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Sample records for 18ffallypride dopamine d2

  1. Distinct regulation of dopamine D2S and D2L autoreceptor signaling by calcium.

    PubMed

    Gantz, Stephanie C; Robinson, Brooks G; Buck, David C; Bunzow, James R; Neve, Rachael L; Williams, John T; Neve, Kim A

    2015-01-01

    D2 autoreceptors regulate dopamine release throughout the brain. Two isoforms of the D2 receptor, D2S and D2L, are expressed in midbrain dopamine neurons. Differential roles of these isoforms as autoreceptors are poorly understood. By virally expressing the isoforms in dopamine neurons of D2 receptor knockout mice, this study assessed the calcium-dependence and drug-induced plasticity of D2S and D2L receptor-dependent G protein-coupled inwardly rectifying potassium (GIRK) currents. The results reveal that D2S, but not D2L receptors, exhibited calcium-dependent desensitization similar to that exhibited by endogenous autoreceptors. Two pathways of calcium signaling that regulated D2 autoreceptor-dependent GIRK signaling were identified, which distinctly affected desensitization and the magnitude of D2S and D2L receptor-dependent GIRK currents. Previous in vivo cocaine exposure removed calcium-dependent D2 autoreceptor desensitization in wild type, but not D2S-only mice. Thus, expression of D2S as the exclusive autoreceptor was insufficient for cocaine-induced plasticity, implying a functional role for the co-expression of D2S and D2L autoreceptors. PMID:26308580

  2. Dopamine D2-like receptor signaling suppresses human osteoclastogenesis.

    PubMed

    Hanami, Kentaro; Nakano, Kazuhisa; Saito, Kazuyoshi; Okada, Yosuke; Yamaoka, Kunihiro; Kubo, Satoshi; Kondo, Masahiro; Tanaka, Yoshiya

    2013-09-01

    Dopamine, a major neurotransmitter, transmits signals via five different seven-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptors termed D1 to D5. Although the relevance of neuroendocrine system to bone metabolism has been emerging, the precise effects of dopaminergic signaling upon osteoclastogenesis remain unknown. Here, we demonstrate that human monocyte-derived osteoclast precursor cells express all dopamine-receptor subtypes. Dopamine and dopamine D2-like receptor agonists such as pramipexole and quinpirole reduced the formation of TRAP-positive multi-nucleated cells, cathepsin K mRNA expression, and pit formation area in vitro. These inhibitory effects were reversed by pre-treatment with a D2-like receptor antagonist haloperidol or a Gαi inhibitor pertussis toxin, but not with the D1-like receptor antagonist SCH-23390. Dopamine and dopamine D2-like receptor agonists, but not a D1-like receptor agonist, suppressed intracellular cAMP concentration as well as RANKL-meditated induction of c-Fos and NFATc1 mRNA expression in human osteoclast precursor cells. Finally, the dopamine D2-like receptor agonist suppressed LPS-induced osteoclast formation in murine bone marrow culture ex vivo. These findings indicate that dopaminergic signaling plays an important role in bone homeostasis via direct effects upon osteoclast differentiation and further suggest that the clinical use of neuroleptics is likely to affect bone mass. PMID:23631878

  3. Binding Interactions of Dopamine and Apomorphine in D2High and D2Low States of Human Dopamine D2 Receptor Using Computational and Experimental Techniques.

    PubMed

    Durdagi, Serdar; Salmas, Ramin Ekhteiari; Stein, Matthias; Yurtsever, Mine; Seeman, Philip

    2016-02-17

    We have recently reported G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) model structures for the active and inactive states of the human dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) using adrenergic crystal structures as templates. Since the therapeutic concentrations of dopamine agonists that suppress the release of prolactin are the same as those that act at the high-affinity state of the D2 receptor (D2High), D2High in the anterior pituitary gland is considered to be the functional state of the receptor. In addition, the therapeutic concentrations of anti-Parkinson drugs are also related to the dissociation constants in the D2High form of the receptor. The discrimination between the high- and low-affinity (D2Low) components of the D2R is not obvious and requires advanced computer-assisted structural biology investigations. Therefore, in this work, the derived D2High and D2Low receptor models (GPCR monomer and dimer three-dimensional structures) are used as drug-binding targets to investigate binding interactions of dopamine and apomorphine. The study reveals a match between the experimental dissociation constants of dopamine and apomorphine at their high- and low-affinity sites of the D2 receptor in monomer and dimer and their calculated dissociation constants. The allosteric receptor-receptor interaction for dopamine D2R dimer is associated with the accessibility of adjacent residues of transmembrane region 4. The measured negative cooperativity between agonist ligand at dopamine D2 receptor is also correctly predicted using the D2R homodimerization model. PMID:26645629

  4. Pramipexole, a dopamine D2 autoreceptor agonist, decreases the extracellular concentration of dopamine in vivo.

    PubMed

    Carter, A J; Müller, R E

    1991-07-23

    Pramipexole (SND 919) is a dopamine D2 autoreceptor agonist which is structurally related to talipexole (B-HT 920), a potential antipsychotic agent. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of pramipexole on the extracellular concentration of dopamine in vivo. Dopamine and its metabolites, 3,4-dihydrophenylacetic acid and homovanillic acid, were measured in the anterior striatum of freely moving rats by microdialysis and high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. Pramipexole (30 and 100 micrograms/kg) caused long-lasting decreases in the extracellular concentrations of dopamine and its metabolites. Talipexole (30 micrograms/kg) produced similar effects. Sulpiride (5 mg/kg), a selective dopamine D2 antagonist, caused a transient increase in the concentration of dopamine and long-lasting increases in the concentrations of its metabolites; it also reversed the effects of pramipexole. SCH-23390 (100 micrograms/kg), a selective dopamine D1 receptor antagonist, caused a transient increase in the concentration of dopamine but did not affect the concentrations of the metabolites. SCH-23390 failed to reverse the effects of pramipexole. These results indicate that pramipexole reduces the extracellular concentrations of dopamine and its metabolites in vivo through a reversible interaction with the dopamine D2 receptor. PMID:1685123

  5. Dopamine Transporters, D2 Receptors, and Dopamine Release in Generalized Social Anxiety Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Schneier, Franklin R.; Abi-Dargham, Anissa; Martinez, Diana; Slifstein, Mark; Hwang, Dah-Ren; Liebowitz, Michael R.; Laruelle, Marc

    2009-01-01

    Background Dopamine D2 receptor and dopamine transporter availability in the striatum have each been reported abnormal in generalized social anxiety disorder (GSAD) in studies using single photon computerized tomography (SPECT). D2 receptors and dopamine transporters have not previously been studied within the same GSAD subjects, however, and prior GSAD studies have not assessed dopamine release or subdivided striatum into functional subregions. Methods Unmedicated adults with GSAD (N=17) and matched healthy comparison subjects (HC, N=13) participated in this study. Of these, 15 GSAD and 13 HC subjects completed baseline assessment of D2 receptor availability using positron emission tomography (PET) with the radiotracer [11C] raclopride. Twelve GSAD and 13 HC subjects completed a repeat scan after intravenous administration of D-amphetamine, to study dopamine release. Twelve of the GSAD subjects and 10 of the HC subjects also completed SPECT with the radiotracer [123I] methyl 3ß-(4-iodophenyl) tropane-2ß-carboxylate ([123I] ß-CIT) to assess dopamine transporter availability. Results GSAD and HC groups did not differ significantly in striatal dopamine transporter availability, overall striatal or striatal subregion D2 receptor availability at baseline, or change in D2 receptor availability after D-amphetamine. Receptor availability and change after D-amphetamine were not significantly associated with severity of social anxiety or trait detachment. Conclusions These findings do not replicate previous findings of altered striatal dopamine transporter and D2 receptor availability in GSAD subjects assessed with SPECT. The differences from results of prior studies may be due to differences in imaging methods or characteristics of samples. PMID:19180583

  6. Functional dopamine D2 receptors on rat vagal afferent neurones.

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, A J; Krstew, E; Jarrott, B

    1995-01-01

    1. In the present study in vitro electrophysiology and receptor autoradiography were used to determine whether rat vagal afferent neurones possess dopamine D2 receptors. 2. Dopamine (10-300 microM) elicited a temperature- and concentration-dependent depolarization of the rat isolated nodose ganglion preparation. When applied to the tissue 15 min prior to agonist, raclopride (10 microM), clozapine (10 microM) or a mixture of raclopride and clozapine (10 microM each) all produced a threefold parallel shift to the right of the dopamine concentration-response curve. In contrast, SCH 23390 (100 nM), phentolamine and propranolol (1 microM each) failed to antagonize the dopamine-mediated depolarization. 3. [125I]-NCQ 298 (0.5 nM), a D2 selective radioligand, bound topographically to sections of rat brainstem. Densitometric quantification of autoradiograms revealed 93.8 +/- 0.5% specific binding of this salicylamide radioligand, as determined by raclopride (10 microM, n = 10 animals). Binding was highest in the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS), particularly the medial and gelatinous subnuclei. In addition, specific binding was also observed in the interpolar spinal trigeminal nucleus and the inferior olive. 4. Unilateral nodose ganglionectomy caused a 36.6 +/- 3.0% reduction in specific binding in the denervated NTS compared to the contralateral NTS. Furthermore, the loss of binding was confined to the dorsal aspect of the medial subnucleus of the NTS. Sham surgery had no effect on the binding of [125I]-NCQ 298 in rat brainstem. 5. The present data provide evidence for the presence of functionally relevant dopamine D2 receptors on both the soma and central terminals of rat vagal afferent neurones.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images Figure 3 PMID:7606337

  7. Effect of age on extrastriatal dopamine D2 receptor availability

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, G.J.; Volkow, N.D.; Fowler, J.S. |

    1996-05-01

    It is known that dopamine (DA) D2 receptor availability in basal ganglia decreases with age. This study was done to assess the effects of age on extrastriatal DA D2 receptors. DA D2 receptor availability was evaluated in 42 healthy male subjects (age mean 41 {plus_minus} 16, range 21 -86 year old) using positron emission tomography (PET) and [C-11]raclopride. DA D2 receptor availability was measured using the ratio of the distribution volume in the region of interest (caudate, putamen, thalamus, frontal, occipital cortices, temporal insula, cingulate and orbitofrontal gyri) to that in the cerebellum which is a function of B{sub max.}/K{sub d}. Pearson product-moment correlation was used to evaluate the correlation between age and D2 receptor availability. DA D2 receptor availability in putamen (r {le} 0.0001), caudate (r {le} 0.0002), thalamus (r {le} 0.03), and temporal insula (r {le} 0.01) were significantly correlated with age. The decrements in D2 receptors with age were lower in extrastriatal than in striatal regions and corresponded to a decrease of 4.7% per decade in caudate, 6.2% in putamen, 2.1% in thalamus and 2.5% in temporal insula. This study documents age related decrement of DA D2 receptor availability in striatal and extrastriatal regions.

  8. A ROLE FOR DOPAMINE D2 RECEPTORS IN REVERSAL LEARNING

    PubMed Central

    DeSTENO, D. A.; SCHMAUSS, C.

    2010-01-01

    Reversal learning has been shown to require intact serotonergic innervation of the forebrain neocortex. Whether dopamine acting through D2 receptors plays a complementary role in this anatomic area is still unclear. Here we show that mice lacking dopamine D2 receptors exhibited significantly impaired performance in the reversal learning phase of an attention-set-shifting task (ASST) and that wild type mice treated chronically with the D2-like receptor antagonist haloperidol exhibited the same cognitive deficit. The test-phase-specific deficits of D2 mutants and haloperidol-treated mice were also accompanied by deficits in the induction of expression of early growth response gene 2 (egr-2), a regulatory transcription factor previously shown to be selectively induced in the ventrolateral orbital frontal cortex and the pre-and infralimbic medial prefrontal cortex of ASST-tested mice. D2-receptor knockout mice and haloperidol-treated wild type, however, exhibited lower egr-2 expression in these anatomic regions after completion of an ASST-test phase that required reversal learning but not after completion of set-shifting phases without rule reversals. In contrast, mice treated chronically with clozapine, an atypical neuroleptic drug with lower D2-receptor affinity and broader pharmacological effects, had deficits in compound discrimination phases of the ASST, but also these deficits were accompanied by lower egr-2 expression in the same anatomic subregions. Thus, the findings indicate that egr-2 expression is a sensitive indicator of test-phase-specific performance in the ASST and that normal function of D2 receptors in subregions of the orbital frontal and the medial prefrontal cortex is required for cognitive flexibility in tests involving rule reversals. PMID:19401217

  9. Serotonin-S2 and dopamine-D2 receptors are the same size in membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Brann, M.R.

    1985-12-31

    Target size analysis was used to compare the sizes of serotonin-S2 and dopamine-D2 receptors in rat brain membranes. The sizes of these receptors were standardized by comparison with the muscarinic receptor, a receptor of known size. The number of serotonin-S2 receptors labeled with (3H)ketanserin or (3H)spiperone in frontal cortex decreased as an exponential function of radiation dose, and receptor affinity was not affected. The number of dopamine-D2 receptors labeled with (3H)spiperone in striatum also decreased as an exponential function of radiation dose, and D2 and S2 receptors were equally sensitive to radiation. In both striatum and frontal cortex, the number of muscarinic receptors labeled with (3H)QNB decreased as an exponential function of radiation dose, and were much less sensitive to radiation than S2 and D2 receptors. These data indicate that in rat brain membranes, S2 and D2 receptors are of similar size, and both molecules are much larger than the muscarinic receptor.

  10. Role of Dopamine D2 Receptors in Human Reinforcement Learning

    PubMed Central

    Eisenegger, Christoph; Naef, Michael; Linssen, Anke; Clark, Luke; Gandamaneni, Praveen K; Müller, Ulrich; Robbins, Trevor W

    2014-01-01

    Influential neurocomputational models emphasize dopamine (DA) as an electrophysiological and neurochemical correlate of reinforcement learning. However, evidence of a specific causal role of DA receptors in learning has been less forthcoming, especially in humans. Here we combine, in a between-subjects design, administration of a high dose of the selective DA D2/3-receptor antagonist sulpiride with genetic analysis of the DA D2 receptor in a behavioral study of reinforcement learning in a sample of 78 healthy male volunteers. In contrast to predictions of prevailing models emphasizing DA's pivotal role in learning via prediction errors, we found that sulpiride did not disrupt learning, but rather induced profound impairments in choice performance. The disruption was selective for stimuli indicating reward, whereas loss avoidance performance was unaffected. Effects were driven by volunteers with higher serum levels of the drug, and in those with genetically determined lower density of striatal DA D2 receptors. This is the clearest demonstration to date for a causal modulatory role of the DA D2 receptor in choice performance that might be distinct from learning. Our findings challenge current reward prediction error models of reinforcement learning, and suggest that classical animal models emphasizing a role of postsynaptic DA D2 receptors in motivational aspects of reinforcement learning may apply to humans as well. PMID:24713613

  11. [Effect of flunarizine hydrochloride on striatal D-2 dopamine receptors].

    PubMed

    Ogawa, N; Asanuma, M; Takayama, H; Sato, H; Nukina, I

    1990-11-01

    Flunarizine hydrochloride (FZ) is used to improve cerebral circulation and possesses Ca antagonistic effects. In recent years, this drug has been reported to induce parkinsonism and depressive symptoms as side effects, particularly in the elderly. Effects of FZ on dopamine receptors of the rat striatum were studied by radiolabeled receptor assay to clarify the mechanism of onset of parkinsonism in response to FZ. FZ was found to directly and competitively affect D-2 receptors without affecting D-1 receptors. Furthermore, the effect of FZ on D-2 receptors was found to be antagonistic based on the finding that the displacement curve for FZ in the binding of [3H]spiperone to D-2 receptors remained unchanged even after the addition of GppNHp. The effect of FZ on the D-2 receptors in aged rats was more marked than that in young-adult rats. In addition, the tertiary structures of FZ and the anti-schizophrenic agents, pimozide and haloperidol, were examined using computer graphics. FZ was found to have a tertiary structure highly analogous to pimozide and haloperidol, and FZ also had an alkyl structure linking a fluorophenyl group and a nitrogen atom, believed to be particularly necessary for the binding of anti-schizophrenic agents to D-2 receptors. These results may contribute to clarifying the mechanism of onset of parkinsonism in response to FZ, especially in the elderly. PMID:2150791

  12. Increased baseline occupancy of D2 receptors by dopamine in schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Abi-Dargham, Anissa; Rodenhiser, Janine; Printz, David; Zea-Ponce, Yolanda; Gil, Roberto; Kegeles, Lawrence S.; Weiss, Richard; Cooper, Thomas B.; Mann, J. John; Van Heertum, Ronald L.; Gorman, Jack M.; Laruelle, Marc

    2000-01-01

    The classical dopamine hypothesis of schizophrenia postulates a hyperactivity of dopaminergic transmission at the D2 receptor. We measured in vivo occupancy of striatal D2 receptors by dopamine in 18 untreated patients with schizophrenia and 18 matched controls, by comparing D2 receptor availability before and during pharmacologically induced acute dopamine depletion. Acute depletion of intrasynaptic dopamine resulted in a larger increase in D2 receptor availability in patients with schizophrenia (19% ± 11%) compared with control subjects (9% ± 7%, P = 0.003). The increased occupancy of D2 receptors by dopamine occurred both in first-episode neuroleptic-naive patients and in previously treated chronic patients experiencing an episode of illness exacerbation. In addition, elevated synaptic dopamine was predictive of good treatment response of positive symptoms to antipsychotic drugs. This finding provides direct evidence of increased stimulation of D2 receptors by dopamine in schizophrenia, consistent with increased phasic activity of dopaminergic neurons. PMID:10884434

  13. Midbrain dopamine D2/3 receptor binding in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Tuppurainen, Heli; Kuikka, Jyrki T; Laakso, Mikko P; Viinamäki, Heimo; Husso, Minna; Tiihonen, Jari

    2006-09-01

    Several studies suggest that dysregulation of dopaminergic transmission in the midbrain and thalamus may contribute to the symptomatology of schizophrenia. The objective of this study was to examine the putative alteration of dopamine D(2/3 )receptor densities in the thalamus and midbrain of drug-naïve schizophrenic patients. We used the high-affinity single-photon emission tomography ligand [(123)I]epidepride for imaging D(2/3 )receptor binding sites in six neuroleptic-naïve schizophrenic patients, and seven healthy controls. Schizophrenic symptoms were evaluated by the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale. Significantly lower D(2/3 )values were observed in the midbrain of patients with schizophrenia compared to controls (P = 0.02). No statistically significant difference was observed in the thalamus between two groups. Negative correlations were found between thalamic D(2/3 )receptor binding and general psychopathological schizophrenic symptoms (r from -0.78 to -0.92). These observations implicate altered dopaminergic activity in the midbrain of schizophrenic patients. PMID:16783502

  14. Evidence against dopamine D1/D2 receptor heteromers

    PubMed Central

    Frederick, Aliya L.; Yano, Hideaki; Trifilieff, Pierre; Vishwasrao, Harshad D.; Biezonski, Dominik; Mészáros, József; Sibley, David R.; Kellendonk, Christoph; Sonntag, Kai C.; Graham, Devon L.; Colbran, Roger J.; Stanwood, Gregg D.; Javitch, Jonathan A.

    2014-01-01

    Hetero-oligomers of G-protein-coupled receptors have become the subject of intense investigation because their purported potential to manifest signaling and pharmacological properties that differ from the component receptors makes them highly attractive for the development of more selective pharmacological treatments. In particular, dopamine D1 and D2 receptors have been proposed to form hetero-oligomers that couple to Gαq proteins, and SKF83959 has been proposed to act as a biased agonist that selectively engages these receptor complexes to activate Gαq and thus phospholipase C. D1/D2 heteromers have been proposed as relevant to the pathophysiology and treatment of depression and schizophrenia. We used in vitro bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET), ex vivo analyses of receptor localization and proximity in brain slices, and behavioral assays in mice to characterize signaling from these putative dimers/oligomers. We were unable to detect Gαq or Gα11 protein coupling to homomers or heteromers of D1 or D2 receptors using a variety of biosensors. SKF83959-induced locomotor and grooming behaviors were eliminated in D1 receptor knockout mice, verifying a key role for D1-like receptor activation. In contrast, SKF83959-induced motor responses were intact in D2 receptor and Gαq knockout mice, as well as in knock-in mice expressing a mutant Ala286-CaMKIIα, that cannot autophosphorylate to become active. Moreover, we found that in the shell of the nucleus accumbens, even in neurons in which D1 and D2 receptor promoters are both active, the receptor proteins are segregated and do not form complexes. These data are not compatible with SKF83959 signaling through Gαq or through a D1–D2 heteromer and challenge the existence of such a signaling complex in the adult animals that we used for our studies. PMID:25560761

  15. Imaging extrastriatal dopamine D(2) receptor occupancy by endogenous dopamine in healthy humans.

    PubMed

    Fujita, M; Verhoeff, N P; Varrone, A; Zoghbi, S S; Baldwin, R M; Jatlow, P A; Anderson, G M; Seibyl, J P; Innis, R B

    2000-01-10

    The effect of endogenous dopamine on in vivo measurement of dopamine D(2) receptors in extrastriatal regions (thalamus and temporal cortex) was evaluated with single photon emission computed tomography and the high affinity ligand [123I]epidepride by comparing the binding potential before and after acute dopamine depletion. Dopamine depletion was achieved by per-oral administration of 5.5 g/70 kg body weight alpha-methyl-para-tyrosine given in 37 h. The alpha-methyl-para-tyrosine treatment increased the binding potential significantly in the temporal cortex (13+/-15%, P=0.036) but not in the thalamus (2+/-9%). The increase of the binding potential in the temporal cortex correlated strongly with the increase of dysphoric mood evaluated by the Positive and Negative Symptom Scale (PANSS) (rho=0.88, P=0.004). These results imply that [123I]epidepride, coupled with acute dopamine depletion might provide estimates of synaptic dopamine concentration. PMID:10650158

  16. The role of D2-autoreceptors in regulating dopamine neuron activity and transmission.

    PubMed

    Ford, C P

    2014-12-12

    Dopamine D2-autoreceptors play a key role in regulating the activity of dopamine neurons and control the synthesis, release and uptake of dopamine. These Gi/o-coupled inhibitory receptors play a major part in shaping dopamine transmission. Found at both somatodendritic and axonal sites, autoreceptors regulate the firing patterns of dopamine neurons and control the timing and amount of dopamine released from their terminals in target regions. Alterations in the expression and activity of autoreceptors are thought to contribute to Parkinson's disease as well as schizophrenia, drug addiction and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), which emphasizes the importance of D2-autoreceptors in regulating the dopamine system. This review will summarize the cellular actions of dopamine autoreceptors and discuss recent advances that have furthered our understanding of the mechanisms by which D2-receptors control dopamine transmission. PMID:24463000

  17. Dopamine D2/D3 receptor availability and venturesomeness.

    PubMed

    Bernow, Nina; Yakushev, Igor; Landvogt, Christian; Buchholz, Hans-Georg; Smolka, Michael N; Bartenstein, Peter; Lieb, Klaus; Gründer, Gerhard; Vernaleken, Ingo; Schreckenberger, Mathias; Fehr, Christoph

    2011-08-30

    The construct of impulsivity is considered as a major trait of personality. There is growing evidence that the mesolimbic dopamine system plays an important role in the modulation of impulsivity and venturesomeness, the two key components within the impulsivity-construct. The aim of the present study was to explore an association between trait impulsivity measured with self-assessment and the dopaminergic neurotransmission as measured by positron emission tomography (PET) in a cohort of healthy male subjects. In vivo D2/D3 receptor availability was determined with [(18)F]fallypride PET in 18 non-smoking healthy subjects. The character trait impulsivity was measured using the Impulsiveness-Venturesomeness-Empathy questionnaire (I7). Image processing and statistical analysis was performed on a voxel-by-voxel basis using statistical parametric mapping (SPM) software. The I7 subscale venturesomeness correlated positively with the D2/D3 receptor availability within the left temporal cortex and the thalamus. Measures on the I7 subscale impulsiveness and empathy did not correlate with the D2/D3 receptor availability in any brain region investigated. Our results suggest the involvement of extrastriatal dopaminergic neurotransmission in venturesomeness, a component of impulsivity. PMID:21689908

  18. The D2 dopamine receptor gene as a determinant of reward deficiency syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Blum, K; Sheridan, P J; Wood, R C; Braverman, E R; Chen, T J; Cull, J G; Comings, D E

    1996-01-01

    The dopaminergic system, and in particular the dopamine D2 receptor, has been profoundly implicated in reward mechanisms in the brain. Dysfunction of the D2 dopamine receptors leads to aberrant substance seeking behaviour (alcohol, drug, tobacco, and food) and other related behaviours (pathological gambling, Tourette's syndrome, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder). We propose that variants of the D2 dopamine receptor gene are important common genetic determinants of the 'reward deficiency syndrome'. PMID:8774539

  19. Antipsychotic-induced alterations in D2 dopamine receptor interacting proteins within the cortex.

    PubMed

    Kabbani, Nadine; Levenson, Robert

    2006-02-27

    Current antipsychotic treatment involves the regulation of D2 dopamine receptor activity in the brain. Here, we examined the effects of chronic haloperidol and clozapine on cortical D2 dopamine receptors and six different dopamine receptor interacting proteins. Using comparative immunoblot analysis, we found that treatment with either haloperidol or clozapine increased D2 dopamine receptors, calcium activator protein for secretion, protein 4.1N, and neuronal calcium sensor-1 expression. Treatment with clozapine increased calmodulin and spinophilin expression, while treatment with haloperidol decreased expression of these two dopamine receptor interacting proteins. Neither antipsychotic drug was found to have an effect on filamin-A expression. These findings underscore a role for cortical D2 dopamine receptor in the mechanism of antipsychotic drug action, and suggest dopamine receptor interacting proteins as novel targets in antipsychotic drug development. PMID:16462601

  20. Dopamine inhibits somatolactin gene expression in tilapia pituitary cells through the dopamine D2 receptors.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Quan; Lian, Anji; He, Qi

    2016-07-01

    Dopamine (DA) is an important neurotransmitter in the central nervous system of vertebrates and possesses key hypophysiotropic functions. Early studies have shown that DA has a potent inhibitory effect on somatolactin (SL) release in fish. However, the mechanisms responsible for DA inhibition of SL gene expression are largely unknown. To this end, tilapia DA type-1 (D1) and type-2 (D2) receptor transcripts were examined in the neurointermediate lobe (NIL) of the tilapia pituitary by real-time PCR. In tilapia, DA not only was effective in inhibiting SL mRNA levels in vivo and in vitro, but also could abolish pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP)- and salmon gonadotropin-releasing hormone (sGnRH)-stimulated SL gene expression at the pituitary level. In parallel studies, the specific D2 receptor agonists quinpirole and bromocriptine could mimic the DA-inhibited SL gene expression. Furthermore, the D2 receptor antagonists domperidone and (-)-sulpiride could abolish the SL response to DA or the D2 agonist quinpirole, whereas D1 receptor antagonists SCH23390 and SKF83566 were not effective in this respect. In primary cultures of tilapia NIL cells, D2 agonist quinpirole-inhibited cAMP production could be blocked by co-treatment with the D2 antagonist domperidone and the ability of forskolin to increase cAMP production was also inhibited by quinpirole. Using a pharmacological approach, the AC/cAMP pathway was shown to be involved in quinpirole-inhibited SL mRNA expression. These results provide evidence that DA can directly inhibit SL gene expression at the tilapia pituitary level via D2 receptor through the AC/cAMP-dependent mechanism. PMID:26970582

  1. Mechanisms of agonist action at D2 dopamine receptors.

    PubMed

    Roberts, David J; Lin, Hong; Strange, Philip G

    2004-12-01

    In this study, we investigated the biochemical mechanisms of agonist action at the G protein-coupled D2 dopamine receptor expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells. Stimulation of guanosine 5'-O-(3-[35S]thio)triphosphate ([35S]GTPgammaS) binding by full and partial agonists was determined at different concentrations of [35S]GTPgammaS (0.1 and 10 nM) and in the presence of different concentrations of GDP. At both concentrations of [35S]GTPgammaS, increasing GDP decreased the [35S]GTPgammaS binding observed with maximally stimulating concentrations of agonist, with partial agonists exhibiting greater sensitivity to the effects of GDP than full agonists. The relative efficacy of partial agonists was greater at the lower GDP concentrations. Concentration-response experiments were performed for a range of agonists at the two [35S]GTPgammaS concentrations and with different concentrations of GDP. At 0.1 nM [35S]GTPgammaS, the potency of both full and partial agonists was dependent on the GDP concentration in the assays. At 10 nM [35S]GTPgammaS, the potency of full agonists exhibited a greater dependence on the GDP concentration, whereas the potency of partial agonists was virtually independent of GDP. We concluded that at the lower [35S]GTPgammaS concentration, the rate-determining step in G protein activation is the binding of [35S]GTPgammaS to the G protein. At the higher [35S]GTPgammaS concentration, for full agonists, [35S]GTPgammaS binding remains the slowest step, whereas for partial agonists, another (GDP-independent) step, probably ternary complex breakdown, becomes rate-determining. PMID:15340043

  2. Mechanisms of inverse agonist action at D2 dopamine receptors.

    PubMed

    Roberts, David J; Strange, Philip G

    2005-05-01

    Mechanisms of inverse agonist action at the D2(short) dopamine receptor have been examined. Discrimination of G-protein-coupled and -uncoupled forms of the receptor by inverse agonists was examined in competition ligand-binding studies versus the agonist [3H]NPA at a concentration labelling both G-protein-coupled and -uncoupled receptors. Competition of inverse agonists versus [3H]NPA gave data that were fitted best by a two-binding site model in the absence of GTP but by a one-binding site model in the presence of GTP. K(i) values were derived from the competition data for binding of the inverse agonists to G-protein-uncoupled and -coupled receptors. K(coupled) and K(uncoupled) were statistically different for the set of compounds tested (ANOVA) but the individual values were different in a post hoc test only for (+)-butaclamol. These observations were supported by simulations of these competition experiments according to the extended ternary complex model. Inverse agonist efficacy of the ligands was assessed from their ability to reduce agonist-independent [35S]GTP gamma S binding to varying degrees in concentration-response curves. Inverse agonism by (+)-butaclamol and spiperone occurred at higher potency when GDP was added to assays, whereas the potency of (-)-sulpiride was unaffected. These data show that some inverse agonists ((+)-butaclamol, spiperone) achieve inverse agonism by stabilising the uncoupled form of the receptor at the expense of the coupled form. For other compounds tested, we were unable to define the mechanism. PMID:15735658

  3. Phasic dopamine release drives rapid activation of striatal D2-receptors

    PubMed Central

    Marcott, Pamela F; Mamaligas, Aphroditi A; Ford, Christopher P

    2014-01-01

    Summary Striatal dopamine transmission underlies numerous goal-directed behaviors. Medium spiny neurons (MSNs) are a major target of dopamine in the striatum. However, as dopamine does not directly evoke a synaptic event in MSNs, the time course of dopamine signaling in these cells remains unclear. To examine how dopamine release activates D2-receptors on MSNs, G-protein activated inwardly rectifying potassium (GIRK2; Kir 3.2) channels were virally overexpressed in the striatum and the resulting outward currents were used as a sensor of D2-receptor activation. Electrical and optogenetic stimulation of dopamine terminals evoked robust D2-receptor inhibitory post-synaptic currents (IPSCs) in GIRK2-expressing MSNs that occurred in under a second. Evoked D2-IPSCs could be driven by repetitive stimulation and were not occluded by background dopamine tone. Together, the results indicate that D2-receptors on MSNs exhibit functional low affinity and suggest that striatal D2-receptors can encode both tonic and phasic dopamine signals. PMID:25242218

  4. Coexpressed D1- and D2-Like Dopamine Receptors Antagonistically Modulate Acetylcholine Release in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Andrew T.; Maher, Kathryn N.; Wani, Khursheed A.; Betts, Katherine E.; Chase, Daniel L.

    2011-01-01

    Dopamine acts through two classes of G protein-coupled receptor (D1-like and D2-like) to modulate neuron activity in the brain. While subtypes of D1- and D2-like receptors are coexpressed in many neurons of the mammalian brain, it is unclear how signaling by these coexpressed receptors interacts to modulate the activity of the neuron in which they are expressed. D1- and D2-like dopamine receptors are also coexpressed in the cholinergic ventral-cord motor neurons of Caenorhabditis elegans. To begin to understand how coexpressed dopamine receptors interact to modulate neuron activity, we performed a genetic screen in C. elegans and isolated mutants defective in dopamine response. These mutants were also defective in behaviors mediated by endogenous dopamine signaling, including basal slowing and swimming-induced paralysis. We used transgene rescue experiments to show that defects in these dopamine-specific behaviors were caused by abnormal signaling in the cholinergic motor neurons. To investigate the interaction between the D1- and D2-like receptors specifically in these cholinergic motor neurons, we measured the sensitivity of dopamine-signaling mutants and transgenic animals to the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor aldicarb. We found that D2 signaling inhibited acetylcholine release from the cholinergic motor neurons while D1 signaling stimulated release from these same cells. Thus, coexpressed D1- and D2-like dopamine receptors act antagonistically in vivo to modulate acetylcholine release from the cholinergic motor neurons of C. elegans. PMID:21515580

  5. Cocaine self-administration produces a persistent increase in dopamine D2 High receptors.

    PubMed

    Briand, Lisa A; Flagel, Shelly B; Seeman, Philip; Robinson, Terry E

    2008-08-01

    Cocaine addicts are reported to have decreased numbers of striatal dopamine D2 receptors. However, in rodents, repeated cocaine administration consistently produces hypersensitivity to the psychomotor activating effects of both indirect dopamine agonists, such as cocaine itself, and importantly, to direct-acting D2 receptor agonists. The current study reports a possible resolution to this long-standing paradox. The dopamine D2 receptor exists in both a low and a high-affinity state, and dopamine exerts its effects via the more functionally relevant high-affinity D2 receptor (D2 High). We report here that cocaine self-administration experience produces a large (approximately 150%) increase in the proportion of D2 High receptors in the striatum with no change in the total number of D2 receptors, and this effect is evident both 3 and 30 days after the discontinuation of cocaine self-administration. Changes in D2 High receptors would not be evident with the probes used in human (and non-human primate) imaging studies. We suggest, therefore, that cocaine addicts and animals previously treated with cocaine may be hyper-responsive to dopaminergic drugs in part because an increase in D2 High receptors results in dopamine supersensitivity. This may also help explain why stimuli that increase dopamine neurotransmission, including drugs themselves, are so effective in producing relapse in individuals with a history of exposure to cocaine. PMID:18284941

  6. Cellular localization of dopamine D2 receptor messenger RNA in the rat trigeminal ganglion.

    PubMed

    Peterfreund, R A; Kosofsky, B E; Fink, J S

    1995-12-01

    The actions of dopamine are mediated by specific, high-affinity, G protein-coupled receptors. Multiple subtypes of dopamine receptors have been characterized, including the D2 subtype (D2R). Cells within the dorsal root and petrosal ganglia of the rat express D2R messenger RNA (mRNA) consistent with D2R expression by primary sensory neurons. We hypothesized that neurons of the trigeminal ganglion express D2R mRNA. Total cellular RNA from rat trigeminal ganglia was analyzed on Northern blots under high stringency conditions. Hybridization of trigeminal ganglion RNA resulted in a signal which comigrated with striatal, pituitary, and hypothalamic D2R mRNA. To determine the distribution of D2R expressing cells in the trigeminal ganglion, cryostat sections were analyzed by in situ hybridization followed by emulsion autoradiography. We identified a population of clustered cells labeled with dense grain concentrations over their cytoplasms. These findings demonstrate the expression of D2 dopamine receptor mRNA in discrete subpopulations of neurons in the rat trigeminal ganglion. Our observations suggest that drugs active at dopamine receptors of the D2 subtype are potential modulators of sensory activity of neurons whose cell bodies reside in the trigeminal ganglion. D2 dopamine receptors may thus have a role in clinical pain syndromes involving the head and neck. PMID:7486101

  7. De novo expression of dopamine D2 receptors on microglia after stroke.

    PubMed

    Huck, Jojanneke H J; Freyer, Dorette; Böttcher, Chotima; Mladinov, Mihovil; Muselmann-Genschow, Claudia; Thielke, Mareike; Gladow, Nadine; Bloomquist, Dana; Mergenthaler, Philipp; Priller, Josef

    2015-11-01

    Dopamine is the predominant catecholamine in the brain and functions as a neurotransmitter. Dopamine is also a potent immune modulator. In this study, we have characterized the expression of dopamine receptors on murine microglia. We found that cultured primary microglia express dopamine D1, D2, D3, D4, and D5 receptors. We specifically focused on the D2 receptor (D2R), a major target of antipsychotic drugs. Whereas D2Rs were strongly expressed on striatal neurons in vivo, we did not detect any D2R expression on resident microglia in the healthy brains of wild-type mice or transgenic mice expressing the green fluorescent protein (GFP) under the control of the Drd2 promoter. However, cerebral ischemia induced the expression of D2R on Iba1-immunoreactive inflammatory cells in the infarct core and penumbra. Notably, D2R expression was confined to CD45(hi) cells, and GFP BM chimeras revealed that D2R was expressed on activated resident microglia as well as on peripherally derived macrophages in the ischemic brain. Importantly, the D2/3R agonist, pramipexole, enhanced the secretion of nitrite by cultured microglia in response to proinflammatory stimuli. Thus, dopamine may serve as a modulator of microglia function during neuroinflammation. PMID:26104289

  8. Protein Kinase C Beta Regulates the D2-Like Dopamine Autoreceptor

    PubMed Central

    Luderman, Kathryn D.; Chen, Rong; Ferris, Mark J.; Jones, Sara R.; Gnegy, Margaret E.

    2014-01-01

    The focus of this study was the regulation of the D2-like dopamine autoreceptor (D2 autoreceptor) by protein kinase Cβ, a member of the protein kinase C (PKC) family. Together with the dopamine transporter, the D2 autoreceptor regulates the level of extracellular dopamine and thus dopaminergic signaling. PKC regulates neuronal signaling via several mechanisms, including desensitizing autoreceptors to increase the release of several different neurotransmitters. Here, using both PKCβ−/− mice and specific PKCβ inhibitors, we demonstrated that a lack of PKCβ activity enhanced the D2 autoreceptor-stimulated decrease in dopamine release following both chemical and electrical stimulations. Inhibition of PKCβ increased surface localization of D2R in mouse striatal synaptosomes, which could underlie the greater sensitivity to quinpirole following inhibition of PKCβ. PKCβ−/− mice displayed greater sensitivity to the quinpirole-induced suppression of locomotor activity, demonstrating that the regulation of the D2 autoreceptor by PKCβ is physiologically significant. Overall, we have found that PKCβ downregulates the D2 autoreceptor, providing an additional layer of regulation for dopaminergic signaling. We propose that in the absence of PKCβ activity, surface D2 autoreceptor localization and thus D2 autoreceptor signaling is increased, leading to less dopamine in the extracellular space and attenuated dopaminergic signaling. PMID:25446677

  9. Expression of dopamine D2 receptor in PC-12 cells and regulation of membrane conductances by dopamine.

    PubMed

    Zhu, W H; Conforti, L; Millhorn, D E

    1997-10-01

    PC-12 cells depolarize during hypoxia and release dopamine. The hypoxia-induced depolarization is due to inhibition of an O2-sensitive K+ current. The role of dopamine released during hypoxia is uncertain, but it could act as an autocrine to modulate membrane conductance during hypoxia. The current study was undertaken to investigate this possibility. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and sequence analysis revealed that the D2 isoform of the dopamine receptor is expressed in rat PC-12 cells. Exogenously applied dopamine and the D2 agonist quinpirole elicited inhibition of a voltage-dependent K+ current (I(K)) that was prevented by sulpiride, a D2 receptor antagonist. Dopamine and quinpirole applied during hypoxia potentiated the inhibitory effect of hypoxia on I(K). We also found that quinpirole caused reversible inhibition of a voltage-dependent Ca2+ current (I(Ca)) and attenuation of the increase in intracellular free Ca2+ during hypoxia. Our results indicate that dopamine released from PC-12 cells during hypoxia acts via a D2 receptor to "autoregulate" I(K) and I(Ca). PMID:9357757

  10. Evidence That Sleep Deprivation Downregulates Dopamine D2R in Ventral Striatum in the Human Brain

    SciTech Connect

    Volkow N. D.; Fowler J.; Volkow, N.D.; Tomasi, D.; Wang, G.-J.; Fowler, J.S.; Logan, J.; Benveniste, H.; Kin, R.; Thanos, P.K.; Sergi F.

    2012-03-23

    Dopamine D2 receptors are involved with wakefulness, but their role in the decreased alertness associated with sleep deprivation is unclear. We had shown that sleep deprivation reduced dopamine D2/D3 receptor availability (measured with PET and [{sup 11}C]raclopride in controls) in striatum, but could not determine whether this reflected dopamine increases ([{sup 11}C]raclopride competes with dopamine for D2/D3 receptor binding) or receptor downregulation. To clarify this, we compared the dopamine increases induced by methylphenidate (a drug that increases dopamine by blocking dopamine transporters) during sleep deprivation versus rested sleep, with the assumption that methylphenidate's effects would be greater if, indeed, dopamine release was increased during sleep deprivation. We scanned 20 controls with [{sup 11}C]raclopride after rested sleep and after 1 night of sleep deprivation; both after placebo and after methylphenidate. We corroborated a decrease in D2/D3 receptor availability in the ventral striatum with sleep deprivation (compared with rested sleep) that was associated with reduced alertness and increased sleepiness. However, the dopamine increases induced by methylphenidate (measured as decreases in D2/D3 receptor availability compared with placebo) did not differ between rested sleep and sleep deprivation, and were associated with the increased alertness and reduced sleepiness when methylphenidate was administered after sleep deprivation. Similar findings were obtained by microdialysis in rodents subjected to 1 night of paradoxical sleep deprivation. These findings are consistent with a downregulation of D2/D3 receptors in ventral striatum with sleep deprivation that may contribute to the associated decreased wakefulness and also corroborate an enhancement of D2 receptor signaling in the arousing effects of methylphenidate in humans.

  11. Evidence for Noncanonical Neurotransmitter Activation: Norepinephrine as a Dopamine D2-Like Receptor Agonist.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Soto, Marta; Bonifazi, Alessandro; Cai, Ning Sheng; Ellenberger, Michael P; Newman, Amy Hauck; Ferré, Sergi; Yano, Hideaki

    2016-04-01

    The Gαi/o-coupled dopamine D2-like receptor family comprises three subtypes: the D2 receptor (D2R), with short and long isoform variants (D2SR and D2LR), D3 receptor (D3R), and D4 receptor (D4R), with several polymorphic variants. The common overlap of norepinephrine innervation and D2-like receptor expression patterns prompts the question of a possible noncanonical action by norepinephrine. In fact, previous studies have suggested that norepinephrine can functionally interact with D4R. To our knowledge, significant interactions between norepinephrine and D2R or D3R receptors have not been demonstrated. By using radioligand binding and bioluminescent resonance energy transfer (BRET) assays in transfected cells, the present study attempted a careful comparison between dopamine and norepinephrine in their possible activation of all D2-like receptors, including the two D2R isoforms and the most common D4R polymorphic variants. Functional BRET assays included activation of G proteins with all Gαi/o subunits, adenylyl cyclase inhibition, and β arrestin recruitment. Norepinephrine acted as a potent agonist for all D2-like receptor subtypes, with the general rank order of potency of D3R > D4R ≥ D2SR ≥ D2L. However, for both dopamine and norepinephrine, differences depended on the Gαi/o protein subunit involved. The most striking differences were observed with Gαi2, where the rank order of potencies for both dopamine and norepinephrine were D4R > D2SR = D2LR > D3R. Furthermore the results do not support the existence of differences in the ability of dopamine and norepinephrine to activate different human D4R variants. The potency of norepinephrine for adrenergic α2A receptor was only about 20-fold higher compared with D3R and D4R across the three functional assays. PMID:26843180

  12. Evidence for Noncanonical Neurotransmitter Activation: Norepinephrine as a Dopamine D2-Like Receptor Agonist

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Soto, Marta; Bonifazi, Alessandro; Cai, Ning Sheng; Ellenberger, Michael P.; Newman, Amy Hauck

    2016-01-01

    The Gαi/o-coupled dopamine D2-like receptor family comprises three subtypes: the D2 receptor (D2R), with short and long isoform variants (D2SR and D2LR), D3 receptor (D3R), and D4 receptor (D4R), with several polymorphic variants. The common overlap of norepinephrine innervation and D2-like receptor expression patterns prompts the question of a possible noncanonical action by norepinephrine. In fact, previous studies have suggested that norepinephrine can functionally interact with D4R. To our knowledge, significant interactions between norepinephrine and D2R or D3R receptors have not been demonstrated. By using radioligand binding and bioluminescent resonance energy transfer (BRET) assays in transfected cells, the present study attempted a careful comparison between dopamine and norepinephrine in their possible activation of all D2-like receptors, including the two D2R isoforms and the most common D4R polymorphic variants. Functional BRET assays included activation of G proteins with all Gαi/o subunits, adenylyl cyclase inhibition, and β arrestin recruitment. Norepinephrine acted as a potent agonist for all D2-like receptor subtypes, with the general rank order of potency of D3R > D4R ≥ D2SR ≥ D2L. However, for both dopamine and norepinephrine, differences depended on the Gαi/o protein subunit involved. The most striking differences were observed with Gαi2, where the rank order of potencies for both dopamine and norepinephrine were D4R > D2SR = D2LR >> D3R. Furthermore the results do not support the existence of differences in the ability of dopamine and norepinephrine to activate different human D4R variants. The potency of norepinephrine for adrenergic α2A receptor was only about 20-fold higher compared with D3R and D4R across the three functional assays. PMID:26843180

  13. Regulation of dopamine D2 receptors in a novel cell line (SUP1)

    SciTech Connect

    Ivins, K.J.; Luedtke, R.R.; Artymyshyn, R.P.; Molinoff, P.B. )

    1991-04-01

    A prolactin-secreting cell line, SUP1, has been established from rat pituitary tumor 7315a. In radioligand binding experiments, the D2 receptor antagonist (S)-(-)-3-{sup 125}I iodo-2-hydroxy-6-methoxy-N-((1-ethyl-2- pyrrolidinyl)methyl)benzamide ({sup 125}I IBZM) labeled a single class of sites in homogenates of SUP1 cells (Kd = 0.6 nM; Bmax = 45 fmol/mg of protein). The sites displayed a pharmacological profile consistent with that of D2 receptors. Inhibition of the binding of {sup 125}I IBZM by dopamine was sensitive to GTP, suggesting that D2 receptors in SUP1 cells are coupled to guanine nucleotide-binding protein(s). In the presence of isobutylmethylxanthine, dopamine decreased the level of cAMP accumulation in SUP1 cells. Dopamine also inhibited prolactin secretion from SUP1 cells. Both the inhibition of cAMP accumulation and the inhibition of prolactin secretion were blocked by D2 receptor antagonists, suggesting that these effects of dopamine were mediated by an interaction with D2 receptors. The regulation of D2 receptors in SUP1 cells by D2 receptor agonists was investigated. Exposure of SUP1 cells to dopamine or to the D2 receptor agonist N-propylnorapomorphine led to increased expression of D2 receptors, with no change in the affinity of the receptors for {sup 125}I IBZM. An increase in the density of D2 receptors in SUP1 cells was evident within 7 hr of exposure to dopamine. Spiroperidol, a D2 receptor antagonist, blocked the effect of dopamine on receptor density. These results suggest that exposure of D2 receptors in SUP1 cells to agonists leads to an up-regulation of D2 receptors. Dopamine retained the ability to inhibit cAMP accumulation in SUP1 cells exposed to dopamine for 24 hr, suggesting that D2 receptors in SUP1 cells are not desensitized by prolonged exposure to agonist.

  14. Allelic association of the D2 dopamine receptor gene with receptor-binding characteristics in alcoholism

    SciTech Connect

    Noble, E.P.; Blum, K.; Ritchie, T.; Montgomery, A.; Sheridan, P.J. )

    1991-07-01

    The allelic association of the human D2 dopamine receptor gene with the binding characteristics of the D2 dopamine receptor was determined in 66 brains of alcoholic and non-alcoholic subjects. In a blinded experiment, DNA from the cerebral cortex was treated with the restriction endonuclease Taql and probed with a 1.5-kilobase (kb) digest of a clone (lambda hD2G1) of the human D2 dopamine receptor gene. The binding characteristics (Kd (binding affinity) and Bmax (number of binding sites)) of the D2 dopamine receptor were determined in the caudate nuclei of these brains using tritiated spiperone as the ligand. The adjusted Kd was significantly lower in alcoholic than in nonalcoholic subjects. In subjects with the A1 allele, in whom a high association with alcoholism was found, the Bmax was significantly reduced compared with the Bmax of subjects with the A2 allele. Moreover, a progressively reduced Bmax was found in subjects with A2/A2, A1/A2, and A1/A1 alleles, with subjects with A2/A2 having the highest mean values, and subjects with A1/A1, the lowest. The polymorphic pattern of the D2 dopamine receptor gene and its differential expression of receptors suggests the involvement of the dopaminergic system in conferring susceptibility to at least one subtype of severe alcoholism.

  15. Pharmacological differences between the D-2 autoreceptor and the D-1 dopamine receptor in rabbit retina

    SciTech Connect

    Dubocovich, M.L.; Weiner, N.

    1985-06-01

    The effect of dopamine receptor agonists and antagonists was studied on the calcium-dependent release of (/sup 3/H)dopamine elicited by field stimulation at 3 Hz for a duration of 1 min (20 mA, 2 msec) from the rabbit retina in vitro and on adenylate cyclase activity in homogenates of rabbit retina. The relative order of potency of dopamine receptor agonists to inhibit the stimulation-evoked (/sup 3/H)dopamine release was pergolide greater than bromocriptine greater than apomorphine greater than LY 141865 greater than N,N-di-n-propyldopamine greater than or equal to dopamine. The relative order of potencies of dopamine receptor antagonists to increase (/sup 3/H)dopamine release was: S-sulpiride greater than or equal to domperidone greater than or equal to spiroperidol greater than metoclopramide greater than fluphenazine greater than or equal to R-sulpiride. alpha-Flupenthixol (0.01-1 microM) and (+)-butaclamol (0.01-1 microM) did not increase (/sup 3/H)dopamine overflow when added alone, but they antagonized the concentration-dependent inhibitory effect of apomorphine (0.1-10 microM). These results suggest that the dopamine inhibitory autoreceptor involved in the modulation of dopamine release from the rabbit retina possesses the pharmacological characteristics of a D-2 dopamine receptor. Maximal stimulation by 30 microM dopamine resulted in a 3-fold increase in adenylate cyclase activity with half-maximal stimulation occurring at a concentration of 2.46 microM. Apomorphine and pergolide elicited a partial stimulation of adenylate cyclase activity. However, at low concentrations both compounds were more potent than dopamine.

  16. Dopamine D2-receptor blockade enhances decoding of prefrontal signals in humans.

    PubMed

    Kahnt, Thorsten; Weber, Susanna C; Haker, Helene; Robbins, Trevor W; Tobler, Philippe N

    2015-03-01

    The prefrontal cortex houses representations critical for ongoing and future behavior expressed in the form of patterns of neural activity. Dopamine has long been suggested to play a key role in the integrity of such representations, with D2-receptor activation rendering them flexible but weak. However, it is currently unknown whether and how D2-receptor activation affects prefrontal representations in humans. In the current study, we use dopamine receptor-specific pharmacology and multivoxel pattern-based functional magnetic resonance imaging to test the hypothesis that blocking D2-receptor activation enhances prefrontal representations. Human subjects performed a simple reward prediction task after double-blind and placebo controlled administration of the D2-receptor antagonist amisulpride. Using a whole-brain searchlight decoding approach we show that D2-receptor blockade enhances decoding of reward signals in the medial orbitofrontal cortex. Examination of activity patterns suggests that amisulpride increases the separation of activity patterns related to reward versus no reward. Moreover, consistent with the cortical distribution of D2 receptors, post hoc analyses showed enhanced decoding of motor signals in motor cortex, but not of visual signals in visual cortex. These results suggest that D2-receptor blockade enhances content-specific representations in frontal cortex, presumably by a dopamine-mediated increase in pattern separation. These findings are in line with a dual-state model of prefrontal dopamine, and provide new insights into the potential mechanism of action of dopaminergic drugs. PMID:25740537

  17. Reducing Ventral Tegmental Dopamine D2 Receptor Expression Selectively Boosts Incentive Motivation

    PubMed Central

    de Jong, Johannes W; Roelofs, Theresia J M; Mol, Frédérique M U; Hillen, Anne E J; Meijboom, Katharina E; Luijendijk, Mieneke C M; van der Eerden, Harrie A M; Garner, Keith M; Vanderschuren, Louk J M J; Adan, Roger A H

    2015-01-01

    Altered mesolimbic dopamine signaling has been widely implicated in addictive behavior. For the most part, this work has focused on dopamine within the striatum, but there is emerging evidence for a role of the auto-inhibitory, somatodendritic dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) in addiction. Thus, decreased midbrain D2R expression has been implicated in addiction in humans. Moreover, knockout of the gene encoding the D2R receptor (Drd2) in dopamine neurons has been shown to enhance the locomotor response to cocaine in mice. Therefore, we here tested the hypothesis that decreasing D2R expression in the VTA of adult rats, using shRNA knockdown, promotes addiction-like behavior in rats responding for cocaine or palatable food. Rats with decreased VTA D2R expression showed markedly increased motivation for both sucrose and cocaine under a progressive ratio schedule of reinforcement, but the acquisition or maintenance of cocaine self-administration were not affected. They also displayed enhanced cocaine-induced locomotor activity, but no change in basal locomotion. This robust increase in incentive motivation was behaviorally specific, as we did not observe any differences in fixed ratio responding, extinction responding, reinstatement or conditioned suppression of cocaine, and sucrose seeking. We conclude that VTA D2R knockdown results in increased incentive motivation, but does not directly promote other aspects of addiction-like behavior. PMID:25735756

  18. Central D2-dopamine receptor occupancy in schizophrenic patients treated with antipsychotic drugs

    SciTech Connect

    Farde, L.; Wiesel, F.A.; Halldin, C.; Sedvall, G.

    1988-01-01

    Using positron emission tomography and the carbon 11-labeled ligand raclopride, central D2-dopamine receptor occupancy in the putamen was determined in psychiatric patients treated with clinical doses of psychoactive drugs. Receptor occupancy in drug-treated patients was defined as the percent reduction of specific carbon 11-raclopride binding in relation to the expected binding in the absence of drug treatment. Clinical treatment of schizophrenic patients with 11 chemically distinct antipsychotic drugs (including both classic and atypical neuroleptics such as clozapine) resulted in a 65% to 85% occupancy of D2-dopamine receptors. In a depressed patient treated with the tricyclic antidepressant nortriptyline, no occupancy was found. The time course for receptor occupancy and drug levels was followed after withdrawal of sulpiride or haloperidol. D2-dopamine receptor occupancy remained above 65% for many hours despite a substantial reduction of serum drug concentrations. In a sulpiride-treated patient, the dosage was reduced in four steps over a nine-week period and a curvilinear relationship was demonstrated between central D2-dopamine receptor occupancy and serum drug concentrations. The results demonstrate that clinical doses of all the currently used classes of antipsychotic drugs cause a substantial blockade of central D2-dopamine receptors in humans. This effect appears to be selective for the antipsychotics, since it was not induced by the antidepressant nortriptyline.

  19. Immunohistochemical localization of dopamine D2 receptor in the rat carotid body.

    PubMed

    Wakai, Jun; Takayama, Anna; Yokoyama, Takuya; Nakamuta, Nobuaki; Kusakabe, Tatsumi; Yamamoto, Yoshio

    2015-10-01

    Dopamine modulates the chemosensitivity of arterial chemoreceptors, and dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) is expected to localize in the glomus cells and/or sensory nerve endings of the carotid body. In the present study, the localization of D2R in the rat carotid body was examined using double immunofluorescence for D2R with various cell markers. D2R immunoreactivity was mainly localized in glomus cells immunoreactive to tyrosine hydroxylase or dopamine β-hydroxylase (DBH), but not in S100B-immunoreactive sustentacular cells. Furthermore, D2R immunoreactivity was observed in petrosal ganglion cells and nerve bundles in the carotid body, but not in the nerve endings with P2X2 immunoreactivity. In the carotid ganglion, a few punctate D2R-immunoreactive products were detected in DBH-immunoreactive nerve cell bodies. These results showed that D2R was mainly distributed in glomus cells, and suggested that D2R plays a role in the inhibitory modulation of chemosensory activity in a paracrine and/or autocrine manner. PMID:26272445

  20. Loss of dopamine D2 receptors increases parvalbumin-positive interneurons in the anterior cingulate cortex.

    PubMed

    Graham, Devon L; Durai, Heather H; Garden, Jamie D; Cohen, Evan L; Echevarria, Franklin D; Stanwood, Gregg D

    2015-02-18

    Disruption to dopamine homeostasis during brain development has been implicated in a variety of neuropsychiatric disorders, including depression and schizophrenia. Inappropriate expression or activity of GABAergic interneurons are common features of many of these disorders. We discovered a persistent upregulation of GAD67+ and parvalbumin+ neurons within the anterior cingulate cortex of dopamine D2 receptor knockout mice, while other GABAergic interneuron markers were unaffected. Interneuron distribution and number were not altered in the striatum or in the dopamine-poor somatosensory cortex. The changes were already present by postnatal day 14, indicating a developmental etiology. D2eGFP BAC transgenic mice demonstrated the presence of D2 receptor expression within a subset of parvalbumin-expressing cortical interneurons, suggesting the possibility of a direct cellular mechanism through which D2 receptor stimulation regulates interneuron differentiation or survival. D2 receptor knockout mice also exhibited decreased depressive-like behavior compared with wild-type controls in the tail suspension test. These data indicate that dopamine signaling modulates interneuron number and emotional behavior and that developmental D2 receptor loss or blockade could reveal a potential mechanism for the prodromal basis of neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:25393953

  1. Loss of Dopamine D2 Receptors Increases Parvalbumin-Positive Interneurons in the Anterior Cingulate Cortex

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Disruption to dopamine homeostasis during brain development has been implicated in a variety of neuropsychiatric disorders, including depression and schizophrenia. Inappropriate expression or activity of GABAergic interneurons are common features of many of these disorders. We discovered a persistent upregulation of GAD67+ and parvalbumin+ neurons within the anterior cingulate cortex of dopamine D2 receptor knockout mice, while other GABAergic interneuron markers were unaffected. Interneuron distribution and number were not altered in the striatum or in the dopamine-poor somatosensory cortex. The changes were already present by postnatal day 14, indicating a developmental etiology. D2eGFP BAC transgenic mice demonstrated the presence of D2 receptor expression within a subset of parvalbumin-expressing cortical interneurons, suggesting the possibility of a direct cellular mechanism through which D2 receptor stimulation regulates interneuron differentiation or survival. D2 receptor knockout mice also exhibited decreased depressive-like behavior compared with wild-type controls in the tail suspension test. These data indicate that dopamine signaling modulates interneuron number and emotional behavior and that developmental D2 receptor loss or blockade could reveal a potential mechanism for the prodromal basis of neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:25393953

  2. Breathing is affected by dopamine D2-like receptors in the basolateral amygdala.

    PubMed

    Sugita, Toshihisa; Kanamaru, Mitsuko; Iizuka, Makito; Sato, Kanako; Tsukada, Setsuro; Kawamura, Mitsuru; Homma, Ikuo; Izumizaki, Masahiko

    2015-04-01

    The precise mechanisms underlying how emotions change breathing patterns remain unclear, but dopamine is a candidate neurotransmitter in the process of emotion-associated breathing. We investigated whether basal dopamine release occurs in the basolateral amygdala (BLA), where sensory-related inputs are received and lead to fear or anxiety responses, and whether D1- and D2-like receptor antagonists affect breathing patterns and dopamine release in the BLA. Adult male mice (C57BL/6N) were perfused with artificial cerebrospinal fluid, a D1-like receptor antagonist (SCH 23390), or a D2-like receptor antagonist ((S)-(-)-sulpiride) through a microdialysis probe in the BLA. Respiratory variables were measured using a double-chamber plethysmograph. Dopamine release was measured by an HPLC. Perfusion of (S)-(-)-sulpiride in the BLA, not SCH 23390, specifically decreased respiratory rate without changes in local release of dopamine. These results suggest that basal dopamine release in the BLA, at least partially, increases respiratory rates only through post-synaptic D2-like receptors, not autoreceptors, which might be associated with emotional responses. PMID:25281921

  3. Imaging addiction: D2 receptors and dopamine signaling in the striatum as biomarkers for impulsivity

    PubMed Central

    Trifilieff, Pierre; Martinez, Diana

    2014-01-01

    Dependence to drugs of abuse is closely associated with impulsivity, or the propensity to choose a lower, but immediate, reward over a delayed, but more valuable outcome. Here, we review clinical and preclinical studies showing that striatal dopamine signaling and D2 receptor levels – which have been shown to be decreased in addiction - directly impact impulsivity, which is itself predictive of drug self-administration. Based on these studies, we propose that the alterations in D2 receptor binding and dopamine release seen in imaging studies of addiction constitute neurobiological markers of impulsivity. Recent studies in animals also show that higher striatal dopamine signaling at the D2 receptor is associated with a greater willingness to expend effort to reach goals, and we propose that this same relationship applies to humans, particularly with respect to recovery from addiction. PMID:23851257

  4. Drug-induced up-regulation of dopamine D2 receptors on cultured cells.

    PubMed

    Starr, S; Kozell, L B; Neve, K A

    1995-08-01

    Ligand-induced up-regulation of recombinant dopamine D2 receptors was assessed using C6 glioma cells stably expressing the short (415-amino-acid; D2s) and long (444-amino-acid; D2L) forms of the receptor. Overnight treatment of C6-D2L cells with N-propylnorapomorphine (NPA) caused a time- and concentration-dependent increase in the density of receptors, as assessed by the binding of radioligand to membranes prepared from the cells, with no change in the affinity of the receptors for the radioligand. The effect of 10 microM NPA was maximal after 10 h, at which time the density of D2L receptors was more than doubled. The agonists dopamine and quinpirole also increased the density of D2L receptors. The receptor up-regulation was not specific for agonists, because the antagonists epidepride, sulpiride, and domperidone caused smaller (30-60%) increases in receptor density. Prolonged treatment with 10 microM NPA desensitized D2L receptors, as evidenced by a reduced ability of dopamine to inhibit adenylyl cyclase, whereas treatment with sulpiride was associated with an enhanced responsiveness to dopamine. The magnitude of NPA-induced receptor up-regulation in each of four clonal lines of C6-D2L cells (mean increase, 80%) was greater than in all four lines of C6-D2S cells (33%). Inactivation of pertussis toxin-sensitive G proteins had no effect on the basal density of D2L receptors or on the NPA-induced receptor up-regulation. Treatment with 5 micrograms/ml of cycloheximide, on the other hand, decreased the basal density of receptors and attenuated, but did not prevent, the NPA-induced increase.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7616211

  5. Extrastriatal dopamine D2 receptors: distribution, pharmacological characterization and region-specific regulation by clozapine.

    PubMed

    Janowsky, A; Neve, K A; Kinzie, J M; Taylor, B; de Paulis, T; Belknap, J K

    1992-06-01

    The distribution of dopamine D2 receptors in the rat brain was determined by quantitative autoradiography of the binding of [125I]epidepride and the effects of chronic drug administration on regulation of receptors in striatal and extrastriatal brain regions were characterized. [125I]Epidepride (2200 Ci/mmol) bound with high affinity to coronal tissue sections from the rat brain (Kd = 78 pM), and specific binding was detected in a number of discrete layers, nuclei or regions of the hippocampus, thalamus, cerebellum and other extrastriatal sites. Pharmacological analysis of radioligand binding to hippocampal and cerebellar membranes indicated binding to dopamine D2 receptors, and approximately 10% of the binding appeared to represent low affinity idazoxan-displaceable binding to alpha-2 adrenoceptors. The binding to extrastriatal regions resembled previously reported radioligand binding to dopamine D2 receptors in striatal and cortical membranes. Chronic (14 day) administration of two dopamine D2 receptor antagonists, either the typical neuroleptic haloperidol (1.5 mg/kg i.p.) or the atypical neuroleptic clozapine (30 mg/kg i.p.), caused a significant increase in the density of [125I]epidepride binding sites in the medial prefrontal cortex and parietal cortex. Only haloperidol caused a significant increase in the density of [3H]spiperone and [125I]epidepride binding sites in the striatum and a slight increase in [125I]epidepride binding sites in the hippocampus. Similar administration of amphetamine (5 mg/kg i.p.) had no significant effect on the density of dopamine D2 receptors in any brain region examined. In addition, no drug-induced changes in the characteristics of dopamine D2 receptors in discrete areas of the cerebellum were observed.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1534844

  6. N-allyl epiderpride: An extremely potent SPECT radioligand for the dopamine D2 receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Kessler, R.M.; Mason, N.S.; Ansari, M.S.

    1994-05-01

    We have previously reported that epidepride is a potent (K{sub D} 24pM) and specific SPECT radioligand for the dopamine D2 receptor which can be used to study striatal and extrastriatal dopamine D2 receptors in man. We have synthesized and evaluated the N-allyl analogue of epiderpride (APID) as a potential SPECT radioligand for the dopamine D2 receptor. In comparison to epidepride it is even more potent at the dopamine D2 receptor, the K{sub D} for APID being 11 frontal cortical homogenate. The lipophilicity, evaluated using the log kw pH 7.5, was 2.9 versus 2.05 for epidepride. Competitive binding studies using rat striatal, hippocampal and frontal cortical homogenates showed high affinity for only dopamine D2 like cerebellar ratio of 275:1 at 320 minutes post injection-similar to that seen with epidepride, but with nearly four times higher brain uptake. Of interest was the off-rate from the dopamine D2 receptor; it was 0.0046 min{sup -1} in vitro at 25{degrees}C-corresponding to an t 1/2 of 150 minutes. Studies in rhesus monkeys show an in vivo off rate (following 2.5 mg/kg raclopride IV) of about 0.0082 min{sup -1} seen that with epidepride. SPECT studies in rhesus monkeys reveal APID is a promising SPECT radioligand that appears to be similar to epidepride, but with higher brain uptake due to its more optimal lipophilicity for entry into brain.

  7. Hyperthermia induced by the dopamine D1 receptor agonist SK&F38393 in combination with the dopamine D2 receptor agonist talipexole in the rat.

    PubMed

    Nagashima, M; Yamada, K; Kimura, H; Matsumoto, S; Furukawa, T

    1992-12-01

    The present experiments were performed to investigate the effects of dopamine D1 receptor agonists given alone or in combination with dopamine D2 receptor agonists on body temperature in rats. The selective dopamine D1 receptor agonist, 1-phenyl-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-(1H)-3-benzazepine-7,8-diol (SK&F38393), produced hyperthermia. However, the dopamine D2 receptor agonist, B-HT 920 (talipexole), and the newly synthesized dopamine D2 receptor agonist, (S)-2-amino-4,5,6,7-tetrahydro-6-propylamino-benzothiazole (SND 919), did not change the temperature. Interestingly, the SK&F38393-induced hyperthermia was enhanced by talipexole and SND 919. The drastic hyperthermia induced by combined administration of dopamine D1 and D2 receptor agonists was blocked by either the dopamine D1 receptor antagonist, SCH23390, or the dopamine D2 receptor antagonist, spiperone. On the other hand, treatment with prazosin, yohimbine, propranolol, scopolamine, or methysergide failed to affect the marked hyperthermia. The present results suggest that a functional link between dopamine D1 and D2 receptors may be synergistic in the regulation of body temperature and that concurrent stimulation of both dopamine D1 and D2 receptors thereby produces marked hyperthermia in the rat. PMID:1361996

  8. Visualization of extrastriatal dopamine D2 receptors in the human brain.

    PubMed

    Kessler, R M; Mason, N S; Votaw, J R; De Paulis, T; Clanton, J A; Ansari, M S; Schmidt, D E; Manning, R G; Bell, R L

    1992-11-13

    [123I]Epidepride, a potent and selective dopamine D2 radioligand, was administered to a 27 year old normal male volunteer. Single photon tomography revealed that peak striatal uptake occurred at 4 h after injection with a striatal:cerebellar ratio of 7.8 rising to over 100 at 18 h post injection. Uptake above the levels seen in cerebellum was also noted in the thalamus, pituitary, hypothalamus and temporal lobe, particularly medially. Single photon tomography with [123I]epidepride allows visualization of extrastriatal dopamine D2 receptors in man. PMID:1478255

  9. Melanocortin 4 Receptor and Dopamine D2 Receptor Expression in Brain Areas Involved in Food Intake

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Ye Ran

    2015-01-01

    Background The melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R) is involved in the regulation of homeostatic energy balance by the hypothalamus. Recent reports showed that MC4R can also control the motivation for food in association with a brain reward system, such as dopamine. We investigated the expression levels of MC4R and the dopamine D2 receptor (D2R), which is known to be related to food rewards, in both the hypothalamus and brain regions involved in food rewards. Methods We examined the expression levels of D2R and MC4R by dual immunofluorescence histochemistry in hypothalamic regions and in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST), the central amygdala, and the ventral tegmental area of transgenic mice expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein under the control of the D2R gene. Results In the hypothalamic area, significant coexpression of MC4R and D2R was observed in the arcuate nucleus. We observed a significant coexpression of D2R and MC4R in the BNST, which has been suggested to be an important site for food reward. Conclusion We suggest that MC4R and D2R function in the hypothalamus for control of energy homeostasis and that within the brain regions related with rewards, such as the BNST, the melanocortin system works synergistically with dopamine for the integration of food motivation in the control of feeding behaviors. PMID:26790386

  10. Synthesis and SAR of aminothiazole fused benzazepines as selective dopamine D2 partial agonists.

    PubMed

    Urbanek, Rebecca A; Xiong, Hui; Wu, Ye; Blackwell, William; Steelman, Gary; Rosamond, Jim; Wesolowski, Steven S; Campbell, James B; Zhang, Minli; Brockel, Becky; Widzowski, Daniel V

    2013-01-15

    Dopamine (D(2)) partial agonists (D2PAs) have been regarded as a potential treatment for schizophrenia patients with expected better side effect profiles than currently marketed antipsychotics. Herein we report the synthesis and SAR of a series of aminothiazole fused benzazepines as selective D(2) partial agonists. These compounds have good selectivity, CNS drug-like properties and tunable D(2) partial agonism. One of the key compounds, 8h, has good in vitro/in vivo ADME characteristics, and is active in a rat amphetamine-induced locomotor activity model. PMID:23237836

  11. Increased consumption of ethanol and sugar water in mice lacking the dopamine D2 long receptor.

    PubMed

    Bulwa, Zachary B; Sharlin, Jordan A; Clark, Peter J; Bhattacharya, Tushar K; Kilby, Chessa N; Wang, Yanyan; Rhodes, Justin S

    2011-11-01

    Individual differences in dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) expression in the brain are thought to influence motivation and reinforcement for ethanol and other rewards. D2R exists in two isoforms, D2 long (D2LR) and D2 short (D2SR), produced by alternative splicing of the same gene. The relative contributions of D2LR versus D2SR to ethanol and sugar water drinking are not known. Genetic engineering was used to produce a line of knockout (KO) mice that lack D2LR and consequently have increased expression of D2SR. KO and wild-type (WT) mice of both sexes were tested for intake of 20% ethanol, 10% sugar water and plain tap water using established drinking-in-the-dark procedures. Mice were also tested for effects of the D2 antagonist eticlopride on intake of ethanol to determine whether KO responses were caused by lack of D2LR or overrepresentation of D2SR. Locomotor activity on running wheels and in cages without wheels was also measured for comparison. D2L KO mice drank significantly more ethanol than WT in both sexes. KO mice drank more sugar water than WT in females but not in males. Eticlopride dose dependently decreased ethanol intake in all groups except male KO. KO mice were less physically active than WT in cages with or without running wheels. Results suggest that overrepresentation of D2SR contributes to increased intake of ethanol in the KO mice. Decreasing wheel running and general levels of physical activity in the KO mice rules out the possibility that higher intake results from higher motor activity. Results extend the literature implicating altered expression of D2R in risk for addiction by delineating the contribution of individual D2R isoforms. These findings suggest that D2LR and D2SR play differential roles in consumption of alcohol and sugar rewards. PMID:21803530

  12. Expression of D2 dopamine receptor mRNA in the arterial chemoreceptor afferent pathway.

    PubMed

    Czyzyk-Krzeska, M F; Lawson, E E; Millhorn, D E

    1992-11-01

    Dopamine is a major neurotransmitter in the arterial chemoreceptor pathway. In the present study we wished to determine if messenger RNAs for dopamine D1 and D2 receptor are expressed in carotid body (type I cells), in sensory neurons of the petrosal ganglion which innervate the carotid body and in sympathetic neurons of the superior cervical ganglion. We failed to detect D1 receptor mRNA in any of these tissues. However, we found that D2 receptor mRNA was expressed by dopaminergic carotid body type I cells. D2 receptor mRNA was also found in petrosal ganglion neurons that innervated the carotid sinus and carotid body. In addition, a large number of sympathetic postganglionic neurons in the superior cervical ganglion expressed D2 receptor mRNA. PMID:1362730

  13. Dopamine D2 receptors are organized in bands in normal human temporal cortex.

    PubMed

    Goldsmith, S K; Joyce, J N

    1996-09-01

    Previous studies have documented a highly compartmentalized and laminar organization of dopamine D2 receptors in human hippocampus, entorhinal and perirhinal cortices. These areas receive input from regions of polysensory association cortices of the superior and inferior temporal sulci that evidence functional modules identified by other techniques. We examined the isocortical regions of temporal lobe for an equally well-differentiated pattern of D2 receptor expression as observed in their paleocortical temporal lobe targets. Using quantitative autoradiography we identified an organization of three-dimensional bands of high concentrations of dopamine D2 receptors throughout the rostral-caudal extent of the normal human temporal cortex. In the coronal plane, these D2 receptor-enriched bands had a columnar appearance with the concentration of D2 receptors almost two-fold higher within the bands than in the immediately adjacent cortex. These D2 receptor-enriched bands had a distinct laminar appearance with a paucity of [125I]epidepride binding to D2 receptors over the granule cell layer and higher concentrations of D2 receptors in laminae III and V than in the immediately adjacent cortex. They had a consistent width (mean width of 2.83 +/- 0.62 mm) in the coronal plane, but had their long axes in the rostrocaudal plane (some were at least 2500 microns in length). Hence, they exist as three-dimensional D2 receptor-enriched and receptor-poor modules with their long axes in the rostrocaudal plane. Tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive fibers were observed to cross orthogonally to the long axes of the D2 receptor enriched bands. Other monoamine receptors (beta-adrenergic, 5-hydroxytryptamine2), and markers for myelin (anti-myelin basic protein immunohistochemistry), glia (5'-nucleotidase), and energy metabolism (cytochrome oxidase) showed a laminar organization but failed to demarcate the D2 receptor-enriched bands. The majority of these D2 receptor-enriched bands were

  14. Chimeric D1/D2 dopamine receptors. Distinct determinants of selective efficacy, potency, and signal transduction.

    PubMed

    Kozell, L B; Machida, C A; Neve, R L; Neve, K A

    1994-12-01

    D1/D2 chimeras were constructed that had D1 dopamine receptor sequence at the amino-terminal end and D2 dopamine receptor sequence at the carboxyl-terminal end. The chimeras with the first four, five and six transmembrane domains of the D1 receptor (CH2, CH3, CH4, respectively) bound the D1 receptor antagonist [3H]SCH 23390 with high affinity. Reciprocal chimeras constructed with D2 receptor sequence at the amino-terminal end displayed no detectable specific binding of [3H]SCH 23390, [125I]epidepride, or [3H]spiperone. CH2, CH3, and CH4 had lower affinity than either D1 or D2 dopamine receptors for the nonselective antagonists and agonists and D2-selective antagonists tested. The chimeric receptors had affinities for three D1-selective ligands and the D2-selective agonist, quinpirole, that were intermediate between D1 and D2 receptor affinities for the drugs. The substantial loss or gain of affinity for three ligands upon replacement of D1 transmembrane VII with D2 sequence (CH4) suggests an important role for this region in the selectivity of these drugs. Stimulation of adenylyl cyclase activity by D1 agonists occurred in cells expressing CH3 and CH4, both of which included the D1 third cytoplasmic loop, but not in cells expressing CH1 or CH2, both with the D2 third cytoplasmic loop. However, only CH3 was able to mediate stimulation of adenylyl cyclase by quinpirole, implying that D2 receptor transmembrane domain VI was an important determinant of the selective efficacy of quinpirole. On the other hand, transmembrane domain VII was particularly important for the selective potency of quinpirole. Inhibition of beta-adrenergic receptor-stimulated adenylyl cyclase activity by dopamine was seen in cells expressing D2 receptors and CH1, but not CH2, CH3, or CH4. Thus, the third cytoplasmic loop of D1 dopamine receptors was crucial for the coupling of the receptors to Gs, but inhibition of adenylyl cyclase via Gi required structural features, such as the second

  15. Effect of C-Terminal S-Palmitoylation on D2 Dopamine Receptor Trafficking and Stability.

    PubMed

    Ebersole, Brittany; Petko, Jessica; Woll, Matthew; Murakami, Shoko; Sokolina, Kate; Wong, Victoria; Stagljar, Igor; Lüscher, Bernhard; Levenson, Robert

    2015-01-01

    We have used bioorthogonal click chemistry (BCC), a sensitive non-isotopic labeling method, to analyze the palmitoylation status of the D2 dopamine receptor (D2R), a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) crucial for regulation of processes such as mood, reward, and motor control. By analyzing a series of D2R constructs containing mutations in cysteine residues, we found that palmitoylation of the D2R most likely occurs on the C-terminal cysteine residue (C443) of the polypeptide. D2Rs in which C443 was deleted showed significantly reduced palmitoylation levels, plasma membrane expression, and protein stability compared to wild-type D2Rs. Rather, the C443 deletion mutant appeared to accumulate in the Golgi, indicating that palmitoylation of the D2R is important for cell surface expression of the receptor. Using the full-length D2R as bait in a membrane yeast two-hybrid (MYTH) screen, we identified the palmitoyl acyltransferase (PAT) zDHHC4 as a D2R interacting protein. Co-immunoprecipitation analysis revealed that several other PATs, including zDHHC3 and zDHHC8, also interacted with the D2R and that each of the three PATs was capable of affecting the palmitoylation status of the D2R. Finally, biochemical analyses using D2R mutants and the palmitoylation blocker, 2-bromopalmitate indicate that palmitoylation of the receptor plays a role in stability of the D2R. PMID:26535572

  16. Effect of C-Terminal S-Palmitoylation on D2 Dopamine Receptor Trafficking and Stability

    PubMed Central

    Ebersole, Brittany; Petko, Jessica; Woll, Matthew; Murakami, Shoko; Sokolina, Kate; Wong, Victoria; Stagljar, Igor; Lüscher, Bernhard; Levenson, Robert

    2015-01-01

    We have used bioorthogonal click chemistry (BCC), a sensitive non-isotopic labeling method, to analyze the palmitoylation status of the D2 dopamine receptor (D2R), a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) crucial for regulation of processes such as mood, reward, and motor control. By analyzing a series of D2R constructs containing mutations in cysteine residues, we found that palmitoylation of the D2R most likely occurs on the C-terminal cysteine residue (C443) of the polypeptide. D2Rs in which C443 was deleted showed significantly reduced palmitoylation levels, plasma membrane expression, and protein stability compared to wild-type D2Rs. Rather, the C443 deletion mutant appeared to accumulate in the Golgi, indicating that palmitoylation of the D2R is important for cell surface expression of the receptor. Using the full-length D2R as bait in a membrane yeast two-hybrid (MYTH) screen, we identified the palmitoyl acyltransferase (PAT) zDHHC4 as a D2R interacting protein. Co-immunoprecipitation analysis revealed that several other PATs, including zDHHC3 and zDHHC8, also interacted with the D2R and that each of the three PATs was capable of affecting the palmitoylation status of the D2R. Finally, biochemical analyses using D2R mutants and the palmitoylation blocker, 2-bromopalmitate indicate that palmitoylation of the receptor plays a role in stability of the D2R. PMID:26535572

  17. PET imaging of dopamine D2 receptors during chronic cocaine self-administration in monkeys.

    PubMed

    Nader, Michael A; Morgan, Drake; Gage, H Donald; Nader, Susan H; Calhoun, Tonya L; Buchheimer, Nancy; Ehrenkaufer, Richard; Mach, Robert H

    2006-08-01

    Dopamine neurotransmission is associated with high susceptibility to cocaine abuse. Positron emission tomography was used in 12 rhesus macaques to determine if dopamine D2 receptor availability was associated with the rate of cocaine reinforcement, and to study changes in brain dopaminergic function during maintenance of and abstinence from cocaine. Baseline D2 receptor availability was negatively correlated with rates of cocaine self-administration. D2 receptor availability decreased by 15-20% within 1 week of initiating self-administration and remained reduced by approximately 20% during 1 year of exposure. Long-term reductions in D2 receptor availability were observed, with decreases persisting for up to 1 year of abstinence in some monkeys. These data provide evidence for a predisposition to self-administer cocaine based on D2 receptor availability, and demonstrate that the brain dopamine system responds rapidly following cocaine exposure. Individual differences in the rate of recovery of D2 receptor function during abstinence were noted. PMID:16829955

  18. Influence of idazoxan on the dopamine D2 receptor agonist-induced behavioural effects in rats.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, F; Giuliani, D

    1993-11-30

    The behavioural effects in rats of the dopamine D2 receptor agonists, lisuride, B-HT 920 and SND 919, were variously influenced by pre-treatment with the selective alpha 2-adrenoceptor antagonist, idazoxan (2 mg/kg), depending on the nature of the effect in question and the doses of agonist employed. The influence of idazoxan on drug-induced stretching-yawning, penile erection, sedation, stereotyped behaviour, aggressiveness and mounting is described and tentatively interpreted in neurochemical terms, account being taken of the activity of respective alpha 2-adrenoceptor antagonist and dopamine receptor agonists used, at alpha 2-adrenoceptors and at different dopamine D2 receptor subtypes, pre- and postsynaptically located. PMID:7907024

  19. Systemic Blockade of D2-Like Dopamine Receptors Facilitates Extinction of Conditioned Fear in Mice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponnusamy, Ravikumar; Nissim, Helen A.; Barad, Mark

    2005-01-01

    Extinction of conditioned fear in animals is the explicit model of behavior therapy for human anxiety disorders, including panic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and post-traumatic stress disorder. Based on previous data indicating that fear extinction in rats is blocked by quinpirole, an agonist of dopamine D2 receptors, we hypothesized…

  20. The characterization of IBF as a new selective dopamine D-2 receptor imaging agent

    SciTech Connect

    Kung, M.P.; Kung, H.F.; Billings, J.; Yang, Y.; Murphy, R.A.; Alavi, A. )

    1990-05-01

    The in vivo and in vitro studies of a new iodinated benzamide analog, (125I)IBF,5-iodo-7-N-((1-ethyl-2-pyrrolidinyl)methyl)carboxamido-2,3- dihydrobenzofuran as a potential central nervous system (CNS) D-2 dopamine receptor imaging agent were investigated. In vivo biodistribution of IBF in rat indicated that this agent concentrated in the striatum region and displayed a remarkably high target-to-nontarget ratio (striatum/cerebellum = 48 at 120 min post-injection). The in vitro binding studies suggested that IBF binds selectively to D-2 dopamine receptors with high affinity and low nonspecific binding (Kd = 0.106 +/- 0.015 nM, Bmax = 448 +/- 18.2 fmole/mg protein). Ex vivo autoradiography results in rats further confirmed the high uptake and retention of this agent in the basal ganglia region. The planar images of monkey brains (lateral view of the head) after i.v. injection of ({sup 123}I)IBF clearly demonstrated that D-2 dopamine receptors can be visualized. With the excellent in vivo stability to deiodination and high target-to-nontarget ratio, ({sup 123}I)IBF may be useful as a CNS D-2 dopamine receptor imaging agent for single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in humans.

