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Sample records for 18s rrna processing

  1. The ATPase hCINAP regulates 18S rRNA processing and is essential for embryogenesis and tumour growth

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Dongmei; Zhang, Jinfang; Li, Tingting; Hang, Runlai; Liu, Yong; Tian, Yonglu; Huang, Dadu; Qu, Linglong; Cao, Xiaofeng; Ji, Jiafu; Zheng, Xiaofeng

    2016-01-01

    Dysfunctions in ribosome biogenesis cause developmental defects and increased cancer susceptibility; however, the connection between ribosome assembly and tumorigenesis remains unestablished. Here we show that hCINAP (also named AK6) is required for human 18S rRNA processing and 40S subunit assembly. Homozygous CINAP−/− mice show embryonic lethality. The heterozygotes are viable and show defects in 18S rRNA processing, whereas no delayed cell growth is observed. However, during rapid growth, CINAP haploinsufficiency impairs protein synthesis. Consistently, hCINAP depletion in fast-growing cancer cells inhibits ribosome assembly and abolishes tumorigenesis. These data demonstrate that hCINAP reduction is a specific rate-limiting controller during rapid growth. Notably, hCINAP is highly expressed in cancers and correlated with a worse prognosis. Genome-wide polysome profiling shows that hCINAP selectively modulates cancer-associated translatome to promote malignancy. Our results connect the role of hCINAP in ribosome assembly with tumorigenesis. Modulation of hCINAP expression may be a promising target for cancer therapy. PMID:27477389

  2. Molecular Diversity of Eukaryotes in Municipal Wastewater Treatment Processes as Revealed by 18S rRNA Gene Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Matsunaga, Kengo; Kubota, Kengo; Harada, Hideki

    2014-01-01

    Eukaryotic communities involved in sewage treatment processes have been investigated by morphological identification, but have not yet been well-characterized using molecular approaches. In the present study, eukaryotic communities were characterized by constructing 18S rRNA gene clone libraries. The phylogenetic affiliations of a total of 843 clones were Alveolata, Fungi, Rhizaria, Euglenozoa, Stramenopiles, Amoebozoa, and Viridiplantae as protozoans and Rotifera, Gastrotricha, and Nematoda as metazoans. Sixty percent of the clones had <97% sequence identity to described eukaryotes, indicating the greater diversity of eukaryotes than previously recognized. A core OTU closely related to Epistylis chrysemydis was identified, and several OTUs were shared by 4–8 libraries. Members of the uncultured lineage LKM11 in Cryptomycota were predominant fungi in sewage treatment processes. This comparative study represents an initial step in furthering understanding of the diversity and role of eukaryotes in sewage treatment processes. PMID:25491751

  3. Molecular diversity of eukaryotes in municipal wastewater treatment processes as revealed by 18S rRNA gene analysis.

    PubMed

    Matsunaga, Kengo; Kubota, Kengo; Harada, Hideki

    2014-01-01

    Eukaryotic communities involved in sewage treatment processes have been investigated by morphological identification, but have not yet been well-characterized using molecular approaches. In the present study, eukaryotic communities were characterized by constructing 18S rRNA gene clone libraries. The phylogenetic affiliations of a total of 843 clones were Alveolata, Fungi, Rhizaria, Euglenozoa, Stramenopiles, Amoebozoa, and Viridiplantae as protozoans and Rotifera, Gastrotricha, and Nematoda as metazoans. Sixty percent of the clones had <97% sequence identity to described eukaryotes, indicating the greater diversity of eukaryotes than previously recognized. A core OTU closely related to Epistylis chrysemydis was identified, and several OTUs were shared by 4-8 libraries. Members of the uncultured lineage LKM11 in Cryptomycota were predominant fungi in sewage treatment processes. This comparative study represents an initial step in furthering understanding of the diversity and role of eukaryotes in sewage treatment processes. PMID:25491751

  4. WBSCR22/Merm1 is required for late nuclear pre-ribosomal RNA processing and mediates N7-methylation of G1639 in human 18S rRNA

    PubMed Central

    Haag, Sara; Kretschmer, Jens

    2015-01-01

    Ribosomal (r)RNAs are extensively modified during ribosome synthesis and their modification is required for the fidelity and efficiency of translation. Besides numerous small nucleolar RNA-guided 2′-O methylations and pseudouridinylations, a number of individual RNA methyltransferases are involved in rRNA modification. WBSCR22/Merm1, which is affected in Williams–Beuren syndrome and has been implicated in tumorigenesis and metastasis formation, was recently shown to be involved in ribosome synthesis, but its molecular functions have remained elusive. Here we show that depletion of WBSCR22 leads to nuclear accumulation of 3′-extended 18SE pre-rRNA intermediates resulting in impaired 18S rRNA maturation. We map the 3′ ends of the 18SE pre-rRNA intermediates accumulating after depletion of WBSCR22 and in control cells using 3′-RACE and deep sequencing. Furthermore, we demonstrate that WBSCR22 is required for N7-methylation of G1639 in human 18S rRNA in vivo. Interestingly, the catalytic activity of WBSCR22 is not required for 18S pre-rRNA processing, suggesting that the key role of WBSCR22 in 40S subunit biogenesis is independent of its function as an RNA methyltransferase. PMID:25525153

  5. Sequence requirements for maturation of the 5' terminus of human 18 S rRNA in vitro.

    PubMed

    Yu, Y T; Nilsen, T W

    1992-05-01

    Creation of the mature 5' terminus of human 18 S rRNA in vitro occurs via a two-step processing reaction. In the first step, an endonucleolytic activity found in HeLa cell nucleolar extract cleaves an rRNA precursor spanning the external transcribed spacer-18 S boundary at a position 3 bases upstream from the mature 18 S terminus leaving 2',3'-cyclic phosphate, 5' hydroxyl termini. In the second step, a nucleolytic activity(s) found in HeLa cell cytoplasmic extract removes the 3 extra bases and creates the authentic 5'-phosphorylated terminus of 18 S rRNA. Here we have examined the sequence requirements for the trimming reaction. The trimming activity(s), in addition to requiring a 5' hydroxyl terminus, prefers the naturally occurring adenosine as the 5'-terminal base. By a combination of deletion, site-directed mutagenesis, and chemical modification interference approaches we have also identified a region of 18 S rRNA spanning bases +6 to +25 (with respect to the mature 5' end) which comprises a critical recognition sequence for the trimming activity(s). PMID:1577760

  6. Taxonomic Resolutions Based on 18S rRNA Genes: A Case Study of Subclass Copepoda

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Shu; Xiong, Jie; Yu, Yuhe

    2015-01-01

    Biodiversity studies are commonly conducted using 18S rRNA genes. In this study, we compared the inter-species divergence of variable regions (V1–9) within the copepod 18S rRNA gene, and tested their taxonomic resolutions at different taxonomic levels. Our results indicate that the 18S rRNA gene is a good molecular marker for the study of copepod biodiversity, and our conclusions are as follows: 1) 18S rRNA genes are highly conserved intra-species (intra-species similarities are close to 100%); and could aid in species-level analyses, but with some limitations; 2) nearly-whole-length sequences and some partial regions (around V2, V4, and V9) of the 18S rRNA gene can be used to discriminate between samples at both the family and order levels (with a success rate of about 80%); 3) compared with other regions, V9 has a higher resolution at the genus level (with an identification success rate of about 80%); and 4) V7 is most divergent in length, and would be a good candidate marker for the phylogenetic study of Acartia species. This study also evaluated the correlation between similarity thresholds and the accuracy of using nuclear 18S rRNA genes for the classification of organisms in the subclass Copepoda. We suggest that sample identification accuracy should be considered when a molecular sequence divergence threshold is used for taxonomic identification, and that the lowest similarity threshold should be determined based on a pre-designated level of acceptable accuracy. PMID:26107258

  7. Phylogeny of protostome worms derived from 18S rRNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Winnepenninckx, B; Backeljau, T; De Wachter, R

    1995-07-01

    The phylogenetic relationships of protostome worms were studied by comparing new complete 18S rRNA sequences of Vestimentifera, Pogonophora, Sipuncula, Echiura, Nemertea, and Annelida with existing 18S rRNA sequences of Mollusca, Arthropoda, Chordata, and Platyhelminthes. Phylogenetic trees were inferred via neighbor-joining and maximum parsimony analyses. These suggest that (1) Sipuncula and Echiura are not sister groups; (2) Nemertea are protostomes; (3) Vestimentifera and Pogonophora are protostomes that have a common ancestor with Echiura; and (4) Vestimentifera and Pogonophora are a monophyletic clade. PMID:7659019

  8. Identification of a new ribose methylation in the 18S rRNA of S. cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jun; Sharma, Sunny; Kötter, Peter; Entian, Karl-Dieter

    2015-01-01

    Methylation of ribose sugars at the 2′-OH group is one of the major chemical modifications in rRNA, and is catalyzed by snoRNA directed C/D box snoRNPs. Previous biochemical and computational analyses of the C/D box snoRNAs have identified and mapped a large number of 2′-OH ribose methylations in rRNAs. In the present study, we systematically analyzed ribose methylations of 18S rRNA in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, using mung bean nuclease protection assay and RP-HPLC. Unexpectedly, we identified a hitherto unknown ribose methylation at position G562 in the helix 18 of 5′ central domain of yeast 18S rRNA. Furthermore, we identified snR40 as being responsible to guide snoRNP complex to catalyze G562 ribose methylation, which makes it only second snoRNA known so far to target three ribose methylation sites: Gm562, Gm1271 in 18S rRNA, and Um898 in 25S rRNA. Our sequence and mutational analysis of snR40 revealed that snR40 uses the same D′ box and methylation guide sequence for both Gm562 and Gm1271 methylation. With the identification of Gm562 and its corresponding snoRNA, complete set of ribose methylations of 18S rRNA and their corresponding snoRNAs have finally been established opening great prospects to understand the physiological function of these modifications. PMID:25653162

  9. Identification of a new ribose methylation in the 18S rRNA of S. cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jun; Sharma, Sunny; Kötter, Peter; Entian, Karl-Dieter

    2015-02-27

    Methylation of ribose sugars at the 2'-OH group is one of the major chemical modifications in rRNA, and is catalyzed by snoRNA directed C/D box snoRNPs. Previous biochemical and computational analyses of the C/D box snoRNAs have identified and mapped a large number of 2'-OH ribose methylations in rRNAs. In the present study, we systematically analyzed ribose methylations of 18S rRNA in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, using mung bean nuclease protection assay and RP-HPLC. Unexpectedly, we identified a hitherto unknown ribose methylation at position G562 in the helix 18 of 5' central domain of yeast 18S rRNA. Furthermore, we identified snR40 as being responsible to guide snoRNP complex to catalyze G562 ribose methylation, which makes it only second snoRNA known so far to target three ribose methylation sites: Gm562, Gm1271 in 18S rRNA, and Um898 in 25S rRNA. Our sequence and mutational analysis of snR40 revealed that snR40 uses the same D' box and methylation guide sequence for both Gm562 and Gm1271 methylation. With the identification of Gm562 and its corresponding snoRNA, complete set of ribose methylations of 18S rRNA and their corresponding snoRNAs have finally been established opening great prospects to understand the physiological function of these modifications. PMID:25653162

  10. Details of gastropod phylogeny inferred from 18S rRNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Winnepenninckx, B; Steiner, G; Backeljau, T; De Wachter, R

    1998-02-01

    Some generally accepted viewpoints on the phylogenetic relationships within the molluscan class Gastropoda are reassessed by comparing complete 18S rRNA sequences. Phylogenetic analyses were performed using the neighbor-joining and maximum parsimony methods. The previously suggested basal position of Archaeogastropoda, including Neritimorpha and Vetigastropoda, in the gastropod clade is confirmed. The present study also provides new molecular evidence for the monophyly of both Caenogastropoda and Euthyneura (Pulmonata and Opisthobranchia), making Prosobranchia paraphyletic. The relationships within Caenogastropoda and Euthyneura data turn out to be very unstable on the basis of the present 18S rRNA sequences. The present 18S rRNA data question, but are insufficient to decide on, muricacean (Neogastropoda), neotaenioglossan, pulmonate, or stylommatophoran monophyly. The analyses also focus on two systellommatophoran families, namely, Veronicellidae and Onchidiidae. It is suggested that Systellommatophora are not a monophyletic unit but, due to the lack of stability in the euthyneuran clade, their affinity to either Opisthobranchia or Pulmonata could not be determined. PMID:9479694

  11. Molecular systematics of Volvocales (Chlorophyceae, Chlorophyta) based on exhaustive 18S rRNA phylogenetic analyses.

    PubMed

    Nakada, Takashi; Misawa, Kazuharu; Nozaki, Hisayoshi

    2008-07-01

    The taxonomy of Volvocales (Chlorophyceae, Chlorophyta) was traditionally based solely on morphological characteristics. However, because recent molecular phylogeny largely contradicts the traditional subordinal and familial classifications, no classification system has yet been established that describes the subdivision of Volvocales in a manner consistent with the phylogenetic relationships. Towards development of a natural classification system at and above the generic level, identification and sorting of hundreds of sequences based on subjective phylogenetic definitions is a significant step. We constructed an 18S rRNA gene phylogeny based on 449 volvocalean sequences collected using exhaustive BLAST searches of the GenBank database. Many chimeric sequences, which can cause fallacious phylogenetic trees, were detected and excluded during data collection. The results revealed 21 strongly supported primary clades within phylogenetically redefined Volvocales. Phylogenetic classification following PhyloCode was proposed based on the presented 18S rRNA gene phylogeny along with the results of previous combined 18S and 26S rRNA and chloroplast multigene analyses. PMID:18430591

  12. The human 18S rRNA base methyltransferases DIMT1L and WBSCR22-TRMT112 but not rRNA modification are required for ribosome biogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Zorbas, Christiane; Nicolas, Emilien; Wacheul, Ludivine; Huvelle, Emmeline; Heurgué-Hamard, Valérie; Lafontaine, Denis L. J.

    2015-01-01

    At the heart of the ribosome lie rRNAs, whose catalytic function in translation is subtly modulated by posttranscriptional modifications. In the small ribosomal subunit of budding yeast, on the 18S rRNA, two adjacent adenosines (A1781/A1782) are N6-dimethylated by Dim1 near the decoding site, and one guanosine (G1575) is N7-methylated by Bud23-Trm112 at a ridge between the P- and E-site tRNAs. Here we establish human DIMT1L and WBSCR22-TRMT112 as the functional homologues of yeast Dim1 and Bud23-Trm112. We report that these enzymes are required for distinct pre-rRNA processing reactions leading to synthesis of 18S rRNA, and we demonstrate that in human cells, as in budding yeast, ribosome biogenesis requires the presence of the modification enzyme rather than its RNA-modifying catalytic activity. We conclude that a quality control mechanism has been conserved from yeast to human by which binding of a methyltransferase to nascent pre-rRNAs is a prerequisite to processing, so that all cleaved RNAs are committed to faithful modification. We further report that 18S rRNA dimethylation is nuclear in human cells, in contrast to yeast, where it is cytoplasmic. Yeast and human ribosome biogenesis thus have both conserved and distinctive features. PMID:25851604

  13. An updated 18S rRNA phylogeny of tunicates based on mixture and secondary structure models

    PubMed Central

    Tsagkogeorga, Georgia; Turon, Xavier; Hopcroft, Russell R; Tilak, Marie-Ka; Feldstein, Tamar; Shenkar, Noa; Loya, Yossi; Huchon, Dorothée; Douzery, Emmanuel JP; Delsuc, Frédéric

    2009-01-01

    Background Tunicates have been recently revealed to be the closest living relatives of vertebrates. Yet, with more than 2500 described species, details of their evolutionary history are still obscure. From a molecular point of view, tunicate phylogenetic relationships have been mostly studied based on analyses of 18S rRNA sequences, which indicate several major clades at odds with the traditional class-level arrangements. Nonetheless, substantial uncertainty remains about the phylogenetic relationships and taxonomic status of key groups such as the Aplousobranchia, Appendicularia, and Thaliacea. Results Thirty new complete 18S rRNA sequences were acquired from previously unsampled tunicate species, with special focus on groups presenting high evolutionary rate. The updated 18S rRNA dataset has been aligned with respect to the constraint on homology imposed by the rRNA secondary structure. A probabilistic framework of phylogenetic reconstruction was adopted to accommodate the particular evolutionary dynamics of this ribosomal marker. Detailed Bayesian analyses were conducted under the non-parametric CAT mixture model accounting for site-specific heterogeneity of the evolutionary process, and under RNA-specific doublet models accommodating the occurrence of compensatory substitutions in stem regions. Our results support the division of tunicates into three major clades: 1) Phlebobranchia + Thaliacea + Aplousobranchia, 2) Appendicularia, and 3) Stolidobranchia, but the position of Appendicularia could not be firmly resolved. Our study additionally reveals that most Aplousobranchia evolve at extremely high rates involving changes in secondary structure of their 18S rRNA, with the exception of the family Clavelinidae, which appears to be slowly evolving. This extreme rate heterogeneity precluded resolving with certainty the exact phylogenetic placement of Aplousobranchia. Finally, the best fitting secondary-structure and CAT-mixture models suggest a sister

  14. Highly divergent 18S rRNA gene paralogs in a Cryptosporidium genotype from eastern chipmunks (Tamias striatus)1

    PubMed Central

    Stenger, Brianna L.S.; Clark, Mark E.; Kváč, Martin; Khan, Eakalak; Giddings, Catherine W.; Dyer, Neil W.; Schultz, Jessie L.; McEvoy, John M.

    2015-01-01

    Cryptosporidium is an apicomplexan parasite that causes the disease cryptosporidiosis in humans, livestock, and other vertebrates. Much of the knowledge on Cryptosporidium diversity is derived from 18S rRNA gene (18S rDNA) phylogenies. Eukaryote genomes generally have multiple 18S rDNA copies that evolve in concert, which is necessary for the accurate inference of phylogenetic relationships. However, 18S rDNA copies in some genomes evolve by a birth-and-death process that can result in sequence divergence among copies. Most notably, divergent 18S rDNA paralogs in the apicomplexan Plasmodium share only 89–95% sequence similarity, encode structurally distinct rRNA molecules, and are expressed at different life cycle stages. In the present study, Cryptosporidium 18S rDNA was amplified from 28/72 (38.9%) eastern chipmunks (Tamias striatus). Phylogenetic analyses showed the co-occurrence of two 18S rDNA types, Type A and Type B, in 26 chipmunks, and Type B clustered with a sequence previously identified as Cryptosporidium chipmunk genotype II. Types A and B had a sister group relationship but shared less than 93% sequence similarity. In contrast, actin and heat shock protein 70 gene sequences were homogeneous in samples with both Types A and B present. It was therefore concluded that Types A and B are divergent 18S rDNA paralogs in Cryptosporidium chipmunk genotype II. Substitution patterns in Types A and B were consistent with functionally constrained evolution; however, Type B evolved more rapidly than Type A and had a higher G+C content (46.3% versus 41.0%). Oocysts of Cryptosporidium chipmunk genotype II measured 4.17 μm (3.73–5.04 μm) × 3.94 μm (3.50–4.98 μm) with a length-to-width ratio of 1.06 ± 0.06 μm, and infection occurred naturally in the jejunum, cecum, and colon of eastern chipmunks. The findings of this study have implications for the use of 18S rDNA sequences to infer phylogenetic relationships. PMID:25772204

  15. Highly divergent 18S rRNA gene paralogs in a Cryptosporidium genotype from eastern chipmunks (Tamias striatus).

    PubMed

    Stenger, Brianna L S; Clark, Mark E; Kváč, Martin; Khan, Eakalak; Giddings, Catherine W; Dyer, Neil W; Schultz, Jessie L; McEvoy, John M

    2015-06-01

    Cryptosporidium is an apicomplexan parasite that causes the disease cryptosporidiosis in humans, livestock, and other vertebrates. Much of the knowledge on Cryptosporidium diversity is derived from 18S rRNA gene (18S rDNA) phylogenies. Eukaryote genomes generally have multiple 18S rDNA copies that evolve in concert, which is necessary for the accurate inference of phylogenetic relationships. However, 18S rDNA copies in some genomes evolve by a birth-and-death process that can result in sequence divergence among copies. Most notably, divergent 18S rDNA paralogs in the apicomplexan Plasmodium share only 89-95% sequence similarity, encode structurally distinct rRNA molecules, and are expressed at different life cycle stages. In the present study, Cryptosporidium 18S rDNA was amplified from 28/72 (38.9%) eastern chipmunks (Tamias striatus). Phylogenetic analyses showed the co-occurrence of two 18S rDNA types, Type A and Type B, in 26 chipmunks, and Type B clustered with a sequence previously identified as Cryptosporidium chipmunk genotype II. Types A and B had a sister group relationship but shared less than 93% sequence similarity. In contrast, actin and heat shock protein 70 gene sequences were homogeneous in samples with both Types A and B present. It was therefore concluded that Types A and B are divergent 18S rDNA paralogs in Cryptosporidium chipmunk genotype II. Substitution patterns in Types A and B were consistent with functionally constrained evolution; however, Type B evolved more rapidly than Type A and had a higher G+C content (46.3% versus 41.0%). Oocysts of Cryptosporidium chipmunk genotype II measured 4.17 μm (3.73-5.04 μm) × 3.94 μm (3.50-4.98 μm) with a length-to-width ratio of 1.06 ± 0.06 μm, and infection occurred naturally in the jejunum, cecum, and colon of eastern chipmunks. The findings of this study have implications for the use of 18S rDNA sequences to infer phylogenetic relationships. PMID:25772204

  16. Ribosomal 18S rRNA base pairs with mRNA during eukaryotic translation initiation

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Franck; Ménétret, Jean-François; Simonetti, Angelita; Myasnikov, Alexander G.; Vicens, Quentin; Prongidi-Fix, Lydia; Natchiar, S. Kundhavai; Klaholz, Bruno P.; Eriani, Gilbert

    2016-01-01

    Eukaryotic mRNAs often contain a Kozak sequence that helps tether the ribosome to the AUG start codon. The mRNA of histone H4 (h4) does not undergo classical ribosome scanning but has evolved a specific tethering mechanism. The cryo-EM structure of the rabbit ribosome complex with mouse h4 shows that the mRNA forms a folded, repressive structure at the mRNA entry site on the 40S subunit next to the tip of helix 16 of 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA). Toe-printing and mutational assays reveal that an interaction exists between a purine-rich sequence in h4 mRNA and a complementary UUUC sequence of helix h16. Together the present data establish that the h4 mRNA harbours a sequence complementary to an 18S rRNA sequence which tethers the mRNA to the ribosome to promote proper start codon positioning, complementing the interactions of the 40S subunit with the Kozak sequence that flanks the AUG start codon. PMID:27554013

  17. Ribosomal 18S rRNA base pairs with mRNA during eukaryotic translation initiation.

    PubMed

    Martin, Franck; Ménétret, Jean-François; Simonetti, Angelita; Myasnikov, Alexander G; Vicens, Quentin; Prongidi-Fix, Lydia; Natchiar, S Kundhavai; Klaholz, Bruno P; Eriani, Gilbert

    2016-01-01

    Eukaryotic mRNAs often contain a Kozak sequence that helps tether the ribosome to the AUG start codon. The mRNA of histone H4 (h4) does not undergo classical ribosome scanning but has evolved a specific tethering mechanism. The cryo-EM structure of the rabbit ribosome complex with mouse h4 shows that the mRNA forms a folded, repressive structure at the mRNA entry site on the 40S subunit next to the tip of helix 16 of 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA). Toe-printing and mutational assays reveal that an interaction exists between a purine-rich sequence in h4 mRNA and a complementary UUUC sequence of helix h16. Together the present data establish that the h4 mRNA harbours a sequence complementary to an 18S rRNA sequence which tethers the mRNA to the ribosome to promote proper start codon positioning, complementing the interactions of the 40S subunit with the Kozak sequence that flanks the AUG start codon. PMID:27554013

  18. Novelty in phylogeny of gastrotricha: evidence from 18S rRNA gene.

    PubMed

    Wirz, A; Pucciarelli, S; Miceli, C; Tongiorgi, P; Balsamo, M

    1999-11-01

    Gastrotricha form a phylum which is crucial for defining the origin of pseudocoelomates, in that they share a number of characters with Rotifera and Nematoda but also with acoelomates, and even the evolutionary relationships within the phylum are anything but defined. For this reason the first extensive molecular data on Gastrotricha from the 18S rRNA sequences of both orders have been obtained and analyzed. Sequence analyses show that the phylum Gastrotricha is strictly monophyletic along an evolutionary line quite distinct from that of both Rotifera and Nematoda. A new view of the evolutionary history of the phylum Gastrotricha is put forward, in which Chaetonotida, and not Macrodasyida, are the most primitive forms of the group, contrary to the commonly held view. A polyphyletic origin of aschelminthes is supported, and the misleading term pseudocoelomates should be discarded. PMID:10603259

  19. Characterization of the 18S rRNA Gene for Designing Universal Eukaryote Specific Primers

    PubMed Central

    Hadziavdic, Kenan; Lekang, Katrine; Lanzen, Anders; Jonassen, Inge; Thompson, Eric M.; Troedsson, Christofer

    2014-01-01

    High throughput sequencing technology has great promise for biodiversity studies. However, an underlying assumption is that the primers used in these studies are universal for the prokaryotic or eukaryotic groups of interest. Full primer universality is difficult or impossible to achieve and studies using different primer sets make biodiversity comparisons problematic. The aim of this study was to design and optimize universal eukaryotic primers that could be used as a standard in future biodiversity studies. Using the alignment of all eukaryotic sequences from the publicly available SILVA database, we generated a full characterization of variable versus conserved regions in the 18S rRNA gene. All variable regions within this gene were analyzed and our results suggested that the V2, V4 and V9 regions were best suited for biodiversity assessments. Previously published universal eukaryotic primers as well as a number of self-designed primers were mapped to the alignment. Primer selection will depend on sequencing technology used, and this study focused on the 454 pyrosequencing GS FLX Titanium platform. The results generated a primer pair yielding theoretical matches to 80% of the eukaryotic and 0% of the prokaryotic sequences in the SILVA database. An empirical test of marine sediments using the AmpliconNoise pipeline for analysis of the high throughput sequencing data yielded amplification of sequences for 71% of all eukaryotic phyla with no isolation of prokaryotic sequences. To our knowledge this is the first characterization of the complete 18S rRNA gene using all eukaryotes present in the SILVA database, providing a robust test for universal eukaryotic primers. Since both in silico and empirical tests using high throughput sequencing retained high inclusion of eukaryotic phyla and exclusion of prokaryotes, we conclude that these primers are well suited for assessing eukaryote diversity, and can be used as a standard in biodiversity studies. PMID:24516555

  20. Mechanisms underlying the evolution and maintenance of functionally heterogeneous 18S rRNA genes in Apicomplexans.

    PubMed

    Rooney, Alejandro P

    2004-09-01

    In many species of the protist phylum Apicomplexa, ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene copies are structurally and functionally heterogeneous, owing to distinct requirements for rRNA-expression patterns at different developmental stages. The genomic mechanisms underlying the maintenance of this system over long-term evolutionary history are unclear. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate what processes underlie the long-term evolution of apicomplexan 18S genes in representative species. The results show that these genes evolve according to a birth-and-death model under strong purifying selection, thereby explaining how divergent 18S genes are generated over time while continuing to maintain their ability to produce fully functional rRNAs. In addition, it was found that Cryptosporidium parvum undergoes a rapid form of birth-and-death evolution that may facilitate host-specific adaptation, including that of type I and II strains found in humans. This represents the first case in which an rRNA gene family has been found to evolve under the birth-and-death model. PMID:15175411

  1. Identification of new 18S rRNA strains of Babesia canis isolated from dogs with subclinical babesiosis.

    PubMed

    Łyp, P; Adaszek, Ł; Furmaga, B; Winiarczyk, S

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we used PCR to detect and characterize B. canis from naturally infected dogs in Poland with subclinical babesiosis by amplifying and sequencing a portion of the 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene. Venous blood samples were collected from ten dogs with subclinical babesiosis. A 559-bp fragment of the B. canis 18S rRNA gene was amplified by PCR. Sequencing of the PCR products led to the identification of a new variant of Babesia canis, differing from the previously detected protozoa genotypes (18S rRNA-A and 18S rRNA-B) with nucleotide substitutions in positions 150 and 151 of the tested gene fragment. The results indicate the emergence within the Polish territory of a new, previously unencountered Babesia canis genotype responsible for the development of subclinical babesiosis. PMID:26618590

  2. Human NAT10 Is an ATP-dependent RNA Acetyltransferase Responsible for N4-Acetylcytidine Formation in 18 S Ribosomal RNA (rRNA)*

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Satoshi; Horikawa, Sayuri; Suzuki, Tateki; Kawauchi, Hiroki; Tanaka, Yoshikazu; Suzuki, Takeo; Suzuki, Tsutomu

    2014-01-01

    Human N-acetyltransferase 10 (NAT10) is known to be a lysine acetyltransferase that targets microtubules and histones and plays an important role in cell division. NAT10 is highly expressed in malignant tumors, and is also a promising target for therapies against laminopathies and premature aging. Here we report that NAT10 is an ATP-dependent RNA acetyltransferase responsible for formation of N4-acetylcytidine (ac4C) at position 1842 in the terminal helix of mammalian 18 S rRNA. RNAi-mediated knockdown of NAT10 resulted in growth retardation of human cells, and this was accompanied by high-level accumulation of the 30 S precursor of 18 S rRNA, suggesting that ac4C1842 formation catalyzed by NAT10 is involved in rRNA processing and ribosome biogenesis. PMID:25411247

  3. Sequencing and characterization of full-length sequence of 18S rRNA gene from the reniform nematode

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The 18S rRNA gene is fundamental to cellular and organismal protein synthesis and because of its stable persistence through generations it is also used in phylogenetic analysis among taxa. Variation within this gene is rare but it has been observed in few metazoan species. For the first time, we h...

  4. Metabolism of 18S rRNA in rat liver cells in different functional states of protein-synthesizing apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Chirkov, G.P.; Druzhinina, M.K.; Todorov, I.N.

    1986-04-10

    The ratio of the absolute radioactivities of 28S and 18S RNAs in the fractions of membrane-bound and free polysomes and the fraction of free rat liver ribosomes was studied under conditions of inhibition of translation by cycloheximide, insulin, and cAMP. It was found that insulin and cAMP, in contrast to cycloheximide, do not induce selective degradation of 18S rRNA. The results are discussed from the standpoint of the possible role of the phosphorylation of protein S6 in the degradation of the 40S ribosomal subunit.

  5. Distinct 18S rRNA precursors are targets of the exosome complex, the exoribonuclease RRP6L2 and the terminal nucleotidyltransferase TRL in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Sikorski, Pawel J; Zuber, Hélène; Philippe, Lucas; Sement, François M; Canaday, Jean; Kufel, Joanna; Gagliardi, Dominique; Lange, Heike

    2015-09-01

    The biosynthesis of ribosomal RNA and its incorporation into functional ribosomes is an essential and intricate process that includes production of mature ribosomal RNA from large precursors. Here, we analyse the contribution of the plant exosome and its co-factors to processing and degradation of 18S pre-RNAs in Arabidopsis thaliana. Our data show that, unlike in yeast and humans, an RRP6 homologue, the nucleolar exoribonuclease RRP6L2, and the exosome complex, together with RRP44, function in two distinct steps of pre-18S rRNA processing or degradation in Arabidopsis. In addition, we identify TRL (TRF4/5-like) as the terminal nucleotidyltransferase that is mainly responsible for oligoadenylation of rRNA precursors in Arabidopsis. We show that TRL is required for efficient elimination of the excised 5' external transcribed spacer and of 18S maturation intermediates that escaped 5' processing. Our data also suggest involvement of additional nucleotidyltransferases, including terminal uridylyltransferase(s), in modifying rRNA processing intermediates in plants. PMID:26216451

  6. A Single Acetylation of 18 S rRNA Is Essential for Biogenesis of the Small Ribosomal Subunit in Saccharomyces cerevisiae*

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Satoshi; Akamatsu, Yu; Noma, Akiko; Kimura, Satoshi; Miyauchi, Kenjyo; Ikeuchi, Yoshiho; Suzuki, Takeo; Suzuki, Tsutomu

    2014-01-01

    Biogenesis of eukaryotic ribosome is a complex event involving a number of non-ribosomal factors. During assembly of the ribosome, rRNAs are post-transcriptionally modified by 2′-O-methylation, pseudouridylation, and several base-specific modifications, which are collectively involved in fine-tuning translational fidelity and/or modulating ribosome assembly. By mass-spectrometric analysis, we demonstrated that N4-acetylcytidine (ac4C) is present at position 1773 in the 18 S rRNA of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In addition, we found an essential gene, KRE33 (human homolog, NAT10), that we renamed RRA1 (ribosomal RNA cytidine acetyltransferase 1) encoding an RNA acetyltransferase responsible for ac4C1773 formation. Using recombinant Rra1p, we could successfully reconstitute ac4C1773 in a model rRNA fragment in the presence of both acetyl-CoA and ATP as substrates. Upon depletion of Rra1p, the 23 S precursor of 18 S rRNA was accumulated significantly, which resulted in complete loss of 18 S rRNA and small ribosomal subunit (40 S), suggesting that ac4C1773 formation catalyzed by Rra1p plays a critical role in processing of the 23 S precursor to yield 18 S rRNA. When nuclear acetyl-CoA was depleted by inactivation of acetyl-CoA synthetase 2 (ACS2), we observed temporal accumulation of the 23 S precursor, indicating that Rra1p modulates biogenesis of 40 S subunit by sensing nuclear acetyl-CoA concentration. PMID:25086048

  7. Homology of the 3' terminal sequences of the 18S rRNA of Bombyx mori and the 16S rRNA of Escherchia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Samols, D R; Hagenbuchle, O; Gage, L P

    1979-01-01

    The terminal 220 base pairs (bp) of the gene for 18S rRNA and 18 bp of the adjoining spacer rDNA of the silkworm Bombyx mori have been sequenced. Comparison with the sequence of the 16S rRNA gene of Escherichia coli has shown that a region including 45 bp of the B. mori sequence at the 3' end is remarkably homologous with the 3' terminal E. coli sequence. Other homologies occur in the terminal regions of the 18S and 16S rRNAs, including a perfectly conserved stretch of 13 bp within a longer homology located 150--200 bp from the 3' termini. These homologies are the most extensive so far reported between prokaryotic and eukaryotic genomic DNA. Images PMID:390496

  8. Typification of virulent and low virulence Babesia bigemina clones by 18S rRNA and rap-1c.

    PubMed

    Thompson, C; Baravalle, M E; Valentini, B; Mangold, A; Torioni de Echaide, S; Ruybal, P; Farber, M; Echaide, I

    2014-06-01

    The population structure of original Babesia bigemina isolates and reference strains with a defined phenotypic profile was assessed using 18S rRNA and rap-1c genes. Two reference strains, BbiS2P-c (virulent) and BbiS1A-c (low virulence), were biologically cloned in vitro. The virulence profile of the strains and clones was assessed in vivo. One fully virulent and one low-virulence clone were mixed in identical proportions to evaluate their growth efficiency in vitro. Each clone was differentiated by two microsatellites and the gene gp45. The 18S rRNA and rap-1c genes sequences from B. bigemina biological clones and their parental strains, multiplied exclusively in vivo or in vitro, were compared with strain JG-29. The virulence of clones derived from the BbiS2P-c strain was variable. Virulent clone Bbi9P1 grew more efficiently in vitro than did the low-virulence clone Bbi2A1. The haplotypes generated by the nucleotide polymorphism, localized in the V4 region of the 18S rRNA, allowed the identification of three genotypes. The rap-1c haplotypes allowed defining four genotypes. Parental and original strains were defined by multiple haplotypes identified in both genes. The rap-1c gene, analyzed by high-resolution melting (HRM), allowed discrimination between two genotypes according to their phenotype, and both were different from JG-29. B. bigemina biological clones made it possible to define the population structure of isolates and strains. The polymorphic regions of the 18S rRNA and rap-1c genes allowed the identification of different subpopulations within original B. bigemina isolates by the definition of several haplotypes and the differentiation of fully virulent from low virulence clones. PMID:24681200

  9. The B chromosomes of the African cichlid fish Haplochromis obliquidens harbour 18S rRNA gene copies

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Diverse plant and animal species have B chromosomes, also known as accessory, extra or supernumerary chromosomes. Despite being widely distributed among different taxa, the genomic nature and genetic behavior of B chromosomes are still poorly understood. Results In this study we describe the occurrence of B chromosomes in the African cichlid fish Haplochromis obliquidens. One or two large B chromosome(s) occurring in 39.6% of the analyzed individuals (both male and female) were identified. To better characterize the karyotype and assess the nature of the B chromosomes, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was performed using probes for telomeric DNA repeats, 18S and 5S rRNA genes, SATA centromeric satellites, and bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) enriched in repeated DNA sequences. The B chromosomes are enriched in repeated DNAs, especially non-active 18S rRNA gene-like sequences. Conclusion Our results suggest that the B chromosome could have originated from rDNA bearing subtelo/acrocentric A chromosomes through formation of an isochromosome, or by accumulation of repeated DNAs and rRNA gene-like sequences in a small proto-B chromosome derived from the A complement. PMID:20051104

  10. 18S rRNA V9 metabarcoding for diet characterization: a critical evaluation with two sympatric zooplanktivorous fish species.

    PubMed

    Albaina, Aitor; Aguirre, Mikel; Abad, David; Santos, María; Estonba, Andone

    2016-03-01

    The potential of the 18S rRNA V9 metabarcoding approach for diet assessment was explored using MiSeq paired-end (PE; 2 × 150 bp) technology. To critically evaluate the method's performance with degraded/digested DNA, the diets of two zooplanktivorous fish species from the Bay of Biscay, European sardine (Sardina pilchardus) and European sprat (Sprattus sprattus), were analysed. The taxonomic resolution and quantitative potential of the 18S V9 metabarcoding was first assessed both in silico and with mock and field plankton samples. Our method was capable of discriminating species within the reference database in a reliable way providing there was at least one variable position in the 18S V9 region. Furthermore, it successfully discriminated diet between both fish species, including habitat and diel differences among sardines, overcoming some of the limitations of traditional visual-based diet analysis methods. The high sensitivity and semi-quantitative nature of the 18S V9 metabarcoding approach was supported by both visual microscopy and qPCR-based results. This molecular approach provides an alternative cost and time effective tool for food-web analysis. PMID:27087935

  11. Effect of condensed tannins on bovine rumen protist diversity based on 18S rRNA gene sequences.

    PubMed

    Tan, Hui Yin; Sieo, Chin Chin; Abdullah, Norhani; Liang, Juan Boo; Huang, Xiao Dan; Ho, Yin Wan

    2013-01-01

    Molecular diversity of protists from bovine rumen fluid incubated with condensed tannins of Leucaena leucocephala hybrid-Rendang at 20 mg/500 mg dry matter (treatment) or without condensed tannins (control) was investigated using 18S rRNA gene library. Clones from the control library were distributed within nine genera, but clones from the condensed tannin treatment clone library were related to only six genera. Diversity estimators such as abundance-based coverage estimation and Chao1 showed significant differences between the two libraries, although no differences were found based on Shannon-Weaver index and Libshuff. PMID:23205499

  12. ITS-2 and 18S rRNA gene phylogeny of Aplysinidae (Verongida, Demospongiae).

    PubMed

    Schmitt, Susanne; Hentschel, Ute; Zea, Sven; Dandekar, Thomas; Wolf, Matthias

    2005-03-01

    18S ribosomal DNA and internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS-2) full-length sequences, each of which was sequenced three times, were used to construct phylogenetic trees with alignments based on secondary structures, in order to elucidate genealogical relationships within the Aplysinidae (Verongida). The first poriferan ITS-2 secondary structures are reported. Altogether 11 Aplysina sponges and 3 additional sponges (Verongula gigantea, Aiolochroia crassa, Smenospongia aurea) from tropical and subtropical oceans were analyzed. Based on these molecular studies, S. aurea, which is currently affiliated with the Dictyoceratida, should be reclassified to the Verongida. Aplysina appears as monophyletic. A soft form of Aplysina lacunosa was separated from other Aplysina and stands at a basal position in both 18S and ITS-2 trees. Based on ITS-2 sequence information, the Aplysina sponges could be distinguished into a single Caribbean-Eastern Pacific cluster and a Mediterranean cluster. The species concept for Aplysina sponges as well as a phylogenetic history with a possibly Tethyan origin is discussed. PMID:15871043

  13. Yeast Kre33 and human NAT10 are conserved 18S rRNA cytosine acetyltransferases that modify tRNAs assisted by the adaptor Tan1/THUMPD1

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Sunny; Langhendries, Jean-Louis; Watzinger, Peter; Kötter, Peter; Entian, Karl-Dieter; Lafontaine, Denis L.J.

    2015-01-01

    The function of RNA is subtly modulated by post-transcriptional modifications. Here, we report an important crosstalk in the covalent modification of two classes of RNAs. We demonstrate that yeast Kre33 and human NAT10 are RNA cytosine acetyltransferases with, surprisingly, specificity toward both 18S rRNA and tRNAs. tRNA acetylation requires the intervention of a specific and conserved adaptor: yeast Tan1/human THUMPD1. In budding and fission yeasts, and in human cells, we found two acetylated cytosines on 18S rRNA, one in helix 34 important for translation accuracy and another in helix 45 near the decoding site. Efficient 18S rRNA acetylation in helix 45 involves, in human cells, the vertebrate-specific box C/D snoRNA U13, which, we suggest, exposes the substrate cytosine to modification through Watson–Crick base pairing with 18S rRNA precursors during small subunit biogenesis. Finally, while Kre33 and NAT10 are essential for pre-rRNA processing reactions leading to 18S rRNA synthesis, we demonstrate that rRNA acetylation is dispensable to yeast cells growth. The inactivation of NAT10 was suggested to suppress nuclear morphological defects observed in laminopathic patient cells through loss of microtubules modification and cytoskeleton reorganization. We rather propose the effects of NAT10 on laminopathic cells are due to reduced ribosome biogenesis or function. PMID:25653167

  14. Yeast Kre33 and human NAT10 are conserved 18S rRNA cytosine acetyltransferases that modify tRNAs assisted by the adaptor Tan1/THUMPD1.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Sunny; Langhendries, Jean-Louis; Watzinger, Peter; Kötter, Peter; Entian, Karl-Dieter; Lafontaine, Denis L J

    2015-02-27

    The function of RNA is subtly modulated by post-transcriptional modifications. Here, we report an important crosstalk in the covalent modification of two classes of RNAs. We demonstrate that yeast Kre33 and human NAT10 are RNA cytosine acetyltransferases with, surprisingly, specificity toward both 18S rRNA and tRNAs. tRNA acetylation requires the intervention of a specific and conserved adaptor: yeast Tan1/human THUMPD1. In budding and fission yeasts, and in human cells, we found two acetylated cytosines on 18S rRNA, one in helix 34 important for translation accuracy and another in helix 45 near the decoding site. Efficient 18S rRNA acetylation in helix 45 involves, in human cells, the vertebrate-specific box C/D snoRNA U13, which, we suggest, exposes the substrate cytosine to modification through Watson-Crick base pairing with 18S rRNA precursors during small subunit biogenesis. Finally, while Kre33 and NAT10 are essential for pre-rRNA processing reactions leading to 18S rRNA synthesis, we demonstrate that rRNA acetylation is dispensable to yeast cells growth. The inactivation of NAT10 was suggested to suppress nuclear morphological defects observed in laminopathic patient cells through loss of microtubules modification and cytoskeleton reorganization. We rather propose the effects of NAT10 on laminopathic cells are due to reduced ribosome biogenesis or function. PMID:25653167

  15. Evaluating multiple alternative hypotheses for the origin of Bilateria: An analysis of 18S rRNA molecular evidence

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Allen G.

    1998-01-01

    Six alternative hypotheses for the phylogenetic origin of Bilateria are evaluated by using complete 18S rRNA gene sequences for 52 taxa. These data suggest that there is little support for three of these hypotheses. Bilateria is not likely to be the sister group of Radiata or Ctenophora, nor is it likely that Bilateria gave rise to Cnidaria or Ctenophora. Instead, these data reveal a close relationship between bilaterians, placozoans, and cnidarians. From this, several inferences can be drawn. Morphological features that previously have been identified as synapomorphies of Bilateria and Ctenophora, e.g., mesoderm, more likely evolved independently in each clade. The endomesodermal muscles of bilaterians may be homologous to the endodermal muscles of cnidarians, implying that the original bilaterian mesodermal muscles were myoepithelial. Placozoans should have a gastrulation stage during development. Of the three hypotheses that cannot be falsified with the 18S rRNA data, one is most strongly supported. This hypothesis states that Bilateria and Placozoa share a more recent common ancestor than either does to Cnidaria. If true, the simplicity of placozoan body architecture is secondarily derived from a more complex ancestor. This simplification may have occurred in association with a planula-type larva becoming reproductive before metamorphosis. If this simplification took place during the common history that placozoans share with bilaterians, then placozoan genes that contain a homeobox, such as Trox2, should be explored, for they may include the gene or genes most closely related to Hox genes of bilaterians. PMID:9860990

  16. Phylogeny of Intestinal Ciliates, Including Charonina ventriculi, and Comparison of Microscopy and 18S rRNA Gene Pyrosequencing for Rumen Ciliate Community Structure Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Devente, Savannah R.; Kirk, Michelle R.; Seedorf, Henning; Dehority, Burk A.

    2015-01-01

    The development of high-throughput methods, such as the construction of 18S rRNA gene clone or pyrosequencing libraries, has allowed evaluation of ciliate community composition in hundreds of samples from the rumen and other intestinal habitats. However, several genera of mammalian intestinal ciliates have been described based only on morphological features and, to date, have not been identified using molecular methods. Here, we isolated single cells of one of the smallest but widely distributed intestinal ciliates, Charonina ventriculi, and sequenced its 18S rRNA gene. We verified the sequence in a full-cycle rRNA approach using fluorescence in situ hybridization and thereby assigned an 18S rRNA gene sequence to this species previously known only by its morphology. Based on its full-length 18S rRNA gene sequence, Charonina ventriculi was positioned within the phylogeny of intestinal ciliates in the subclass Trichostomatia. The taxonomic framework derived from this phylogeny was used for taxonomic assignment of trichostome ciliate 18S rRNA gene sequence data stemming from high-throughput amplicon pyrosequencing of rumen-derived DNA samples. The 18S rRNA gene-based ciliate community structure was compared to that obtained from microscopic counts using the same samples. Both methods allowed identification of dominant members of the ciliate communities and classification of the rumen ciliate community into one of the types first described by Eadie in 1962. Notably, each method is associated with advantages and disadvantages. Microscopy is a highly accurate method for evaluation of total numbers or relative abundances of different ciliate genera in a sample, while 18S rRNA gene pyrosequencing represents a valuable alternative for comparison of ciliate community structure in a large number of samples from different animals or treatment groups. PMID:25616800

  17. Analysis of 18S rRNA gene sequences suggests significant molecular differences between Macrodasyida and Chaetonotida (Gastrotricha).

    PubMed

    Manylov, Oleg G; Vladychenskaya, Natalia S; Milyutina, Irina A; Kedrova, Olga S; Korokhov, Nikolai P; Dvoryanchikov, Gennady A; Aleshin, Vladimir V; Petrov, Nikolai B

    2004-03-01

    Partial 18S rRNA gene sequences of four macrodasyid and one chaetonotid gastrotrichs were obtained and compared with the available sequences of other gastrotrich species and representatives of various metazoan phyla. Contrary to the earlier molecular data, the gastrotrich sequences did not comprise a monophyletic group but formed two distinct clades, corresponding to the Macrodasyida and Chaetonotida, with the basal position occupied by the sequences of Tetranchyroderma sp. and Xenotrichula sp., respectively. Depending on the taxon sampling and methods of analysis, the two clades were separated by various combinations of clades Rotifera, Gnathostomulida, and Platyhelminthes, and never formed a clade with Nematoda. Thus, monophyly of the Gastrotricha is not confirmed by analysis of the presently available molecular data. PMID:15012964

  18. Sequence heterogeneity in the 18S rRNA gene in Theileria equi from horses presented in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qin; Meli, Marina L; Zhang, Yi; Meili, Theres; Stirn, Martina; Riond, Barbara; Weibel, Beatrice; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina

    2016-05-15

    A reverse line blot (RLB) hybridization assay was adapted and applied for equine blood samples collected at the animal hospital of the University of Zurich to determine the presence of piroplasms in horses in Switzerland. A total of 100 equine blood samples were included in the study. The V4 hypervariable region of the 18S rRNA gene was amplified by polymerase chain reaction and analyzed using the RLB assay. Samples from seven horses hybridized to a Theileria/Babesia genus-specific and a Theileria genus-specific probe. Of these, two hybridized also to the Theileria equi-specific probe. The other five positive samples did not hybridize to any of the species-specific probes, suggesting the presence of unrecognized Theileria variants or genotypes. The 18S rRNA gene of the latter five samples were sequenced and found to be closely related to T. equi isolated from horses in Spain (AY534822) and China (KF559357) (≥98.4% identity). Four of the seven horses that tested positive had a documented travel history (France, Italy, and Spain) or lived abroad (Hungary). The present study adds new insight into the presence and sequence heterogeneity of T. equi in Switzerland. The results prompt that species-specific probes must be designed in regions of the gene unique to T. equi. Of note, none of the seven positive horses were suspected of having Theileria infection at the time of presentation to the clinic. Clinicians should be aware of the possibility of equine piroplasma infections outside of endemic areas and in horses without signs of piroplasmosis. PMID:27084467

  19. The utility of diversity profiling using Illumina 18S rRNA gene amplicon deep sequencing to detect and discriminate Toxoplasma gondii among the cyst-forming coccidia.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Madalyn K; Phalen, David N; Donahoe, Shannon L; Rose, Karrie; Šlapeta, Jan

    2016-01-30

    Next-generation sequencing (NGS) has the capacity to screen a single DNA sample and detect pathogen DNA from thousands of host DNA sequence reads, making it a versatile and informative tool for investigation of pathogens in diseased animals. The technique is effective and labor saving in the initial identification of pathogens, and will complement conventional diagnostic tests to associate the candidate pathogen with a disease process. In this report, we investigated the utility of the diversity profiling NGS approach using Illumina small subunit ribosomal RNA (18S rRNA) gene amplicon deep sequencing to detect Toxoplasma gondii in previously confirmed cases of toxoplasmosis. We then tested the diagnostic approach with species-specific PCR genotyping, histopathology and immunohistochemistry of toxoplasmosis in a Risso's dolphin (Grampus griseus) to systematically characterise the disease and associate causality. We show that the Euk7A/Euk570R primer set targeting the V1-V3 hypervariable region of the 18S rRNA gene can be used as a species-specific assay for cyst-forming coccidia and discriminate T. gondii. Overall, the approach is cost-effective and improves diagnostic decision support by narrowing the differential diagnosis list with more certainty than was previously possible. Furthermore, it supplements the limitations of cryptic protozoan morphology and surpasses the need for species-specific PCR primer combinations. PMID:26801593

  20. [Molecular phylogeny of gastrotricha based on 18S rRNA genes comparison: rejection of hypothesis of relatedness with nematodes].

    PubMed

    Petrov, N B; Pegova, A N; Manylov, O G; Vladychenskaia, N S; Miuge, N S; Aleshin, V V

    2007-01-01

    Gastrotrichs are meiobenthic free-living aquatic worms whose phylogenetic and intra-group relationships remain unclear despite some attempts to resolve them on the base of morphology or molecules. In this study we analysed complete sequences of the 18S rRNA gene of 15 taxa (8 new and 7 published) to test numerous hypotheses on gastrotrich phylogeny and to verify whether controversial interrelationships from previous molecular data could be due to the short region available for analysis and the poor taxa sampling. Data were analysed using both maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference. Results obtained suggest that gastrotrichs, together with Gnathostomulida, Plathelminthes, Syndermata (Rotifera + Acanthocephala), Nemertea and Lophotrochozoa, comprise a clade Spiralia. Statistical tests reject phylogenetic hypotheses regarding Gastrotricha as close relatives of Nematoda and other Ecdysozoa or placing them at the base of bilaterian tree close to acoels and nemertodermatides. Within Gastrotricha, Chaetonotida and Macrodasyida comprise two well supported clades. Our analysis confirmed the monophyly of the Chaetonotidae and Xenotrichulidae within Chaetonida as well as Turbanellidae and Thaumastodermatidae within Macrodasyida. Mesodasys is a sister group of the Turbanellidae, and Lepidodasyidae appears to be a polyphyletic group as Cephalodasys forms a separate lineage at the base of macrodasyids, whereas Lepidodasys groups with Neodasys between Thaumastodermatidae and Turbanellidae. To infer a more reliable Gastrotricha phylogeny many species and additional genes should be involved in future analyses. PMID:17685227

  1. Primers to block the amplification of symbiotic apostome ciliate 18S rRNA gene in a PCR-based copepod diet study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Huan; Liu, Guangxing

    2014-05-01

    Pelagic copepods play an important role in the marine food web. However, a full understanding of the ecological status of this zooplankton group depends on the careful study of their natural diets. In previous PCR-based copepod diet studies, we found many apostome ciliates that live symbiotically under the exoskeleton of the copepods, and their sequences were often over-represented in the 18S rRNA gene (18S rDNA) libraries. As a first step to address this issue, we designed three apostome ciliate 18S rDNA blocking primers, and tested their blocking efficiency against apostome ciliate 18s rDNA under various PCR conditions. Using a semi-quantitative PCR method, we optimized the conditions to efficiently amplify the 18S rDNA of the prey while simultaneously excluding the symbiotic apostome ciliates. This technique will facilitate PCR-based diet studies of copepods and other zooplankton in their natural environments.

  2. Crystal Structure of Rcl1 an Essential Component of the Eukaryal pre-rRNA Processosome Implicated in 18s rRNA Biogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    T Tanaka; P Smith; S Shuman

    2011-12-31

    Rcl1 is an essential nucleolar protein required for U3 snoRNA-guided pre-rRNA processing at sites flanking the 18S rRNA sequence. A potential catalytic role for Rcl1 during pre-rRNA cleavage has been suggested based on its primary structure similarity to RNA 3'-terminal phosphate cyclase (Rtc) enzymes, which perform nucleotidyl transfer and phosphoryl transfer reactions at RNA ends. Here, we report the 2.6 {angstrom} crystal structure of a biologically active yeast Rcl1, which illuminates its modular 4-domain architecture and overall homology with RNA cyclases while revealing numerous local differences that account for why Rtcs possess metal-dependent adenylyltransferase activity and Rcls do not. A conserved oxyanion-binding site in Rcl1 was highlighted for possible catalytic or RNA-binding functions. However, the benign effects of mutations in and around the anion site on Rcl1 activity in vivo militate against such a role.

  3. New Primers Targeting Full-Length Ciliate 18S rRNA Genes and Evaluation of Dietary Effect on Rumen Ciliate Diversity in Dairy Cows.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jun; Zhao, Shengguo; Zhang, Yangdong; Sun, Peng; Bu, Dengpan; Wang, Jiaqi

    2015-12-01

    Analysis of the full-length 18S rRNA gene sequences of rumen ciliates is more reliable for taxonomical classification and diversity assessment than the analysis of partial hypervariable regions only. The objective of this study was to develop new oligonucleotide primers targeting the full-length 18S rRNA genes of rumen ciliates, and to evaluate the effect of different sources of dietary fiber (corn stover or a mixture of alfalfa hay and corn silage) and protein (mixed rapeseed, cottonseed, and/or soybean meals) on rumen ciliate diversity in dairy cows. Primers were designed based on a total of 137 previously reported ciliate 18S rRNA gene sequences. The 3'-terminal sequences of the newly designed primers, P.1747r_2, P.324f, and P.1651r, demonstrated >99% base coverage. Primer pair D (P.324f and P.1747r_2) was selected for the cloning and sequencing of ciliate 18S rRNA genes because it produced a 1423-bp amplicon, and did not amply the sequences of other eukaryotic species, such as yeast. The optimal species-level cutoff value for distinguishing between the operational taxonomic units of different ciliate species was 0.015. The phylogenetic analysis of full-length ciliate 18S rRNA gene sequences showed that distinct ciliate profiles were induced by the different sources of dietary fiber and protein. Dasytricha and Entodinium were the predominant genera in the ruminal fluid of dairy cattle, and Dasytricha was significantly more abundant in cows fed with corn stover than in cows fed with alfalfa hay and corn silage. PMID:26319789

  4. Genetic characterization and phylogenetic relationships based on 18S rRNA and ITS1 region of small form of canine Babesia spp. from India.

    PubMed

    Mandal, M; Banerjee, P S; Garg, Rajat; Ram, Hira; Kundu, K; Kumar, Saroj; Kumar, G V P P S Ravi

    2014-10-01

    Canine babesiosis is a vector borne disease caused by intra-erythrocytic apicomplexan parasites Babesia canis (large form) and Babesia gibsoni (small form), throughout the globe. Apart from few sporadic reports on the occurrence of B. gibsoni infection in dogs, no attempt has been made to characterize Babesia spp. of dogs in India. Fifteen canine blood samples, positive for small form of Babesia, collected from northern to eastern parts of India, were used for amplification of 18S rRNA gene (∼1665bp) of Babesia sp. and partial ITS1 region (∼254bp) of B. gibsoni Asian genotype. Cloning and sequencing of the amplified products of each sample was performed separately. Based on sequences and phylogenetic analysis of 18S rRNA and ITS1 sequences, 13 were considered to be B. gibsoni. These thirteen isolates shared high sequence identity with each other and with B. gibsoni Asian genotype. The other two isolates could not be assigned to any particular species because of the difference(s) in 18S rRNA sequence with B. gibsoni and closer identity with Babesiaoccultans and Babesiaorientalis. In the phylogenetic tree, all the isolates of B. gibsoni Asian genotype formed a separate major clade named as Babesia spp. sensu stricto clade with high bootstrap support. The two unnamed Babesia sp. (Malbazar and Ludhiana isolates) clustered close together with B. orientalis, Babesia sp. (Kashi 1 isolate) and B. occultans of bovines. It can be inferred from this study that 18S rRNA gene and ITS1 region are highly conserved among 13 B. gibsoni isolates from India. It is the maiden attempt of genetic characterization by sequencing of 18S rRNA gene and ITS1 region of B. gibsoni from India and is also the first record on the occurrence of an unknown Babesia sp. of dogs from south and south-east Asia. PMID:25120099

  5. Genetic variation and identification of cultivated Fallopia multiflora and its wild relatives by using chloroplast matK and 18S rRNA gene sequences.

    PubMed

    Yan, Ping; Pang, Qi-Hua; Jiao, Xu-Wen; Zhao, Xuan; Shen, Yan-Jing; Zhao, Shu-Jin

    2008-10-01

    FALLOPIA MULTIFLORA (Thunb.) Harald . has been widely and discriminatingly used in China for the study and treatment of anemia, swirl, deobstruent, pyrosis, insomnia, amnesia, atheroma and also for regulating immune functions. However, there is still confusion about the herbal drug's botanical origins and the phylogenetic relationship between the cultivars and the wild relatives. In order to develop an efficient method for identification, a molecular analysis was performed based on 18 S rRNA gene and partial MATK gene sequences. The 18 S rRNA gene sequences of F. MULTIFLORA were 1809 bp in length and were highly conserved, indicating that the cultivars and the wild F. MULTIFLORA have the same botanical origin. Based on our 18 S rRNA gene sequences analysis, F. MULTIFLORA could be easily distinguished at the DNA level from adulterants and some herbs with similar components. The MATK gene partial sequences were found to span 1271 bp. The phylogenetic relation of F. MULTIFLORA based on the MATK gene showed that all samples in this paper were divided into four clades. The sequences of the partial MATK gene had many permutations, which were related to the geographical distributions of the samples. MATK gene sequences provided valuable information for the identification of F. MULTIFLORA. New taxonomic information could be obtained to authenticate the botanical origin of the F. MULTIFLORA, the species and the medicines made of it. PMID:18759218

  6. Gene cloning of the 18S rRNA of an ancient viable moss from the permafrost of northeastern Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marsic, Damien; Hoover, Richard B.; Gilichinsky, David A.; Ng, Joseph D.

    1999-12-01

    A moss plant dating as much as 40,000 years old was collected from the permafrost of the Kolyma Lowlands of Northeastern Siberia. The plant tissue was revived and cultured for the extraction of its genomic DNA. Using the polymerase chain reaction technique, the 18S ribosomal RNA gene was cloned and its sequence studied. Comparative sequence analysis of the cloned ribosomal DNA to other known 18S RNA showed very high sequence identity and was revealed to be closest to the moss specie, Aulacomnium turgidum. The results of this study also show the ability of biological organisms to rest dormant in deep frozen environments where they can be revived and cultured under favorable conditions. This is significant in the notion that celestial icy bodies can be media to preserve biological function and genetic material during long term storage or transport.

  7. Dasytricha dominance in Surti buffalo rumen revealed by 18S rRNA sequences and real-time PCR assay.

    PubMed

    Singh, K M; Tripathi, A K; Pandya, P R; Rank, D N; Kothari, R K; Joshi, C G

    2011-09-01

    The genetic diversity of protozoa in Surti buffalo rumen was studied by amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis, 18S rDNA sequence homology and phylogenetic and Real-time PCR analysis methods. Three animals were fed diet comprised green fodder Napier bajra 21 (Pennisetum purpureum), mature pasture grass (Dicanthium annulatum) and concentrate mixture (20% crude protein, 65% total digestible nutrients). A protozoa-specific primer (P-SSU-342f) and a eukarya-specific primer (Medlin B) were used to amplify a 1,360 bp fragment of DNA encoding protozoal small subunit (SSU) ribosomal RNA from rumen fluid. A total of 91 clones were examined and identified 14 different 18S RNA sequences based on PCR-RFLP pattern. These 14 phylotypes were distributed into four genera-based 18S rDNA database sequences and identified as Dasytricha (57 clones), Isotricha (14 clones), Ostracodinium (11 clones) and Polyplastron (9 clones). Phylogenetic analyses were also used to infer the makeup of protozoa communities in the rumen of Surti buffalo. Out of 14 sequences, 8 sequences (69 clones) clustered with the Dasytricha ruminantium-like clone and 4 sequences (13 clones) were also phylogenetically placed with the Isotricha prostoma-like clone. Moreover, 2 phylotypes (9 clones) were related to Polyplastron multivesiculatum-like clone. In addition, the number of 18S rDNA gene copies of Dasytricha ruminantium (0.05% to ciliate protozoa) was higher than Entodinium sp. (2.0 × 10(5) vs. 1.3 × 10(4)) in per ml ruminal fluid. PMID:21744288

  8. 18S rRNA Gene Variation among Common Airborne Fungi, and Development of Specific Oligonucleotide Probes for the Detection of Fungal Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Zhihong; Tsumura, Yoshihiko; Blomquist, Göran; Wang, Xiao-Ru

    2003-01-01

    In this study, we sequenced 18S rRNA genes (rDNA) from 49 fungal strains representing 31 species from 15 genera. Most of these species are common airborne fungi and pathogens that may cause various public health concerns. Sequence analysis revealed distinct divergence between Zygomycota and Ascomycota. Within Ascomycota, several strongly supported clades were identified that facilitate the taxonomic placement of several little-studied fungi. Wallemia appeared as the group most diverged from all the other Ascomycota species. Based on the 18S rDNA sequence variation, 108 oligonucleotide probes were designed for each genus and species included in this study. After homology searches and DNA hybridization evaluations, 33 probes were verified as genus or species specific. The optimal hybridization temperatures to achieve the best specificity for these 33 probes were determined. These new probes can contribute to the molecular diagnostic research for environmental monitoring. PMID:12957927

  9. Molecular phylogenetic analysis among bryophytes and tracheophytes based on combined data of plastid coded genes and the 18S rRNA gene.

    PubMed

    Nishiyama, T; Kato, M

    1999-08-01

    The basal relationship of bryophytes and tracheophytes is problematic in land plant phylogeny. In addition to cladistic analyses of morphological data, molecular phylogenetic analyses of the nuclear small-subunit ribosomal RNA gene and the plastic gene rbcL have been performed, but no confident conclusions have been reached. Using the maximum-likelihood (ML) method, we analyzed 4,563 bp of aligned sequences from plastid protein-coding genes and 1,680 bp from the nuclear 18S rRNA gene. In the ML tree of deduced amino acid sequences of the plastid genes, hornworts were basal among the land plants, while mosses and liverworts each formed a clade and were sister to each other. Total-evidence evaluation of rRNA data and plastid protein-coding genes by TOTALML had an almost identical result. PMID:10474899

  10. Identification of Habitat-Specific Biomes of Aquatic Fungal Communities Using a Comprehensive Nearly Full-Length 18S rRNA Dataset Enriched with Contextual Data.

    PubMed

    Panzer, Katrin; Yilmaz, Pelin; Weiß, Michael; Reich, Lothar; Richter, Michael; Wiese, Jutta; Schmaljohann, Rolf; Labes, Antje; Imhoff, Johannes F; Glöckner, Frank Oliver; Reich, Marlis

    2015-01-01

    Molecular diversity surveys have demonstrated that aquatic fungi are highly diverse, and that they play fundamental ecological roles in aquatic systems. Unfortunately, comparative studies of aquatic fungal communities are few and far between, due to the scarcity of adequate datasets. We combined all publicly available fungal 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequences with new sequence data from a marine fungi culture collection. We further enriched this dataset by adding validated contextual data. Specifically, we included data on the habitat type of the samples assigning fungal taxa to ten different habitat categories. This dataset has been created with the intention to serve as a valuable reference dataset for aquatic fungi including a phylogenetic reference tree. The combined data enabled us to infer fungal community patterns in aquatic systems. Pairwise habitat comparisons showed significant phylogenetic differences, indicating that habitat strongly affects fungal community structure. Fungal taxonomic composition differed considerably even on phylum and class level. Freshwater fungal assemblage was most different from all other habitat types and was dominated by basal fungal lineages. For most communities, phylogenetic signals indicated clustering of sequences suggesting that environmental factors were the main drivers of fungal community structure, rather than species competition. Thus, the diversification process of aquatic fungi must be highly clade specific in some cases.The combined data enabled us to infer fungal community patterns in aquatic systems. Pairwise habitat comparisons showed significant phylogenetic differences, indicating that habitat strongly affects fungal community structure. Fungal taxonomic composition differed considerably even on phylum and class level. Freshwater fungal assemblage was most different from all other habitat types and was dominated by basal fungal lineages. For most communities, phylogenetic signals indicated clustering of

  11. Identification of Habitat-Specific Biomes of Aquatic Fungal Communities Using a Comprehensive Nearly Full-Length 18S rRNA Dataset Enriched with Contextual Data

    PubMed Central

    Panzer, Katrin; Yilmaz, Pelin; Weiß, Michael; Reich, Lothar; Richter, Michael; Wiese, Jutta; Schmaljohann, Rolf; Labes, Antje; Imhoff, Johannes F.; Glöckner, Frank Oliver; Reich, Marlis

    2015-01-01

    Molecular diversity surveys have demonstrated that aquatic fungi are highly diverse, and that they play fundamental ecological roles in aquatic systems. Unfortunately, comparative studies of aquatic fungal communities are few and far between, due to the scarcity of adequate datasets. We combined all publicly available fungal 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequences with new sequence data from a marine fungi culture collection. We further enriched this dataset by adding validated contextual data. Specifically, we included data on the habitat type of the samples assigning fungal taxa to ten different habitat categories. This dataset has been created with the intention to serve as a valuable reference dataset for aquatic fungi including a phylogenetic reference tree. The combined data enabled us to infer fungal community patterns in aquatic systems. Pairwise habitat comparisons showed significant phylogenetic differences, indicating that habitat strongly affects fungal community structure. Fungal taxonomic composition differed considerably even on phylum and class level. Freshwater fungal assemblage was most different from all other habitat types and was dominated by basal fungal lineages. For most communities, phylogenetic signals indicated clustering of sequences suggesting that environmental factors were the main drivers of fungal community structure, rather than species competition. Thus, the diversification process of aquatic fungi must be highly clade specific in some cases.The combined data enabled us to infer fungal community patterns in aquatic systems. Pairwise habitat comparisons showed significant phylogenetic differences, indicating that habitat strongly affects fungal community structure. Fungal taxonomic composition differed considerably even on phylum and class level. Freshwater fungal assemblage was most different from all other habitat types and was dominated by basal fungal lineages. For most communities, phylogenetic signals indicated clustering of

  12. Grouping newly isolated docosahexaenoic acid-producing thraustochytrids based on their polyunsaturated fatty acid profiles and comparative analysis of 18S rRNA genes.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jianzhong; Aki, Tsunehiro; Yokochi, Toshihiro; Nakahara, Toro; Honda, Daiske; Kawamoto, Seiji; Shigeta, Seiko; Ono, Kazuhisa; Suzuki, Osamu

    2003-01-01

    Seven strains of marine microbes producing a significant amount of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; C22:6, n-3) were screened from seawater collected in coastal areas of Japan and Fiji. They accumulate their respective intermediate fatty acids in addition to DHA. There are 5 kinds of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) profiles which can be described as (1) DHA/docosapentaenoic acid (DPA; C22:5, n-6), (2) DHA/DPA/eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; C20:5, n-3), (3) DHA/EPA, (4) DHA/DPA/EPA/arachidonic acid (AA; C20:4, n-6), and (5) DHA/DPA/EPA/AA/docosatetraenoic acid (C22:4, n-6). These isolates are proved to be new thraustochytrids by their specific insertion sequences in the 18S rRNA genes. The phylogenetic tree constructed by molecular analysis of 18S rRNA genes from the isolates and typical thraustochytrids shows that strains with the same PUFA profile form each monophyletic cluster. These results suggest that the C20-22 PUFA profile may be applicable as an effective characteristic for grouping thraustochytrids. PMID:14730428

  13. Molecular analysis of 18S rRNA gene of Cryptosporidium parasites from patients living in Iran, Malawi, Nigeria and Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Ghaffari, Salman; Kalantari, Narges

    2012-01-01

    Cryptosporidium species are one of the most common causes of gastrointestinal infection in humans around the world. This study has aimed to investigate the hyper variable region of the 18S rRNA gene in Cryptosporidium for exact parasite identification. DNA was extracted from 26 fecal samples from which initially Cryptosporidium oocysts were identified by Ziehl-Neelsen acid-fast , Auramine phenol and ELISA techniques. Nested PCR, targeting the most polymorphic region of the 18S rRNA gene and genotyping was performed by restriction endonuclease digestion of the PCR product followed by nucleotide sequencing and phylogenic analysis. Among 26 isolates analyzed, three species of Cryptosporidium were identified; 38.5% of the isolates were C. hominis while 53.8% of the isolates were C. parvum and 7.7% of the isolates were C. meleagridis, which the last two species have the potentially zoonotic transmission. The only 11T subtype of C. hominis was demonstrated. These strains clustered distinctly into either human or animal origin regardless of the geographical origin, age, or immunity status of the patients. In summary, this work is the first report of C. meleagridis infecting human in Iran. Moreover, it suggested that multi-locus study of Cryptosporidium species in developing countries would be necessary to determine the extent of transmission of cryptosporidiosis in the populations. PMID:24551771

  14. HCV IRES interacts with the 18S rRNA to activate the 40S ribosome for subsequent steps of translation initiation

    PubMed Central

    Malygin, Alexey A.; Kossinova, Olga A.; Shatsky, Ivan N.; Karpova, Galina G.

