The Disease Portals, disease-gene annotation and the RGD disease ontology at the Rat Genome Database.

    PubMed

    Hayman, G Thomas; Laulederkind, Stanley J F; Smith, Jennifer R; Wang, Shur-Jen; Petri, Victoria; Nigam, Rajni; Tutaj, Marek; De Pons, Jeff; Dwinell, Melinda R; Shimoyama, Mary

    2016-01-01

    The Rat Genome Database (RGD;http://rgd.mcw.edu/) provides critical datasets and software tools to a diverse community of rat and non-rat researchers worldwide. To meet the needs of the many users whose research is disease oriented, RGD has created a series of Disease Portals and has prioritized its curation efforts on the datasets important to understanding the mechanisms of various diseases. Gene-disease relationships for three species, rat, human and mouse, are annotated to capture biomarkers, genetic associations, molecular mechanisms and therapeutic targets. To generate gene-disease annotations more effectively and in greater detail, RGD initially adopted the MEDIC disease vocabulary from the Comparative Toxicogenomics Database and adapted it for use by expanding this framework with the addition of over 1000 terms to create the RGD Disease Ontology (RDO). The RDO provides the foundation for, at present, 10 comprehensive disease area-related dataset and analysis platforms at RGD, the Disease Portals. Two major disease areas are the focus of data acquisition and curation efforts each year, leading to the release of the related Disease Portals. Collaborative efforts to realize a more robust disease ontology are underway. Database URL:http://rgd.mcw.edu. PMID:27009807

  3. RGD-conjugated gold nanorods induce radiosensitization in melanoma cancer cells by downregulating αvβ3 expression

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Wencai; Luo, Teng; Li, Ping; Zhou, Chuanqing; Cui, Daxiang; Pang, Bo; Ren, Qiushi; Fu, Shen

    2012-01-01

    Background Melanoma is known to be radioresistant and traditional treatments have been intractable. Therefore, novel approaches are required to improve the therapeutic efficacy of melanoma treatment. In our study, gold nanorods conjugated with Arg-Gly-Asp peptides (RGD-GNRs) were used as a sensitizer to enhance the response of melanoma cells to 6 mV radiation. Methods and materials A375 melanoma cells were treated by gold nanorods or RGD-GNRs with or without irradiation. The antiproliferative impact of the treatments was measured by MTT assay. Radiosensitizing effects were determined by colony formation assay. Apoptosis and cell cycle data were measured by flow cytometry. Integrin αvβ3 expression was also investigated by flow cytometry. Results Addition of RGD-GNRs enhanced the radiosensitivity of A375 cells with a dose-modifying factor of 1.35, and enhanced radiation-induced apoptosis. DNA flow cytometric analysis indicated that RGD-GNRs plus irradiation induced significant G2/M phase arrest in A375 cells. Both spontaneous and radiation-induced expressions of integrin αvβ3 were downregulated by RGD-GNRs. Conclusion Our study indicated that RGD-GNRs could sensitize melanoma A375 cells to irradiation. It was hypothesized that this was mainly through downregulation of radiation-induced αvβ3, in addition to induction of a higher proportion of cells within the G2/M phase. The combination of RGD-GNRs and radiation needs further investigation. PMID:22412298

  4. Selective Detection of RGD-Integrin Binding in Cancer Cells Using Tip Enhanced Raman Scattering Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Lifu; Wang, Hao; Schultz, Zachary D

    2016-06-21

    Ligand-receptor interactions play important roles in many biological processes. Cyclic arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) containing peptides are known to mimic the binding domain of extracellular matrix protein fibronectin and selectively bind to a subset of integrin receptors. Here we report the tip enhanced Raman scattering (TERS) detection of RGD-functionalized nanoparticles bound to integrins produces a Raman scattering signal specific to the bound protein. These results demonstrate that this method can detect and differentiate between two different integrins (α5β1 and αvβ3) bound to RGD-conjugated gold nanoparticles both on surfaces and in a cancer cell membrane. In situ measurements of RGD nanoparticles bound to purified α5β1 and αvβ3 receptors attached to a glass surface provide reference spectra for a multivariate regression model. The TERS spectra observed from nanoparticles bound to cell membranes are analyzed using this regression model and the identity of the receptor can be determined. The ability to distinguish between receptors in the cell membrane provides a new tool to chemically characterize ligand-receptor recognition at molecular level and provide chemical perspective on the molecular recognition of membrane receptors. PMID:27189228

  5. iRGD-coupled responsive fluorescent nanogel for targeted drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Su, Shishuai; Wang, Hai; Liu, Xiaoguang; Wu, Yan; Nie, Guangjun

    2013-04-01

    In this investigation, we have designed and synthesized a multifunctional nanogel for anti-tumor drug delivery. Thermo- and pH-responsive poly (N-isopropyl acrylamide-co-acrylic acid) nanogels (NGs) were synthesized by free radical precipitation polymerization. Positive charged chemotherapeutic drug doxorubicin (DOX) was introduced into the negatively charged swollen NGs by electrostatic adsorption at pH 7.4. Fluorescent bovine serum albumin (BSA) encapsulated gold nanoclusters (AuNCs) were conjugated onto the surface of NGs, followed by functionalization of tumor targeting peptide iRGD onto the BSA for tumor targeting. Interestingly, the DOX-encapsulated iRGD-decorated NGs maintain both thermo- and pH-responsive properties, which are favorable for achieving a controlled drug release in tumor tissues. Stable red fluorescent emission, derived from AuNCs, was used to detect and track the NGs in vitro. As expected, the iRGD motif mediated specific targeting to tumor and endothelial cells and enhanced cellular uptake of the NGs, as demonstrated by flow cytometry and confocal microscopy assays. In vitro cytotoxicity studies proved that the presence of iRGD enhanced the cytotoxic efficiency of DOX to the targeted cells. All together, our current study indicates that the NGs drug-carriers can deliver chemotherapeutic drug specifically to the tumor and endothelial cells with enhanced anti-tumor efficacy and controlled drug release. PMID:23410678

  6. In Vitro Bioactivity Study of RGD-Coated Titanium Alloy Prothesis for Revision Total Hip Arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Man, Zhentao; Sha, Dan; Sun, Shui; Li, Tao; Li, Bin; Yang, Guang; Zhang, Laibo; Wu, Changshun; Jiang, Peng; Han, Xiaojuan; Li, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Total hip arthroplasty (THA) is a common procedure for the treatment of end-stage hip joint disease, and the demand for revision THA will double by 2026. Ti6Al4V (Titanium, 6% Aluminum, and 4% Vanadium) is a kind of alloy commonly used to make hip prothesis. To promote the osseointegration between the prothesis and host bone is very important for the revision THA. The peptide Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) could increase cell attachment and has been used in the vascular tissue engineering. In this study, we combined the RGD with Ti6Al4V alloy using the covalent cross-linking method to fabricate the functional Ti6Al4V alloy (FTA). The distribution of RGD oligopeptide on the FTA was even and homogeneous. The FTA scaffolds could promote mouse osteoblasts adhesion and spreading. Furthermore, the result of RT-qPCR indicated that the FTA scaffolds were more beneficial to osteogenesis, which may be due to the improvement of osteoblast adhesion by the RGD oligopeptide coated on FTA. Overall, the FTA scaffolds developed herein pave the road for designing and building more efficient prothesis for osseointegration between the host bone and prothesis in revision THA. PMID:27493968

  7. Structural insights into how the MIDAS ion stabilizes integrin binding to an RGD peptide under force.

    PubMed

    Craig, David; Gao, Mu; Schulten, Klaus; Vogel, Viola

    2004-11-01

    Integrin alpha(V)beta(3) binds to extracellular matrix proteins through the tripeptide Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD), forming a shallow crevice rather than a deep binding pocket. A dynamic picture of how the RGD-alpha(V)beta(3) complex resists dissociation by mechanical force is derived here from steered molecular dynamic (SMD) simulations in which the major force peak correlates with the breaking of the contact between Asp(RGD) and the MIDAS ion. SMD predicts that the RGD-alpha(V)beta(3) complex is stabilized from dissociation by a single water molecule tightly coordinated to the divalent MIDAS ion, thereby blocking access of free water molecules to the most critical force-bearing interaction. The MIDAS motif is common to many other proteins that contain the phylogenetically ancient von Willebrand A (vWA) domain. The functional role of single water molecules tightly coordinated to the MIDAS ion might reflect a general strategy for the stabilization of protein-protein adhesion against cell-derived forces through divalent cations. PMID:15530369

  8. In Vitro Bioactivity Study of RGD-Coated Titanium Alloy Prothesis for Revision Total Hip Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Man, Zhentao; Sha, Dan; Sun, Shui; Li, Tao; Li, Bin; Yang, Guang; Wu, Changshun; Jiang, Peng

    2016-01-01

    Total hip arthroplasty (THA) is a common procedure for the treatment of end-stage hip joint disease, and the demand for revision THA will double by 2026. Ti6Al4V (Titanium, 6% Aluminum, and 4% Vanadium) is a kind of alloy commonly used to make hip prothesis. To promote the osseointegration between the prothesis and host bone is very important for the revision THA. The peptide Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) could increase cell attachment and has been used in the vascular tissue engineering. In this study, we combined the RGD with Ti6Al4V alloy using the covalent cross-linking method to fabricate the functional Ti6Al4V alloy (FTA). The distribution of RGD oligopeptide on the FTA was even and homogeneous. The FTA scaffolds could promote mouse osteoblasts adhesion and spreading. Furthermore, the result of RT-qPCR indicated that the FTA scaffolds were more beneficial to osteogenesis, which may be due to the improvement of osteoblast adhesion by the RGD oligopeptide coated on FTA. Overall, the FTA scaffolds developed herein pave the road for designing and building more efficient prothesis for osseointegration between the host bone and prothesis in revision THA. PMID:27493968

  9. Cyclic RGD peptide-labeled upconversion nanophosphors for tumor cell-targeted imaging.

    PubMed

    Zako, Tamotsu; Nagata, Hiroyasu; Terada, Naofumi; Utsumi, Arata; Sakono, Masafumi; Yohda, Masafumi; Ueda, Hiroshi; Soga, Kohei; Maeda, Mizuo

    2009-03-27

    One of the great challenges of oncology is to improve methods for early tumor detection. Thus tumor cell-targeted optical imaging has been intensively studied. Bioimaging with upconversion (UC) phosphors (UCPs) is of considerable interest due to a variety of possible applications taking advantage of infrared-to-visible luminescence. Here we report for the first time tumor cell-targeted UC imaging using UCPs modified with cyclic RGD peptide (RGD-Y2O3). Cyclic RGD peptide binds specifically to integrin alphavbeta3 which is highly expressed in a tumor cell surface of certain cancer types but not in normal tissues. Since UC emission from RGD-Y2O3 was observed for U87MG cancer cell (high integrin alphavbeta3 expression), but not for MCF-7 cancer cell (low integrin alphavbeta3 expression), this UC imaging is considered to be integrin alphavbeta3 specific. The non-invasive imaging of integrin alphavbeta3 expression using UCP-based probes will have great potential in cancer imaging in general in living subjects. PMID:19351594

  10. Density-tunable conjugation of cyclic RGD ligands with polyion complex vesicles for the neovascular imaging of orthotopic glioblastomas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawamura, Wataru; Miura, Yutaka; Kokuryo, Daisuke; Toh, Kazuko; Yamada, Naoki; Nomoto, Takahiro; Matsumoto, Yu; Sueyoshi, Daiki; Liu, Xueying; Aoki, Ichio; Kano, Mitsunobu R.; Nishiyama, Nobuhiro; Saga, Tsuneo; Kishimura, Akihiro; Kataoka, Kazunori

    2015-06-01

    Introduction of ligands into 100 nm scaled hollow capsules has great potential for diagnostic and therapeutic applications in drug delivery systems. Polyethylene glycol-conjugated (PEGylated) polyion complex vesicles (PICsomes) are promising hollow nano-capsules that can survive for long periods in the blood circulation and can be used to deliver water-soluble macromolecules to target tissues. In this study, cyclic RGD (cRGD) peptide, which is specifically recognized by αVβ3 and αvβ5 integrins that are expressed at high levels in the neovascular system, was conjugated onto the distal end of PEG strands on PICsomes for active neovascular targeting. Density-tunable cRGD-conjugation was achieved using PICsomes with definite fraction of end-functionalized PEG, to substitute 20, 40, and 100% of PEG distal end of the PICsomes to cRGD moieties. Compared with control-PICsomes without cRGD, cRGD-PICsomes exhibited increased uptake into human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Intravital confocal laser scanning microscopy revealed that the 40%-cRGD-PICsomes accumulated mainly in the tumor neovasculature and remained in the perivascular region even after 24 h. Furthermore, we prepared superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO)-loaded cRGD-PICsomes for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and successfully visualized the neovasculature in an orthotopic glioblastoma model, which suggests that SPIO-loaded cRGD-PICsomes might be useful as a MRI contrast reagent for imaging of the tumor microenvironment, including neovascular regions that overexpress αVβ3 integrins.

  11. cRGD-installed polymeric micelles loading platinum anticancer drugs enable cooperative treatment against lymph node metastasis.

    PubMed

    Makino, Jun; Cabral, Horacio; Miura, Yutaka; Matsumoto, Yu; Wang, Ming; Kinoh, Hiroaki; Mochida, Yuki; Nishiyama, Nobuhiro; Kataoka, Kazunori

    2015-12-28

    Lymph node metastasis (LNM) is correlated with decreased survival, indicating high tumor malignancy and being a potential source for subsequent fatal metastases. Targeted therapies inhibiting the formation of LNM, while eliminating established metastatic foci, could provide synergistic effects by reducing the incidence and growth of metastasis. Based on the inhibitory activity of cRGD peptide against the development of metastasis, and the LNM targeting ability of systemically injected drug-loaded polymeric micelles, herein, we studied the capability of cRGD-installed polymeric micelles incorporating the platinum anticancer drug (1,2-diaminocylohexane)platinum(II) (DACHPt) for cooperatively inhibiting the formation and progression of LNM. As cRGD-installed DACHPt-loaded micelles (cRGD-DACHPt/m) presented similar size, drug loading and surface charge to non-conjugated micelles (MeO-DACHPt/m), the differences in the biological performance of the micelles were endorsed to the effect of the ligand. In a syngeneic melanoma model, both MeO-DACHPt/m and cRGD-DACHPt/m showed comparable antitumor activity against the primary tumors and the established metastatic foci in lymph nodes. However, cRGD-DACHPt/m significantly enhanced the efficacy against LNM draining from primary tumors through the effective inhibition of the spreading of cancer cells. This improved inhibition was associated with the ability of cRGD-DACHPt/m to reduce the migration of melanoma cells, which was higher than that of MeO-DACHPt/m, free cRGD and their combination. These results support our strategy of using cRGD-installed micelles for attaining cooperative therapies against LNM exploiting the inhibitory function of the peptide and the cytotoxic effect of the micelles. PMID:26474676

  12. Inhibiting EGFR Dimerization Using Triazolyl-Bridged Dimerization Arm Mimics

    PubMed Central

    Hanold, Laura E.; Oruganty, Krishnadev; Ton, Norman T.; Beedle, Aaron M.; Kannan, Natarajan; Kennedy, Eileen J.

    2015-01-01

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is overexpressed in multiple carcinomas and is the focus of a variety of targeted therapies. Here we report the design of peptide-based compounds that mimic the EGFR dimerization arm and inhibit allosteric activation of EGFR. These peptides are modified to contain a triazolyl bridge between the peptide strands to constrain the EGFR dimerization arm β-loop. In this study, we demonstrate that these peptides have significantly improved proteolytic stability over the non-modified peptide sequence, and their inhibitory effects are dependent on the number of the methylene units and orientation of the introduced triazolyl bridge. We identified a peptide, EDA2, which downregulates receptor phosphorylation and dimerization and reduces cell viability. This is the first example of a biologically active triazolyl-bridged peptide targeting the EGFR dimerization interface that effectively downregulates EGFR activation. PMID:25790232

  13. Bioabsorbable Bypass Grafts Biofunctionalised with RGD Have Enhanced Biophysical Properties and Endothelialisation Tested In vivo.

    PubMed

    Antonova, Larisa V; Seifalian, Alexander M; Kutikhin, Anton G; Sevostyanova, Victoria V; Krivkina, Evgeniya O; Mironov, Andrey V; Burago, Andrey Y; Velikanova, Elena A; Matveeva, Vera G; Glushkova, Tatiana V; Sergeeva, Evgeniya A; Vasyukov, Georgiy Y; Kudryavtseva, Yuliya A; Barbarash, Olga L; Barbarash, Leonid S

    2016-01-01

    Small diameter arterial bypass grafts are considered as unmet clinical need since the current grafts have poor patency of 25% within 5 years. We have developed a 3D scaffold manufactured from natural and synthetic biodegradable polymers, poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) and poly(-caprolactone) (PCL), respectively. Further to improve the biophysical properties as well as endothelialisation, the grafts were covalently conjugated with arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) bioactive peptides. The biophysical properties as well as endothelialisation of PHBV/PCL and PCL 2 mm diameter bypass grafts were assessed with and without biofunctionalisation with RGD peptides in vitro and in vivo. Morphology of the grafts was assessed by scanning electron microscopy, whereas physico-mechanical properties were evaluated using a physiological circulating system equipped with a state of art ultrasound vascular wall tracking system. Endothelialisation of the grafts in vitro and in vivo were assessed using a cell viability assay and rat abdominal aorta replacement model, respectively. The biofunctionalisation with RGD bioactive peptides decreased mean fiber diameter and mean pore area in PHBV/PCL grafts; however, this was not the case for PCL grafts. Both PHBV/PCL and PCL grafts with RGD peptides had lower durability compared to those without; these durability values were similar to those of internal mammary artery. Modification of PHBV/PCL and PCL grafts with RGD peptides increased endothelial cell viability in vitro by a factor of eight and enhanced the formation of an endothelial cell monolayer in vivo 1 month postimplantation. In conclusion, PHBV/PCL small-caliber graft can be a suitable 3D scaffold for the development of a tissue engineering arterial bypass graft. PMID:27252652

  14. Bioabsorbable Bypass Grafts Biofunctionalised with RGD Have Enhanced Biophysical Properties and Endothelialisation Tested In vivo

    PubMed Central

    Antonova, Larisa V.; Seifalian, Alexander M.; Kutikhin, Anton G.; Sevostyanova, Victoria V.; Krivkina, Evgeniya O.; Mironov, Andrey V.; Burago, Andrey Y.; Velikanova, Elena A.; Matveeva, Vera G.; Glushkova, Tatiana V.; Sergeeva, Evgeniya A.; Vasyukov, Georgiy Y.; Kudryavtseva, Yuliya A.; Barbarash, Olga L.; Barbarash, Leonid S.

    2016-01-01

    Small diameter arterial bypass grafts are considered as unmet clinical need since the current grafts have poor patency of 25% within 5 years. We have developed a 3D scaffold manufactured from natural and synthetic biodegradable polymers, poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) and poly(𝜀-caprolactone) (PCL), respectively. Further to improve the biophysical properties as well as endothelialisation, the grafts were covalently conjugated with arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) bioactive peptides. The biophysical properties as well as endothelialisation of PHBV/PCL and PCL 2 mm diameter bypass grafts were assessed with and without biofunctionalisation with RGD peptides in vitro and in vivo. Morphology of the grafts was assessed by scanning electron microscopy, whereas physico-mechanical properties were evaluated using a physiological circulating system equipped with a state of art ultrasound vascular wall tracking system. Endothelialisation of the grafts in vitro and in vivo were assessed using a cell viability assay and rat abdominal aorta replacement model, respectively. The biofunctionalisation with RGD bioactive peptides decreased mean fiber diameter and mean pore area in PHBV/PCL grafts; however, this was not the case for PCL grafts. Both PHBV/PCL and PCL grafts with RGD peptides had lower durability compared to those without; these durability values were similar to those of internal mammary artery. Modification of PHBV/PCL and PCL grafts with RGD peptides increased endothelial cell viability in vitro by a factor of eight and enhanced the formation of an endothelial cell monolayer in vivo 1 month postimplantation. In conclusion, PHBV/PCL small-caliber graft can be a suitable 3D scaffold for the development of a tissue engineering arterial bypass graft. PMID:27252652

  15. RGD-modified pH-sensitive liposomes for docetaxel tumor targeting.

    PubMed

    Chang, Minglu; Lu, Shanshan; Zhang, Fang; Zuo, Tiantian; Guan, Yuanyuan; Wei, Ting; Shao, Wei; Lin, Guimei

    2015-05-01

    Phosphatidylethanolamine-based pH-sensitive liposomes of various compositions have been described as efficient systems for delivery of therapeutic molecules into tumor cells. The aim of this work was to develop a drug delivery system based on pH-sensitive liposomes (PLPs) that were modified with arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) peptide to enhance the effectiveness of docetaxel treatment. Docetaxel/coumarin-6 loaded PLPs were prepared by the thin-film dispersion method and characterized in detail, including by particle size, polydispersity, zeta potential and drug encapsulation efficiency. In vitro studies using MCF-7, HepG2and A549 cells were employed to investigate cytotoxicity and cellular uptake of the drug solution or docetaxel/coumarin-6 loaded PLPs. The accumulation of 7-nitro-2-1,3-benzoxadiazol-4-yl (NBD)-labeled liposomes in vivo was studied through tumor section imaging of xenograft mouse models of MCF-7 24h after intravenous administration. The particle size of the non-coated or RGD modified PLPs ranged between 146 and 129nm. Drug release in vitro was modestly prolonged and had good pH sensitivity. In the in vitro study, RGD-coated PLPs showed higher cytotoxicity and cellular uptake relative to non-coated ones. The results of the in vivo study showed that RGD-coated PLPs had higher fluorescence, which suggested a more efficient accumulation than normal PLPs in tumors. In conclusion, these results confirmed RGD-modified PLPs as a potential drug delivery system to achieve controlled release and tumor targeting. PMID:25851582

  16. Iodine-125-labeled cRGD-gold nanoparticles as tumor-targeted radiosensitizer and imaging agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Ning; Dang, Yajie; Liang, Guangli; Liu, Guizhi

    2015-04-01

    Research interests on radiosensitive property of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) are rapidly raised because of the extensively proved in vitro effectiveness and clinical necessity. However, the issue of targeted accumulation of GNPs in tumor tissues hindered the transference to in vivo applications. In this study, hybrid nano-sized cyclic Arg-Gly-Asp-conjugated GNPs (cRGD-GNPs) integrated with radioactive iodine-125 was fabricated as tumor-targeted radiosensitizer. Therapeutic effects, including acute apoptosis (2 days post treatment) and long-term influence (up to 21 days), were investigated on NCI-H446 tumor-bearing mice via Tc-99 m-Annexin V SPECT and volume measurements, respectively. Apoptosis and volume loss were consistent in showing that tumor growth was effectively suppressed via the treatment of 125I-cRGD-GNP sensitized radiotherapy (RT), a more significantly radiosensitive effect than the treatment of non-targeted GNPs with RT, RT treatment alone, and no treatment. SPECT/CT images showed that the uptake of cRGD-GNPs by tumor tissues reached the peak target/non-target value of 4.76 at around 2 h post injection, and dynamic radioactivity monitoring showed that 125I-cRGD-GNPs maintained about 2.5% of injected dosage at 55 h post injection. For long-term influence, a significant radiosensitized RT-induced volume loss was observed. Hence, cyclic RGD conjugation makes the GNP-based radiosensitizer tumor targeting, offering a new modality for enhancing radiotherapeutic efficacy. Additionally, the introduction of I-125 serves as both a therapeutic factor and a radiotracer for in vivo tracking of GNPs.