  1. Reduced striatal dopamine D2/3 receptor availability in Body Dysmorphic Disorder.

    PubMed

    Vulink, Nienke C; Planting, Robin S; Figee, Martijn; Booij, Jan; Denys, Damiaan

    2016-02-01

    Though the dopaminergic system is implicated in Obsessive Compulsive and Related Disorders (OCRD), the dopaminergic system has never been investigated in-vivo in Body Dysmorphic Disorder (BDD). In line with consistent findings of reduced striatal dopamine D2/3 receptor availability in Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD), we hypothesized that the dopamine D2/3 receptor availability in the striatum will be lower in patients with BDD in comparison to healthy subjects. Striatal dopamine D2/3 receptor Binding Potential (BPND) was examined in 12 drug-free BDD patients and 12 control subjects pairwise matched by age, sex, and handedness using [(123)I]iodobenzamide Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT; bolus/constant infusion technique). Regions of interest were the caudate nucleus and the putamen. BPND was calculated as the ratio of specific striatal to binding in the occipital cortex (representing nonspecific binding). Compared to controls, dopamine D2/3 receptor BPND was significantly lower in BDD, both in the putamen (p=0.017) and caudate nucleus (p=0.022). This study provides the first evidence of a disturbed dopaminergic system in BDD patients. Although previously BDD was classified as a separate disorder (somatoform disorder), our findings give pathophysiological support for the recent reclassification of BDD to the OCRD in DSM-5. PMID:26711686

  2. Dopamine D1 and D2 Receptor Immunoreactivities in the Arcuate-Median Eminence Complex and their Link to the Tubero-Infundibular Dopamine Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Romero-Fernandez, W.; Borroto-Escuela, D.O.; Vargas-Barroso, V.; Narváez, M.; Di Palma, M.; Agnati, L.F.; Sahd, J. Larriva

    2014-01-01

    Dopamine D1 and D2 receptor immunohistochemistry and Golgi techniques were used to study the structure of the adult rat arcuate-median eminence complex, and determine the distribution of the dopamine D1 and D2 receptor immunoreactivities therein, particularly in relation to the tubero-infundibular dopamine neurons. Punctate dopamine D1 and D2 receptor immunoreactivities, likely located on nerve terminals, were enriched in the lateral palisade zone built up of nerve terminals, while the densities were low to modest in the medial palisade zone. A codistribution of dopamine D1 receptor or dopamine D2 receptor immunoreactive puncta with tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactive nerve terminals was demonstrated in the external layer. Dopamine D1 receptor but not dopamine D2 receptor immnunoreactivites nerve cell bodies were found in the ventromedial part of the arcuate nucleus and in the lateral part of the internal layer of the median eminence forming a continuous cell mass presumably representing neuropeptide Y immunoreactive nerve cell bodies. The major arcuate dopamine/ tyrosine hydroxylase nerve cell group was found in the dorsomedial part. A large number of tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactive nerve cell bodies in this region demonstrated punctate dopamine D1 receptor immunoreactivity but only a few presented dopamine D2 receptor immunoreactivity which were mainly found in a substantial number of tyrosine hydroxylase cell bodies of the ventral periventricular hypothalamic nucleus, also belonging to the tuberoinfundibular dopamine neurons. Structural evidence for projections of the arcuate nerve cells into the median eminence was also obtained. Distal axons formed horizontal axons in the internal layer issuing a variable number of collaterals classified into single or multiple strands located in the external layer increasing our understanding of the dopamine nerve terminal networks in this region. Dopamine D1 and D2 receptors may therefore directly and differentially

  3. Striatal Dopamine D2/3 Receptor Availability in Treatment Resistant Depression

    PubMed Central

    Ruhé, Eric H. G.; van Wingen, Guido A.; Booij, Jan; Denys, Damiaan

    2014-01-01

    Several studies demonstrated improvement of depressive symptoms in treatment resistant depression (TRD) after administering dopamine agonists which suggest abnormal dopaminergic neurotransmission in TRD. However, the role of dopaminergic signaling through measurement of striatal dopamine D2/3 receptor (D2/3R) binding has not been investigated in TRD subjects. We used [123I]IBZM single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) to investigate striatal D2/3R binding in TRD. We included 6 severe TRD patients, 11 severe TRD patients on antipsychotics (TRD AP group) and 15 matched healthy controls. Results showed no significant difference (p = 0.75) in striatal D2/3R availability was found between TRD patients and healthy controls. In the TRD AP group D2/3R availability was significantly decreased (reflecting occupancy of D2/3Rs by antipsychotics) relative to TRD patients and healthy controls (p<0.001) but there were no differences in clinical symptoms between TRD AP and TRD patients. This preliminary study therefore does not provide evidence for large differences in D2/3 availability in severe TRD patients and suggests this TRD subgroup is not characterized by altered dopaminergic transmission. Atypical antipsychotics appear to have no clinical benefit in severe TRD patients who remain depressed, despite their strong occupancy of D2/3Rs. PMID:25411966

  4. Activation of D2 dopamine receptor-expressing neurons in the nucleus accumbens increases motivation.

    PubMed

    Soares-Cunha, Carina; Coimbra, Barbara; David-Pereira, Ana; Borges, Sonia; Pinto, Luisa; Costa, Patricio; Sousa, Nuno; Rodrigues, Ana J

    2016-01-01

    Striatal dopamine receptor D1-expressing neurons have been classically associated with positive reinforcement and reward, whereas D2 neurons are associated with negative reinforcement and aversion. Here we demonstrate that the pattern of activation of D1 and D2 neurons in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) predicts motivational drive, and that optogenetic activation of either neuronal population enhances motivation in mice. Using a different approach in rats, we further show that activating NAc D2 neurons increases cue-induced motivational drive in control animals and in a model that presents anhedonia and motivational deficits; conversely, optogenetic inhibition of D2 neurons decreases motivation. Our results suggest that the classic view of D1-D2 functional antagonism does not hold true for all dimensions of reward-related behaviours, and that D2 neurons may play a more prominent pro-motivation role than originally anticipated. PMID:27337658

  5. Activation of D2 dopamine receptor-expressing neurons in the nucleus accumbens increases motivation

    PubMed Central

    Soares-Cunha, Carina; Coimbra, Barbara; David-Pereira, Ana; Borges, Sonia; Pinto, Luisa; Costa, Patricio; Sousa, Nuno; Rodrigues, Ana J.

    2016-01-01

    Striatal dopamine receptor D1-expressing neurons have been classically associated with positive reinforcement and reward, whereas D2 neurons are associated with negative reinforcement and aversion. Here we demonstrate that the pattern of activation of D1 and D2 neurons in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) predicts motivational drive, and that optogenetic activation of either neuronal population enhances motivation in mice. Using a different approach in rats, we further show that activating NAc D2 neurons increases cue-induced motivational drive in control animals and in a model that presents anhedonia and motivational deficits; conversely, optogenetic inhibition of D2 neurons decreases motivation. Our results suggest that the classic view of D1–D2 functional antagonism does not hold true for all dimensions of reward-related behaviours, and that D2 neurons may play a more prominent pro-motivation role than originally anticipated. PMID:27337658

  6. Dopamine D2 receptors in the hippocampus and amygdala in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Joyce, J N; Kaeger, C; Ryoo, H; Goldsmith, S

    1993-05-14

    Receptor autoradiography was used to quantify the number of dopamine D2 receptors labeled with [125I]epidepride in the medial temporal lobe of seven cases of Alzheimer's disease in comparison to eight cases of neurologically intact controls. The Alzheimer's disease cases showed the greatest losses of D2 receptors in the basolateral nucleus of the amygdala and molecular layer of the dentate gyrus and the smallest differences from controls in the perirhinal region and subiculum. The loss of D2 receptors in the hippocampus and amygdala of cases with Alzheimer's disease in concert with alterations in dopaminergic innervation could contribute to the clinical symptoms of this disorder. PMID:8361636

  7. Dopamine D2 Modulation of Sign and Goal Tracking in Rats.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Juan Carlos; Karlsson, Rose-Marie; O'Donnell, Patricio

    2015-08-01

    In Pavlovian conditioning, sign- and goal-tracking behaviors represent different approaches towards the conditioned stimulus. These behavioral patterns have been associated with predictive or incentive properties of the conditioned stimulus, with a crucial involvement of the mesolimbic dopamine system. As it is possible that sign tracking behavior is more sensitive to dopamine modulation, we evaluated the dopamine-dependence of sign- and goal-tracking behavior. We assessed responses to both a D2 agonist and an antagonist, and tested performance in a behavioral paradigm known to activate dopamine projections and in an animal model that affects mesolimbic and mesocortical function. Sign trackers displayed a greater sensitivity to a D2 agonist and smaller prepulse inhibition of the acoustic startle response than goal trackers, suggesting a reduced inhibitory ability. In addition, a neonatal ventral hippocampal lesion resulted in the loss of incentive salience of cues in sign trackers. Overall, these data indicate that sign-tracking behavior is more heavily controlled by dopamine than goal tracking. PMID:25759299

  8. Intramolecular allosteric communication in dopamine D2 receptor revealed by evolutionary amino acid covariation

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Yun-Min; Wilkins, Angela D.; Rodriguez, Gustavo J.; Wensel, Theodore G.; Lichtarge, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    The structural basis of allosteric signaling in G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) is important in guiding design of therapeutics and understanding phenotypic consequences of genetic variation. The Evolutionary Trace (ET) algorithm previously proved effective in redesigning receptors to mimic the ligand specificities of functionally distinct homologs. We now expand ET to consider mutual information, with validation in GPCR structure and dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) function. The new algorithm, called ET-MIp, identifies evolutionarily relevant patterns of amino acid covariations. The improved predictions of structural proximity and D2R mutagenesis demonstrate that ET-MIp predicts functional interactions between residue pairs, particularly potency and efficacy of activation by dopamine. Remarkably, although most of the residue pairs chosen for mutagenesis are neither in the binding pocket nor in contact with each other, many exhibited functional interactions, implying at-a-distance coupling. The functional interaction between the coupled pairs correlated best with the evolutionary coupling potential derived from dopamine receptor sequences rather than with broader sets of GPCR sequences. These data suggest that the allosteric communication responsible for dopamine responses is resolved by ET-MIp and best discerned within a short evolutionary distance. Most double mutants restored dopamine response to wild-type levels, also suggesting that tight regulation of the response to dopamine drove the coevolution and intramolecular communications between coupled residues. Our approach provides a general tool to identify evolutionary covariation patterns in small sets of close sequence homologs and to translate them into functional linkages between residues. PMID:26979958

  9. Intramolecular allosteric communication in dopamine D2 receptor revealed by evolutionary amino acid covariation.

    PubMed

    Sung, Yun-Min; Wilkins, Angela D; Rodriguez, Gustavo J; Wensel, Theodore G; Lichtarge, Olivier

    2016-03-29

    The structural basis of allosteric signaling in G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) is important in guiding design of therapeutics and understanding phenotypic consequences of genetic variation. The Evolutionary Trace (ET) algorithm previously proved effective in redesigning receptors to mimic the ligand specificities of functionally distinct homologs. We now expand ET to consider mutual information, with validation in GPCR structure and dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) function. The new algorithm, called ET-MIp, identifies evolutionarily relevant patterns of amino acid covariations. The improved predictions of structural proximity and D2R mutagenesis demonstrate that ET-MIp predicts functional interactions between residue pairs, particularly potency and efficacy of activation by dopamine. Remarkably, although most of the residue pairs chosen for mutagenesis are neither in the binding pocket nor in contact with each other, many exhibited functional interactions, implying at-a-distance coupling. The functional interaction between the coupled pairs correlated best with the evolutionary coupling potential derived from dopamine receptor sequences rather than with broader sets of GPCR sequences. These data suggest that the allosteric communication responsible for dopamine responses is resolved by ET-MIp and best discerned within a short evolutionary distance. Most double mutants restored dopamine response to wild-type levels, also suggesting that tight regulation of the response to dopamine drove the coevolution and intramolecular communications between coupled residues. Our approach provides a general tool to identify evolutionary covariation patterns in small sets of close sequence homologs and to translate them into functional linkages between residues. PMID:26979958

  10. Homology modeling of dopamine D2 and D3 receptors: molecular dynamics refinement and docking evaluation.

    PubMed

    Platania, Chiara Bianca Maria; Salomone, Salvatore; Leggio, Gian Marco; Drago, Filippo; Bucolo, Claudio

    2012-01-01

    Dopamine (DA) receptors, a class of G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), have been targeted for drug development for the treatment of neurological, psychiatric and ocular disorders. The lack of structural information about GPCRs and their ligand complexes has prompted the development of homology models of these proteins aimed at structure-based drug design. Crystal structure of human dopamine D(3) (hD(3)) receptor has been recently solved. Based on the hD(3) receptor crystal structure we generated dopamine D(2) and D(3) receptor models and refined them with molecular dynamics (MD) protocol. Refined structures, obtained from the MD simulations in membrane environment, were subsequently used in molecular docking studies in order to investigate potential sites of interaction. The structure of hD(3) and hD(2L) receptors was differentiated by means of MD simulations and D(3) selective ligands were discriminated, in terms of binding energy, by docking calculation. Robust correlation of computed and experimental K(i) was obtained for hD(3) and hD(2L) receptor ligands. In conclusion, the present computational approach seems suitable to build and refine structure models of homologous dopamine receptors that may be of value for structure-based drug discovery of selective dopaminergic ligands. PMID:22970199

  11. Homology Modeling of Dopamine D2 and D3 Receptors: Molecular Dynamics Refinement and Docking Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Platania, Chiara Bianca Maria; Salomone, Salvatore; Leggio, Gian Marco; Drago, Filippo; Bucolo, Claudio

    2012-01-01

    Dopamine (DA) receptors, a class of G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), have been targeted for drug development for the treatment of neurological, psychiatric and ocular disorders. The lack of structural information about GPCRs and their ligand complexes has prompted the development of homology models of these proteins aimed at structure-based drug design. Crystal structure of human dopamine D3 (hD3) receptor has been recently solved. Based on the hD3 receptor crystal structure we generated dopamine D2 and D3 receptor models and refined them with molecular dynamics (MD) protocol. Refined structures, obtained from the MD simulations in membrane environment, were subsequently used in molecular docking studies in order to investigate potential sites of interaction. The structure of hD3 and hD2L receptors was differentiated by means of MD simulations and D3 selective ligands were discriminated, in terms of binding energy, by docking calculation. Robust correlation of computed and experimental Ki was obtained for hD3 and hD2L receptor ligands. In conclusion, the present computational approach seems suitable to build and refine structure models of homologous dopamine receptors that may be of value for structure-based drug discovery of selective dopaminergic ligands. PMID:22970199

  12. Dopamine D2 receptor overexpression alters behavior and physiology in Drd2-EGFP mice.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Paul F; Christensen, Christine H; Hazelwood, Lisa A; Dobi, Alice; Bock, Roland; Sibley, David R; Mateo, Yolanda; Alvarez, Veronica A

    2011-01-01

    Bacteria artificial chromosome (BAC) transgenic mice expressing the reporter protein enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) under the control of the D1 and D2 dopamine receptor promoters (Drd1-EGFP and Drd2-EGFP) have been widely used to study striatal function and have contributed to our understanding of the physiological and pathological functions of the basal ganglia. These tools were produced and promptly made available to address questions in a cell-specific manner that has transformed the way we frame hypotheses in neuroscience. However, these mice have not been fully characterized until now. We found that Drd2-EGFP mice display an ∼40% increase in membrane expression of the dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) and a twofold increase in D2R mRNA levels in the striatum when compared with wild-type and Drd1-EGFP mice. D2R overexpression was accompanied by behavioral hypersensitivity to D2R-like agonists, as well as enhanced electrophysiological responses to D2R activation in midbrain dopaminergic neurons. Dopamine (DA) transients evoked by stimulation in the nucleus accumbens showed slower clearance in Drd2-EGFP mice, and cocaine actions on DA clearance were impaired in these mice. Thus, it was not surprising to find that Drd2-EGFP mice were hyperactive when exposed to a novel environment and locomotion was suppressed by acute cocaine administration. All together, this study demonstrates that Drd2-EGFP mice overexpress D2R and have altered dopaminergic signaling that fundamentally differentiates them from wild-type and Drd1-EGFP mice. PMID:21209197

  13. Dopamine D2 receptor bands in normal human temporal cortex are absent in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Joyce, J N; Myers, A J; Gurevich, E

    1998-02-16

    A modular organization of bands enriched in high concentrations of D2 receptors are observed throughout the rostral to caudal aspects of the temporal cortex of the normal human at postmortem, but are most frequently observed in the inferior and superior temporal cortices [S. Goldsmith, J.N. Joyce, Dopamine D2 receptors are organized in bands in normal human temporal cortex, Neuroscience 74 (1996) 435-451]. In the tissue derived at postmortem from Alzheimer's disease cases (AD), these D2 receptor-enriched modules were found to be largely absent at rostral and mid-levels of the temporal cortex. Regions exhibiting this loss of receptor binding also showed a marked reduction in the number of pyramidal neurons stained for D2 mRNA. In addition, the AD material exhibited numerous thioflavin-positive plaques and tangle-filled extraneuronal (ghost) pyramidal neurons that were D2 mRNA-negative. Regions that are the earliest affected and most susceptible to classical AD pathology are also most sensitive to the loss of D2 receptors. These results, along with our previous data [J.N. Joyce, C. Kaeger, H. Ryoo, S. Goldsmith, Dopamine D2 receptors in the hippocampus and amygdala in Alzheimer's disease, Neurosci. Lett. 154 (1993) 171-174; H. Ryoo, J. N. Joyce, The loss of dopamine D2 receptors varies along the rostrocaudal axis of the hippocampal complex in Alzheimer's disease, J. Comp. Neurol. 348 (1994) 94-110], indicate that specific pathways enriched with D2 receptors, including that within modules of higher order association cortices of the temporal lobe and continued through segregated pathways within the parahippocampus and hippocampus, are particularly susceptible to the loss in AD. These dopamine D2 receptor-enriched modules may play an important role in the reciprocal activity of large groups of neurons in these high-order association cortical regions. Hence, the loss of the D2 receptor-enriched modules in Alzheimer's disease contributes to disturbances in information

  14. Dopamine D2 receptor availability is linked to hippocampal-caudate functional connectivity and episodic memory.

    PubMed

    Nyberg, Lars; Karalija, Nina; Salami, Alireza; Andersson, Micael; Wåhlin, Anders; Kaboovand, Neda; Köhncke, Ylva; Axelsson, Jan; Rieckmann, Anna; Papenberg, Goran; Garrett, Douglas D; Riklund, Katrine; Lövdén, Martin; Lindenberger, Ulman; Bäckman, Lars

    2016-07-12

    D1 and D2 dopamine receptors (D1DRs and D2DRs) may contribute differently to various aspects of memory and cognition. The D1DR system has been linked to functions supported by the prefrontal cortex. By contrast, the role of the D2DR system is less clear, although it has been hypothesized that D2DRs make a specific contribution to hippocampus-based cognitive functions. Here we present results from 181 healthy adults between 64 and 68 y of age who underwent comprehensive assessment of episodic memory, working memory, and processing speed, along with MRI and D2DR assessment with [(11)C]raclopride and PET. Caudate D2DR availability was positively associated with episodic memory but not with working memory or speed. Whole-brain analyses further revealed a relation between hippocampal D2DR availability and episodic memory. Hippocampal and caudate D2DR availability were interrelated, and functional MRI-based resting-state functional connectivity between the ventral caudate and medial temporal cortex increased as a function of caudate D2DR availability. Collectively, these findings indicate that D2DRs make a specific contribution to hippocampus-based cognition by influencing striatal and hippocampal regions, and their interactions. PMID:27339132

  15. Dopamine D2 receptor availability is linked to hippocampal–caudate functional connectivity and episodic memory

    PubMed Central

    Nyberg, Lars; Karalija, Nina; Salami, Alireza; Andersson, Micael; Wåhlin, Anders; Kaboovand, Neda; Köhncke, Ylva; Axelsson, Jan; Rieckmann, Anna; Papenberg, Goran; Garrett, Douglas D.; Riklund, Katrine; Lövdén, Martin; Bäckman, Lars

    2016-01-01

    D1 and D2 dopamine receptors (D1DRs and D2DRs) may contribute differently to various aspects of memory and cognition. The D1DR system has been linked to functions supported by the prefrontal cortex. By contrast, the role of the D2DR system is less clear, although it has been hypothesized that D2DRs make a specific contribution to hippocampus-based cognitive functions. Here we present results from 181 healthy adults between 64 and 68 y of age who underwent comprehensive assessment of episodic memory, working memory, and processing speed, along with MRI and D2DR assessment with [11C]raclopride and PET. Caudate D2DR availability was positively associated with episodic memory but not with working memory or speed. Whole-brain analyses further revealed a relation between hippocampal D2DR availability and episodic memory. Hippocampal and caudate D2DR availability were interrelated, and functional MRI-based resting-state functional connectivity between the ventral caudate and medial temporal cortex increased as a function of caudate D2DR availability. Collectively, these findings indicate that D2DRs make a specific contribution to hippocampus-based cognition by influencing striatal and hippocampal regions, and their interactions. PMID:27339132

  16. D2, D3, and D4 dopamine receptors couple to G protein-regulated potassium channels in Xenopus oocytes.

    PubMed

    Werner, P; Hussy, N; Buell, G; Jones, K A; North, R A

    1996-04-01

    Human D2, D3, D4 and dopamine receptors were individually coexpressed in Xenopus oocytes with a G protein-regulated inwardly rectifying potassium channel (GIRK1). At -100 mV in 96 mM potassium, dopamine (0.1-100 nM) evoked an inward current; the current showed inward rectification, reversed polarity at 0 mV, and was blocked by barium (50% inhibition by 10 microM). The concentrations of dopamine activating 50% of the maximal current (EC50) were not different (2-4 nM) for D2, D3, and D4 receptors, but the maximal current was 3-fold larger for D2 and D4 than for D3 receptors. Dopamine evoked reproducible inward currents at D2 and D4 receptors when applied repeatedly, but second responses could not be observed in oocytes expressing D3 receptors. 7-Hydroxy-N,N-di-n-propyl-2-aminotetralin mimicked the effect of dopamine (EC50 of approximately 2, approximately 3, and approximately 19 nM at D2, D3, and D4, respectively). (-) Sulpiride reversibly blocked the dopamine-induced current with IC50 values of 5, 300, and 2000 nM for D2, D3, and D4 receptors, respectively. Dopamine was ineffective in oocytes injected 2 hr previously with pertussis toxin. We concluded that all three D2-like dopamine receptors share the potential to activate inwardly rectifying potassium channels. PMID:8609893

  17. Three amino acids in the D2 dopamine receptor regulate selective ligand function and affinity

    PubMed Central

    Cummings, David F.; Ericksen, Spencer S.; Schetz, John A.

    2016-01-01

    The D2 dopamine receptor is an important therapeutic target for the treatment of psychotic, agitated, and abnormal behavioral states. To better understand the specific interactions of subtype-selective ligands with dopamine receptor subtypes, seven ligands with high selectivity (>120-fold) for the D4 subtype of dopamine receptor were tested on wild-type and mutant D2 receptors. Five of the selective ligands were observed to have 21-fold to 293-fold increases in D2 receptor affinity when three non-conserved amino acids in TM2 and TM3 were mutated to the corresponding D4 amino acids. The two ligands with the greatest improvement in affinity for the D2 mutant receptor [i.e., 3-{[4-(4-iodophenyl) piperazin-1-yl]methyl}-1H-pyrrolo[2,3-b]pyridine (L-750,667) and 1-[4-iodobenzyl]-4-[N-(3-isopropoxy-2-pyridinyl)-N-methyl]-aminopiperidine (RBI-257)] were investigated in functional assays. Consistent with their higher affinity for the mutant than for the wild-type receptor, concentrations of L-750,667 or RBI-257 that produced large reductions in the potency of quinpirole’s functional response in the mutant did not significantly reduce quinpirole’s functional response in the wild-type D2 receptor. In contrast to RBI-257 which is an antagonist at all receptors, L-750,667 is a partial agonist at the wild-type D2 but an antagonist at both the mutant D2 and wild-type D4 receptors. Our study demonstrates for the first time that the TM2/3 microdomain of the D2 dopamine receptor not only regulates the selective affinity of ligands, but in selected cases can also regulate their function. Utilizing a new docking technique that incorporates receptor backbone flexibility, the three non-conserved amino acids that encompass the TM2/3 microdomain were found to account in large part for the differences in intermolecular steric contacts between the ligands and receptors. Consistent with the experimental data, this model illustrates the interactions between a variety of subtype

  18. Olfactory deprivation increases dopamine D2 receptor density in the rat olfactory bulb

    SciTech Connect

    Guthrie, K.M.; Pullara, J.M.; Marshall, J.F.; Leon, M. )

    1991-05-01

    Unilateral olfactory deprivation during postnatal development results in significant anatomical and neurochemical changes in the deprived olfactory bulb. Perhaps the most dramatic neurochemical change is the loss of dopaminergic expression by neurons of the glomerular region. The authors describe here the effects of early olfactory deprivation on other elements of the bulb dopaminergic system, namely the dopamine receptors of the olfactory bulb. Rat pups had a single naris occluded on postnatal day 2 (PN2). On PN20 or PN60, animals were sacrificed and the bulbs were examined for catecholamine levels or D2 and D1 dopamine receptor binding. Receptor densities were quantified by in vitro autoradiography using the tritiated antagonists spiperone (D2) and SCH23390 (D1). Dopamine uptake sites were similarly examined using tritiated mazindol. No significant specific labeling of D1 or mazindol sites was observed in the olfactory bulbs of control or experimental animals at either age. Normal animals displayed prominent labeling of D2 sites in the glomerular and nerve layers. After 60 days of deprivation, deprived bulbs exhibited an average increase in D2 receptor density of 32%. As determined by Scatchard analysis, the mean values for Kd and Bmax were 0.134 nM and 293 fmol/mg protein in normal bulbs, and 0.136 nM and 403 fmol/mg protein in deprived bulbs. The results suggest that, as in the neostriatum, dopamine depletion in the olfactory bulb leads to an upregulation of D2 receptor sites. This change may represent an attempt by the system to adapt neurochemically to reduced dopaminergic activity and thereby maintain bulb function.

  19. Cell-free protein synthesis and purification of human dopamine D2 receptor long isoform.

    PubMed

    Basu, Dipannita; Castellano, Jessica M; Thomas, Nancy; Mishra, Ram K

    2013-01-01

    The human dopamine D2 receptor long isoform (D2L) has significant implications in neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders such as Parkinson's disease and schizophrenia. Detailed structural knowledge of this receptor is limited owing to its highly hydrophobic nature, which leads to protein aggregation and host toxicity when expressed in cellular systems. The newly emerging field of cell-free protein expression presents numerous advantages to overcome these challenges. This system utilizes protein synthesis machinery and exogenous DNA to synthesize functional proteins outside of intact cells. This study utilizes two different cell-free systems for the synthesis of human dopamine D2L receptor. These include the Escherichia coli lysate-based system and the wheat-germ lysate-based system. The bacterial cell-free method used pET 100/D-TOPO vector to synthesize hexa-histidine-tagged D2L receptor using a dialysis bag system; the resulting protein was purified using nickel-nitrilotriacetic acid affinity resin. The wheat germ system used pEU-glutathione-S-transferase (GST) vector to synthesize GST-tagged D2L receptor using a bilayer translation method; the resulting protein was purified using a GST affinity resin. The presence and binding capacity of the synthesized D2L receptor was confirmed by immunoblotting and radioligand competition assays, respectively. Additionally, in-gel protein sequencing via Nano LC-MS/MS was used to confirm protein synthesis via the wheat germ system. The results showed both systems to synthesize microgram quantities of the receptor. Improved expression of this highly challenging protein can improve research and understanding of the human dopamine D2L receptor. PMID:23424095

  20. Dopamine D2 Receptor-Mediated Regulation of Pancreatic β Cell Mass.

    PubMed

    Sakano, Daisuke; Choi, Sungik; Kataoka, Masateru; Shiraki, Nobuaki; Uesugi, Motonari; Kume, Kazuhiko; Kume, Shoen

    2016-07-12

    Understanding the molecular mechanisms that regulate β cell mass and proliferation is important for the treatment of diabetes. Here, we identified domperidone (DPD), a dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) antagonist that enhances β cell mass. Over time, islet β cell loss occurs in dissociation cultures, and this was inhibited by DPD. DPD increased proliferation and decreased apoptosis of β cells through increasing intracellular cAMP. DPD prevented β cell dedifferentiation, which together highly contributed to the increased β cell mass. DRD2 knockdown phenocopied the effects of domperidone and increased the number of β cells. Drd2 overexpression sensitized the dopamine responsiveness of β cells and increased apoptosis. Further analysis revealed that the adenosine agonist 5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine, a previously identified promoter of β cell proliferation, acted with DPD to increase the number of β cells. In humans, dopamine also modulates β cell mass through DRD2 and exerts an inhibitory effect on adenosine signaling. PMID:27373926

  1. Neurotensin Induces Presynaptic Depression of D2 Dopamine Autoreceptor-Mediated Neurotransmission in Midbrain Dopaminergic Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Piccart, Elisabeth; Courtney, Nicholas A.; Branch, Sarah Y.; Ford, Christopher P.

    2015-01-01

    Increased dopaminergic signaling is a hallmark of severe mesencephalic pathologies such as schizophrenia and psychostimulant abuse. Activity of midbrain dopaminergic neurons is under strict control of inhibitory D2 autoreceptors. Application of the modulatory peptide neurotensin (NT) to midbrain dopaminergic neurons transiently increases activity by decreasing D2 dopamine autoreceptor function, yet little is known about the mechanisms that underlie long-lasting effects. Here, we performed patch-clamp electrophysiology and fast-scan cyclic voltammetry in mouse brain slices to determine the effects of NT on dopamine autoreceptor-mediated neurotransmission. Application of the active peptide fragment NT8–13 produced synaptic depression that exhibited short- and long-term components. Sustained depression of D2 autoreceptor signaling required activation of the type 2 NT receptor and the protein phosphatase calcineurin. NT application increased paired-pulse ratios and decreased extracellular levels of somatodendritic dopamine, consistent with a decrease in presynaptic dopamine release. Surprisingly, we observed that electrically induced long-term depression of dopaminergic neurotransmission that we reported previously was also dependent on type 2 NT receptors and calcineurin. Because electrically induced depression, but not NT-induced depression, was blocked by postsynaptic calcium chelation, our findings suggest that endogenous NT may act through a local circuit to decrease presynaptic dopamine release. The current research provides a mechanism through which augmented NT release can produce a long-lasting increase in membrane excitability of midbrain dopamine neurons. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Whereas plasticity of glutamate synapses in the brain has been studied extensively, demonstrations of plasticity at dopaminergic synapses have been more elusive. By quantifying inhibitory neurotransmission between midbrain dopaminergic neurons in brain slices from mice we have

  2. Distribution of dopamine D2-like receptors in the human thalamus: autoradiographic and PET studies.

    PubMed

    Rieck, Richard W; Ansari, M S; Whetsell, William O; Deutch, Ariel Y; Kessler, Robert M

    2004-02-01

    The distribution of dopamine (DA) D(2)-like receptors in the human thalamus was studied using in vitro autoradiographic techniques and in vivo positron emission tomography in normal control subjects. [(125)I]Epidepride, which binds with high affinity to DA D(2) and D(3) receptors, was used in autoradiographic studies to determine the distribution and density of D(2)-like receptors, and the epidepride analogue [(18)F]fallypride positron was used for positron emission tomography studies to delineate D(2)-like receptors in vivo. Both approaches revealed a heterogeneous distribution of thalamic D(2/3) receptors, with relatively high densities in the intralaminar and midline thalamic nuclei, including the paraventricular, parataenial, paracentral, centrolateral, and centromedian/parafascicular nuclei. Moderate densities of D(2/3) sites were seen in the mediodorsal and anterior nuclei, while other thalamic nuclei expressed lower levels of D(2)-like receptors. Most thalamic nuclei that express high densities of D(2)-like receptors project to forebrain DA terminal fields, suggesting that both the thalamic neurons expressing D(2)-like receptors and the projection targets of these neurons are regulated by DA. Because the midline/intralaminar nuclei receive prominent projections from both the ascending reticular activating core and the hypothalamus, these thalamic nuclei may integrate activity conveying both interoceptive and exteroceptive information to telencephalic DA systems involved in reward and cognition. PMID:14627996

  3. Contributions of conserved serine residues to the interactions of ligands with dopamine D2 receptors.

    PubMed

    Cox, B A; Henningsen, R A; Spanoyannis, A; Neve, R L; Neve, K A

    1992-08-01

    Four dopamine D2 receptor mutants were constructed, in each of which an alanine residue was substituted for one of four conserved serine residues, i.e., Ser-193, Ser-194, Ser-197, and Ser-391. Wild-type and mutant receptors were expressed transiently in COS-7 cells and stably in C6 glioma cells for analysis of ligand-receptor interactions. In radioligand binding assays, the affinity of D2 receptors for dopamine was decreased 50-fold by substitution of alanine for Ser-193, implicating this residue in the binding of dopamine. Each mutant had smaller decreases in affinity for one or more of the ligands tested, with no apparent relationship between the class of ligand and the pattern of mutation-induced changes in affinity, except that the potency of agonists was decreased by substitution for Ser-193. The potency of dopamine for inhibition of adenylyl cyclase was reduced substantially by substitution of alanine for Ser-193 or Ser-197. Mutation of Ser-194 led to a complete loss of efficacy for dopamine and p-tyramine, which would be consistent with an interaction between Ser-194 and the p-hydroxyl substituent of dopamine that is necessary for activation of the receptors to occur. Because mutation of the corresponding residues of beta 2-adrenergic receptors has very different consequences, we conclude that although the position of these serine residues is highly conserved among catecholamine receptors, and the residues as a group are important in ligand binding and activation of receptors by agonists, the function of each of the residues considered separately varies among catecholamine receptors. PMID:1321233

  4. Sweet Dopamine: Sucrose Preferences Relate Differentially to Striatal D2 Receptor Binding and Age in Obesity.

    PubMed

    Pepino, Marta Y; Eisenstein, Sarah A; Bischoff, Allison N; Klein, Samuel; Moerlein, Stephen M; Perlmutter, Joel S; Black, Kevin J; Hershey, Tamara

    2016-09-01

    Alterations in dopaminergic circuitry play a critical role in food reward and may contribute to susceptibility to obesity. Ingestion of sweets releases dopamine in striatum, and both sweet preferences and striatal D2 receptors (D2R) decline with age and may be altered in obesity. Understanding the relationships between these variables and the impact of obesity on these relationships may reveal insight into the neurobiological basis of sweet preferences. We evaluated sucrose preferences, perception of sweetness intensity, and striatal D2R binding potential (D2R BPND) using positron emission tomography with a D2R-selective radioligand insensitive to endogenous dopamine, (N-[(11)C] methyl)benperidol, in 20 subjects without obesity (BMI 22.5 ± 2.4 kg/m(2); age 28.3 ± 5.4 years) and 24 subjects with obesity (BMI 40.3 ± 5.0 kg/m(2); age 31.2 ± 6.3 years). The groups had similar sucrose preferences, sweetness intensity perception, striatal D2R BPND, and age-related D2R BPND declines. However, both striatal D2R BPND and age correlated with sucrose preferences in subjects without obesity, explaining 52% of their variance in sucrose preference. In contrast, these associations were absent in the obese group. In conclusion, the age-related decline in D2R was not linked to the age-related decline in sweetness preferences, suggesting that other, as-yet-unknown mechanisms play a role and that these mechanisms are disrupted in obesity. PMID:27307220

  5. Neurovascular coupling to D2/D3 dopamine receptor occupancy using simultaneous PET/functional MRI

    PubMed Central

    Sander, Christin Y.; Hooker, Jacob M.; Catana, Ciprian; Normandin, Marc D.; Alpert, Nathaniel M.; Knudsen, Gitte M.; Vanduffel, Wim; Rosen, Bruce R.; Mandeville, Joseph B.

    2013-01-01

    This study employed simultaneous neuroimaging with positron emission tomography (PET) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to demonstrate the relationship between changes in receptor occupancy measured by PET and changes in brain activity inferred by fMRI. By administering the D2/D3 dopamine receptor antagonist [11C]raclopride at varying specific activities to anesthetized nonhuman primates, we mapped associations between changes in receptor occupancy and hemodynamics [cerebral blood volume (CBV)] in the domains of space, time, and dose. Mass doses of raclopride above tracer levels caused increases in CBV and reductions in binding potential that were localized to the dopamine-rich striatum. Moreover, similar temporal profiles were observed for specific binding estimates and changes in CBV. Injection of graded raclopride mass doses revealed a monotonic coupling between neurovascular responses and receptor occupancies. The distinct CBV magnitudes between putamen and caudate at matched occupancies approximately matched literature differences in basal dopamine levels, suggesting that the relative fMRI measurements reflect basal D2/D3 dopamine receptor occupancy. These results can provide a basis for models that relate dopaminergic occupancies to hemodynamic changes in the basal ganglia. Overall, these data demonstrate the utility of simultaneous PET/fMRI for investigations of neurovascular coupling that correlate neurochemistry with hemodynamic changes in vivo for any receptor system with an available PET tracer. PMID:23723346

  6. Synthesis and characterization of iodobenzamide analogues: Potential D-2 dopamine receptor imaging agents

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, R.A.; Kung, H.F.; Kung, M.P.; Billings, J. )

    1990-01-01

    (S)-N-((1-Ethyl-2-pyrrolidinyl)methyl)-2-hydroxy-3-iodo-6- methoxybenzamide (({sup 123}I)IBZM) is a central nervous system (CNS) D-2 dopamine receptor imaging agent. In order to investigate the versatility of this parent structure in specific dopamine receptor localization and the potential for developing new dopamine receptor imaging agents, a series of new iodinated benzamides with fused ring systems, naphthalene (INAP) and benzofuran (IBF), was synthesized and radiolabeled, and the in vivo and in vitro biological properties were characterized. The best analogue of IBZM is IBF (21). The specific binding of ({sup 125}I)IBF (21) with rat striatal tissue preparation was found to be saturable and displayed a Kd of 0.106 {plus minus} 0.015 nM. Competition data of various receptor ligands for ({sup 125}I)IBF (21) binding show the following rank order of potency: spiperone greater than IBF (21) greater than IBZM greater than (+)-butaclamol greater than ({plus minus})-ADTN,6,7 greater than ketanserin greater than SCH-23390 much greater than propranolol. The in vivo biodistribution results confirm that ({sup 125}I)IBF (21) concentrated in the striatal area after iv injection into rats. The study demonstrates that ({sup 123}I)IBF (21) is a potential agent for imaging CNS D-2 dopamine receptors.

  7. Lack of association between dopamine D2 receptor gene Cys311 variant and schizophrenia

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, Toshihisa; Fukushima, Noboru; Takahashi, Makoto; Kameda, Kensuke; Ihda, Shin

    1996-04-09

    Itokawa et al. reported identifying one missense nucleotide mutation from C to G resulting in a substitution of serine with cysteine at codon 311 in the third intracellular loop of the dopamine D2 receptor in schizophrenics. Arinami et al. reported finding a positive association between the Cys311 variant and schizophrenia. In response to the report by Arinami et al. we examined 106 unrelated Japanese schizophrenics and 106 normal controls to determine if there is any association of the Cys311 variant with schizophrenia. However, we found no statistically significant differences in allelic frequencies of Cys311 between schizophrenia and normal controls. The present results as well as those of all previous studies except for that of Arinami et al. indicated that an association between the dopamine D2 receptor gene and schizophrenia is unlikely to exist. 24 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  8. Rhes regulates dopamine D2 receptor transmission in striatal cholinergic interneurons.

    PubMed

    Sciamanna, Giuseppe; Napolitano, Francesco; Pelosi, Barbara; Bonsi, Paola; Vitucci, Daniela; Nuzzo, Tommaso; Punzo, Daniela; Ghiglieri, Veronica; Ponterio, Giulia; Pasqualetti, Massimo; Pisani, Antonio; Usiello, Alessandro

    2015-06-01

    Ras homolog enriched in striatum (Rhes) is highly expressed in striatal medium spiny neurons (MSNs) of rodents. In the present study, we characterized the expression of Rhes mRNA across species, as well as its functional role in other striatal neuron subtypes. Double in situ hybridization analysis showed that Rhes transcript is selectively localized in striatal cholinergic interneurons (ChIs), but not in GABAergic parvalbumin- or in neuropeptide Y-positive cell populations. Rhes is closely linked to dopamine-dependent signaling. Therefore, we recorded ChIs activity in basal condition and following dopamine receptor activation. Surprisingly, instead of an expected dopamine D2 receptor (D2R)-mediated inhibition, we observed an aberrant excitatory response in ChIs from Rhes knockout mice. Conversely, the effect of D1R agonist on ChIs was less robust in Rhes mutants than in controls. Although Rhes deletion in mutants occurs throughout the striatum, we demonstrate that the D2R response is altered specifically in ChIs, since it was recorded in pharmacological isolation, and prevented either by intrapipette BAPTA or by GDP-β-S. Moreover, we show that blockade of Cav2.2 calcium channels prevented the abnormal D2R response. Finally, we found that the abnormal D2R activation in ChIs was rescued by selective PI3K inhibition thus suggesting that Rhes functionally modulates PI3K/Akt signaling pathway in these neurons. Our findings reveal that, besides its expression in MSNs, Rhes is localized also in striatal ChIs and, most importantly, lack of this G-protein, significantly alters D2R modulation of striatal cholinergic excitability. PMID:25818655

  9. Temporal cortex dopamine D2/3 receptor binding in major depression.

    PubMed

    Lehto, Soili M; Kuikka, Jyrki; Tolmunen, Tommi; Hintikka, Jukka; Viinamäki, Heimo; Vanninen, Ritva; Haatainen, Kaisa; Koivumaa-Honkanen, Heli; Honkalampi, Kirsi; Tiihonen, Jari

    2008-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the dopamine function of the temporal cortex in major depressive disorder using [(123)I]epidepride to image D(2/3) receptor binding sites. Ten major depressives and 10 healthy controls were selected from a general population sample for single-photon emission computed tomography imaging. Among the major depressives there was a strong bilateral correlation between the scores on the 21-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and D(2/3) receptor binding. Dopaminergic abnormalities may be present in the temporal cortices of major depressives. PMID:18588596

  10. High affinity dopamine D2 receptor radioligands. 2. [125I]epidepride, a potent and specific radioligand for the characterization of striatal and extrastriatal dopamine D2 receptors.

    PubMed

    Kessler, R M; Ansari, M S; Schmidt, D E; de Paulis, T; Clanton, J A; Innis, R; al-Tikriti, M; Manning, R G; Gillespie, D

    1991-01-01

    Epidepride, (S)-N-[(1-ethyl-2-pyrrolidinyl)methyl]-5-iodo-2,3-dimethoxybenzamide+ ++, the iodine analogue of isoremoxipride (FLB 457), was found to be a very potent dopamine D2 receptor antagonist. Optimal in vitro binding required incubation at 25 degrees C for 4 h at pH 7.4 in a buffer containing 120 mM NaCl, 5 mM KCl, 2 mM CaCl2 and 1 mM MgCl2. Scatchard analysis of in vitro binding to striatal, medial frontal cortical, hippocampal and cerebellar membranes revealed a KD of 24 pM in all regions, with Bmax's of 36.7, 1.04, 0.85, and 0.37 pmol/g tissue, respectively. The Hill coefficients ranged from 0.91-1.00 in all four regions. The IC50's for inhibition of [125I]epidepride binding to striatal, medial frontal cortical, and hippocampal membranes for SCH 23390, SKF 83566, serotonin, ketanserin, mianserin, naloxone, QNB, prasozin, clonidine, alprenolol, and norepinephrine ranged from 1 microM to greater than 10 microM. Partial displacement of [125I]epidepride by nanomolar concentrations of clonidine was noted in the frontal cortex and hippocampus, but not in the striatum. Scatchard analysis of epidepride binding to alpha 2 noradrenergic receptors in the frontal cortex and hippocampus revealed an apparent KD of 9 nM. At an epidepride concentration equal to the KD for the D2 receptor, i.e. 25 pM, no striatal alpha 2 binding was seen and only 7% of the specific epidepride binding in the cortex or hippocampus was due to binding at the alpha 2 site. Correlation of inhibition of [3H]spiperone and [125I]epidepride binding to striatal membranes by a variety of D2 ligands revealed a correlation coefficient of 0.99, indicating that epidepride labels a D2 site. In vitro autoradiography revealed high densities of receptor binding in layers V and VI of prefrontal and cingulate cortices as well as in striatum. In vivo rat brain uptake revealed a hippocampal:cerebellar and frontal cortical:cerebellar ratio of 2.2:1 which fell to 1.1:1 following haloperidol pretreatment. These

  11. Dopamine D2-Like Receptors Modulate Unconditioned Fear: Role of the Inferior Colliculus

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Amanda Ribeiro; Colombo, Ana Caroline; Muthuraju, Sangu; Almada, Rafael Carvalho; Brandão, Marcus Lira

    2014-01-01

    Background A reduction of dopamine release or D2 receptor blockade in the terminal fields of the mesolimbic system clearly reduces conditioned fear. Injections of haloperidol, a preferential D2 receptor antagonist, into the inferior colliculus (IC) enhance the processing of unconditioned aversive information. However, a clear characterization of the interplay of D2 receptors in the mediation of unconditioned and conditioned fear is still lacking. Methods The present study investigated the effects of intra-IC injections of the D2 receptor-selective antagonist sulpiride on behavior in the elevated plus maze (EPM), auditory-evoked potentials (AEPs) to loud sounds recorded from the IC, fear-potentiated startle (FPS), and conditioned freezing. Results Intra-IC injections of sulpiride caused clear proaversive effects in the EPM and enhanced AEPs induced by loud auditory stimuli. Intra-IC sulpiride administration did not affect FPS or conditioned freezing. Conclusions Dopamine D2-like receptors of the inferior colliculus play a role in the modulation of unconditioned aversive information but not in the fear-potentiated startle response. PMID:25133693

  12. Synthesis and characterization of selective dopamine D2 receptor ligands using aripiprazole as the lead compound

    PubMed Central

    Vangveravong, Suwanna; Zhang, Zhanbin; Taylor, Michelle; Bearden, Melissa; Xu, Jinbin; Cui, Jinquan; Wang, Wei; Luedtke, Robert R.; Mach, Robert H.

    2011-01-01

    A series of compounds structurally related to aripiprazole (1), an atypical antipsychotic and antidepressant used clinically for the treatment of schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and depression, have been prepared and evaluated for affinity at D2-like dopamine receptors. These compounds also share structural elements with the classical D2-like dopamine receptor antagonists, haloperidol, N-methylspiperone, domperidone and benperidol. Two new compounds, 7-(4-(4-(2-methoxyphenyl)piperazin-1-yl)butoxy)-3,4-dihydroquinolin-2(1H)-one oxalate (6) and 7-(4-(4-(2-(2-fluoroethoxy)phenyl)piperazin-1-yl)butoxy)-3,4-dihydroquinolin-2(1H)-one oxalate (7) were found to (a) bind to the D2 receptor subtype with high affinity (Ki values <0.3 nM), (b) exhibit >50-fold D2 versus D3 receptor binding selectivity and (c) be partial agonists at both the D2 and D3 receptor subtype. PMID:21536445

  13. Water Extract of Fructus Hordei Germinatus Shows Antihyperprolactinemia Activity via Dopamine D2 Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiong; Ma, Li; Zhang, En-jing; Zou, Ji-li; Guo, Hao; Peng, Si-wei; Wu, Jin-hu

    2014-01-01

    Objective. Fructus Hordei Germinatus is widely used in treating hyperprolactinemia (hyperPRL) as a kind of Chinese traditional herb in China. In this study, we investigated the anti-hyperPRL activity of water extract of Fructus Hordei Germinatus (WEFHG) and mechanism of action. Methods. Effect of WEFHG on serum prolactin (PRL), estradiol (E2), progesterone (P), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), and hypothalamus protein kinase A (PKA) and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) levels of hyperPRL rats were investigated. And effect of WEFHG on PRL secretion, D2 receptors, and dopamine transporters (DAT) was studied in MMQ, GH3, and PC12 cells, respectively. Results. WEFHG reduced the secretion of PRL in hyperPRL rats effectively. In MMQ cell, treatment with WEFHG at 1–5 mg/mL significantly suppressed PRL secretion and synthesis. Consistent with a D2-action, WEFHG did not affect PRL in rat pituitary lactotropic tumor-derived GH3 cells that lack the D2 receptor expression but significantly increased the expression of D2 receptors and DAT in PC12 cells. In addition, WEFHG reduced the cAMP and PKA levels of hypothalamus in hyperPRL rats significantly. Conclusions. WEFHG showed anti-hyperPRL activity via dopamine D2 receptor, which was related to the second messenger cAMP and PKA. PMID:25254056

  14. Object recognition impairment and rescue by a dopamine D2 antagonist in hyperdopaminergic mice.

    PubMed

    França, Arthur S C; Muratori, Larissa; Nascimento, George Carlos; Pereira, Catia Mendes; Ribeiro, Sidarta; Lobão-Soares, Bruno

    2016-07-15

    Genetically-modified mice without the dopamine transporter (DAT) are hyperdopaminergic, and serve as models for studies of addiction, mania and hyperactive disorders. Here we investigated the capacity for object recognition in mildly hyperdopaminergic mice heterozygous for DAT (DAT +/-), with synaptic dopaminergic levels situated between those shown by DAT -/- homozygous and wild-type (WT) mice. We used a classical dopamine D2 antagonist, haloperidol, to modulate the levels of dopaminergic transmission in a dose-dependent manner, before or after exploring novel objects. In comparison with WT mice, DAT +/- mice showed a deficit in object recognition upon subsequent testing 24h later. This deficit was compensated by a single 0.05mg/kg haloperidol injection 30min before training. In all mice, a 0.3mg/kg haloperidol injected immediately after training impaired object recognition. The results indicate that a mild enhancement of dopaminergic levels can be detrimental to object recognition, and that this deficit can be rescued by a low dose of a D2 dopamine receptor antagonist. This suggests that novel object recognition is optimal at intermediate levels of D2 receptor activity. PMID:27059337

  15. Time-resolved fluorescence studies of a transmembrane peptide sequence of the dopamine D2 receptor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Valerie L.; Courtney, Scott H.; Schuster, David I.; Murphy, Randall B.

    1994-08-01

    Highly hydrophobic peptides in small unilamellar vesicles can be used to model membrane-embedded proteins such as the dopamine D2 receptor. The transmembrane domains of the dopamine D2 receptor are known to contain residues corresponding to the binding sites for natural receptor ligands. We have developed a model system consisting of a peptide whose sequence was taken from the transmembrane region of the dopamine D2 receptor and incorporated it into phospholipid bilayers. This polypeptide sequence, NH2-D-V-L-Y-S-A-F-T-W-L-G-Y-V-N-S-A-V-N-P-I-I-Y-T- T-F-N-V-CO2H, contains a single tryptophan residue, whose fluorescence properties provides an intrinsic probe of the microenvironment of the peptide within the bilayer. Purification of this highly hydrophobic peptide required the development of a novel alcohol-based reversed-phase HPLC solvent system. The vesicles were produces by cosonication of the peptide with dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine lipid and were characterized by electron microscopy and fluorescence spectroscopy. Time- correlated single photon counting was sued to measure the fluorescence anisotropy of the system as a function of temperature across the lipid phase transition range and as a function of the peptide/lipid ratio.

  16. Regulation of dopamine D2 receptors by sodium and pH.

    PubMed

    Neve, K A

    1991-04-01

    The role of Na+ and H+ in the regulation of D2 receptor affinity for ligands was studied to determine the molecular mechanisms of this phenomenon. The potency of substituted benzamide derivatives and agonists at D2 receptors depended on the concentration of Na+ and H+, whereas the potency of other antagonists was relatively unaltered by changes in pH or Na+ concentration. The potency of agonists was generally decreased in the presence of NaCl or lowered pH. For example, in the absence of sodium the affinity of D2 receptors for dopamine was decreased 17-fold by lowering of the pH from 8.0 to pH 6.8. Addition of NaCl caused 2-4-fold decreases in affinity for most agonists. The affinity of the receptors for two substituted benzamide derivatives, on the other hand, was reduced 6-44-fold by elevated concentrations of H+ but was enhanced 7-24-fold in the presence of Na+. The regulation by H+ of the potency of dopamine was selective for D2 receptors, because binding of dopamine to neostriatal D1 receptors was unaffected by changes in pH. Decreasing of the pH from 8.0 or 7.3 to 6.8 facilitated the dissociation of the substituted benzamide ligand [125I]epidepride from D2 receptors but inhibited dissociation of [3H]spiperone. Furthermore, the presence of NaCl or lowered pH slowed inactivation of D2 receptors by N-ethylmaleimide. Together, these data suggest that the conformation of D2 receptors is regulated by both Na+ and H+. The affinity of D2 receptors for agonists and substituted benzamide antagonists varies according to the conformational state of the receptors, whereas other antagonists bind to both forms with approximately equal potency. Amiloride is a compound that interacts with many sodium-binding macromolecules. At equilibrium, amiloride inhibited the binding of [3H]spiperone and [125I]epidepride in a manner suggesting a more complex interaction than simple competitive inhibition. The rate of dissociation of both radioligands was enhanced by amiloride, as would be

  17. Neural Substrates of Dopamine D2 Receptor Modulated Executive Functions in the Monkey Prefrontal Cortex.

    PubMed

    Puig, M Victoria; Miller, Earl K

    2015-09-01

    Dopamine D2 receptors (D2R) play a major role in cognition, mood and motor movements. Their blockade by antipsychotic drugs reduces hallucinatory and delusional behaviors in schizophrenia, but often fails to alleviate affective and cognitive dysfunctions. The prefrontal cortex (PFC) expresses D2R and is altered in schizophrenia. We investigated how D2R modulate behavior and PFC function in monkeys. Two monkeys learned new and performed highly familiar visuomotor associations, where each cue was associated with a saccade to a right or left target. We recorded neural spikes and local field potentials from multiple electrodes while injecting the D2R antagonist eticlopride in the lateral PFC. Blocking prefrontal D2R impaired associative learning and cognitive flexibility, reduced motivation, but left the performance of familiar associations intact. Eticlopride reduced saccade-direction selectivity of prefrontal neurons, leading to a decrease in neural information about the associations, and an increase in alpha oscillations. These results, together with our recent study using a D1R antagonist, suggest that D1R and D2R in the primate lateral PFC cooperate to modulate several executive functions. Our findings help to gain insight into why antipsychotic drugs, with strong antagonistic actions on D2R, fail to ameliorate cognitive and emotional deficits in schizophrenia. PMID:24814093

  18. Effects of dopamine D2-like receptor agonists in mice trained to discriminate cocaine from saline: influence of feeding condition

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Gregory T.; Jackson, Jonathan A.; Koek, Wouter; France, Charles P.

    2014-01-01

    In rats, the discriminative stimulus effects of direct- and indirect-acting dopamine receptor agonists are mediated by multiple dopamine receptor subtypes and the relative contribution of dopamine D2 and D3 receptors to these effects varies as a function of feeding condition. In these studies, free-fed and food-restricted mice were trained to discriminate 10.0 mg/kg cocaine using a two-lever discrimination procedure in which responding was maintained by food. Both groups of mice acquired the discrimination; however, free-fed mice responded at lower rates than food-restricted mice. Dopamine D3 receptor agonists, pramipexole and quinpirole, increased cocaine-appropriate responding (>85%) in food-restricted, but not in free-fed mice. The dopamine D2 receptor agonist, sumanirole, and the nonselective dopamine receptor agonist, apomorphine, failed to increase cocaine-appropriate responding in either group. Free-fed mice were more sensitive than food-restricted mice to the rate-decreasing effects of dopamine receptor agonists and these effects could not be overcome by increasing the magnitude of reinforcement. Because feeding condition did not alter quinpirole-induced hypothermia, it is unlikely that differences in the discriminative stimulus or rate-decreasing effects of dopamine D2-like receptor agonists were due to differences in the pharmacokinetic properties of the drugs. Although these results suggest that the discriminative stimulus effects of cocaine are mediated by both dopamine D2 and D3 receptors in food-restricted mice, the increased sensitivity of free-fed mice to the rate-decreasing effects of dopamine D2-like receptor agonists limited conclusions about the impact of feeding conditions on the relative contribution of dopamine D2 and D3 receptors to the discriminative stimulus effects of cocaine. PMID:24561049

  19. Rotigotine is a potent agonist at dopamine D1 receptors as well as at dopamine D2 and D3 receptors

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Martyn; Dubois, Vanessa; Scheller, Dieter; Gillard, Michel

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Rotigotine acts as a dopamine receptor agonist with high affinity for the dopamine D2, D3, D4 and D5 receptors but with a low affinity for the dopamine D1 receptor. We have investigated this further in radioligand binding and functional studies and compared the profile of rotigotine with that of other drugs used in the treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD). Experimental Approach The binding of rotigotine to human dopamine D1, D2, D3, D4 and D5 receptors was determined in radioligand binding studies using [3H]rotigotine and compared with that of standard antagonist radioligands. Functional interactions of rotigotine with human dopamine receptors was also determined. Key Results [3H]rotigotine can be used as an agonist radioligand to label all dopamine receptor subtypes and this can be important to derive agonist affinity estimates. Rotigotine maintains this high affinity in functional studies at all dopamine receptors especially D1, D2 and D3 receptors and, to a lesser extent, D4 and D5 receptors. Rotigotine, like apomorphine but unlike ropinirole and pramipexole, was a potent agonist at all dopamine receptors. Conclusions and Implications Rotigotine is a high-potency agonist at human dopamine D1, D2 and D3 receptors with a lower potency at D4 and D5 receptors. These studies differentiate rotigotine from conventional dopamine D2 agonists, used in the treatment of PD, such as ropinirole and pramipexole which lack activity at the D1 and D5 receptors, but resembles that of apomorphine which has greater efficacy in PD than other dopamine agonists but has suboptimal pharmacokinetic properties. PMID:25339241

  20. Molecular size of the canine and human brain D2 dopamine receptor as determined by radiation inactivation

    SciTech Connect

    Lilly, L.; Fraser, C.M.; Jung, C.Y.; Seeman, P.; Venter, J.C.

    1983-07-01

    Target-size analysis (radiation inactivation) has been utilized for determination of the molecular size of the striatal D2 dopamine receptor of both canine and human membranes. The dog and human receptors were found to have a molecular size of 123,000 daltons. The identity of molecular size values is consistent with available pharmacological and biochemical evidence supporting D2 dopamine receptor identity in canine and human tissues. These data suggest that the canine receptor may be a valid model for molecular and structural investigation of the human D2 dopamine receptor.

  1. Role of dopamine--D2 receptor in spatial memory retention and retrieval determined using Hebb-Williams complex maze.

    PubMed

    Raut, Sanket B; Jadhav, Kshitij S; Marathe, Padmaja A

    2014-01-01

    Effects of bromocriptine and sulpiride were observed on encoding and retrieval of spatial memory in Wistar rats using Hebb-Williams complex maze. Rat was placed in entry chamber and allowed to reach reward chamber. Ten trials were given each day per rat for 3 consecutive days. Within-day encoding score indicative of learning and between-day retrieval score indicative of memory were calculated. Effects of bromocriptine and sulpiride were observed on encoding and retrieval of spatial memory. General learning index was calculated to compare the effect on spatial memory between groups. Bromocriptine increased while sulpiride decreased within-day encoding index but had no effect on retrieval index. In general learning index, sulpiride group showed more errors whereas bromocriptine group did not show any difference as compared to control. These results suggest that dopamine D2 receptors are involved in memory encoding but not retrieval. Also general learning is under positive modulation by D2 receptors. PMID:25906600

  2. Chronic social defeat stress increases dopamine D2 receptor dimerization in the prefrontal cortex of adult mice.

    PubMed

    Bagalkot, T R; Jin, H-M; Prabhu, V V; Muna, S S; Cui, Y; Yadav, B K; Chae, H-J; Chung, Y-C

    2015-12-17

    The present study aimed to examine the effects of chronic social defeat stress on the dopamine receptors and proteins involved in post-endocytic trafficking pathways. Adult mice were divided into susceptible and unsusceptible groups after 10 days of social defeat stress. Western blot analysis was used to measure the protein expression levels of dopamine D2 receptors (D2Rs), a short (D2S) and a long form (D2L) and, D2R monomers and dimers, dopamine D1 receptors (D1Rs), neuronal calcium sensor-1 (NCS-1) and G protein-coupled receptor-associated sorting protein-1 (GASP-1), and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to measure the mRNA expression levels of D2S, D2L, D2R monomers and dimers, and D1Rs in different brain areas. We observed increased expression of D2S, D2L and D2Rs dimers in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) of susceptible and/or unsusceptible mice compared with controls. The only significant findings with regard to mRNA expression levels were lower expression of D2S mRNA in the amygdala (AMYG) of susceptible and unsusceptible mice compared with controls. The present study demonstrated that chronic social defeat stress induced increased expression of D2S, D2L, and D2R dimers in the PFC of susceptible and/or unsusceptible mice. PMID:26484605

  3. Sensitivities of dopamine D1 and D2 receptor radioligands to changes in synaptic dopamine

    SciTech Connect

    Gifford, A.N.; Gatley, S.J.; Shea, C.

    1996-05-01

    Prior studies have shown that the in vivo binding of D2 radioligands such as raclopride and IBZM is subject to competition with synaptic DA. D2 radioligands can thus be used to evaluate both direct effects of drugs at DAergic synapses, and indirect effects at these synapses mediated via neurotransmitter interactions. Competition with DA must also be a potential confounding factor in studies designed to evaluate changes in D2 receptor number. We evaluated the sensitivity of the D1 radioligands for susceptibility to alterations in synaptic DA. We evaluated the sensitivity of the D1 radioligand SCH 23390 using three different models: rat brain slices in which DA release is controlled by electrically simulation, ex vivo mouse brain uptake, and PET in the baboon brain. In slices, the order of sensitivity of DA system radioligands to synaptic DA was D1>D2>DA transporter, and the sensitivity of the low affinity (Kd = 1 nM) D2 ligand, [H-3]raclopride, was greater than that of the high affinity (Kd = 0.05 nM) D2 ligand, [I-123]epidepride (Gifford et al., Synapse, in press). In mice, striatal [H-3]SCH 23390 was decreased after administration of the DA transporter blocker RTI-55 ({beta}-CIT, 0.5 mg/kg, i/v), to a similar extent as that of co-administered [I-123]epidepride. In these experiments RTI-55 was given four hours after injection of radiotracers, after peak striatal radioactivity, to avoid the effects of the increase in delivery of radiotracer to the brain caused by RTI-55. In PET experiments, striatal binding of the D1 radioligand [C-11]SCH23390 was less sensitive to challenge with the DA transporter blocker methylphenidate (0.5 mg/kg, 7-10 min before radiotracer) than is [C-11]raclopride. Our results together indicate that SCH 23390 is not very sensitive to pharmacological challenges which decrease the in vivo binding of labeled raclopride.

  4. Dopamine D2 receptor availability in opiate addicts at baseline and during naloxone precipitated withdrawal

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, G.J.; Volkow, N.D.; Logan, J. ||

    1996-05-01

    To determine if changes in dopamine activity contribute to the clinical presentation of opiate withdrawal we assessed dopamine (DA) D2 receptor availability in opiate-dependent subjects at baseline and during naloxone-precipitated withdrawal. DA D2 receptor availability was evaluated in eleven male heroine and methadone users using positron emission tomography (PET) and [11-C]raclopride and compared to eleven age matched male control subjects. Nine of the opiate-dependent subjects and two of the control were tested twice after placebo and naloxone (0.02 mg/kg) iv injection 7-10 min. prior to [11-C]raclopride. DA D2 receptor availability was measured using the ratio of the distribution volume in the region of interest (caudate, putamen and ventral striatum) to that in the cerebellum which is a function of B{sub max}/K{sub d}. DA D2 receptor availability in putamen was significantly lower in opiate-dependent subjects (3.44 {plus_minus} 0.4) than that in controls (3.97 {plus_minus} 0.45, p {ge} 0.009). Naloxone induced a short lasting withdrawal in all of the opiate-dependent subjects (79 {plus_minus} 17% of maximum withdrawal), but not in controls, with significant increase in pulse (p {le} 0.006), blood pressure (p {le} 0.0001), lacrimation (p {le} 0.01), muscle twitches (p {le} 0.01), annoyance (p {le} 0.005), anxiety (p {le} 0.0006), restlessness (p {le} 0.0005) and unhappiness (p {le} 0.001). DA D2 receptor availability in basal ganglia after naloxone administration was not different from that of baseline. These results document abnormalities in DA D2 receptors in opiate-dependent subjects. However, DA D2 availability did not change with naloxone-precipitated withdrawal.

  5. Structure-Based Virtual Screening for Dopamine D2 Receptor Ligands as Potential Antipsychotics.

    PubMed

    Kaczor, Agnieszka A; Silva, Andrea G; Loza, María I; Kolb, Peter; Castro, Marián; Poso, Antti

    2016-04-01

    Structure-based virtual screening using a D2 receptor homology model was performed to identify dopamine D2 receptor ligands as potential antipsychotics. From screening a library of 6.5 million compounds, 21 were selected and were subjected to experimental validation. From these 21 compounds tested, ten D2 ligands were identified (47.6 % success rate, among them D2 receptor antagonists, as expected) that have additional affinity for other receptors tested, in particular 5-HT2A receptors. The affinity (Ki values) of the compounds ranged from 58 nm to about 24 μm. Similarity and fragment analysis indicated a significant degree of structural novelty among the identified compounds. We found one D2 receptor antagonist that did not have a protonatable nitrogen atom, which is a key structural element of the classical D2 pharmacophore model necessary for interaction with the conserved Asp(3.32) residue. This compound exhibited greater than 20-fold binding selectivity for the D2 receptor over the D3 receptor. We provide additional evidence that the amide hydrogen atom of this compound forms a hydrogen bond with Asp(3.32), as determined by tests of its derivatives that cannot maintain this interaction. PMID:26990027

  6. Dopamine D2/3 receptor antagonism reduces activity-based anorexia.

    PubMed

    Klenotich, S J; Ho, E V; McMurray, M S; Server, C H; Dulawa, S C

    2015-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is an eating disorder characterized by severe hypophagia and weight loss, and an intense fear of weight gain. Activity-based anorexia (ABA) refers to the weight loss, hypophagia and paradoxical hyperactivity that develops in rodents exposed to running wheels and restricted food access, and provides a model for aspects of AN. The atypical antipsychotic olanzapine was recently shown to reduce both AN symptoms and ABA. We examined which component of the complex pharmacological profile of olanzapine reduces ABA. Mice received 5-HT(2A/2C), 5-HT3, dopamine D1-like, D2, D3 or D2/3 antagonist treatment, and were assessed for food intake, body weight, wheel running and survival in ABA. D2/3 receptor antagonists eticlopride and amisulpride reduced weight loss and hypophagia, and increased survival during ABA. Furthermore, amisulpride produced larger reductions in weight loss and hypophagia than olanzapine. Treatment with either D3 receptor antagonist SB277011A or D2 receptor antagonist L-741,626 also increased survival. All the other treatments either had no effect or worsened ABA. Overall, selective antagonism of D2 and/or D3 receptors robustly reduces ABA. Studies investigating the mechanisms by which D2 and/or D3 receptors regulate ABA, and the efficacy for D2/3 and/or D3 antagonists to treat AN, are warranted. PMID:26241351

  7. Dopamine D2/3 receptor antagonism reduces activity-based anorexia

    PubMed Central

    Klenotich, S J; Ho, E V; McMurray, M S; Server, C H; Dulawa, S C

    2015-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is an eating disorder characterized by severe hypophagia and weight loss, and an intense fear of weight gain. Activity-based anorexia (ABA) refers to the weight loss, hypophagia and paradoxical hyperactivity that develops in rodents exposed to running wheels and restricted food access, and provides a model for aspects of AN. The atypical antipsychotic olanzapine was recently shown to reduce both AN symptoms and ABA. We examined which component of the complex pharmacological profile of olanzapine reduces ABA. Mice received 5-HT2A/2C, 5-HT3, dopamine D1-like, D2, D3 or D2/3 antagonist treatment, and were assessed for food intake, body weight, wheel running and survival in ABA. D2/3 receptor antagonists eticlopride and amisulpride reduced weight loss and hypophagia, and increased survival during ABA. Furthermore, amisulpride produced larger reductions in weight loss and hypophagia than olanzapine. Treatment with either D3 receptor antagonist SB277011A or D2 receptor antagonist L-741,626 also increased survival. All the other treatments either had no effect or worsened ABA. Overall, selective antagonism of D2 and/or D3 receptors robustly reduces ABA. Studies investigating the mechanisms by which D2 and/or D3 receptors regulate ABA, and the efficacy for D2/3 and/or D3 antagonists to treat AN, are warranted. PMID:26241351

  8. Novel regulation of p38gamma by dopamine D2 receptors during hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Conrad, P W; Millhorn, D E; Beitner-Johnson, D

    2000-07-01

    The p38 signalling pathway is part of the MAPK superfamily and is activated by various stressors. Our previous results have shown that two p38 isoforms, p38alpha and p38gamma, are activated by hypoxia in the neural-like PC12 cell line. PC12 cells also synthesize and secrete catecholamines, including dopamine, in response to hypoxia. We have now used this system to study the interaction between D2-dopamine receptor signalling and the p38 stress-activated protein kinases. Our results show that two D2 receptor antagonists, butaclamol and sulpiride, enhance hypoxia-induced phosphorylation of p38gamma, but not p38. This effect persists in protein kinase A (PKA)-deficient PC12 cells, demonstrating that p38gamma modulation by the D2 receptor is independent of the cAMP/PKA signalling system. We further show that removal of extracellular calcium blocks the hypoxia-induced increase in p38gamma activity. These results are the first to demonstrate that p38gamma can be regulated by the D2 receptor and calcium following hypoxic exposure. PMID:10989281

  9. Presence of dopamine D-2 receptors in human tumoral cell lines

    SciTech Connect

    Sokoloff, P.; Riou, J.F.; Martres, M.P.; Schwartz, J.C. )

    1989-07-31

    ({sup 125}I) Iodosulpride binding was examined on eight human cell lines derived from lung, breast and digestive tract carcinomas, neuroblastomas and leukemia. Specific binding was detected in five of these cell lines. In the richest cell line N417, derived from small cell lung carcinoma, ({sup 125}I) iodosulpride bound with a high affinity (Kd = 1.3 nM) to an apparently homogeneous population of binding site (Bmax = 1,606 sites per cell). These sites displayed a typical D-2 specificity, established with several dopaminergic agonists and antagonists selective of either D-1 or D-2 receptor subtypes. In addition, dopamine, apomorphine and RU 24926 distinguished high- and low-affinity sites, suggesting that the binding sites are associated with a G-protein. The biological significance and the possible diagnostic implication of the presence of D-2 receptors on these cell lines are discussed.