    2013-01-01

    Previous analyses of complexes of 40S ribosomal subunits with the hepatitis C virus (HCV) internal ribosome entry site (IRES) have revealed contacts made by the IRES with ribosomal proteins. Here, using chemical probing, we show that the HCV IRES also contacts the backbone and bases of the CCC triplet in the 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) expansion segment 7. These contacts presumably provide interplay between IRES domain II and the AUG codon close to ribosomal protein S5, which causes a rearrangement of 18S rRNA structure in the vicinity of the universally conserved nucleotide G1639. As a result, G1639 becomes exposed and the corresponding site of the 40S subunit implicated in transfer RNA discrimination can select . These data are the first demonstration at nucleotide resolution of direct IRES–rRNA interactions and how they induce conformational transition in the 40S subunit allowing the HCV IRES to function without AUG recognition initiation factors. PMID:23873958

  15. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for detection of Histomonas meleagridis infection in chickens targeting the 18S rRNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jinjun; Qu, Chanbao; Tao, Jianping

    2014-01-01

    Histomonas meleagridis is the causative agent of histomonosis, a disease of gallinaceous fowl characterized by necrotic typhlitis, hepatitis, and high mortality. To develop a rapid and sensitive method for specific detection of H. meleagridis, an assay based on loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) targeting the 18S rRNA gene was established. The detection limit of the LAMP assay was 10 copies for standard plasmids containing an 18S rRNA gene fragment, which was superior to that of a classical PCR method. Specificity tests revealed that there was no cross-reaction with other protozoa such as Trichomonas gallinae, Blastocytis sp, Tetratrichomonas gallinarum, Plasmodium gallinaceum, Toxoplasma gondii, Eimeria tenella, Leucocytozoon caulleryi and Leucocytozoon sabrazesi. The assay was evaluated for its diagnostic utility using liver and caeca samples collected from suspected field cases, the detection rate was 100 and 97.92%, respectively. These results indicate that the LAMP assay may be a useful tool for rapid detection and identification of H. meleagridis in poultry. PMID:24320623

  16. Molecular phylogenetic analysis of the coccidian cephalopod parasites Aggregata octopiana and Aggregata eberthi (Apicomplexa: Aggregatidae) from the NE Atlantic coast using 18S rRNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Castellanos-Martínez, Sheila; Pérez-Losada, Marcos; Gestal, Camino

    2013-08-01

    The coccidia genus Aggregata is responsible for intestinal coccidiosis in wild and cultivated cephalopods. Two coccidia species, Aggregata octopiana, (infecting the common octopus Octopus vulgaris), and A. eberthi, (infecting the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis), are identified in European waters. Extensive investigation of their morphology resulted in a redescription of A. octopiana in octopuses from the NE Atlantic Coast (NW Spain) thus clarifying confusing descriptions recorded in the past. The present study sequenced the 18S rRNA gene in A. octopiana and A. eberthi from the NE Atlantic coast in order to assess their taxonomic and phylogenetic status. Phylogenetic analyses revealed conspecific genetic differences (2.5%) in 18S rRNA sequences between A. eberthi from the Ria of Vigo (NW Spain) and the Adriatic Sea. Larger congeneric differences (15.9%) were observed between A. octopiana samples from the same two areas, which suggest the existence of two species. Based on previous morphological evidence, host specificity data, and new molecular phylogenetic analyses, we suggest that A. octopiana from the Ria of Vigo is the valid type species. PMID:23498588

  17. gar2 is a nucleolar protein from Schizosaccharomyces pombe required for 18S rRNA and 40S ribosomal subunit accumulation.

    PubMed Central

    Gulli, M P; Girard, J P; Zabetakis, D; Lapeyre, B; Melese, T; Caizergues-Ferrer, M

    1995-01-01

    Several nucleolar proteins, such as nucleolin, NOP1/fibrillarin, SSB1, NSR1 and GAR1 share a common glycine and arginine rich structural motif called the GAR domain. To identify novel nucleolar proteins from fission yeast we screened Schizosaccharomyces pombe genomic DNA libraries with a probe encompassing the GAR structural motif. Here we report the identification and characterization of a S.pombe gene coding for a novel nucleolar protein, designated gar2. The structure of the fission yeast gar2 is reminiscent of that of nucleolin from vertebrates and NSR1 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In addition, like these proteins, gar2 has a nucleolar localisation. The disruption of the gar2+ gene affects normal cell growth, leads to an accumulation of 35S pre-rRNA and a decrease of mature 18S rRNA steady state levels. Moreover, ribosomal profiles of the mutant show an increase of free 60S ribosomal subunits and an absence of free 40S ribosomal subunits. gar2 is able to rescue a S.cerevisiae mutant lacking NSR1, thus establishing gar2 as a functional homolog of NSR1. We propose that gar2 helps the assembly of pre-ribosomal particles containing 18S rRNA. Images PMID:7596817

  18. Avian malaria in captive psittacine birds: detection by microscopy and 18S rRNA gene amplification.

    PubMed

    Belo, N O; Passos, L F; Júnior, L M C; Goulart, C E; Sherlock, T M; Braga, E M

    2009-03-01

    A cross-sectional survey was conducted to estimate the occurrence of malaria infection among captive psittacine birds (n=127) from three zoological gardens in Brazil. Malaria infection was evaluated by the association of direct examination of blood smears with amplification of the 18SSU rRNA gene of the Plasmodium genus, demonstrating an overall occurrence of 36%. Most infected bird species were Amazona aestiva (28/73), Ara ararauna (6/10), and Amazona amazonica (3/10). The low parasitemias observed among the infected birds suggest a chronic infection. The sequence analyses of 10 isolates indicate a potential occurrence of four distinct Plasmodium lineages. These findings provide new data on malarial infection in captive psittacine birds, and emphasize the need for better control of importation and exportation of these birds. PMID:18937986

  19. Comparison of Sanger and next generation sequencing performance for genotyping Cryptosporidium isolates at the 18S rRNA and actin loci.

    PubMed

    Paparini, Andrea; Gofton, Alexander; Yang, Rongchang; White, Nicole; Bunce, Michael; Ryan, Una M

    2015-01-01

    Cryptosporidium is an important enteric pathogen that infects a wide range of humans and animals. Rapid and reliable detection and characterisation methods are essential for understanding the transmission dynamics of the parasite. Sanger sequencing, and high-throughput sequencing (HTS) on an Ion Torrent platform, were compared with each other for their sensitivity and accuracy in detecting and characterising 25 Cryptosporidium-positive human and animal faecal samples. Ion Torrent reads (n = 123,857) were obtained at both 18S rRNA and actin loci for 21 of the 25 samples. Of these, one isolate at the actin locus (Cattle 05) and three at the 18S rRNA locus (HTS 10, HTS 11 and HTS 12), suffered PCR drop-out (i.e. PCR failures) when using fusion-tagged PCR. Sanger sequences were obtained for both loci for 23 of the 25 samples and showed good agreement with Ion Torrent-based genotyping. Two samples both from pythons (SK 02 and SK 05) produced mixed 18S and actin chromatograms by Sanger sequencing but were clearly identified by Ion Torrent sequencing as C. muris. One isolate (SK 03) was typed as C. muris by Sanger sequencing but was identified as a mixed C. muris and C. tyzzeri infection by HTS. 18S rRNA Type B sequences were identified in 4/6 C. parvum isolates when deep sequenced but were undetected in Sanger sequencing. Sanger was cheaper than Ion Torrent when sequencing a small numbers of samples, but when larger numbers of samples are considered (n = 60), the costs were comparative. Fusion-tagged amplicon based approaches are a powerful way of approaching mixtures, the only draw-back being the loss of PCR efficiency on low-template samples when using primers coupled to MID tags and adaptors. Taken together these data show that HTS has excellent potential for revealing the "true" composition of species/types in a Cryptosporidium infection, but that HTS workflows need to be carefully developed to ensure sensitivity, accuracy and contamination are

  20. Ribosomal Protein S14 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Regulates Its Expression by Binding to RPS14B Pre-mRNA and to 18S rRNA

    PubMed Central

    Fewell, Sheara W.; Woolford, John L.

    1999-01-01

    Production of ribosomal protein S14 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is coordinated with the rate of ribosome assembly by a feedback mechanism that represses expression of RPS14B. Three-hybrid assays in vivo and filter binding assays in vitro demonstrate that rpS14 directly binds to an RNA stem-loop structure in RPS14B pre-mRNA that is necessary for RPS14B regulation. Moreover, rpS14 binds to a conserved helix in 18S rRNA with approximately five- to sixfold-greater affinity. These results support the model that RPS14B regulation is mediated by direct binding of rpS14 either to its pre-mRNA or to rRNA. Investigation of these interactions with the three-hybrid system reveals two regions of rpS14 that are involved in RNA recognition. D52G and E55G mutations in rpS14 alter the specificity of rpS14 for RNA, as indicated by increased affinity for RPS14B RNA but reduced affinity for the rRNA target. Deletion of the C terminus of rpS14, where multiple antibiotic resistance mutations map, prevents binding of rpS14 to RNA and production of functional 40S subunits. The emetine-resistant protein, rpS14-EmRR, which contains two mutations near the C terminus of rpS14, does not bind either RNA target in the three-hybrid or in vitro assays. This is the first direct demonstration that an antibiotic resistance mutation alters binding of an r protein to rRNA and is consistent with the hypothesis that antibiotic resistance mutations can result from local alterations in rRNA structure. PMID:9858605

  1. Genus Tetrastemma Ehrenberg, 1831 (Phylum Nemertea)--a natural group? Phylogenetic relationships inferred from partial 18S rRNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Strand, Malin; Sundberg, Per

    2005-10-01

    We investigated the monophyletic status of the hoplonemertean taxon Tetrastemma by reconstructing the phylogeny for 22 specimens assigned to this genus, together with another 25 specimens from closely related hoplonemertean genera. The phylogeny was based on partial 18S rRNA sequences using Bayesian and maximum likelihood analyses. The included Tetrastemma-species formed a well-supported clade, although the within-taxon relationships were unsettled. We conclude that the name Tetrastemma refers to a monophyletic taxon, but that it cannot be defined by morphological synapomorphies, and our results do not imply that all the over 100 species assigned to this genus belong to it. The results furthermore indicate that the genera Amphiporus and Emplectonema are non-monophyletic. PMID:16182152

  2. Protist 18S rRNA gene Sequence Analysis Reveals Multiple Sources of Organic Matter Contributing to Turbidity Maxima of the Columbia River Estuary

    SciTech Connect

    Herfort, Lydie; Peterson, Tawnya D.; McCue, Lee Ann; Zuber, Peter A.

    2011-10-05

    The Columbia River estuary is traditionally considered a detritus-based ecosystem fueled in summer by organic matter (OM) from expired freshwater diatoms. Since Estuarine Turbidity Maxima (ETM) are sites of accumulation and transformation of this phytoplankton-derived OM, to further characterize the ETM protist assemblage, we collected in August 2007 bottom waters throughout an ETM event, as well as surface water during the peak of bottom turbidity, and performed biogeochemical, microscopic and molecular (18S rRNA gene clone libraries) analyses. These data confirmed that the majority of the particulate OM in ETMs is derived from chlorophyll a-poor particulate organic carbon tagged by DNA too damaged to be detected by molecular analysis.

  3. Intracellular Diversity of the V4 and V9 Regions of the 18S rRNA in Marine Protists (Radiolarians) Assessed by High-Throughput Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Decelle, Johan; Romac, Sarah; Sasaki, Eriko; Not, Fabrice; Mahé, Frédéric

    2014-01-01

    Metabarcoding is a powerful tool for exploring microbial diversity in the environment, but its accurate interpretation is impeded by diverse technical (e.g. PCR and sequencing errors) and biological biases (e.g. intra-individual polymorphism) that remain poorly understood. To help interpret environmental metabarcoding datasets, we investigated the intracellular diversity of the V4 and V9 regions of the 18S rRNA gene from Acantharia and Nassellaria (radiolarians) using 454 pyrosequencing. Individual cells of radiolarians were isolated, and PCRs were performed with generalist primers to amplify the V4 and V9 regions. Different denoising procedures were employed to filter the pyrosequenced raw amplicons (Acacia, AmpliconNoise, Linkage method). For each of the six isolated cells, an average of 541 V4 and 562 V9 amplicons assigned to radiolarians were obtained, from which one numerically dominant sequence and several minor variants were found. At the 97% identity, a diversity metrics commonly used in environmental surveys, up to 5 distinct OTUs were detected in a single cell. However, most amplicons grouped within a single OTU whereas other OTUs contained very few amplicons. Different analytical methods provided evidence that most minor variants forming different OTUs correspond to PCR and sequencing artifacts. Duplicate PCR and sequencing from the same DNA extract of a single cell had only 9 to 16% of unique amplicons in common, and alignment visualization of V4 and V9 amplicons showed that most minor variants contained substitutions in highly-conserved regions. We conclude that intracellular variability of the 18S rRNA in radiolarians is very limited despite its multi-copy nature and the existence of multiple nuclei in these protists. Our study recommends some technical guidelines to conservatively discard artificial amplicons from metabarcoding datasets, and thus properly assess the diversity and richness of protists in the environment. PMID:25090095

  4. Ribosome biogenesis factor Tsr3 is the aminocarboxypropyl transferase responsible for 18S rRNA hypermodification in yeast and humans

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Britta; Wurm, Jan Philip; Sharma, Sunny; Immer, Carina; Pogoryelov, Denys; Kötter, Peter; Lafontaine, Denis L. J.; Wöhnert, Jens; Entian, Karl-Dieter

    2016-01-01

    The chemically most complex modification in eukaryotic rRNA is the conserved hypermodified nucleotide N1-methyl-N3-aminocarboxypropyl-pseudouridine (m1acp3Ψ) located next to the P-site tRNA on the small subunit 18S rRNA. While S-adenosylmethionine was identified as the source of the aminocarboxypropyl (acp) group more than 40 years ago the enzyme catalyzing the acp transfer remained elusive. Here we identify the cytoplasmic ribosome biogenesis protein Tsr3 as the responsible enzyme in yeast and human cells. In functionally impaired Tsr3-mutants, a reduced level of acp modification directly correlates with increased 20S pre-rRNA accumulation. The crystal structure of archaeal Tsr3 homologs revealed the same fold as in SPOUT-class RNA-methyltransferases but a distinct SAM binding mode. This unique SAM binding mode explains why Tsr3 transfers the acp and not the methyl group of SAM to its substrate. Structurally, Tsr3 therefore represents a novel class of acp transferase enzymes. PMID:27084949

  5. Ribosome biogenesis factor Tsr3 is the aminocarboxypropyl transferase responsible for 18S rRNA hypermodification in yeast and humans.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Britta; Wurm, Jan Philip; Sharma, Sunny; Immer, Carina; Pogoryelov, Denys; Kötter, Peter; Lafontaine, Denis L J; Wöhnert, Jens; Entian, Karl-Dieter

    2016-05-19

    The chemically most complex modification in eukaryotic rRNA is the conserved hypermodified nucleotide N1-methyl-N3-aminocarboxypropyl-pseudouridine (m(1)acp(3)Ψ) located next to the P-site tRNA on the small subunit 18S rRNA. While S-adenosylmethionine was identified as the source of the aminocarboxypropyl (acp) group more than 40 years ago the enzyme catalyzing the acp transfer remained elusive. Here we identify the cytoplasmic ribosome biogenesis protein Tsr3 as the responsible enzyme in yeast and human cells. In functionally impaired Tsr3-mutants, a reduced level of acp modification directly correlates with increased 20S pre-rRNA accumulation. The crystal structure of archaeal Tsr3 homologs revealed the same fold as in SPOUT-class RNA-methyltransferases but a distinct SAM binding mode. This unique SAM binding mode explains why Tsr3 transfers the acp and not the methyl group of SAM to its substrate. Structurally, Tsr3 therefore represents a novel class of acp transferase enzymes. PMID:27084949

  6. Estimation of divergence times in litostomatean ciliates (Ciliophora: Intramacronucleata), using Bayesian relaxed clock and 18S rRNA gene.

    PubMed

    Vďačný, Peter

    2015-08-01

    The class Litostomatea comprises a diverse assemblage of free-living and endosymbiotic ciliates. To understand diversification dynamic of litostomateans, divergence times of their main groups were estimated with the Bayesian molecular dating, a technique allowing relaxation of molecular clock and incorporation of flexible calibration points. The class Litostomatea very likely emerged during the Cryogenian around 680 Mya. The origin of the subclass Rhynchostomatia is dated to about 415 Mya, while that of the subclass Haptoria to about 654 Mya. The order Pleurostomatida, emerging about 556 Mya, was recognized as the oldest group within the subclass Haptoria. The order Spathidiida appeared in the Paleozoic about 442 Mya. The three remaining haptorian orders evolved in the Paleozoic/Mesozoic periods: Didiniida about 419 Mya, Lacrymariida about 269 Mya, and Haptorida about 194 Mya. The subclass Trichostomatia originated from a spathidiid ancestor in the Mesozoic about 260 Mya. A further goal of this study was to investigate the impact of various settings on posterior divergence time estimates. The root placement and tree topology as well as the priors of the rate-drift model, birth-death process and nucleotide substitution rate, had no significant effect on calculation of posterior divergence time estimates. However, removal of calibration points could significantly change time estimates at some nodes. PMID:26204556

  7. High protists diversity in the plankton of sulfurous lakes and lagoons examined by 18s rRNA gene sequence analyses.

    PubMed

    Triadó-Margarit, Xavier; Casamayor, Emilio O

    2015-12-01

    Diversity of small protists was studied in sulfidic and anoxic (euxinic) stratified karstic lakes and coastal lagoons by 18S rRNA gene analyses. We hypothesized a major sulfide effect, reducing protist diversity and richness with only a few specialized populations adapted to deal with low-redox conditions and high-sulfide concentrations. However, genetic fingerprinting suggested similar ecological diversity in anoxic and sulfurous than in upper oxygen rich water compartments with specific populations inhabiting euxinic waters. Many of them agreed with genera previously identified by microscopic observations, but also new and unexpected groups were detected. Most of the sequences matched a rich assemblage of Ciliophora (i.e., Coleps, Prorodon, Plagiopyla, Strombidium, Metopus, Vorticella and Caenomorpha, among others) and algae (mainly Cryptomonadales). Unidentified Cercozoa, Fungi, Stramenopiles and Discoba were recurrently found. The lack of GenBank counterparts was higher in deep hypolimnetic waters and appeared differentially allocated in the different taxa, being higher within Discoba and lower in Cryptophyceae. A larger number of populations than expected were specifically detected in the deep sulfurous waters, with unknown ecological interactions and metabolic capabilities. PMID:26224512

  8. Design and Validation of Four New Primers for Next-Generation Sequencing To Target the 18S rRNA Genes of Gastrointestinal Ciliate Protozoa

    PubMed Central

    Wright, André-Denis G.

    2014-01-01

    Four new primers and one published primer were used to PCR amplify hypervariable regions within the protozoal 18S rRNA gene to determine which primer pair provided the best identification and statistical analysis. PCR amplicons of 394 to 498 bases were generated from three primer sets, sequenced using Roche 454 pyrosequencing with Titanium, and analyzed using the BLAST database (NCBI) and MOTHUR version 1.29. The protozoal diversity of rumen contents from moose in Alaska was assessed. In the present study, primer set 1, P-SSU-316F and GIC758R (amplicon of 482 bases), gave the best representation of diversity using BLAST classification, and the set amplified Entodinium simplex and Ostracodinium spp., which were not amplified by the other two primer sets. Primer set 2, GIC1080F and GIC1578R (amplicon of 498 bases), had similar BLAST results and a slightly higher percentage of sequences that were identified with a higher sequence identity. Primer sets 1 and 2 are recommended for use in ruminants. However, primer set 1 may be inadequate to determine protozoal diversity in nonruminants. The amplicons created by primer set 1 were indistinguishable for certain species within the genera Bandia, Blepharocorys, Polycosta, and Tetratoxum and between Hemiprorodon gymnoprosthium and Prorodonopsis coli, none of which are normally found in the rumen. PMID:24973070

  9. Phylogeny and classification of the Litostomatea (Protista, Ciliophora), with emphasis on free-living taxa and the 18S rRNA gene.

    PubMed

    Vd'ačný, Peter; Bourland, William A; Orsi, William; Epstein, Slava S; Foissner, Wilhelm

    2011-05-01

    The class Litostomatea is a highly diverse ciliate taxon comprising hundreds of species ranging from aerobic, free-living predators to anaerobic endocommensals. This is traditionally reflected by classifying the Litostomatea into the subclasses Haptoria and Trichostomatia. The morphological classifications of the Haptoria conflict with the molecular phylogenies, which indicate polyphyly and numerous homoplasies. Thus, we analyzed the genealogy of 53 in-group species with morphological and molecular methods, including 12 new sequences from free-living taxa. The phylogenetic analyses and some strong morphological traits show: (i) body polarization and simplification of the oral apparatus as main evolutionary trends in the Litostomatea and (ii) three distinct lineages (subclasses): the Rhynchostomatia comprising Tracheliida and Dileptida; the Haptoria comprising Lacrymariida, Haptorida, Didiniida, Pleurostomatida and Spathidiida; and the Trichostomatia. The curious Homalozoon cannot be assigned to any of the haptorian orders, but is basal to a clade containing the Didiniida and Pleurostomatida. The internal relationships of the Spathidiida remain obscure because many of them and some "traditional" haptorids form separate branches within the basal polytomy of the order, indicating one or several radiations and convergent evolution. Due to the high divergence in the 18S rRNA gene, the chaeneids and cyclotrichiids are classified incertae sedis. PMID:21333743

  10. Investigating the diversity of the 18S SSU rRNA hyper-variable region of Theileria in cattle and Cape buffalo (Syncerus caffer) from southern Africa using a next generation sequencing approach.

    PubMed

    Mans, Ben J; Pienaar, Ronel; Ratabane, John; Pule, Boitumelo; Latif, Abdalla A

    2016-07-01

    Molecular classification and systematics of the Theileria is based on the analysis of the 18S rRNA gene. Reverse line blot or conventional sequencing approaches have disadvantages in the study of 18S rRNA diversity and a next-generation 454 sequencing approach was investigated. The 18S rRNA gene was amplified using RLB primers coupled to 96 unique sequence identifiers (MIDs). Theileria positive samples from African buffalo (672) and cattle (480) from southern Africa were combined in batches of 96 and sequenced using the GS Junior 454 sequencer to produce 825711 informative sequences. Sequences were extracted based on MIDs and analysed to identify Theileria genotypes. Genotypes observed in buffalo and cattle were confirmed in the current study, while no new genotypes were discovered. Genotypes showed specific geographic distributions, most probably linked with vector distributions. Host specificity of buffalo and cattle specific genotypes were confirmed and prevalence data as well as relative parasitemia trends indicate preference for different hosts. Mixed infections are common with African buffalo carrying more genotypes compared to cattle. Associative or exclusion co-infection profiles were observed between genotypes that may have implications for speciation and systematics: specifically that more Theileria species may exist in cattle and buffalo than currently recognized. Analysis of primers used for Theileria parva diagnostics indicate that no new genotypes will be amplified by the current primer sets confirming their specificity. T. parva SNP variants that occur in the 18S rRNA hypervariable region were confirmed. A next generation sequencing approach is useful in obtaining comprehensive knowledge regarding 18S rRNA diversity and prevalence for the Theileria, allowing for the assessment of systematics and diagnostic assays based on the 18S gene. PMID:27084674

  11. Further use of nearly complete 28S and 18S rRNA genes to classify Ecdysozoa: 37 more arthropods and a kinorhynch.

    PubMed

    Mallatt, Jon; Giribet, Gonzalo

    2006-09-01

    This work expands on a study from 2004 by Mallatt, Garey, and Shultz [Mallatt, J.M., Garey, J.R., Shultz, J.W., 2004. Ecdysozoan phylogeny and Bayesian inference: first use of nearly complete 28S and 18S rRNA gene sequences to classify the arthropods and their kin. Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 31, 178-191] that evaluated the phylogenetic relationships in Ecdysozoa (molting animals), especially arthropods. Here, the number of rRNA gene-sequences was effectively doubled for each major group of arthropods, and sequences from the phylum Kinorhyncha (mud dragons) were also included, bringing the number of ecdysozoan taxa to over 80. The methods emphasized maximum likelihood, Bayesian inference and statistical testing with parametric bootstrapping, but also included parsimony and minimum evolution. Prominent findings from our combined analysis of both genes are as follows. The fundamental subdivisions of Hexapoda (insects and relatives) are Insecta and Entognatha, with the latter consisting of collembolans (springtails) and a clade of proturans plus diplurans. Our rRNA-gene data provide the strongest evidence to date that the sister group of Hexapoda is Branchiopoda (fairy shrimps, tadpole shrimps, etc.), not Malacostraca. The large, Pancrustacea clade (hexapods within a paraphyletic Crustacea) divided into a few basic subclades: hexapods plus branchiopods; cirripedes (barnacles) plus malacostracans (lobsters, crabs, true shrimps, isopods, etc.); and the basally located clades of (a) ostracods (seed shrimps) and (b) branchiurans (fish lice) plus the bizarre pentastomids (tongue worms). These findings about Pancrustacea agree with a recent study by Regier, Shultz, and Kambic that used entirely different genes [Regier, J.C., Shultz, J.W., Kambic, R.E., 2005a. Pancrustacean phylogeny: hexapods are terrestrial crustaceans and maxillopods are not monophyletic. Proc. R. Soc. B 272, 395-401]. In Malacostraca, the stomatopod (mantis shrimp) was not at the base of the eumalacostracans

  12. Time-series of water column alkenones and 18S rRNA confirm that Uk'37 is a viable SST proxy in Narragansett Bay, RI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salacup, J.; Theroux, S.; Herbert, T.; Prell, W. L.

    2011-12-01

    Alkenones, produced in the sunlit mixed layer by specific Haptophyte algae, are a well-established and widely-applied proxy for sea surface temperature (SST) in the world's open-oceans. However, the proxy's utility in estuarine environments remains largely untested. A reliable SST proxy is needed to identify the estuary's sensitivity and response to past and present global change because SST can exert strong control on stratification and circulation patterns, and thus oxygenation and ecosystem health, in these shallow basins. Knowing the estuaries response should help local managers and policy-makers plan mitigation and adaptation strategies. Additionally, the rapid deposition of both marine and terrestrial organic and inorganic material in estuarine systems makes them potential archives of high-resolution paleo-environmental information. A previous investigation of estuarine alkenones suggested that the Uk'37 proxy may be sensitive to the composition of the alkenone-producing Haptophyte population, which may be affected by local nutrient and fresh water fluxes. In particular, low-salinity coastal Haptophytes such as Isochrysis galbana may have a different relationship to SST than higher-salinity open-ocean Haptophytes and their presence may complicate interpretations of the Uk'37 proxy in estuaries. To better understand how the alkenone-based Uk'37 SST proxy is produced in estuarine systems, we present a two-year time-series (monthly-to-thrice-weekly resolution) of alkenone concentrations in particulate organic matter from Narragansett Bay. Alkenone concentrations are coupled with 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) measurements to identify the alkenone-producing population. Highest concentrations of alkenones are detected at different times in the upper and lower Bay such that the highest alkenone concentrations occur in the winter-spring (upper Bay) and summer/fall (lower Bay). This result is consistent with the established seasonal blooms and seasonal changes in nutrient

  13. Investigating microbial eukaryotic diversity from a global census: insights from a comparison of pyrotag and full-length sequences of 18S rRNA genes.

    PubMed

    Lie, Alle A Y; Liu, Zhenfeng; Hu, Sarah K; Jones, Adriane C; Kim, Diane Y; Countway, Peter D; Amaral-Zettler, Linda A; Cary, S Craig; Sherr, Evelyn B; Sherr, Barry F; Gast, Rebecca J; Caron, David A

    2014-07-01

    Next-generation DNA sequencing (NGS) approaches are rapidly surpassing Sanger sequencing for characterizing the diversity of natural microbial communities. Despite this rapid transition, few comparisons exist between Sanger sequences and the generally much shorter reads of NGS. Operational taxonomic units (OTUs) derived from full-length (Sanger sequencing) and pyrotag (454 sequencing of the V9 hypervariable region) sequences of 18S rRNA genes from 10 global samples were analyzed in order to compare the resulting protistan community structures and species richness. Pyrotag OTUs called at 98% sequence similarity yielded numbers of OTUs that were similar overall to those for full-length sequences when the latter were called at 97% similarity. Singleton OTUs strongly influenced estimates of species richness but not the higher-level taxonomic composition of the community. The pyrotag and full-length sequence data sets had slightly different taxonomic compositions of rhizarians, stramenopiles, cryptophytes, and haptophytes, but the two data sets had similarly high compositions of alveolates. Pyrotag-based OTUs were often derived from sequences that mapped to multiple full-length OTUs at 100% similarity. Thus, pyrotags sequenced from a single hypervariable region might not be appropriate for establishing protistan species-level OTUs. However, nonmetric multidimensional scaling plots constructed with the two data sets yielded similar clusters, indicating that beta diversity analysis results were similar for the Sanger and NGS sequences. Short pyrotag sequences can provide holistic assessments of protistan communities, although care must be taken in interpreting the results. The longer reads (>500 bp) that are now becoming available through NGS should provide powerful tools for assessing the diversity of microbial eukaryotic assemblages. PMID:24814788

  14. Free-Living Protozoa in Two Unchlorinated Drinking Water Supplies, Identified by Phylogenic Analysis of 18S rRNA Gene Sequences▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Valster, Rinske M.; Wullings, Bart A.; Bakker, Geo; Smidt, Hauke; van der Kooij, Dick

    2009-01-01

    Free-living protozoan communities in water supplies may include hosts for Legionella pneumophila and other undesired bacteria, as well as pathogens. This study aimed at identifying free-living protozoa in two unchlorinated groundwater supplies, using cultivation-independent molecular approaches. For this purpose, samples (<20°C) of treated water, distributed water, and distribution system biofilms were collected from supply A, with a low concentration of natural organic matter (NOM) (<0.5 ppm of C), and from supply B, with a high NOM concentration (7.9 ppm of C). Eukaryotic communities were studied using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism and clone library analyses of partial 18S rRNA gene fragments and a Hartmannella vermiformis-specific quantitative PCR (qPCR). In both supplies, highly diverse eukaryotic communities were observed, including free-living protozoa, fungi, and metazoa. Sequences of protozoa clustered with Amoebozoa (10 operational taxonomic units [OTUs]), Cercozoa (39 OTUs), Choanozoa (26 OTUs), Ciliophora (29 OTUs), Euglenozoa (13 OTUs), Myzozoa (5 OTUs), and Stramenopiles (5 OTUs). A large variety of protozoa were present in both supplies, but the estimated values for protozoan richness did not differ significantly. H. vermiformis was observed in both supplies but was not a predominant protozoan. One OTU with the highest similarity to Acanthamoeba polyphaga, an opportunistic human pathogen and a host for undesired bacteria, was observed in supply A. The high level of NOM in supply B corresponded with an elevated level of active biomass and with elevated concentrations of H. vermiformis in distributed water. Hence, the application of qPCR may be promising in elucidating the relationship between drinking water quality and the presence of specific protozoa. PMID:19465529

  15. Molecular phylogenetics of the spider infraorder Mygalomorphae using nuclear rRNA genes (18S and 28S): conflict and agreement with the current system of classification.

    PubMed

    Hedin, Marshal; Bond, Jason E

    2006-11-01

    Mygalomorph spiders, which include the tarantulas, trapdoor spiders, and their kin, represent one of three main spider lineages. Mygalomorphs are currently classified into 15 families, comprising roughly 2500 species and 300 genera. The few published phylogenies of mygalomorph relationships are based exclusively on morphological data and reveal areas of both conflict and congruence, suggesting the need for additional phylogenetic research utilizing new character systems. As part of a larger combined evidence study of global mygalomorph relationships, we have gathered approximately 3.7 kb of rRNA data (18S and 28S) for a sample of 80 genera, representing all 15 mygalomorph families. Taxon sampling was particularly intensive across families that are questionable in composition-Cyrtaucheniidae and Nemesiidae. The following primary results are supported by both Bayesian and parsimony analyses of combined matrices representing multiple 28S alignments: (1) the Atypoidea, a clade that includes the families Atypidae, Antrodiaetidae, and Mecicobothriidae, is recovered as a basal lineage sister to all other mygalomorphs, (2) diplurids and hexathelids form a paraphyletic grade at the base of the non-atypoid clade, but neither family is monophyletic in any of our analyses, (3) a clade consisting of all sampled nemesiids, Microstigmata and the cyrtaucheniid genera Kiama, Acontius, and Fufius is consistently recovered, (4) other sampled cyrtaucheniids are fragmented across three separate clades, including a monophyletic North American Euctenizinae and a South African clade, (5) of the Domiothelina, only idiopids are consistently recovered as monophyletic; ctenizids are polyphyletic and migids are only weakly supported. The Domiothelina is not monophyletic. The molecular results we present are consistent with more recent hypotheses of mygalomorph relationship; however, additional work remains before mygalomorph classification can be formally reassessed with confidence

  16. Comparison of potential diatom 'barcode' genes (the 18S rRNA gene and ITS, COI, rbcL) and their effectiveness in discriminating and determining species taxonomy in the Bacillariophyta.

    PubMed

    Guo, Liliang; Sui, Zhenghong; Zhang, Shu; Ren, Yuanyuan; Liu, Yuan

    2015-04-01

    Diatoms form an enormous group of photoautotrophic micro-eukaryotes and play a crucial role in marine ecology. In this study, we evaluated typical genes to determine whether they were effective at different levels of diatom clustering analysis to assess the potential of these regions for barcoding taxa. Our test genes included nuclear rRNA genes (the nuclear small-subunit rRNA gene and the 5.8S rRNA gene+ITS-2), a mitochondrial gene (cytochrome c-oxidase subunit 1, COI), a chloroplast gene [ribulose-1,5-biphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase large subunit (rbcL)] and the universal plastid amplicon (UPA). Calculated genetic divergence was highest for the internal transcribed spacer (ITS; 5.8S+ITS-2) (p-distance of 1.569, 85.84% parsimony-informative sites) and COI (6.084, 82.14%), followed by the 18S rRNA gene (0.139, 57.69%), rbcL (0.120, 42.01%) and UPA (0.050, 14.97%), which indicated that ITS and COI were highly divergent compared with the other tested genes, and that their nucleotide compositions were variable within the whole group of diatoms. Bayesian inference (BI) analysis showed that the phylogenetic trees generated from each gene clustered diatoms at different phylogenetic levels. The 18S rRNA gene was better than the other genes in clustering higher diatom taxa, and both the 18S rRNA gene and rbcL performed well in clustering some lower taxa. The COI region was able to barcode species of some genera within the Bacillariophyceae. ITS was a potential marker for DNA based-taxonomy and DNA barcoding of Thalassiosirales, while species of Cyclotella, Skeletonema and Stephanodiscus gathered in separate clades, and were paraphyletic with those of Thalassiosira. Finally, UPA was too conserved to serve as a diatom barcode. PMID:25604341

  17. 18S rRNA gene sequencing identifies a novel species of Henneguya parasitizing the gills of the channel catfish (Ictaluridae).

    PubMed

    Rosser, Thomas G; Griffin, Matt J; Quiniou, Sylvie M A; Khoo, Lester H; Pote, Linda M

    2014-12-01

    In the southeastern USA, the channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus is a host to at least eight different species of myxozoan parasites belonging to the genus Henneguya, four of which have been characterized molecularly using sequencing of the small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) gene. However, only two of these have confirmed life cycles that involve the oligochaete Dero digitata as the definitive host. During a health screening of farm-raised channel catfish, several fish presented with deformed primary lamellae. Lamellae harbored large, nodular, white pseudocysts 1.25 mm in diameter, and upon rupturing, these pseudocysts released Henneguya myxospores, with a typical lanceolate-shaped spore body, measuring 17.1 ± 1.0 μm (mean ± SD; range = 15.0-19.3 μm) in length and 4.8 ± 0.4 μm (3.7-5.6 μm) in width. Pyriform-shaped polar capsules were 5.8 ± 0.3 μm in length (5.1-6.4 μm) and 1.7 ± 0.1 μm (1.4-1.9 μm) in width. The two caudal processes were 40.0 ± 5.1 μm in length (29.5-50.0 μm) with a spore length of 57.2 ± 4.7 (46.8-66.8 μm). The contiguous SSU rRNA gene sequence obtained from myxospores of five excised cysts did not match any Henneguya sp. in GenBank. The greatest sequence homology (91% over 1,900 bp) was with Henneguya pellis, associated with blister-like lesions on the skin of blue catfish Ictalurus furcatus. Based on the unique combination of pseudocyst and myxospore morphology, tissue location, host, and SSU rRNA gene sequence data, we report this isolate to be a previously unreported species, Henneguya bulbosus sp. nov. PMID:25270236

  18. TcBat a bat-exclusive lineage of Trypanosoma cruzi in the Panama Canal Zone, with comments on its classification and the use of the 18S rRNA gene for lineage identification.

    PubMed

    Pinto, C Miguel; Kalko, Elisabeth K V; Cottontail, Iain; Wellinghausen, Nele; Cottontail, Veronika M

    2012-08-01

    We report TcBat, a recently described genetic lineage of Trypanosoma cruzi, in fruit-eating bats Artibeus from Panama. Infections were common (11.6% prevalence), but no other T. cruzi cruzi genotypes were detected. Phylogenetic analyses show an unambiguous association with Brazilian TcBat, but raise questions about the phylogenetic placement of this genotype using the 18S rRNA gene alone. However, analyses with three concatenated genes (18S rRNA, cytb, and H2B) moderately support TcBat as sister to the discrete typing unit (DTU) TcI. We demonstrate that short fragments (>500 bp) of the 18S rRNA gene are useful for identification of DTUs of T. cruzi, and provide reliable phylogenetic signal as long as they are analyzed within a matrix with reference taxa containing additional informative genes. TcBat forms a very distinctive monophyletic group that may be recognized as an additional DTU within T. cruzi cruzi. PMID:22543008

  19. Chloroplast development at low temperatures requires a homolog of DIM1, a yeast gene encoding the 18S rRNA dimethylase.

    PubMed Central

    Tokuhisa, J G; Vijayan, P; Feldmann, K A; Browse, J A

    1998-01-01

    Poikilothermic organisms require mechanisms that allow survival at chilling temperatures (2 to 15 degreesC). We have isolated chilling-sensitive mutants of Arabidopsis, a plant that is very chilling resistant, and are characterizing them to understand the genes involved in chilling resistance. The T-DNA-tagged mutant paleface1 (pfc1) grows normally at 22 degrees C but at 5 degrees C exhibits a pattern of chilling-induced chlorosis consistent with a disruption of chloroplast development. Genomic DNA flanking the T-DNA was cloned and used to isolate wild-type genomic and cDNA clones. The PFC1 transcript is present at a low level in wild-type plants and was not detected in pfc1 plants. Wild-type Arabidopsis expressing antisense constructs of PFC1 grew normally at 22 degrees C but showed chilling-induced chlorosis, confirming that the gene is essential for low-temperature development of chloroplasts. The deduced amino acid sequence of PFC1 has identity with rRNA methylases found in bacteria and yeast that modify specific adenosines of pre-rRNA transcripts. The pfc1 mutant does not have these modifications in the small subunit rRNA of the plastid. PMID:9596631

  20. Quantitative Northern Blot Analysis of Mammalian rRNA Processing.

    PubMed

    Wang, Minshi; Pestov, Dimitri G

    2016-01-01

    Assembly of eukaryotic ribosomes is an elaborate biosynthetic process that begins in the nucleolus and requires hundreds of cellular factors. Analysis of rRNA processing has been instrumental for studying the mechanisms of ribosome biogenesis and effects of stress conditions on the molecular milieu of the nucleolus. Here, we describe the quantitative analysis of the steady-state levels of rRNA precursors, applicable to studies in mammalian cells and other organisms. We include protocols for gel electrophoresis and northern blotting of rRNA precursors using procedures optimized for the large size of these RNAs. We also describe the ratio analysis of multiple precursors, a technique that facilitates the accurate assessment of changes in the efficiency of individual pre-rRNA processing steps. PMID:27576717

  1. Characteristics of the nuclear (18S, 5.8S, 28S and 5S) and mitochondrial (12S and 16S) rRNA genes of Apis mellifera (Insecta: Hymenoptera): structure, organization, and retrotransposable elements

    PubMed Central

    Gillespie, J J; Johnston, J S; Cannone, J J; Gutell, R R

    2006-01-01

    As an accompanying manuscript to the release of the honey bee genome, we report the entire sequence of the nuclear (18S, 5.8S, 28S and 5S) and mitochondrial (12S and 16S) ribosomal RNA (rRNA)-encoding gene sequences (rDNA) and related internally and externally transcribed spacer regions of Apis mellifera (Insecta: Hymenoptera: Apocrita). Additionally, we predict secondary structures for the mature rRNA molecules based on comparative sequence analyses with other arthropod taxa and reference to recently published crystal structures of the ribosome. In general, the structures of honey bee rRNAs are in agreement with previously predicted rRNA models from other arthropods in core regions of the rRNA, with little additional expansion in non-conserved regions. Our multiple sequence alignments are made available on several public databases and provide a preliminary establishment of a global structural model of all rRNAs from the insects. Additionally, we provide conserved stretches of sequences flanking the rDNA cistrons that comprise the externally transcribed spacer regions (ETS) and part of the intergenic spacer region (IGS), including several repetitive motifs. Finally, we report the occurrence of retrotransposition in the nuclear large subunit rDNA, as R2 elements are present in the usual insertion points found in other arthropods. Interestingly, functional R1 elements usually present in the genomes of insects were not detected in the honey bee rRNA genes. The reverse transcriptase products of the R2 elements are deduced from their putative open reading frames and structurally aligned with those from another hymenopteran insect, the jewel wasp Nasonia (Pteromalidae). Stretches of conserved amino acids shared between Apis and Nasonia are illustrated and serve as potential sites for primer design, as target amplicons within these R2 elements may serve as novel phylogenetic markers for Hymenoptera. Given the impending completion of the sequencing of the Nasonia genome

  2. Structural and functional studies of Bud23–Trm112 reveal 18S rRNA N7-G1575 methylation occurs on late 40S precursor ribosomes

    PubMed Central

    Létoquart, Juliette; Huvelle, Emmeline; Wacheul, Ludivine; Bourgeois, Gabrielle; Zorbas, Christiane; Graille, Marc; Heurgué-Hamard, Valérie; Lafontaine, Denis L. J.

    2014-01-01

    The eukaryotic small ribosomal subunit carries only four ribosomal (r) RNA methylated bases, all close to important functional sites. N7-methylguanosine (m7G) introduced at position 1575 on 18S rRNA by Bud23–Trm112 is at a ridge forming a steric block between P- and E-site tRNAs. Here we report atomic resolution structures of Bud23–Trm112 in the apo and S-adenosyl-l-methionine (SAM)-bound forms. Bud23 and Trm112 interact through formation of a β-zipper involving main-chain atoms, burying an important hydrophobic surface and stabilizing the complex. The structures revealed that the coactivator Trm112 undergoes an induced fit to accommodate its methyltransferase (MTase) partner. We report important structural similarity between the active sites of Bud23 and Coffea canephora xanthosine MTase, leading us to propose and validate experimentally a model for G1575 coordination. We identify Bud23 residues important for Bud23–Trm112 complex formation and recruitment to pre-ribosomes. We report that though Bud23–Trm112 binds precursor ribosomes at an early nucleolar stage, m7G methylation occurs at a late step of small subunit biogenesis, implying specifically delayed catalytic activation. Finally, we show that Bud23–Trm112 interacts directly with the box C/D snoRNA U3-associated DEAH RNA helicase Dhr1 supposedly involved in central pseudoknot formation; this suggests that Bud23–Trm112 might also contribute to controlling formation of this irreversible and dramatic structural reorganization essential to overall folding of small subunit rRNA. Our study contributes important new elements to our understanding of key molecular aspects of human ribosomopathy syndromes associated with WBSCR22 (human Bud23) malfunction. PMID:25489090

  3. Phylogenetic analysis of 18S rRNA and the mitochondrial genomes of the wombat, Vombatus ursinus, and the spiny anteater, Tachyglossus aculeatus: increased support for the Marsupionta hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Janke, Axel; Magnell, Ola; Wieczorek, Georg; Westerman, Michael; Arnason, Ulfur

    2002-01-01

    The monotremes, the duck-billed platypus and the echidnas, are characterized by a number of unique morphological characteristics, which have led to the common belief that they represent the living survivors of an ancestral stock of mammals. Analysis of new data from the complete mitochondrial (mt) genomes of a second monotreme, the spiny anteater, and another marsupial, the wombat, yielded clear support for the Marsupionta hypothesis. According to this hypothesis marsupials are more closely related to monotremes than to eutherians, consistent with a basal split between eutherians and marsupials/monotremes among extant mammals. This finding was also supported by analysis of new sequences from a nuclear gene--18S rRNA. The mt genome of the wombat shares some unique features with previously described marsupial mtDNAs (tRNA rearrangement, a missing tRNA(Lys), and evidence for RNA editing of the tRNA(Asp)). Molecular estimates of genetic divergence suggest that the divergence between the platypus and the spiny anteater took place approximately 34 million years before present (MYBP), and that between South American and Australian marsupials approximately 72 MYBP. PMID:11734900

  4. Phylogenetic Analysis of the Spider Mite Sub-Family Tetranychinae (Acari: Tetranychidae) Based on the Mitochondrial COI Gene and the 18S and the 5′ End of the 28S rRNA Genes Indicates That Several Genera Are Polyphyletic

    PubMed Central

    Matsuda, Tomoko; Morishita, Maiko; Hinomoto, Norihide; Gotoh, Tetsuo

    2014-01-01

    The spider mite sub-family Tetranychinae includes many agricultural pests. The internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of nuclear ribosomal RNA genes and the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene of mitochondrial DNA have been used for species identification and phylogenetic reconstruction within the sub-family Tetranychinae, although they have not always been successful. The 18S and 28S rRNA genes should be more suitable for resolving higher levels of phylogeny, such as tribes or genera of Tetranychinae because these genes evolve more slowly and are made up of conserved regions and divergent domains. Therefore, we used both the 18S (1,825–1,901 bp) and 28S (the 5′ end of 646–743 bp) rRNA genes to infer phylogenetic relationships within the sub-family Tetranychinae with a focus on the tribe Tetranychini. Then, we compared the phylogenetic tree of the 18S and 28S genes with that of the mitochondrial COI gene (618 bp). As observed in previous studies, our phylogeny based on the COI gene was not resolved because of the low bootstrap values for most nodes of the tree. On the other hand, our phylogenetic tree of the 18S and 28S genes revealed several well-supported clades within the sub-family Tetranychinae. The 18S and 28S phylogenetic trees suggest that the tribes Bryobiini, Petrobiini and Eurytetranychini are monophyletic and that the tribe Tetranychini is polyphyletic. At the genus level, six genera for which more than two species were sampled appear to be monophyletic, while four genera (Oligonychus, Tetranychus, Schizotetranychus and Eotetranychus) appear to be polyphyletic. The topology presented here does not fully agree with the current morphology-based taxonomy, so that the diagnostic morphological characters of Tetranychinae need to be reconsidered. PMID:25289639

  5. Sequences implicated in the processing of Thermus thermophilus HB8 23S rRNA.

    PubMed Central

    Hartmann, R K; Ulbrich, N; Erdmann, V A

    1987-01-01

    Nuclease S1 mapping analyses were performed in order to detect processing intermediates of pre-23S rRNA from Thermus thermophilus HB8. Two processing sites were identified downstream the start of transcription and several consecutive cleavage sites are associated with the mature 5'-end. In the 3'-flanking region one "primary" site and two cleavages which generate short-living intermediates were detected. A series of successive intermediates in the region of the mature 3'-end implies the existence of--in analogy to Escherichia coli--a 3'-exonucleolytic activity. The data were correlated with potential secondary structures within the pre-23S rRNA, which exhibit various repeated sequence elements. M13 sequencing data support the existence of one secondary structural element associated with the strong "primary" cleavage site in the 3'-flanking region. In T. thermophilus we can exclude the formation of an extended base-paired and precursor-specific stem enclosing the 23S rRNA which is inferred to mediate recognition by RNase III in E. coli. Images PMID:3313273

  6. Elucidating the role of C/D snoRNA in rRNA processing and modification in Trypanosoma brucei.

    PubMed

    Barth, Sarit; Shalem, Boaz; Hury, Avraham; Tkacz, Itai Dov; Liang, Xue-Hai; Uliel, Shai; Myslyuk, Inna; Doniger, Tirza; Salmon-Divon, Mali; Unger, Ron; Michaeli, Shulamit

    2008-01-01

    Most eukaryotic C/D small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs) guide 2'-O methylation (Nm) on rRNA and are also involved in rRNA processing. The four core proteins that bind C/D snoRNA in Trypanosoma brucei are fibrillarin (NOP1), NOP56, NOP58, and SNU13. Silencing of NOP1 by RNA interference identified rRNA-processing and modification defects that caused lethality. Systematic mapping of 2'-O-methyls on rRNA revealed the existence of hypermethylation at certain positions of the rRNA in the bloodstream form of the parasites, suggesting that this modification may assist the parasites in coping with the major temperature changes during cycling between their insect and mammalian hosts. The rRNA-processing defects of NOP1-depleted cells suggest the involvement of C/D snoRNA in trypanosome-specific rRNA-processing events to generate the small rRNA fragments. MRP RNA, which is involved in rRNA processing, was identified in this study in one of the snoRNA gene clusters, suggesting that trypanosomes utilize a combination of unique C/D snoRNAs and conserved snoRNAs for rRNA processing. PMID:17981991

  7. Tracking the interactions of rRNA processing proteins during nucleolar assembly in living cells.

    PubMed

    Angelier, Nicole; Tramier, Marc; Louvet, Emilie; Coppey-Moisan, Maïté; Savino, Tula M; De Mey, Jan R; Hernandez-Verdun, Danièle

    2005-06-01

    Reorganization of the nuclear machinery after mitosis is a fundamental but poorly understood process. Here, we investigate the recruitment of the nucleolar processing proteins in the nucleolus of living cells at the time of nucleus formation. We question the role of the prenucleolar bodies (PNBs), during migration of the processing proteins from the chromosome periphery to sites of rDNA transcription. Surprisingly, early and late processing proteins pass through the same PNBs as demonstrated by rapid two-color four-dimensional imaging and quantification, whereas a different order of processing protein recruitment into nucleoli is supported by differential sorting. Protein interactions along the recruitment pathway were investigated using a promising time-lapse analysis of fluorescence resonance energy transfer. For the first time, it was possible to detect in living cells the interactions between proteins of the same rRNA processing machinery in nucleoli. Interestingly interactions between such proteins also occur in PNBs but not at the chromosome periphery. The dynamics of these interactions suggests that PNBs are preassembly platforms for rRNA processing complexes. PMID:15814843

  8. The cytoplasmic mRNA degradation factor Pat1 is required for rRNA processing.

    PubMed

    Muppavarapu, Mridula; Huch, Susanne; Nissan, Tracy

    2016-04-01

    Pat1 is a key cytoplasmic mRNA degradation factor, the loss of which severely increases mRNA half-lives. Several recent studies have shown that Pat1 can enter the nucleus and can shuttle between the nucleus and the cytoplasm. As a result, many nuclear roles have been proposed for Pat1. In this study, we analyzed four previously suggested nuclear roles of Pat1 and show that Pat1 is not required for efficient pre-mRNA splicing or pre-mRNA decay in yeast. However, lack of Pat1 results in accumulation of pre-rRNA processing intermediates. Intriguingly, we identified a novel genetic relationship between Pat1 and the rRNA decay machinery, specifically the exosome and the TRAMP complex. While the pre-rRNA processing intermediates that accumulate in the pat1 deletion mutant are, at least to some extent, recognized as aberrant by the rRNA degradation machinery, it is unlikely that these accumulations are the cause of their synthetic sick relationship. Here, we show that the dysregulation of the levels of mRNAs related to ribosome biogenesis could be the cause of the accumulation of the pre-rRNA processing intermediates. Although our results support a role for Pat1 in transcription, they nevertheless suggest that the primary cause of the dysregulated mRNA levels is most likely due to Pat1's role in mRNA decapping and mRNA degradation. PMID:26918764

  9. Dyskerin is required for tumor cell growth through mechanisms that are independent of its role in telomerase and only partially related to its function in precursor rRNA processing

    PubMed Central

    Alawi, Faizan; Lin, Ping

    2010-01-01

    Dyskerin is an essential nucleolar protein required for the biogenesis of ribonucleoproteins that incorporate H/ACA RNAs. Through binding to specific H/ACA RNAs, dyskerin exerts most of its influence in the cell. To that end, dyskerin is a core component of the telomerase complex and is required for normal telomere maintenance. Dyskerin is also required for post-transcriptional processing of precursor rRNA. Germline dyskerin mutations increase cancer susceptibility. Conversely, wild-type dyskerin is usually overexpressed and not mutated in sporadic cancers. However, the contributions of dyskerin to sporadic tumorigenesis are unknown. Described herein, we demonstrate that acute loss of dyskerin function by RNA interference significantly reduced steady-state levels of H/ACA RNAs, disrupted the morphology and inhibited anchorage-independent growth of telomerase-positive and telomerase-negative human cell lines. Unexpectedly, dyskerin depletion only transiently delayed rRNA maturation but with no appreciable effect on the levels of total 18S or 28S rRNA. Instead, while rRNA processing defects typically trigger p53-dependent G1 arrest, dyskerin-depleted cells accumulated in G2/M by a p53-independent mechanism, and this was associated with an accumulation of aberrant mitotic figures that were characterized by multi-polar spindles. Telomerase activity and the rate of rRNA processing are typically increased during neoplasia. However, our cumulative findings indicate that dyskerin contributes to tumor cell growth through mechanisms which do not require the presence of cellular telomerase activity, and which may be only partially dependent upon the protein’s role in rRNA processing. These data also reinforce the notion that loss and gain of dyskerin function may play important roles in tumorigenesis. PMID:21480387

  10. High-resolution microscopy of active ribosomal genes and key members of the rRNA processing machinery inside nucleolus-like bodies of fully-grown mouse oocytes.

    PubMed

    Shishova, Kseniya V; Khodarovich, Yuriy M; Lavrentyeva, Elena A; Zatsepina, Olga V

    2015-10-01

    Nucleolus-like bodies (NLBs) of fully-grown (germinal vesicle, GV) mammalian oocytes are traditionally considered as morphologically distinct entities, which, unlike normal nucleoli, contain transcribed ribosomal genes (rDNA) solely at their surface. In the current study, we for the first time showed that active ribosomal genes are present not only on the surface but also inside NLBs of the NSN-type oocytes. The "internal" rRNA synthesis was evidenced by cytoplasmic microinjections of BrUTP as precursor and by fluorescence in situ hybridization with a probe to the short-lived 5'ETS segment of the 47S pre-rRNA. We further showed that in the NLB mass of NSN-oocytes, distribution of active rDNA, RNA polymerase I (UBF) and rRNA processing (fibrillarin) protein factors, U3 snoRNA, pre-rRNAs and 18S/28S rRNAs is remarkably similar to that in somatic nucleoli capable to make pre-ribosomes. Overall, these observations support the occurrence of rDNA transcription, rRNA processing and pre-ribosome assembly in the NSN-type NLBs and so that their functional similarity to normal nucleoli. Unlike the NSN-type NLBs, the NLBs of more mature SN-oocytes do not contain transcribed rRNA genes, U3 snoRNA, pre-rRNAs, 18S and 28S rRNAs. These results favor the idea that in a process of transformation of NSN-oocytes to SN-oocytes, NLBs cease to produce pre-ribosomes and, moreover, lose their rRNAs. We also concluded that a denaturing fixative 70% ethanol used in the study to fix oocytes could be more appropriate for light microscopy analysis of nucleolar RNAs and proteins in mammalian fully-grown oocytes than a commonly used cross-linking aldehyde fixative, formalin. PMID:26226217

  11. Optimal Eukaryotic 18S and Universal 16S/18S Ribosomal RNA Primers and Their Application in a Study of Symbiosis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yong; Tian, Ren Mao; Gao, Zhao Ming; Bougouffa, Salim; Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2014-01-01

    Eukaryotic 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene primers that feature a wide coverage are critical in detecting the composition of eukaryotic microscopic organisms in ecosystems. Here, we predicted 18S rRNA primers based on consecutive conserved sites and evaluated their coverage efficiency and scope of application to different eukaryotic groups. After evaluation, eight of them were considered as qualified 18S primers based on coverage rate. Next, we examined common conserved regions in prokaryotic 16S and eukaryotic 18S rRNA sequences to design 16S/18S universal primers. Three 16S/18S candidate primers, U515, U1390 and U1492, were then considered to be suitable for simultaneous amplification of the rRNA sequences in three domains. Eukaryotic 18S and prokaryotic 16S rRNA genes in a sponge were amplified simultaneously using universal primers U515 and U1390, and the subsequent sorting of pyrosequenced reads revealed some distinctive communities in different parts of the sample. The real difference in biodiversity between prokaryotic and eukaryotic symbionts could be discerned as the dissimilarity between OTUs was increased from 0.005 to 0.1. A network of the communities in external and internal parts of the sponge illustrated the co-variation of some unique microbes in certain parts of the sponge, suggesting that the universal primers are useful in simultaneous detection of prokaryotic and eukaryotic microbial communities. PMID:24594623

  12. Phylogenetic Analysis of Myobia musculi (Schranck, 1781) by Using the 18S Small Ribosomal Subunit Sequence

    PubMed Central

    Feldman, Sanford H; Ntenda, Abraham M

    2011-01-01

    We used high-fidelity PCR to amplify 2 overlapping regions of the ribosomal gene complex from the rodent fur mite Myobia musculi. The amplicons encompassed a large portion of the mite's ribosomal gene complex spanning 3128 nucleotides containing the entire 18S rRNA, internal transcribed spacer (ITS) 1, 5.8S rRNA, ITS2, and a portion of the 5′-end of the 28S rRNA. M. musculi’s 179-nucleotide 5.8S rRNA nucleotide sequence was not conserved, so this region was identified by conservation of rRNA secondary structure. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference phylogenetic analyses were performed by using multiple sequence alignment consisting of 1524 nucleotides of M. musculi 18S rRNA and homologous sequences from 42 prostigmatid mites and the tick Dermacentor andersoni. The phylograms produced by both methods were in agreement regarding terminal, secondary, and some tertiary phylogenetic relationships among mites. Bayesian inference discriminated most infraordinal relationships between Eleutherengona and Parasitengona mites in the suborder Anystina. Basal relationships between suborders Anystina and Eupodina historically determined by comparing differences in anatomic characteristics were less well-supported by our molecular analysis. Our results recapitulated similar 18S rRNA sequence analyses recently reported. Our study supports M. musculi as belonging to the suborder Anystina, infraorder Eleutherenona, and superfamily Cheyletoidea. PMID:22330574

  13. Chloroplast RNA-Binding Protein RBD1 Promotes Chilling Tolerance through 23S rRNA Processing in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuai; Bai, Ge; Wang, Shu; Yang, Leiyun; Yang, Fen; Wang, Yi; Zhu, Jian-Kang; Hua, Jian

    2016-05-01

    Plants have varying abilities to tolerate chilling (low but not freezing temperatures), and it is largely unknown how plants such as Arabidopsis thaliana achieve chilling tolerance. Here, we describe a genome-wide screen for genes important for chilling tolerance by their putative knockout mutants in Arabidopsis thaliana. Out of 11,000 T-DNA insertion mutant lines representing half of the genome, 54 lines associated with disruption of 49 genes had a drastic chilling sensitive phenotype. Sixteen of these genes encode proteins with chloroplast localization, suggesting a critical role of chloroplast function in chilling tolerance. Study of one of these proteins RBD1 with an RNA binding domain further reveals the importance of chloroplast translation in chilling tolerance. RBD1 is expressed in the green tissues and is localized in the chloroplast nucleoid. It binds directly to 23S rRNA and the binding is stronger under chilling than at normal growth temperatures. The rbd1 mutants are defective in generating mature 23S rRNAs and deficient in chloroplast protein synthesis especially under chilling conditions. Together, our study identifies RBD1 as a regulator of 23S rRNA processing and reveals the importance of chloroplast function especially protein translation in chilling tolerance. PMID:27138552

  14. Chloroplast RNA-Binding Protein RBD1 Promotes Chilling Tolerance through 23S rRNA Processing in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Leiyun; Yang, Fen; Wang, Yi; Zhu, Jian-Kang; Hua, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Plants have varying abilities to tolerate chilling (low but not freezing temperatures), and it is largely unknown how plants such as Arabidopsis thaliana achieve chilling tolerance. Here, we describe a genome-wide screen for genes important for chilling tolerance by their putative knockout mutants in Arabidopsis thaliana. Out of 11,000 T-DNA insertion mutant lines representing half of the genome, 54 lines associated with disruption of 49 genes had a drastic chilling sensitive phenotype. Sixteen of these genes encode proteins with chloroplast localization, suggesting a critical role of chloroplast function in chilling tolerance. Study of one of these proteins RBD1 with an RNA binding domain further reveals the importance of chloroplast translation in chilling tolerance. RBD1 is expressed in the green tissues and is localized in the chloroplast nucleoid. It binds directly to 23S rRNA and the binding is stronger under chilling than at normal growth temperatures. The rbd1 mutants are defective in generating mature 23S rRNAs and deficient in chloroplast protein synthesis especially under chilling conditions. Together, our study identifies RBD1 as a regulator of 23S rRNA processing and reveals the importance of chloroplast function especially protein translation in chilling tolerance. PMID:27138552

  15. The crystal structure of Mtr4 reveals a novel arch domain required for rRNA processing

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, R.N.; Robinson, H.; Klauer, A. A.; Hintze, B. J.; van Hoof, A.; Johnson, S. J.

    2010-07-01

    The essential RNA helicase, Mtr4, performs a critical role in RNA processing and degradation as an activator of the nuclear exosome. The molecular basis for this vital function is not understood and detailed analysis is significantly limited by the lack of structural data. In this study, we present the crystal structure of Mtr4. The structure reveals a new arch-like domain that is specific to Mtr4 and Ski2 (the cytosolic homologue of Mtr4). In vivo and in vitro analyses demonstrate that the Mtr4 arch domain is required for proper 5.8S rRNA processing, and suggest that the arch functions independently of canonical helicase activity. In addition, extensive conservation along the face of the putative RNA exit site highlights a potential interface with the exosome. These studies provide a molecular framework for understanding fundamental aspects of helicase function in exosome activation, and more broadly define the molecular architecture of Ski2-like helicases.

  16. RNomics in Archaea reveals a further link between splicing of archaeal introns and rRNA processing

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Thean Hock; Rozhdestvensky, Timofey S.; d’Orval, Béatrice Clouet; Bortolin, Marie-Line; Huber, Harald; Charpentier, Bruno; Branlant, Christiane; Bachellerie, Jean-Pierre; Brosius, Jürgen; Hüttenhofer, Alexander

    2002-01-01

    The bulge–helix–bulge (BHB) motif recognised by the archaeal splicing endonuclease is also found in the long processing stems of archaeal rRNA precursors in which it is cleaved to generate pre-16S and pre-23S rRNAs. We show that in two species, Archaeoglobus fulgidus and Sulfolobus solfataricus, representatives from the two major archaeal kingdoms Euryarchaeota and Crenarchaeota, respectively, the pre-rRNA spacers cleaved at the BHB motifs surrounding pre-16S and pre-23S rRNAs subsequently become ligated. In addition, we present evidence that this is accompanied by circularisation of ribosomal pre-16S and pre-23S rRNAs in both species. These data reveal a further link between intron splicing and pre-rRNA processing in Archaea, which might reflect a common evolutionary origin of the two processes. One spliced RNA species designated 16S-D RNA, resulting from religation at the BHB motif of 16S pre-rRNA, is a highly abundant and stable RNA which folds into a three-stem structure interrupted by two single-stranded regions as assessed by chemical probing. It spans a region of the pre-rRNA 5′ external transcribed spacer exhibiting a highly conserved folding pattern in Archaea. Surprisingly, 16S-D RNA contains structural motifs found in archaeal C/D box small RNAs and binds to the L7Ae protein, a core component of archaeal C/D box RNPs. This supports the notion that it might have an important but still unknown role in pre-rRNA biogenesis or might even target RNA molecules other than rRNA. PMID:11842103

  17. Modified nucleotides in T1 RNase oligonucleotides of 18S ribosomal RNA of the Novikoff hepatoma.

    PubMed

    Choi, Y C; Busch, H

    1978-06-27

    The primary structure of 18S rRNA of the Novikoff hepatoma cells was investigated. Regardless of whether the primary sequence of 18S rRNA is finally determined by RNA sequencing methods or DNA sequencing methods, it is important to identify numbers and types of the modified nucleotides and accordingly the present study was designed to localize the modified regions in T1 RNase derived oligonucleotide. Modified nucleotides found in 66 different oligonucleotide sequences included 2 m62A, 1 m6A, 1 m7G, 1m1cap3psi, 7 Cm, 13 Am, 9 Gm, 11 Um, and 38 psi residues. A number of these modified nucleotides are now placed in defined sequences of T1 RNase oligonucleotides which are now being searched for in larger fragments derived from partial T1 RNase digests of 18S rRNA. Improved homochromatography fingerprinting (Choi et al. (1976) Cancer Res. 36, 4301) of T1 RNase derived oligonucleotides provided a distinctive pattern for 18S rRNA of Novikoff hepatoma ascites cells. The 116 spots obtained by homochromatography contain 176 oligonucleotide sequences. PMID:209819

  18. Chicken rRNA Gene Cluster Structure

    PubMed Central

    Dyomin, Alexander G.; Koshel, Elena I.; Kiselev, Artem M.; Saifitdinova, Alsu F.; Galkina, Svetlana A.; Fukagawa, Tatsuo; Kostareva, Anna A.

    2016-01-01

    Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, whose activity results in nucleolus formation, constitute an extremely important part of genome. Despite the extensive exploration into avian genomes, no complete description of avian rRNA gene primary structure has been offered so far. We publish a complete chicken rRNA gene cluster sequence here, including 5’ETS (1836 bp), 18S rRNA gene (1823 bp), ITS1 (2530 bp), 5.8S rRNA gene (157 bp), ITS2 (733 bp), 28S rRNA gene (4441 bp) and 3’ETS (343 bp). The rRNA gene cluster sequence of 11863 bp was assembled from raw reads and deposited to GenBank under KT445934 accession number. The assembly was validated through in situ fluorescent hybridization analysis on chicken metaphase chromosomes using computed and synthesized specific probes, as well as through the reference assembly against de novo assembled rRNA gene cluster sequence using sequenced fragments of BAC-clone containing chicken NOR (nucleolus organizer region). The results have confirmed the chicken rRNA gene cluster validity. PMID:27299357

  19. Processing of a composite large subunit rRNA. Studies with chlamydomonas mutants deficient in maturation of the 23s-like rrna.