  17. Extra-domain B in Oncofetal Fibronectin Structurally Promotes Fibrillar Head-to-tail Dimerization of Extracellular Matrix Protein*

    PubMed Central

    Schiefner, André; Gebauer, Michaela; Skerra, Arne

    2012-01-01

    The type III extra-domain B (ED-B) is specifically spliced into fibronectin (Fn) during embryogenesis and neoangiogenesis, including many cancers. The x-ray structure of the recombinant four-domain fragment FnIII7B89 reveals a tightly associated, extended head-to-tail dimer, which is stabilized via pair-wise shape and charge complementarity. A tendency toward ED-B-dependent dimer formation in solution was supported by size exclusion chromatography and analytical ultracentrifugation. When amending the model with the known three-dimensional structure of the FnIII10 domain, its RGD loop as well as the adhesion synergy region in FnIII9–10 become displayed on the same face of the dimer; this should allow simultaneous binding of at least two integrins and, thus, receptor clustering on the cell surface and intracellular signaling. Insertion of ED-B appears to stabilize overall head-to-tail dimerization of two separate Fn chains, which, together with alternating homodimer formation via disulfide bridges at the C-terminal Fn tail, should lead to the known macromolecular fibril formation. PMID:22442152

  18. Ligand Conformation Dictates Membrane and Endosomal Trafficking of Arginine-Glycine-Aspartate (RGD)-Functionalized Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, I-Ju; Slowing, Igor I; Wu, Kevin C.W.; Lin, Victor S.Y.; Trewyn, Brian

    2012-05-15

    Recent breakthrough research on mesoporous silica nanoparticle (MSN) materials has illustrated their significant potential in biological applications due to their excellent drug delivery and endocytotic behavior. We set out to determine if MSN, covalently functionalized with conformation specific bioactive molecules (either linear or cyclic RGD ligands), behave towards mammalian cells in a similar manner as the free ligands. We discovered that RGD immobilized on the MSN surface did not influence the integrity of the porous matrix and improved the endocytosis efficiency of the MSN materials. Through competition experiments with free RGD ligands, we also discovered a conformation specific receptor–integrin association. The interaction between RGD immobilized on the MSN surface and integrins plays an important role in endosome trafficking, specifically dictating the kinetics of endosomal escape. Thus, covalent functionalization of biomolecules on MSN assists in the design of a system for controlling the interface with cancer cells.

  19. Highly Water-soluble, Near-infrared Emissive BODIPY Polymeric Dye Bearing RGD Peptide Residues for Cancer Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Shilei; Zhang, Jingtuo; Janjanam, Jagadeesh; Bi, Jianheng; Vegesna, Giri; Tiwari, Ashutosh; Luo, Fen-Tair; Wei, Jianjun

    2012-01-01

    Near-infrared emissive BODIPY polymeric dye bearing cancer-homing cyclic arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) peptide residues (polymer B) was prepared by post-polymerization functionalization of BODIPY polymeric dye bearing bromo groups through tetra(ethylene glycol tethered spacers (polymer A) with thiol-functionalized RGD cancer-homing peptide through thioether bonds under a mild basic condition. Polymer B possesses excellent water solubility, good photostability, biocompatibility and resistance to nonspecific interactions to normal endothelial cells, and can efficiently detect breast tumor cells through specific cooperative binding of cancer-homing RGD peptides to αVβ3 integrins of cancer cells while its parent polymer Awith outRGD residues fails to target cancer cells. PMID:23245906

  20. Highly water-soluble, near-infrared emissive BODIPY polymeric dye bearing RGD peptide residues for cancer imaging.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Shilei; Zhang, Jingtuo; Janjanam, Jagadeesh; Bi, Jianheng; Vegesna, Giri; Tiwari, Ashutosh; Luo, Fen-Tair; Wei, Jianjun; Liu, Haiying

    2013-01-01

    Near-infrared emissive BODIPY polymeric dye bearing cancer-homing cyclic arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) peptide residues (polymer B) was prepared by post-polymerization functionalization of BODIPY polymeric dye bearing bromo groups through tetra(ethylene glycol) tethered spacers (polymer A) with thiol-functionalized RGD cancer-homing peptide through thioether bonds under a mild basic condition. Polymer B possesses excellent water solubility, good photostability, biocompatibility and resistance to nonspecific interactions to normal endothelial cells, and can efficiently detect breast tumor cells through specific cooperative binding of cancer-homing RGD peptides to αvβ3 integrins of cancer cells while its parent polymer A without RGD residues fails to target cancer cells. PMID:23245906

  1. Ligand conformation dictates membrane and endosomal trafficking of arginine-glycine-aspartate (RGD)-functionalized mesoporous silica nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Fang, I-Ju; Slowing, Igor I; Wu, Kevin C-W; Lin, Victor S-Y; Trewyn, Brian G

    2012-06-18

    Recent breakthrough research on mesoporous silica nanoparticle (MSN) materials has illustrated their significant potential in biological applications due to their excellent drug delivery and endocytotic behavior. We set out to determine if MSN, covalently functionalized with conformation specific bioactive molecules (either linear or cyclic RGD ligands), behave towards mammalian cells in a similar manner as the free ligands. We discovered that RGD immobilized on the MSN surface did not influence the integrity of the porous matrix and improved the endocytosis efficiency of the MSN materials. Through competition experiments with free RGD ligands, we also discovered a conformation specific receptor-integrin association. The interaction between RGD immobilized on the MSN surface and integrins plays an important role in endosome trafficking, specifically dictating the kinetics of endosomal escape. Thus, covalent functionalization of biomolecules on MSN assists in the design of a system for controlling the interface with cancer cells. PMID:22589085

  2. Evaluating the effects of charged oligopeptide motifs coupled with RGD on osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Cao, Feng-Yi; Yin, Wei-Na; Fan, Jin-Xuan; Tao, Li; Qin, Si-Yong; Zhuo, Ren-Xi; Zhang, Xian-Zheng

    2015-04-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells, due to their multilineage differentiation potential, have emerged as a promising cell candidate for cell-based therapy. In recent years, biomaterials were artificially synthesized to control the differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells. In this study, a series of charged or neutral oligopeptide motifs coupled with RGD were synthesized and used for surface modification using quartz substrates as model. Cell behaviors on the modified surfaces with different charged oligopeptide motifs were studied. It was found that these different charged oligopeptide motifs coupled with RGD were biocompatible for cell proliferation and adhesion. Moreover, it was demonstrated that the positively charged oligopeptide motif could inhibit osteogenic differentiation, while the negatively charged and neutral oligopeptide motifs could enhance osteogenic differentiation in the presence of RGD. This work may bring us enlightenment that different charged oligopeptide motifs coupled with RGD may be used for biomaterial surface modification for different stem cell-based therapies. PMID:25748883

  3. Effects of a novel cyclic RGD peptidomimetic on cell proliferation, migration and angiogenic activity in human endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cyclic RGD peptidomimetics containing a bifunctional diketopiperazine scaffold are a novel class of high-affinity ligands for the integrins αVβ3 and αVβ5. Since integrins are a promising target for the modulation of normal and pathological angiogenesis, the present study aimed at characterizing the ability of the RGD peptidomimetic cyclo[DKP-RGD] 1 proliferation, migration and network formation in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). Methods Cell viability was assessed by flow cytometry and annexin V (ANX)/propidium iodide (PI) staining. Cell proliferation was evaluated by the ELISA measurement of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation. Network formation by HUVEC cultured in Matrigel-coated plates was evaluated by optical microscopy and image analysis. Integrin subunit mRNA expression was assessed by real time-PCR and Akt phosphorylation by western blot analysis. Results Cyclo[DKP-RGD] 1 does not affect cell viability and proliferation either in resting conditions or in the presence of the pro-angiogenic growth factors VEGF, EGF, FGF, and IGF-I. Addition of cyclo[DKP-RGD] 1 however significantly decreased network formation induced by pro-angiogenic growth factors or by IL-8. Cyclo[DKP-RGD] 1 did not affect mRNA levels of αV, β3 or β5 integrin subunits, however it significantly reduced the phosphorylation of Akt. Conclusions Cyclo[DKP-RGD] 1 can be a potential modulator of angiogenesis induced by different growth factors, possibly devoid of the adverse effects of cytotoxic RGD peptidomimetic analogues. PMID:25053992

  4. Enhanced tumor targeting of cRGD peptide-conjugated albumin nanoparticles in the BxPC-3 cell line

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xinzhe; Song, Yunlong; Di, Yang; He, Hang; Fu, Deliang; Jin, Chen

    2016-01-01

    The emerging albumin nanoparticle brings new hope for the delivery of antitumor drugs. However, a lack of robust tumor targeting greatly limits its application. In this paper, cyclic arginine-glycine-aspartic-conjugated, gemcitabine-loaded human serum albumin nanoparticles (cRGD-Gem-HSA-NPs) were successfully prepared, characterized, and tested in vitro in the BxPC-3 cell line. Initially, 4-N-myristoyl-gemcitabine (Gem-C14) was formed by conjugating myristoyl to the 4-amino group of gemcitabine. Then, cRGD-HSA was synthesized using sulfosuccinimidyl-(4-N-maleimidomethyl)cyclohexane-1-carboxylate (Sulfo-SMCC) cross-linkers. Finally, cRGD-Gem-HSA-NPs were formulated based on the nanoparticle albumin-bound (nab) technology. The resulting NPs were characterized for particle size, zeta potential, morphology, encapsulation efficiency, and drug loading efficiency. In vitro cellular uptake and inhibition studies were conducted to compare Gem-HSA-NPs and cRGD-Gem-HSA-NPs in a human pancreatic cancer cell line (BxPC-3). The cRGD-Gem-HSA-NPs exhibited an average particle size of 160 ± 23 nm. The encapsulation rate and drug loading rate were approximately 83 ± 5.6% and 11 ± 4.2%, respectively. In vitro, the cRGD-anchored NPs exhibited a significantly greater affinity for the BxPC-3 cells compared to non-targeted NPs and free drug. The cRGD-Gem-HSA-NPs also showed the strongest inhibitory effect in the BxPC-3 cells among all the analyzed groups. The improved efficacy of cRGD-Gem-HSA-NPs in the BxPC-3 cell line warrants further in vivo investigations. PMID:27515795

  5. Enhanced tumor targeting of cRGD peptide-conjugated albumin nanoparticles in the BxPC-3 cell line.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xinzhe; Song, Yunlong; Di, Yang; He, Hang; Fu, Deliang; Jin, Chen

    2016-01-01

    The emerging albumin nanoparticle brings new hope for the delivery of antitumor drugs. However, a lack of robust tumor targeting greatly limits its application. In this paper, cyclic arginine-glycine-aspartic-conjugated, gemcitabine-loaded human serum albumin nanoparticles (cRGD-Gem-HSA-NPs) were successfully prepared, characterized, and tested in vitro in the BxPC-3 cell line. Initially, 4-N-myristoyl-gemcitabine (Gem-C14) was formed by conjugating myristoyl to the 4-amino group of gemcitabine. Then, cRGD-HSA was synthesized using sulfosuccinimidyl-(4-N-maleimidomethyl)cyclohexane-1-carboxylate (Sulfo-SMCC) cross-linkers. Finally, cRGD-Gem-HSA-NPs were formulated based on the nanoparticle albumin-bound (nab) technology. The resulting NPs were characterized for particle size, zeta potential, morphology, encapsulation efficiency, and drug loading efficiency. In vitro cellular uptake and inhibition studies were conducted to compare Gem-HSA-NPs and cRGD-Gem-HSA-NPs in a human pancreatic cancer cell line (BxPC-3). The cRGD-Gem-HSA-NPs exhibited an average particle size of 160 ± 23 nm. The encapsulation rate and drug loading rate were approximately 83 ± 5.6% and 11 ± 4.2%, respectively. In vitro, the cRGD-anchored NPs exhibited a significantly greater affinity for the BxPC-3 cells compared to non-targeted NPs and free drug. The cRGD-Gem-HSA-NPs also showed the strongest inhibitory effect in the BxPC-3 cells among all the analyzed groups. The improved efficacy of cRGD-Gem-HSA-NPs in the BxPC-3 cell line warrants further in vivo investigations. PMID:27515795

  6. Multimerization of cRGD peptides by click chemistry: synthetic strategies, chemical limitations, and influence on biological properties.

    PubMed

    Wängler, Carmen; Maschauer, Simone; Prante, Olaf; Schäfer, Martin; Schirrmacher, Ralf; Bartenstein, Peter; Eisenhut, Michael; Wängler, Björn

    2010-10-18

    Integrin α(ν)β(3) is overexpressed on endothelial cells of growing vessels as well as on several tumor types, and so integrin-binding radiolabeled cyclic RGD pentapeptides have attracted increasing interest for in vivo imaging of α(ν)β(3) integrin expression by positron emission tomography (PET). Of the cRGD derivatives available for imaging applications, systems comprising multiple cRGD moieties have recently been shown to exhibit highly favorable properties in relation to monomers. To assess the synthetic limits of the cRGD-multimerization approach and thus the maximum multimer size achievable by using different efficient conjugation reactions, we prepared a variety of multimers that were further investigated in vitro with regard to their avidities to integrin α(ν)β(3.) The synthesized peptide multimers containing increasing numbers of cRGD moieties on PAMAM dendrimer scaffolds were prepared by different click chemistry coupling strategies. A cRGD hexadecimer was the largest construct that could be synthesized under optimized reaction conditions, thus identifying the current synthetic limitations for cRGD multimerization. The obtained multimeric systems were conjugated to a new DOTA-based chelator developed for the derivatization of sterically demanding structures and successfully labeled with (68)Ga for a potential in vivo application. The evaluated multimers showed very high avidities-increasing with the number of cRGD moieties-in in vitro studies on immobilized α(ν)β(3) integrin and U87MG cells, of up to 131- and 124-fold, respectively, relative to the underivatized monomer. PMID:20827791

  7. Graphene oxide-stimulated myogenic differentiation of C2C12 cells on PLGA/RGD peptide nanofiber matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Y. C.; Lee, J. H.; Kim, M. J.; Hong, S. W.; Oh, J.-W.; Kim, C.-S.; Kim, B.; Hyun, J. K.; Kim, Y.-J.; Han, D.-W.

    2015-07-01

    During the last decade, much attention has been paid to graphene-based nanomaterials because they are considered as potential candidates for biomedical applications such as scaffolds for tissue engineering and substrates for the differentiation of stem cells. Until now, electrospun matrices composed of various biodegradable copolymers have been extensively developed for tissue engineering and regeneration; however, their use in combination with graphene oxide (GO) is novel and challenging. In this study, nanofiber matrices composed of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid, PLGA) and M13 phage with RGD peptide displayed on its surface (RGD peptide-M13 phage) were prepared as extracellular matrix (ECM)-mimicking substrates. RGD peptide is a tripeptide (Arg-Gly-Asp) found on ECM proteins that promotes various cellular behaviors. The physicochemical properties of PLGA and RGD peptide-M13 phage (PLGA/RGD peptide) nanofiber matrices were characterized by atomic force microscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis. In addition, the growth of C2C12 mouse myoblasts on the PLGA/RGD peptide matrices was examined by measuring the metabolic activity. Moreover, the differentiation of C2C12 mouse myoblasts on the matrices when treated with GO was evaluated. The cellular behaviors, including growth and differentiation of C2C12 mouse myoblasts, were substantially enhanced on the PLGA/RGD peptide nanofiber matrices when treated with GO. Overall, these findings suggest that the PLGA/RGD peptide nanofiber matrices can be used in combination with GO as a novel strategy for skeletal tissue regeneration.

  8. Low-Molecular Weight Polyethylenimine Modified with Pluronic 123 and RGD- or Chimeric RGD-NLS Peptide: Characteristics and Transfection Efficacy of Their Complexes with Plasmid DNA.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jing; Zhao, Wenfang; Liu, Kehai; Yu, Qian; Mao, Yuan; Lu, Zeyu; Zhang, Yaguang; Zhu, Manman

    2016-01-01

    To solve the problem of transfection efficiency vs. cytotoxicity and tumor-targeting ability when polyethylenimine (PEI) was used as a nonviral gene delivery vector, new degradable PEI polymers were synthesized via cross-linking low-molecular-weight PEI with Pluronic P123 and then further coupled with a targeting peptide R4 (RGD) and a bifunctional R11 (RGD-NLS), which were termed as P123-PEI-R4 and P123-PEI-R11, respectively. Agarose gel electrophoresis showed that both P123-PEI-R4 and P123-PEI-R11 efficaciously condense plasmid DNA at a polymer-to-pDNA w/w ratio of 3.0 and 0.4, respectively. The polyplexes were stable in the presence of serum and could protect plasmid DNA against DNaseI. They had uniform spherical nanoparticles with appropriate sizes around 100-280 nm and zeta-potentials about +40 mV. Furthermore, in vitro experiments showed that these polyplexes had lower cytotoxicity at any concentration compared with PEI 25 kDa, thus giving promise to high transfection efficiency as compared with another P123-PEI derivate conjugated with trifunctional peptide RGD-TAT-NLS (P123-PEI-R18). More importantly, compared with the other polymers, P123-PEI-R11 showed the highest transfection efficiency with relatively lower cytotoxicity at any concentration, indicating that the new synthetic polymer P123-PEI-R11 could be used as a safe and efficient gene deliver vector. PMID:27213305

  9. RGD peptide-displaying M13 bacteriophage/PLGA nanofibers as cell-adhesive matrices for smooth muscle cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Yong Cheol; Lee, Jong Ho; Jin, Oh Seong; Lee, Eun Ji; Jin, Lin Hua; Kim, Chang-Seok; Hong, Suck Won; Han, Dong-Wook; Kim, Chuntae; Oh, Jin-Woo

    2015-01-01

    Extracellular matrices (ECMs) are network structures that play an essential role in regulating cellular growth and differentiation. In this study, novel nanofibrous matrices were fabricated by electrospinning M13 bacteriophage and poly(lactic- co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) and were shown to be structurally and functionally similar to natural ECMs. A genetically-engineered M13 bacteriophage was constructed to display Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) peptides on its surface. The physicochemical properties of RGD peptide-displaying M13 bacteriophage (RGD-M13 phage)/PLGA nanofibers were characterized by using scanning electron microscopy and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. We used immunofluorescence staining to confirm that M13 bacteriophages were homogenously distributed in RGD-M13 phage/PLGA matrices. Furthermore, RGD-M13 phage/PLGA nanofibrous matrices, having excellent biocompatibility, can enhance the behaviors of vascular smooth muscle cells. This result suggests that RGD-M13 phage/PLGA nanofibrous matrices have potentials to serve as tissue engineering scaffolds.