  10. Structure-guided development of dual β2 adrenergic/dopamine D2 receptor agonists.

    PubMed

    Weichert, Dietmar; Stanek, Markus; Hübner, Harald; Gmeiner, Peter

    2016-06-15

    Aiming to discover dual-acting β2 adrenergic/dopamine D2 receptor ligands, a structure-guided approach for the evolution of GPCR agonists that address multiple targets was elaborated. Starting from GPCR crystal structures, we describe the design, synthesis and biological investigation of a defined set of compounds leading to the identification of the benzoxazinone (R)-3, which shows agonist properties at the adrenergic β2 receptor and substantial G protein-promoted activation at the D2 receptor. This directed approach yielded molecular probes with tuned dual activity. The congener desOH-3 devoid of the benzylic hydroxyl function was shown to be a β2 adrenergic antagonist/D2 receptor agonist with Ki values in the low nanomolar range. The compounds may serve as a promising starting point for the investigation and treatment of neurological disorders. PMID:27132867

  11. Characterization of dopamine D1 and D2 receptor-expressing neurons in the mouse hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Gangarossa, Giuseppe; Longueville, Sophie; De Bundel, Dimitri; Perroy, Julie; Hervé, Denis; Girault, Jean-Antoine; Valjent, Emmanuel

    2012-12-01

    The hippocampal formation is part of an anatomical system critically involved in learning and memory. Increasing evidence suggests that dopamine plays an important role in learning and memory as well as in several forms of synaptic plasticity. However, the precise identification of neuronal populations expressing D1 or D2 dopamine receptors within the hippocampus is still lacking. To clarify this issue, we used BAC transgenic mice expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) under the control of the promoter of dopamine D1 or D2 receptors. In Drd1a-EGFP mice, sparse GFP-expressing neurons were detected among glutamatergic projecting neurons of the granular layer of the dentate gyrus and GABAergic interneurons located in the hilus. A dense immunofluorescence was observed in the outer and medial part of the molecular layer of the dentate gyrus as well as in the inner part of the molecular layer of CA1 corresponding to the terminals of pyramidal neurons of the entorhinal cortex defining the perforant and the temporo-ammonic pathway respectively. Finally, scattered D1 receptor-expressing neurons were also identified as GABAergic interneurons in the CA3/CA1 fields of the hippocampus. In Drd2-EGFP transgenic mice, GFP was exclusively detected in the glutamatergic mossy cells located in the polymorphic layer of the dentate gyrus. This pattern was confirmed in Drd2-Cre mice crossed with NLS-LacZ-Tau(mGFP) :LoxP and RCE:LoxP reporter lines. Our results demonstrate that D1 and D2 receptor-expressing neurons are strictly segregated in the mouse hippocampus. By clarifying the identity of D1 and D2 receptor-expressing neurons in the hippocampus, this study establishes a basis for future investigations aiming at elucidating their roles in the hippocampal network. PMID:22777829

  12. Comparison of three high affinity SPECT radiotracers for the dopamine D2 receptor.

    PubMed

    al-Tikriti, M S; Baldwin, R M; Zea-Ponce, Y; Sybirska, E; Zoghbi, S S; Laruelle, M; Malison, R T; Kung, H F; Kessler, R M; Charney, D S

    1994-02-01

    The regional brain distribution and pharmacological specificity of three high affinity tracers for the dopamine (DA) D2 receptor: [123I]IBF, [123I]epidepride, and [123I]2'-ISP were assessed by SPECT imaging of non-human primates. The ratios of striatal-to-occipital activities at the time of peak striatal uptake were 2.2, 6.3 and 1.7, respectively. From the peak striatal activities, washout rates were 33, 4 and 16%/h for [123I]IBF, [123I]epidepride and [123I]2'-ISP, respectively. The reversibility of the striatal uptake of all three agents was demonstrated by the rapid displacement induced by the dopamine D2 selective antipsychotic agent raclopride, which increased washout rates to 96, 58 and 43%/h. The administration of d-amphetamine, which induces release of dopamine, had no noticeable effect on [123I]epidepride but increased the washout rate of [123I]IBF. These results suggest that, among these three agents, [123I]epidepride is the superior tracer for in vivo displacement studies because of its slow washout and high target-to-background ratios. However, for tracer kinetic modeling, [123I]IBF may be the superior agent because of its early time of peak uptake and its higher target-to-background ratios than [123I]2'-ISP. PMID:9234281

  13. Characterization of dopamine D2 receptors in the pituitary of the African catfish, Clarias gariepinus

    SciTech Connect

    Van Asselt, L.A.; Goos, H.J.; De Leeuw, R.; Peter, R.E.; Hol, E.M.; Wassenberg, F.P.; Van Oordt, P.G. )

    1990-10-01

    Dopamine receptors in the pituitary of the African catfish, Clarias gariepinus, were characterized using ({sup 3}H)spiperone as radioligand. Specific binding of ({sup 3}H)spiperone to pituitary membranes reached equilibrium within 60 min of incubation. The binding of the radioligand was tissue specific since the amount of binding was linear with pituitary membrane content in the incubations. In addition, pituitary membranes were observed to bind considerably more ({sup 3}H)spiperone, compared to membrane preparation of various other tissues. Saturation experiments revealed the presence of a single class of high affinity/low capacity binding sites. The binding characteristics, estimated by Scatchard analysis, were: Kd = 3.2 +/- 0.5 x 10(-9) M and Bmax = 105 +/- 5 fmol/mg protein. Specific binding was displaceable with dopamine and with various specific D2 agonists and antagonists. The nature of displacement curves resembles those observed in studies on mammalian dopamine receptors. Binding experiments with cell fractions, obtained after centrifugation of dispersed pituitary cells over a Percoll density gradient, showed that most ({sup 3}H)spiperone binding was obtained in an enriched gonadotropic cell fraction. This observation indicates that the receptor characteristics, estimated with the ({sup 3}H)spiperone assay, are representative for dopamine receptors on the gonadotropic cells.

  14. The Dopamine D2 Receptor Gene, Perceived Parental Support, and Adolescent Loneliness: Longitudinal Evidence for Gene-Environment Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Roekel, Eeske; Goossens, Luc; Scholte, Ron H. J.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; Verhagen, Maaike

    2011-01-01

    Background: Loneliness is a common problem in adolescence. Earlier research focused on genes within the serotonin and oxytocin systems, but no studies have examined the role of dopamine-related genes in loneliness. In the present study, we focused on the dopamine D2 receptor gene (DRD2). Methods: Associations among the DRD2, sex, parental support,…

  15. Examining the role of dopamine D2 and D3 receptors in Pavlovian conditioned approach behaviors.

    PubMed

    Fraser, Kurt M; Haight, Joshua L; Gardner, Eliot L; Flagel, Shelly B

    2016-05-15

    Elucidating the neurobiological mechanisms underlying individual differences in the extent to which reward cues acquire the ability to act as incentive stimuli may contribute to the development of successful treatments for addiction and related disorders. We used the sign-tracker/goal-tracker animal model to examine the role of dopamine D2 and D3 receptors in the propensity to attribute incentive salience to reward cues. Following Pavlovian training, wherein a discrete lever-cue was paired with food reward, rats were classified as sign- or goal-trackers based on the resultant conditioned response. We examined the effects of D2/D3 agonists, 7-OH-DPAT (0.01-0.32mg/kg) or pramipexole (0.032-0.32mg/kg), the D2/D3 antagonist raclopride (0.1mg/kg), and the selective D3 antagonist, SB-277011A (6 or 24mg/kg), on the expression of sign- and goal-tracking conditioned responses. The lever-cue acquired predictive value and elicited a conditioned response for sign- and goal-trackers, but only for sign-trackers did it also acquire incentive value. Following administration of either 7-OH-DPAT, pramipexole, or raclopride, the performance of the previously acquired conditioned response was attenuated for both sign- and goal-trackers. For sign-trackers, the D2/D3 agonist, 7-OH-DPAT, also attenuated the conditioned reinforcing properties of the lever-cue. The selective D3 antagonist did not affect either conditioned response. Alterations in D2/D3 receptor signaling, but not D3 signaling alone, transiently attenuate a previously acquired Pavlovian conditioned response, regardless of whether the response is a result of incentive motivational processes. These findings suggest activity at the dopamine D2 receptor is critical for a reward cue to maintain either its incentive or predictive qualities. PMID:26909847

  16. The identification of a selective dopamine D2 partial agonist, D3 antagonist displaying high levels of brain exposure.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Ian P; Blunt, Richard J; Lorthioir, Olivier E; Blowers, Stephen M; Gribble, Andy; Payne, Andrew H; Stansfield, Ian G; Wood, Martyn; Woollard, Patrick M; Reavill, Charlie; Howes, Claire M; Micheli, Fabrizio; Di Fabio, Romano; Donati, Daniele; Terreni, Silvia; Hamprecht, Dieter; Arista, Luca; Worby, Angela; Watson, Steve P

    2010-03-15

    The identification of a highly selective D(2) partial agonist, D(3) antagonist tool molecule which demonstrates high levels of brain exposure and selectivity against an extensive range of dopamine, serotonin, adrenergic, histamine, and muscarinic receptors is described. PMID:20153647

  17. Characterization of D2 receptors and dopamine levels in the thalamus of the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Young, K.A.; Wilcox, R.E. Univ. of Texas, Austin )

    1991-01-01

    The authors kinetically characterized D2 receptors in thalami pooled from a group of Sprague-Dawley rats and then determined thalamic levels of dopamine (DA), homovanillic acid (HVA), dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC), and norepinephrine (NE) in relation to a measure of thalamic DA D2 receptor densities in another group of rats. The equilibrium dissociation constant (kd) was estimated as 0.1 nM by three independent methods, while the Bmax for thalamic D2 receptors was found to be 6.4 fmol/mg p using {sup 3}H-spiperone as ligand and ketanserin to occlude 5HT2 binding. Kinetic constants were in agreement with previously reported kinetic data from rodent caudate-putamen. This suggests that thalamic D2 receptors are similar to D2 receptors from other brain areas. Mean thalamic levels of DA, DOPAC, and HVA concur with previous reports of a sparse distribution of thalamic DA neurons. D2 receptor densities were positively correlated with DA metabolites DOPAC and HVA, but not DA or NE. These results establish fundamental characteristics of thalamic DA neurotransmission to assist in the investigation of behavioral pharmacology of this area.

  18. Spatial reorganization of putaminal dopamine D2-like receptors in cranial and hand dystonia.

    PubMed

    Black, Kevin J; Snyder, Abraham Z; Mink, Jonathan W; Tolia, Veeral N; Revilla, Fredy J; Moerlein, Stephen M; Perlmutter, Joel S

    2014-01-01

    The putamen has a somatotopic organization of neurons identified by correspondence of firing rates with selected body part movements, as well as by complex, but organized, differential cortical projections onto putamen. In isolated focal dystonia, whole putaminal binding of dopamine D2-like receptor radioligands is quantitatively decreased, but it has not been known whether selected parts of the putamen are differentially affected depending upon the body part affected by dystonia. The radioligand [(18)F]spiperone binds predominantly to D2-like receptors in striatum. We hypothesized that the spatial location of [(18)F]spiperone binding within the putamen would differ in patients with dystonia limited to the hand versus the face, and we tested that hypothesis using positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. To address statistical and methodological concerns, we chose a straightforward but robust image analysis method. An automated algorithm located the peak location of [(18)F]spiperone binding within the striatum, relative to a brain atlas, in each of 14 patients with cranial dystonia and 8 patients with hand dystonia. The mean (left and right) |x|, y, and z coordinates of peak striatal binding for each patient were compared between groups by t test. The location of peak [(18)F]spiperone binding within the putamen differed significantly between groups (cranial dystonia zdopamine D2-like receptors are distributed differently in the putamen depending on the body part manifesting dystonia. PMID:24520350

  19. Hypoxic ventilatory response after dopamine D2 receptor blockade in unilateral rat model of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Andrzejewski, K; Budzińska, K; Zaremba, M; Kaczyńska, K

    2016-03-01

    Modified non-motor brainstem ventilatory control might be involved in Parkinson's disease. Our study was designed to investigate the impact of degeneration of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathway on resting breathing and hypoxic ventilatory response in conscious rats. The role of central and peripheral dopamine D2 receptors in the modulation of the hypoxic ventilatory response in conditions of dopamine shortage was examined. Adult Wistar rats received a unilateral double 6-hydroxydopamine lesion of the right medial forebrain bundle. After surgery, animals were placed in whole-body plethysmographic chamber and exposed to hypoxia (8% O2). One group of animals received inraperitoneal injections of either haloperidol or domperidone before hypoxia. Levels of dopamine and its metabolite in the brainstem and striatum were assessed. Neurotoxin treatment evoked limb use asymmetry. No effect on the resting normoxic respiration was observed. An increase in tidal volume and a decrease in respiratory rate during respiratory response to hypoxia with short magnification of minute ventilation were predominant effects. Domperidone treatment in intact animals evoked a significant increase in normoxic tidal volume, while haloperidol potentiated tidal volume increase in response to hypoxia. After the lesion, the effects of both antagonists were absent. In rats with Parkinson's, the content of dopamine and its metabolite decreased substantially in the injured striatum. Augmentation of a tidal volume response to hypoxia, and the absence of stimulatory effect of intraperitoneal domperidone on normoxic and haloperidol on hypoxic tidal volume, in lesioned rats indicated altered control of breathing. This could be the result of a dopamine deficiency in the striatum and an increased turnover of DOPAC/DA in the brainstem. PMID:26705738

  20. Neural dopamine D2 receptors in rats fed endophyte-infected fescue seed.

    PubMed

    Mizinga, K M; Thompson, F N; Stuedemann, J A; Edwards, G L

    1993-01-01

    To study the effect of endophyte (Acremonium coenophialum) on hypothalamic and striatal dopamine D2 receptors, male rats (n = 14/group) were pair-fed diets containing 50% Rat Chow and 50% either endophyte-infected (E+) or noninfected (E-) fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) seed for 21 days. Concentrations of ergovaline and saturated pyrrolizidines were 1.91 micrograms/g and 2.84 mg/g, respectively in E+, and undetectable in E- fescue seed. To monitor endophyte effects, rats were weighed weekly and serum derived from trunk blood (d 21) was analyzed for prolactin. Corpus striatum and hypothalamic tissue was assayed for dopamine D2 receptors using [3H]spiperone and [125I]epidepride, respectively. The endophyte depressed (P < .06) serum prolactin concentrations. Average daily gain during the study (21 d) was depressed (P < .0043) in rats fed E+ compared to controls. The endophyte increased (P < .03) striatal D2 receptor affinity (KD = 48.70 vs 54.95 pM) with no change (P > .28) in receptor density (Bmax = 25.59 vs 28.00 pmol/mg of tissue) in E+ and E- rats, respectively. Hypothalamic D2 receptor density (Bmax = 1.79 vs 1.57 pmol/mg of tissue) and affinity (KD = 17.5 vs 17.26 pM) were not (P > .66) different between E+ and E- rats, respectively. These data suggest changes in D2 receptor binding characteristics, particularly receptor affinity, may contribute to signs of fescue toxicosis. PMID:8404549

  1. Half a century of antipsychotics and still a central role for dopamine D2 receptors.

    PubMed

    Kapur, Shitij; Mamo, David

    2003-10-01

    A review of the history of antipsychotics reveals that while the therapeutic effects of chlorpromazine and reserpine were discovered and actively researched almost concurrently, subsequent drug development has been restricted to drugs acting on postsynaptic receptors rather than modulation of dopamine release. The fundamental property of atypical antipsychotics is their ability to produce an antipsychotic effect in the absence of extrapyramidal side effects (EPS) or prolactin elevation. Modulation of the dopamine D2 receptor remains both necessary and sufficient for antipsychotic drug action, with affinity to the D2-receptor being the single most important discriminator between a typical and atypical drug profile. Most antipsychotics, including atypical antipsychotics, show a dose-dependent threshold of D2 receptor occupancy for their therapeutic effects, although the precise threshold is different for different drugs. Some atypical antipsychotics do not appear to reach the threshold for EPS and prolactin elevation, possibly accounting for their atypical nature. To link the biological theories of antipsychotics to their psychological effects, a hypothesis is proposed wherein psychosis is a state of aberrant salience of stimuli and ideas, and antipsychotics, via modulation of the mesolimbic dopamine system, dampen the salience of these symptoms. Thus, antipsychotics do not excise psychosis: they provide the neurochemical platform for the resolution of symptoms. Future generations of antipsychotics may need to move away from a "one-size-fits-all polypharmacy-in-a-pill" approach to treat all the different aspects of schizophrenia. At least in theory a preferred approach would be the development of specific treatments for the different dimensions of schizophrenia (e.g., positive, negative, cognitive, and affective) that can be flexibly used and titrated in the service of patients' presenting psychopathology. PMID:14642968

  2. Occupancy of pramipexole (Sifrol) at cerebral dopamine D2/3 receptors in Parkinson's disease patients.

    PubMed

    Deutschländer, Angela; la Fougère, Christian; Boetzel, Kai; Albert, Nathalie L; Gildehaus, Franz-Josef; Bartenstein, Peter; Xiong, Guoming; Cumming, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Whereas positron emission tomography (PET) with the antagonist ligand [(18)F]fallypride reveals the composite of dopamine D2 and D3 receptors in brain, treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients with the D3-prefering agonist pramipexole should result in preferential occupancy in the nucleus accumbens, where the D3-subtype is most abundant. To test this prediction we obtained pairs of [(18)F]fallypride PET recordings in a group of nine PD patients, first in a condition of treatment as usual with pramipexole (ON-Sifrol; 3 × 0.7 mg p.d.), and again at a later date, after withholding pramipexole 48-72 h (OFF-Sifrol); in that condition the serum pramipexole concentration had declined by 90% and prolactin levels had increased four-fold, in conjunction with a small but significant worsening of PD motor symptoms. Exploratory comparison with historical control material showed 14% higher dopamine D2/3 availability in the more-affected putamen of patients OFF medication. On-Sifrol there was significant (p ˂ 0.01) occupancy at [(18)F]fallypride binding sites in globus pallidus (8%) thalamus (9%) and substantia nigra (19%), as well as marginally significant occupancy in frontal and temporal cortex of patients. Contrary to expectation, comparison of ON- and OFF-Sifrol results did not reveal any discernible occupancy in nucleus accumbens, or elsewhere in the extended striatum; present methods should be sensitive to a 10% change in dopamine D2/3 receptor availability in striatum; the significant findings elsewhere in the basal ganglia and in cerebral cortex are consistent with a predominance of D3 receptors in those structures, especially in substantia nigra, and imply that therapeutic effects of pramipexole may be obtained at sites outside the extended striatum. PMID:27408789

  3. Allosteric mechanisms within the adenosine A2A-dopamine D2 receptor heterotetramer.

    PubMed

    Ferré, Sergi; Bonaventura, Jordi; Tomasi, Dardo; Navarro, Gemma; Moreno, Estefanía; Cortés, Antonio; Lluís, Carme; Casadó, Vicent; Volkow, Nora D

    2016-05-01

    The structure constituted by a G protein coupled receptor (GPCR) homodimer and a G protein provides a main functional unit and oligomeric entities can be viewed as multiples of dimers. For GPCR heteromers, experimental evidence supports a tetrameric structure, comprised of two different homodimers, each able to signal with its preferred G protein. GPCR homomers and heteromers can act as the conduit of allosteric interactions between orthosteric ligands. The well-known agonist/agonist allosteric interaction in the adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR)-dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) heteromer, by which A2AR agonists decrease the affinity of D2R agonists, gave the first rationale for the use of A2AR antagonists in Parkinson's disease. We review new pharmacological findings that can be explained in the frame of a tetrameric structure of the A2AR-D2R heteromer: first, ligand-independent allosteric modulations by the D2R that result in changes of the binding properties of A2AR ligands; second, differential modulation of the intrinsic efficacy of D2R ligands for G protein-dependent and independent signaling; third, the canonical antagonistic Gs-Gi interaction within the frame of the heteromer; and fourth, the ability of A2AR antagonists, including caffeine, to also exert the same allosteric modulations of D2R ligands than A2AR agonists, while A2AR agonists and antagonists counteract each other's effects. These findings can have important clinical implications when evaluating the use of A2AR antagonists. They also call for the need of monitoring caffeine intake when evaluating the effect of D2R ligands, when used as therapeutic agents in neuropsychiatric disorders or as probes in imaging studies. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled 'Purines in Neurodegeneration and Neuroregeneration'. PMID:26051403

  4. Caffeine increases striatal dopamine D2/D3 receptor availability in the human brain

    PubMed Central

    Volkow, N D; Wang, G-J; Logan, J; Alexoff, D; Fowler, J S; Thanos, P K; Wong, C; Casado, V; Ferre, S; Tomasi, D

    2015-01-01

    Caffeine, the most widely consumed psychoactive substance in the world, is used to promote wakefulness and enhance alertness. Like other wake-promoting drugs (stimulants and modafinil), caffeine enhances dopamine (DA) signaling in the brain, which it does predominantly by antagonizing adenosine A2A receptors (A2AR). However, it is unclear if caffeine, at the doses consumed by humans, increases DA release or whether it modulates the functions of postsynaptic DA receptors through its interaction with adenosine receptors, which modulate them. We used positron emission tomography and [11C]raclopride (DA D2/D3 receptor radioligand sensitive to endogenous DA) to assess if caffeine increased DA release in striatum in 20 healthy controls. Caffeine (300 mg p.o.) significantly increased the availability of D2/D3 receptors in putamen and ventral striatum, but not in caudate, when compared with placebo. In addition, caffeine-induced increases in D2/D3 receptor availability in the ventral striatum were associated with caffeine-induced increases in alertness. Our findings indicate that in the human brain, caffeine, at doses typically consumed, increases the availability of DA D2/D3 receptors, which indicates that caffeine does not increase DA in the striatum for this would have decreased D2/D3 receptor availability. Instead, we interpret our findings to reflect an increase in D2/D3 receptor levels in striatum with caffeine (or changes in affinity). The association between increases in D2/D3 receptor availability in ventral striatum and alertness suggests that caffeine might enhance arousal, in part, by upregulating D2/D3 receptors. PMID:25871974

  5. Caffeine increases striatal dopamine D2/D3 receptor availability in the human brain

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Volkow, N. D.; Wang, G. -J.; Logan, J.; Alexoff, D.; Fowler, J. S.; Thanos, P. K.; Wong, C.; Casado, V.; Ferre, S.; Tomasi, D.

    2015-04-14

    Caffeine, the most widely consumed psychoactive substance in the world, is used to promote wakefulness and enhance alertness. Like other wake-promoting drugs (stimulants and modafinil), caffeine enhances dopamine (DA) signaling in the brain, which it does predominantly by antagonizing adenosine A2A receptors (A2AR). However, it is unclear if caffeine, at the doses consumed by humans, increases DA release or whether it modulates the functions of postsynaptic DA receptors through its interaction with adenosine receptors, which modulate them. We used positron emission tomography and [11C]raclopride (DA D2/D3 receptor radioligand sensitive to endogenous DA) to assess if caffeine increased DA release inmore » striatum in 20 healthy controls. Caffeine (300mg p.o.) significantly increased the availability of D2/D3 receptors in putamen and ventral striatum, but not in caudate, when compared with placebo. In addition, caffeine-induced increases in D2/D3 receptor availability in the ventral striatum were associated with caffeine-induced increases in alertness. Our findings indicate that in the human brain, caffeine, at doses typically consumed, increases the availability of DA D2/D3 receptors, which indicates that caffeine does not increase DA in the striatum for this would have decreased D2/D3 receptor availability. Instead, we interpret our findings to reflect an increase in D2/D3 receptor levels in striatum with caffeine (or changes in affinity). Furthermore, the association between increases in D2/D3 receptor availability in ventral striatum and alertness suggests that caffeine might enhance arousal, in part, by upregulating D2/D3 receptors.« less

  6. Dopamine D1, D2, D3 Receptors, Vesicular Monoamine Transporter Type-2 (VMAT2) and Dopamine Transporter (DAT) Densities in Aged Human Brain

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jianjun; Xu, Jinbin; Cairns, Nigel J.; Perlmutter, Joel S.; Mach, Robert H.

    2012-01-01

    The dopamine D1, D2, D3 receptors, vesicular monoamine transporter type-2 (VMAT2), and dopamine transporter (DAT) densities were measured in 11 aged human brains (aged 77–107.8, mean: 91 years) by quantitative autoradiography. The density of D1 receptors, VMAT2, and DAT was measured using [3H]SCH23390, [3H]dihydrotetrabenazine, and [3H]WIN35428, respectively. The density of D2 and D3 receptors was calculated using the D3-preferring radioligand, [3H]WC-10 and the D2-preferring radioligand [3H]raclopride using a mathematical model developed previously by our group. Dopamine D1, D2, and D3 receptors are extensively distributed throughout striatum; the highest density of D3 receptors occurred in the nucleus accumbens (NAc). The density of the DAT is 10–20-fold lower than that of VMAT2 in striatal regions. Dopamine D3 receptor density exceeded D2 receptor densities in extrastriatal regions, and thalamus contained a high level of D3 receptors with negligible D2 receptors. The density of dopamine D1 linearly correlated with D3 receptor density in the thalamus. The density of the DAT was negligible in the extrastriatal regions whereas the VMAT2 was expressed in moderate density. D3 receptor and VMAT2 densities were in similar level between the aged human and aged rhesus brain samples, whereas aged human brain samples had lower range of densities of D1 and D2 receptors and DAT compared with the aged rhesus monkey brain. The differential density of D3 and D2 receptors in human brain will be useful in the interpretation of PET imaging studies in human subjects with existing radiotracers, and assist in the validation of newer PET radiotracers having a higher selectivity for dopamine D2 or D3 receptors. PMID:23185343

  7. Extrastriatal dopamine D 2/3 receptor density and distribution in drug-naive schizophrenic patients.

    PubMed

    Tuppurainen, H; Kuikka, J; Viinamäki, H; Husso-Saastamoinen, M; Bergström, K; Tiihonen, J

    2003-04-01

    Several lines of studies have suggested the importance of cortical dopamine (DA) transmission in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. The putative alteration of striatal D(2) receptor density in schizophrenia has been studied intensely, although extrastriatal DA activity may be more relevant for behavioral symptoms. The aim of this study was to explore extrastriatal D(2/3) density in drug-naive schizophrenic patients. We studied the extrastriatal D(2/3) receptor binding with a novel high-affinity single-photon emission tomography ligand epidepride in seven drug-naive schizophrenic patients and seven matched controls. The symptoms were rated with Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale for Schizophrenia. The findings indicated an extremely low D(2/3) receptor binding among patients in temporal cortex in both hemispheres when compared with controls (effect size 2.0-2.3), and the D(2/3) levels had negative correlations with general psychopathological (r from -0.86 to -0.90) and negative (r from -0.37 to -0.55) schizophrenic symptoms. These results support the previous hypothesis on dysfunction of mesocortical DA function behind the cognitive and negative symptoms in schizophrenia. PMID:12740603

  8. Adolescent Maturation of Dopamine D1 and D2 Receptor Function and Interactions in Rodents.

    PubMed

    Dwyer, Jennifer B; Leslie, Frances M

    2016-01-01

    Adolescence is a developmental period characterized by heightened vulnerability to illicit drug use and the onset of neuropsychiatric disorders. These clinical phenomena likely share common neurobiological substrates, as mesocorticolimbic dopamine systems actively mature during this period. Whereas prior studies have examined age-dependent changes in dopamine receptor binding, there have been fewer functional analyses. The aim of the present study was therefore to determine whether the functional consequences of D1 and D2-like activation are age-dependent. Adolescent and adult rats were given direct D1 and D2 agonists, alone and in combination. Locomotor and stereotypic behaviors were measured, and brains were collected for analysis of mRNA expression for the immediate early genes (IEGs), cfos and arc. Adolescents showed enhanced D2-like receptor control of locomotor and repetitive behaviors, which transitioned to dominant D1-like mechanisms in adulthood. When low doses of agonists were co-administered, adults showed supra-additive behavioral responses to D1/D2 combinations, whereas adolescents did not, which may suggest age differences in D1/D2 synergy. D1/D2-stimulated IEG expression was particularly prominent in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST). Given the BNST's function as an integrator of corticostriatal, hippocampal, and stress-related circuitry, and the importance of neural network dynamics in producing behavior, an exploratory functional network analysis of regional IEG expression was performed. This data-driven analysis demonstrated similar developmental trajectories as those described in humans and suggested that dopaminergic drugs alter forebrain coordinated gene expression age dependently. D1/D2 recruitment of stress nuclei into functional networks was associated with low behavioral output in adolescents. Network analysis presents a novel tool to assess pharmacological action, and highlights critical developmental changes in functional

  9. Adolescent Maturation of Dopamine D1 and D2 Receptor Function and Interactions in Rodents

    PubMed Central

    Dwyer, Jennifer B.; Leslie, Frances M.

    2016-01-01

    Adolescence is a developmental period characterized by heightened vulnerability to illicit drug use and the onset of neuropsychiatric disorders. These clinical phenomena likely share common neurobiological substrates, as mesocorticolimbic dopamine systems actively mature during this period. Whereas prior studies have examined age-dependent changes in dopamine receptor binding, there have been fewer functional analyses. The aim of the present study was therefore to determine whether the functional consequences of D1 and D2-like activation are age-dependent. Adolescent and adult rats were given direct D1 and D2 agonists, alone and in combination. Locomotor and stereotypic behaviors were measured, and brains were collected for analysis of mRNA expression for the immediate early genes (IEGs), cfos and arc. Adolescents showed enhanced D2-like receptor control of locomotor and repetitive behaviors, which transitioned to dominant D1-like mechanisms in adulthood. When low doses of agonists were co-administered, adults showed supra-additive behavioral responses to D1/D2 combinations, whereas adolescents did not, which may suggest age differences in D1/D2 synergy. D1/D2-stimulated IEG expression was particularly prominent in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST). Given the BNST’s function as an integrator of corticostriatal, hippocampal, and stress-related circuitry, and the importance of neural network dynamics in producing behavior, an exploratory functional network analysis of regional IEG expression was performed. This data-driven analysis demonstrated similar developmental trajectories as those described in humans and suggested that dopaminergic drugs alter forebrain coordinated gene expression age dependently. D1/D2 recruitment of stress nuclei into functional networks was associated with low behavioral output in adolescents. Network analysis presents a novel tool to assess pharmacological action, and highlights critical developmental changes in functional

  10. Insulin, Central Dopamine D2 Receptors, and Monetary Reward Discounting in Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Eisenstein, Sarah A.; Gredysa, Danuta M.; Antenor–Dorsey, Jo Ann; Green, Leonard; Arbeláez, Ana Maria; Koller, Jonathan M.; Black, Kevin J.; Perlmutter, Joel S.; Moerlein, Stephen M.; Hershey, Tamara

    2015-01-01

    Animal research finds that insulin regulates dopamine signaling and reward behavior, but similar research in humans is lacking. We investigated whether individual differences in body mass index, percent body fat, pancreatic β-cell function, and dopamine D2 receptor binding were related to reward discounting in obese and non-obese adult men and women. Obese (n = 27; body mass index>30) and non-obese (n = 20; body mass index<30) adults were assessed for percent body fat with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and for β-cell function using disposition index. Choice of larger, but delayed or less certain, monetary rewards relative to immediate, certain smaller monetary rewards was measured using delayed and probabilistic reward discounting tasks. Positron emission tomography using a non-displaceable D2-specific radioligand, [11C](N-methyl)benperidol quantified striatal D2 receptor binding. Groups differed in body mass index, percent body fat, and disposition index, but not in striatal D2 receptor specific binding or reward discounting. Higher percent body fat in non-obese women related to preference for a smaller, certain reward over a larger, less likely one (greater probabilistic discounting). Lower β-cell function in the total sample and lower insulin sensitivity in obese related to stronger preference for an immediate and smaller monetary reward over delayed receipt of a larger one (greater delay discounting). In obese adults, higher striatal D2 receptor binding related to greater delay discounting. Interestingly, striatal D2 receptor binding was not significantly related to body mass index, percent body fat, or β-cell function in either group. Our findings indicate that individual differences in percent body fat, β-cell function, and striatal D2 receptor binding may each contribute to altered reward discounting behavior in non-obese and obese individuals. These results raise interesting questions about whether and how striatal D2 receptor binding and metabolic

  11. Dopamine transporters, D2 receptors, and glucose metabolism in corticobasal degeneration.

    PubMed

    Klaffke, Stefanie; Kuhn, Andrea A; Plotkin, Michail; Amthauer, Holger; Harnack, Daniel; Felix, Roland; Kupsch, Andreas

    2006-10-01

    Alterations in presynaptic and postsynaptic dopaminergic system and cerebral glucose metabolism in corticobasal degeneration (CBD) were assessed to evaluate the potential usefulness of different imaging methods for CBD. (123)I-FP-CIT/(123)I-beta-CIT SPECT and (123)I-IBZM SPECT as well as (18)F-FDG PET were performed in eight CBD patients. Decreased presynaptic dopamine transporter binding was found in all CBD patients while D2 receptor binding was reduced in only one patient. (18)F-FDG PET displayed a contralateral hypometabolism in cortical and subcortical areas in seven out of eight patients. Our results demonstrate that glucose metabolism and DAT are reduced, while D2 receptors may be frequently preserved in CBD. PMID:16773621

  12. Individual differences in flow proneness are linked to a dopamine D2 receptor gene variant.

    PubMed

    Gyurkovics, Mate; Kotyuk, Eszter; Katonai, Eniko Rozsa; Horvath, Erzsebet Zsofia; Vereczkei, Andrea; Szekely, Anna

    2016-05-01

    Flow is a special mental state characterized by deep concentration that occurs during the performance of optimally challenging tasks. In prior studies, proneness to experience flow has been found to be moderately heritable. In the present study, we investigated whether individual differences in flow proneness are related to a polymorphism of the dopamine D2 receptor coding gene (DRD2 C957T rs6277). This polymorphism affects striatal D2 receptor availability, a factor that has been shown to be related to flow proneness. To our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate the association between this trait and a specific gene variant. In a sample of 236 healthy Hungarian adults, we found that CC homozygotes report higher flow proneness than do T allele carriers, but only during mandatory activities (i.e., studying and working), not during leisure time. We discuss implications of this result, e.g., the potential mediators of the relationship. PMID:26954487

  13. Localization of D1 and D2 dopamine receptors in brain with subtype-specific antibodies.

    PubMed

    Levey, A I; Hersch, S M; Rye, D B; Sunahara, R K; Niznik, H B; Kitt, C A; Price, D L; Maggio, R; Brann, M R; Ciliax, B J

    1993-10-01

    Five or more dopamine receptor genes are expressed in brain. However, the pharmacological similarities of the encoded D1-D5 receptors have hindered studies of the localization and functions of the subtypes. To better understand the roles of the individual receptors, antibodies were raised against recombinant D1 and D2 proteins and were shown to bind to the receptor subtypes specifically in Western blot and immunoprecipitation studies. Each antibody reacted selectively with the respective receptor protein expressed both in cells transfected with the cDNAs and in brain. By immunocytochemistry, D1 and D2 had similar regional distributions in rat, monkey, and human brain, with the most intense staining in striatum, olfactory bulb, and substantia nigra. Within each region, however, the precise distributions of each subtype were distinct and often complementary. D1 and D2 were differentially enriched in striatal patch and matrix compartments, in selective layers of the olfactory bulb, and in either substantia nigra pars compacta or reticulata. Electron microscopy demonstrated that D1 and D2 also had highly selective subcellular distributions. In the rat neostriatum, the majority of D1 and D2 immunoreactivity was localized in postsynaptic sites in subsets of spiny dendrites and spine heads in rat neostriatum. Presynaptic D1 and D2 receptors were also observed, indicating both subtypes may regulate neurotransmitter release. D1 was also present in axon terminals in the substantia nigra. These results provide a morphological substrate for understanding the pre- and postsynaptic functions of the genetically defined D1 and D2 receptors in discrete neuronal circuits in mammalian brain. PMID:8415621

  14. Registration of dynamic dopamine D2 receptor images using principal component analysis.

    PubMed

    Acton, P D; Pilowsky, L S; Suckling, J; Brammer, M J; Ell, P J

    1997-11-01

    This paper describes a novel technique for registering a dynamic sequence of single-photon emission tomography (SPET) dopamine D2 receptor images, using principal component analysis (PCA). Conventional methods for registering images, such as count difference and correlation coefficient algorithms, fail to take into account the dynamic nature of the data, resulting in large systematic errors when registering time-varying images. However, by using principal component analysis to extract the temporal structure of the image sequence, misregistration can be quantified by examining the distribution of eigenvalues. The registration procedures were tested using a computer-generated dynamic phantom derived from a high-resolution magnetic resonance image of a realistic brain phantom. Each method was also applied to clinical SPET images of dopamine D2 receptors, using the ligands iodine-123 iodobenzamide and iodine-123 epidepride, to investigate the influence of misregistration on kinetic modelling parameters and the binding potential. The PCA technique gave highly significant (P<0.001) improvements in image registration, leading to alignment errors in x and y of about 25% of the alternative methods, with reductions in autocorrelations over time. It could also be applied to align image sequences which the other methods failed completely to register, particularly 123I-epidepride scans. The PCA method produced data of much greater quality for subsequent kinetic modelling, with an improvement of nearly 50% in the chi2 of the fit to the compartmental model, and provided superior quality registration of particularly difficult dynamic sequences. PMID:9371874

  15. High affinity dopamine D2 receptor radioligands. 1. Regional rat brain distribution of iodinated benzamides.

    PubMed

    Kessler, R M; Ansari, M S; de Paulis, T; Schmidt, D E; Clanton, J A; Smith, H E; Manning, R G; Gillespie, D; Ebert, M H

    1991-08-01

    Five 125I-labeled substituted benzamides, which are close structural analogues of (S)-sulpiride, eticlopride, and isoremoxipride, were evaluated for their selective in vivo uptake into dopamine D2 receptor rich tissue of the rat brain. "Iodopride" (KD 0.88 nM), an iodine substituted benzamide structurally related to sulpiride, displayed a maximal striatum: cerebellar uptake ratio of 7.6. Demonstration of saturation of the receptor with [125I]iodopride in striatum required uptake in frontal cortex to be used, rather than cerebellar uptake, to define nonspecific binding. Two other ligands structurally related to eticlopride, "iclopride" (KD 0.23 nM) and "itopride" (KD 0.16 nM), displayed maximal striatal: cerebellar uptake ratios of 9.8 and 3.3, respectively. The most potent ligands, "epidepride" (KD 0.057 nM) and "ioxipride" (KD 0.070 nM) showed striatal:cerebellar uptake ratios of 234 and 65, respectively. The observed uptake ratios correlated poorly with the affinity constants for the dopamine D2 receptor alone, but were highly correlated (r = 0.92) with the product of the receptor dissociation constant (KD) and the apparent lipophilicity (kw), as determined by reverse-phase HPLC at pH 7.5. Total striatal uptake also appeared dependent on lipophilicity, with maximal uptake occurring for ligands having log kw 2.4-2.8. PMID:1831229

  16. High affinity dopamine D2 receptor radioligands. 1. Regional rat brain distribution of iodinated benzamides

    SciTech Connect

    Kessler, R.M.; Ansari, M.S.; de Paulis, T.; Schmidt, D.E.; Clanton, J.A.; Smith, H.E.; Manning, R.G.; Gillespie, D.; Ebert, M.H. )

    1991-08-01

    Five 125I-labeled substituted benzamides, which are close structural analogues of (S)-sulpiride, eticlopride, and isoremoxipride, were evaluated for their selective in vivo uptake into dopamine D2 receptor rich tissue of the rat brain. Iodopride (KD 0.88 nM), an iodine substituted benzamide structurally related to sulpiride, displayed a maximal striatum: cerebellar uptake ratio of 7.6. Demonstration of saturation of the receptor with (125I)iodopride in striatum required uptake in frontal cortex to be used, rather than cerebellar uptake, to define nonspecific binding. Two other ligands structurally related to eticlopride, iclopride (KD 0.23 nM) and itopride (KD 0.16 nM), displayed maximal striatal: cerebellar uptake ratios of 9.8 and 3.3, respectively. The most potent ligands, epidepride (KD 0.057 nM) and ioxipride (KD 0.070 nM) showed striatal:cerebellar uptake ratios of 234 and 65, respectively. The observed uptake ratios correlated poorly with the affinity constants for the dopamine D2 receptor alone, but were highly correlated (r = 0.92) with the product of the receptor dissociation constant (KD) and the apparent lipophilicity (kw), as determined by reverse-phase HPLC at pH 7.5. Total striatal uptake also appeared dependent on lipophilicity, with maximal uptake occurring for ligands having log kw 2.4-2.8.

  17. Roles of Dopamine D2 Receptor Subregions in Interactions with β-Arrestin2

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaohan; Choi, Bo-Gil; Kim, Kyeong-Man

    2016-01-01

    β-Arrestins are one of the protein families that interact with G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). The roles of β-arrestins are multifaceted, as they mediate different processes including receptor desensitization, endocytosis, and G protein-independent signaling. Thus, determining the GPCR regions involved in the interactions with β-arrestins would be a preliminary step in understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in the selective direction of each function. In the current study, we determined the roles of the N-terminus, intracellular loops, and C-terminal tail of a representative GPCR in the interaction with β-arrestin2. For this, we employed dopamine D2 and D3 receptors (D2R and D3R, respectively), since they display distinct agonist-induced interactions with β-arrestins. Our results showed that the second and third intracellular loops of D2R are involved in the agonist-induced translocation of β-arrestins toward plasma membranes. In contrast, the N- and C-termini of D2R exerted negative effects on the basal interaction with β-arrestins. PMID:27068263

  18. Repeated cocaine administration results in supersensitivity of striatal D-2 dopamine autoreceptors to pergolide

    SciTech Connect

    Dwoskin, L.P.; Peris, J.; Yasuda, R.P.; Philpott, K.; Zahniser, N.R.

    1988-01-01

    Groups of rats administered cocaine-HCl (10 mg/kg, i.p.) or saline either acutely or once daily for 8 or 14 days were killed 24 hrs after the last dose. In striatal slices prelabelled with (/sup 3/H)DA, modulation of (/sup 3/H)-overflow by pergolide was used to measure D-2 autoreceptor activity. Compared to the contemporaneous control group pergolide produced a greater inhibition only in striatal slices from rats treated repeatedly with cocaine. In radioligand binding studies using striatal membranes from control rats, pergolide had a 500-fold greater affinity for the D-2, as opposed to the D-1, dopamine (DA) receptor subtype. These results indicate that repeated treatment with cocaine produces supersensitive striatal D-2 release-modulating autoreceptors consistent with a compensatory change to diminish the effect of elevated synaptic concentrations of DA produced by cocaine. In contrast, supersensitivity of D-2 receptors was not detected in (/sup 3/H)spiperone binding assays. 31 references, 2 figures, 1 table.

  19. Pharmacokinetics and central nervous system effects of the novel dopamine D2 receptor antagonist JNJ-37822681.

    PubMed

    te Beek, Erik T; Moerland, Matthijs; de Boer, Peter; van Nueten, Luc; de Kam, Marieke L; Burggraaf, Jacobus; Cohen, Adam F; van Gerven, Joop M A

    2012-08-01

    Using the rate of dissociation from the D(2) receptor as a means to screen novel compounds for antipsychotic drug candidates, the centrally acting and fast-dissociating selective dopamine D(2) receptor antagonist JNJ-37822681 was developed. In a blinded, placebo-controlled, randomized first-in-human study, JNJ-37822681 was administered orally to 27 healthy male volunteers at doses of 0.5, 2, 5, 10, 15 and 20 mg. Safety, pharmacokinetics and central nervous system effects were evaluated by measuring prolactin levels, eye movements, adaptive tracking, visual analogue scales, body sway, finger tapping and electroencephalography. JNJ-37822681 was well tolerated and somnolence was the most frequently reported adverse effect. Peak plasma concentrations increased more than proportional to dose, but increases in the area under curve (AUC) were dose-proportional. Prolactin elevations started at doses of 5 mg, whereas small decreases in adaptive tracking were demonstrated at 10 mg doses. At higher doses, JNJ-37822681 caused a small decrease in saccadic peak velocity, smooth pursuit, alertness, finger tapping and electroencephalography activity, and an increase in body sway. This effect profile is likely to be the result of the selectivity of JNJ-37822681 for the D(2) receptor, leading to strong D(2) receptor-mediated elevations in serum prolactin, but fewer effects on more complex central nervous system functions, which are likely to involve multiple neurotransmitters. PMID:21890591

  20. Enhanced GABA Transmission Drives Bradykinesia Following Loss of Dopamine D2 Receptor Signaling.

    PubMed

    Lemos, Julia C; Friend, Danielle M; Kaplan, Alanna R; Shin, Jung Hoon; Rubinstein, Marcelo; Kravitz, Alexxai V; Alvarez, Veronica A

    2016-05-18

    Bradykinesia is a prominent phenotype of Parkinson's disease, depression, and other neurological conditions. Disruption of dopamine (DA) transmission plays an important role, but progress in understanding the exact mechanisms driving slowness of movement has been impeded due to the heterogeneity of DA receptor distribution on multiple cell types within the striatum. Here we show that selective deletion of DA D2 receptors (D2Rs) from indirect-pathway medium spiny neurons (iMSNs) is sufficient to impair locomotor activity, phenocopying DA depletion models of Parkinson's disease, despite this mouse model having intact DA transmission. There was a robust enhancement of GABAergic transmission and a reduction of in vivo firing in striatal and pallidal neurons. Mimicking D2R signaling in iMSNs with Gi-DREADDs restored the level of tonic GABAergic transmission and rescued the motor deficit. These findings indicate that DA, through D2R activation in iMSNs, regulates motor output by constraining the strength of GABAergic transmission. PMID:27196975

  1. Apparent dopamine D1 and D2 receptors in the weaver mutant mouse: receptor binding and coupling to adenylyl cyclase.

    PubMed

    Dewar, K M; Paquet, M; Sequeira, A

    1999-01-01

    Weaver mutant mice have a selective degeneration of the nigrostriatal dopamine pathway arising between 7-21 days after birth. The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of this mutation on different parameters of the nigrostriatal and mesolimbic dopamine system: apparent D1 and D2 receptor binding sites as well as their signal transduction pathway. Using quantitative autoradiography of ligands for dopamine D1, D2 receptors and the dopamine uptake site, we found a significant loss in apparent D1 receptor binding sites throughout the neostriatum, significant increase of apparent D2 receptor binding in the dorsal aspect of the neostriatum, and almost complete loss of DA uptake sites in these regions of the weaver mouse. In contrast to the neostriatum, the density of dopamine receptors and uptake sites in the nucleus accumbens of the weaver mouse did not differ from controls. Despite alterations in the binding of apparent D1 and D2 receptors, there was no significant difference in either basal, DA stimulated or GTPgammaS stimulated cAMP production. These findings suggest the down-regulation of apparent D1 receptor binding sites reported in this model, probably does not reflect an important physiological mechanism through which these animals compensate for loss of dopamine innervation. PMID:10443552

  2. Effects of dopamine D1-like and D2-like antagonists on cocaine discrimination in muscarinic receptor knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Thomsen, Morgane; Caine, Simon Barak

    2016-04-01

    Muscarinic and dopamine brain systems interact intimately, and muscarinic receptor ligands, like dopamine ligands, can modulate the reinforcing and discriminative stimulus (S(D)) effects of cocaine. To enlighten the dopamine/muscarinic interactions as they pertain to the S(D) effects of cocaine, we evaluated whether muscarinic M1, M2 or M4 receptors are necessary for dopamine D1 and/or D2 antagonist mediated modulation of the S(D) effects of cocaine. Knockout mice lacking M1, M2, or M4 receptors, as well as control wild-type mice and outbred Swiss-Webster mice, were trained to discriminate 10mg/kg cocaine from saline in a food-reinforced drug discrimination procedure. Effects of pretreatments with the dopamine D1 antagonist SCH 23390 and the dopamine D2 antagonist eticlopride were evaluated. In intact mice, both SCH 23390 and eticlopride attenuated the cocaine discriminative stimulus effect, as expected. SCH 23390 similarly attenuated the cocaine discriminative stimulus effect in M1 knockout mice, but not in mice lacking M2 or M4 receptors. The effects of eticlopride were comparable in each knockout strain. These findings demonstrate differences in the way that D1 and D2 antagonists modulate the S(D) effects of cocaine, D1 modulation being at least partially dependent upon activity at the inhibitory M2/M4 muscarinic subtypes, while D2 modulation appeared independent of these systems. PMID:26874213

  3. Anatomical and pharmacological comparisons between dopamine D-1 and D-2 receptors in the central nervous system

    SciTech Connect

    Richfield, E.K.

    1987-01-01

    Quantitative receptor autoradiography was used to study dopamine D-1 and D-2 receptor subtypes in the central nervous system of several mammals including rats, cats, and monkeys. (/sup 3/H)-SCH 23390 and (/sup 3/H)-spiroperidol were used to label the D-1 and D-2 receptors, respectively. Equilibrium binding assays specific for the D-1 and D-2 receptors were characterized using kinetic, saturation, and competition data, along with Scatchard and Hill plots.

  4. Presynaptic dopamine D2-like receptors inhibit excitatory transmission onto rat ventral tegmental dopaminergic neurones

    PubMed Central

    Koga, Eiko; Momiyama, Toshihiko

    2000-01-01

    The effects of dopamine (DA) on non-NMDA glutamatergic transmission onto dopaminergic neurones in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) were examined in rat midbrain slices using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique. EPSCs in dopaminergic neurones evoked by focal stimulation within the VTA were reversibly blocked by 5 μm CNQX in the presence of bicuculline (20 μm), strychnine (0.5 μm) and D-amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid (D-AP5, 25 μm). Bath application of DA reduced the amplitude of EPSCs up to 65.1 ± 9.52% in a concentration-dependent manner between 0.3–1000 μm (IC50, 16.0 μm) without affecting the holding current at −60 mV measured using a Cs+-filled electrode. The effect of DA on evoked EPSCs was mimicked by the D2-like receptor agonist quinpirole but not by the D1-like receptor agonist SKF 81297, and was antagonized by the D2-like receptor antagonist sulpiride (KB, 0.96 μm), but not by the D1-like receptor antagonist SCH 23390 (KB, 228.6 μm). Dopamine (30 μm) reduced the mean frequency of spontaneous miniature EPSCs (mEPSCs) without affecting their mean amplitude, and the DA-induced effect on the mEPSCs was dependent on the external Ca2+ concentration. These results suggest that afferent glutamatergic fibres which terminate on VTA dopaminergic neurones possess presynaptic D2-like receptors, activation of which inhibits glutamate release by reducing Ca2+ influx. PMID:10673553

  5. Spatial Reorganization of Putaminal Dopamine D2-Like Receptors in Cranial and Hand Dystonia

    PubMed Central

    Black, Kevin J.; Snyder, Abraham Z.; Mink, Jonathan W.; Tolia, Veeral N.; Revilla, Fredy J.; Moerlein, Stephen M.; Perlmutter, Joel S.

    2014-01-01

    The putamen has a somatotopic organization of neurons identified by correspondence of firing rates with selected body part movements, as well as by complex, but organized, differential cortical projections onto putamen. In isolated focal dystonia, whole putaminal binding of dopamine D2-like receptor radioligands is quantitatively decreased, but it has not been known whether selected parts of the putamen are differentially affected depending upon the body part affected by dystonia. The radioligand [18F]spiperone binds predominantly to D2-like receptors in striatum. We hypothesized that the spatial location of [18F]spiperone binding within the putamen would differ in patients with dystonia limited to the hand versus the face, and we tested that hypothesis using positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. To address statistical and methodological concerns, we chose a straightforward but robust image analysis method. An automated algorithm located the peak location of [18F]spiperone binding within the striatum, relative to a brain atlas, in each of 14 patients with cranial dystonia and 8 patients with hand dystonia. The mean (left and right) |x|, y, and z coordinates of peak striatal binding for each patient were compared between groups by t test. The location of peak [18F]spiperone binding within the putamen differed significantly between groups (cranial dystonia zdopamine D2-like receptors are distributed differently in the putamen depending on the body part manifesting dystonia. PMID:24520350

  6. No allelic association between Parkinson`s disease and dopamine D2, D3, and D4 receptor gene polymorphisms

    SciTech Connect

    Nanko, S.; Hattori, M.; Dai, X.Y.

    1994-12-15

    Parkinson`s disease is thought to be caused by a combination of unknown environmental, genetic, and degenerative factors. Evidence from necropsy brain samples and pharmacokinetics suggests involvement of dopamine receptors in the pathogenesis or pathophysiology of Parkinson`s disease. Genetic association studies between Parkinson`s disease and dopamine D2, D3 and D4 receptor gene polymorphisms were conducted. The polymorphism was examined in 71 patients with Parkinson`s disease and 90 controls. There were no significant differences between two groups in allele frequencies at the D2, D3, and D4 dopamine receptor loci. Our findings do not support the hypothesis that susceptibility to Parkinson`s disease is associated with the dopamine receptor polymorphisms examined. 35 refs., 2 tabs.

  7. D2 and D3 dopamine receptor cell surface localization mediated by interaction with protein 4.1N.

    PubMed

    Binda, Alicia V; Kabbani, Nadine; Lin, Ridwan; Levenson, Robert

    2002-09-01

    We identified protein 4.1N as a D2-like dopamine receptor-interacting protein in a yeast two-hybrid screen. Protein 4.1N is a neuronally enriched member of the 4.1 family of cytoskeletal proteins, which also includes protein 4.1R of erythrocytes and the 4.1G and 4.1B isoforms. The interaction of protein 4.1N was specific for the D2 and D3 dopamine receptors and was independently confirmed in pulldown and coimmunoprecipitation assays. Deletion mapping localized the site of dopamine receptor/protein 4.1N interaction to the N-terminal segment of the third intracellular domain of D2 and D3 receptors and the carboxyl-terminal domain of protein 4.1N. D2 and D3 receptors were also found to interact with the highly conserved carboxyl-terminal domain of proteins 4.1R, 4.1G, and 4.1B. Immunofluorescence studies show that protein 4.1N and D2 and D3 dopamine receptors are expressed at the plasma membrane of transfected human embryonic kidney 293 and mouse neuroblastoma Neuro2A cells. However, expression of D2 or D3 receptors with a protein 4.1N truncation fragment reduces the level of D2 and D3 receptor expression at the plasma membrane. These results suggest that protein 4.1N/dopamine receptor interaction is required for localization or stability of dopamine receptors at the neuronal plasma membrane. PMID:12181426

  8. Role of ventral pallidal D2 dopamine receptors in the consolidation of spatial memory.

    PubMed

    Péczely, László; Ollmann, Tamás; László, Kristóf; Kovács, Anita; Gálosi, Rita; Kertes, Erika; Zagorácz, Olga; Kállai, Veronika; Karádi, Zoltán; Lénárd, László

    2016-10-15

    The role of dopamine (DA) receptors in spatial memory consolidation has been demonstrated in numerous brain regions, among others in the nucleus accumbens which innervates the ventral pallidum (VP). The VP contains both D1 and D2 DA receptors. We have recently shown that the VP D1 DA receptor activation facilitates consolidation of spatial memory in Morris water maze test. In the present study, the role of VP D2 DA receptors was investigated in the same paradigm. In the first experiment, the D2 DA receptor agonist quinpirole was administered into the VP of male Wistar rats in three doses (0.1, 1.0 or 5.0μg, respectively in 0.4μl physiological saline). In the second experiment, the D2 DA receptor antagonist sulpiride was applied to elucidate whether it can antagonise the effects of quinpirole. The antagonist (4.0μg, dissolved in 0.4μl physiological saline) was microinjected into the VP either by itself or prior to 1.0μg agonist treatment. Control animals received saline in both experiments. The two higher doses (1.0 and 5.0μg) of the agonist accelerated memory consolidation relative to controls and increased the stability of the consolidated memory against extinction. Sulpiride pretreatment antagonised the effects of quinpirole. In addition, the antagonist microinjected into the VP immediately after the second conditioning trial impaired learning functions. The present data provide evidences for the important role of VP D2 DA receptors in the consolidation and stabilization of spatial memory. PMID:27392640

  9. Pituitary and Brain Dopamine D2 Receptors Regulate Liver Gene Sexual Dimorphism

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez, Maria Cecilia; Ornstein, Ana Maria; Luque, Guillermina Maria; Perez Millan, Maria Ines; Garcia-Tornadu, Isabel; Rubinstein, Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    Liver sexual gene dimorphism, which depends mainly on specific patterns of GH secretion, may underlie differential susceptibility to some liver diseases. Because GH and prolactin secretion are regulated by dopaminergic pathways, we studied the participation of brain and lactotrope dopamine 2 receptors (D2Rs) on liver gene sexual dimorphism, to explore a link between the brain and liver gene expression. We used global D2R knockout mice (Drd2−/−) and conducted a functional dissection strategy based on cell-specific Drd2 inactivation in neurons (neuroDrd2KO) or pituitary lactotropes. Disruption of neuronal D2Rs (which impaired the GH axis) decreased most of male or female-predominant class I liver genes and increased female–predominant class II genes in males, consistent with the positive (class I) or negative (class II) regulation of these genes by GH. Notably, sexual dimorphism was lost for class I and II genes in neuroDrd2KO mice. Disruption of lactotrope D2Rs did not modify class I or II genes in either sex, because GH axis was preserved. But surprisingly, 1 class II gene (Prlr) and female-predominant class I genes were markedly up-regulated in lacDrd2KO females, pointing to direct or indirect effects of prolactin in the regulation of selected female-predominant liver genes. This suggestion was strengthened in the hyperprolactinemic Drd2−/− female mouse, in which increased expression of the same 4 liver genes was observed, despite a decreased GH axis. We hereby demonstrate endocrine-mediated D2R actions on sexual dimorphic liver gene expression, which may be relevant during chronic dopaminergic medications in psychiatric disease. PMID:25545383

  10. Differentiation of extrastriatal dopamine D2 receptor density and affinity in the human brain using PET.

    PubMed

    Olsson, Hans; Halldin, Christer; Farde, Lars

    2004-06-01

    Dopaminergic neurotransmission in extrastriatal regions may play a crucial role in the pathophysiology and treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders. The high-affinity radioligands [(11)C]FLB 457, [(123)I]epidepride, and [(18)F]fallypride are now used in clinical studies to measure these low-density receptor populations in vivo. However, a single determination of the regional binding potential (BP) does not differentiate receptor density (B(max)) from the apparent affinity (K(D)). In this positron emission tomography (PET) study, we measured extrastriatal dopamine D2 receptor density (B(max)) and apparent affinity (K(D)) in 10 healthy subjects using an in vivo saturation approach. Each subject participated in two to three PET measurements with different specific radioactivity of [(11)C]FLB 457. The commonly used simplified reference tissue model (SRTM) was used in a comparison of BP values with the B(max) values obtained from the saturation analysis. The calculated regional receptor density values were of the same magnitude (0.33-1.68 nM) and showed the same rank order as reported from postmortem studies, that is, in descending order thalamus, lateral temporal cortex, anterior cinguli, and frontal cortex. The affinity ranged from 0.27 to 0.43 nM, that is, approximately 10-20 times the value found in vitro (20 pM). The area under the cerebellar time activity curve (TAC) was slightly lower (11 +/- 8%, mean +/- SD, P = 0.004, n = 10) after injection of low as compared with high specific radioactivity, indicating sensitivity to the minute density of dopamine D2 receptors in the this region. The results of the present study support that dopamine D2 receptor density and affinity can be differentiated in low-density regions using a saturation approach. There was a significant (P < 0.001) correlation between the binding potential calculated with SRTM and the receptor density (B(max)), which supports the use of BP in clinical studies where differentiation of B(max) and K

  11. Dopamine D2 gene expression interacts with environmental enrichment to impact lifespan and behavior

    PubMed Central

    Thanos, Panayotis K.; Hamilton, John; O'Rourke, Joseph R.; Napoli, Anthony; Febo, Marcelo; Volkow, Nora D.; Blum, Kenneth; Gold, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Aging produces cellular, molecular, and behavioral changes affecting many areas of the brain. The dopamine (DA) system is known to be vulnerable to the effects of aging, which regulate behavioral functions such as locomotor activity, body weight, and reward and cognition. In particular, age-related DA D2 receptor (D2R) changes have been of particular interest given its relationship with addiction and other rewarding behavioral properties. Male and female wild-type (Drd2 +/+), heterozygous (Drd2 +/−) and knockout (Drd2 −/−) mice were reared post-weaning in either an enriched environment (EE) or a deprived environment (DE). Over the course of their lifespan, body weight and locomotor activity was assessed. While an EE was generally found to be correlated with longer lifespan, these increases were only found in mice with normal or decreased expression of the D2 gene. Drd2 +/+ EE mice lived nearly 16% longer than their DE counterparts. Drd2 +/+ and Drd2 +/− EE mice lived 22% and 21% longer than Drd2 −/− EE mice, respectively. Moreover, both body weight and locomotor activity were moderated by environmental factors. In addition, EE mice show greater behavioral variability between genotypes compared to DE mice with respect to body weight and locomotor activity. PMID:26992232

  12. D2-dopamine receptor specific brain uptake of carbon-11-labeled YM-09151-2

    SciTech Connect

    Hatano, K.; Ishiwata, K.; Kawashima, K.; Hatazawa, J.; Itoh, M.; Ido, T. )

    1989-04-01

    The in vivo D2-receptor specific brain uptake of N-((2RS,3RS)-1-benzyl-2- methyl-3-pyrrolidinyl)-5-chloro-2-methoxy-4-({sup 11}C)methylaminobenzamide (({sup 11}C)YM-09151-2), was investigated. In rat brain the high uptake of ({sup 11}C)YM-09151-2 in striatum was displaced with sulpiride, spiroperidol, and YM-09151-2. SCH-23390 and ritanserin, D1-dopamine and S2-serotonin antagonists, showed no effect on the distribution of ({sup 11}C)YM-09151-2. In the striatum at 60 min, 95% of the radioactivity was detected as ({sup 11}C)YM-09151-2 by high performance liquid chromatography. On the other hand, 41% of {sup 11}C in the plasma at 60 min was observed as metabolites. In vivo autoradiography showed a high uptake of ({sup 11}C)YM-09151-2 in the striatum and in the nucleus accumbens of rat brain. A high uptake of radioactivity was also found in the canine basal ganglia with positron emission tomography. The uptake was reduced by pretreatment with spiroperidol. The present results demonstrate that ({sup 11}C)YM-09151-2 is a D2 receptor specific compound and is a potential in vivo tracer for measuring D2 receptors.

  13. Pharmacological evidence that dopamine inhibits the cardioaccelerator sympathetic outflow via D2-like receptors in pithed rats.

    PubMed

    Alcántara-Vázquez, Oscar; Villamil-Hernández, Ma Trinidad; Sánchez-López, Araceli; Centurión, David

    2013-01-01

    It has been suggested that N,N-di-n-propyl-dopamine (dopamine analogue) decreased heart rate in rats through stimulation of dopamine receptors. Nevertheless, the role of prejunctional dopamine D1/2-like receptors or even α2-adrenoceptors to mediate cardiac sympatho-inhibition induced by dopamine remains unclear. Hence, this study identified the pharmacological profile of the cardiac sympatho-inhibition to dopamine in pithed rats. Male Wistar rats were pithed and prepared to stimulate the cardiac sympathetic outflow or to receive i.v. bolus of exogenous noradrenaline. I.v. continuous infusions of dopamine (endogenous ligand) or quinpirole (D2-like agonist) dose-dependently inhibited the tachycardic responses to sympathetic stimulation, but not those to exogenous noradrenaline. In contrast, SKF-38393 (100 μg/kg∙min, D1-like agonist) failed to modify both of these responses. The sympatho-inhibition to dopamine (1.8 μg/kg∙min) or quinpirole (100 μg/kg∙min): i) remained unaltered after saline or the antagonists SCH-23390 (D1-like, 300 μg/kg) and rauwolscine (α2-adrenoceptors, 300 μg/kg); and ii) was significantly antagonized by raclopride (D2-like, 300 μg/kg). These antagonists, at the above doses, failed to modify the sympathetically-induced tachycardic responses. The above results suggest that the inhibition of the cardiac sympathetic outflow to dopamine and quinpirole is primarily mediated by prejunctional D2-like receptors but not D1-like receptors or α2-adrenoceptors. PMID:24225403

  14. Metabolism of [123I]epidepride may affect brain dopamine D2 receptor imaging with single-photon emission tomography.

    PubMed

    Bergström, K A; Yu, M; Kuikka, J T; Akerman, K K; Hiltunen, J; Lehtonen, J; Halldin, C; Tiihonen, J

    2000-02-01

    Iodine-123 labelled epidepride is a novel radiopharmaceutical for the study of cerebral dopamine D2 receptors using single-photon emission tomography (SPET). A lipophilic labelled metabolite of [123I]epidepride which may enter the brain and hamper the quantitation of receptors has been observed in human plasma. In the present study, gradient high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to investigate the plasma concentration of the lipophilic labelled metabolite and its correlation to SPET imaging of striatal dopamine D2 receptors. A linear regression fit showed a negative correlation between the amount of the lipophilic labelled metabolite and the striatum to cerebellum ratio (n=16, R=-0.58, P<0.02), suggesting that plasma metabolite analysis is essential when imaging dopamine D2 receptors with SPET using [123I]epidepride. PMID:10755727

  15. Social dominance in monkeys: dopamine D2 receptors and cocaine self-administration.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Drake; Grant, Kathleen A; Gage, H Donald; Mach, Robert H; Kaplan, Jay R; Prioleau, Osric; Nader, Susan H; Buchheimer, Nancy; Ehrenkaufer, Richard L; Nader, Michael A

    2002-02-01

    Disruption of the dopaminergic system has been implicated in the etiology of many pathological conditions, including drug addiction. Here we used positron emission tomography (PET) imaging to study brain dopaminergic function in individually housed and in socially housed cynomolgus macaques (n = 20). Whereas the monkeys did not differ during individual housing, social housing increased the amount or availability of dopamine D2 receptors in dominant monkeys and produced no change in subordinate monkeys. These neurobiological changes had an important behavioral influence as demonstrated by the finding that cocaine functioned as a reinforcer in subordinate but not dominant monkeys. These data demonstrate that alterations in an organism's environment can produce profound biological changes that have important behavioral associations, including vulnerability to cocaine addiction. PMID:11802171

  16. Dopamine D2 receptor agonists inhibit lung cancer progression by reducing angiogenesis and tumor infiltrating myeloid derived suppressor cells.

    PubMed

    Hoeppner, Luke H; Wang, Ying; Sharma, Anil; Javeed, Naureen; Van Keulen, Virginia P; Wang, Enfeng; Yang, Ping; Roden, Anja C; Peikert, Tobias; Molina, Julian R; Mukhopadhyay, Debabrata

    2015-01-01

    We sought to determine whether Dopamine D2 Receptor (D2R) agonists inhibit lung tumor progression and identify subpopulations of lung cancer patients that benefit most from D2R agonist therapy. We demonstrate D2R agonists abrogate lung tumor progression in syngeneic (LLC1) and human xenograft (A549) orthotopic murine models through inhibition of tumor angiogenesis and reduction of tumor infiltrating myeloid derived suppressor cells. Pathological examination of human lung cancer tissue revealed a positive correlation between endothelial D2R expression and tumor stage. Lung cancer patients with a smoking history exhibited greater levels of D2R in lung endothelium. Our results suggest D2R agonists may represent a promising individualized therapy for lung cancer patients with high levels of endothelial D2R expression and a smoking history. PMID:25226814

  17. Dopamine D2 Receptor Agonists Inhibit Lung Cancer Progression by Reducing Angiogenesis and Tumor Infiltrating Myeloid Derived Suppressor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hoeppner, Luke H.; Wang, Ying; Sharma, Anil; Javeed, Naureen; Van Keulen, Virginia P.; Wang, Enfeng; Yang, Ping; Roden, Anja C.; Peikert, Tobias; Molina, Julian R.; Mukhopadhyay, Debabrata

    2014-01-01

    We sought to determine whether Dopamine D2 Receptor (D2R) agonists inhibit lung tumor progression and identify subpopulations of lung cancer patients that benefit most from D2R agonist therapy. We demonstrate D2R agonists abrogate lung tumor progression in syngeneic (LLC1) and human xenograft (A549) orthotopic murine models through inhibition of tumor angiogenesis and reduction of tumor infiltrating myeloid derived suppressor cells. Pathological examination of human lung cancer tissue revealed a positive correlation between endothelial D2R expression and tumor stage. Lung cancer patients with a smoking history exhibited greater levels of D2R in lung endothelium. Our results suggest D2R agonists may represent a promising individualized therapy for lung cancer patients with high levels of endothelial D2R expression and a smoking history. PMID:25226814

  18. Cabergoline, Dopamine D2 Receptor Agonist, Prevents Neuronal Cell Death under Oxidative Stress via Reducing Excitotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Odaka, Haruki; Numakawa, Tadahiro; Adachi, Naoki; Ooshima, Yoshiko; Nakajima, Shingo; Katanuma, Yusuke; Inoue, Takafumi; Kunugi, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Several lines of evidence demonstrate that oxidative stress is involved in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson's disease. Potent antioxidants may therefore be effective in the treatment of such diseases. Cabergoline, a dopamine D2 receptor agonist and antiparkinson drug, has been studied using several cell types including mesencephalic neurons, and is recognized as a potent radical scavenger. Here, we examined whether cabergoline exerts neuroprotective effects against oxidative stress through a receptor-mediated mechanism in cultured cortical neurons. We found that neuronal death induced by H2O2 exposure was inhibited by pretreatment with cabergoline, while this protective effect was eliminated in the presence of a dopamine D2 receptor inhibitor, spiperone. Activation of ERK1/2 by H2O2 was suppressed by cabergoline, and an ERK signaling pathway inhibitor, U0126, similarly protected cortical neurons from cell death. This suggested the ERK signaling pathway has a critical role in cabergoline-mediated neuroprotection. Furthermore, increased extracellular levels of glutamate induced by H2O2, which might contribute to ERK activation, were reduced by cabergoline, while inhibitors for NMDA receptor or L-type Ca2+ channel demonstrated a survival effect against H2O2. Interestingly, we found that cabergoline increased expression levels of glutamate transporters such as EAAC1. Taken together, these results suggest that cabergoline has a protective effect on cortical neurons via a receptor-mediated mechanism including repression of ERK1/2 activation and extracellular glutamate accumulation induced by H2O2. PMID:24914776

  19. N-linked oligosaccharides are responsible for rat striatal dopamine D2 receptor heterogeneity

    SciTech Connect

    Clagett-Dame, M.; McKelvy, J.F. )

    1989-10-01

    The glycoprotein nature of the binding subunit of the dopamine D2 receptor in rat striatum has been examined by photoaffinity labeling receptor preparations with N-(p-azido-m-(125I)iodophenethyl)spiperone followed by treatment of crude membrane receptor or receptor fractions isolated from sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) polyacrylamide gels with endo- and exoglycosidases. The major photoaffinity labeled protein migrates as a heterogeneous species on 10% SDS polyacrylamide gels and ranges from 130,000 to 75,000 relative molecular mass (Mr). This heterogeneity can be explained by glycosylation of the receptor by complex-type N-linked oligosaccharides. Three fractions of labeled receptor were isolated from SDS polyacrylamide gels over a range of 130,000 to 75,000 Mr; after digestion with peptide-N4-(N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminyl) asparagine amidase, all fractions yielded a single peptide approximately 40,000 Mr. Treatment of photoaffinity labeled membranes with alpha-mannosidase was without effect. The dopamine D2 receptor appears to contain substantial amounts of sialic acid as treatment of photoaffinity labeled membranes with neuraminidase increased the receptor mobility on SDS polyacrylamide gels to a species of 50,000-54,000 Mr. Treatment of the receptor with neuraminidase followed by endo-alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase did not change the electrophoretic migration pattern from that seen after neuraminidase treatment alone, suggesting that the binding peptide contains no serine- or threonine-linked oligosaccharides. A smaller binding peptide of approximately 31,000 Mr is also apparent in crude photoaffinity labeled membranes. This material also contains N-linked oligosaccharide.

  20. Gray-Matter Volume, Midbrain Dopamine D2/D3 Receptors and Drug Craving in Methamphetamine Users

    PubMed Central

    Morales, Angelica A.; Kohno, Milky; Robertson, Chelsea L.; Dean, Andy C.; Mandelkern, Mark A.; London, Edythe D.

    2015-01-01

    Dysfunction of the mesocorticolimbic system plays a critical role in clinical features of addiction. Despite evidence suggesting that midbrain dopamine receptors influence amphetamine-induced dopamine release and that dopamine is involved in methamphetamine-induced neurotoxicity, associations between dopamine receptors and gray-matter volume have been unexplored in methamphetamine users. Here we used magnetic resonance imaging and [18F]fallypride positron emission tomography, respectively, to measure gray-matter volume (in 58 methamphetamine users) and dopamine D2/D3 receptor availability (binding potential relative to nondisplaceable uptake of the radiotracer, BPnd) (in 31 methamphetamine users and 37 control participants). Relationships between these measures and self-reported drug craving were examined. Although no difference in midbrain D2/D3 BPnd was detected between methamphetamine and control groups, midbrain D2/D3 BPnd was positively correlated with gray-matter volume in the striatum, prefrontal cortex, insula, hippocampus and temporal cortex in methamphetamine users, but not in control participants (group-by-midbrain D2/D3 BPnd interaction, p<0.05 corrected for multiple comparisons). Craving for methamphetamine was negatively associated with gray-matter volume in the insula, prefrontal cortex, amygdala, temporal cortex, occipital cortex, cerebellum, and thalamus (p<0.05 corrected for multiple comparisons). A relationship between midbrain D2/D3 BPnd and methamphetamine craving was not detected. Lower midbrain D2/D3 BPnd may increase vulnerability to deficits in gray-matter volume in mesocorticolimbic circuitry in methamphetamine users, possibly reflecting greater dopamine-induced toxicity. Identifying factors that influence prefrontal and limbic volume, such as midbrain BPnd, may be important for understanding the basis of drug craving, a key factor in the maintenance of substance use disorders. PMID:25896164

  1. G Protein Beta 5 Is Targeted to D2-Dopamine Receptor-Containing Biochemical Compartments and Blocks Dopamine-Dependent Receptor Internalization

    PubMed Central

    Octeau, J. Christopher; Schrader, Joseph M.; Masuho, Ikuo; Sharma, Meenakshi; Aiudi, Christopher; Chen, Ching-Kang; Kovoor, Abraham; Celver, Jeremy

    2014-01-01

    G beta 5 (Gbeta5, Gβ5) is a unique G protein β subunit that is thought to be expressed as an obligate heterodimer with R7 regulator of G protein signaling (RGS) proteins instead of with G gamma (Gγ) subunits. We found that D2-dopamine receptor (D2R) coexpression enhances the expression of Gβ5, but not that of the G beta 1 (Gβ1) subunit, in HEK293 cells, and that the enhancement of expression occurs through a stabilization of Gβ5 protein. We had previously demonstrated that the vast majority of D2R either expressed endogenously in the brain or exogenously in cell lines segregates into detergent-resistant biochemical fractions. We report that when expressed alone in HEK293 cells, Gβ5 is highly soluble, but is retargeted to the detergent-resistant fraction after D2R coexpression. Furthermore, an in-cell biotin transfer proximity assay indicated that D2R and Gβ5 segregating into the detergent-resistant fraction specifically interacted in intact living cell membranes. Dopamine-induced D2R internalization was blocked by coexpression of Gβ5, but not Gβ1. However, the same Gβ5 coexpression levels had no effect on agonist-induced internalization of the mu opioid receptor (MOR), cell surface D2R levels, dopamine-mediated recruitment of β-arrestin to D2R, the amplitude of D2R-G protein coupling, or the deactivation kinetics of D2R-activated G protein signals. The latter data suggest that the interactions between D2R and Gβ5 are not mediated by endogenously expressed R7 RGS proteins. PMID:25162404

  2. G protein beta 5 is targeted to D2-dopamine receptor-containing biochemical compartments and blocks dopamine-dependent receptor internalization.