    PubMed Central

    Holloway, S P; Herrin, D L

    1998-01-01

    (Cr.LSU). Little is known of the cis and trans requirements or of the processing pathway for this essential RNA. Previous work showed that the ribosome-deficient ac20 mutant overaccumulates an unspliced large subunit (LSU) RNA, suggesting that it might be a splicing mutant. To elucidate the molecular basis of the ac20 phenotype, a detailed analysis of the rrn transcripts in ac20 and wild-type cells was performed. The results indicate that processing of the ITSs, particularly ITS-1, is inefficient in ac20 and that ITS processing occurs after splicing. Deletion of the Cr.LSU intron from ac20 also did not alleviate the mutant phenotype. Thus, the primary defect in ac20 is not splicing but most likely is associated with ITS processing. A splicing deficiency was studied by transforming wild-type cells with rrnL genes containing point mutations in the intron core. Heteroplasmic transformants were obtained in most cases, except for P4 helix mutants; these strains grew slowly, were light sensitive, and had an RNA profile indicative of inefficient splicing. Transcript analysis in the P4 mutants also indicated that ITS processing can occur on an unspliced precursor, although with reduced efficiency. These latter results indicate that although there is not an absolutely required order for LSU processing, there does seem to be a preferred order that results in efficient processing in vivo. PMID:9668137

  20. Escherichia coli cafA gene encodes a novel RNase, designated as RNase G, involved in processing of the 5' end of 16S rRNA.

    PubMed

    Wachi, M; Umitsuki, G; Shimizu, M; Takada, A; Nagai, K

    1999-06-01

    We found that the Escherichia coli cafA::cat mutant accumulated a precursor of 16S rRNA. This precursor migrated to the same position with 16.3S precursor found in the BUMMER strain that is known to be deficient in the 5' end processing of 16S rRNA. Accumulation of 16. 3S rRNA in the BUMMER mutant was complemented by introduction of a plasmid carrying the cafA gene. The mutant type cafA gene cloned from the BUMMER strain had a 11-bp deletion in its coding region. A small amount of the mature 16S rRNA was still formed in the cafA::cat mutant. This residual activity was found to be due to RNase E encoded by the rne/ams gene by rifampicin-chase experiments of the cafA::cat ams1 double mutant. These results indicated that the cafA gene encodes a novel RNase responsible for processing of the 5' end of 16S rRNA. PMID:10362534

  1. Microbial succession in the traditional Chinese Luzhou-flavor liquor fermentation process as evaluated by SSU rRNA profiles.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Wenliang; Li, Ke; Liu, Seng; Xing, Yage; Li, Mingyuan; Che, Zhenming

    2013-03-01

    The community succession of microbes inhabited in the fermenting lees of Luzhou-flavor liquor was investigated based on small-subunit rRNA culture independent method. All sequences recovered from fermenting lees respectively fell into the genera of Lactobacillus, Streptococcus, Bacillus, Staphylococcus, Clostridium, Pelobacter, Actobacter, Serratia, Burkholderia, Rhodoccous, Corynebacterium, Arthrobacter, Microbacterium, Curtobacterium, Leptotrichia, Methanocuuleus, Saccharomyces, Zygosaccharomyces, Saccharomycopsis, Pichia, Talaromyces, Aspergillus, Eurotium, Fomitopsis and Trichosporon. The fungal Pichia, Saccharomycopsis and Talaromyces were most abundant in the lees fermented for 1 day, the fungal Eurotium and the bacteria Burkholderia, Streptococcus and Lactobacillus were dominant in the lees fermented for 7 days, only the bacteria Lactobacillus, Burkholderia were prevalent in the lees fermented for 60 days. Most genera almost existed in the fermenting lees, while their distributions were significantly different in 1, 7 and 60 days fermented lees. The prokaryotic community similarity coefficient was from 0.5000 to 0.5455 and followed to 0.1523, and that of eukaryotic community was from 0.5466 to 0.5259 and to 0.3750 when compared at species level. These results suggested that many microbes in lees have community successions associated with fermenting and that such successions maybe contribute the fermentation process of Luzhou-flavor liquor and is main reasons that the characteristic flavor factors are produced. PMID:23180546

  2. Technical considerations in the use of 18s rRNA in gene expression studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    Gene expression analysis is now commonly used in ecotoxicological studies to indicate exposure of an organism to xenobiotics. For example, the vitellogenin gene is used to diagnose exposure of fish to environmental estrogens. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PC...

  3. Microbial community of salt crystals processed from Mediterranean seawater based on 16S rRNA analysis.

    PubMed

    Baati, Houda; Guermazi, Sonda; Gharsallah, Neji; Sghir, Abdelghani; Ammar, Emna

    2010-01-01

    Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA was used to investigate for the first time the structure of the microbial community that inhabits salt crystals retrieved from the bottom of a solar saltern, located in the coastal area of the Mediterranean Sea (Sfax, Tunisia). This community lives in an extremely salty environment of 250-310 g/L total dissolved salt. A total of 78 bacterial 16S rRNA clone sequences making up to 21 operational taxonomic units (OTUs), determined by the DOTUR program to 97% sequence similarity, was analyzed. These OTUs were affiliated to Bacteroidetes (71.4% of OTUs), and gamma-Proteobacteria and alpha-Proteobacteria (equally represented by 14.2% of the OTUs observed). The archaeal community composition appeared more diverse with 68 clones, resulting in 44 OTUs, all affiliated with the Euryarchaeota phylum. Of the bacterial and archaeal clones showing <97% 16S rRNA sequence identity with sequences in public databases, 47.6% and 84.1% respectively were novel clones. Both rarefaction curves and diversity measurements (Simpson, Shannon-Weaver, Chao) showed a more diverse archaeal than bacterial community at the Tunisian solar saltern pond. The analysis of an increasing clone's number may reveal additional local diversity. PMID:20130693

  4. Physical mapping of 5S and 18S-5.8S-26S RNA gene families in polyploid series of Cenchrus ciliaris Linnaeus, 1771 (Poaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Kharrat-Souissi, Amina; Siljak-Yakovlev, Sonja; Pustahija, Fatima; Chaieb, Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The Buffelgrass (Cenchrus ciliaris L., Poaceae) is one of the most important pasturage grasses due to its high productivity and good forage qualities. This species possess a high adaptability to bioclimatic constraints of arid zones and may be used for the restoration of degraded arid ecosystems. Tunisian populations present three ploidy levels (4x, 5x and 6x) with a basic chromosome number x=9. This study reported for the first time the distribution of the ribosomal genes (rRNA) for pentaploid and hexaploid cytotypes of Cenchrus ciliaris. Molecular cytogenetic study using double fluorescence in situ hybridization has shown that the two rDNA families, 5S and 18S-5.8S-26S (18S), displayed intraspecific variation in number of loci among different ploidy levels. Each ploidy level was characterized by specific number of both 5S and 18S rDNA loci (two loci in tetraploid, five in pentaploid and six in hexaploid level). For three studied cytotypes (4x, 5x and 6x) all 5S rDNA loci were localized on the subcentromeric region of chromosomes, while 18S loci were situated on the telomeric region of short chromosome arms. Data of the FISH experiments show proportional increase of ribosomal loci number during polyploidization processes. PMID:24260668

  5. New Hosts of Simplicimonas similis and Trichomitus batrachorum Identified by 18S Ribosomal RNA Gene Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Dimasuay, Kris Genelyn B.; Lavilla, Orlie John Y.; Rivera, Windell L.

    2013-01-01

    Trichomonads are obligate anaerobes generally found in the digestive and genitourinary tract of domestic animals. In this study, four trichomonad isolates were obtained from carabao, dog, and pig hosts using rectal swab. Genomic DNA was extracted using Chelex method and the 18S rRNA gene was successfully amplified through novel sets of primers and undergone DNA sequencing. Aligned isolate sequences together with retrieved 18S rRNA gene sequences of known trichomonads were utilized to generate phylogenetic trees using maximum likelihood and neighbor-joining analyses. Two isolates from carabao were identified as Simplicimonas similis while each isolate from dog and pig was identified as Pentatrichomonas hominis and Trichomitus batrachorum, respectively. This is the first report of S. similis in carabao and the identification of T. batrachorum in pig using 18S rRNA gene sequence analysis. The generated phylogenetic tree yielded three distinct groups mostly with relatively moderate to high bootstrap support and in agreement with the most recent classification. Pathogenic potential of the trichomonads in these hosts still needs further investigation. PMID:23936631

  6. Fine mapping of 28S rRNA sites specifically cleaved in cells undergoing apoptosis.

    PubMed Central

    Houge, G; Robaye, B; Eikhom, T S; Golstein, J; Mellgren, G; Gjertsen, B T; Lanotte, M; Døskeland, S O

    1995-01-01

    Bona fide apoptosis in rat and human leukemia cells, rat thymocytes, and bovine endothelial cells was accompanied by limited and specific cleavage of polysome-associated and monosome-associated 28S rRNA, with 18S rRNA being spared. Specific 28S rRNA cleavage was observed in all instances of apoptotic death accompanied by internucleosomal DNA fragmentation, with cleavage of 28S rRNA and of DNA being linked temporally. This indicates that 28S rRNA fragmentation may be as general a feature of apoptosis as internucleosomal DNA fragmentation and that concerted specific cleavage of intra- and extranuclear polynucleotides occurs in apoptosis. Apoptosis-associated cleavage sites were mapped to the 28S rRNA divergent domains D2, D6 (endothelial cells), and D8. The D2 cuts occurred in hairpin loop junctions considered to be buried in the intact ribosome, suggesting that this rRNA region becomes a target for RNase attack in apoptotic cells. D8 was cleaved in two exposed UU(U) sequences in bulge loops. Treatment with agents causing necrotic cell death or aging of cell lysates failed to produce any detectable limited D2 cleavage but did produce a more generalized cleavage in the D8 region. Of potential functional interest was the finding that the primary cuts in D2 exactly flanked a 0.3-kb hypervariable subdomain (D2c), allowing excision of the latter. The implication of hypervariable rRNA domains in apoptosis represents the first association of any functional process with these enigmatic parts of the ribosomes. PMID:7891700

  7. Eukaryotic diversity in premise drinking water using 18S rDNA sequencing: implications for health risks

    EPA Science Inventory

    The goal of this study was to characterize microbial eukaryotes over a 12 month period, so as to provide insight into the occurrence of potentially important predators and bacterial hosts in hot and cold premise plumbing. Nearly 6,300 partial (600 bp) 18S rRNA gene sequences from...

  8. [Transport of newly synthesized rRNA from the nucleus to the cytoplasm in freely suspended cells of parsley (Petroselinum sativum)].

    PubMed

    Seitz, U; Seitz, U

    1972-06-01

    A rapidly labelled rRNA precursor can be detected in callus cells of Petroselinum sativum grown on a liquid synthetic medium. Its molecular weight has been calculated to be 2.3×10(6). This value agrees with that of the rRNA precursor from other plant material. In order to follow the synthesis and processing of rRNA in time and to correlate single steps in this process with cell organelles it was necessary to obtain pure fractions of nuclei and ribosomes. The isolation method for nuclei is given in detail. The nucleic acids are separated on polyacrylamide gels of low acrylamide concentration. Pulse-chase experiments show that the rRNA precursor is split into two fragments within the nucleus: an 18S and a 25S component. The 18S RNA leaves the nucleus rapidly. It is already found quantitatively in the ribosomal fraction after 30-60 min chase. At that time the 25S RNA is still within the nucleus; it appears much later in the ribosomes. Since the increase in ribosomal label occurs simultaneously with the decrease in nuclear label, it is concluded that there is no degradation of 18S RNA within the nucleus. Apparently there are two distinct transport mechanisms with different kinetics for the two RNA components. PMID:24477955

  9. rRNA distribution during microspore development in anthers of Beta vulgaris L. quantitative in situ hybridization analysis.

    PubMed

    Majewska-Sawka, A; Rodriguez-Garcia, M I

    1996-04-01

    We related changes in the ultrastructural organization of the nucleoli with the results of quantitative in situ hybridizations to characterize rRNA metabolism during the development of microspore mother cells in the sugar beet anther (Beta vulgaris L.). In the course of meiotic prophase and early postmeiotic interphase the morphological characteristics of the nucleoli are typical of low or no transcriptional activity and a low rate of rRNA processing. However, we found evidence of an apparent increase in the relative numbers of 18 S rRNA transcripts in some stages of microsporogenesis. This was found in both the nucleoli and cytoplasm of pachytene meiocytes, and in later stages there was a spectacular accumulation of rRNA transcripts in nucleoli of the tetrad cells. Quantitative data are analyzed in the light of morphometric findings in the cell and their compartments to elucidate the degree to which changes in cell size are related to changes in labeling density and distribution. The results are discussed in terms of rRNA synthesis, transport and degradation as processes involved in the regulation of rRNA within microsporocytes and microspores. PMID:8718677

  10. Genetic polymorphisms of loci D18S53, D18S59, and D18S488 in fetuses from a Chinese Tianjin Han population.

    PubMed

    Li, X Z; Liu, J; Shi, Y F; Ju, D; Zhang, Y; Yue, T F

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the genetic polymorphisms of three short tandem repeat (STR) loci, D18S53, D18S59, and D18S488, on chromosome 18 in fetuses from a Chinese Tianjin Han population. Sixty-four villus samples and 374 amniotic fluid samples were collected from fetuses. Quantitative fluorescence polymerase chain reaction was performed to amplify the STR loci, followed by scanned electrophoresis and quantitative analysis of the fluorescence signals. Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) analysis was performed based on the genotype distributions of the STR loci to obtain the following population genetic data: genotype frequency, heterozygosity of observation (HO), polymorphism information content (PIC), probability of discrimination power (PD), and probability of exclusion (PE). We detected 15, 13, and 15 alleles of D18S53, D18S59, and D18S488, respectively. The genotype frequencies were found to be in line with HWE. The HO values of the three loci, D18S53, D18S59, and D18S488, were 0.797, 0.847, and 0.792; the PIC values were 0.81, 0.75, and 0.73; the PD values were 0.944, 0.901, and 0.881; and the PE values were 0.593, 0.689, and 0.585, respectively. D18S53, D18S59, and D18S488 loci are good genetic markers of chromosome 18, and show potential for use in the prenatal genetic diagnosis of Edwards' syndrome. PMID:27323182

  11. Genome-wide analysis of small nucleolar RNAs of Leishmania major reveals a rich repertoire of RNAs involved in modification and processing of rRNA.

    PubMed

    Eliaz, Dror; Doniger, Tirza; Tkacz, Itai Dov; Biswas, Viplov Kumar; Gupta, Sachin Kumar; Kolev, Nikolay G; Unger, Ron; Ullu, Elisabetta; Tschudi, Christian; Michaeli, Shulamit

    2015-01-01

    Trypanosomatids are protozoan parasites and the causative agent of infamous infectious diseases. These organisms regulate their gene expression mainly at the post-transcriptional level and possess characteristic RNA processing mechanisms. In this study, we analyzed the complete repertoire of Leishmania major small nucleolar (snoRNA) RNAs by performing RNA-seq analysis on RNAs that were affinity-purified using the C/D snoRNA core protein, SNU13, and the H/ACA core protein, NHP2. This study revealed a large collection of C/D and H/ACA snoRNAs, organized in gene clusters generally containing both snoRNA types. Abundant snoRNAs were identified and predicted to guide trypanosome-specific rRNA cleavages. The repertoire of snoRNAs was compared to that of the closely related Trypanosoma brucei, and 80% of both C/D and H/ACA molecules were found to have functional homologues. The comparative analyses elucidated how snoRNAs evolved to generate molecules with analogous functions in both species. Interestingly, H/ACA RNAs have great flexibility in their ability to guide modifications, and several of the RNA species can guide more than one modification, compensating for the presence of single hairpin H/ACA snoRNA in these organisms. Placing the predicted modifications on the rRNA secondary structure revealed hypermodification regions mostly in domains which are modified in other eukaryotes, in addition to trypanosome-specific modifications. PMID:25970223

  12. rRNA fragmentation induced by a yeast killer toxin.

    PubMed

    Kast, Alene; Klassen, Roland; Meinhardt, Friedhelm

    2014-02-01

    Virus like dsDNA elements (VLE) in yeast were previously shown to encode the killer toxins PaT and zymocin, which target distinct tRNA species via specific anticodon nuclease (ACNase) activities. Here, we characterize a third member of the VLE-encoded toxins, PiT from Pichia inositovora, and identify PiOrf4 as the cytotoxic subunit by conditional expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In contrast to the tRNA targeting toxins, however, neither a change of the wobble uridine modification status by introduction of elp3 or trm9 mutations nor tRNA overexpression rescued from PiOrf4 toxicity. Consistent with a distinct RNA target, expression of PiOrf4 causes specific fragmentation of the 25S and 18S rRNA. A stable cleavage product comprising the first ∼ 130 nucleotides of the 18S rRNA was purified and characterized by linker ligation and subsequent reverse transcription; 3'-termini were mapped to nucleotide 131 and 132 of the 18S rRNA sequence, a region showing some similarity to the anticodon loop of tRNA(Glu)(UUC), the zymocin target. PiOrf4 residues Glu9 and His214, corresponding to catalytic sites Glu9 and His209 in the ACNase subunit of zymocin are essential for in vivo toxicity and rRNA fragmentation, raising the possibility of functionally conserved RNase modules in both proteins. PMID:24308908

  13. Quantification of Listeria monocytogenes in minimally processed leafy vegetables using a combined method based on enrichment and 16S rRNA real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Aparecida de Oliveira, Maria; Abeid Ribeiro, Eliana Guimarães; Morato Bergamini, Alzira Maria; Pereira De Martinis, Elaine Cristina

    2010-02-01

    Modern lifestyle markedly changed eating habits worldwide, with an increasing demand for ready-to-eat foods, such as minimally processed fruits and leafy greens. Packaging and storage conditions of those products may favor the growth of psychrotrophic bacteria, including the pathogen Listeria monocytogenes. In this work, minimally processed leafy vegetables samples (n = 162) from retail market from Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brazil, were tested for the presence or absence of Listeria spp. by the immunoassay Listeria Rapid Test, Oxoid. Two L. monocytogenes positive and six artificially contaminated samples of minimally processed leafy vegetables were evaluated by the Most Probable Number (MPN) with detection by classical culture method and also culture method combined with real-time PCR (RTi-PCR) for 16S rRNA genes of L. monocytogenes. Positive MPN enrichment tubes were analyzed by RTi-PCR with primers specific for L. monocytogenes using the commercial preparation ABSOLUTE QPCR SYBR Green Mix (ABgene, UK). Real-time PCR assay presented good exclusivity and inclusivity results and no statistical significant difference was found in comparison with the conventional culture method (p < 0.05). Moreover, RTi-PCR was fast and easy to perform, with MPN results obtained in ca. 48 h for RTi-PCR in comparison to 7 days for conventional method. PMID:19913686

  14. A systematic computational analysis of the rRNA-3' UTR sequence complementarity suggests a regulatory mechanism influencing post-termination events in metazoan translation.

    PubMed

    Pánek, Josef; Kolář, Michal; Herrmannová, Anna; Valášek, Leoš Shivaya

    2016-07-01

    Nucleic acid sequence complementarity underlies many fundamental biological processes. Although first noticed a long time ago, sequence complementarity between mRNAs and ribosomal RNAs still lacks a meaningful biological interpretation. Here we used statistical analysis of large-scale sequence data sets and high-throughput computing to explore complementarity between 18S and 28S rRNAs and mRNA 3' UTR sequences. By the analysis of 27,646 full-length 3' UTR sequences from 14 species covering both protozoans and metazoans, we show that the computed 18S rRNA complementarity creates an evolutionarily conserved localization pattern centered around the ribosomal mRNA entry channel, suggesting its biological relevance and functionality. Based on this specific pattern and earlier data showing that post-termination 80S ribosomes are not stably anchored at the stop codon and can migrate in both directions to codons that are cognate to the P-site deacylated tRNA, we propose that the 18S rRNA-mRNA complementarity selectively stabilizes post-termination ribosomal complexes to facilitate ribosome recycling. We thus demonstrate that the complementarity between 18S rRNA and 3' UTRs has a non-random nature and very likely carries information with a regulatory potential for translational control. PMID:27190231

  15. Chromosome mapping of 18S rDNA and 5S rDNA by dual-color fluorescence in situ hybridization in the half-smooth tongue sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis).

    PubMed

    Jiang, L; Jiang, J; Liu, J; Yuan, J; Chen, Y; Zhang, Q; Wang, X

    2014-01-01

    Half-smooth tongue sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis) is an important aquaculture flatfish in China. Cytogenetic analysis has revealed that its sex determination system is female heterogametic (ZZ/ZW). The W chromosome is morphologically larger and has been considered evolutionarily younger than any other chromosome in the set. However, the genetic origin and evolution process of this neo-chromosome remains unclear. In this study, 2 tandem arrays of rRNA genes were chosen to address this question. Both the major rDNA (18S rDNA) and the minor rDNA (5S rDNA) were located on the C. semilaevis chromosomes by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Six 18S rDNA signals were observed on the centromeric regions of 3 pairs of autosomes in both males and females. In females, there was an additional 18S rDNA signal mapping to the telomeric region of the W chromosome long arm. With respect to the 5S rDNA, 12 signals were mapped to the centromeric regions of six pairs of autosomes. Two-color FISH further confirmed that the two pairs of the 5S rDNA signals were correspondingly located at the same positions of the same autosomes as those of the 18S rDNA signals. These results allowed us to speculate about the evolution process of the W chromosome. Chromosome fusions and repetitive sequence accumulations might have occurred in C. semilaevis. The synteny and non-synteny of C. semilaevis 18S rDNA and 5S rDNA might imply the original and evolutionary characteristics of this species. These findings will facilitate studies on karyotype evolution of the order Pleuronectiformes. PMID:25526196

  16. SOT1, a pentatricopeptide repeat protein with a small MutS-related domain, is required for correct processing of plastid 23S-4.5S rRNA precursors in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wenjuan; Liu, Sheng; Ruwe, Hannes; Zhang, Delin; Melonek, Joanna; Zhu, Yajuan; Hu, Xupeng; Gusewski, Sandra; Yin, Ping; Small, Ian D; Howell, Katharine A; Huang, Jirong

    2016-03-01

    Ribosomal RNA processing is essential for plastid ribosome biogenesis, but is still poorly understood in higher plants. Here, we show that SUPPRESSOR OF THYLAKOID FORMATION1 (SOT1), a plastid-localized pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) protein with a small MutS-related domain, is required for maturation of the 23S-4.5S rRNA dicistron. Loss of SOT1 function leads to slower chloroplast development, suppression of leaf variegation, and abnormal 23S and 4.5S processing. Predictions based on the PPR motif sequences identified the 5' end of the 23S-4.5S rRNA dicistronic precursor as a putative SOT1 binding site. This was confirmed by electrophoretic mobility shift assay, and by loss of the abundant small RNA 'footprint' associated with this site in sot1 mutants. We found that more than half of the 23S-4.5S rRNA dicistrons in sot1 mutants contain eroded and/or unprocessed 5' and 3' ends, and that the endonucleolytic cleavage product normally released from the 5' end of the precursor is absent in a sot1 null mutant. We postulate that SOT1 binding protects the 5' extremity of the 23S-4.5S rRNA dicistron from exonucleolytic attack, and favours formation of the RNA structure that allows endonucleolytic processing of its 5' and 3' ends. PMID:26800847

  17. Assessing the odd secondary structural properties of nuclear small subunit ribosomal RNA sequences (18S) of the twisted-wing parasites (Insecta: Strepsiptera).

    PubMed

    Gillespie, J J; McKenna, C H; Yoder, M J; Gutell, R R; Johnston, J S; Kathirithamby, J; Cognato, A I

    2005-12-01

    We report the entire sequence (2864 nts) and secondary structure of the nuclear small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) gene (18S) from the twisted-wing parasite Caenocholax fenyesi texensis Kathirithamby & Johnston (Strepsiptera: Myrmecolacidae). The majority of the base pairings in this structural model map on to the SSU rRNA secondary and tertiary helices that were previously predicted with comparative analysis. These regions of the core rRNA were unambiguously aligned across all Arthropoda. In contrast, many of the variable regions, as previously characterized in other insect taxa, had very large insertions in C. f. texensis. The helical base pairs in these regions were predicted with a comparative analysis of a multiple sequence alignment (that contains C. f. texensis and 174 published arthropod 18S rRNA sequences, including eleven strepsipterans) and thermodynamic-based algorithms. Analysis of our structural alignment revealed four unusual insertions in the core rRNA structure that are unique to animal 18S rRNA and in general agreement with previously proposed insertion sites for strepsipterans. One curious result is the presence of a large insertion within a hairpin loop of a highly conserved pseudoknot helix in variable region 4. Despite the extraordinary variability in sequence length and composition, this insertion contains the conserved sequences 5'-AUUGGCUUAAA-3' and 5'-GAC-3' that immediately flank a putative helix at the 5'- and 3'-ends, respectively. The longer sequence has the potential to form a nine base pair helix with a sequence in the variable region 2, consistent with a recent study proposing this tertiary interaction. Our analysis of a larger set of arthropod 18S rRNA sequences has revealed possible errors in some of the previously published strepsipteran 18S rRNA sequences. Thus we find no support for the previously recovered heterogeneity in the 18S molecules of strepsipterans. Our findings lend insight to the evolution of RNA structure and

  18. Retroposons do jump: a B2 element recently integrated in an 18S rDNA gene.

    PubMed Central

    Oberbäumer, I

    1992-01-01

    Several cDNA clones were isolated from cDNA libraries constructed with mRNA longer than 28S RNA from the murine cell line PYS-2/12. The plasmids have inserts containing 1-1.2 kb of the ribosomal 5' external transcribed spacer followed by nearly 700 nt of sequence for 18S rRNA and ending with a B2 element (retroposon). The cloned sequence differed in a few positions from published ribosomal sequences. The 3' adjacent genomic sequence was obtained by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and showed that the B2 element has a poly(A) tail of about 50 nt and is surrounded by perfect direct repeats of 15 nt. Analysis of genomic DNA from several murine cell lines revealed that PYS cells contain at least one copy of 18S RNA with the B2 element which is not present in the genome of other murine cell lines derived from the same teratocarcinoma. Similarly, rRNA transcripts containing the B2 element were only detected in PYS cells. According to the publication dates of the different cell lines, the B2 element must have been integrated into an rRNA transcription unit during the years 1970 through 1974 thus proving that retroposons (SINEs) can still be inserted into the genome in our times. Images PMID:1311830

  19. Assessment of Helminth Biodiversity in Wild Rats Using 18S rDNA Based Metagenomics

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Isheng J.; Palomares-Rius, Juan Emilio; Yoshida, Ayako; Ogura, Yoshitoshi; Hayashi, Tetsuya; Maruyama, Haruhiko; Kikuchi, Taisei

    2014-01-01

    Parasite diversity has important implications in several research fields including ecology, evolutionary biology and epidemiology. Wide-ranging analysis has been restricted because of the difficult, highly specialised and time-consuming processes involved in parasite identification. In this study, we assessed parasite diversity in wild rats using 18S rDNA-based metagenomics. 18S rDNA PCR products were sequenced using an Illumina MiSeq sequencer and the analysis of the sequences using the QIIME software successfully classified them into several parasite groups. The comparison of the results with those obtained using standard methods including microscopic observation of helminth parasites in the rat intestines and PCR amplification/sequencing of 18S rDNA from isolated single worms suggests that this new technique is reliable and useful to investigate parasite diversity. PMID:25340824

  20. Systematics of Chaetognatha under the light of molecular data, using duplicated ribosomal 18S DNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Papillon, Daniel; Perez, Yvan; Caubit, Xavier; Le Parco, Yannick

    2006-03-01

    While the phylogenetic position of Chaetognatha has became central to the question of early bilaterian evolution, the internal systematics of the phylum are still not clear. The phylogenetic relationships of the chaetognaths were investigated using newly obtained small subunit ribosomal RNA nuclear 18S (SSU rRNA) sequences from 16 species together with 3 sequences available in GenBank. As previously shown with the large subunit ribosomal RNA 28S gene, two classes of Chaetognatha SSU rRNA gene can be identified, suggesting a duplication of the whole ribosomal cluster; allowing the rooting of one class of genes by another in phylogenetic analyses. Maximum Parsimony, Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian analyses of the molecular data, and statistical tests showed (1) that there are three main monophyletic groups: Sagittidae/Krohnittidae, Spadellidae/Pterosagittidae, and Eukrohniidae/Heterokrohniidae, (2) that the group of Aphragmophora without Pterosagittidae (Sagittidae/Krohnittidae) is monophyletic, (3) the Spadellidae/Pterosagittidae and Eukrohniidae/Heterokrohniidae families are very likely clustered, (4) the Krohnittidae and Pterosagittidae groups should no longer be considered as families as they are included in other groups designated as families, (5) suborder Ctenodontina is not monophyletic and the Flabellodontina should no longer be considered as a suborder, and (6) the Syngonata/Chorismogonata and the Monophragmophora/Biphragmophora hypotheses are rejected. Such conclusions are considered in the light of morphological characters, several of which are shown to be prone to homoplasy. PMID:16434216

  1. The inhibition of mouse L-cell 45 S ribosomal RNA processing is a highly uv-resistant property of vesicular stomatitis virus

    SciTech Connect

    Zan, M.; Evans, P.; Lucas-Lenard, J. )

    1990-07-01

    In mouse L cells infected with vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), the synthesis of 45 S rRNA and its conversion to 28 S and 18 S rRNA are inhibited during the course of infection. Evidence is presented that the lack of accumulation of stable rRNA species results not only from the decreased transcription and processing of 45 S rRNA, but also from an increased breakdown of pre-rRNA or stable rRNA during processing. In cells prelabeled with (3H)uridine and then infected, the 28 S and 18 S rRNA species remain unaffected. Studies using uv-irradiated VSV indicate that the viral function involved in rRNA synthesis inhibition is slightly more sensitive to uv irradiation than the function involved in processing inhibition. These results suggest that the VSV functions involved in 45 S rRNA synthesis and processing inhibition may be related, or overlapping, but not identical. In cells infected by VSV mutant T1026R1, total RNA synthesis is inhibited, but the distribution of precursor and stable rRNA species remains nearly normal for up to 5 hr after infection. The function of the mutant virus involved in the inhibition of rRNA processing appears to be defective. In mengovirus-infected L cells, 45 S rRNA synthesis, but not processing, is severely inhibited soon after infection, indicating that a decrease in rRNA transcription is not necessarily accompanied by a decrease in processing.

  2. Depletion of U3 small nucleolar RNA inhibits cleavage in the 5' external transcribed spacer of yeast pre-ribosomal RNA and impairs formation of 18S ribosomal RNA.

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, J M; Ares, M

    1991-01-01

    Multiple processing events are required to convert a single eukaryotic pre-ribosomal RNA (pre-rRNA) into mature 18S (small subunit), 5.8S and 25-28S (large subunit) rRNAs. We have asked whether U3 small nucleolar RNA is required for pre-rRNA processing in vivo by depleting Saccharomyces cerevisiae of U3 by conditional repression of U3 synthesis. The resulting pattern of accumulation and depletion of specific pre-rRNAs indicates that U3 is required for multiple events leading to the maturation of 18S rRNA. These include an initial cleavage within the 5' external transcribed spacer, resembling the U3 dependent initial processing event of mammalian pre-rRNA. Formation of large subunit rRNAs is unaffected by U3 depletion. The similarity between the effects of U3 depletion and depletion of U14 small nucleolar RNA and the nucleolar protein fibrillarin (NOP1) suggests that these could be components of a single highly conserved processing complex. Images PMID:1756730

  3. Molecular evolution of rDNA in early diverging Metazoa: First comparative analysis and phylogenetic application of complete SSU rRNA secondary structures in Porifera

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Background The cytoplasmic ribosomal small subunit (SSU, 18S) ribosomal RNA (rRNA) is the most frequently-used gene for molecular phylogenetic studies. However, information regarding its secondary structure is neglected in most phylogenetic analyses. Incorporation of this information is essential in order to apply specific rRNA evolutionary models to overcome the problem of co-evolution of paired sites, which violates the basic assumption of the independent evolution of sites made by most phylogenetic methods. Information about secondary structure also supports the process of aligning rRNA sequences across taxa. Both aspects have been shown to increase the accuracy of phylogenetic reconstructions within various taxa. Here, we explore SSU rRNA secondary structures from the three extant classes of Phylum Porifera (Grant, 1836), a pivotal, but largely unresolved taxon of early branching Metazoa. This is the first phylogenetic study of poriferan SSU rRNA data to date that includes detailed comparative secondary structure information for all three sponge classes. Results We found base compositional and structural differences in SSU rRNA among Demospongiae, Hexactinellida (glass sponges) and Calcarea (calcareous sponges). We showed that analyses of primary rRNA sequences, including secondary structure-specific evolutionary models, in combination with reconstruction of the evolution of unusual structural features, reveal a substantial amount of additional information. Of special note was the finding that the gene tree topologies of marine haplosclerid demosponges, which are inconsistent with the current morphology-based classification, are supported by our reconstructed evolution of secondary structure features. Therefore, these features can provide alternative support for sequence-based topologies and give insights into the evolution of the molecule itself. To encourage and facilitate the application of rRNA models in phylogenetics of early metazoans, we present 52 SSU rRNA

  4. Phylogenetic study of Class Armophorea (Alveolata, Ciliophora) based on 18S-rDNA data

    PubMed Central

    da Silva Paiva, Thiago; do Nascimento Borges, Bárbara; da Silva-Neto, Inácio Domingos

    2013-01-01

    The 18S rDNA phylogeny of Class Armophorea, a group of anaerobic ciliates, is proposed based on an analysis of 44 sequences (out of 195) retrieved from the NCBI/GenBank database. Emphasis was placed on the use of two nucleotide alignment criteria that involved variation in the gap-opening and gap-extension parameters and the use of rRNA secondary structure to orientate multiple-alignment. A sensitivity analysis of 76 data sets was run to assess the effect of variations in indel parameters on tree topologies. Bayesian inference, maximum likelihood and maximum parsimony phylogenetic analyses were used to explore how different analytic frameworks influenced the resulting hypotheses. A sensitivity analysis revealed that the relationships among higher taxa of the Intramacronucleata were dependent upon how indels were determined during multiple-alignment of nucleotides. The phylogenetic analyses rejected the monophyly of the Armophorea most of the time and consistently indicated that the Metopidae and Nyctotheridae were related to the Litostomatea. There was no consensus on the placement of the Caenomorphidae, which could be a sister group of the Metopidae + Nyctorheridae, or could have diverged at the base of the Spirotrichea branch or the Intramacronucleata tree. PMID:24385862

  5. DExD-box RNA-helicases in Listeria monocytogenes are important for growth, ribosomal maturation, rRNA processing and virulence factor expression

    PubMed Central

    Bäreclev, Caroline; Vaitkevicius, Karolis; Netterling, Sakura; Johansson, Jörgen

    2014-01-01

    RNA-helicases are proteins required for the unwinding of occluding secondary RNA structures, especially at low temperatures. In this work, we have deleted all 4 DExD-box RNA helicases in various combinations in the Gram-positive pathogen Listeria monocytogenes. Our results show that 3 out of 4 RNA-helicases were important for growth at low temperatures, whereas the effect was less prominent at 37°C. Over-expression of one RNA-helicase, Lmo1450, was able to overcome the reduced growth of the quadruple mutant strain at temperatures above 26°C, but not at lower temperatures. The maturation of ribosomes was affected in different degrees in the various strains at 20°C, whereas the effect was marginal at 37°C. This was accompanied by an increased level of immature 23S rRNA precursors in some of the RNA-helicase mutants at low temperatures. Although the expression of the PrfA regulated virulence factors ActA and LLO decreased in the quadruple mutant strain, this strain showed a slightly increased infection ability. Interestingly, even though the level of the virulence factor LLO was decreased in the quadruple mutant strain as compared with the wild-type strain, the hly-transcript (encoding LLO) was increased. Hence, our results could suggest a role for the RNA-helicases during translation. In this work, we show that DExD-box RNA-helicases are involved in bacterial virulence gene-expression and infection of eukaryotic cells. PMID:25590644

  6. Three Group-I introns in 18S rDNA of Endosymbiotic Algae of Paramecium bursaria from Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoshina, Ryo; Kamako, Shin-ichiro; Imamura, Nobutaka

    2004-08-01

    In the nuclear encoded small subunit ribosomal DNA (18S rDNA) of symbiotic alga of Paramecium bursaria (F36 collected in Japan) possesses three intron-like insertions (Hoshina et al., unpubl. data, 2003). The present study confirmed these exact lengths and insertion sites by reverse transcription-PCR. Two of them were inserted at Escherichia coli 16S rRNA genic position 943 and 1512 that are frequent intron insertion positions, but another insertion position (nearly 1370) was the first finding. Their secondary structures suggested they belong to Group-I intron; one belongs to subgroup IE, others belong to subgroup IC1. Similarity search indicated these introns are ancestral ones.

  7. Dual function of C/D box small nucleolar RNAs in rRNA modification and alternative pre-mRNA splicing.

    PubMed

    Falaleeva, Marina; Pages, Amadis; Matuszek, Zaneta; Hidmi, Sana; Agranat-Tamir, Lily; Korotkov, Konstantin; Nevo, Yuval; Eyras, Eduardo; Sperling, Ruth; Stamm, Stefan

    2016-03-22

    C/D box small nucleolar RNAs (SNORDs) are small noncoding RNAs, and their best-understood function is to target the methyltransferase fibrillarin to rRNA (for example, SNORD27 performs 2'-O-methylation of A27 in 18S rRNA). Unexpectedly, we found a subset of SNORDs, including SNORD27, in soluble nuclear extract made under native conditions, where fibrillarin was not detected, indicating that a fraction of the SNORD27 RNA likely forms a protein complex different from canonical snoRNAs found in the insoluble nuclear fraction. As part of this previously unidentified complex,SNORD27 regulates the alternative splicing of the transcription factor E2F7p re-mRNA through direct RNA-RNA interaction without methylating the RNA, likely by competing with U1 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein (snRNP). Furthermore, knockdown of SNORD27 activates previously "silent" exons in several other genes through base complementarity across the entire SNORD27 sequence, not just the antisense boxes. Thus, some SNORDs likely function in both rRNA and pre-mRNA processing, which increases the repertoire of splicing regulators and links both processes. PMID:26957605

  8. The rRNA methyltransferase Bud23 shows functional interaction with components of the SSU processome and RNase MRP

    PubMed Central

    Sardana, Richa; White, Joshua P.; Johnson, Arlen W.

    2013-01-01

    Bud23 is responsible for the conserved methylation of G1575 of 18S rRNA, in the P-site of the small subunit of the ribosome. bud23Δ mutants have severely reduced small subunit levels and show a general failure in cleavage at site A2 during rRNA processing. Site A2 is the primary cleavage site for separating the precursors of 18S and 25S rRNAs. Here, we have taken a genetic approach to identify the functional environment of BUD23. We found mutations in UTP2 and UTP14, encoding components of the SSU processome, as spontaneous suppressors of a bud23Δ mutant. The suppressors improved growth and subunit balance and restored cleavage at site A2. In a directed screen of 50 ribosomal trans-acting factors, we identified strong positive and negative genetic interactions with components of the SSU processome and strong negative interactions with components of RNase MRP. RNase MRP is responsible for cleavage at site A3 in pre-rRNA, an alternative cleavage site for separating the precursor rRNAs. The strong negative genetic interaction between RNase MRP mutants and bud23Δ is likely due to the combined defects in cleavage at A2 and A3. Our results suggest that Bud23 plays a role at the time of A2 cleavage, earlier than previously thought. The genetic interaction with the SSU processome suggests that Bud23 could be involved in triggering disassembly of the SSU processome, or of particular subcomplexes of the processome. PMID:23604635

  9. The rRNA methyltransferase Bud23 shows functional interaction with components of the SSU processome and RNase MRP.

    PubMed

    Sardana, Richa; White, Joshua P; Johnson, Arlen W

    2013-06-01

    Bud23 is responsible for the conserved methylation of G1575 of 18S rRNA, in the P-site of the small subunit of the ribosome. bud23Δ mutants have severely reduced small subunit levels and show a general failure in cleavage at site A2 during rRNA processing. Site A2 is the primary cleavage site for separating the precursors of 18S and 25S rRNAs. Here, we have taken a genetic approach to identify the functional environment of BUD23. We found mutations in UTP2 and UTP14, encoding components of the SSU processome, as spontaneous suppressors of a bud23Δ mutant. The suppressors improved growth and subunit balance and restored cleavage at site A2. In a directed screen of 50 ribosomal trans-acting factors, we identified strong positive and negative genetic interactions with components of the SSU processome and strong negative interactions with components of RNase MRP. RNase MRP is responsible for cleavage at site A3 in pre-rRNA, an alternative cleavage site for separating the precursor rRNAs. The strong negative genetic interaction between RNase MRP mutants and bud23Δ is likely due to the combined defects in cleavage at A2 and A3. Our results suggest that Bud23 plays a role at the time of A2 cleavage, earlier than previously thought. The genetic interaction with the SSU processome suggests that Bud23 could be involved in triggering disassembly of the SSU processome, or of particular subcomplexes of the processome. PMID:23604635

  10. A plant snoRNP complex containing snoRNAs, fibrillarin, and nucleolin-like proteins is competent for both rRNA gene binding and pre-rRNA processing in vitro.

    PubMed

    Sáez-Vasquez, Julio; Caparros-Ruiz, David; Barneche, Fredy; Echeverría, Manuel

    2004-08-01

    In eukaryotes the primary cleavage of the precursor rRNA (pre-rRNA) occurs in the 5' external transcribed spacer (5'ETS). In Saccharomyces cerevisiae and animals this cleavage depends on a conserved U3 small nucleolar ribonucleoprotein particle (snoRNP), including fibrillarin, and on other transiently associated proteins such as nucleolin. This large complex can be visualized by electron microscopy bound to the nascent pre-rRNA soon after initiation of transcription. Our group previously described a radish rRNA gene binding activity, NF D, that specifically binds to a cluster of conserved motifs preceding the primary cleavage site in the 5'ETS of crucifer plants including radish, cauliflower, and Arabidopsis thaliana (D. Caparros-Ruiz, S. Lahmy, S. Piersanti, and M. Echeverria, Eur. J. Biochem. 247:981-989, 1997). Here we report the purification and functional characterization of NF D from cauliflower inflorescences. Remarkably NF D also binds to 5'ETS RNA and accurately cleaves it at the primary cleavage site mapped in vivo. NF D is a multiprotein factor of 600 kDa that dissociates into smaller complexes. Two polypeptides of NF D identified by microsequencing are homologues of nucleolin and fibrillarin. The conserved U3 and U14 snoRNAs associated with fibrillarin and required for early pre-rRNA cleavages are also found in NF D. Based on this it is proposed that NF D is a processing complex that assembles on the rDNA prior to its interaction with the nascent pre-rRNA. PMID:15282326

  11. PCR amplification of a multi-copy mitochondrial gene (cox3) improves detection of Cytauxzoon felis infection as compared to a ribosomal gene (18S).

    PubMed

    Schreeg, Megan E; Marr, Henry S; Griffith, Emily H; Tarigo, Jaime L; Bird, David M; Reichard, Mason V; Cohn, Leah A; Levy, Michael G; Birkenheuer, Adam J

    2016-07-30

    Cytauxzoon felis is a tick-transmitted protozoan parasite that infects felids. Clinical disease caused by acute C. felis infection rapidly progresses in domestic cats, leading to high morbidity and mortality. Accurately diagnosing cytauxzoonosis as soon as possible during acute infection would allow for earlier initiation of antiprotozoal therapy which could lead to higher survival rates. Molecular detection of parasite rRNA genes (18S) by PCR has previously been shown to be a sensitive method of diagnosing C. felis infections. Based on evidence from related apicomplexan species, we hypothesized that C. felis mitochondrial genes would exist at higher copy numbers than 18S and would be a more sensitive diagnostic target. In this study we have designed a PCR assay targeting the C. felis mitochondrial gene cytochrome c oxidase subunit III (cox3). Herein we demonstrate that (1) the cox3 PCR can detect as low as 1 copy of DNA target and can detect C. felis in samples with known mitochondrial sequence heterogeneity, (2) cox3 copy number is increased relative to 18S in blood and tissue samples from acutely infected cats, and (3) the cox3 PCR is more sensitive than 18S PCR for detection of C. felis during early infections. PMID:27369587

  12. Promoter of the Mycoplasma pneumoniae rRNA operon.

    PubMed Central

    Hyman, H C; Gafny, R; Glaser, G; Razin, S

    1988-01-01

    RNA transcripts starting from the 5' end of the single Mycoplasma pneumoniae rRNA operon were analyzed by several methods. By primer extension analysis a start site was found 62 nucleotides upstream from the start site of the 16S rRNA. This site was preceded by a putative Pribnow box; however, a defined -35 recognition region was absent. The cloned rRNA operon was transcribed in vitro by using purified RNA polymerase of Escherichia coli. A single start site could be demonstrated within a few nucleotides of the start site found by primer extension analysis of M. pneumoniae transcripts. When fragments from the cloned operon were used as hybridization probes, S1 nuclease mapping yielded a single transcript extending approximately 193 nucleotides upstream from the 16S rRNA start site. The region surrounding this endpoint did not resemble any known promoter sequence. Dot blot hybridization of M. pneumoniae RNA to three oligonucleotides consisting of nucleotides -5 to -21, -38 to -54, and -112 to -132 (from the start of the 16S rRNA gene) indicated that most rRNA transcripts were processed at the stem site preceding the 16S rRNA gene. The majority of the longer precursor transcripts, extending beyond this point, did not extend further upstream to an oligonucleotide consisting of nucleotides -112 to -132. It was concluded that transcription of the rRNA operon of M. pneumoniae is initiated by a single promoter. The nucleotide sequence of the region is presented. Images PMID:2838465

  13. Nucleolus-like bodies of fully-grown mouse oocytes contain key nucleolar proteins but are impoverished for rRNA.

    PubMed

    Shishova, Kseniya V; Lavrentyeva, Elena A; Dobrucki, Jurek W; Zatsepina, Olga V

    2015-01-15

    It is well known that fully-grown mammalian oocytes, rather than typical nucleoli, contain prominent but structurally homogenous bodies called "nucleolus-like bodies" (NLBs). NLBs accumulate a vast amount of material, but their biochemical composition and functions remain uncertain. To clarify the composition of the NLB material in mouse GV oocytes, we devised an assay to detect internal oocyte proteins with fluorescein-5-isothiocyanate (FITC) and applied the fluorescent RNA-binding dye acridine orange to examine whether NLBs contain RNA. Our results unequivocally show that, similarly to typical nucleoli, proteins and RNA are major constituents of transcriptionally active (or non-surrounded) NLBs as well as of transcriptionally silent (or surrounded) NLBs. We also show, by exposing fixed oocytes to a mild proteinase K treatment, that the NLB mass in oocytes of both types contains nucleolar proteins that are involved in all major steps of ribosome biogenesis, including rDNA transcription (UBF), early rRNA processing (fibrillarin), and late rRNA processing (NPM1/nucleophosmin/B23, nucleolin/C23), but none of the nuclear proteins tested, including SC35, NOBOX, topoisomerase II beta, HP1α, and H3. The ribosomal RPL26 protein was detected within the NLBs of NSN-type oocytes but is virtually absent from NLBs of SN-type oocytes. Taking into account that the major class of nucleolar RNA is ribosomal RNA (rRNA), we applied fluorescence in situ hybridization with oligonucleotide probes targeting 18S and 28S rRNAs. The results show that, in contrast to active nucleoli, NLBs of fully-grown oocytes are impoverished for the rRNAs, which is consistent with the absence of transcribed ribosomal genes in the NLB mass. Overall, the results of this study suggest that NLBs of fully-grown mammalian oocytes serve for storing major nucleolar proteins but not rRNA. PMID:25481757

  14. Characterising the Canine Oral Microbiome by Direct Sequencing of Reverse-Transcribed rRNA Molecules.

    PubMed

    McDonald, James E; Larsen, Niels; Pennington, Andrea; Connolly, John; Wallis, Corrin; Rooks, David J; Hall, Neil; McCarthy, Alan J; Allison, Heather E

    2016-01-01

    PCR amplification and sequencing of phylogenetic markers, primarily Small Sub-Unit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) genes, has been the paradigm for defining the taxonomic composition of microbiomes. However, 'universal' SSU rRNA gene PCR primer sets are likely to miss much of the diversity therein. We sequenced a library comprising purified and reverse-transcribed SSU rRNA (RT-SSU rRNA) molecules from the canine oral microbiome and compared it to a general bacterial 16S rRNA gene PCR amplicon library generated from the same biological sample. In addition, we have developed BIONmeta, a novel, open-source, computer package for the processing and taxonomic classification of the randomly fragmented RT-SSU rRNA reads produced. Direct RT-SSU rRNA sequencing revealed that 16S rRNA molecules belonging to the bacterial phyla Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, Proteobacteria and Spirochaetes, were most abundant in the canine oral microbiome (92.5% of total bacterial SSU rRNA). The direct rRNA sequencing approach detected greater taxonomic diversity (1 additional phylum, 2 classes, 1 order, 10 families and 61 genera) when compared with general bacterial 16S rRNA amplicons from the same sample, simultaneously provided SSU rRNA gene inventories of Bacteria, Archaea and Eukarya, and detected significant numbers of sequences not recognised by 'universal' primer sets. Proteobacteria and Spirochaetes were found to be under-represented by PCR-based analysis of the microbiome, and this was due to primer mismatches and taxon-specific variations in amplification efficiency, validated by qPCR analysis of 16S rRNA amplicons from a mock community. This demonstrated the veracity of direct RT-SSU rRNA sequencing for molecular microbial ecology. PMID:27276347

  15. Characterising the Canine Oral Microbiome by Direct Sequencing of Reverse-Transcribed rRNA Molecules

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, James E.; Larsen, Niels; Pennington, Andrea; Connolly, John; Wallis, Corrin; Rooks, David J.; Hall, Neil; McCarthy, Alan J.; Allison, Heather E.

    2016-01-01

    PCR amplification and sequencing of phylogenetic markers, primarily Small Sub-Unit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) genes, has been the paradigm for defining the taxonomic composition of microbiomes. However, ‘universal’ SSU rRNA gene PCR primer sets are likely to miss much of the diversity therein. We sequenced a library comprising purified and reverse-transcribed SSU rRNA (RT-SSU rRNA) molecules from the canine oral microbiome and compared it to a general bacterial 16S rRNA gene PCR amplicon library generated from the same biological sample. In addition, we have developed BIONmeta, a novel, open-source, computer package for the processing and taxonomic classification of the randomly fragmented RT-SSU rRNA reads produced. Direct RT-SSU rRNA sequencing revealed that 16S rRNA molecules belonging to the bacterial phyla Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, Proteobacteria and Spirochaetes, were most abundant in the canine oral microbiome (92.5% of total bacterial SSU rRNA). The direct rRNA sequencing approach detected greater taxonomic diversity (1 additional phylum, 2 classes, 1 order, 10 families and 61 genera) when compared with general bacterial 16S rRNA amplicons from the same sample, simultaneously provided SSU rRNA gene inventories of Bacteria, Archaea and Eukarya, and detected significant numbers of sequences not recognised by ‘universal’ primer sets. Proteobacteria and Spirochaetes were found to be under-represented by PCR-based analysis of the microbiome, and this was due to primer mismatches and taxon-specific variations in amplification efficiency, validated by qPCR analysis of 16S rRNA amplicons from a mock community. This demonstrated the veracity of direct RT-SSU rRNA sequencing for molecular microbial ecology. PMID:27276347

  16. Development of 18S rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probes for specific detection of Hartmannella and Naegleria in Legionella-positive environmental samples.

    PubMed

    Grimm, D; Ludwig, W F; Brandt, B C; Michel, R; Schleifer, K H; Hacker, J; Steinert, M

    2001-04-01

    Aquatic protozoa are natural hosts of the human pathogen Legionella pneumophila. The fluorescence labeled 16S rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probe LEGPNE1 has recently been shown to specifically detect extracellular legionellae as well as intracellular legionellae parasitizing protozoa. In this study we designed oligonucleotide probes which are complementary to distinct regions of the 18S rRNA of the Legionella host organisms of the genera Hartmannella and Naegleria. The specificity of the probes, HART498 and NAEG1088, was tested by in situ hybridization of various laboratory reference strains. In order to evaluate the fluorescent probes for environmental studies three selected Legionella-positive cold water habitats were examined for the presence of these protozoa. Traditional culture methods followed by morphological identification revealed an almost consistent presence of Naegleria spp. in cold water habitats. Other protozoa species including Acanthamoeba spp., Echinamoeba spp., Hartmannella spp., Platyamoeba placida, Saccamoeba spp., Thecamoeba quadrilineata, and Vexillifera spp. were found sporadically. Concomitant analysis of the pH, conductivity and temperature of the water samples revealed no preference of Legionella or the respective protozoa for certain environmental conditions. The specificity of the newly designed 18S rRNA probes demonstrates that they are valuable and rapid tools for the identification of culturable environmental protozoa. PMID:11403402

  17. The impact of rRNA secondary structure consideration in alignment and tree reconstruction: simulated data and a case study on the phylogeny of hexapods.

    PubMed

    Letsch, Harald O; Kück, Patrick; Stocsits, Roman R; Misof, Bernhard

    2010-11-01

    The use of secondary structures has been advocated to improve both the alignment and the tree reconstruction processes of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) data sets. We used simulated and empirical rRNA data to test the impact of secondary structure consideration in both steps of molecular phylogenetic analyses. A simulation approach was used to generate realistic rRNA data sets based on real 16S, 18S, and 28S sequences and structures in combination with different branch length and topologies. Alignment and tree reconstruction performance of four recent structural alignment methods was compared with exclusively sequence-based approaches. As empirical data, we used a hexapod rRNA data set to study the influence of nucleotide interdependencies in sequence alignment and tree reconstruction. Structural alignment methods delivered significantly better sequence alignments compared with pure sequence-based methods. Also, structural alignment methods delivered better trees judged by topological congruence to simulation base trees. However, the advantage of structural alignments was less pronounced and even vanished in several instances. For simulated data, application of mixed RNA/DNA models to stems and loops, respectively, led to significantly shorter branches. The application of mixed RNA/DNA models in the hexapod analyses delivered partly implausible relationships. This can be interpreted as a stronger sensitivity of mixed model setups to nonphylogenetic signal. Secondary structure consideration clearly influenced sequence alignment and tree reconstruction of ribosomal genes. Although sequence alignment quality can considerably be improved by the use of secondary structure information, the application of mixed models in tree reconstructions needs further studies to understand the observed effects. PMID:20530152

  18. Deep Sequencing of Subseafloor Eukaryotic rRNA Reveals Active Fungi across Marine Subsurface Provinces

    PubMed Central

    Orsi, William; Biddle, Jennifer F.; Edgcomb, Virginia

    2013-01-01

    The deep marine subsurface is a vast habitat for microbial life where cells may live on geologic timescales. Because DNA in sediments may be preserved on long timescales, ribosomal RNA (rRNA) is suggested to be a proxy for the active fraction of a microbial community in the subsurface. During an investigation of eukaryotic 18S rRNA by amplicon pyrosequencing, unique profiles of Fungi were found across a range of marine subsurface provinces including ridge flanks, continental margins, and abyssal plains. Subseafloor fungal populations exhibit statistically significant correlations with total organic carbon (TOC), nitrate, sulfide, and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC). These correlations are supported by terminal restriction length polymorphism (TRFLP) analyses of fungal rRNA. Geochemical correlations with fungal pyrosequencing and TRFLP data from this geographically broad sample set suggests environmental selection of active Fungi in the marine subsurface. Within the same dataset, ancient rRNA signatures were recovered from plants and diatoms in marine sediments ranging from 0.03 to 2.7 million years old, suggesting that rRNA from some eukaryotic taxa may be much more stable than previously considered in the marine subsurface. PMID:23418556

  19. Phylogenetic position of the Phacotaceae within the Chlamydophyceaeas revealed by analysis of 18S rDNA and rbcL sequences.

    PubMed

    Hepperle, D; Nozaki, H; Hohenberger, S; Huss, V A; Morita, E; Krienitz, L

    1998-10-01

    Four genera of the Phacotaceae (Phacotus, Pteromonas, Wislouchiella, Dysmorphococcus), a family of loricated green algal flagellates within the Volvocales, were investigated by means of transmission electron microscopy and analysis of the nuclear encoded small-subunit ribosomal RNA (18S rRNA) genes and the plastid-encoded rbcL genes. Additionally, the 18S rDNA of Haematococcus pluvialis and the rbcL sequences of Chlorogonium elongatum, C. euchlorum, Dunaliella parva, Chloromonas serbinowii, Chlamydomonas radiata, and C. tetragama were determined. Analysis of ultrastructural data justified the separation of the Phacotaceae into two groups. Phacotus, Pteromonas, and Wislouchiella generally shared the following characters: egg-shaped protoplasts, a single pyrenoid with planar thylakoid double-lamellae, three-layered lorica, flagellar channels as part of the central lorica layer, mitochondria located in the central cytoplasm, lorica development that occurs in mucilaginous zoosporangia that are to be lysed, and no acid-resistant cell walls. Dysmorphococcus was clearly different in each of the characters mentioned. Direct comparison of sequences of Phacotus lenticularis, Pteromonas sp., Pteromonas protracta, and Wislouchiella planctonica revealed DNA sequence homologies of >/=98. 0% within the 18S gene and 93.9% within the rbcL gene. D. globosus was quite different from these species, with a maximum of 92.9% homology in the 18S rRNA and 18S rDNA of Dunaliella salina, with 95.3%, and to the rbcL sequence of Chlamydomonas tetragama, with 90.3% sequence homology. Additionally, the Phacotaceae sensu stricto exclusively shared 10 (rbcL: 4) characters which were present neither in other Chlamydomonadales nor in Dysmorphococcus globosus. Different phylogenetic analysis methods confirmed the hypothesis that the Phacotaceae are polyphyletic. The Phacotaceae sensu stricto form a stable cluster with affinities to the

  20. Chromosomal localization of 18S rDNA and telomere sequence in the aye-aye, Daubentonia madagascariensis.

    PubMed

    Rakotoarisoa, G; Hirai, Y; Go, Y; Kawamoto, Y; Shima, T; Koyama, N; Randrianjafy, A; Mora, R; Hirai, H

    2000-10-01

    Chromosomal localization of 18S rDNA and telomere sequence was attempted on the chromosomes of the aye-aye (2n = 30) using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and primed in situ labeling (PRINS), respectively. The rDNA was localized at the tip or whole of the short arm of acrocentric chromosomes 13 and 14 in all spreads observed. However, post-FISH silver-nitrate (Ag) staining showed that transcriptional activity of the rRNA genes was variable, particularly in chromosome 14, which was most frequently negative in one homologue carrying the smaller copy number of rDNA. This observation supports, at the molecular cytogenetic level, previous data concerning the relationship between the copy number of rDNA and its trancriptional activity. On the other hand, telomere sequence was localized only at the telomeric region of all chromosomes, the so-called telomere-only pattern, a characteristic similar to that of the greater bushbaby. These data may provide information on the chromosomal evolution of the lemur, because locations of rDNA and telomere sequences frequently offer important clues in reconstruction of karyotype differentiation. PMID:11245223

  1. Molecular characterization of Stenocarpella maydis based on nuclear ribosomal Internal Transcribed Spacer regions between the 18S and 28S nuclear rRNA gene sequences

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diplodia ear rot of maize is caused by the fungus Stenocarpella maydis (syn. Diplodia maydis). Although considered a minor pathogen in the later 1900's, with the increased emphasis on conservation tillage, S. maydis has reestablished itself as an important ear and stalk rot pathogen. While S. maydis...

  2. Diversity of host species and strains of Pneumocystis carinii is based on rRNA sequences.

    PubMed Central

    Shah, J S; Pieciak, W; Liu, J; Buharin, A; Lane, D J

    1996-01-01

    We have amplified by PCR Pneumocystis carinii cytoplasmic small-subunit rRNA (variously referred to as 16S-like or 18S-like rRNA) genes from DNA extracted from bronchoalveolar lavage and induced sputum specimens from patients positive for P. carinii and from infected ferret lung tissue. The amplification products were cloned into pUC18, and individual clones were sequenced. Comparison of the determined sequences with each other and with published rat and partial human P.carinii small-subunit rRNA gene sequences reveals that, although all P. carinii small-subunit rRNAs are closely related (approximately 96% identity), small-subunit rRNA genes isolated from different host species (human, rat, and ferret) exhibit distinctive patterns of sequence variation. Two types of sequences were isolated from the infected ferret lung tissue, one as a predominant species and the other as a minor species. There was 96% identity between the two types. In situ hybridization of the infected ferret lung tissue with oligonucleotide probes specific for each type revealed that there were two distinct strains of P. carinii present in the ferret lung tissue. Unlike the ferret P. carinii isolates, the small-subunit rRNA gene sequences from different human P. carinii isolates have greater than 99% identity and are distinct from all rat and ferret sequences so far inspected or reported in the literature. Southern blot hybridization analysis of PCR amplification products from several additional bronchoalveolar lavage or induced sputum specimens from P. carinii-infected patients, using a 32P-labeled oligonucleotide probe specific for human P. carinii, also suggests that all of the human P. carinii isolates are identical. These findings indicate that human P. carinii isolates may represent a distinct species of P. carinii distinguishable from rat and ferret P. carinii on the basis of characterization of small-subunit rRNA gene sequences. PMID:8770515

  3. Eukaryotic rRNA Modification by Yeast 5-Methylcytosine-Methyltransferases and Human Proliferation-Associated Antigen p120

    PubMed Central

    Gaspar, Imre; Aigueperse, Christelle; Schaefer, Matthias; Kellner, Stefanie; Helm, Mark; Motorin, Yuri

    2015-01-01

    Modified nucleotide 5-methylcytosine (m5C) is frequently present in various eukaryotic RNAs, including tRNAs, rRNAs and in other non-coding RNAs, as well as in mRNAs. RNA:m5C-methyltranferases (MTases) Nop2 from S. cerevisiae and human proliferation-associated nucleolar antigen p120 are both members of a protein family called Nop2/NSUN/NOL1. Protein p120 is well-known as a tumor marker which is over-expressed in various cancer tissues. Using a combination of RNA bisulfite sequencing and HPLC-MS/MS analysis, we demonstrated here that p120 displays an RNA:m5C- MTase activity, which restores m5C formation at position 2870 in domain V of 25S rRNA in a nop2Δ yeast strain. We also confirm that yeast proteins Nop2p and Rcm1p catalyze the formation of m5C in domains V and IV, respectively. In addition, we do not find any evidence of m5C residues in yeast 18S rRNA. We also performed functional complementation of Nop2-deficient yeasts by human p120 and studied the importance of different sequence and structural domains of Nop2 and p120 for yeast growth and m5C-MTase activity. Chimeric protein formed by Nop2 and p120 fragments revealed the importance of Nop2 N-terminal domain for correct protein localization and its cellular function. We also validated that the presence of Nop2, rather than the m5C modification in rRNA itself, is required for pre-rRNA processing. Our results corroborate that Nop2 belongs to the large family of pre-ribosomal proteins and possesses two related functions in pre-rRNA processing: as an essential factor for cleavages and m5C:RNA:modification. These results support the notion of quality control during ribosome synthesis by such modification enzymes. PMID:26196125

  4. A late-acting quality control process for mature eukaryotic rRNAs.

    PubMed

    LaRiviere, Frederick J; Cole, Sarah E; Ferullo, Daniel J; Moore, Melissa J

    2006-11-17

    Ribosome biogenesis is a multifaceted process involving a host of trans-acting factors mediating numerous chemical reactions, RNA conformational changes, and RNA-protein associations. Given this high degree of complexity, tight quality control is likely crucial to ensure structural and functional integrity of the end products. We demonstrate that ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs) containing individual point mutations, in either the 25S peptidyl transferase center or 18S decoding site, that adversely affect ribosome function are strongly downregulated in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This downregulation occurs via decreased stability of the mature rRNA contained in fully assembled ribosomes and ribosomal subunits. Thus, eukaryotes possess a quality-control mechanism, nonfunctional rRNA decay (NRD), capable of detecting and eliminating the rRNA component of mature ribosomes. PMID:17188037

  5. Magic wavelengths for the 5 s - 18 s transition in rubidium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldschmidt, Elizabeth; Norris, David; Koller, Silvio; Wyllie, Robert; Brown, Roger; Porto, Trey; Safronova, Ulyana; Safronova, Marianna

    2015-05-01

    Magic wavelengths, for which there is no differential ac Stark shift for the ground and excited state of the atom, allow trapping of excited Rydberg atoms without broadening the optical transition. This is an important tool for implementing quantum gates and other quantum information protocols with Rydberg atoms, and reliable theoretical methods to find such magic wavelengths are thus extremely useful. We use a high-precision all-order method to calculate magic wavelengths for the 5 s - 18 s transition of rubidium near the 18 s - 6 p resonances. We compare the calculation to experiment by measuring the light shift for atoms held in a crossed optical dipole trap with wavelength tuned around the 18 s - 6p3 / 2 resonance at the experimentally convenient wavelength of 1064 nm.