  10. The In Vivo Therapeutic Efficacy of the Oncolytic Adenovirus Delta24-RGD Is Mediated by Tumor-Specific Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Kleijn, Anne; Kloezeman, Jenneke; Treffers-Westerlaken, Elike; Fulci, Giulia; Leenstra, Sieger; Dirven, Clemens; Debets, Reno; Lamfers, Martine

    2014-01-01

    The oncolytic adenovirus Delta24-RGD represents a new promising therapeutic agent for patients with a malignant glioma and is currently under investigation in clinical phase I/II trials. Earlier preclinical studies showed that Delta24-RGD is able to effectively lyse tumor cells, yielding promising results in various immune-deficient glioma models. However, the role of the immune response in oncolytic adenovirus therapy for glioma has never been explored. To this end, we assessed Delta24-RGD treatment in an immune-competent orthotopic mouse model for glioma and evaluated immune responses against tumor and virus. Delta24-RGD treatment led to long-term survival in 50% of mice and this effect was completely lost upon administration of the immunosuppressive agent dexamethasone. Delta24-RGD enhanced intra-tumoral infiltration of F4/80+ macrophages, CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells, and increased the local production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. In treated mice, T cell responses were directed to the virus as well as to the tumor cells, which was reflected in the presence of protective immunological memory in mice that underwent tumor rechallenge. Together, these data provide evidence that the immune system plays a vital role in the therapeutic efficacy of oncolytic adenovirus therapy of glioma, and may provide angles to future improvements on Delta24-RGD therapy. PMID:24866126

  11. The in vivo therapeutic efficacy of the oncolytic adenovirus Delta24-RGD is mediated by tumor-specific immunity.

    PubMed

    Kleijn, Anne; Kloezeman, Jenneke; Treffers-Westerlaken, Elike; Fulci, Giulia; Leenstra, Sieger; Dirven, Clemens; Debets, Reno; Lamfers, Martine

    2014-01-01

    The oncolytic adenovirus Delta24-RGD represents a new promising therapeutic agent for patients with a malignant glioma and is currently under investigation in clinical phase I/II trials. Earlier preclinical studies showed that Delta24-RGD is able to effectively lyse tumor cells, yielding promising results in various immune-deficient glioma models. However, the role of the immune response in oncolytic adenovirus therapy for glioma has never been explored. To this end, we assessed Delta24-RGD treatment in an immune-competent orthotopic mouse model for glioma and evaluated immune responses against tumor and virus. Delta24-RGD treatment led to long-term survival in 50% of mice and this effect was completely lost upon administration of the immunosuppressive agent dexamethasone. Delta24-RGD enhanced intra-tumoral infiltration of F4/80+ macrophages, CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells, and increased the local production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. In treated mice, T cell responses were directed to the virus as well as to the tumor cells, which was reflected in the presence of protective immunological memory in mice that underwent tumor rechallenge. Together, these data provide evidence that the immune system plays a vital role in the therapeutic efficacy of oncolytic adenovirus therapy of glioma, and may provide angles to future improvements on Delta24-RGD therapy. PMID:24866126

  12. The oncolytic adenovirus Δ24-RGD in combination with cisplatin exerts a potent anti-osteosarcoma activity.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Velez, Naiara; Xipell, Enric; Jauregui, Patricia; Zalacain, Marta; Marrodan, Lucía; Zandueta, Carolina; Vera, Beatriz; Urquiza, Leire; Sierrasesúmaga, Luis; Julián, Mikel San; Toledo, Gemma; Fueyo, Juan; Gomez-Manzano, Candelaria; Torre, Wensceslao; Lecanda, Fernando; Patiño-García, Ana; Alonso, Marta M

    2014-10-01

    Osteosarcoma is the most common malignant bone tumor in children and adolescents. The presence of metastases and the lack of response to conventional treatment are the major adverse prognostic factors. Therefore, there is an urgent need for new treatment strategies that overcome both of these problems. Our purpose was to elucidate whether the use of the oncolytic adenovirus Δ24-RGD alone or in combination with standard chemotherapy would be effective, in vitro and in vivo, against osteosarcoma. Our results showed that Δ24-RGD exerted a potent antitumor effect against osteosarcoma cell lines that was increased by the addition of cisplatin. Δ24-RGD osteosarcoma treatment resulted in autophagy in vitro that was further enhanced when combined with cisplatin. Of importance, administration of Δ24-RGD and/or cisplatin, in novel orthotopic and two lung metastatic models in vivo resulted in a significant reduction of tumor burden meanwhile maintaining a safe toxicity profile. Together, our data underscore the potential of Δ24-RGD to become a realistic therapeutic option for primary and metastatic pediatric osteosarcoma. Moreover, this study warrants a future clinical trial to evaluate the safety and efficacy of Δ24-RGD for this devastating disease. PMID:24737304

  13. Tumor-targeted in vivo gene silencing via systemic delivery of cRGD-conjugated siRNA

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaoxia; Wang, Wei; Samarsky, Dmitry; Liu, Li; Xu, Qian; Zhang, Wenqing; Zhu, Guangzu; Wu, Ping; Zuo, Xialin; Deng, Houliang; Zhang, Jingjing; Wu, Zhuomin; Chen, Xiaohui; Zhao, Lingfeng; Qiu, Zhiyong; Zhang, Zhongyi; Zeng, Qiyi; Yang, Wei; Zhang, Biliang; Ji, Aimin

    2014-01-01

    RNAi technology is taking strong position among the key therapeutic modalities, with dozens of siRNA-based programs entering and successfully progressing through clinical stages of drug development. To further explore potentials of RNAi technology as therapeutics, we engineered and tested VEGFR2 siRNA molecules specifically targeted to tumors through covalently conjugated cyclo(Arg-Gly-Asp-d-Phe-Lys[PEG-MAL]) (cRGD) peptide, known to bind αvβ3 integrin receptors. cRGD-siRNAs were demonstrated to specifically enter and silence targeted genes in cultured αvβ3 positive human cells (HUVEC). Microinjection of zebrafish blastocysts with VEGFR2 cRGD-siRNA resulted in specific inhibition of blood vessel growth. In tumor-bearing mice, intravenously injected cRGD-siRNA molecules generated no innate immune response and bio-distributed to tumor tissues. Continuous systemic delivery of two different VEGFR2 cRGD-siRNAs resulted in down-regulation of corresponding mRNA (55 and 45%) and protein (65 and 45%) in tumors, as well as in overall reduction of tumor volume (90 and 70%). These findings demonstrate strong potential of cRGD-siRNA molecules as anti-tumor therapy. PMID:25223783

  14. High affinity RGD-binding sites at the plasma membrane of Arabidopsis thaliana links the cell wall.

    PubMed

    Canut, H; Carrasco, A; Galaud, J P; Cassan, C; Bouyssou, H; Vita, N; Ferrara, P; Pont-Lezica, R

    1998-10-01

    The heptapeptide Tyr-Gly-Arg-Gly-Asp-Ser-Pro containing the sequence Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD--the essential structure recognised by animal cells in substrate adhesion molecules) was tested on epidermal cells of onion and cultured cells of Arabidopsis upon plasmolysis. Dramatic changes were observed on both types of cells following treatment: on onion cells, Hechtian strands linking the cell wall to the membrane were lost, while Arabidopsis cells changed from concave to convex plasmolysis. A control heptapeptide Tyr-Gly-Asp-Gly-Arg-Ser-Pro had no effect on the shape of plasmolysed cells. Protoplasts isolated from Arabidopsis cells agglutinate in the presence of ProNectinF, a genetically engineered protein of 72 kDa containing 13 RGD sequences: several protoplasts may adhere to a single molecule of ProNectinF. The addition of the RGD-heptapeptide disrupted the adhesion between the protoplasts. Purified plasma membrane from Arabidopsis cells exhibits specific binding sites for the iodinated RGD-heptapeptide. The binding is saturable, reversible, and two types of high affinity sites (Kd1 approximately 1 nM, and Kd2 approximately 40 nM) can be discerned. Competitive inhibition by several structurally related peptides and proteins noted the specific requirement for the RGD sequence. Thus, the RGD-binding activity of Arabidopsis fulfils the adhesion features of integrins, i.e. peptide specificity, subcellular location, and involvement in plasma membrane-cell wall attachments. PMID:9807828

  15. Enhanced cell adhesion and mature intracellular structure promoted by squaramide-based RGD mimics on bioinert surfaces.

    PubMed

    Narasimhan, Sri Kamesh; Sejwal, Preeti; Zhu, Shifa; Luk, Yan-Yeung

    2013-04-15

    Highly selective molecular binding and the subsequent dynamic protein assemblies control the adhesion of mammalian cells. Molecules that inhibit cell adhesion have the therapeutic potential for a wide range of diseases. Here, we report an efficient synthesis (2-4 steps) of a class of squaramide molecules that mimics the natural tripeptide ligand Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) that mediates mammalian cell adhesion through binding with membrane protein integrin. In solution, this class of squaramides exhibits a higher potency at inhibiting mammalian cell adhesion than RGD tripeptides. When immobilized on a bio-inert background formed by self-assembled monolayers of alkanethiols on gold films, squaramide ligands mediate vastly different intracellular structures than RGD ligands. Immunostaining revealed that the focal adhesions are smaller, but with a larger quantity, for cells adhered on squaramides than that on RGD ligands. Furthermore, the actin filaments are also more fibrous and well distributed for cell adhesion mediated by squaramide than that by RGD ligands. Quantification reveal that squaramide ligands mediate about 1.5 times more total focal adhesion (measured by the summation of the area of all focal adhesions) than that by natural RGD ligands. This result suggests that cell adhesion inhibitors, while blocking the attachment of cells to surfaces, may induce more focal adhesion proteins. Finally, this work demonstrates that immobilizing new ligands on bioinert surfaces provide a powerful tool to study mammalian cell adhesion. PMID:23490157

  16. Mechanically Stabilized Tetrathiafulvalene Radical Dimers

    SciTech Connect

    Coskun, Ali; Spruell, Jason M.; Barin, Gokhan; Fahrenbach, Albert C.; Forgan, Ross S.; Colvin, Michael T.; Carmieli, Raanan; Benitez, Diego; Tkatchouk, Ekaterina; Friedman, Douglas C.; Sarjeant, Amy A.; Wasielewski, Michael R.; Goddard, William A.; Stoddart, J. Fraser

    2011-01-01

    Two donor-acceptor [3]catenanes—composed of a tetracationic molecular square, cyclobis(paraquat-4,4'-biphenylene), as the π-electron deficient ring and either two tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) and 1,5-dioxynaphthalene (DNP) containing macrocycles or two TTF-butadiyne-containing macrocycles as the π-electron rich components—have been investigated in order to study their ability to form TTF radical dimers. It has been proven that the mechanically interlocked nature of the [3]catenanes facilitates the formation of the TTF radical dimers under redox control, allowing an investigation to be performed on these intermolecular interactions in a so-called “molecular flask” under ambient conditions in considerable detail. In addition, it has also been shown that the stability of the TTF radical-cation dimers can be tuned by varying the secondary binding motifs in the [3]catenanes. By replacing the DNP station with a butadiyne group, the distribution of the TTF radical-cation dimer can be changed from 60% to 100%. These findings have been established by several techniques including cyclic voltammetry, spectroelectrochemistry and UV-vis-NIR and EPR spectroscopies, as well as with X-ray diffraction analysis which has provided a range of solid-state crystal structures. The experimental data are also supported by high-level DFT calculations. The results contribute significantly to our fundamental understanding of the interactions within the TTF radical dimers.

  17. Covalent grafting of the RGD-peptide onto polyetheretherketone surfaces via Schiff base formation.

    PubMed

    Becker, Marc; Lorenz, Steffen; Strand, Dennis; Vahl, Christian-Friedrich; Gabriel, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, the synthetic polymer polyetheretherketone (PEEK) has increasingly been used in a number of orthopedic implementations, due to its excellent mechanical properties, bioinertness, and chemical resistance. For in vivo applications, the surface of PEEK, which does not naturally support cell adhesion, has to be modified to improve tissue integration. In the present work we demonstrate a novel wet-chemical modification of PEEK to modify the surface, enabling the covalent grafting of the cell-adhesive RGD-peptide. Modification of the polymer surface was achieved via Schiff base formation using an aliphatic diamine and subsequent crosslinker-mediated immobilization of the peptide. In cell culture experiments with primary osteoblasts it was shown that the RGD-modified PEEK not only significantly promoted cellular adhesion but also strongly enhanced the proliferation of osteoblasts on the modified polymer surface. PMID:24228010

  18. Covalent Grafting of the RGD-Peptide onto Polyetheretherketone Surfaces via Schiff Base Formation

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Marc; Lorenz, Steffen; Strand, Dennis; Vahl, Christian-Friedrich; Gabriel, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, the synthetic polymer polyetheretherketone (PEEK) has increasingly been used in a number of orthopedic implementations, due to its excellent mechanical properties, bioinertness, and chemical resistance. For in vivo applications, the surface of PEEK, which does not naturally support cell adhesion, has to be modified to improve tissue integration. In the present work we demonstrate a novel wet-chemical modification of PEEK to modify the surface, enabling the covalent grafting of the cell-adhesive RGD-peptide. Modification of the polymer surface was achieved via Schiff base formation using an aliphatic diamine and subsequent crosslinker-mediated immobilization of the peptide. In cell culture experiments with primary osteoblasts it was shown that the RGD-modified PEEK not only significantly promoted cellular adhesion but also strongly enhanced the proliferation of osteoblasts on the modified polymer surface. PMID:24228010

  19. The Adenovirus Type 3 Dodecahedron's RGD Loop Comprises an HSPG Binding Site That Influences Integrin Binding

    PubMed Central

    Gout, E.; Schoehn, G.; Fenel, D.; Lortat-Jacob, H.; Fender, P.

    2010-01-01

    Human type 3 adenovirus dodecahedron (a virus like particle made of twelve penton bases) features the ability to enter cells through Heparan Sulphate Proteoglycans (HSPGs) and integrins interaction and is used as a versatile vector to deliver DNA or proteins. Cryo-EM reconstruction of the pseudoviral particle with Heparan Sulphate (HS) oligosaccharide shows an extradensity on the RGD loop. A set of mutants was designed to study the respective roles of the RGD sequence (RGE mutant) and of a basic sequence located just downstream. Results showed that the RGE mutant binding to the HS deficient CHO-2241 cells was abolished and unexpectedly, mutation of the basic sequence (KQKR to AQAS) dramatically decreased integrin recognition by the viral pseudoparticle. This basic sequence is thus involved in integrin docking, showing a close interplay between HSPGs and integrin receptors. PMID:20224646

  20. [Construction, fermentation and purification of high polymer spider dragline silk protein containing RGD peptide].

    PubMed

    Ruan, Chao-Ran; Huang, Jing-Xing; Wei, Mei-Hong; Li, Min

    2007-09-01

    Spider silk is a natural protein fibroin with excellent character as it is light and tenacious. It has a wild potential applications in the biomedical field due to its good biocompatibility and degradation. Arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) is a highly conserved amino acid sequence of many adhesion protein. Biological materials binding with RGD peptide in the surface can promote cells adhesion, migration and proliferation. Our lab had constructed the 16 muhimers with the introduced RGD peptide codons which involve cell adhesion for the first time. It was found that the mechanical capability of the 16 mulimer protein was very limited because of the big gap in molecular weight with nature spider proteins when it was used to made biomaterial scaffold.In this paper,based on the 16 multimers of the highly, repetitive sequence of spider dragline silk and with RGD peptide condons which has been constructed by our lab forestall, it was used to construct the 32 and 64 multimers sequence of spider dragline silk by the strategy of "head to tail". The 32 and 64 multimers were ligated into prokaryotic expression vector pET-30a, and then the B121 (DE3) pLysS. The fragments were in agreement with the desired through digestion, agarose gel electrophoresis respectively. By registration into the GenBank data-base, the serial numbers of DQ469929 and DQ837297 were gained respectively. The expression of recombinant protein was introduced by the addition of IPTG. SDS-PAGE analysis shows that the molecular weight of products expressed here are 102 kD and 196.6kD in agreement with the desired respectively. It was the first time for the high polymer spider dragline silk protein expressed in prokaryotic biology. Furthermore, a larger quantity of synthetical proteins with high density fermentation were searched after, and a suit of high efficient purification methods for 32 multimers protein were established. PMID:18051865

  1. Delta-24-RGD Oncolytic Adenovirus Elicits Anti-Glioma Immunity in an Immunocompetent Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Hong; Clise-Dwyer, Karen; Ruisaard, Kathryn E.; Fan, Xuejun; Tian, Weihua; Gumin, Joy; Lamfers, Martine L.; Kleijn, Anne; Lang, Frederick F.; Yung, Wai-Kwan Alfred; Vence, Luis M.; Gomez-Manzano, Candelaria; Fueyo, Juan

    2014-01-01

    Background Emerging evidence suggests anti-cancer immunity is involved in the therapeutic effect induced by oncolytic viruses. Here we investigate the effect of Delta-24-RGD oncolytic adenovirus on innate and adaptive anti-glioma immunity. Design Mouse GL261-glioma model was set up in immunocompetent C57BL/6 mouse for Delta-24-RGD treatment. The changes of the immune cell populations were analyzed by immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry. The anti-glioma immunity was evaluated with functional study of the splenocytes isolated from the mice. The efficacy of the virotherapy was assessed with animal survival analysis. The direct effect of the virus on the tumor-associated antigen presentation to CD8+ T cells was analyzed with an in vitro ovalbumin (OVA) modeling system. Results Delta-24-RGD induced cytotoxic effect in mouse glioma cells. Viral treatment in GL261-glioma bearing mice caused infiltration of innate and adaptive immune cells, instigating a Th1 immunity at the tumor site which resulted in specific anti-glioma immunity, shrunken tumor and prolonged animal survival. Importantly, viral infection and IFNγ increased the presentation of OVA antigen in OVA-expressing cells to CD8+ T-cell hybridoma B3Z cells, which is blocked by brefeldin A and proteasome inhibitors, indicating the activity is through the biosynthesis and proteasome pathway. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that Delta-24-RGD induces anti-glioma immunity and offers the first evidence that viral infection directly enhances presentation of tumor-associated antigens to immune cells. PMID:24827739

  2. Improving the cellular invasion into PHEMA sponges by incorporation of the RGD peptide ligand: the use of copolymerization as a means to functionalize PHEMA sponges.

    PubMed

    Paterson, Stefan M; Shadforth, Audra M A; Shaw, Jeremy A; Brown, David H; Chirila, Traian V; Baker, Murray V

    2013-12-01

    A monomer that contained the RGD ligand motif was synthesized and copolymerized with 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate using polymerization-induced phase separation methods to form poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate)-based hydrogel sponges. The sponges had morphologies of aggregated polymer droplets and interconnected pores, the pores having dimensions in the order of 10 μm typical of PHEMA sponges. RGD-containing moieties appeared to be evenly distributed through the polymer droplets. Compared to PHEMA sponges that were not functionalized with RGD, the new sponges containing RGD allowed greater invasion by human corneal epithelial cells, by advancing the attachment of cells to the surface of the polymer droplets. PMID:24094205

  3. Adventures in Holographic Dimer Models

    SciTech Connect

    Kachru, Shamit; Karch, Andreas; Yaida, Sho; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.

    2011-08-12

    We abstract the essential features of holographic dimer models, and develop several new applications of these models. Firstly, semi-holographically coupling free band fermions to holographic dimers, we uncover novel phase transitions between conventional Fermi liquids and non-Fermi liquids, accompanied by a change in the structure of the Fermi surface. Secondly, we make dimer vibrations propagate through the whole crystal by way of double trace deformations, obtaining nontrivial band structure. In a simple toy model, the topology of the band structure experiences an interesting reorganization as we vary the strength of the double trace deformations. Finally, we develop tools that would allow one to build, in a bottom-up fashion, a holographic avatar of the Hubbard model.

  4. Novel Bifunctional Cyclic Chelator for 89Zr Labeling–Radiolabeling and Targeting Properties of RGD Conjugates

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Within the last years 89Zr has attracted considerable attention as long-lived radionuclide for positron emission tomography (PET) applications. So far desferrioxamine B (DFO) has been mainly used as bifunctional chelating system. Fusarinine C (FSC), having complexing properties comparable to DFO, was expected to be an alternative with potentially higher stability due to its cyclic structure. In this study, as proof of principle, various FSC-RGD conjugates targeting αvß3 integrins were synthesized using different conjugation strategies and labeled with 89Zr. In vitro stability, biodistribution, and microPET/CT imaging were evaluated using [89Zr]FSC-RGD conjugates or [89Zr]triacetylfusarinine C (TAFC). Quantitative 89Zr labeling was achieved within 90 min at room temperature. The distribution coefficients of the different radioligands indicate hydrophilic character. Compared to [89Zr]DFO, [89Zr]FSC derivatives showed excellent in vitro stability and resistance against transchelation in phosphate buffered saline (PBS), ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid solution (EDTA), and human serum for up to 7 days. Cell binding studies and biodistribution as well as microPET/CT imaging experiments showed efficient receptor-specific targeting of [89Zr]FSC-RGD conjugates. No bone uptake was observed analyzing PET images indicating high in vivo stability. These findings indicate that FSC is a highly promising chelator for the development of 89Zr-based PET imaging agents. PMID:25941834

  5. Benchmarking of optical dimerizer systems.

    PubMed

    Pathak, Gopal P; Strickland, Devin; Vrana, Justin D; Tucker, Chandra L

    2014-11-21

    Optical dimerizers are a powerful new class of optogenetic tools that allow light-inducible control of protein-protein interactions. Such tools have been useful for regulating cellular pathways and processes with high spatiotemporal resolution in live cells, and a growing number of dimerizer systems are available. As these systems have been characterized by different groups using different methods, it has been difficult for users to compare their properties. Here, we set about to systematically benchmark the properties of four optical dimerizer systems, CRY2/CIB1, TULIPs, phyB/PIF3, and phyB/PIF6. Using a yeast transcriptional assay, we find significant differences in light sensitivity and fold-activation levels between the red light regulated systems but similar responses between the CRY2/CIB and TULIP systems. Further comparison of the ability of the CRY2/CIB1 and TULIP systems to regulate a yeast MAPK signaling pathway also showed similar responses, with slightly less background activity in the dark observed with CRY2/CIB. In the process of developing this work, we also generated an improved blue-light-regulated transcriptional system using CRY2/CIB in yeast. In addition, we demonstrate successful application of the CRY2/CIB dimerizers using a membrane-tethered CRY2, which may allow for better local control of protein interactions. Taken together, this work allows for a better understanding of the capacities of these different dimerization systems and demonstrates new uses of these dimerizers to control signaling and transcription in yeast. PMID:25350266

  6. The dimer of unsubstituted silole

    SciTech Connect

    Lei, Deqing; Chen, Yue-Shen; Gaspar, P.P.

    1992-02-01

    Gas-phase flow pyrolysis of 1-(trimethylsilyl)-1-silacyclopent-3-ene and 1-methoxy-1-(trimethylsilyl)-1-silacyclopent-3-ene leads to the formation of the dimer of silole, 3,8-disila-3a, 4,7,7a-tetrahydro-4,7-methano-1H-indene. Attempts to isolate or trap the silole monomer by means other than self-reaction have failed. It is suggested that the initially formed intermediate silylene, 1-silacyclopent-3-enylidene, undergoes rearrangement to silole and that silole is not very reactive in 2 + 4 cycloadditions, but does undergo dimerization. 19 refs., 1 fig.