    PubMed

    Octeau, J Christopher; Schrader, Joseph M; Masuho, Ikuo; Sharma, Meenakshi; Aiudi, Christopher; Chen, Ching-Kang; Kovoor, Abraham; Celver, Jeremy

    2014-01-01

    G beta 5 (Gbeta5, Gβ5) is a unique G protein β subunit that is thought to be expressed as an obligate heterodimer with R7 regulator of G protein signaling (RGS) proteins instead of with G gamma (Gγ) subunits. We found that D2-dopamine receptor (D2R) coexpression enhances the expression of Gβ5, but not that of the G beta 1 (Gβ1) subunit, in HEK293 cells, and that the enhancement of expression occurs through a stabilization of Gβ5 protein. We had previously demonstrated that the vast majority of D2R either expressed endogenously in the brain or exogenously in cell lines segregates into detergent-resistant biochemical fractions. We report that when expressed alone in HEK293 cells, Gβ5 is highly soluble, but is retargeted to the detergent-resistant fraction after D2R coexpression. Furthermore, an in-cell biotin transfer proximity assay indicated that D2R and Gβ5 segregating into the detergent-resistant fraction specifically interacted in intact living cell membranes. Dopamine-induced D2R internalization was blocked by coexpression of Gβ5, but not Gβ1. However, the same Gβ5 coexpression levels had no effect on agonist-induced internalization of the mu opioid receptor (MOR), cell surface D2R levels, dopamine-mediated recruitment of β-arrestin to D2R, the amplitude of D2R-G protein coupling, or the deactivation kinetics of D2R-activated G protein signals. The latter data suggest that the interactions between D2R and Gβ5 are not mediated by endogenously expressed R7 RGS proteins. PMID:25162404

  3. Single exposure of dopamine D1 antagonist prevents and D2 antagonist attenuates methylphenidate effect

    PubMed Central

    Claussen, Catherine M; Witte, Lindsey J; Dafny, Nachum

    2015-01-01

    Methylphenidate (MPD) is a readily prescribed drug for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and moreover is used illicitly by youths for its cognitive-enhancing effects and recreation. MPD exposure in rodents elicits increased locomotor activity. Repetitive MPD exposure leads to further augmentation of their locomotor activity. This behavioral response is referred to as behavioral sensitization. Behavioral sensitization is used as an experimental marker for a drug’s ability to elicit dependence. There is evidence that dopamine (DA) is a key player in the acute and chronic MPD effect; however, the role of DA in the effects elicited by MPD is still debated. The objective of this study was to investigate the role of D1 and/or D2 DA receptors in the acute and chronic effect of MPD on locomotor activity. The study lasted for 12 consecutive days. Seven groups of male Sprague Dawley® rats were used. A single D1 or D2 antagonist was given before and after acute and chronic MPD administration. Single injection of D1 DA antagonist was able to significantly attenuate the locomotor activity when given prior to the initial MPD exposure and after repetitive MPD exposure, while the D2 DA antagonist partially attenuated the locomotor activity only when given before the second MPD exposure. The results show the role, at least in part, of the D1 DA receptor in the mechanism of behavioral sensitization, whereas the D2 DA receptor only partially modulates the response to acute and chronic MPD. PMID:27186140

  4. Rapid anti-depressant and anxiolytic actions following dopamine D1-D2 receptor heteromer inactivation.

    PubMed

    Shen, Maurice Y F; Perreault, Melissa L; Bambico, Francis R; Jones-Tabah, Jace; Cheung, Marco; Fan, Theresa; Nobrega, José N; George, Susan R

    2015-12-01

    A role for the mesolimbic dopaminergic system in the pathophysiology of depression has become increasingly evident. Specifically, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been shown to be elevated in the nucleus accumbens of depressed patients and to positively contribute to depression-like behaviour in rodents. The dopamine D1-D2 receptor heteromer exhibits significant expression in NAc and has also been shown to enhance BDNF expression and signalling in this region. We therefore examined the effects of D1-D2 heteromer stimulation in rats by SKF 83959, or its inactivation by a selective heteromer-disrupting TAT-D1 peptide on depression- and anxiety-like behaviours in non-stressed animals and in animals exposed to chronic unpredictable stress. SKF 83959 treatment significantly enhanced the latency to immobility in the forced swim test, increased the latency to drink condensed milk and reduced total milk consumption in the novelty-induced hypophagia test, and additionally reduced the total time spent in the open arms in the elevated plus maze test. These pro-depressant and anxiogenic effects of SKF 83959 were consistently abolished or attenuated by TAT-D1 peptide pre-treatment, signifying the behaviours were mediated by the D1-D2 heteromer. More importantly, in animals exposed to chronic unpredictable stress (CUS), TAT-D1 peptide treatment alone induced significant and rapid anxiolytic and antidepressant-like effects in two tests for CUS-induced anhedonia-like reactivity and in the novelty-suppressed feeding test. Together these findings indicate a positive role for the D1-D2 heteromer in mediating depression- and anxiety-like behaviours and suggest its possible value as a novel therapeutic target. PMID:26431907

  5. Reduced Insulin Sensitivity Is Related to Less Endogenous Dopamine at D2/3 Receptors in the Ventral Striatum of Healthy Nonobese Humans

    PubMed Central

    Caravaggio, Fernando; Borlido, Carol; Hahn, Margaret; Feng, Zhe; Fervaha, Gagan; Gerretsen, Philip; Nakajima, Shinichiro; Plitman, Eric; Chung, Jun Ku; Iwata, Yusuke; Wilson, Alan; Remington, Gary

    2015-01-01

    Background: Food addiction is a debated topic in neuroscience. Evidence suggests diabetes is related to reduced basal dopamine levels in the nucleus accumbens, similar to persons with drug addiction. It is unknown whether insulin sensitivity is related to endogenous dopamine levels in the ventral striatum of humans. We examined this using the agonist dopamine D2/3 receptor radiotracer [11C]-(+)-PHNO and an acute dopamine depletion challenge. In a separate sample of healthy persons, we examined whether dopamine depletion could alter insulin sensitivity. Methods: Insulin sensitivity was estimated for each subject from fasting plasma glucose and insulin using the Homeostasis Model Assessment II. Eleven healthy nonobese and nondiabetic persons (3 female) provided a baseline [11C]-(+)-PHNO scan, 9 of which provided a scan under dopamine depletion, allowing estimates of endogenous dopamine at dopamine D2/3 receptor. Dopamine depletion was achieved via alpha-methyl-para-tyrosine (64mg/kg, P.O.). In 25 healthy persons (9 female), fasting plasma and glucose was acquired before and after dopamine depletion. Results: Endogenous dopamine at ventral striatum dopamine D2/3 receptor was positively correlated with insulin sensitivity (r(7)=.84, P=.005) and negatively correlated with insulin levels (r(7)=-.85, P=.004). Glucose levels were not correlated with endogenous dopamine at ventral striatum dopamine D2/3 receptor (r(7)=-.49, P=.18). Consistently, acute dopamine depletion in healthy persons significantly decreased insulin sensitivity (t(24)=2.82, P=.01), increased insulin levels (t(24)=-2.62, P=.01), and did not change glucose levels (t(24)=-0.93, P=.36). Conclusion: In healthy individuals, diminished insulin sensitivity is related to less endogenous dopamine at dopamine D2/3 receptor in the ventral striatum. Moreover, acute dopamine depletion reduces insulin sensitivity. These findings may have important implications for neuropsychiatric populations with metabolic

  6. Link between D1 and D2 dopamine receptors is reduced in schizophrenia and Huntington diseased brain.

    PubMed

    Seeman, P; Niznik, H B; Guan, H C; Booth, G; Ulpian, C

    1989-12-01

    Dopamine receptor types D1 and D2 can oppose or enhance each other's actions for electrical, biochemical, and psychomotor effects. We report a D1-D2 interaction in homogenized tissue as revealed by ligand binding. D2 agonists lowered the binding of [3H]raclopride to D2 receptors in striatal and anterior pituitary tissues. Pretreating the tissue with the D1-selective antagonist SCH 23390 prevented the agonist-induced decrease in [3H]raclopride binding to D2 sites in the striatum but not in the anterior pituitary, which has no D1 receptors. Conversely, a dopamine-induced reduction in the binding of [3H]SCH 23390 to D1 receptors could be prevented by the D2-selective antagonist eticlopride. Receptor photolabeling experiments confirmed both these D1-D2 interactions. The blocking effect by SCH 23390 was similar to that produced by a nonhydrolyzable guanine nucleotide analogue, and SCH 23390 reduced the number of agonist-labeled D2 receptors in the high-affinity state. Thus, the D1-D2 link may be mediated by guanine nucleotide-binding protein components. The link may underlie D1-D2 interactions influencing behavior, since the link was missing in over half the postmortem striata from patients with schizophrenia and Huntington disease (both diseases that show some hyperdopamine signs) but was present in human control, Alzheimer, and Parkinson striata. PMID:2574862

  7. Opposing effects of dopamine D1- and D2-like agonists on intracranial self-stimulation in male rats.

    PubMed

    Lazenka, Matthew F; Legakis, Luke P; Negus, S Stevens

    2016-06-01

    Dopamine acts through dopamine Type I receptors (comprising D1 and D5 subtypes) and dopamine Type II receptors (comprising D2, D3, and D4 subtypes). Intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) is 1 experimental procedure that can be used to evaluate abuse-related effects of drugs targeting dopamine receptors. This study evaluated effects of dopamine receptor ligands on ICSS in rats using experimental procedures that have been used previously to examine abused indirect dopamine agonists such as cocaine and amphetamine. Male Sprague-Dawley rats responded under a fixed-ratio 1 schedule for electrical stimulation of the medial forebrain bundle, and frequency of stimulation varied from 56-158 Hz in 0.05 log increments during each experimental session. Drug potency and time course were determined for the D1 ligands A77636, SKF82958, SKF38393, fenoldopam, and SCH39166 and the D2/3 ligands sumanirole, apomorphine, quinpirole, PD128907, pramipexole, aripiprazole, eticlopride, and PG01037. The high-efficacy D1 agonists A77636 and SKF82958 produced dose-dependent, time-dependent, and abuse-related facilitation of ICSS. Lower efficacy D1 ligands and all D2/3 ligands failed to facilitate ICSS at any dose or pretreatment time. A mixture of SKF82958 and quinpirole produced a mixture of effects produced by each drug alone. Quinpirole also failed to facilitate ICSS after regimens of repeated treatment with either quinpirole or cocaine. These studies provide more evidence for divergent effects of dopamine D1- and D2-family agonists on ICSS procedure in rats and suggest that ICSS may be a useful complement to other approaches for preclinical abuse potential assessment, in part because of the reproducibility of results. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26987070

  8. The influence of genetic variants on striatal dopamine transporter and D2 receptor binding after TBI.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Amy K; Scanlon, Joelle M; Becker, Carl R; Ritter, Anne C; Niyonkuru, Christian; Dixon, Clifton E; Conley, Yvette P; Price, Julie C

    2014-08-01

    Dopamine (DA) neurotransmission influences cognition and recovery after traumatic brain injury (TBI). We explored whether functional genetic variants affecting the DA transporter (DAT) and D2 receptor (DRD2) impacted in vivo dopaminergic binding with positron emission tomography (PET) using [(11)C]βCFT and [(11)C]raclopride. We examined subjects with moderate/severe TBI (N=12) ∼1 year post injury and similarly matched healthy controls (N=13). The variable number of tandem repeat polymorphism within the DAT gene and the TaqI restriction fragment length polymorphism near the DRD2 gene were assessed. TBI subjects had age-adjusted DAT-binding reductions in the caudate, putamen, and ventral striatum, and modestly increased D2 binding in ventral striatum versus controls. Despite small sample sizes, multivariate analysis showed lower caudate and putamen DAT binding among DAT 9-allele carriers and DRD2 A2/A2 homozygotes with TBI versus controls with the same genotype. Among TBI subjects, 9-allele carriers had lower caudate and putamen binding than 10/10 homozygotes. This PET study suggests a hypodopaminergic environment and altered DRD2 autoreceptor DAT interactions that may influence DA transmission after TBI. Future work will relate these findings to cognitive performance; future studies are required to determine how DRD2/DAT1 genotype and DA-ligand binding are associated with neurostimulant response and TBI recovery. PMID:24849661

  9. Estimating Endogenous Dopamine Levels at D2 and D3 Receptors in Humans using the Agonist Radiotracer [11C]-(+)-PHNO

    PubMed Central

    Caravaggio, Fernando; Nakajima, Shinichiro; Borlido, Carol; Remington, Gary; Gerretsen, Philip; Wilson, Alan; Houle, Sylvain; Menon, Mahesh; Mamo, David; Graff-Guerrero, Ariel

    2014-01-01

    Using positron emission tomography (PET) and an acute dopamine depletion challenge it is possible to estimate endogenous dopamine levels occupying dopamine D2/3 receptors (D2/3R) in humans in vivo. Our group has developed [11C]-(+)-PHNO, the first agonist radiotracer with preferential in vivo affinity for D3R. Thus, the use of [11C]-(+)-PHNO offers the novel possibility of (i) estimating in vivo endogenous dopamine levels at D2/3R using an agonist radiotracer, and (ii) estimating endogenous dopamine levels at D3R in extrastriatal regions such as the substantia nigra, hypothalamus, and ventral pallidum. Ten healthy participants underwent a [11C]-(+)-PHNO PET scan under baseline conditions and another under acute endogenous dopamine depletion achieved via oral administration of alpha-methyl-para-tyrosine (64 mg/kg). [11C]-(+)-PHNO binding was sensitive to acute dopamine depletion, allowing in vivo estimates of endogenous dopamine in D2R-rich regions (caudate and putamen), mixed D2/3R-rich regions (ventral striatum and globus pallidus), and extrastriatal D3R-rich regions (hypothalamus and ventral pallidum). Dopamine depletion decreased self-reported vigor, which was correlated with the reduction in dopamine levels in the globus pallidus. [11C]-(+)-PHNO is a suitable radiotracer for use in estimating endogenous dopamine levels at D2R and D3R in neuropsychiatric populations. PMID:24874713

  10. Involvement of the dorsal hippocampal dopamine D2 receptors in histamine-induced anxiogenic-like effects in mice.

    PubMed

    Piri, Morteza; Ayazi, Elham; Zarrindast, Mohammad Reza

    2013-08-29

    Anxiety-related behaviors increase histamine and dopamine release in the brain. On the other hand, central histamine counteracts reward and reinforcement processes mediated by the mesolimbic dopamine system. We investigated the effects of the histaminergic system and dopamine D2 receptors agents and their interactions on anxiety-related behaviors using the elevated plus-maze (EPM). The intra-hippocampal (Intra-CA1) microinjection of histamine (10 μg/mouse) decreased the percentage of open arm time (%OAT) and open arm entries (%OAE) but not the locomotor activity, indicating an anxiogenic-like response. Quinpirole (0.5 and 2 μg/mouse) or sulpiride (0.3 and 1 μg/mouse) when injected into the dorsal hippocampus also induced anxiety-like behavior, however, the drugs reversed the anxiogenic response induced by the effective dose of histamine (10 μg/mouse). Taken together and under the present experimental design, our results indicate that activation of the dorsal hippocampal histaminergic receptors causes anxiety-like behaviors altered by dopamine D2 receptor agonist and antagonist. Histamine can decrease dopaminergic tone in the dorsal hippocampus through decreasing the endogenous dopamine release, whereas quinpirole does the same via the postsynaptic DA receptors' activation. Sulpiride however renders the same effect through autoreceptors' blockade and potentiated dopamine transmission. Thus, quinpirole and sulpiride seem to compensate the effects of the intra-CA1 injection of exogenous histamine, and tend to exert anxiolytic effects in the presence of histamine. PMID:23872092

  11. Allosteric interactions between agonists and antagonists within the adenosine A2A receptor-dopamine D2 receptor heterotetramer

    PubMed Central

    Bonaventura, Jordi; Navarro, Gemma; Casadó-Anguera, Verònica; Azdad, Karima; Rea, William; Moreno, Estefanía; Brugarolas, Marc; Mallol, Josefa; Canela, Enric I.; Lluís, Carme; Cortés, Antoni; Volkow, Nora D.; Schiffmann, Serge N.; Ferré, Sergi; Casadó, Vicent

    2015-01-01

    Adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR)-dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) heteromers are key modulators of striatal neuronal function. It has been suggested that the psychostimulant effects of caffeine depend on its ability to block an allosteric modulation within the A2AR-D2R heteromer, by which adenosine decreases the affinity and intrinsic efficacy of dopamine at the D2R. We describe novel unsuspected allosteric mechanisms within the heteromer by which not only A2AR agonists, but also A2AR antagonists, decrease the affinity and intrinsic efficacy of D2R agonists and the affinity of D2R antagonists. Strikingly, these allosteric modulations disappear on agonist and antagonist coadministration. This can be explained by a model that considers A2AR-D2R heteromers as heterotetramers, constituted by A2AR and D2R homodimers, as demonstrated by experiments with bioluminescence resonance energy transfer and bimolecular fluorescence and bioluminescence complementation. As predicted by the model, high concentrations of A2AR antagonists behaved as A2AR agonists and decreased D2R function in the brain. PMID:26100888

  12. Allosteric interactions between agonists and antagonists within the adenosine A2A receptor-dopamine D2 receptor heterotetramer.

    PubMed

    Bonaventura, Jordi; Navarro, Gemma; Casadó-Anguera, Verònica; Azdad, Karima; Rea, William; Moreno, Estefanía; Brugarolas, Marc; Mallol, Josefa; Canela, Enric I; Lluís, Carme; Cortés, Antoni; Volkow, Nora D; Schiffmann, Serge N; Ferré, Sergi; Casadó, Vicent

    2015-07-01

    Adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR)-dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) heteromers are key modulators of striatal neuronal function. It has been suggested that the psychostimulant effects of caffeine depend on its ability to block an allosteric modulation within the A2AR-D2R heteromer, by which adenosine decreases the affinity and intrinsic efficacy of dopamine at the D2R. We describe novel unsuspected allosteric mechanisms within the heteromer by which not only A2AR agonists, but also A2AR antagonists, decrease the affinity and intrinsic efficacy of D2R agonists and the affinity of D2R antagonists. Strikingly, these allosteric modulations disappear on agonist and antagonist coadministration. This can be explained by a model that considers A2AR-D2R heteromers as heterotetramers, constituted by A2AR and D2R homodimers, as demonstrated by experiments with bioluminescence resonance energy transfer and bimolecular fluorescence and bioluminescence complementation. As predicted by the model, high concentrations of A2AR antagonists behaved as A2AR agonists and decreased D2R function in the brain. PMID:26100888

  13. Differential Modulation of Reinforcement Learning by D2 Dopamine and NMDA Glutamate Receptor Antagonism

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Tilmann A.; Ullsperger, Markus

    2014-01-01

    The firing pattern of midbrain dopamine (DA) neurons is well known to reflect reward prediction errors (PEs), the difference between obtained and expected rewards. The PE is thought to be a crucial signal for instrumental learning, and interference with DA transmission impairs learning. Phasic increases of DA neuron firing during positive PEs are driven by activation of NMDA receptors, whereas phasic suppression of firing during negative PEs is likely mediated by inputs from the lateral habenula. We aimed to determine the contribution of DA D2-class and NMDA receptors to appetitively and aversively motivated reinforcement learning. Healthy human volunteers were scanned with functional magnetic resonance imaging while they performed an instrumental learning task under the influence of either the DA D2 receptor antagonist amisulpride (400 mg), the NMDA receptor antagonist memantine (20 mg), or placebo. Participants quickly learned to select (“approach”) rewarding and to reject (“avoid”) punishing options. Amisulpride impaired both approach and avoidance learning, while memantine mildly attenuated approach learning but had no effect on avoidance learning. These behavioral effects of the antagonists were paralleled by their modulation of striatal PEs. Amisulpride reduced both appetitive and aversive PEs, while memantine diminished appetitive, but not aversive PEs. These data suggest that striatal D2-class receptors contribute to both approach and avoidance learning by detecting both the phasic DA increases and decreases during appetitive and aversive PEs. NMDA receptors on the contrary appear to be required only for approach learning because phasic DA increases during positive PEs are NMDA dependent, whereas phasic decreases during negative PEs are not. PMID:25253860

  14. Differential modulation of reinforcement learning by D2 dopamine and NMDA glutamate receptor antagonism.

    PubMed

    Jocham, Gerhard; Klein, Tilmann A; Ullsperger, Markus

    2014-09-24

    The firing pattern of midbrain dopamine (DA) neurons is well known to reflect reward prediction errors (PEs), the difference between obtained and expected rewards. The PE is thought to be a crucial signal for instrumental learning, and interference with DA transmission impairs learning. Phasic increases of DA neuron firing during positive PEs are driven by activation of NMDA receptors, whereas phasic suppression of firing during negative PEs is likely mediated by inputs from the lateral habenula. We aimed to determine the contribution of DA D2-class and NMDA receptors to appetitively and aversively motivated reinforcement learning. Healthy human volunteers were scanned with functional magnetic resonance imaging while they performed an instrumental learning task under the influence of either the DA D2 receptor antagonist amisulpride (400 mg), the NMDA receptor antagonist memantine (20 mg), or placebo. Participants quickly learned to select ("approach") rewarding and to reject ("avoid") punishing options. Amisulpride impaired both approach and avoidance learning, while memantine mildly attenuated approach learning but had no effect on avoidance learning. These behavioral effects of the antagonists were paralleled by their modulation of striatal PEs. Amisulpride reduced both appetitive and aversive PEs, while memantine diminished appetitive, but not aversive PEs. These data suggest that striatal D2-class receptors contribute to both approach and avoidance learning by detecting both the phasic DA increases and decreases during appetitive and aversive PEs. NMDA receptors on the contrary appear to be required only for approach learning because phasic DA increases during positive PEs are NMDA dependent, whereas phasic decreases during negative PEs are not. PMID:25253860

  15. Structure of the Human Dopamine D3 Receptor in Complex with a D2/D3 Selective Antagonist

    SciTech Connect

    Chien, Ellen Y.T.; Liu, Wei; Zhao, Qiang; Katritch, Vsevolod; Han, Gye Won; Hanson, Michael A.; Shi, Lei; Newman, Amy Hauck; Javitch, Jonathan A.; Cherezov, Vadim; Stevens, Raymond C.

    2010-11-30

    Dopamine modulates movement, cognition, and emotion through activation of dopamine G protein-coupled receptors in the brain. The crystal structure of the human dopamine D3 receptor (D3R) in complex with the small molecule D2R/D3R-specific antagonist eticlopride reveals important features of the ligand binding pocket and extracellular loops. On the intracellular side of the receptor, a locked conformation of the ionic lock and two distinctly different conformations of intracellular loop 2 are observed. Docking of R-22, a D3R-selective antagonist, reveals an extracellular extension of the eticlopride binding site that comprises a second binding pocket for the aryl amide of R-22, which differs between the highly homologous D2R and D3R. This difference provides direction to the design of D3R-selective agents for treating drug abuse and other neuropsychiatric indications.

  16. D2 dopamine receptors in neuroleptic-naive schizophrenic patients. A positron emission tomography study with (11C)raclopride

    SciTech Connect

    Farde, L.; Wiesel, F.A.; Stone-Elander, S.; Halldin, C.; Nordstroem, A.L.H.; Hall, H.; Sedvall, G. )

    1990-03-01

    Several groups have reported increased densities of D2 dopamine receptors in the basal ganglia of schizophrenic brains postmortem. The significance of this finding has been questioned, since an upregulation of receptor number may be a neuronal response to neuroleptic drug treatment. We have used positron emission tomography and ({sup 11}C)raclopride to examine central D2 dopamine receptor binding in 20 healthy subjects and 18 newly admitted, young, neuroleptic-naive patients with schizophrenia. An in vivo saturation procedure was applied for quantitative determination of D2 dopamine receptor density (Bmax) and affinity (Kd). When the two groups were compared, no significant difference in Bmax or Kd values was found in the putamen or the caudate nucleus. The hypothesis of generally elevated central D2 dopamine receptor densities in schizophrenia was thus not supported by the present findings. In the patients but not in the healthy controls, significantly higher densities were found in the left than in the right putamen but not in the caudate nucleus.

  17. Dopamine D1 and D2 receptor functional down regulation in the cerebellum of hypoxic neonatal rats: neuroprotective role of glucose and oxygen, epinephrine resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Binoy; Nandhu, M S; Paulose, C S

    2010-02-01

    Brain damage due to an episode of hypoxia remains a major problem in infants causing deficit in motor and sensory function. Molecular processes regulating the dopamine receptors play a very important role in motor and cognitive functions. Disturbances in the development of the dopaminergic system lead to dyskinesia, dystonia, tics and abnormal eye movements. The present study is to understand the hypoxic damage to the dopamine content and dopamine D(1), dopamine D(2) receptors in cerebellum and the neuroprotective effect of glucose supplementation prior to the current sequence of resuscitation-oxygen and epinephrine supplementation in neonatal rats. Dopamine content in the cerebellum showed a significant decrease in hypoxic neonatal rats when compared to control. Dopamine D(1) and dopamine D(2) receptors showed a decrease in B(max) during hypoxia. The cerebellar dopamine, dopamine D(1) and dopamine D(2) receptors showed significant decrease on supplementation of 100% oxygen alone to hypoxic rats when compared to control rats. Dopamine D(1) and dopamine D(2) receptors mRNA showed significant decrease during epinephrine supplementation prior to resuscitation. These dopaminergic receptor alterations were reversed to near control by glucose supplementation. Thus our results suggest that glucose acts as a neuroprotective agent in dopaminergic receptors function. This has immense clinical significance to correct the resuscitation sequence in neonatal care. PMID:19720148

  18. Selective loss of dopamine D2 receptors in temporal cortex in dementia with Lewy bodies, association with cognitive decline.

    PubMed

    Piggott, Margaret A; Ballard, Clive G; Rowan, Elise; Holmes, Clive; McKeith, Ian G; Jaros, Evelyn; Perry, Robert H; Perry, Elaine K

    2007-11-01

    Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) is a progressive dementia frequently accompanied by psychotic symptoms. Similar symptoms can occur in Alzheimer's disease (AD) to a lesser extent. The use of neuroleptic medication to treat psychosis in both diseases is of modest efficacy and can induce severe adverse reactions in DLB. Dopamine D2 receptors in the cerebral cortex are the putative target for the antipsychotic action of these drugs, but the status of these receptors in DLB is unknown. Autoradiography was used to examine the density D2 receptors in postmortem temporal cortex tissue from prospectively assessed patients with neuropathologically confirmed DLB and AD. D2 receptors were substantially (over 40%) and significantly (P < 0.001) reduced in temporal cortex in DLB, and in DLB with concomitant Alzheimer pathology, but was not significantly changed in AD. This reduction correlated with greater cognitive decline (P < 0.01), but was not significantly related to visual or auditory hallucinations or delusions. D2 receptor density was inversely correlated with cortical Lewy body pathology in the neocortex (P < 0.001). The specific loss of D2 receptors associated with Lewy body pathology, in conjunction with our previous finding of low D2 receptors in striatum in DLB, provides a possible explanation for neuroleptic intolerance. That the reduction of D2 receptors correlated with cognitive decline suggests that neuroleptics, as dopamine D2 receptor antagonists, may have a deleterious effect on cognition in DLB. PMID:17663455

  19. Dopamine D-2 receptor mediation of response suppression learning of young rats.

    PubMed

    McDougall, S A; Nonneman, A J

    1989-04-01

    In three experiments, the effects of augmenting or blocking dopamine (DA) D-2 receptor activity on the ontogeny of response suppression learning of preweanling rat pups were determined. In the initial experiment, rat pups were trained to traverse a straight alley for nipple attachment to an anesthetized dam. When footshock (0.2 mA, 0.5 sec) was made contingent on responding, younger (11- and 13-day-olds) rat pups were deficient to older (17- and 19-day-olds) pups at withholding punished responding. In the subsequent experiments, response suppression learning was assessed after injecting 11- and 17-day-old rat pups with the specific DA D-2 agonist, LY 171555 (0.005-, 0.01-, and 0.1-mg/kg, i.p.), or the specific DA D-2 antagonist, sulpiride (5.0-, 15.0-, and 50.0-mg/kg, i.p.). LY 171555 enhanced the punished responding of both the 11- and 17-day-old rat pups; whereas, sulpiride increased the punished responding of the 17-, but not the 11-day-olds. In four additional experiments, the effects of LY 171555 and sulpiride on the locomotor activity, nociception, and reinforcement processes of 17-day-old rat pups was assessed. Rat pups given LY 171555 (0.01 mg/kg, i.p.) exhibited enhanced locomotor activity and a trend towards hyperanalgesia using a hot plate task. Sulpiride (15.0 mg/kg, i.p.) completely antagonized LY 171555's activity enhancing effects and had hyperalgesic properties. In two experiments, sulpiride did not affect the nonpunished appetitive responding of the 17-day-olds; whereas, haloperidol-treated pups responded on fewer reinforced trials than did saline-treated pups. Therefore, these results indicate that the response suppression learning of 17-day-old rat pups is mediated, at least partially, by a DAD-2 receptor system, and that D-2 receptors are also involved in the locomotor activity and nociceptive responses of young rat pups. PMID:2523325

  20. Comparative MD Simulations Indicate a Dual Role for Arg1323.50 in Dopamine-Dependent D2R Activation

    PubMed Central

    Kling, Ralf C.; Clark, Timothy; Gmeiner, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Residue Arg3.50 belongs to the highly conserved DRY-motif of class A GPCRs, which is located at the bottom of TM3. On the one hand, Arg3.50 has been reported to help stabilize the inactive state of GPCRs, but on the other hand has also been shown to be crucial for stabilizing active receptor conformations and mediating receptor-G protein coupling. The combined results of these studies suggest that the exact function of Arg3.50 is likely to be receptor-dependent and must be characterized independently for every GPCR. Consequently, we now present comparative molecular-dynamics simulations that use our recently described inactive-state and Gα-bound active-state homology models of the dopamine D2 receptor (D2R), which are either bound to dopamine or ligand-free, performed to identify the function of Arg1323.50 in D2R. Our results are consistent with a dynamic model of D2R activation in which Arg1323.50 adopts a dual role, both by stabilizing the inactive-state receptor conformation and enhancing dopamine-dependent D2R-G protein coupling. PMID:26741139

  1. Dopamine binds calmodulin during autoregulation of dopaminergic D2 receptor signaling through CaMKIIα-calmodulin complex.

    PubMed

    Laoye, B J; Okurumeh, O A; Obagaye, O V; Olagunju, M O; Bankole, O O; Olubiyi, O O; Ogundele, O M

    2016-06-01

    The role of dopaminergic D2 receptor (D2R) autoregulation in dopamine (DA) neurotransmission cannot be overemphasized in cause and progression of disorders associated with complex behaviors. Although previous studies have shown that D2R is structurally and physiologically linked with calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKIIα), however, the role of calmodulin in the CaMKIIα complex in D2R regulation remains elusive. In this study, using structural biology modeling softwares (iGEMDOCK and CueMol), we have shown the interaction between D2R, CaMKIIα, calmodulin, and DA under varying conditions. The outcomes of this study suggest that CaMKIIα causes a change in DA binding affinity to the D2R receptive site while the detached DA binds to calmodulin to stop the activity of D2R in the D2R-dopaminergic D1 receptor (D1R) heteromer. Ultimately, we concluded that D2R autoregulates to stop its heteromeric combination with D1R. D2R interacts with D1R to facilitate calcium movement that activates calmodulin, then CaMKIIα. The CaMKIIα-calmodulin complex changes the affinity of DA-D2R causing DA to break free and bind with calmodulin. PMID:26446938

  2. No association of dopamine D2 receptor molecular variant Cys311 and schizophrenia in Chinese patients

    SciTech Connect

    Chia-Hsiang Chen; Shih-Hsiang Chien; Hai-Gwo Hwu

    1996-07-26

    A serine-to-cysteine mutation of dopamine D2 receptor at codon 311 (Cys311) was found to have higher frequency in schizophrenic patients than in normal controls in Japanese by Arinami et al. The Cys311 allele was found to be associated with patients with younger age-of-onset, positive family history, and more positive symptoms. To investigate the possible involvement of Cys311 in schizophrenia in the Chinese population, 114 unrelated Taiwanese Chinese schizophrenic patients with positive family history and 88 normal controls were genotyped for Cys311. Four patients and 5 normal controls were heterozygotes of Ser311/Cys311; no homozygotes of Cys311 were identified in either group. The allele frequencies of Cys311 in Chinese schizophrenic patients and normal controls were 2% and 3%, respectively. No significant difference was detected between the two groups. Our results do not support the argument that the Cys311 allele of DRD2 poses a genetic risk for certain types of schizophrenia in Chinese populations. 18 refs.

  3. Allelic association of the D2 dopamine receptor gene with cocaine dependence.

    PubMed

    Noble, E P; Blum, K; Khalsa, M E; Ritchie, T; Montgomery, A; Wood, R C; Fitch, R J; Ozkaragoz, T; Sheridan, P J; Anglin, M D

    1993-10-01

    The objective of the present study was to examine allelic prevalence of the D2 dopamine receptor (DRD2) gene in male cocaine-dependent (CD) Caucasian (non-Hispanic) subjects and to determine the relationship of DRD2 alleles to family history and selected behavioral measures. The prevalence of the A1 allele in CD subjects (n = 53) was 50.9%. It was significantly higher than either the 16.0% prevalence (P < 10(-4)) in non-substance abusing controls (n = 100) or the 30.9% prevalence (P < 10(-2)) in population controls (n = 265) wherein substance abusers were not excluded. Similarly, a significantly higher prevalence (P < 10(-2)) of the B1 allele was found in CD subjects (n = 52) compared with non-substance abusing controls (n = 53); 38.5% vs. 13.2%. Logistic regression analysis of CD subjects identified potent routes of cocaine use and the interaction of early deviant behaviors and parental alcoholism as significant risk factors associated with the A1 allele. The cumulative number of these three risk factors in CD subjects was positively and significantly (P < 10(-3)) related to A1 allelic prevalence. The data showing a strong association of the minor alleles (A1 and B1) of the DRD2 with cocaine dependence suggest that a gene, located on the q22-q23 region of chromosome 11, confers susceptibility to this drug disorder. PMID:8261891

  4. Human dopamine receptor D2/D3 availability predicts amygdala reactivity to unpleasant stimuli.

    PubMed

    Kobiella, Andrea; Vollstädt-Klein, Sabine; Bühler, Mira; Graf, Caroline; Buchholz, Hans-Georg; Bernow, Nina; Yakushev, Igor Y; Landvogt, Christian; Schreckenberger, Mathias; Gründer, Gerhard; Bartenstein, Peter; Fehr, Christoph; Smolka, Michael N

    2010-05-01

    Dopamine (DA) modulates the response of the amygdala. However, the relation between dopaminergic neurotransmission in striatal and extrastriatal brain regions and amygdala reactivity to affective stimuli has not yet been established. To address this issue, we measured DA D2/D3 receptor (DRD2/3) availability in twenty-eight healthy men (nicotine-dependent smokers and never-smokers) using positron emission tomography with [18F]fallypride. In the same group of participants, amygdala response to unpleasant visual stimuli was determined using blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging. The effects of DRD2/3 availability in emotion-related brain regions and nicotine dependence on amygdala response to unpleasant stimuli were examined by multiple regression analysis. We observed enhanced prefrontal DRD2/3 availability in those individuals with higher amygdala response to unpleasant stimuli. As compared to never-smokers, smokers showed an attenuated amygdala BOLD response to unpleasant stimuli. Thus, individuals with high prefrontal DRD2/3 availability may be more responsive toward aversive and stressful information. Through this mechanism, dopaminergic neurotransmission might influence vulnerability for affective and anxiety disorders. Neuronal reactivity to unpleasant stimuli seems to be reduced by smoking. This observation could explain increased smoking rates in individuals with mental disorders. PMID:19904802

  5. Not only dopamine D2 receptors involved in Peony-Glycyrrhiza Decoction, an herbal preparation against antipsychotic-associated hyperprolactinemia.

    PubMed

    Wang, Di; Wong, Hei Kiu; Zhang, Li; McAlonan, Grainne M; Wang, Xiao-Min; Sze, Stephen Cho Wing; Feng, Yi-Bin; Zhang, Zhang-Jin

    2012-12-01

    Clinical studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of an herbal preparation called Peony-Glycyrrhiza Decoction (PGD) in alleviating antipsychotic-induced hyperprolactinemia (hyperPRL). In the present study, we further examined the pharmacological action of PGD on prolactin (PRL) secretion using in vitro and in vivo models, with specific attention to the role of dopaminergic mediators and other sex hormones. Treatment with PGD at 1-5mg/ml significantly suppressed PRL secretion and synthesis in MMQ cells, a model of hyperPRL derived from pituitary adenoma cells. The suppressive effects were completely abolished by pretreatment with 10μM haloperidol, a dopamine D(2) receptor antagonist. Consistent with a D(2)-action, PGD did not affect PRL in rat pituitary lactotropic tumor-derived GH3 cells that lack the D(2) receptor expression but significantly increased the expression of D(2) receptors and dopamine transporters (DAT) in PC12 cells. In a rat model of hyperPRL, produced by repeated injection of the dopamine blocker metoclopramide (MCP), chronic PGD (2.5-10g/kg daily) significantly reduced elevated serum PRL. The reduction in magnitude was similar to that elicited by bromocriptine (BMT), a dopamine D(2) receptor agonist currently used for treatment of hyperPRL. Neither PGD nor BMT altered serum estradiol, but PGD reversed decreased serum progesterone to control level, whereas BMT did not. These results indicate that the anti-hyperPRL effects of PGD are associated not only with D(2) receptor and DAT modulation, but also with a normalization of other sex hormone dysfunction. This experimental evidence supports clinical use of PGD as an effective treatment of antipsychotic-induced hyperPRL. PMID:22796279

  6. Association between striatal dopamine D2/D3 receptors and brain activation during visual attention: effects of sleep deprivation.

    PubMed

    Tomasi, D; Wang, G-J; Volkow, N D

    2016-01-01

    Sleep deprivation (SD) disrupts dopamine (DA) signaling and impairs attention. However, the interpretation of these concomitant effects requires a better understanding of dopamine's role in attention processing. Here we test the hypotheses that D2/D3 receptors (D2/D3R) in dorsal and ventral striatum would distinctly regulate the activation of attention regions and that, by decreasing D2/D3, SD would disrupt these associations. We measured striatal D2/D3R using positron emission tomography with [(11)C]raclopride and brain activation to a visual attention (VA) task using 4-Tesla functional magnetic resonance imaging. Fourteen healthy men were studied during rested wakefulness and also during SD. Increased D2/D3R in striatum (caudate, putamen and ventral striatum) were linearly associated with higher thalamic activation. Subjects with higher D2/D3R in caudate relative to ventral striatum had higher activation in superior parietal cortex and ventral precuneus, and those with higher D2/D3R in putamen relative to ventral striatum had higher activation in anterior cingulate. SD impaired the association between striatal D2/D3R and VA-induced thalamic activation, which is essential for alertness. Findings suggest a robust DAergic modulation of cortical activation during the VA task, such that D2/D3R in dorsal striatum counterbalanced the stimulatory influence of D2/D3R in ventral striatum, which was not significantly disrupted by SD. In contrast, SD disrupted thalamic activation, which did not show counterbalanced DAergic modulation but a positive association with D2/D3R in both dorsal and ventral striatum. The counterbalanced dorsal versus ventral striatal DAergic modulation of VA activation mirrors similar findings during sensorimotor processing (Tomasi et al., 2015) suggesting a bidirectional influence in signaling between the dorsal caudate and putamen and the ventral striatum. PMID:27244237

  7. Contribution of Kv1.2 Voltage-gated Potassium Channel to D2 Autoreceptor Regulation of Axonal Dopamine Overflow*

    PubMed Central

    Fulton, Stephanie; Thibault, Dominic; Mendez, Jose A.; Lahaie, Nicolas; Tirotta, Emanuele; Borrelli, Emiliana; Bouvier, Michel; Tempel, Bruce L.; Trudeau, Louis-Eric

    2011-01-01

    Impairments in axonal dopamine release are associated with neurological disorders such as schizophrenia and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and pathophysiological conditions promoting drug abuse and obesity. The D2 dopamine autoreceptor (D2-AR) exerts tight regulatory control of axonal dopamine (DA) release through a mechanism suggested to involve K+ channels. To evaluate the contribution of Kv1 voltage-gated potassium channels of the Shaker gene family to the regulation of axonal DA release by the D2-AR, the present study employed expression analyses, real time measurements of striatal DA overflow, K+ current measurements and immunoprecipitation assays. Kv1.1, -1.2, -1.3, and -1.6 mRNA and protein were detected in midbrain DA neurons purified by fluorescence-activated cell sorting and in primary DA neuron cultures. In addition, Kv1.1, -1.2, and -1.6 were localized to DA axonal processes in the dorsal striatum. By means of fast scan cyclic voltammetry in striatal slice preparations, we found that the inhibition of stimulation-evoked DA overflow by a D2 agonist was attenuated by Kv1.1, -1.2, and -1.6 toxin blockers. A particular role for the Kv1.2 subunit in the process whereby axonal D2-AR inhibits DA overflow was established with the use of a selective Kv1.2 blocker and Kv1.2 knock-out mice. Moreover, we demonstrate the ability of D2-AR activation to increase Kv1.2 currents in co-transfected cells and its reliance on Gβγ subunit signaling along with the physical coupling of D2-AR and Kv1.2-containing channels in striatal tissue. These findings underline the contribution of Kv1.2 in the regulation of nigrostriatal DA release by the D2-AR and thereby offer a novel mechanism by which DA release is regulated. PMID:21233214

  8. Clebopride enhances contractility of the guinea pig stomach by blocking peripheral D2 dopamine receptor and alpha-2 adrenoceptor

    SciTech Connect

    Takeda, K.; Taniyama, K.; Kuno, T.; Sano, I.; Ishikawa, T.; Ohmura, I.; Tanaka, C. )

    1991-05-01

    The mechanism of action of clebopride on the motility of guinea pig stomach was examined by the receptor binding assay for bovine brain membrane and by measuring gastric contractility and the release of acetylcholine from the stomach. The receptor binding assay revealed that clebopride bound to the D2 dopamine receptor with a high affinity and to the alpha-2 adrenoceptor and 5-HT2 serotonin receptor with relatively lower affinity, and not to D1 dopamine, alpha-1 adrenergic, muscarinic acetylcholine, H1 histamine, or opioid receptor. In strips of the stomach, clebopride at 10{sup {minus} 8} M to 10{sup {minus} 5} M enhanced the electrical transmural stimulation-evoked contraction and the release of acetylcholine. This enhancement was attributed to the blockade of the D2 dopamine receptor and alpha-2 adrenoceptor because: (1) Maximum responses obtained with specific D2 dopamine receptor antagonist, domperidone, and with specific alpha-2 adrenoceptor antagonist, yohimbine, were smaller than that with clebopride, and the sum of the effects of these two specific receptor antagonists is approximately equal to the effect of clebopride. (2) The facilitatory effect of clebopride was partially eliminated by pretreatment of the sample with domperidone or yohimbine, and the facilitatory effect of clebopride was not observed in preparations treated with the combination of domperidone and yohimbine. Clebopride also antagonized the inhibitory effects of dopamine and clonidine on the electrical transmural stimulation-evoked responses. These results indicate that clebopride acts on post ganglionic cholinergic neurons at D2 and alpha-2 receptors in this preparation to enhance enteric nervous system stimulated motility.

  9. Topographical evaluation of behavioural phenotype in a line of mice with targeted gene deletion of the D2 dopamine receptor.

    PubMed

    Clifford, J J; Usiello, A; Vallone, D; Kinsella, A; Borrelli, E; Waddington, J L

    2000-01-28

    The phenotype of spontaneous and dopamine D2-like agonist-induced behaviour was assessed topographically in a line of mice with targeted gene deletion of the D1 receptor. An ethologically-based, rapid time-sampling behavioural check-list technique was used to resolve and quantify all behaviours in the natural repertoire of the mouse. Relative to wildtypes [D2+/+], D2-null [D2-/-] mice evidenced over a 1 h period of initial exploration modest but significant reductions in locomotion, grooming, rearing free and rearing to wall; rearing seated, sniffing, sifting and stillness were not altered. Individual elements of behaviour habituated similarly over a 6 h period for both genotypes. The dose-dependent induction of stereotyped sniffing and ponderous locomotion by the D2-like agonist RU 24213 (0.1-12.5 mg/kg) in wildtypes was essentially absent in D2-null mice. The ethogram of spontaneous behaviour in D2-null mice was characterised by only modest reductions in, and topographical shifts between, certain individual elements of behaviour. Essential abolition of D2-like agonist responsivity in D2-null mice vis-à-vis considerable preservation of spontaneous behavioural topography suggests compensatory processes subsequent to developmental absence of the D2 receptor that are able to sustain function under naturalistic, tonic conditions but not during phasic challenge. PMID:10698004

  10. Exploring personality traits related to dopamine D2/3 receptor availability in striatal subregions of humans.

    PubMed

    Caravaggio, Fernando; Fervaha, Gagan; Chung, Jun Ku; Gerretsen, Philip; Nakajima, Shinichiro; Plitman, Eric; Iwata, Yusuke; Wilson, Alan; Graff-Guerrero, Ariel

    2016-04-01

    While several studies have examined how particular personality traits are related to dopamine D2/3 receptor (D2/3R) availability in the striatum of humans, few studies have reported how multiple traits measured in the same persons are differentially related to D2/3R availability in different striatal sub-regions. We examined how personality traits measured with the Karolinska Scales of Personality are related to striatal D2/3R availability measured with [(11)C]-raclopride in 30 healthy humans. Based on previous the literature, five personality traits were hypothesized to be most likely related to D2/3R availability: impulsiveness, monotony avoidance, detachment, social desirability, and socialization. We found self-reported impulsiveness was negatively correlated with D2/3R availability in the ventral striatum and globus pallidus. After controlling for age and gender, monotony avoidance was also negatively correlated with D2/3R availability in the ventral striatum and globus pallidus. Socialization was positively correlated with D2/3R availability in the ventral striatum and putamen. After controlling for age and gender, the relationship between socialization and D2/3R availability in these regions survived correction for multiple comparisons (p-threshold=.003). Thus, within the same persons, different personality traits are differentially related to in vivo D2/3R availability in different striatal sub-regions. PMID:26944295

  11. Upregulation of Dopamine D2 Receptors in the Nucleus Accumbens Indirect Pathway Increases Locomotion but Does Not Reduce Alcohol Consumption

    PubMed Central

    Gallo, Eduardo F; Salling, Michael C; Feng, Bo; Morón, Jose A; Harrison, Neil L; Javitch, Jonathan A; Kellendonk, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Brain imaging studies performed in humans have associated low striatal dopamine release and D2R binding with alcohol dependence. Conversely, high striatal D2R binding has been observed in unaffected members of alcoholic families suggesting that high D2R function may protect against alcohol dependence. A possible protective role of increased D2R levels in the striatum is further supported by preclinical studies in non-human primates and rodents. Here, we determined whether there is a causal relationship between D2R levels and alcohol intake. To this end, we upregulated D2R expression levels in the nucleus accumbens of the adult mouse, but selectively restricted the upregulation to the indirect striatal output pathway, which endogenously expresses D2Rs. After overexpression was established, mice were tested in two models of free-choice alcohol drinking: the continuous and intermittent access two-bottle choice models. As anticipated, we found that D2R upregulation leads to hyperactivity in the open field. Contrary to our expectation, D2R upregulation did not reduce alcohol intake during continuous or intermittent access or when alcohol drinking was tested in the context of aversive outcomes. These data argue against a protective role of accumbal indirect pathway D2Rs in alcohol consumption but emphasize their importance in promoting locomotor activity. PMID:25578797

  12. 3- and 4-O-sulfoconjugated and methylated dopamine: highly reduced binding affinity to dopamine D2 receptors in rat striatal membranes.

    PubMed

    Werle, E; Lenz, T; Strobel, G; Weicker, H

    1988-07-01

    The binding properties of 3- and 4-O-sulfo-conjugated dopamine (DA-3-O-S, DA-4-O-S) as well as 3-O-methylated dopamine (MT) to rat striatal dopamine D2 receptors were investigated. 3H-spiperone was used as a radioligand in the binding studies. In saturation binding experiments (+)butaclamol, which has been reported to bind to dopaminergic D2 and serotoninergic 5HT2 receptors, was used in conjunction with ketanserin and sulpiride, which preferentially label 5HT2 and D2 receptors, respectively, in order to discriminate between 3H-spiperone binding to D2 and to 5HT2 receptors. Under our particular membrane preparation and assay conditions, 3H-spiperone binds to D2 and 5HT2 receptors with a maximal binding capacity (Bmax) of 340 fmol/mg protein in proportions of about 75%:25% with similar dissociation constants KD (35 pmol/l; 43 pmol/l). This result was verified by the biphasic competition curve of ketanserin, which revealed about 20% high (KD = 24 nmol/l) and 80% low (KD = 420 nmol/l) affinity binding sites corresponding to 5HT2 and D2 receptors, respectively. Therefore, all further competition experiments at a tracer concentration of 50 pmol/l were performed in the presence of 0.1 mumol/l ketanserin to mask the 5HT2 receptors. DA competition curves were best fitted assuming two binding sites, with high (KH = 0.12 mumol/l) and low (KL = 18 mumol/l) affinity, present in a ratio of 3:1. The high affinity binding sites were interconvertible by 100 mumol/l guanyl-5-yl imidodiphosphate [Gpp(NH)p], resulting in a homogenous affinity state of DA receptors (KD = 2.8 mumol/l).2+ off PMID:2853303

  13. D2 dopamine receptors modulate neuronal resonance in subthalamic nucleus and cortical high-voltage spindles through HCN channels.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chen; Yan, Zhiqiang; Zhao, Bo; Wang, Julei; Gao, Guodong; Zhu, Junling; Wang, Wenting

    2016-06-01

    The high-voltage spindles (HVSs), one of the characteristic oscillations that include theta frequencies in the basal ganglia (BG)-cortical system, are involved in immobile behavior and show increasing power in Parkinson's disease (PD). Our previous results suggested that the D2 dopamine receptor might be involved in HVSs modulations in a rat model of PD. Membrane resonance is one of the cellular mechanisms of network oscillation; therefore, we investigated how dopamine modulates the theta frequency membrane resonance of neurons in the subthalamic nucleus (STN), a central pacemaker of BG, and whether such changes in STN neurons subsequently alter HVSs in the BG-cortical system. In particular, we tested whether dopamine modulates HVSs through hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) channels-dependent membrane resonance in STN neurons. We found that an antagonist of D2 receptors, but not of D1 receptors, inhibited membrane resonance and HCN currents of STN neurons through a G-protein activity in acute brain slices. Our further in vivo experiments using local injection of a D2 receptor antagonist or an HCN blocker in STNs of free-moving rats showed an increase in HVSs power and correlation in the BG-cortical system. Local injection of lamotrigine, an HCN agonist, counteracted the effect induced by the D2 antagonist. Taken together, our results revealed a potential cellular mechanism underlying HVSs activity modulation in the BG-cortical system, i.e. tuning HCN activities in STN neurons through dopamine D2 receptors. Our findings might lead to a new direction in PD treatment by providing promising new drug targets for HVSs activity modulation. PMID:26808313

  14. Changes in dopamine D2-receptor binding are associated to symptom reduction after psychotherapy in social anxiety disorder

    PubMed Central

    Cervenka, S; Hedman, E; Ikoma, Y; Djurfeldt, D Radu; Rück, C; Halldin, C; Lindefors, N

    2012-01-01

    The dopamine system has been suggested to play a role in social anxiety disorder (SAD), partly based on molecular imaging studies showing reduced levels of striatal dopaminergic markers in patients compared with control subjects. However, the dopamine system has not been examined in frontal and limbic brain regions proposed to be central in the pathophysiology of SAD. In the present study, we hypothesized that extrastriatal dopamine D2-receptor (D2-R) levels measured using positron emission tomography (PET) would predict symptom reduction after cognitive behavior therapy (CBT). Nine SAD patients were examined using high-resolution PET and the high-affinity D2-R antagonist radioligand [11C]FLB 457, before and after 15 weeks of CBT. Symptom levels were assessed using the anxiety subscale of Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSASanx). At posttreatment, there was a statistically significant reduction of social anxiety symptoms (P<0.005). Using a repeated measures analysis of covariance, significant effects for time and time × LSASanx change on D2-R-binding potential (BPND) were shown (P<0.05). In a subsequent region-by-region analysis, negative correlations between change in D2-R BPND and LSASanx change were found for medial prefrontal cortex and hippocampus (P<0.05). This is the first study to report a direct relationship between symptom change after psychological treatment and a marker of brain neurotransmission. Using an intra-individual comparison design, the study supports a role for the dopamine system in cortical and limbic brain regions in the pathophysiology of SAD. PMID:22832965

  15. Changes in dopamine D2-receptor binding are associated to symptom reduction after psychotherapy in social anxiety disorder.

    PubMed

    Cervenka, S; Hedman, E; Ikoma, Y; Djurfeldt, D Radu; Rück, C; Halldin, C; Lindefors, N

    2012-01-01

    The dopamine system has been suggested to play a role in social anxiety disorder (SAD), partly based on molecular imaging studies showing reduced levels of striatal dopaminergic markers in patients compared with control subjects. However, the dopamine system has not been examined in frontal and limbic brain regions proposed to be central in the pathophysiology of SAD. In the present study, we hypothesized that extrastriatal dopamine D2-receptor (D2-R) levels measured using positron emission tomography (PET) would predict symptom reduction after cognitive behavior therapy (CBT). Nine SAD patients were examined using high-resolution PET and the high-affinity D2-R antagonist radioligand [(11)C]FLB 457, before and after 15 weeks of CBT. Symptom levels were assessed using the anxiety subscale of Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS(anx)). At posttreatment, there was a statistically significant reduction of social anxiety symptoms (P<0.005). Using a repeated measures analysis of covariance, significant effects for time and time × LSAS(anx) change on D2-R-binding potential (BP(ND)) were shown (P<0.05). In a subsequent region-by-region analysis, negative correlations between change in D2-R BP(ND) and LSAS(anx) change were found for medial prefrontal cortex and hippocampus (P<0.05). This is the first study to report a direct relationship between symptom change after psychological treatment and a marker of brain neurotransmission. Using an intra-individual comparison design, the study supports a role for the dopamine system in cortical and limbic brain regions in the pathophysiology of SAD. PMID:22832965

  16. Characterisation of the Interaction of the C-Terminus of the Dopamine D2 Receptor with Neuronal Calcium Sensor-1

    PubMed Central

    Lian, Lu-Yun; Pandalaneni, Sravan R.; Patel, Pryank; McCue, Hannah V.; Haynes, Lee P.; Burgoyne, Robert D.

    2011-01-01

    NCS-1 is a member of the neuronal calcium sensor (NCS) family of EF-hand Ca2+ binding proteins which has been implicated in several physiological functions including regulation of neurotransmitter release, membrane traffic, voltage gated Ca2+ channels, neuronal development, synaptic plasticity, and learning. NCS-1 binds to the dopamine D2 receptor, potentially affecting its internalisation and controlling dopamine D2 receptor surface expression. The D2 receptor binds NCS-1via a short 16-residue cytoplasmic C-terminal tail. We have used NMR and fluorescence spectroscopy to characterise the interactions between the NCS-1/Ca2+ and D2 peptide. The data show that NCS-1 binds D2 peptide with a Kd of ∼14.3 µM and stoichiometry of peptide binding to NCS-1 of 2∶1. NMR chemical shift mapping confirms that D2 peptide binds to the large, solvent-exposed hydrophobic groove, on one face of the NCS-1 molecule, with residues affected by the presence of the peptide spanning both the N and C-terminal portions of the protein. The NMR and mutagenesis data further show that movement of the C-terminal helix 11 of NCS-1 to fully expose the hydrophobic groove is important for D2 peptide binding. Molecular docking using restraints derived from the NMR chemical shift data, together with the experimentally-derived stoichiometry, produced a model of the complex between NCS-1 and the dopamine receptor, in which two molecules of the receptor are able to simultaneously bind to the NCS-1 monomer. PMID:22114693

  17. CHBPR: SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE POLYMORPHISMS OF THE DOPAMINE D2 RECEPTOR INCREASE INFLAMMATION AND FIBROSIS IN HUMAN RENAL PROXIMAL TUBULE CELLS

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Xiaoliang; Konkalmatt, Prasad; Yang, Yu; Gildea, John; Jones, John E.; Cuevas, Santiago; Felder, Robin A.; Jose, Pedro A.; Armando, Ines

    2014-01-01

    The dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) negatively regulates inflammation in mouse renal proximal tubule cells (RPTCs) and lack or downregulation of the receptor in mice increases the vulnerability to renal inflammation independent of blood pressure. Some common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs; rs 6276, 6277, and 1800497) in the human (h) DRD2 gene are associated with decreased D2R expression and function, as well as high blood pressure. We tested the hypothesis that human RPTCs expressing these SNPs have increased expression of inflammatory and injury markers. We studied immortalized hRPTCs carrying D2R SNPs and compared them with cells carrying no D2R SNPs. RPTCs with D2R SNPs had decreased D2R expression and function. The expressions of the pro-inflammatory TNFα and the pro-fibrotic TGFβ1 and its signaling targets Smad3 and Snail1 were increased in hRPTC with D2R SNPs. These cells also showed induction of epithelial mesenchymal transition and production of extracellular matrix proteins, assessed by increased vimentin, fibronectin -1, and Col 1a. To test the specificity of these D2R SNP effects, hRPTC with D2R SNPs were transfected with a plasmid encoding wild-type DRD2. D2R expression was increased and those of TGFβ1, Smad3, Snail1, vimentin, fibronecti-1 and Col 1a were decreased in hRPTC with D2R SNPs transfected with wild-type DRD2 compared to hRPTC-D2R SNP transfected with empty vector. These data support the hypothesis that D2R function has protective effects in human RPTCs and suggest that carriers of these SNPs may be prone to chronic renal disease and high blood pressure. PMID:24379187

  18. Effects of repeated treatment with the dopamine D2/D3 receptor partial agonist aripiprazole on striatal D2/D3 receptor availability in monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Czoty, Paul W.; Gage, H. Donald; Garg, Pradeep K.; Garg, Sudha; Nader, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    Rationale Chronic treatment with dopamine (DA) receptor agonists and antagonists can differentially affect measures of DA D2/D3 receptor number and function, but the effects of chronic treatment with a partial D2/D3 receptor agonist are not clear. Objective We used a within-subjects design in male cynomolgus monkeys to determine the effects of repeated (17-day) treatment with the D2/D3 receptor partial agonist aripiprazole (ARI; 0.03 mg/kg and 0.1 mg/kg i.m.) on food-reinforced behavior (n=5) and on D2/D3 receptor availability as measured with positron emission tomography (PET; n=9). Methods Five monkeys responded under a fixed-ratio 50 schedule of food reinforcement and D2/D3 receptor availability was measured before and four days after ARI treatment using PET and the D2/D3 receptor-selective radioligand [18F]fluoroclebopride (FCP). Four additional monkeys were studied using [11C]raclopride and treated sequentially with each dose of ARI for 17 days. Results ARI decreased food-maintained responding with minimal evidence of tolerance. Repeated ARI administration increased FCP and raclopride distribution volume ratios (DVRs) in the caudate nucleus and putamen in most monkeys, but decreases were observed in monkeys with the highest baseline DVRs. Conclusions The results indicate that repeated treatment with a low efficacy DA receptor partial agonist produces effects on brain D2/D3 receptor availability that are qualitatively different from those of both high-efficacy receptor agonists and antagonists, and suggest that the observed individual differences in response to ARI treatment may reflect its partial agonist activity. PMID:24077804

  19. Dopamine D4 receptor, but not the ADHD-associated D4.7 variant, forms functional heteromers with the dopamine D2S receptor in the brain

    PubMed Central

    González, Sergio; Rangel-Barajas, Claudia; Peper, Marcela; Lorenzo, Ramiro; Moreno, Estefanía; Ciruela, Francisco; Borycz, Janusz; Ortiz, Jordi; Lluís, Carme; Franco, Rafael; McCormick, Peter J.; Volkow, Nora D.; Rubinstein, Marcelo; Floran, Benjamin; Ferré, Sergi

    2011-01-01

    Polymorphic variants of the dopamine D4 receptor have been consistently associated with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However the functional significance of the risk polymorphism (variable number of tandem repeats in exon 3) is still unclear. Here we show that whereas the most frequent 4-repeat (D4.4) and the 2-repeat (D4.2) variants form functional heteromers with the short isoform of the dopamine D2 receptor (D2S), the 7-repeat risk allele (D4.7) does not. D2 receptor activation in the D2S-D4 receptor heteromer potentiates D4 receptor-mediated MAPK signaling in transfected cells and in the striatum, which did not occur in cells expressing D4.7 or in the striatum of knock-in mutant mice carrying the 7 repeats of the human D4.7 in the third intracellular loop of the D4 receptor. In the striatum D4 receptors are localized in cortico-striatal glutamatergic terminals, where they selectively modulate glutamatergic neurotransmission by interacting with D2S receptors. This interaction shows the same qualitative characteristics than the D2S-D4 receptor heteromer-mediated MAPK signaling and D2S receptor activation potentiates D4 receptor-mediated inibition of striatal glutamate release. It is therefore postulated that dysfunctional D2S-D4.7 heteromers may impair presynaptic dopaminergic control of corticostriatal glutamatergic neurotransmission and explain functional deficits associated with ADHD. PMID:21844870

  20. Systemic Blockade of Dopamine D2-Like Receptors Increases High-Voltage Spindles in the Globus Pallidus and Motor Cortex of Freely Moving Rats

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lei; Yan, Zhi-Qiang; Heng, Li-Jun; Zhao, Tian-Zhi; Li, Wei-Xin; Jia, Dong; Zhu, Jun-Ling; Gao, Guo-Dong

    2013-01-01

    High-voltage spindles (HVSs) have been reported to appear spontaneously and widely in the cortical–basal ganglia networks of rats. Our previous study showed that dopamine depletion can significantly increase the power and coherence of HVSs in the globus pallidus (GP) and motor cortex of freely moving rats. However, it is unclear whether dopamine regulates HVS activity by acting on dopamine D1-like receptors or D2-like receptors. We employed local-field potential and electrocorticogram methods to simultaneously record the oscillatory activities in the GP and primary motor cortex (M1) in freely moving rats following systemic administration of dopamine receptor antagonists or saline. The results showed that the dopamine D2-like receptor antagonists, raclopride and haloperidol, significantly increased the number and duration of HVSs, and the relative power associated with HVS activity in the GP and M1 cortex. Coherence values for HVS activity between the GP and M1 cortex area were also significantly increased by dopamine D2-like receptor antagonists. On the contrary, the selective dopamine D1-like receptor antagonist, SCH23390, had no significant effect on the number, duration, or relative power of HVSs, or HVS-related coherence between M1 and GP. In conclusion, dopamine D2-like receptors, but not D1-like receptors, were involved in HVS regulation. This supports the important role of dopamine D2-like receptors in the regulation of HVSs. An siRNA knock-down experiment on the striatum confirmed our conclusion. PMID:23755132

  1. Renal rescue of dopamine D2 receptor function reverses renal injury and high blood pressure

    PubMed Central

    Konkalmatt, Prasad R.; Asico, Laureano D.; Zhang, Yanrong; Yang, Yu; Drachenberg, Cinthia; Zheng, Xiaoxu; Han, Fei; Jose, Pedro A.; Armando, Ines

    2016-01-01

    Dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) deficiency increases renal inflammation and blood pressure in mice. We show here that long-term renal-selective silencing of Drd2 using siRNA increases renal expression of proinflammatory and profibrotic factors and blood pressure in mice. To determine the effects of renal-selective rescue of Drd2 expression in mice, the renal expression of DRD2 was first silenced using siRNA and 14 days later rescued by retrograde renal infusion of adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector with DRD2. Renal Drd2 siRNA treatment decreased the renal expression of DRD2 protein by 55%, and DRD2 AAV treatment increased the renal expression of DRD2 protein by 7.5- to 10-fold. Renal-selective DRD2 rescue reduced the expression of proinflammatory factors and kidney injury, preserved renal function, and normalized systolic and diastolic blood pressure. These results demonstrate that the deleterious effects of renal-selective Drd2 silencing on renal function and blood pressure were rescued by renal-selective overexpression of DRD2. Moreover, the deleterious effects of 45-minute bilateral ischemia/reperfusion on renal function and blood pressure in mice were ameliorated by a renal-selective increase in DRD2 expression by the retrograde ureteral infusion of DRD2 AAV immediately after the induction of ischemia/reperfusion injury. Thus, 14 days after ischemia/reperfusion injury, the renal expression of profibrotic factors, serum creatinine, and blood pressure were lower in mice infused with DRD2 AAV than in those infused with control AAV. These results indicate an important role of renal DRD2 in limiting renal injury and preserving normal renal function and blood pressure. PMID:27358912

  2. Variants of the dopamine D2 receptor and risperidone-induced hyperprolactinemia in children and adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Calarge, Chadi A.; Ellingrod, Vicki L.; Acion, Laura; Miller, Del D.; Moline, Jessica; Tansey, Michael J.; Schlechte, Janet A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate the association between hyperprolactinemia and variants of the dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) gene in children and adolescents in long-term treatment with risperidone. Methods Medically healthy 7–17-year-old patients chronically treated with risperidone but receiving no other antipsychotics were selected for a cross-sectional evaluation. Four DRD2 variants were genotyped and prolactin concentration was measured. Medication history was obtained from the medical record. The effect of the TaqIA variants of the DRD2 on the risk of risperidone-induced hyperprolactinemia was the primary outcome measure. Results Hyperprolactinemia was present in 50% of 107 patients (87% males) treated with risperidone for an average of 2.9 years. Age, stage of sexual development, and the dose of risperidone independently predicted a higher prolactin concentration, whereas the dose of psychostimulants was negatively correlated with it. However, these four predictors became nonsignificant when risperidone serum concentration was entered into the model. Adverse events potentially related to hyperprolactinemia were more common in participants with elevated prolactin concentration in girls (45%) compared with boys (10%). After controlling for risperidone concentration and the dose of psychostimulants, the TaqIA A1 and the A-241G alleles were associated with higher prolactin concentration, whereas the -141C Ins/Del AQ1and C957T variants had no significant effect. In addition, adverse events potentially related to hyperprolactinemia were four times more common in TaqIA A1 allele carriers. Conclusion Prolactin concentration is closely related to central DRD2 blockade, as reflected by risperidone serum concentration. Furthermore, the TaqIA and A-241G variants of the DRD2 gene could be useful in predicting the emergence of hyperprolactinemia and its potential adverse events. PMID:19339912

  3. Duration of drug action of dopamine D2 agonists in mice with 6-hydroxydopamine-induced lesions.

    PubMed

    Tsuchioka, Akihiro; Oana, Fumiki; Suzuki, Takayuki; Yamauchi, Yuji; Ijiro, Tomoyuki; Kaidoh, Kouichi; Hiratochi, Masahiro

    2015-12-16

    Although 6-hydroxydopamine-induced (6-OHDA-induced) rats are a well-known Parkinson's disease model, the effects of dopamine D2 agonists in mice with 6-OHDA-induced lesions are not completely understood. We produced mice with 6-OHDA-induced lesions and measured their total locomotion counts following administration of several dopamine D2 agonists (pramipexole, ropinirole, cabergoline, rotigotine, apomorphine, talipexole, and quinelorane). Cabergoline showed the longest duration of drug action, which was in agreement with its long-lived anti-Parkinson effects in rats and humans. In contrast, pramipexole and ropinirole had notably short durations of drug action. We demonstrated that mice with 6-OHDA-induced lesions accompanied with significant lesions in the striatum may be reasonable models to predict the action duration of anti-Parkinson drug candidates in humans. PMID:26559726

  4. Disruption of hippocampal–prefrontal cortex activity by dopamine D2R-dependent LTD of NMDAR transmission

    PubMed Central

    Banks, Paul James; Burroughs, Amelia Caroline; Barker, Gareth Robert Isaac; Brown, Jon Thomas; Warburton, Elizabeth Clea; Bashir, Zafar Iqbal

    2015-01-01

    Functional connectivity between the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex (PFC) is essential for associative recognition memory and working memory. Disruption of hippocampal–PFC synchrony occurs in schizophrenia, which is characterized by hypofunction of NMDA receptor (NMDAR)-mediated transmission. We demonstrate that activity of dopamine D2-like receptors (D2Rs) leads selectively to long-term depression (LTD) of hippocampal–PFC NMDAR-mediated synaptic transmission. We show that dopamine-dependent LTD of NMDAR-mediated transmission profoundly disrupts normal synaptic transmission between hippocampus and PFC. These results show how dopaminergic activation induces long-term hypofunction of NMDARs, which can contribute to disordered functional connectivity, a characteristic that is a hallmark of psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia. PMID:26286993

  5. Disruption of hippocampal-prefrontal cortex activity by dopamine D2R-dependent LTD of NMDAR transmission.

    PubMed

    Banks, Paul James; Burroughs, Amelia Caroline; Barker, Gareth Robert Isaac; Brown, Jon Thomas; Warburton, Elizabeth Clea; Bashir, Zafar Iqbal

    2015-09-01

    Functional connectivity between the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex (PFC) is essential for associative recognition memory and working memory. Disruption of hippocampal-PFC synchrony occurs in schizophrenia, which is characterized by hypofunction of NMDA receptor (NMDAR)-mediated transmission. We demonstrate that activity of dopamine D2-like receptors (D2Rs) leads selectively to long-term depression (LTD) of hippocampal-PFC NMDAR-mediated synaptic transmission. We show that dopamine-dependent LTD of NMDAR-mediated transmission profoundly disrupts normal synaptic transmission between hippocampus and PFC. These results show how dopaminergic activation induces long-term hypofunction of NMDARs, which can contribute to disordered functional connectivity, a characteristic that is a hallmark of psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia. PMID:26286993

  6. The fast-off hypothesis revisited: A functional kinetic study of antipsychotic antagonism of the dopamine D2 receptor.

    PubMed

    Sahlholm, Kristoffer; Zeberg, Hugo; Nilsson, Johanna; Ögren, Sven Ove; Fuxe, Kjell; Århem, Peter

    2016-03-01

    Newer, "atypical" antipsychotics carry a lower risk of motor side-effects than older, "typical" compounds. It has been proposed that a ~100-fold faster dissociation from the dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) distinguishes atypical from typical antipsychotics. Furthermore, differing antipsychotic D2R affinities have been suggested to reflect differences in dissociation rate constants (koff), while association rate constants (kon) were assumed to be similar. However, it was recently demonstrated that lipophilic accumulation of ligand in the cell interior and/or membrane can cause underestimation of koff, and as high-affinity D2R antagonists are frequently lipophilic, this may have been a confounding factor in previous studies. In the present work, a functional electrophysiology assay was used to measure the recovery of dopamine-mediated D2R responsivity from antipsychotic antagonism, using elevated concentrations of dopamine to prevent the potential bias of re-binding of lipophilic ligands. The variability of antipsychotic kon was also reexamined, capitalizing on the temporal resolution of the assay. kon was estimated from the experimental recordings using a simple mathematical model assumed to describe the binding process. The time course of recovery from haloperidol (typical antipsychotic) was only 6.4- to 2.5-fold slower than that of the atypical antipsychotics, amisulpride, clozapine, and quetiapine, while antipsychotic kons were found to vary more widely than previously suggested. Finally, affinities calculated using our kon and koff estimates correlated well with functional potency and with affinities reported from radioligand binding studies. In light of these findings, it appears unlikely that typical and atypical antipsychotics are primarily distinguished by their D2R binding kinetics. PMID:26811292

  7. Calcium antagonist flunarizine hydrochloride affects striatal D2 dopamine receptors in the young adult and aged rat brain.

    PubMed

    Asanuma, M; Ogawa, N; Haba, K; Hirata, H; Mori, A

    1991-01-01

    The calcium (Ca) antagonist flunarizine hydrochloride (FNZ) has been reported to induce parkinsonism, especially in the elderly. The effects of FNZ on dopamine receptors in rat striatal membranes, especially in aged rats, were studied using radiolabeled receptor assay. Similar displacing potencies in [(3)H]spiperone bindings were exhibited for FNZ and the Ca antagonists verapamil and nicardipine. FNZ was found to directly and competitively effect D2 receptors (D2-Rs) as an antagonist, without effecting D1 receptors. Furthermore, the washing of preoccupied membranes revealed that FNZ has a long-acting potent effect on D2-Rs. The comparative study of FNZ and sulpiride in young-adult and aged rats showed that the effect of FNZ on D2-Rs was more marked in aged rats. These results might be related to FNZ-induced parkinsonism and its high incidence in the elderly. PMID:15374420

  8. Identification of extrastriatal dopamine D2 receptors in post mortem human brain with [125I]epidepride.

    PubMed

    Kessler, R M; Whetsell, W O; Ansari, M S; Votaw, J R; de Paulis, T; Clanton, J A; Schmidt, D E; Mason, N S; Manning, R G

    1993-04-23

    The regional distribution of striatal and extrastriatal dopamine D2 receptors in human brain was studied in vitro with (S)-N-[(1-ethyl-2- pyrrolidinyl)methyl]-5-[125I]iodo-2,3-dimethoxybenzamide, [125I]epidepride, using post mortem brain specimens from six subjects. Scatchard analysis of the saturation equilibrium binding in twenty-three regions of post mortem brain revealed highest levels of binding in the caudate (16.5 pmol/g tissue) and putamen (16.6 pmol/g tissue) with lower levels seen in the globus pallidus (7.0 pmol/g tissue), nucleus accumbens (7.2 pmol/g tissue), hypothalamus (1.8 pmol/g tissue), pituitary (1.3 pmol/g tissue), substantia innominata (1.0 pmol/g tissue), and amygdala (0.87 pmol/g tissue). Of note was the presence of dopamine D2 receptors in the four thalamic nuclei studied, i.e. anterior nucleus (1.0 pmol/g tissue), dorsomedial nucleus (0.96 pmol/g tissue), ventral nuclei (0.72 pmol/g tissue), and pulvinar (0.86 pmol/g tissue), at levels comparable to the amygdala (0.87 pmol/g tissue) and considerably higher than levels seen in anterior cingulate (0.26 pmol/g tissue) or anterior hippocampus (0.36 pmol/g tissue). The frontal cortex had very low levels of dopamine D2 receptors (0.17-0.20 pmol/g tissue) while the inferior and medial temporal cortex had relatively higher levels (0.31-0.46 pmol/g tissue). Inhibition of [125I]epidepride binding by a variety of neurotransmitter ligands to striatal, ventral thalamic and inferior temporal cortical homogenates demonstrated that [125I]epidepride binding was potently inhibited only by dopamine D2 ligands. The present study demonstrates that dopamine D2 receptors are present in basal ganglia, many limbic regions, cortex and in the thalamus. The density of thalamic D2 receptors is comparable to many limbic regions and is considerably higher than in cortex.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8099521

  9. Role of the D2 dopamine receptor in molecular adaptation to chronic hypoxia in PC12 cells

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Shuichi; Conforti, Laura; Zhu Dana Beitner-Johnson, Wylie H.; Millhorn, David E.

    2006-01-01

    We have previously shown that pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells rapidly depolarize and undergo Ca2+ influx through voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels in response to moderate hypoxia and that intracellular free Ca2+ is modulated by activation of dopamine D2 receptors in this cell type. The present study shows that D2 (quinpirole-mediated) inhibition of a voltage-dependent Ca2+ current (ICa) in PC12 cells is dramatically attenuated after chronic exposure to moderate hypoxia (24 h at 10% O2). Pretreatment of cells with pertussis toxin abolished D2-mediated inhibition of ICa. The D2-induced inhibition of ICa did not depend on protein kinase A (PKA), as it persisted both in the presence of a specific PKA inhibitor (PKI) and in PKA-deficient PC12 cells. Prolonged exposure to hypoxia (24 h) significantly reduced the level of Gi/oα immunoreactivity, but did not alter Gβ levels. Furthermore, dialysis of recombinant Goα protein through the patch pipette restored the inhibitory effect of quinpirole in cells chronically exposed to hypoxia. We conclude that the attenuation of the D2-mediated inhibition of ICa by chronic hypoxia is caused by impaired receptor–G protein coupling, due to reduced levels of Goα protein. This attenuated feedback modulation of ICa by dopamine may allow for a more sustained Ca2+ influx and enhanced cellular excitation during prolonged hypoxia. PMID:10591061

  10. Role of the D2 dopamine receptor in molecular adaptation to chronic hypoxia in PC12 cells.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, S; Conforti, L; Zhu, W H; Beitner-Johnson, D; Millhorn, D E

    1999-11-01

    We have previously shown that pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells rapidly depolarize and undergo Ca2+ influx through voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels in response to moderate hypoxia and that intracellular free Ca2+ is modulated by activation of dopamine D2 receptors in this cell type. The present study shows that D2 (quinpirole-mediated) inhibition of a voltage-dependent Ca2+ current (ICa) in PC12 cells is dramatically attenuated after chronic exposure to moderate hypoxia (24 h at 10% O2). Pretreatment of cells with pertussis toxin abolished D2-mediated inhibition of ICa. The D2-induced inhibition of ICa did not depend on protein kinase A (PKA), as it persisted both in the presence of a specific PKA inhibitor (PKI) and in PKA-deficient PC12 cells. Prolonged exposure to hypoxia (24 h) significantly reduced the level of Gi/o alpha immunoreactivity, but did not alter G beta levels. Furthermore, dialysis of recombinant G(o) alpha protein through the patch pipette restored the inhibitory effect of quinpirole in cells chronically exposed to hypoxia. We conclude that the attenuation of the D2-mediated inhibition of ICa by chronic hypoxia is caused by impaired receptor-G protein coupling, due to reduced levels of G(o) alpha protein. This attenuated feedback modulation of ICa by dopamine may allow for a more sustained Ca2+ influx and enhanced cellular excitation during prolonged hypoxia. PMID:10591061

  11. The antipsychotic aripiprazole induces antinociceptive effects: Possible role of peripheral dopamine D2 and serotonin 5-HT1A receptors.