  6. Plastid 16S rRNA Gene Diversity among Eukaryotic Picophytoplankton Sorted by Flow Cytometry from the South Pacific Ocean

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Xiao Li; Lepère, Cécile; Scanlan, David J.; Vaulot, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    The genetic diversity of photosynthetic picoeukaryotes was investigated in the South East Pacific Ocean. Genetic libraries of the plastid 16S rRNA gene were constructed on picoeukaryote populations sorted by flow cytometry, using two different primer sets, OXY107F/OXY1313R commonly used to amplify oxygenic organisms, and PLA491F/OXY1313R, biased towards plastids of marine algae. Surprisingly, the two sets revealed quite different photosynthetic picoeukaryote diversity patterns, which were moreover different from what we previously reported using the 18S rRNA nuclear gene as a marker. The first 16S primer set revealed many sequences related to Pelagophyceae and Dictyochophyceae, the second 16S primer set was heavily biased toward Prymnesiophyceae, while 18S sequences were dominated by Prasinophyceae, Chrysophyceae and Haptophyta. Primer mismatches with major algal lineages is probably one reason behind this discrepancy. However, other reasons, such as DNA accessibility or gene copy numbers, may be also critical. Based on plastid 16S rRNA gene sequences, the structure of photosynthetic picoeukaryotes varied along the BIOSOPE transect vertically and horizontally. In oligotrophic regions, Pelagophyceae, Chrysophyceae, and Prymnesiophyceae dominated. Pelagophyceae were prevalent at the DCM depth and Chrysophyceae at the surface. In mesotrophic regions Pelagophyceae were still important but Chlorophyta contribution increased. Phylogenetic analysis revealed a new clade of Prasinophyceae (clade 16S-IX), which seems to be restricted to hyper-oligotrophic stations. Our data suggest that a single gene marker, even as widely used as 18S rRNA, provides a biased view of eukaryotic communities and that the use of several markers is necessary to obtain a complete image. PMID:21552558

  7. Molecular organization of the 25S-18S rDNA IGS of Fagus sylvatica and Quercus suber: a comparative analysis.

    PubMed

    Inácio, Vera; Rocheta, Margarida; Morais-Cecílio, Leonor

    2014-01-01

    The 35S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) units, repeated in tandem at one or more chromosomal loci, are separated by an intergenic spacer (IGS) containing functional elements involved in the regulation of transcription of downstream rRNA genes. In the present work, we have compared the IGS molecular organizations in two divergent species of Fagaceae, Fagus sylvatica and Quercus suber, aiming to comprehend the evolution of the IGS sequences within the family. Self- and cross-hybridization FISH was done on representative species of the Fagaceae. The IGS length variability and the methylation level of 18 and 25S rRNA genes were assessed in representatives of three genera of this family: Fagus, Quercus and Castanea. The intergenic spacers in Beech and Cork Oak showed similar overall organizations comprising putative functional elements needed for rRNA gene activity and containing a non-transcribed spacer (NTS), a promoter region, and a 5'-external transcribed spacer. In the NTS: the sub-repeats structure in Beech is more organized than in Cork Oak, sharing some short motifs which results in the lowest sequence similarity of the entire IGS; the AT-rich region differed in both spacers by a GC-rich block inserted in Cork Oak. The 5'-ETS is the region with the higher similarity, having nonetheless different lengths. FISH with the NTS-5'-ETS revealed fainter signals in cross-hybridization in agreement with the divergence between genera. The diversity of IGS lengths revealed variants from ∼ 2 kb in Fagus, and Quercus up to 5.3 kb in Castanea, and a lack of correlation between the number of variants and the number of rDNA loci in several species. Methylation of 25S Bam HI site was confirmed in all species and detected for the first time in the 18S of Q. suber and Q. faginea. These results provide important clues for the evolutionary trends of the rDNA 25S-18S IGS in the Fagaceae family. PMID:24893289

  8. Depletion of pre-16S rRNA in starved Escherichia coli cells.

    PubMed

    Cangelosi, G A; Brabant, W H

    1997-07-01

    Specific hybridization assays for intermediates in rRNA synthesis (pre-rRNA) may become useful for monitoring the growth activity of individual microbial species in complex natural systems. This possibility depends upon the assumption that rRNA processing in microbial cells continues after growth and pre-rRNA synthesis cease, resulting in drainage of the pre-rRNA pool. This is not the case in many eukaryotic cells, but less is known about the situation in bacteria. Therefore, we used DNA probes to measure steady-state cellular pre-16S rRNA pools during growth state transitions in Escherichia coli. Pre-16S rRNA became undetectable when cells entered the stationary phase on rich medium and was replenished upon restoration of favorable growth conditions. These fluctuations were of much greater magnitude than concurrent fluctuations in the mature 16S rRNA pool. The extent of pre-16S rRNA depletion depended upon the circumstances limiting growth. It was significantly more pronounced in carbon-energy-starved cells than in nitrogen-starved cells or in cells treated with energy uncouplers. In the presence of the transcriptional inhibitor rifampin, rates of pre-16S rRNA depletion in carbon-energy-starved cells and nitrogen-starved cells were similar, suggesting that the difference between these conditions resides primarily at the level of pre-rRNA synthesis. Chloramphenicol, which inhibits the final steps in rRNA maturation, halted pre-16S rRNA depletion under all conditions. The data show that E. coli cells continue to process pre-rRNA after growth and rrn operon transcription cease, leading to drainage of the pre-rRNA pool. This supports the feasibility of using pre-rRNA-targeted probes to monitor bacterial growth in natural systems, with the caveat that patterns of pre-rRNA depletion vary with the conditions limiting growth. PMID:9226253

  9. METAXA2: improved identification and taxonomic classification of small and large subunit rRNA in metagenomic data.

    PubMed

    Bengtsson-Palme, Johan; Hartmann, Martin; Eriksson, Karl Martin; Pal, Chandan; Thorell, Kaisa; Larsson, Dan Göran Joakim; Nilsson, Rolf Henrik

    2015-11-01

    The ribosomal rRNA genes are widely used as genetic markers for taxonomic identification of microbes. Particularly the small subunit (SSU; 16S/18S) rRNA gene is frequently used for species- or genus-level identification, but also the large subunit (LSU; 23S/28S) rRNA gene is employed in taxonomic assignment. The METAXA software tool is a popular utility for extracting partial rRNA sequences from large sequencing data sets and assigning them to an archaeal, bacterial, nuclear eukaryote, mitochondrial or chloroplast origin. This study describes a comprehensive update to METAXA - METAXA2 - that extends the capabilities of the tool, introducing support for the LSU rRNA gene, a greatly improved classifier allowing classification down to genus or species level, as well as enhanced support for short-read (100 bp) and paired-end sequences, among other changes. The performance of METAXA2 was compared to other commonly used taxonomic classifiers, showing that METAXA2 often outperforms previous methods in terms of making correct predictions while maintaining a low misclassification rate. METAXA2 is freely available from http://microbiology.se/software/metaxa2/. PMID:25732605

  10. Trans-splicing and RNA editing of LSU rRNA in Diplonema mitochondria

    PubMed Central

    Valach, Matus; Moreira, Sandrine; Kiethega, Georgette N.; Burger, Gertraud

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondrial ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs) often display reduced size and deviant secondary structure, and sometimes are fragmented, as are their corresponding genes. Here we report a mitochondrial large subunit rRNA (mt-LSU rRNA) with unprecedented features. In the protist Diplonema, the rnl gene is split into two pieces (modules 1 and 2, 534- and 352-nt long) that are encoded by distinct mitochondrial chromosomes, yet the rRNA is continuous. To reconstruct the post-transcriptional maturation pathway of this rRNA, we have catalogued transcript intermediates by deep RNA sequencing and RT-PCR. Gene modules are transcribed separately. Subsequently, transcripts are end-processed, the module-1 transcript is polyuridylated and the module-2 transcript is polyadenylated. The two modules are joined via trans-splicing that retains at the junction ∼26 uridines, resulting in an extent of insertion RNA editing not observed before in any system. The A-tail of trans-spliced molecules is shorter than that of mono-module 2, and completely absent from mitoribosome-associated mt-LSU rRNA. We also characterize putative antisense transcripts. Antisense-mono-modules corroborate bi-directional transcription of chromosomes. Antisense-mt-LSU rRNA, if functional, has the potential of guiding concomitantly trans-splicing and editing of this rRNA. Together, these findings open a window on the investigation of complex regulatory networks that orchestrate multiple and biochemically diverse post-transcriptional events. PMID:24259427

  11. Molecular analysis of the rRNA genes of Babesia spp and Ehrlichia canis detected in dogs from RibeirÃo Preto, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, L.P.; Cardozo, G.P.; Santos, E.V.; Mansur, M.A.B.; Donini, I.A.N.; Zissou, V.G.; Roberto, P.G.; Marins, M.

    2009-01-01

    The partial DNA sequences of the 18S rRNA gene of Babesia canis and the 16S rRNA gene of Ehrlichia canis detected in dogs from Ribeirão Preto, Brazil, were compared to sequences from other strains deposited in GenBank. The E. canis strain circulating in Ribeirão Preto is identical to other strains previously detected in the region, whereas the subspecies Babesia canis vogeli is the main Babesia strain circulating in dogs from Ribeirão Preto. PMID:24031351

  12. SIRT7-dependent deacetylation of the U3-55k protein controls pre-rRNA processing

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Sifan; Blank, Maximilian Felix; Iyer, Aishwarya; Huang, Bingding; Wang, Lin; Grummt, Ingrid; Voit, Renate

    2016-01-01

    SIRT7 is an NAD+-dependent protein deacetylase with important roles in ribosome biogenesis and cell proliferation. Previous studies have established that SIRT7 is associated with RNA polymerase I, interacts with pre-ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and promotes rRNA synthesis. Here we show that SIRT7 is also associated with small nucleolar RNP (snoRNPs) that are involved in pre-rRNA processing and rRNA maturation. Knockdown of SIRT7 impairs U3 snoRNA dependent early cleavage steps that are necessary for generation of 18S rRNA. Mechanistically, SIRT7 deacetylates U3-55k, a core component of the U3 snoRNP complex, and reversible acetylation of U3-55k modulates the association of U3-55k with U3 snoRNA. Deacetylation by SIRT7 enhances U3-55k binding to U3 snoRNA, which is a prerequisite for pre-rRNA processing. Under stress conditions, SIRT7 is released from nucleoli, leading to hyperacetylation of U3-55k and attenuation of pre-rRNA processing. The results reveal a multifaceted role of SIRT7 in ribosome biogenesis, regulating both transcription and processing of rRNA. PMID:26867678

  13. “Invisible” silver and gold in supergene digenite (Cu1.8S)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reich, Martin; Chryssoulis, Stephen L.; Deditius, Artur; Palacios, Carlos; Zúñiga, Alejandro; Weldt, Magdalena; Alvear, Macarena

    2010-11-01

    Despite its potential economic and environmental importance, the study of trace metals in supergene (secondary) Cu-sulfides has been seriously overlooked in the past decades. In this study, the concentration and mineralogical form of "invisible" precious metals (Ag, Au) and metalloids (As, Sb, Se, Te) in supergene digenite (Cu 1.8S) from various Cu deposits in the Atacama Desert of northern Chile, the world's premier Cu province, were determined in detail using a combination of microanalytical techniques. Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) and electron microprobe analyzer (EMPA) measurements reveal that, apart from hosting up to ˜11,000 ppm Ag, supergene digenite can incorporate up to part-per-million contents of Au (˜6 ppm) and associated metalloids such as As (˜300 ppm), Sb (˜60 ppm), Se (˜96 ppm) and Te (˜18 ppm). SIMS analyses of trace metals show that Ag and Au concentrations strongly correlate with As in supergene digenite, defining wedge-shaped zones in Ag-As and Au-As log-log spaces. SIMS depth profiling and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) observations reveal that samples with anomalously high Ag/As (>˜30) and Au/As (>˜0.03) ratios plot above the wedge zones and contain nanoparticles of metallic Ag and Au, while samples with lower ratios contain Ag and Au that is structurally bound to the Cu-sulfide matrix. The Ag-Au-As relations reported in this study strongly suggest that the incorporation of precious metals in Cu-sulfides formed under supergene, low-temperature conditions respond to the incorporation of a minor component, in this case As. Therefore, As might play a significant role by increasing the solubility of Ag and Au in supergene digenite and controlling the formation and occurrence of Ag and Au nanoparticles. Considering the fact that processes of supergene enrichment in Cu deposits can be active from tens of millions of years (e.g. Atacama Desert), we conclude that supergene digenite may play a previously

  14. PCR Primers for Metazoan Nuclear 18S and 28S Ribosomal DNA Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Machida, Ryuji J.; Knowlton, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    Background Metagenetic analyses, which amplify and sequence target marker DNA regions from environmental samples, are increasingly employed to assess the biodiversity of communities of small organisms. Using this approach, our understanding of microbial diversity has expanded greatly. In contrast, only a few studies using this approach to characterize metazoan diversity have been reported, despite the fact that many metazoan species are small and difficult to identify or are undescribed. One of the reasons for this discrepancy is the availability of universal primers for the target taxa. In microbial studies, analysis of the 16S ribosomal DNA is standard. In contrast, the best gene for metazoan metagenetics is less clear. In the present study, we have designed primers that amplify the nuclear 18S and 28S ribosomal DNA sequences of most metazoan species with the goal of providing effective approaches for metagenetic analyses of metazoan diversity in environmental samples, with a particular emphasis on marine biodiversity. Methodology/Principal Findings Conserved regions suitable for designing PCR primers were identified using 14,503 and 1,072 metazoan sequences of the nuclear 18S and 28S rDNA regions, respectively. The sequence similarity of both these newly designed and the previously reported primers to the target regions of these primers were compared for each phylum to determine the expected amplification efficacy. The nucleotide diversity of the flanking regions of the primers was also estimated for genera or higher taxonomic groups of 11 phyla to determine the variable regions within the genes. Conclusions/Significance The identified nuclear ribosomal DNA primers (five primer pairs for 18S and eleven for 28S) and the results of the nucleotide diversity analyses provide options for primer combinations for metazoan metagenetic analyses. Additionally, advantages and disadvantages of not only the 18S and 28S ribosomal DNA, but also other marker regions as targets

  15. Thermus thermophilus 16S rRNA is transcribed from an isolated transcription unit.

    PubMed Central

    Hartmann, R K; Erdmann, V A

    1989-01-01

    A cloned 16S rRNA gene from the extreme thermophilic eubacterium Thermus thermophilus HB8 was used to characterize the in vivo expression of the 16S rRNA genes in this organism by nuclease S1 mapping. The gene represents an isolated transcription unit encoding solely 16S rRNA. Under exponential growth conditions, transcription was initiated at a single promoter, which represents the structural equivalent of Escherichia coli rrn P2 promoters. The promoter-leader region was very similar to the E. coli rrn P2 promoter-leader segment that is responsible for antitermination. The T. thermophilus leader region was approximately 85 nucleotides shorter than its E. coli P2 counterpart. Potential processing intermediates were correlated with a proposed secondary structure of T. thermophilus pre-16S rRNA. Images PMID:2722737

  16. An Archaea 5S rRNA analog is stably expressed in Escherichia coli

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Y.; Fox, G. E.

    1996-01-01

    Mini-genes for 5S-like rRNA were constructed. These genes had a sequence which largely resembles that of the naturally occurring 5S rRNA of a bacterium, Halococcus morrhuae, which phylogenetically belongs to the Archaea. Plasmids carrying the mini-genes were transformed into Escherichia coli (Ec). Ribosomal incorporation was not a prerequisite for stable accumulation of the RNA product. However, only those constructs with a well-base-paired helix I accumulated RNA product. This result strongly implies that this aspect of the structure is likely to be an important condition for stabilizing 5S rRNA-like products. The results are consistent with our current understanding of 5S rRNA processing in Ec. When used in conjunction with rRNA probe technology, the resulting chimeric RNA may be useful as a monitoring tool for genetically engineered microorganisms or naturally occurring organisms that are released into the environment.

  17. Identification of a potential fungal species by 18S rDNA for ligninases production.

    PubMed

    Ferhan, M; Santos, S N; Melo, I S; Yan, N; Sain, M

    2013-12-01

    Fungal species for ligninases production was investigated by 18S ribosomal DNA sequence analysis. Two primer sets were chosen to amplify a major part of the 18S rDNA, which resulted in intense PCR product of approximately 550-820 bp in size per sample. The results suggest that the 18S rDNA-based approach is a useful tool for identification of unknown potential fungal species for ligninases production. The isolated fungal species produces mainly manganese peroxidase (MnP). The enzyme oxidized a variety of the usual MnP substrates, including lignin related polyphenols. Time course studies showed that maximum production of ligninolytic enzymes MnP (64 IU L⁻¹), lignin peroxidase (26.35 IU L⁻¹), and laccase (5.44 IU L⁻¹), respectively, were achieved after 10 days of cultivation under optimum conditions. Furthermore, the biological decolorization of Remazol Brilliant Blue R dye following 10 days of cultivation was 94 %. NCBI BLAST was used to search for closest matched sequences in the GenBank database and based on sequence homology the first BLAST hit was Dothioraceae sp. LM572 with accession number EF060858.1. PMID:23744034

  18. Phylogeny of the Eustigmatophyceae Based upon 18S rDNA, with Emphasis on Nannochloropsis.

    PubMed

    Andersen, R A; Brett, R W; Potter, D; Sexton, J P

    1998-02-01

    Complete 18S rDNA sequences were determined for 25 strains representing five genera of the Eustigmatophyceae, including re-examination of three strains with previously published sequences. Parsimony analysis of these and 44 published sequences for other heterokont chromophytes (unalignable sites removed) revealed that the Eustigmatophyceae were a monophyletic group. Analysis of eustigmatophyte taxa only (complete gene analyzed) supported the current familial classification scheme. Twenty one strains of Nannochloropsis were also examined using light microscopy. Gross morphology of cells was variable and overlapped among the strains; cell size was consistent within strains but sometimes varied considerably among strains of a species. The 18S rDNA of N. gaditana, N. oculata and N. salina was re-sequenced for strains used in previous publications and one or more nucleotide differences were found. Nucleotide sequences for Nannochloropsis species varied by up to 32 nucleotides. Identical sequences were found for six strains of N. salina, five strains of N. gadifana, four strains of N. granulata, and two strains of N. oculata, respectively. Four strains could not be assigned to described species and may represent two new species. The unique 18S rDNA sequences for each sibling species of Nannochloropsis demonstrates the presence of considerable genetic diversity despite the extremely simple morphology in this genus. PMID:23196114

  19. The phylogenetic relationships of Rhodosporidium dacryoidum Fell, Hunter et Tallman based on the partial sequences of 18S and 26S ribosomal RNAs: the proposal of Sakaguchia gen. nov., a heterobasidiomycetous yeast genus.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Y; Maeda, K; Mikata, K

    1994-01-01

    The partial base sequences of 18S and 26S rRNAs of Rhodosporidium fluviale, R. lusitaniae, and Erythrobasidium hasegawianum were analyzed. In the 26S rRNA partial base sequencings, R. fluviale CBS 6568 and R. lusitaniae IGC 4599 and IGC 4641 had 81-82 and 77 percent similarities compared with R. toruloides (type species of genus Rhodosporidium) IFO 0559 and IFO 0880. Erythrobasidium hasegawianum IFO 1058 showed 69-71, 59, 63, and 61 percent similarities with R. toruloides IFO 0559 and IFO 0880, L. scottii (type species of genus Leucosporidium) IFO 1923, R. dacryoidum IFO 1930 and IFO 1931, and Kondoa malvinella IFO 1936, respectively. In the 18S rRNA partial base sequencings, R. fluviale CBS 6568 and R. lusitaniae IGC 4599 and IGC 4641 had zero and two base differences with R. toruloides. Erythrobasidium hasegawianum IFO 1058 showed ten, sixteen, three, and twenty base differences with R. toruloides IFO 0559 and IFO 0880, L. scottii IFO 1923, R. dacryoidum IFO 1930 and IFO 1931, and K. malvinella IFO 1936, respectively. Based on the sequence data obtained, a new genus, Sakaguchia was proposed for R. dacryoidum with a new combination, Sakaguchia dacryoides. PMID:7765151

  20. Variable rRNA gene copies in extreme halobacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Sanz, J.L.; Marin, I.; Ramirez, L.; Amils, R. ); Abad, J.P.; Smith, C.L. )

    1988-08-25

    Using PFG electrophoresis techniques, the authors have examined the organization of rRNA gene in halobacterium species. The results show that the organization of rRNA genes among closely related halobacteria is quite heterogeneous. This contrasts with the high degree of conservation of rRNA sequence. The possible mechanism of such rRNA gene amplification and its evolutionary implications are discussed.

  1. Use of rRNA gene restriction patterns to evaluate lactic acid bacterium contamination of vacuum-packaged sliced cooked whole-meat product in a meat processing plant.

    PubMed Central

    Björkroth, K J; Korkeala, H J

    1997-01-01

    Molecular typing was applied to an in-plant lactic acid bacterium (LAB) contamination analysis of a vacuum-packaged sliced cooked whole-meat product. A total of 982 LAB isolates from the raw mass, product, and the environment at different production stages were screened by restriction endonuclease (EcoRI and HindIII) analysis. rRNA gene restriction patterns were further determined for different strains obtained from each source. These patterns were used for recognizing the spoilage-causing LAB strains from the product on the sell-by day and tracing the sources and sites of spoilage LAB contamination during the manufacture. LAB typing resulted in 71 different ribotypes, of which 27 were associated with contamination routes. Raw material was distinguished as the source of the major spoilage strains. Contamination of the product surfaces after cooking was shown to be airborne. The removal of the product from the cooking forms was localized as a major site of airborne LAB contamination. Food handlers and some surfaces in contact with the product during the manufacture were also contaminated with the spoilage strains. Some LAB strains were also able to resist cooking in the core of the product bar. These strains may have an effect on the product shelf life by contaminating the slicing machine. The air in the slicing department and adjacent cold room contained very few LAB. Surface-mediated contamination was detected during the slicing and packaging stages. Food handlers also carried strains later found in the packaged product. Molecular typing provided useful information revealing the LAB contamination sources and sites of this product. The production line will be reorganized in accordance with these results to reduce spoilage LAB contamination. PMID:9023922

  2. Arabidopsis Chloroplast Mini-Ribonuclease III Participates in rRNA Maturation and Intron Recycling

    PubMed Central

    Hotto, Amber M.; Castandet, Benoît; Gilet, Laetitia; Higdon, Andrea; Condon, Ciarán; Stern, David B.

    2015-01-01

    RNase III proteins recognize double-stranded RNA structures and catalyze endoribonucleolytic cleavages that often regulate gene expression. Here, we characterize the functions of RNC3 and RNC4, two Arabidopsis thaliana chloroplast Mini-RNase III-like enzymes sharing 75% amino acid sequence identity. Whereas rnc3 and rnc4 null mutants have no visible phenotype, rnc3/rnc4 (rnc3/4) double mutants are slightly smaller and chlorotic compared with the wild type. In Bacillus subtilis, the RNase Mini-III is integral to 23S rRNA maturation. In Arabidopsis, we observed imprecise maturation of 23S rRNA in the rnc3/4 double mutant, suggesting that exoribonucleases generated staggered ends in the absence of specific Mini-III-catalyzed cleavages. A similar phenotype was found at the 3′ end of the 16S rRNA, and the primary 4.5S rRNA transcript contained 3′ extensions, suggesting that Mini-III catalyzes several processing events of the polycistronic rRNA precursor. The rnc3/4 mutant showed overaccumulation of a noncoding RNA complementary to the 4.5S-5S rRNA intergenic region, and its presence correlated with that of the extended 4.5S rRNA precursor. Finally, we found rnc3/4-specific intron degradation intermediates that are probable substrates for Mini-III and show that B. subtilis Mini-III is also involved in intron regulation. Overall, this study extends our knowledge of the key role of Mini-III in intron and noncoding RNA regulation and provides important insight into plastid rRNA maturation. PMID:25724636

  3. Accurate taxonomy assignments from 16S rRNA sequences produced by highly parallel pyrosequencers

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zongzhi; DeSantis, Todd Z.; Andersen, Gary L.; Knight, Rob

    2008-01-01

    The recent introduction of massively parallel pyrosequencers allows rapid, inexpensive analysis of microbial community composition using 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) sequences. However, a major challenge is to design a workflow so that taxonomic information can be accurately and rapidly assigned to each read, so that the composition of each community can be linked back to likely ecological roles played by members of each species, genus, family or phylum. Here, we use three large 16S rRNA datasets to test whether taxonomic information based on the full-length sequences can be recaptured by short reads that simulate the pyrosequencer outputs. We find that different taxonomic assignment methods vary radically in their ability to recapture the taxonomic information in full-length 16S rRNA sequences: most methods are sensitive to the region of the 16S rRNA gene that is targeted for sequencing, but many combinations of methods and rRNA regions produce consistent and accurate results. To process large datasets of partial 16S rRNA sequences obtained from surveys of various microbial communities, including those from human body habitats, we recommend the use of Greengenes or RDP classifier with fragments of at least 250 bases, starting from one of the primers R357, R534, R798, F343 or F517. PMID:18723574

  4. Eukaryote-specific rRNA expansion segments function in ribosome biogenesis.

    PubMed

    Ramesh, Madhumitha; Woolford, John L

    2016-08-01

    The secondary structure of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) is largely conserved across all kingdoms of life. However, eukaryotes have evolved extra blocks of rRNA sequences, relative to those of prokaryotes, called expansion segments (ES). A thorough characterization of the potential roles of ES remains to be done, possibly because of limitations in the availability of robust systems to study rRNA mutants. We sought to systematically investigate the potential functions, if any, of the ES in 25S rRNA of Saccharomyces cerevisiae by deletion mutagenesis. We deleted 14 of the 16 different eukaryote-specific ES in yeast 25S rRNA individually and assayed their phenotypes. Our results show that all but two of the ES tested are necessary for optimal growth and are required for production of 25S rRNA, suggesting that ES play roles in ribosome biogenesis. Further, we classified expansion segments into groups that participate in early nucleolar, middle, and late nucleoplasmic steps of ribosome biogenesis, by assaying their pre-rRNA processing phenotypes. This study is the first of its kind to systematically identify the functions of eukaryote-specific expansion segments by showing that they play roles in specific steps of ribosome biogenesis. The catalog of phenotypes we identified, combined with previous investigations of the roles ribosomal proteins in large subunit biogenesis, leads us to infer that assembling ribosomes are composed of distinct RNA and protein structural neighborhood clusters that participate in specific steps of ribosome biogenesis. PMID:27317789

  5. Magic wavelengths for the 5 s -18 s transition in rubidium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldschmidt, E. A.; Norris, D. G.; Koller, S. B.; Wyllie, R.; Brown, R. C.; Porto, J. V.; Safronova, U. I.; Safronova, M. S.

    2015-03-01

    Magic wavelengths, for which there is no differential ac Stark shift for the ground and excited state of the atom, allow trapping of excited Rydberg atoms without broadening the optical transition. This is an important tool for implementing quantum gates and other quantum information protocols with Rydberg atoms, and reliable theoretical methods to find such magic wavelengths are thus extremely useful. We use a high-precision all-order method to calculate magic wavelengths for the 5 s -18 s transition of rubidium, and compare the calculation to experiment by measuring the light shift for atoms held in an optical dipole trap at a range of wavelengths near a calculated magic value.

  6. Phylogenetic relationships among higher Nemertean (Nemertea) Taxa inferred from 18S rDNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Sundberg, P; Turbeville, J M; Lindh, S

    2001-09-01

    We estimated the phylogenetic relationships of 15 nemertean (phylum Nemertea) species from the four subclasses Hoplo-, Hetero-, Palaeo-, and Bdellonemertea with 18S rDNA sequence data. Three outgroup taxa were used for rooting: Annelida, Platyhelminthes, and Mollusca. Parsimony and maximum-likelihood analyses supported the monophyletic status of the Heteronemertea and a taxon consisting of hoplonemerteans and Bdellonemertea, while indicating that Palaeonemertea is paraphyletic. The monophyletic status of the two nemertean classes Anopla and Enopla is not supported by the data. The unambiguous clades are well supported, as assessed by a randomization test (bootstrapping) and branch support values. PMID:11527461

  7. Analysis of environmental 18S ribosomal RNA sequences reveals unknown diversity of the cosmopolitan phylum Telonemia.

    PubMed

    Shalchian-Tabrizi, Kamran; Kauserud, Håvard; Massana, Ramon; Klaveness, Dag; Jakobsen, Kjetill S

    2007-04-01

    Telonemia has recently been described as a new eukaryotic phylum with uncertain evolutionary origin. So far, only two Telonemia species, Telonema subtilis and Telonema antarcticum, have been described, but there are substantial variations in size and morphology among Telonema isolates and field observations, indicating a hidden diversity of Telonemia-like species and populations. In this study, we investigated the diversity and the global distribution of this group by analyzing 18S rDNA sequences from marine environmental clone libraries published in GenBank as well as several unpublished sequences from the Indian Ocean. Phylogenetic analyses of the identified sequences suggest that the Telonemia phylum includes several undescribed 18S rDNA phylotypes, probably corresponding to a number of different species and/or populations. The Telonemia phylotypes form two main groups, here referred to as Telonemia Groups 1 and 2. Some of the closely related sequences originate from separate oceans, indicating worldwide distributions of various Telonemia phylotypes, while other phylotypes seem to have limited geographical distribution. Further investigations of the evolutionary relationships within Telonemia should be conducted on isolated cultures of Telonema-like strains using multi-locus sequencing and morphological data. PMID:17196879

  8. Nucleolin is required for DNA methylation state and the expression of rRNA gene variants in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Pontvianne, Frédéric; Abou-Ellail, Mohamed; Douet, Julien; Comella, Pascale; Matia, Isabel; Chandrasekhara, Chinmayi; Debures, Anne; Blevins, Todd; Cooke, Richard; Medina, Francisco J; Tourmente, Sylvette; Pikaard, Craig S; Sáez-Vásquez, Julio

    2010-11-01

    In eukaryotes, 45S rRNA genes are arranged in tandem arrays in copy numbers ranging from several hundred to several thousand in plants. Although it is clear that not all copies are transcribed under normal growth conditions, the molecular basis controlling the expression of specific sets of rRNA genes remains unclear. Here, we report four major rRNA gene variants in Arabidopsis thaliana. Interestingly, while transcription of one of these rRNA variants is induced, the others are either repressed or remain unaltered in A. thaliana plants with a disrupted nucleolin-like protein gene (Atnuc-L1). Remarkably, the most highly represented rRNA gene variant, which is inactive in WT plants, is reactivated in Atnuc-L1 mutants. We show that accumulated pre-rRNAs originate from RNA Pol I transcription and are processed accurately. Moreover, we show that disruption of the AtNUC-L1 gene induces loss of symmetrical DNA methylation without affecting histone epigenetic marks at rRNA genes. Collectively, these data reveal a novel mechanism for rRNA gene transcriptional regulation in which the nucleolin protein plays a major role in controlling active and repressed rRNA gene variants in Arabidopsis. PMID:21124873

  9. Nucleolin Is Required for DNA Methylation State and the Expression of rRNA Gene Variants in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Pontvianne, Frédéric; Abou-Ellail, Mohamed; Douet, Julien; Comella, Pascale; Matia, Isabel; Chandrasekhara, Chinmayi; DeBures, Anne; Blevins, Todd; Cooke, Richard; Medina, Francisco J.; Tourmente, Sylvette; Pikaard, Craig S.; Sáez-Vásquez, Julio

    2010-01-01

    In eukaryotes, 45S rRNA genes are arranged in tandem arrays in copy numbers ranging from several hundred to several thousand in plants. Although it is clear that not all copies are transcribed under normal growth conditions, the molecular basis controlling the expression of specific sets of rRNA genes remains unclear. Here, we report four major rRNA gene variants in Arabidopsis thaliana. Interestingly, while transcription of one of these rRNA variants is induced, the others are either repressed or remain unaltered in A. thaliana plants with a disrupted nucleolin-like protein gene (Atnuc-L1). Remarkably, the most highly represented rRNA gene variant, which is inactive in WT plants, is reactivated in Atnuc-L1 mutants. We show that accumulated pre–rRNAs originate from RNA Pol I transcription and are processed accurately. Moreover, we show that disruption of the AtNUC-L1 gene induces loss of symmetrical DNA methylation without affecting histone epigenetic marks at rRNA genes. Collectively, these data reveal a novel mechanism for rRNA gene transcriptional regulation in which the nucleolin protein plays a major role in controlling active and repressed rRNA gene variants in Arabidopsis. PMID:21124873

  10. Spectral sensitivity of p-Cu{sub 1.8}S/n{sup -}-ZnS/n-(II-VI) heterostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Komaschenko, V. N. Kolezhuk, K. V.; Yaroshenko, N. V.; Sheremetova, G. I.; Bobrenko, Yu. N.

    2006-03-15

    Photosensitivity of multilayered p-Cu{sub 1.8}S/n{sup -}-(II-VI)/n-(II-VI) heterostructures beyond the fundamental-absorption edge of the wide-gap component is studied experimentally, and a simple model is suggested as an explanation of this photosensitivity. It is established that an effective method for reducing the photosensitivity of the structures beyond the ultraviolet spectral region consists in decreasing the probability of dominant tunneling processes, by increasing the thickness of the wide-gap layer, giving rise to a blocking barrier for photogenerated minority charge carriers. It is shown that the p-Cu{sub 1.8}S/n{sup -}-ZnS/n-CdSe heterostructures are promising for the development of efficient 'solar-blind' detectors of ultraviolet radiation.

  11. Mutations of mitochondrial 12S rRNA in gastric carcinoma and their significance

    PubMed Central

    Han, Cheng-Bo; Ma, Jia-Ming; Xin, Yan; Mao, Xiao-Yun; Zhao, Yu-Jie; Wu, Dong-Ying; Zhang, Su-Min; Zhang, Yu-Kui

    2005-01-01

    . During the process from normality to dysplasia, then to carcinoma, 12S rRNA tends to convert from homoplasmy (wild type) to heteroplasmy, then to homoplasmy (mutant type, np717 T-G). PMID:15609392

  12. The rRNA evolution and procaryotic phylogeny

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, G. E.

    1986-01-01

    Studies of ribosomal RNA primary structure allow reconstruction of phylogenetic trees for prokaryotic organisms. Such studies reveal major dichotomy among the bacteria that separates them into eubacteria and archaebacteria. Both groupings are further segmented into several major divisions. The results obtained from 5S rRNA sequences are essentially the same as those obtained with the 16S rRNA data. In the case of Gram negative bacteria the ribosomal RNA sequencing results can also be directly compared with hybridization studies and cytochrome c sequencing studies. There is again excellent agreement among the several methods. It seems likely then that the overall picture of microbial phylogeny that is emerging from the RNA sequence studies is a good approximation of the true history of these organisms. The RNA data allow examination of the evolutionary process in a semi-quantitative way. The secondary structures of these RNAs are largely established. As a result it is possible to recognize examples of local structural evolution. Evolutionary pathways accounting for these events can be proposed and their probability can be assessed.

  13. rRNA genes from the lower chordate Herdmania momus: structural similarity with higher eukaryotes.

    PubMed Central

    Degnan, B M; Yan, J; Hawkins, C J; Lavin, M F

    1990-01-01

    Ascidians, primitive chordates that have retained features of the likely progenitors to all vertebrates, are a useful model to study the evolutionary relationship of chordates to other animals. We have selected the well characterized ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes to investigate this relationship, and we describe here the cloning and characterization of an entire ribosomal DNA (rDNA) tandem repeat unit from a lower chordate, the ascidian Herdmania momus. rDNA copy number and considerable sequence differences were observed between two H. momus populations. Comparison of rDNA primary sequence and rRNA secondary structures from H. momus with those from other well characterized organisms, demonstrated that the ascidians are more closely related to other chordates than invertebrates. The rDNA tandem repeat makes up a larger percentage (7%) of the genome of this animal than in other higher eukaryotes. The total length of the spacer and transcribed region in H. momus rDNA is small compared to most higher eukaryotes, being less than 8 kb, and the intergenic spacer region consists of smaller internal repeats. Comparative analysis of rDNA sequences has allowed the construction of secondary structures for the 18S, 5.8S and 26S rRNAs. Images PMID:2263465

  14. Molecular phylogeny of labyrinthulids and thraustochytrids based on the sequencing of 18S ribosomal RNA gene.

    PubMed

    Honda, D; Yokochi, T; Nakahara, T; Raghukumar, S; Nakagiri, A; Schaumann, K; Higashihara, T

    1999-01-01

    Labyrinthulids and thraustochytrids are unicellular heterotrophs, formerly considered as fungi, but presently are recognized as members in the stramenopiles of the kingdom Protista sensu lato. We determined the 18S ribosomal RNA gene sequences of 14 strains from different species of the six genera and analyzed the molecular phylogenetic relationships. The results conflict with the current classification based on morphology, at the genus and species levels. These organisms are separated, based on signature sequences and unique inserted sequences, into two major groups, which were named the labyrinthulid phylogenetic group and the thraustochytrid phylogenetic group. Although these groupings are in disagreement with many conventional taxonomic characters, they correlated better with the sugar composition of the cell wall. Thus, the currently used taxonomic criteria need serious reconsideration. PMID:10568038

  15. The phylogenetic position of Rhopalura ophiocomae (Orthonectida) based on 18S ribosomal DNA sequence analysis.

    PubMed

    Hanelt, B; Van Schyndel, D; Adema, C M; Lewis, L A; Loker, E S

    1996-11-01

    The Orthonectida is a small, poorly known phylum of parasites of marine invertebrates. Their phylogenetic placement is obscure; they have been considered to be multicellular protozoans, primitive animals at a "mesozoan" grade of organization, or secondarily simplified flatworm-like organisms. The best known species in the phylum, Rhopalura ophiocomae, was collected on San Juan Island, Wash. and a complete 18S rDNA sequence was obtained. Using the models of minimum evolution and parsimony, phylogenetic analyses were undertaken and the results lend support to the following hypotheses about orthonectids: (1) orthonectids are more closely aligned with triploblastic metazoan taxa than with the protist or diploblastic metazoan taxa considered in this analysis; (2) orthonectids are not derived members of the phylum Platyhelminthes; and (3) orthonectids and rhombozoans are not each other's closest relatives, thus casting further doubt on the validity of the phylum Mesozoa previously used to encompass both groups. PMID:8896370

  16. 18S rDNA dataset profiling microeukaryotic populations within Chicago area nearshore waters

    PubMed Central

    Searle, Daniel; Sible, Emily; Cooper, Alexandria; Putonti, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Despite their critical role in the aquatic food web and nutrient cycling, microeukaryotes within freshwater environments are under-studied. Herein we present the first high-throughput molecular survey of microeukaryotes within Lake Michigan. Every two weeks from May 13 to August 5, 2014, we collected surface water samples from the nearshore waters of four Chicago area beaches: Gillson Park, Montrose Beach, 57th Street Beach, and Calumet Beach. Four biological replicates were collected for each sampling date and location, resulting in 112 samples. Eighty-nine of these samples were surveyed through targeted sequencing of the V7 and V8 regions of the 18S rDNA gene. Both technical and biological replicates were sequenced and are included in this dataset. Raw sequence data is available via NCBI’s SRA database (BioProject PRJNA294919). PMID:26904716

  17. 18S rDNA polymerase chain reaction and sequencing in onychomycosis diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Walberg, Mette; Mørk, Cato; Sandven, Per; Jorde, Anne Tomine; Bjørås, Magnar; Gaustad, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Diagnostic approaches to onychomycosis have traditionally been based on a combination of culture and microscopy. In the present study clinical specimens from 346 patients with suspected onychomycosis were analysed by 18S polymerase chain reaction (detection) followed by sequencing and subsequent database search (identification) in parallel with routine culture on agar (detection and identification). In 49 samples Trichophyton rubrum was identified by culture and sequencing. In 67 additional culture negative samples, a positive dermatophyte sequence was obtained (T. rubrum in 54, T. mentagrophytes in 5, and T. species in 8 samples). Fifteen samples cultured positive while no sequence was obtained. Two hundred and seven samples were negative by culture as well as by sequencing. Nails from 10 healthy controls were negative by culture and sequencing. In conclusion, the number of specimens that were positive by polymerase chain reaction was more than double the number that were positive by culture alone. PMID:16710579

  18. A variant of Plasmodium ovale; analysis of its 18S ribosomal RNA gene sequence.

    PubMed

    Miyake, H; Suwa, S; Kimura, M; Wataya, Y

    1997-01-01

    We report here a new variant of human malaria parasite found by comparison of diagnostic results obtained from a new DNA diagnostic method named microtiter plate-hybridization (MPH) and traditional microscopic method. Total five cases of malaria were diagnosed as microscopy-positive but MPH-negative; one case was found in epidemiological research in Vietnam and four cases were obtained from imported malaria in Japan. Although they were quite similar to typical P. ovale morphologically in microscopy, sequence analysis of PCR-amplified DNA fragment revealed that their 18S ribosomal RNA gene sequence was different from published sequence of P. ovale. Combination of MPH and microscopic examination provides us a new method for detection of a new type of malaria parasite which is difficult to distinguish morphologically. PMID:9586115

  19. 18S rDNA dataset profiling microeukaryotic populations within Chicago area nearshore waters.

    PubMed

    Searle, Daniel; Sible, Emily; Cooper, Alexandria; Putonti, Catherine

    2016-03-01

    Despite their critical role in the aquatic food web and nutrient cycling, microeukaryotes within freshwater environments are under-studied. Herein we present the first high-throughput molecular survey of microeukaryotes within Lake Michigan. Every two weeks from May 13 to August 5, 2014, we collected surface water samples from the nearshore waters of four Chicago area beaches: Gillson Park, Montrose Beach, 57th Street Beach, and Calumet Beach. Four biological replicates were collected for each sampling date and location, resulting in 112 samples. Eighty-nine of these samples were surveyed through targeted sequencing of the V7 and V8 regions of the 18S rDNA gene. Both technical and biological replicates were sequenced and are included in this dataset. Raw sequence data is available via NCBI's SRA database (BioProject PRJNA294919). PMID:26904716

  20. Large-subunit rRNA sequence of the chytridiomycete Blastocladiella emersonii, and implications for the evolution of zoosporic fungi.

    PubMed

    Van der Auwera, G; De Wachter, R

    1996-11-01

    The 5.8S and 28S ribosomal RNA sequences of the chytridiomycete Blastocladiella emersonii were determined. These data were combined with 18S rRNA sequences in order to carry out a phylogenetic analysis based on distance matrix, parsimony, and maximum likelihood methods. The new data confirmed that chytridiomycetes are true fungi and not protists, as was already suggested on the basis of biochemical, ultrastructural, and 18S rRNA data. Within the fungal clade, B. emersonii formed the first line of divergence. The position of the fungi within the eukaryotic "crown" taxa was also reassessed, and the alveolate-stramenopile cluster appeared as their sister group. The stramenopiles also comprise a number of zoosporic fungi, which resemble chytridiomycetes in so many respects, e.g., production of motile spores, thallus morphology, and absorptive nutrition, that they have been classified together with them in the past. This suggests that the possible common ancestor of the fungi, stramenopiles, and alveolates may have been a zoosporic fungus, which would mean that zoosporic fungi are paraphyletic instead of polyphyletic as previously suggested. PMID:8875862

  1. Chromosome Mapping of 18S Ribosomal RNA Genes in Eleven Hypostomus Species (Siluriformes, Loricariidae): Diversity Analysis of the Sites.

    PubMed

    Rubert, Marceléia; da Rosa, Renata; Zawadzki, Claudio H; Mariotto, Sandra; Moreira-Filho, Orlando; Giuliano-Caetano, Lucia

    2016-08-01

    We investigated the chromosomal distribution of 18S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) in different populations of 11 species of Hypostomus collected in important Brazilian basins, namely South Atlantic, Upper Paraná, and Paraguay applying the fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Hypostomus cochliodon, Hypostomus commersoni, Hypostomus hermanni, Hypostomus regani, Hypostomus albopunctatus, Hypostomus paulinus, Hypostomus aff. paulinus, Hypostomus iheringii, and Hypostomus mutucae presented multiple 18S rDNA sites while Hypostomus strigaticeps and Hypostomus nigromaculatus exhibited a single pair of chromosomes with 18S rDNA sites. The studied species presented variations in the number and position of these sites. The results accomplished were similar to those obtained by the analysis of AgNORs, revealing the same interspecific variability. Each species exhibited distinctive patterns of AgNOR and 18S rDNA distribution, which can be considered cytogenetic markers in each species of the genus and help improve the discussions on the phylogeny of the group. PMID:27192329

  2. A Mutation in the 16S rRNA Decoding Region Attenuates the Virulence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Shinya; Matsumura, Kazunori; Iwai, Hiroki; Funatogawa, Keiji; Haishima, Yuji; Fukui, Chie; Okumura, Kayo; Kato-Miyazawa, Masako; Hashimoto, Masahito; Teramoto, Kanae; Kirikae, Fumiko; Miyoshi-Akiyama, Tohru; Kirikae, Teruo

    2016-08-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis contains a single rRNA operon that encodes targets for antituberculosis agents, including kanamycin. To date, only four mutations in the kanamycin binding sites of 16S rRNA have been reported in kanamycin-resistant clinical isolates. We hypothesized that another mutation(s) in the region may dramatically decrease M. tuberculosis viability and virulence. Here, we describe an rRNA mutation, U1406A, which was generated in vitro and confers resistance to kanamycin while highly attenuating M. tuberculosis virulence. The mutant showed decreased expression of 20% (n = 361) of mycobacterial proteins, including central metabolic enzymes, mycolic acid biosynthesis enzymes, and virulence factors such as antigen 85 complexes and ESAT-6. The mutation also induced three proteins, including KsgA (Rv1010; 16S rRNA adenine dimethyltransferase), which closely bind to the U1406A mutation site on the ribosome; these proteins were associated with ribosome maturation and translation initiation processes. The mutant showed an increase in 17S rRNA (precursor 16S rRNA) and a decrease in the ratio of 30S subunits to the 70S ribosomes, suggesting that the U1406A mutation in 16S rRNA attenuated M. tuberculosis virulence by affecting these processes. PMID:27245411

  3. Pro-resolving actions and stereoselective biosynthesis of 18S E-series resolvins in human leukocytes and murine inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Sungwhan F.; Pillai, Padmini S.; Recchiuti, Antonio; Yang, Rong; Serhan, Charles N.

    2011-01-01

    E-series resolvins are antiinflammatory and pro-resolving lipid mediators derived from the ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) that actively clear inflammation to promote tissue homeostasis. Aspirin, in addition to exerting antithrombotic actions, also triggers the biosynthesis of these specialized pro-resolving mediators. Here, we used metabolomic profiling to investigate the biosynthesis of E-series resolvins with specific chiral chemistry in serum from human subjects and present evidence for new 18S series resolvins. Aspirin increased endogenous formation of 18S-hydroxyeicosapentaenoate (18S-HEPE) compared with 18R-HEPE, a known resolvin precursor. Human recombinant 5-lipoxygenase used both enantiomers as substrates, and recombinant LTA4 hydrolase (LTA4H) converted chiral 5S(6)-epoxide–containing intermediates to resolvin E1 and 18S-resolvin E1 (RvE1 and 18S-RvE1, respectively). 18S-RvE1 bound to the leukocyte GPCRs ChemR23 and BLT1 with increased affinity and potency compared with the R-epimer, but was more rapidly inactivated than RvE1 by dehydrogenase. Like RvE1, 18S-RvE1 enhanced macrophage phagocytosis of zymosan, E. coli, and apoptotic neutrophils and reduced both neutrophil infiltration and proinflammatory cytokines in murine peritonitis. These results demonstrate two parallel stereospecific pathways in the biosynthesis of E-series resolvins, 18R- and 18S-, which are antiinflammatory, pro-resolving, and non-phlogistic and may contribute to the beneficial actions of aspirin and ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. PMID:21206090

  4. Decreases in average bacterial community rRNA operon copy number during succession.

    PubMed

    Nemergut, Diana R; Knelman, Joseph E; Ferrenberg, Scott; Bilinski, Teresa; Melbourne, Brett; Jiang, Lin; Violle, Cyrille; Darcy, John L; Prest, Tiffany; Schmidt, Steven K; Townsend, Alan R

    2016-05-01

    Trait-based studies can help clarify the mechanisms driving patterns of microbial community assembly and coexistence. Here, we use a trait-based approach to explore the importance of rRNA operon copy number in microbial succession, building on prior evidence that organisms with higher copy numbers respond more rapidly to nutrient inputs. We set flasks of heterotrophic media into the environment and examined bacterial community assembly at seven time points. Communities were arrayed along a geographic gradient to introduce stochasticity via dispersal processes and were analyzed using 16 S rRNA gene pyrosequencing, and rRNA operon copy number was modeled using ancestral trait reconstruction. We found that taxonomic composition was similar between communities at the beginning of the experiment and then diverged through time; as well, phylogenetic clustering within communities decreased over time. The average rRNA operon copy number decreased over the experiment, and variance in rRNA operon copy number was lowest both early and late in succession. We then analyzed bacterial community data from other soil and sediment primary and secondary successional sequences from three markedly different ecosystem types. Our results demonstrate that decreases in average copy number are a consistent feature of communities across various drivers of ecological succession. Importantly, our work supports the scaling of the copy number trait over multiple levels of biological organization, ranging from cells to populations and communities, with implications for both microbial ecology and evolution. PMID:26565722

  5. The impact of transcriptional tuning on in vitro integrated rRNA transcription and ribosome construction

    PubMed Central

    Fritz, Brian R.; Jewett, Michael C.

    2014-01-01

    In vitro ribosome construction could enable studies of ribosome assembly and function, provide a route toward constructing minimal cells for synthetic biology, and permit the construction of ribosome variants with new functions. Toward these long-term goals, we recently reported on an integrated, one-pot ribosomal RNA synthesis (rRNA), ribosome assembly, and translation technology (termed iSAT) for the construction of Escherichia coli ribosomes in crude ribosome-free S150 extracts. Here, we aimed to improve the activity of iSAT through transcriptional tuning. Specifically, we increased transcriptional efficiency through 3′ modifications to the rRNA gene sequences, optimized plasmid and polymerase concentrations, and demonstrated the use of a T7-promoted rRNA operon for stoichiometrically balanced rRNA synthesis and native rRNA processing. Our modifications produced a 45-fold improvement in iSAT protein synthesis activity, enabling synthesis of 429 ± 15 nmol/l green fluorescent protein in 6 h batch reactions. Further, we show that the translational activity of ribosomes purified from iSAT reactions is about 20% the activity of native ribosomes purified directly from E. coli cells. Looking forward, we believe iSAT will enable unique studies to unravel the systems biology of ribosome biogenesis and open the way to new methods for making and studying ribosomal variants. PMID:24792158

  6. Coamplification of eukaryotic DNA with 16S rRNA gene-based PCR primers: possible consequences for population fingerprinting of complex microbial communities.

    PubMed

    Huys, Geert; Vanhoutte, Tom; Joossens, Marie; Mahious, Amal S; De Brandt, Evie; Vermeire, Severine; Swings, Jean

    2008-06-01

    The main aim of this study was to evaluate the specificity of three commonly used 16S rRNA gene-based polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primer sets for bacterial community analysis of samples contaminated with eukaryotic DNA. The specificity of primer sets targeting the V3, V3-V5, and V6-V8 hypervariable regions of the 16S rRNA gene was investigated in silico and by community fingerprinting of human and fish intestinal samples. Both in silico and PCR-based analysis revealed cross-reactivity of the V3 and V3-V5 primers with the 18S rRNA gene of human and sturgeon. The consequences of this primer anomaly were illustrated by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) profiling of microbial communities in human feces and mixed gut of Siberian sturgeon. DGGE profiling indicated that the cross-reactivity of 16S rRNA gene primers with nontarget eukaryotic DNA might lead to an overestimation of bacterial biodiversity. This study has confirmed previous sporadic indications in literature indicating that several commonly applied 16S rRNA gene primer sets lack specificity toward bacteria in the presence of eukaryotic DNA. The phenomenon of cross-reactivity is a potential source of systematic error in all biodiversity studies where no subsequent analysis of individual community amplicons by cloning and sequencing is performed. PMID:18301945

  7. Initial results on the molecular phylogeny of the Nudibranchia (Gastropoda, Opisthobranchia) based on 18S rDNA data.

    PubMed

    Wollscheid, E; Wägele, H

    1999-11-01

    This study investigated nudibranch phylogeny on the basis of 18S rDNA sequence data. 18S rDNA sequence data of 19 taxa representing the major living orders and families of the Nudibranchia were analyzed. Representatives of the Cephalaspidea, Anaspidea, Gymnomorpha, Prosobranchia, and Pulmonata were also sequenced and used as outgroups. An additional 28 gastropod sequences taken from GenBank were also included in our analyses. Phylogenetic analyses of these more than 50 gastropod taxa provide strong evidence for support of the monophyly of the Nudibranchia. The monophyly of the Doridoidea, Cladobranchia, and Aeolidoidea within the Nudibranchia are also strongly supported. Phylogenetic utility and information content of the 18S rDNA sequences for Nudibranchia, and Opisthobranchia in general, are examined using the program SplitsTree as well as phylogenetic reconstructions using distance and parsimony approaches. 0Results based on these molecular data are compared with hypotheses about nudibranch phylogeny inferred from morphological data. PMID:10603252

  8. 18S rDNA Sequences from Microeukaryotes Reveal Oil Indicators in Mangrove Sediment

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Henrique F.; Cury, Juliano C.; Carmo, Flavia L.; Rosado, Alexandre S.; Peixoto, Raquel S.

    2010-01-01

    Background Microeukaryotes are an effective indicator of the presence of environmental contaminants. However, the characterisation of these organisms by conventional tools is often inefficient, and recent molecular studies have revealed a great diversity of microeukaryotes. The full extent of this diversity is unknown, and therefore, the distribution, ecological role and responses to anthropogenic effects of microeukaryotes are rather obscure. The majority of oil from oceanic oil spills (e.g., the May 2010 accident in the Gulf of Mexico) converges on coastal ecosystems such as mangroves, which are threatened with worldwide disappearance, highlighting the need for efficient tools to indicate the presence of oil in these environments. However, no studies have used molecular methods to assess the effects of oil contamination in mangrove sediment on microeukaryotes as a group. Methodology/Principal Findings We evaluated the population dynamics and the prevailing 18S rDNA phylotypes of microeukaryotes in mangrove sediment microcosms with and without oil contamination, using PCR/DGGE and clone libraries. We found that microeukaryotes are useful for monitoring oil contamination in mangroves. Our clone library analysis revealed a decrease in both diversity and species richness after contamination. The phylogenetic group that showed the greatest sensitivity to oil was the Nematoda. After contamination, a large increase in the abundance of the groups Bacillariophyta (diatoms) and Biosoecida was detected. The oil-contaminated samples were almost entirely dominated by organisms related to Bacillariophyta sp. and Cafeteria minima, which indicates that these groups are possible targets for biomonitoring oil in mangroves. The DGGE fingerprints also indicated shifts in microeukaryote profiles; specific band sequencing indicated the appearance of Bacillariophyta sp. only in contaminated samples and Nematoda only in non-contaminated sediment. Conclusions/Significance We believe that

  9. A phylogenetic study on galactose-containing Candida species based on 18S ribosomal DNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Motofumi; Suh, Sung-Oui; Sugita, Takashi; Nakase, Takashi

    1999-10-01

    Phylogenetic relationships of 33 Candida species containing galactose in the cells were investigated by using 18S ribosomal DNA sequence analysis. Galactose-containing Candida species and galactose-containing species from nine ascomycetous genera were a heterogeneous assemblage. They were divided into three clusters (II, III, and IV) which were phylogenetically distant from cluster I, comprising 9 galactose-lacking Candida species, C. glabrata, C. holmii, C. krusei, C. tropicalis (the type species of Candida), C. albicans, C. viswanathii, C. maltosa, C. parapsilosis, C. guilliermondii, and C. lusitaniae, and 17 related ascomycetous yeasts. These three clusters were also phylogenetically distant from Schizosaccharomyces pombe, which contains galactomannan in its cell wall. Cluster II comprised C. magnoliae, C. vaccinii, C. apis, C. gropengiesseri, C. etchellsii, C. floricola, C. lactiscondensi, Wickerhamiella domercqiae, C. versatilis, C. azyma, C. vanderwaltii, C. pararugosa, C. sorbophila, C. spandovensis, C. galacta, C. ingens, C. incommunis, Yarrowia lipolytica, Galactomyces geotrichum, and Dipodascus albidus. Cluster III comprised C. tepae, C. antillancae and its synonym C. bondarzewiae, C. ancudensis, C. petrohuensis, C. santjacobensis, C. ciferrii (anamorph of Stephanoascus ciferrii), Arxula terrestris, C. castrensis, C. valdiviana, C. paludigena, C. blankii, C. salmanticensis, C. auringiensis, C. bertae, and its synonym C. bertae var. chiloensis, C. edax (anamorph of Stephanoascus smithiae), Arxula adeninivorans, and C. steatolytica (synonym of Zygoascus hellenicus). Cluster IV comprised C. cantarellii, C. vinaria, Dipodascopsis uninucleata, and Lipomyces lipofer. Two galactose-lacking and Q-8-forming species, C. stellata and Pichia pastoris, and 5 galactose-lacking and Q-9-forming species, C. apicola, C. bombi, C. bombicola, C. geochares, and C. insectalens, were included in Cluster II. Two galactose-lacking and Q-9-forming species, C. drimydis and C

  10. Pharmacological inhibition of PAR2 with the pepducin P2pal-18S protects mice against acute experimental biliary pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Michael, E S; Kuliopulos, A; Covic, L; Steer, M L; Perides, G

    2013-03-01

    Pancreatic acinar cells express proteinase-activated receptor-2 (PAR2) that is activated by trypsin-like serine proteases and has been shown to exert model-specific effects on the severity of experimental pancreatitis, i.e., PAR2(-/-) mice are protected from experimental acute biliary pancreatitis but develop more severe secretagogue-induced pancreatitis. P2pal-18S is a novel pepducin lipopeptide that targets and inhibits PAR2. In studies monitoring PAR2-stimulated intracellular Ca(2+) concentration changes, we show that P2pal-18S is a full PAR2 inhibitor in acinar cells. Our in vivo studies show that P2pal-18S significantly reduces the severity of experimental biliary pancreatitis induced by retrograde intraductal bile acid infusion, which mimics injury induced by endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). This reduction in pancreatitis severity is observed when the pepducin is given before or 2 h after bile acid infusion but not when it is given 5 h after bile acid infusion. Conversely, P2pal-18S increases the severity of secretagogue-induced pancreatitis. In vitro studies indicate that P2pal-18S protects acinar cells against bile acid-induced injury/death, but it does not alter bile acid-induced intracellular zymogen activation. These studies are the first to report the effects of an effective PAR2 pharmacological inhibitor on pancreatic acinar cells and on the severity of experimental pancreatitis. They raise the possibility that a pepducin such as P2pal-18S might prove useful in the clinical management of patients at risk for developing severe biliary pancreatitis such as occurs following ERCP. PMID:23275617

  11. Simultaneous separation of five major ribonucleic acids by capillary electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence in the presence of electroosmotic flow: application to the rapid screening of 5S rRNA from ovarian cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Shih, Ya-Chu; Liao, Ching-Ru; Chung, I-Che; Chang, Yu-Sun; Chang, Po-Ling

    2014-10-17

    RNA integrity is important in RNA studies because poor RNA quality may impact downstream methodologies. This study proposes a rapid and cost-effective method for the determination of RNA integrity based on CE-LIF in the presence of electroosmotic flow. The proposed method uses poly(ethylene) oxide (Mavg=4,000,000 Da) as a sieving matrix for total RNA separation. Ethidium bromide (μg mL(-1)) was dissolved in a polymer solution as an interchelating dye for on-column fluorescent labeling. The 28S rRNA, 18S rRNA, 5.8S rRNA, 5S rRNA and tRNA from the total human RNA extracted from the cells were fully separated using the proposed method. The lowest detectable concentration of total RNA achieved was 100 pg μL(-1) with a 6 min sample injection followed by on-column concentration. In addition, the temperature-induced degradation of total RNA was observed by CE-LIF. The electropherograms revealed more fragmentation of 28S and 18S rRNAs by temperature-induced hydrolysis compared with the 5.8S rRNA, 5S rRNA and tRNA. Therefore, the results indicated that RNA degradation should be considered for long-term, high-temperature incubations in RNA-related experiments involving RNA hybridization. The proposed method is furthermore, applied to the determination of 5S rRNA overexpressed in ovarian cancer cells as compared to the cervical cancer cells. Overall, CE-LIF is highly promising for rapid screening of ovarian cancers without tedious pre-amplification steps. PMID:25261903

  12. Wide genetic variations at 18S ribosomal RNA locus of Cyclospora cayetanensis isolated from Egyptian patients using high resolution melting curve.

    PubMed

    Hussein, Eman M; El-Moamly, Amal A; Mahmoud, Moushira A; Ateek, Nayera S

    2016-07-01

    A variable clinical picture of cyclosporiasis including gastrointestinal tract (GIT) symptomatic or asymptomatic beside extraintestinal consequences suggests a possibility of heterogenicity of Cyclospora cayetanensis. The present work aimed to explore the possibility of genetic variation of C. cayetanensis using high-resolution melting (HRM) curve of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplified 18S rRNA genes. DNAs extracted from the stool samples of 70 cyclosporiasis patients were amplified and scanned by PCR/HRM curve. The results showed that there are four different genotypic profiles of C. cayetanensis with presence of mixed ones. Although Tm of all profiles was within the same range, they were discerned by plotting of the temperature-shifted florescence difference between normalized melting curves (dF/dT). Genotypic profile I was found alone in 40 % of patients and mixed with genotypic profile II and/or III in 25.7 % of patients, followed by genotypic profile II in 14.3 % then genotypic profile III and IV (10 % each). A significant relation was found between genotypic profiles and GIT symptomatic status as profile I and profile II were mostly detected in patients with acute GIT symptoms without or with chronic illness, respectively, while profile IV cases only were GIT asymptomatic. Statistical significance relations between genotypic profiles and age, gender, residence and oocyst shape index were determined. In conclusion, PCR/HRM proved a wide variation on C. cayetanensis genes that could be reflected on its pathogenic effects and explaining the variability of the clinical manifestations presented by cyclosporiasis patients. PMID:27041342

  13. Control by Phytochrome of Cytoplasmic Precursor rRNA Synthesis in the Cotyledons of Mustard Seedlings 1

    PubMed Central

    Thien, Wilfried; Schopfer, Peter

    1982-01-01

    The influence of phytochrome (high irradiance reaction; operationally, continuous far red light) on the incorporation of [3H]uridine into the cytoplasmic 2.5 megadalton precursor rRNA in the cotyledons of mustard (Sinapis alba L.) seedlings has been investigated. After irradiating 36-hour-old etiolated seedlings with 12 hours of far red light, the rate of incorporation is stimulated about 2-fold, leading to 50% labeling of the precursor rRNA pool about 15 minutes after the tracer has reached the nucleotide precursor pool. In the dark control, there is a significantly smaller pool of precursor rRNA which is half-saturated with label only after about 27 minutes. Since neither the specific radioactivity of the UTP pool nor the processing of the precursor rRNA demonstrate a corresponding light-dependent change, it is concluded that phytochrome mediates an increase of the transcription of the rRNA genes. This gene activation accounts for the increased accumulation of mature cytoplasmic rRNA during the course of photomorphogenesis of the cotyledons. PMID:16662362

  14. Effects of base change mutations within an Escherichia coli ribosomal RNA leader region on rRNA maturation and ribosome formation

    PubMed Central

    Schäferkordt, Jan; Wagner, Rolf

    2001-01-01

    The effects of base change mutations in a highly conserved sequence (boxC) within the leader of bacterial ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs) was studied. The boxC sequence preceding the 16S rRNA structural gene constitutes part of the RNase III processing site, one of the first cleavage sites on the pathway to mature 16S rRNA. Moreover, rRNA leader sequences facilitate correct 16S rRNA folding, thereby assisting ribosomal subunit formation. Mutations in boxC cause cold sensitivity and result in 16S rRNA and 30S subunit deficiency. Strains in which all rRNA operons are replaced by mutant transcription units are viable. Thermodynamic studies by temperature gradient gel electrophoresis reveal that mutant transcripts have a different, less ordered structure. In addition, RNA secondary structure differences between mutant and wild-type transcripts were determined by chemical and enzymatic probing. Differences are found in the leader RNA sequence itself but also in structurally important regions of the mature 16S rRNA. A minor fraction of the rRNA transcripts from mutant operons is not processed by RNase III, resulting in a significantly extended precursor half-life compared to the wild-type. The boxC mutations also give rise to a new aberrant degradation product of 16S rRNA. This intermediate cannot be detected in strains lacking RNase III. Together the results indicate that the boxC sequence, although important for RNase III processing, is likely to serve additional functions by facilitating correct formation of the mature 16S rRNA structure. They also suggest that quality control steps are acting during ribosome biogenesis. PMID:11504877

  15. Physical mapping of 18S and 5S rDNA loci and histone H3 gene in grasshopper species of the subfamily Gomphocerinae (Acrididae).

    PubMed

    Silva-Neto, L C; Bernardino, A C S; Loreto, V; Moura, R C

    2015-01-01

    In this study, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis was used to determine and compare the numbers and chromosomal locations of two multigene families (rDNA and histone H3) in four Neotropical species of gomphocerine grasshoppers. FISH using the 18S rDNA probe identified a single site on the S9 chromosome of Amblytropidia sp and Cauratettix borelli, a single site on chromosome M6 of Compsacris pulcher, and two sites (chromosomes L1 and L2) in Orphulella punctata. By contrast, FISH with a 5S rDNA probe identified dispersion of this sequence in the genomes of the four species, with evidence of intraspecific variations. Amblytropidia sp had six to eight FISH signals on autosomal chromosomes, while C. pulcher exhibited a signal only on the M5 bivalent. The histone H3 gene was less variable and was restricted to a single pair in all species. The conservation of the numbers and locations of 18S rDNA and H3 genes in conjunction with data from the literature was useful for evaluating karyotype evolution in this subfamily. The variation in the number and sizes of 5S rDNA sites indicates a process of recent dispersion that might have been mediated by transposition. PMID:26634462

  16. Molecular Identification of Ptychodera flava (Hemichordata: Enteropneusta): Reconsideration in Light of Nucleotide Polymorphism in the 18S Ribosomal RNA Gene.

    PubMed

    Urata, Makoto

    2015-06-01

    Seven nuclear and mitochondrial DNA markers were examined in 12 specimens of Ptychodera flava, a model acorn worm used in molecular biology, collected in Japan from three local populations with different modes of living. A comparison of intraspecific results did not show genetically isolated populations despite the species' enclave habitats and asexual reproduction. Moreover, both the nuclear 18S ribosomal RNA gene and mitochondrial 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequences were identical to those from Moorea in French Polynesia, nearly 10,000 kilometers away from Japan. I also provide the first definitive information regarding polymorphisms in 18S ribosomal RNA gene, the external transcribed spacer (ETS), internal transcribed spacers (ITS), and mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (mtCO1) sequence in hemichordates using newly designed primer sets, and I show both high larval vagility and certain criteria for the molecular identification of this species. PMID:26003987

  17. Chromosomal organization of the 18S and 5S rRNAs and histone H3 genes in Scarabaeinae coleopterans: insights into the evolutionary dynamics of multigene families and heterochromatin

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Scarabaeinae beetles show a high level of macro-chromosomal variability, although the karyotypic organization of heterochromatin and multigene families (rDNAs and histone genes) is poorly understood in this group. To better understand the chromosomal organization and evolution in this group, we analyzed the karyotypes, heterochromatin distribution and chromosomal locations of the rRNAs and histone H3 genes in beetles belonging to eight tribes from the Scarabaeinae subfamily (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae). Results The number of 18S rRNA gene (a member of the 45S rDNA unit) sites varied from one to 16 and were located on the autosomes, sex chromosomes or both, although two clusters were most common. Comparison of the 45S rDNA cluster number and the diploid numbers revealed a low correlation value. However, a comparison between the number of 45S rDNA sites per genome and the quantity of heterochromatin revealed (i) species presenting heterochromatin restricted to the centromeric/pericentromeric region that contained few rDNA sites and (ii) species with a high quantity of heterochromatin and a higher number of rDNA sites. In contrast to the high variability for heterochromatin and 45S rDNA cluster, the presence of two clusters (one bivalent cluster) co-located on autosomal chromosomes with the 5S rRNA and histone H3 genes was highly conserved. Conclusions Our results indicate that the variability of the 45S rDNA chromosomal clusters is not associated with macro-chromosomal rearrangements but are instead related to the spread of heterochromatin. The data obtained also indicate that both heterochromatin and the 45S rDNA loci could be constrained by similar evolutionary forces regulating spreading in the distinct Scarabaeinae subfamily lineages. For the 5S rRNA and the histone H3 genes, a similar chromosomal organization could be attributed to their association/co-localization in the Scarabaeinae karyotypes. These data provide evidence that different evolutionary

  18. Chromosomal location of 18S and 5S rDNA sites in Triportheus fish species (Characiformes, Characidae)

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    The location of 18S and 5S rDNA sites was determined in eight species and populations of the fish genus Triportheus by using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). The males and females of all species had 2n = 52 chromosomes and a ZZ/ZW sex chromosome system. A single 18S rDNA site that was roughly equivalent to an Ag-NOR was detected on the short arms of a submetacentric pair in nearly all species, and up to two additional sites were also observed in some species. In addition, another 18S rDNA cluster was identified in a distal region on the long arms of the W chromosome; this finding corroborated previous evidence that this cluster would be a shared feature amongst Triportheus species. In T. angulatus, a heterozygotic paracentric inversion involving the short arms of one homolog of a metacentric pair was associated with NORs. The 5S rDNA sites were located on the short arms of a single submetacentric chromosomal pair, close to the centromeres, except in T. auritus, which had up to ten 5S rDNA sites. The 18S and 5S rDNA sites were co-localized and adjacent on the short arms of a chromosomal pair in two populations of T. nematurus. Although all Triportheus species have a similar karyotypic macrostructure, the results of this work show that in some species ribosomal genes may serve as species-specific markers when used in conjunction with other putatively synapomorphic features. PMID:21637644

  19. Modified Method of rRNA Structure Analysis Reveals Novel Characteristics of Box C/D RNA Analogues.

    PubMed

    Filippova, J A; Stepanov, G A; Semenov, D V; Koval, O A; Kuligina, E V; Rabinov, I V; Richter, V A

    2015-01-01

    Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) maturation is a complex process that involves chemical modifications of the bases or sugar residues of specific nucleotides. One of the most abundant types of rRNA modifications, ribose 2'-O-methylation, is guided by ribonucleoprotein complexes containing small nucleolar box C/D RNAs. Since the majority of 2'-O-methylated nucleotides are located in the most conserved regions of rRNA that comprise functionally important centers of the ribosome, an alteration in a 2'-O-methylation profile can affect ribosome assembly and function. One of the key approaches for localization of 2'-O-methylated nucleotides in long RNAs is a method based on the termination of reverse transcription. The current study presents an adaptation of this method for the use of fluorescently labeled primers and analysis of termination products by capillary gel electrophoresis on an automated genetic analyzer. The developed approach allowed us to analyze the influence of the synthetic analogues of box C/D RNAs on post-transcriptional modifications of human 28S rRNA in MCF-7 cells. It has been established that the transfection of MCF-7 cells with a box C/D RNA analogue leads to an enhanced modification level of certain native sites of 2'-O-methylation in the target rRNA. The observed effect of synthetic RNAs on the 2'-O-methylation of rRNA in human cells demonstrates a path towards targeted regulation of rRNA post-transcriptional maturation. The described approach can be applied in the development of novel diagnostic methods for detecting diseases in humans. PMID:26085946

  20. Efficient Nucleic Acid Extraction and 16S rRNA Gene Sequencing for Bacterial Community Characterization.

    PubMed

    Anahtar, Melis N; Bowman, Brittany A; Kwon, Douglas S

    2016-01-01

    There is a growing appreciation for the role of microbial communities as critical modulators of human health and disease. High throughput sequencing technologies have allowed for the rapid and efficient characterization of bacterial communities using 16S rRNA gene sequencing from a variety of sources. Although readily available tools for 16S rRNA sequence analysis have standardized computational workflows, sample processing for DNA extraction remains a continued source of variability across studies. Here we describe an efficient, robust, and cost effective method for extracting nucleic acid from swabs. We also delineate downstream methods for 16S rRNA gene sequencing, including generation of sequencing libraries, data quality control, and sequence analysis. The workflow can accommodate multiple samples types, including stool and swabs collected from a variety of anatomical locations and host species. Additionally, recovered DNA and RNA can be separated and used for other applications, including whole genome sequencing or RNA-seq. The method described allows for a common processing approach for multiple sample types and accommodates downstream analysis of genomic, metagenomic and transcriptional information. PMID:27168460

  1. Efficient Nucleic Acid Extraction and 16S rRNA Gene Sequencing for Bacterial Community Characterization

    PubMed Central

    Anahtar, Melis N.; Bowman, Brittany A.; Kwon, Douglas S.