  7. The synergistic effect of folate and RGD dual ligand of nanographene oxide on tumor targeting and photothermal therapy in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Cheol; Lee, Jong Hyun; Sahu, Abhishek; Tae, Giyoong

    2015-11-01

    Effective delivery of nanoparticles to the target site is necessary for successful biomedical applications. Inefficient targeting is a major concern for nanomedicines in cancer therapy. Conjugation of multiple targeting ligands to the nanoparticle surface might further enhance the targeting efficiency by a co-operative effect of individual ligands. In this study, a dual ligand targeting nanographene oxide (nGO) was developed by non-covalent interaction with folate and cRGD functionalized pluronic, which allowed precise control of ligand number on the nGO surface and ensured stability under physiological conditions. The tumor targeting abilities of single and dual ligand decorated nGOs were evaluated in vitro by using KB cells, over-expressing folate and integrin αvβ3 receptors. In vitro cellular uptake analysis by flow cytometry and confocal laser scanning microscopy showed enhanced uptake of dual ligand modified nGO compared to any of the single ligand modified nGOs. The cellular uptake of dual targeted cRGD-FA-nGO was increased by 1.9 and 2.4 folds compared to single targeted cRGD-nGO or FA-nGO, respectively. The in vivo biodistribution experiment in a mouse xenograft model also confirmed the synergistic targeting effect of cRGD and folate dual functionalized nGO. A significantly higher tumor accumulation of cRGD-FA-nGO was observed compared to cRGD-nGO or FA-nGO. The higher tumor accumulation of dual targeted nGO resulted in complete ablation of tumor tissue through an enhanced photothermal effect by NIR laser irradiation. Therefore, co-functionalization of a nanoparticle by cRGD and folate is a potentially useful way to enhance the tumor targeting efficacy.Effective delivery of nanoparticles to the target site is necessary for successful biomedical applications. Inefficient targeting is a major concern for nanomedicines in cancer therapy. Conjugation of multiple targeting ligands to the nanoparticle surface might further enhance the targeting efficiency by a

  8. Locally-Delivered T-Cell-Derived Cellular Vehicles Efficiently Track and Deliver Adenovirus Delta24-RGD to Infiltrating Glioma

    PubMed Central

    Balvers, Rutger K.; Belcaid, Zineb; van den Hengel, Sanne K.; Kloezeman, Jenneke; de Vrij, Jeroen; Wakimoto, Hiroaki; Hoeben, Rob C.; Debets, Reno; Leenstra, Sieger; Dirven, Clemens; Lamfers, Martine L.M.

    2014-01-01

    Oncolytic adenoviral vectors are a promising alternative for the treatment of glioblastoma. Recent publications have demonstrated the advantages of shielding viral particles within cellular vehicles (CVs), which can be targeted towards the tumor microenvironment. Here, we studied T-cells, often having a natural capacity to target tumors, for their feasibility as a CV to deliver the oncolytic adenovirus, Delta24-RGD, to glioblastoma. The Jurkat T-cell line was assessed in co-culture with the glioblastoma stem cell (GSC) line, MGG8, for the optimal transfer conditions of Delta24-RGD in vitro. The effect of intraparenchymal and tail vein injections on intratumoral virus distribution and overall survival was addressed in an orthotopic glioma stem cell (GSC)-based xenograft model. Jurkat T-cells were demonstrated to facilitate the amplification and transfer of Delta24-RGD onto GSCs. Delta24-RGD dosing and incubation time were found to influence the migratory ability of T-cells towards GSCs. Injection of Delta24-RGD-loaded T-cells into the brains of GSC-bearing mice led to migration towards the tumor and dispersion of the virus within the tumor core and infiltrative zones. This occurred after injection into the ipsilateral hemisphere, as well as into the non-tumor-bearing hemisphere. We found that T-cell-mediated delivery of Delta24-RGD led to the inhibition of tumor growth compared to non-treated controls, resulting in prolonged survival (p = 0.007). Systemic administration of virus-loaded T-cells resulted in intratumoral viral delivery, albeit at low levels. Based on these findings, we conclude that T-cell-based CVs are a feasible approach to local Delta24-RGD delivery in glioblastoma, although efficient systemic targeting requires further improvement. PMID:25118638

  9. Fetal muscle gene transfer is not enhanced by an RGD capsid modification to high-capacity adenoviral vectors.

    PubMed

    Bilbao, R; Reay, D P; Hughes, T; Biermann, V; Volpers, C; Goldberg, L; Bergelson, J; Kochanek, S; Clemens, P R

    2003-10-01

    High levels of alpha(v) integrin expression by fetal muscle suggested that vector re-targeting to integrins could enhance adenoviral vector-mediated transduction, thereby increasing safety and efficacy of muscle gene transfer in utero. High-capacity adenoviral (HC-Ad) vectors modified by an Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) peptide motif in the HI loop of the adenoviral fiber (RGD-HC-Ad) have demonstrated efficient gene transfer through binding to alpha(v) integrins. To test integrin targeting of HC-Ad vectors for fetal muscle gene transfer, we compared unmodified and RGD-modified HC-Ad vectors. In vivo, unmodified HC-Ad vector transduced fetal mouse muscle with four-fold higher efficiency compared to RGD-HC-Ad vector. Confirming that the difference was due to muscle cell autonomous factors and not mechanical barriers, transduction of primary myogenic cells isolated from murine fetal muscle in vitro demonstrated a three-fold better transduction by HC-Ad vector than by RGD-HC-Ad vector. We hypothesized that the high expression level of coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor (CAR), demonstrated in fetal muscle cells both in vitro and in vivo, was the crucial variable influencing the relative transduction efficiencies of HC-Ad and RGD-HC-Ad vectors. To explore this further, we studied transduction by HC-Ad and RGD-HC-Ad vectors in paired cell lines that expressed alpha(v) integrins and differed only by the presence or absence of CAR expression. The results increase our understanding of factors that will be important for retargeting HC-Ad vectors to enhance gene transfer to fetal muscle. PMID:12960972

  10. RGD-modified liposomes enhance efficiency of aclacinomycin A delivery: evaluation of their effect in lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Chan; Li, Xiaoyan; Dong, Chunyan; Zhang, Xuemei; Zhang, Xie; Gao, Yong

    2015-01-01

    In this study, long-circulating Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD)-modified aclacinomycin A (ACM) liposomes were prepared by thin film hydration method. Their morphology, particle size, encapsulation efficiency, and in vitro release were investigated. The RGD-ACM liposomes was about 160 nm in size and had the visual appearance of a yellowish suspension. The zeta potential was −22.2 mV and the encapsulation efficiency was more than 93%. The drug-release behavior of the RGD-ACM liposomes showed a biphasic pattern, with an initial burst release and followed by sustained release at a constant rate. After being dissolved in phosphate-buffered saline (pH 7.4) and kept at 4°C for one month, the liposomes did not aggregate and still had the appearance of a milky white colloidal solution. In a pharmacokinetic study, rats treated with RGD-ACM liposomes showed slightly higher plasma concentrations than those treated with ACM liposomes. Maximum plasma concentrations of RGD-ACM liposomes and ACM liposomes were 4,532 and 3,425 ng/mL, respectively. RGD-ACM liposomes had a higher AUC0–∞ (1.54-fold), mean residence time (2.09-fold), and elimination half-life (1.2-fold) when compared with ACM liposomes. In an in vivo study in mice, both types of liposomes inhibited growth of human lung adenocarcinoma (A549) cells and markedly decreased tumor size when compared with the control group. There were no obvious pathological tissue changes in any of the treatment groups. Our results indicate that RGD-modified ACM liposomes have a better antitumor effect in vivo than their unmodified counterparts. PMID:26316700

  11. Photochemical dimerization of organic compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Crabtree, R.H.; Brown, S.H.; Muedas, C.A.; Ferguson, R.R.

    1992-04-14

    This patent describes improvement in a Group IIb photosensitized vapor phase dimerization of an organic compound in which a gaseous mixture of a Group IIB metal and the organic compound is irradiated in a reaction zone with a photosensitizing amount of radiant energy. The improvement comprises: a continuous stream of the gaseous mixture is passed as a vapor phase in a single pass through the reaction zone at a temperature at which the thus-produced dimer condenses immediately upon the formation thereof; the starting gaseous mixture comprises hydrogen and two ethylenically unsaturated compounds selected from the group consisting of alkenes of at least six carbon atoms, unsaturated nitriles, unsaturated epoxides, unsaturated silanes, unsaturated amines, unsaturated phosphines, and fluorinated alkenes; the gaseous mixture comprises nitrous oxide and the organic compound is a saturated compound with C-H bond strengths greater than 100 kcal/mol or a mixture of the saturated compound and an alkene; or the starting gaseous comprises an activating amount of hydrogen and the dimerization is a dehydrodimerization or cross-dimerization of a saturated hydrocarbon.

  12. Kinetics of DNA tile dimerization.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Shuoxing; Yan, Hao; Liu, Yan

    2014-06-24

    Investigating how individual molecular components interact with one another within DNA nanoarchitectures, both in terms of their spatial and temporal interactions, is fundamentally important for a better understanding of their physical behaviors. This will provide researchers with valuable insight for designing more complex higher-order structures that can be assembled more efficiently. In this report, we examined several spatial factors that affect the kinetics of bivalent, double-helical (DH) tile dimerization, including the orientation and number of sticky ends (SEs), the flexibility of the double helical domains, and the size of the tiles. The rate constants we obtained confirm our hypothesis that increased nucleation opportunities and well-aligned SEs accelerate tile-tile dimerization. Increased flexibility in the tiles causes slower dimerization rates, an effect that can be reversed by introducing restrictions to the tile flexibility. The higher dimerization rates of more rigid tiles results from the opposing effects of higher activation energies and higher pre-exponential factors from the Arrhenius equation, where the pre-exponential factor dominates. We believe that the results presented here will assist in improved implementation of DNA tile based algorithmic self-assembly, DNA based molecular robotics, and other specific nucleic acid systems, and will provide guidance to design and assembly processes to improve overall yield and efficiency. PMID:24794259

  13. Characterization of mAb dimers reveals predominant dimer forms common in therapeutic mAbs.

    PubMed

    Plath, Friederike; Ringler, Philippe; Graff-Meyer, Alexandra; Stahlberg, Henning; Lauer, Matthias E; Rufer, Arne C; Graewert, Melissa A; Svergun, Dmitri; Gellermann, Gerald; Finkler, Christof; Stracke, Jan O; Koulov, Atanas; Schnaible, Volker

    2016-07-01

    The formation of undesired high molecular weight species such as dimers is an important quality attribute for therapeutic monoclonal antibody formulations. Therefore, the thorough understanding of mAb dimerization and the detailed characterization mAb dimers is of great interest for future pharmaceutical development of therapeutic antibodies. In this work, we focused on the analyses of different mAb dimers regarding size, surface properties, chemical identity, overall structure and localization of possible dimerization sites. Dimer fractions of different mAbs were isolated to a satisfactory purity from bulk material and revealed 2 predominant overall structures, namely elongated and compact dimer forms. The elongated dimers displayed one dimerization site involving the tip of the Fab domain. Depending on the stress applied, these elongated dimers are connected either covalently or non-covalently. In contrast, the compact dimers exhibited non-covalent association. Several interaction points were detected for the compact dimers involving the hinge region or the base of the Fab domain. These results indicate that mAb dimer fractions are rather complex and may contain more than one kind of dimer. Nevertheless, the overall appearance of mAb dimers suggests the existence of 2 predominant dimeric structures, elongated and compact, which are commonly present in preparations of therapeutic mAbs. PMID:27031922

  14. Single residue modification of only one dimer within the hemoglobin tetramer reveals autonomous dimer function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ackers, Gary K.; Dalessio, Paula M.; Lew, George H.; Daugherty, Margaret A.; Holt, Jo M.

    2002-07-01

    The mechanism of cooperativity in the human hemoglobin tetramer (a dimer of dimers) has historically been modeled as a simple two-state system in which a low-affinity structural form (T) switches, on ligation, to a high-affinity form (R), yielding a net loss of hydrogen bonds and salt bridges in the dimer-dimer interface. Modifications that weaken these cross-dimer contacts destabilize the quaternary T tetramer, leading to decreased cooperativity and enhanced ligand affinity, as demonstrated in many studies on symmetric double modifications, i.e., a residue site modified in both - or both -subunits. In this work, hybrid tetramers have been prepared with only one modified residue, yielding molecules composed of a wild-type dimer and a modified dimer. It is observed that the cooperative free energy of ligation to the modified dimer is perturbed to the same extent whether in the hybrid tetramer or in the doubly modified tetramer. The cooperative free energy of ligation to the wild-type dimer is unperturbed, even in the hybrid tetramer, and despite the overall destabilization of the T tetramer by the modification. This asymmetric response by the two dimers within the same tetramer shows that loss of dimer-dimer contacts is not communicated across the dimer-dimer interface, but is transmitted through the dimer that bears the modified residue. These observations are interpreted in terms of a previously proposed dimer-based model of cooperativity with an additional quaternary (T/R) component.

  15. Fabrication and in vitro evaluation of the collagen/hyaluronic acid PEM coating crosslinked with functionalized RGD peptide on titanium.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ying; Luo, Qiaojie; Li, Xiaodong; Zhang, Feng; Zhao, Shifang

    2012-02-01

    Surface modification of titanium (Ti) using biomolecules has attracted much attention recently. In this study, a new strategy has been employed to construct a stable and bioactive coating on Ti. To this end, a derivative of hyaluronic acid (HA), i.e. HA-GRGDSPC-(SH), was synthesized. The disulfide-crosslinked Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD)-containing collagen/hyaluronic acid polyelectrolyte membrane (PEM) coating was then fabricated on Ti through the alternate deposition of collagen and HA-GRGDSPC-(SH) with five assembly cycles and subsequent crosslinking via converting free sulphydryl groups into disulfide linkages (RGD-CHC-Ti group). The assembly processes for PEM coating and the physicochemical properties of the coating were carefully characterized. The stability of PEM coating in phosphate-buffered saline solution could be adjusted by the crosslinking degree, while its degradation behaviors in the presence of glutathione were glutathione concentration dependent. The adhesion and proliferation of MC3T3-E1 cells were significantly enhanced in the RGD-CHC-Ti group. Up-regulated bone specific genes, enhanced alkaline phosphatase activity and osteocalcin production, the increased areas of mineralization were also observed in the RGD-CHC-Ti group. These results indicate that the strategy employed herein may function as an effective way to construct stable, RGD-containing bioactive coatings on Ti. PMID:22040683

  16. RGD peptide-conjugated selenium nanoparticles: antiangiogenesis by suppressing VEGF-VEGFR2-ERK/AKT pathway.

    PubMed

    Fu, Xiaoyan; Yang, Yahui; Li, Xiaoling; Lai, Haoqiang; Huang, Yanyu; He, Lizhen; Zheng, Wenjie; Chen, Tianfeng

    2016-08-01

    Angiogenesis is essential for tumorigenesis, progression and metastasis. Herein we described the synthesis of RGD peptide-decorated and doxorubicin-loaded selenium nanoparticles (RGD-NPs) targeting tumor vasculature to enhance the cellular uptake and antiangiogenic activities in vitro and in vivo. After internalization by receptor-mediated endocytosis, this nanosystem disassembled under acidic condition with the presence of lysozymes and cell lysate, leading to bioresponsive triggered drug release. Mechanistic investigation revealed that RGD-NPs inhibited angiogenesis through induction of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) via suppression of VEGF-VEGFR2-ERK/AKT signaling axis by triggering ROS-mediated DNA damage. Additionally, RGD-NPs can inhibit MCF-7 tumor growth and angiogenesis in nude mice via down-regulation of VEGF-VEGFR2, effectively reduce the toxicity and prolong the blood circulation in vivo. Our results suggest that the strategy to use RGD-peptide functionalized SeNPs as carriers of anticancer drugs is an efficient way to achieve cancer-targeted antiangiogenesis synergism. PMID:26961468

  17. Overactivation of the protein kinase C-signaling pathway suppresses the defects of cells lacking the Rho3/Rho4-GAP Rgd1p in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    de Bettignies, G; Thoraval, D; Morel, C; Peypouquet, M F; Crouzet, M

    2001-01-01

    The nonessential RGD1 gene encodes a Rho-GTPase activating protein for the Rho3 and Rho4 proteins in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Previous studies have revealed genetic interactions between RGD1 and the SLG1 and MID2 genes, encoding two putative sensors for cell integrity signaling, and VRP1 encoding an actin and myosin interacting protein involved in polarized growth. To better understand the role of Rgd1p, we isolated multicopy suppressor genes of the cell lethality of the double mutant rgd1Delta mid2Delta. RHO1 and RHO2 encoding two small GTPases, MKK1 encoding one of the MAP-kinase kinases in the protein kinase C (PKC) pathway, and MTL1, a MID2-homolog, were shown to suppress the rgd1Delta defects strengthening the functional links between RGD1 and the cell integrity pathway. Study of the transcriptional activity of Rlm1p, which is under the control of Mpk1p, the last kinase of the PKC pathway, and follow-up of the PST1 transcription, which is positively regulated by Rlm1p, indicate that the lack of RGD1 function diminishes the PKC pathway activity. We hypothesize that the rgd1Delta inactivation, at least through the hyperactivation of the small GTPases Rho3p and Rho4p, alters the secretory pathway and/or the actin cytoskeleton and decreases activity of the PKC pathway. PMID:11779787

  18. Computational study of the RGD-peptide interactions with perovskite-type BFO-(1 1 1) membranes under aqueous conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hai-long; Bian, Liang; Hou, Wen-ping; Dong, Fa-Qin; Song, Mian-Xin; Zhang, Xiao-yan; Wang, Li-sheng

    2016-07-01

    We elucidated a number of facets regarding arginine-glycine-aspartate (RGD)-bismuth ferrite (BFO)-(1 1 1) membrane interactions and reactivity that have previously remained unexplored on a molecular level. Results demonstrate the intra-molecular interaction facilitates a "horseshoe" structure of RGD adsorbed onto the BFO-(1 1 1) membrane, through the electrostatic (Asp-cation-Fe) and water-bridge (Osbnd H2O and H2Osbnd NH2) interactions. The effect of structural and electron-transfer interactions is attributed to the cation-valences, indicating that the divalent cations are electron-acceptors and the monovalent cations as electron-donors. Notably, the strongly bound Ca2+ ion exerts a "gluing" effect on the Asp-side-chain, indicating a tightly packed RGD-BFO configuration. Thus, modulating the biological response of BFO-(1 1 1) membrane will allow us to design more appropriate interfaces for implantable diagnostic and therapeutic perovskite-type micro-devices.

  19. Fast 18F Labeling of a Near-Infrared Fluorophore Enables Positron Emission Tomography and Optical Imaging of Sentinel Lymph Nodes

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    We combine a novel boronate trap for F− with a near-infrared fluorophore into a single molecule. Attachment to targeting ligands enables localization by positron emission tomography (PET) and near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF). Our first application of this generic tag is to label Lymphoseek (tilmanocept), an agent designed for receptor-specific sentinel lymph node (SLN) mapping. The new conjugate incorporates 18F− in a single, aqueous step, targets mouse SLN rapidly (1 h) with reduced distal lymph node accumulation, permits PET or scintigraphic imaging of SLN, and enables NIRF-guided excision and histological verification even after 18F decay. This embodiment is superior to current SLN mapping agents such as nontargeted [99mTc]sulfur colloids and Isosulfan Blue, as well as the phase III targeted ligand [99mTc]SPECT Lymphoseek counterpart, species that are visible by SPECT or visible absorbance separately. Facile incorporation of 18F into a NIRF probe should promote many synergistic PET and NIRF combinations. PMID:20873712

  20. Structure-Activity Relationship of (18)F-Labeled Phosphoramidate Peptidomimetic Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen (PSMA)-Targeted Inhibitor Analogues for PET Imaging of Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Dannoon, Shorouk; Ganguly, Tanushree; Cahaya, Hendry; Geruntho, Jonathan J; Galliher, Matthew S; Beyer, Sophia K; Choy, Cindy J; Hopkins, Mark R; Regan, Melanie; Blecha, Joseph E; Skultetyova, Lubica; Drake, Christopher R; Jivan, Salma; Barinka, Cyril; Jones, Ella F; Berkman, Clifford E; VanBrocklin, Henry F

    2016-06-23

    A series of phosphoramidate-based prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA) inhibitors of increasing lipophilicity were synthesized (4, 5, and 6), and their fluorine-18 analogs were evaluated for use as positron emission tomography (PET) imaging agents for prostate cancer. To gain insight into their modes of binding, they were also cocrystallized with the extracellular domain of PSMA. All analogs exhibited irreversible binding to PSMA with IC50 values ranging from 0.4 to 1.3 nM. In vitro assays showed binding and rapid internalization (80-95%, 2 h) of the radiolabeled ligands in PSMA(+) cells. In vivo distribution demonstrated significant uptake in CWR22Rv1 (PSMA(+)) tumor, with tumor to blood ratios of 25.6:1, 63.6:1, and 69.6:1 for [(18)F]4, [(18)F]5, and [(18)F]6, respectively, at 2 h postinjection. Installation of aminohexanoic acid (AH) linkers in the phosphoramidate scaffold improved their PSMA binding and inhibition and was critical for achieving suitable in vivo imaging properties, positioning [(18)F]5 and [(18)F]6 as favorable candidates for future prostate cancer imaging clinical trials. PMID:27228467

  1. Evaluation of treatment response using integrated 18F-labeled choline positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance imaging in adolescents with intracranial non-germinomatous germ cell tumours.

    PubMed

    Tsouana, Eva; Stoneham, Sara; Fersht, Naomi; Kitchen, Neil; Gaze, Mark; Bomanji, Jamshed; Fraioli, Francesco; Hargrave, Darren; Shankar, Ananth

    2015-09-01

    The efficacy of hybrid 18F-Fluroethyl-Choline (FEC) positron emission tomography (PET)/magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was investigated as an imaging modality for diagnosis and assessment of treatment response and remission status in four patients with proven or suspected intracranial non-germinomatous germ cell tumours (NGGCT). In two patients faint or absent choline avidity correlated with negative histology, whereas in other two patients, persistent choline avidity in the residual mass was suggestive of presence of viable tumour, subsequently confirmed histologically. We conclude that FEC-PET/MRI may be an effective imaging tool in detecting viable residual tumour in patients with intracranial NGGCT post treatment. PMID:25854508

  2. Development of Purine-Derived 18F-Labeled Pro-drug Tracers for Imaging of MRP1 Activity with PET

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 (MRP1) is a drug efflux transporter that has been implicated in the pathology of several neurological diseases and is associated with development of multidrug resistance. To enable measurement of MRP1 function in the living brain, a series of 6-halopurines decorated with fluorinated side chains have been synthesized and evaluated as putative pro-drug tracers. The tracers were designed to undergo conjugation with glutathione within the brain and hence form the corresponding MRP1 substrate tracers in situ. 6-Bromo-7-(2-[18F]fluoroethyl)purine showed good brain uptake and rapid metabolic conversion. Dynamic PET imaging demonstrated a marked difference in brain clearance rates between wild-type and mrp1 knockout mice, suggesting that the tracer can allow noninvasive assessment of MRP1 activity in vivo. PMID:24456310

  3. (11) C-labeled and (18) F-labeled PET ligands for subtype-specific imaging of histamine receptors in the brain.