    PubMed

    Almeida-Santos, Ana F; Ferreira, Renata C M; Duarte, Igor D; Aguiar, Daniele C; Romero, Thiago R L; Moreira, Fabricio A

    2015-10-15

    Aripiprazole is an antipsychotic that acts by multiple mechanisms, including partial agonism at dopamine D2 and serotonin 5-HT1A receptors. Since these neurotransmitters also modulate pain and analgesia, we tested the hypothesis that systemic or local administration of aripiprazole induces antinociceptive responses. Systemic aripiprazole (0.1-10 mg/kg; i.p.) injection in mice inhibited formalin-induced paw licking and PGE2-induced hyperalgesia in the paw pressure test. This effect was mimicked by intra-plantar administration (12.5-100 µg/paw) in the ipsi, but not contralateral, paw. The peripheral action of aripiprazole (100 µg/paw) was reversed by haloperidol (0.1-10 µg/paw), suggesting the activation of dopamine receptors as a possible mechanism. Accordingly, quinpirole (25-100 µg/paw), a full agonist at D2/D3 receptors, also reduced nociceptive responses.. In line with the partial agoniztic activity of aripiprazole, low dose of this compound inhibited the effect of quinpirole (both at 25 µg/paw). Finally, peripheral administration of NAN-190 (0.1-10 μg/paw), a 5-HT1A antagonist, also prevented aripiprazole-induced antinociception. In conclusion, systemic or local administration of aripiprazole induces antinociceptive effects. Similar to its antipsychotic activity, the possible peripheral mechanism involves dopamine D2 and serotoninergic 5-HT1A receptors. Aripiprazole and other dopaminergic modulators should be further investigated as new treatments for certain types of pain. PMID:26325094

  12. Love to win or hate to Lose? Asymmetry of dopamine D2 receptor binding predicts sensitivity to reward versus punishment.

    PubMed

    Tomer, Rachel; Slagter, Heleen A; Christian, Bradley T; Fox, Andrew S; King, Carlye R; Murali, Dhanabalan; Gluck, Mark A; Davidson, Richard J

    2014-05-01

    Humans show consistent differences in the extent to which their behavior reflects a bias toward appetitive approach-related behavior or avoidance of aversive stimuli [Elliot, A. J. Approach and avoidance motivation. In A. J. Elliot (Ed.), Handbook of approach and avoidance motivation (pp. 3-14). New York: Psychology Press, 2008]. We examined the hypothesis that in healthy participants this motivational bias (assessed by self-report and by a probabilistic learning task that allows direct comparison of the relative sensitivity to reward and punishment) reflects lateralization of dopamine signaling. Using [F-18]fallypride to measure D2/D3 binding, we found that self-reported motivational bias was predicted by the asymmetry of frontal D2 binding. Similarly, striatal and frontal asymmetries in D2 dopamine receptor binding, rather than absolute binding levels, predicted individual differences in learning from reward versus punishment. These results suggest that normal variation in asymmetry of dopamine signaling may, in part, underlie human personality and cognition. PMID:24345165

  13. Autoradiographic localization of extrastriatal D2-dopamine receptors in the human brain using [125I]epidepride.

    PubMed

    Hall, H; Farde, L; Halldin, C; Hurd, Y L; Pauli, S; Sedvall, G

    1996-06-01

    Epidepride is a benzamide with high affinity for central D2- and D3-dopamine receptors. The anatomical distribution of [125I]epidepride binding was examined by autoradiography, using postmortem human whole-hemisphere cryosections. The density of [125I]epidepride binding sites was high in caudate nucleus and putamen. [125I]epidepride also labeled receptors in extrastriatal region such as in the pallidum, some thalamic nuclei, the neocortex, and the substantia nigra. The neocortical binding was heterogeneously distributed. In most cortical regions, binding sites were located in superficial layers (I-II). However, in basal levels of the occipital cortex, [125I]epidepride binding was located in a deeper layer, probably corresponding to layer V. Competition studies indicated that most of the [125I]epidepride binding represented predominantly D2-dopamine receptors, in striatal as well as in extrastriatal regions. The presence of extrastriatal D2-dopamine receptor populations is of particular interest for research on schizophrenia and antipsychotic drug action. PMID:8723716

  14. Specific binding and laterality of human extrastriatal dopamine D2/D3 receptors in late onset type 1 alcoholic patients.

    PubMed

    Kuikka, J T; Repo, E; Bergström, K A; Tupala, E; Tiihonen, J

    2000-09-29

    Late onset type 1 alcoholism has been suggested to be associated with decreased dopaminergic transmission. Our hypothesis was that late onset type 1 alcoholics have also abnormal extrastriatal dopamine D(2)/D(3) receptor distribution. We performed binding, heterogeneity and laterality analysis of extrastriatal and striatal dopamine D(2)/D(3) receptors in nine late onset male alcoholics and in 12 age-matched healthy males. A radioligand, [(123)I]epidepride was used in high resolution single-photon emission tomography (SPET). Specific binding of epidepride in the left temporal pole was significantly (P<0.05) lower in type 1 alcoholics (0.74+/-0.14 ml/ml) than in controls (0.89+/-0.14 ml/ml). In alcoholics, there was no normal left-to-right asymmetry of the temporal cortical heterogeneity of epidepride distribution observed in control males (0.89+/-0.19 vs. 1.10+/-0.19; P<0.05). The results suggest that the specific binding of dopamine D(2)/D(3) receptors in late type 1 alcoholics is decreased and its laterality in the temporal brain is altered from normal. PMID:10996449

  15. Dopamine D2/D3 but not dopamine D1 receptors are involved in the rapid antidepressant-like effects of ketamine in the forced swim test.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Zhu, Zhuo R; Ou, Bao C; Wang, Ya Q; Tan, Zhou B; Deng, Chang M; Gao, Yi Y; Tang, Ming; So, Ji H; Mu, Yang L; Zhang, Lan Q

    2015-02-15

    Major depressive disorder is one of the most prevalent and life-threatening forms of mental illnesses. The traditional antidepressants often take several weeks, even months, to obtain clinical effects. However, recent clinical studies have shown that ketamine, an N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist, exerts rapid antidepressant effects within 2h and are long-lasting. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether dopaminergic system was involved in the rapid antidepressant effects of ketamine. The acute administration of ketamine (20 mg/kg) significantly reduced the immobility time in the forced swim test. MK-801 (0.1 mg/kg), the more selective NMDA antagonist, also exerted rapid antidepressant-like effects. In contrast, fluoxetine (10 mg/kg) did not significantly reduced the immobility time in the forced swim test after 30 min administration. Notably, pretreatment with haloperidol (0.15 mg/kg, a nonselective dopamine D2/D3 antagonist), but not SCH23390 (0.04 and 0.1 mg/kg, a selective dopamine D1 receptor antagonist), significantly prevented the effects of ketamine or MK-801. Moreover, the administration of sub-effective dose of ketamine (10 mg/kg) in combination with pramipexole (0.3 mg/kg, a dopamine D2/D3 receptor agonist) exerted antidepressant-like effects compared with each drug alone. In conclusion, our results indicated that the dopamine D2/D3 receptors, but not D1 receptors, are involved in the rapid antidepressant-like effects of ketamine. PMID:25449845

  16. Bias Analyses of Preclinical and Clinical D2 Dopamine Ligands: Studies with Immediate and Complex Signaling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Brust, Tarsis F.; Hayes, Michael P.; Roman, David L.; Burris, Kevin D.

    2015-01-01

    G protein–coupled receptors (GPCRs) often activate multiple signaling pathways, and ligands may evoke functional responses through individual pathways. These unique responses provide opportunities for biased or functionally selective ligands to preferentially modulate one signaling pathway over another. Studies with several GPCRs have suggested that selective activation of signaling pathways downstream of a GPCR may lead to safer and more effective drug therapies. The dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) is one of the main drug targets in the therapies for Parkinson’s disease and schizophrenia. Recent studies suggest that selective modulation of individual signaling pathways downstream of the D2R may lead to safer antipsychotic drugs. In the present study, immediate effectors of the D2R (i.e., Gαi/o, Gβγ, β-arrestin recruitment) and more complex signaling pathways (i.e., extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylation, heterologous sensitization, and dynamic mass redistribution) were examined in response to a series of D2R ligands. This was accomplished using Chinese hamster ovary cells stably expressing the human D2L dopamine receptor in the PathHunter β-Arrestin GPCR Assay Platform. The use of a uniform cellular background was designed to eliminate potential confounds associated with cell-to-cell variability, including expression levels of receptor as well as other components of signal transduction, including G protein subunits. Several well characterized and clinically relevant D2R ligands were evaluated across each signaling pathway in this cellular model. The most commonly used methods to measure ligand bias were compared. Functional selectivity analyses were also used as tools to explore the relative contribution of immediate D2R effectors for the activation of more complex signaling pathways. PMID:25539635

  17. Dopamine D2 receptor activates extracellular signal-regulated kinase through the specific region in the third cytoplasmic loop.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Yusuke; Fukunaga, Kohji

    2004-06-01

    To investigate whether the third cytoplasmic loop and the C-terminal cytoplasmic tail of dopamine D(2) receptor (D2R) are involved in extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activation and subsequent regulation of transcription factors, we established NG108-15 cells stably expressing D2LR and D2SR deleted 40 amino acid residues in the third cytoplasmic loop (NGD2LR-3rd-dele and NGD2SR-3rd-dele) or the C-terminal cytoplasmic tail (NGD2LR-C-dele and NGD2SR-C-dele) and evaluated these receptors' functions using luciferase reporter gene assay. Immunocytochemical studies showed similar intracellular distributions of D2LR-3rd-dele and D2SR-3rd-dele to D2LR and D2SR, respectively. Quinpirole-induced inhibition of forskolin-induced cyclic AMP responsive element (CRE) activation was not affected by the deletion of 40 amino acid residues. However, nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappaB) activation by D2R-3rd-dele was largely attenuated compared to that by D2R. Similarly, ERK or serum-responsive element (SRE) activation by quinpirole treatment was totally abolished in NGD2R-3rd-dele cells. Moreover, D2R-C-dele was diffusely distributed or clustered in the cell bodies and lost the receptor functions. Taken together, the 40 amino acid residues in the third cytoplasmic loop are essential for the ERK activation but not for inhibition of adenylyl cyclase through Gi/o proteins. In addition, the C-terminal cytoplasmic tail is essential for membrane association of D2Rs to elicit the receptor functions. PMID:15189353

  18. Striatal dopamine D2/3 receptor availability increases after long-term bariatric surgery-induced weight loss.

    PubMed

    van der Zwaal, Esther M; de Weijer, Barbara A; van de Giessen, Elsmarieke M; Janssen, Ignace; Berends, Frits J; van de Laar, Arnold; Ackermans, Mariette T; Fliers, Eric; la Fleur, Susanne E; Booij, Jan; Serlie, Mireille J

    2016-07-01

    In several studies reduced striatal dopamine D2/3 receptor (D2/3R) availability was reported in obese subjects compared to lean controls. Whether this is a reversible phenomenon remained uncertain. We previously determined the short-term effect of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery (RYGB) on striatal D2/3R availability (using [(123)I]IBZM SPECT) in 20 morbidly obese women. Striatal D2/3R availability was lower compared to controls at baseline, and remained unaltered after 6 weeks, despite significant weight loss. To determine whether long-term bariatric surgery-induced weight loss normalizes striatal D2/3R binding, we repeated striatal D2/3R binding measurements at least 2 years after RYGB in 14 subjects of the original cohort. In addition, we assessed long-term changes in body composition, eating behavior and fasting plasma levels of leptin, ghrelin, insulin and glucose. Mean body mass index declined from 46±7kg/m(2) to 32±6kg/m(2), which was accompanied by a significant increase in striatal D2/3R availability (p=0.031). Striatal D2/3R availability remained significantly reduced compared to the age-matched controls (BMI 22±2kg/m(2); p=0.01). Changes in striatal D2/3R availability did not correlate with changes in body weight/fat, insulin sensitivity, ghrelin or leptin levels. Scores on eating behavior questionnaires improved and changes in the General Food Craving Questionnaire-State showed a borderline significant correlation with changes in striatal D2/3R availability. These findings show that striatal D2/3R availability increases after long-term bariatric-surgery induced weight loss, suggesting that reduced D2/3R availability in obesity is a reversible phenomenon. PMID:27184782

  19. Leptin Increases Striatal Dopamine D2 Receptor Binding in Leptin-Deficient Obese (ob/ob) Mice

    SciTech Connect

    Pfaffly, J.; Michaelides, M.; Wang, G-J.; Pessin, J.E.; Volkow, N.D.; Thanos, P.K.

    2010-06-01

    Peripheral and central leptin administration have been shown to mediate central dopamine (DA) signaling. Leptin-receptor deficient rodents show decreased DA D2 receptor (D2R) binding in striatum and unique DA profiles compared to controls. Leptin-deficient mice show increased DA activity in reward-related brain regions. The objective of this study was to examine whether basal D2R-binding differences contribute to the phenotypic behaviors of leptin-deficient ob/ob mice, and whether D2R binding is altered in response to peripheral leptin treatment in these mice. Leptin decreased body weight, food intake, and plasma insulin concentration in ob/ob mice but not in wild-type mice. Basal striatal D2R binding (measured with autoradiography [{sup 3}H] spiperone) did not differ between ob/ob and wild-type mice but the response to leptin did. In wild-type mice, leptin decreased striatal D2R binding, whereas, in ob/ob mice, leptin increased D2R binding. Our findings provide further evidence that leptin modulates D2R expression in striatum and that these effects are genotype/phenotype dependent.

  20. Optogenetics reveals a role for accumbal medium spiny neurons expressing dopamine D2 receptors in cocaine-induced behavioral sensitization

    PubMed Central

    Song, Shelly Sooyun; Kang, Byeong Jun; Wen, Lei; Lee, Hyo Jin; Sim, Hye-ri; Kim, Tae Hyong; Yoon, Sehyoun; Yoon, Bong-June; Augustine, George J.; Baik, Ja-Hyun

    2014-01-01

    Long-lasting, drug-induced adaptations within the nucleus accumbens (NAc) have been proposed to contribute to drug-mediated addictive behaviors. Here we have used an optogenetic approach to examine the role of NAc medium spiny neurons (MSNs) expressing dopamine D2 receptors (D2Rs) in cocaine-induced behavioral sensitization. Adeno-associated viral vectors encoding channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) were delivered into the NAc of D2R-Cre transgenic mice. This allowed us to selectively photostimulate D2R-MSNs in NAc. D2R-MSNs form local inhibitory circuits, because photostimulation of D2R-MSN evoked inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs) in neighboring MSNs. Photostimulation of NAc D2R-MSN in vivo affected neither the initiation nor the expression of cocaine-induced behavioral sensitization. However, photostimulation during the drug withdrawal period attenuated expression of cocaine-induced behavioral sensitization. These results show that D2R-MSNs of NAc play a key role in withdrawal-induced plasticity and may contribute to relapse after cessation of drug abuse. PMID:25352792

  1. The selective D2 dopamine receptor antagonist eticlopride counteracts the ejaculatio praecox induced by the selective D2 dopamine agonist SND 919 in the rat.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, F; Giuliani, D

    1994-01-01

    The selective D2 antagonist eticlopride, at a dose (0.01 mg/kg, s.c.) that fails to modify the normal behavior of rats, significantly reversed all the behavioral effects exerted by the selective D2 agonist SND 919 (0.1 mg/kg, i.p.), namely, the stimulation of stretching-yawning, penile erection and sedation and the inhibition of grooming. In the copulatory test, eticlopride at the same dose did not affect animal sexual behavior but potently counteracted the reduction in mount and intromission frequency and latency to ejaculation induced by SND 919 at 0.1 mg/kg, a behavioral pattern which might possibly be proposed as an animal model for human ejaculatio praecox. PMID:7916439

  2. 124I-Epidepride: A PET Radiotracer for Extended Imaging of Dopamine D2/D3 Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Suresh; Venugopal, Archana; Kant, Ritu; Coleman, Robert; Mukherjee, Jogeshwar

    2014-01-01

    Objectives A new radiotracer, 124I-epidepride, has been developed for the imaging of dopamine D2/3 receptors (D2/3Rs). 124I-epidepride (half-life of 124I = 4.2days) allows imaging over extended periods compared to 18F-fallypride (half-life of 18F = 0.076days) and may maximize visualization of D2/3Rs in the brain and pancreas (allowing clearance from adjacent organs). D2/3Rs are also present in pancreatic islets where they co-localize with insulin to produce granules and may serve as a surrogate marker for imaging diabetes. Methods 124I-Epidepride was synthesized using N-[[(2S)-1-ethylpyrrolidin-2-yl]methyl]-5-tributyltin-2,3-dimethoxybenzamide and 124I-iodide under no carrier added condition. Rats were used for in vitro and in vivo imaging. Brain slices were incubated with 124I-epidepride (0.75μCi/cc) and nonspecific binding measured with 10 μM haloperidol. Autoradiograms were analyzed by OptiQuant. 124I-Epidepride (0.2 to 0.3 mCi, iv) was administered to rats and brain uptake at 3 hours, 24 hours, and 48 hours post injection was evaluated. Results 124I-Epidepride was synthesized with 50% radiochemical yield and high radiochemical purity (>95%). 124I-Epidepride localized in the striatum with a striatum to cerebellum ratio of 10. Binding was displaced by dopamine and haloperidol. Brain slices demonstrated localization of 124I-epidepride up until 48 hr in the striatum. However, the extent of binding was reduced significantly. Conclusions 124I-Epidepride is a new radiotracer suitable for extended imaging of dopamine D2/3 receptors and may have applications in imaging of receptors in the brain and monitoring pancreatic islet cell grafting. PMID:24602412

  3. Effect of exercise on hyperactivity, impulsivity and dopamine D2 receptor expression in the substantia nigra and striatum of spontaneous hypertensive rats

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Han Sam; Baek, Dae Jung; Baek, Seung Soo

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a heritable, chronic, neurobehavioral disorder that is characterized by hyperactivity, inattention, and impulsivity. It is commonly believed that the symptoms of ADHD are closely associated with hypo-function of the dopamine system. Dopamine D2 receptor activation decreases the excitability of dopamine neurons, as well as the release of dopamine. Physical exercise is known to improve structural and functional impairments in neuropsychiatric disorders. We investigated the therapeutic effect of exercise on ADHD. [Methods] Open field task and elevated-plus maze task were used in the evaluation of hyperactivity and impulsivity, respectively. Dopamine D2 receptor expression in the substantia nigra and striatum were evaluated by western blotting. [Results] The present results indicated that ADHD rats showed hyperactivity and impulsivity. Dopamine D2 receptor expression in the substantia nigra and striatum were increased in ADHD rats. Exercise alleviated hyperactivity and impulsivity in ADHD rats. Furthermore, dopamine D2 receptor expression in ADHD rats was also decreased by exercise. [Conclusion] We thus showed that exercise effectively alleviates ADHD-induced symptoms through enhancing dopamine D2 expression in the brain. PMID:25671205

  4. Palmitoylation on the carboxyl terminus tail is required for the selective regulation of dopamine D2 versus D3 receptors.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaowei; Le, Hang Thi; Zhang, Xiaohan; Zheng, Mei; Choi, Bo-Gil; Kim, Kyeong-Man

    2016-09-01

    Dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) and D3 receptor (D3R) possess highly conserved amino acid sequences but this study showed that D3R was more extensively palmitoylated than D2R. Based on this finding, the molecular basis of this selective palmitoylation of D3R was determined and the roles of palmitoylation in the regulation of D3R functions were investigated. D3R was palmitoylated on the cysteine residue on its carboxyl terminus tail, the last amino acid residue of D3R, and an exchange of the carboxyl terminus tail between D2R and D3R (D2R-D3C and D3R-D2C) resulted in the switching of the palmitoylation phenotype. When the consensus site for palmitoylation was mutated or the palmitoylation of D3R was inhibited by treatment with 2-bromopalmitate (2BP), a palmitoylation blocker, cell-surface expression, PKC-mediated endocytosis, agonist affinity, and agonist-induced tolerance of D3R were all inhibited. However, these changes were not observed when D3R palmitoylation was inhibited by replacing its carboxyl tail with that of D2R (D3R-D2C) or when the palmitoylation of D2R-D3C was inhibited by treatment with 2BP. Overall, this study shows that D3R is palmitoylated more extensively than D2R even though the carboxyl terminus tails of D2R and D3R are highly homologous, and thus provides a new clue regarding the consensus sequence for palmitoylation. This study also shows that palmitoylation controls various functionalities of D3R only when the receptor is in the intact D3R configuration. PMID:27349735

  5. Evaluation of 5-[18F]fluoropropylepidepride as a potential PET radioligand for imaging dopamine D2 receptors.

    PubMed

    Kessler, R M; Votaw, J R; de Paulis, T; Bingham, D R; Ansari, M S; Mason, N S; Holburn, G; Schmidt, D E; Votaw, D B; Manning, R G

    1993-11-01

    This study evaluated the utility of (S)-N-[(1-ethyl-2-pyrrolidinyl)methyl]-5-(3-[18F]fluoropropyl)-2,3 - dimethoxybenzamide ([18F]fluorpropylepidepride), [18F]5-FPrEpid, as a ligand for PET studies of cerebral dopamine D2 receptors. The in vitro affinity for the rat striatal dopamine D2 receptor, KD 138 pM, was determined by Scatchard analysis of in vitro binding to rat striatal homogenate. The apparent lipophilicity, log kw 1.6, was measured with reverse phase HPLC at pH 7.5. The receptor specificity was determined by competitive displacement of [18F]5-FPrEpid by a variety of neurotransmitter ligands. Only dopamine D2 ligands displaced [18F]5-FPrEpid with high affinity. Positron tomographic imaging studies in primates of [18F]5-FPrEpid demonstrated a stable striatal uptake of 0.02% injected dose/ml for up to 5 h after injection. The striatal: cerebellar ratio increased from 2 at 15 min, to 7 at 200 min, and to 10 at 300 min. Striatal uptake was displaceable by haloperidol (1 mg/kg) or raclopride (2.5 mg/kg) to cerebellar levels with a t1/2 of washout of 9 or 15 min. Striatal uptake was mildly susceptible to displacement by d-amphetamine (1-2 mg/kg) released endogenous dopamine; d-amphetamine administration produced a 10% h increase in the rate of striatal washout. Although uptake in the striatum is reversible, an equilibrium between receptor bound [18F]5-FPrEpid in striatum and [18F]5-FPrEpid in plasma is not reached within 5 h postinjection. PMID:8278895

  6. Reelin influences the expression and function of dopamine D2 and serotonin 5-HT2A receptors: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Varela, M J; Lage, S; Caruncho, H J; Cadavid, M I; Loza, M I; Brea, J

    2015-04-01

    Reelin is an extracellular matrix protein that plays a critical role in neuronal guidance during brain neurodevelopment and in synaptic plasticity in adults and has been associated with schizophrenia. Reelin mRNA and protein levels are reduced in various structures of post-mortem schizophrenic brains, in a similar way to those found in heterozygous reeler mice (HRM). Reelin is involved in protein expression in dendritic spines that are the major location where synaptic connections are established. Thus, we hypothesized that a genetic deficit in reelin would affect the expression and function of dopamine D2 and serotonin 5-HT2A receptors that are associated with the action of current antipsychotic drugs. In this study, D2 and 5-HT2A receptor expression and function were quantitated by using radioligand binding studies in the frontal cortex and striatum of HRM and wild-type mice (WTM). We observed increased expression (p<0.05) in striatum membranes and decreased expression (p<0.05) in frontal cortex membranes for both dopamine D2 and serotonin 5-HT2A receptors from HRM compared to WTM. Our results show parallel alterations of D2 and 5-HT2A receptors that are compatible with a possible hetero-oligomeric nature of these receptors. These changes are similar to changes described in schizophrenic patients and provide further support for the suitability of using HRM as a model for studying this disease and the effects of antipsychotic drugs. PMID:25637489

  7. Potent activation of dopamine D3/D2 heterodimers by the antiparkinsonian agents, S32504, pramipexole and ropinirole.

    PubMed

    Maggio, Roberto; Scarselli, Marco; Novi, Francesca; Millan, Mark J; Corsini, Giovanni U

    2003-11-01

    Recombinant, human dopamine D3 and D2 receptors form functional heterodimers upon co-expression in COS-7 cells. Herein, actions of the antiparkinsonian agents, S32504, ropinirole and pramipexole, at D3/D2L heterodimers were compared to their effects at the respective monomers and at split, chimeric D3trunk/D2tail and D2trunk/D3tail receptors: the trunk incorporated transmembrane domains (TDs) I-V and the tail TDs VI and VII. In binding assays with the antagonist [3H]nemonapride, all agonists were potent ligands of D3 receptors showing, respectively, 100-, 18- and 56-fold lower affinity at D2L receptors, mimicking the selective D3 receptor antagonist, S33084 (100-fold). At D3trunk/D2tail receptors, except for ropinirole, all drugs showed lower affinities than at D3 sites, whereas for D2trunk/D3tail receptors, affinities of all drugs were higher than at D2L sites. The proportion of high affinity binding sites recognized by S32504, pramipexole and ropinirole in membranes derived from cells co-expressing D3 and D2L sites was higher than in an equivalent mixture of membranes from cells expressing D3 or D2L sites, consistent with the promotion of heterodimer formation. In contrast, the percentage of high and low affinity sites (biphasic isotherms) recognized by S33084 was identical. Functional actions were determined by co-transfection of a chimeric adenylyl cyclase (AC)-V/VI insensitive to D3 receptors. Accordingly, D3 receptor-transfected cells were irresponsive whereas, in D2L receptor-transfected cells, agonists suppressed forskolin-stimulated cAMP production with modest potencies. In cells co-transfected with D3 and D2L receptors, S32504, ropinirole and pramipexole potently suppressed AC-V/VI with EC50s 33-, 19- and 11-fold lower than at D2L receptors, respectively. S32504 also suppressed AC-V/VI activity at split D3trunk/D2tail and D2trunk/D3tail chimeras transfected into COS-7 cells. In conclusion, antiparkinson agents behave as potent agonists at D3/D2

  8. Prediction of drug-induced catalepsy based on dopamine D1, D2, and muscarinic acetylcholine receptor occupancies.

    PubMed

    Haraguchi, K; Ito, K; Kotaki, H; Sawada, Y; Iga, T

    1997-06-01

    It is known that catalepsy serves as an experimental animal model of parkinsonism. In this study, the relationship between in vivo dopamine D1 and D2 receptor occupancies and catalepsy was investigated to predict the intensity of catalepsy induced by drugs that bind to D1 and D2 receptors nonselectively. 3H-SCH23390 and 3H-raclopride were used for the labeling of D1 and D2 receptors, respectively. The ternary complex model consisting of agonist or antagonist, receptor, and transducer was developed, and the dynamic parameters were determined. After coadministration of SCH23390 and nemonapride, catalepsy was stronger than sum of the values predicted by single administration of each drug, and it was intensified synergistically. This finding suggested the existence of interaction between D1 and D2 receptors, and the necessity for constructing the model including this interaction. To examine the validity of this model, catalepsy and in vivo dopamine receptor occupancy were measured after administration of drugs that induce or have a possibility to induce parkinsonism (haloperidol, flunarizine, manidipine, oxatomide, hydroxyzine, meclizine, and homochlorcycilzine). All of the tested drugs blocked both dopamine D1 and D2 receptors. Intensity of catalepsy was predicted with this dynamic model and was compared with the observed values. In contrast with haloperidol, flunarizine, manidipine, and oxatomide (which induced catalepsy), hydroxyzine, meclizine, and homochlorcyclizine failed to induce catalepsy. Intensities of catalepsy predicted with this dynamic model considering the interaction between D1 and D2 receptors overestimated the observed values, suggesting that these drugs have catalepsy-reducing properties as well. Because muscarinic acetylcholine (mACh) receptor antagonists inhibit the induction of catalepsy, the anticholinergic activities of the drugs were investigated. After SCH23390, nemonapride and scopolamine were administered simultaneously; catalepsy and in

  9. Behavioral Economics of Food Reinforcement and the Effects of Prefeeding, Extinction, and Eticlopride in Dopamine D2 Receptor Mutant Mice

    PubMed Central

    Soto, Paul L.; Grandy, David K.; Hursh, Steven R.; Katz, Jonathan L.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale Several studies have investigated the reinforcing effects of food in genetically-engineered mice lacking dopamine D2 receptors (DA D2Rs), however behavioral-economic analyses quantifying reinforcement have not been conducted. Objective The role of DA D2Rs in food reinforcement was examined by comparing responding under various fixed-ratio (FR) schedules of reinforcement, and effects of extinction, satiation, and the DA D2R antagonist eticlopride, in mice with and without genetic deletions of the receptor. Results Response rates of DA D2R knockout (KO) mice were generally lower than those of littermate wild-type (WT) and heterozygous (HET) mice. The demand curve (consumption vs. FR value) for KO mice decreased more steeply than that of HET or WT mice, suggesting that reinforcing effectiveness is decreased with DA D2R deletion. Prefeeding decreased, whereas extinction increased overall response rates as a proportion of baseline, with no significant genotype differences. Both (+)- and (−)-eticlopride dose-dependently decreased responding in all genotypes with (−)-eticlopride more potent than (+)-eticlopride in all but KO mice. The enantiomers were equipotent in KO mice, and similar in potency to (+)-eticlopride in WT and HET mice. Conclusions That prefeeding and extinction did not vary across genotypes indicates a lack of involvement of DA D2Rs in these processes. Differences between (-)-eticlopride effects and extinction indicate that DA D2R blockade does not mimic extinction. The maintenance of responding in KO mice indicates that the DA D2R is not necessary for reinforcement. However, the economic analysis indicates that the DA D2R contributes substantially to the effectiveness of food reinforcement. PMID:21287342

  10. The Dopamine D1–D2 Receptor Heteromer in Striatal Medium Spiny Neurons: Evidence for a Third Distinct Neuronal Pathway in Basal Ganglia

    PubMed Central

    Perreault, Melissa L.; Hasbi, Ahmed; O’Dowd, Brian F.; George, Susan R.

    2011-01-01

    Dopaminergic signaling within the basal ganglia has classically been thought to occur within two distinct neuronal pathways; the direct striatonigral pathway which contains the dopamine D1 receptor and the neuropeptides dynorphin (DYN) and substance P, and the indirect striatopallidal pathway which expresses the dopamine D2 receptor and enkephalin (ENK). A number of studies have also shown, however, that D1 and D2 receptors can co-exist within the same medium spiny neuron and emerging evidence indicates that these D1/D2-coexpressing neurons, which also express DYN and ENK, may comprise a third neuronal pathway, with representation in both the striatonigral and striatopallidal projections of the basal ganglia. Furthermore, within these coexpressing neurons it has been shown that the dopamine D1 and D2 receptor can form a novel and pharmacologically distinct receptor complex, the dopamine D1–D2 receptor heteromer, with unique signaling properties. This is indicative of a functionally unique role for these neurons in brain. The aim of this review is to discuss the evidence in support of a novel third pathway coexpressing the D1 and D2 receptor, to discuss the potential relevance of this pathway to basal ganglia signaling, and to address its potential value, and that of the dopamine D1–D2 receptor heteromer, in the search for new therapeutic strategies for disorders involving dopamine neurotransmission. PMID:21747759

  11. Cloning of ligand-specific cell lines via gene transfer: identification of a D2 dopamine receptor subtype.

    PubMed Central

    Todd, R D; Khurana, T S; Sajovic, P; Stone, K R; O'Malley, K L

    1989-01-01

    Using rat genomic DNA, we have established a transfected mouse fibroblast cell line that expresses a spiperone binding site with the pharmacological characteristics of a D2 dopamine receptor. The expressed D2 receptors are the product of a gene that is distinct from that reported by Bunzow et al. [Bunzow, J. R., Van Tol, H. H. M., Granoly, D. K., Albert, P., Salon, J., Christie, M., Machida, C. A., Neve, K. A. & Civelli, O. (1988) Nature (London) 336, 783-787]. Flow cytometry with the Ca2+-sensitive dye indo-1 demonstrated that activation of the expressed D2 sites resulted in increases in intracellular calcium that were dependent on the influx of external Ca2+. These general cloning procedures should be applicable to the production of cell lines expressing a variety of genes for which only functional assays are available. Images PMID:2532359

  12. The influence of different cellular environments on PET radioligand binding: An application to D2/3-dopamine receptor imaging

    PubMed Central

    Quelch, Darren R.; Withey, Sarah L.; Nutt, David J.; Tyacke, Robin J.; Parker, Christine A.

    2014-01-01

    Various D2/3 receptor PET radioligands are sensitive to endogenous dopamine release in vivo. The Occupancy Model is generally used to interpret changes in binding observed in in vivo competition binding studies; an Internalisation Hypothesis may also contribute to these changes in signal. Extension of in vivo competition imaging to other receptor systems has been relatively unsuccessful. A greater understanding of the cellular processes underlying signal changes following endogenous neurotransmitter release may help translate this imaging paradigm to other receptor systems. To investigate the Internalisation Hypothesis we assessed the effects of different cellular environments, representative of those experienced by a receptor following agonist-induced internalisation, on the binding of three D2/3 PET ligands with previously reported sensitivities to endogenous dopamine in vivo, namely [3H]spiperone, [3H]raclopride and [3H]PhNO. Furthermore, we determined the contribution of each cellular compartment to total striatal binding for these D2/3 ligands. These studies suggest that sensitivity to endogenous dopamine release in vivo is related to a decrease in affinity in the endosomal environment compared with those found at the cell surface. In agreement with these findings we also demonstrate that ∼25% of total striatal binding for [3H]spiperone originates from sub-cellular, microsomal receptors, whereas for [3H]raclopride and [3H]PhNO, this fraction is lower, representing ∼14% and 17%, respectively. This pharmacological approach is fully translatable to other receptor systems. Assessment of affinity shifts in different cellular compartments may play a crucial role for understanding if a radioligand is sensitive to endogenous release in vivo, for not just the D2/3, but other receptor systems. PMID:24910074

  13. Control of the subthalamic innervation of substantia nigra pars reticulata by D1 and D2 dopamine receptors.

    PubMed

    Ibañez-Sandoval, Osvaldo; Hernández, Adán; Florán, Benjamin; Galarraga, Elvira; Tapia, Dagoberto; Valdiosera, Rene; Erlij, David; Aceves, Jorge; Bargas, José

    2006-03-01

    The effects of activating dopaminergic D1 and D2 class receptors of the subthalamic projections that innervate the pars reticulata of the subtantia nigra (SNr) were explored in slices of the rat brain using the whole cell patch-clamp technique. Excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) that could be blocked by 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxalene-2,3-dione and D-(-)-2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid were evoked onto reticulata GABAergic projection neurons by local field stimulation inside the subthalamic nucleus in the presence of bicuculline. Bath application of (RS)-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-7,8-dihydroxy-1-phenyl-1H-3-benzazepine hydrochloride (SKF-38393), a dopaminergic D1-class receptor agonist, increased evoked EPSCs by approximately 30% whereas the D2-class receptor agonist, trans-(-)-4aR-4,4a,5,6,7,8,8a,9-octahydro-5-propyl-1H-pyrazolo(3,4-g)quinoline (quinpirole), reduced EPSCs by approximately 25%. These apparently opposing actions were blocked by the specific D1- and D2-class receptor antagonists: R-(+)-7-chloro-8-hydroxy-3-methyl-1-phenyl-2,3,4,5-tetra-hydro-1H-3-benzazepinehydrochloride (SCH 23390) and S-(-)-5-amino-sulfonyl-N-[(1-ethyl-2-pyrrolidinyl)-methyl]-2-methoxybenzamide (sulpiride), respectively. Both effects were accompanied by changes in the paired-pulse ratio, indicative of a presynaptic site of action. The presynaptic location of dopamine receptors at the subthalamonigral projections was confirmed by mean-variance analysis. The effects of both SKF-38393 and quinpirole could be observed on terminals contacting the same postsynaptic neuron. Sulpiride and SCH 23390 enhanced and reduced the evoked EPSC, respectively, suggesting a constitutive receptor activation probably arising from endogenous dopamine. These data suggest that dopamine presynaptically modulates the subthalamic projection that targets GABAergic neurons of the SNr. Implications of this modulation for basal ganglia function are discussed. PMID:16306171

  14. Preprodynorphin mediates locomotion and D2 dopamine and mu-opioid receptor changes induced by chronic 'binge' cocaine administration.

    PubMed

    Bailey, A; Yoo, J H; Racz, I; Zimmer, A; Kitchen, I

    2007-09-01

    Evidence suggests that the kappa-opioid receptor (KOP-r) system plays an important role in cocaine addiction. Indeed, cocaine induces endogenous KOP activity, which is a mechanism that opposes alterations in behaviour and brain function resulting from repeated cocaine use. In this study, we have examined the influence of deletion of preprodynorphin (ppDYN) on cocaine-induced behavioural effects and on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity. Furthermore, we have measured mu-opioid receptor (MOP-r) agonist-stimulated [(35)S]GTPgammaS, dopamine D(1), D(2) receptor and dopamine transporter (DAT) binding. Male wild-type (WT) and ppDYN knockout (KO) mice were injected with saline or cocaine (45 mg/kg/day) in a 'binge' administration paradigm for 14 days. Chronic cocaine produced an enhancement of locomotor sensitisation in KO. No genotype effect was found on stereotypy behaviour. Cocaine-enhanced MOP-r activation in WT but not in KO. There was an overall decrease in D(2) receptor binding in cocaine-treated KO but not in WT mice. No changes were observed in D(1) and DAT binding. Cocaine increased plasma corticosterone levels in WT but not in KO. The data confirms that the endogenous KOP system inhibits dopamine neurotransmission and that ppDYN may mediate the enhancement of MOP-r activity and the activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis after chronic cocaine treatment. PMID:17532787

  15. Pre- and Postsynaptic Role of Dopamine D2 Receptor DD2R in Drosophila Olfactory Associative Learning.

    PubMed

    Qi, Cheng; Lee, Daewoo

    2014-01-01

    Dopaminergic neurons in Drosophila play critical roles in diverse brain functions such as motor control, arousal, learning, and memory. Using genetic and behavioral approaches, it has been firmly established that proper dopamine signaling is required for olfactory classical conditioning (e.g., aversive and appetitive learning). Dopamine mediates its functions through interaction with its receptors. There are two different types of dopamine receptors in Drosophila: D1-like (dDA1, DAMB) and D2-like receptors (DD2R). Currently, no study has attempted to characterize the role of DD2R in Drosophila learning and memory. Using a DD2R-RNAi transgenic line, we have examined the role of DD2R, expressed in dopamine neurons (i.e., the presynaptic DD2R autoreceptor), in larval olfactory learning. The function of postsynaptic DD2R expressed in mushroom body (MB) was also studied as MB is the center for Drosophila learning, with a function analogous to that of the mammalian hippocampus. Our results showed that suppression of presynaptic DD2R autoreceptors impairs both appetitive and aversive learning. Similarly, postsynaptic DD2R in MB neurons appears to be involved in both appetitive and aversive learning. The data confirm, for the first time, that DD2R plays an important role in Drosophila olfactory learning. PMID:25422852

  16. Alterations of Dopamine D2 Receptors and Related Receptor-Interacting Proteins in Schizophrenia: The Pivotal Position of Dopamine Supersensitivity Psychosis in Treatment-Resistant Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Oda, Yasunori; Kanahara, Nobuhisa; Iyo, Masaomi

    2015-01-01

    Although the dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) has been a main target of antipsychotic pharmacotherapy for the treatment of schizophrenia, the standard treatment does not offer sufficient relief of symptoms to 20%–30% of patients suffering from this disorder. Moreover, over 80% of patients experience relapsed psychotic episodes within five years following treatment initiation. These data strongly suggest that the continuous blockade of DRD2 by antipsychotic(s) could eventually fail to control the psychosis in some point during long-term treatment, even if such treatment has successfully provided symptomatic improvement for the first-episode psychosis, or stability for the subsequent chronic stage. Dopamine supersensitivity psychosis (DSP) is historically known as a by-product of antipsychotic treatment in the manner of tardive dyskinesia or transient rebound psychosis. Numerous data in psychopharmacological studies suggest that the up-regulation of DRD2, caused by antipsychotic(s), is likely the mechanism underlying the development of the dopamine supersensitivity state. However, regardless of evolving notions of dopamine signaling, particularly dopamine release, signal transduction, and receptor recycling, most of this research has been conducted and discussed from the standpoint of disease etiology or action mechanism of the antipsychotic, not of DSP. Hence, the mechanism of the DRD2 up-regulation or mechanism evoking clinical DSP, both of which are caused by pharmacotherapy, remains unknown. Once patients experience a DSP episode, they become increasingly difficult to treat. Light was recently shed on a new aspect of DSP as a treatment-resistant factor. Clarification of the detailed mechanism of DSP is therefore crucial, and a preventive treatment strategy for DSP or treatment-resistant schizophrenia is urgently needed. PMID:26694375

  17. Alterations of Dopamine D2 Receptors and Related Receptor-Interacting Proteins in Schizophrenia: The Pivotal Position of Dopamine Supersensitivity Psychosis in Treatment-Resistant Schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Oda, Yasunori; Kanahara, Nobuhisa; Iyo, Masaomi

    2015-01-01

    Although the dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) has been a main target of antipsychotic pharmacotherapy for the treatment of schizophrenia, the standard treatment does not offer sufficient relief of symptoms to 20%-30% of patients suffering from this disorder. Moreover, over 80% of patients experience relapsed psychotic episodes within five years following treatment initiation. These data strongly suggest that the continuous blockade of DRD2 by antipsychotic(s) could eventually fail to control the psychosis in some point during long-term treatment, even if such treatment has successfully provided symptomatic improvement for the first-episode psychosis, or stability for the subsequent chronic stage. Dopamine supersensitivity psychosis (DSP) is historically known as a by-product of antipsychotic treatment in the manner of tardive dyskinesia or transient rebound psychosis. Numerous data in psychopharmacological studies suggest that the up-regulation of DRD2, caused by antipsychotic(s), is likely the mechanism underlying the development of the dopamine supersensitivity state. However, regardless of evolving notions of dopamine signaling, particularly dopamine release, signal transduction, and receptor recycling, most of this research has been conducted and discussed from the standpoint of disease etiology or action mechanism of the antipsychotic, not of DSP. Hence, the mechanism of the DRD2 up-regulation or mechanism evoking clinical DSP, both of which are caused by pharmacotherapy, remains unknown. Once patients experience a DSP episode, they become increasingly difficult to treat. Light was recently shed on a new aspect of DSP as a treatment-resistant factor. Clarification of the detailed mechanism of DSP is therefore crucial, and a preventive treatment strategy for DSP or treatment-resistant schizophrenia is urgently needed. PMID:26694375

  18. Opposing relationships of BMI with BOLD and dopamine D2/3 receptor binding potential in the dorsal striatum

    PubMed Central

    Cosgrove, Kelly P.; Veldhuizen, Maria G.; Sandiego, Christine M.; Morris, Evan D.; Small, Dana M.

    2015-01-01

    Findings from clinical and preclinical studies converge to suggest that increased adiposity and/or exposure to a high fat diet are associated with alterations in dorsal striatal (DS) circuitry. In humans there is a reliable inverse relationship between body mass index (BMI) and response to palatable food consumption in the dorsal striatum (DS). Positron emission tomography (PET) studies also suggest altered DS dopamine type 2/3 receptor (D2R/D3R) availability in obesity; however, the direction of the association is unclear. It is also not clear whether dopamine receptor levels contribute to the lower blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) response because PET studies have targeted the morbidly obese and, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies rarely include individuals with BMIs in this range. Therefore we examined whether the fMRI BOLD response in the DS to milkshake is associated with D2R/D3R availability measured with [11C]PHNO and PET in individuals with BMI ranging from healthy weight to moderately obese. Twenty-nine subjects participated in the fMRI study, twelve in the [11C]PHNO PET study, eight of whom also completed the fMRI study. As predicted there was a significant negative association between DS BOLD response to milkshake and BMI. In contrast, BMI was positively associated with D2R/D3R availability. Dorsal striatal BOLD response was unrelated to D2R/D3R availability. Considered in the context of the larger literature our results suggest the existence of a non-linear relationship between D2R/D3R availability and BMI. Additionally, the altered BOLD responses to palatable food consumption observed in obesity are not clearly related to D2R/D3R receptor availability. PMID:25664726

  19. Opposing relationships of BMI with BOLD and dopamine D2/3 receptor binding potential in the dorsal striatum.

    PubMed

    Cosgrove, Kelly P; Veldhuizen, Maria G; Sandiego, Christine M; Morris, Evan D; Small, Dana M

    2015-04-01

    Findings from clinical and preclinical studies converge to suggest that increased adiposity and/or exposure to a high fat diet are associated with alterations in dorsal striatal (DS) circuitry. In humans there is a reliable inverse relationship between body mass index (BMI) and response to palatable food consumption in the dorsal striatum (DS). Positron emission tomography (PET) studies also suggest altered DS dopamine type 2/3 receptor (D2R/D3R) availability in obesity; however, the direction of the association is unclear. It is also not clear whether dopamine receptor levels contribute to the lower blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) response because PET studies have targeted the morbidly obese and, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies rarely include individuals with BMIs in this range. Therefore we examined whether the fMRI BOLD response in the DS to milkshake is associated with D2R/D3R availability measured with [(11) C]PHNO and PET in individuals with BMI ranging from healthy weight to moderately obese. Twenty-nine subjects participated in the fMRI study, 12 in the [(11) C]PHNO PET study, 8 of whom also completed the fMRI study. As predicted there was a significant negative association between DS BOLD response to milkshake and BMI. In contrast, BMI was positively associated with D2R/D3R availability. Dorsal striatal BOLD response was unrelated to D2R/D3R availability. Considered in the context of the larger literature our results suggest the existence of a non-linear relationship between D2R/D3R availability and BMI. Additionally, the altered BOLD responses to palatable food consumption observed in obesity are not clearly related to D2R/D3R receptor availability. Using [(11) C]PHNO and PET brain imaging techniques we show that body mass index was positively associated with D2R/D3R availability in the dorsal striatum, but that functional MR BOLD response was unrelated to D2R/D3R availability. These results suggest the existence of a nonlinear

  20. Socioeconomic status is associated with striatal dopamine D2/D3 receptors in healthy volunteers but not in cocaine abusers.

    PubMed

    Wiers, Corinde E; Shokri-Kojori, Ehsan; Cabrera, Elizabeth; Cunningham, Samantha; Wong, Christopher; Tomasi, Dardo; Wang, Gene-Jack; Volkow, Nora D

    2016-03-23

    Positron emission tomography (PET) studies in animals and humans have shown that social status is associated with striatal dopamine D2/D3 receptor (D2/D3R) availability. That is, higher social hierarchy and higher scores on questionnaires assessing social status correlated positively with striatal D2/D3R availability in animals and humans respectively. Furthermore, subordinate monkeys were vulnerable to cocaine self-administration, suggesting that alternations in social hierarchy can change D2/D3R availability and vulnerability to cocaine use. Here, we investigated whether socioeconomic status (SES) measured with the Hollingshead scale is associated with striatal D2D/3R availability using [(11)C]raclopride PET in 38 cocaine abusers and 42 healthy controls matched for age and education. Compared to controls, cocaine abusers showed lower D2/D3R availability in the caudate, putamen and ventral striatum (all p≤0.001). Despite matching groups for education, SES scores were lower in cocaine abusers than controls (p<0.001). In the control group only, SES scores significantly correlated with D2/D3R in caudate (r=0.35, p=0.024) and putamen (r=0.39, p=0.011) but not in ventral striatum (p=0.61); all corrected for age. The study confirms that SES is associated with striatal D2/D3R availability in healthy human volunteers. However, reductions in D2/D3R availability in cocaine abusers may be driven by factors other than SES such as chronic cocaine exposure. PMID:26828302

  1. Cortical dopamine D2 receptors in type 1 and 2 alcoholics measured with human whole hemisphere autoradiography.

    PubMed

    Tupala, Erkki; Hall, Håkan; Halonen, Pirjo; Tiihonen, Jari

    2004-12-01

    Alcoholism has been associated with lower density of striatal dopamine (DA) D(2) receptors, but there is much less data on cortical DA D(2) receptors. We evaluated the [(125)I]epidepride binding to DA D(2) receptors in Cloninger type 1 and 2 alcoholics and controls in frontal, temporal, and anterior cingulate cortices by using human postmortem whole hemispheric autoradiography, which provides high-resolution images corresponding to positron emission tomographic (PET) studies. Type 1 alcoholics had lower and type 2 alcoholics had higher DA D(2) receptor density in all cortical areas compared to controls. Although the results did not reach statistical significance, the effect sizes were high. The DA D(2) receptor density in type 2 alcoholics decreased statistically significantly with age, and after correcting for age the binding values also fell below the level of controls. A statistically non-significant tendency towards a decrease of cortical DA D(2) receptors was seen in controls, whereas in the type 1 alcoholic group no consistent correlation or even tendency towards increase with age was observed. Our results give preliminary evidence that DA D(2) receptors in cortical areas may be lower among both groups of alcoholics, but not necessarily of same magnitude as in subcortical structures. The rapid decline of cortical DA D(2) receptors among type 2 alcoholics may have some relevance to their antisociality, because this trait tends to diminish with age. The absence of correlation or even tendency towards increase of cortical DA D(2) receptors with age seen in type 1 alcoholics may give further evidence that they have a pre-existing dopaminergic deficit. However, these results especially regarding aging effect must be considered as preliminary due to the different age-range of type 2 alcoholics compared to two other groups. PMID:15452867

  2. Motivational salience and genetic variability of dopamine D2 receptor expression interact in the modulation of interference processing.

    PubMed

    Richter, Anni; Richter, Sylvia; Barman, Adriana; Soch, Joram; Klein, Marieke; Assmann, Anne; Libeau, Catherine; Behnisch, Gusalija; Wüstenberg, Torsten; Seidenbecher, Constanze I; Schott, Björn H

    2013-01-01

    Dopamine has been implicated in the fine-tuning of complex cognitive and motor function and also in the anticipation of future rewards. This dual function of dopamine suggests that dopamine might be involved in the generation of active motivated behavior. The DRD2 TaqIA polymorphism of the dopamine D2 receptor gene (rs1800497) has previously been suggested to affect striatal function with carriers of the less common A1 allele exhibiting reduced striatal D2 receptor density and increased risk for addiction. Here we aimed to investigate the influences of DRD2 TaqIA genotype on the modulation of interference processing by reward and punishment. Forty-six young, healthy volunteers participated in a behavioral experiment, and 32 underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Participants performed a flanker task with a motivation manipulation (monetary reward, monetary loss, neither, or both). Reaction times (RTs) were shorter in motivated flanker trials, irrespective of congruency. In the fMRI experiment motivation was associated with reduced prefrontal activation during incongruent vs. congruent flanker trials, possibly reflecting increased processing efficiency. DRD2 TaqIA genotype did not affect overall RTs, but interacted with motivation on the congruency-related RT differences, with A1 carriers showing smaller interference effects to reward alone and A2 homozygotes exhibiting a specific interference reduction during combined reward (REW) and punishment trials (PUN). In fMRI, anterior cingulate activity showed a similar pattern of genotype-related modulation. Additionally, A1 carriers showed increased anterior insula activation relative to A2 homozygotes. Our results point to a role for genetic variations of the dopaminergic system in individual differences of cognition-motivation interaction. PMID:23760450

  3. Self-administration of agonists selective for dopamine D2, D3, and D4 receptors by rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Koffarnus, Mikhail N; Collins, Gregory T; Rice, Kenner C; Chen, Jianyong; Woods, James H; Winger, Gail

    2012-08-01

    Dopamine receptor mechanisms are believed to play a role in the reinforcing effects of cocaine and other drugs of abuse. The lack of receptor-selective agonists has made it difficult to determine the role of the individual dopamine receptors in mediating these reinforcing effects. In this study, rhesus monkeys with a history of intravenous cocaine self-administration were tested for the reinforcing effects of several D(3)-preferring agonists, a D(2)-preferring agonist, and a D(4) agonist. The D(2)-preferring agonist did not maintain responding in any monkeys, and the D(4) agonist was self-administered at low rates, just above those maintained by saline, in one monkey. The D(3)-preferring agonists were self-administered by approximately half of the animals, although at lower rates than cocaine. These results indicate that the apparent limited reinforcing effectiveness of D(2)-like agonists requires activity at D(3) receptors. Previous data from this laboratory and others also suggest that these drugs may not serve as reinforcers directly; the behavior may be maintained by response-contingent delivery of stimuli previously paired with cocaine. The ability of drug-related stimuli to maintain responding apparently differs among monkeys and other organisms, and may be related to individual differences in drug-taking behavior in humans. PMID:22785383

  4. Role of basolateral amygdala dopamine D2 receptors in impulsive choice in acute cocaine-treated rats.

    PubMed

    Li, Yijing; Zuo, Yanfang; Yu, Peng; Ping, Xingjie; Cui, Cailian

    2015-01-01

    Psychostimulant substances have been found to either increase or inhibit impulsive choice (preference to choose small immediate reward over large delayed reward) in laboratory animals. Although central dopamine transmission has been demonstrated to be involved in impulsivity and drug addiction, little is known regarding dopaminergic neurotransmission in addictive drug-induced alteration of impulse control. In this study, we used a delay discounting model to measure impulsive choice in rats and found that acute cocaine dose-dependently decreased impulsive choice in rats. Intraperitoneal injection (i.p.) of D1 receptor antagonist SCH23390 (0.02 mg/kg) could increase the impulsive choice but had no effect on the inhibition of impulsive choice induced by acute cocaine exposure. D2 receptor antagonist eticlopride (0.06 mg/kg) had no effect on the choice behavior itself, but it reversed acute cocaine-induced impulse inhibition. Moreover, bilateral microinjection of eticlopride (1 μg/side) into the basolateral amygdala (BLA) but not the nucleus accumbens (NAc) core reversed the inhibitory effect of acute cocaine on impulsive choice. These data suggest important but dissociable roles of dopamine D1 and D2 receptors in impulse control. The preference of delayed rewards depends on D1 receptors, whereas acute cocaine inhibited impulsive choice by activating D2 receptors in the BLA. PMID:25823760

  5. Striatal and extrastriatal dopamine D2/D3 receptors in schizophrenia evaluated with [18F]fallypride PET

    PubMed Central

    Kegeles, Lawrence S.; Slifstein, Mark; Xu, Xiaoyan; Urban, Nina; Thompson, Judy L.; Moadel, Tiffany; Harkavy-Friedman, Jill M.; Gil, Roberto; Laruelle, Marc; Abi-Dargham, Anissa

    2010-01-01

    Background Alterations in dopamine D2/D3 receptor binding have been reported in schizophrenia, and a meta-analysis of imaging studies has shown a modest elevation in striatum. Newer radioligands now allow the assessment of these receptors in extrastriatal regions. We used PET with [18F]fallypride to evaluate D2/D3 receptors in both striatal and extrastriatal regions in schizophrenia. Methods Twenty-one patients with schizophrenia and 22 matched healthy controls were scanned with an HR+ camera. Two-tissue compartment modeling (2TCM) and the reference tissue method gave binding potentials BPND, BPP, and BPF which were compared between groups in five striatal and 8 extrastriatal regions. Several regional volumes were lower in the patient group, and PET data were corrected for partial volume effects. Results BP values differed in three regions between groups. BPND values from 2TCM in patients and controls respectively were 28.7 ± 6.8 and 25.3 ± 4.3 in post-commissural caudate, 2.9 ± 0.7 and 2.6 ± 0.4 in thalamus, and 1.8 ± 0.5 and 2.1 ± 0.7 in uncus. Loss of D2/D3 receptors with age was found in striatal and extrastriatal regions and was greater in neocortex. Conclusions Our study found selective alterations in D2/D3 receptors in striatal and extrastriatal regions, consistent with some but not all previously published reports. As previously shown for the striatum, a more sensitive imaging approach for studying the role of dopamine in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia might be assessment of neurotransmitter levels rather than D2/D3 receptor levels in extrastriatal regions. PMID:20673873

  6. Neurochemical Correlates of Accumbal Dopamine D2 and Amygdaloid 5-HT1B Receptor Densities on Observational Learning of Aggression

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Hideo; Lucas, Louis R.

    2015-01-01

    Social learning theory postulates that individuals learn to engage in aggressive behavior through observing an aggressive social model. Prior studies have shown that repeatedly observing aggression, also called “chronic passive exposure to aggression,” changes accumbal dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) and amygdaloid 5-HT1B receptor (5-HT1BR) densities in observers. But, the association between these outcomes remains unknown. Thus, our study used a rat paradigm to comprehensively examine the linkage between aggression, D2R density in the nucleus accumbens core (AcbC) and shell (AcbSh), and 5-HT1BR density in the medial (MeA), basomedial (BMA), and basolateral (BLA) amygdala following chronic passive exposure to aggression. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (N = 72) were passively exposed to either aggression or non-aggression acutely (1 day) or chronically (23 days). When observer rats were exposed to aggression chronically, they showed increased aggressive behavior and reduced D2R density in the bilateral AcbSh. On the other hand, exposure to aggression, regardless of exposure length, increased 5-HT1BR density in the bilateral BLA. Finally, low D2R in the AcbSh significantly interacted with high 5-HT1BR density in the BLA in predicting high levels of aggression in observer rats. Our results advance our understanding of the neurobiological mechanisms for observational learning of aggression, highlighting that dopamine-serotonin interaction, or AcbSh-BLA interaction, may contribute to a risk factor for aggression in observers who chronically witness aggressive interactions. PMID:25650085

  7. The dopamine D2 receptor dimer and its interaction with homobivalent antagonists: homology modeling, docking and molecular dynamics.

    PubMed

    Kaczor, Agnieszka A; Jörg, Manuela; Capuano, Ben

    2016-09-01

    In order to apply structure-based drug design techniques to G protein-coupled receptor complexes, it is essential to model their 3D structure and to identify regions that are suitable for selective drug binding. For this purpose, we have developed and tested a multi-component protocol to model the inactive conformation of the dopamine D2 receptor dimer, suitable for interaction with homobivalent antagonists. Our approach was based on protein-protein docking, applying the Rosetta software to obtain populations of dimers as present in membranes with all the main possible interfaces. Consensus scoring based on the values and frequencies of best interfaces regarding four scoring parameters, Rosetta interface score, interface area, free energy of binding and energy of hydrogen bond interactions indicated that the best scored dimer model possesses a TM4-TM5-TM7-TM1 interface, which is in agreement with experimental data. This model was used to study interactions of the previously published dopamine D2 receptor homobivalent antagonists based on clozapine,1,4-disubstituted aromatic piperidines/piperazines and arylamidoalkyl substituted phenylpiperazine pharmacophores. It was found that the homobivalent antagonists stabilize the receptor-inactive conformation by maintaining the ionic lock interaction, and change the dimer interface by disrupting a set of hydrogen bonds and maintaining water- and ligand-mediated hydrogen bonds in the extracellular and intracellular part of the interface. Graphical Abstract Structure of the final model of the dopamine D2 receptor homodimer, indicating the distancebetween Tyr37 and Tyr 5.42 in the apo form (left) and in the complex with the ligand (right). PMID:27491852

  8. Decrease of prolactin secretion via stimulation of pituitary dopamine D-2 receptors after application of talipexole and SND 919.

    PubMed

    Domae, M; Yamada, K; Hanabusa, Y; Matsumoto, S; Furukawa, T

    1990-04-10

    The present experiments were performed to investigate the effects of talipexole (B-HT 920) and SND 919 on prolactin release from the anterior pituitary glands of rats both in vivo and in vitro. The basal serum prolactin levels were reduced dose dependently by s.c. administration of talipexole or SND 919 at doses of 5-100 micrograms/kg. Daily treatment with estradiol (35 micrograms/kg for 3 days) increased serum prolactin levels in male rats to levels 4-fold higher than those of non-primed rats. This increase was suppressed by administration of talipexole or SND 919. In vitro, the spontaneous prolactin release into perfusates from isolated anterior pituitary was inhibited by talipexole or SND 919 added at concentrations ranging from 10(-9) to 10(-6) M. This inhibitory effect of SND 919 was blocked by concurrent application of a dopamine D-2 receptor antagonist, YM-09151-2. The spontaneous prolactin release from the anterior pituitary isolated from estradiol-primed rats was 2-fold higher than that from non-primed rats. This increased release was also inhibited by application of either drug. The inhibitory effects of these drugs were greater in estradiol-primed rats than in non-primed rats when expressed as percent inhibition of control prolactin release. The results suggest that talipexole and SND 919 have a selective dopamine D-2 receptor agonistic property and are almost completely effective to counteract the enhancement of prolactin release induced by estrogens via stimulation of dopamine D-2 receptors in the anterior pituitary. PMID:2142088

  9. Effects of several partial dopamine D2 receptor agonists in Cebus apella monkeys previously treated with haloperidol.

    PubMed

    Peacock, L; Gerlach, J

    1993-06-24

    Eight Cebus apella monkeys were treated with haloperidol for 2 years. Five monkeys had developed mild oral tardive dyskinesia and all were primed for neuroleptic induced dystonia, thus serving as a model for both chronic and acute extrapyramidal side effects. In this model, the partial dopamine D2 receptor agonists SDZ HDC-912, SDZ HAC-911, terguride, (-)-3-(3-hydroxyphenyl)-N-propylpiperidine) ((-)-3-PPP) and SND 919 were tested for extrapyramidal side-effect liability. Their antipsychotic potential was also tested, using a dose of dextroamphetamine producing mild stereotypy and moderate motoric unrest. For comparison, the dopamine D2 receptor agonist, LY 171555 and antagonist, raclopride were used. In contrast to the other drugs tested, SDZ HAC-911 consistently reduced oral activity, P < 0.05 (at doses from 0.005 to 0.025 mg/kg). The relative dystonic potencies were raclopride > SDZ HDC-912 > SDZ HAC-911 = terguride. Neither (-)-3-PPP nor SND 919 produced dystonia, but had observable dopamine D2 receptor agonistic effects, (-)-3-PPP producing emesis at 1-4 mg/kg and SND 919 producing motoric unrest and stereotypy at 0.05-0.25 mg/kg. Comparing the antiamphetamine effects of the more antagonist-like drugs with raclopride, the relative potencies were terguride = SDZ HAC-911 > SDZ HDC-912 > raclopride. Comparing the antiamphetamine effects of the more agonist-like drugs with LY 171555, the relative potencies were SND 919 > (-)-3-PPP > LY 171555 in relation to motoric unrest, while neither (-)-3-PPP nor LY 171555 produced inhibition of stereotypy. PMID:8103465

  10. Dopamine Receptor D2 Polymorphism Moderates the Effect of Parental Education on Adolescents' School Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keltikangas-Jarvinen, Liisa; Pullmann, Helle; Pulkki-Raback, Laura; Alatupa, Saija; Lipsanen, Jari; Airla, Nina; Lehtimaki, Terho

    2008-01-01

    High parental socioeconomic status is known to have a positive effect on students' academic achievement. We examined whether variation in the dopamine receptor gene (DRD2 polymorphism, rs 1800497) modifies the association between parental educational level and school performance in adolescence. The participants were a randomly selected subsample…

  11. PET imaging of dopamine D2 receptor and transporter availability during acquisition of cocaine self-administration in rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Czoty, Paul W; Gage, H Donald; Nader, Susan H; Reboussin, Beth A; Bounds, Michael; Nader, Michael A

    2007-03-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that cocaine use alters availability of brain dopamine D2 receptors (D2R) and transporters (DAT). The present study examined the effects of low doses of cocaine on this neuroadaptation. Using positron emission tomography (PET), D2R and DAT availability in the caudate nucleus (Cd), putamen (Pt), anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), and amygdala (AMY) were assessed before and after monkeys acquired cocaine self-administration. Twelve rhesus monkeys were trained to self-administer intravenous cocaine (0.03 mg/kg per injection) under conditions that resulted in low drug intakes. PET scans using radiotracers targeting D2R ([F]fluoroclebopride, FCP) or DAT ([F]-(+)-N-(4-fluorobenzyl)-2β-propanoyl-3β-(4-chlorophenyl)tropane, FCT) were performed when monkeys were cocaine naive and after 9 weeks of self-administration. Before self-administration, D2R availability was significantly higher only in left vs. right Cd, whereas DAT availability was higher in left vs. right Cd, Pt, and ACC. Nonetheless, after cocaine exposure, left-right differences in D2R were apparent in 3 of 4 regions, but only in the ACC for DAT availability. Self-administration of this dose of cocaine did not significantly affect DAT availability in any region and only decreased D2R availability in the ACC. These results demonstrate lateralization of D2R and DAT availability in brain areas that mediate cocaine self-administration, even under conditions in which cocaine does not affect overall receptor availability. PMID:21768930

  12. Hippocampal place cell responses to distal and proximal cue manipulations in dopamine D2 receptor-knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Chien Le; Tran, Anh Hai; Matsumoto, Jumpei; Hori, Etsuro; Uwano, Teruko; Ono, Taketoshi; Nishijo, Hisao

    2014-06-01

    The human hippocampus is critical for learning and memory. In rodents, hippocampal pyramidal neurons fire in a location-specific manner and form relational representations of environmental cues. The important roles of dopaminergic D1 receptors in learning and in hippocampal neural synaptic plasticity in novel environments have been previously shown. However, the roles of D2 receptors in hippocampal neural plasticity in response to novel and familiar spatial stimuli remain unclear. In order to clarify this issue, we recorded from hippocampal neurons in dopamine D2 receptor-knockout (D2R-KO) mice and their wild-type (WT) littermates during manipulations of distinct spatial cues in familiar and novel environments. Here, we report that D2R-KO mice showed substantial deficits in place-cell properties (number of place cells, intra-field firing rates, spatial tuning, and spatial coherence). Furthermore, although place cells in D2R-KO mice responded to manipulations of distal and proximal cues in both familiar and novel environments in a manner that was similar to place cells in WT mice, place fields were less stable in the D . The axes represent the differences between the peak and the valley of each waveform of EL2 and EL3.2R-KO mice in the familiar environment, but not in the novel environment. The present results suggested that D2 receptors in the hippocampus are important for place response stability. The place-cell properties of D2R-KO mice were similar to aged animals, suggesting that the alterations of place-cell properties in aged animals might be ascribed partly to alterations in the D2R in the HF of aged animals. PMID:24747614

  13. Loss of D2 Dopamine Receptor Function Modulates Cocaine-Induced Glutamatergic Synaptic Potentiation in the Ventral Tegmental Area

    PubMed Central

    Madhavan, Anuradha; Argilli, Emanuela; Bonci, Antonello

    2013-01-01

    Potentiation of glutamate responses is a critical synaptic response to cocaine exposure in ventral tegmental area (VTA) neurons. However, the mechanism by which cocaine exposure promotes potentiation of NMDA receptors (NMDARs) and subsequently AMPA receptors (AMPARs) is not fully understood. In this study we demonstrate that repeated cocaine treatment causes loss of D2 dopamine receptor functional responses via interaction with lysosome-targeting G-protein-associated sorting protein1 (GASP1). We also show that the absence of D2 downregulation in GASP1-KO mice prevents cocaine-induced potentiation of NMDAR currents, elevation of the AMPA/NMDA ratio, and redistribution of NMDAR and AMPAR subunits to the membrane. As a pharmacological parallel, coadministration of the high-affinity D2 agonist, aripiprazole, reduces not only functional downregulation of D2s in response to cocaine but also potentiation of NMDAR and AMPAR responses in wild-type mice. Together these data suggest that functional loss of D2 receptors is a critical mechanism mediating cocaine-induced glutamate plasticity in VTA neurons. PMID:23884939

  14. Autoradiographic localization of dopamine D1 and D2 receptors in rat cerebral cortex following unilateral neurotoxic lesions.

    PubMed

    al-Tikriti, M S; Roth, R H; Kessler, R M; Innis, R B

    1992-03-13

    Relative to dopaminergic innervation of cortex, dopamine D1 and D2 receptors may be located on presynaptic terminals and/or postsynaptically on cortical neurons. To assess the relative distribution of these sites, quantitative in vitro receptor autoradiography was performed following injection of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) into the median forebrain bundle (MFB; which lesions presynaptic DA terminals) and ibotenic acid into the prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortices (which lesions neurons whose cell bodies are intrinsic to cortex). Receptor autoradiography was performed ten days after injection of neurotoxins with [3H]SCH 23390 (a D1 probe) and [125I]epidepride (a D2 probe). Both DA receptor subtypes were found in all layers of anterior cingulate and prefrontal cortices but were concentrated in deeper layers V and VI. Ibotenic acid lesion of cortex reduced D1 and D2 receptors by 55-80%, although the concentrations of DA and its major metabolite dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) were unchanged. Lesion of MFB produced no significant change in D1 and D2 receptors, but was associated with a 49-52% decrease in DA and DOPAC levels relative to the contralateral side. These results suggest that the majority of D1 and D2 receptors in prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortices are located postsynaptically on neurons intrinsic to the cortex. PMID:1387031

  15. Loss of D2 dopamine receptor function modulates cocaine-induced glutamatergic synaptic potentiation in the ventral tegmental area.

    PubMed

    Madhavan, Anuradha; Argilli, Emanuela; Bonci, Antonello; Whistler, Jennifer L

    2013-07-24

    Potentiation of glutamate responses is a critical synaptic response to cocaine exposure in ventral tegmental area (VTA) neurons. However, the mechanism by which cocaine exposure promotes potentiation of NMDA receptors (NMDARs) and subsequently AMPA receptors (AMPARs) is not fully understood. In this study we demonstrate that repeated cocaine treatment causes loss of D2 dopamine receptor functional responses via interaction with lysosome-targeting G-protein-associated sorting protein1 (GASP1). We also show that the absence of D2 downregulation in GASP1-KO mice prevents cocaine-induced potentiation of NMDAR currents, elevation of the AMPA/NMDA ratio, and redistribution of NMDAR and AMPAR subunits to the membrane. As a pharmacological parallel, coadministration of the high-affinity D2 agonist, aripiprazole, reduces not only functional downregulation of D2s in response to cocaine but also potentiation of NMDAR and AMPAR responses in wild-type mice. Together these data suggest that functional loss of D2 receptors is a critical mechanism mediating cocaine-induced glutamate plasticity in VTA neurons. PMID:23884939

  16. D-2 dopamine receptor activation reduces free ( sup 3 H)arachidonate release induced by hypophysiotropic peptides in anterior pituitary cells

    SciTech Connect

    Canonico, P.L. )

    1989-09-01

    Dopamine reduces the stimulation of intracellular ({sup 3}H)arachidonate release produced by the two PRL-stimulating peptides angiotensin-II and TRH. This effect is concentration dependent and is mediated by stimulation of D-2 dopamine receptors. D-2 receptor agonists (bromocriptine, dihydroergocryptine, and dihydroergocristine) inhibit the release of fatty acid induced by angiotensin-II with a potency that parallels their ability to inhibit PRL release in vitro. Conversely, the selective D-2 receptor antagonist L-sulpiride completely prevents dopamine's effect, whereas SCH 23390 (a D-1 receptor antagonist) is ineffective. The inhibitory action of dopamine does not seem to be consequent to an action on the adenylate cyclase-cAMP system, as 8-bromo-cAMP (1 mM) does not affect either basal or dopamine-inhibited ({sup 3}H)arachidonate release. However, a 24-h pertussis toxin pretreatment significantly reduces the action of dopamine on fatty acid release. Collectively, these results suggest that D-2 dopamine receptor-mediated inhibition of intracellular ({sup 3}H)arachidonate release requires the action of a GTP-binding protein, but is not a consequence of an inhibitory action on cAMP levels.

  17. No evidence for association of dopamine D2 receptor variant (Ser311/Cys311) with major psychosis

    SciTech Connect

    Sasaki, Tsukasa; Macciardi, F.M.; Badri, F.

    1996-07-26

    We investigated a variant of the dopamine D2 receptor gene (Ser311/Cys311 substitution) in Caucasian patients with schizophrenia (n = 273), delusional disorder (n = 62), bipolar I affective disorder (n = 63), and controls (n = 255). No evidence for association between the receptor variant and any of the diseases was found, even when patients with younger age-of-onset (<25 years) were compared with controls. Futhermore, in a subgroup of schizophrenia patients whom we assessed for negative symptoms, those with the Cys allele did not differ from the remainder of the group. Also, the bipolar affective disorder patients with psychotic features did not show evidence for association with the receptor variant. Thus, our results do not provide evidence for an association between this D2 receptor variant and schizophrenia, or delusional disorder, or bipolar affective disorder. 11 refs., 1 tab.

  18. Striatal Dopamine D2/D3 Receptor Availability Is Associated with Executive Function in Healthy Controls but Not Methamphetamine Users

    PubMed Central

    Ballard, Michael E.; Dean, Andy C.; Mandelkern, Mark A.; London, Edythe D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Dopamine D2/D3 receptor availability in the striatum has been linked with executive function in healthy individuals, and is below control levels among drug addicts, possibly contributing to diminished executive function in the latter group. This study tested for an association of striatal D2/D3 receptor availability with a measure of executive function among research participants who met DSM-IV criteria for methamphetamine dependence. Methods Methamphetamine users and non-user controls (n = 18 per group) completed the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test and positron emission tomography with [18F]fallypride. Results The methamphetamine users displayed significantly lower striatal D2/D3 receptor availability on average than controls after controlling for age and education (p = 0.008), but they did not register greater proportions of either perseverative or non-perseverative errors when controlling for education (both ps ≥ 0.622). The proportion of non-perseverative, but not perseverative, errors was negatively correlated with striatal D2/D3 receptor availability among controls (r = -0.588, p = 0.010), but not methamphetamine users (r = 0.281, p = 0.258), and the group-wise interaction was significant (p = 0.030). Conclusions These results suggest that cognitive flexibility, as measured by perseverative errors on the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, is not determined by signaling through striatal D2/D3 receptors in healthy controls, and that in stimulant abusers, who have lower D2/D3 receptor availability, compensation can effectively maintain other executive functions, which are associated with D2/D3 receptor signaling in controls. PMID:26657223

  19. Emotional Eating Phenotype is Associated with Central Dopamine D2 Receptor Binding Independent of Body Mass Index

    PubMed Central

    Eisenstein, Sarah A.; Bischoff, Allison N.; Gredysa, Danuta M.; Antenor-Dorsey, Jo Ann V.; Koller, Jonathan M.; Al-Lozi, Amal; Pepino, Marta Y.; Klein, Samuel; Perlmutter, Joel S.; Moerlein, Stephen M.; Black, Kevin J.; Hershey, Tamara

    2015-01-01

    PET studies have provided mixed evidence regarding central D2/D3 dopamine receptor binding and its relationship with obesity as measured by body mass index (BMI). Other aspects of obesity may be more tightly coupled to the dopaminergic system. We characterized obesity-associated behaviors and determined if these related to central D2 receptor (D2R) specific binding independent of BMI. Twenty-two obese and 17 normal-weight participants completed eating- and reward-related questionnaires and underwent PET scans using the D2R-selective and nondisplaceable radioligand (N-[11C]methyl)benperidol. Questionnaires were grouped by domain (eating related to emotion, eating related to reward, non-eating behavior motivated by reward or sensitivity to punishment). Normalized, summed scores for each domain were compared between obese and normal-weight groups and correlated with striatal and midbrain D2R binding. Compared to normal-weight individuals, the obese group self-reported higher rates of eating related to both emotion and reward (p < 0.001), greater sensitivity to punishment (p = 0.06), and lower non-food reward behavior (p < 0.01). Across normal-weight and obese participants, self-reported emotional eating and non-food reward behavior positively correlated with striatal (p < 0.05) and midbrain (p < 0.05) D2R binding, respectively. In conclusion, an emotional eating phenotype may reflect altered central D2R function better than other commonly used obesity-related measures such as BMI. PMID:26066863

  20. Localization of the mRNAs for two dopamine D2 receptor isoforms in the rat brain.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Y; Sora, I; Tomita, H; Akiyama, K; Otsuki, S; Yamamura, H I

    1991-12-01

    Two molecular forms of the dopamine D2 receptor were generated by alternative RNA splicing. To investigate the relative distributions of the two mRNAs encoding the D2 receptor isoforms, D2(415) and D2(444), we performed in situ hybridization histochemistry in the rat brain with the two oligonucleotide probes. An insert probe complementary to an additional fragment of the D2 receptor mRNA cloned from the rat brain, and a spanning probe complementary to its contiguous sequence were used. These 48 base probes were 3'-end labeled with [35S]dATP. The brains were dissected from male SD rats and frozen in dry ice and acetone. Cryostat sections (16 microns) were collected on gelatin coated slides and stored at -20 degrees C. In situ hybridization studies were conducted with a probe concentration of 1 x 10(6) dpm/100 microliters of buffer per brain slice at 37 degrees C for 18-20 h in a humid chamber. The slides were washed, dried and exposed to tritium sensitive film for one week. The autoradiograph showed that both mRNA were present at high levels in the corpus striatum, accumbens nucleus and substantia nigra (pars compacta). Identical patterns of labeling were obtained in the rat brain using both the insert and spanning probes, although the optical densities detected with the insert probe were higher than those with the spanning probe in the corpus striatum. This suggests that both D2 receptor mRNAs are expressed similarly in each region of the rat brain and D2(444) expressed dominantly in the corpus striatum. PMID:1813683

  1. Effect of Motor Impairment on Analgesic Efficacy of Dopamine D2/3 Receptors in a Rat Model of Neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Dourado, Margarida; Cardoso-Cruz, Helder; Monteiro, Clara; Galhardo, Vasco

    2016-01-01

    Testing the clinical efficacy of drugs that also have important side effects on locomotion needs to be properly designed in order to avoid erroneous identification of positive effects when the evaluation depends on motor-related tests. One such example is the evaluation of analgesic role of drugs that act on dopaminergic receptors, since the pain perception tests used in animal models are based on motor responses that can also be compromised by the same substances. The apparent analgesic effect obtained by modulation of the dopaminergic system is still a highly disputed topic. There is a lack of acceptance of this effect in both preclinical and clinical settings, despite several studies showing that D2/3 agonists induce antinociception. Some authors raised the hypothesis that this antinociceptive effect is enhanced by dopamine-related changes in voluntary initiation of movement. However, the extent to which D2/3 modulation changes locomotion at analgesic effective doses is still an unresolved question. In the present work, we performed a detailed dose-dependent analysis of the changes that D2/3 systemic modulation have on voluntary locomotor activity and response to four separate tests of both thermal and mechanical pain sensitivity in adult rats. Using systemic administration of the dopamine D2/3 receptor agonist quinpirole, and of the D2/3 antagonist raclopride, we found that modulation of D2/3 receptors impairs locomotion and exploratory activity in a dose-dependent manner across the entire range of tested dosages. None of the drugs were able to consistently diminish either thermal or mechanical pain perception when administered at lower concentrations; on the other hand, the larger concentrations of raclopride (0.5–1.0 mg/kg) strongly abolished pain responses, and also caused severe motor impairment. Our results show that administration of both agonists and antagonists of dopaminergic D2/3 receptors affects sensorimotor behaviors, with the effect over

  2. Effect of Motor Impairment on Analgesic Efficacy of Dopamine D2/3 Receptors in a Rat Model of Neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Dourado, Margarida; Cardoso-Cruz, Helder; Monteiro, Clara; Galhardo, Vasco

    2016-01-01

    Testing the clinical efficacy of drugs that also have important side effects on locomotion needs to be properly designed in order to avoid erroneous identification of positive effects when the evaluation depends on motor-related tests. One such example is the evaluation of analgesic role of drugs that act on dopaminergic receptors, since the pain perception tests used in animal models are based on motor responses that can also be compromised by the same substances. The apparent analgesic effect obtained by modulation of the dopaminergic system is still a highly disputed topic. There is a lack of acceptance of this effect in both preclinical and clinical settings, despite several studies showing that D2/3 agonists induce antinociception. Some authors raised the hypothesis that this antinociceptive effect is enhanced by dopamine-related changes in voluntary initiation of movement. However, the extent to which D2/3 modulation changes locomotion at analgesic effective doses is still an unresolved question. In the present work, we performed a detailed dose-dependent analysis of the changes that D2/3 systemic modulation have on voluntary locomotor activity and response to four separate tests of both thermal and mechanical pain sensitivity in adult rats. Using systemic administration of the dopamine D2/3 receptor agonist quinpirole, and of the D2/3 antagonist raclopride, we found that modulation of D2/3 receptors impairs locomotion and exploratory activity in a dose-dependent manner across the entire range of tested dosages. None of the drugs were able to consistently diminish either thermal or mechanical pain perception when administered at lower concentrations; on the other hand, the larger concentrations of raclopride (0.5-1.0 mg/kg) strongly abolished pain responses, and also caused severe motor impairment. Our results show that administration of both agonists and antagonists of dopaminergic D2/3 receptors affects sensorimotor behaviors, with the effect over

  3. Nucleus Accumbens Dopamine D2-Receptor Expressing Neurons Control Behavioral Flexibility in a Place Discrimination Task in the IntelliCage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macpherson, Tom; Morita, Makiko; Wang, Yanyan; Sasaoka, Toshikuni; Sawa, Akira; Hikida, Takatoshi

    2016-01-01

    Considerable evidence has demonstrated a critical role for the nucleus accumbens (NAc) in the acquisition and flexibility of behavioral strategies. These processes are guided by the activity of two discrete neuron types, dopamine D1- or D2-receptor expressing medium spiny neurons (D1-/D2-MSNs). Here we used the IntelliCage, an automated…

  4. Further association study on dopamine D2 receptor variant S311C in Schizophrenia and affective disorders

    SciTech Connect

    Arinami, Tadao; Hamaguchi, Hideo; Itokawa, Masanari; Aoki, Junichi; Shibuya, Haruo

    1996-04-09

    The dopamine D2 receptor gene is a candidate gene for schizophrenia because the potency of certain neuroleptics correlates with their affinity for this receptor. Case-control studies in 291 schizophrenics, 78 patients with affective disorders, and 579 controls on an association of a molecular variant of S311C of the dopamine D2 receptor with psychiatric disorders were conducted. The frequency of individuals with S311C was significantly higher in schizophrenics with the absence of negative symptoms (17.1%, P < 0.00001), but similar in schizophrenics with the presence of negative symptoms (5.7%, P = 0.46) when compared with the controls (4.1%). The frequency of S311C was significantly higher in familiar schizophrenics from one local area but not in those from other areas. It was significant that S311C was frequently present in patients with mood-incongruent psychotic affective disorders (33.3%, P < 0.0001), but not in those with other affective disorders. These data suggest that S311C might be one of the genetic factors for symptomatic dimensions of delusions and hallucinations and might be involved in underlying clinical heterogeneity in schizophrenia and affective disorders. 48 refs., 3 tabs.