    2016-01-01

    There is a growing appreciation for the role of microbial communities as critical modulators of human health and disease. High throughput sequencing technologies have allowed for the rapid and efficient characterization of bacterial communities using 16S rRNA gene sequencing from a variety of sources. Although readily available tools for 16S rRNA sequence analysis have standardized computational workflows, sample processing for DNA extraction remains a continued source of variability across studies. Here we describe an efficient, robust, and cost effective method for extracting nucleic acid from swabs. We also delineate downstream methods for 16S rRNA gene sequencing, including generation of sequencing libraries, data quality control, and sequence analysis. The workflow can accommodate multiple samples types, including stool and swabs collected from a variety of anatomical locations and host species. Additionally, recovered DNA and RNA can be separated and used for other applications, including whole genome sequencing or RNA-seq. The method described allows for a common processing approach for multiple sample types and accommodates downstream analysis of genomic, metagenomic and transcriptional information. PMID:27168460

  2. Imprint of Ancient Evolution on rRNA Folding.

    PubMed

    Lanier, Kathryn A; Athavale, Shreyas S; Petrov, Anton S; Wartell, Roger; Williams, Loren Dean

    2016-08-23

    In a model describing the origin and evolution of the translation system, ribosomal RNA (rRNA) grew in size by accretion [Petrov, A. S., et al. (2015) History of the Ribosome and the Origin of Translation. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112, 15396-15401]. Large rRNAs were built up by iterative incorporation and encasement of small folded RNAs, in analogy with addition of new LEGOs onto the surface of a preexisting LEGO assembly. In this model, rRNA robustness in folding arises from inherited autonomy of local folding. We propose that rRNAs can be decomposed at various granularities, retaining folding mechanism and folding competence. To test these predictions, we disassembled Domain III of the large ribosomal subunit (LSU). We determined whether local rRNA structure, stability, and folding pathways are autonomous. Thermal melting, chemical footprinting, and circular dichroism were used to infer rules that govern folding of rRNA. We deconstructed Domain III of the LSU rRNA by mapping out its complex multistep melting pathway. We studied Domain III and two equal-size "sub-Domains" of Domain III. The combined results are consistent with a model in which melting transitions of Domain III are conserved upon cleavage into sub-Domains. Each of the eight melting transitions of Domain III corresponds in Tm and ΔH with a transition observed in one of the two isolated sub-Domains. The results support a model in which structure, stability, and folding mechanisms are dominated by local interactions and are unaffected by separation of the sub-Domains. Domain III rRNA is distinct from RNAs that form long-range cooperative interaction networks at early stages of folding or that do not fold reversibly. PMID:27428664

  3. Investigation of histone H4 hyperacetylation dynamics in the 5S rRNA genes family by chromatin immunoprecipitation assay.

    PubMed

    Burlibașa, Liliana; Suciu, Ilinca

    2015-12-01

    Oogenesis is a critical event in the formation of female gamete, whose role in development is to transfer genomic information to the next generation. During this process, the gene expression pattern changes dramatically concomitant with genome remodelling, while genomic information is stably maintained. The aim of the present study was to investigate the presence of H4 acetylation of the oocyte and somatic 5S rRNA genes in Triturus cristatus, using chromatin immunoprecipitation assay (ChIP). Our findings suggest that some epigenetic mechanisms such as histone acetylation could be involved in the transcriptional regulation of 5S rRNA gene families. PMID:25315165

  4. Cytogenetic Analysis and Chromosomal Characteristics of the Polymorphic 18S rDNA of Haliotis discus hannai from Fujian, China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Haishan; Luo, Xuan; You, Weiwei; Dong, Yunwei; Ke, Caihuan

    2015-01-01

    We report on novel chromosomal characteristics of Haliotis discus hannai from a breeding population at Fujian, China. The karyotypes of H. discus hannai we obtained from an abalone farm include a common type 2n = 36 = 10M + 8SM (82%) and two rare types 2n = 36 = 11M + 7SM (14%) and 2n = 36 = 10M + 7SM + 1ST (4%). The results of silver staining showed that the NORs of H. discus hannai were usually located terminally on the long arms of chromosome pairs 14 and 17, NORs were also sometimes located terminally on the short arms of other chromosomes, either metacentric or submetacentric pairs. The number of Ag-nucleoli ranged from 2 to 8, and the mean number was 3.61 ± 0.93. Among the scored interphase cells, 41% had 3 detectable nucleoli and 37% had 4 nucleoli. The 18S rDNA FISH result is the first report of the location of 18S rDNA genes in H. discus hannai. The 18S rDNA locations were highly polymorphic in this species. Copies of the gene were observed in the terminal of long or/and short arms of submetacentric or/and metacentric chromosomes. Using FISH with probe for vertebrate-like telomeric sequences (CCCTAA)3 displayed positive green FITC signals at telomere regions of all analyzed chromosome types. We found about 7% of chromosomes had breaks in prophase. A special form of nucleolus not previously described from H. discus hannai was observed in some interphase cells. It consists of many small silver-stained nucleoli gathered together to form a larger nucleolus and may correspond to prenucleolar bodies. PMID:25699679

  5. Lessons from an evolving rRNA: 16S and 23S rRNA structures from a comparative perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gutell, R. R.; Larsen, N.; Woese, C. R.

    1994-01-01

    The 16S and 23S rRNA higher-order structures inferred from comparative analysis are now quite refined. The models presented here differ from their immediate predecessors only in minor detail. Thus, it is safe to assert that all of the standard secondary-structure elements in (prokaryotic) rRNAs have been identified, with approximately 90% of the individual base pairs in each molecule having independent comparative support, and that at least some of the tertiary interactions have been revealed. It is interesting to compare the rRNAs in this respect with tRNA, whose higher-order structure is known in detail from its crystal structure (36) (Table 2). It can be seen that rRNAs have as great a fraction of their sequence in established secondary-structure elements as does tRNA. However, the fact that the former show a much lower fraction of identified tertiary interactions and a greater fraction of unpaired nucleotides than the latter implies that many of the rRNA tertiary interactions remain to be located. (Alternatively, the ribosome might involve protein-rRNA rather than intramolecular rRNA interactions to stabilize three-dimensional structure.) Experimental studies on rRNA are consistent to a first approximation with the structures proposed here, confirming the basic assumption of comparative analysis, i.e., that bases whose compositions strictly covary are physically interacting. In the exhaustive study of Moazed et al. (45) on protection of the bases in the small-subunit rRNA against chemical modification, the vast majority of bases inferred to pair by covariation are found to be protected from chemical modification, both in isolated small-subunit rRNA and in the 30S subunit. The majority of the tertiary interactions are reflected in the chemical protection data as well (45). On the other hand, many of the bases not shown as paired in Fig. 1 are accessible to chemical attack (45). However, in this case a sizeable fraction of them are also protected against chemical

  6. PFR²: a curated database of planktonic foraminifera 18S ribosomal DNA as a resource for studies of plankton ecology, biogeography and evolution.

    PubMed

    Morard, Raphaël; Darling, Kate F; Mahé, Frédéric; Audic, Stéphane; Ujiié, Yurika; Weiner, Agnes K M; André, Aurore; Seears, Heidi A; Wade, Christopher M; Quillévéré, Frédéric; Douady, Christophe J; Escarguel, Gilles; de Garidel-Thoron, Thibault; Siccha, Michael; Kucera, Michal; de Vargas, Colomban

    2015-11-01

    Planktonic foraminifera (Rhizaria) are ubiquitous marine pelagic protists producing calcareous shells with conspicuous morphology. They play an important role in the marine carbon cycle, and their exceptional fossil record serves as the basis for biochronostratigraphy and past climate reconstructions. A major worldwide sampling effort over the last two decades has resulted in the establishment of multiple large collections of cryopreserved individual planktonic foraminifera samples. Thousands of 18S rDNA partial sequences have been generated, representing all major known morphological taxa across their worldwide oceanic range. This comprehensive data coverage provides an opportunity to assess patterns of molecular ecology and evolution in a holistic way for an entire group of planktonic protists. We combined all available published and unpublished genetic data to build PFR(2), the Planktonic foraminifera Ribosomal Reference database. The first version of the database includes 3322 reference 18S rDNA sequences belonging to 32 of the 47 known morphospecies of extant planktonic foraminifera, collected from 460 oceanic stations. All sequences have been rigorously taxonomically curated using a six-rank annotation system fully resolved to the morphological species level and linked to a series of metadata. The PFR(2) website, available at http://pfr2.sb-roscoff.fr, allows downloading the entire database or specific sections, as well as the identification of new planktonic foraminiferal sequences. Its novel, fully documented curation process integrates advances in morphological and molecular taxonomy. It allows for an increase in its taxonomic resolution and assures that integrity is maintained by including a complete contingency tracking of annotations and assuring that the annotations remain internally consistent. PMID:25828689

  7. Rare Events of Intragenus and Intraspecies Horizontal Transfer of the 16S rRNA Gene

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Ren-Mao; Cai, Lin; Zhang, Wei-Peng; Cao, Hui-Luo; Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) of operational genes has been widely reported in prokaryotic organisms. However, informational genes such as those involved in transcription and translation processes are very difficult to be horizontally transferred, as described by Woese’s complexity hypothesis. Here, we analyzed all of the completed prokaryotic genome sequences (2,143 genomes) in the NCBI (National Center for Biotechnology Information) database, scanned for genomes with high intragenomic heterogeneity of 16S rRNA gene copies, and explored potential HGT events of ribosomal RNA genes based on the phylogeny, genomic organization, and secondary structures of the ribosomal RNA genes. Our results revealed 28 genomes with relatively high intragenomic heterogeneity of multiple 16S rRNA gene copies (lowest pairwise identity <98.0%), and further analysis revealed HGT events and potential donors of the heterogeneous copies (such as HGT from Chlamydia suis to Chlamydia trachomatis) and mutation events of some heterogeneous copies (such as Streptococcus suis JS14). Interestingly, HGT of the 16S rRNA gene only occurred at intragenus or intraspecies levels, which is quite different from the HGT of operational genes. Our results improve our understanding regarding the exchange of informational genes. PMID:26220935

  8. Nucleation by rRNA Dictates the Precision of Nucleolus Assembly.

    PubMed

    Falahati, Hanieh; Pelham-Webb, Bobbie; Blythe, Shelby; Wieschaus, Eric

    2016-02-01

    Membrane-less organelles are intracellular compartments specialized to carry out specific cellular functions. There is growing evidence supporting the possibility that such organelles form as a new phase, separating from cytoplasm or nucleoplasm. However, a main challenge to such phase separation models is that the initial assembly, or nucleation, of the new phase is typically a highly stochastic process and does not allow for the spatiotemporal precision observed in biological systems. Here, we investigate the initial assembly of the nucleolus, a membrane-less organelle involved in different cellular functions including ribosomal biogenesis. We demonstrate that the nucleolus formation is precisely timed in D. melanogaster embryos and follows the transcription of rRNA. We provide evidence that transcription of rRNA is necessary for overcoming the highly stochastic nucleation step in the formation of the nucleolus, through a seeding mechanism. In the absence of rDNA, the nucleolar proteins studied are able to form high-concentration assemblies. However, unlike the nucleolus, these assemblies are highly variable in number, location, and time at which they form. In addition, quantitative study of the changes in the nucleoplasmic concentration and distribution of these nucleolar proteins in the wild-type embryos is consistent with the role of rRNA in seeding the nucleolus formation. PMID:26776729

  9. Regulation of Arabidopsis thaliana 5S rRNA Genes.

    PubMed

    Vaillant, Isabelle; Tutois, Sylvie; Cuvillier, Claudine; Schubert, Ingo; Tourmente, Sylvette

    2007-05-01

    The Arabidopsis thaliana genome comprises around 1,000 copies of 5S rRNA genes encoding both major and minor 5S rRNAs. In mature wild-type leaves, the minor 5S rRNA genes are silent. Using different mutants of DNA methyltransferases (met1, cmt3 and met1 cmt3), components of the RNAi pathway (ago4) or post-translational histone modifier (hda6/sil1), we show that the corresponding proteins are needed to maintain proper methylation patterns at heterochromatic 5S rDNA repeats. Using reverse transcription-PCR and cytological analyses, we report that a decrease of 5S rDNA methylation at CG or CNG sites in these mutants leads to the release of 5S rRNA gene silencing which occurred without detectable changes of the 5S rDNA chromatin structure. In spite of severely reduced DNA methylation, the met1 cmt3 double mutant revealed no increase in minor 5S rRNA transcripts. Furthermore, the release of silencing of minor 5S rDNAs can be achieved without increased formation of euchromatic loops by 5S rDNA, and is independent from the global heterochromatin content. Additionally, fluorescence in situ hybridization with centromeric 180 bp repeats confirmed that these highly repetitive sequences, in spite of their elevated transcriptional activity in the DNA methyltransferase mutants (met1, cmt3 and met1 cmt3), remain within chromocenters of the mutant nuclei. PMID:17412735

  10. Aggregation of Ribosomal Protein S6 at Nucleolus Is Cell Cycle-Controlled and Its Function in Pre-rRNA Processing Is Phosphorylation Dependent.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Duo; Chen, Hui-Peng; Duan, Hai-Feng; Gao, Li-Hua; Shao, Yong; Chen, Ke-Yan; Wang, You-Liang; Lan, Feng-Hua; Hu, Xian-Wen

    2016-07-01

    Ribosomal protein S6 (rpS6) has long been regarded as one of the primary r-proteins that functions in the early stage of 40S subunit assembly, but its actual role is still obscure. The correct forming of 18S rRNA is a key step in the nuclear synthesis of 40S subunit. In this study, we demonstrate that rpS6 participates in the processing of 30S pre-rRNA to 18S rRNA only when its C-terminal five serines are phosphorylated, however, the process of entering the nucleus and then targeting the nucleolus does not dependent its phosphorylation. Remarkably, we also find that the aggregation of rpS6 at the nucleolus correlates to the phasing of cell cycle, beginning to concentrate in the nucleolus at later S phase and disaggregate at M phase. J. Cell. Biochem. 117: 1649-1657, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26639987

  11. Physical mapping of 5S and 18S ribosomal DNA in three species of Agave (Asparagales, Asparagaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Gomez-Rodriguez, Victor Manuel; Rodriguez-Garay, Benjamin; Palomino, Guadalupe; Martínez, Javier; Barba-Gonzalez, Rodrigo

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Agave Linnaeus, 1753 is endemic of America and is considered one of the most important crops in Mexico due to its key role in the country’s economy. Cytogenetic analysis was carried out in Agave tequilana Weber, 1902 ‘Azul’, Agave cupreata Trelease et Berger, 1915 and Agave angustifolia Haworth, 1812. The analysis showed that in all species the diploid chromosome number was 2n = 60, with bimodal karyotypes composed of five pairs of large chromosomes and 25 pairs of small chromosomes. Furthermore, different karyotypical formulae as well as a secondary constriction in a large chromosome pair were found in all species. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) was used for physical mapping of 5S and 18S ribosomal DNA (rDNA). All species analyzed showed that 5S rDNA was located in both arms of a small chromosome pair, while 18S rDNA was associated with the secondary constriction of a large chromosome pair. Data of FISH analysis provides new information about the position and number of rDNA loci and helps for detection of hybrids in breeding programs as well as evolutionary studies. PMID:24260700

  12. Optical and electrical stability of viral-templated copper sulfide (Cu{sub 1.8}S) films

    SciTech Connect

    Shahriar Zaman, Mohammed; Bernard Grajeda, Gabriel; Haberer, Elaine D.

    2014-04-14

    The optical and electrical stabilities of viral-templated non-stoichiometric copper sulfide, digenite (Cu{sub 1.8}S) films were investigated. The films were composed of large agglomerates of randomly aligned Cu{sub 1.8}S-coated M13 filamentous phage. Free carrier optical absorption associated with localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) was observed in the near infrared spectral region, and the films were electrically active, displaying a linear current-voltage relationship. Under ambient conditions, the magnitude of the LSPR absorption increased, following a power law relationship with time, and the electrical resistance of viral-templated films decreased significantly. In contrast, the resistance of films stored under low oxygen, low humidity conditions experienced a smaller reduction in electrical resistance. Changes in optical and electrical film properties under ambient conditions were associated with an increase in free carrier concentration within the copper chalcogenide material due to oxygen exposure. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used to relate this increase in free carrier concentration to compositional changes on the viral-templated material surface.

  13. Identification of cephalopod species from the North and Baltic Seas using morphology, COI and 18S rDNA sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gebhardt, Katharina; Knebelsberger, Thomas

    2015-09-01

    We morphologically analyzed 79 cephalopod specimens from the North and Baltic Seas belonging to 13 separate species. Another 29 specimens showed morphological features of either Alloteuthis mediaor Alloteuthis subulata or were found to be in between. Reliable identification features to distinguish between A. media and A. subulata are currently not available. The analysis of the DNA barcoding region of the COI gene revealed intraspecific distances (uncorrected p) ranging from 0 to 2.13 % (average 0.1 %) and interspecific distances between 3.31 and 22 % (average 15.52 %). All species formed monophyletic clusters in a neighbor-joining analysis and were supported by bootstrap values of ≥99 %. All COI haplotypes belonging to the 29 Alloteuthis specimens were grouped in one cluster. Neither COI nor 18S rDNA sequences helped to distinguish between the different Alloteuthis morphotypes. For species identification purposes, we recommend the use of COI, as it showed higher bootstrap support of species clusters and less amplification and sequencing failure compared to 18S. Our data strongly support the assumption that the genus Alloteuthis is only represented by a single species, at least in the North Sea. It remained unclear whether this species is A. subulata or A. media. All COI sequences including important metadata were uploaded to the Barcode of Life Data Systems and can be used as reference library for the molecular identification of more than 50 % of the cephalopod fauna known from the North and Baltic Seas.

  14. Genetic diversity of Cryptosporidium in fish at the 18S and actin loci and high levels of mixed infections.

    PubMed

    Yang, Rongchang; Palermo, Cindy; Chen, Linda; Edwards, Amanda; Paparini, Andrea; Tong, Kaising; Gibson-Kueh, Susan; Lymbery, Alan; Ryan, Una

    2015-12-15

    Cryptosporidium is an enteric parasite that infects humans and a wide range of animals. Relatively little is known about the epidemiology and taxonomy of Cryptosporidium in fish. In the present study, a total of 775 fish, belonging to 46 species and comprising ornamental fish, marine fish and freshwater fish were screened for the prevalence of Cryptosporidium by PCR. The overall prevalence of Cryptosporidium in fish was 5.3% (41/775), with prevalences ranging from 1.5 to 100% within individual host species. Phylogenetic analysis of these Cryptosporidium isolates as well as 14 isolates from previous studies indicated extensive genetic diversity as well as evidence for mixed infections. At the 18S locus the following species were identified; Cryptosporidium molnari-like genotype (n=14), Cryptosporidium huwi (n=8), piscine genotype 2 (n=4), piscine genotype 3-like (n=1), piscine genotype 4 (n=2), piscine genotype 5 (n=13), piscine genotype 5-like (n=1) and five novel genotypes (n=5). At the actin locus, species identification agreed with the 18S locus for only 52.3% of isolates sequenced, indicating high levels of mixed infections. Future studies will need to employ both morphological characterization and deep sequencing amplicon-based technologies to better understand the epidemiological and phylogenetic relationships of piscine-derived Cryptosporidium species and genotypes, particularly when mixed infections are detected. PMID:26527238

  15. Distribution of 18S rDNA sites and absence of the canonical TTAGG insect telomeric repeat in parasitoid Hymenoptera.

    PubMed

    Gokhman, Vladimir E; Anokhin, Boris A; Kuznetsova, Valentina G

    2014-08-01

    Karyotypes of six species belonging to three main clades of parasitoid Hymenoptera, the superfamilies Ichneumonoidea (Ichneumonidae: Ichneumon amphibolus), Cynipoidea (Cynipidae: Diplolepis rosae) and Chalcidoidea (Eurytomidae: Eurytoma robusta, Eu. serratulae and Eu. compressa, and Torymidae: Torymus bedeguaris) were studied using FISH with 18S rDNA and telomeric (TTAGG)n probes. Haploid karyotypes of D. rosae, Eu. robusta and Eu. serratulae carried the only 18S rDNA hybridization signal, whereas those of I. amphibolus and Eu. compressa carried three and two rDNA clusters respectively. In addition, three rDNA sites were visualized in the aneuploid female of T. bedeguaris. The number of rDNA clusters in parasitoid Hymenoptera generally correlates to the chromosome number. Apart from the overwhelming majority of the studied species of aculeate Hymenoptera, no hybridization signals were obtained from FISH with the telomeric (TTAGG)n probe in the examined parasitoid species. These data suggest absence of the canonical (TTAGG)n insect telomeric motif in the Ichneumonoidea, Cynipoidea and Chalcidoidea, and perhaps in parasitoid Hymenoptera in general. PMID:24992984

  16. Telonemia-specific environmental 18S rDNA PCR reveals unknown diversity and multiple marine-freshwater colonizations

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Recent surveys of eukaryote 18S rDNA diversity in marine habitats have uncovered worldwide distribution of the heterotrophic eukaryote phylum Telonemia. Here we investigate the diversity and geographic distribution of Telonemia sequences by in-depth sequencing of several new 18S rDNA clone libraries from both marine and freshwater sites by using a Telonemia-specific PCR strategy. Results In contrast to earlier studies that have employed eukaryote-wide PCR design, we identified a large and unknown diversity of phylotypes and the first rigorous evidence for several freshwater species, altogether comprising 91 unique sequences. Phylogenies of these and publicly available sequences showed 20 statistically supported sub-clades as well as several solitary phylotypes with no clear phylogenetic affiliation. Most of these sub-clades were composed of phylotypes from different geographic regions. Conclusions By using specific PCR primers we reveal a much larger diversity of Telonemia from environmental samples than previously uncovered by eukaryote-wide primers. The new data substantially diminish the geographic structuring of clades identified in earlier studies. Nevertheless, since these clades comprise several distinct phylotypes we cannot exclude endemicity at species level. We identified two freshwater clades and a few solitary phylotypes, implying that Telonemia have colonized freshwater habitats and adapted to the different environmental and ecological conditions at independent occasions. PMID:20534135

  17. Gradual reduction in rRNA transcription triggers p53 acetylation and apoptosis via MYBBP1A

    PubMed Central

    Kumazawa, Takuya; Nishimura, Kazuho; Katagiri, Naohiro; Hashimoto, Sayaka; Hayashi, Yuki; Kimura, Keiji

    2015-01-01

    The nucleolus, whose primary function is ribosome biogenesis, plays an essential role in p53 activation. Ribosome biogenesis is inhibited in response to cellular stress and several nucleolar proteins translocate from the nucleolus to the nucleoplasm, where they activate p53. In this study, we analysed precisely how impaired ribosome biogenesis regulates the activation of p53 by depleting nucleolar factors involved in rRNA transcription or rRNA processing. Nucleolar RNA content decreased when rRNA transcription was inhibited. In parallel with the reduced levels of nucleolar RNA content, the nucleolar protein Myb-binding protein 1 A (MYBBP1A) translocated to the nucleoplasm and increased p53 acetylation. The acetylated p53 enhanced p21 and BAX expression and induced apoptosis. In contrast, when rRNA processing was inhibited, MYBBP1A remained in the nucleolus and nonacetylated p53 accumulated, causing cell cycle arrest at the G1 phase by inducing p21 but not BAX. We propose that the nucleolus functions as a stress sensor to modulate p53 protein levels and its acetylation status, determining cell fate between cell cycle arrest and apoptosis by regulating MYBBP1A translocation. PMID:26044764

  18. Sequence variation within the rRNA gene loci of 12 Drosophila species

    PubMed Central

    Stage, Deborah E.; Eickbush, Thomas H.

    2007-01-01

    Concerted evolution maintains at near identity the hundreds of tandemly arrayed ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes and their spacers present in any eukaryote. Few comprehensive attempts have been made to directly measure the identity between the rDNA units. We used the original sequencing reads (trace archives) available through the whole-genome shotgun sequencing projects of 12 Drosophila species to locate the sequence variants within the 7.8–8.2 kb transcribed portions of the rDNA units. Three to 18 variants were identified in >3% of the total rDNA units from 11 species. Species where the rDNA units are present on multiple chromosomes exhibited only minor increases in sequence variation. Variants were 10–20 times more abundant in the noncoding compared with the coding regions of the rDNA unit. Within the coding regions, variants were three to eight times more abundant in the expansion compared with the conserved core regions. The distribution of variants was largely consistent with models of concerted evolution in which there is uniform recombination across the transcribed portion of the unit with the frequency of standing variants dependent upon the selection pressure to preserve that sequence. However, the 28S gene was found to contain fewer variants than the 18S gene despite evolving 2.5-fold faster. We postulate that the fewer variants in the 28S gene is due to localized gene conversion or DNA repair triggered by the activity of retrotransposable elements that are specialized for insertion into the 28S genes of these species. PMID:17989256

  19. Alternate rRNA secondary structures as regulators of translation.

    PubMed

    Feng, Shu; Li, Heng; Zhao, Jing; Pervushin, Konstantin; Lowenhaupt, Ky; Schwartz, Thomas U; Dröge, Peter

    2011-02-01

    Structural dynamics of large molecular assemblies are intricately linked to function. For ribosomes, macromolecular changes occur especially during mRNA translation and involve participation of ribosomal RNA. Without suitable probes specific to RNA secondary structure, however, elucidation of more subtle dynamic ribosome structure-function relationships, especially in vivo, remains challenging. Here we report that the Z-DNA- and Z-RNA-binding domain Zα, derived from the human RNA editing enzyme ADAR1-L, binds with high stability to specific rRNA segments of Escherichia coli and human ribosomes. Zα impaired in Z-RNA recognition does not associate with ribosomes. Notably, Zα(ADAR1)-ribosome interaction blocks translation in vitro and in vivo, with substantial physiological consequences. Our study shows that ribosomes can be targeted by a protein that specifically recognizes an alternate rRNA secondary structure, and suggests a new mechanism of translational regulation on the ribosome. PMID:21217697

  20. Details of the evolutionary history from invertebrates to vertebrates, as deduced from the sequences of 18S rDNA.

    PubMed Central

    Wada, H; Satoh, N

    1994-01-01

    Almost the entire sequences of 18S rDNA were determined for two chaetognaths, five echinoderms, a hemichordate, and two urochordates (a larvacean and a salp). Phylogenetic comparisons of the sequences, together with those of other deuterostomes (an ascidian, a cephalochordate, and vertebrates) and protostomes (an arthropod and a mollusc), suggest the monophyly of the deuterostomes, with the exception of the chaetognaths. Chaetognaths may not be a group of deuterostomes. The deuterostome group closest to vertebrates was the group of cephalochordates. Ascidians, larvaceans, and salps seem to form a discrete group (urochordates), in which the early divergence of larvaceans is evident. These results support the hypothesis that chordates evolved from free-living ancestors. PMID:8127885

  1. Short communication: Genetic variants of Sarcocystis cruzi in infected Malaysian cattle based on 18S rDNA.

    PubMed

    Ng, Yit Han; Fong, Mun Yik; Subramaniam, Vellayan; Shahari, Shahhaziq; Lau, Yee Ling

    2015-12-01

    Sarcocystis species are pathogenic parasites that infect a wide range of animals, including cattle. A high prevalence of cattle sarcocystosis has been reported worldwide, but its status is unknown in Malaysia. This study focused on utilizing 18S rDNA to identify Sarcocystis species in Malaysian cattle and to determine their genetic variants. In this study, only Sarcocystis cruzi was detected in Malaysian cattle. The intra-species S. cruzi phylogenetic tree analysis and principal coordinate analysis (PCoA), respectively displayed two minor groups among the parasite isolates. This finding was supported by high Wright FST value (FST=0.647). The definitive hosts (dogs) may play a fundamental role in the development of S. cruzi genetic variants. Additionally, the existence of microheterogeneity within the S. cruzi merozoites and/or distinct genetic variants arisen from independent merozoites in mature sarcocysts, possibly contributed to the existence of intra-species variations within the population. PMID:26679818

  2. Robust Computational Analysis of rRNA Hypervariable Tag Datasets

    PubMed Central

    Sipos, Maksim; Jeraldo, Patricio; Chia, Nicholas; Qu, Ani; Dhillon, A. Singh; Konkel, Michael E.; Nelson, Karen E.; White, Bryan A.; Goldenfeld, Nigel

    2010-01-01

    Next-generation DNA sequencing is increasingly being utilized to probe microbial communities, such as gastrointestinal microbiomes, where it is important to be able to quantify measures of abundance and diversity. The fragmented nature of the 16S rRNA datasets obtained, coupled with their unprecedented size, has led to the recognition that the results of such analyses are potentially contaminated by a variety of artifacts, both experimental and computational. Here we quantify how multiple alignment and clustering errors contribute to overestimates of abundance and diversity, reflected by incorrect OTU assignment, corrupted phylogenies, inaccurate species diversity estimators, and rank abundance distribution functions. We show that straightforward procedural optimizations, combining preexisting tools, are effective in handling large () 16S rRNA datasets, and we describe metrics to measure the effectiveness and quality of the estimators obtained. We introduce two metrics to ascertain the quality of clustering of pyrosequenced rRNA data, and show that complete linkage clustering greatly outperforms other widely used methods. PMID:21217830

  3. Complete sequence and gene organization of the Nosema spodopterae rRNA gene.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Shu-Jen; Huang, Wei-Fone; Wang, Chung-Hsiung

    2005-01-01

    By sequencing the entire ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene of Nosema spodopterae, we show here that its gene organization follows a pattern similar to the Nosema type species, Nosema bombycis, i.e. 5'-large subunit rRNA (2,497 bp)-internal transcribed spacer (185 bp)-small subunit rRNA (1,232 bp)-intergenic spacer (277 bp)-5S rRNA (114 bp)-3'. Gene sequences and the secondary structures of large subunit rRNA, small subunit rRNA, and 5S rRNA are compared with the known corresponding sequences and structures of closely related microsporidia. The results suggest that the Nosema genus may be heterogeneous and that the rRNA gene organization may be a useful characteristic for determining which species are closely related to the type species. PMID:15702980

  4. Post-transcriptional Modifications Modulate rRNA Structure and Ligand Interactions.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jun; Seo, Hyosuk; Chow, Christine S

    2016-05-17

    Post-transcriptional modifications play important roles in modulating the functions of RNA species. The presence of modifications in RNA may directly alter its interactions with binding partners or cause structural changes that indirectly affect ligand recognition. Given the rapidly growing list of modifications identified in noncoding and mRNAs associated with human disease, as well as the dynamic control over modifications involved in various physiological processes, it is imperative to understand RNA structural modulation by these modifications. Among the RNA species, rRNAs provide numerous examples of modification types located in differing sequence and structural contexts. In addition, the modified rRNA motifs participate in a wide variety of ligand interactions, including those with RNA, protein, and small molecules. In fact, several classes of antibiotics exert their effects on protein synthesis by binding to functionally important and highly modified regions of the rRNAs. These RNA regions often display conservation in sequence, secondary structure, tertiary interactions, and modifications, trademarks of ideal drug-targeting sites. Furthermore, ligand interactions with such regions often favor certain modification-induced conformational states of the RNA. Our laboratory has employed a combination of biophysical methods such as nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), circular dichroism, and UV melting to study rRNA modifications in functionally important motifs, including helix 31 (h31) and helix h44 (h44) of the small subunit rRNA and helix 69 (H69) of the large subunit rRNA. The modified RNA oligonucleotides used in these studies were generated by solid-phase synthesis with a variety of phosphoramidite chemistries. The natural modifications were shown to impact thermal stability, dynamic behavior, and tertiary structures of the RNAs, with additive or cooperative effects occurring with multiple, clustered modifications. Taking advantage of the

  5. Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides WCFur3 partial 16S rRNA gene

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study used a partial 535 base pair 16S rRNA gene sequence to identify a bacterial isolate. Fatty acid profiles are consistent with the 16S rRNA gene sequence identification of this bacterium. The isolate was obtained from a compost bin in Fort Collins, Colorado, USA. The 16S rRNA gene sequen...

  6. A single base change in the Shine-Dalgarno region of 16S rRNA of Escherichia coli affects translation of many proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Jacob, W F; Santer, M; Dahlberg, A E

    1987-01-01

    A single base mutation was constructed at position 1538 of Escherichia coli 16S rRNA, changing a cytidine to a uridine. This position is in the Shine-Dalgarno region, thought to be involved in base-pairing to mRNA during initiation of protein synthesis. The mutation was constructed by using a synthetic oligodeoxynucleotide that differs in sequence by one base from the wild-type sequence of 16S rRNA. This oligonucleotide was used as a primer on single-stranded DNA of phage M13, into which was cloned a specific region of DNA encoding 16S rRNA. The mutation is lethal when expressed from the normal promoters of rRNA operons, P1 and P2, in a high-copy-number plasmid. Expression can be repressed by a temperature-sensitive repressor, cI857, in combination with the bacteriophage lambda PL promoter. Induction of transcription by temperature shift yields mutant 16S rRNA that is processed and assembled into functional ribosomal subunits. The presence of mutant ribosomes retards cell growth and dramatically alters incorporation of [35S]methionine into a large proportion of the cellular proteins. The change in level of synthesis of individual proteins correlates with the change in base-pairing between mutant rRNA and the Shine-Dalgarno region of the mRNA. Images PMID:2440027

  7. Dynamic changes in the distribution of a satellite homologous to intergenic 26-18S rDNA spacer in the evolution of Nicotiana.

    PubMed Central

    Lim, K Y; Skalicka, K; Koukalova, B; Volkov, R A; Matyasek, R; Hemleben, V; Leitch, A R; Kovarik, A

    2004-01-01

    An approximately 135-bp sequence called the A1/A2 repeat was isolated from the transcribed region of the 26-18S rDNA intergenic spacer (IGS) of Nicotiana tomentosiformis. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and Southern blot analysis revealed its occurrence as an independent satellite (termed an A1/A2 satellite) outside of rDNA loci in species of Nicotiana section Tomentosae. The chromosomal location, patterns of genomic dispersion, and copy numbers of its tandemly arranged units varied between the species. In more distantly related Nicotiana species the A1/A2 repeats were found only at the nucleolar organizer regions (NOR). There was a trend toward the elimination of the A1/A2 satellite in N. tabacum (tobacco), an allotetraploid with parents closely related to the diploids N. sylvestris and N. tomentosiformis. This process may have already commenced in an S(3) generation of synthetic tobacco. Cytosine residues in the IGS were significantly hypomethylated compared with the A1/A2 satellite. There was no clear separation between the IGS and satellite fractions in sequence analysis of individual clones and we found no evidence for CG suppression. Taken together the data indicate a dynamic nature of the A1/A2 repeats in Nicotiana genomes, with evidence for recurrent integration, copy number expansions, and contractions. PMID:15126410

  8. Accurate transcription of homologous 5S rRNA and tRNA genes and splicing of tRNA in vitro by soluble extracts of Neurospora.

    PubMed Central

    Tyler, B M; Giles, N H

    1984-01-01

    We have developed soluble extracts from Neurospora crassa capable of accurately and efficiently transcribing homologous 5S rRNA and tRNA genes. The extracts also appear to quantitatively end-process and splice the primary tRNA transcripts. Although the extracts could not transcribe a heterologous (yeast) 5S rRNA gene, they did transcribe a yeast tRNALeu gene and slowly process the transcripts. In addition, we have developed a novel strategy for rapidly sequencing uniformly labelled RNAs using base-specific ribonucleases. We have used this procedure to verify the identity of the in vitro transcripts and processing products. Images PMID:6235482

  9. Phylogenetic analysis of oryx species using partial sequences of mitochondrial rRNA genes.

    PubMed

    Khan, H A; Arif, I A; Al Farhan, A H; Al Homaidan, A A

    2008-01-01

    We conducted a comparative evaluation of 12S rRNA and 16S rRNA genes of the mitochondrial genome for molecular differentiation among three oryx species (Oryx leucoryx, Oryx dammah and Oryx gazella) with respect to two closely related outgroups, addax and roan. Our findings showed the failure of 12S rRNA gene to differentiate between the genus Oryx and addax, whereas a 342-bp partial sequence of 16S rRNA accurately grouped all five taxa studied, suggesting the utility of 16S rRNA segment for molecular phylogeny of oryx at the genus and possibly species levels. PMID:19048493

  10. Analysis, Optimization and Verification of Illumina-Generated 16S rRNA Gene Amplicon Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Michael C.; Morrison, Hilary G.; Benjamino, Jacquelynn; Grim, Sharon L.; Graf, Joerg

    2014-01-01

    The exploration of microbial communities by sequencing 16S rRNA genes has expanded with low-cost, high-throughput sequencing instruments. Illumina-based 16S rRNA gene sequencing has recently gained popularity over 454 pyrosequencing due to its lower costs, higher accuracy and greater throughput. Although recent reports suggest that Illumina and 454 pyrosequencing provide similar beta diversity measures, it remains to be demonstrated that pre-existing 454 pyrosequencing workflows can transfer directly from 454 to Illumina MiSeq sequencing by simply changing the sequencing adapters of the primers. In this study, we modified 454 pyrosequencing primers targeting the V4-V5 hyper-variable regions of the 16S rRNA gene to be compatible with Illumina sequencers. Microbial communities from cows, humans, leeches, mice, sewage, and termites and a mock community were analyzed by 454 and MiSeq sequencing of the V4-V5 region and MiSeq sequencing of the V4 region. Our analysis revealed that reference-based OTU clustering alone introduced biases compared to de novo clustering, preventing certain taxa from being observed in some samples. Based on this we devised and recommend an analysis pipeline that includes read merging, contaminant filtering, and reference-based clustering followed by de novo OTU clustering, which produces diversity measures consistent with de novo OTU clustering analysis. Low levels of dataset contamination with Illumina sequencing were discovered that could affect analyses that require highly sensitive approaches. While moving to Illumina-based sequencing platforms promises to provide deeper insights into the breadth and function of microbial diversity, our results show that care must be taken to ensure that sequencing and processing artifacts do not obscure true microbial diversity. PMID:24722003

  11. Determining Fungi rRNA Copy Number by PCR

    PubMed Central

    Black, Jonathan; Dean, Timothy; Byfield, Grace; Foarde, Karin; Menetrez, Marc

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this project is to improve the quantification of indoor fungal pollutants via the specific application of quantitative PCR (qPCR). Improvement will be made in the controls used in current qPCR applications. This work focuses on the use of two separate controls within a standard qPCR reaction. The first control developed was the internal standard control gene, benA. This gene encodes for β-tubulin and was selected based on its single-copy nature. The second control developed was the standard control plasmid, which contained a fragment of the ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene and produced a specific PCR product. The results confirm the multicopy nature of the rRNA region in several filamentous fungi and show that we can quantify fungi of unknown genome size over a range of spore extractions by inclusion of these two standard controls. Advances in qPCR have led to extremely sensitive and quantitative methods for single-copy genes; however, it has not been well established that the rRNA can be used to quantitate fungal contamination. We report on the use of qPCR, combined with two controls, to identify and quantify indoor fungal contaminants with a greater degree of confidence than has been achieved previously. Advances in indoor environmental health have demonstrated that contamination of the built environment by the filamentous fungi has adverse impacts on the health of building occupants. This study meets the need for more accurate and reliable methods for fungal identification and quantitation in the indoor environment. PMID:23543828

  12. Interactions of aminoglycoside antibiotics with rRNA.

    PubMed

    Trylska, Joanna; Kulik, Marta

    2016-08-15

    Aminoglycoside antibiotics are protein synthesis inhibitors applied to treat infections caused mainly by aerobic Gram-negative bacteria. Due to their adverse side effects they are last resort antibiotics typically used to combat pathogens resistant to other drugs. Aminoglycosides target ribosomes. We describe the interactions of aminoglycoside antibiotics containing a 2-deoxystreptamine (2-DOS) ring with 16S rRNA. We review the computational studies, with a focus on molecular dynamics (MD) simulations performed on RNA models mimicking the 2-DOS aminoglycoside binding site in the small ribosomal subunit. We also briefly discuss thermodynamics of interactions of these aminoglycosides with their 16S RNA target. PMID:27528743

  13. Growth rate regulation of rRNA content of a marine Synechococcus (cyanobacterium) strain

    SciTech Connect

    Binder, B.J.; Liu, Y.C.

    1998-09-01

    The relationship between growth rate and rRNA content in a marine Synechococcus strain was examined. A combination of flow cytometry and whole-cell hybridization with fluorescently labeled 16S rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probes was used to measure the rRNA content of Synechococcus strain WH8101 cells grown at a range of light-limited growth rates. The sensitivity of this approach was sufficient for the analysis of rRNA even in very slowly growing Synechococcus cells. The relationship between growth rate and cellular rRNA content comprised three phases: (1) at low growth rates, rRNA cell{sup {minus}1} remained approximately constant; (2) at intermediate rates, rRNA cell{sup {minus}1} increased proportionally with growth rate; and (3) at the highest, light-saturated rates, rRNA cell{sup {minus}1} dropped abruptly. Total cellular RNA was well correlated with the probe-based measure of rRNA and varied in a similar manner with growth rate. Mean cell volume and rRNA concentration were related to growth rate in a manner similar to rRNA cell{sup {minus}1}, although the overall magnitude linear increase in ribosome efficiency with increasing growth rate, which is consistent with the prevailing prokaryotic model at low growth rates. Taken together, these results support the notion that measurements of cellular rRNA content might be useful for estimating in situ growth rates in natural Synechococcus populations.

  14. Physical mapping of 18S and 5S genes in pelagic species of the genera Caranx and Carangoides (Carangidae).

    PubMed

    Jacobina, U P; Bertollo, L A C; Bello Cioffi, M; Molina, W F

    2014-01-01

    In Carangidae, Caranx is taxonomically controversial because of slight morphological differences among species, as well as because of its relationship with the genus Carangoides. Cytogenetic data has contributed to taxonomic and phylogenetic classification for some groups of fish. In this study, we examined the chromosomes of Caranx latus, Caranx lugubris, and Carangoides bartholomaei using classical methods, including conventional staining, C-banding, silver staining for nuclear organizer regions, base-specific fluorochrome, and 18S and 5S ribosomal sequence mapping using in situ hybridization. These 3 species showed chromosome numbers of 2n = 48, simple nuclear organizer regions (pair 1), and mainly centromeric heterochomatin. However, C. latus (NF = 50) and C. bartholomaei (NF = 50) showed a structurally conserved karyotype compared with C. lugubris (NF = 54), with a larger number of 2-armed chromosomes. The richness of GC-positive heterochromatic segments and sites in 5S rDNA in specific locations compared to the other 2 species reinforce the higher evolutionary dynamism in C. lugubris. Cytogenetic aspects shared between C. latus and C. bartholomaei confirm the remarkable phylogenetic proximity between these genera. PMID:25501173

  15. Phylogeny of the sundews, Drosera (Droseraceae), based on chloroplast rbcL and nuclear 18S ribosomal DNA Sequences.

    PubMed

    Rivadavia, Fernando; Kondo, Katsuhiko; Kato, Masahiro; Hasebe, Mitsuyasu

    2003-01-01

    The sundew genus Drosera consists of carnivorous plants with active flypaper traps and includes nearly 150 species distributed mainly in Australia, Africa, and South America, with some Northern Hemisphere species. In addition to confused intrageneric classification of Drosera, the intergeneric relationships among the Drosera and two other genera in the Droseraceae with snap traps, Dionaea and Aldrovanda, are problematic. We conducted phylogenetic analyses of DNA sequences of the chloroplast rbcL gene for 59 species of Drosera, covering all sections except one. These analyses revealed that five of 11 sections, including three monotypic sections, are polyphyletic. Combined rbcL and 18S rDNA sequence data were used to infer phylogenetic relationships among Drosera, Dionaea, and Aldrovanda. This analysis revealed that all Drosera species form a clade sister to a clade including Dionaea and Aldrovanda, suggesting that the snap traps of Aldrovanda and Dionaea are homologous despite their morphological differences. MacClade reconstructions indicated that multiple episodes of aneuploidy occurred in a clade that includes mainly Australian species, while the chromosome numbers in the other clades are not as variable. Drosera regia, which is native to South Africa, and most species native to Australia, were clustered basally, suggesting that Drosera originated in Africa or Australia. The rbcL tree indicates that Australian species expanded their distribution to South America and then to Africa. Expansion of distribution to the Northern Hemisphere from the Southern Hemispere occurred in a few different lineages. PMID:21659087

  16. Higher-order structure of rRNA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gutell, R. R.; Woese, C. R.

    1986-01-01

    A comparative search for phylogenetically covarying basepair replacements within potential helices has been the only reliable method to determine the correct secondary structure of the 3 rRNAs, 5S, 16S, and 23S. The analysis of 16S from a wide phylogenetic spectrum, that includes various branches of the eubacteria, archaebacteria, eucaryotes, in addition to the mitochondria and chloroplast, is beginning to reveal the constraints on the secondary structures of these rRNAs. Based on the success of this analysis, and the assumption that higher order structure will also be phylogenetically conserved, a comparative search was initiated for positions that show co-variation not involved in secondary structure helices. From a list of potential higher order interactions within 16S rRNA, two higher-order interactions are presented. The first of these interactions involves positions 570 and 866. Based on the extent of phylogenetic covariation between these positions while maintaining Watson-Crick pairing, this higher-order interaction is considered proven. The other interaction involves a minimum of six positions between the 1400 and 1500 regions of the 16S rRNA. Although these patterns of covariation are not as striking as the 570/866 interaction, the fact that they all exist in an anti-parallel fashion and that experimental methods previously implicated these two regions of the molecule in tRNA function suggests that these interactions be given serious consideration.

  17. Chromosomal Organization of Rrna Operons in Bacillus Subtilis

    PubMed Central

    Jarvis, E. D.; Widom, R. L.; LaFauci, G.; Setoguchi, Y.; Richter, I. R.; Rudner, R.

    1988-01-01

    Integrative mapping with vectors containing ribosomal DNA sequences were used to complete the mapping of the 10 rRNA gene sets in the endospore forming bacterium Bacillus subtilis. Southern hybridizations allowed the assignment of nine operons to distinct BclI restriction fragments and their genetic locus identified by transductional crosses. Nine of the ten rRNA gene sets are located between 0 and 70° on the genomic map. In the region surrounding cysA14, two sets of closely spaced tandem clusters are present. The first (rrnJ and rrnW) is located between purA16 and cysA14 closely linked to the latter; the second (rrnI, rrnH and rrnG) previously mapped within this area is located between attSPO2 and glpT6. The operons at or near the origin of replication (rrnO,rrnA and rrnJ,rrnW) represent ``hot spots'' of plasmid insertion. PMID:2465199

  18. Outside-in recrystallization of ZnS-Cu1.8 S hollow spheres with interdispersed lattices for enhanced visible light solar hydrogen generation.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Ting; Nuo Peh, Connor Kang; Hong, Minghui; Ho, Ghim Wei

    2014-09-01

    For the first time an earth-abundant and nontoxic ZnS-Cu(1.8) S hybrid photocatalyst has been engineered with well-defined nanosheet hollow structures by a template-engaged method. In contrast to conventional surface coupling and loading, the unique outside-in recrystallization promotes co-precipitation of ZnS and Cu(1.8) S into homogeneous interdispersed lattices, hence forming a hybrid semiconductor with visible responsive photocatalytic activity. The as-derived ZnS-Cu(1.8) S semiconductor alloy is tailored into a hierarchical hollow structure to provide readily accessible porous shells and interior spaces for effective ion transfer/exchange. Notably, this synergistic morphology, interface and crystal lattice engineering, aim towards the design of novel nanocatalysts for various sustainable environmental and energy applications. PMID:25043270

  19. Morphology and 18S rDNA of Henneguya gurlei (Myxosporea) from Ameiurus nebulosus (Siluriformes) in North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Iwanowicz, L.R.; Iwanowicz, D.D.; Pote, L.M.; Blazer, V.S.; Schill, W.B.

    2008-01-01

    Henneguya gurlei was isolated from Ameiurus nebulosus captured in North Carolina and redescribed using critical morphological features and 18S small-subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rDNA) gene sequence. Plasmodia are white, spherical, or subspherical, occur in clusters, measure up to 1.8 mm in length, and are located on the dorsal, pectoral, and anal fins. Histologically, plasmodia are located in the dermis and subdermally, and the larger cysts disrupt the melanocyte pigment layer. The spore body is lanceolate, 18.2 ?? 0.3 ??m (range 15.7-20.3) in length, and 5.4 ?? 0.1 ??m (range 3.8-6.1) in width in valvular view. The caudal appendages are 41.1 ?? 1.1 ??m (range 34.0-49.7) in length. Polar capsules are pyriform and of unequal size. The longer polar capsule measures 6.2 ?? 0.1 ??m (range 5.48-7.06), while the shorter is 5.7 ?? 0.1 ??m (range 4.8-6.4) in length. Polar capsule width is 1.2 ?? 0.03 ??m (range 1.0-1.54). The total length of the spore is 60.9 ?? 1.2 ??m (range 48.7-68.5). Morphologically, this species is similar to other species of Henneguya that are known to infect ictalurids. Based on SSU rDNA sequences, this species is most closely related to H. exilis and H. ictaluri, which infect Ictalurus punctatus. ?? American Society of Parasitologists 2008.

  20. Reduced expression of the mouse ribosomal protein Rpl17 alters the diversity of mature ribosomes by enhancing production of shortened 5.8S rRNA

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Minshi; Parshin, Andrey V.; Shcherbik, Natalia; Pestov, Dimitri G.

    2015-01-01

    Processing of rRNA during ribosome assembly can proceed through alternative pathways but it is unclear whether this could affect the structure of the ribosome. Here, we demonstrate that shortage of a ribosomal protein can change pre-rRNA processing in a way that over time alters ribosome diversity in the cell. Reducing the amount of Rpl17 in mouse cells led to stalled 60S subunit maturation, causing degradation of most of the synthesized precursors. A fraction of pre-60S subunits, however, were able to complete maturation, but with a 5′-truncated 5.8S rRNA, which we named 5.8SC. The 5′ exoribonuclease Xrn2 is involved in the generation of both 5.8SC and the canonical long form of 5.8S rRNA. Ribosomes containing 5.8SC rRNA are present in various mouse and human cells and engage in translation. These findings uncover a previously undescribed form of mammalian 5.8S rRNA and demonstrate that perturbations in ribosome assembly can be a source of heterogeneity in mature ribosomes. PMID:25995445

  1. The Regulation of rRNA Gene Transcription during Directed Differentiation of Human Embryonic Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhong; Zhao, Rui; Giles, Keith E.

    2016-01-01

    It has become increasingly clear that proper cellular control of pluripotency and differentiation is related to the regulation of rRNA synthesis. To further our understanding of the role that the regulation of rRNA synthesis has in pluripotency we monitored rRNA synthesis during the directed differentiation of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). We discovered that the rRNA synthesis rate is reduced ~50% within 6 hours of ACTIVIN A treatment. This precedes reductions in expression of specific stem cell markers and increases in expression of specific germ layer markers. The reduction in rRNA synthesis is concomitant with dissociation of the Pol I transcription factor, UBTF, from the rRNA gene promoter and precedes any increase to heterochromatin throughout the rRNA gene. To directly investigate the role of rRNA synthesis in pluripotency, hESCs were treated with the Pol I inhibitor, CX-5461. The direct reduction of rRNA synthesis by CX-5461 induces the expression of markers for all three germ layers, reduces the expression of pluripotency markers, and is overall similar to the ACTIVIN A induced changes. This work indicates that the dissociation of UBTF from the rRNA gene, and corresponding reduction in transcription, represent early regulatory events during the directed differentiation of pluripotent stem cells. PMID:27299313

  2. 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing dataset for conventionalized and conventionally raised zebrafish larvae.

    PubMed

    Davis, Daniel J; Bryda, Elizabeth C; Gillespie, Catherine H; Ericsson, Aaron C

    2016-09-01

    Data presented here contains metagenomic analysis regarding the sequential conventionalization of germ-free zebrafish embryos. Zebrafish embryos that underwent a germ-free sterilization process immediately after fertilization were promptly exposed to and raised to larval stage in conventional fish water. At 6 days postfertilization (dpf), these "conventionalized" larvae were compared to zebrafish larvae that were raised in conventional fish water never undergoing the initial sterilization process. Bacterial 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing was performed on DNA isolated from homogenates of the larvae revealing distinct microbiota variations between the two groups. The dataset described here is also related to the research article entitled "Microbial modulation of behavior and stress responses in zebrafish larvae" (Davis et al., 2016) [1]. PMID:27508247

  3. MTR4, a putative RNA helicase and exosome co-factor, is required for proper rRNA biogenesis and development in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Lange, Heike; Sement, François M; Gagliardi, Dominique

    2011-10-01

    The exosome is a conserved protein complex that is responsible for essential 3'→5' RNA degradation in both the nucleus and the cytosol. It is composed of a nine-subunit core complex to which co-factors confer both RNA substrate recognition and ribonucleolytic activities. Very few exosome co-factors have been identified in plants. Here, we have characterized a putative RNA helicase, AtMTR4, that is involved in the degradation of several nucleolar exosome substrates in Arabidopsis thaliana. We show that AtMTR4, rather than its closely related protein HEN2, is required for proper rRNA biogenesis in Arabidopsis. AtMTR4 is mostly localized in the nucleolus, a subcellular compartmentalization that is shared with another exosome co-factor, RRP6L2. AtMTR4 and RRP6L2 cooperate in several steps of rRNA maturation and surveillance, such as processing the 5.8S rRNA and removal of rRNA maturation by-products. Interestingly, degradation of the Arabidopsis 5' external transcribed spacer (5' ETS) requires cooperation of both the 5'→3' and 3'→5' exoribonucleolytic pathways. Accumulating AtMTR4 targets give rise to illegitimate small RNAs; however, these do not affect rRNA metabolism or contribute to the phenotype of mtr4 mutants. Plants lacking AtMTR4 are viable but show several developmental defects, including aberrant vein patterning and pointed first leaves. The mtr4 phenotype resembles that of several ribosomal protein and nucleolin mutants, and may be explained by delayed ribosome biogenesis, as we observed a reduced rate of rRNA accumulation in mtr4 mutants. Taken together, these data link AtMTR4 with rRNA biogenesis and development in Arabidopsis. PMID:21682783

  4. FISH and AgNor mapping of the 45S and 5S rRNA genes in wild and cultivated species of Capsicum (Solananceae).

    PubMed

    Scaldaferro, Marisel A; da Cruz, M Victoria Romero; Cecchini, Nicolás M; Moscone, Eduardo A

    2016-02-01

    Chromosome number and position of rDNA were studied in 12 wild and cultivated species of the genus Capsicum with chromosome numbers x = 12 and x = 13 (22 samples). For the first time in these species, the 5S and 45S rRNA loci were localized and physically mapped using two-color fluorescence in situ hybridization and AgNOR banding. We focused on the comparison of the results obtained with both methods with the aim of accurately revealing the real functional rRNA genes. The analyzes were based on a previous work that reported that the 18S-5.8S-25S loci mostly coincide with GC-rich heterochromatic regions and likely have given rise to satellite DNAs, which are not active genes. These data show the variability of rDNA within karyotypes of the genus Capsicum, providing anchor points for (comparative) genetic maps. In addition, the obtained information might be useful for studies on evolution of repetitive DNA. PMID:26853884

  5. Point mutations in the 3' minor domain of 16S rRNA of E.coli.

    PubMed Central

    Jemiolo, D K; Zwieb, C; Dahlberg, A E

    1985-01-01

    Point mutations were produced near the 3' end of E. coli 16S rRNA by bisulfite mutagenesis in a 121 base loop-out (1385 to 1505) in a heteroduplex of wild type (pKK3535) and deletion mutant plasmids. Two highly conserved, single stranded regions flank an irregular helix (1409-1491) in the area studied. Only a single mutation was isolated in the flanking regions, a transition at C1402, (normally methylated on the base and ribose in rRNA). Mutations occurred throughout the irregular helix. All mutant rRNAs were processed and assembled into 30S subunits capable of interacting with 50S subunits. Growth rates ranged from faster to significantly slower than cells with the wild type transcript. In particular, mutations at C1467 or C1469 cause slow growth. These two transitions (in a bulge region within the helix) reduced the bulge by additional base pairing. PMID:3909106

  6. Dancing together and separate again: gymnosperms exhibit frequent changes of fundamental 5S and 35S rRNA gene (rDNA) organisation

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, S; Kovařík, A

    2013-01-01

    In higher eukaryotes, the 5S rRNA genes occur in tandem units and are arranged either separately (S-type arrangement) or linked to other repeated genes, in most cases to rDNA locus encoding 18S–5.8S–26S genes (L-type arrangement). Here we used Southern blot hybridisation, PCR and sequencing approaches to analyse genomic organisation of rRNA genes in all large gymnosperm groups, including Coniferales, Ginkgoales, Gnetales and Cycadales. The data are provided for 27 species (21 genera). The 5S units linked to the 35S rDNA units occur in some but not all Gnetales, Coniferales and in Ginkgo (∼30% of the species analysed), while the remaining exhibit separate organisation. The linked 5S rRNA genes may occur as single-copy insertions or as short tandems embedded in the 26S–18S rDNA intergenic spacer (IGS). The 5S transcript may be encoded by the same (Ginkgo, Ephedra) or opposite (Podocarpus) DNA strand as the 18S–5.8S–26S genes. In addition, pseudogenised 5S copies were also found in some IGS types. Both L- and S-type units have been largely homogenised across the genomes. Phylogenetic relationships based on the comparison of 5S coding sequences suggest that the 5S genes independently inserted IGS at least three times in the course of gymnosperm evolution. Frequent transpositions and rearrangements of basic units indicate relatively relaxed selection pressures imposed on genomic organisation of 5S genes in plants. PMID:23512008

  7. Optimization of PCR—RFLP Directly from the Skin and Nails in Cases of Dermatophytosis, Targeting the ITS and the 18S Ribosomal DNA Regions

    PubMed Central

    Elavarashi, Elangovan; Kindo, Anupma Jyoti; Kalyani, Jagannathan

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: A pan fungal primer targeting the Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) region and optimization of PCR-RFLP using a dermatophyte specific primer targeted the 18S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) region were performed for the identification of dermatophyte species and strains directly from clinical specimens. Materials and Methods: One hundred and thirty eight specimens (129 skin scrapings and 9 nail clippings) from clinically suspected cases of dermatophytosis were collected and subjected to direct microscopy and culture. Among them, 66 skin scrapings and 3 nail clippings were processed for genotyping by PCR-RFLP analysis using the Mva I, Hae III and the Dde I restriction enzymes. Results: Of the 138 specimens, 81 specimens were positive for dermatophytosis, the most common one being Trichophyton rubrum (47), followed by Trichophyton mentagrophytes (25) and Epidermophyton floccosum (9). Of the 47 T. rubrum isolates, 10 were T. rubrum var. raubitschekii which were identified phenotypically as urease positive and by DNA sequencing. Since they exhibited minor morphological and physiological features, they have currently been synonymized with T. rubrum. Of the 25 T. mentagrophytes isolates, three were Trichophyton interdigitale, which were identified by DNA sequencing. Among the 66 skin specimens smear, culture and PCR showed the presence of dermatophytes in 36 (54.54%), 42 (63.63%) and 47 (71.21%) cases respectively. Among the three nail specimens, only one was found to be positive for dermatophytosis by smear, culture and PCR. Conclusion: Amplification of the dermatophyte specific primer is appropriate in the identification of dermatophytes directly from the clinical material. PCR targeting the ITS region by using the Mva I and the Dde I enzymes was equally good for the RFLP analysis. However, by using the above three restriction enzymes, no strain variations were detected among the T. rubrum and the T. mentagrophytes strains. PMID:23730638

  8. Exchange of Spacer Regions between Rrna Operons in Escherichia Coli

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, S.; Hill, C. W.

    1990-01-01

    The Escherichia coli rRNA operons each have one of two types of spacer separating the 16S and 23S coding regions. The spacers of four operons encode tRNA(Glu2) and the other three encode both tRNA(Ile) and tRNA(Ala 1 B). We have prepared a series of mutants in which the spacer region of a particular rrn operon has been replaced by the opposite type. Included among these were a mutant retaining only a single copy of the tRNA(Glu2) spacer (at rrnG) and another retaining only a single copy of the tRNA(Ile)-tRNA(Ala 1 B) spacer (at rrnA). While both mutants grew more slowly than controls, the mutant deficient in tRNA(Glu2) spacers was more severely affected. At a frequency of 6 X 10(-5), these mutants phenotypically reverted to faster growing types by increasing the copy number of the deficient spacer. In most of these phenotypic revertants, the deficient spacer type appeared in a rrn operon which previously contained the surplus type, bringing the ratio of spacer types closer to normal. In a few cases, these spacer changes were accompanied by an inversion of the chromosomal material between the donor and recipient rrn operons. Two examples of inversion of one-half of the E. coli chromosome between rrnG and rrnH were observed. The correlation of spacer change with inversion indicated that, in these particular cases, the change was due to an intrachromatid gene conversion event accompanied by a reciprocal crossover rather than reciprocal exchange between sister chromatids. PMID:2168847

  9. Phylogeny and systematics of demospongiae in light of new small-subunit ribosomal DNA (18S) sequences.

    PubMed

    Redmond, N E; Morrow, C C; Thacker, R W; Diaz, M C; Boury-Esnault, N; Cárdenas, P; Hajdu, E; Lôbo-Hajdu, G; Picton, B E; Pomponi, S A; Kayal, E; Collins, A G

    2013-09-01

    The most diverse and species-rich class of the phylum Porifera is Demospongiae. In recent years, the systematics of this clade, which contains more than 7000 species, has developed rapidly in light of new studies combining molecular and morphological observations. We add more than 500 new, nearly complete 18S sequences (an increase of more than 200%) in an attempt to further enhance understanding of the phylogeny of Demospongiae. Our study specifically targets representation of type species and genera that have never been sampled for any molecular data in an effort to accelerate progress in classifying this diverse lineage. Our analyses recover four highly supported subclasses of Demospongiae: Keratosa, Myxospongiae, Haploscleromorpha, and Heteroscleromorpha. Within Keratosa, neither Dendroceratida, nor its two families, Darwinellidae and Dictyodendrillidae, are monophyletic and Dictyoceratida is divided into two lineages, one predominantly composed of Dysideidae and the second containing the remaining families (Irciniidae, Spongiidae, Thorectidae, and Verticillitidae). Within Myxospongiae, we find Chondrosida to be paraphyletic with respect to the Verongida. We amend the latter to include species of the genus Chondrosia and erect a new order Chondrillida to contain remaining taxa from Chondrosida, which we now discard. Even with increased taxon sampling of Haploscleromorpha, our analyses are consistent with previous studies; however, Haliclona species are interspersed in even more clades. Haploscleromorpha contains five highly supported clades, each more diverse than previously recognized, and current families are mostly polyphyletic. In addition, we reassign Janulum spinispiculum to Haploscleromorpha and resurrect Reniera filholi as Janulum filholi comb. nov. Within the large clade Heteroscleromorpha, we confirmed 12 recently identified clades based on alternative data, as well as a sister-group relationship between the freshwater Spongillida and the family

  10. Comparative evaluation of the nested ITS PCR against the 18S PCR-RFLP in a survey of bovine trypanosomiasis in Kwale County, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Odongo, Steven; Delespaux, Vincent; Ngotho, Maina; Bekkele, Serkalem Mindaye; Magez, Stefan

    2016-09-01

    We compared the nested internal transcribed spacer (ITS) PCR and the 18S PCR-RFLP (restriction-fragment length polymorphism) pan-trypanosome assays in a cross-sectional survey of bovine trypanosomiasis in 358 cattle in Kwale County, Kenya. The prevalence of trypanosomiasis as determined by the nested ITS PCR was 19.6% (70/358) and by 18S PCR-RFLP was 16.8% (60/358). Of the pathogenic trypanosomes detected, the prevalence of Trypanosoma congolense and Trypanosoma vivax was greater than that of Trypanosoma simiae The nested ITS PCR detected 83 parasite events, whereas the 18S PCR-RFLP detected 64; however, overall frequencies of infections and the parasite events detected did not differ between the assays (χ(2) = 0.8, df = 1, p > 0.05 and χ(2) = 2.5, df = 1, p > 0.05, respectively). The kappa statistic (0.8) showed good agreement between the tests. The nested ITS PCR and the 18S PCR-RFLP had comparable sensitivity, although the nested ITS PCR was better at detecting mixed infections (χ(2) = 5.4, df = 1, p < 0.05). PMID:27423733

  11. Introduction of a novel 18S rDNA gene arrangement along with distinct ITS region in the saline water microalga Dunaliella

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Comparison of 18S rDNA gene sequences is a very promising method for identification and classification of living organisms. Molecular identification and discrimination of different Dunaliella species were carried out based on the size of 18S rDNA gene and, number and position of introns in the gene. Three types of 18S rDNA structure have already been reported: the gene with a size of ~1770 bp lacking any intron, with a size of ~2170 bp consisting one intron near 5' terminus, and with a size of ~2570 bp harbouring two introns near 5' and 3' termini. Hereby, we report a new 18S rDNA gene arrangement in terms of intron localization and nucleotide sequence in a Dunaliella isolated from Iranian salt lakes (ABRIINW-M1/2). PCR amplification with genus-specific primers resulted in production of a ~2170 bp DNA band, which is similar to that of D. salina 18S rDNA gene containing only one intron near 5' terminus. Whilst, sequence composition of the gene revealed the lack of any intron near 5' terminus in our isolate. Furthermore, another alteration was observed due to the presence of a 440 bp DNA fragment near 3' terminus. Accordingly, 18S rDNA gene of the isolate is clearly different from those of D. salina and any other Dunaliella species reported so far. Moreover, analysis of ITS region sequence showed the diversity of this region compared to the previously reported species. 18S rDNA and ITS sequences of our isolate were submitted with accesion numbers of EU678868 and EU927373 in NCBI database, respectively. The optimum growth rate of this isolate occured at the salinity level of 1 M NaCl. The maximum carotenoid content under stress condition of intense light (400 μmol photon m-2 s-1), high salinity (4 M NaCl) and deficiency of nitrate and phosphate nutritions reached to 240 ng/cell after 15 days. PMID:20377865

  12. Variation in the number of nucleoli and incomplete homogenization of 18S ribosomal DNA sequences in leaf cells of the cultivated Oriental ginseng (Panax ginseng Meyer)

    PubMed Central

    Chelomina, Galina N.; Rozhkovan, Konstantin V.; Voronova, Anastasia N.; Burundukova, Olga L.; Muzarok, Tamara I.; Zhuravlev, Yuri N.

    2015-01-01

    Background Wild ginseng, Panax ginseng Meyer, is an endangered species of medicinal plants. In the present study, we analyzed variations within the ribosomal DNA (rDNA) cluster to gain insight into the genetic diversity of the Oriental ginseng, P. ginseng, at artificial plant cultivation. Methods The roots of wild P. ginseng plants were sampled from a nonprotected natural population of the Russian Far East. The slides were prepared from leaf tissues using the squash technique for cytogenetic analysis. The 18S rDNA sequences were cloned and sequenced. The distribution of nucleotide diversity, recombination events, and interspecific phylogenies for the total 18S rDNA sequence data set was also examined. Results In mesophyll cells, mononucleolar nuclei were estimated to be dominant (75.7%), while the remaining nuclei contained two to four nucleoli. Among the analyzed 18S rDNA clones, 20% were identical to the 18S rDNA sequence of P. ginseng from Japan, and other clones differed in one to six substitutions. The nucleotide polymorphism was more expressed at the positions 440–640 bp, and distributed in variable regions, expansion segments, and conservative elements of core structure. The phylogenetic analysis confirmed conspecificity of ginseng plants cultivated in different regions, with two fixed mutations between P. ginseng and other species. Conclusion This study identified the evidences of the intragenomic nucleotide polymorphism in the 18S rDNA sequences of P. ginseng. These data suggest that, in cultivated plants, the observed genome instability may influence the synthesis of biologically active compounds, which are widely used in traditional medicine. PMID:27158239

  13. Three stage cultivation process of facultative strain of Chlorella sorokiniana for treating dairy farm effluent and lipid enhancement.

    PubMed

    Hena, S; Fatihah, N; Tabassum, S; Ismail, N

    2015-09-01

    Reserve lipids of microalgae are promising for biodiesel production. However, economically feasible and sustainable energy production from microalgae requires optimization of cultivation conditions for both biomass yield and lipid production of microalgae. Biomass yield and lipid production in microalgae are a contradictory problem because required conditions for both targets are different. Simultaneously, the mass cultivation of microalgae for biofuel production also depends extremely on the performance of the microalgae strains used. In this study a green unicellular microalgae Chlorella sorokiniana (DS6) isolated from the holding tanks of farm wastewater treatment plant using multi-step screening and acclimation procedures was found high-lipid producing facultative heterotrophic microalgae strain capable of growing on dairy farm effluent (DFE) for biodiesel feedstock and wastewater treatment. Morphological features and the phylogenetic analysis for the 18S rRNA identified the isolated strains. A novel three stage cultivation process of facultative strain of C. sorokiniana was examined for lipid production. PMID:26043271

  14. Structure of ERA in complex with the 3′ end of 16S rRNA: Implications for ribosome biogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Tu, Chao; Zhou, Xiaomei; Tropea, Joseph E.; Austin, Brian P.; Waugh, David S.; Court, Donald L.; Ji, Xinhua

    2009-10-09

    ERA, composed of an N-terminal GTPase domain followed by an RNA-binding KH domain, is essential for bacterial cell viability. It binds to 16S rRNA and the 30S ribosomal subunit. However, its RNA-binding site, the functional relationship between the two domains, and its role in ribosome biogenesis remain unclear. We have determined two crystal structures of ERA, a binary complex with GDP and a ternary complex with a GTP-analog and the {sub 1531}AUCACCUCCUUA{sub 1542} sequence at the 3' end of 16S rRNA. In the ternary complex, the first nine of the 12 nucleotides are recognized by the protein. We show that GTP binding is a prerequisite for RNA recognition by ERA and that RNA recognition stimulates its GTP-hydrolyzing activity. Based on these and other data, we propose a functional cycle of ERA, suggesting that the protein serves as a chaperone for processing and maturation of 16S rRNA and a checkpoint for assembly of the 30S ribosomal subunit. The AUCA sequence is highly conserved among bacteria, archaea, and eukaryotes, whereas the CCUCC, known as the anti-Shine-Dalgarno sequence, is conserved in noneukaryotes only. Therefore, these data suggest a common mechanism for a highly conserved ERA function in all three kingdoms of life by recognizing the AUCA, with a 'twist' for noneukaryotic ERA proteins by also recognizing the CCUCC.