    PubMed

    Funke, Uta; Vugts, Danielle J; Janssen, Bieneke; Spaans, Arnold; Kruijer, Perry S; Lammertsma, Adriaan A; Perk, Lars R; Windhorst, Albert D

    2013-01-01

    The signaling molecule histamine plays a key role in the mediation of immune reactions, in gastric secretion, and in the sensory system. In addition, it has an important function as a neurotransmitter in the central nervous system, acting in pituitary hormone secretion, wakefulness, motor and cognitive functions, as well as in itch and nociception. This has raised interest in the role of the histaminergic system for the treatment and diagnosis of various pathologies such as allergy, sleeping and eating disorders, neurodegeneration, neuroinflammation, mood disorders, and pruritus. In the past 20 years, several ligands targeting the four different histamine receptor subtypes have been explored as potential radiotracers for positron emission tomography (PET). This contribution provides an overview of the developments of subtype-selective carbon-11-labeled and fluorine-18-labeled compounds for imaging in the brain. Using specific radioligands, the H1 R expression in human brain could be examined in diseases such as schizophrenia, depression, and anorexia nervosa. In addition, the sedative effects of antihistamines could be investigated in terms of H1 R occupancy. The H3 R is of special interest because of its regulatory role in the release of various other neurotransmitters, and initial H3 R PET imaging studies in humans have been reported. The H4 R is the youngest member of the histamine receptor family and is involved in neuroinflammation and various sensory pathways. To date, two H4 R-specific (11) C-labeled ligands have been synthesized, and the imaging of the H4 R in vivo is in the early stage. PMID:24285318

  4. Reusable electrochemical cell for rapid separation of [18F]fluoride from [18O]water for flow-through synthesis of 18F-labeled tracers

    PubMed Central

    Sadeghi, Saman; Liang, Vincent; Cheung, Shilin; Woo, Suh; Wu, Curtis; Ly, Jimmy; Deng, Yuliang; Eddings, Mark; van Dam, R. Michael

    2015-01-01

    A brass-platinum electrochemical micro flow cell was developed to extract [18F]fluoride from an aqueous solution and release it into an organic based solution, suitable for subsequent radio-synthesis, in a fast and reliable manner. This cell does not suffer electrode erosion and is thus reusable while operating faster by enabling increased voltages. By optimizing temperature, trapping and release potentials, flow rates, and electrode materials, an overall [18F]fluoride trapping and release efficiency of 84±5% (n=7) was achieved. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was used to analyze electrode surfaces of various metal-metal systems and the findings were correlated with the performance of the electrochemical cell. To demonstrate the reactivity of the released [18F]fluoride, the cell was coupled to a flow-through reactor and automated synthesis of [18F]FDG with a repeatable decay-corrected yield of 56±4% (n=4) was completed in <15 min. A multi-human dose of 5.92 GBq [18F]FDG was also demonstrated. PMID:23474380

  5. Design, Synthesis, and Evaluation of an (18)F-Labeled Radiotracer Based on Celecoxib-NBD for Positron Emission Tomography (PET) Imaging of Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2).

    PubMed

    Kaur, Jatinder; Tietz, Ole; Bhardwaj, Atul; Marshall, Alison; Way, Jenilee; Wuest, Melinda; Wuest, Frank

    2015-10-01

    A series of novel fluorine-containing cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors was designed and synthesized based on the previously reported fluorescent COX-2 imaging agent celecoxib-NBD (3; NBD=7-nitrobenzofurazan). In vitro COX-1/COX-2 inhibitory data show that N-(4-fluorobenzyl)-4-(5-p-tolyl-3-trifluoromethylpyrazol-1-yl)benzenesulfonamide (5; IC50 =0.36 μM, SI>277) and N-fluoromethyl-4-(5-p-tolyl-3-trifluoromethylpyrazol-1-yl)benzenesulfonamide (6; IC50 =0.24 μM, SI>416) are potent and selective COX-2 inhibitors. Compound 5 was selected for radiolabeling with the short-lived positron emitter fluorine-18 ((18) F) and evaluated as a positron emission tomography (PET) imaging agent. Radiotracer [(18) F]5 was analyzed in vitro and in vivo using human colorectal cancer model HCA-7. Although radiotracer uptake into COX-2-expressing HCA-7 cells was high, no evidence for COX-2-specific binding was found. Radiotracer uptake into HCA-7 tumors in vivo was low and similar to that of muscle, used as reference tissue. PMID:26287271

  6. Mechanism of FGF receptor dimerization and activation.

    PubMed

    Sarabipour, Sarvenaz; Hristova, Kalina

    2016-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factors (fgfs) are widely believed to activate their receptors by mediating receptor dimerization. Here we show, however, that the FGF receptors form dimers in the absence of ligand, and that these unliganded dimers are phosphorylated. We further show that ligand binding triggers structural changes in the FGFR dimers, which increase FGFR phosphorylation. The observed effects due to the ligands fgf1 and fgf2 are very different. The fgf2-bound dimer structure ensures the smallest separation between the transmembrane (TM) domains and the highest possible phosphorylation, a conclusion that is supported by a strong correlation between TM helix separation in the dimer and kinase phosphorylation. The pathogenic A391E mutation in FGFR3 TM domain emulates the action of fgf2, trapping the FGFR3 dimer in its most active state. This study establishes the existence of multiple active ligand-bound states, and uncovers a novel molecular mechanism through which FGFR-linked pathologies can arise. PMID:26725515

  7. Mechanism of FGF receptor dimerization and activation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarabipour, Sarvenaz; Hristova, Kalina

    2016-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factors (fgfs) are widely believed to activate their receptors by mediating receptor dimerization. Here we show, however, that the FGF receptors form dimers in the absence of ligand, and that these unliganded dimers are phosphorylated. We further show that ligand binding triggers structural changes in the FGFR dimers, which increase FGFR phosphorylation. The observed effects due to the ligands fgf1 and fgf2 are very different. The fgf2-bound dimer structure ensures the smallest separation between the transmembrane (TM) domains and the highest possible phosphorylation, a conclusion that is supported by a strong correlation between TM helix separation in the dimer and kinase phosphorylation. The pathogenic A391E mutation in FGFR3 TM domain emulates the action of fgf2, trapping the FGFR3 dimer in its most active state. This study establishes the existence of multiple active ligand-bound states, and uncovers a novel molecular mechanism through which FGFR-linked pathologies can arise.

  8. Mechanism of FGF receptor dimerization and activation

    PubMed Central

    Sarabipour, Sarvenaz; Hristova, Kalina

    2016-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factors (fgfs) are widely believed to activate their receptors by mediating receptor dimerization. Here we show, however, that the FGF receptors form dimers in the absence of ligand, and that these unliganded dimers are phosphorylated. We further show that ligand binding triggers structural changes in the FGFR dimers, which increase FGFR phosphorylation. The observed effects due to the ligands fgf1 and fgf2 are very different. The fgf2-bound dimer structure ensures the smallest separation between the transmembrane (TM) domains and the highest possible phosphorylation, a conclusion that is supported by a strong correlation between TM helix separation in the dimer and kinase phosphorylation. The pathogenic A391E mutation in FGFR3 TM domain emulates the action of fgf2, trapping the FGFR3 dimer in its most active state. This study establishes the existence of multiple active ligand-bound states, and uncovers a novel molecular mechanism through which FGFR-linked pathologies can arise. PMID:26725515

  9. Singlet fission in pentacene dimers.

    PubMed

    Zirzlmeier, Johannes; Lehnherr, Dan; Coto, Pedro B; Chernick, Erin T; Casillas, Rubén; Basel, Bettina S; Thoss, Michael; Tykwinski, Rik R; Guldi, Dirk M

    2015-04-28

    Singlet fission (SF) has the potential to supersede the traditional solar energy conversion scheme by means of boosting the photon-to-current conversion efficiencies beyond the 30% Shockley-Queisser limit. Here, we show unambiguous and compelling evidence for unprecedented intramolecular SF within regioisomeric pentacene dimers in room-temperature solutions, with observed triplet quantum yields reaching as high as 156 ± 5%. Whereas previous studies have shown that the collision of a photoexcited chromophore with a ground-state chromophore can give rise to SF, here we demonstrate that the proximity and sufficient coupling through bond or space in pentacene dimers is enough to induce intramolecular SF where two triplets are generated on one molecule. PMID:25858954

  10. Singlet fission in pentacene dimers

    PubMed Central

    Zirzlmeier, Johannes; Lehnherr, Dan; Coto, Pedro B.; Chernick, Erin T.; Casillas, Rubén; Basel, Bettina S.; Thoss, Michael; Tykwinski, Rik R.; Guldi, Dirk M.

    2015-01-01

    Singlet fission (SF) has the potential to supersede the traditional solar energy conversion scheme by means of boosting the photon-to-current conversion efficiencies beyond the 30% Shockley–Queisser limit. Here, we show unambiguous and compelling evidence for unprecedented intramolecular SF within regioisomeric pentacene dimers in room-temperature solutions, with observed triplet quantum yields reaching as high as 156 ± 5%. Whereas previous studies have shown that the collision of a photoexcited chromophore with a ground-state chromophore can give rise to SF, here we demonstrate that the proximity and sufficient coupling through bond or space in pentacene dimers is enough to induce intramolecular SF where two triplets are generated on one molecule. PMID:25858954

  11. Fiber optic D dimer biosensor

    DOEpatents

    Glass, R.S.; Grant, S.A.

    1999-08-17

    A fiber optic sensor for D dimer (a fibrinolytic product) can be used in vivo (e.g., in catheter-based procedures) for the diagnosis and treatment of stroke-related conditions in humans. Stroke is the third leading cause of death in the United States. It has been estimated that strokes and stroke-related disorders cost Americans between $15-30 billion annually. Relatively recently, new medical procedures have been developed for the treatment of stroke. These endovascular procedures rely upon the use of microcatheters. These procedures could be facilitated with this sensor for D dimer integrated with a microcatheter for the diagnosis of clot type, and as an indicator of the effectiveness, or end-point of thrombolytic therapy. 4 figs.

  12. Fiber optic D dimer biosensor

    DOEpatents

    Glass, Robert S.; Grant, Sheila A.

    1999-01-01

    A fiber optic sensor for D dimer (a fibrinolytic product) can be used in vivo (e.g., in catheter-based procedures) for the diagnosis and treatment of stroke-related conditions in humans. Stroke is the third leading cause of death in the United States. It has been estimated that strokes and stroke-related disorders cost Americans between $15-30 billion annually. Relatively recently, new medical procedures have been developed for the treatment of stroke. These endovascular procedures rely upon the use of microcatheters. These procedures could be facilitated with this sensor for D dimer integrated with a microcatheter for the diagnosis of clot type, and as an indicator of the effectiveness, or end-point of thrombolytic therapy.

  13. An RSA study of dimers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciesla, Michal; Barbasz, Jakub

    2012-03-01

    The first theoretical study of a dimer adsorption process at a homogeneous surface is presented. By using the RSA algorithm, we show example monolayers, discuss estimations of random jamming coverages and measure the surface blocking function, which could be used for calculating real systems kinetics. We also find the correlation function for coverages generated and analyse the orientational ordering inside the adsorbed monolayer. The results are compared with theoretical and experimental data.

  14. Inclusion of an RGD Motif Alters Invasin Integrin-Binding Affinity and Specificity.

    PubMed

    Khan, Tarik A; Wang, Xianzhe; Maynard, Jennifer A

    2016-04-12

    Invasin is a key adhesin displayed on the outer membrane of Yersinia enterocolitica and Y. pseudotuberculosis that mediates the initial stages of infection. Invasin specifically targets microfold (M) cells in the small intestine by binding β1 integrins and is sufficient to trigger eukaryotic uptake of invasin-coated particles, including Yersinia, Escherichia coli, and latex beads. As a result, invasin has generated interest to mediate oral delivery of vaccines and other biologics. Integrin binding affinity has been shown to correlate with particle uptake; thus we hypothesized that invasin variants with higher affinity would confer enhanced internalization. We first performed alanine scanning of surface-exposed tyrosine residues to identify those contributing to integrin binding. We identified two residues, which, when substituted with alanine, reduced binding to soluble α5β1 integrin. Next, we constructed four targeted mutagenesis libraries spanning these and other residues known to contribute to binding, followed by enrichment of variants able to mediate Caco-2 cellular invasion and to bind soluble α5β1 integrin. We identified three amino acid substitutions that increased α5β1 integrin binding affinity as measured by flow cytometry and ELISA assays, two of which created a novel RGD motif surrounding the D911 residue critical for binding. This variant confers enhanced internalization into CHO cells but not Caco-2 cells when expressed on the E. coli surface. Further analysis showed that inclusion of an RGD expands invasin-integrin specificity, thereby impacting cellular selectivity. This work provides a molecular explanation for the lack of an RGD motif in invasin that is present in many other adhesins. PMID:27015583

  15. The vitronectin RGD motif regulates TGF-β-induced alveolar epithelial cell apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Wheaton, Amanda K; Velikoff, Miranda; Agarwal, Manisha; Loo, Tiffany T; Horowitz, Jeffrey C; Sisson, Thomas H; Kim, Kevin K

    2016-06-01

    Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) is a critical driver of acute lung injury and fibrosis. Injury leads to activation of TGF-β, which regulates changes in the cellular and matrix makeup of the lung during the repair and fibrosis phase. TGF-β can also initiate alveolar epithelial cell (AEC) apoptosis. Injury leads to destruction of the laminin-rich basement membrane, which is replaced by a provisional matrix composed of arginine-glycine-aspartate (RGD) motif-containing plasma matrix proteins, including vitronectin and fibronectin. To determine the role of specific matrix proteins on TGF-β-induced apoptosis, we studied primary AECs cultured on different matrix conditions and utilized mice with deletion of vitronectin (Vtn(-/-)) or mice in which the vitronectin RGD motif is mutated to nonintegrin-binding arginine-glycine-glutamate (RGE) (Vtn(RGE/RGE)). We found that AECs cultured on fibronectin and vitronectin or in wild-type mouse serum are resistant to TGF-β-induced apoptosis. In contrast, AECs cultured on laminin or in serum from Vtn(-/-) or Vtn(RGE/RGE) mice undergo robust TGF-β-induced apoptosis. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) sensitizes AECs to greater apoptosis by disrupting AEC engagement to vitronectin. Inhibition of integrin-associated signaling proteins augments AEC apoptosis. Mice with transgenic deletion of PAI-1 have less apoptosis after bleomycin, but deletion of vitronectin or disruption of the vitronectin RGD motif reverses this protection, suggesting that the proapoptotic function of PAI-1 is mediated through vitronectin inhibition. Collectively, these data suggest that integrin-matrix signaling is an important regulator of TGF-β-mediated AEC apoptosis and that PAI-1 functions as a natural regulator of this interaction. PMID:27106291

  16. Polymer-Based Reconstruction of the Inferior Vena Cava in Rat: Stem Cells or RGD Peptide?

    PubMed Central

    Pontailler, Margaux; Illangakoon, Eranka; Williams, Gareth R.; Marijon, Camille; Bellamy, Valérie; Balvay, Daniel; Autret, Gwenhael; Vanneaux, Valérie; Larghero, Jérôme; Planat-Benard, Valérie; Perier, Marie-Cécile; Bruneval, Patrick; Menasché, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    As part of a program targeted at developing a resorbable valved tube for replacement of the right ventricular outflow tract, we compared three biopolymers (polyurethane [PU], polyhydroxyalkanoate (the poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate-co-4-hydroxyvalerate) [PHBVV]), and polydioxanone [PDO]) and two biofunctionalization techniques (using adipose-derived stem cells [ADSCs] or the arginine-glycine-aspartate [RGD] peptide) in a rat model of partial inferior vena cava (IVC) replacement. Fifty-three Wistar rats first underwent partial replacement of the IVC with an acellular electrospun PDO, PU, or PHBVV patch, and 31 nude rats subsequently underwent the same procedure using a PDO patch biofunctionalized either by ADSC or RGD. Results were assessed both in vitro (proliferation and survival of ADSC seeded onto the different materials) and in vivo by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), histology, immunohistochemistry [against markers of vascular cells (von Willebrand factor [vWF], smooth muscle actin [SMA]), and macrophages ([ED1 and ED2] immunostaining)], and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA; for the expression of various cytokines and inducible NO synthase). PDO showed the best in vitro properties. Six weeks after implantation, MRI did not detect significant luminal changes in any group. All biopolymers were evenly lined by vWF-positive cells, but only PDO and PHBVV showed a continuous layer of SMA-positive cells at 3 months. PU patches resulted in a marked granulomatous inflammatory reaction. The ADSC and RGD biofunctionalization yielded similar outcomes. These data confirm the good biocompatibility of PDO and support the concept that appropriately peptide-functionalized polymers may be successfully substituted for cell-loaded materials. PMID:25611092

  17. Accuracy of RGD approximation for computing light scattering properties of diffusing and motile bacteria.

    PubMed

    Kotlarchyk, M; Chen, S H; Asano, S

    1979-07-15

    The quasi-elastic light scattering has become an established technique for a rapid and quantitative characterization of an average motility pattern of motile bacteria in suspensions. Essentially all interpretations of the measured light scattering intensities and spectra so far are based on the Rayleigh-Gans-Debye (RGD) approximation. Since the range of sizes of bacteria of interest is generally larger than the wavelength of light used in the measurement, one is not certain of the justification for the use of the RGD approximation. In this paper we formulate a method by which both the scattering intensity and the quasi-elastic light scattering spectra can be calculated from a rigorous scattering theory. For a specific application we study the case of bacteria Escherichia coli (about 1 microm in size) by using numerical solutions of the scattering field amplitudes from a prolate spheroid, which is known to simulate optical properties of the bacteria well. We have computed (1) polarized scattered light intensity vs scattering angle for a randomly oriented bacteria population; (2) polarized scattered field correlation functions for both a freely diffusing bacterium and for a bacterium undergoing a straight line motion in random directions and with a Maxwellian speed distribution; and (3) the corresponding depolarized scattered intensity and field correlation functions. In each case sensitivity of the result to variations of the index of refraction and size of the bacterium is investigated. The conclusion is that within a reasonable range of parameters applicable to E. coli, the accuracy of the RGD is good to within 10% at all angles for the properties (1) and (2), and the depolarized contributions in (3) are generally very small. PMID:20212685

  18. Polymer-Based Reconstruction of the Inferior Vena Cava in Rat: Stem Cells or RGD Peptide?

    PubMed

    Pontailler, Margaux; Illangakoon, Eranka; Williams, Gareth R; Marijon, Camille; Bellamy, Valérie; Balvay, Daniel; Autret, Gwenhael; Vanneaux, Valérie; Larghero, Jérôme; Planat-Benard, Valérie; Perier, Marie-Cécile; Bruneval, Patrick; Menasché, Philippe; Kalfa, David

    2015-05-01

    As part of a program targeted at developing a resorbable valved tube for replacement of the right ventricular outflow tract, we compared three biopolymers (polyurethane [PU], polyhydroxyalkanoate (the poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate-co-4-hydroxyvalerate) [PHBVV]), and polydioxanone [PDO]) and two biofunctionalization techniques (using adipose-derived stem cells [ADSCs] or the arginine-glycine-aspartate [RGD] peptide) in a rat model of partial inferior vena cava (IVC) replacement. Fifty-three Wistar rats first underwent partial replacement of the IVC with an acellular electrospun PDO, PU, or PHBVV patch, and 31 nude rats subsequently underwent the same procedure using a PDO patch biofunctionalized either by ADSC or RGD. Results were assessed both in vitro (proliferation and survival of ADSC seeded onto the different materials) and in vivo by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), histology, immunohistochemistry [against markers of vascular cells (von Willebrand factor [vWF], smooth muscle actin [SMA]), and macrophages ([ED1 and ED2] immunostaining)], and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA; for the expression of various cytokines and inducible NO synthase). PDO showed the best in vitro properties. Six weeks after implantation, MRI did not detect significant luminal changes in any group. All biopolymers were evenly lined by vWF-positive cells, but only PDO and PHBVV showed a continuous layer of SMA-positive cells at 3 months. PU patches resulted in a marked granulomatous inflammatory reaction. The ADSC and RGD biofunctionalization yielded similar outcomes. These data confirm the good biocompatibility of PDO and support the concept that appropriately peptide-functionalized polymers may be successfully substituted for cell-loaded materials. PMID:25611092

  19. Disease, Models, Variants and Altered Pathways-Journeying RGD Through the Magnifying Glass.

    PubMed

    Petri, Victoria; Hayman, G Thomas; Tutaj, Marek; Smith, Jennifer R; Laulederkind, Stan; Wang, Shur-Jen; Nigam, Rajni; De Pons, Jeff; Shimoyama, Mary; Dwinell, Melinda R

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the pathogenesis of disease is instrumental in delineating its progression mechanisms and for envisioning ways to counteract it. In the process, animal models represent invaluable tools for identifying disease-related loci and their genetic components. Amongst them, the laboratory rat is used extensively in the study of many conditions and disorders. The Rat Genome Database (RGD-http://rgd.mcw.edu) has been established to house rat genetic, genomic and phenotypic data. Since its inception, it has continually expanded the depth and breadth of its content. Currently, in addition to rat genes, QTLs and strains, RGD houses mouse and human genes and QTLs and offers pertinent associated data, acquired through manual literature curation and imported via pipelines. A collection of controlled vocabularies and ontologies is employed for the standardized extraction and provision of biological data. The vocabularies/ontologies allow the capture of disease and phenotype associations of rat strains and QTLs, as well as disease and pathway associations of rat, human and mouse genes. A suite of tools enables the retrieval, manipulation, viewing and analysis of data. Genes associated with particular conditions or with altered networks underlying disease pathways can be retrieved. Genetic variants in humans or in sequenced rat strains can be searched and compared. Lists of rat strains and species-specific genes and QTLs can be generated for selected ontology terms and then analyzed, downloaded or sent to other tools. From many entry points, data can be accessed and results retrieved. To illustrate, diabetes is used as a case study to initiate and embark upon an exploratory journey. PMID:27602200