  5. A genetic linkage study of bipolar disorder and 13 markers on chromosome 11 including the D2 dopamine receptor.

    PubMed

    Kelsoe, J R; Kristbjanarson, H; Bergesch, P; Shilling, P; Hirsch, S; Mirow, A; Moises, H W; Helgason, T; Gillin, J C; Egeland, J A

    1993-12-01

    Chromosome 11 is a region of great interest in the search for genes for bipolar disorder. Although an initial report of linkage to 11p15 was not replicated in numerous subsequent studies, the remainder of the chromosome contains a variety of interesting candidate genes and regions. These include the D2 dopamine receptor and the site of a chromosomal translocation that has been reported to be associated with bipolar disorder. As part of a systematic survey of the genome for markers linked to bipolar disorder, we have examined 13 markers on chromosome 11 in three large Icelandic families and Amish pedigree 110. No clear evidence of linkage was obtained. The highest lod score was found at D11S29 (lod = 1.63 at theta = 0.1), which is in the general region of the reported translocation breakpoints. However, this lod is not statistically significant, and its meaning is further mitigated by strongly negative lods in two nearby flanking markers. Linkage to the D2 dopamine receptor locus was strongly excluded (lod = -4.02 at theta = 0.0). In two-point analyses, linkage to bipolar disorder could be excluded to eight of the 13 markers. Multipoint analyses, similarly, failed to reveal any evidence of linkage. PMID:7905737

  6. History of cannabis use is not associated with alterations in striatal dopamine D2/D3 receptor availability.

    PubMed

    Stokes, Paul R A; Egerton, Alice; Watson, Ben; Reid, Alistair; Lappin, Julia; Howes, Oliver D; Nutt, David J; Lingford-Hughes, Anne R

    2012-01-01

    Cannabis use in adolescence is emerging as a risk factor for the development of psychosis. In animal studies, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the psychoactive component of cannabis, modulates striatal dopaminergic neurotransmission. Alterations in human striatal dopaminergic function have also been reported both in psychosis and in stimulant use. We sought to examine whether striatal dopamine D(2)/D(3) receptor availability was altered in volunteers with a history of cannabis use using a database of previously acquired [(11)C]-raclopride positron emission tomography (PET) scans. Ten [(11)C]-raclopride scans from volunteers with a history of cannabis use were compared to ten control scans using a functional striatal subdivision region of interest (ROI) analysis. No significant differences in either overall striatal BP(ND) values or BP(ND) values in any functional striatal subdivision were found between the two groups. There was also no correlation between lifetime frequency of cannabis use and BP(ND) values. Limbic striatal BP(ND) values were ten percent lower in current nicotine cigarette smokers. These findings suggest that, unlike other drugs of abuse, a history of cannabis use is not associated with alterations in striatal dopamine D(2)/D(3) receptor availability. PMID:21890594

  7. Involvement of Dopamine D1/D5 and D2 Receptors in Context-Dependent Extinction Learning and Memory Reinstatement

    PubMed Central

    André, Marion Agnès Emma; Manahan-Vaughan, Denise

    2016-01-01

    Dopamine contributes to the regulation of higher order information processing and executive control. It is important for memory consolidation processes, and for the adaptation of learned responses based on experience. In line with this, under aversive learning conditions, application of dopamine receptor antagonists prior to extinction result in enhanced memory reinstatement. Here, we investigated the contribution of the dopaminergic system to extinction and memory reinstatement (renewal) of an appetitive spatial learning task in rodents. Rats were trained for 3 days in a T-maze (context “A”) to associate a goal arm with a food reward, despite low reward probability (acquisition phase). On day 4, extinction learning (unrewarded) occurred, that was reinforced by a context change (“B”). On day 5, re-exposure to the (unrewarded) “A” context took place (renewal of context “A”, followed by extinction of context “A”). In control animals, significant extinction occurred on day 4, that was followed by an initial memory reinstatement (renewal) on day 5, that was, in turn, succeeded by extinction of renewal. Intracerebral treatment with a D1/D5-receptor antagonist prior to the extinction trials, elicited a potent enhancement of extinction in context “B”. By contrast, a D1/D5-agonist impaired renewal in context “A”. Extinction in the “A” context on day 5 was unaffected by the D1/D5-ligands. Treatment with a D2-receptor antagonist prior to extinction had no overall effect on extinction in context “B” or renewal in context “A”, although extinction of the renewal effect was impaired on day 5, compared to controls. Taken together, these data suggest that dopamine acting on the D1/D5-receptor modulates both acquisition and consolidation of context-dependent extinction. By contrast, the D2-receptor may contribute to context-independent aspects of this kind of extinction learning. PMID:26834599

  8. Activation of postsynaptic D2 dopamine receptors in the rat dorsolateral striatum prevents the amnestic effect of systemically administered neuroleptics.

    PubMed

    Boschen, Suelen Lucio; Andreatini, Roberto; da Cunha, Claudio

    2015-03-15

    Systemically administered antipsychotics bind to dopamine (DA) D2 receptors expressed in both pre- and postsynaptic neurons of different striatal sites and present an amnestic effect on learning and memory of conditioned avoidance responses (CAR). The aim of this study was to test whether blockade of the pre- or post-synaptic D2 receptors of the dorsolateral striatum of rats is the mechanism by which systemically administered antipsychotics present this amnestic effect. CAR learning and memory was evaluated in rats that received i.p. administrations of pre- or postsynaptic doses of the antipsychotic sulpiride combined with intra-DLS infusion of the D2 agonist quinpirole. Intra-DLS quinpirole itself was not amnestic and this effect was prevented by co-administration of presynaptic dose of sulpiride. However, sulpiride was amnestic when administered systemically in a post- but not presynaptic dose. This amnestic effect of sulpiride was prevented by the co-administration of quinpirole into the DLS. These results show that a blockade of postsynaptic D2 receptors in the DLS is necessary and sufficient to produce the amnestic effect of neuroleptics on CARs. PMID:25546724

  9. Effects of dopamine D1 and D2 receptor agonists and antagonists on bombesin-induced behaviors.

    PubMed

    Merali, Z; Piggins, H

    1990-12-01

    Central administration of bombesin elicits excessive grooming and locomotor activity in rats. This grooming activity is one characterised by vigorous scratching of the face, nape and body flanks. Pretreatment with the D1 receptor antagonist SCH 23390 inhibited the expression of bombesin-induced activity with grooming being more inhibited than locomotion. Blockade of D2 receptors with eticlopride significantly attenuated the behavioral responses to bombesin. When SCH 23390 and eticlopride were administered concurrently, it was apparent that D1 blockade had a greater effect on grooming and D2 blockade a larger effect on locomotion. Stimulation of D1 receptors by SKF 38393 elicited non-stereotyped locomotor activity and a form of grooming behavior characterised by vigorous washing of the face and ventral body surfaces. Co-administration of bombesin and SKF 38393 resulted in a form of grooming which resembled that elicited by SKF 38393 alone. The specific D2 agonist PPHT elicited a form of locomotion characterised by a downward oriented head posture and slow ambulatory activity around the cage perimeter. Co-administration of PPHT and bombesin resulted in a complete suppression of bombesin-induced behaviors and was largely indistinguishable from activity observed under PPHT alone conditions. These data implicate both D1 and D2 receptor based mechanisms in the modulation/mediation of the behavioral effects of bombesin. Part of the bombesin-induced behavioral effects may be explained by (indirect) activation of (a) dopamine system(s). PMID:2086245

  10. Fetal Alcohol Exposure Reduces Dopamine Receptor D2 and Increases Pituitary Weight and Prolactin Production via Epigenetic Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Gangisetty, Omkaram; Wynne, Olivia; Jabbar, Shaima; Nasello, Cara; Sarkar, Dipak K.

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence indicated that alcohol exposure during the fetal period increases the susceptibility to tumor development in mammary and prostate tissues. Whether fetal alcohol exposure increases the susceptibility to prolactin-producing tumor (prolactinoma) development in the pituitary was studied by employing the animal model of estradiol-induced prolactinomas in Fischer 344 female rats. We employed an animal model of fetal alcohol exposure that simulates binge alcohol drinking during the first two trimesters of human pregnancy and involves feeding pregnant rats with a liquid diet containing 6.7% alcohol during gestational day 7 to day 21. Control rats were pair-fed with isocaloric liquid diet or fed ad libitum with rat chow diet. Adult alcohol exposed and control female offspring rats were used in this study on the day of estrus or after estrogen treatment. Results show that fetal alcohol-exposed rats had increased levels of pituitary weight, pituitary prolactin (PRL) protein and mRNA, and plasma PRL. However, these rats show decreased pituitary levels of dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) mRNA and protein and increased pituitary levels of D2R promoter methylation. Also, they show elevated pituitary mRNA levels of DNA methylating genes (DNMT1, DNMT3b, MeCP2) and histone modifying genes (HDAC2, HDAC4, G9a). When fetal alcohol exposed rats were treated neonatally with a DNA methylation inhibitor 5-Aza deoxycytidine and/or a HDAC inhibitor trichostatin-A their pituitary D2R mRNA, pituitary weights and plasma PRL levels were normalized. These data suggest that fetal alcohol exposure programs the pituitary to increase the susceptibility to the development of prolactinomas possibly by enhancing the methylation of the D2R gene promoter and repressing the synthesis and control of D2R on PRL-producing cells. PMID:26509893

  11. Addiction-related alterations in D1 and D2 dopamine receptor behavioral responses following chronic cocaine self-administration.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Scott; Whisler, Kimberly N; Fuller, Dwain C; Orsulak, Paul J; Self, David W

    2007-02-01

    The cocaine-addicted phenotype can be modeled in rats based on individual differences in preferred levels of cocaine intake and a propensity for relapse in withdrawal. These cocaine-taking and -seeking behaviors are strongly but differentially regulated by postsynaptic D1 and D2 receptors in the mesolimbic dopamine system. Thus, we determined whether addiction-related differences in cocaine self-administration would be related to differential sensitivity in functional D1 and D2 receptor responses. Using a population of 40 outbred Sprague-Dawley rats trained to self-administer cocaine for 3 weeks, we found that animals with higher preferred levels of cocaine intake exhibited a vertical and rightward shift in the self-administration dose-response function, and were more resistant to extinction from cocaine self-administration, similar to phenotypic changes reported in other models of cocaine addiction. After 3 weeks of withdrawal from cocaine self-administration, high intake rats were subsensitive to the ability of the D1 agonist SKF 81297 to inhibit cocaine-seeking behavior elicited by cocaine priming, but supersensitive to cocaine seeking triggered by the D2 agonist quinpirole, when compared to low intake rats. Additionally, high intake rats developed profound increases in locomotor responses to D2 receptor challenge from early to late withdrawal times, whereas low intake rats developed increased responsiveness to D1 receptor challenge. In a second experiment, responses to the mixed D1/D2 agonist apomorphine and the NMDA glutamate receptor antagonist MK-801 failed to differ between low and high intake rats. These findings suggest that cocaine addiction is related specifically to differential alterations in functional D1 and D2 receptors and their ability to modulate cocaine-seeking behavior. PMID:16541082

  12. Localization of dopamine D3 receptors to mesolimbic and D2 receptors to mesostriatal regions of human forebrain.

    PubMed Central

    Murray, A M; Ryoo, H L; Gurevich, E; Joyce, J N

    1994-01-01

    We characterized the binding of [125I]epidepride to dopamine D2-like and D3-like receptors in tissue sections of human striatum. The competition for binding of [125I]epidepride by domperidone, quinpirole, and 7-hydroxy-N,N-di(1-propyl)-2-aminotetralin (7-OH-DPAT) was best fit by assuming one site in the caudate but two sites in nucleus accumbens. Guanosine 5'-[beta, gamma-imido]triphosphate showed a large modulatory influence in agonist inhibition of [125I]epidepride binding in caudate but not in nucleus accumbens. The binding of [125I]epidepride in the presence of 7-OH-DPAT (1000-fold selective for D3-like versus D2-like sites) and domperidone (20-fold selective for D2-like versus D3-like sites) was used to quantify the numbers of D2-like and D3-like receptors in areas of human brain. The distribution of D2-like and D3-like receptors was largely nonoverlapping. Binding of [125I]epidepride to D3-like receptors was negligible in the dorsal striatum but was concentrated in islands of dense binding in the nucleus accumbens and ventral putamen that aligned with acetylcholinesterase-poor striosomes. Binding to D3-like receptors was also enriched in the internal globus pallidus, ventral pallidum, septum, islands of Calleja, nucleus basalis, amygdalostriatal transition nucleus of the amygdala, central nucleus of the amygdala, and ventral tegmental area. Binding of [125I]epidepride to D2 but not D3 receptors was detected in cortex and hippocampus. Images PMID:7972046

  13. D1 Antagonists and D2 Agonists Have Opposite Effects on the Metabolism of Dopamine in the Rat Striatum.

    PubMed

    Avila-Luna, Alberto; Prieto-Leyva, Jacqueline; Gálvez-Rosas, Arturo; Alfaro-Rodriguez, Alfonso; Gonzalez-Pina, Rigoberto; Bueno-Nava, Antonio

    2015-07-01

    The striatum is known to possess high levels of D1-like and D2-like receptors (D1Rs and D2Rs, respectively). We have previously shown that selective inhibition of D1Rs increases the dopaminergic metabolic response and proposed that this effect is associated with the concomitant activation of postsynaptic D2Rs by endogenous dopamine (DA). Here, we examined whether activation of D2Rs modulates the metabolism and synthesis of DA in the striatum. We used male Wistar rats to evaluate the effects of the systemic administration of a D2R agonist (bromocriptine), a D1R antagonist (SCH-23390), and the co-administration of these compounds with pargyline on the inhibition of monoamine oxidase. DA and L-3,4-dihidroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) levels and 3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine (L-DOPA) content were measured using high performance liquid chromatography. The systemic administration of SCH-23390 alone, at 0.25, 0.5, 1 or 2 mg/kg, significantly (P < 0.05) increased DOPAC levels and the DOPAC/DA ratio. At 2, 4 and 8 mg/kg, the administration of bromocriptine alone significantly (P < 0.05) decreased DOPAC levels, L-DOPA content and the DOPAC/DA ratio, whereas at 2 mg/kg, it decreased DA levels. In both groups, co-administration of either SCH-23390 or bromocriptine with pargyline decreased DOPAC levels and the DOPAC/DA ratio by approximately 70 % compared to the levels observed in the control groups. In conclusion, administration of the D2R agonist bromocriptine decreased dopaminergic synthesis and metabolism in the striatum; in contrast, administration of the D1R antagonist SCH-23390 induced the opposite effects. PMID:25981954

  14. Localization of dopamine D3 receptors to mesolimbic and D2 receptors to mesostriatal regions of human forebrain.

    PubMed

    Murray, A M; Ryoo, H L; Gurevich, E; Joyce, J N

    1994-11-01

    We characterized the binding of [125I]epidepride to dopamine D2-like and D3-like receptors in tissue sections of human striatum. The competition for binding of [125I]epidepride by domperidone, quinpirole, and 7-hydroxy-N,N-di(1-propyl)-2-aminotetralin (7-OH-DPAT) was best fit by assuming one site in the caudate but two sites in nucleus accumbens. Guanosine 5'-[beta, gamma-imido]triphosphate showed a large modulatory influence in agonist inhibition of [125I]epidepride binding in caudate but not in nucleus accumbens. The binding of [125I]epidepride in the presence of 7-OH-DPAT (1000-fold selective for D3-like versus D2-like sites) and domperidone (20-fold selective for D2-like versus D3-like sites) was used to quantify the numbers of D2-like and D3-like receptors in areas of human brain. The distribution of D2-like and D3-like receptors was largely nonoverlapping. Binding of [125I]epidepride to D3-like receptors was negligible in the dorsal striatum but was concentrated in islands of dense binding in the nucleus accumbens and ventral putamen that aligned with acetylcholinesterase-poor striosomes. Binding to D3-like receptors was also enriched in the internal globus pallidus, ventral pallidum, septum, islands of Calleja, nucleus basalis, amygdalostriatal transition nucleus of the amygdala, central nucleus of the amygdala, and ventral tegmental area. Binding of [125I]epidepride to D2 but not D3 receptors was detected in cortex and hippocampus. PMID:7972046

  15. Obesity is associated with decreased μ-opioid but unaltered dopamine D2 receptor availability in the brain.

    PubMed

    Karlsson, Henry K; Tuominen, Lauri; Tuulari, Jetro J; Hirvonen, Jussi; Parkkola, Riitta; Helin, Semi; Salminen, Paulina; Nuutila, Pirjo; Nummenmaa, Lauri

    2015-03-01

    Neurochemical pathways involved in pathological overeating and obesity are poorly understood. Although previous studies have shown increased μ-opioid receptor (MOR) and decreased dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) availability in addictive disorders, the role that these systems play in human obesity still remains unclear. We studied 13 morbidly obese women [mean body mass index (BMI), 42 kg/m(2)] and 14 nonobese age-matched women, and measured brain MOR and D2R availability using PET with selective radioligands [(11)C]carfentanil and [(11)C]raclopride, respectively. We also used quantitative meta-analytic techniques to pool previous evidence on the effects of obesity on altered D2R availability. Morbidly obese subjects had significantly lower MOR availability than control subjects in brain regions relevant for reward processing, including ventral striatum, insula, and thalamus. Moreover, in these areas, BMI correlated negatively with MOR availability. Striatal MOR availability was also negatively associated with self-reported food addiction and restrained eating patterns. There were no significant differences in D2R availability between obese and nonobese subjects in any brain region. Meta-analysis confirmed that current evidence for altered D2R availability in obesity is only modest. Obesity appears to have unique neurobiological underpinnings in the reward circuit, whereby it is more similar to opioid addiction than to other addictive disorders. The opioid system modulates motivation and reward processing, and low μ-opioid availability may promote overeating to compensate decreased hedonic responses in this system. Behavioral and pharmacological strategies for recovering opioidergic function might thus be critical to curb the obesity epidemic. PMID:25740524

  16. The predicted 3D structure of the human D2 dopamine receptor and the binding site and binding affinities for agonists and antagonists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalani, M. Yashar S.; Vaidehi, Nagarajan; Hall, Spencer E.; Trabanino, Rene J.; Freddolino, Peter L.; Kalani, Maziyar A.; Floriano, Wely B.; Tak Kam, Victor Wai; Goddard, William A., III

    2004-03-01

    Dopamine neurotransmitter and its receptors play a critical role in the cell signaling process responsible for information transfer in neurons functioning in the nervous system. Development of improved therapeutics for such disorders as Parkinson's disease and schizophrenia would be significantly enhanced with the availability of the 3D structure for the dopamine receptors and of the binding site for dopamine and other agonists and antagonists. We report here the 3D structure of the long isoform of the human D2 dopamine receptor, predicted from primary sequence using first-principles theoretical and computational techniques (i.e., we did not use bioinformatic or experimental 3D structural information in predicting structures). The predicted 3D structure is validated by comparison of the predicted binding site and the relative binding affinities of dopamine, three known dopamine agonists (antiparkinsonian), and seven known antagonists (antipsychotic) in the D2 receptor to experimentally determined values. These structures correctly predict the critical residues for binding dopamine and several antagonists, identified by mutation studies, and give relative binding affinities that correlate well with experiments. The predicted binding site for dopamine and agonists is located between transmembrane (TM) helices 3, 4, 5, and 6, whereas the best antagonists bind to a site involving TM helices 2, 3, 4, 6, and 7 with minimal contacts to TM helix 5. We identify characteristic differences between the binding sites of agonists and antagonists.

  17. In vivo and in vitro detection of dopamine d2 receptors in uveal melanomas.

    PubMed

    Bodei, Lisa; Hofland, Leo J; Ferone, Diego; Mooy, Cornelia M; Kros, Johan M; Paridaens, Dion A; Baarsma, Seerp G; Ferdeghini, Marco; Van Hagen, Martin P; Krenning, Eric P; Kwekkeboom, Dik J

    2003-12-01

    Scintigraphy with radiolabeled benzamides was used in melanoma patients. Studies with a newer benzamide called 123I-epidepride, a high-affinity D2 receptor (D2R) antagonist, showed high sensitivity in D2R-positive pituitary adenomas. We evaluated the presence of D2R in patients with uveal melanomas in vivo with 123I-epidepride, and in vitro in melanomas, using immunohistochemistry (IHC) and 125I-epidepride autoradiography. We studied the in vivo tumor-to-background (TB) ratios in six patients with posterior uveal melanoma (one previously enucleated). IHC was performed in 3 of 6 tumors after enucleation and in another 20 uveal melanomas, 7 metastatic lymph nodes from skin melanoma, and 2 normal specimens. 125I-epidepride autoradiography was performed in 10 uveal melanomas (3 of which were studied in vivo), 7 metastases, and 2 normal samples. Radioligand uptake was present in the affected eye of 5 patients with uveal melanoma (TB = 3.1-6.1) and absent in the operated one (TB = 1). Eight uveal tumors were positive at IHC (35%), 14 weakly positive (61%), and 1 negative (4%). Two metastases were positive (29%), 2 weakly positive (29%), and 3 negative (42%). Two uveal tumors were positive at autoradiography (20%), 7 had nonspecific binding (70%), and 1 was negative (10%). One metastasis was positive (14%), while 6 were negative (86%). 123I-epidepride scintigraphy in uveal melanomas seems promising for sensitivity and image quality. D2R was demonstrated in a significant proportion of the melanomas, although 123I-epidepride uptake might also be nonspecific and unrelated to D2R binding. Although further studies on larger series are needed, 123I-epidepride could represent a future tool to study the expression of D2R in other classes of neuroendocrine tumors. PMID:14969602

  18. Midbrain functional connectivity and ventral striatal dopamine D2-type receptors: Link to impulsivity in methamphetamine users

    PubMed Central

    Kohno, Milky; Okita, Kyoji; Morales, Angelica M.; Robertson, Chelsea; Dean, Andy C.; Ghahremani, Dara G.; Sabb, Fred; Mandelkern, Mark A.; Bilder, Robert M.; London, Edythe D.

    2015-01-01

    Stimulant use disorders are associated with deficits in striatal dopamine receptor availability, abnormalities in mesocorticolimbic resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC), and impulsivity. In methamphetamine-dependent research participants, impulsivity is correlated negatively with striatal D2-type receptor availability, and mesocorticolimbic RSFC is stronger than in controls. The extent to which these features of methamphetamine dependence are interrelated, however, is unknown. This question was addressed in two studies. In Study 1, 19 methamphetamine-dependent and 26 healthy control subjects underwent [18F]fallypride positron emission tomography to measure ventral striatal dopamine D2-type receptor availability, indexed by binding potential (BPND), and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to assess mesocorticolimbic RSFC, using a midbrain seed. In Study 2, an independent sample of 20 methamphetamine-dependent and 18 control subjects completed the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale in addition to fMRI. Study 1 showed a significant group by ventral striatal BPND interaction effect on RSFC, reflecting a negative relationship between ventral striatal BPND and RSFC between midbrain and striatum, orbitofrontal cortex, and insula in methamphetamine-dependent participants but a positive relationship in the control group. In Study 2, an interaction of group with RSFC on impulsivity was observed. Methamphetamine-dependent participants users exhibited a positive relationship of midbrain RSFC to the left ventral striatum with cognitive impulsivity, whereas a negative relationship was observed in healthy controls. The results indicate that ventral striatal D2-type receptor signaling may affect system-level activity within the mesocorticolimbic system, providing a functional link that may help explain high impulsivity in methamphetamine-dependent individuals. PMID:26830141

  19. Loss of dopamine D2 receptors in Alzheimer's disease with parkinsonism but not Parkinson's or Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Joyce, J N; Murray, A M; Hurtig, H I; Gottlieb, G L; Trojanowski, J Q

    1998-12-01

    A significant proportion of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) exhibit extrapyramidal features that are referred to as parkinsonism (AD/Park) to distinguish the clinical and pathological features that differ from Parkinson's disease (PD). Previous results from this laboratory have shown that, although the presynaptic components of the dopamine (DA) system are markedly affected in AD/Park, the pathology is not similar to PD (Murray et al. 1995; Joyce et al. 1997). In the present study, we determined whether the parkinsonian symptoms in AD/Park might also reflect changes in numbers of postsynaptic DA receptors. We analyzed the binding of [125I]epidepride biding to DA D2/D3 receptors and [3H]SCH 23390 to D1 receptors by autoradiography in the striatum of six patients with PD, nine patients with AD, seven patients with AD/Park, and 14 neurologically intact control subjects. D2 receptors were reduced in the caudate and putamen of the AD/Park group (by 42 and 27% of controls, respectively) but not reduced in AD or PD. D1 receptors were elevated by 36% in the putamen of the PD group. Dopamine receptor changes are, therefore, not similar in PD, AD, and AD/Park. The elevation in D1 receptors in PD may contribute to the unwanted side effects of L-dopa treatment. The loss of D2 receptors in AD/Park, not observed in AD lacking overt parkinsonian symptomatology, may contribute to the presence of parkinsonian features and lack of responsiveness to L-dopa. PMID:9803423

  20. In Vitro and In Vivo Identification of Novel Positive Allosteric Modulators of the Human Dopamine D2 and D3 Receptor.

    PubMed

    Wood, Martyn; Ates, Ali; Andre, Veronique Marie; Michel, Anne; Barnaby, Robert; Gillard, Michel

    2016-02-01

    Agonists at dopamine D2 and D3 receptors are important therapeutic agents in the treatment of Parkinson's disease. Compared with the use of agonists, allosteric potentiators offer potential advantages such as temporal, regional, and phasic potentiation of natural signaling, and that of receptor subtype selectivity. We report the identification of a stereoselective interaction of a benzothiazol racemic compound that acts as a positive allosteric modulator (PAM) of the rat and human dopamine D2 and D3 receptors. The R isomer did not directly stimulate the dopamine D2 receptor but potentiated the effects of dopamine. In contrast the S isomer attenuated the effects of the PAM and the effects of dopamine. In radioligand binding studies, these compounds do not compete for binding of orthosteric ligands, but indeed the R isomer increased the number of high-affinity sites for [(3)H]-dopamine without affecting K(d). We went on to identify a more potent PAM for use in native receptor systems. This compound potentiated the effects of D2/D3 signaling in vitro in electrophysiologic studies on dissociated striatal neurons and in vivo on the effects of L-dopa in the 6OHDA (6-hydroxydopamine) contralateral turning model. These PAMs lacked activity at a wide variety of receptors, lacked PAM activity at related Gi-coupled G protein-coupled receptors, and lacked activity at D1 receptors. However, the PAMs did potentiate [(3)H]-dopamine binding at both D2 and D3 receptors. Together, these studies show that we have identified PAMs of the D2 and D3 receptors both in vitro and in vivo. Such compounds may have utility in the treatment of hypodopaminergic function. PMID:26655303

  1. The mRNA Expression Status of Dopamine Receptor D2, Dopamine Receptor D3 and DARPP-32 in T Lymphocytes of Patients with Early Psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Yin; Prabhu, Vishwanath; Nguyen, Thong Ba; Yadav, Binod Kumar; Chung, Young-Chul

    2015-01-01

    Peripheral blood lymphocytes are an attractive tool because there is accumulating evidence indicating that lymphocytes may be utilized as a biomarker in the field of psychiatric study as they could reveal the condition of cells distributed in the brain. Here, we measured the mRNA expression status of dopamine receptor D2 (DRD2), DRD3, and dopamine and cyclic adenosine 3′,5′-monophosphate regulated phosphoprotein-32 (DARPP-32) in T lymphocytes of patients with early psychosis by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (q-PCR) and explored the relationships between their mRNA levels and the psychopathological status of patients. The present study demonstrated that the mRNA expression levels of DRD3 in T lymphocytes were significantly different among controls, and in patients with psychotic disorder not otherwise specified (NOS) and schizophrenia/schizophreniform disorder. However, no significant differences in mRNA expression levels of DRD2 and DARPP-32 were found among the three groups. We found a significant positive correlation between the DRD2 mRNA level and the score of the excited factor of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) in patients with schizophrenia/schizophreniform disorder. These findings suggest that DRD3 mRNA levels may serve as a potential diagnostic biomarker differentiating patients with early psychosis from controls. PMID:26561806

  2. Rescue of dopamine transporter function in hypoinsulinemic rats by a D2 receptor-ERK dependent mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Owens, W. Anthony; Williams, Jason M.; Saunders, Christine; Avison, Malcolm J.; Galli, Aurelio; Daws, Lynette C.

    2012-01-01

    The dopamine (DA) transporter (DAT) is a major target for abused drugs and a key regulator of extracellular DA. A rapidly growing literature implicates insulin as an important regulator of DAT function. We previously showed that amphetamine (AMPH)-evoked DA release is markedly impaired in rats depleted of insulin with the diabetogenic agent, streptozotocin (STZ). Similarly, functional magnetic resonance imaging experiments revealed that the blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) signal following acute AMPH administration in STZ-treated rats is reduced. Here, we report that these deficits are restored by repeated, systemic administration of AMPH (1.78 mg/kg, every other day for 8 days). AMPH stimulates DA D2 receptors indirectly by increasing extracellular DA. Supporting a role for D2 receptors in mediating this “rescue”, the effect was completely blocked by pre-treatment of STZ-treated rats with the D2 receptor antagonist, raclopride, prior to systemic AMPH. D2 receptors regulate DAT cell surface expression through ERK1/2 signaling. In ex vivo striatal preparations, repeated AMPH injections increased immunoreactivity of phosphorylated ERK1/2 in STZ-treated, but not in control rats. These data suggest that repeated exposure to AMPH can rescue, by activating D2 receptors and p-ERK signaling, deficits in DAT function that result from hypoinsulinemia. Our data confirm the idea that disorders influencing insulin levels and/or signaling, such as diabetes and anorexia, can degrade DAT function and that insulin-independent pathways are present that may be exploited as potential therapeutic targets to restore normal DAT function. PMID:22357848

  3. Sex differences, learning flexibility, and striatal dopamine D1 and D2 following adolescent drug exposure in rats.

    PubMed

    Izquierdo, Alicia; Pozos, Hilda; Torre, Adrianna De La; DeShields, Simone; Cevallos, James; Rodriguez, Jonathan; Stolyarova, Alexandra

    2016-07-15

    Corticostriatal circuitry supports flexible reward learning and emotional behavior from the critical neurodevelopmental stage of adolescence through adulthood. It is still poorly understood how prescription drug exposure in adolescence may impact these outcomes in the long-term. We studied adolescent methylphenidate (MPH) and fluoxetine (FLX) exposure in rats and their impact on learning and emotion in adulthood. In Experiment 1, male and female rats were administered MPH, FLX, or saline (SAL), and compared with methamphetamine (mAMPH) treatment beginning in postnatal day (PND) 37. The rats were then tested on discrimination and reversal learning in adulthood. In Experiment 2, animals were administered MPH or SAL also beginning in PND 37 and later tested in adulthood for anxiety levels. In Experiment 3, we analyzed striatal dopamine D1 and D2 receptor expression in adulthood following either extensive learning (after Experiment 1) or more brief emotional measures (after Experiment 2). We found sex differences in discrimination learning and attenuated reversal learning after MPH and only sex differences in adulthood anxiety. In learners, there was enhanced striatal D1, but not D2, after either adolescent MPH or mAMPH. Lastly, also in learners, there was a sex x treatment group interaction for D2, but not D1, driven by the MPH-pretreated females, who expressed significantly higher D2 levels compared to SAL. These results show enduring effects of adolescent MPH on reversal learning in rats. Developmental psychostimulant exposure may interact with learning to enhance D1 expression in adulthood, and affect D2 expression in a sex-dependent manner. PMID:27091300

  4. Sex differences, learning flexibility, and striatal dopamine D1 and D2 following adolescent drug exposure in rats

    PubMed Central

    Izquierdo, Alicia; Pozos, Hilda; De La Torre, Adrianna; DeShields, Simone; Cevallos, James; Rodriguez, Jonathan; Stolyarova, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    Corticostriatal circuitry supports flexible reward learning and emotional behavior from the critical neurodevelopmental stage of adolescence through adulthood. It is still poorly understood how prescription drug exposure in adolescence may impact these outcomes in the long-term. We studied adolescent methylphenidate (MPH) and fluoxetine (FLX) exposure in rats and their impact on learning and emotion in adulthood. In Experiment 1, male and female rats were administered MPH, FLX, or saline (SAL), and compared with methamphetamine (mAMPH) treatment beginning in postnatal day (PND) 37. The rats were then tested on discrimination and reversal learning in adulthood. In Experiment 2, animals were administered MPH or SAL also beginning in PND 37 and later tested in adulthood for anxiety levels. In Experiment 3, we analyzed striatal dopamine D1 and D2 receptor expression in adulthood following either extensive learning (after Experiment 1) or more brief emotional measures (after Experiment 2). We found sex differences in discrimination learning and attenuated reversal learning after MPH and only sex differences in adulthood anxiety. In learners, there was enhanced striatal D1, but not D2, after either adolescent MPH or mAMPH. Lastly, also in learners, there was a sex x treatment group interaction for D2, but not D1, driven by the MPH-pretreated females, who expressed significantly higher D2 levels compared to SAL. These results show enduring effects of adolescent MPH on reversal learning in rats. Developmental psychostimulant exposure may interact with learning to enhance D1 expression in adulthood, and affect D2 expression in a sex-dependent manner. PMID:27091300

  5. Membrane omega-3 fatty acids modulate the oligomerisation kinetics of adenosine A2A and dopamine D2 receptors

    PubMed Central

    Guixà-González, Ramon; Javanainen, Matti; Gómez-Soler, Maricel; Cordobilla, Begoña; Domingo, Joan Carles; Sanz, Ferran; Pastor, Manuel; Ciruela, Francisco; Martinez-Seara, Hector; Selent, Jana

    2016-01-01

    Membrane levels of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), an essential omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (ω-3 PUFA), are decreased in common neuropsychiatric disorders. DHA modulates key cell membrane properties like fluidity, thereby affecting the behaviour of transmembrane proteins like G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). These receptors, which have special relevance for major neuropsychiatric disorders have recently been shown to form dimers or higher order oligomers, and evidence suggests that DHA levels affect GPCR function by modulating oligomerisation. In this study, we assessed the effect of membrane DHA content on the formation of a class of protein complexes with particular relevance for brain disease: adenosine A2A and dopamine D2 receptor oligomers. Using extensive multiscale computer modelling, we find a marked propensity of DHA for interaction with both A2A and D2 receptors, which leads to an increased rate of receptor oligomerisation. Bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET) experiments performed on living cells suggest that this DHA effect on the oligomerisation of A2A and D2 receptors is purely kinetic. This work reveals for the first time that membrane ω-3 PUFAs play a key role in GPCR oligomerisation kinetics, which may have important implications for neuropsychiatric conditions like schizophrenia or Parkinson’s disease. PMID:26796668

  6. Central dopamine D2 receptors regulate growth-hormone-dependent body growth and pheromone signaling to conspecific males.

    PubMed

    Noaín, Daniela; Pérez-Millán, M Inés; Bello, Estefanía P; Luque, Guillermina M; Casas Cordero, Rodrigo; Gelman, Diego M; Peper, Marcela; Tornadu, Isabel García; Low, Malcolm J; Becú-Villalobos, Damasia; Rubinstein, Marcelo

    2013-03-27

    Competition between adult males for limited resources such as food and receptive females is shaped by the male pattern of pituitary growth hormone (GH) secretion that determines body size and the production of urinary pheromones involved in male-to-male aggression. In the brain, dopamine (DA) provides incentive salience to stimuli that predict the availability of food and sexual partners. Although the importance of the GH axis and central DA neurotransmission in social dominance and fitness is clearly appreciated, the two systems have always been studied unconnectedly. Here we conducted a cell-specific genetic dissection study in conditional mutant mice that selectively lack DA D2 receptors (D2R) from pituitary lactotropes (lacDrd2KO) or neurons (neuroDrd2KO). Whereas lacDrd2KO mice developed a normal GH axis, neuroDrd2KO mice displayed fewer somatotropes; reduced hypothalamic Ghrh expression, pituitary GH content, and serum IGF-I levels; and exhibited reduced body size and weight. As a consequence of a GH axis deficit, neuroDrd2KO adult males excreted low levels of major urinary proteins and their urine failed to promote aggression and territorial behavior in control male challengers, in contrast to the urine taken from control adult males. These findings reveal that central D2Rs mediate a neuroendocrine-exocrine cascade that controls the maturation of the GH axis and downstream signals that are critical for fitness, social dominance, and competition between adult males. PMID:23536095

  7. The C957T polymorphism in the dopamine receptor D2 gene modulates domain-general category learning

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Zilong; Maddox, W. Todd; McGeary, John E.

    2015-01-01

    Adaptive learning from reward and punishment is vital for human survival. Striatal and frontal dopaminergic activities are associated with adaptive learning. For example, the C957T single nucleotide polymorphism of the dopamine receptor D2 (DRD2) gene alters striatal D2 receptor availability and affects individuals' adaptive learning ability. Specifically, individuals with the T/T genotype, which is associated with higher striatal D2 availability, show enhanced learning from negative outcomes. Prior work examining DRD2 genetic variability has focused primarily on frontally mediated reflective learning that is under effortful, conscious control. However, less is known about a more automatic, striatally mediated reflexive learning. Here we examined the extent to which this polymorphism differentially influences reflective and reflexive learning across visual and auditory modalities. We employed rule-based (RB) and information-integration (II) category learning paradigms that target reflective and reflexive learning, respectively. Results revealed an advantage in II category learning but poorer RB category learning in T/T homozygotes. The pattern of results was consistent across sensory modalities. These findings suggest that this DRD2 polymorphism exerts opposite influences on domain-general frontally mediated reflective learning and striatally mediated reflexive learning. PMID:25761959

  8. Membrane omega-3 fatty acids modulate the oligomerisation kinetics of adenosine A2A and dopamine D2 receptors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guixà-González, Ramon; Javanainen, Matti; Gómez-Soler, Maricel; Cordobilla, Begoña; Domingo, Joan Carles; Sanz, Ferran; Pastor, Manuel; Ciruela, Francisco; Martinez-Seara, Hector; Selent, Jana

    2016-01-01

    Membrane levels of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), an essential omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (ω-3 PUFA), are decreased in common neuropsychiatric disorders. DHA modulates key cell membrane properties like fluidity, thereby affecting the behaviour of transmembrane proteins like G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). These receptors, which have special relevance for major neuropsychiatric disorders have recently been shown to form dimers or higher order oligomers, and evidence suggests that DHA levels affect GPCR function by modulating oligomerisation. In this study, we assessed the effect of membrane DHA content on the formation of a class of protein complexes with particular relevance for brain disease: adenosine A2A and dopamine D2 receptor oligomers. Using extensive multiscale computer modelling, we find a marked propensity of DHA for interaction with both A2A and D2 receptors, which leads to an increased rate of receptor oligomerisation. Bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET) experiments performed on living cells suggest that this DHA effect on the oligomerisation of A2A and D2 receptors is purely kinetic. This work reveals for the first time that membrane ω-3 PUFAs play a key role in GPCR oligomerisation kinetics, which may have important implications for neuropsychiatric conditions like schizophrenia or Parkinson’s disease.

  9. Examining the Effects of Sodium Ions on the Binding of Antagonists to Dopamine D2 and D3 Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Martyn D.; Strange, Philip G.

    2016-01-01

    Many G protein-coupled receptors have been shown to be sensitive to the presence of sodium ions (Na+). Using radioligand competition binding assays, we have examined and compared the effects of sodium ions on the binding affinities of a number of structurally diverse ligands at human dopamine D2 and dopamine D3 receptor subtypes, which are important therapeutic targets for the treatment of psychotic disorders. At both receptors, the binding affinities of the antagonists/inverse agonists SB-277011-A, L,741,626, GR 103691 and U 99194 were higher in the presence of sodium ions compared to those measured in the presence of the organic cation, N-methyl-D-glucamine, used to control for ionic strength. Conversely, the affinities of spiperone and (+)-butaclamol were unaffected by the presence of sodium ions. Interestingly, the binding of the antagonist/inverse agonist clozapine was affected by changes in ionic strength of the buffer used rather than the presence of specific cations. Similar sensitivities to sodium ions were seen at both receptors, suggesting parallel effects of sodium ion interactions on receptor conformation. However, no clear correlation between ligand characteristics, such as subtype selectivity, and sodium ion sensitivity were observed. Therefore, the properties which determine this sensitivity remain unclear. However these findings do highlight the importance of careful consideration of assay buffer composition for in vitro assays and when comparing data from different studies, and may indicate a further level of control for ligand binding in vivo. PMID:27379794

  10. Examining the Effects of Sodium Ions on the Binding of Antagonists to Dopamine D2 and D3 Receptors.

    PubMed

    Newton, Claire L; Wood, Martyn D; Strange, Philip G

    2016-01-01

    Many G protein-coupled receptors have been shown to be sensitive to the presence of sodium ions (Na+). Using radioligand competition binding assays, we have examined and compared the effects of sodium ions on the binding affinities of a number of structurally diverse ligands at human dopamine D2 and dopamine D3 receptor subtypes, which are important therapeutic targets for the treatment of psychotic disorders. At both receptors, the binding affinities of the antagonists/inverse agonists SB-277011-A, L,741,626, GR 103691 and U 99194 were higher in the presence of sodium ions compared to those measured in the presence of the organic cation, N-methyl-D-glucamine, used to control for ionic strength. Conversely, the affinities of spiperone and (+)-butaclamol were unaffected by the presence of sodium ions. Interestingly, the binding of the antagonist/inverse agonist clozapine was affected by changes in ionic strength of the buffer used rather than the presence of specific cations. Similar sensitivities to sodium ions were seen at both receptors, suggesting parallel effects of sodium ion interactions on receptor conformation. However, no clear correlation between ligand characteristics, such as subtype selectivity, and sodium ion sensitivity were observed. Therefore, the properties which determine this sensitivity remain unclear. However these findings do highlight the importance of careful consideration of assay buffer composition for in vitro assays and when comparing data from different studies, and may indicate a further level of control for ligand binding in vivo. PMID:27379794

  11. D2-like dopamine receptors depolarize dorsal raphe serotonin neurons through the activation of nonselective cationic conductance.

    PubMed

    Aman, Teresa K; Shen, Roh-Yu; Haj-Dahmane, Samir

    2007-01-01

    The dorsal raphe (DR) receives a prominent dopamine (DA) input that has been suggested to play a key role in the regulation of central serotoninergic transmission. DA is known to directly depolarize DR serotonin neurons, but the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. Here, we show that activation of D2-like dopamine receptors on DR 5-HT neurons elicits a membrane depolarization and an inward current associated with an increase in membrane conductance. The DA-induced inward current (I(DA)) exhibits a linear I-V relationship and reverses polarity at around -15 mV, suggesting the involvement of a mixed cationic conductance. Consistent with this notion, lowering the extracellular concentration of sodium reduces the amplitude of I(DA) and induces a negative shift of its reversal potential to approximately -45 mV. This current is abolished by inhibiting G-protein function with GDPbetaS. Examination of the downstream signaling mechanisms reveals that activation of the nonselective cation current requires the stimulation of phospholipase C but not an increase in intracellular calcium. Thus, pharmacological inhibition of phospholipase C reduces the amplitude of I(DA). In contrast, buffering intracellular calcium has no effect on the amplitude of I(DA). Bath application of transient receptor potential (TRP) channels blockers, 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate and SKF96365 [1-(beta-[3-(4-methoxyphenyl)propoxy]-4-methoxyphenethyl)-1H-imidazole], strongly inhibits I(DA) amplitude, suggesting the involvement of TRP-like conductance. These results reveal previously unsuspected mechanism by which D2-like DA receptors induce membrane depolarization and enhance the excitability of DR 5-HT neurons. PMID:17005915

  12. Carbon-11 epidepride: a suitable radioligand for PET investigation of striatal and extrastriatal dopamine D2 receptors.

    PubMed

    Langer, O; Halldin, C; Dollé, F; Swahn, C G; Olsson, H; Karlsson, P; Hall, H; Sandell, J; Lundkvist, C; Vaufrey, F; Loc'h, C; Crouzel, C; Mazière, B; Farde, L

    1999-07-01

    Epidepride [(S)-(-)-N-([1-ethyl-2-pyrrolidinyl]methyl)-5-iodo-2,3-dimethoxybenza mide] binds with a picomolar affinity (Ki = 24 pM) to the dopamine D2 receptor. Iodine-123-labeled epidepride has been used previously to study striatal and extrastriatal dopamine D2 receptors with single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Our aim was to label epidepride with carbon-11 for comparative quantitative studies between positron emission tomography (PET) and SPECT. Epidepride was synthesized from its bromo-analogue FLB 457 via the corresponding trimethyl-tin derivative. In an alternative synthetic pathway, the corresponding substituted benzoic acid was reacted with the optically pure aminomethylpyrrolidine-derivative. Demethylation of epidepride gave the desmethyl-derivative, which was reacted with [11C]methyl triflate. Total radiochemical yield was 40-50% within a total synthesis time of 30 min. The specific radioactivity at the end of synthesis was 37-111 GBq/micromol (1,000-3,000 Ci/mmol). Human postmortem whole-hemisphere autoradiography demonstrated dense binding in the caudate putamen, and also in extrastriatal areas such as the thalamus and the neocortex. The binding was inhibited by unlabeled raclopride. PET studies in a cynomolgus monkey demonstrated high uptake in the striatum and in several extrastriatal regions. At 90 min after injection, uptake in the striatum, thalamus and neocortex was about 11, 4, and 2 times higher than in the cerebellum, respectively. Pretreatment experiment with unlabeled raclopride (1 mg/kg) inhibited 50-70% of [11C]epidepride binding. The fraction of unchanged [11C]epidepride in monkey plasma determined by a gradient high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was about 30% of the total radioactivity at 30 min after injection of [11C]epidepride. The availability of [11C]epidepride allows the PET-verification of the data obtained from quantitation studies with SPECT. PMID:10473189

  13. Dopamine D(2) receptor quantification in extrastriatal brain regions using [(123)I]epidepride with bolus/infusion.

    PubMed

    Pinborg, L H; Videbaek, C; Knudsen, G M; Swahn, C G; Halldin, C; Friberg, L; Paulson, O B; Lassen, N A

    2000-06-15

    The iodinated benzamide epidepride, which shows a picomolar affinity binding to dopamine D(2) receptors, has been designed for in vivo studies using SPECT. The aim of the present study was to apply a steady-state condition by the bolus/infusion approach with [(123)I]epidepride for the quantification of striatal and extrastriatal dopamine D(2) receptors in humans. In this way the distribution volume of the tracer can be determined from a single SPECT image and one blood sample. Based on bolus experiments, an algorithm using conventional convolution arguments for prediction of the outcome of a bolus/infusion (B/I) experiment was applied. It was predicted that a B/I protocol with infusion of one-third of the initial bolus per hour would be appropriate. Steady-state conditions were attained in extrastriatal regions within 3-4 h but the infusion continued up to 7 h in order to minimize the significance of individual differences in plasma clearance and binding parameters. A steady-state condition, however, could not be attained in striatal brain regions using a B/I protocol of 20 h, even after 11 h. Under near steady-state conditions a striatal:cerebellar ratio of 23 was demonstrated. Epidepride has a unique signal-to-noise ratio compared to [(123)I]IBZM but present difficulties for steady-state measurements of striatal regions. The bolus/infusion approach is particularly feasible for quantification of the binding potential in extrastriatal regions. PMID:10819910

  14. Determinants of conditioned reinforcing effectiveness: Dopamine D2-like receptor agonist-stimulated responding for cocaine-associated stimuli.

    PubMed

    Collins, Gregory T; France, Charles P

    2015-12-15

    Environmental stimuli associated with drug use can take on conditioned properties capable of promoting drug-seeking behaviors during abstinence. This study investigated the relative importance of the amount of reinforced responding, number of cocaine-stimulus pairings, total cocaine intake, and reinforcing effectiveness of the self-administered dose of cocaine to the conditioned reinforcing effectiveness of cocaine-associated stimuli (CS). Male rats were trained to self-administer cocaine (0.1 [small] or 1.0mg/kg/inf [large]) under a fixed ratio schedule of reinforcement. A progressive ratio (PR) schedule was used to quantify the reinforcing effectiveness of each dose of cocaine, as well as the conditioned reinforcing effectiveness of the CS following treatment with saline or the dopamine D2-like receptor agonist pramipexole (0.1-3.2mg/kg). The large dose of cocaine maintained larger final ratios and greater levels of cocaine intake, whereas the small dose resulted in more cocaine-CS pairings. The total amount of responding was comparable between groups. During PR tests of conditioned reinforcement, pramipexole increased responding for CS presentations in both groups; however, the final ratio completed was significantly greater in large- as compared to small-dose group. In addition to highlighting a central role for dopamine D2-like receptors in modulating the effectiveness of cocaine-paired stimuli to reinforce behavior, these results suggest that conditioned reinforcing effectiveness is primarily determined by the reinforcing effectiveness of the self-administered dose of cocaine and/or total cocaine intake, and not the total amount of responding or number cocaine-stimulus pairings. These findings have implications for understanding how different patterns of drug-taking might impact vulnerability to relapse. PMID:26593427

  15. Colocalization of Mating-Induced Fos and D2-Like Dopamine Receptors in the Medial Preoptic Area: Influence of Sexual Experience

    PubMed Central

    Nutsch, Victoria L.; Will, Ryan G.; Robison, Christopher L.; Martz, Julia R.; Tobiansky, Daniel J.; Dominguez, Juan M.

    2016-01-01

    Dopamine in the medial preoptic area (mPOA) stimulates sexual activity in males. This is evidenced by microdialysis and microinjection experiments revealing that dopamine receptor antagonists in the mPOA inhibit sexual activity, whereas agonists facilitate behavior. Microdialysis experiments similarly show a facilitative role for dopamine, as levels of dopamine in the mPOA increase with mating. While the majority of evidence suggests an important role for dopamine receptors in the mPOA in the regulation of male sexual behaviors, whether sexual activity or sexual experience influence dopamine receptor function in the mPOA has not been previously shown. Here we used immunohistochemical assays to determine whether varying levels of sexual activity or experience influence the number of cells containing Fos or D2 receptor immunoreactivity. Results show that sexual experience facilitated subsequent behavior, namely experience decreased latencies. Moreover, the number of cells with immunoreactivity for Fos or D2 correlated with levels of sexual experience and sexual activity. Sexual activity increased Fos immunoreactivity. Sexually experienced animals also had significantly more D2-positive cells. Sexually inexperienced animals copulating for the first time had a larger percentage of D2-positive cells containing Fos, when compared to sexually experienced animals. Finally, regardless of experience, animals that had sex prior to sacrifice had significantly more D2-positive cells that contained Fos, vs. animals that did not copulate. These findings are noteworthy because sexually experienced animals display increased sexual efficiency. The differences in activation of D2 and changes in receptor density may play a role in this efficiency and other behavioral changes across sexual experience. PMID:27147996

  16. Proerectile effects of dopamine D2-like agonists are mediated by the D3 receptor in rats and mice.

    PubMed

    Collins, Gregory T; Truccone, Andrew; Haji-Abdi, Faiza; Newman, Amy Hauck; Grundt, Peter; Rice, Kenner C; Husbands, Stephen M; Greedy, Benjamin M; Enguehard-Gueiffier, Cecile; Gueiffier, Alain; Chen, Jianyong; Wang, Shaomeng; Katz, Jonathan L; Grandy, David K; Sunahara, Roger K; Woods, James H

    2009-04-01

    Dopamine D(2)-like agonists induce penile erection (PE) and yawning in a variety of species, effects that have been suggested recently to be specifically mediated by the D(4) and D(3) receptors, respectively. The current studies were aimed at characterizing a series of D(2), D(3), and D(4) agonists with respect to their capacity to induce PE and yawning in the rat and the proerectile effects of apomorphine [(R)-(-)-5,6,6a,7-tetrahydro-6-methyl-4H-dibenzo-[de,g]quinoline-10,11-diol hydrochloride] in wild-type and D(4) receptor (R) knockout (KO) mice. All D(3) agonists induced dose-dependent increases in PE and yawning over a similar range of doses, whereas significant increases in PE or yawning were not observed with any of the D(4) agonists. Likewise, D(2), D(3), and D(4) antagonists were assessed for their capacity to alter apomorphine- and pramipexole (N'-propyl-4,5,6,7-tetrahydrobenzothiazole-2,6-diamine dihydrochloride)-induced PE and yawning. The D(3) antagonist, PG01037 [N-{4-[4-(2,3-dichlorophenyl)-piperazin-1-yl]-trans-but-2-enyl}-4-pyridine-2-yl-benzamide hydrochloride], inhibited the induction of PE and yawning, whereas the D(2) antagonist, L-741,626 [3-[4-(4-chlorophenyl)-4-hydroxypiperidin-l-yl]methyl-1H-indole], reversed the inhibition of PE and yawning observed at higher doses. The D(4) antagonist, L-745,870 [3-(4-[4-chlorophenyl]piperazin-1-yl)-methyl-1H-pyrrolo[2,3-b]pyridine trihydrochloride], did not alter apomorphine- or pramipexole-induced PE or yawning. A role for the D(3) receptor was further supported because apomorphine was equipotent at inducing PE in wild-type and D(4)RKO mice, effects that were inhibited by the D(3) antagonist, PG01037, in both wild-type and D(4)R KO mice. Together, these studies provide strong support that D(2)-like agonist-induced PE and yawning are differentially mediated by the D(3) (induction) and D(2) (inhibition) receptors. These studies fail to support a role for the D(4) receptor in the regulation of PE or

  17. A solid-phase combinatorial approach for indoloquinolizidine-peptides with high affinity at D(1) and D(2) dopamine receptors.

    PubMed

    Molero, Anabel; Vendrell, Marc; Bonaventura, Jordi; Zachmann, Julian; López, Laura; Pardo, Leonardo; Lluis, Carme; Cortés, Antoni; Albericio, Fernando; Casadó, Vicent; Royo, Miriam

    2015-06-01

    Ligands acting at multiple dopamine receptors hold potential as therapeutic agents for a number of neurodegenerative disorders. Specifically, compounds able to bind at D1R and D2R with high affinity could restore the effects of dopamine depletion and enhance motor activation on degenerated nigrostriatal dopaminergic systems. We have directed our research towards the synthesis and characterisation of heterocycle-peptide hybrids based on the indolo[2,3-a]quinolizidine core. This privileged structure is a water-soluble and synthetically accessible scaffold with affinity for diverse GPCRs. Herein we have prepared a solid-phase combinatorial library of 80 indoloquinolizidine-peptides to identify compounds with enhanced binding affinity at D2R, a receptor that is crucial to re-establish activity on dopamine-depleted degenerated GABAergic neurons. We applied computational tools and high-throughput screening assays to identify 9a{1,3,3} as a ligand for dopamine receptors with nanomolar affinity and agonist activity at D2R. Our results validate the application of indoloquinolizidine-peptide combinatorial libraries to fine-tune the pharmacological profiles of multiple ligands at D1 and D2 dopamine receptors. PMID:25969169

  18. Dopamine D2 receptors and transporters in type 1 and 2 alcoholics measured with human whole hemisphere autoradiography.

    PubMed

    Tupala, Erkki; Hall, Håkan; Bergström, Kim; Mantere, Tuija; Räsänen, Pirkko; Särkioja, Terttu; Tiihonen, Jari

    2003-10-01

    Increasing evidence implies the involvement of the dopamine (DA) system in the pathogenesis of alcoholism. We measured striatal DA D(2) receptors in Cloninger type 1 and 2 alcoholics by using [(125)I]epidepride in human postmortem whole hemispheric autoradiography (WHA), which provides high-resolution images corresponding to positron emission tomographic (PET) studies. We also evaluated the correlation between transporter and receptor DA binding site densities and putative correlation of [(125)I]epidepride binding between the dorsal striatum and nucleus accumbens. In the type 1 alcoholics, the DA D(2) receptor density was 21.4-32.6% lower in all dorsal striatal structures (caudate, putamen, globus pallidus) when compared with the controls. Type 2 alcoholics had 19.6-21.4% lower binding in other dorsal striatal structures, except medial globus pallidus, where they were not significantly different from controls. The density of DA D(2) receptors and DAT had a significant positive correlation only in the putamen of type 1 alcoholics. The binding of [(125)I]epidepride showed also consistent and statistically significant positive correlation between nucleus accumbens and all dorsal striatal areas in type 1 alcoholics but not in the controls. In the type 2 alcoholics, the correlation was weaker than that observed in the type 1 alcoholics, and no correlation was observed between nucleus accumbens and globus pallidus. Our results show that these two subgroups of alcoholics have stark differences in their DA D(2) receptor binding characteristics. Type 2 alcoholics may have selective deficiency in the dorsal striatum, whereas in limbic structures they may not differ significantly from controls. Moreover, WHA provides a useful tool for detailed mapping of neuronal receptors in healthy as well as diseased brain, and can also be used in radioligand development for PET. PMID:14505335

  19. Dopamine D3 receptor is decreased and D2 receptor is elevated in the striatum of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Ryoo, H L; Pierrotti, D; Joyce, J N

    1998-09-01

    The mesolimbic dopamine (DA) system preferentially innervates the D3 receptor, whereas the D2 receptor is, in addition, a target of the nigrostriatal DA system. In human brain D3 receptors and D3 mRNA-expressing neurons are largely segregated to brain regions that are the targets of the mesolimbic DA system and the efferents of the "limbic striatum." Thus, D3 receptors may regulate effects of DA on the "limbic" cortico-striatal-pallidal-thalamic-cortical loop. The nigrostriatal DA system is considerably more damaged in Parkinson's disease (PD) than the mesolimbic DA system. We report here, using radioligands selective for the D2 and D3 receptor, that these receptors are independently changed in PD. Tissue collected at autopsy from nine subjects with a diagnosis of PD and eight age-matched subjects with no evidence of a neurologic disorder was processed for [125I]epidepride binding to D2 receptors, [125I] trans-7-OH-PIPAT binding to D3 receptors, [125I]RTI-55 for the DA transporter (DAT), and immunoautoradiography for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) using autoradiographic methods. Dopaminergic innervation to the caudal putamen was profoundly reduced and to a lesser extent in the rostral putamen in PD. DAT sites but not TH protein levels were reduced in the nucleus accumbens (NAS) in PD compared with age-matched control subjects. This is consistent with a loss of dopaminergic innervation from the mesolimbic DA system but elevation in TH production. D3 receptors were significantly reduced in PD by 40-45% particularly in the NAS and putamen. D2 receptors were elevated in PD in the dorsal putamen by 15%. The reduction in D3 receptor number was not observed in PD cases with a diagnosis of less than 10 years. The changes in DA D3 receptor number is interesting in light of the development of antiparkinsonian agents that are D3-preferring agonists. PMID:9756147

  20. Modulation of pre- and postsynaptic dopamine D2 receptor function by the selective kappa-opioid receptor agonist U69593.

    PubMed

    Acri, J B; Thompson, A C; Shippenberg, T

    2001-03-15

    The repeated administration of selective kappa-opioid receptor agonists prevents the locomotor activation produced by acute cocaine administration and the development of cocaine-induced behavioral sensitization. Previous studies have shown that dopamine (DA) D2 autoreceptors modulate the synthesis and release of DA in the striatum. Evidence that kappa agonist treatment downregulates DA D2 receptors in this same brain region has recently been obtained. Accordingly, the present studies were undertaken to examine the influence of repeated kappa-opioid receptor agonist administration on pre- and postsynaptic DA D2 receptor function in the dorsal striatum using pre- and postsynaptic receptor-selective doses of quinpirole. Rats were injected once daily with the selective kappa-opioid receptor agonist U69593 (0.16-0.32 mg/kg s.c.) or vehicle for 3 days. Microdialysis studies assessing basal and quinpirole-evoked (0.05 mg/kg s.c.) DA levels were conducted 2 days later. Basal and quinpirole-stimulated locomotor activity were assessed in a parallel group of animals. The no-net flux method of quantitative microdialysis revealed no effect of U69593 on basal DA dynamics, in that extracellular DA concentration and extraction fraction did not differ in control and U69593-treated animals. Acute administration of quinpirole significantly decreased striatal DA levels in control animals, but in animals treated with U69593, the inhibitory effects of quinpirole were significantly reduced. Quinpirole produced a dose-related increase in locomotor activity in control animals, and this effect was significantly attenuated in U69593-treated animals. These data reveal that prior repeated administration of a selective kappa-opioid receptor agonist attenuates quinpirole-induced alterations in DA neurotransmission and locomotor activity. These results suggest that both pre- and postsynaptic striatal DA D2 receptors may be downregulated following repeated kappa-opioid receptor agonist

  1. Dopamine D2 receptor status assessed by IBZM SPECT - A sensitive indicator for cerebral hypoxia

    SciTech Connect

    Tatsch, K.; Schwarz, J.; Welz, A.

    1995-05-01

    The striatum is highly sensitive to tissue hypoxia. Thus, it may be suggested that cerebral hypoxia could affect the integrity of the striatal receptor system. Purpose of the current SPECT investigations with IBZM was to evaluate whether hypoxic conditions cause detectable changes in the D2 receptor status. 25 controls and 30 pts with history of cerebral hypoxia (resuscitation after cardiac arrest: n=19, CABG surgery under cardiopulmonary bypass: n=11) were investigated with SPECT 2h p.i. of 185 MBq I-123 IBZM. For semiquant, evaluation transverse slices corrected for attenuation were used to calculate striatal to frontal cortex (S/FC) ratios. In 13/19 pts with cerebral hypoxia due to cardiac arrest IBZM binding was severely reduced after successful resuscitation. 7 died, 5 were in a vegetative state, 1 remained severely disabled. In 6/19 S/FC ratios were normal/mildly reduced, 2 of them had a good outcome, 4 were moderatley disabled. In pts with CABG IBZM binding was preoperatively normal. After hypoxia due to cardiac surgery striatal S/FC ratios decreased slightly, persisting on this level even 6 months after surgery. Neuropsychological/psychiatric testing showed only minor or transient changes in this group of patients. The striatal D2 receptor status seems to be a sensitive indicator for cerebral hypoxia. After hypoxia due to cardiac arrest IBZM results well correlate (in contrast to morphological or SEP findings) with the clinical outcome and thus may serve as early predictor of the individual prognosis. The moderate decline in IBZM binding following CABG surgery suggests mild cerebral hypoxia despite of protective hypothermia. Sensitively indicating cerebral hypoxia changes in the D2 receptor status assessed by IBZM SPECT may serve as a valuable diagnostic tool for testing neuroprotective drugs or modified surgical techniques.

  2. Inhibition of titanium-particle-induced inflammatory osteolysis after local administration of dopamine and suppression of osteoclastogenesis via D2-like receptor signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Yang, Huilin; Xu, Yaozeng; Zhu, Mo; Gu, Ye; Zhang, Wen; Shao, Hongguo; Wang, Yijun; Ping, Zichuan; Hu, Xuanyang; Wang, Liangliang; Geng, Dechun

    2016-02-01

    Chronic inflammation and extensive osteoclast formation play critical roles in wear-debris-induced peri-implant osteolysis. We investigated the potential impact of dopamine on titanium-particle-induced inflammatory osteolysis in vivo and in vitro. Twenty-eight C57BL/6J mice were randomly assigned to four groups: sham control (PBS treatment), titanium (titanium/PBS treatment), low- (titanium/2 μg kg(-1) day(-1) dopamine) and high-dopamine (titanium/10 μg kg(-1) day(-1) dopamine). After 2 weeks, mouse calvariae were collected for micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) and histomorphometry analysis. Bone-marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs) were isolated to assess osteoclast differentiation. Dopamine significantly reduced titanium-particle-induced osteolysis compared with the titanium group as confirmed by micro-CT and histomorphometric data. Osteoclast numbers were 34.9% and 59.7% (both p < 0.01) lower in the low- and high-dopamine-treatment groups, respectively, than in the titanium group. Additionally, low RANKL, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β and interleukin-6 immunochemistry staining were noted in dopamine-treatment groups. Dopamine markedly inhibited osteoclast formation, osteoclastogenesis-related gene expression and pro-inflammatory cytokine expression in BMMs in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, the resorption area was decreased with 10(-9) M and 10(-8) M dopamine to 40.0% and 14.5% (both p < 0.01), respectively. Furthermore, the inhibitory effect of dopamine was reversed by the D2-like-receptor antagonist haloperidol but not by the D1-like-receptor antagonist SCH23390. These results suggest that dopamine therapy could be developed into an effective and safe method for osteolysis-related disease caused by chronic inflammation and excessive osteoclast formation. PMID:26695376

  3. Direct dopamine D2-receptor-mediated modulation of arachidonic acid release in transfected CHO cells without the concomitant administration of a Ca2+-mobilizing agent

    PubMed Central

    Nilsson, Christer L; Hellstrand, Monika; Ekman, Agneta; Eriksson, Elias

    1998-01-01

    In CHO cells transfected with the rat dopamine D2 receptor (long isoform), administration of dopamine per se elicited a concentration-dependent increase in arachidonic acid (AA) release. The maximal effect was 197% of controls (EC50=25 nM). The partial D2 receptor agonist, (−)-(3-hydroxyphenyl)-N-n-propylpiperidine [(−)-3-PPP], also induced AA release, but with somewhat lower efficacy (maximal effect: 165%; EC50=91 nM). The AA-releasing effect of dopamine was counteracted by pertussis toxin, by the inhibitor of intracellular Ca2+ release, 8-(N N-diethylamino)octyl-3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoate (TMB-8), by excluding calcium from the medium, by the phospholipase A2 (PLA2) inhibitor, quinacrine, and by long-term pretreatment with the phorbol ester, 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA). In addition, it was antagonized by the D2 antagonists, raclopride and (−)-sulpiride–but not by (+)-sulpiride–and absent in sham-transfected CHO cells devoid of D2 receptors. The results obtained contrast to the previous notion that dopamine and other D2 receptor agonists require the concomitant administration of calcium-mobilizing agents such as ATP, ionophore A-23187 (calcimycin), thrombin, and TRH, to influence AA release from various cell lines. PMID:9756380

  4. In Hamsters Dopamine D2 Receptors affect Ventilation during and following Intermittent Hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Schlenker, Evelyn H.

    2007-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that in golden Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) carotid body dopaminergic D2 receptors modulate ventilation in air, during exposure to intermittent hypoxia (IH) and reoxygenation. Ventilation was evaluated using the barometric method and CO2 production was determined using the flow through method. Hamsters (n=8) received either subcutaneous injections of vehicle, haloperidol (0.5 mg/kg) or domperidone (0.5 mg/kg). Ventilatory and metabolic variables were determined 30 minutes following injections, after each of 5 bouts of 5 minutes of 10% oxygen interspersed by normoxia (IH), and 15, 30, 45 and 60 minutes following IH when hamsters were exposed to air. Haloperidol, but not domperidone decreased body temperature in hamsters. Neither treatment affected CO2 production. Vehicle-treated hamsters exhibited ventilatory long term facilitation (VLTF) following IH. Haloperidol or domperidone decreased ventilation in air, during IH and eliminated VLTF due to changes in tidal volume and not frequency of breathing. Thus, in hamsters D2 receptors are involved in control of body temperature and ventilation during and following IH PMID:17884646

  5. Biochemical and pharmacological studies on pramipexole, a potent and selective dopamine D2 receptor agonist.

    PubMed

    Mierau, J; Schingnitz, G

    1992-05-14

    Pramipexole (SND 919; 2-amino-4,5,6,7-tetrahydro-6-propyl-amino-benzthiazole- dihydrochloride) was tested for its agonistic activity at pre- and postsynaptic dopamine (DA) receptors. L-Dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-dopa) accumulation in the rat striatum and limbic system and the alpha-methyltyrosine-induced reduction of DA were inhibited. Both effects were fully antagonized by haloperidol but not by the selective DA D1 receptor antagonist SCH 23390. Pramipexole decreased the levels of DA metabolites dose dependently, whereas striatal DA levels remained unchanged. In mice, pramipexole (0.001-1 mg/kg s.c.) reduced exploratory locomotor activity. In rats with unilateral striatal lesions, only weak ipsilateral rotation was produced by pramipexole at the highest dose. However, in rats with unilateral lesions of the medial forebrain bundle, pramipexole potently induced contralateral circling (ED50 0.026 mg/kg s.c.). In the N-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) monkey model, pramipexole also had potent stimulatory effects. Finally, in haloperidol-sensitized monkeys, the substance did not elicit dyskinesia/dystonia when given alone, but rather inhibited those symptoms which had been induced by haloperidol (ED50 0.116 mg/kg i.m.). It is concluded that pramipexole has therapeutic potential for schizophrenic patients, as a result of its autoreceptor agonistic effects and its weak effects at normosensitive postsynaptic DA receptors. Furthermore, its potent stimulatory effects in DA-depleted animals suggest a possible use in the treatment of Parkinson's disease. PMID:1356788

  6. Dopamine D(2)/D(3)-receptor and transporter densities in nucleus accumbens and amygdala of type 1 and 2 alcoholics.

    PubMed

    Tupala, E; Hall, H; Bergström, K; Särkioja, T; Räsänen, P; Mantere, T; Callaway, J; Hiltunen, J; Tiihonen, J

    2001-05-01

    Alcohol acts through mechanisms involving the brain neurotransmitter dopamine (DA) with the nucleus accumbens as the key zone for mediating these effects. We evaluated the densities of DA D(2)/D(3) receptors and transporters in the nucleus accumbens and amygdala of post-mortem human brains by using [(125)l]epidepride and [(125)I]PE2I as radioligands in whole hemispheric autoradiography of Cloninger type 1 and 2 alcoholics and healthy controls. When compared with controls, the mean binding of [(125)I]epidepride to DA D(2)/D(3) receptors was 20% lower in the nucleus accumbens and 41% lower in the amygdala, and [(125)I]PE2I binding to DA transporters in the nucleus accumbens was 39% lower in type 1 alcoholics. These data indicate that dopaminergic functions in these limbic areas may be impaired among type 1 alcoholics, due to the substantially lower number of receptor sites. Our results suggest that such a reduction may result in the chronic overuse of alcohol as an attempt to stimulate DA function. PMID:11326293

  7. Balancing the Basal Ganglia Circuitry: A Possible New Role for Dopamine D2 Receptors in Health and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Cazorla, Maxime; Kang, Un Jung; Kellendonk, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Current therapies for treating movement disorders such as Parkinson’s disease are effective but limited by undesirable and intractable side effects. Developing more effective therapies will require better understanding of what causes basal ganglia dys-regulation and why medication-induced side effects develop. Although basal ganglia have been extensively studied in the last decades, its circuit anatomy is very complex, and significant controversy exists as to how the interplay of different basal ganglia nuclei process motor information and output. We have recently identified the importance of an underappreciated collateral projection that bridges the striatal output direct pathway with the indirect pathway. These bridging collaterals are extremely plastic in the adult brain and are involved in the regulation of motor balance. Our findings add a new angle to the classical model of basal ganglia circuitry that could be exploited for the development of new therapies against movement disorders. In this Scientific Perspective, we describe the function of bridging collaterals and other recent discoveries that challenge the simplicity of the classical basal ganglia circuit model. We then discuss the potential implication of bridging collaterals in the pathophysiology of Parkinson’s disease and schizophrenia. Because dopamine D2 receptors and striatal neuron excitability have been found to regulate the density of bridging collaterals, we propose that targeting these projections downstream of D2 receptors could be a possible strategy for the treatment of basal ganglia disorders. PMID:26018615

  8. Diversity and Bias through Receptor-Receptor Interactions in GPCR Heteroreceptor Complexes. Focus on Examples from Dopamine D2 Receptor Heteromerization.

    PubMed

    Fuxe, Kjell; Tarakanov, Alexander; Romero Fernandez, Wilber; Ferraro, Luca; Tanganelli, Sergio; Filip, Malgorzata; Agnati, Luigi F; Garriga, Pere; Diaz-Cabiale, Zaida; Borroto-Escuela, Dasiel O

    2014-01-01

    Allosteric receptor-receptor interactions in GPCR heteromers appeared to introduce an intermolecular allosteric mechanism contributing to the diversity and bias in the protomers. Examples of dopamine D2R heteromerization are given to show how such allosteric mechanisms significantly change the receptor protomer repertoire leading to diversity and biased recognition and signaling. In 1980s and 1990s, it was shown that neurotensin (NT) through selective antagonistic NTR-D2 like receptor interactions increased the diversity of DA signaling by reducing D2R-mediated dopamine signaling over D1R-mediated dopamine signaling. Furthermore, D2R protomer appeared to bias the specificity of the NTR orthosteric binding site toward neuromedin N vs. NT in the heteroreceptor complex. Complex CCK2R-D1R-D2R interactions in possible heteroreceptor complexes were also demonstrated further increasing receptor diversity. In D2R-5-HT2AR heteroreceptor complexes, the hallucinogenic 5-HT2AR agonists LSD and DOI were recently found to exert a biased agonist action on the orthosteric site of the 5-HT2AR protomer leading to the development of an active conformational state different from the one produced by 5-HT. Furthermore, as recently demonstrated allosteric A2A-D2R receptor-receptor interaction brought about not only a reduced affinity of the D2R agonist binding site but also a biased modulation of the D2R protomer signaling in A2A-D2R heteroreceptor complexes. A conformational state of the D2R was induced, which moved away from Gi/o signaling and instead favored β-arrestin2-mediated signaling. These examples on allosteric receptor-receptor interactions obtained over several decades serve to illustrate the significant increase in diversity and biased recognition and signaling that develop through such mechanisms. PMID:24860548

  9. Diversity and Bias through Receptor–Receptor Interactions in GPCR Heteroreceptor Complexes. Focus on Examples from Dopamine D2 Receptor Heteromerization

    PubMed Central

    Fuxe, Kjell; Tarakanov, Alexander; Romero Fernandez, Wilber; Ferraro, Luca; Tanganelli, Sergio; Filip, Malgorzata; Agnati, Luigi F.; Garriga, Pere; Diaz-Cabiale, Zaida; Borroto-Escuela, Dasiel O.