  15. Evolution of rRNA gene clusters and telomeric repeats during explosive genome repatterning in TATERILLUS X (Rodentia, Gerbillinae).

    PubMed

    Dobigny, G; Ozouf-Costaz, C; Bonillo, C; Volobouev, V

    2003-01-01

    A survey of 28S and 5S rRNA gene clusters, and telomeric repeats was performed using single and double FISH in the Taterillus genus (Rodentia, Muridae, Gerbillinae). Taterillus was previously demonstrated to have undergone a very recent and extensive chromosomal evolution. Our FISH results demonstrate that rRNA genes can vary in location and number irrespective of the phylogenetic relationships. Telomeric repeats were detected in pericentromeric and interstitial regions of several chromosomes, thus providing nonambiguous evolutionary footprints of Robertsonian and tandem translocation events. These footprints are discussed in reference to the molecular process of these karyotypical changes. Also, examples of colocation of rDNA clusters and telomeric repeats lend support to their possible involvement in nucleolus formation. Finally, the presence of rRNA genes, and the extensive amplification of telomeric repeats at specific loci within a double X-autosome translocated element which were not observed on the homologous Y1 and Y2, served as basis for an epigenomic hypothesis on X-autosome translocation viability in mammals. PMID:15004471

  16. Insights into the phylogenetic positions of photosynthetic bacteria obtained from 5S rRNA and 16S rRNA sequence data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, G. E.

    1985-01-01

    Comparisons of complete 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) sequences established that the secondary structure of these molecules is highly conserved. Earlier work with 5S rRNA secondary structure revealed that when structural conservation exists the alignment of sequences is straightforward. The constancy of structure implies minimal functional change. Under these conditions a uniform evolutionary rate can be expected so that conditions are favorable for phylogenetic tree construction.

  17. Secondary structure of mouse 28S rRNA and general model for the folding of the large rRNA in eukaryotes.

    PubMed Central

    Michot, B; Hassouna, N; Bachellerie, J P

    1984-01-01

    We present a secondary structure model for the entire sequence of mouse 28S rRNA (1) which is based on an extensive comparative analysis of the available eukaryotic sequences, i.e. yeast (2, 3), Physarum polycephalum (4), Xenopus laevis (5) and rat (6). It has been derived with close reference to the models previously proposed for yeast 26S rRNA (2) and for prokaryotic 23S rRNA (7-9). Examination of the recently published eukaryotic sequences confirms that all pro- and eukaryotic large rRNAs share a largely conserved secondary structure core, as already apparent from the previous analysis of yeast 26S rRNA (2). These new comparative data confirm most features of the yeast model (2). They also provide the basis for a few modifications and for new proposals which extend the boundaries of the common structural core (now representing about 85% of E. coli 23S rRNA length) and bring new insights for tracing the structural evolution, in higher eukaryotes, of the domains which have no prokaryotic equivalent and are inserted at specific locations within the common structural core of the large subunit rRNA. PMID:6374617

  18. The Strepsiptera problem: phylogeny of the holometabolous insect orders inferred from 18S and 28S ribosomal DNA sequences and morphology.

    PubMed

    Whiting, M F; Carpenter, J C; Wheeler, Q D; Wheeler, W C

    1997-03-01

    Phylogenetic relationships among the holometabolous insect orders were inferred from cladistic analysis of nucleotide sequences of 18S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) (85 exemplars) and 28S rDNA (52 exemplars) and morphological characters. Exemplar outgroup taxa were Collembola (1 sequence), Archaeognatha (1), Ephemerida (1), Odonata (2), Plecoptera (2), Blattodea (1), Mantodea (1), Dermaptera (1), Orthoptera (1), Phasmatodea (1), Embioptera (1), Psocoptera (1), Phthiraptera (1), Hemiptera (4), and Thysanoptera (1). Exemplar ingroup taxa were Coleoptera: Archostemata (1), Adephaga (2), and Polyphaga (7); Megaloptera (1); Raphidioptera (1); Neuroptera (sensu stricto = Planipennia): Mantispoidea (2), Hemerobioidea (2), and Myrmeleontoidea (2); Hymenoptera: Symphyta (4) and Apocrita (19); Trichoptera: Hydropsychoidea (1) and Limnephiloidea (2); Lepidoptera: Ditrysia (3); Siphonaptera: Pulicoidea (1) and Ceratophylloidea (2); Mecoptera: Meropeidae (1), Boreidae (1), Panorpidae (1), and Bittacidae (2); Diptera: Nematocera (1), Brachycera (2), and Cyclorrhapha (1); and Strepsiptera: Corioxenidae (1), Myrmecolacidae (1), Elenchidae (1), and Stylopidae (3). We analyzed approximately 1 kilobase of 18S rDNA, starting 398 nucleotides downstream of the 5' end, and approximately 400 bp of 28S rDNA in expansion segment D3. Multiple alignment of the 18S and 28S sequences resulted in 1,116 nucleotide positions with 24 insert regions and 398 positions with 14 insert regions, respectively. All Strepsiptera and Neuroptera have large insert regions in 18S and 28S. The secondary structure of 18S insert 23 is composed of long stems that are GC rich in the basal Strepsiptera and AT rich in the more derived Strepsiptera. A matrix of 176 morphological characters was analyzed for holometabolous orders. Incongruence length difference tests indicate that the 28S + morphological data sets are incongruent but that 28S + 18S, 18S + morphology, and 28S + 18S + morphology fail to reject the hypothesis of

  19. Ribosome heterogeneity in tumorigenesis: the rRNA point of view

    PubMed Central

    Marcel, Virginie; Catez, Frédéric; Diaz, Jean-Jacques

    2015-01-01

    The "specialized ribosome" concept proposes that ribosome variants are produced and differentially regulate translation. Examples supporting this notion demonstrated heterogeneity of ribosomal protein composition. However, ribosome translational activity is carried out by rRNA. We, and others, recently showed that rRNA heterogeneity regulates translation to generate distinct translatomes promoting tumorigenesis. PMID:27305893

  20. Tetrathiobacter kashmirensis Strain CA-1 16S rRNA gene complete sequence.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study used 1326 base pair 16S rRNA gene sequence methods to confirm the identification of a bacterium as Tetrathiobacter kashmirensis. Morphological, biochemical characteristics, and fatty acid profiles are consistent with the 16S rRNA gene sequence identification of the bacterium. The isolate...

  1. Characteristic archaebacterial 16S rRNA oligonucleotides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGill, T. J.; Jurka, J.; Sobieski, J. M.; Pickett, M. H.; Woese, C. R.; Fox, G. E.

    1986-01-01

    A method of analyzing 16S rRNA catalog data has been developed in which groupings at various taxonomic levels can be characterized in terms of specific "signature" oligonucleotides. This approach provides an alternative means for evaluating higher order branching possibilities and can be used to assess the phylogenetic position of isolates that are poorly placed by the usual clustering procedures. This signature approach has been applied to forty archaebacterial catalogs and every oligonucleotide with significant signature value has been identified. Sets of specific oligonucleotides were identified for every major group on a dendrogram produced by cluster analysis procedures. Signatures that would establish between group relationships were also sought and found. In the case of the Methanobacteriaceae the clustering methods suggest a specific relationship to the Methanococcaceae. This inclusion is in fact supported by six strong signature oligonucleotides. However there are also significant numbers of signature oligonucleotides supporting a specific relationship of the Methanobacteriaceae to either the Halobacteriaceae or the Methanomicrobiaceae. Thus the placement of the Methanobacteriaceae is less certain than the usual dendrograms imply. The signature approach also was used to assess the phylogenetic position of Thermoplasma acidophilum which is found to be more closely related to the methanogen/halophile Division than to the sulfur dependent Division of the archaebacteria. This does not imply however that Thermoplasma acidophilum is properly regarded as being in the methanogen/halophile Division.

  2. Evidence for the presence of 5S rRNA in mammalian mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Magalhães, P J; Andreu, A L; Schon, E A

    1998-09-01

    Mammalian mitochondrial ribosomes contain two prokaryotic-like rRNAs, 12S and 16S, both encoded by mitochondrial DNA. As opposed to cytosolic ribosomes, however, these ribosomes are not thought to contain 5S rRNA. For this reason, it has been unclear whether 5S rRNA, which can be detected in mitochondrial preparations, is an authentic organellar species imported from the cytosol or is merely a copurifying cytosol-derived contaminant. We now show that 5S rRNA is tightly associated with highly purified mitochondrial fractions of human and rat cells and that 5S rRNA transcripts derived from a synthetic gene transfected transiently into human cells are both expressed in vivo and present in highly purified mitochondria and mitoplasts. We conclude that 5S rRNA is imported into mammalian mitochondria, but its function there still remains to be clarified. PMID:9725900

  3. Structural and functional analysis of 5S rRNA in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Kiparisov, S.; Sergiev, P. V.; Dontsova, O. A.; Petrov, A.; Meskauskas, A.; Dinman, J. D.

    2005-01-01

    5S rRNA extends from the central protuberance of the large ribosomal subunit, through the A-site finger, and down to the GTPase-associated center. Here, we present a structure-function analysis of seven 5S rRNA alleles which are sufficient for viability in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae when expressed in the absence of wild-type 5S rRNAs, and extend this analysis using a large bank of mutant alleles that show semidominant phenotypes in the presence of wild-type 5S rRNA. This analysis supports the hypothesis that 5S rRNA serves to link together several different functional centers of the ribosome. Data are also presented which suggest that in eukaryotic genomes selection has favored the maintenance of multiple alleles of 5S rRNA, and that these may provide cells with a mechanism to post-transcriptionally regulate gene expression. PMID:16047201

  4. Strain identification and 5S rRNA gene characterization of the hyperthermophilic archaebacterium Sulfolobus acidocaldarius.

    PubMed Central

    Durovic, P; Kutay, U; Schleper, C; Dennis, P P

    1994-01-01

    A commonly used laboratory Sulfolobus strain has been unambiguously identified as Sulfolobus acidocaldarius DSM639. The 5S rRNA gene from this strain was cloned and sequenced. It differs at 17 of 124 positions from the identical 5S rRNA sequences from Sulfolobus solfataricus and a strain apparently misidentified as S. acidocaldarius. Analysis of the transcripts from the 5S rRNA gene failed to identify any precursor extending a significant distance beyond the 5' or 3' boundary of the 5S rRNA-coding sequence. This result suggests that the primary transcript of the 5S rRNA gene corresponds in length (within 1 or 2 nucleotides) to the mature 5S rRNA sequence found in 50S ribosomal subunits. Images PMID:8288546

  5. Subnuclear partitioning of rRNA genes between the nucleolus and nucleoplasm reflects alternative epiallelic states

    PubMed Central

    Pontvianne, Frederic; Blevins, Todd; Chandrasekhara, Chinmayi; Mozgová, Iva; Hassel, Christiane; Pontes, Olga M.F.; Tucker, Sarah; Mokroš, Petr; Muchová, Veronika; Fajkus, Jiří; Pikaard, Craig S.

    2013-01-01

    Eukaryotes can have thousands of 45S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, many of which are silenced during development. Using fluorescence-activated sorting techniques, we show that active rRNA genes in Arabidopsis thaliana are present within sorted nucleoli, whereas silenced rRNA genes are excluded. DNA methyltransferase (met1), histone deacetylase (hda6), or chromatin assembly (caf1) mutants that disrupt silencing abrogate this nucleoplasmic–nucleolar partitioning. Bisulfite sequencing data indicate that active nucleolar rRNA genes are nearly completely demethylated at promoter CGs, whereas silenced genes are nearly fully methylated. Collectively, the data reveal that rRNA genes occupy distinct but changeable nuclear territories according to their epigenetic state. PMID:23873938

  6. Distribution of Mosquitoes in the South East of Argentina and First Report on the Analysis Based on 18S rDNA and COI Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Díaz-Nieto, Leonardo M.; Maciá, Arnaldo; Parisi, Gustavo; Farina, Juan L.; Vidal-Domínguez, María E.; Perotti, M. Alejandra; Berón, Corina M.

    2013-01-01

    Although Mar del Plata is the most important city on the Atlantic coast of Argentina, mosquitoes inhabiting such area are almost uncharacterized. To increase our knowledge in their distribution, we sampled specimens of natural populations. After the morphological identification based on taxonomic keys, sequences of DNA from small ribosomal subunit (18S rDNA) and cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) genes were obtained from native species and the phylogenetic analysis of these sequences were done. Fourteen species from the genera Uranotaenia, Culex, Ochlerotatus and Psorophora were found and identified. Our 18S rDNA and COI-based analysis indicates the relationships among groups at the supra-species level in concordance with mosquito taxonomy. The introduction and spread of vectors and diseases carried by them are not known in Mar del Plata, but some of the species found in this study were reported as pathogen vectors. PMID:24098700

  7. Reconstructing the Phylogeny of Capsosiphon fulvescens (Ulotrichales, Chlorophyta) from Korea Based on rbcL and 18S rDNA Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Sang-Mi; Yang, Seung Hwan

    2016-01-01

    Capsosiphon fulvescens is a filamentous green algae in the class Ulvophyceae. It has been consumed as food with unique flavor and soft texture to treat stomach disorders and hangovers, and its economic value justifies studying its nutritional and potential therapeutic effects. In contrast to these applications, only a few taxonomic studies have been conducted on C. fulvescens. In particular, classification and phylogenetic relationships of the C. fulvescens below the order level are controversial. To determine its phylogenetic position in the class, we used rbcL and 18S rDNA sequences as molecular markers to construct phylogenetic trees. The amplified rbcL and 18S rDNA sequences from 4 C. fulvescens isolates (Jindo, Jangheung, Wando, and Koheung, Korea) were used for phylogenetic analysis by employing three different phylogenetic methods: neighbor joining (NJ), maximum parsimony (MP), and maximum likelihood (ML). The rbcL phylogenetic tree showed that all taxa in the order Ulvales were clustered as a monophyletic group and resolved the phylogenetic position of C. fulvescens in the order Ulotrichales. The significance of our study is that the 18S rDNA phylogenetic tree shows the detailed taxonomic position of C. fulvescens. In our result, C. fulvescens is inferred as a member of Ulotrichaceae, along with Urospora and Acrosiphonia. PMID:27190985

  8. Direct detection of 16S rRNA in soil extracts by using oligonucleotide microarrays.

    PubMed

    Small, J; Call, D R; Brockman, F J; Straub, T M; Chandler, D P

    2001-10-01

    We report on the development and validation of a simple microarray method for the direct detection of intact 16S rRNA from unpurified soil extracts. Total RNAs from Geobacter chapellei and Desulfovibrio desulfuricans were hybridized to an oligonucleotide array consisting of universal and species-specific 16S rRNA probes. PCR-amplified products from Geobacter and Desulfovibrio were easily and specifically detected under a range of hybridization times, temperatures, and buffers. However, reproducible, specific hybridization and detection of intact rRNA could be accomplished only by using a chaperone-detector probe strategy. With this knowledge, assay conditions were developed for rRNA detection using a 2-h hybridization time at room temperature. Hybridization specificity and signal intensity were enhanced using fragmented RNA. Formamide was required in the hybridization buffer in order to achieve species-specific detection of intact rRNA. With the chaperone detection strategy, we were able to specifically hybridize and detect G. chapellei 16S rRNA directly from a total-RNA soil extract, without further purification or removal of soluble soil constituents. The detection sensitivity for G. chapellei 16S rRNA in soil extracts was at least 0.5 microg of total RNA, representing approximately 7.5 x 10(6) Geobacter cell equivalents of RNA. These results suggest that it is now possible to apply microarray technology to the direct detection of microorganisms in environmental samples, without using PCR. PMID:11571176

  9. Sampling of intestinal microbiota and targeted amplification of bacterial 16S rRNA genes for microbial ecologic analysis

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Maomeng; Jacobs, Jonathan P.; McHardy, Ian H.; Braun, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Dysbiosis of host-associated commensal microbiota is emerging as an important factor in risk and phenotype of immunologic, metabolic, and behavioral diseases. Appropriate collection and pre-processing of biospecimens from humans or mice is necessary for accurate analysis of microbial composition and functional state. Methods to sample intestinal luminal and mucosal microbiota from humans and mice, and to profile microbial phylogenetic composition using 16S rRNA sequencing are presented here. Data generated using this protocol can be used for downstream quantitative analysis of microbial ecology. PMID:25367129

  10. Involvement of the transcriptional factor E2F1 in the regulation of the rRNA promoter

    SciTech Connect

    Ayrault, Olivier; Andrique, Laetitia; Seite, Paule . E-mail: paule.seite@univ-poitiers.fr

    2006-04-15

    p16{sup INK4a}-pRB-E2F and ARF-MDM2-p53 are two major tumor suppressor networks involved in cell proliferation control. The nucleolar ARF protein binds to MDM2 to activate the growth suppressive functions of p53, but can also exert its tumor suppressor activity independently of p53, through mechanisms involving other regulators: in that manner, p14{sup ARF} has been shown to inhibit the transcriptional activity of E2F1 in vitro, suggesting that the two pathways intersect with one another. More recently, ARF has been shown to inhibit ribosomal RNA processing, and to specifically interact with the rRNA promoter, suggesting a role in the regulation of both maturation and transcription processes. We show here that E2F1 can bind the rRNA promoter and modulate its activity through the interaction with two E2F1-binding sequences we have identified. The regulation of ribosome biogenesis appears as a major p53-independent process, which involves both ARF and E2F1 to control cell proliferation.

  11. Identification of novel methyltransferases, Bmt5 and Bmt6, responsible for the m3U methylations of 25S rRNA in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Sunny; Yang, Jun; Düttmann, Simon; Watzinger, Peter; Kötter, Peter; Entian, Karl-Dieter

    2014-01-01

    RNA contains various chemical modifications that expand its otherwise limited repertoire to mediate complex processes like translation and gene regulation. 25S rRNA of the large subunit of ribosome contains eight base methylations. Except for the methylation of uridine residues, methyltransferases for all other known base methylations have been recently identified. Here we report the identification of BMT5 (YIL096C) and BMT6 (YLR063W), two previously uncharacterized genes, to be responsible for m3U2634 and m3U2843 methylation of the 25S rRNA, respectively. These genes were identified by RP-HPLC screening of all deletion mutants of putative RNA methyltransferases and were confirmed by gene complementation and phenotypic characterization. Both proteins belong to Rossmann-fold–like methyltransferases and the point mutations in the S-adenosyl-l-methionine binding pocket abolish the methylation reaction. Bmt5 localizes in the nucleolus, whereas Bmt6 is localized predominantly in the cytoplasm. Furthermore, we showed that 25S rRNA of yeast does not contain any m5U residues as previously predicted. With Bmt5 and Bmt6, all base methyltransferases of the 25S rRNA have been identified. This will facilitate the analyses of the significance of these modifications in ribosome function and cellular physiology. PMID:24335083

  12. Identification of novel methyltransferases, Bmt5 and Bmt6, responsible for the m3U methylations of 25S rRNA in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Sunny; Yang, Jun; Düttmann, Simon; Watzinger, Peter; Kötter, Peter; Entian, Karl-Dieter

    2014-03-01

    RNA contains various chemical modifications that expand its otherwise limited repertoire to mediate complex processes like translation and gene regulation. 25S rRNA of the large subunit of ribosome contains eight base methylations. Except for the methylation of uridine residues, methyltransferases for all other known base methylations have been recently identified. Here we report the identification of BMT5 (YIL096C) and BMT6 (YLR063W), two previously uncharacterized genes, to be responsible for m3U2634 and m3U2843 methylation of the 25S rRNA, respectively. These genes were identified by RP-HPLC screening of all deletion mutants of putative RNA methyltransferases and were confirmed by gene complementation and phenotypic characterization. Both proteins belong to Rossmann-fold-like methyltransferases and the point mutations in the S-adenosyl-L-methionine binding pocket abolish the methylation reaction. Bmt5 localizes in the nucleolus, whereas Bmt6 is localized predominantly in the cytoplasm. Furthermore, we showed that 25S rRNA of yeast does not contain any m5U residues as previously predicted. With Bmt5 and Bmt6, all base methyltransferases of the 25S rRNA have been identified. This will facilitate the analyses of the significance of these modifications in ribosome function and cellular physiology. PMID:24335083

  13. The nuclear phenotypic plasticity observed in fish during rRNA regulation entails Cajal bodies dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Alvarez, Marco; Nardocci, Gino; Thiry, Marc; Alvarez, Rodrigo; Reyes, Mauricio; Molina, Alfredo; Vera, M. Ines . E-mail: mvera@unab.cl

    2007-08-17

    Cajal bodies (CBs) are small mobile organelles found throughout the nucleoplasm of animal and plant cells. The dynamics of these organelles involves interactions with the nucleolus. The later has been found to play a substantial role in the compensatory response that evolved in eurythermal fish to adapt to the cyclic seasonal habitat changes, i.e., temperature and photoperiod. Contrary to being constitutive, rRNA synthesis is dramatically regulated between summer and winter, thus affecting ribosomal biogenesis which plays a central role in the acclimatization process. To examine whether CBs, up to now, never described in fish, were also sustaining the phenotypic plasticity observed in nuclei of fish undergoing seasonal acclimatization, we identified these organelles both, by transmission electronic microscopy and immunodetection with the marker protein p80-coilin. We found transcripts in all tissues analyzed. Furthermore we assessed that p80-coilin gene expression was always higher in summer-acclimatized fish when compared to that adapted to the cold season, indicating that p80-coilin expression is modulated upon seasonal acclimatization. Concurrently, CBs were more frequently found in summer-acclimatized carp which suggests that the organization of CBs is involved in adaptive processes and contribute to the phenotypic plasticity of fish cell nuclei observed concomitantly with profound reprogramming of nucleolar components and regulation of ribosomal rRNAs.

  14. Diversity of 5S rRNA genes within individual prokaryotic genomes

    PubMed Central

    Pei, Anna; Li, Hongru; Oberdorf, William E; Alekseyenko, Alexander V.; Parsons, Tamasha; Yang, Liying; Gerz, Erika A.; Lee, Peng; Xiang, Charlie; Nossa, Carlos W.; Pei, Zhiheng

    2012-01-01

    We examined intragenomic variation of paralogous 5S rRNA genes to evaluate the concept of ribosomal constraints. In a dataset containing 1168 genomes from 779 unique species, 96 species exhibited >3% diversity. Twenty seven species with >10% diversity contained a total of 421 mismatches between all pairs of the most dissimilar copies of 5S rRNA genes. The large majority (401 of 421) the diversified positions were conserved at the secondary structure level. The high diversity was associated with partial rRNA operon, split operon, or spacer length-related divergence. In total, these findings indicated that there were tight ribosomal constraints on paralogous 5S rRNA genes in a genome despite of the high degree of diversity at the primary structure level. There is supplementary material. PMID:22765222

  15. Dinoflagellate 17S rRNA sequence inferred from the gene sequence: Evolutionary implications.

    PubMed

    Herzog, M; Maroteaux, L

    1986-11-01

    We present the complete sequence of the nuclear-encoded small-ribosomal-subunit RNA inferred from the cloned gene sequence of the dinoflagellate Prorocentrum micans. The dinoflagellate 17S rRNA sequence of 1798 nucleotides is contained in a family of 200 tandemly repeated genes per haploid genome. A tentative model of the secondary structure of P. micans 17S rRNA is presented. This sequence is compared with the small-ribosomal-subunit rRNA of Xenopus laevis (Animalia), Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Fungi), Zea mays (Planta), Dictyostelium discoideum (Protoctista), and Halobacterium volcanii (Monera). Although the secondary structure of the dinoflagellate 17S rRNA presents most of the eukaryotic characteristics, it contains sufficient archaeobacterial-like structural features to reinforce the view that dinoflagellates branch off very early from the eukaryotic lineage. PMID:16578795

  16. Dinoflagellate 17S rRNA sequence inferred from the gene sequence: Evolutionary implications

    PubMed Central

    Herzog, Michel; Maroteaux, Luc

    1986-01-01

    We present the complete sequence of the nuclear-encoded small-ribosomal-subunit RNA inferred from the cloned gene sequence of the dinoflagellate Prorocentrum micans. The dinoflagellate 17S rRNA sequence of 1798 nucleotides is contained in a family of 200 tandemly repeated genes per haploid genome. A tentative model of the secondary structure of P. micans 17S rRNA is presented. This sequence is compared with the small-ribosomal-subunit rRNA of Xenopus laevis (Animalia), Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Fungi), Zea mays (Planta), Dictyostelium discoideum (Protoctista), and Halobacterium volcanii (Monera). Although the secondary structure of the dinoflagellate 17S rRNA presents most of the eukaryotic characteristics, it contains sufficient archaeobacterial-like structural features to reinforce the view that dinoflagellates branch off very early from the eukaryotic lineage. PMID:16578795

  17. Molecular phylogeny and barcoding of Caulerpa (Bryopsidales) based on the tufA, rbcL, 18S rDNA and ITS rDNA genes.

    PubMed

    Kazi, Mudassar Anisoddin; Reddy, C R K; Jha, Bhavanath

    2013-01-01

    The biodiversity assessment of different taxa of the genus Caulerpa is of interest from the context of morphological plasticity, invasive potential of some species and biotechnological and pharmacological applications. The present study investigated the identification and molecular phylogeny of different species of Caulerpa occurring along the Indian coast inferred from tufA, rbcL, 18S rDNA and ITS rDNA nucleotide sequences. Molecular data confirmed the identification of 10 distinct Caulerpa species: C. veravalensis, C. verticillata, C. racemosa, C. microphysa, C. taxifolia, C. sertularioides, C. scalpelliformis, C. serrulata, C. peltata and C. mexicana. All datasets significantly supported the sister relationship between C. veravalensis and C. racemosa var. cylindracea. It was also concluded from the results that the specimen identified previously as C. microphysa and C. lentillifera could not be considered as separate species. The molecular data revealed the presence of multiple lineages for C. racemosa which can be resolved into separate species. All four markers were used to ascertain their utility for DNA barcoding. The tufA gene proved a better marker with monophyletic association as the main criteria for identification at the species level. The results also support the use of 18S rDNA insertion sequences to delineate the Caulerpa species through character-based barcoding. The ITS rDNA (5.8S-ITS2) phylogenetic analysis also served as another supporting tool. Further, more sequences from additional Caulerpa specimens will need to be analysed in order to support the role of these two markers (ITS rDNA and 18S insertion sequence) in identification of Caulerpa species. The present study revealed the phylogeny of Caulerpa as complete as possible using the currently available data, which is the first comprehensive report illustrating the molecular phylogeny and barcoding of the genus Caulerpa from Indian waters. PMID:24340028

  18. Molecular Phylogeny and Barcoding of Caulerpa (Bryopsidales) Based on the tufA, rbcL, 18S rDNA and ITS rDNA Genes

    PubMed Central

    Kazi, Mudassar Anisoddin; Reddy, C. R. K.; Jha, Bhavanath

    2013-01-01

    The biodiversity assessment of different taxa of the genus Caulerpa is of interest from the context of morphological plasticity, invasive potential of some species and biotechnological and pharmacological applications. The present study investigated the identification and molecular phylogeny of different species of Caulerpa occurring along the Indian coast inferred from tufA, rbcL, 18S rDNA and ITS rDNA nucleotide sequences. Molecular data confirmed the identification of 10 distinct Caulerpa species: C. veravalensis, C. verticillata, C. racemosa, C. microphysa, C. taxifolia, C. sertularioides, C. scalpelliformis, C. serrulata, C. peltata and C. mexicana. All datasets significantly supported the sister relationship between C. veravalensis and C. racemosa var. cylindracea. It was also concluded from the results that the specimen identified previously as C. microphysa and C. lentillifera could not be considered as separate species. The molecular data revealed the presence of multiple lineages for C. racemosa which can be resolved into separate species. All four markers were used to ascertain their utility for DNA barcoding. The tufA gene proved a better marker with monophyletic association as the main criteria for identification at the species level. The results also support the use of 18S rDNA insertion sequences to delineate the Caulerpa species through character-based barcoding. The ITS rDNA (5.8S-ITS2) phylogenetic analysis also served as another supporting tool. Further, more sequences from additional Caulerpa specimens will need to be analysed in order to support the role of these two markers (ITS rDNA and 18S insertion sequence) in identification of Caulerpa species. The present study revealed the phylogeny of Caulerpa as complete as possible using the currently available data, which is the first comprehensive report illustrating the molecular phylogeny and barcoding of the genus Caulerpa from Indian waters. PMID:24340028

  19. Development of an Analysis Pipeline Characterizing Multiple Hypervariable Regions of 16S rRNA Using Mock Samples

    PubMed Central

    Barb, Jennifer J.; Oler, Andrew J.; Kim, Hyung-Suk; Chalmers, Natalia; Wallen, Gwenyth R.; Cashion, Ann; Munson, Peter J.; Ames, Nancy J.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives There is much speculation on which hypervariable region provides the highest bacterial specificity in 16S rRNA sequencing. The optimum solution to prevent bias and to obtain a comprehensive view of complex bacterial communities would be to sequence the entire 16S rRNA gene; however, this is not possible with second generation standard library design and short-read next-generation sequencing technology. Methods This paper examines a new process using seven hypervariable or V regions of the 16S rRNA (six amplicons: V2, V3, V4, V6-7, V8, and V9) processed simultaneously on the Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine (Life Technologies, Grand Island, NY). Four mock samples were amplified using the 16S Ion Metagenomics Kit™ (Life Technologies) and their sequencing data is subjected to a novel analytical pipeline. Results Results are presented at family and genus level. The Kullback-Leibler divergence (DKL), a measure of the departure of the computed from the nominal bacterial distribution in the mock samples, was used to infer which region performed best at the family and genus levels. Three different hypervariable regions, V2, V4, and V6-7, produced the lowest divergence compared to the known mock sample. The V9 region gave the highest (worst) average DKL while the V4 gave the lowest (best) average DKL. In addition to having a high DKL, the V9 region in both the forward and reverse directions performed the worst finding only 17% and 53% of the known family level and 12% and 47% of the genus level bacteria, while results from the forward and reverse V4 region identified all 17 family level bacteria. Conclusions The results of our analysis have shown that our sequencing methods using 6 hypervariable regions of the 16S rRNA and subsequent analysis is valid. This method also allowed for the assessment of how well each of the variable regions might perform simultaneously. Our findings will provide the basis for future work intended to assess microbial abundance at

  20. Prevalence of Mitochondrial 12S rRNA Mutations Associated with Aminoglycoside Ototoxicity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guan, Min-Xin

    2005-01-01

    The mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) 12S rRNA is a hot spot for mutations associated with both aminoglycoside-induced and nonsyndromic hearing loss. Of those, the homoplasmic A1555G and C1494T mutations at a highly conserved decoding region of the 12S rRNA have been associated with hearing loss. These two mutations account for a significant number of…

  1. Direct 5S rRNA Assay for Monitoring Mixed-Culture Bioprocesses

    PubMed Central

    Stoner, D. L.; Browning, C. K.; Bulmer, D. K.; Ward, T. E.; MacDonell, M. T.

    1996-01-01

    This study demonstrates the efficacy of a direct 5S rRNA assay for the characterization of mixed microbial populations by using as an example the bacteria associated with acidic mining environments. The direct 5S rRNA assay described herein represents a nonselective, direct molecular method for monitoring and characterizing the predominant, metabolically active members of a microbial population. The foundation of the assay is high-resolution denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), which is used to separate 5S rRNA species extracted from collected biomass. Separation is based on the unique migration behavior of each 5S rRNA species during electrophoresis in denaturing gradient gels. With mixtures of RNA extracted from laboratory cultures, the upper practical limit for detection in the current experimental system has been estimated to be greater than 15 different species. With this method, the resolution was demonstrated to be effective at least to the species level. The strength of this approach was demonstrated by the ability to discriminate between Thiobacillus ferrooxidans ATCC 19859 and Thiobacillus thiooxidans ATCC 8085, two very closely related species. Migration patterns for the 5S rRNA from members of the genus Thiobacillus were readily distinguishable from those of the genera Acidiphilium and Leptospirillum. In conclusion, the 5S rRNA assay represents a powerful method by which the structure of a microbial population within acidic environments can be assessed. PMID:16535333

  2. Pyrosequencing of mcrA and Archaeal 16S rRNA Genes Reveals Diversity and Substrate Preferences of Methanogen Communities in Anaerobic Digesters

    PubMed Central

    Wilkins, David; Lu, Xiao-Ying; Shen, Zhiyong; Chen, Jiapeng

    2014-01-01

    Methanogenic archaea play a key role in biogas-producing anaerobic digestion and yet remain poorly taxonomically characterized. This is in part due to the limitations of low-throughput Sanger sequencing of a single (16S rRNA) gene, which in the past may have undersampled methanogen diversity. In this study, archaeal communities from three sludge digesters in Hong Kong and one wastewater digester in China were examined using high-throughput pyrosequencing of the methyl coenzyme M reductase (mcrA) and 16S rRNA genes. Methanobacteriales, Methanomicrobiales, and Methanosarcinales were detected in each digester, indicating that both hydrogenotrophic and acetoclastic methanogenesis was occurring. Two sludge digesters had similar community structures, likely due to their similar design and feedstock. Taxonomic classification of the mcrA genes suggested that these digesters were dominated by acetoclastic methanogens, particularly Methanosarcinales, while the other digesters were dominated by hydrogenotrophic Methanomicrobiales. The proposed euryarchaeotal order Methanomassiliicoccales and the uncultured WSA2 group were detected with the 16S rRNA gene, and potential mcrA genes for these groups were identified. 16S rRNA gene sequencing also recovered several crenarchaeotal groups potentially involved in the initial anaerobic digestion processes. Overall, the two genes produced different taxonomic profiles for the digesters, while greater methanogen richness was detected using the mcrA gene, supporting the use of this functional gene as a complement to the 16S rRNA gene to better assess methanogen diversity. A significant positive correlation was detected between methane production and the abundance of mcrA transcripts in digesters treating sludge and wastewater samples, supporting the mcrA gene as a biomarker for methane yield. PMID:25381241

  3. Novel Approach to Quantitative Detection of Specific rRNA in a Microbial Community, Using Catalytic DNA

    PubMed Central

    Suenaga, Hikaru; Liu, Rui; Shiramasa, Yuko; Kanagawa, Takahiro

    2005-01-01

    We developed a novel method for the quantitative detection of the 16S rRNA of a specific bacterial species in the microbial community by using deoxyribozyme (DNAzyme), which possesses the catalytic function to cleave RNA in a sequence-specific manner. A mixture of heterogeneous 16S rRNA containing the target 16S rRNA was incubated with a species-specific DNAzyme. The cleaved target 16S rRNA was separated from the intact 16S rRNA by electrophoresis, and then their amounts were compared for the quantitative detection of target 16S rRNA. This method was used to determine the abundance of the 16S rRNA of a filamentous bacterium, Sphaerotilus natans, in activated sludge, which is a microbial mixture used in wastewater treatment systems. The result indicated that this DNAzyme-based approach would be applicable to actual microbial communities. PMID:16085888

  4. Ultrastructure and 18S rDNA sequence analysis of Wobblia lunata gen. et sp. nov., a new heterotrophic flagellate (Stramenopiles, Incertae sedis).

    PubMed

    Moriya, M; Nakayama, T; Inouye, I

    2000-05-01

    A new heterotrophic flagellate Wobblia lunata gen. et sp. nov. is described. This organism usually attaches to the substratum showing a wobbling motion, and sometimes glides on the substratum or swims freely in the medium. W. lunata has various features characteristic of the stramenopiles. These include a hairy flagellum with tripartite tubular hairs, a mitochondrion with tubular cristae, arrangement of flagellar apparatus components and a double helix in the flagellar transition zone. W. lunata shares a double helix with heterotrophic stramenopiles, including Developayella elegans, oomycetes, hyphochytrids, opalinids and proteromonads, and could be placed in the phylum Bigyra Cavalier-Smith. However, from 18S rDNA tree analysis, these organisms form two distantly-related clades in the stramenopiles, and Wobblia appears at the base of the stramenopiles. Evaluation of morphological features and comparison of 18S rDNA sequences indicate that W. lunata is a member of the stramenopiles, but it is distinct from any other stramenopiles so far described. Its phylogenetic position within the stramenopiles is uncertain and therefore W. lunata is described as a stramenopile incertae sedis. PMID:10896132

  5. The effective expression of xylanase gene in Candida utilis by 18S rDNA targeted homologous recombination in pGLR9K.

    PubMed

    Wei, Wang; Hong-Lan, Yang; HuiFang, Bao; Daoyuan, Zhang; Qi-mu-ge, Shan; Woof, Andrew J

    2010-07-01

    In order to test whether 18S rDNA can influence positively xylanase gene effective expression in the yeast of Candida utilis, a targeting vector pGLR9K-XA was constructed by adding an interested gene xynA from Streptomyces olivaceoviridis into the vector pGLR9K which is constructed by ourselves. pGLR9K contains the 18S rDNA, GAP promoter and CYH resistance gene sequence, all of which is from C. utilis. Then the vector pGLR9K-XA was transformed into C. utilis. To test the vector and transformed system, PCR, Southern blot and DNS methods were used. The results showed that xylanase gene can be detected in the chromosome DNA of recombinant C. utilis and the enzyme activity of xylanase is up to 60 IU ml(-1) in the study. It is suggested that this system can be used to express exogenous genes in C. utilis as a bioreactors. This is the first report that xylanase gene was expressed in C. utilis. PMID:19731075

  6. Fungal community analysis in the deep-sea sediments of the Pacific Ocean assessed by comparison of ITS, 18S and 28S ribosomal DNA regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Wei; Luo, Zhu-Hua; Guo, Shuangshuang; Pang, Ka-Lai

    2016-03-01

    We investigated the diversity of fungal communities in 6 different deep-sea sediment samples of the Pacific Ocean based on three different types of clone libraries, including internal transcribed spacer (ITS), 18S rDNA, and 28S rDNA regions. A total of 1978 clones were generated from 18 environmental clone libraries, resulting in 140 fungal operational taxonomic units (OTUs), including 18 OTUs from ITS, 44 OTUs from 18S rDNA, and 78 OTUs from 28S rDNA gene primer sets. The majority of the recovered sequences belonged to diverse phylotypes of the Ascomycota and Basidiomycota. Additionally, our study revealed a total of 46 novel fungal phylotypes, which showed low similarities (<97%) with available fungal sequences in the GenBank, including a novel Zygomycete lineage, suggesting possible new fungal taxa occurring in the deep-sea sediments. The results suggested that 28S rDNA is an efficient target gene to describe fungal community in deep-sea environment.

  7. Roles of helix H69 of 23S rRNA in translation initiation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qi; Fredrick, Kurt

    2015-01-01

    Initiation of translation involves the assembly of a ribosome complex with initiator tRNA bound to the peptidyl site and paired to the start codon of the mRNA. In bacteria, this process is kinetically controlled by three initiation factors—IF1, IF2, and IF3. Here, we show that deletion of helix H69 (∆H69) of 23S rRNA allows rapid 50S docking without concomitant IF3 release and virtually eliminates the dependence of subunit joining on start codon identity. Despite this, overall accuracy of start codon selection, based on rates of formation of elongation-competent 70S ribosomes, is largely uncompromised in the absence of H69. Thus, the fidelity function of IF3 stems primarily from its interplay with initiator tRNA rather than its anti-subunit association activity. While retaining fidelity, ∆H69 ribosomes exhibit much slower rates of overall initiation, due to the delay in IF3 release and impedance of an IF3-independent step, presumably initiator tRNA positioning. These findings clarify the roles of H69 and IF3 in the mechanism of translation initiation and explain the dominant lethal phenotype of the ∆H69 mutation. PMID:26324939

  8. Molecular identification of adulteration in mutton based on mitochondrial 16S rRNA gene.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jia; Zhao, Wei; Zhu, Mengru; Wen, Yuanju; Xie, Tao; He, Xiaoqian; Zhang, Yongfeng; Cao, Suizhong; Niu, Lili; Zhang, Hongping; Zhong, Tao

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to set up a protocol for identification of the adulteration in mutton based on mitochondrial 16S rRNA gene. The multiplex polymerase chain reaction (multi-PCR) assay was carried out to trace the impure DNA in mutton. A universal primer pair yielded an approximate 610 bp fragment in mutton, pork, duck, chicken, horse and cat meats. The amplicons of multi-PCR assay represented the species-specific products, which could be discriminated by the size ranging from 106 bp to 532 bp. Subsequently, the authentication of each fragment was also confirmed by sequencing. Random analyses of adulterants with various meats yielded the identical results to their components, showing the suitability of the multi-PCR assay for tracing of adulterant meats with high-accuracy and precision. This assay was sensitive to detect the species-specific DNA in different proportional mixtures of mutton and duck/pork (9.1%-90.9%). In conclusion, this multi-PCR assay successfully discriminated the double-, triple-, quadruple-, and quintuple-mixtures containing variant counterparts. This method will be particularly useful in the detection of mutton adulteration in processed foods further. PMID:24739005

  9. Evolution of compensatory substitutions through G.U intermediate state in Drosophila rRNA.

    PubMed Central

    Rousset, F; Pélandakis, M; Solignac, M

    1991-01-01

    It has often been suggested that the frequently observed Watson-Crick base-pair compensatory substitutions in RNA helical structures occur mainly through a slightly deleterious G.U intermediate state. We have scored base substitutions in a set of 82 related Drosophila species for the D1 and D2 variable domains of the large rRNA subunit. In all locations where a G-C in equilibrium with A-U compensatory base change occurred, a G.U pair has been observed in one or several species. As this dominant process implies two transitions, their rate was far higher in paired regions (92%) than in unpaired regions (47%). The other types of compensation were rarer and no intermediate states were observed. Most of the G.U base pairs observed in a species are not slightly deleterious. The rate of evolution of compensatory substitution is close to that predicted by a simple model of compensatory substitution through slightly deleterious or slightly advantageous G.U pairs, although some exceptions are presented. PMID:1946420

  10. Yersinia spp. Identification Using Copy Diversity in the Chromosomal 16S rRNA Gene Sequence

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yuhuang; Liu, Chang; Xiao, Yuchun; Li, Xu; Su, Mingming; Jing, Huaiqi; Wang, Xin

    2016-01-01

    API 20E strip test, the standard for Enterobacteriaceae identification, is not sufficient to discriminate some Yersinia species for some unstable biochemical reactions and the same biochemical profile presented in some species, e.g. Yersinia ferderiksenii and Yersinia intermedia, which need a variety of molecular biology methods as auxiliaries for identification. The 16S rRNA gene is considered a valuable tool for assigning bacterial strains to species. However, the resolution of the 16S rRNA gene may be insufficient for discrimination because of the high similarity of sequences between some species and heterogeneity within copies at the intra-genomic level. In this study, for each strain we randomly selected five 16S rRNA gene clones from 768 Yersinia strains, and collected 3,840 sequences of the 16S rRNA gene from 10 species, which were divided into 439 patterns. The similarity among the five clones of 16S rRNA gene is over 99% for most strains. Identical sequences were found in strains of different species. A phylogenetic tree was constructed using the five 16S rRNA gene sequences for each strain where the phylogenetic classifications are consistent with biochemical tests; and species that are difficult to identify by biochemical phenotype can be differentiated. Most Yersinia strains form distinct groups within each species. However Yersinia kristensenii, a heterogeneous species, clusters with some Yersinia enterocolitica and Yersinia ferderiksenii/intermedia strains, while not affecting the overall efficiency of this species classification. In conclusion, through analysis derived from integrated information from multiple 16S rRNA gene sequences, the discrimination ability of Yersinia species is improved using our method. PMID:26808495

  11. Yersinia spp. Identification Using Copy Diversity in the Chromosomal 16S rRNA Gene Sequence.

    PubMed

    Hao, Huijing; Liang, Junrong; Duan, Ran; Chen, Yuhuang; Liu, Chang; Xiao, Yuchun; Li, Xu; Su, Mingming; Jing, Huaiqi; Wang, Xin

    2016-01-01

    API 20E strip test, the standard for Enterobacteriaceae identification, is not sufficient to discriminate some Yersinia species for some unstable biochemical reactions and the same biochemical profile presented in some species, e.g. Yersinia ferderiksenii and Yersinia intermedia, which need a variety of molecular biology methods as auxiliaries for identification. The 16S rRNA gene is considered a valuable tool for assigning bacterial strains to species. However, the resolution of the 16S rRNA gene may be insufficient for discrimination because of the high similarity of sequences between some species and heterogeneity within copies at the intra-genomic level. In this study, for each strain we randomly selected five 16S rRNA gene clones from 768 Yersinia strains, and collected 3,840 sequences of the 16S rRNA gene from 10 species, which were divided into 439 patterns. The similarity among the five clones of 16S rRNA gene is over 99% for most strains. Identical sequences were found in strains of different species. A phylogenetic tree was constructed using the five 16S rRNA gene sequences for each strain where the phylogenetic classifications are consistent with biochemical tests; and species that are difficult to identify by biochemical phenotype can be differentiated. Most Yersinia strains form distinct groups within each species. However Yersinia kristensenii, a heterogeneous species, clusters with some Yersinia enterocolitica and Yersinia ferderiksenii/intermedia strains, while not affecting the overall efficiency of this species classification. In conclusion, through analysis derived from integrated information from multiple 16S rRNA gene sequences, the discrimination ability of Yersinia species is improved using our method. PMID:26808495

  12. Analysis of the 5.8S rRNA gene and the internal transcribed spacers in Naegleria spp. and in N. fowleri.

    PubMed

    Pélandakis, M; Serre, S; Pernin, P

    2000-01-01

    Internal transcribed spacers (ITS) and the 5.8S ribosomal gene of 21 Naegleria fowleri strains and eight other species including Naegleria gruberi were sequenced. The results showed that this region can help differentiate between and within species. The phylogeny of Naegleria spp. deduced from the ITS and the 5.8S gene produced four major lineages, fowleri-lovaniensis, galeacystis-italica-clarki-gruberi-australiensis, andersoni-jamiesoni, and pussardi, that fit perfectly with those inferred from the 18S rRNA gene analysis. The N. gruberi isolate, NG260, was closely related to Naegleria pussardi. The other N. gruberi isolates branched together with Naegleria australiensis in another lineage. The ITS and 5.8S results for N. fowleri were congruent with those previously deduced by RAPD analysis. The phylogenetic analysis inferred from ITS and RAPD data revealed two major groups. The French Cattenom and Chooz and South Pacific strains constituted the first group. The second group encompassed the strains corresponding to the Euro-American and Widespread RAPD variants and shared the same substitution in the 5.8S gene. In addition, it was possible to define species specific primers in ITS regions to rapidly identify N. fowleri. PMID:10750838

  13. The RNA recognition motif of NIFK is required for rRNA maturation during cell cycle progression.

    PubMed

    Pan, Wen-An; Tsai, Hsin-Yue; Wang, Shun-Chang; Hsiao, Michael; Wu, Pei-Yu; Tsai, Ming-Daw

    2015-01-01

    Ribosome biogenesis governs protein synthesis. NIFK is transactivated by c-Myc, the key regulator of ribosome biogenesis. The biological function of human NIFK is not well established, except that it has been shown to interact with Ki67 and NPM1. Here we report that NIFK is required for cell cycle progression and participates in the ribosome biogenesis via its RNA recognition motif (RRM). We show that silencing of NIFK inhibits cell proliferation through a reversible p53-dependent G1 arrest, possibly by induction of the RPL5/RPL11-mediated nucleolar stress. Mechanistically it is the consequence of impaired maturation of 28S and 5.8S rRNA resulting from inefficient cleavage of internal transcribed spacer (ITS) 1, a critical step in the separation of pre-ribosome to small and large subunits. Complementation of NIFK silencing by mutants shows that RNA-binding ability of RRM is essential for the pre-rRNA processing and G1 progression. More specifically, we validate that the RRM of NIFK preferentially binds to the 5'-region of ITS2 rRNA likely in both sequence specific and secondary structure dependent manners. Our results show how NIFK is involved in cell cycle progression through RRM-dependent pre-rRNA maturation, which could enhance our understanding of the function of NIFK in cell proliferation, and potentially also cancer and ribosomopathies. PMID:25826659

  14. The RNA recognition motif of NIFK is required for rRNA maturation during cell cycle progression

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Wen-An; Tsai, Hsin-Yue; Wang, Shun-Chang; Hsiao, Michael; Wu, Pei-Yu; Tsai, Ming-Daw

    2015-01-01

    Ribosome biogenesis governs protein synthesis. NIFK is transactivated by c-Myc, the key regulator of ribosome biogenesis. The biological function of human NIFK is not well established, except that it has been shown to interact with Ki67 and NPM1. Here we report that NIFK is required for cell cycle progression and participates in the ribosome biogenesis via its RNA recognition motif (RRM). We show that silencing of NIFK inhibits cell proliferation through a reversible p53-dependent G1 arrest, possibly by induction of the RPL5/RPL11-mediated nucleolar stress. Mechanistically it is the consequence of impaired maturation of 28S and 5.8S rRNA resulting from inefficient cleavage of internal transcribed spacer (ITS) 1, a critical step in the separation of pre-ribosome to small and large subunits. Complementation of NIFK silencing by mutants shows that RNA-binding ability of RRM is essential for the pre-rRNA processing and G1 progression. More specifically, we validate that the RRM of NIFK preferentially binds to the 5′-region of ITS2 rRNA likely in both sequence specific and secondary structure dependent manners. Our results show how NIFK is involved in cell cycle progression through RRM-dependent pre-rRNA maturation, which could enhance our understanding of the function of NIFK in cell proliferation, and potentially also cancer and ribosomopathies. PMID:25826659

  15. Yeast Nop2 and Rcm1 methylate C2870 and C2278 of the 25S rRNA, respectively.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Sunny; Yang, Jun; Watzinger, Peter; Kötter, Peter; Entian, Karl-Dieter

    2013-10-01

    Yeast 25S rRNA was reported to contain a single cytosine methylation (m(5)C). In the present study using a combination of RP-HPLC, mung bean nuclease assay and rRNA mutagenesis, we discovered that instead of one, yeast contains two m(5)C residues at position 2278 and 2870. Furthermore, we identified and characterized two putative methyltransferases, Rcm1 and Nop2 to be responsible for these two cytosine methylations, respectively. Both proteins are highly conserved, which correlates with the presence of two m(5)C residues at identical positions in higher eukaryotes, including humans. The human homolog of yeast Nop2, p120 has been discovered to be upregulated in various cancer tissues, whereas the human homolog of Rcm1, NSUN5 is completely deleted in the William's-Beuren Syndrome. The substrates and function of both human homologs remained unknown. In the present study, we also provide insights into the significance of these two m(5)C residues. The loss of m(5)C2278 results in anisomycin hypersensitivity, whereas the loss of m(5)C2870 affects ribosome synthesis and processing. Establishing the locations and enzymes in yeast will not only help identifying the function of their homologs in higher organisms, but will also enable understanding the role of these modifications in ribosome function and architecture. PMID:23913415

  16. Mutations in 23S rRNA gene associated with decreased susceptibility to tiamulin and valnemulin in Mycoplasma gallisepticum.

    PubMed

    Li, Bei-Bei; Shen, Jian-Zhong; Cao, Xing-Yuan; Wang, Yang; Dai, Lei; Huang, Si-Yang; Wu, Cong-Ming

    2010-07-01

    Mycoplasma gallisepticum is a major etiological agent of chronic respiratory disease (CRD) in chickens and sinusitis in turkeys. The pleuromutilin antibiotics tiamulin and valnemulin are currently used in the treatment of M. gallisepticum infection. We studied the in vitro development of pleuromutilin resistance in M. gallisepticum and investigated the molecular mechanisms involved in this process. Pleuromutilin-resistant mutants were selected by serial passages of M. gallisepticum strains PG31 and S6 in broth medium containing subinhibitory concentrations of tiamulin or valnemulin. A portion of the gene encoding 23S rRNA gene (domain V) and the gene encoding ribosome protein L3 were amplified and sequenced. No mutation could be detected in ribosome protein L3. Mutations were found at nucleotide positions 2058, 2059, 2061, 2447 and 2503 of 23S rRNA gene (Escherichia coli numbering). Although a single mutation could cause elevation of tiamulin and valnemulin MICs, combinations of two or three mutations were necessary to produce high-level resistance. All the mutants were cross-resistant to lincomycin, chloramphenicol and florfenicol. Mutants with the A2058G or the A2059G mutation exhibited cross-resistance to macrolide antibiotics erythromycin, tilmicosin and tylosin. PMID:20487023

  17. 18S rDNA analysis of alkenone-producing haptophyte(s) preserved in surface sediments of Lake Toyoni, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McColl, J. L.; Couto, J.; Bendle, J. A.; Henderson, A. C.; Seki, O.; Phoenix, V. R.; Toney, J. L.

    2013-12-01

    Alkenones (long chain ketones) are readily preserved in sedimentary archives and have the potential to provide quantitative reconstructions of past water temperature. Alkenones are produced by a limited number of haptophyte algae in the marine and also some lacustrine systems. However, lakes are heterogeneous: an individual lake will have a unique combination of ecological conditions, haptophyte species and seasonal alkenone production that contributes to the sedimentary record. Haptophyte algae species have different sensitivities to temperature; therefore identifying the alkenone producer(s) prior to down-core temperature reconstructions is critical before selecting the most appropriate temperature calibration. We present a study from Lake Toyoni, a freshwater lake in Hokkaido, Japan that has alkenones preserved in surface sediments. The aim of this study is to identify the alkenone producer(s) within the lake using 18S rDNA analyses. Preserved rDNA of planktonic phototrophic algae was extracted from surface sediments of Lake Toyoni and phylogenetic analyses of the rDNA sequences suggest alkenones are produced by a single haptophyte within the class Prymnesiophyceae (order Isochrysidales). The Lake Toyoni alkenone-producer shares a distinct phylotype with a haptophyte reported from water filter samples collected in Lake BrayaSø, Greenland (D'Andrea et al., 2006). Similarity between the 18S rDNA sequences from Lake Toyoni and Lake BrayaSø provides a basis for applying (and updating) the Greenland lake temperature calibration. Applying this temperature calibration (T°C = 40.8 [UK37] + 31.8, R2=0.96; n=34) to the surface sediment alkenone unsaturation index from Lake Toyoni gives an estimated lake surface temperature (LST) of 8°C. This is in line with observed LST at Lake Toyoni, which ranges between 7 - 22°C (Apr 2011 to Nov 2011). The occurrence and identification of a single alkenone producer in Lake Toyoni means problems posed by a mixture of haptophytes in

  18. Chromosomal localization and sequence variation of 5S rRNA gene in five Capsicum species.

    PubMed

    Park, Y K; Park, K C; Park, C H; Kim, N S

    2000-02-29

    Chromosomal localization and sequence analysis of the 5S rRNA gene were carried out in five Capsicum species. Fluorescence in situ hybridization revealed that chromosomal location of the 5S rRNA gene was conserved in a single locus at a chromosome which was assigned to chromosome 1 by the synteny relationship with tomato. In sequence analysis, the repeating units of the 5S rRNA genes in the Capsicum species were variable in size from 278 bp to 300 bp. In sequence comparison of our results to the results with other Solanaceae plants as published by others, the coding region was highly conserved, but the spacer regions varied in size and sequence. T stretch regions, just after the end of the coding sequences, were more prominant in the Capsicum species than in two other plants. High G x C rich regions, which might have similar functions as that of the GC islands in the genes transcribed by RNA PolII, were observed after the T stretch region. Although we could not observe the TATA like sequences, an AT rich segment at -27 to -18 was detected in the 5S rRNA genes of the Capsicum species. Species relationship among the Capsicum species was also studied by the sequence comparison of the 5S rRNA genes. While C. chinense, C. frutescens, and C. annuum formed one lineage, C. baccatum was revealed to be an intermediate species between the former three species and C. pubescens. PMID:10774742

  19. Sequence heterogeneity in the two 16S rRNA genes of Phormium yellow leaf phytoplasma.

    PubMed Central

    Liefting, L W; Andersen, M T; Beever, R E; Gardner, R C; Forster, R L

    1996-01-01

    Phormium yellow leaf (PYL) phytoplasma causes a lethal disease of the monocotyledon, New Zealand flax (Phormium tenax). The 16S rRNA genes of PYL phytoplasma were amplified from infected flax by PCR and cloned, and the nucleotide sequences were determined. DNA sequencing and Southern hybridization analysis of genomic DNA indicated the presence of two copies of the 16S rRNA gene. The two 16S rRNA genes exhibited sequence heterogeneity in 4 nucleotide positions and could be distinguished by the restriction enzymes BpmI and BsrI. This is the first record in which sequence heterogeneity in the 16S rRNA genes of a phytoplasma has been determined by sequence analysis. A phylogenetic tree based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that PYL phytoplasma is most closely related to the stolbur and German grapevine yellows phytoplasmas, which form the stolbur subgroup of the aster yellows group. This phylogenetic position of PYL phytoplasma was supported by 16S/23S spacer region sequence data. PMID:8795200

  20. Tax4Fun: predicting functional profiles from metagenomic 16S rRNA data

    PubMed Central

    Aßhauer, Kathrin P.; Wemheuer, Bernd; Daniel, Rolf; Meinicke, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Motivation: The characterization of phylogenetic and functional diversity is a key element in the analysis of microbial communities. Amplicon-based sequencing of marker genes, such as 16S rRNA, is a powerful tool for assessing and comparing the structure of microbial communities at a high phylogenetic resolution. Because 16S rRNA sequencing is more cost-effective than whole metagenome shotgun sequencing, marker gene analysis is frequently used for broad studies that involve a large number of different samples. However, in comparison to shotgun sequencing approaches, insights into the functional capabilities of the community get lost when restricting the analysis to taxonomic assignment of 16S rRNA data. Results: Tax4Fun is a software package that predicts the functional capabilities of microbial communities based on 16S rRNA datasets. We evaluated Tax4Fun on a range of paired metagenome/16S rRNA datasets to assess its performance. Our results indicate that Tax4Fun provides a good approximation to functional profiles obtained from metagenomic shotgun sequencing approaches. Availability and implementation: Tax4Fun is an open-source R package and applicable to output as obtained from the SILVAngs web server or the application of QIIME with a SILVA database extension. Tax4Fun is freely available for download at http://tax4fun.gobics.de/. Contact: kasshau@gwdg.de Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:25957349

  1. Affinity chromatography of Drosophila melanogaster ribosomal proteins to 5S rRNA.

    PubMed

    Stark, B C; Chooi, W Y

    1985-02-20

    The binding of Drosophila melanogaster ribosomal proteins to D. melanogaster 5S rRNA was studied using affinity chromatography of total ribosomal proteins (TP80) on 5S rRNA linked via adipic acid dihydrazide to Sepharose 4B. Ribosomal proteins which bound 5S rRNA at 0.3 M potassium chloride and were eluted at 1 M potassium chloride were identified as proteins 1, L4, 2/3, L14/L16, and S1, S2, S3, S4, S5, by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Using poly A-Sepharose 4B columns as a model of non-specific binding, we found that a subset of TP80 proteins is also bound. This subset, while containing some of the proteins bound by 5S rRNA columns, was distinctly different from the latter subset, indicating that the binding to 5S rRNA was specific for that RNA species. PMID:3923010

  2. Interactions between 23S rRNA and tRNA in the ribosomal E site.

    PubMed Central

    Bocchetta, M; Xiong, L; Shah, S; Mankin, A S

    2001-01-01

    Interactions between tRNA or its analogs and 23S rRNA in the large ribosomal subunit were analyzed by RNA footprinting and by modification-interference selection. In the E site, tRNA protected bases G2112, A2392, and C2394 of 23S rRNA. Truncated tRNA, lacking the anticodon stem-loop, protected A2392 and C2394, but not G2112, and tRNA derivatives with a shortened 3' end protected only G2112, but not A2392 or C2394. Modification interference revealed C2394 as the only accessible nucleotide in 23S rRNA whose modification interferes with binding of tRNA in the large ribosomal subunit E site. The results suggest a direct contact between A76 of tRNA A76 and C2394 of 23S rRNA. Protections at G2112 may reflect interaction of this 23S rRNA region with the tRNA central fold. PMID:11214181

  3. Sequence and phylogenetic analysis of SSU rRNA gene of five microsporidia.

    PubMed

    Dong, ShiNan; Shen, ZhongYuan; Xu, Li; Zhu, Feng

    2010-01-01

    The complete small subunit rRNA (SSU rRNA) gene sequences of five microsporidia including Nosema heliothidis, and four novel microsporidia isolated from Pieris rapae, Phyllobrotica armta, Hemerophila atrilineata, and Bombyx mori, respectively, were obtained by PCR amplification, cloning, and sequencing. Two phylogenetic trees based on SSU rRNA sequences had been constructed by using Neighbor-Joining of Phylip software and UPGMA of MEGA4.0 software. The taxonomic status of four novel microsporidia was determined by analysis of phylogenetic relationship, length, G+C content, identity, and divergence of the SSU rRNA sequences. The results showed that the microsporidia isolated from Pieris rapae, Phyllobrotica armta, and Hemerophila atrilineata have close phylogenetic relationship with the Nosema, while another microsporidium isolated from Bombyx mori is closely related to the Endoreticulatus. So, we temporarily classify three novel species of microsporidia to genus Nosema, as Nosema sp. PR, Nosema sp. PA, Nosema sp. HA. Another is temporarily classified into genus Endoreticulatus, as Endoreticulatus sp. Zhenjiang. The result indicated as well that it is feasible and valuable to elucidate phylogenetic relationships and taxonomic status of microsporidian species by analyzing information from SSU rRNA sequences of microsporidia. PMID:19768503

  4. rRNA Suppressor of a Eukaryotic Translation Initiation Factor 5B/Initiation Factor 2 Mutant Reveals a Binding Site for Translational GTPases on the Small Ribosomal Subunit▿

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Byung-Sik; Kim, Joo-Ran; Acker, Michael G.; Maher, Kathryn N.; Lorsch, Jon R.; Dever, Thomas E.

    2009-01-01

    The translational GTPases promote initiation, elongation, and termination of protein synthesis by interacting with the ribosome. Mutations that impair GTP hydrolysis by eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5B/initiation factor 2 (eIF5B/IF2) impair yeast cell growth due to failure to dissociate from the ribosome following subunit joining. A mutation in helix h5 of the 18S rRNA in the 40S ribosomal subunit and intragenic mutations in domain II of eIF5B suppress the toxic effects associated with expression of the eIF5B-H480I GTPase-deficient mutant in yeast by lowering the ribosome binding affinity of eIF5B. Hydroxyl radical mapping experiments reveal that the domain II suppressors interface with the body of the 40S subunit in the vicinity of helix h5. As the helix h5 mutation also impairs elongation factor function, the rRNA and eIF5B suppressor mutations provide in vivo evidence supporting a functionally important docking of domain II of the translational GTPases on the body of the small ribosomal subunit. PMID:19029250

  5. Slow molecular evolution in 18S rDNA, rbcL and nad5 genes of mosses compared with higher plants.

    PubMed

    Stenøien, H K

    2008-03-01

    The evolutionary potential of bryophytes (mosses, liverworts and hornworts) has been debated for decades. Fossil record and biogeographical distribution patterns suggest very slow morphological evolution and the retainment of several ancient traits since the split with vascular plants some 450 million years ago. Many have argued that bryophytes may evolve as rapidly as higher plants on the molecular level, but this hypothesis has not been tested so far. Here, it is shown that mosses have experienced significantly lower rates of molecular evolution than higher plants within 18S rDNA (nuclear), rbcL (chloroplast) and nad5 (mitochondrial) genes. Mosses are on an average evolving 2-3 times slower than ferns, gymnosperms and angiosperms; and also green algae seem to be evolving faster than nonvascular plants. These results support the observation of a general correlation between morphological and molecular evolutionary rates in plants and also show that mosses are 'evolutionary sphinxes' regarding both morphological and molecular evolutionary potential. PMID:18205784

  6. Molecular phylogeny of pneumocystis based on 5.8S rRNA gene and the internal transcribed spacers of rRNA gene sequences.

    PubMed

    Li, ZiHui; Feng, XianMin; Lu, SiQi; Zhang, Fan; Wang, FengYun; Huang, Song

    2008-05-01

    To clarify the phylogenetic relationships and species status of Pneumocystis, the 5.8S rRNA gene and the internal transcribed spacers (ITS, 1 and 2) of Pneumocystis rRNA derived from rat, gerbil and human were amplified, cloned and sequenced. The genetic distance matrix of six Pneumocystis species compared with other fungi like Taphrina and Saccharomyces indicated that the Pneumocystis genus contained multiple species including Pneumocystis from gerbil. The phylogenetic tree also showed that Pneumocystis from human and monkey formed one group and four rodent Pneumocystis formed another group. Among the four members, Pneumocystis wakefieldiae was most closely related to Pneumocystis murina and Pneumocystis carinii, and was least related to gerbil Pneumocystis. PMID:18785590

  7. Triploblastic relationships with emphasis on the acoelomates and the position of Gnathostomulida, Cycliophora, Plathelminthes, and Chaetognatha: a combined approach of 18S rDNA sequences and morphology.

    PubMed

    Giribet, G; Distel, D L; Polz, M; Sterrer, W; Wheeler, W C

    2000-09-01

    Triploblastic relationships were examined in the light of molecular and morphological evidence. Representatives for all triploblastic "phyla" (except Loricifera) were represented by both sources of phylogenetic data. The 18S ribosomal (rDNA) sequence data for 145 terminal taxa and 276 morphological characters coded for 36 supraspecific taxa were combined in a total evidence regime to determine the most consistent picture of triploblastic relationships for these data. Only triploblastic taxa are used to avoid rooting with distant outgroups, which seems to happen because of the extreme distance that separates diploblastic from triploblastic taxa according to the 18S rDNA data. Multiple phylogenetic analyses performed with variable analysis parameters yield largely inconsistent results for certain groups such as Chaetognatha, Acoela, and Nemertodermatida. A normalized incongruence length metric is used to assay the relative merit of the multiple analyses. The combined analysis having the least character incongruence yields the following scheme of relationships of four main clades: (1) Deuterostomia [((Echinodermata + Enteropneusta) (Cephalochordata (Urochordata + Vertebrata)))]; (2) Ecdysozoa [(((Priapulida + Kinorhyncha) (Nematoda + Nematomorpha)) ((Onychophora + Tardigrada) Arthropoda))]; (3) Trochozoa [((Phoronida + Brachiopoda) (Entoprocta (Nemertea (Sipuncula (Mollusca (Pogonophora (Echiura + Annelida)))))))]; and (4) Platyzoa [((Gnathostomulida (Cycliophora + Syndermata)) (Gastrotricha + Plathelminthes))]. Chaetognatha, Nemertodermatida, and Bryozoa cannot be assigned to any one of these four groups. For the first time, a data analysis recognizes a clade of acoelomates, the Platyzoa (sensu Cavalier-Smith, Biol. Rev. 73:203-266, 1998). Other relationships that corroborate some morphological analyses are the existence of a clade that groups Gnathostomulida + Syndermata (= Gnathifera), which is expanded to include the enigmatic phylum Cycliophora, as sister group

  8. The complexity of human ribosome biogenesis revealed by systematic nucleolar screening of Pre-rRNA processing factors.