  20. Dual-functionalized liposomal delivery system for solid tumors based on RGD and a pH-responsive antimicrobial peptide

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qianyu; Lu, Libao; Zhang, Li; Shi, Kairong; Cun, Xingli; Yang, Yuting; Liu, Yayuan; Gao, Huile; He, Qin

    2016-01-01

    [D]-H6L9, as a pH-responsive anti-microbial peptide (AMP), has been evidenced by us to be an excellent choice in tumor microenvironment-responsive delivery as it could render liposomes responsive to the acidified tumor microenvironment. However, [D]-H6L9-modified liposomes could not actively target to tumor area. Therefore, integrin αvβ3-targeted peptide RGD was co-modified with [D]-H6L9 onto liposomes [(R + D)-Lip] for improved tumor delivery efficiency. Under pH 6.3, (R + D)-Lip could be taken up by C26 cells and C26 tumor spheroids (integrin αvβ3-positive) with significantly improved efficiency compared with other groups, which was contributed by both RGD and [D]-H6L9, while RGD did not increase the cellular uptake performance on MCF-7 cells (integrin αvβ3-negative). Results showed that RGD could decrease cellular uptake of (R + D)-Lip while [D]-H6L9 could increase it, implying the role of both RGD and [D]-H6L9 in cellular internalization of (R + D)-Lip. On the other hand, (R + D)-Lip could escape the entrapment of lysosomes. PTX-loaded (R + D)-Lip could further increase the cellular toxicity against C26 cells compared with liposomes modified only with RGD and [D]-H6L9 respectively, and achieve remarkable tumor inhibition effect on C26 tumor models. PMID:26842655

  1. Coupling Gd-DTPA with a bispecific, recombinant protein anti-EGFR-iRGD complex improves tumor targeting in MRI

    PubMed Central

    XIN, XIAOYAN; SHA, HUIZI; SHEN, JINGTAO; ZHANG, BING; ZHU, BIN; LIU, BAORUI

    2016-01-01

    Recombinant anti-epidermal growth factor receptor-internalizing arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (anti-EGFR single-domain antibody fused with iRGD peptide) protein efficiently targets the EGFR extracellular domain and integrin αvβ/β5, and shows a high penetration into cells. Thus, this protein may improve penetration of conjugated drugs into the deep zone of gastric cancer multicellular 3D spheroids. In the present study, a novel tumor-targeting contrast agent for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was developed, by coupling gadolinium-diethylene triamine pentaacetate (Gd-DTPA) with the bispecific recombinant anti-EGFR-iRGD protein. The anti-EGFR-iRGD protein was extracted from Escherichia coli and Gd was loaded onto the recombinant protein by chelation using DTPA anhydride. Single-targeting agent anti-EGFR-DTPA-Gd, which served as the control, was also prepared. The results of the present study showed that anti-EGFR-iRGD-DTPA-Gd exhibited no significant cyto toxicity to human gastric carcinoma cells (BGC-823) under the experimental conditions used. Compared with a conventional contrast agent (Magnevist), anti-EGFR-iRGD-DTPA-Gd showed higher T1 relaxivity (10.157/mM/sec at 3T) and better tumor-targeting ability. In addition, the signal intensity and the area under curve for the enhanced signal time in tumor, in vivo, were stronger than Gd-DTPA alone or the anti-EGFR-Gd control. Thus, Gd-labelled anti-EGFR-iRGD has potential as a tumor-targeting contrast agent for improved MRI. PMID:27035336

  2. Expression and purification of rhIL-10-RGD from Escherichia coli as a potential wound healing agent.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fangfang; Wan, Yi; Liu, Jiaqi; Yang, Xuekang; Wang, Hongtao; Tao, Ke; Han, Juntao; Shi, Jihong; Hu, Dahai

    2016-08-01

    Various protocols for recombinant Interleukin-10 (IL-10) purification in wound healing have been reported previously. However, the therapeutic effect was not obvious. Thus, it is of great importance to find new and effective approaches for therapy. In this study, we propose that IL-10 and Arginine-Glycine-Aspartic (RGD) peptide would be a valuable therapeutic for wound healing. To explore a high-efficiency and cost-effective approach for the production of IL-10 and RGD peptide with bioactivity, a synthetic gene was cloned into a recombinant pTWIN1 vector. As a consequence, rhIL-10-RGD and the pH-induced self-cleavable Ssp DnaB mini-intein as a fusion protein was highly expressed by IPTG induction in Escherichia coli Rosetta without extra residues in a bioreactor. After Ni affinity chromatographic purification, rhIL-10-RGD was released by the Ssp DnaB intein-mediated self-cleavage that is triggered by pH shift. SDS-PAGE and silver staining showed a major band with an estimated molecular mass of 19.3kDa. Cell proliferation assay confirmed its potent proliferation activity on MC/9 murine mast cells. In conclusion, we report a novel strategy to produce rhIL-10-RGD mediated by the pH-induced self-cleavable Ssp DnaB mini-intein, and show that rhIL-10-RGD could play an effective role in wound healing of BALB/c mice. PMID:27241829

  3. Redox properties of metalloporphyrin dimers

    SciTech Connect

    Collman, J.P.; Prodolliet, J.W.; Leidner, C.R.

    1986-05-28

    Cyclic and rotated disk voltammetry of two metalloporphyrin dimers, (Ru(OEP))/sub 2/ and (Os(OEP))/sub 2/, exhibit four oxidations and two reductions for each compound which are all chemically and electrochemically reversible on the voltammetric time scale. Comparison of the formal potentials of the six couples suggests that the first two oxidations are metal-centered redox processes; the remaining four couples are likely to be ligand centered. Controlled chemical oxidations using ferricinium hexafluorophosphate, silver tetrafluoroborate, and tris(4-bromophenyl)ammonium hexachloroantimonate cleanly generate the monocations (M(OEP))/sub 2//sup +/ and the dications (M(OEP))/sub 2//sup 2 +/. NMR, ESR, and electronic spectroscopy of these dimeric, cationic products support the assignment of the two oxidations as metal centered. These oxidations permit the preparation of the two series of metalloporphyrin dimers: paramagnetic (M(OEP))/sub 2/ with bond order = 2, paramagnetic (M(OEP))/sub 2//sup +/ with bond order = 2.5, and diamagnetic (M(OEP))/sub 2//sup 2 +/ with bond order = 3.

  4. Supramolecular hydrogels formed by the conjugates of nucleobases, Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) peptides, and glucosamine

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xinming; Du, Xuewen; Gao, Yuan; Shi, Junfeng; Kuang, Yi

    2012-01-01

    Here we report the generation of a novel class of supramolecular hydrogelators based on the integration of nucleobase, Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) peptides, and glucosamine in a single molecule. These novel small molecule hydrogelators self-assemble in water to form stable supramolecular nanofibers/hydrogels and exhibit useful biostability. This approach provides a new opportunity for systematic exploration of the self-assembly of small biomolecules by varying any individual segment to generate a large array of supramolecular hydrogels for biological functions and for biomedical applications. PMID:22844343

  5. Last-Step Enzymatic [(18) F]-Fluorination of Cysteine-Tethered RGD Peptides Using Modified Barbas Linkers.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qingzhi; Dall'Angelo, Sergio; Fleming, Ian N; Schweiger, Lutz F; Zanda, Matteo; O'Hagan, David

    2016-07-25

    We report a last-step fluorinase-catalyzed [(18) F]-fluorination of a cysteine-containing RGD peptide. The peptide was attached through sulfur to a modified and more hydrophilic variant of the recently disclosed Barbas linker which was itself linked to a chloroadenosine moiety via a PEGylated chain. The fluorinase was able to use this construct as a substrate for a transhalogenation reaction to generate [(18) F]-radiolabeled RGD peptides, which retained high affinity to cancer-cell relevant αv β3 integrins. PMID:27374143

  6. RGD labeled Ru(II) polypyridyl conjugates for platelet integrin αIIbβ3 recognition and as reporters of integrin conformation.

    PubMed

    Adamson, Kellie; Dolan, Ciaran; Moran, Niamh; Forster, Robert J; Keyes, Tia E

    2014-05-21

    The ability of two novel ruthenium(II) polypyridyl-Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) peptide conjugates to act as molecular probes for reporting on the presence and conformation of integrin αIIbβ3 in solution and in live cells was described. The compounds are [Ru(bpy)2PIC-RGD](2+), bpy-RGD, and [Ru(dpp)2PIC-RGD](2+), dpp-RGD, where dpp is 4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline, bpy is 2,2'-bipyridine, and PIC is 2-(4-carboxyphenyl)imidazo[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthroline. Bpy-RGD is hydrophilic, whereas dpp-RGD is comparatively hydrophobic. Both probes exhibited good affinity and high specificity for purified αIIbβ3 in solution. Binding of either complex to the resting integrin resulted in an approximately 8-fold increase of emission intensity from the metal center with dissociation constants (Kd) in the micromolar range for each complex. The Kd for each conjugate/αIIbβ3 assembly were compared following treatment of the integrin with the activating agents, Mn(2+) and dithiothreitol (DTT), which are commonly used to induce active-like conformational changes in the integrin. For bpy-RGD/αIIbβ3 Kd showed relatively little variation with integrin activation, presenting the following trend: denatured αIIbβ3 > resting αIIbβ3 = pretreated DTT = pretreated Mn(2+). Kd for dpp-RGD/ αIIbβ3 showed greater variation with integrin activation and the following trend was followed: denatured αIIbβ3 > resting αIIbβ3 > pretreated Mn(2+) = pretreated DTT. Time resolved luminescence anisotropy was carried out to obtain the rotational correlation time of bpy-RGD and dpp-RGD bound to resting or nominally activated integrin. The rotational correlation times of bpy-RGD and dpp-RGD, too fast to measure unbound, decreased to 1.50 ± 0.03 μs and 2.58 ± 0.04 μs, respectively, when the complexes were bound to resting integrin. Addition of Mn(2+) to bpy-RGD/αIIbβ3 or dpp-RGD/αIIbβ3 reduced the rotational correlation time of the ruthenium center to 1.29 ± 0.03 μs and to 1.72 ± 0.03

  7. Clinical Application of Radiolabeled RGD Peptides for PET Imaging of Integrin αvβ3

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Haojun; Niu, Gang; Wu, Hua; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2016-01-01

    Molecular imaging for non-invasive assessment of angiogenesisis is of great interest for clinicians because of the wide-spread application of anti-angiogenic cancer therapeutics. Besides, many other interventions that involve the change of blood vessel/tumor microenvironment would also benefit from such imaging strategies. Of the imaging techniques that target angiogenesis, radiolabeled Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) peptides have been a major focus because of their high affinity and selectivity for integrin αvβ3--one of the most extensively examined target of angiogenesis. Since the level of integrin αvβ3 expression has been established as a surrogate marker of angiogenic activity, imaging αvβ3 expression can potentially be used as an early indicator of effectiveness of antiangiogenic therapy at the molecular level. In this review, we summarize RGD-based PET tracers that have already been used in clinical trials and intercompared them in terms of radiosynthesis, dosimetry, pharmacokinetics and clinical applications. A perspective of their future use in the clinic is also provided. PMID:26722375

  8. RGD(F/S/V)-Dex: towards the development of novel, effective, and safe glucocorticoids

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Xueyun; Zhao, Ming; Wang, Yuji; Zhu, Haimei; Zhao, Shurui; Wu, Jianhui; Song, Yuanbo; Peng, Shiqi

    2016-01-01

    Dexamethasone (Dex) is an effective glucocorticoid in treating inflammation and preventing rejection reaction. However, the side effects limit its clinical application. To improve its druggable profile, the conjugates of RGD-peptide-modified Dex were presented and their enhanced anti-inflammation activity, minimized osteoporotic action, and nanoscaled assembly were explored. (RGD stands for Arg-Gly-Asp. Standard single letter biochemical abbreviations for amino acids have been used throughout this paper.) In respect of the rejection reaction, the survival time of the implanted myocardium of the mice treated with 1.43 µmol/kg/d of the conjugates for 15 consecutive days was significantly longer than that of the mice treated with 2.5 µmol/kg/d of Dex, and the conjugates, but not Dex, exhibited no toxic action. At a single dose of 14.3 µmol/kg (100 times minimal effective dose, 0.143 µmol/kg), the conjugates induced no liver, kidney, or systemic toxicity. At the dose of 1.43 µmol/kg, the conjugates, but not Dex, prolonged the bleeding time of the mice, and inhibited the thrombosis of the rats. In water and rat plasma, the conjugates formed nanoparticles of 14–250 and 101–166 nm in diameter, respectively. Since the nanoparticles of ~100 nm in size cannot be entrapped by macrophages in the circulation, RGDF-Dex would particularly be worthy of development, since its nanoparticle diameter is 101 nm. PMID:27022245

  9. RGD-Binding Integrins in Prostate Cancer: Expression Patterns and Therapeutic Prospects against Bone Metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Sutherland, Mark; Gordon, Andrew; Shnyder, Steven D.; Patterson, Laurence H.; Sheldrake, Helen M.

    2012-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the third leading cause of male cancer deaths in the developed world. The current lack of highly specific detection methods and efficient therapeutic agents for advanced disease have been identified as problems requiring further research. The integrins play a vital role in the cross-talk between the cell and extracellular matrix, enhancing the growth, migration, invasion and metastasis of cancer cells. Progression and metastasis of prostate adenocarcinoma is strongly associated with changes in integrin expression, notably abnormal expression and activation of the β3 integrins in tumour cells, which promotes haematogenous spread and tumour growth in bone. As such, influencing integrin cell expression and function using targeted therapeutics represents a potential treatment for bone metastasis, the most common and debilitating complication of advanced prostate cancer. In this review, we highlight the multiple ways in which RGD-binding integrins contribute to prostate cancer progression and metastasis, and identify the rationale for development of multi-integrin antagonists targeting the RGD-binding subfamily as molecularly targeted agents for its treatment. PMID:24213501

  10. Electronic Structure, Dielectric Response, and Surface Charge Distribution of RGD (1FUV) Peptide

    PubMed Central

    Adhikari, Puja; Wen, Amy M.; French, Roger H.; Parsegian, V. Adrian; Steinmetz, Nicole F.; Podgornik, Rudolf; Ching, Wai-Yim

    2014-01-01

    Long and short range molecular interactions govern molecular recognition and self-assembly of biological macromolecules. Microscopic parameters in the theories of these molecular interactions are either phenomenological or need to be calculated within a microscopic theory. We report a unified methodology for the ab initio quantum mechanical (QM) calculation that yields all the microscopic parameters, namely the partial charges as well as the frequency-dependent dielectric response function, that can then be taken as input for macroscopic theories of electrostatic, polar, and van der Waals-London dispersion intermolecular forces. We apply this methodology to obtain the electronic structure of the cyclic tripeptide RGD-4C (1FUV). This ab initio unified methodology yields the relevant parameters entering the long range interactions of biological macromolecules, providing accurate data for the partial charge distribution and the frequency-dependent dielectric response function of this peptide. These microscopic parameters determine the range and strength of the intricate intermolecular interactions between potential docking sites of the RGD-4C ligand and its integrin receptor. PMID:25001596

  11. Electronic Structure, Dielectric Response, and Surface Charge Distribution of RGD (1FUV) Peptide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adhikari, Puja; Wen, Amy M.; French, Roger H.; Parsegian, V. Adrian; Steinmetz, Nicole F.; Podgornik, Rudolf; Ching, Wai-Yim

    2014-07-01

    Long and short range molecular interactions govern molecular recognition and self-assembly of biological macromolecules. Microscopic parameters in the theories of these molecular interactions are either phenomenological or need to be calculated within a microscopic theory. We report a unified methodology for the ab initio quantum mechanical (QM) calculation that yields all the microscopic parameters, namely the partial charges as well as the frequency-dependent dielectric response function, that can then be taken as input for macroscopic theories of electrostatic, polar, and van der Waals-London dispersion intermolecular forces. We apply this methodology to obtain the electronic structure of the cyclic tripeptide RGD-4C (1FUV). This ab initio unified methodology yields the relevant parameters entering the long range interactions of biological macromolecules, providing accurate data for the partial charge distribution and the frequency-dependent dielectric response function of this peptide. These microscopic parameters determine the range and strength of the intricate intermolecular interactions between potential docking sites of the RGD-4C ligand and its integrin receptor.

  12. The RGD integrin binding site in human L1-CAM is important for nuclear signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Gast, Daniela; Riedle, Svenja; Kiefel, Helena; Mueerkoester, Susanne Sebens; Schaefer, Heiner; Schaefer, Michael K.E.; Altevogt, Peter

    2008-08-01

    L1 cell adhesion molecule (L1-CAM) is a transmembrane cell adhesion molecule initially defined as a promigratory molecule in the developing nervous system. L1 is also overexpressed in a variety of human carcinomas and is associated with bad prognosis. In carcinoma cell lines L1 augments cell motility and metastasis, tumor growth in nude mice and induces expression of L1-dependent genes. It is not known whether L1-signaling requires ligand binding. The RGD motif in the sixth Ig domain of L1 is a binding site for integrins. In the present study we analyzed the role of RGDs in L1-signaling using site-directed mutagenesis combined with antibody blocking studies. We observed that L1-RGE expressing HEK293 cells showed reduced cell-cell binding, cell motility, invasiveness and tumor growth in NOD/SCID mice. The RGE-mutation impaired L1-dependent gene regulation and antibodies to {alpha}v{beta}5 integrin had similar effects. Mutant L1 was unable to translocate to the nucleus. Our findings highlight the importance of the RGD site in L1 for human tumors and suggest that nuclear signaling of L1 is dependent on integrins.

  13. Functional Significance of Serotonin Receptor Dimerization

    PubMed Central

    Herrick-Davis, Katharine

    2013-01-01

    The original model of G protein activation by a single G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) is giving way to a new model wherein two protomers of a GPCR dimer interact with a single G protein. This article will review the evidence suggesting that 5-HT receptors form dimers/oligomers and will compare the findings with results obtained from studies with other biogenic amine receptors. Topics to be covered include the origin or biogenesis of dimer formation, potential dimer interface(s), and oligomer size (dimer versus tetramer or higher order). The functional significance will be discussed in terms of G-protein activation following ligand binding to one or two protomers in a dimeric structure, the formation of heterodimers and the development of bivalent ligands. PMID:23811735

  14. Dimerization of Human Growth Hormone by Zinc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunningham, Brian C.; Mulkerrin, Michael G.; Wells, James A.

    1991-08-01

    Size-exclusion chromatography and sedimentation equilibrium studies demonstrated that zinc ion (Zn2+) induced the dimerization of human growth hormone (hGH). Scatchard analysis of 65Zn2+ binding to hGH showed that two Zn2+ ions associate per dimer of hGH in a cooperative fashion. Cobalt (II) can substitute for Zn2+ in the hormone dimer and gives a visible spectrum characteristic of cobalt coordinated in a tetrahedral fashion by oxygen- and nitrogen-containing ligands. Replacement of potential Zn2+ ligands (His18, His21, and Glu174) in hGH with alanine weakened both Zn2+ binding and hGH dimer formation. The Zn2+-hGH dimer was more stable than monomeric hGH to denaturation in guanidine-HCl. Formation of a Zn2+-hGH dimeric complex may be important for storage of hGH in secretory granules.

  15. Quantum criticality in dimerized spin ladders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chitov, Gennady Y.; Ramakko, Brandon W.; Azzouz, Mohamed

    2008-06-01

    We analyze the possibility of quantum criticality (gaplessness) in dimerized antiferromagnetic two- and three-leg spin- (1)/(2) ladders. Contrary to earlier studies of these models, we examine different dimerization patterns in the ladder. We find that ladders with the columnar dimerization order have lower zero-temperature energies, and they are always gapped. For the staggered dimerization order, we find the quantum critical lines, in agreement with earlier analyses. The bond mean-field theory we apply demonstrates its quantitative accuracy and agrees with available numerical results. We conclude that unless some mechanism for locking dimerization into the energetically less favorable staggered configuration is provided, the dimerized ladders do not order into the phase where the quantum criticality occurs.

  16. Anticancer effects of gemcitabine are enhanced by co-administered iRGD peptide in murine pancreatic cancer models that overexpressed neuropilin-1

    PubMed Central

    Akashi, Y; Oda, T; Ohara, Y; Miyamoto, R; Kurokawa, T; Hashimoto, S; Enomoto, T; Yamada, K; Satake, M; Ohkohchi, N

    2014-01-01

    Background: Impaired drug transport is an important factor that reduces the efficacy of anticancer agents against pancreatic cancer. Here, we report a novel combination chemotherapy using gemcitabine (GEM) and internalised-RGD (iRGD) peptide, which enhances tumour-specific drug penetration by binding neuropilin-1 (NRP1) receptor. Methods: A total of five pancreatic cancer murine models (two cell line-based xenografts (CXs) and three tumour grafts (TGs)) were treated with either GEM (100 mg kg−1, q3d × 4) alone or GEM plus iRGD peptide (8 μmol kg−1). Evaluation of NRP1 expression in xenografts and 48 clinical cancer specimens was performed by immunohistochemistry (IHC). Results: We identified a subset of pancreatic cancer models that showed NRP1 overexpression sensitive to iRGD co-administration. Treatment with GEM plus iRGD peptide resulted in a significant tumour reduction compared with GEM monotherapy in CXs, but not remarkable in TGs. Potential targets of iRGD were characterised as cases showing NRP1 overexpression (IHC-2+/3+), and these accounted for 45.8% of the clinical specimens. Conclusions: Internalised RGD peptide enhances the effects of co-administered drugs in pancreatic cancer models, its efficacy is however only appreciable in those employing cell lines. Therefore, the clinical application needs to be given careful consideration. PMID:24556620

  17. iRGD decorated lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticles for targeted co-delivery of doxorubicin and sorafenib to enhance anti-hepatocellular carcinoma efficacy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jinming; Hu, Jie; Chan, Hon Fai; Skibba, Melissa; Liang, Guang; Chen, Meiwan

    2016-07-01

    The combination of doxorubicin (DOX) with sorafenib (SOR) has proven an effective strategy to enhance anti-hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) efficacy. However, respective in vivo pharmacokinetic profiles and different endocytosis capacities of these two drugs greatly hinder their current application. Herein, the tumor-targeting peptide iRGD decorated lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticles (NPs) with a shell-core structure were developed for co-delivery of DOX and SOR (DOX+SOR/iRGD NPs). After the drug ratio was optimized, the stabilized DOX+SOR/iRGD NPs were prepared. Through the iRGD-integrin recognition, DOX+SOR/iRGD NPs showed synergistic cytotoxicity, pro-apoptotic ability and enhanced internalization rate in human liver cancer HepG2 cells. In vivo pharmacokinetic result demonstrated that an extended circulation and bioavailability of DOX+SOR/iRGD NPs than free drugs. More importantly, DOX+SOR/iRGD NPs significantly enhanced antitumor efficiency in HCC xenograft mouse models. Overall, this study describes a promising nanoparticulate drug co-delivery strategy to combine clinical anticancer drugs and enhance anti-HCC efficacy. PMID:26964482

  18. Monomer-dimer problem on some networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Ruijuan; Yan, Weigen

    2016-09-01

    Zhang et al. (2012) obtained the exact formula for the number of all possible monomer-dimer arrangements and the asymptotic growth constant on a scale-free small-world network. In this note, we generalize this result and obtain the exact solution on the monomer-dimer model on many networks. Particularly, we prove that these networks have the same asymptotic growth constant of the number of monomer-dimer arrangements.