    2014-01-01

    Allosteric receptor–receptor interactions in GPCR heteromers appeared to introduce an intermolecular allosteric mechanism contributing to the diversity and bias in the protomers. Examples of dopamine D2R heteromerization are given to show how such allosteric mechanisms significantly change the receptor protomer repertoire leading to diversity and biased recognition and signaling. In 1980s and 1990s, it was shown that neurotensin (NT) through selective antagonistic NTR–D2 like receptor interactions increased the diversity of DA signaling by reducing D2R-mediated dopamine signaling over D1R-mediated dopamine signaling. Furthermore, D2R protomer appeared to bias the specificity of the NTR orthosteric binding site toward neuromedin N vs. NT in the heteroreceptor complex. Complex CCK2R–D1R–D2R interactions in possible heteroreceptor complexes were also demonstrated further increasing receptor diversity. In D2R–5-HT2AR heteroreceptor complexes, the hallucinogenic 5-HT2AR agonists LSD and DOI were recently found to exert a biased agonist action on the orthosteric site of the 5-HT2AR protomer leading to the development of an active conformational state different from the one produced by 5-HT. Furthermore, as recently demonstrated allosteric A2A–D2R receptor–receptor interaction brought about not only a reduced affinity of the D2R agonist binding site but also a biased modulation of the D2R protomer signaling in A2A–D2R heteroreceptor complexes. A conformational state of the D2R was induced, which moved away from Gi/o signaling and instead favored β-arrestin2-mediated signaling. These examples on allosteric receptor–receptor interactions obtained over several decades serve to illustrate the significant increase in diversity and biased recognition and signaling that develop through such mechanisms. PMID:24860548

  10. Developmental treatment with the dopamine D2/3 agonist quinpirole selectively impairs spatial learning in the Morris water maze.

    PubMed

    Vorhees, Charles V; Johnson, Holly L; Burns, Lindsey N; Williams, Michael T

    2009-01-01

    Developmental exposure to the dopamine D2/3 receptor agonist quinpirole is reported to induce D2 priming, impair Morris water maze performance, reduce acoustic startle prepulse inhibition (PPI), and alter locomotor activity. We treated rats from postnatal days 1-21 with the dose reported to induce these effects, 1.0 mg/kg/day, and two higher doses, 2.0 and 4.0 mg/kg/day, or saline. Offspring were tested in the Morris water maze, PPI, exploratory locomotor activity, activity after quinpirole and (+)-methamphetamine challenge, elevated zero maze, light-dark box, marble burying, straight channel swimming, and Cincinnati water maze. In the Morris water maze, all quinpirole groups had longer latencies on test days 3-5 of acquisition, but no effects on reversal or shifted-reduced platform trials. The quinpirole 4.0 mg/kg group had significantly reduced mean search distances on probe trials when combined across the 3 phases of testing but not separately. The male 4.0 mg/kg quinpirole group showed a greater increase in methamphetamine-stimulated activity during the first 10 min after drug challenge but not in the remainder of the 2 h test. No quinpirole effects were found for light-dark box, marble burying, exploratory locomotor activity, straight channel, Cincinnati water maze, or locomotor activity after quinpirole challenge. No effects were found on most measures in the elevated zero maze however the quinpirole 4.0 mg/kg females had longer latencies to enter an open quadrant. The results partially support prior Morris maze deficits induced by developmental quinpirole treatment but little evidence of dopamine D2/3 priming was found using locomotor activity with quinpirole or methamphetamine challenge or acoustic startle/PPI. The limited comparability to published data using developmental quinpirole exposure may be attributable to differences in experimental procedures or may be the result of quinpirole having limited effects. The data suggest that caution is warranted

  11. Nucleus accumbens dopamine D2-receptor expressing neurons control behavioral flexibility in a place discrimination task in the IntelliCage.

    PubMed

    Macpherson, Tom; Morita, Makiko; Wang, Yanyan; Sasaoka, Toshikuni; Sawa, Akira; Hikida, Takatoshi

    2016-07-01

    Considerable evidence has demonstrated a critical role for the nucleus accumbens (NAc) in the acquisition and flexibility of behavioral strategies. These processes are guided by the activity of two discrete neuron types, dopamine D1- or D2-receptor expressing medium spiny neurons (D1-/D2-MSNs). Here we used the IntelliCage, an automated group-housing experimental cage apparatus, in combination with a reversible neurotransmission blocking technique to examine the role of NAc D1- and D2-MSNs in the acquisition and reversal learning of a place discrimination task. We demonstrated that NAc D1- and D2-MSNs do not mediate the acquisition of the task, but that suppression of activity in D2-MSNs impairs reversal learning and increased perseverative errors. Additionally, global knockout of the dopamine D2L receptor isoform produced a similar behavioral phenotype to D2-MSN-blocked mice. These results suggest that D2L receptors and NAc D2-MSNs act to suppress the influence of previously correct behavioral strategies allowing transfer of behavioral control to new strategies. PMID:27317196

  12. Pivotal role for aspartate-80 in the regulation of dopamine D2 receptor affinity for drugs and inhibition of adenylyl cyclase.

    PubMed

    Neve, K A; Cox, B A; Henningsen, R A; Spanoyannis, A; Neve, R L

    1991-06-01

    An aspartate residue corresponding to aspartate-80 of dopamine D2 receptors is strictly conserved among receptors that couple to guanine nucleotide-binding proteins. Mutation of this residue alters the function of several classes of neurotransmitter receptors. Dopamine D2 receptors couple to the guanine nucleotide-binding protein Gi to inhibit adenylyl cyclase (ATP-pyrophosphate-lyase, cyclizing; EC 4.6.1.1). Like other Gi-coupled receptors, the binding of agonists and some antagonists to D2 receptors is sensitive to pH and sodium. In the present report, we demonstrate that substitution of an alanine or glutamate residue for aspartate-80 severely impairs inhibition of adenylyl cyclase by D2 receptors and also abolishes or decreases the regulation of the affinity of D2 receptors for agonists and substituted benzamide antagonists by sodium and pH. Our data support the hypothesis that the conformation of D2 receptors is maintained by interactions of monovalent cations with aspartate-80. The regulation of D2 receptors by this interaction has important consequences for the affinity of D2 receptors for ligands and for signal transduction by D2 receptors. PMID:1828858

  13. Dopamine D2 receptors are involved in the regulation of Fyn and metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 phosphorylation in the rat striatum in vivo.

    PubMed

    Mao, Li-Min; Wang, John Q

    2016-04-01

    Fyn, a major Src family kinase (SFK) member that is densely expressed in striatal neurons, is actively involved in the regulation of cellular and synaptic activities in local neurons. This SFK member is likely regulated by dopamine signaling through a receptor mechanism involving dopamine D2 receptors (D2Rs). This study characterizes the D2R-dependent regulation of Fyn in the rat striatum in vivo. Moreover, we explore whether D2Rs regulate metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5) in its tyrosine phosphorylation and whether the D2R-SFK pathway modulates trafficking of mGluR5. We found that blockade of D2Rs by systemic administration of a D2R antagonist, eticlopride, substantially increased SFK phosphorylation in the striatum. This increase was a transient and reversible event. The eticlopride-induced SFK phosphorylation occurred predominantly in immunopurified Fyn but not in another SFK member, Src. Eticlopride also elevated tyrosine phosphorylation of mGluR5. In parallel, eticlopride enhanced synaptic delivery of active Fyn and mGluR5. Pretreatment with an SFK inhibitor blocked the eticlopride-induced tyrosine phosphorylation and synaptic trafficking of mGluR5. These results indicate that D2Rs inhibit SFK (mainly Fyn) phosphorylation in the striatum. D2Rs also inhibit tyrosine phosphorylation and synaptic recruitment of mGluR5 through a signaling mechanism likely involving Fyn. PMID:26777117

  14. Characterisation of AmphiAmR11, an amphioxus (Branchiostoma floridae) D2-dopamine-like G protein-coupled receptor.

    PubMed

    Bayliss, Asha L; Evans, Peter D

    2013-01-01

    The evolution of the biogenic amine signalling system in vertebrates is unclear. However, insights can be obtained from studying the structures and signalling properties of biogenic amine receptors from the protochordate, amphioxus, which is an invertebrate species that exists at the base of the chordate lineage. Here we describe the signalling properties of AmphiAmR11, an amphioxus (Branchiostoma floridae) G protein-coupled receptor which has structural similarities to vertebrate α2-adrenergic receptors but which functionally acts as a D2 dopamine-like receptor when expressed in Chinese hamster ovary -K1 cells. AmphiAmR11 inhibits forskolin-stimulated cyclic AMP levels with tyramine, phenylethylamine and dopamine being the most potent agonists. AmphiAmR11 also increases mitogen-activated protein kinase activity and calcium mobilisation, and in both pathways, dopamine was found to be more potent than tyramine. Thus, differences in the relative effectiveness of various agonists in the different second messenger assay systems suggest that the receptor displays agonist-specific coupling (biased agonism) whereby different agonists stabilize different conformations of the receptor which lead to the enhancement of one signalling pathway over another. The present study provides insights into the evolution of α2-adrenergic receptor signalling and support the hypothesis that α2-adrenergic receptors evolved from D2-dopamine receptors. The AmphiAmR11 receptor may represent a transition state between D2-dopamine receptors and α2-adrenergic receptors. PMID:24265838

  15. D2 dopamine receptor activation of potassium channels is selectively decoupled by Galpha-specific GoLoco motif peptides.

    PubMed

    Webb, Christina K; McCudden, Christopher R; Willard, Francis S; Kimple, Randall J; Siderovski, David P; Oxford, Gerry S

    2005-03-01

    The GoLoco motif is a short polypeptide sequence found in G-protein signaling regulators such as regulator of G-protein signaling proteins type 12 and 14 and activator of G-protein signaling protein type 3. A unique property of the GoLoco motifs from these three proteins is their preferential interaction with guanosine diphosphate (GDP)-bound Galpha(i1), Galpha(i3) and, sometimes, Galpha(i2) subunits over Galpha(o) subunits. This interaction prevents both spontaneous guanine nucleotide release and reassociation of Galpha(i)-GDP with Gbetagamma. We utilized this property of the GoLoco motif to examine dopamine (D2 and D3) and somatostatin receptor coupling to G-protein-regulated inwardly rectifying potassium (GIRK) channels in mouse AtT20 cells. GoLoco motif peptides had no effect on either basal channel activity or the initial responses to agonists, suggesting that the GoLoco motif cannot disrupt pre-formed G-protein heterotrimers. GoLoco motif peptides did, however, interfere with human D2((short)) receptor coupling to GIRK channels as demonstrated by the progressively diminished responses after repeated agonist application. This behavior is consistent with some form of compartmentalization of D2 receptors and GIRK channels such that Gbetagamma subunits, freed by local receptor activation and prevented from reforming a heterotrimeric complex, are not functionally constrained within the receptor-channel complex and thus are unable to exert a persistent activating effect. In contrast, GoLoco motif peptides had no effect on either D3 or somatostatin coupling to GIRK channels. Our results suggest that GoLoco motif-based peptides will be useful tools in examining the specificity of G-protein-coupled receptor-effector coupling. PMID:15748159

  16. High affinity dopamine D2 receptor radioligands. 2. ( sup 125 I)epidepride, a potent and specific radioligand for the characterization of striatal and extrastriatal dopamine D2 receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Kessler, R.M.; Ansari, M.S.; Schmidt, D.E.; de Paulis, T.; Clanton, J.A.; Manning, R.G.; Gillespie, D. ); Innis, R.; Al-Tikriti, M. )

    1991-01-01

    Epidepride, (S)-N-((1-ethyl-2-pyrrolidinyl)methyl)-5-iodo-2,3-dimethoxybenzamide, the iodine analogue of isoremoxipride (FLB 457), was found to be a very potent dopamine D2 receptor antagonist. Optimal in vitro binding required incubation at 25C for 4 h at pH 7.4 in a buffer containing 120 mM NaCl, 5 mM KCl, 2 mM CaCl{sub 2} and 1 nM MgCl{sub 2}. Scatchard analysis of in vitro binding to striatal, medical frontal cortical, hippocampal and cerebellar membranes revealed a K{sub D} of 24 pM in all regions, with Bmax's of 36.7, 1.04, 0.85, and 0.37 pmol/g tissue, respectively. The Hill coefficients ranged from 0.91-1.00 in all four regions. The IC{sub 50}'s for inhibition of ({sup 125}I)epidepride binding to striatal, medial frontal cortical, and hippocampal membranes for SCH 23390, SKF 83566, serotonin, ketanserin, mianserin, naloxone, QNB, prasozin, clonidine, alprenolol, and norepinephrine ranged from 1 {mu}M to >10 {mu}M. Partial displacement of ({sup 125}I)epidepride by nanomolar concentrations of clonidine was noted in the frontal cortex and hippocampus, but not in the striatum. Scatchard analysis of epidepride binding to {alpha}{sub 2} noradrenergic receptors in the frontal cortex and hippocampus revealed an apparent K{sub D} of 9 nM. At an epidepride concentration equal to the K{sub D} for the D2 receptor, i.e., 25 pM, no striatal {alpha}{sub 2} binding was seen and only 7% of the specific epidepride binding in the cortex or hippocampus was due to binding at the {alpha}{sub 2} site. Correlation of inhibition of ({sup 3}H)spiperone and ({sup 125}I)epidepride binding to striatal membranes by a variety of D2 ligands revealed a correlation coefficient of 0.99, indicating that epidepride labels a D2 site.

  17. In vivo and in vitro characterization of R(+)-FIDA2, a novel dopamine D2/D3 receptor imaging agent

    SciTech Connect

    Vessotskie, J.; Kung, M.P.; Ramaniello, G.

    1994-05-01

    FIDA2, (R)-(+)-2,3-dimethoxy-5-iodo-N-[1-(4`-fluorobenzyl)-2-pyrrolidinyl)-methyl]benzamide, is a new dopamine D2/D3 receptor imaging agent that can be labeled with either I-123 or F-18 for SPECT or PET imaging. In vitro binding studies of I-125 FIDA2 using dopamine D2 or D3 receptors expressed in Sf9 cells showed Kd values of 0.04 and 0.05 nM, respectively. In rat striatal homogenates, which contain a high density of dopamine D2 receptors, the ligand displayed a Kd of 0.04-0.06 nM. A series of in vivo SPECT images (transaxial sections, 2 mm) showed the radioactivity was localized in the area of the basal ganglia and reached peak concentrations in 11.2 {plus_minus} 5.9 min. The activity cleared at a rate of 33.5 {plus_minus} 9.4 %/hr. The target to nontarget ratios (basal ganglia to cerebellum) at time of peak, 1 hr, 2 hr and 3 hr p.i., were 1.1 {plus_minus} 0.4 (n=21), 3.5 {plus_minus} 1.0 (n=20), 6.3 {plus_minus} 2.9 (n=9, and 8.14 {plus_minus} 4.7 (n=9), respectively. At 90 min an injection of haloperidol or raclopride, dopamine D2/D3 receptor antagonists, displaced target activity but an injection of SCH23390, a dopamine D1 receptor antagonist, had little effect on activity in the basal ganglia. In addition, an injection of R-(+)-7-OH-PIPAT, a new ligand that is selective for the dopamine D3 receptor and the high affinity state of the dopamine D2 receptor, showed partial displacement ({approximately}15%) of I-123 FIDA2 binding in the basal ganglia. These studies indicate that FIDA2 may be a useful ligand for in vivo imaging of dopamine D2/D3 receptors.

  18. [¹¹C]-(+)-PHNO PET imaging of dopamine D(2/3) receptors in Parkinson's disease with impulse control disorders.

    PubMed

    Payer, Doris E; Guttman, Mark; Kish, Stephen J; Tong, Junchao; Strafella, Antonio; Zack, Martin; Adams, John R; Rusjan, Pablo; Houle, Sylvain; Furukawa, Yoshiaki; Wilson, Alan A; Boileau, Isabelle

    2015-02-01

    Dopamine agonist medications with high affinity for the D3 dopamine receptor are commonly used to treat Parkinson's disease, and have been associated with pathological behaviors categorized under the umbrella of impulse control disorders (ICD). The aim of this study was to investigate whether ICD in Parkinson's patients are associated with greater D3 dopamine receptor availability. We used positron emission tomography (PET) radioligand imaging with the D3 dopamine receptor preferring agonist [¹¹C]-(+)-propyl-hexahydro-naphtho-oxazin (PHNO) in Parkinson's patients with (n = 11) and without (n = 21) ICD, and age-, sex-, and education-matched healthy control subjects (n = 18). Contrary to hypotheses, [¹¹C]-(+)-PHNO binding in D3 -rich brain areas was not elevated in Parkinson's patients with ICD compared with those without; instead, [¹¹C]-(+)-PHNO binding in ventral striatum was 20% lower (P = 0.011), correlating with two measures of ICD severity (r = -0.8 and -0.9), which may reflect higher dopamine tone in ventral striatum. In dorsal striatum, where [¹¹C]-(+)-PHNO binding is associated with D2 receptor levels, [¹¹C]-(+)-PHNO binding was elevated across patients compared with controls. We conclude that although D3 dopamine receptors have been linked to the occurrence of ICD in Parkinson's patients. Our findings do not support the hypothesis that D3 receptor levels are elevated in Parkinson's patients with ICD. We also did not find ICD-related abnormalities in D2 receptor levels. Our findings argue against the possibility that differences in D2/3 receptor levels can account for the development of ICD in PD; however, we cannot rule out that differences in dopamine levels (particularly in ventral striatum) may be involved. PMID:25641350

  19. Adaptations in the mesoaccumbens dopamine system resulting from repeated administration of dopamine D1 and D2 receptor-selective agonists: relevance to cocaine sensitization.

    PubMed

    Henry, D J; Hu, X T; White, F J

    1998-11-01

    The mesoaccumbens dopamine (DA) system is intricately involved in sensitization to the locomotor stimulant effects of cocaine. Among the adaptations implicated in cocaine sensitization are transient subsensitivity of impulse-regulating DA D2 autoreceptors on ventral tegmental area (VTA) DA neurons leading to hyperactivity of the mesoaccumbens DA pathway, and persistently enhanced DA D1 receptor responses of nucleus accumbens (NAc) neurons. We have tested the hypothesis that both of these adaptations are necessary to produce cocaine sensitization. We injected rats twice daily for 2 weeks with the selective DA D1 class receptor agonist SKF 38393, the DA D2 class receptor agonist quinpirole, or both. We then used single-cell recording procedures to determine possible alterations in VTA DA autoreceptor sensitivity and NAc D1 receptor sensitivity at three withdrawal times: 1 day, 1 week and 1 month. We also tested whether these treatments produced cross-sensitization to cocaine at each withdrawal time. Repeated quinpirole treatment produced a reduction in VTA autoreceptor sensitivity and cross-sensitization to cocaine, but these effects lasted for less than 1 week. Repeated SKF 38393 treatment produced enhanced NAc D1 responses which lasted for 1 week and cross-sensitization to cocaine which was only evident after 1 week of withdrawal. Repeated treatment with the combination of the two agonists transiently down-regulated autoreceptor sensitivity, enhanced and prolonged D1 receptor supersensitivity (lasting 1 month), and produced enduring cross-sensitization to cocaine. These results suggest that neuroadaptations within both the VTA and NAc may be necessary for the induction of enduring cocaine sensitization. PMID:9860115

  20. In the Blink of an Eye: Relating Positive-Feedback Sensitivity to Striatal Dopamine D2-Like Receptors through Blink Rate

    PubMed Central

    Groman, Stephanie M.; James, Alex S.; Seu, Emanuele; Tran, Steven; Clark, Taylor A.; Harpster, Sandra N.; Crawford, Maverick; Burtner, Joanna Lee; Feiler, Karen; Roth, Robert H.; Elsworth, John D.; London, Edythe D.

    2014-01-01

    For >30 years, positron emission tomography (PET) has proven to be a powerful approach for measuring aspects of dopaminergic transmission in the living human brain; this technique has revealed important relationships between dopamine D2-like receptors and dimensions of normal behavior, such as human impulsivity, and psychopathology, particularly behavioral addictions. Nevertheless, PET is an indirect estimate that lacks cellular and functional resolution and, in some cases, is not entirely pharmacologically specific. To identify the relationships between PET estimates of D2-like receptor availability and direct in vitro measures of receptor number, affinity, and function, we conducted neuroimaging and behavioral and molecular pharmacological assessments in a group of adult male vervet monkeys. Data gathered from these studies indicate that variation in D2-like receptor PET measurements is related to reversal-learning performance and sensitivity to positive feedback and is associated with in vitro estimates of the density of functional dopamine D2-like receptors. Furthermore, we report that a simple behavioral measure, eyeblink rate, reveals novel and crucial links between neuroimaging assessments and in vitro measures of dopamine D2 receptors. PMID:25339755

  1. Pubertal exposure to di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate influences social behavior and dopamine receptor D2 of adult female mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ran; Xu, Xiaohong; Zhu, Qingjie

    2016-02-01

    DEHP, one of the most commonly phthalates used in plastics and many other products, is an environmental endocrine disruptor (EED). Puberty is another critical period for the brain development besides the neonatal period and is sensitive to EEDs. Social behavior is organized during puberty, so the present study is to investigate whether pubertal exposure to DEHP influenced social behavior of adult female mice. The results showed that pubertal exposure to DEHP for 2 weeks did not change the serum level of 17β-estradiol and the weight of uterus of adult females, but decreased the number of grid crossings and the frequency of rearing, and increased grooming in open field. DEHP reduced the open arm entries and the time spent in open arms in the elevated plus maze. DEHP reduced mutual sniffing and grooming between unfamiliar conspecifics in social play task and reduced the right chamber (containing unfamiliar female mouse) entries and the frequency of sniffing unfamiliar female mouse. DEHP at 1 mg kg(-1) d(-1) reduced the time spent in right chamber. Furthermore, Western blot analyses showed that DEHP decreased the levels of estrogen receptor β (ERβ), dopamine receptor D2, and the phosphorylation of ERKs in striatum. These results suggest that pubertal exposure to DEHP impaired social investigation and sociability and influenced anxiety-like state of adult female mice. The decreased activity of ERK1/2, and the down-regulated D2 and ERβ in striatum may be associated with the DEHP-induced changes of emotional and social behavior in mice. PMID:26524146

  2. Dopamine D2 Receptor Is Involved in Alleviation of Type II Collagen-Induced Arthritis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Jian-Hua; Liu, Yi-Qian; Deng, Qiao-Wen; Peng, Yu-Ping; Qiu, Yi-Hua

    2015-01-01

    Human and murine lymphocytes express dopamine (DA) D2-like receptors including DRD2, DRD3, and DRD4. However, their roles in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are less clear. Here we showed that lymphocyte DRD2 activation alleviates both imbalance of T-helper (Th)17/T-regulatory (Treg) cells and inflamed symptoms in a mouse arthritis model of RA. Collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) was prepared by intradermal injection of chicken collagen type II (CII) in tail base of DBA/1 mice or Drd2−/− C57BL/6 mice. D2-like receptor agonist quinpirole downregulated expression of proinflammatory Th17-related cytokines interleukin- (IL-) 17 and IL-22 but further upregulated expression of anti-inflammatory Treg-related cytokines transforming growth factor- (TGF-) β and IL-10 in lymphocytes in vitro and in ankle joints in vivo in CIA mice. Quinpirole intraperitoneal administration reduced both clinical arthritis score and serum anti-CII IgG level in CIA mice. However, Drd2−/− CIA mice manifested more severe limb inflammation and higher serum anti-CII IgG level and further upregulated IL-17 and IL-22 expression and downregulated TGF-β and IL-10 expression than wild-type CIA mice. In contrast, Drd1−/− CIA mice did not alter limb inflammation or anti-CII IgG level compared with wild-type CIA mice. These results suggest that DRD2 activation is involved in alleviation of CIA symptoms by amelioration of Th17/Treg imbalance. PMID:26693483

  3. A Dopamine Receptor D2-Type Agonist Attenuates the Ability of Stress to Alter Sleep in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Jefferson, F.; Ehlen, J. C.; Williams, N. S.; Montemarano, J. J.

    2014-01-01

    Although sleep disruptions that accompany stress reduce quality of life and deteriorate health, the mechanisms through which stress alters sleep remain obscure. Psychological stress can alter sleep in a variety of ways, but it has been shown to be particularly influential on rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. Prolactin (PRL), a sexually dimorphic, stress-sensitive hormone whose basal levels are higher in females, has somnogenic effects on REM sleep. In the current study, we examined the relationship between PRL secretion and REM sleep after restraint stress to determine whether: 1) the ability of stress to increase REM sleep is PRL-dependent, and 2) fluctuating PRL levels underlie sex differences in sleep responses to stress. Because dopamine D2 receptors in the pituitary gland are the primary regulator of PRL secretion, D2 receptor agonist, 1-[(6-allylergolin-8β-yl)-carbonyl]-1-[3-(dimethylamino) propyl]-3-ethylurea (cabergoline), was used to attenuate PRL levels in mice before 1 hour of restraint stress. Mice were implanted with electroencephalographic/electromyographic recording electrodes and received an ip injection of either 0.3-mg/kg cabergoline or vehicle before a control procedure of 1 hour of sleep deprivation by gentle handling during the light phase. Six days after the control procedure, mice received cabergoline or vehicle 15 minutes before 1 hour of restraint stress. Cabergoline blocked the ability of restraint stress to increase REM sleep amount in males but did not alter REM sleep amount after stress in females even though it reduced basal REM sleep amount in female controls. These data provide evidence that the ability for restraint stress to increase REM sleep is dependent on PRL and that sex differences in REM sleep amount may be driven by PRL. PMID:25157453

  4. Dopamine D2 Receptor Is Involved in Alleviation of Type II Collagen-Induced Arthritis in Mice.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jian-Hua; Liu, Yi-Qian; Deng, Qiao-Wen; Peng, Yu-Ping; Qiu, Yi-Hua

    2015-01-01

    Human and murine lymphocytes express dopamine (DA) D2-like receptors including DRD2, DRD3, and DRD4. However, their roles in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are less clear. Here we showed that lymphocyte DRD2 activation alleviates both imbalance of T-helper (Th)17/T-regulatory (Treg) cells and inflamed symptoms in a mouse arthritis model of RA. Collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) was prepared by intradermal injection of chicken collagen type II (CII) in tail base of DBA/1 mice or Drd2 (-/-) C57BL/6 mice. D2-like receptor agonist quinpirole downregulated expression of proinflammatory Th17-related cytokines interleukin- (IL-) 17 and IL-22 but further upregulated expression of anti-inflammatory Treg-related cytokines transforming growth factor- (TGF-) β and IL-10 in lymphocytes in vitro and in ankle joints in vivo in CIA mice. Quinpirole intraperitoneal administration reduced both clinical arthritis score and serum anti-CII IgG level in CIA mice. However, Drd2 (-/-) CIA mice manifested more severe limb inflammation and higher serum anti-CII IgG level and further upregulated IL-17 and IL-22 expression and downregulated TGF-β and IL-10 expression than wild-type CIA mice. In contrast, Drd1 (-/-) CIA mice did not alter limb inflammation or anti-CII IgG level compared with wild-type CIA mice. These results suggest that DRD2 activation is involved in alleviation of CIA symptoms by amelioration of Th17/Treg imbalance. PMID:26693483

  5. New functional activity of aripiprazole revealed: Robust antagonism of D2 dopamine receptor-stimulated Gβγ signaling.

    PubMed

    Brust, Tarsis F; Hayes, Michael P; Roman, David L; Watts, Val J

    2015-01-01

    The dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) is a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) that is generally considered to be a primary target in the treatment of schizophrenia. First generation antipsychotic drugs (e.g. haloperidol) are antagonists of the DRD2, while second generation antipsychotic drugs (e.g. olanzapine) antagonize DRD2 and 5HT2A receptors. Notably, both these classes of drugs may cause side effects associated with D2 receptor antagonism (e.g. hyperprolactemia and extrapyramidal symptoms). The novel, "third generation" antipsychotic drug, aripiprazole is also used to treat schizophrenia, with the remarkable advantage that its tendency to cause extrapyramidal symptoms is minimal. Aripiprazole is considered a partial agonist of the DRD2, but it also has partial agonist/antagonist activity for other GPCRs. Further, aripiprazole has been reported to have a unique activity profile in functional assays with the DRD2. In the present study the molecular pharmacology of aripiprazole was further examined in HEK cell models stably expressing the DRD2 and specific isoforms of adenylyl cyclase to assess functional responses of Gα and Gβγ subunits. Additional studies examined the activity of aripiprazole in DRD2-mediated heterologous sensitization of adenylyl cyclase and cell-based dynamic mass redistribution (DMR). Aripiprazole displayed a unique functional profile for modulation of G proteins, being a partial agonist for Gαi/o and a robust antagonist for Gβγ signaling. Additionally, aripiprazole was a weak partial agonist for both heterologous sensitization and dynamic mass redistribution. PMID:25449598

  6. The Impact of Selective Dopamine D2, D3 and D4 Ligands on the Rat Gambling Task.

    PubMed

    Di Ciano, Patricia; Pushparaj, Abhiram; Kim, Aaron; Hatch, Jessica; Masood, Talal; Ramzi, Abby; Khaled, Maram A T M; Boileau, Isabelle; Winstanley, Catherine A; Le Foll, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    Gambling is an addictive disorder with serious societal and personal costs. To-date, there are no approved pharmacological treatments for gambling disorder. Evidence suggests a role for dopamine in gambling disorder and thus may provide a therapeutic target. The present study therefore aimed to investigate the effects of selective antagonists and agonists of D2, D3 and D4 receptors in a rodent analogue of the Iowa gambling task used clinically. In this rat gambling task (rGT), animals are trained to associate different response holes with different magnitudes and probabilities of food pellet rewards and punishing time-out periods. As in the Iowa gambling task, the optimal strategy is to avoid the tempting high-risk high-reward options, and instead favor those linked to smaller per-trial rewards but also lower punishments, thereby maximizing the amount of reward earned over time. Administration of those selective ligands did not affect decision making under the rGT. Only the D4 drug had modest effects on latency measures suggesting that D4 may contribute in some ways to decision making under this task. PMID:26352802

  7. Upregulation of Cannabinoid Type 1 Receptors in Dopamine D2 Receptor Knockout Mice Is Reversed by Chronic Forced Ethanol Consumption

    SciTech Connect

    Thanos, P.K.; Wang, G.; Thanos, P.K.; Gopez, V.; Delis, F.; Michaelides, M.; Grand, D.K.; Wang, G.-J.; Kunos, G.; Volkow, N.D.

    2011-01-01

    The anatomical proximity of the cannabinoid type 1 (CNR1/CB1R) and the dopamine D2 receptors (DRD2), their ability to form CB1R-DRD2 heteromers, their opposing roles in locomotion, and their involvement in ethanol's reinforcing and addictive properties prompted us to study the levels and distribution of CB1R after chronic ethanol intake, in the presence and absence of DRD2. We monitored the drinking patterns and locomotor activity of Drd2+/+ and Drd2-/- mice consuming either water or a 20% (v/v) ethanol solution (forced ethanol intake) for 6 months and used the selective CB1 receptor antagonist [{sup 3}H]SR141716A to quantify CB1R levels in different brain regions with in vitro receptor autoradiography. We found that the lack of DRD2 leads to a marked upregulation (approximately 2-fold increase) of CB1R in the cerebral cortex, the caudate-putamen, and the nucleus accumbens, which was reversed by chronic ethanol intake. The results suggest that DRD2-mediated dopaminergic neurotransmission and chronic ethanol intake exert an inhibitory effect on cannabinoid receptor expression in cortical and striatal regions implicated in the reinforcing and addictive properties of ethanol.

  8. Genetic predisposition in alcoholism: association of the D2 dopamine receptor TaqI B1 RFLP with severe alcoholics.

    PubMed

    Blum, K; Noble, E P; Sheridan, P J; Montgomery, A; Ritchie, T; Ozkaragoz, T; Fitch, R J; Wood, R; Finley, O; Sadlack, F

    1993-01-01

    Previous studies have shown an association of the 3' Taq1 A1 allele of the D2 dopamine receptor (DRD2) gene with severe alcoholism. The recent demonstration of a new polymorphism located closer to the regulatory regions of this gene, permits an associational analysis of these 5' Taq1 B alleles with alcoholism and a comparison with the 3' Taq1 A alleles. Restriction fragment length polymorphism methodology was used to analyze a total of 133 blood samples of nonalcoholics, less severe alcoholics, and severe alcoholics. In white subjects (n = 115), no significant difference in the prevalence of the B1 allele is found between nonalcoholics (n = 30) and less severe alcoholics (n = 36). However, the prevalence of this allele is significantly higher in severe alcoholics (n = 49) when compared to either nonalcoholics (p = 0.008) or less severe alcoholics (p = 0.005). When Taq1 B and Taq1 A alleles of the DRD2 gene are compared in whites, the prevalence of the A1 allele is significantly higher than the B1 allele only in the severe alcoholic group. In conclusion, alleles in both the 5' and 3' region of the DRD2 gene associate with severe alcoholism. This suggests that the DRD2 gene may have an etiological role in some severe alcoholics. PMID:8095394

  9. Polymorphisms in human dopamine D2 receptor gene affect gene expression, splicing, and neuronal activity during working memory.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying; Bertolino, Alessandro; Fazio, Leonardo; Blasi, Giuseppe; Rampino, Antonio; Romano, Raffaella; Lee, Mei-Ling T; Xiao, Tao; Papp, Audrey; Wang, Danxin; Sadée, Wolfgang

    2007-12-18

    Subcortical dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) signaling is implicated in cognitive processes and brain disorders, but the effect of DRD2 variants remains ambiguous. We measured allelic mRNA expression in postmortem human striatum and prefrontal cortex and then performed single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) scans of the DRD2 locus. A previously uncharacterized promoter SNP (rs12364283) located in a conserved suppressor region was associated with enhanced DRD2 expression, whereas previously studied DRD2 variants failed to affect expression. Moreover, two frequent intronic SNPs (rs2283265 and rs1076560) decreased expression of DRD2 short splice variant (expressed mainly presynaptically) relative to DRD2 long (postsynaptic), a finding reproduced in vitro by using minigene constructs. Being in strong linkage disequilibrium with each other, both intronic SNPs (but not rs12364283) were also associated with greater activity of striatum and prefrontal cortex measured with fMRI during working memory and with reduced performance in working memory and attentional control tasks in healthy humans. Our results identify regulatory DRD2 polymorphisms that modify mRNA expression and splicing and working memory pathways. PMID:18077373

  10. The effects in rats of lisdexamfetamine in combination with olanzapine on mesocorticolimbic dopamine efflux, striatal dopamine D2 receptor occupancy and stimulus generalization to a D-amphetamine cue.

    PubMed

    Hutson, Peter H; Rowley, Helen L; Gosden, James; Kulkarni, Rajiv S; Slater, Nigel; Love, Patrick L; Wang, Yiyun; Heal, David

    2016-02-01

    The etiology of schizophrenia is poorly understood and two principle hypotheses have dominated the field. Firstly, that subcortical dopamine function is enhanced while cortical dopamine function is reduced and secondly, that cortical glutamate systems are dysfunctional. It is also widely accepted that currently used antipsychotics have essentially no impact on cognitive deficits and persistent negative symptoms in schizophrenia. Reduced dopamine transmission via dopamine D1 receptors in the prefrontal cortex has been hypothesized to be involved in the aetiology of these symptom domains and enhancing cortical dopamine transmission within an optimal window has been suggested to be potentially beneficial. In these pre-clinical studies we have determined that combined administration of the d-amphetamine pro-drug, lisdexamfetamine and the atypical antipsychotic olanzapine increased dopamine efflux in the rat prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens to an extent greater than either drug given separately without affecting olanzapine's ability to block striatal dopamine D2 receptors which is important for its antipsychotic activity. Furthermore, in an established rodent model used to compare the subjective effects of novel compounds the ability of lisdexamfetamine to generalize to a d-amphetamine cue was dose-dependently attenuated when co-administered with olanzapine suggesting that lisdexamfetamine may produce less marked subjective effects when administered adjunctively with olanzapine. PMID:26384654

  11. Regulation of dopamine D2 receptor-mediated extracellular signal-regulated kinase signaling and spine formation by GABAA receptors in hippocampal neurons.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Dong-Hoon; Yoon, Sehyoun; Kim, Donghoon; Kim, Hyun; Baik, Ja-Hyun

    2015-01-23

    Dopamine (DA) signaling via DA receptors is known to control hippocampal activity that contributes to learning, memory, and synaptic plasticity. In primary hippocampal neuronal culture, we observed that dopamine D2 receptors (D2R) co-localized with certain subtypes of GABAA receptors, namely α1, β3, and γ2 subunits, as revealed by double immunofluorocytochemical analysis. Treatment with the D2R agonist, quinpirole, was shown to elicit an increase in phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) in hippocampal neurons. This phosphorylation was inhibited by pretreatment with the GABAA receptor agonist, muscimol. Furthermore, treatment of hippocampal neurons with quinpirole increased the dendritic spine density and this regulation was totally blocked by pretreatment with a MAP kinase kinase (MEK) inhibitor (PD98059), D2R antagonist (haloperidol), or by the GABAA receptor agonist, muscimol. These results suggest that D2R-mediated ERK phosphorylation can control spine formation and that the GABAA receptor negatively regulates the D2R-induced spine formation through ERK signaling in hippocampal neurons, thus indicating a potential role of D2R in the control of hippocampal neuronal excitability. PMID:25483619

  12. Dopamine D2-like receptor agonists induce penile erection in male rats: differential role of D2, D3 and D4 receptors in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus.

    PubMed

    Sanna, Fabrizio; Succu, Salvatora; Hübner, Harald; Gmeiner, Peter; Argiolas, Antonio; Melis, Maria Rosaria

    2011-11-20

    Pramipexole, a dopamine D3/D2 receptor agonist, induces penile erection when administered subcutaneously (s.c.) or into the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus of male rats, like apomorphine, a mixed D1/D2 receptor agonist, and PD 168,077, a D4 receptor agonist. A U-inverted dose-response curve was found with pramipexole and apomorphine, but not with PD 168,077 (0.025-0.5mg/kg s.c.). Pramipexole effect was abolished by L-741,626, a D2 receptor antagonist (2.5 and 5mg/kg s.c.) and raclopride, a D2/D3 receptor antagonist (0.025 and 0.1mg/kg s.c.), but not by SB277011A (2.5 and 10mg/kg s.c.) or FAUC 365 (1 and 2mg/kg s.c.), two D3 receptor antagonists, or L-745,870 (1 and 5mg/kg i.p.), a D4 receptor antagonist. Similar results were found with apomorphine (0.08mg/kg s.c.), although its effect was also partially reduced by L-745,870. In contrast, PD 168,077 effect was abolished by L-745,870, but not L-741,626, SB277011A, FAUC 365 or raclopride. Similar results were found when dopamine agonists (5-200ng/rat) and antagonists (1-5μg/rat) were injected into the paraventricular nucleus. However, no U-inverted dose-response curve was found with any of the three dopamine agonists injected into this nucleus. As pramipexole- and apomorphine-induced penile erection was reduced mainly by D2, but not D3 or D4 antagonists, D2 receptors are those that mediate the pro-erectile effect of these dopamine agonists. Although the selective stimulation of paraventricular D4 receptors induces penile erection, D4 receptors seem to play only a modest role in the pro-erectile effect of the above dopamine agonists. PMID:21784104

  13. Deficits in striatal dopamine D(2) receptors and energy metabolism detected by in vivo microPET imaging in a rat model of Huntington's disease.

    PubMed

    Araujo, D M; Cherry, S R; Tatsukawa, K J; Toyokuni, T; Kornblum, H I

    2000-12-01

    Functional imaging by repeated noninvasive scans of specific (18)F tracer distribution using a high-resolution small-animal PET scanner, the microPET, assessed the time course of alterations in energy utilization and dopamine receptors in rats with unilateral striatal quinolinic acid lesions. Energy utilization ipsilateral to the lesion, determined using scans of 2-deoxy-2-[(18)F]fluoro-d-glucose uptake, was compromised severely 1 week after intrastriatal excitotoxin injections. When the same rats were imaged 5 and 7 weeks postlesion, decrements in energy metabolism were even more prominent. In contrast, lesion-induced effects on dopamine D(2) receptor binding were more progressive, with an initial upregulation of [3-(2'-(18)F]fluoroethyl)spiperone binding apparent 1 week postlesion followed by a decline 5 and 7 weeks thereafter. Additional experiments revealed that marked upregulation of dopamine D(2) receptors consequent to quinolinic acid injections could be detected as early as 3 days after the initial insult. Postmortem markers of striatal GABAergic neurons were assessed in the same rats 7 weeks after the lesion: expression of glutamic acid decarboxylase and dopamine D(1) receptor mRNA, as well as [(3)H]SCH-23,390 and [(3)H]spiperone binding to dopamine D(1) and D(2) receptors, respectively, detected prominent decrements consequent to the lesion. In contrast, by 7 weeks postlesion [(3)H]WIN-35,428 binding to dopamine transport sites within the striatum appeared to be enhanced proximal to the quinolinic acid injection sites. The results demonstrate that functional imaging using the microPET is a useful technique to explore not only the progressive neurodegeneration that occurs in response to excitotoxic insults, but also to examine more closely the intricacies of neurotransmitter activity in a small animal model of HD. PMID:11085894

  14. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of (/sup 123/I)IBZM: a potential CNS D-2 dopamine receptor imaging agent

    SciTech Connect

    Kung, H.F.; Pan, S.; Kung, M.P.; Billings, J.; Kasliwal, R.; Reilley, J.; Alavi, A.

    1989-01-01

    In vitro binding characteristics of a CNS dopamine D-2 receptor imaging agent, (S)-N-((1-ethyl-2-pyrrolidinyl)) methyl-2-hydroxy-3-iodo-6-methoxybenzamide ((/sup 125/I)IBZM), was carried out in rats. Also brain images, as well as organ biodistribution were determined in a monkey following the administration of /sup 123/I-labeled compound. The S-(-)-I(/sup 125/I)IBZM showed high specific dopamine D-2 receptor binding in rat striatum (Kd = 0.426 +/- 0.082 nM, Bmax = 480 +/- 22 fmol/mg of protein). Competition of various ligands for the IBZM binding displayed the following rank order of potency: spiperone greater than S(-)IBZM much greater than R(+)IBZM greater than or equal to S(-)BZM greater than dopamine greater than ketanserin greater than SCH-23390 much greater than propranolol, norepinephrine, serotonin. In vivo planar images of a monkey injected with (/sup 123/I)IBZM demonstrated a high concentration in basal ganglia of brain. The ratios of activity in the basal ganglia to cerebellum and the cortex to cerebellum in monkey brain were 4.93 and 1.44, respectively, at 120 min postinjection. These preliminary results indicate that (/sup 123/I)IBZM is a potentially promising imaging agent for the investigation of dopamine D-2 receptors in humans.

  15. Differential Roles for Dopamine D1-Like and D2-Like Receptors in Mediating the Reinforcing Effects of Cocaine: Convergent Evidence from Pharmacological and Genetic Studies

    PubMed Central

    Hiranita, Takato; Collins, Gregory T

    2016-01-01

    A series of studies by Drs. Barak Caine, James Woods, Gregory Collins, Jonathan Katz and Takato Hiranita demonstrated a novel and unique reinforcing effect using dopamine (DA) D2-like receptor [D2-like R: D2, D3, and D4 receptor subtypes (respectively, D2R, D3R, and D4R)] agonists in rats and genetically modified mice. In order to understand how important their findings are, a comparison was made regarding the reinforcing effects of DA D2-like R full agonists with those of DA uptake inhibitors and of a DA D1-like receptor [D1-like R, D1 and D5 receptor subtypes (D1R and D5R)] full agonist (±)-SKF 82958. PMID:27390753

  16. Cocaine-seeking is associated with PKC-dependent reduction of excitatory signaling in accumbens shell D2 dopamine receptor-expressing neurons.

    PubMed

    Ortinski, Pavel I; Briand, Lisa A; Pierce, R Christopher; Schmidt, Heath D

    2015-05-01

    Stimulation of D1-like dopamine receptors (D1DRs) or D2-like dopamine receptors (D2DRs) in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) shell reinstates cocaine seeking in rats, an animal model of relapse. D2DRs and D1DRs activate protein kinase C (PKC) and recent studies indicate that activation of PKC in the NAc plays an important role in the reinstatement of drug seeking induced by a systemic cocaine priming injection. In the present study, pharmacological inhibition of PKC in the NAc shell attenuated cocaine seeking induced by intra-accumbens shell microinjection of a D2DR agonist, but not a D1DR agonist. D1DRs and D2DRs are primarily expressed on different accumbens medium spiny (MSN) neurons. Neuronal signaling and activity were assessed in these two populations of NAc neurons with transgenic mice expressing fluorescent labels under the control of D1DR and D2DR promoters. Following the extinction of cocaine self-administration, bath application of a PKC inhibitor produced similar effects on single evoked excitatory and inhibitory post-synaptic currents in D1DR- and D2DR-positive MSNs in the NAc shell. However, inhibition of PKC preferentially improved the ability of excitatory, but not inhibitory, synapses to sustain responding to brief train of stimuli specifically in D2DR-positive MSNs. This effect did not appear to involve modulation of presynaptic release mechanisms. Taken together, these findings indicate that the reinstatement of cocaine seeking is at least partially due to D2DR-dependent increases in PKC signaling in the NAc shell, which reduce excitatory synaptic efficacy in D2DR-expressing MSNs. PMID:25596492

  17. In vitro binding properties and autoradiographic imaging of 3-iodobenzamide ((/sup 125/I)-IBZM): a potential imaging ligand for D-2 dopamine receptors in SPECT

    SciTech Connect

    Bruecke, T.; Tsai, Y.F.; McLellan, C.; Singhanyom, W.; Kung, H.F.; Cohen, R.M.; Chiueh, C.C.

    1988-01-01

    The in vitro binding properties of the (/sup 125/I) labeled benzamide, (S(-)-N-((1-ethyl-2-pyrrolidinyl)-methyl)-2-hydroxy-3-iodo-6-methoxy-benzamide, IBZM) were determined in bovine and mouse caudate membrane homogenates and by autoradiography of mouse brain slices. (/sup 125/I)-IBZM binding is saturable and reversible with B/sub max/ of 373 +/- 51 fmol/mg protein and a K/sub d/ of 3.1 +/- 0.62 nM and 0.56 nM as calculated by association and dissociation time constants. In competition experiments, K/sub i/ values for the D-2 antagonists YM-09151-2 and spiperone are 4 orders of magnitude lower than the K/sub i/ value for the D-1 antagonist SCH-23390 and S(-)-IBZM is ten-fold more potent than R(+)-IBZM. (/sup 125/I)-IBZM has a low affinity for serotonin S-2 and for alpha receptors. Therefore, it is a highly selective ligand for dopamine D-2 receptors. Autoradiographic images of brain sections incubated with (/sup 125/I)-IBZM show the dopamine D-2 receptors of the striatum, nucleus accumbens and olfactory tubercle with a high ratio of specific to nonspecific binding. Thus, S(-)-IBZM, when labeled with (/sup 125/I), may be useful for in vivo imaging of dopamine D-2 receptors by single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT).

  18. The Blockade of D1/D2-Like Dopamine Receptors within the Dentate Gyrus of Hippocampus Decreased the Reinstatement of Morphine-Extinguished Conditioned Place Preference in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Khakpour-Taleghani, Behrooz; Reisi, Zahra; Haghparast, Abbas

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The hippocampus (HIP), the primary brain structure related to learning and memory, receives sparse but comprehensive dopamine innervations and contains dopamine D1/D2-like receptors. It is demonstrated that dopamine receptors in dentate gyrus (DG) region of HIP have a remarkable function in spatial reward processing. Much less is known about the involvement of HIP and its D1/D2 dopamine receptors in drug-seeking behaviors, more particularly, in the morphine extinguished conditioned place preference (CPP). Methods: To find out the role of D1/D2-like receptors within the DG in morphine-seeking behaviors, forty adult male albino Wistar rats weighing 220–280g were unilaterally implanted by a cannula into the DG. The CPP paradigm was done; conditioning score and locomotors activity were recorded by Ethovision software. All drugs/vehicles were microinjected one day after extinction (just before the CPP test) into the DG as reinstatement day. Results: The results showed that intra-DG administration of different dose of SCH23390 (0.25, 1 and 4μg/0.5μl saline), as a selective D1-like receptor antagonist and sulpiride (0.25, 1 and 4μg/0.5μl DMSO), as a selective D2-like receptor antagonist dose-dependently attenuated the morphine-extinguished CPP reinstated by priming injection of morphine (1 mg/kg;sc). Discussion: It can be concluded that D1/D2-like receptors within this region have an important role in morphine-seeking behaviors in extinguished rats. PMID:27307951

  19. drd2-cre:ribotag mouse line unravels the possible diversity of dopamine d2 receptor-expressing cells of the dorsal mouse hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Puighermanal, Emma; Biever, Anne; Espallergues, Julie; Gangarossa, Giuseppe; De Bundel, Dimitri; Valjent, Emmanuel

    2015-07-01

    Increasing evidences suggest that dopamine facilitates the encoding of novel memories by the hippocampus. However, the role of dopamine D2 receptors (D2R) in such regulations remains elusive due to the lack of the precise identification of hippocampal D2R-expressing cells. To address this issue, mice expressing the ribosomal protein Rpl22 tagged with the hemagglutinin (HA) epitope were crossed with Drd2-Cre mice allowing the selective expression of HA in D2R-containing cells (Drd2-Cre:RiboTag mice). This new transgenic model revealed a more widespread pattern of D2R-expressing cells identified by HA immunoreactivity than the one initially reported in Drd2-EGFP mice, in which the hilar mossy cells were the main neuronal population detectable. In Drd2-Cre:RiboTag mice, scattered HA/GAD67-positive neurons were detected throughout the CA1/CA3 subfields, being preferentially localized in stratum oriens and stratum lacunosum-moleculare. At the cellular level, HA-labeled cells located in CA1/CA3 subfields co-localized with calcium-binding proteins (parvalbumin, calbindin, and calretinin), neuropeptides (neuropeptide Y, somatostatin), and other markers (neuronal nitric oxide synthase, mGluR1α, reelin, coupTFII, and potassium channel-interacting protein 1). These results suggest that in addition to the glutamatergic hilar mossy cells, D2R-expressing cells constitute a subpopulation of GABAergic hippocampal interneurons. PMID:25545461

  20. Selective alterations of brain dopamine D(2) receptor binding in cirrhotic patients: results of a (11)C-N-methylspiperone PET study.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Yuki; Kato, Akinobu; Sawara, Kei; Butterworth, Roger F; Sasaki, Toshiaki; Terasaki, Kazunori; Sera, Koichiro; Suzuki, Kazuyuki

    2008-09-01

    Alterations of the brain dopamine system have been implicated in the neurological complications of chronic liver failure. The present study was aimed at the measurement of dopamine D(2) binding sites in cirrhotic patients by positron emission tomography (PET) using (11)C-N-methylspiperone as ligand. The regions of interest (ROI) were designated on a three-dimensional stereotaxic ROI template (3DSRT). The pixel values of twelve ROIs corrected by the pixel value of the cerebellum after 80 min static scanning were used to quantitate changes in binding. D(2) binding sites were significantly decreased in the hippocampus and thalamus of cirrhotic patients and were positively correlated with serum bilirubin levels and Child-Pugh scores and were negatively correlated with prothrombin times (thalamus). Loss of D(2) sites was greater in thalamus and hippocampus of alcoholic cirrhotics compared to non-alcoholics. Statistically significant correlations were also observed between D(2) binding sites in hippocampus, thalamus and lenticular nuclei and history of overt encephalopathy. These findings suggest that D(2) receptor binding in some regions of brain in cirrhotic patients is influenced by factors such as the severity of liver damage and history of alcohol dependency or overt encephalopathy. Alterations of D(2) receptor sites indicative of dopaminergic synaptic dysfunction could play an important role in the pathogenesis of the cognitive and motor disturbances associated with chronic liver failure. PMID:18686022

  1. Role of amygdala dopamine D1 and D2 receptors in the acquisition and expression of fructose-conditioned flavor preferences in rats

    PubMed Central

    Bernal, Sonia Y.; Miner, Patricia; Abayev, Yana; Kandova, Ester; Gerges, Meri; Touzani, Khalid; Sclafani, Anthony; Bodnar, Richard J.

    2009-01-01

    Systemic administration of dopamine D1-like (SCH23390) and, to a lesser degree D2-like (raclopride), receptor antagonists significantly reduce the acquisition and expression of fructose-conditioned flavor preferences (CFP) in rats. Given the role of dopamine in the amygdala (AMY) in the processing and learning of food reward, the present study examined whether dopamine D1-like or D2-like antagonists in this site altered acquisition and/or expression of a fructose-CFP. In Experiment 1, food-restricted rats with bilateral AMY cannulae were trained to drink a fructose (8%) + saccharin (0.2%) solution mixed with one flavor (e.g., grape, CS+/Fs) and a less-preferred 0.2% saccharin solution mixed with another flavor (e.g., cherry, CS-/s) during one-bottle (16 ml) sessions. Two-bottle tests with the two flavors mixed in saccharin solutions (CS+/s, CS-/s) occurred 10 min following total bilateral AMY doses of 0, 12, 24 and 48 nmol of SCH23390 or raclopride. Preference for CS+/s over CS-/s was significantly reduced relative to vehicle baseline by the 48 nmol doses of SCH23390 and raclopride (from 77% to 66% and 68%), but not lower doses. In Experiment 2, rats received bilateral AMY injections (12 nmol) of SCH23390 (D1 group) or raclopride (D2 group) 10 min prior to one-bottle training sessions with CS+/Fs and CS-/s. Yoked control rats received vehicle and were limited to the CS intakes of the D1 and D2 groups; untreated controls were not injected or limited to drug group intakes during training. Subsequent two-bottle tests revealed initial preferences of CS+/s over CS-/s in all groups that remained stable in untreated and yoked controls, but were lost over the 6 tests sessions in the D1 group, but not in the D2 group. These data indicate that dopamine D1-like and D2-like antagonists significantly attenuated the expression of the previously-acquired fructose-CFP, and did not block acquisition of the fructose-CFP. D1-like antagonism during training hastened extinction of the

  2. Dopamine D2 receptor expression in hippocampus and parahippocampal cortex of rat, cat, and human in relation to tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive fibers.

    PubMed

    Goldsmith, S K; Joyce, J N

    1994-06-01

    A detailed study comparing the distribution of D2 receptors and tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive fibers in the hippocampus and parahippocampal cortices of the rat, cat, and human was conducted. The distribution of [125I]epidepride binding to D2 receptors along the transverse and longitudinal axes of the hippocampus and parahippocampus differed among the species. In rat hippocampus, the number of sites was highest in septal portions of lacunosum-moleculare of CA1 and stratum moleculare of the subiculum. Virtually no binding to D2 receptors existed in the temporal hippocampus. For the cat hippocampus, the highest binding existed in the inner one-third of the molecular layer of the dentate gyrus (DG). There were also significant numbers of D2 receptors in strata radiatum and oriens of the CA subfields, with almost undetectable levels in lacunosum moleculare and subiculum. The number of sites was higher in the septal than temporal hippocampus. In the human hippocampus, highest binding was observed in the molecular layer of DG and the subiculum, with lower levels in strata oriens and lacunosum-moleculare of CA3, and very low binding in CA1. The histochemical demonstration of the pattern of mossy fibers revealed an organization complementary to that of D2 receptors in cat and human. In none of the species was there significant expression of D2 receptors in the entorhinal cortex, except in the caudal extreme of this region in the rat. In that region a trilaminar pattern was exhibited that continued into the perirhinal cortex. A trilaminar pattern of D2 receptor expression was observed in the perirhinal cortex of all species, with the highest values in the external and deep laminae and low expression in the middle laminae. The organization of dopamine fibers was assessed by comparing the distribution of tyrosine hydroxylase-positive and dopamine beta-hydroxylase-immunoreactive fibers in these same regions. It revealed consistent mismatches between the pattern of D2

  3. Brain Human Monoclonal Autoantibody from Sydenham Chorea Targets Dopaminergic Neurons in Transgenic Mice and Signals Dopamine D2 Receptor: Implications in Human Disease1

    PubMed Central

    Cox, Carol J.; Sharma, Meenakshi; Leckman, James F.; Zuccolo, Jonathan; Zuccolo, Amir; Kovoor, Abraham; Swedo, Susan E.; Cunningham, Madeleine W.

    2013-01-01

    How autoantibodies target the brain and lead to disease in disorders such as Sydenham chorea (SC) is not known. SC is characterized by autoantibodies against the brain and is the main neurologic manifestation of streptococcal-induced rheumatic fever. Previously, our novel SC-derived mAb 24.3.1 was found to recognize streptococcal and brain antigens. To investigate in vivo targets of human mAb 24.3.1, VH/VL genes were expressed in B cells of transgenic (Tg) mice as functional chimeric human VH 24.3.1 - mouse constant region IgG1a autoantibody. Chimeric human-mouse IgG1a autoantibody co-localized with tyrosine hydroxylase in the basal ganglia within dopaminergic neurons in vivo in VH 24.3.1 Tg mice. Both human mAb 24.3.1 and IgG1a in Tg sera were found to react with human dopamine D2 receptor (D2R). Reactivity of chorea-derived mAb 24.3.1 or SC IgG with D2R was confirmed by 1) dose dependent inhibitory signaling of D2R as a potential consequence of targeting dopaminergic neurons, 2) reaction with surface-exposed FLAG epitope-tagged D2R, and 3) blocking of Ab reactivity by an extracellular D2R peptide. IgG from SC and a related subset of streptococcal associated behavioral disorders called pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorder associated with streptococci (PANDAS) with small choreiform movements reacted in ELISA with D2R. Reaction with FLAG-tagged D2R distinguished SC from PANDAS while sera from both SC and PANDAS induced inhibitory signaling of D2R on transfected cells comparable to dopamine. Here we define a mechanism by which the brain may be altered by antibody in movement and behavioral disorders. PMID:24184556

  4. Time-dependent effects of repeated THC treatment on dopamine D2/3 receptor-mediated signalling in midbrain and striatum.

    PubMed

    Tournier, Benjamin B; Tsartsalis, Stergios; Dimiziani, Andrea; Millet, Philippe; Ginovart, Nathalie

    2016-09-15

    This study examined the time-course of alterations in levels and functional sensitivities of dopamine D2/3 receptors (D2/3R) during the course and up to 6 weeks following cessation of chronic treatment with Delta(9)-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in rats. THC treatment led to an increase in D2/3R levels in striatum, as assessed using [(3)H]-(+)-PHNO, that was readily observable after one week of treatment, remained stably elevated during the subsequent 2 weeks of treatment, but fully reversed within 2 weeks of THC discontinuation. THC-induced D2/3R alterations were more pronounced and longer lasting in the dopamine cell body regions of the midbrain, wherein [(3)H]-(+)-PHNO binding was still elevated at 2 weeks but back to control values at 6 weeks after THC cessation. Parallel analyses of the psychomotor effects of pre- and post-synaptic doses of quinpirole also showed a pattern of D2/3R functional supersensitivity indicative of more rapid subsidence in striatum than in midbrain following drug cessation. These results indicate that chronic THC is associated with a biochemical and functional sensitization of D2/3R signaling, that these responses show a region-specific temporal pattern and are fully reversible following drug discontinuation. These results suggest that an increased post-synaptic D2/3R function and a decreased DA presynaptic signaling, mediated by increased D2/3R autoinhibition, may predominate during distinct phases of withdrawal and may contribute both to the mechanisms leading to relapse and to cannabinoid withdrawal symptoms. The different rates of normalization of D2/3R function in striatum and midbrain may be critical information for the development of new pharmacotherapies for cannabis dependence. PMID:27233824

  5. Methamphetamine-Induced Dopamine Transporter Complex Formation and Dopaminergic Deficits: The Role of D2 Receptor Activation

    PubMed Central

    Hadlock, Gregory C.; Chu, Pei-Wen; Walters, Elliot T.; Hanson, Glen R.

    2010-01-01

    Methamphetamine (METH) abuse is a serious public health issue. Of particular concern are findings that repeated high-dose administrations of METH cause persistent dopaminergic deficits in rodents, nonhuman primates, and humans. Previous studies have also revealed that METH treatment causes alterations in the dopamine transporter (DAT), including the formation of higher molecular mass DAT-associated complexes. The current study extends these findings by examining mechanisms underlying DAT complex formation. The association among DAT complex formation and other METH-induced phenomena, including alterations in vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) immunoreactivity, astrocytic activation [as assessed by increased glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) immunoreactivity], and persistent dopaminergic deficits was also explored. Results revealed that METH-induced DAT complex formation and reductions in VMAT2 immunoreactivity precede increases in GFAP immunoreactivity. Furthermore, and as reported previously for DAT complexes, pretreatment with the D2 receptor antagonist eticlopride [S-(−)-3-chloro-5-ethyl-N-[(1-ethyl-2-pyrrolidinyl)methyl]-6-hydroxy-2-methoxybenzamide hydrochloride] attenuated the decrease in VMAT2 immunoreactivity as assessed 24 h after METH treatment. DAT complexes distinct from those present 24 h after METH treatment, decreases in VMAT2 immunoreactivity, and increased GFAP immunoreactivity were present 48 to 72 h after METH treatment. Pretreatment with eticlopride attenuated each of these phenomena. Finally, DAT complexes were present 7 days after METH treatment, a time point at which VMAT2 and DAT monomer immunoreactivity were also reduced. Eticlopride pretreatment attenuated each of these phenomena. These findings provide novel insight into not only receptor-mediated mechanisms underlying the effects of METH but also the interaction among factors that probably are associated with the persistent dopaminergic deficits caused by the stimulant. PMID

  6. Kinetic and equilibrium analyses of [(123)I]epidepride binding to striatal and extrastriatal dopamine D(2) receptors.

    PubMed

    Fujita, M; Seibyl, J P; Verhoeff, N P; Ichise, M; Baldwin, R M; Zoghbi, S S; Burger, C; Staley, J K; Rajeevan, N; Charney, D S; Innis, R B

    1999-12-15

    Quantitative SPECT measures of dopamine D(2) like receptors with [(123)I]epidepride is complicated by its high affinity and lipophilic metabolites. The purpose of this study was to use both parent (P) and lipophilic metabolites (M) as input functions in a kinetic paradigm and in comparison to the results of equilibrium studies. Kinetic studies on eleven healthy human subjects, ages 32+/- 10 were performed following i.v. injection of approximately 370 MBq of [(123)I]epidepride. Images were acquired for 13.5+/-1.0 hours. Equilibrium studies were done on seven of eleven subjects with a bolus injection of approximately 140 MBq, bolus/infusion ratio of 10 hours, and infusion for 30-32 hours. High (striatum) and low (temporal cortex) density regions were studied. Two (P and M) and one (P) input function models were applied in the kinetic studies. In receptor-rich regions, the distribution volumes in nondisplaceable compartments were fixed to those in cerebellum. In addition, in the two input function model, K(1)(P)/K(1)(M) was fixed to the values in the cerebellum. The one input function model provided V'(3) values (=f(1)*B'(max)/K(D)) which were consistent with those obtained in equilibrium studies in both receptor-rich regions, while the two input function model provided consistent values only in striatum. Poor identifiability of the rate constants of metabolites seemed to be the source of errors in the two input function model. These results suggest that correct V'(3) values can be obtained with the one input function model both in high- and low-density regions. PMID:10529723

  7. D2 Dopamine receptor Taq1A polymorphism, body weight, and dietary intake in type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Barnard, Neal D.; Noble, Ernest P.; Ritchie, Terry; Cohen, Joshua; Jenkins, David J.A.; Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle; Gloede, Lise; Ferdowsian, Hope

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Certain D2 dopamine receptor Taq 1A genotypes (A1A1, A1A2) have been associated with obesity and substance abuse. We hypothesized that their presence would be associated with reduced efficacy of dietary interventions in individuals with type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH METHODS & PROCEDURES In the course of a randomized clinical trial in an outpatient research center in which 93 adults with type 2 diabetes were assigned to a low-fat vegan diet or a diet following 2003 American Diabetes Association guidelines for 74 weeks, Taq 1A genotype was determined. Nutrient intake, body weight, and hemoglobin A1c (A1c) were measured over 74 weeks. RESULTS The A1 allele was highly prevalent, occurring in 47% of white participants (n = 49), which was significantly higher than the 29% prevalence previously reported in nondiabetic whites (P=0.01). The A1 allele was found in 55% of black participants (n = 44). Black participants with A1+ genotypes had significantly greater mean body weight (11.2 kg heavier, P=0.05), and greater intake of fat (P=0.002), saturated fat (P=0.01) and cholesterol (P=0.02), compared with A2A2 (A1-) individuals; dietary changes during the study did not favor one genotype group. Among whites, baseline anthropometric and nutrient differences between gene groups were small. However, among whites in the vegan group, A1+ individuals reduced fat intake (P=0.04) and A1c (P=0.01) significantly less than did A1- individuals. CONCLUSIONS The A1 allele appears to be highly prevalent among individuals with type 2 diabetes. Potential influences on diet, weight, and glycemic control merit further exploration. PMID:18834717

  8. Negative allosteric modulation of mGlu5 receptor rescues striatal D2 dopamine receptor dysfunction in rodent models of DYT1 dystonia.

    PubMed

    Sciamanna, G; Ponterio, G; Tassone, A; Maltese, M; Madeo, G; Martella, G; Poli, S; Schirinzi, T; Bonsi, P; Pisani, A

    2014-10-01

    Early onset torsion dystonia (DYT1) is an autosomal dominantly inherited disorder caused by deletion in TOR1A gene. Evidence suggests that TOR1A mutation produces dystonia through an aberrant neuronal signalling within the striatum, where D2 dopamine receptors (D2R) produce an abnormal excitatory response in cholinergic interneurons (ChIs) in different models of DYT1 dystonia. The excitability of ChIs may be modulated by group I metabotropic glutamate receptor subtypes (mGlu1 and 5). We performed electrophysiological and calcium imaging recordings from ChIs of both knock-in mice heterozygous for Δ-torsinA (Tor1a(+/Δgag) mice) and transgenic mice overexpressing human torsinA (hMT1). We demonstrate that the novel negative allosteric modulator (NAM) of metabotropic glutamate 5 (mGlu) receptor, dipraglurant (ADX48621) counteracts the abnormal membrane responses and calcium rise induced either by the D2R agonist quinpirole or by caged dopamine (NPEC-Dopamine) in both models. These inhibitory effects were mimicked by two other well-characterized mGlu5 receptor antagonists, SIB1757 and MPEP, but not by mGlu1 antagonism. D2R and mGlu5 post-receptor signalling may converge on PI3K/Akt pathway. Interestingly, we found that the abnormal D2R response was prevented by the selective PI3K inhibitor, LY294002, whereas PLC and PKC inhibitors were both ineffective. Currently, no satisfactory pharmacological treatment is available for DYT1 dystonia patients. Our data show that negative modulation of mGlu5 receptors may counteract abnormal D2R responses, normalizing cholinergic cell excitability, by modulating the PI3K/Akt post-receptor pathway, thereby representing a novel potential treatment of DYT1 dystonia. PMID:24951854

  9. Effects of Dopamine D2-Like Receptor Antagonists on Light Responses of Ganglion Cells in Wild-Type and P23H Rat Retinas

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Ralph

    2015-01-01

    In animal models of retinitis pigmentosa the dopaminergic system in the retina appears to be dysfunctional, which may contribute to the debilitated sight experienced by retinitis pigmentosa patients. Since dopamine D2-like receptors are known to modulate the activity of dopaminergic neurons, I examined the effects of dopamine D2-like receptor antagonists on the light responses of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) in the P23H rat model of retinitis pigmentosa. Extracellular electrical recordings were made from RGCs in isolated transgenic P23H rat retinas and wild-type Sprague-Dawley rat retinas. Intensity-response curves to flashes of light were evaluated prior to and during bath application of a dopamine D2-like receptor antagonist. The dopamine D2/D3 receptor antagonists sulpiride and eticlopride and the D4 receptor antagonist L-745,870 increased light sensitivity of P23H rat RGCs but decreased light sensitivity in Sprague-Dawley rat RGCs. In addition, L-745,870, but not sulpiride or eticlopride, reduced the maximum peak responses of Sprague-Dawley rat RGCs. I describe for the first time ON-center RGCs in P23H rats that exhibit an abnormally long-latency (>200 ms) response to the onset of a small spot of light. Both sulpiride and eticlopride, but not L-745,870, reduced this ON response and brought out a short-latency OFF response, suggesting that these cells are in actuality OFF-center cells. Overall, the results show that the altered dopaminergic system in degenerate retinas contributes to the deteriorated light responses of RGCs. PMID:26717015

  10. Effects of Dopamine D2-Like Receptor Antagonists on Light Responses of Ganglion Cells in Wild-Type and P23H Rat Retinas.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Ralph

    2015-01-01

    In animal models of retinitis pigmentosa the dopaminergic system in the retina appears to be dysfunctional, which may contribute to the debilitated sight experienced by retinitis pigmentosa patients. Since dopamine D2-like receptors are known to modulate the activity of dopaminergic neurons, I examined the effects of dopamine D2-like receptor antagonists on the light responses of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) in the P23H rat model of retinitis pigmentosa. Extracellular electrical recordings were made from RGCs in isolated transgenic P23H rat retinas and wild-type Sprague-Dawley rat retinas. Intensity-response curves to flashes of light were evaluated prior to and during bath application of a dopamine D2-like receptor antagonist. The dopamine D2/D3 receptor antagonists sulpiride and eticlopride and the D4 receptor antagonist L-745,870 increased light sensitivity of P23H rat RGCs but decreased light sensitivity in Sprague-Dawley rat RGCs. In addition, L-745,870, but not sulpiride or eticlopride, reduced the maximum peak responses of Sprague-Dawley rat RGCs. I describe for the first time ON-center RGCs in P23H rats that exhibit an abnormally long-latency (>200 ms) response to the onset of a small spot of light. Both sulpiride and eticlopride, but not L-745,870, reduced this ON response and brought out a short-latency OFF response, suggesting that these cells are in actuality OFF-center cells. Overall, the results show that the altered dopaminergic system in degenerate retinas contributes to the deteriorated light responses of RGCs. PMID:26717015

  11. Dopamine transporter and D2 receptor binding densities in mice prone or resistant to chronic high fat diet-induced obesity.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xu-Feng; Zavitsanou, Katerina; Huang, Xin; Yu, Yinghua; Wang, HongQin; Chen, Feng; Lawrence, Andrew J; Deng, Chao

    2006-12-15

    This study examined the density of dopamine transporter (DAT) and D2 receptors in the brains of chronic high-fat diet-induced obese (cDIO), obese-resistant (cDR) and low-fat-fed (LF) control mice. Significantly decreased DAT densities were observed in cDR mice compared to cDIO and LF mice, primarily in the nucleus accumbens, striatal and hypothalamic regions. D2 receptor density was significantly lower in the rostral part of caudate putamen in cDIO mice compared to cDR and LF mice. PMID:17000016

  12. Measurement of D2 dopamine receptor-specific carbon-11-YM-09151-2 binding in the canine brain by PET: Importance of partial volume correction

    SciTech Connect

    Hatazawa, J.; Hatano, K.; Ishiwata, K.; Itoh, M.; Ido, T.; Kawashima, K.; Meguro, K.; Watanuki, S.; Seo, S. )

    1991-04-01

    Carbon-11-YM-09151-2 binds highly selectively to D2 dopamine receptors in the brain. Using this ligand, D2 dopamine receptor density (Bmax) and affinity (Kd) in canine striatum were measured. After administering various doses of the ligand in nine experiments, regional uptake was followed by repeated PET scanning for up to 80 min. D2 dopamine receptor specific binding at equilibrium was defined as striatal minus occipital activity after partial volume correction. Bmax and Kd were estimated by Scatchard analysis to be 40.3 pmole/ml of tissue and 22.9 nM, respectively. When a low mass dose of the ligand was administered, the bound-to-free ligand ratio in the striatum at equilibrium was consistent with the Bmax/Kd value obtained from the Scatchard analysis. The present study demonstrates the importance of partial volume correction and the Bmax/Kd measurement in a single PET study with carbon-11-YM-09151-2.

  13. Analysis of D2 dopamine receptor occupancy with quantitative SPET using the high-affinity ligand [123I]epidepride: resolving conflicting findings.

    PubMed

    Erlandsson, Kjell; Bressan, Rodrigo A; Mulligan, Rachel S; Ell, Peter J; Cunningham, Vincent J; Pilowsky, Lyn S

    2003-07-01

    Recent studies of limbic cortical dopamine D(2) receptor occupancy by clozapine using high-affinity PET and SPET radioligands have produced conflicting findings. It has been suggested that these divergent findings are due to between-study differences in the method used to estimate D(2) receptor-binding potential. We compared different methods for estimating striatal and temporal cortical D(2) receptor occupancy with high-affinity tracers. In vivo experimental SPET data, obtained with [(123)I]epidepride were analysed with reference tissue kinetic modeling and with the ratio method, applied to data corresponding to short (60 min) and long (240 min) acquisition times. Dopamine D(2) receptor occupancy by the atypical antipsychotic drug risperidone was evaluated. Simulation experiments were also performed, comparing occupancy values obtained for different receptor densities in relation to different data acquisition times. The simulation results revealed that previously published data regarding errors in occupancy estimation by analysis of time activity data acquired for 60 min cannot be extrapolated to studies performed over 240 min. The ratio method provided accurate temporal cortical D(2) receptor occupancy values when applied to data from a late time period, but underestimated the occupancy with earlier data. In striatum, both the late data ratio method and reference tissue kinetic modeling using all data underestimated D(2) receptor occupancy. However, more accurate analyses of striatal D(2) occupancy still showed selective limbic/cortical occupancy by risperidone. Our results substantiate the previous [(123)I]epidepride findings of high temporal cortical occupancy by other atypical antipsychotic drugs and suggest that a potential source of conflicting findings might be short scanning times imposed by [(11)C]FLB 457, leading to underestimation of temporal cortical D(2) receptor occupancy by this method. PMID:12880845

  14. Involvement of D1 and D2 dopamine receptors in the antidepressant-like effects of selegiline in maternal separation model of mouse.

    PubMed

    Amiri, Shayan; Amini-Khoei, Hossein; Mohammadi-Asl, Ali; Alijanpour, Sakineh; Haj-Mirzaian, Arya; Rahimi-Balaei, Maryam; Razmi, Ali; Olson, Carl O; Rastegar, Mojgan; Mehdizadeh, Mehdi; Zarrindast, Mohammad-Reza

    2016-09-01

    Mother-infant interactions are known to be associated with the psychological well-being of an individual in adulthood. It is well accepted that emotional stress in early life, such as maternal separation (MS), leads to alterations in the neurotransmission systems of various brain regions, especially the mesolimbic dopaminergic system, and subsequently can increase the risk for development of psychiatric disorders including depression in adulthood. Selegiline is an irreversible monoamine oxidase (MAO) type B inhibitor which increases striatal dopamine levels and exerts an antidepressant effect. In this study, 180min of MS stress was applied to mice at postnatal day (PND) 2-14 followed by behavioral tests for determining depressive-like behaviors, such as forced swimming test (FST), splash test and sucrose preference test (SPT) in adult mice (PND 50). The open field test (OFT) also was applied to validate FST results. We used SCH23390 (D1 antagonist) and sulpiride (D2 antagonist) in order to determine the role of D1 and D2 dopamine receptors in antidepressant-like effects of selegiline. Our results revealed that MS provoked depressive-like behaviors in adult male mice, and the administration of selegiline attenuated depressive-like behaviors in MS mice. Our findings showed that D1 dopamine receptors facilitate the positive effects of selegiline on the passive behavior in the FST. Furthermore, antidepressant effects of selegiline on hedonic difficulties are mediated via D2 receptor in the SPT. The results of the splash test revealed that both D1 and D2 receptors mediate the protective effect of selegiline against motivational and self-care problems. Based on our results, we conclude that both D1 and D2 dopamine receptors are involved in mediating the antidepressant-like effect of selegiline. We found that D1 receptors mediate an effect on despair behavior, D2 receptors mediate an effect on anhedonia, and both D1 and D2 receptors contribute to the protective effects of

  15. Role of dopamine D2-like receptors within the ventral tegmental area and nucleus accumbens in antinociception induced by lateral hypothalamus stimulation.