    PubMed

    Tafforeau, Lionel; Zorbas, Christiane; Langhendries, Jean-Louis; Mullineux, Sahra-Taylor; Stamatopoulou, Vassiliki; Mullier, Romain; Wacheul, Ludivine; Lafontaine, Denis L J

    2013-08-22

    Mature ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs) are produced from polycistronic precursors following complex processing. Precursor (pre)-rRNA processing has been extensively characterized in yeast and was assumed to be conserved in humans. We functionally characterized 625 nucleolar proteins in HeLa cells and identified 286 required for processing, including 74 without a yeast homolog. For selected candidates, we demonstrated that pre-rRNA processing defects are conserved in different cell types (including primary cells), defects are not due to activation of a p53-dependent nucleolar tumor surveillance pathway, and they precede cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis. We also investigated the exosome's role in processing internal transcribed spacers (ITSs) and report that 3' end maturation of 18S rRNA involves EXOSC10/Rrp6, a yeast ITS2 processing factor. We conclude that human cells adopt unique strategies and recruit distinct trans-acting factors to carry out essential processing steps, posing fundamental implications for understanding ribosomopathies at the molecular level and developing effective therapeutic agents. PMID:23973377

  9. Naive Bayesian classifier for rapid assignment of rRNA sequences into the new bacterial taxonomy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiong; Garrity, George M; Tiedje, James M; Cole, James R

    2007-08-01

    The Ribosomal Database Project (RDP) Classifier, a naïve Bayesian classifier, can rapidly and accurately classify bacterial 16S rRNA sequences into the new higher-order taxonomy proposed in Bergey's Taxonomic Outline of the Prokaryotes (2nd ed., release 5.0, Springer-Verlag, New York, NY, 2004). It provides taxonomic assignments from domain to genus, with confidence estimates for each assignment. The majority of classifications (98%) were of high estimated confidence (> or = 95%) and high accuracy (98%). In addition to being tested with the corpus of 5,014 type strain sequences from Bergey's outline, the RDP Classifier was tested with a corpus of 23,095 rRNA sequences as assigned by the NCBI into their alternative higher-order taxonomy. The results from leave-one-out testing on both corpora show that the overall accuracies at all levels of confidence for near-full-length and 400-base segments were 89% or above down to the genus level, and the majority of the classification errors appear to be due to anomalies in the current taxonomies. For shorter rRNA segments, such as those that might be generated by pyrosequencing, the error rate varied greatly over the length of the 16S rRNA gene, with segments around the V2 and V4 variable regions giving the lowest error rates. The RDP Classifier is suitable both for the analysis of single rRNA sequences and for the analysis of libraries of thousands of sequences. Another related tool, RDP Library Compare, was developed to facilitate microbial-community comparison based on 16S rRNA gene sequence libraries. It combines the RDP Classifier with a statistical test to flag taxa differentially represented between samples. The RDP Classifier and RDP Library Compare are available online at http://rdp.cme.msu.edu/. PMID:17586664

  10. Strength and Regulation of Seven rRNA Promoters in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Maeda, Michihisa; Shimada, Tomohiro; Ishihama, Akira

    2015-01-01

    The model prokaryote Escherichia coli contains seven copies of the rRNA operon in the genome. The presence of multiple rRNA operons is an advantage for increasing the level of ribosome, the key apparatus of translation, in response to environmental conditions. The complete sequence of E. coli genome, however, indicated the micro heterogeneity between seven rRNA operons, raising the possibility in functional heterogeneity and/or differential mode of expression. The aim of this research is to determine the strength and regulation of the promoter of each rRNA operon in E. coli. For this purpose, we used the double-fluorescent protein reporter pBRP system that was developed for accurate and precise determination of the promoter strength of protein-coding genes. For application of this promoter assay vector for measurement of the rRNA operon promoters devoid of the signal for translation, a synthetic SD sequence was added at the initiation codon of the reporter GFP gene, and then approximately 500 bp-sequence upstream each 16S rRNA was inserted in front of this SD sequence. Using this modified pGRS system, the promoter activity of each rrn operon was determined by measuring the rrn promoter-directed GFP and the reference promoter-directed RFP fluorescence, both encoded by a single and the same vector. Results indicated that: the promoter activity was the highest for the rrnE promoter under all growth conditions analyzed, including different growth phases of wild-type E. coli grown in various media; but the promoter strength of other six rrn promoters was various depending on the culture conditions. These findings altogether indicate that seven rRNA operons are different with respect to the regulation mode of expression, conferring an advantage to E. coli through a more fine-tuned control of ribosome formation in a wide range of environmental situations. Possible difference in the functional role of each rRNA operon is also discussed. PMID:26717514

  11. A yeast transcription system for the 5S rRNA gene.

    PubMed Central

    van Keulen, H; Thomas, D Y

    1982-01-01

    A cell-free extract of yeast nuclei that can specifically transcribe cloned yeast 5S rRNA genes has been developed. Optima for transcription of 5S rDNA were determined and conditions of extract preparation leading to reproducible activities and specificities established. The major in vitro product has the same size and oligonucleotide composition as in vivo 5S rRNA. The in vitro transcription extract does not transcribe yeast tRNA genes. The extract does increase the transcription of tRNA genes packaged in chromatin. Images PMID:7145700

  12. 16S rRNA Phylogenetic Investigation of the Candidate Division “Korarchaeota”

    PubMed Central

    Auchtung, Thomas A.; Takacs-Vesbach, Cristina D.; Cavanaugh, Colleen M.

    2006-01-01

    The environmental distribution and phylogeny of “Korarchaeota,” a proposed ancient archaeal division, was investigated by using the 16S rRNA gene framework. Korarchaeota-specific primers were designed based on previously published sequences and used to screen a variety of environments. Korarchaeota 16S rRNA genes were amplified exclusively from high temperature Yellowstone National Park hot springs and a 9°N East Pacific Rise deep-sea hydrothermal vent. Phylogenetic analyses of these and all available sequences suggest that Korarchaeota exhibit a high level of endemicity. PMID:16820509

  13. Chromosome-specific NOR inactivation explains selective rRNA gene silencing and dosage control in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Chandrasekhara, Chinmayi; Mohannath, Gireesha; Blevins, Todd; Pontvianne, Frederic; Pikaard, Craig S.

    2016-01-01

    In eukaryotes, scores of excess ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes are silenced by repressive chromatin modifications. Given the near sequence identity of rRNA genes within a species, it is unclear how specific rRNA genes are reproducibly chosen for silencing. Using Arabidopsis thaliana ecotype (strain) Col-0, a systematic search identified sequence polymorphisms that differ between active and developmentally silenced rRNA gene subtypes. Recombinant inbred mapping populations derived from three different ecotype crosses were then used to map the chromosomal locations of silenced and active RNA gene subtypes. Importantly, silenced and active rRNA gene subtypes are not intermingled. All silenced rRNA gene subtypes mapped to the nucleolus organizer region (NOR) on chromosome 2 (NOR2). All active rRNA gene subtypes mapped to NOR4. Using an engineered A. thaliana line in which a portion of Col-0 chromosome 4 was replaced by sequences of another ecotype, we show that a major rRNA gene subtype silenced at NOR2 is active when introgressed into the genome at NOR4. Collectively, these results reveal that selective rRNA gene silencing is not regulated gene by gene based on mechanisms dependent on subtle gene sequence variation. Instead, we propose that a subchromosomal silencing mechanism operates on a multimegabase scale to inactivate NOR2. PMID:26744421

  14. In situ hybridization of phytoplankton using fluorescently labeled rRNA probes.

    PubMed

    Groben, René; Medlin, Linda

    2005-01-01

    Phytoplankton are one of the major components of ecosystem processes and play an important role in many biogeochemical cycles in the marine and freshwater environment. Despite their importance, many microalgae are poorly described and little is known of broad spatial and temporal scale trends in their abundance and distribution. Reasons for this are that microalgae are often small, lack distinct morphological features, and are unculturable, which make analyses difficult. It is now possible by using molecular biological techniques to advance our knowledge of aquatic biodiversity and to understand how biodiversity supports ecosystem structure, dynamics, and resilience. We present in this chapter a brief review of the progress that has been made in analyzing microalgae from populations to the species level. The described methods range from DNA fingerprinting techniques, such as random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs), and simple sequence repeats (SSRs), to microsatellites, which are used in population studies, to sequence analysis, which help to reconstruct the evolutionary history of organisms and to examine relationships at various taxonomic levels. Special emphasis is given to the application of molecular probes for the identification and characterization of microalgal taxa. The fast and secure identification of phytoplankton, especially of toxic species, is important from an ecological and economical point of view and whole-cell hybridization with specific fluorochrome-labeled probes followed by fluorescence microscopy or flow cytometry offers a fast method for this purpose. In this context, we present a detailed protocol for fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) probes that can be applied to many algal cell types and discuss practical considerations of its use. PMID:15865974

  15. Pol I Transcription and Pre-rRNA Processing Are Coordinated in a Transcription-dependent Manner in Mammalian Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kopp, K.; Gasiorowski, J. Z.; Chen, D.; Gilmore, R.; Norton, J. T.; Wang, C.; Leary, D. J.; Chan, E.K.L.; Dean, D. A.

    2007-01-01

    Pre-rRNA synthesis and processing are key steps in ribosome biogenesis. Although recent evidence in yeast suggests that these two processes are coupled, the nature of their association is unclear. In this report, we analyze the coordination between rDNA transcription and pre-rRNA processing in mammalian cells. We found that pol I transcription factor UBF interacts with pre-rRNA processing factors as analyzed by immunoprecipitations, and the association depends on active rRNA synthesis. In addition, injections of plasmids containing the human rDNA promoter and varying lengths of 18S rDNA into HeLa nuclei show that pol I transcription machinery can be recruited to rDNA promoters regardless of the product that is transcribed, whereas subgroups of pre-rRNA processing factors are recruited to plasmids only when specific pre-rRNA fragments are produced. Our observations suggest a model for sequential recruitment of pol I transcription factors and pre-rRNA processing factors to elongating pre-rRNA on an as-needed basis rather than corecruitment to sites of active transcription. PMID:17108330

  16. Molecular Diagnosis of Actinomadura madurae Infection by 16S rRNA Deep Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    SenGupta, Dhruba J.; Hoogestraat, Daniel R.; Cummings, Lisa A.; Bryant, Bronwyn H.; Natividad, Catherine; Thielges, Stephanie; Monsaas, Peter W.; Chau, Mimosa; Barbee, Lindley A.; Rosenthal, Christopher; Cookson, Brad T.; Hoffman, Noah G.

    2013-01-01

    Next-generation DNA sequencing can be used to catalog individual organisms within complex, polymicrobial specimens. Here, we utilized deep sequencing of 16S rRNA to implicate Actinomadura madurae as the cause of mycetoma in a diabetic patient when culture and conventional molecular methods were overwhelmed by overgrowth of other organisms. PMID:24108607

  17. Bacterial metabarcoding by 16S rRNA gene ion torrent amplicon sequencing.

    PubMed

    Fantini, Elio; Gianese, Giulio; Giuliano, Giovanni; Fiore, Alessia

    2015-01-01

    Ion Torrent is a next generation sequencing technology based on the detection of hydrogen ions produced during DNA chain elongation; this technology allows analyzing and characterizing genomes, genes, and species. Here, we describe an Ion Torrent procedure applied to the metagenomic analysis of 16S rRNA gene amplicons to study the bacterial diversity in food and environmental samples. PMID:25343859

  18. Ribosome origins: The relative age of 23S rRNA Domains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hury, James; Nagaswamy, Uma; Larios-Sanz, Maia; Fox, George E.

    2006-08-01

    The modern ribosome and its component RNAs are quite large and it is likely that at an earlier time they were much smaller. Hence, not all regions of the modern ribosomal RNAs (rRNA) are likely to be equally old. In the work described here, it is hypothesized that the oldest regions of the RNAs will usually be highly integrated into the machinery. When this is the case, an examination of the interconnectivity between local RNA regions can provide insight to the relative age of the various regions. Herein, we describe an analysis of all known long-range RNA/RNA interactions within the 23S rRNA and between the 23S rRNA and the 16S rRNA in order to assess the interconnectivity between the usual Domains as defined by secondary structure. Domain V, which contains the peptidyl transferase center is centrally located, extensively connected, and therefore likely to be the oldest region. Domain IV and Domain II are extensively interconnected with both themselves and Domain V. A portion of Domain IV is also extensively connected with the 30S subunit and hence Domain IV may be older than Domain II. These results are consistent with other evidence relating to the relative age of RNA regions. Although the relative time of addition of the GTPase center can not be reliably deduced it is pointed out that the development of this may have dramatically affected the progenotes that preceded the last common ancestor.

  19. Ribosomal Database Project: data and tools for high throughput rRNA analysis

    PubMed Central

    Cole, James R.; Wang, Qiong; Fish, Jordan A.; Chai, Benli; McGarrell, Donna M.; Sun, Yanni; Brown, C. Titus; Porras-Alfaro, Andrea; Kuske, Cheryl R.; Tiedje, James M.

    2014-01-01

    Ribosomal Database Project (RDP; http://rdp.cme.msu.edu/) provides the research community with aligned and annotated rRNA gene sequence data, along with tools to allow researchers to analyze their own rRNA gene sequences in the RDP framework. RDP data and tools are utilized in fields as diverse as human health, microbial ecology, environmental microbiology, nucleic acid chemistry, taxonomy and phylogenetics. In addition to aligned and annotated collections of bacterial and archaeal small subunit rRNA genes, RDP now includes a collection of fungal large subunit rRNA genes. RDP tools, including Classifier and Aligner, have been updated to work with this new fungal collection. The use of high-throughput sequencing to characterize environmental microbial populations has exploded in the past several years, and as sequence technologies have improved, the sizes of environmental datasets have increased. With release 11, RDP is providing an expanded set of tools to facilitate analysis of high-throughput data, including both single-stranded and paired-end reads. In addition, most tools are now available as open source packages for download and local use by researchers with high-volume needs or who would like to develop custom analysis pipelines. PMID:24288368

  20. Unequal Crossing over at the Rrna Tandon as a Source of Quantitative Genetic Variation in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Frankham, R.; Briscoe, D. A.; Nurthen, R. K.

    1980-01-01

    Abdominal bristle selection lines (three high and three low) and controls were founded from a marked homozygous line to measure the contribution of sex-linked "mutations" to selection response. Two of the low lines exhibited a period of rapid response to selection in females, but not in males. There were corresponding changes in female variance, in heritabilities in females, in the sex ratio (a deficiency of females) and in fitness, as well as the appearance of a mutant phenotype in females of one line. All of these changes were due to bb alleles (partial deficiencies for the rRNA tandon) in the X chromosomes of these lines, while the Y chromosomes remained wild-type bb+. We argue that the bb alleles arose by unequal crossing over in the rRNA tandon.—A prediction of this hypothesis is that further changes can occur in the rRNA tandon as selection is continued. This has now been shown to occur.—Our minimum estimate of the rate of occurrence of changes at the rRNA tandon is 3 x 10-4. As this is substantially higher than conventional mutation rates, the questions of the mechanisms and rates of origin of new quantitative genetic variation require careful re-examination. PMID:7439683

  1. 16S rRNA region based PCR protocol for identification and subtyping of Parvimonas micra

    PubMed Central

    Ota-Tsuzuki, C.; Brunheira, A.T.P.; Mayer, M.P.A.

    2008-01-01

    The present study established a PCR protocol in order to identify Parvimonas micra and to evaluate the intra-species diversity by PCR-RFLP of 16S rRNA partial sequence. The data indicated that the protocol was able to identify this species which could be clustered in five genotypes. PMID:24031274

  2. Common 5S rRNA variants are likely to be accepted in many sequence contexts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Zhengdong; D'Souza, Lisa M.; Lee, Youn-Hyung; Fox, George E.

    2003-01-01

    Over evolutionary time RNA sequences which are successfully fixed in a population are selected from among those that satisfy the structural and chemical requirements imposed by the function of the RNA. These sequences together comprise the structure space of the RNA. In principle, a comprehensive understanding of RNA structure and function would make it possible to enumerate which specific RNA sequences belong to a particular structure space and which do not. We are using bacterial 5S rRNA as a model system to attempt to identify principles that can be used to predict which sequences do or do not belong to the 5S rRNA structure space. One promising idea is the very intuitive notion that frequently seen sequence changes in an aligned data set of naturally occurring 5S rRNAs would be widely accepted in many other 5S rRNA sequence contexts. To test this hypothesis, we first developed well-defined operational definitions for a Vibrio region of the 5S rRNA structure space and what is meant by a highly variable position. Fourteen sequence variants (10 point changes and 4 base-pair changes) were identified in this way, which, by the hypothesis, would be expected to incorporate successfully in any of the known sequences in the Vibrio region. All 14 of these changes were constructed and separately introduced into the Vibrio proteolyticus 5S rRNA sequence where they are not normally found. Each variant was evaluated for its ability to function as a valid 5S rRNA in an E. coli cellular context. It was found that 93% (13/14) of the variants tested are likely valid 5S rRNAs in this context. In addition, seven variants were constructed that, although present in the Vibrio region, did not meet the stringent criteria for a highly variable position. In this case, 86% (6/7) are likely valid. As a control we also examined seven variants that are seldom or never seen in the Vibrio region of 5S rRNA sequence space. In this case only two of seven were found to be potentially valid. The

  3. Analysis of a marine picoplankton community by 16S rRNA gene cloning and sequencing.

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, T M; DeLong, E F; Pace, N R

    1991-01-01

    The phylogenetic diversity of an oligotrophic marine picoplankton community was examined by analyzing the sequences of cloned ribosomal genes. This strategy does not rely on cultivation of the resident microorganisms. Bulk genomic DNA was isolated from picoplankton collected in the north central Pacific Ocean by tangential flow filtration. The mixed-population DNA was fragmented, size fractionated, and cloned into bacteriophage lambda. Thirty-eight clones containing 16S rRNA genes were identified in a screen of 3.2 x 10(4) recombinant phage, and portions of the rRNA gene were amplified by polymerase chain reaction and sequenced. The resulting sequences were used to establish the identities of the picoplankton by comparison with an established data base of rRNA sequences. Fifteen unique eubacterial sequences were obtained, including four from cyanobacteria and eleven from proteobacteria. A single eucaryote related to dinoflagellates was identified; no archaebacterial sequences were detected. The cyanobacterial sequences are all closely related to sequences from cultivated marine Synechococcus strains and with cyanobacterial sequences obtained from the Atlantic Ocean (Sargasso Sea). Several sequences were related to common marine isolates of the gamma subdivision of proteobacteria. In addition to sequences closely related to those of described bacteria, sequences were obtained from two phylogenetic groups of organisms that are not closely related to any known rRNA sequences from cultivated organisms. Both of these novel phylogenetic clusters are proteobacteria, one group within the alpha subdivision and the other distinct from known proteobacterial subdivisions. The rRNA sequences of the alpha-related group are nearly identical to those of some Sargasso Sea picoplankton, suggesting a global distribution of these organisms. Images PMID:2066334

  4. An 18S ribosomal DNA barcode for the study of Isomermis lairdi, a parasite of the blackfly Simulium damnosum s.l.

    PubMed

    Crainey, J L; Wilson, M D; Post, R J

    2009-09-01

    The mermithid parasite, Isomermis lairdi Mondet, Poinar & Bernadou (Nematoda: Mermithidae), is known to have a major impact on populations of Simulium damnosum s.l. Theobald (Diptera: Simuliidae) and on their efficiency as vectors of Onchocerca volvulus (Leuckart) (Nematoda: Filarioidea). However, the value of I. lairdi and other mermithid parasites as potential means of integrated vector control has not been fully realized. This is partly because traditional taxonomic approaches have been insufficient for describing and analysing important aspects of their biology and host range. In total, rDNA barcode sequences have been obtained from over 70 I. lairdi mermithids found parasitizing S. damnosum s.l. larvae in three different rivers. No two sequences were found to vary by more than 0.5%, and cytospecies identification of mermithid hosts revealed that I. lairdi with identical rDNA barcodes can parasitize multiple cytoforms of the S. damnosum complex, including S. squamosum (Enderlein). Phylogenetic analysis using a partial sequence from the 18S ribosomal DNA barcode, grouped I. lairdi in a monophyletic group with Gastromermis viridis Welch (Nematoda: Mermithidae) and Isomermis wisconsinensis Welch (Nematoda: Mermithidae). PMID:19712154

  5. When molecules support morphology: Phylogenetic reconstruction of the family Onuphidae (Eunicida, Annelida) based on 16S rDNA and 18S rDNA.

    PubMed

    Budaeva, Nataliya; Schepetov, Dmitry; Zanol, Joana; Neretina, Tatiana; Willassen, Endre

    2016-01-01

    Onuphid polychaetes are tubicolous marine worms commonly reported worldwide from intertidal areas to hadal depths. They often dominate in benthic communities and have economic importance in aquaculture and recreational fishing. Here we report the phylogeny of the family Onuphidae based on the combined analyses of nuclear (18S rDNA) and mitochondrial (16S rDNA) genes. Results of Bayesian and Maximum Likelihood analyses supported the monophyly of Onuphidae and its traditional subdivision into two monophyletic subfamilies: Onuphinae and Hyalinoeciinae. Ten of 22 recognized genera were monophyletic with strong node support; four more genera included in this study were either monotypic or represented by a single species. None of the genera appeared para- or polyphyletic and this indicates a strong congruence between the traditional morphology-based systematics of the family and the newly obtained molecular-based phylogenetic reconstructions. Intergeneric relationships within Hyalinoeciinae were not resolved. Two strongly supported monophyletic groups of genera were recovered within Onuphinae: ((Onuphis, Aponuphis), Diopatra, Paradiopatra) and (Hirsutonuphis, (Paxtonia, (Kinbergonuphis, Mooreonuphis))). A previously accepted hypothesis on the subdivision of Onuphinae into the Onuphis group of genera and the Diopatra group of genera was largely rejected. PMID:26497420

  6. Phylogenetic position of the yeast-like symbiotes of Tagosodes orizicolus (Homoptera: Delphacidae) based on 18S ribosomal DNA partial sequences.

    PubMed

    Xet-Mull, Ana M; Quesada, Tania; Espinoza, Ana M

    2004-09-01

    Tagosodes orizicolus Muir (Homoptera: Delphacidae), the endemic delphacid species of tropical America carries yeast-like symbiotes (YLS) in the abdominal fat bodies and the ovarial tissues, like other rice planthoppers of Asia. These YLS are obligate symbiotes, which are transmitted transovarially, and maintain a mutualistic relationship with the insect host. This characteristic has made in vitro culture and classification of YLS rather difficult using conventional methods. Nevertheless, microorganisms of similar characteristics have been successfully classified by using molecular taxonomy. In the present work, the YLS of Tagosodes orizicolus (YLSTo) were purified on Percoll gradients, and specific segments of 18S rDNA were amplified by PCR, cloned and sequenced. Sequences were aligned by means of the CLUSTAL V (DNASTAR) program; phylogenetic trees were constructed with the Phylogeny Inference Package (PHYLIP), showing that YLSTo belong to the fungi class Pyrenomycetes, phylum Ascomycota. Similarities between 98% and 100% were observed among YLS of the rice delphacids Tagosodes orizicolus, Nilaparvata lugens, Laodelphax striatellus and Sogatella fur cifera, and between 89.8% and 90.8% when comparing the above to YLS of the aphid Hamiltonaphis styraci. These comparisons revealed that delphacid YLS are a highly conserved monophyletic group within the Pyrenomycetes and are closely related to Hypomyces chrysospermus. PMID:17361570

  7. Morphology and 18S rDNA phylogeny of Hemicycliostyla sphagni (Ciliophora, Hypotricha) from Brazil with redefinition of the genus Hemicycliostyla.

    PubMed

    Paiva, Thiago da Silva; Borges, Bárbara do Nascimento; da Silva-Neto, Inácio Domingos; Harada, Maria Lúcia

    2012-01-01

    Morphology of the urostylid ciliate Hemicycliostyla sphagni Stokes, 1886, the type of Hemicycliostyla Stokes, 1886, is investigated based on live and protargol-impregnated specimens from a Brazilian population. The absence of transverse cirri, which has been considered the main diagnostic feature of Hemicycliostyla, separating it from Pseudourostyla Borror, 1972, was found to vary within the studied population, with 50% of the specimens exhibiting inconspicuous and/or rudimentary transverse cirri. A redefinition of Hemicycliostyla was possible based on combined features of interphase and divisional morphogenesis: Retroextendia Berger, 2006, with bi- or multicoronal frontal cirral pattern; fronto-terminal cirri present; multiple left and right marginal cirral rows that replicate independently via within-row development, each parental row producing one primordium per divider; caudal cirri lacking; and presence/absence of transverse cirri may be intrapopulationally variable. Phylogenetic analyses of the 18S rDNA marker unambiguously placed H. sphagni as sister group of Pseudourostyla franzi Foissner, 1987, which is herein transferred to Hemicycliostyla as Hemicycliostyla franzi comb. nov. PMID:21357456

  8. Phylogeny of coral-inhabiting barnacles (Cirripedia; Thoracica; Pyrgomatidae) based on 12S, 16S and 18S rDNA analysis.

    PubMed

    Simon-Blecher, N; Huchon, D; Achituv, Y

    2007-09-01

    The traditional phylogeny of the coral-inhabiting barnacles, the Pyrgomatidae, is based on morphological characteristics, mainly of the hard parts. It has been difficult to establish the phylogenetic relationships among Pyrgomatidae because of the apparent convergence of morphological characteristics, and due to the use of non-cladistic systematics, which emphasize ancestor-descendant relationships rather than sister-clade relationships. We used partial sequences of two mithochondrial genes, 12S rDNA and 16S rDNA, and a nuclear gene, 18S rDNA, to infer the molecular phylogeny of the pyrgomatids. Our phylogenetic results allowed us to reject previous classifications of Pyrgomatidae based on morphological characteristics. Our results also suggested the possibility of paraphyly of the Pyrgomatidae. The hydrocoral barnacle Wanella is not found on the same clade as the other pyrgomatids, but rather, with the free-living balanids. The basal position of Megatrema and Ceratoconcha is supported. The archeaobalanid Armatobalanus is grouped with Cantellius at the base of the Indo-Pacific pyrgomatines. Fusion of the shell plate and modification of the opercular valves are homoplasious features that occurred more than three times on different clades. The monophyly of the "Savignium" group, comprising four nominal genera, is also not supported, and the different taxa are placed on different clades. PMID:17560131

  9. Rhizobium sp. strain BN4 (a selenium oxyanion-reducing bacterium) 16S rRNA gene complete sequence

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study used 1482 base pair 16S rRNA gene sequence methods in conjunction with other biochemical and morphological studies to confirm the identification of a bacterium (refer to as the BN4 strain) as a Rhizobium sp. The 16S rRNA gene sequence places it with the Rhizobium clade that includes R. d...

  10. Guanine nucleotide metabolism in a mutant strain of Escherichia coli with a temperature sensitive lesion in rRNA synthesis.

    PubMed

    Harris, J S; Chaney, S G

    1978-12-21

    We have described a mutant of Escherichia coli (designated 2S142) which shows specific inhibition of rRNA synthesis at 42 degrees C. ppGpp levels increase at the restrictive temperature, as expected. However, when the cells are returned to 30 degrees C, rRNA synthesis resumes before ppGpp levels have returned to normal. Furthermore, when ppGpp levels are decreased by the addition of tetracycline or choramphenicol, rRNA synthesis does not resume at 42 degrees C. Also, a derivative of 2S142 with a temperature-sensitive G factor (which cannot synthesize either protein or ppGpp at 42 degrees C) shows identical kinetics of rRNA shut-off at 42 degrees C as 2S142. Thus, the elevated ppGpp levels in this mutant do not appear to be directly responsible for the cessation of rRNA synthesis at 42 degrees C. PMID:367439

  11. Transcriptional Activity of rRNA Genes in Barley Cells after Mutagenic Treatment.

    PubMed

    Kwasniewska, Jolanta; Jaskowiak, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, the combination of the micronucleus test with analysis of the activity of the rRNA genes in mutagen-treated Hordeum vulgare (barley) by maleic hydrazide (MH) cells was performed. Simultaneously fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with 25S rDNA as probes and an analysis of the transcriptional activity of 35S rRNA genes with silver staining were performed. The results showed that transcriptional activity is always maintained in the micronuclei although they are eliminated during the next cell cycle. The analysis of the transcriptional activity was extended to barley nuclei. MH influenced the fusion of the nucleoli in barley nuclei. The silver staining enabled detection of the nuclear bodies which arose after MH treatment. The results confirmed the usefulness of cytogenetic techniques in the characterization of micronuclei. Similar analyses can be now extended to other abiotic stresses to study the response of plant cells to the environment. PMID:27257817

  12. Phylogenetic analysis of the genera Thiobacillus and Thiomicrospira by 5S rRNA sequences.

    PubMed Central

    Lane, D J; Stahl, D A; Olsen, G J; Heller, D J; Pace, N R

    1985-01-01

    5S rRNA nucleotide sequences from Thiobacillus neapolitanus, Thiobacillus ferrooxidans, Thiobacillus thiooxidans, Thiobacillus intermedius, Thiobacillus perometabolis, Thiobacillus thioparus, Thiobacillus versutus, Thiobacillus novellus, Thiobacillus acidophilus, Thiomicrospira pelophila, Thiomicrospira sp. strain L-12, and Acidiphilium cryptum were determined. A phylogenetic tree, based upon comparison of these and other related 5S rRNA sequences, is presented. The results place the thiobacilli, Thiomicrospira spp., and Acidiphilium spp. in the "purple photosynthetic" bacterial grouping which also includes the enteric, vibrio, pseudomonad, and other familiar eubacterial groups in addition to the purple photosynthetic bacteria. The genus Thiobacillus is not an evolutionarily coherent grouping but rather spans the full breadth of the purple photosynthetic bacteria. PMID:3924899

  13. A renaissance for the pioneering 16S rRNA gene

    SciTech Connect

    Tringe, Susannah; Hugenholtz, Philip

    2008-09-07

    Culture-independent molecular surveys using the 16S rRNA gene have become a mainstay for characterizing microbial community structure over the last quarter century. More recently this approach has been overshadowed by metagenomics, which provides a global overview of a community's functional potential rather than just an inventory of its inhabitants. However, the pioneering 16S rRNA gene is making a comeback in its own right thanks to a number of methodological advancements including higher resolution (more sequences), analysis of multiple related samples (e.g. spatial and temporal series) and improved metadata and use of metadata. The standard conclusion that microbial ecosystems are remarkably complex and diverse is now being replaced by detailed insights into microbial ecology and evolution based only on this one historically important marker gene.

  14. Transcriptional Activity of rRNA Genes in Barley Cells after Mutagenic Treatment

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, the combination of the micronucleus test with analysis of the activity of the rRNA genes in mutagen-treated Hordeum vulgare (barley) by maleic hydrazide (MH) cells was performed. Simultaneously fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with 25S rDNA as probes and an analysis of the transcriptional activity of 35S rRNA genes with silver staining were performed. The results showed that transcriptional activity is always maintained in the micronuclei although they are eliminated during the next cell cycle. The analysis of the transcriptional activity was extended to barley nuclei. MH influenced the fusion of the nucleoli in barley nuclei. The silver staining enabled detection of the nuclear bodies which arose after MH treatment. The results confirmed the usefulness of cytogenetic techniques in the characterization of micronuclei. Similar analyses can be now extended to other abiotic stresses to study the response of plant cells to the environment. PMID:27257817

  15. Rapid identification of Renibacterium salmoninarum using an oligonucleotide probe complementary to 16S rRNA.

    PubMed

    Mattsson, J G; Gersdorf, H; Jansson, E; Hongslo, T; Göbel, U B; Johansson, K E

    1993-02-01

    Bacterial kidney disease in salmonid fish is caused by the slow-growing Gram-positive rod, Renibacterium salmoninarum. The partial sequence of 16S rRNA from R. salmoninarum was determined and compared with published bacterial 16S rRNA sequences. From this sequence information, a 30-bases-long oligonucleotide was designed and used as a specific probe for identification of R. salmoninarum in filter hybridization experiments. Strong specific hybridization signals were observed for all strains of R. salmoninarum tested. Furthermore, no cross-hybridization could be seen against 22 other bacterial species, among them other salmonid fish pathogens. The detection limit for the probe in direct filter hybridization by the dot-blot technique was 2.5 x 10(4) bacteria. It was also possible to detect R. salmoninarum in clinical samples by direct filter hybridization. PMID:8455640

  16. Structural Analysis of Base Substitutions in Thermus thermophilus 16S rRNA Conferring Streptomycin Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Demirci, Hasan; Murphy, Frank V.; Murphy, Eileen L.; Connetti, Jacqueline L.; Dahlberg, Albert E.; Jogl, Gerwald

    2014-01-01

    Streptomycin is a bactericidal antibiotic that induces translational errors. It binds to the 30S ribosomal subunit, interacting with ribosomal protein S12 and with 16S rRNA through contacts with the phosphodiester backbone. To explore the structural basis for streptomycin resistance, we determined the X-ray crystal structures of 30S ribosomal subunits from six streptomycin-resistant mutants of Thermus thermophilus both in the apo form and in complex with streptomycin. Base substitutions at highly conserved residues in the central pseudoknot of 16S rRNA produce novel hydrogen-bonding and base-stacking interactions. These rearrangements in secondary structure produce only minor adjustments in the three-dimensional fold of the pseudoknot. These results illustrate how antibiotic resistance can occur as a result of small changes in binding site conformation. PMID:24820088

  17. Emerging concepts on microbial processes in the bathypelagic ocean - ecology, biogeochemistry, and genomics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagata, Toshi; Tamburini, Christian; Arístegui, Javier; Baltar, Federico; Bochdansky, Alexander B.; Fonda-Umani, Serena; Fukuda, Hideki; Gogou, Alexandra; Hansell, Dennis A.; Hansman, Roberta L.; Herndl, Gerhard J.; Panagiotopoulos, Christos; Reinthaler, Thomas; Sohrin, Rumi; Verdugo, Pedro; Yamada, Namiha; Yamashita, Youhei; Yokokawa, Taichi; Bartlett, Douglas H.

    2010-08-01

    This paper synthesizes recent findings regarding microbial distributions and processes in the bathypelagic ocean (depth >1000 m). Abundance, production and respiration of prokaryotes reflect supplies of particulate and dissolved organic matter to the bathypelagic zone. Better resolution of carbon fluxes mediated by deep microbes requires further testing on the validity of conversion factors. Archaea, especially marine Crenarchaeota Group I, are abundant in deep waters where they can fix dissolved inorganic carbon. Viruses appear to be important in the microbial loop in deep waters, displaying remarkably high virus to prokaryote abundance ratios in some oceanic regions. Sequencing of 18S rRNA genes revealed a tremendous diversity of small-sized protists in bathypelagic waters. Abundances of heterotrophic nanoflagellates (HNF) and ciliates decrease with depth more steeply than prokaryotes; nonetheless, data indicated that HNF consumed half of prokaryote production in the bathypelagic zone. Aggregates are important habitats for deep-water microbes, which produce more extracellular enzymes (on a per-cell basis) than surface communities. The theory of marine gel formation provides a framework to unravel complex interactions between microbes and organic polymers. Recent data on the effects of hydrostatic pressure on microbial activities indicate that bathypelagic microbial activity is generally higher under in situ pressure conditions than at atmospheric pressures. High-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA genes revealed a remarkable diversity of Bacteria in the bathypelagic ocean. Metagenomics and comparative genomics of piezophiles reveal not only the high diversity of deep sea microbes but also specific functional attributes of these piezophilic microbes, interpreted as an adaptation to the deep water environment. Taken together, the data compiled on bathypelagic microbes indicate that, despite high-pressure and low-temperature conditions, microbes in the bathypelagic

  18. Molecular systematics of hystricognath rodents: evidence from the mitochondrial 12S rRNA gene.

    PubMed

    Nedbal, M A; Allard, M W; Honeycutt, R L

    1994-09-01

    Nucleotide sequence variation among 22 representatives of 14 families of hystricognathid rodents was examined using an 814-bp region of the mitochondrial 12S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene composing domains I-III. The purpose of this study was twofold. First, the phylogenetic relationships among Old World phiomorph (primarily African) and New World caviomorph (primarily South American) families were investigated, with a special emphasis on testing hypotheses pertaining to the origin of New World families and the identification of major monophyletic groups. Second, divergence times derived from molecular data were compared to those suggested by the fossil record. The resultant 12S rRNA gene phylogeny, analyzed separately and in combination with other morphological and molecular data, supported a monophyletic Caviomorpha. This finding is counter to the idea of a multiple origin for the South American families. The most strongly supported relationships within the Caviomorpha were a monophyletic Octodontoidea (containing five families) and the placement of New World porcupines (family Erethizontidae) as the most divergent family. Although comparisons to other data were more equivocal, the most parsimonious 12S rRNA trees also supported a monophyletic Phiomorpha that could be subdivided into two major groups, a clade containing the Thryonomyoidea (Thryonomyidae and Petromuridae) plus Bathyergidae and the more divergent Hystricidae (Old World porcupines). No significant differences in rates of 12S rRNA gene divergence were observed for hystricognathids in comparison to other rodent groups. Although time since divergence estimates were influenced by the fossil dates chosen to calibrate absolute rates, the overall divergence times derived from both transversions only and Kimura corrected distances and calibrations using two independent dates revealed a divergence time between Old and New World groups dating in the Eocene. PMID:7820285

  19. Application of 12S rRNA gene for the identification of animal-derived drugs.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jiaoyang; Yan, Dan; Zhang, Da; Han, Yumei; Dong, Xiaoping; Yang, Yong; Deng, Kejun; Xiao, Xiaohe

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE. Animal-derived drugs are the major source of biological products and traditional medicine, but they are often difficult to identify, causing confusion in the clinical application. Among these medicinal animals, a number of animal species are endangered, leading to the destruction of biodiversity. The identification of animal-derived drugs and their alternatives would be a first step toward biodiversity conservation and safe medication. Until now, no effective method for identifying animal-derived drugs has been demonstrated; DNA-based species identification presents a brand-new technique. METHODS. We designed primers to amplify a 523-bp fragment of 12S rRNA and generated sequences for 13 individuals within six medicinal animal species. We examined the efficiency of species recognition based on this sequence, and we also tested the taxonomic affiliations against the GenBank database. RESULTS. All the tested drugs were identified successfully, and a visible gap was found between the inter-specific and intra-specific variation. We further demonstrated the importance of data exploration in DNA-based species identification practice by examining the sequence characteristics of relative genera in GenBank. This region of the 12S rRNA gene had a 100% success rate of species recognition within the six medicinal animal species. CONCLUSIONS. We propose that the 12S rRNA locus might be universal for identifying animal-derived drugs and their adulterants. The development of 12S rRNA for indentifying animal-derived drugs that share a common gene target would contribute significantly to the clinical application of animal-derived drugs and the conservation of medicinal animal species. This article is open to POST-PUBLICATION REVIEW. Registered readers (see "For Readers") may comment by clicking on ABSTRACT on the issue's contents page. PMID:21906480

  20. Greengenes: Chimera-checked 16S rRNA gene database and workbenchcompatible in ARB

    SciTech Connect

    DeSantis, T.Z.; Hugenholtz, P.; Larsen, N.; Rojas, M.; Brodie,E.L; Keller, K.; Huber, T.; Dalevi, D.; Hu, P.; Andersen, G.L.

    2006-02-01

    A 16S rRNA gene database (http://greengenes.lbl.gov) addresses limitations of public repositories by providing chimera-screening, standard alignments and taxonomic classification using multiple published taxonomies. It was revealed that incongruent taxonomic nomenclature exists among curators even at the phylum-level. Putative chimeras were identified in 3% of environmental sequences and 0.2% of records derived from isolates. Environmental sequences were classified into 100 phylum-level lineages within the Archaea and Bacteria.

  1. GJB2 and mitochondrial 12S rRNA susceptibility mutations in sudden deafness.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kaitian; Sun, Liang; Zong, Ling; Wu, Xuan; Zhan, Yuan; Dong, Chang; Cao, Hui; Tang, Haocheng; Jiang, Hongyan

    2016-06-01

    Genetic susceptibility may play an important role in the pathogenesis of sudden deafness. However, the specific genes involved are largely unknown. We sought to explore the frequency of GJB2 and mitochondrial 12S rRNA susceptibility mutations in patients with sudden deafness. Between September 2011 and May 2012, 62 consecutive patients with sudden deafness were seen. In 50 of these, no etiological factors for sudden deafness were found. We detected GJB2 and mitochondrial 12S rRNA variants by direct sequencing in these 50 patients and in 53-aged matched controls with normal hearing. In addition, we undertook functional analyses of the mitochondrial mutations which we detected, applying structural and phylogenetic analysis. GJB2 sequencing identified six mutations, including three pathogenic mutations (c.235delC, c.299-300delAT, c.109G>A) and three polymorphisms, in the study participants, giving an allele frequency of 15.0 %. A homozygous c.109G>A mutation was detected in two participants. A total of 16 variants in mitochondrial 12S rRNA gene were identified in the participants. No significant differences were found in GJB2 heterozygosity or in mitochondrial 12S rRNA variants between patients with sudden deafness and in controls. Our results suggest that the homozygous GJB2 c.109G>A mutation may be a cause of sudden deafness involving both ears. This finding should increase awareness of the likely role of genetic factors in the etiology of sudden deafness in general. PMID:26119842

  2. Characterization of the genus Bifidobacterium by automated ribotyping and 16S rRNA gene sequences.

    PubMed

    Sakata, Shinji; Ryu, Chun Sun; Kitahara, Maki; Sakamoto, Mitsuo; Hayashi, Hidenori; Fukuyama, Masafumi; Benno, Yoshimi

    2006-01-01

    In order to characterize the genus Bifidobacterium, ribopatterns and approximately 500 bp (Escherichia coli positions 27 to 520) of 16S rRNA gene sequences of 28 type strains and 64 reference strains of the genus Bifidobacterium were determined. Ribopatterns obtained from Bifidobacterium strains were divided into nine clusters (clusters I-IX) with a similarity of 60%. Cluster V, containing 17 species, was further subdivided into 22 subclusters with a similarity of 90%. In the genus Bifidobacterium, four groups were shown according to Miyake et al.: (i) the Bifidobacterium longum infantis-longum-suis type group, (ii) the B. catenulatum-pseudocatenulatum group, (iii) the B. gallinarum-saeculare-pullorum group, and (iv) the B. coryneforme-indicum group, which showed higher than 97% similarity of the 16S rRNA gene sequences in each group. Using ribotyping analysis, unique ribopatterns were obtained from these species, and they could be separated by cluster analysis. Ribopatterns of six B. adolescentis strains were separated into different clusters, and also showed diversity in 16S rRNA gene sequences. B. adolescentis consisted of heterogeneous strains. The nine strains of B. pseudolongum subsp. pseudolongum were divided into five subclusters. Each type strain of B. pseudolongum subsp. pseudolongum and B. pseudolongum subsp. globosum and two intermediate groups, which were suggested by Yaeshima et al., consisted of individual clusters. B. animalis subsp. animalis and B. animalis subsp. lactis could not be separated by ribotyping using Eco RI. We conclude that ribotyping is able to provide another characteristic of Bifidobacterium strains in addition to 16S rRNA gene sequence phylogenetic analysis, and this information suggests that ribotyping analysis is a useful tool for the characterization of Bifidobacterium species in combination with other techniques for taxonomic characterization. PMID:16428867

  3. Impaired rRNA synthesis triggers homeostatic responses in hippocampal neurons

    PubMed Central

    Kiryk, Anna; Sowodniok, Katharina; Kreiner, Grzegorz; Rodriguez-Parkitna, Jan; Sönmez, Aynur; Górkiewicz, Tomasz; Bierhoff, Holger; Wawrzyniak, Marcin; Janusz, Artur K.; Liss, Birgit; Konopka, Witold; Schütz, Günther; Kaczmarek, Leszek; Parlato, Rosanna

    2013-01-01

    Decreased rRNA synthesis and nucleolar disruption, known as nucleolar stress, are primary signs of cellular stress associated with aging and neurodegenerative disorders. Silencing of rDNA occurs during early stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and may play a role in dementia. Moreover, aberrant regulation of the protein synthesis machinery is present in the brain of suicide victims and implicates the epigenetic modulation of rRNA. Recently, we developed unique mouse models characterized by nucleolar stress in neurons. We inhibited RNA polymerase I by genetic ablation of the basal transcription factor TIF-IA in adult hippocampal neurons. Nucleolar stress resulted in progressive neurodegeneration, although with a differential vulnerability within the CA1, CA3, and dentate gyrus (DG). Here, we investigate the consequences of nucleolar stress on learning and memory. The mutant mice show normal performance in the Morris water maze and in other behavioral tests, suggesting the activation of adaptive mechanisms. In fact, we observe a significantly enhanced learning and re-learning corresponding to the initial inhibition of rRNA transcription. This phenomenon is accompanied by aberrant synaptic plasticity. By the analysis of nucleolar function and integrity, we find that the synthesis of rRNA is later restored. Gene expression profiling shows that 36 transcripts are differentially expressed in comparison to the control group in absence of neurodegeneration. Additionally, we observe a significant enrichment of the putative serum response factor (SRF) binding sites in the promoters of the genes with changed expression, indicating potential adaptive mechanisms mediated by the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. In the DG a neurogenetic response might compensate the initial molecular deficits. These results underscore the role of nucleolar stress in neuronal homeostasis and open a new ground for therapeutic strategies aiming at preserving neuronal function. PMID:24273493

  4. Intrinsic challenges in ancient microbiome reconstruction using 16S rRNA gene amplification

    PubMed Central

    Ziesemer, Kirsten A.; Mann, Allison E.; Sankaranarayanan, Krithivasan; Schroeder, Hannes; Ozga, Andrew T.; Brandt, Bernd W.; Zaura, Egija; Waters-Rist, Andrea; Hoogland, Menno; Salazar-García, Domingo C.; Aldenderfer, Mark; Speller, Camilla; Hendy, Jessica; Weston, Darlene A.; MacDonald, Sandy J.; Thomas, Gavin H.; Collins, Matthew J.; Lewis, Cecil M.; Hofman, Corinne; Warinner, Christina

    2015-01-01

    To date, characterization of ancient oral (dental calculus) and gut (coprolite) microbiota has been primarily accomplished through a metataxonomic approach involving targeted amplification of one or more variable regions in the 16S rRNA gene. Specifically, the V3 region (E. coli 341–534) of this gene has been suggested as an excellent candidate for ancient DNA amplification and microbial community reconstruction. However, in practice this metataxonomic approach often produces highly skewed taxonomic frequency data. In this study, we use non-targeted (shotgun metagenomics) sequencing methods to better understand skewed microbial profiles observed in four ancient dental calculus specimens previously analyzed by amplicon sequencing. Through comparisons of microbial taxonomic counts from paired amplicon (V3 U341F/534R) and shotgun sequencing datasets, we demonstrate that extensive length polymorphisms in the V3 region are a consistent and major cause of differential amplification leading to taxonomic bias in ancient microbiome reconstructions based on amplicon sequencing. We conclude that systematic amplification bias confounds attempts to accurately reconstruct microbiome taxonomic profiles from 16S rRNA V3 amplicon data generated using universal primers. Because in silico analysis indicates that alternative 16S rRNA hypervariable regions will present similar challenges, we advocate for the use of a shotgun metagenomics approach in ancient microbiome reconstructions. PMID:26563586

  5. 5 S Rrna Is Involved in Fidelity of Translational Reading Frame

    PubMed Central

    Dinman, J. D.; Wickner, R. B.

    1995-01-01

    Chromosomal mutants (maintenance of frame = mof) in which the efficiency of -1 ribosomal frame-shifting is increased can be isolated using constructs in which lacZ expression is dependent upon a -1 shift of reading frame. We isolate a new mof mutation, mof9, in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and show that it is complemented by both single and multi-copy 5 S rDNA clones. Two independent insertion mutations in the rDNA locus (rDNA::LEU2 and rDNA::URA3) also display the Mof(-) phenotype and are also complemented by single and multi-copy 5 S rDNA clones. Mutant 5 S rRNAs expressed from a plasmid as 20-50% of total 5 S rRNA in a wild-type host also induced the Mof(-) phenotype. The increase in frameshifting is greatest when the lacZ reporter gene is expressed on a high copy, episomal vector. No differences were found in 5 S rRNA copy number or electrophoretic mobilities in mof9 strains. Both mof9 and rDNA::LEU2 increase the efficiency of +1 frameshifting as well but have no effect on readthrough of UAG or UAA termination codons, indicating that not all translational specificity is affected. These data suggest a role for 5 S rRNA in the maintenance of frame in translation. PMID:8536994

  6. Oligodeoxynucleotide probes for Campylobacter fetus and Campylobacter hyointestinalis based on 16S rRNA sequences.

    PubMed Central

    Wesley, I V; Wesley, R D; Cardella, M; Dewhirst, F E; Paster, B J

    1991-01-01

    Deoxyoligonucleotide probes were constructed for the identification of Campylobacter fetus and Campylobacter hyointestinalis based on 16S rRNA sequence data. Probes were targeted to hypervariable regions of 16S rRNA. Specificity of oligonucleotide probes was tested in a colony blot assay with type strains of 15 Campylobacter and Arcobacter species as well as in a slot blot format using genomic DNA extracted from field strains of C. fetus and C. hyointestinalis. Two oligonucleotides were constructed for C. fetus that hybridized with equal specificity with each of 57 biochemically confirmed isolates of C. fetus but not with any other Campylobacter species. The C. hyointestinalis probe reacted with 47 of 48 biochemically confirmed field isolates of C. hyointestinalis. In Southern blot hybridization of BglII digests of genomic DNA, the respective probes reacted within three restriction fragments of either C. hyointestinalis (7.2, 8.2, and 10.1 kb) or C. fetus (7.0, 7.7, and 9.0 kb). This suggests multiple copies of genes encoding 16S rRNA. Images PMID:1723076

  7. Intrinsic challenges in ancient microbiome reconstruction using 16S rRNA gene amplification.

    PubMed

    Ziesemer, Kirsten A; Mann, Allison E; Sankaranarayanan, Krithivasan; Schroeder, Hannes; Ozga, Andrew T; Brandt, Bernd W; Zaura, Egija; Waters-Rist, Andrea; Hoogland, Menno; Salazar-García, Domingo C; Aldenderfer, Mark; Speller, Camilla; Hendy, Jessica; Weston, Darlene A; MacDonald, Sandy J; Thomas, Gavin H; Collins, Matthew J; Lewis, Cecil M; Hofman, Corinne; Warinner, Christina

    2015-01-01

    To date, characterization of ancient oral (dental calculus) and gut (coprolite) microbiota has been primarily accomplished through a metataxonomic approach involving targeted amplification of one or more variable regions in the 16S rRNA gene. Specifically, the V3 region (E. coli 341-534) of this gene has been suggested as an excellent candidate for ancient DNA amplification and microbial community reconstruction. However, in practice this metataxonomic approach often produces highly skewed taxonomic frequency data. In this study, we use non-targeted (shotgun metagenomics) sequencing methods to better understand skewed microbial profiles observed in four ancient dental calculus specimens previously analyzed by amplicon sequencing. Through comparisons of microbial taxonomic counts from paired amplicon (V3 U341F/534R) and shotgun sequencing datasets, we demonstrate that extensive length polymorphisms in the V3 region are a consistent and major cause of differential amplification leading to taxonomic bias in ancient microbiome reconstructions based on amplicon sequencing. We conclude that systematic amplification bias confounds attempts to accurately reconstruct microbiome taxonomic profiles from 16S rRNA V3 amplicon data generated using universal primers. Because in silico analysis indicates that alternative 16S rRNA hypervariable regions will present similar challenges, we advocate for the use of a shotgun metagenomics approach in ancient microbiome reconstructions. PMID:26563586

  8. Characterization of Xanthomonas campestris Pathovars by rRNA Gene Restriction Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Berthier, Yvette; Verdier, Valérie; Guesdon, Jean-Luc; Chevrier, Danièle; Denis, Jean-Baptiste; Decoux, Guy; Lemattre, Monique

    1993-01-01

    Genomic DNA of 191 strains of the family Pseudomonadaceae, including 187 strains of the genus Xanthomonas, was cleaved by EcoRI endonuclease. After hybridization of Southern transfer blots with 2-acetylamino-fluorene-labelled Escherichia coli 16+23S rRNA probe, 27 different patterns were obtained. The strains are clearly distinguishable at the genus, species, and pathovar levels. The variability of the rRNA gene restriction patterns was determined for four pathovars of Xanthomonas campestris species. The 16 strains of X. campestris pv. begoniae analyzed gave only one pattern. The variability of rRNA gene restriction patterns of X. campestris pv. manihotis strains could be related to ecotypes. In contrast, the variability of patterns observed for X. campestris pv. malvacearum was not correlated with pathogenicity or with the geographical origins of the strains. The highest degree of variability of DNA fingerprints was observed within X. campestris pv. dieffenbachiae, which is pathogenic to several hosts of the Araceae family. In this case, variability was related to both host plant and pathogenicity. Images PMID:16348894

  9. rRNA Binding Sites and the Molecular Mechanism of Action of the Tetracyclines.

    PubMed

    Chukwudi, Chinwe U

    2016-08-01

    The tetracycline antibiotics are known to be effective in the treatment of both infectious and noninfectious disease conditions. The 16S rRNA binding mechanism currently held for the antibacterial action of the tetracyclines does not explain their activity against viruses, protozoa that lack mitochondria, and noninfectious conditions. Also, the mechanism by which the tetracyclines selectively inhibit microbial protein synthesis against host eukaryotic protein synthesis despite conservation of ribosome structure and functions is still questionable. Many studies have investigated the binding of the tetracyclines to the 16S rRNA using the small ribosomal subunit of different bacterial species, but there seems to be no agreement between various reports on the exact binding site on the 16S rRNA. The wide range of activity of the tetracyclines against a broad spectrum of bacterial pathogens, viruses, protozoa, and helminths, as well as noninfectious conditions, indicates a more generalized effect on RNA. In the light of recent evidence that the tetracyclines bind to various synthetic double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs) of random base sequences, suggesting that the double-stranded structures may play a more important role in the binding of the tetracyclines to RNA than the specific base pairs, as earlier speculated, it is imperative to consider possible alternative binding modes or sites that could help explain the mechanisms of action of the tetracyclines against various pathogens and disease conditions. PMID:27246781

  10. CLUSTOM-CLOUD: In-Memory Data Grid-Based Software for Clustering 16S rRNA Sequence Data in the Cloud Environment

    PubMed Central

    Park, Min-Kyu; Kim, Byung Kwon; Hwang, Kyuin; Lee, Sang-Heon; Hong, Soon Gyu; Nasir, Arshan; Cho, Wan-Sup; Kim, Kyung Mo

    2016-01-01

    High-throughput sequencing can produce hundreds of thousands of 16S rRNA sequence reads corresponding to different organisms present in the environmental samples. Typically, analysis of microbial diversity in bioinformatics starts from pre-processing followed by clustering 16S rRNA reads into relatively fewer operational taxonomic units (OTUs). The OTUs are reliable indicators of microbial diversity and greatly accelerate the downstream analysis time. However, existing hierarchical clustering algorithms that are generally more accurate than greedy heuristic algorithms struggle with large sequence datasets. To keep pace with the rapid rise in sequencing data, we present CLUSTOM-CLOUD, which is the first distributed sequence clustering program based on In-Memory Data Grid (IMDG) technology–a distributed data structure to store all data in the main memory of multiple computing nodes. The IMDG technology helps CLUSTOM-CLOUD to enhance both its capability of handling larger datasets and its computational scalability better than its ancestor, CLUSTOM, while maintaining high accuracy. Clustering speed of CLUSTOM-CLOUD was evaluated on published 16S rRNA human microbiome sequence datasets using the small laboratory cluster (10 nodes) and under the Amazon EC2 cloud-computing environments. Under the laboratory environment, it required only ~3 hours to process dataset of size 200 K reads regardless of the complexity of the human microbiome data. In turn, one million reads were processed in approximately 20, 14, and 11 hours when utilizing 20, 30, and 40 nodes on the Amazon EC2 cloud-computing environment. The running time evaluation indicates that CLUSTOM-CLOUD can handle much larger sequence datasets than CLUSTOM and is also a scalable distributed processing system. The comparative accuracy test using 16S rRNA pyrosequences of a mock community shows that CLUSTOM-CLOUD achieves higher accuracy than DOTUR, mothur, ESPRIT-Tree, UCLUST and Swarm. CLUSTOM-CLOUD is written in

  11. CLUSTOM-CLOUD: In-Memory Data Grid-Based Software for Clustering 16S rRNA Sequence Data in the Cloud Environment.

    PubMed

    Oh, Jeongsu; Choi, Chi-Hwan; Park, Min-Kyu; Kim, Byung Kwon; Hwang, Kyuin; Lee, Sang-Heon; Hong, Soon Gyu; Nasir, Arshan; Cho, Wan-Sup; Kim, Kyung Mo

    2016-01-01

    High-throughput sequencing can produce hundreds of thousands of 16S rRNA sequence reads corresponding to different organisms present in the environmental samples. Typically, analysis of microbial diversity in bioinformatics starts from pre-processing followed by clustering 16S rRNA reads into relatively fewer operational taxonomic units (OTUs). The OTUs are reliable indicators of microbial diversity and greatly accelerate the downstream analysis time. However, existing hierarchical clustering algorithms that are generally more accurate than greedy heuristic algorithms struggle with large sequence datasets. To keep pace with the rapid rise in sequencing data, we present CLUSTOM-CLOUD, which is the first distributed sequence clustering program based on In-Memory Data Grid (IMDG) technology-a distributed data structure to store all data in the main memory of multiple computing nodes. The IMDG technology helps CLUSTOM-CLOUD to enhance both its capability of handling larger datasets and its computational scalability better than its ancestor, CLUSTOM, while maintaining high accuracy. Clustering speed of CLUSTOM-CLOUD was evaluated on published 16S rRNA human microbiome sequence datasets using the small laboratory cluster (10 nodes) and under the Amazon EC2 cloud-computing environments. Under the laboratory environment, it required only ~3 hours to process dataset of size 200 K reads regardless of the complexity of the human microbiome data. In turn, one million reads were processed in approximately 20, 14, and 11 hours when utilizing 20, 30, and 40 nodes on the Amazon EC2 cloud-computing environment. The running time evaluation indicates that CLUSTOM-CLOUD can handle much larger sequence datasets than CLUSTOM and is also a scalable distributed processing system. The comparative accuracy test using 16S rRNA pyrosequences of a mock community shows that CLUSTOM-CLOUD achieves higher accuracy than DOTUR, mothur, ESPRIT-Tree, UCLUST and Swarm. CLUSTOM-CLOUD is written in JAVA

  12. 16S rRNA gene high-throughput sequencing data mining of microbial diversity and interactions.

    PubMed

    Ju, Feng; Zhang, Tong

    2015-05-01

    The ubiquitous occurrence of microorganisms gives rise to continuous public concerns regarding their pathogenicity and threats to human environment, as well as potential engineering benefits in biotechnology. The development and wide application of environmental biotechnology, for example in bioenergy production, wastewater treatment, bioremediation, and drinking water disinfection, have been bringing us with both environmental and economic benefits. Strikingly, extensive applications of microscopic and molecular techniques since 1990s have allowed engineers to peep into the microbiology in "black box" of engineered microbial communities in biotechnological processes, providing guidelines for process design and optimization. Recently, revolutionary advances in DNA sequencing technologies and rapidly decreasing costs are altering conventional ways of microbiology and ecology research, as it launches an era of next-generation sequencing (NGS). The principal research burdens are now transforming from traditional labor-intensive wet-lab experiments to dealing with analysis of huge and informative NGS data, which is computationally expensive and bioinformatically challenging. This study discusses state-of-the-art bioinformatics and statistical analyses of 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene high-throughput sequencing (HTS) data from prevalent NGS platforms to promote its applications in exploring microbial diversity of functional and pathogenic microorganisms, as well as their interactions in biotechnological processes. PMID:25808518

  13. Phylogenetic analysis of complete rRNA gene sequence of Nosema philosamiae isolated from the lepidopteran Philosamia cynthia ricini.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Feng; Shen, Zhongyuan; Xu, Xiaofang; Tao, Hengping; Dong, Shinan; Tang, Xudong; Xu, Li

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT. The microsporidian Nosema philosamiae is a pathogen that infects the eri-silkworm Philosamia cynthia ricini. The complete sequence of rRNA gene (4,314 bp) was obtained by polymerase chain reaction amplification with specific primers and sequencing. The sequence analysis showed that the organization of the rRNA of N. philosamiae was similar to the pattern of Nosema bombycis. Phylogenetic analysis of rRNA gene sequences revealed that N. philosamiae had a close relationship with other Nosema species, confirming that N. philosamiae is correctly assigned to the genus Nosema. PMID:20384905

  14. rRNA gene restriction patterns of Haemophilus influenzae biogroup aegyptius strains associated with Brazilian purpuric fever.

    PubMed Central

    Irino, K; Grimont, F; Casin, I; Grimont, P A

    1988-01-01

    The rRNA gene restriction patterns of 92 isolates of Haemophilus influenzae biogroup aegyptius, associated with conjunctivitis or Brazilian purpuric fever in the State of São Paulo, Brazil, were studied with 16 + 23S rRNA from Escherichia coli as a probe. All strains were classified into 15 patterns. Isolates from Brazilian purpuric fever cases were seen only in patterns 3 (most frequently) and 4 (rarely), whereas isolates from conjunctivitis were found in all 15 patterns. The study demonstrated that rRNA from E. coli can serve as a probe for molecular epidemiology. Images PMID:2459153

  15. Effects of induction of rRNA overproduction on ribosomal protein synthesis and ribosome subunit assembly in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Yamagishi, M; Nomura, M

    1988-01-01

    Overproduction of rRNA was artificially induced in Escherichia coli cells to test whether the synthesis of ribosomal protein (r-protein) is normally repressed by feedback regulation. When rRNA was overproduced more than twofold from a hybrid plasmid carrying the rrnB operon fused to the lambda pL promoter (pL-rrnB), synthesis of individual r-proteins increased by an average of about 60%. This demonstrates that the synthesis of r-proteins is repressed under normal conditions. The increase of r-protein production, however, for unknown reasons, was not as great as the increase in rRNA synthesis and resulted in an imbalance between the amounts of rRNA and r-protein synthesis. Therefore, only a small (less than 20%) increase in the synthesis of complete 30S and 50S ribosome subunits was detected, and a considerable fraction of the excess rRNA was degraded. Lack of complete cooperativity in the assembly of ribosome subunits in vivo is discussed as a possible explanation for the absence of a large stimulation of ribosome synthesis observed under these conditions. In addition to the induction of intact rRNA overproduction from the pL-rrnB operon, the effects of unbalanced overproduction of each of the two large rRNAs, 16S rRNA and 23S rRNA, on r-protein synthesis were examined using pL-rrnB derivatives carrying a large deletion in either the 23S rRNA gene or the 16S rRNA gene. Operon-specific derepression after 23S or 16S rRNA overproduction correlated with the overproduction of rRNA containing the target site for the operon-specific repressor r-protein. These results are discussed to explain the apparent coupling of the assembly of one ribosomal subunit with that of the other which was observed in earlier studies on conditionally lethal mutants with defects in ribosome assembly. PMID:3053641

  16. Physical Mapping of the 5S and 18S rDNA in Ten Species of Hypostomus Lacépède 1803 (Siluriformes: Loricariidae): Evolutionary Tendencies in the Genus

    PubMed Central

    César Venere, Paulo; Thums Konerat, Jocicléia; Henrique Zawadzki, Cláudio; Ricardo Vicari, Marcelo; Margarido, Vladimir Pavan

    2014-01-01

    Hypostomus is a diverse group with unclear aspects regarding its biology, including the mechanisms that led to chromosome diversification within the group. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with 5S and 18S rDNA probes was performed on ten Hypostomini species. Hypostomus faveolus, H. cochliodon, H. albopunctatus, H. aff. paulinus, and H. topavae had only one chromosome pair with 18S rDNA sites, while H. ancistroides, H. commersoni, H. hermanni, H. regani, and H. strigaticeps had multiple 18S rDNA sites. Regarding the 5S rDNA genes, H. ancistroides, H. regani, H. albopunctatus, H. aff. paulinus, and H. topavae had 5S rDNA sites on only one chromosome pair and H. faveolus, H. cochliodon, H. commersoni, H. hermanni, and H. strigaticeps had multiple 5S rDNA sites. Most species had 18S rDNA sites in the telomeric region of the chromosomes. All species but H. cochliodon had 5S rDNA in the centromeric/pericentromeric region of one metacentric pair. Obtained results are discussed based on existent phylogenies for the genus, with comments on possible dispersion mechanisms to justify the variability of the rDNA sites in Hypostomus. PMID:25405240

  17. Cellular identification of a novel uncultured marine stramenopile (MAST-12 Clade) small-subunit rRNA gene sequence from a norwegian estuary by use of fluorescence in situ hybridization-scanning electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Kolodziej, Karolina; Stoeck, Thorsten

    2007-04-01

    Revealing the cellular identity of organisms behind environmental eukaryote rRNA gene sequences is a major objective in microbial diversity research. We sampled an estuarine oxygen-depleted microbial mat in southwestern Norway and retrieved an 18S rRNA gene signature that branches in the MAST-12 clade, an environmental marine stramenopile clade. Detailed phylogenetic analyses revealed that MAST-12 branches among the heterotrophic stramenopiles as a sister of the free-living Bicosoecida and the parasitic genus Blastocystis. Specific sequence signatures confirmed a relationship to these two groups while excluding direct assignment. We designed a specific oligonucleotide probe for the target sequence and detected the corresponding organism in incubation samples using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Using the combined FISH-scanning electron microscopy approach (T. Stoeck, W. H. Fowle, and S. S. Epstein, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 69:6856-6863, 2003), we determined the morphotype of the target organism among the very diverse possible morphologies of the heterotrophic stramenopiles. The unpigmented cell is spherical and about 5 mum in diameter and possesses a short flagellum and a long flagellum, both emanating anteriorly. The long flagellum bears mastigonemes in a characteristic arrangement, and its length (30 mum) distinguishes the target organism from other recognized heterotrophic stramenopiles. The short flagellum is naked and often directed posteriorly. The organism possesses neither a lorica nor a stalk. The morphological characteristics that we discovered should help isolate a representative of a novel stramenopile group, possibly at a high taxonomic level, in order to study its ultrastructure, physiological capabilities, and ecological role in the environment. PMID:17293516

  18. Simultaneous alignment and folding of 28S rRNA sequences uncovers phylogenetic signal in structure variation.

    PubMed

    Letsch, Harald O; Greve, Carola; Kück, Patrick; Fleck, Günther; Stocsits, Roman R; Misof, Bernhard

    2009-12-01

    Secondary structure models of mitochondrial and nuclear (r)RNA sequences are frequently applied to aid the alignment of these molecules in phylogenetic analyses. Additionally, it is often speculated that structure variation of (r)RNA sequences might profitably be used as phylogenetic markers. The benefit of these approaches depends on the reliability of structure models. We used a recently developed approach to show that reliable inference of large (r)RNA secondary structures as a prerequisite of simultaneous sequence and structure alignment is feasible. The approach iteratively establishes local structure constraints of each sequence and infers fully folded individual structures by constrained MFE optimization. A comparison of structure edit distances of individual constraints and fully folded structures showed pronounced phylogenetic signal in fully folded structures. As model sequences we characterized secondary structures of 28S rRNA sequences of selected insects and examined their phylogenetic signal according to established phylogenetic hypotheses. PMID:19654047

  19. How close is close: 16S rRNA sequence identity may not be sufficient to guarantee species identity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, G. E.; Wisotzkey, J. D.; Jurtshuk, P. Jr

    1992-01-01

    16S rRNA (genes coding for rRNA) sequence comparisons were conducted with the following three psychrophilic strains: Bacillus globisporus W25T (T = type strain) and Bacillus psychrophilus W16AT, and W5. These strains exhibited more than 99.5% sequence identity and within experimental uncertainty could be regarded as identical. Their close taxonomic relationship was further documented by phenotypic similarities. In contrast, previously published DNA-DNA hybridization results have convincingly established that these strains do not belong to the same species if current standards are used. These results emphasize the important point that effective identity of 16S rRNA sequences is not necessarily a sufficient criterion to guarantee species identity. Thus, although 16S rRNA sequences can be used routinely to distinguish and establish relationships between genera and well-resolved species, very recently diverged species may not be recognizable.

  20. Primary and secondary structure of 5.8S rRNA from the silkgland of Bombyx mori.

    PubMed Central

    Fujiwara, H; Kawata, Y; Ishikawa, H

    1982-01-01

    Nucleotide sequence of 5.8S rRNA of the silkworm, Bombyx mori has been determined by gel sequencing methods. The 5.8S rRNA was the longest so far reported, with the 5'-terminal sequence several nucleotides longer than those of the other organisms. Upon constructing the secondary structure in accordance with the "burp gun" model (12), the Bombyx 5.8S rRNA formed a wide-open "muzzle" due to several unpaired bases at the ends. The overall structure also appeared less stable with less G . C pairs and more unpaired bases than that of the HeLa 5.8S rRNA. These structural features may be essential for those 5.8S rRNAs which interact with 28S rRNAs containing the hidden break to form a stable complex. PMID:7088713

  1. Molecular Evolution of Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae Strains, Based on Polymorphisms in the 16S rRNA Genes

    PubMed Central

    Pettersson, Bertil; Bölske, Göran; Thiaucourt, François; Uhlén, Mathias; Johansson, Karl-Erik

    1998-01-01

    Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae belongs to the so-called Mycoplasma mycoides cluster and is the causal agent of contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP). All members of the M. mycoides cluster have two rRNA operons. The sequences of the 16S rRNA genes of both rRNA operons from 20 strains of M. capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae of different geographical origins in Africa and Asia were determined. Nucleotide differences which were present in only one of the two operons (polymorphisms) were detected in 24 positions. The polymorphisms were not randomly distributed in the 16S rRNA genes, and some of them were found in regions of low evolutionary variability. Interestingly, 11 polymorphisms were found in all the M. capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae strains, thus defining a putative ancestor. A sequence length difference between the 16S rRNA genes in a poly(A) region and 12 additional polymorphisms were found in only one or some of the strains. A phylogenetic tree was constructed by comparative analysis of the polymorphisms, and this tree revealed two distinct lines of descent. The nucleotide substitution rate of strains within line II was up to 50% higher than within line I. A tree was also constructed from individual operonal 16S rRNA sequences, and the sequences of the two operons were found to form two distinct clades. The topologies of both clades were strikingly similar, which supports the use of 16S rRNA sequence data from homologous operons for phylogenetic studies. The strain-specific polymorphism patterns of the 16S rRNA genes of M. capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae may be used as epidemiological markers for CCPP. PMID:9573185

  2. rRNA Gene Expression of Abundant and Rare Activated-Sludge Microorganisms and Growth Rate Induced Micropollutant Removal.