  19. RGD-modifided oncolytic adenovirus exhibited potent cytotoxic effect on CAR-negative bladder cancer-initiating cells

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Y; Xu, H; Shen, J; Yang, Y; Wu, S; Xiao, J; Xu, Y; Liu, X-Y; Chu, L

    2015-01-01

    Cancer-initiating cell (CIC) is critical in cancer development, maintenance and recurrence. The reverse expression pattern of coxsackie and adenovirus receptor (CAR) and αν integrin in bladder cancer decreases the infection efficiency of adenovirus. We constructed Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD)-modified oncolytic adenovirus, carrying EGFP or TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) gene (OncoAd.RGD-hTERT-EGFP/TRAIL), and applied them to CAR-negative bladder cancer T24 cells and cancer-initiating T24 sphere cells. OncoAd.RGD-hTERT-EGFP had enhanced infection ability and cytotoxic effect on T24 cells and T24 sphere cells, but little cytoxicity on normal urothelial SV-HUC-1 cells compared with the unmodified virus OncoAd.hTERT-EGFP. Notably, OncoAd.RGD-hTERT-TRAIL induced apoptosis in T24 cells and T24 sphere cells. Furthermore, it completely inhibited xenograft initiation established by the oncolytic adenovirus-pretreated T24 sphere cells, and significantly suppressed tumor growth by intratumoral injection. These results provided a promising therapeutic strategy for CAR-negative bladder cancer through targeting CICs. PMID:25973680

  20. RGD Peptide Cell-Surface Display Enhances the Targeting and Therapeutic Efficacy of Attenuated Salmonella-mediated Cancer Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Park, Seung-Hwan; Zheng, Jin Hai; Nguyen, Vu Hong; Jiang, Sheng-Nan; Kim, Dong-Yeon; Szardenings, Michael; Min, Jung Hyun; Hong, Yeongjin; Choy, Hyon E.; Min, Jung-Joon

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria-based anticancer therapies aim to overcome the limitations of current cancer therapy by actively targeting and efficiently removing cancer. To achieve this goal, new approaches that target and maintain bacterial drugs at sufficient concentrations during the therapeutic window are essential. Here, we examined the tumor tropism of attenuated Salmonella typhimurium displaying the RGD peptide sequence (ACDCRGDCFCG) on the external loop of outer membrane protein A (OmpA). RGD-displaying Salmonella strongly bound to cancer cells overexpressing αvβ3, but weakly bound to αvβ3-negative cancer cells, suggesting the feasibility of displaying a preferential homing peptide on the bacterial surface. In vivo studies revealed that RGD-displaying Salmonellae showed strong targeting efficiency, resulting in the regression in αvβ3-overexpressing cancer xenografts, and prolonged survival of mouse models of human breast cancer (MDA-MB-231) and human melanoma (MDA-MB-435). Thus, surface engineering of Salmonellae to display RGD peptides increases both their targeting efficiency and therapeutic effect. PMID:27446500

  1. The therapeutic efficacy of the oncolytic virus Delta24-RGD in a murine glioma model depends primarily on antitumor immunity

    PubMed Central

    Kleijn, Anne; Kloezeman, Jenneke; Treffers-Westerlaken, Elike; Fulci, Giulia; Leenstra, Sieger; Dirven, Clemens; Debets, Reno; Lamfers, Martine

    2014-01-01

    Oncolytic viruses selectively lyse tumor cells, making these agents a promising treatment modality for glioma. Accumulating data suggest that the immune system plays an important role in the anti-glioma activity of oncolytic viruses. In an immune competent glioma model, the therapeutic effect of the oncolytic adenovirus Delta24-RGD was found to depend primarily on antitumor immune responses. PMID:25941622

  2. The effect of RGD fluorosurfactant polymer modification of ePTFE on endothelial cell adhesion, growth, and function

    PubMed Central

    Larsen, Coby C.; Kligman, Faina; Kottke-Marchant, Kandice; Marchant, Roger E.

    2007-01-01

    We have synthesized and characterized a novel peptide fluorosurfactant polymer (PFSP) modification that facilitates the adhesion and growth of endothelial cells on ePTFE vascular graft material. This PFSP consists of a poly(vinyl amine) (PVAm) backbone with integrin binding Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) peptides and perfluorocarbon pendant branches for adsorption and stable adhesion to underlying ePTFE. Aqueous PFSP solution was used to modify the surface of fluorocarbon substrates. Following subconfluent seeding, endothelial cell (EC) adhesion and growth on PFSP was assessed by determining cell population at different time points. Spectroscopic results indicated successful synthesis of PFSP. PFSP modification of ePTFE reduced the receding water contact angle measurement from 120° to 6°, indicating successful surface modification. Quantification of cell population demonstrated reduced EC attachment efficiency but increased growth rate on RGD PFSP compared with fibronectin (FN). Actin staining revealed a well-developed cytoskeleton for ECs on RGD PFSP indicative of stable adhesion. Uptake of acetylated low-density lipoprotein and positive staining for VE-Cadherin confirm EC phenotype for adherent cells. Production of prostacyclin, a potent antiplatelet agent, was equivalent between ECs on FN and RGD PFSP surfaces. Our results indicate successful synthesis and surface modification with PFSP; this is a simple, quantitative, and effective approach to modifying ePTFE to encourage endothelial cell attachment, growth, and function. PMID:16762410

  3. Gold Nanorods Conjugated with Doxorubicin and cRGD for Combined Anticancer Drug Delivery and PET Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Yuling; Hong, Hao; Matson, Vyara Z.; Javadi, Alireza; Xu, Wenjin; Yang, Yunan; Zhang, Yin; Engle, Jonathan W.; Nickles, Robert J.; Cai, Weibo; Steeber, Douglas A.; Gong, Shaoqin

    2012-01-01

    A multifunctional gold nanorod (GNR)-based nanoplatform for targeted anticancer drug delivery and positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of tumors was developed and characterized. An anti-cancer drug (i.e., doxorubicin (DOX)) was covalently conjugated onto PEGylated (PEG: polyethylene glycol) GNR nanocarriers via a hydrazone bond to achieve pH-sensitive controlled drug release. Tumor-targeting ligands (i.e., the cyclo(Arg-Gly-Asp-D-Phe-Cys) peptides, cRGD) and 64Cu-chelators (i.e., 1,4,7-triazacyclononane-N, N', N''-triacetic acid (NOTA)) were conjugated onto the distal ends of the PEG arms to achieve active tumor-targeting and PET imaging, respectively. Based on flow cytometry analysis, cRGD-conjugated nanocarriers (i.e., GNR-DOX-cRGD) exhibited a higher cellular uptake and cytotoxicity than non-targeted ones (i.e., GNR-DOX) in vitro. However, GNR-DOX-cRGD and GNR-DOX nanocarriers had similar in vivo biodistribution according to in vivo PET imaging and biodistribution studies. Due to the unique optical properties of GNRs, this multifunctional GNR-based nanoplatform can potentially be optimized for combined cancer therapies (chemotherapy and photothermal therapy) and multimodality imaging (PET, optical, X-ray computed tomography (CT), etc.). PMID:22916075

  4. Laser micro-grooved, Arginine-Glycine-Apspartic acid (RGD) coated dental implants, a 5 years radiographic follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Alkhodary, Mohamed Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This work has utilized laser direct writing to produce 10 microns wide uniform grooves on the surface of custom made titanium (Ti-6Al-4V) dental implants, and the tri-peptide RGD coating to produce a micromechanical and a chemical union with the tissues around the implant crest module and minimize crestal bone loss. The aim of this study was to follow these implants radiographically after five years of service under a mandibular overdenture. Methodology Standardized digital periapical radiographs and the computer software “Image J” were used to evaluate the bone density profile and vertical bone loss along the mesial and distal sides of the implants used in this study. Results The results of this study demonstrated less vertical bone loss and higher bone density profiles next to the laser microgrooved implants coated with the RGD than those only having the laser micro-grooves. Conclusion The RGD coating has improved the bone density profile and reduced the vertical bone loss around the studied dental implants. However, further studies are needed to compare the effects of the laser micro-grooves versus other uniform or non uniform surface features; also, the RGD coating should be compared to other biomimetic surface coating materials. PMID:25780355

  5. RGD Peptide Cell-Surface Display Enhances the Targeting and Therapeutic Efficacy of Attenuated Salmonella-mediated Cancer Therapy.

    PubMed

    Park, Seung-Hwan; Zheng, Jin Hai; Nguyen, Vu Hong; Jiang, Sheng-Nan; Kim, Dong-Yeon; Szardenings, Michael; Min, Jung Hyun; Hong, Yeongjin; Choy, Hyon E; Min, Jung-Joon

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria-based anticancer therapies aim to overcome the limitations of current cancer therapy by actively targeting and efficiently removing cancer. To achieve this goal, new approaches that target and maintain bacterial drugs at sufficient concentrations during the therapeutic window are essential. Here, we examined the tumor tropism of attenuated Salmonella typhimurium displaying the RGD peptide sequence (ACDCRGDCFCG) on the external loop of outer membrane protein A (OmpA). RGD-displaying Salmonella strongly bound to cancer cells overexpressing αvβ3, but weakly bound to αvβ3-negative cancer cells, suggesting the feasibility of displaying a preferential homing peptide on the bacterial surface. In vivo studies revealed that RGD-displaying Salmonellae showed strong targeting efficiency, resulting in the regression in αvβ3-overexpressing cancer xenografts, and prolonged survival of mouse models of human breast cancer (MDA-MB-231) and human melanoma (MDA-MB-435). Thus, surface engineering of Salmonellae to display RGD peptides increases both their targeting efficiency and therapeutic effect. PMID:27446500

  6. Installing multifunctionality on titanium with RGD-decorated polyurethane-polyurea roxithromycin loaded nanoparticles: toward new osseointegrative therapies.

    PubMed

    Rocas, Pau; Hoyos-Nogués, Mireia; Rocas, Josep; Manero, José M; Gil, Javier; Albericio, Fernando; Mas-Moruno, Carlos

    2015-09-16

    A novel class of polyurethane-polyurea nanoparticles (PUUa NPs) to install multifunctionality on biomaterials is presented. Biofunctionalization of titanium with roxithromycin loaded RGD-decorated PUUa NPs results in an outstanding improvement of osteoblast adhesion and strong suppression of bacterial attachment. This strategy represents a powerful approach to enhance the osseointegration of implant materials. PMID:26274361

  7. Free Energy Landscapes for Amyloidogenic Tetrapeptides Dimerization

    PubMed Central

    Baumketner, A.; Shea, J.-E.

    2005-01-01

    The oligomerization of four peptide sequences, KFFE, KVVE, KLLE, and KAAE is studied using replica-exchange molecular dynamics simulations with an atomically detailed peptide model. Previous experimental studies reported that of these four peptides, only those containing phenylalanine and valine residues form fibrils. We show that the fibrillogenic propensities of these peptides can be rationalized in terms of the equilibrium thermodynamics of their early oligomers. Thermodynamic stability of dimers, as measured by the temperature of monomer association, is seen to be higher for those peptides that are able to form fibrils. Although the relative high and low stabilities of the KFFE and KAAE dimers arise from their respective high and low interpeptide interaction energies, the higher stability of the KVVE dimer over the KLLE system results from the smaller loss of configurational entropy accompanying the dimerization of KVVE. Free energy landscapes for dimerization are found to be strongly sequence-dependent, with a high free energy barrier separating the monomeric and dimeric states for KVVE, KLLE, and KAAE sequences. In contrast, the most fibrillogenic peptide, KFFE, displayed downhill assembly, indicating enhanced kinetic accessibility of its dimeric states. The dimeric phase for all peptide sequences is found to be heterogeneous, containing both antiparallel β-sheet structures that can grow into full fibrils as well as disordered dimers acting as on- or off-pathway intermediates for fibrillation. PMID:16127168

  8. Sputtering of dimers off a silicon surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nietiadi, Maureen L.; Rosandi, Yudi; Kopnarski, Michael; Urbassek, Herbert M.

    2012-10-01

    We present experimental and molecular-dynamics simulation results of the sputtering of a Si surface by 2 keV Ar ions. Results on both the monomer and dimer distributions are presented. In simulation, these distributions follow a generalized Thompson law with power exponent n=2 and n=3, respectively. The experimental data, obtained via plasma post-ionization in an SNMS (secondary neutral mass spectrometry) apparatus, show good agreement with respect to the dimer fraction, and the relative energy distributions of dimers and monomers. The consequences for the dimer sputtering mechanism are discussed.

  9. Development of a strategy to functionalize a dextrin-based hydrogel for animal cell cultures using a starch-binding module fused to RGD sequence

    PubMed Central

    Moreira, Susana M; Andrade, Fábia K; Domingues, Lucíla; Gama, Miguel

    2008-01-01

    Background Several approaches can be used to functionalize biomaterials, such as hydrogels, for biomedical applications. One of the molecules often used to improve cells adhesion is the peptide Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD). The RGD sequence, present in several proteins from the extra-cellular matrix (ECM), is a ligand for integrin-mediated cell adhesion; this sequence was recognized as a major functional group responsible for cellular adhesion. In this work a bi-functional recombinant protein, containing a starch binding module (SBM) and RGD sequence was used to functionalize a dextrin-based hydrogel. The SBM, which belongs to an α-amylase from Bacillus sp. TS-23, has starch (and dextrin, depolymerized starch) affinity, acting as a binding molecule to adsorb the RGD sequence to the hydrogel surface. Results The recombinant proteins SBM and RGD-SBM were cloned, expressed, purified and tested in in vitro assays. The evaluation of cell attachment, spreading and proliferation on the dextrin-based hydrogel surface activated with recombinant proteins were performed using mouse embryo fibroblasts 3T3. A polystyrene cell culture plate was used as control. The results showed that the RGD-SBM recombinant protein improved, by more than 30%, the adhesion of fibroblasts to dextrin-based hydrogel. In fact, cell spreading on the hydrogel surface was observed only in the presence of the RGD-SBM. Conclusion The fusion protein RGD-SBM provides an efficient way to functionalize the dextrin-based hydrogel. Many proteins in nature that hold a RGD sequence are not cell adhesive, probably due to the conformation/accessibility of the peptide. We therefore emphasise the successful expression of a bi-functional protein with potential for different applications. PMID:18854017

  10. Inhibitory Effects of PEI-RGD/125I-(αV) ASODN on Growth and Invasion of HepG2 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Haidong; Qiao, Yu; Sun, Ming; Yuan, Xueyu; Luo, Qiong; Yang, Yuehua; Yuan, Shidong; Lv, Zhongwei

    2015-01-01

    Background To investigate the in vitro inhibitory effects of PEI-RGD/125I-(αV)ASODN (PEI, polyethylenimine; RGD, Arg-Gly-Asp; ASODN, antisense oligodeoxynucleotide) on the growth and invasion of HepG2 cells. Material/Methods ASODN of the integrin αV-subunit was marked with 125I and underwent complexation with PEI-RGD, a PEI derivative. Next, PEI-RGD/125I-(αV) ASODN was introduced into HepG2 cells via receptor-mediated transfection, and its inhibition rate on HepG2 cell growth was tested using the methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) method. The effects of PEI-RGD/125I-(αV) ASODN on HepG2 cell invasion ability were evaluated using the Boyden chamber assay. Results 1) The 125I marking rate of (αV) ASODN was 73.78±4.09%, and the radiochemical purity was 96.68±1.38% (greater than 90% even after a 48-h incubation period at 37°C), indicating high stability. 2) The cytotoxicity assays showed that the cell inhibition rates did not differ significantly between the PEI-RGD/125I-(αV)ASODN group and the PEI-RGD/(αV) ASODN group, but they were both significantly higher than in the other groups and were positively correlated (r=0.879) with the dosage within a certain range. 3) The invasion assays showed that the inhibition rate was significantly greater in the PEI-RGD/125I-(αV) ASODN group compared to the other groups. Conclusions PEI-RGD/125I-(αV) ASODN can efficiently inhibit the growth and proliferation of HepG2 cells and can also weaken their invasive ability. PMID:26258995

  11. cRGD-directed, NIR-responsive and robust AuNR/PEG-PCL hybrid nanoparticles for targeted chemotherapy of glioblastoma in vivo.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Yinan; Wang, Chao; Cheng, Ru; Cheng, Liang; Meng, Fenghua; Liu, Zhuang; Zhong, Zhiyuan

    2014-12-10

    cRGD-directed, NIR-responsive and robust AuNR/PEG-PCL hybrid nanoparticles (cRGD-HNs) were designed and developed for targeted chemotherapy of human glioma xenografts in mice. As expected, cRGD-HNs had excellent colloidal stability. The in vitro release studies showed that drug release from DOX-loaded cRGD-HNs (cRGD-HN-DOX) was minimal under physiological conditions but markedly accelerated upon NIR irradiation at a low power density of 0.2 W/cm2, due to photothermally induced phase transition of PCL regime. MTT assays showed that the antitumor activity of cRGD-HN-DOX in αvβ3 integrin over-expressed human glioblastoma U87MG cells was greatly boosted by mild NIR irradiation, which was significantly more potent than non-targeting HN-DOX counterpart under otherwise the same conditions and was comparable or superior to free DOX, supporting receptor-mediated endocytosis mechanism. The in vivo pharmacokinetics studies showed that cRGD-HN-DOX had much longer circulation time than free DOX. The in vivo imaging and biodistribution studies revealed that cRGD-HN-DOX could actively target human U87MG glioma xenograft in nude mice. The therapeutic studies in human U87MG glioma xenografts exhibited that cRGD-HN-DOX in combination with NIR irradiation completely inhibited tumor growth and possessed much lower side effects than free DOX. The Kaplan-Meier survival curves showed that all mice treated with cRGD-HN-DOX plus NIR irradiation survived over an experimental period of 48 days while control groups treated with PBS, cRGD-HN-DOX, cRGD-HNs with NIR irradiation, free DOX, or HN-DOX with NIR irradiation (non-targeting control) had short life spans of 15-40 days. Ligand-directed AuNR/PEG-PCL hybrid nanoparticles with evident tumor-targetability as well as superior spatiotemporal and rate control over drug release have emerged as an appealing platform for cancer chemotherapy in vivo. PMID:25108151

  12. Dithiothreitol causes HIV-1 integrase dimer dissociation while agents interacting with the integrase dimer interface promote dimer formation.

    PubMed

    Tsiang, Manuel; Jones, Gregg S; Hung, Magdeleine; Samuel, Dharmaraj; Novikov, Nikolai; Mukund, Susmith; Brendza, Katherine M; Niedziela-Majka, Anita; Jin, Debi; Liu, Xiaohong; Mitchell, Michael; Sakowicz, Roman; Geleziunas, Romas

    2011-03-15

    We have developed a homogeneous time-resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based assay that detects the formation of HIV-1 integrase (IN) dimers. The assay utilizes IN monomers that express two different epitope tags that are recognized by their respective antibodies, coupled to distinct fluorophores. Surprisingly, we found that dithiothreitol (DTT), a reducing agent essential for in vitro enzymatic activity of IN, weakened the interaction between IN monomers. This effect of DTT on IN is dependent on its thiol groups, since the related chemical threitol, which contains hydroxyls in place of thiols, had no effect on IN dimer formation. By studying mutants of IN, we determined that cysteines in IN appear to be dispensable for the dimer dissociation effect of DTT. Peptides derived from the IN binding domain (IBD) of lens epithelium derived growth factor/transcriptional coactivator p75 (LEDGF), a cellular cofactor that interacts with the IN dimer interface, were tested in this IN dimerization assay. These peptides, which compete with LEDGF for binding to IN, displayed an intriguing equilibrium binding dose-response curve characterized by a plateau rising to a peak, then descending to a second plateau. Mathematical modeling of this binding system revealed that these LEDGF-derived peptides promote IN dimerization and block subunit exchange between IN dimers. This dose-response behavior was also observed with a small molecule that interacts with the IN dimer interface and inhibits LEDGF binding to IN. In conclusion, this novel IN dimerization assay revealed that peptide and small molecule inhibitors of the IN-LEDGF interaction also stabilize IN dimers and promote their formation. PMID:21222490

  13. The water dimer I: Experimental characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukhopadhyay, Anamika; Cole, William T. S.; Saykally, Richard J.

    2015-07-01

    As the archetype of water hydrogen bonding, the water dimer has been studied extensively by both theory and experiment for nearly seven decades. In this article, we present a detailed chronological review of the experimental dimer studies and the insights into the complex nature of water and hydrogen bonding gained from them. A subsequent letter will review the corresponding theoretical advances.

  14. Potassium Hexacyanoferrate (III)-Catalyzed Dimerization of Hydroxystilbene: Biomimetic Synthesis of Indane Stilbene Dimers.