    PubMed

    Moradi, Marzieh; Yazdanian, Mohamadreza; Haghparast, Abbas

    2015-10-01

    Several lines of evidence have shown that stimulation of the lateral hypothalamus (LH) can induce antinociception. It has been indicated that hypothalamic orexinergic neurons send projections throughout the dopamine mesolimbic pathway. Functional interaction between the LH and the main area of the mesolimbic pathway such as the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and the nucleus accumbens (NAc) implicates in pain modulation. Thus, in this study, we investigated the role of D2-like dopamine receptors within the VTA and NAc in the LH stimulation-induced antinociception. Male Wistar rats weighing 230-280 g were unilaterally implanted with two separate cannulae into the LH and VTA or NAc. Animals received intra-VTA (0.25, 1 and 4 μg/0.3 μl DMSO) and intra-accumbal (0.125, 0.25, 1 and 4 μg/0.5 μl DMSO) infusions of sulpiride as a selective D2-like receptor antagonist, prior to intra-LH carbachol (125 nM/rat) administration. In the tail-flick test, the antinociceptive effects were measured using a tail-flick algesiometer and represented as maximal possible effect (%MPE) within 5, 15, 30, 45 and 60 min after injections. Our results showed that intra-VTA and intra-accumbal sulpiride dose-dependently attenuated the LH stimulation-induced antinociception. However, the blockade of D2-like receptors within the NAc was more significant than that of the VTA. These findings show that D2-like dopamine receptors in these regions play an important role in the LH-mediated modulation of nociceptive information in the acute model of pain in the rats. It seems that this pain modulating system is more relevant to D2-like receptors in the nucleus accumbens. PMID:26166189

  16. [123I]epidepride binding to cerebellar dopamine D2/D3 receptors is displaceable: implications for the use of cerebellum as a reference region.

    PubMed

    Pinborg, Lars H; Videbaek, Charlotte; Ziebell, Morten; Mackeprang, Torben; Friberg, Lars; Rasmussen, Hans; Knudsen, Gitte M; Glenthoj, Birte Y

    2007-02-15

    The low density of cerebellar dopamine D(2)/D(3) receptors provides the basis for using the cerebellum as a representation of free- and non-specifically bound radioligand in positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) studies. With the development of ultra high-affinity dopamine D(2)/D(3) ligands like [(123)I]epidepride, [(18)F]fallypride, and [(11)C]FLB-457, quantification of extrastriatal low density receptor populations including the cerebellum is possible with important implications for calculation of binding parameters. [(123)I]epidepride-SPECT was performed in 23 patients with schizophrenia before and after 3 months of antipsychotic treatment with either risperidone (n=14) or zuclopenthixol (n=9). In the unblocked situation and partially blocked situation, the average distribution volumes were 5.2+/-1.3 mL/mL and 4.0+/-0.8 mL/mL, respectively. The paired distribution volumes were reduced by 22+/-15% (mean+/-SD) after antipsychotic treatment (p<0.0001, paired Student's t-test). From the paired distribution volumes in cerebellum and extrastriatal regions, the average distribution volume representing free and non-specifically bound [(123)I]epidepride was calculated to be 3.3+/-0.8 mL/mL. Both the % [(123)I]epidepride fraction of plasma radioactivity (p>0.76) and the plasma [(123)I]epidepride concentration (p>0.45) were unchanged after antipsychotic treatment (paired Student's t-test). These results strongly suggest the presence of "non-negligible" specific [(123)I]epidepride binding to dopamine D(2)/D(3) receptors in the cerebellum. Using the cerebellum as a representation of free and non-specifically bound radioligand and neglecting the specifically bound component may lead to results that erroneously imply that antipsychotic drugs bind to extrastriatal dopamine D(2)/D(3) receptors with a higher affinity than to striatal dopamine D(2)/D(3) receptors. PMID:17175177

  17. Interactions of CaMKII with dopamine D2 receptors: roles in levodopa-induced dyskinesia in 6-hydroxydopamine lesioned Parkinson's rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, SuFang; Xie, ChengLong; Wang, Qiang; Liu, ZhenGuo

    2014-01-01

    Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II is a synapse-enriched kinase in mammalian brains. This kinase interacts with various synaptic proteins to regulate expression and function of interacting proteins and thereby modulates synaptic transmission. CaMKII and its interacting partners are also believed to play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of various neurological and neurodegenerative disorders, such as Parkinson's disease (PD). In this study, we found that CaMKIIα binds to dopamine D2 receptors (D2R) in vitro. A distal region in the D2R third intracellular loop harbors CaMKIIα binding. Endogenous CaMKIIα was also found to interact with native D2Rs in rat striatal neurons in which D2Rs are expressed at a high level. In addition, in a rat 6-hydroxydopamine lesioned model of PD, chronic levodopa administration induced characteristic dyskinesia. In parallel, levodopa induced an increase in CaMKIIα-D2R interactions in striatal neurons. Intrastriatal injection of a Tat-fusion and CaMKIIα-D2R interaction-dead peptide (Tat-D2Ri) reversed this increase in the interaction between two proteins. Tat-D2Ri also alleviated dyskinetic behaviors induced by levodopa. These results reveal a new interaction between CaMKIIα and D2Rs in striatal neurons which is sensitive to long-term administration of levodopa in PD rats. Prevention of the response of CaMKIIα-D2R interactions to levodopa can alleviate levodopa-induced dyskinesia. PMID:25351365

  18. Binding of (/sup 125/I)-N-(p-aminophenethyl)spiroperidol to the D-2 dopamine receptor in the neurointermediate lobe of the rat pituitary gland: a thermodynamic study

    SciTech Connect

    Agui, T.; Amlaiky, N.; Caron, M.G.; Kebabian, J.W.

    1988-02-01

    The novel iodinated ligand (/sup 125/I)-N-(p-aminophenethyl)spiroperidol ((/sup 125/I)NAPS) was used to identify the D-2 dopamine receptor in the intermediate lobe of the rat pituitary gland. The binding of (/sup 125/I)NAPS was of high affinity and saturable, given that the dissociation constant and the maximal binding were 34.7 +/- 4.8 pM and 21.1 +/- 2.5 fmol/mg of protein, respectively. The ability of dopaminergic agonists and antagonists to compete with (/sup 125/I)NAPS varied markedly with incubation temperature. The marked decrease of the molar potency associated with increasing incubation temperature in the competitive displacement curve suggested that the binding of five agonists, dopamine, (-)-apomorphine, (-)-n-propylnorapomorphine, N-0434, and LY-171555, to the D-2 dopamine receptor was enthalpy-driven, with a negative change in entropy. In contrast, the binding of three antagonists, fluphenazine, (+)-butaclamol, and domperidone, was entropy-driven, with positive change in entropy, suggesting less temperature-sensitive change in the molar potency. Several molecules gave unanticipated results; the molar potency of two dopamine agonists, bromocriptine and lisuride, was much less temperature-sensitive than the other agonists used in this study. The thermodynamic parameters for the atypical agonists indicated entropy-driven binding. Conversely, the molar potency of (+)-apomorphine, a dopamine receptor antagonist, was markedly affected by incubation temperature, indicating enthalpy-driven binding. Another antagonist, YM-09151-2, was affected by the inclusion of sodium chloride in the assay system: in the absence of sodium chloride, the drug was relatively weak and displayed enthalpy-driven binding; in the presence of sodium chloride, its molar potency was increased and its binding manner turned into entropy-driven.

  19. Dopamine D2 receptor gene variants and response to rasagiline in early Parkinson's disease: a pharmacogenetic study.

    PubMed

    Masellis, Mario; Collinson, Shannon; Freeman, Natalie; Tampakeras, Maria; Levy, Joseph; Tchelet, Amir; Eyal, Eli; Berkovich, Elijahu; Eliaz, Rom E; Abler, Victor; Grossman, Iris; Fitzer-Attas, Cheryl; Tiwari, Arun; Hayden, Michael R; Kennedy, James L; Lang, Anthony E; Knight, Jo

    2016-07-01

    The treatment of early Parkinson's disease with dopaminergic agents remains the mainstay of symptomatic therapy for this incurable neurodegenerative disorder. However, clinical responses to dopaminergic drugs vary substantially from person to person due to individual-, drug- and disease-related factors that may in part be genetically determined. Using clinical data and DNA samples ascertained through the largest placebo-controlled clinical trial of the monoamine oxidase B inhibitor, rasagiline (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00256204), we examined how polymorphisms in candidate genes associate with the clinical response to rasagiline in early Parkinson's disease. Variants in genes that express proteins involved in the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of rasagiline, and genes previously associated with the risk to develop Parkinson's disease were genotyped. The LifeTechnologies OpenArray NT genotyping platform and polymerase chain reaction-based methods were used to analyse 204 single nucleotide polymorphisms and five variable number tandem repeats from 30 candidate genes in 692 available DNA samples from this clinical trial. The peak symptomatic response to rasagiline, the rate of symptom progression, and their relation to genetic variation were examined controlling for placebo effects using general linear and mixed effects models, respectively. Single nucleotide polymorphisms, rs2283265 and rs1076560, in the dopamine D2 receptor gene (DRD2) were found to be significantly associated with a favourable peak response to rasagiline at 12 weeks in early Parkinson's disease after controlling for multiple testing. From a linear regression, the betas were 2.5 and 2.38, respectively, with false discovery rate-corrected P-values of 0.032. These polymorphisms were in high linkage disequilibrium with each other (r(2) = 0.96) meaning that the same clinical response signal was identified by each of them. No polymorphisms were associated with slowing the rate of worsening in

  20. Effects of Chronic Dopamine D2R Agonist Treatment and Polysialic Acid Depletion on Dendritic Spine Density and Excitatory Neurotransmission in the mPFC of Adult Rats.

    PubMed

    Castillo-Gómez, Esther; Varea, Emilio; Blasco-Ibáñez, José Miguel; Crespo, Carlos; Nacher, Juan

    2016-01-01

    Dopamine D2 receptors (D2R) in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) are key players in the etiology and therapeutics of schizophrenia. The overactivation of these receptors contributes to mPFC dysfunction. Chronic treatment with D2R agonists modifies the expression of molecules implicated in neuronal structural plasticity, synaptic function, and inhibitory neurotransmission, which are also altered in schizophrenia. These changes are dependent on the expression of the polysialylated form of the neural cell adhesion molecule (PSA-NCAM), a plasticity-related molecule, but nothing is known about the effects of D2R and PSA-NCAM on excitatory neurotransmission and the structure of mPFC pyramidal neurons, two additional features affected in schizophrenia. To evaluate these parameters, we have chronically treated adult rats with PPHT (a D2R agonist) after enzymatic removal of PSA with Endo-N. Both treatments decreased spine density in apical dendrites of pyramidal neurons without affecting their inhibitory innervation. Endo-N also reduced the expression of vesicular glutamate transporter-1. These results indicate that D2R and PSA-NCAM are important players in the regulation of the structural plasticity of mPFC excitatory neurons. This is relevant to our understanding of the neurobiological basis of schizophrenia, in which structural alterations of pyramidal neurons and altered expression of D2R and PSA-NCAM have been found. PMID:27110404

  1. Effects of Chronic Dopamine D2R Agonist Treatment and Polysialic Acid Depletion on Dendritic Spine Density and Excitatory Neurotransmission in the mPFC of Adult Rats

    PubMed Central

    Castillo-Gómez, Esther; Varea, Emilio; Blasco-Ibáñez, José Miguel; Crespo, Carlos; Nacher, Juan

    2016-01-01

    Dopamine D2 receptors (D2R) in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) are key players in the etiology and therapeutics of schizophrenia. The overactivation of these receptors contributes to mPFC dysfunction. Chronic treatment with D2R agonists modifies the expression of molecules implicated in neuronal structural plasticity, synaptic function, and inhibitory neurotransmission, which are also altered in schizophrenia. These changes are dependent on the expression of the polysialylated form of the neural cell adhesion molecule (PSA-NCAM), a plasticity-related molecule, but nothing is known about the effects of D2R and PSA-NCAM on excitatory neurotransmission and the structure of mPFC pyramidal neurons, two additional features affected in schizophrenia. To evaluate these parameters, we have chronically treated adult rats with PPHT (a D2R agonist) after enzymatic removal of PSA with Endo-N. Both treatments decreased spine density in apical dendrites of pyramidal neurons without affecting their inhibitory innervation. Endo-N also reduced the expression of vesicular glutamate transporter-1. These results indicate that D2R and PSA-NCAM are important players in the regulation of the structural plasticity of mPFC excitatory neurons. This is relevant to our understanding of the neurobiological basis of schizophrenia, in which structural alterations of pyramidal neurons and altered expression of D2R and PSA-NCAM have been found. PMID:27110404

  2. A single photon emission computed tomography scan study of striatal dopamine D2 receptor binding with 123I-epidepride in patients with schizophrenia and controls.

    PubMed

    Tibbo, P; Silverstone, P H; McEwan, A J; Scott, J; Joshua, A; Golberg, K

    1997-01-01

    The usefulness of 123I-epidepride as a single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) scan D2 receptor ligand was examined in vivo in 13 medicated patients with schizophrenia and age- and sex-matched normal controls. To establish the effect of endogenous dopamine on 123I-epidepride binding, 4 of the 13 controls also received 20 mg D-amphetamine. The results showed that 123I-epidepride had high specific binding to the striatum in both patients with schizophrenia and normal controls. There was a trend for the total striatal binding of medicated patients with schizophrenia, as measured by total basal ganglia: frontal cortex (TBG:FC) ratios, to be less than the binding of controls (P = 0.053). This trend confirms previous work showing that antipsychotic medication decreases the number of D2 receptors available for binding to the radioligand. Interestingly, there was also a significant relationship between 123I-epidepride binding ratios and global functioning scales (Global Assessment of Functioning scale [GAF]) for schizophrenia (r = 0.56, P = 0.045), although there was no such relationship with the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS). In addition, our results showed that amphetamine-induced dopamine release did not alter 123I-epidepride binding, confirming the high specific binding of 123I-epidepride to the D2 receptor. We conclude that 123I-epidepride appears to be a very useful SPECT ligand for imaging the D2 receptor. PMID:9002391

  3. Dopamine D2/3 Receptor Availability in the Striatum of Antipsychotic-Free Older Patients with Schizophrenia - A [11C]-raclopride PET Study

    PubMed Central

    Nakajima, Shinichiro; Caravaggio, Fernando; Mamo, David C.; Mulsant, Benoit H.; Chung, Jun Ku; Plitman, Eric; Iwata, Yusuke; Gerretsen, Philip; Uchida, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Takefumi; Mar, Wanna; Wilson, Alan A.; Houle, Sylvain; Graff-Guerrero, Ariel

    2015-01-01

    Background No study has examined dopamine D2/3 receptor (D2/3R) availability in antipsychotic-free older patients with schizophrenia. Methods We included patients with schizophrenia 50 years or older who were antipsychotic-free for at least 3 months. We compared non-displaceable binding potential (BPND) of [11C]-raclopride in the caudate, putamen, ventral striatum, and globus pallidus between patients and age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Results Ten patients participated (antipsychotic-naïve=4). No differences in BPND were found between patients and controls in any ROIs (F(1, 72)=.42, p=.52). Conclusion The preliminary results suggest no differences in D2/3R availability between antipsychotic-free older patients with schizophrenia and controls. PMID:25757713

  4. Levodopa acts centrally to induce an antinociceptive action against colonic distension through activation of D2 dopamine receptors and the orexinergic system in the brain in conscious rats.

    PubMed

    Okumura, Toshikatsu; Nozu, Tsukasa; Kumei, Shima; Takakusaki, Kaoru; Miyagishi, Saori; Ohhira, Masumi

    2016-02-01

    Levodopa possesses antinociceptive actions against several somatic pain conditions. However, we do not know at this moment whether levodopa is also effective to visceral pain. The present study was therefore performed to clarify whether levodopa is effective to visceral pain and its mechanisms. Visceral sensation was evaluated by colonic distension-induced abdominal withdrawal reflex (AWR) in conscious rats. Subcutaneously (80 mg/rat) or intracisternally (2.5 μg/rat) administered levodopa significantly increased the threshold of colonic distension-induced AWR in conscious rats. The dose difference to induce the antinociceptive action suggests levodopa acts centrally to exert its antinociceptive action against colonic distension. While neither sulpiride, a D2 dopamine receptor antagonist, nor SCH23390, a D1 dopamine receptor antagonist by itself changed the threshold of colonic distension-induced AWR, the intracisternally injected levodopa-induced antinociceptive action was significantly blocked by pretreatment with subcutaneously administered sulpiride but not SCH23390. Treatment with intracisternal SB334867, an orexin 1 receptor antagonist, significantly blocked the subcutaneously administered levodopa-induced antinociceptive action. These results suggest that levodopa acts centrally to induce an antinociceptive action against colonic distension through activation of D2 dopamine receptors and the orexinergic system in the brain. PMID:26883457

  5. Dopamine D2/3- and μ-opioid receptor antagonists reduce cue-induced responding and reward impulsivity in humans

    PubMed Central

    Weber, S C; Beck-Schimmer, B; Kajdi, M-E; Müller, D; Tobler, P N; Quednow, B B

    2016-01-01

    Increased responding to drug-associated stimuli (cue reactivity) and an inability to tolerate delayed gratification (reward impulsivity) have been implicated in the development and maintenance of drug addiction. Whereas data from animal studies suggest that both the dopamine and opioid system are involved in these two reward-related processes, their role in humans is less clear. Moreover, dopaminergic and opioidergic drugs have not been directly compared with regard to these functions, even though a deeper understanding of the underlying mechanisms might inform the development of specific treatments for elevated cue reactivity and reward impulsivity. In a randomized, double-blind, between-subject design we administered the selective dopamine D2/D3 receptor antagonist amisulpride (400 mg, n=41), the unspecific opioid receptor antagonist naltrexone (50 mg, n=40) or placebo (n=40) to healthy humans and measured cue-induced responding with a Pavlovian-instrumental transfer task and reward impulsivity with a delay discounting task. Mood was assessed using a visual analogue scale. Compared with placebo, amisulpride significantly suppressed cue-induced responding and reward impulsivity. The effects of naltrexone were similar, although less pronounced. Both amisulpride and naltrexone decreased average mood ratings compared with placebo. Our results demonstrate that a selective blockade of dopamine D2/D3 receptors reduces cue-induced responding and reward impulsivity in healthy humans. Antagonizing μ-opioid receptors has similar effects for cue-induced responding and to a lesser extent for reward impulsivity. PMID:27378550

  6. Dopamine D2/3- and μ-opioid receptor antagonists reduce cue-induced responding and reward impulsivity in humans.

    PubMed

    Weber, S C; Beck-Schimmer, B; Kajdi, M-E; Müller, D; Tobler, P N; Quednow, B B

    2016-01-01

    Increased responding to drug-associated stimuli (cue reactivity) and an inability to tolerate delayed gratification (reward impulsivity) have been implicated in the development and maintenance of drug addiction. Whereas data from animal studies suggest that both the dopamine and opioid system are involved in these two reward-related processes, their role in humans is less clear. Moreover, dopaminergic and opioidergic drugs have not been directly compared with regard to these functions, even though a deeper understanding of the underlying mechanisms might inform the development of specific treatments for elevated cue reactivity and reward impulsivity. In a randomized, double-blind, between-subject design we administered the selective dopamine D2/D3 receptor antagonist amisulpride (400 mg, n=41), the unspecific opioid receptor antagonist naltrexone (50 mg, n=40) or placebo (n=40) to healthy humans and measured cue-induced responding with a Pavlovian-instrumental transfer task and reward impulsivity with a delay discounting task. Mood was assessed using a visual analogue scale. Compared with placebo, amisulpride significantly suppressed cue-induced responding and reward impulsivity. The effects of naltrexone were similar, although less pronounced. Both amisulpride and naltrexone decreased average mood ratings compared with placebo. Our results demonstrate that a selective blockade of dopamine D2/D3 receptors reduces cue-induced responding and reward impulsivity in healthy humans. Antagonizing μ-opioid receptors has similar effects for cue-induced responding and to a lesser extent for reward impulsivity. PMID:27378550

  7. The expression of methiopropamine-induced locomotor sensitization requires dopamine D2, but not D1, receptor activation in the rat.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Hyung Shin; Cai, Wen Ting; Lee, Young Hun; Park, Kyung Tae; Lee, Yong Sup; Kim, Jeong-Hoon

    2016-09-15

    Methiopropamine (MPA) is a structural analog to methamphetamine and is categorized as a novel psychoactive substance that needs to be controlled. However, no study has been performed to determine whether MPA actually develops an addiction-like behavior similar to those arising from other psychomotor stimulants. Thus, we attempted to determine whether MPA produces locomotor sensitization in a manner similar to amphetamine. In the first experiment, rats were pre-exposed to either saline or one of three different doses of MPA (0.2, 1.0, or 5.0mg/kg, IP) with a total of four injections, respectively. After a 2-week withdrawal period, when they were challenged with the same dose of MPA, only the group that was pre-exposed to high dose of MPA (5.0mg/kg) showed sensitized locomotor activity. In the second experiment, all rats were pre-exposed to MPA (5.0mg/kg) only. Interestingly, the expression of MPA-induced locomotor sensitization was inhibited by a pre-injection of a dopamine D2 receptor antagonist, eticlopride (0.05mg/kg, IP), though not by a dopamine D1 receptor antagonist, SCH23390 (0.01mg/kg, IP). These results suggest that repeated injection of MPA in the rat provokes certain neuronal changes involving specific, likely D2, dopamine receptor-mediated pathways that contribute to the expression of MPA-induced locomotor sensitization. PMID:27265782

  8. Repeat variation in the human PER2 gene as a new genetic marker associated with cocaine addiction and brain dopamine D2 receptor availability

    PubMed Central

    Shumay, E; Fowler, J S; Wang, G-J; Logan, J; Alia-Klein, N; Goldstein, R Z; Maloney, T; Wong, C; Volkow, N D

    2012-01-01

    Low dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) levels in the striatum are consistently reported in cocaine abusers; inter-individual variations in the degree of the decrease suggest a modulating effect of genetic makeup on vulnerability to addiction. The PER2 (Period 2) gene belongs to the clock genes family of circadian regulators; circadian oscillations of PER2 expression in the striatum was modulated by dopamine through D2Rs. Aberrant periodicity of PER2 contributes to the incidence and severity of various brain disorders, including drug addiction. Here we report a newly identified variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) polymorphism in the human PER2 gene (VNTR in the third intron). We found significant differences in the VNTR alleles prevalence across ethnic groups so that the major allele (4 repeats (4R)) is over-represented in non-African population (4R homozygosity is 88%), but not in African Americans (homozygosity 51%). We also detected a biased PER2 genotype distribution among healthy controls and cocaine-addicted individuals. In African Americans, the proportion of 4R/three repeat (3R) carriers in healthy controls is much lower than that in cocaine abusers (23% vs 39%, P=0.004), whereas among non-Africans most 3R/4R heterozygotes are healthy controls (10.5% vs 2.5%, P=0.04). Analysis of striatal D2R availability measured with positron emission tomography and [11C]raclopride revealed higher levels of D2R in carriers of 4R/4R genotype (P<0.01). Taken together, these results provide preliminary evidence for the role of the PER2 gene in regulating striatal D2R availability in the human brain and in vulnerability for cocaine addiction. PMID:22832851

  9. Effects of the Dopamine D2 Allosteric Modulator, PAOPA, on the Expression of GRK2, Arrestin-3, ERK1/2, and on Receptor Internalization

    PubMed Central

    Basu, Dipannita; Tian, Yuxin; Bhandari, Jayant; Jiang, Jian Ru; Hui, Patricia; Johnson, Rodney L.; Mishra, Ram K.

    2013-01-01

    The activity of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) is intricately regulated by a range of intracellular proteins, including G protein-coupled kinases (GRKs) and arrestins. Understanding the effects of ligands on these signaling pathways could provide insights into disease pathophysiologies and treatment. The dopamine D2 receptor is a GPCR strongly implicated in the pathophysiology of a range of neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders, particularly schizophrenia. Previous studies from our lab have shown the preclinical efficacy of a novel allosteric drug, 3(R)- [(2(S)-pyrrolidinylcarbonyl)amino]-2-oxo-1-pyrrolidineacetamide (PAOPA), in attenuating schizophrenia-like behavioural abnormalities in rodent models of the disease. As an allosteric modulator, PAOPA binds to a site on the D2 receptor, which is distinct from the endogenous ligand-binding site, in order to modulate the binding of the D2 receptor ligand, dopamine. The exact signaling pathways affected by this allosteric modulator are currently unknown. The objectives of this study were to decipher the in vivo effects, in rats, of chronic PAOPA administration on D2 receptor regulatory and downstream molecules, including GRK2, arrestin-3 and extracellular receptor kinase (ERK) 1/2. Additionally, an in vitro cellular model was also used to study PAOPA’s effects on D2 receptor internalization. Results from western immunoblots showed that chronic PAOPA treatment increased the striatal expression of GRK2 by 41%, arrestin-3 by 34%, phospho-ERK1 by 51% and phospho-ERK2 by 36%. Results also showed that the addition of PAOPA to agonist treatment in cells increased D2 receptor internalization by 33%. This study provides the foundational evidence of putative signaling pathways, and changes in receptor localization, affected by treatment with PAOPA. It improves our understanding on the diverse mechanisms of action of allosteric modulators, while advancing PAOPA’s development into a novel drug for the improved

  10. Dopamine and the Management of Attentional Resources: Genetic Markers of Striatal D2 Dopamine Predict Individual Differences in the Attentional Blink

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colzato, Lorenza S.; Slagter, Heleen A.; de Rover, Mischa; Hommel, Bernhard

    2011-01-01

    The attentional blink (AB)--a deficit in reporting the second of two target stimuli presented in close succession in a rapid sequence of distracters--has been related to processing limitations in working memory. Given that dopamine (DA) plays a crucial role working memory, the present study tested whether individual differences in the size of the…

  11. Striatal dopamine D2 receptor availability predicts the thalamic and medial prefrontal responses to reward in cocaine abusers three years later.

    PubMed

    Asensio, Samuel; Romero, Maria J; Romero, Francisco J; Wong, Christopher; Alia-Klein, Nelly; Tomasi, Dardo; Wang, Gene-Jack; Telang, Frank; Volkow, Nora D; Goldstein, Rita Z

    2010-05-01

    Low levels of dopamine (DA) D2 receptor availability at a resting baseline have been previously reported in drug addicted individuals and have been associated with reduced ventral and dorsal prefrontal metabolism. The reduction in DA D2 receptor availability along with the reduced ventral frontal metabolism is thought to underlie compromised sensitivity to nondrug reward, a core characteristic of drug addiction. We therefore hypothesized that variability in DA D2 receptor availability at baseline will covary with dynamic responses to monetary reward in addicted individuals. Striatal DA D2 receptor availability was measured with [(11)C]raclopride and positron emission tomography and response to monetary reward was measured (an average of three years later) with functional magnetic resonance imaging in seven cocaine-addicted individuals. Results show that low DA D2 receptor availability in the dorsal striatum was associated with decreased thalamic response to monetary reward; while low availability in ventral striatum was associated with increased medial prefrontal (Brodmann Area 6/8/32) response to monetary reward. These preliminary results, that need to be replicated in larger sample sizes and validated with healthy controls, suggest that resting striatal DA D2 receptor availability predicts variability in functional responses to a nondrug reinforcer (money) in prefrontal cortex, implicated in behavioral monitoring, and in thalamus, implicated in conditioned responses and expectation, in cocaine-addicted individuals. PMID:20034014

  12. Striatal dopamine D2 receptor availability predicts the thalamic and medial prefrontal responses to reward in cocaine abusers three years later

    SciTech Connect

    Asensio, S.; Goldstein, R.; Asensio, S.; Romero, M.J.; Romero, F.J.; Wong, C.T.; Alia-Klein, N.; Tomasi, D.; Wang, G.-J.; Telang, F..; Volkow, N.D.; Goldstein, R.Z.

    2010-05-01

    Low levels of dopamine (DA) D2 receptor availability at a resting baseline have been previously reported in drug addicted individuals and have been associated with reduced ventral and dorsal prefrontal metabolism. The reduction in DA D2 receptor availability along with the reduced ventral frontal metabolism is thought to underlie compromised sensitivity to nondrug reward, a core characteristic of drug addiction. We therefore hypothesized that variability in DA D2 receptor availability at baseline will covary with dynamic responses to monetary reward in addicted individuals. Striatal DA D2 receptor availability was measured with [{sup 11}C]raclopride and positron emission tomography and response to monetary reward was measured (an average of three years later) with functional magnetic resonance imaging in seven cocaine-addicted individuals. Results show that low DA D2 receptor availability in the dorsal striatum was associated with decreased thalamic response to monetary reward; while low availability in ventral striatum was associated with increased medial prefrontal (Brodmann Area 6/8/32) response to monetary reward. These preliminary results, that need to be replicated in larger sample sizes and validated with healthy controls, suggest that resting striatal DA D2 receptor availability predicts variability in functional responses to a nondrug reinforcer (money) in prefrontal cortex, implicated in behavioral monitoring, and in thalamus, implicated in conditioned responses and expectation, in cocaine-addicted individuals.

  13. Differential relationships between D1 and D2 dopamine receptor expression in the medial preoptic nucleus and sexually-motivated song in male European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris).

    PubMed

    DeVries, M S; Cordes, M A; Stevenson, S A; Riters, L V

    2015-08-20

    Converging data in songbirds support a central role for the medial preoptic nucleus (POM) in motivational aspects of vocal production. Recent data suggest that dopamine in the POM plays a complex modulatory role in the production of sexually-motivated song and that an optimal level of dopamine D1 receptor stimulation is required to facilitate singing behavior. To further explore this possibility, we used quantitative real-time PCR to examine relationships between mRNA expression of D1 as well as D2 receptors in the POM (and also the lateral septum and Area X) and sexually-motivated singing behavior in male European starlings. Results showed that both males with the highest and lowest D1 expression in the POM sang significantly less than males with intermediate levels of expression. Furthermore, singing behavior rose linearly in association with increasing levels of D1 expression in POM but dropped abruptly, such that individuals with D1 expression values higher than the mean sang very little. Analysis of birds with low and intermediate levels of D1 expression in POM revealed strong positive correlations between D1 expression and song but negative relationships between D2 receptor expression and song. These findings support prior work suggesting an optimal level of POM D1 receptor stimulation best facilitates sexually-motivated singing behavior. Results also suggest that D2 receptors may work in opposition to D1 receptors in POM to modify vocal production. PMID:26079111

  14. Rostrocaudal gradients of dopamine D2/3 receptor binding in striatal subregions measured with [(11)C]raclopride and high-resolution positron emission tomography.

    PubMed

    Alakurtti, Kati; Johansson, Jarkko J; Tuokkola, Terhi; Någren, Kjell; Rinne, Juha O

    2013-11-15

    The human striatum has structural and functional subdivisions, both dorsoventrally and rostrocaudally. To date, the gradients of dopamine D2/3 receptor binding in the human striatum have not been measured with positron emission tomography (PET). Seven healthy male subjects aged 24.5 ± 3.5 years were scanned with brain-dedicated high-resolution research tomography (HRRT, Siemens Medical Solutions, Knoxville, TN, USA) and [(11)C]raclopride. Coronally defined regions of interest (ROIs) of the caudate nucleus, putamen and ventral striatum (VST) were sampled plane-by-plane, 1.5mm apart, on spatially normalized binding potential (BPND) images. Regional [(11)C]raclopride BPND values were calculated using the simplified reference tissue model (SRTM) from a total of 25 coronal planes. An increasing rostrocaudal gradient of the D2/3 receptor binding was detected in the putamen, which is consistent with the known distribution of D2/3 dopamine receptors. In the caudate nucleus, there was an initial increase in the BPND values in the most anterior planes, suggesting that the highest D2/3 receptor binding occurred in the head; however, there was an overall descending gradient. A declining trend was also observed in the VST. The novelty of this study lies in the presentation, for the first time, of the D2/3 receptor binding gradients in each striatal subregion in the brains of living healthy humans. The high spatial resolution provided by HRRT enables frequent sampling of BPND along the longitudinal extent of striatum; this method is superior to the sectioning used in previous post mortem studies. Regarding the functional organization of the striatum, our findings can inform future investigations of normal neurophysiology as well as efforts to differentiate neuropsychiatric disorders affecting the brain dopamine (DA) system. Furthermore, the average distribution of D2/3 receptor binding revealed in this study could serve as a basis for a database that includes distributions of

  15. The interrelationship of dopamine D2-like receptor availability in striatal and extrastriatal brain regions in healthy humans: A principal component analysis of [18F]Fallypride binding

    PubMed Central

    Zald, David H.; Woodward, Neil D.; Cowan, Ronald L.; Riccardi, Patrizia; Ansari, M. Sib; Baldwin, Ronald M.; Cowan, Ronald L.; Smith, Clarence E.; Hakyemez, Helene; Li, Rui; Kessler, Robert M.

    2010-01-01

    Individual differences in dopamine D2-like receptor availability arise across all brain regions expressing D2-like receptors. However, the inter-relationships in receptor availability across brain regions are poorly understood. To address this issue, we examined the relationship between D2-like binding potential (BPND) across striatal and extrastriatal regions in a sample of healthy participants. PET imaging was performed with the high affinity D2/D3 ligand [18F]fallypride in 45 participants. BPND images were submitted to voxel-wise principal components analysis to determine the pattern of associations across brain regions. Individual differences in D2-like BPND were explained by three distinguishable components. A single component explained almost all of the variance within the striatum, indicating that individual differences in receptor availability vary in a homogenous manner across the caudate, putamen, and ventral striatum. Cortical BPND was only modestly related to striatal BPND, and mostly loaded on a distinct component. After controlling for the general level of cortical D2-like BPND, an inverse relationship emerged between receptor availability in the striatum and the ventral temporal and ventromedial frontal cortices, suggesting possible cross-regulation of D2-like receptors in these regions. The analysis additionally revealed evidence of: 1) a distinct component involving the midbrain and limbic areas; 2) a dissociation between BPND in the medial and lateral temporal regions; and 3) a dissociation between BPND in the medial/midline and lateral thalamus. In summary, individual differences in D2-like receptor availability reflect several distinct patterns. This conclusion has significant implications for neuropsychiatric models that posit global or regionally specific relationships between dopaminergic tone and behavior. PMID:20149883

  16. METABOTROPIC GLUTAMATE TYPE 5, DOPAMINE D2 AND ADENOSINE A2A RECEPTORS FORM HIGHER-ORDER OLIGOMERS IN LIVING CELLS

    PubMed Central

    Cabello, Nuria; Gandía, Jorge; Bertarelli, Daniela C. G.; Watanabe, Masahiko; Lluís, Carme; Franco, Rafael; Ferré, Sergi; Luján, Rafael; Ciruela, Francisco

    2009-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptors are known to form homo- and heteromers at the plasma membrane, but the stoichiometry of these receptor oligomers are relatively unknown. Here, by using bimolecular fluorescence complementation, we visualized for the first time the occurrence of heterodimers of metabotropic glutamate mGlu5 receptors (mGlu5R) and dopamine D2 receptors (D2R) in living cells. Furthermore, the combination of bimolecular fluorescence complementation and bioluminescence resonance energy transfer techniques, as well as the sequential resonance energy transfer (SRET) technique, allowed us to detect the occurrence receptor oligomers containing more than two protomers, mGlu5R, D2R and adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR). Interestingly, by using high-resolution immunoelectron microscopy we could confirm that the three receptors co-distribute within the extrasynaptic plasma membrane of the same dendritic spines of asymmetrical, putative glutamatergic, striatal synapses. Also, co-immunoprecipitation experiments in native tissue demonstrated the existence of an association of mGlu5R, D2R and A2AR in rat striatum homogenates. Overall, these results provide new insights into the molecular composition of G protein-coupled receptor oligomers in general and the mGlu5R/D2R/A2AR oligomer in particular, a receptor oligomer that might constitute an important target for the treatment of some neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:19344374

  17. Thinking Outside a Less Intact Box: Thalamic Dopamine D2 Receptor Densities Are Negatively Related to Psychometric Creativity in Healthy Individuals

    PubMed Central

    de Manzano, Örjan; Cervenka, Simon; Karabanov, Anke; Farde, Lars; Ullén, Fredrik

    2010-01-01

    Several lines of evidence support that dopaminergic neurotransmission plays a role in creative thought and behavior. Here, we investigated the relationship between creative ability and dopamine D2 receptor expression in healthy individuals, with a focus on regions where aberrations in dopaminergic function have previously been associated with psychotic symptoms and a genetic liability to schizophrenia. Scores on divergent thinking tests (Inventiveness battery, Berliner Intelligenz Struktur Test) were correlated with regional D2 receptor densities, as measured by Positron Emission Tomography, and the radioligands [11C]raclopride and [11C]FLB 457. The results show a negative correlation between divergent thinking scores and D2 density in the thalamus, also when controlling for age and general cognitive ability. Hence, the results demonstrate that the D2 receptor system, and specifically thalamic function, is important for creative performance, and may be one crucial link between creativity and psychopathology. We suggest that decreased D2 receptor densities in the thalamus lower thalamic gating thresholds, thus increasing thalamocortical information flow. In healthy individuals, who do not suffer from the detrimental effects of psychiatric disease, this may increase performance on divergent thinking tests. In combination with the cognitive functions of higher order cortical networks, this could constitute a basis for the generative and selective processes that underlie real life creativity. PMID:20498850

  18. The novel adenosine A2A antagonist Lu AA47070 reverses the motor and motivational effects produced by dopamine D2 receptor blockade.

    PubMed

    Collins, Lyndsey E; Sager, Thomas N; Sams, Anette G; Pennarola, Adam; Port, Russell G; Shahriari, Mona; Salamone, John D

    2012-01-01

    Dopamine D2 and adenosine A(2A) receptors interact to regulate aspects of motor and motivational function, and it has been suggested that adenosine A(2A) antagonists could be useful for the treatment of parkinsonism and depression. The present experiments were performed to characterize the effects of Lu AA47070, which is a phosphonooxymethylene prodrug of a potent and selective adenosine A(2A) receptor antagonist, for its ability to reverse the motor and motivational effects of D2 antagonism. In the first group of studies, Lu AA47070 (3.75-30 mg/kg IP) was assessed for its ability to reverse the effects of the D2 receptor antagonist pimozide (1.0 mg/kg IP) using several measures of motor impairment, including catalepsy, locomotion, and tremulous jaw movements, which is a rodent model of parkinsonian tremor. Lu AA47070 produced a significant reversal of the effects of pimozide on all three measures of parkinsonian motor impairment. In addition, Lu AA47070 was able to reverse the effects of a low dose of the D2 antagonist haloperidol on a concurrent lever pressing/chow feeding task that is used as a measure of effort-related choice behavior. The ability of Lu AA47070 to reverse the effects of D2 receptor blockade suggests that this compound could have potential utility as a treatment for parkinsonism, and for some of the motivational symptoms of depression. PMID:22037410

  19. D2 dopamine receptors colocalize regulator of G-protein signaling 9-2 (RGS9-2) via the RGS9 DEP domain, and RGS9 knock-out mice develop dyskinesias associated with dopamine pathways.

    PubMed

    Kovoor, Abraham; Seyffarth, Petra; Ebert, Jana; Barghshoon, Sami; Chen, Ching-Kang; Schwarz, Sigrid; Axelrod, Jeffrey D; Cheyette, Benjamin N R; Simon, Melvin I; Lester, Henry A; Schwarz, Johannes

    2005-02-23

    Regulator of G-protein signaling 9-2 (RGS9-2), a member of the RGS family of G GTPase accelerating proteins, is expressed specifically in the striatum, which participates in antipsychotic-induced tardive dyskinesia and in levodopa-induced dyskinesia. We report that RGS9 knock-out mice develop abnormal involuntary movements when inhibition of dopaminergic transmission is followed by activation of D2-like dopamine receptors (DRs). These abnormal movements resemble drug-induced dyskinesia more closely than other rodent models. Recordings from striatal neurons of these mice establish that activation of D2-like DRs abnormally inhibits glutamate-elicited currents. We show that RGS9-2, via its DEP domain (for Disheveled, EGL-10, Pleckstrin homology), colocalizes with D2DRs when coexpressed in mammalian cells. Recordings from oocytes coexpressing D2DR or the m2 muscarinic receptor and G-protein-gated inward rectifier potassium channels show that RGS9-2, via its DEP domain, preferentially accelerates the termination of D2DR signals. Thus, alterations in RGS9-2 may be a key factor in the pathway leading from D2DRs to the side effects associated with the treatment both of psychoses and Parkinson's disease. PMID:15728856

  20. Chronic Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol Exposure Induces a Sensitization of Dopamine D2/3 Receptors in the Mesoaccumbens and Nigrostriatal Systems

    PubMed Central

    Ginovart, Nathalie; Tournier, Benjamin B; Moulin-Sallanon, Marcelle; Steimer, Thierry; Ibanez, Vicente; Millet, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), through its action on cannabinoid type-1 receptor (CB1R), is known to activate dopamine (DA) neurotransmission. Functional evidence of a direct antagonistic interaction between CB1R and DA D2-receptors (D2R) suggests that D2R may be an important target for the modulation of DA neurotransmission by THC. The current study evaluated, in rodents, the effects of chronic exposure to THC (1 mg/kg/day; 21 days) on D2R and D3R availabilities using the D2R-prefering antagonist and the D3R-preferring agonist radiotracers [18F]fallypride and [3H]-(+)-PHNO, respectively. At 24 h after the last THC dose, D2R and D3R densities were significantly increased in midbrain. In caudate/putamen (CPu), THC exposure was associated with increased densities of D2R with no change in D2R mRNA expression, whereas in nucleus accumbens (NAcc) both D3R binding and mRNA levels were upregulated. These receptor changes, which were completely reversed in CPu but only partially reversed in NAcc and midbrain at 1 week after THC cessation, correlated with an increased functionality of D2/3R in vivo, based on findings of increased locomotor suppressive effect of a presynaptic dose and enhanced locomotor activation produced by a postsynaptic dose of quinpirole. Concomitantly, the observations of a decreased gene expression of tyrosine hydroxylase in midbrain together with a blunted psychomotor response to amphetamine concurred to indicate a diminished presynaptic DA function following THC. These findings indicate that the early period following THC treatment cessation is associated with altered presynaptic D2/3R controlling DA synthesis and release in midbrain, with the concurrent development of postsynaptic D2/3R supersensitivity in NAcc and CPu. Such D2/3R neuroadaptations may contribute to the reinforcing and habit-forming properties of THC. PMID:22692568

  1. The Conserved Arginine Cluster in the Insert of the Third Cytoplasmic Loop of the Long Form of the D2 Dopamine Receptor (D2L-R) Acts as an Intracellular Retention Signal

    PubMed Central

    Kubale, Valentina; Blagotinšek, Kaja; Nøhr, Jane; Eidne, Karin A.; Vrecl, Milka

    2016-01-01

    This study examined whether the conserved arginine cluster present within the 29-amino acid insert of the long form of the D2 dopamine receptor (D2L-R) confers its predominant intracellular localization. We hypothesized that the conserved arginine cluster (RRR) located within the insert could act as an RXR-type endoplasmic reticulum (ER) retention signal. Arginine residues (R) within the cluster at positions 267, 268, and 269 were charge-reserved to glutamic acids (E), either individually or in clusters, thus generating single, double, and triple D2L-R mutants. Through analyses of cellular localization by confocal microscopy and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), radioligand binding assay, bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET2) β-arrestin 2 (βarr2) recruitment assay, and cAMP signaling, it was revealed that charge reversal of the R residues at all three positions within the motif impaired their colocalization with ER marker calnexin and led to significantly improved cell surface expression. Additionally, these data demonstrate that an R to glutamic acid (E) substitution at position 2 within the RXR motif is not functionally permissible. Furthermore, all generated D2L-R mutants preserved their functional integrity regarding ligand binding, agonist-induced βarr2 recruitment and Gαi-mediated signaling. In summary, our results show that the conserved arginine cluster within the 29-amino acid insert of third cytoplasmic loop (IC3) of the D2L-R appears to be the ER retention signal. PMID:27447620

  2. The Addiction-Related Gene Ankk1 is Oppositely Regulated by D1R- and D2R-Like Dopamine Receptors.

    PubMed

    Ponce, Guillermo; Quiñones-Lombraña, Adolfo; Martín-Palanco, Noelia Guerra; Rubio-Solsona, Estrella; Jiménez-Arriero, Miguel Ángel; Palomo, Tomás; Hoenicka, Janet

    2016-04-01

    The ankyrin repeat and kinase domain containing 1 (ANKK1) TaqIA polymorphism has been extensively studied as a marker of the gene for dopamine receptor D2 (DRD2) in addictions and other dopamine-associated traits. In vitro mRNA and protein studies have shown a potential connection between ANKK1 and the dopaminergic system functioning. Here, we have investigated whether Ankk1 expression in the brain is regulated by treatment with dopaminergic agonists. We used quantitative RT-PCR of total brain and Western blots of specific brain areas to study Ankk1 in murine brain after dopaminergic treatments. We found that Ankk1 mRNA was upregulated after activation of D1R-like dopamine receptors with SKF38393 (2.660 ± 1.035-fold; t: 4.066, df: 11, P = 0.002) and apomorphine (2.043 ± 0.595-fold; t: 3.782, df: 8, P = 0.005). The D2R-like agonist quinelorane has no effect upon Ankk1 mRNA (1.004 ± 0.580-fold; t: 0.015, df: 10, P = 0.9885). In contrast, mice treatment with the D2R-like agonists 7-OH-DPAT and aripiprazole caused a significant Ankk1 mRNA downregulation (0.606 ± 0.057-fold; t: 2.786, df: 10, P = 0.02 and 0.588 ± 0.130-fold; t: 2.394, df: 11, P = 0.036, respectively). With respect the Ankk1 proteins profile, no effects were found after SKF38393 (t: 0.54, df: 2, P = 0.643) and Quinelorane (t: 0.286, df: 8, P = 0.782) treatments. In contrast, the D2R-like agonist 7-OH-DPAT (±) caused a significant increment of Ankk1 in the striatum (t: 2.718, df: 7; P = 0.03) when compared to the prefrontal cortex. The activation of D1R-like and D2-R-like leads to opposite transcriptional regulation of Ankk1 by specific pathways. PMID:26194616

  3. Unique Effects of Acute Aripiprazole Treatment on the Dopamine D2 Receptor Downstream cAMP-PKA and Akt-GSK3β Signalling Pathways in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Bo; Chen, Jiezhong; Lian, Jiamei; Huang, Xu-Feng; Deng, Chao

    2015-01-01

    Aripiprazole is a wide-used antipsychotic drug with therapeutic effects on both positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia, and reduced side-effects. Although aripiprazole was developed as a dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) partial agonist, all other D2R partial agonists that aimed to mimic aripiprazole failed to exert therapeutic effects in clinic. The present in vivo study aimed to investigate the effects of aripiprazole on the D2R downstream cAMP-PKA and Akt-GSK3β signalling pathways in comparison with a D2R antagonist – haloperidol and a D2R partial agonist – bifeprunox. Rats were injected once with aripiprazole (0.75mg/kg, i.p.), bifeprunox (0.8mg/kg, i.p.), haloperidol (0.1mg/kg, i.p.) or vehicle. Five brain regions – the prefrontal cortex (PFC), nucleus accumbens (NAc), caudate putamen (CPu), ventral tegmental area (VTA) and substantia nigra (SN) were collected. The protein levels of PKA, Akt and GSK3β were measured by Western Blotting; the cAMP levels were examined by ELISA tests. The results showed that aripiprazole presented similar acute effects on PKA expression to haloperidol, but not bifeprunox, in the CPU and VTA. Additionally, aripiprazole was able to increase the phosphorylation of GSK3β in the PFC, NAc, CPu and SN, respectively, which cannot be achieved by bifeprunox and haloperidol. These results suggested that acute treatment of aripiprazole had differential effects on the cAMP-PKA and Akt-GSK3β signalling pathways from haloperidol and bifeprunox in these brain areas. This study further indicated that, by comparison with bifeprunox, the unique pharmacological profile of aripiprazole may be attributed to the relatively lower intrinsic activity at D2R. PMID:26162083

  4. Sodium-dependent isomerization of dopamine D-2 receptors characterized using [125I]epidepride, a high-affinity substituted benzamide ligand.

    PubMed

    Neve, K A; Henningsen, R A; Kinzie, J M; De Paulis, T; Schmidt, D E; Kessler, R M; Janowsky, A

    1990-03-01

    We have characterized the in vitro binding of a new ligand, [125I]epidepride, and used this substituted benzamide to assess the sensitivity of dopamine D-2 receptors to sodium. Both direct and indirect binding studies with [125I]epidepride and unlabeled epidepride, respectively, demonstrated that the affinity of D-2 receptors for the ligand was decreased from 20 to 30 pM in the presence of sodium to 350 to 500 pM in the absence of sodium. The density of binding sites for [125I]epidepride was identical in the presence and absence of NaCl. The time courses for association of [125I]epidepride to and dissociation from D-2 receptors in the presence of sodium were not consistent with simple bimolecular reactions, suggesting the possibility of a sodium-dependent ligand-induced receptor isomerization. Thus, dissociation of [125I]epidepride was biphasic in the presence of sodium, but monophasic in the absence of sodium. The rank order of potency for inhibition of [125I]epidepride binding by drugs was identical in rat striatum and cells expressing a D-2 receptor cDNA, and similar to the previously described pharmacological profile of D-2 receptors labeled by [3H]spiperone. [125I]Epidepride bound to two classes of binding sites in rat medial prefrontal cortex. One class, present at a density of 10 fmol/mg of protein and with a Kd value of approximately 40 pM, was pharmacologically indistinguishable from D-2 receptors in striatum and transfected cells. The pharmacological profile of the second class of sites was similar to that of alpha-2 adrenergic receptors. [125I]Epidepride had 50- to 100-fold lower affinity (approximately 2 nM) for alpha-2 receptors than for D-2 receptors.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2138666

  5. The human D2 dopamine receptor synergizes with the A2A adenosine receptor to stimulate adenylyl cyclase in PC12 cells.

    PubMed

    Kudlacek, Oliver; Just, Herwig; Korkhov, Vladimir M; Vartian, Nina; Klinger, Markus; Pankevych, Halyna; Yang, Qiong; Nanoff, Christian; Freissmuth, Michael; Boehm, Stefan

    2003-07-01

    The adenosine A(2A) receptor and the dopamine D(2) receptor are prototypically coupled to G(s) and G(i)/G(o), respectively. In striatal intermediate spiny neurons, these receptors are colocalized in dendritic spines and act as mutual antagonists. This antagonism has been proposed to occur at the level of the receptors or of receptor-G protein coupling. We tested this model in PC12 cells which endogenously express A(2A) receptors. The human D(2) receptor was introduced into PC12 cells by stable transfection. A(2A)-agonist-mediated inhibition of D(2) agonist binding was absent in PC12 cell membranes but present in HEK293 cells transfected as a control. However, in the resulting PC12 cell lines, the action of the D(2) agonist quinpirole depended on the expression level of the D(2) receptor: at low and high receptor levels, the A(2A)-agonist-induced elevation of cAMP was enhanced and inhibited, respectively. Forskolin-stimulated cAMP formation was invariably inhibited by quinpirole. The effects of quinpirole were abolished by pretreatment with pertussis toxin. A(2A)-receptor-mediated cAMP formation was inhibited by other G(i)/G(o)-coupled receptors that were either endogenously present (P(2y12)-like receptor for ADP) or stably expressed after transfection (A(1) adenosine, metabotropic glutamate receptor-7A). Similarly, voltage activated Ca(2+) channels were inhibited by the endogenous P(2Y) receptor and by the heterologously expressed A(1) receptor but not by the D(2) receptor. These data indicate functional segregation of signaling components. Our observations are thus compatible with the proposed model that D(2) and A(2A) receptors are closely associated, but they highlight the fact that this interaction can also support synergism. PMID:12784121

  6. Structure and linkage of the D2 dopamine receptor and neural cell adhesion molecule genes on human chromosome 11q23

    SciTech Connect

    Eubanks, J.H.; Djabali, M.; Selleri, L.; McElligott, D.L.; Evans, G.A. ); Grandy, D.K.; Civelli, O. )

    1992-12-01

    The gene encoding the D2 dopamine receptor (DRD2) is located on human chromosome 11q23 and has been circumstantially associated with a number of human disorders including Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia, and susceptibility to alcoholism. To determine the physical structure of the DRD2 gene, the authors utilized cosmid cloning, isolation of yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs), and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis to construct a long-range physical map of human chromosome 11q23 linking the genes for the DRD2 and neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM). The D2 dopamine receptor gene extends over 270 kb and includes an intron of approximately 250 kb separating the putative first exon from the exons encoding the receptor protein. The resulting physical map spans more than 1.5 mb of chromosome band 11q23 and links the DRD2 gene with the gene encoding the NCAM located 150 kb 3[prime] of the DRD2 gene and transcribed from the same DNA strand. They additionally located the sites of at least four hypomethylated HTF islands within the physical map, which potentially indicate the sites of additional genes. High-resolution fluorescent in situ suppression hybridization using cosmid and YAC clones localized this gene cluster between the ApoAI and STMY loci at the interface of bands 11q22.3 and 11q23.1. 40 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Striatal and extrastriatal imaging of dopamine D2 receptors in the living human brain with [123I]epidepride single-photon emission tomography.

    PubMed

    Kuikka, J T; Akerman, K K; Hiltunen, J; Bergström, K A; Räsänen, P; Vanninen, E; Halldin, C; Tiihonen, J

    1997-05-01

    The iodine-123 labelled ligand benzamide epidepride was evaluated as a probe for in vivo imaging of striatal and extrastriatal dopamine D2 receptor sites in the human brain. Four healthy males were imaged with a high-resolution single-photon emission tomography scanner. Striatal radioactivity peaked at 3 h after injection. The specific binding in the striatum was 0.91+/-0.03 at 3 h and this ratio steadily increased with time. Extrastriatal radioactivity was highest in the thalamus, in the midbrain and in the temporal cortex, and peaked at 45-60 min after injection of tracer. A smaller amount of radioactivity was found in the parietal, frontal and occipital cortices. Two radioactive metabolites were observed, of which one was more lipophilic than the parent compound. The radiation burden to the patient was 0.035 mSv/MBq (effective dose equivalent). The preliminary results showed that [123I]epidepride can be used for imaging striatal and extrastriatal dopamine D2 receptor sites in the living human brain. PMID:9142727

  8. Reproducibility of striatal and thalamic dopamine D2 receptor binding using [11C]raclopride with high-resolution positron emission tomography

    PubMed Central

    Alakurtti, Kati; Aalto, Sargo; Johansson, Jarkko J; Någren, Kjell; Tuokkola, Terhi; Oikonen, Vesa; Laine, Matti; Rinne, Juha O

    2011-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of small striatal brain structures such as the ventral striatum (VST) has been hampered by low spatial resolution causing partial-volume effects. The high-resolution research tomograph (HRRT) is a brain-dedicated PET scanner that has considerably better spatial resolution than its predecessors. However, its superior spatial resolution is associated with a lower signal-to-noise ratio. We evaluated the test–retest reliability of the striatal and thalamic dopamine D2 receptor binding using the HRRT scanner. Seven healthy male volunteers underwent two [11C]raclopride PET scans with a 2.5-hour interval. Dopamine D2 receptor availability was quantified as binding potential (BPND) using the simplified reference tissue model. To evaluate the reproducibility of repeated BPND estimations, absolute variability (VAR) and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) were calculated. VAR values indicated fairly good reproducibility and were 3.6% to 4.5% for the caudate nucleus and putamen and 4.5% to 6.4% for the lateral and medial part of the thalamus. In the VST, the VAR value was 5.8% when the definition was made in the coronal plane. However, the ICC values were only moderate, in the range of 0.34 to 0.66, for all regions except the putamen (0.87). Experimental signal processing methods improved neither ICC nor VAR values significantly. PMID:20442726

  9. SONU20176289, a compound combining partial dopamine D(2) receptor agonism with specific serotonin reuptake inhibitor activity, affects neuroplasticity in an animal model for depression.

    PubMed

    Michael-Titus, Adina T; Albert, Monika; Michael, Gregory J; Michaelis, Thomas; Watanabe, Takashi; Frahm, Jens; Pudovkina, Olga; van der Hart, Marieke G C; Hesselink, Mayke B; Fuchs, Eberhard; Czéh, Boldizsár

    2008-11-19

    We investigated the efficacy of SONU20176289, a member of a group of novel phenylpiperazine derivatives with a mixed dopamine D(2) receptor partial agonist and specific serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) activity, in a chronic stress model of depression in male tree shrews. Animals were subjected to a 7-day period of psychosocial stress before treatment for 28 days with SONU20176289 (6 mg/kg/day, p.o.), during which stress was maintained. Stress reduced the in vivo brain concentrations of N-acetyl-aspartate, total creatine, and choline-containing compounds, as measured by localized proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Post mortem analyses revealed a reduced adult dentate cell proliferation and a decreased GluR2 expression in the prefrontal cortex. All these alterations were prevented by concomitant administration of SONU20176289. The results provide further support to the concept that antidepressant treatments may act by normalizing disturbed neuroplasticity, and indicate that combining dopamine D(2) receptor agonism with SSRI activity may serve as an effective tool in the treatment of depressive/anxiety syndromes. PMID:18822282

  10. D2-like dopamine receptor mediation of social-emotional reactivity in a mouse model of anxiety: strain and experience effects.

    PubMed

    Gendreau, P L; Petitto, J M; Gariépy, J L; Lewis, M H

    1998-03-01

    We examined the effects of the D2-like dopamine receptor agonist quinpirole on social-emotional reactivity in two inbred mouse strains. An important objective of this study was to determine whether these effects could be modulated by differential housing conditions (i.e., isolation versus group housing). Moreover, as motor activity is an important control for the assessment of drug effects on emotional behavior, the effects of quinpirole were tested in two inbred mouse strains (A/J and C57BL/6J) low and high in motor activity, respectively. Levels of emotional reactivity were assessed in response to mild social stimulation provided by a nonaggressive conspecific. Quinpirole increased stationary forms of reactivity (i.e., startle, kicking, defensive posture, vocalization) in both isolated and group-housed A/J mice. This effect was more pronounced and observed at lower doses in isolated than in group-housed A/J mice. Quinpirole also induced jump behavior in isolated but not group-housed A/J mice. The shift to the left in the dose-response curve of quinpirole in isolated A/J mice indicated that D2-like dopamine receptor functions can be altered by social experience. Quinpirole only marginally increased stationary and locomotor reactivity (i.e., jump) in isolated C57BL/6J mice, whereas it markedly reduced motor activity in group-housed mice of this strain. The investigation of emotional reactivity within a social context and using strains that differ in motor activity permitted the effects of drugs on emotional reactivity to be dissociated from the effects on motor activity. Given that social-emotional reactivity was elicited by what typically should have been mild and nonthreatening stimuli, this model may be highly relevant to understanding the neurobiology of anxiety. Finally, these data support an important role for dopamine in the mediation of social-emotional reactivity. PMID:9471118

  11. Spinal Cord Dopamine D2/D3 Receptors: In Vivo and Ex Vivo Imaging in the Rat using 18F/11C-Fallypride

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Jasmeet; Khararjian, Armen; Coleman, Robert A.; Constantinescu, Cristian C.; Pan, Min-Liang; Mukherjee, Jogeshwar

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Spinal cord is known to be innervated with dopaminergic cells with catecholaminergic projections arising from the medulla and pons and dopaminergic transmission in the spinal cord is vital for sensory and motor function. Our goal was to evaluate and compare the imaging capability of dopamine D2/D3 receptors in the rat spinal cord using PET ligands 18F-fallypride and 11C-fallypride. Methods Male Sprague-Dawley rats were used in all in vitro and in vivo studies. Spinal cord and brain sections were used for in vitro autoradiography and ex vivo autoradiography. For in vivo studies animals received a 18F-fallypride scan or a 11C-fallypride PET scan. The spinal cord and the brain were then harvested, flash-frozen and imaged ex vivo. For in vivo analysis Logan plots with cerebellum as a reference was used to evaluate binding potentials (BP). Tissue ratios were used for ex vivo analysis. Drug effects were evaluated using clozapine, haloperidol and dopamine were evaluated on spinal cord sections in vitro. Results In vitro studies showed 18F-fallypride binding to superficial dorsal horn (SDH), dorsal horn (DH), ventral horn (VH) and the pars centralis (PC). In the cervical section, the greatest amount of binding appeared to be in the SDH. Ex vivo studies showed approximately 6% of 18F-fallypride in SDH compared to that observed in the striatum. In vivo analysis of both 18F-fallypride and 11C-fallypride in the spinal cord were comparable to that in the extrastriatal regions. Haloperidol and clozapine displaced more than 75% of the 18F-fallypride in spinal cord sections. Conclusions Our studies showed 18F-fallypride and 11C-fallypride binding in the spinal cord in vitro and in vivo. The binding pattern correlates well with the known distribution of dopamine D2/D3 receptors in the spinal cord. PMID:25199843

  12. Amphetamine elevates phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor 2α (eIF2α) in the rat forebrain via activating dopamine D1 and D2 receptors.

    PubMed

    Xue, Bing; Fitzgerald, Cole A; Jin, Dao-Zhong; Mao, Li-Min; Wang, John Q

    2016-09-01

    Psychostimulants have an impact on protein synthesis, although underlying molecular mechanisms are unclear. Eukaryotic initiation factor 2α-subunit (eIF2α) is a key player in initiation of protein translation and is regulated by phosphorylation. While this factor is sensitive to changing synaptic input and is critical for synaptic plasticity, its sensitivity to stimulants is poorly understood. Here we systematically characterized responses of eIF2α to a systemic administration of the stimulant amphetamine (AMPH) in dopamine responsive regions of adult rat brains. Intraperitoneal injection of AMPH at 5mg/kg increased eIF2α phosphorylation at serine 51 in the striatum. This increase was transient. In the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), AMPH induced a relatively delayed phosphorylation of the factor. Pretreatment with a dopamine D1 receptor antagonist SCH23390 blocked the AMPH-stimulated eIF2α phosphorylation in both the striatum and mPFC. Similarly, a dopamine D2 receptor antagonist eticlopride reduced the effect of AMPH in the two regions. Two antagonists alone did not alter basal eIF2α phosphorylation. AMPH and two antagonists did not change the amount of total eIF2α proteins in both regions. These results demonstrate the sensitivity of eIF2α to stimulant exposure. AMPH possesses the ability to stimulate eIF2α phosphorylation in striatal and mPFC neurons in vivo in a D1 and D2 receptor-dependent manner. PMID:27338925

  13. Cerebral morphology and dopamine D2/D3receptor distribution in humans: A combined [18F]fallypride and voxel-based morphometry study

    PubMed Central

    Woodward, Neil D.; Zald, David H.; Ding, Zhaohua; Riccardi, Patrizia; Ansari, M. Sib; Baldwin, Ronald M.; Cowan, Ronald L.; Li, Rui; Kessler, Robert M.

    2009-01-01

    The relationship between cerebral morphology and the expression of dopamine receptors has not been extensively studied in humans. Elucidation of such relationships may have important methodological implications for clinical studies of dopamine receptor ligand binding differences between control and patient groups. The association between cerebral morphology and dopamine receptor distribution was examined in 45 healthy subjects who completed T1-weighted structural MRI and PET scanning with the D2/D3 ligand [18F]fallypride. Optimized voxel-based morphometry was used to create grey matter volume and density images. Grey matter volume and density images were correlated with binding potential (BPND) images on a voxel-by-voxel basis using the Biological Parametric Mapping toolbox. Associations between cerebral morphology and BPND were also examined for selected regions-of-interest (ROIs) after spatial normalization. Voxel-wise analyses indicated that grey matter volume and density positively correlated with BPND throughout the midbrain, including the substantia nigra. Positive correlations were observed in medial cortical areas, including anterior cingulate and medial prefrontal cortex, and circumscribed regions of the temporal, frontal, and parietal lobes. ROI analyses revealed significant positive correlations between BPND and cerebral morphology in the caudate, thalamus, and amygdala. Few negative correlations between morphology and BPND were observed. Overall, grey matter density appeared more strongly correlated with BPND than grey matter volume. Cerebral morphology, particularly grey matter density, correlates with [18F]fallypride BPND in a regionally specific manner. Clinical studies comparing dopamine receptor availability between clinical and control groups may benefit by accounting for potential differences in cerebral morphology that exist even after spatial normalization. PMID:19457373

  14. Group III metabotropic glutamate receptors and D1-like and D2-like dopamine receptors interact in the rat nucleus accumbens to influence locomotor activity.

    PubMed

    David, Hélène N; Abraini, Jacques H

    2002-03-01

    Evidence for functional interactions between metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors and dopamine (DA) neurotransmission is now clearly established. In the present study, we investigated interactions between group III mGlu receptors and D1- and D2-like receptors in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc). Administration, into the NAcc, of the selective group III mGlu receptor agonist, AP4, resulted in an increase in locomotor activity, which was blocked by pretreatment with the group III mGlu receptor antagonist, MPPG. In addition, pretreatment with AP4 further blocked the increase in motor activity induced by the D1-like receptor agonist, SKF 38393, but potentiated the locomotor responses induced by either the D2-like receptor agonist, quinpirole, or coinfusion of SKF 38393 and quinpirole. MPPG reversed the effects of AP4 on the motor responses induced by D1-like and/or D2-like receptor activation. These results confirm that glutamate transmission may control DA-dependent locomotor function through mGlu receptors and further indicate that group III mGlu receptors oppose the behavioural response produced by D1-like receptor activation and favour those produced by D2-like receptor activation. PMID:11906529

  15. Stimulation of dopamine D2/D3 but not D1 receptors in the central amygdala decreases cocaine-seeking behavior

    PubMed Central

    Thiel, Kenneth J.; Wenzel, Jennifer M.; Pentkowski, Nathan S.; Hobbs, Rebecca J.; Alleweireldt, Andrea T.; Neisewander, Janet L.

    2011-01-01

    Alterations in dopamine output within the various subnuclei of the amygdala have previously been implicated in cocaine reinforcement, as well as cocaine-seeking behavior. To elucidate the potential for increased stimulation of D1- and D2-like receptors (D1Rs and D2Rs, respectively) specifically in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) to modulate cue- and cocaine-elicited reinstatement of cocaine-seeking behavior, we infused either the D1R agonist, SKF-38393 (0 – 4.0 μg/side) or the D2R agonist, 7-OH-DPAT (0 – 4.0 μg/side) into the CeA immediately prior to tests for cue and cocaine-primed reinstatement. We also examined the effects of 7-OH-DPAT on cocaine self-administration as a positive behavioral control. 7-OH-DPAT decreased cue and cocaine-primed reinstatement, and reduced the number of cocaine infusions during self-administration; SKF-38393 produced no discernable effects. The results suggest that enhanced stimulation of D2Rs, but not D1Rs, in the CeA is sufficient to inhibit expression of the incentive motivational effects of cocaine priming and cocaine-paired cues. Together with previous findings that D1R blockade attenuates reinstatement of cocaine-seeking behavior, the results suggest that D1R stimulation may be necessary, but not sufficient, to modulate the incentive motivational effects of cues and cocaine priming. PMID:20600343

  16. Stimulation of dopamine D2/D3 but not D1 receptors in the central amygdala decreases cocaine-seeking behavior.

    PubMed

    Thiel, Kenneth J; Wenzel, Jennifer M; Pentkowski, Nathan S; Hobbs, Rebecca J; Alleweireldt, Andrea T; Neisewander, Janet L

    2010-12-25

    Alterations in dopamine output within the various subnuclei of the amygdala have previously been implicated in cocaine reinforcement, as well as cocaine-seeking behavior. To elucidate the potential for increased stimulation of D1- and D2-like receptors (D1Rs and D2Rs, respectively) specifically in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) to modulate cue- and cocaine-elicited reinstatement of cocaine-seeking behavior, we infused either the D1R agonist, SKF-38393 (0-4.0 microg/side) or the D2R agonist, 7-OH-DPAT (0-4.0 microg/side) into the CeA immediately prior to tests for cue and cocaine-primed reinstatement. We also examined the effects of 7-OH-DPAT on cocaine self-administration as a positive behavioral control. 7-OH-DPAT decreased cue-and cocaine-primed reinstatement, and reduced the number of cocaine infusions obtained during self-administration; SKF-38393 produced no discernable effects. The results suggest that enhanced stimulation of D2Rs, but not D1Rs, in the CeA is sufficient to inhibit expression of the incentive motivational effects of cocaine priming and cocaine-paired cues. Together with previous findings that D1R blockade attenuates reinstatement of cocaine-seeking behavior, the results suggest that D1R stimulation may be necessary, but not sufficient, to modulate the incentive motivational effects of cues and cocaine priming. PMID:20600343

  17. Dopamine D2 Receptors Act Upstream of AVP in the Latero-Anterior Hypothalamus to Modulate Adolescent Anabolic/Androgenic Steroid-Induced Aggression in Syrian Hamsters

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, Thomas R.; Ricci, Lesley A.; Melloni, Richard H.

    2015-01-01

    In pubertal male Syrian hamsters, exposure to anabolic/androgenic steroids (AAS) during adolescence facilitates a high level of offensive aggression modulated by the enhanced development and activity of the vasopressin (AVP) and dopamine (DA) neural systems within the latero-anterior hypothalamus (LAH), i.e., a brain region implicated in the control of aggression. The present studies provide a detailed report of the pharmacologic interactions between AVP and DA D2 receptor signaling within the LAH in the control of adolescent AAS-induced offensive aggression. Male Syrian hamsters were treated with AAS throughout adolescence and tested for aggression after local infusion of the DA D2 receptor antagonist eticlopride (ETIC) alone, or in combination with AVP in the LAH in an effort to determine the influence of DA D2 receptors relative to AVP-receptor mediated aggression mechanisms. As previously shown, ETIC infusion into the LAH suppressed adolescent AAS-induced aggressive responding; however, the AAS-induced aggressive phenotype was rescued by the co-infusion of AVP into the LAH. These behavioral data indicate that interactions between AVP and DA neural systems within the LAH modulate the control of aggression following adolescent exposure to AAS and that DA D2 receptor signaling functions upstream of AVP in the LAH to control this behavioral response. PMID:25798632

  18. Dopamine D2-Receptor Antagonists Down-Regulate CYP1A1/2 and CYP1B1 in the Rat Liver

    PubMed Central

    Harkitis, P.; Lang, M. A.; Marselos, M.; Fotopoulos, A.; Albucharali, G.; Konstandi, M.

    2015-01-01

    Dopaminergic systems regulate the release of several hormones including growth hormone (GH), thyroid hormones, insulin, glucocorticoids and prolactin (PRL) that play significant roles in the regulation of various Cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes. The present study investigated the role of dopamine D2-receptor-linked pathways in the regulation of CYP1A1, CYP1A2 and CYP1B1 that belong to a battery of genes controlled by the Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor (AhR) and play a crucial role in the metabolism and toxicity of numerous environmental toxicants. Inhibition of dopamine D2-receptors with sulpiride (SULP) significantly repressed the constitutive and benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P)-induced CYP1A1, CYP1A2 and CYP1B expression in the rat liver. The expression of AhR, heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) and AhR nuclear translocator (ARNT) was suppressed by SULP in B[a]P-treated livers, whereas the AhRR expression was increased by the drug suggesting that the SULP-mediated repression of the CYP1 inducibility is due to inactivation of the AhR regulatory system. At signal transduction level, the D2-mediated down-regulation of constitutive CYP1A1/2 and CYP1B1 expression appears to be mediated by activation of the insulin/PI3K/AKT pathway. PRL-linked pathways exerting a negative control on various CYPs, and inactivation of the glucocorticoid-linked pathways that positively control the AhR-regulated CYP1 genes, may also participate in the SULP-mediated repression of both, the constitutive and induced CYP1 expression. The present findings indicate that drugs acting as D2-dopamine receptor antagonists can modify several hormone systems that regulate the expression of CYP1A1, CYP1A2 and CYP1B1, and may affect the toxicity and carcinogenicity outcome of numerous toxicants and pre-carcinogenic substances. Therefore, these drugs could be considered as a part of the strategy to reduce the risk of exposure to environmental pollutants and pre-carcinogens. PMID:26466350

  19. Differential contributions of dopamine D1, D2, and D3 receptors to MDMA-induced effects on locomotor behavior patterns in mice.

    PubMed

    Risbrough, Victoria B; Masten, Virginia L; Caldwell, Sorana; Paulus, Martin P; Low, Malcolm J; Geyer, Mark A

    2006-11-01

    MDMA or 'ecstasy' (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine) is a commonly used psychoactive drug that has unusual and distinctive behavioral effects in both humans and animals. In rodents, MDMA administration produces a unique locomotor activity pattern, with high activity characterized by smooth locomotor paths and perseverative thigmotaxis. Although considerable evidence supports a major role for serotonin release in MDMA-induced locomotor activity, dopamine (DA) receptor antagonists have recently been shown to attenuate these effects. Here, we tested the hypothesis that DA D1, D2, and D3 receptors contribute to MDMA-induced alterations in locomotor activity and motor patterns. DA D1, D2, or D3 receptor knockout (KO) and wild-type (WT) mice received vehicle or (+/-)-MDMA and were tested for 60 min in the behavioral pattern monitor (BPM). D1 KO mice exhibited significant increases in MDMA-induced hyperactivity in the late testing phase as well as an overall increase in straight path movements. In contrast, D2 KO mice exhibited reductions in MDMA-induced hyperactivity in the late testing phase, and exhibited significantly less sensitivity to MDMA-induced perseverative thigmotaxis. At baseline, D2 KO mice also exhibited reduced activity and more circumscribed movements compared to WT mice. Female D3 KO mice showed a slight reduction in MDMA-induced hyperactivity. These results confirm differential modulatory roles for D1 and D2 and perhaps D3 receptors in MDMA-induced hyperactivity. More specifically, D1 receptor activation appears to modify the type of activity (linear vs circumscribed), whereas D2 receptor activation appears to contribute to the repetitive circling behavior produced by MDMA. PMID:16855533

  20. Hypothalamic neuropeptide Y (NPY) and the attenuation of hyperphagia in streptozotocin diabetic rats treated with dopamine D1/D2 agonists

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Dong-Yih

    2006-01-01

    Dopamine is an appetite suppressant, while neuropeptide Y (NPY), an appetite stimulant in the brain, is reported to be involved in anorectic action induced by a combined administration of D1/D2 agonists in normal rats. In diabetic rats, however, these factors have not been studied. Rats (including normal, diabetic and insulin-treated diabetic rats) were given daily injections of saline or D1/D2 agonists for 6 days. Changes in food intake and hypothalamic NPY content of these rats were assessed and compared. The D1/D2 agonist-induced anorectic responses were altered in diabetic rats compared to normal rats treated similarly. Both the anorectic response on the first day of dosing and the tolerant response on the subsequent days were attenuated. This alteration was independent of the neuroendocrine disturbance on feeding behavior since the basic pattern of food intake during the time course of a 24-h day/night cycle was similar in normal and diabetic rats; the decrease of food intake following drug treatment was only shown at the initial interval of 0–6 h in both groups of rats. However, this alteration coincided with changes in NPY content following D1/D2 coadministration. The replacement of insulin in diabetic rats could normalize both NPY content and D1/D2 agonist-induced anorexia. It is demonstrated that the response of D1/D2 agonist-induced appetite suppression is attenuated in diabetic rats compared to normal rats and that elevated hypothalamic NPY content may contribute to this alteration. PMID:16702993

  1. Genetic variation and dopamine D2 receptor availability: a systematic review and meta-analysis of human in vivo molecular imaging studies

    PubMed Central

    Gluskin, B S; Mickey, B J

    2016-01-01

    The D2 dopamine receptor mediates neuropsychiatric symptoms and is a target of pharmacotherapy. Inter-individual variation of D2 receptor density is thought to influence disease risk and pharmacological response. Numerous molecular imaging studies have tested whether common genetic variants influence D2 receptor binding potential (BP) in humans, but demonstration of robust effects has been limited by small sample sizes. We performed a systematic search of published human in vivo molecular imaging studies to estimate effect sizes of common genetic variants on striatal D2 receptor BP. We identified 21 studies examining 19 variants in 11 genes. The most commonly studied variant was a single-nucleotide polymorphism in ANKK1 (rs1800497, Glu713Lys, also called ‘Taq1A'). Fixed- and random-effects meta-analyses of this variant (5 studies, 194 subjects total) revealed that striatal BP was significantly and robustly lower among carriers of the minor allele (Lys713) relative to major allele homozygotes. The weighted standardized mean difference was −0.57 under the fixed-effect model (95% confidence interval=(−0.87, −0.27), P=0.0002). The normal relationship between rs1800497 and BP was not apparent among subjects with neuropsychiatric diseases. Significant associations with baseline striatal D2 receptor BP have been reported for four DRD2 variants (rs1079597, rs1076560, rs6277 and rs1799732) and a PER2 repeat polymorphism, but none have yet been tested in more than two independent samples. Our findings resolve apparent discrepancies in the literature and establish that rs1800497 robustly influences striatal D2 receptor availability. This genetic variant is likely to contribute to important individual differences in human striatal function, neuropsychiatric disease risk and pharmacological response. PMID:26926883

  2. DAT versus D2 receptor binding in the rat striatum: l-DOPA-induced motor activity is better predicted by reuptake than release of dopamine.

    PubMed

    Nikolaus, Susanne; Beu, Markus; Angelica De Souza Silva, Maria; Huston, Joseph P; Hautzel, Hubertus; Antke, Christina; Müller, Hans-Wilhelm

    2016-09-01

    The reuptake and release of dopamine (DA) can be estimated using in vivo imaging methods by assessing the competition between endogenous DA and an administered exogenous DA transporter (DAT) and D