    PubMed

    Xie, Jing-Shan; Wen, Jin; Wang, Xian-Fen; Zhang, Jian-Qiao; Zhang, Ji-Fa; Kang, Yu-Long; Hui, You-Wei; Zheng, Wen-Sheng; Yao, Chun-Suo

    2015-01-01

    Using potassium hexacyanoferrate (III)-sodium acetate as oxidant, the oxidative coupling reaction of isorhapontigenin and resveratrol in aqueous acetone resulted in the isolation of three new indane dimers 4, 6, and 7, together with six known stilbene dimers. Indane dimer 5 was obtained for the first time by direct transformation from isorhapontigenin. The structures and relative configurations of the dimers were elucidated using spectral analysis, and their possible formation mechanisms were discussed. The results indicate that this reaction could be used as a convenient method for the semi-synthesis of indane dimers because of the mild conditions and simple reaction products. PMID:26694345

  15. Statistical transmutation in doped quantum dimer models.

    PubMed

    Lamas, C A; Ralko, A; Cabra, D C; Poilblanc, D; Pujol, P

    2012-07-01

    We prove a "statistical transmutation" symmetry of doped quantum dimer models on the square, triangular, and kagome lattices: the energy spectrum is invariant under a simultaneous change of statistics (i.e., bosonic into fermionic or vice versa) of the holes and of the signs of all the dimer resonance loops. This exact transformation enables us to define the duality equivalence between doped quantum dimer Hamiltonians and provides the analytic framework to analyze dynamical statistical transmutations. We investigate numerically the doping of the triangular quantum dimer model with special focus on the topological Z(2) dimer liquid. Doping leads to four (instead of two for the square lattice) inequivalent families of Hamiltonians. Competition between phase separation, superfluidity, supersolidity, and fermionic phases is investigated in the four families. PMID:23031119

  16. Electronic transitions of palladium dimer

    SciTech Connect

    Qian, Yue; Ng, Y. W.; Chen, Zhihua; Cheung, A. S.-C.

    2013-11-21

    The laser induced fluorescence spectrum of palladium dimer (Pd{sub 2}) in the visible region between 480 and 700 nm has been observed and analyzed. The gas-phase Pd{sub 2} molecule was produced by laser ablation of palladium metal rod. Eleven vibrational bands were observed and assigned to the [17.1] {sup 3}II{sub g} - X{sup 3}Σ{sub u}{sup +} transition system. The bond length (r{sub o}) and vibrational frequency (ΔG{sub 1/2}) of the ground X{sup 3}Σ{sub u}{sup +} state were determined to be 2.47(4) Å and 211.4(5) cm{sup −1}, respectively. A molecular orbital energy level diagram was used to understand the observed ground and excited electronic states. This is the first gas-phase experimental investigation of the electronic transitions of Pd{sub 2}.

  17. Comparison between 68Ga-bombesin (68Ga-BZH3) and the cRGD tetramer 68Ga-RGD4 studies in an experimental nude rat model with a neuroendocrine pancreatic tumor cell line

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Receptor scintigraphy gains more interest for diagnosis and treatment of tumors, in particular for neuroendocrine tumors (NET). We used a pan-Bombesin analog, the peptide DOTA-PEG2-[D-tyr6, β-Ala11, Thi13, Nle14] BN(6-14) amide (BZH3). BZH3 binds to at least three receptor subtypes: the BB1 (Neuromedin B), BB2 (Gastrin-releasing peptide, GRP), and BB3. Imaging of ανβ3 integrin expression playing an important role in angiogenesis and metastasis was accomplished with a 68Ga-RGD tetramer. The purpose of this study was to investigate the kinetics and to compare both tracers in an experimental NET cell line. Methods This study comprised nine nude rats inoculated with the pancreatic tumor cell line AR42J. Dynamic positron emission tomography (PET) scans using 68Ga-BZH3 and 68Ga-RGD tetramer were performed (68Ga-RGD tetramer: n = 4, 68Ga-BZH3: n = 5). Standardized uptake values (SUVs) were calculated, and a two-tissue compartmental learning-machine model (calculation of K1 - k4 vessel density (VB) and receptor binding potential (RBP)) as well as a non-compartmental model based on the fractal dimension was used for quantitative analysis of both tracers. Multivariate analysis was used to evaluate the kinetic data. Results The PET kinetic parameters showed significant differences when individual parameters were compared between groups. Significant differences were found in FD, VB, K1, and RBP (p = 0.0275, 0.05, 0.05, and 0.0275 respectively). The 56- to 60-min SUV for 68Ga-BZH3, with a range of 0.86 to 1.29 (median, 1.19) was higher than the corresponding value for the 68Ga-RGD tetramer, with a range of 0.78 to 1.31 (median, 0.99). Furthermore, FD, VB, K1, and RBP for 68Ga-BZH3 were generally higher than the corresponding values for the 68Ga-RGD tetramer, whereas k3 was slightly higher for 68Ga-RGD tetramer. Conclusions As a parameter that reflects receptor binding, the increase of K1 for 68Ga-BZH3 indicated higher expression of bombesin receptors than that of

  18. A tumor-penetrating recombinant protein anti-EGFR-iRGD enhance efficacy of paclitaxel in 3D multicellular spheroids and gastric cancer in vivo.

    PubMed

    Sha, Huizi; Li, Rutian; Bian, Xinyu; Liu, Qin; Xie, Chen; Xin, Xiaoyan; Kong, Weiwei; Qian, Xiaoping; Jiang, Xiqun; Hu, Wenjing; Liu, Baorui

    2015-09-18

    It has been a major challenge for drug penetration in solid tumor tissues because of the complicated tumor microenvironment. We have previously constructed a protein of bispecific targets and high permeability named anti-EGFR-iRGD and investigated its inhibiting cell proliferation of gastric cancer. Paclitaxel (PTX) is widely used for treating various kinds of cancer. In this paper, we investigated the effects of anti-EGFR-iRGD in combination with chemotherapeutic drugs including PTX in epidermal growth factor receptor highly expressing gastric cancer. We demonstrated the therapeutic efficacy of PTX combined with anti-EGFR-iRGD on monolayer cells (2D), multicellular spheroids (3D) and tumor-bearing mice for the first time and investigated the mechanism of this synergy effect. Our results provide impetus for further studies to use anti-EGFR-iRGD with standard cytotoxic treatment regimens for enhancing therapy of gastric cancer patients. PMID:25998561

  19. Preparation and functional evaluation of RGD-modified streptavidin targeting to integrin-expressing melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Syrkina, Marina S; Shirokov, Dmitry A; Rubtsov, Mikhail A; Kadyrova, Elena L; Veiko, Vladimir P; Manuvera, Valentin A

    2013-02-01

    The vertical growth stage is the most dangerous stage of melanoma and is often associated with a poor prognosis. The increased invasiveness and metastasis that is typical for vertically growing melanoma are mediated by the molecules of cell adhesion (particularly, integrins). Integrin αvβ3, which is abundantly expressed on melanoma cells with high metastatic potentials and is characterized by low expression levels in normal melanocytes, is potentially an attractive target for melanoma diagnostics and therapy. Integrin αvβ3 is known to recognize the arginine-glycine-aspartic (RGD) sequence, which has been found in a wide variety of its natural ligands. Here expression vectors bearing the genes of fusion proteins have been constructed for producing these proteins in Escherichia coli. Such fusion proteins consist of a peptidic 'address,' targeting the integrins on melanoma cells, linked to an 'adaptor' for the attachment of a diagnostic or toxic agent. The peptidic 'address' contains the RGD motif, which is stabilized by a disulfide bond to achieve the optimal receptor binding conformation. The 'adaptor' is a tetrameric protein, namely, streptavidin, that is able to achieve high-affinity binding of d-biotin (K(d) = 10(-15) M) and confer avidity to the address peptide. This binding ability facilitates the generation of anti-melanoma diagnostic and therapeutic agents using the appropriate biotin derivatives. These recombinant proteins were purified from the periplasm of E.coli using columns with 2-iminobiotin agarose and demonstrated an ability to adhere to the surface of murine and human melanoma cells. PMID:23161915

  20. Disease, Models, Variants and Altered Pathways—Journeying RGD Through the Magnifying Glass

    PubMed Central

    Petri, Victoria; Hayman, G. Thomas; Tutaj, Marek; Smith, Jennifer R.; Laulederkind, Stan; Wang, Shur-Jen; Nigam, Rajni; De Pons, Jeff; Shimoyama, Mary; Dwinell, Melinda R.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the pathogenesis of disease is instrumental in delineating its progression mechanisms and for envisioning ways to counteract it. In the process, animal models represent invaluable tools for identifying disease-related loci and their genetic components. Amongst them, the laboratory rat is used extensively in the study of many conditions and disorders. The Rat Genome Database (RGD—http://rgd.mcw.edu) has been established to house rat genetic, genomic and phenotypic data. Since its inception, it has continually expanded the depth and breadth of its content. Currently, in addition to rat genes, QTLs and strains, RGD houses mouse and human genes and QTLs and offers pertinent associated data, acquired through manual literature curation and imported via pipelines. A collection of controlled vocabularies and ontologies is employed for the standardized extraction and provision of biological data. The vocabularies/ontologies allow the capture of disease and phenotype associations of rat strains and QTLs, as well as disease and pathway associations of rat, human and mouse genes. A suite of tools enables the retrieval, manipulation, viewing and analysis of data. Genes associated with particular conditions or with altered networks underlying disease pathways can be retrieved. Genetic variants in humans or in sequenced rat strains can be searched and compared. Lists of rat strains and species-specific genes and QTLs can be generated for selected ontology terms and then analyzed, downloaded or sent to other tools. From many entry points, data can be accessed and results retrieved. To illustrate, diabetes is used as a case study to initiate and embark upon an exploratory journey. PMID:27602200

  1. RGD-conjugated silica-coated gold nanorods on the surface of carbon nanotubes for targeted photoacoustic imaging of gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Herein, we reported for the first time that RGD-conjugated silica-coated gold nanorods on the surface of multiwalled carbon nanotubes were successfully used for targeted photoacoustic imaging of in vivo gastric cancer cells. A simple strategy was used to attach covalently silica-coated gold nanorods (sGNRs) onto the surface of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) to fabricate a hybrid nanostructure. The cross-linked reaction occurred through the combination of carboxyl groups on the MWNTs and the amino group on the surface of sGNRs modified with a silane coupling agent. RGD peptides were conjugated with the sGNR/MWNT nanostructure; resultant RGD-conjugated sGNR/MWNT probes were investigated for their influences on viability of MGC803 and GES-1 cells. The nude mice models loaded with gastric cancer cells were prepared, the RGD-conjugated sGNR/MWNT probes were injected into gastric cancer-bearing nude mice models via the tail vein, and the nude mice were observed by an optoacoustic imaging system. Results showed that RGD-conjugated sGNR/MWNT probes showed good water solubility and low cellular toxicity, could target in vivo gastric cancer cells, and obtained strong photoacoustic imaging in the nude model. RGD-conjugated sGNR/MWNT probes will own great potential in applications such as targeted photoacoustic imaging and photothermal therapy in the near future. PMID:24948888

  2. RGD-conjugated silica-coated gold nanorods on the surface of carbon nanotubes for targeted photoacoustic imaging of gastric cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Can; Bao, Chenchen; Liang, Shujing; Fu, Hualin; Wang, Kan; Deng, Min; Liao, Qiande; Cui, Daxiang

    2014-05-01

    Herein, we reported for the first time that RGD-conjugated silica-coated gold nanorods on the surface of multiwalled carbon nanotubes were successfully used for targeted photoacoustic imaging of in vivo gastric cancer cells. A simple strategy was used to attach covalently silica-coated gold nanorods (sGNRs) onto the surface of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) to fabricate a hybrid nanostructure. The cross-linked reaction occurred through the combination of carboxyl groups on the MWNTs and the amino group on the surface of sGNRs modified with a silane coupling agent. RGD peptides were conjugated with the sGNR/MWNT nanostructure; resultant RGD-conjugated sGNR/MWNT probes were investigated for their influences on viability of MGC803 and GES-1 cells. The nude mice models loaded with gastric cancer cells were prepared, the RGD-conjugated sGNR/MWNT probes were injected into gastric cancer-bearing nude mice models via the tail vein, and the nude mice were observed by an optoacoustic imaging system. Results showed that RGD-conjugated sGNR/MWNT probes showed good water solubility and low cellular toxicity, could target in vivo gastric cancer cells, and obtained strong photoacoustic imaging in the nude model. RGD-conjugated sGNR/MWNT probes will own great potential in applications such as targeted photoacoustic imaging and photothermal therapy in the near future.

  3. Growth promoting in vitro effect of synthetic cyclic RGD-peptides on human osteoblast-like cells attached to cancellous bone.

    PubMed

    Magdolen, Ursula; Auernheimer, Jörg; Dahmen, Claudia; Schauwecker, Johannes; Gollwitzer, Hans; Tübel, Jutta; Gradinger, Reiner; Kessler, Horst; Schmitt, Manfred; Diehl, Peter

    2006-06-01

    In tissue engineering, the application of biofunctional compounds on biomaterials such as integrin binding RGD-peptides has gained growing interest. Anchorage-dependent cells like osteoblasts bind to these peptides thus ameliorating the integration of a synthetic implant. In case sterilized bone grafts are used as substitutes for reconstruction of bone defects, the ingrowth of the implanted bone is often disturbed because of severe pretreatment such as irradiation or autoclaving, impairing the biological and mechanical properties of the bone. We report for the first time on the in vitro coating of the surface of freshly resected, cleaned bone discs with synthetic, cyclic RGD-peptides. For this approach, two different RGD-peptides were used, one containing two phosphonate anchors, the other peptide four of these binding moieties to allow efficient association of these reactive RGD-peptides to the inorganic bone matrix. Human osteoblast-like cells were cultured on RGD-coated bone discs and the adherence and growth of the cells were analyzed. Coating of bone discs with RGD-peptides did not improve the adhesion rate of osteoblast-like cells to the discs but significantly (up to 40%) accelerated growth of these cells within 8 days after attachment. This effect points to pretreatment of bone implants, especially at the critical interface area between the implanted bone and the non-resected residual bone structure, before re-implantation in order to stimulate and enhance osteointegration of a bone implant. PMID:16685410

  4. Single residue modification of only one dimer within the hemoglobin tetramer reveals autonomous dimer function

    PubMed Central

    Ackers, Gary K.; Dalessio, Paula M.; Lew, George H.; Daugherty, Margaret A.; Holt, Jo M.

    2002-01-01

    The mechanism of cooperativity in the human hemoglobin tetramer (a dimer of αβ dimers) has historically been modeled as a simple two-state system in which a low-affinity structural form (T) switches, on ligation, to a high-affinity form (R), yielding a net loss of hydrogen bonds and salt bridges in the dimer–dimer interface. Modifications that weaken these cross-dimer contacts destabilize the quaternary T tetramer, leading to decreased cooperativity and enhanced ligand affinity, as demonstrated in many studies on symmetric double modifications, i.e., a residue site modified in both α- or both β-subunits. In this work, hybrid tetramers have been prepared with only one modified residue, yielding molecules composed of a wild-type dimer and a modified dimer. It is observed that the cooperative free energy of ligation to the modified dimer is perturbed to the same extent whether in the hybrid tetramer or in the doubly modified tetramer. The cooperative free energy of ligation to the wild-type dimer is unperturbed, even in the hybrid tetramer, and despite the overall destabilization of the T tetramer by the modification. This asymmetric response by the two dimers within the same tetramer shows that loss of dimer–dimer contacts is not communicated across the dimer–dimer interface, but is transmitted through the dimer that bears the modified residue. These observations are interpreted in terms of a previously proposed dimer-based model of cooperativity with an additional quaternary (T/R) component. PMID:12119405

  5. Quantum dimer model for the pseudogap metal

    PubMed Central

    Punk, Matthias; Allais, Andrea; Sachdev, Subir

    2015-01-01

    We propose a quantum dimer model for the metallic state of the hole-doped cuprates at low hole density, p. The Hilbert space is spanned by spinless, neutral, bosonic dimers and spin S=1/2, charge +e fermionic dimers. The model realizes a “fractionalized Fermi liquid” with no symmetry breaking and small hole pocket Fermi surfaces enclosing a total area determined by p. Exact diagonalization, on lattices of sizes up to 8×8, shows anisotropic quasiparticle residue around the pocket Fermi surfaces. We discuss the relationship to experiments. PMID:26195771

  6. Biomimetic synthesis: discovery of xanthanolide dimers.

    PubMed

    Shang, Hai; Liu, Junhua; Bao, Ruiyang; Cao, Yu; Zhao, Kun; Xiao, Chengqian; Zhou, Bing; Hu, Lihong; Tang, Yefeng

    2014-12-22

    Starting from xanthatin, the biomimetic synthesis of 4β,5β-epoxyxanthatin-1α,4α-endoperoxide, a novel monomeric xanthanolide, has been achieved. Moreover, four unprecedented xanthanolide dimers were synthesized by three different dimerizations of xanthatin, either in a head-to-head or head-to-tail fashion. Notably, these dimeric compounds were firstly identified as artifacts in the laboratory, and two of them, mogolides A and B, proved to be natural products present in the Xanthium mogolium Kitag plant. PMID:25430055

  7. Spin 3/2 dimer model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rachel, S.

    2009-05-01

    We present a parent Hamiltonian for weakly dimerized valence bond solid states for arbitrary half-integral S. While the model reduces for S=1/2 to the Majumdar-Ghosh Hamiltonian, we discuss this model and its properties for S=3/2. Its degenerate ground state is the most popular toy model state for discussing dimerization in spin 3/2 chains. In particular, it describes the impurity-induced dimer phase in Cr8Ni as proposed recently. We point out that the explicit construction of the Hamiltonian and its main features apply to arbitrary half-integral spin S.

  8. Accuracy of RGD approximation for computing light scattering properties of diffusing and motile bacteria. [Rayleigh-Gans-Debye

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kottarchyk, M.; Chen, S.-H.; Asano, S.

    1979-01-01

    The study tests the accuracy of the Rayleigh-Gans-Debye (RGD) approximation against a rigorous scattering theory calculation for a simplified model of E. coli (about 1 micron in size) - a solid spheroid. A general procedure is formulated whereby the scattered field amplitude correlation function, for both polarized and depolarized contributions, can be computed for a collection of particles. An explicit formula is presented for the scattered intensity, both polarized and depolarized, for a collection of randomly diffusing or moving particles. Two specific cases for the intermediate scattering functions are considered: diffusing particles and freely moving particles with a Maxwellian speed distribution. The formalism is applied to microorganisms suspended in a liquid medium. Sensitivity studies revealed that for values of the relative index of refraction greater than 1.03, RGD could be in serious error in computing the intensity as well as correlation functions.

  9. Coupling Gd‑DTPA with a bispecific, recombinant protein anti‑EGFR‑iRGD complex improves tumor targeting in MRI.

    PubMed

    Xin, Xiaoyan; Sha, Huizi; Shen, Jingtao; Zhang, Bing; Zhu, Bin; Liu, Baorui

    2016-06-01

    Recombinant anti‑epidermal growth factor receptor‑internalizing arginine‑glycine‑aspartic acid (anti‑EGFR single‑domain antibody fused with iRGD peptide) protein efficiently targets the EGFR extracellular domain and integrin αvβ/β5, and shows a high penetration into cells. Thus, this protein may improve penetration of conjugated drugs into the deep zone of gastric cancer multicellular 3D spheroids. In the present study, a novel tumor‑targeting contrast agent for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was developed, by coupling gadolinium‑diethylene triamine pentaacetate (Gd‑DTPA) with the bispecific recombinant anti‑EGFR‑iRGD protein. The anti‑EGFR‑iRGD protein was extracted from Escherichia coli and Gd was loaded onto the recombinant protein by chelation using DTPA anhydride. Single‑targeting agent anti‑EGFR‑DTPA‑Gd, which served as the control, was also prepared. The results of the present study showed that anti‑EGFR‑iRGD‑DTPA‑Gd exhibited no significant cyto-toxicity to human gastric carcinoma cells (BGC‑823) under the experimental conditions used. Compared with a conventional contrast agent (Magnevist), anti‑EGFR‑iRGD‑DTPA‑Gd showed higher T1 relaxivity (10.157/mM/sec at 3T) and better tumor‑targeting ability. In addition, the signal intensity and the area under curve for the enhanced signal time in tumor, in vivo, were stronger than Gd‑DTPA alone or the anti‑EGFR‑Gd control. Thus, Gd‑labelled anti‑EGFR‑iRGD has potential as a tumor‑targeting contrast agent for improved MRI. PMID:27035336

  10. RGD peptide-modified dendrimer-entrapped gold nanoparticles enable highly efficient and specific gene delivery to stem cells.

    PubMed

    Kong, Lingdan; Alves, Carla S; Hou, Wenxiu; Qiu, Jieru; Möhwald, Helmuth; Tomás, Helena; Shi, Xiangyang

    2015-03-01

    We report the use of arginine-glycine-aspartic (Arg-Gly-Asp, RGD) peptide-modified dendrimer-entrapped gold nanoparticles (Au DENPs) for highly efficient and specific gene delivery to stem cells. In this study, generation 5 poly(amidoamine) dendrimers modified with RGD via a poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) spacer and with PEG monomethyl ether were used as templates to entrap gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). The native and the RGD-modified PEGylated dendrimers and the respective well characterized Au DENPs were used as vectors to transfect human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) with plasmid DNA (pDNA) carrying both the enhanced green fluorescent protein and the luciferase (pEGFPLuc) reporter genes, as well as pDNA encoding the human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (hBMP-2) gene. We show that all vectors are capable of transfecting the hMSCs with both pDNAs. Gene transfection using pEGFPLuc was demonstrated by quantitative Luc activity assay and qualitative evaluation by fluorescence microscopy. For the transfection with hBMP-2, the gene delivery efficiency was evaluated by monitoring the hBMP-2 concentration and the level of osteogenic differentiation of the hMSCs via alkaline phosphatase activity, osteocalcin secretion, calcium deposition, and von Kossa staining assays. Our results reveal that the stem cell gene delivery efficiency is largely dependent on the composition and the surface functionality of the dendrimer-based vectors. The coexistence of RGD and AuNPs rendered the designed dendrimeric vector with specific stem cell binding ability likely via binding of integrin receptor on the cell surface and improved three-dimensional conformation of dendrimers, which is beneficial for highly efficient and specific stem cell gene delivery applications. PMID:25658033