    PubMed

    Vuono, David C; Regnery, Julia; Li, Dong; Jones, Zackary L; Holloway, Ryan W; Drewes, Jörg E

    2016-06-21

    The role of abundant and rare taxa in modulating the performance of wastewater-treatment systems is a critical component of making better predictions for enhanced functions such as micropollutant biotransformation. In this study, we compared 16S rRNA genes (rDNA) and rRNA gene expression of taxa in an activated-sludge-treatment plant (sequencing batch membrane bioreactor) at two solids retention times (SRTs): 20 and 5 days. These two SRTs were used to influence the rates of micropollutant biotransformation and nutrient removal. Our results show that rare taxa (<1%) have disproportionally high ratios of rRNA to rDNA, an indication of higher protein synthesis, compared to abundant taxa (≥1%) and suggests that rare taxa likely play an unrecognized role in bioreactor performance. There were also significant differences in community-wide rRNA expression signatures at 20-day SRT: anaerobic-oxic-anoxic periods were the primary driver of rRNA similarity. These results indicate differential expression of rRNA at high SRTs, which may further explain why high SRTs promote higher rates of micropollutant biotransformation. An analysis of micropollutant-associated degradation genes via metagenomics and direct measurements of a suite of micropollutants and nutrients further corroborates the loss of enhanced functions at 5-day SRT operation. This work advances our knowledge of the underlying ecosystem properties and dynamics of abundant and rare organisms associated with enhanced functions in engineered systems. PMID:27196630

  3. Phylogenetic analysis of the Listeria monocytogenes based on sequencing of 16S rRNA and hlyA genes.

    PubMed

    Soni, Dharmendra Kumar; Dubey, Suresh Kumar

    2014-12-01

    The discrimination between Listeria monocytogenes and Listeria species has been detected. The 16S rRNA and hlyA were PCR amplified with set of oligonucleotide primers with flank 1,500 and 456 bp fragments, respectively. Based on the differences in 16S rRNA and hlyA genes, a total 80 isolates from different environmental, food and clinical samples confirmed it to be L. monocytogenes. The 16S rRNA sequence similarity suggested that the isolates were similar to the previously reported ones from different habitats by others. The phylogenetic interrelationships of the genus Listeria were investigated by sequencing of 16S rRNA and hlyA gene. The 16S rRNA sequence indicated that genus Listeria is comprised of following closely related but distinct lines of descent, one is the L. monocytogenes species group (including L. innocua, L. ivanovii, L. seeligeri and L. welshimeri) and other, the species L. grayi, L. rocourtiae and L. fleischmannii. The phylogenetic tree based on hlyA gene sequence clearly differentiates between the L. monocytogenes, L. ivanovii and L. seeligeri. In the present study, we identified 80 isolates of L. monocytogenes originating from different clinical, food and environmental samples based on 16S rRNA and hlyA gene sequence similarity. PMID:25205124

  4. Renibacterium salmoninarum isolates from different sources possess two highly conserved copies of the rRNA operon .

    PubMed

    Grayson, T H; Alexander, S M; Cooper, L F; Gilpin, M L

    2000-07-01

    The nucleotide sequences of the rRNA genes and the 5' flanking region were determined for R. salmoninarum ATCC 33209T from overlapping products generated by PCR amplification from the genomic DNA. Comparison of the sequences with rRNA genes from a variety of bacteria demonstrated the close relatedness between R. salmoninarum and the high G+C group of the actinobacteria, in particular, Arthrobacter species. A regulatory element within the 5' leader of the rRNA operon was identical to an element, CL2, described for mycobacteria. PCR, DNA sequence analysis, and DNA hybridisation were performed to examine variation between isolates from diverse sources which represented the four 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer sequevars previously described for R. salmoninarum. Two 23S-5S rRNA intergenic spacer sequevars of identical length were found. DNA hybridisation using probes complementary to 23S rDNA and 16S rDNA identified two rRNA operons which were identical or nearly identical amongst 40 isolates sourced from a variety of countries. PMID:11016696

  5. Direct relationship between the level of p53 stabilization induced by rRNA synthesis-inhibiting drugs and the cell ribosome biogenesis rate.

    PubMed

    Scala, F; Brighenti, E; Govoni, M; Imbrogno, E; Fornari, F; Treré, D; Montanaro, L; Derenzini, M

    2016-02-25

    Many drugs currently used in chemotherapy work by hindering the process of ribosome biogenesis. In tumors with functional p53, the inhibition of ribosome biogenesis may contribute to the efficacy of this treatment by inducing p53 stabilization. As the level of stabilized p53 is critical for the induction of cytotoxic effects, it seems useful to highlight those cancer cell characteristics that can predict the degree of p53 stabilization following the treatment with inhibitors of ribosome biogenesis. In the present study we exposed a series of p53 wild-type human cancer cell lines to drugs such as actinomycin D (ActD), doxorubicin, 5-fluorouracil and CX-5461, which hinder ribosomal RNA (rRNA) synthesis. We found that the amount of stabilized p53 was directly related to the level of ribosome biogenesis in cells before the drug treatment. This was due to different levels of inactivation of the ribosomal proteins-MDM2 pathway of p53 digestion. Inhibition of rRNA synthesis always caused cell cycle arrest, independent of the ribosome biogenesis rate of the cells, whereas apoptosis occurred only in cells with a high rDNA transcription rate. The level of p53 stabilization induced by drugs acting in different ways from the inhibition of ribosome biogenesis, such as hydroxyurea (HU) and nutlin-3, was independent of the level of ribosome biogenesis in cells and always lower than that occurring after the inhibition of rRNA synthesis. Interestingly, in cells with a low ribosome biogenesis rate, the combined treatment with ActD and HU exerted an additive effect on p53 stabilization. These results indicated that (i) drugs inhibiting ribosome biogenesis may be highly effective in p53 wild-type cancers with a high ribosome biogenesis rate, as they induce apoptotic cell death, and (ii) the combination of drugs capable of stabilizing p53 through different mechanisms may be useful for treating cancers with a low ribosome biogenesis rate. PMID:25961931

  6. Multi-site-specific 16S rRNA Methyltransferase RsmF from Thermus thermophilus

    SciTech Connect

    Demirci, H.; Larsen, L; Hansen, T; Rasmussen, A; Cadambi, A; Gregory, S; Kirpekar, F; Jogl, G

    2010-01-01

    Cells devote a significant effort toward the production of multiple modified nucleotides in rRNAs, which fine tune the ribosome function. Here, we report that two methyltransferases, RsmB and RsmF, are responsible for all four 5-methylcytidine (m{sup 5}C) modifications in 16S rRNA of Thermus thermophilus. Like Escherichia coli RsmB, T. thermophilus RsmB produces m{sup 5}C967. In contrast to E. coli RsmF, which introduces a single m{sup 5}C1407 modification, T. thermophilus RsmF modifies three positions, generating m{sup 5}C1400 and m{sup 5}C1404 in addition to m{sup 5}C1407. These three residues are clustered near the decoding site of the ribosome, but are situated in distinct structural contexts, suggesting a requirement for flexibility in the RsmF active site that is absent from the E. coli enzyme. Two of these residues, C1400 and C1404, are sufficiently buried in the mature ribosome structure so as to require extensive unfolding of the rRNA to be accessible to RsmF. In vitro, T. thermophilus RsmF methylates C1400, C1404, and C1407 in a 30S subunit substrate, but only C1400 and C1404 when naked 16S rRNA is the substrate. The multispecificity of T. thermophilus RsmF is potentially explained by three crystal structures of the enzyme in a complex with cofactor S-adenosyl-methionine at up to 1.3 {angstrom} resolution. In addition to confirming the overall structural similarity to E. coli RsmF, these structures also reveal that key segments in the active site are likely to be dynamic in solution, thereby expanding substrate recognition by T. thermophilus RsmF.

  7. Nutrient Recovery of Starch Processing Waste to Cordyceps militaris: Solid State Cultivation and Submerged Liquid Cultivation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joonyeob; Cho, Kyungjin; Shin, Seung Gu; Bae, Hyokwan; Koo, Taewoan; Han, Gyuseong; Hwang, Seokhwan

    2016-09-01

    This study demonstrated the potential for managing starch processing waste (SPW) by bioconversion to Cordyceps militaris mycelia using solid state cultivation (SSC) and submerged liquid cultivation (SLC). The growth characteristics of C. militaris mycelium were accessed and compared for SSC and SLC systems on SPW under various conditions of initial SPW concentration, pH, and operating temperature. To quantify the mycelial biomass in SLC, original primer sets targeting the 18S rRNA gene of C. militaris were developed. In SSC, a maximum mycelial growth rate (543.1 mm(2)/day) was predicted to occur at 25.6 g SPW/L, pH 5.5, and 23.8 °C. In SLC, a maximum mycelial growth rate (1918.6 mg/L/day) was predicted to occur at 35.5 g SPW/L, pH 5.5, and 22.0 °C. Temperature was suggested as the most significant factor in both systems. The higher optimum substrate concentration observed for SLC than for SSC was likely due to difference in mycelial morphology and mixing effect. PMID:27130684

  8. Greengenes, a Chimera-checked 16S rRNA gene database and workbenchcompatible with ARB

    SciTech Connect

    DeSantis, Todd Z.; Hugenholtz, Philip; Larsen, Neils; Rojas,Mark; Brodie, Eoin L.; Keller, Keith; Huber, Thomas; Dalevi, Daniel; Hu,Ping; Andersen, Gary L.

    2006-04-10

    A 16S rRNA gene database (http://greengenes.lbl.gov) addresses limitations of public repositories by providing chimera-screening, standard alignments and taxonomic classification using multiple published taxonomies. It was revealed that in congruent taxonomic nomenclature exists among curators even at the phylum-level. Putative chimeras were identified in 3 percent of environmental sequences and 0.2 percent of records derived from isolates. Environmental sequences were classified into 100 phylum-level lineages within the Archaea and Bacteria.

  9. Phylogenetic diversity in the genus Bacillus as seen by 16S rRNA sequencing studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rossler, D.; Ludwig, W.; Schleifer, K. H.; Lin, C.; McGill, T. J.; Wisotzkey, J. D.; Jurtshuk, P. Jr; Fox, G. E.

    1991-01-01

    Comparative sequence analysis of 16S ribosomal (r)RNAs or DNAs of Bacillus alvei, B. laterosporus, B. macerans, B. macquariensis, B. polymyxa and B. stearothermophilus revealed the phylogenetic diversity of the genus Bacillus. Based on the presently available data set of 16S rRNA sequences from bacilli and relatives at least four major "Bacillus clusters" can be defined: a "Bacillus subtilis cluster" including B. stearothermophilus, a "B. brevis cluster" including B. laterosporus, a "B. alvei cluster" including B. macerans, B. maquariensis and B. polymyxa and a "B. cycloheptanicus branch".

  10. Bacterial Community Diversity of Oil-Contaminated Soils Assessed by High Throughput Sequencing of 16S rRNA Genes.

    PubMed

    Peng, Mu; Zi, Xiaoxue; Wang, Qiuyu

    2015-10-01

    Soil bacteria play a major role in ecological and biodegradable function processes in oil-contaminated soils. Here, we assessed the bacterial diversity and changes therein in oil-contaminated soils exposed to different periods of oil pollution using 454 pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes. No less than 24,953 valid reads and 6246 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were obtained from all five studied samples. OTU richness was relatively higher in contaminated soils than clean samples. Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Chloroflexi, Planctomycetes and Proteobacteria were the dominant phyla among all the soil samples. The heatmap plot depicted the relative percentage of each bacterial family within each sample and clustered five samples into two groups. For the samples, bacteria in the soils varied at different periods of oil exposure. The oil pollution exerted strong selective pressure to propagate many potentially petroleum degrading bacteria. Redundancy analysis (RDA) indicated that organic matter was the highest determinant factor for explaining the variations in community compositions. This suggests that compared to clean soils, oil-polluted soils support more diverse bacterial communities and soil bacterial community shifts were mainly controlled by organic matter and exposure time. These results provide some useful information for bioremediation of petroleum contaminated soil in the future. PMID:26404329

  11. Bacterial Community Diversity of Oil-Contaminated Soils Assessed by High Throughput Sequencing of 16S rRNA Genes

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Mu; Zi, Xiaoxue; Wang, Qiuyu

    2015-01-01

    Soil bacteria play a major role in ecological and biodegradable function processes in oil-contaminated soils. Here, we assessed the bacterial diversity and changes therein in oil-contaminated soils exposed to different periods of oil pollution using 454 pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes. No less than 24,953 valid reads and 6246 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were obtained from all five studied samples. OTU richness was relatively higher in contaminated soils than clean samples. Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Chloroflexi, Planctomycetes and Proteobacteria were the dominant phyla among all the soil samples. The heatmap plot depicted the relative percentage of each bacterial family within each sample and clustered five samples into two groups. For the samples, bacteria in the soils varied at different periods of oil exposure. The oil pollution exerted strong selective pressure to propagate many potentially petroleum degrading bacteria. Redundancy analysis (RDA) indicated that organic matter was the highest determinant factor for explaining the variations in community compositions. This suggests that compared to clean soils, oil-polluted soils support more diverse bacterial communities and soil bacterial community shifts were mainly controlled by organic matter and exposure time. These results provide some useful information for bioremediation of petroleum contaminated soil in the future. PMID:26404329

  12. Mutation analysis of 16S rRNA in patients with Rett syndrome.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, J; Pineda, M; Monrós, E

    2000-07-01

    Rett syndrome (RTT) is a progressive neurodevelopmental disorder that affects one in 10,000-15,000 females. RTT is mainly sporadic; familial cases have an estimated frequency of less than 1%. Before the recent identification of de novo dominant mutations in the X-linked MECP2 gene, many other hypotheses had been proposed to explain the particular pattern of inheritance and the phenotypic expression of the disease. The involvement of mitochondrial DNA had been investigated because of the structural and functional mitochondrial abnormalities evident in the patients. In 1997 the finding of mutations at 16S rRNA in several affected RTT females and their mothers was reported, suggesting that mitochondrial DNA might play a key role in the pathogenesis of RTT. To investigate the relevance of such mutations, we used the same methodologic approach to analyze RTT mitochondrial DNA in our series. No 16S rRNA alterations were evident in 27 Spanish patients with classic RTT. PMID:10963979

  13. Greengenes: 16S rRNA Database and Workbench Compatible with ARB

    DOE Data Explorer

    DeSantis, T. Z.; Hugenholtz, P.; Larsen, N.; Rojas, M.; Brodie, E. L.; Keller, K.; Huber, T.; Dalevi, D. Hu, P. Andersen, G. L.

    Greengenes was developed, as the abstract of an AEM reprint states, to "addresse limitations of public repositories by providing chimera screening, standard alignment, and taxonomic classification using multiple published taxonomies. It was found that there is incongruent taxonomic nomenclature among curators even at the phylum level. Putative chimeras were identified in 3% of environmental sequences and in 0.2% of records derived from isolates. Environmental sequences were classified into 100 phylum-level lineages in the Archaea and Bacteria....Greengenes is also a functional workbench to assist in analysis of user-generated 16S rRNA gene sequences. Batches of sequencing reads can be uploaded for quality-based trimming and creation of multiple-sequence alignments (9). Three types of non-MSA similarity searches are also available, seed extension by BLAST (1), similarity based on shared 7-mers by a tool called Simrank, and a direct degenerative pattern match for probe/primer evaluation. Results are displayed using user-preferred taxonomic nomenclature and can be saved between sessions. [Taken from DeSantis, T. Z., P. Hugenholtz, N. Larsen, M. Rojas, E. L. Brodie, K. Keller, T. Huber, D. Dalevi, P. Hu, and G. L. Andersen. 2006. Greengenes, a Chimera-Checked 16S rRNA Gene Database and Workbench Compatible with ARB. Appl Environ Microbiol 72:5069-72, pages 1 and 3] (Specialized Interface)

  14. The Unique 16S rRNA Genes of Piezophiles Reflect both Phylogeny and Adaptation▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Lauro, Federico M.; Chastain, Roger A.; Blankenship, Lesley E.; Yayanos, A. Aristides; Bartlett, Douglas H.

    2007-01-01

    In the ocean's most extreme depths, pressures of 70 to 110 megapascals prevent the growth of all but the most hyperpiezophilic (pressure-loving) organisms. The physiological adaptations required for growth under these conditions are considered to be substantial. Efforts to determine specific adaptations permitting growth at extreme pressures have thus far focused on relatively few γ-proteobacteria, in part due to the technical difficulties of obtaining piezophilic bacteria in pure culture. Here, we present the molecular phylogenies of several new piezophiles of widely differing geographic origins. Included are results from an analysis of the first deep-trench bacterial isolates recovered from the southern hemisphere (9.9-km depth) and of the first gram-positive piezophilic strains. These new data allowed both phylogenetic and structural 16S rRNA comparisons among deep-ocean trench piezophiles and closely related strains not adapted to high pressure. Our results suggest that (i) the Circumpolar Deep Water acts as repository for hyperpiezophiles and drives their dissemination to deep trenches in the Pacific Ocean and (ii) the occurrence of elongated helices in the 16S rRNA genes increases with the extent of adaptation to growth at elevated pressure. These helix changes are believed to improve ribosome function under deep-sea conditions. PMID:17158629

  15. Construction of the mycoplasma evolutionary tree from 5S rRNA sequence data.

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, M J; Simmons, J; Walker, R T; Weisburg, W G; Woese, C R; Tanner, R S; Robinson, I M; Stahl, D A; Olsen, G; Leach, R H

    1985-01-01

    The 5S rRNA sequences of eubacteria and mycoplasmas have been analyzed and a phylogenetic tree constructed. We determined the sequences of 5S rRNA from Clostridium innocuum, Acholeplasma laidlawii, Acholeplasma modicum, Anaeroplasma bactoclasticum, Anaeroplasma abactoclasticum, Ureaplasma urealyticum, Mycoplasma mycoides mycoides, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, and Mycoplasma gallisepticum. Analysis of these and published sequences shows that mycoplasmas form a coherent phylogenetic group that, with C. innocuum, arose as a branch of the low G+C Gram-positive tree, near the lactobacilli and streptococci. The initial event in mycoplasma phylogeny was formation of the Acholeplasma branch; hence, loss of cell wall probably occurred at the time of genome reduction to approximately to 1000 MDa. A subsequent branch produced the Spiroplasma. This branch appears to have been the origin of sterol-requiring mycoplasmas. During development of the Spiroplasma branch there were several independent genome reductions, each to approximately 500 MDa, resulting in Mycoplasma and Ureaplasma species. Mycoplasmas, particularly species with the smallest genomes, have high mutation rates, suggesting that they are in a state of rapid evolution. PMID:2579388

  16. PhylOPDb: a 16S rRNA oligonucleotide probe database for prokaryotic identification

    PubMed Central

    Jaziri, Faouzi; Parisot, Nicolas; Abid, Anis; Denonfoux, Jérémie; Ribière, Céline; Gasc, Cyrielle; Boucher, Delphine; Brugère, Jean-François; Mahul, Antoine; Hill, David R.C.; Peyretaillade, Eric; Peyret, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, high-throughput molecular tools have led to an exponential growth of available 16S rRNA gene sequences. Incorporating such data, molecular tools based on target-probe hybridization were developed to monitor microbial communities within complex environments. Unfortunately, only a few 16S rRNA gene-targeted probe collections were described. Here, we present PhylOPDb, an online resource for a comprehensive phylogenetic oligonucleotide probe database. PhylOPDb provides a convivial and easy-to-use web interface to browse both regular and explorative 16S rRNA-targeted probes. Such probes set or subset could be used to globally monitor known and unknown prokaryotic communities through various techniques including DNA microarrays, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), targeted gene capture or in silico rapid sequence identification. PhylOPDb contains 74 003 25-mer probes targeting 2178 genera including Bacteria and Archaea. Database URL: http://g2im.u-clermont1.fr/phylopdb/ PMID:24771669

  17. Functional Specialization of Domains Tandemly Duplicated Witin 16S rRNA Methyltransferase RsmC

    SciTech Connect

    Sunita,S.; Purta, E.; Durawa, M.; Tkaczuk, K.; Swaathi, J.; Bujnicki, J.; Sivaraman, J.

    2007-01-01

    RNA methyltransferases (MTases) are important players in the biogenesis and regulation of the ribosome, the cellular machine for protein synthesis. RsmC is a MTase that catalyzes the transfer of a methyl group from S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM) to G1207 of 16S rRNA. Mutations of G1207 have dominant lethal phenotypes in Escherichia coli, underscoring the significance of this modified nucleotide for ribosome function. Here we report the crystal structure of E. coli RsmC refined to 2.1 Angstroms resolution, which reveals two homologous domains tandemly duplicated within a single polypeptide. We characterized the function of the individual domains and identified key residues involved in binding of rRNA and SAM, and in catalysis. We also discovered that one of the domains is important for the folding of the other. Domain duplication and subfunctionalization by complementary degeneration of redundant functions (in particular substrate binding versus catalysis) has been reported for many enzymes, including those involved in RNA metabolism. Thus, RsmC can be regarded as a model system for functional streamlining of domains accompanied by the development of dependencies concerning folding and stability.

  18. Case of localized recombination in 23S rRNA genes from divergent bradyrhizobium lineages associated with neotropical legumes.

    PubMed

    Parker, M A

    2001-05-01

    Enzyme electrophoresis and rRNA sequencing were used to analyze relationships of Bradyrhizobium sp. nodule bacteria from four papilionoid legumes (Clitoria javitensis, Erythrina costaricensis, Rhynchosia pyramidalis, and Desmodium axillare) growing on Barro Colorado Island (BCI), Panama. Bacteria with identical multilocus allele profiles were commonly found in association with two or more legume genera. Among the 16 multilocus genotypes (electrophoretic types [ETs]) detected, six ETs formed a closely related cluster that included isolates from all four legume taxa. Bacteria from two other BCI legumes (Platypodium and Machaerium) sampled in a previous study were also identical to certain ETs in this group. Isolates from different legume genera that had the same ET had identical nucleotide sequences for both a 5' portion of the 23S rRNA and the nearly full-length 16S rRNA genes. These results suggest that Bradyrhizobium genotypes with low host specificity may be prevalent in this tropical forest. Parsimony analysis of 16S rRNA sequence variation indicated that most isolates were related to Bradyrhizobium japonicum USDA 110, although one ET sampled from C. javitensis had a 16S rRNA gene highly similar to that of Bradyrhizobium elkanii USDA 76. However, this isolate displayed a mosaic structure within the 5' 23S rRNA region: one 84-bp segment was identical to that of BCI isolate Pe1-3 (a close relative of B. japonicum USDA 110, based on 16S rRNA data), while an adjacent 288-bp segment matched that of B. elkanii USDA 76. This mosaic structure is one of the first observations suggesting recombination in nature between Bradyrhizobium isolates related to B. japonicum versus B. elkanii. PMID:11319084

  19. The phylogeny of intestinal porcine spirochetes (Serpulina species) based on sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA gene.

    PubMed Central

    Pettersson, B; Fellström, C; Andersson, A; Uhlén, M; Gunnarsson, A; Johansson, K E

    1996-01-01

    Four type or reference strains and twenty-two field strains of intestinal spirochetes isolated from Swedish pig herds were subjected to phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA sequences. Almost complete (>95%) 16S rRNA sequences were obtained by solid-phase DNA sequencing of in vitro-amplified rRNA genes. The genotypic patterns were compared with a previously proposed biochemical classification scheme, comprising beta-hemolysis, indole production, hippurate hydrolysis, and alpha-galactosidase, alpha-glucosidase, and beta-glucosidase activities. Comparison of the small-subunit rRNA sequences showed that the strains of the genus Serpulina were closely related. Phylogenetic trees were constructed, and three clusters were observed. This was also confirmed by signature nucleotide analysis of the serpulinas. The indole-producing strains, including the strains of S. hyodysenteriae and some weakly beta-hemolytic Serpulina strains, formed one cluster. A second cluster comprised weakly beta-hemolytic strains that showed beta-galactosidase activity but lacked indole production and hippurate-hydrolyzing capacity. The second cluster contained two subclusters with similar phenotypic profiles. A third cluster involved strains that possessed a hippurate-hydrolyzing capacity which was distinct from that of the former two clusters, because of 17 unique nucleotide positions of the 16S rRNA gene. Interestingly, the strains of this third cluster were found likely to have a 16S rRNA structure in the V2 region of the molecule different from that of the serpulinas belonging to the other clusters. As a consequence of these findings, we propose that the intestinal spirochetes of this phenotype (i.e., P43/6/78-like strains) should be regarded as a separate Serpulina species. Furthermore, this cluster was found to be by far the most homogeneous one. In conclusion, the biochemical classification of porcine intestinal spirochetes was comparable to that by phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA

  20. Technologically important extremophile 16S rRNA sequence Shannon entropy and fractal property comparison with long term dormant microbes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holden, Todd; Gadura, N.; Dehipawala, S.; Cheung, E.; Tuffour, M.; Schneider, P.; Tremberger, G., Jr.; Lieberman, D.; Cheung, T.

    2011-10-01

    Technologically important extremophiles including oil eating microbes, uranium and rocket fuel perchlorate reduction microbes, electron producing microbes and electrode electrons feeding microbes were compared in terms of their 16S rRNA sequences, a standard targeted sequence in comparative phylogeny studies. Microbes that were reported to have survived a prolonged dormant duration were also studied. Examples included the recently discovered microbe that survives after 34,000 years in a salty environment while feeding off organic compounds from other trapped dead microbes. Shannon entropy of the 16S rRNA nucleotide composition and fractal dimension of the nucleotide sequence in terms of its atomic number fluctuation analyses suggest a selected range for these extremophiles as compared to other microbes; consistent with the experience of relatively mild evolutionary pressure. However, most of the microbes that have been reported to survive in prolonged dormant duration carry sequences with fractal dimension between 1.995 and 2.005 (N = 10 out of 13). Similar results are observed for halophiles, red-shifted chlorophyll and radiation resistant microbes. The results suggest that prolonged dormant duration, in analogous to high salty or radiation environment, would select high fractal 16S rRNA sequences. Path analysis in structural equation modeling supports a causal relation between entropy and fractal dimension for the studied 16S rRNA sequences (N = 7). Candidate choices for high fractal 16S rRNA microbes could offer protection for prolonged spaceflights. BioBrick gene network manipulation could include extremophile 16S rRNA sequences in synthetic biology and shed more light on exobiology and future colonization in shielded spaceflights. Whether the high fractal 16S rRNA sequences contain an asteroidlike extra-terrestrial source could be speculative but interesting.

  1. Phylogenetic position of the genus Cyrtostrombidium, with a description of Cyrtostrombidium paralongisomum nov. spec. and a redescription of Cyrtostrombidium longisomum Lynn & Gilron, 1993 (Protozoa, Ciliophora) based on live observation, protargol impregnation, and 18S rDNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Sheng-Fang; Chen, Wei-Ting; Chiang, Kuo-Ping

    2015-01-01

    We redescribe Cyrtostrombidium longisomum Lynn & Gilron, 1993, the type species of the genus Cyrtostrombidium, and describe the new species Cyrtostrombidium paralongisomum n. sp. using live observation, protargol staining and molecular data. The morphological characters of these two species are clearly distinct, i.e., dikinetid numbers in the girdle and ventral kineties; however, it is difficult to separate them by 18S rDNA sequences because they differ by only 8 bp, indicating that 18S rDNA sequences are insufficient for separating different species in the genus Cyrtostrombidium. We not only observed the position of the oral primordium in the genus Cyrtostrombidium but also observed a possibly homoplasious trait, a dorsal split in the girdle kinety, in (1) Apostrombidium, (2) Varistrombidium, and (3) Cyrtostrombidium/Williophrya. This partially supports the hypothesis of somatic ciliary pattern evolution recently put forth by Agatha and Strüder-Kypke. PMID:25227509

  2. Analysis of the Precursor rRNA Fractions of Rapidly Growing Mycobacteria: Quantification by Methods That Include the Use of a Promoter (rrnA P1) as a Novel Standard†

    PubMed Central

    Menéndez, María del Carmen; Rebollo, María José; Núñez, María del Carmen; Cox, Robert A.; García, María Jesús

    2005-01-01

    Mycobacterial species are able to control rRNA production through variations in the number and strength of promoters controlling their rrn operons. Mycobacterium chelonae and M. fortuitum are members of the rapidly growing mycobacterial group. They carry a total of five promoters each, encoded, respectively, by one and two rrn operons per genome. Quantification of precursor rrn transcriptional products (pre-rrn) has allowed detection of different promoter usage during cell growth. Bacteria growing in several culture media with different nutrient contents were compared. Balanced to stationary phases were analyzed. Most promoters were found to be used at different levels depending on the stage of bacterial growth and the nutrient content of the culture medium. Some biological implications are discussed. Sequences of the several promoters showed motifs that could be correlated to their particular level of usage. A product corresponding to the first rrnA promoter in both species, namely, rrnA P1, was found to contribute at a low and near-constant level to pre-rRNA synthesis, regardless of the culture medium used and the stage of growth analyzed. This product was used as a standard to quantitate rRNA gene expression by real-time PCR when M. fortuitum infected macrophages. It was shown that this bacterium actively synthesizes rRNA during the course of infection and that one of its rrn operons is preferentially used under such conditions. PMID:15629925

  3. Mineral Type and Solution Chemistry Affect the Structure and Composition of Actively Growing Bacterial Communities as Revealed by Bromodeoxyuridine Immunocapture and 16S rRNA Pyrosequencing.

    PubMed

    Kelly, L C; Colin, Y; Turpault, M-P; Uroz, S

    2016-08-01

    Understanding how minerals affect bacterial communities and their in situ activities in relation to environmental conditions are central issues in soil microbial ecology, as minerals represent essential reservoirs of inorganic nutrients for the biosphere. To determine the impact of mineral type and solution chemistry on soil bacterial communities, we compared the diversity, composition, and functional abilities of a soil bacterial community incubated in presence/absence of different mineral types (apatite, biotite, obsidian). Microcosms were prepared containing different liquid culture media devoid of particular essential nutrients, the nutrients provided only in the introduced minerals and therefore only available to the microbial community through mineral dissolution by biotic and/or abiotic processes. By combining functional screening of bacterial isolates and community analysis by bromodeoxyuridine DNA immunocapture and 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing, we demonstrated that bacterial communities were mainly impacted by the solution chemistry at the taxonomic level and by the mineral type at the functional level. Metabolically active bacterial communities varied with solution chemistry and mineral type. Burkholderia were significantly enriched in the obsidian treatment compared to the biotite treatment and were the most effective isolates at solubilizing phosphorous or mobilizing iron, in all the treatments. A detailed analysis revealed that the 16S rRNA gene sequences of the OTUs or isolated strains assigned as Burkholderia in our study showed high homology with effective mineral-weathering bacteria previously recovered from the same experimental site. PMID:27138048

  4. Source bioaerosol concentration and rRNA gene-based identification of microorganisms aerosolized at a flood irrigation wastewater reuse site.

    PubMed

    Paez-Rubio, Tania; Viau, Emily; Romero-Hernandez, Socorro; Peccia, Jordan

    2005-02-01

    Reuse of partially treated domestic wastewater for agricultural irrigation is a growing practice in arid regions throughout the world. A field sampling campaign to determine bioaerosol concentration, culturability, and identity at various wind speeds was conducted at a flooded wastewater irrigation site in Mexicali, Baja California, Mexico. Direct fluorescent microscopy measurements for total microorganisms, culture-based assays for heterotrophs and gram-negative enteric bacteria, and small-subunit rRNA gene-based cloning were used for microbial characterizations of aerosols and effluent wastewater samples. Bioaerosol results were divided into two wind speed regimens: (i) below 1.9 m/s, average speed 0.5 m/s, and (ii) above 1.9 m/s, average speed 4.5 m/s. Average air-borne concentration of total microorganisms, culturable heterotrophs, and gram-negative enteric bacteria were, respectively, 1.1, 4.2, and 6.2 orders of magnitude greater during the high-wind-speed regimen. Small-subunit rRNA gene clone libraries processed from samples from air and the irrigation effluent wastewater during a high-wind sampling event indicate that the majority of air clone sequences were more than 98% similar to clone sequences retrieved from the effluent wastewater sample. Overall results indicate that wind is a potential aerosolization mechanism of viable wastewater microorganisms at flood irrigation sites. PMID:15691934

  5. NMD3 regulates both mRNA and rRNA nuclear export in African trypanosomes via an XPOI-linked pathway.

    PubMed

    Bühlmann, Melanie; Walrad, Pegine; Rico, Eva; Ivens, Alasdair; Capewell, Paul; Naguleswaran, Arunasalam; Roditi, Isabel; Matthews, Keith R

    2015-05-19

    Trypanosomes mostly regulate gene expression through post-transcriptional mechanisms, particularly mRNA stability. However, much mRNA degradation is cytoplasmic such that mRNA nuclear export must represent an important level of regulation. Ribosomal RNAs must also be exported from the nucleus and the trypanosome orthologue of NMD3 has been confirmed to be involved in rRNA processing and export, matching its function in other organisms. Surprisingly, we found that TbNMD3 depletion also generates mRNA accumulation of procyclin-associated genes (PAGs), these being co-transcribed by RNA polymerase I with the procyclin surface antigen genes expressed on trypanosome insect forms. By whole transcriptome RNA-seq analysis of TbNMD3-depleted cells we confirm the regulation of the PAG transcripts by TbNMD3 and using reporter constructs reveal that PAG1 regulation is mediated by its 5'UTR. Dissection of the mechanism of regulation demonstrates that it is not dependent upon translational inhibition mediated by TbNMD3 depletion nor enhanced transcription. However, depletion of the nuclear export factors XPO1 or MEX67 recapitulates the effects of TbNMD3 depletion on PAG mRNAs and mRNAs accumulated in the nucleus of TbNMD3-depleted cells. These results invoke a novel RNA regulatory mechanism involving the NMD3-dependent nuclear export of mRNA cargos, suggesting a shared platform for mRNA and rRNA export. PMID:25873624

  6. Source Bioaerosol Concentration and rRNA Gene-Based Identification of Microorganisms Aerosolized at a Flood Irrigation Wastewater Reuse Site

    PubMed Central

    Paez-Rubio, Tania; Viau, Emily; Romero-Hernandez, Socorro; Peccia, Jordan

    2005-01-01

    Reuse of partially treated domestic wastewater for agricultural irrigation is a growing practice in arid regions throughout the world. A field sampling campaign to determine bioaerosol concentration, culturability, and identity at various wind speeds was conducted at a flooded wastewater irrigation site in Mexicali, Baja California, Mexico. Direct fluorescent microscopy measurements for total microorganisms, culture-based assays for heterotrophs and gram-negative enteric bacteria, and small-subunit rRNA gene-based cloning were used for microbial characterizations of aerosols and effluent wastewater samples. Bioaerosol results were divided into two wind speed regimens: (i) below 1.9 m/s, average speed 0.5 m/s, and (ii) above 1.9 m/s, average speed 4.5 m/s. Average air-borne concentration of total microorganisms, culturable heterotrophs, and gram-negative enteric bacteria were, respectively, 1.1, 4.2, and 6.2 orders of magnitude greater during the high-wind-speed regimen. Small-subunit rRNA gene clone libraries processed from samples from air and the irrigation effluent wastewater during a high-wind sampling event indicate that the majority of air clone sequences were more than 98% similar to clone sequences retrieved from the effluent wastewater sample. Overall results indicate that wind is a potential aerosolization mechanism of viable wastewater microorganisms at flood irrigation sites. PMID:15691934

  7. Discordant 16S and 23S rRNA gene phylogenies for the genus Helicobacter: implications for phylogenetic inference and systematics.

    PubMed

    Dewhirst, Floyd E; Shen, Zeli; Scimeca, Michael S; Stokes, Lauren N; Boumenna, Tahani; Chen, Tsute; Paster, Bruce J; Fox, James G

    2005-09-01

    Analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences has become the primary method for determining prokaryotic phylogeny. Phylogeny is currently the basis for prokaryotic systematics. Therefore, the validity of 16S rRNA gene-based phylogenetic analyses is of fundamental importance for prokaryotic systematics. Discrepancies between 16S rRNA gene analyses and DNA-DNA hybridization and phenotypic analyses have been noted in the genus Helicobacter. To clarify these discrepancies, we sequenced the 23S rRNA genes for 55 helicobacter strains representing 41 taxa (>2,700 bases per sequence). Phylogenetic-tree construction using neighbor-joining, parsimony, and maximum likelihood methods for 23S rRNA gene sequence data yielded stable trees which were consistent with other phenotypic and genotypic methods. The 16S rRNA gene sequence-derived trees were discordant with the 23S rRNA gene trees and other data. Discrepant 16S rRNA gene sequence data for the helicobacters are consistent with the horizontal transfer of 16S rRNA gene fragments and the creation of mosaic molecules with loss of phylogenetic information. These results suggest that taxonomic decisions must be supported by other phylogenetically informative macromolecules, such as the 23S rRNA gene, when 16S rRNA gene-derived phylogeny is discordant with other credible phenotypic and genotypic methods. This study found Wolinella succinogenes to branch with the unsheathed-flagellum cluster of helicobacters by 23S rRNA gene analyses and whole-genome comparisons. This study also found intervening sequences (IVSs) in the 23S rRNA genes of strains of 12 Helicobacter species. IVSs were found in helices 10, 25, and 45, as well as between helices 31' and 27'. Simultaneous insertion of IVSs at three sites was found in H. mesocricetorum. PMID:16109952

  8. [Strategy of selecting 16S rRNA hypervariable regions for metagenome-phylogenetic marker genes based analysis].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jun-yi; Zhu, Bing-chuan; Xu, Chao; Ding, Xiao; Li, Jun-feng; Zhang, Xue-gong; Lu, Zu-hong

    2015-11-01

    The advent of next generation sequencing technology enables parallel analysis of the whole microbial community from multiple samples. Particularly, sequencing 16S rRNA hypervariable tags has become the most efficient and cost-effective method for assessing microbial diversity. Due to its short read length of the 2nd-generation sequencing methods that cannot cover the full 16S rRNA genomic region, specific hypervariable regions or V-regions must be selected to act as the proxy. Over the past decade, selection of V-regions has not been consistent in assessing microbial diversity. Here we evaluated the current strategies of selecting 16S rRNA hypervariable regions for surveying microbial diversity. The environmental condition was considered as one of the important factors for selection of 16S rRNA hypervariable regions. We suggested that a pilot study to test different V-regions is required in bacterial diversity studies based on 16S rRNA genes. PMID:26915214

  9. RRNA and dnaK relationships of Bradyrhizobium sp. nodule bacteria from four papilionoid legume trees in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Parker, Matthew A

    2004-05-01

    Enzyme electrophoresis and sequencing of rRNA and dnaK genes revealed high genetic diversity among root nodule bacteria from the Costa Rican trees Andira inermis, Dalbergia retusa, Platymiscium pinnatum (Papilionoideae tribe Dalbergieae) and Lonchocarpus atropurpureus (Papilionoideae tribe Millettieae). A total of 21 distinct multilocus genotypes [ETs (electrophoretic types)] was found among the 36 isolates analyzed, and no ETs were shared in common by isolates from different legume hosts. However, three of the ETs from D. retusa were identical to Bradyrhizobium sp. isolates detected in prior studies of several other legume genera in both Costa Rica and Panama. Nearly full-length 16S rRNA sequences and partial 23S rRNA sequences confirmed that two isolates from D. retusa were highly similar or identical to Bradyrhizobium strains isolated from the legumes Erythrina and Clitoria (Papilionoideae tribe Phaseoleae) in Panama. rRNA sequences for five isolates from L. atropurpureus, P. pinnatum and A. inermis were not closely related to any currently known strains from Central America or elsewhere, but had affinities to the reference strains Bradyrhizobium japonicum USDA 110 (three isolates) or to B. elkanii USDA 76 (two isolates). A phylogenetic tree for 21 Bradyrhizobium strains based on 603 bp of the dnaK gene showed several significant conflicts with the rRNA tree, suggesting that genealogical relationships may have been altered by lateral gene transfer events. PMID:15214639

  10. RiboFR-Seq: a novel approach to linking 16S rRNA amplicon profiles to metagenomes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanming; Ji, Peifeng; Wang, Jinfeng; Zhao, Fangqing

    2016-06-01

    16S rRNA amplicon analysis and shotgun metagenome sequencing are two main culture-independent strategies to explore the genetic landscape of various microbial communities. Recently, numerous studies have employed these two approaches together, but downstream data analyses were performed separately, which always generated incongruent or conflict signals on both taxonomic and functional classifications. Here we propose a novel approach, RiboFR-Seq (Ribosomal RNA gene flanking region sequencing), for capturing both ribosomal RNA variable regions and their flanking protein-coding genes simultaneously. Through extensive testing on clonal bacterial strain, salivary microbiome and bacterial epibionts of marine kelp, we demonstrated that RiboFR-Seq could detect the vast majority of bacteria not only in well-studied microbiomes but also in novel communities with limited reference genomes. Combined with classical amplicon sequencing and shotgun metagenome sequencing, RiboFR-Seq can link the annotations of 16S rRNA and metagenomic contigs to make a consensus classification. By recognizing almost all 16S rRNA copies, the RiboFR-seq approach can effectively reduce the taxonomic abundance bias resulted from 16S rRNA copy number variation. We believe that RiboFR-Seq, which provides an integrated view of 16S rRNA profiles and metagenomes, will help us better understand diverse microbial communities. PMID:26984526

  11. RiboFR-Seq: a novel approach to linking 16S rRNA amplicon profiles to metagenomes

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yanming; Ji, Peifeng; Wang, Jinfeng; Zhao, Fangqing

    2016-01-01

    16S rRNA amplicon analysis and shotgun metagenome sequencing are two main culture-independent strategies to explore the genetic landscape of various microbial communities. Recently, numerous studies have employed these two approaches together, but downstream data analyses were performed separately, which always generated incongruent or conflict signals on both taxonomic and functional classifications. Here we propose a novel approach, RiboFR-Seq (Ribosomal RNA gene flanking region sequencing), for capturing both ribosomal RNA variable regions and their flanking protein-coding genes simultaneously. Through extensive testing on clonal bacterial strain, salivary microbiome and bacterial epibionts of marine kelp, we demonstrated that RiboFR-Seq could detect the vast majority of bacteria not only in well-studied microbiomes but also in novel communities with limited reference genomes. Combined with classical amplicon sequencing and shotgun metagenome sequencing, RiboFR-Seq can link the annotations of 16S rRNA and metagenomic contigs to make a consensus classification. By recognizing almost all 16S rRNA copies, the RiboFR-seq approach can effectively reduce the taxonomic abundance bias resulted from 16S rRNA copy number variation. We believe that RiboFR-Seq, which provides an integrated view of 16S rRNA profiles and metagenomes, will help us better understand diverse microbial communities. PMID:26984526

  12. Strengths and Limitations of 16S rRNA Gene Amplicon Sequencing in Revealing Temporal Microbial Community Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Poretsky, Rachel; Rodriguez-R, Luis M.; Luo, Chengwei; Tsementzi, Despina; Konstantinidis, Konstantinos T.

    2014-01-01

    This study explored the short-term planktonic microbial community structure and resilience in Lake Lanier (GA, USA) while simultaneously evaluating the technical aspects of identifying taxa via 16S rRNA gene amplicon and metagenomic sequence data. 16S rRNA gene amplicons generated from four temporally discrete samples were sequenced with 454 GS-FLX-Ti yielding ∼40,000 rRNA gene sequences from each sample and representing ∼300 observed OTUs. Replicates obtained from the same biological sample clustered together but several biases were observed, linked to either the PCR or sequencing-preparation steps. In comparisons with companion whole-community shotgun metagenome datasets, the estimated number of OTUs at each timepoint was concordant, but 1.5 times and ∼10 times as many phyla and genera, respectively, were identified in the metagenomes. Our analyses showed that the 16S rRNA gene captures broad shifts in community diversity over time, but with limited resolution and lower sensitivity compared to metagenomic data. We also identified OTUs that showed marked shifts in abundance over four close timepoints separated by perturbations and tracked these taxa in the metagenome vs. 16S rRNA amplicon data. A strong summer storm had less of an effect on community composition than did seasonal mixing, which revealed a distinct succession of organisms. This study provides insights into freshwater microbial communities and advances the approaches for assessing community diversity and dynamics in situ. PMID:24714158

  13. Group I introns are inherited through common ancestry in the nuclear-encoded rRNA of Zygnematales (Charophyceae).

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharya, D; Surek, B; Rüsing, M; Damberger, S; Melkonian, M

    1994-01-01

    Group I introns are found in organellar genomes, in the genomes of eubacteria and phages, and in nuclear-encoded rRNAs. The origin and distribution of nuclear-encoded rRNA group I introns are not understood. To elucidate their evolutionary relationships, we analyzed diverse nuclear-encoded small-subunit rRNA group I introns including nine sequences from the green-algal order Zygnematales (Charophyceae). Phylogenetic analyses of group I introns and rRNA coding regions suggest that lateral transfers have occurred in the evolutionary history of group I introns and that, after transfer, some of these elements may form stable components of the host-cell nuclear genomes. The Zygnematales introns, which share a common insertion site (position 1506 relative to the Escherichia coli small-subunit rRNA), form one subfamily of group I introns that has, after its origin, been inherited through common ancestry. Since the first Zygnematales appear in the middle Devonian within the fossil record, the "1506" group I intron presumably has been a stable component of the Zygnematales small-subunit rRNA coding region for 350-400 million years. PMID:7937917

  14. Mutational analysis of the L1 binding site of 23S rRNA in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Said, B; Cole, J R; Nomura, M

    1988-01-01

    The L11 ribosomal protein operon of Escherichia coli contains the genes for L11 and L1 and is feedback regulated by the translational repressor L1. Both the L1 binding site on 23S rRNA and the L1 repressor target site on L11 operon mRNA share similar proposed secondary structures and contain some primary sequence identity. Several site-directed mutations in the binding region of 23S rRNA were constructed and their effects on binding were examined. For in vitro analysis, a filter binding method was used. For in vivo analysis, a conditional expression system was used to overproduce a 23S rRNA fragment containing the L1 binding region, which leads to specific derepression of the synthesis of L11 and L1. Changes in the shared region of the 23S rRNA L1 binding site produced effects on L1 binding similar to those found previously in analysis of corresponding changes in the L11 operon mRNA target site. The results support the hypothesis that r-protein L1 interacts with both 23S rRNA and L11 operon mRNA by recognizing similar features on both RNAs. Images PMID:3060846

  15. Microbial Community Composition and Diversity via 16S rRNA Gene Amplicons: Evaluating the Illumina Platform

    PubMed Central

    Sinclair, Lucas; Osman, Omneya Ahmed; Bertilsson, Stefan; Eiler, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    As new sequencing technologies become cheaper and older ones disappear, laboratories switch vendors and platforms. Validating the new setups is a crucial part of conducting rigorous scientific research. Here we report on the reliability and biases of performing bacterial 16S rRNA gene amplicon paired-end sequencing on the MiSeq Illumina platform. We designed a protocol using 50 barcode pairs to run samples in parallel and coded a pipeline to process the data. Sequencing the same sediment sample in 248 replicates as well as 70 samples from alkaline soda lakes, we evaluated the performance of the method with regards to estimates of alpha and beta diversity. Using different purification and DNA quantification procedures we always found up to 5-fold differences in the yield of sequences between individually barcodes samples. Using either a one-step or a two-step PCR preparation resulted in significantly different estimates in both alpha and beta diversity. Comparing with a previous method based on 454 pyrosequencing, we found that our Illumina protocol performed in a similar manner – with the exception for evenness estimates where correspondence between the methods was low. We further quantified the data loss at every processing step eventually accumulating to 50% of the raw reads. When evaluating different OTU clustering methods, we observed a stark contrast between the results of QIIME with default settings and the more recent UPARSE algorithm when it comes to the number of OTUs generated. Still, overall trends in alpha and beta diversity corresponded highly using both clustering methods. Our procedure performed well considering the precisions of alpha and beta diversity estimates, with insignificant effects of individual barcodes. Comparative analyses suggest that 454 and Illumina sequence data can be combined if the same PCR protocol and bioinformatic workflows are used for describing patterns in richness, beta-diversity and taxonomic composition. PMID:25647581

  16. Process

    SciTech Connect

    Geenen, P.V.; Bennis, J.

    1989-04-04

    A process is described for minimizing the cracking tendency and uncontrolled dimensional change, and improving the strength of a rammed plastic refractory reactor liner comprising phosphate-bonded silicon carbide or phosphate-bonded alumina. It consists of heating the reactor liner placed or mounted in a reactor, prior to its first use, from ambient temperature up to a temperature of from about 490/sup 0/C to about 510/sup 0/C, the heating being carried out by heating the liner at a rate to produce a temperature increase of the liner not greater than about 6/sup 0/C per hour.

  17. Spatial distribution of Escherichia coli in the mouse large intestine inferred from rRNA in situ hybridization.

    PubMed Central

    Poulsen, L K; Lan, F; Kristensen, C S; Hobolth, P; Molin, S; Krogfelt, K A

    1994-01-01

    Fluorescent oligonucleotide probes targeting rRNA were used to develop an in situ hybridization technique by which the spatial distribution of Escherichia coli in the large intestines of streptomycin-treated mice was determined. Single E. coli cells were identified in thin frozen sections from the large intestines by the use of a probe specific for E. coli 23S rRNA. Furthermore, the total bacterial population was visualized with an rRNA probe targeting the domain Bacteria. By this technique, all E. coli cells were seen embedded in the mucosal material overlying the epithelial cells of the large intestine, and no direct attachment to the epithelium was observed. Images PMID:7927805

  18. PCR primers to amplify 16S rRNA genes from cyanobacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Nübel, U; Garcia-Pichel, F; Muyzer, G

    1997-01-01

    We developed and tested a set of oligonucleotide primers for the specific amplification of 16S rRNA gene segments from cyanobacteria and plastids by PCR. PCR products were recovered from all cultures of cyanobacteria and diatoms that were checked but not from other bacteria and archaea. Gene segments selectively retrieved from cyanobacteria and diatoms in unialgal but nonaxenic cultures and from cyanobionts in lichens could be directly sequenced. In the context of growing sequence databases, this procedure allows rapid and phylogenetically meaningful identification without pure cultures or molecular cloning. We demonstrate the use of this specific PCR in combination with denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis to probe the diversity of oxygenic phototrophic microorganisms in cultures, lichens, and complex microbial communities. PMID:9251225

  19. Organization of rRNA structural genes in the archaebacterium Thermoplasma acidophilum.

    PubMed Central

    Tu, J; Zillig, W

    1982-01-01

    In the archaebacterium Thermoplasma acidophilum, each of the structural genes for 5S, 16S and 23S rRNA occur once per genome. In contrast to those of eubacteria and eukaryotes, they appear unlinked. The distance between the 16S and the 23S rDNA is at least 7.5 Kb, that between 23S and 5S rDNA at least 6 Kb and that between 16S and 5S rDNA at least 1.5 Kb. No linkage between those genes has been found by the analysis of recombinant plasmids carrying Bam HI and Hind III rDNA fragments as by hybridizing those plasmids to fragments of Thermoplasma DNA generated by 6 individual restriction endonucleases, recognizing hexanucleotide sequences. Images PMID:7155894

  20. Identification of Scopulariopsis species by partial 28S rRNA gene sequence analysis.

    PubMed

    Jagielski, Tomasz; Kosim, Kinga; Skóra, Magdalena; Macura, Anna Barbara; Bielecki, Jacek

    2013-01-01

    The genus Scopulariopsis contains over 30 species of mitosporic moulds, which although usually saprophytic may also act as opportunistic pathogens in humans. They have mainly been associated with onychomycosis, and only sporadically reported as a cause of deep tissue infections or systemic disease. Identification of Scopulariopsis species still largely relies on phenotype-based methods. There is a need for a molecular diagnostic approach, that would allow to reliably discriminate between different Scopulariopsis species. The aim of this study was to apply sequence analysis of partial 28S rRNA gene for species identification of Scopulariopsis clinical isolates. Although the method employed did reveal some genetic polymorphism among Scopulariopsis isolates tested, it was not enough for species delineation. For this to be achieved, other genetic loci, within and beyond the rDNA operon, need to be investigated. PMID:24459837

  1. Preliminary study on mitochondrial 16S rRNA gene sequences and phylogeny of flatfishes (Pleuronectiformes)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    You, Feng; Liu, Jing; Zhang, Peijun; Xiang, Jianhai

    2005-09-01

    A 605 bp section of mitochondrial 16S rRNA gene from Paralichthys olivaceus, Pseudorhombus cinnamomeus, Psetta maxima and Kareius bicoloratus, which represent 3 families of Order Pleuronectiformes was amplified by PCR and sequenced to show the molecular systematics of Pleuronectiformes for comparison with related gene sequences of other 6 flatfish downloaded from GenBank. Phylogenetic analysis based on genetic distance from related gene sequences of 10 flatfish showed that this method was ideal to explore the relationship between species, genera and families. Phylogenetic trees set-up is based on neighbor-joining, maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood methods that accords to the general rule of Pleuronectiformes evolution. But they also resulted in some confusion. Unlike data from morphological characters, P. olivaceus clustered with K. bicoloratus, but P. cinnamomeus did not cluster with P. olivaceus, which is worth further studying.

  2. Phylogenetic tree derived from bacterial, cytosol and organelle 5S rRNA sequences.

    PubMed Central

    Küntzel, H; Heidrich, M; Piechulla, B

    1981-01-01

    A phylogenetic tree was constructed by computer analysis of 47 completely determined 5S rRNA sequences. The wheat mitochondrial sequence is significantly more related to prokaryotic than to eukaryotic sequences, and its affinity to that of the thermophilic Gram-negative bacterium Thermus aquaticus is comparable to the affinity between Anacystis nidulans and chloroplastic sequences. This strongly supports the idea of an endosymbiotic origin of plant mitochondria. A comparison of the plant cytosol and chloroplast sub-trees suggests a similar rate of nucleotide substitution in nuclear genes and chloroplastic genes. Other features of the tree are a common precursor of protozoa and metazoa, which appears to be more related to the fungal than to the plant protosequence, and an early divergence of the archebacterial sequence (Halobacterium cutirubrum) from the prokaryotic branch. PMID:6785727

  3. Identification of the Microbiota in Carious Dentin Lesions Using 16S rRNA Gene Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Obata, Junko; Takeshita, Toru; Shibata, Yukie; Yamanaka, Wataru; Unemori, Masako; Akamine, Akifumi; Yamashita, Yoshihisa

    2014-01-01

    While mutans streptococci have long been assumed to be the specific pathogen responsible for human dental caries, the concept of a complex dental caries-associated microbiota has received significant attention in recent years. Molecular analyses revealed the complexity of the microbiota with the predominance of Lactobacillus and Prevotella in carious dentine lesions. However, characterization of the dentin caries-associated microbiota has not been extensively explored in different ethnicities and races. In the present study, the bacterial communities in the carious dentin of Japanese subjects were analyzed comprehensively with molecular approaches using the16S rRNA gene. Carious dentin lesion samples were collected from 32 subjects aged 4–76 years, and the 16S rRNA genes, amplified from the extracted DNA with universal primers, were sequenced with a pyrosequencer. The bacterial composition was classified into clusters I, II, and III according to the relative abundance (high, middle, low) of Lactobacillus. The bacterial composition in cluster II was composed of relatively high proportions of Olsenella and Propionibacterium or subdominated by heterogeneous genera. The bacterial communities in cluster III were characterized by the predominance of Atopobium, Prevotella, or Propionibacterium with Streptococcus or Actinomyces. Some samples in clusters II and III, mainly related to Atopobium and Propionibacterium, were novel combinations of microbiota in carious dentin lesions and may be characteristic of the Japanese population. Clone library analysis revealed that Atopobium sp. HOT-416 and P. acidifaciens were specific species associated with dentinal caries among these genera in a Japanese population. We summarized the bacterial composition of dentinal carious lesions in a Japanese population using next-generation sequencing and found typical Japanese types with Atopobium or Propionibacterium predominating. PMID:25083880

  4. Species identification of oral viridans streptococci by restriction fragment polymorphism analysis of rRNA genes.

    PubMed Central

    Rudney, J D; Larson, C J

    1993-01-01

    Oral streptococci formerly classified as Streptococcus sanguis have been divided into six genetic groups. Methods to identify those species by genotype are needed. This study compared restriction fragment polymorphisms of rRNA genes (ribotypes) for seven S. gordonii, three S. sanguis, four S. oralis, three S. mitis, one S. crista, and seven S. parasanguis strains classified in previous DNA hybridization studies, as well as one clinical isolate. DNA was digested with HindIII, PvuII, HindIII and PvuII combined, EcoRI, BamHI, AatII, AlwNI, and DraII. DNA fragments were hybridized with a digoxigenin-labeled cDNA probe obtained by reverse transcription of Escherichia coli 16S and 23S rRNA. S. oralis, S. mitis, and S. parasanguis all showed an isolated 2,290-bp band in AatII ribotypes that was absent from S. gordonii, S. sanguis, and S. crista. The last three groups showed species-specific bands with AatII and also with PvuII. S. oralis could be distinguished from S. mitis and S. parasanguis in AlwNI and DraII ribotypes. S. mitis and S. parasanguis could not be distinguished, since they shared multiple bands in PvuII, AlwNI, and EcoRI patterns. The clinical isolate in the panel was very similar to S. sanguis by all enzymes used. Our findings suggest that ribotyping may be useful for genotypic identification of oral viridans streptococci. Initial digests of clinical isolates might be made with AatII, followed by PvuII or AlwNI. Isolates then could be identified by comparing ribotype patterns with those of reference strains. This approach could facilitate clinical studies of these newly defined species. Images PMID:7691875

  5. Improved PCR primers to amplify 16S rRNA genes from NC10 bacteria.

    PubMed

    He, Zhanfei; Wang, Jiaqi; Hu, Jiajie; Zhang, Hao; Cai, Chaoyang; Shen, Jiaxian; Xu, Xinhua; Zheng, Ping; Hu, Baolan

    2016-06-01

    Anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) coupled to nitrite reduction (AOM-NIR) is ecologically significant for mitigating the methane-induced greenhouse effect. The microbes responsible for this reaction, NC10 bacteria, have been widely detected in diverse ecosystems. However, some defects were discovered in the commonly used NC10-specific primers, 202F and qP1F. In the present work, the primers were redesigned and improved to overcome the defects found in the previous primers. A new nested PCR method was developed using the improved primers to amplify 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes from NC10 bacteria. In the new nested PCR method, the qP1mF/1492R and 1051F/qP2R primer sets were used in the first and second rounds, respectively. The PCR products were sequenced, and more operational taxonomic units (OTUs) of the NC10 phylum were obtained using the new primers compared to the previous primers. The sensitivity of the new nested PCR was tested by the serial dilution method, and the limit of detection was approximately 10(3) copies g(-1) dry sed. for the environmental samples compared to approximately 10(5) copies g(-1) dry sed. by the previous method. Finally, the improved primer, qP1mF, was used in quantitative PCR (qPCR) to determine the abundance of NC10 bacteria, and the results agreed well with the activity of AOM-NIR measured by isotope tracer experiments. The improved primers are able to amplify NC10 16S rRNA genes more efficiently than the previous primers and useful to explore the microbial community of the NC10 phylum in different systems. PMID:27020287

  6. Identification of the microbiota in carious dentin lesions using 16S rRNA gene sequencing.

    PubMed

    Obata, Junko; Takeshita, Toru; Shibata, Yukie; Yamanaka, Wataru; Unemori, Masako; Akamine, Akifumi; Yamashita, Yoshihisa

    2014-01-01

    While mutans streptococci have long been assumed to be the specific pathogen responsible for human dental caries, the concept of a complex dental caries-associated microbiota has received significant attention in recent years. Molecular analyses revealed the complexity of the microbiota with the predominance of Lactobacillus and Prevotella in carious dentine lesions. However, characterization of the dentin caries-associated microbiota has not been extensively explored in different ethnicities and races. In the present study, the bacterial communities in the carious dentin of Japanese subjects were analyzed comprehensively with molecular approaches using the16S rRNA gene. Carious dentin lesion samples were collected from 32 subjects aged 4-76 years, and the 16S rRNA genes, amplified from the extracted DNA with universal primers, were sequenced with a pyrosequencer. The bacterial composition was classified into clusters I, II, and III according to the relative abundance (high, middle, low) of Lactobacillus. The bacterial composition in cluster II was composed of relatively high proportions of Olsenella and Propionibacterium or subdominated by heterogeneous genera. The bacterial communities in cluster III were characterized by the predominance of Atopobium, Prevotella, or Propionibacterium with Streptococcus or Actinomyces. Some samples in clusters II and III, mainly related to Atopobium and Propionibacterium, were novel combinations of microbiota in carious dentin lesions and may be characteristic of the Japanese population. Clone library analysis revealed that Atopobium sp. HOT-416 and P. acidifaciens were specific species associated with dentinal caries among these genera in a Japanese population. We summarized the bacterial composition of dentinal carious lesions in a Japanese population using next-generation sequencing and found typical Japanese types with Atopobium or Propionibacterium predominating. PMID:25083880

  7. Measurement of rRNA Variations in Natural Communities of Microorganisms on the Southeastern U.S. Continental Shelf †

    PubMed Central

    Kramer, Jonathan G.; Singleton, Fred L.

    1993-01-01

    The development of a clear understanding of the physiology of marine prokaryotes is complicated by the difficulties inherent in resolving the activity of various components of natural microbial communities. Application of appropriate molecular biological techniques offers a means of overcoming some of these problems. In this regard, we have used direct probing of bulk RNA purified from selective size fractions to examine variations in the rRNA content of heterotrophic communities and Synechococcus populations on the southeastern U.S. continental shelf. Heterotrophic communities in natural seawater cultures amended with selected substrates were examined. Synechococcus populations were isolated from the water column by differential filtration. The total cellular rRNA content of the target populations was assayed by probing RNA purified from these samples with an oligonucleotide complementing a universally conserved region in the eubacterial 16S rRNA (heterotrophs) or with a 1.5-kbp fragment encoding the Synechococcus sp. strain WH 7803 16S rRNA (cyanobacteria). The analyses revealed that heterotrophic bacteria responded to the addition of glucose and trace nutrients after a 6-h lag period. However, no response was detected after amino acids were added. The cellular rRNA content increased 48-fold before dropping to a value 20 times that detected before nutrients were added. Variations in the rRNA content from Synechococcus spp. followed a distinct diel pattern imposed by the phasing of cell division within the irradiance cycle. The results indicate that careful application of these appropriate molecular biological techniques can be of great use in discerning basic physiological characteristics of selected natural populations and the mechanisms which regulate growth at the subcellular level. Images PMID:16349009

  8. International interlaboratory study comparing single organism 16S rRNA gene sequencing data: Beyond consensus sequence comparisons.

    PubMed

    Olson, Nathan D; Lund, Steven P; Zook, Justin M; Rojas-Cornejo, Fabiola; Beck, Brian; Foy, Carole; Huggett, Jim; Whale, Alexandra S; Sui, Zhiwei; Baoutina, Anna; Dobeson, Michael; Partis, Lina; Morrow, Jayne B

    2015-03-01

    This study presents the results from an interlaboratory sequencing study for which we developed a novel high-resolution method for comparing data from different sequencing platforms for a multi-copy, paralogous gene. The combination of PCR amplification and 16S ribosomal RNA gene (16S rRNA) sequencing has revolutionized bacteriology by enabling rapid identification, frequently without the need for culture. To assess variability between laboratories in sequencing 16S rRNA, six laboratories sequenced the gene encoding the 16S rRNA from Escherichia coli O157:H7 strain EDL933 and Listeria monocytogenes serovar 4b strain NCTC11994. Participants performed sequencing methods and protocols available in their laboratories: Sanger sequencing, Roche 454 pyrosequencing(®), or Ion Torrent PGM(®). The sequencing data were evaluated on three levels: (1) identity of biologically conserved position, (2) ratio of 16S rRNA gene copies featuring identified variants, and (3) the collection of variant combinations in a set of 16S rRNA gene copies. The same set of biologically conserved positions was identified for each sequencing method. Analytical methods using Bayesian and maximum likelihood statistics were developed to estimate variant copy ratios, which describe the ratio of nucleotides at each identified biologically variable position, as well as the likely set of variant combinations present in 16S rRNA gene copies. Our results indicate that estimated variant copy ratios at biologically variable positions were only reproducible for high throughput sequencing methods. Furthermore, the likely variant combination set was only reproducible with increased sequencing depth and longer read lengths. We also demonstrate novel methods for evaluating variable positions when comparing multi-copy gene sequence data from multiple laboratories generated using multiple sequencing technologies. PMID:27077030

  9. Ribosomal protein L5 has a highly twisted concave surface and flexible arms responsible for rRNA binding.

    PubMed Central

    Nakashima, T; Yao, M; Kawamura, S; Iwasaki, K; Kimura, M; Tanaka, I

    2001-01-01

    Ribosomal protein L5 is a 5S rRNA binding protein in the large subunit and plays an essential role in the promotion of a particular conformation of 5S rRNA. The crystal structure of the ribosomal protein L5 from Bacillus stearothermophilus has been determined at 1.8 A resolution. The molecule consists of a five-stranded antiparallel beta-sheet and four alpha-helices, which fold in a way that is topologically similar to the ribonucleoprotein (RNP) domain. The molecular shape and electrostatic representation suggest that the concave surface and loop regions are involved in 5S rRNA binding. To identify amino acid residues responsible for 5S rRNA binding, we made use of Ala-scanning mutagenesis of evolutionarily conserved amino acids occurring in the beta-strands and loop regions. The mutations of Asn37 at the beta1-strand and Gln63 at the loop between helix 2 and beta3-strand as well as that of Phe77 at the tip of the loop structure between the beta2- and beta3-strands caused a significant reduction in 5S rRNA binding. In addition, the mutations of Thr90 on the beta3-strand and Ile141 and Asp144 at the loop between beta4- and beta5-strands moderately reduced the 5S rRNA-binding affinity. Comparison of these results with the more recently analyzed structure of the 50S subunit from Haloarcula marismortui suggests that there are significant differences in the structure at N- and C-terminal regions and probably in the 5S rRNA binding. PMID:11350033

  10. The feline oral microbiome: a provisional 16S rRNA gene based taxonomy with full-length reference sequences.

    PubMed

    Dewhirst, Floyd E; Klein, Erin A; Bennett, Marie-Louise; Croft, Julie M; Harris, Stephen J; Marshall-Jones, Zoe V

    2015-02-25

    The human oral microbiome is known to play a significant role in human health and disease. While less well studied, the feline oral microbiome is thought to play a similarly important role. To determine roles oral bacteria play in health and disease, one first has to be able to accurately identify bacterial species present. 16S rRNA gene sequence information is widely used for molecular identification of bacteria and is also useful for establishing the taxonomy of novel species. The objective of this research was to obtain full 16S rRNA gene reference sequences for feline oral bacteria, place the sequences in species-level phylotypes, and create a curated 16S rRNA based taxonomy for common feline oral bacteria. Clone libraries were produced using "universal" and phylum-selective PCR primers and DNA from pooled subgingival plaque from healthy and periodontally diseased cats. Bacteria in subgingival samples were also cultivated to obtain isolates. Full-length 16S rDNA sequences were determined for clones and isolates that represent 171 feline oral taxa. A provisional curated taxonomy was developed based on the position of each taxon in 16S rRNA phylogenetic trees. The feline oral microbiome curated taxonomy and 16S rRNA gene reference set will allow investigators to refer to precisely defined bacterial taxa. A provisional name such as "Propionibacterium sp. feline oral taxon FOT-327" is an anchor to which clone, strain or GenBank names or accession numbers can point. Future next-generation-sequencing studies of feline oral bacteria will be able to map reads to taxonomically curated full-length 16S rRNA gene sequences. PMID:25523504

  11. A Nonradioactive Assay to Measure Production and Processing of Ribosomal RNA by 4sU-Tagging.

    PubMed

    Burger, Kaspar; Eick, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    In vivo metabolic pulse labeling is a classical approach to assess production and processing of ribosomal RNA (rRNA). However, conventional labeling techniques can be indirect and require work with radioactivity. Here, we describe in detail a protocol for in vivo metabolic labeling, purification, and readout of nascent rRNA by 4-thiouridine (4sU). We propose 4sU labeling as standard nonradioactive technique for the analysis of rRNA metabolism during ribosome biogenesis. PMID:27576715

  12. Comparative structural analysis of eubacterial 5S rRNA by oxidation of adenines in the N-1 position.

    PubMed Central

    Pieler, T; Schreiber, A; Erdmann, V A

    1984-01-01

    Adenines in free 5S rRNA from Escherichia coli, Bacillus stearothermophilus and Thermus thermophilus have been oxidized at their N-1 position using monoperphthalic acid. The determination of the number of adenine 1-N-oxides was on the basis of UV spectroscopic data of the intact molecule. Identification of the most readily accessible nucleotides by sequencing gel analysis reveals that they are located in conserved positions within loops, exposed hairpin loops and single-base bulge loops. Implications for the structure and function of 5S rRNA will be discussed on the basis of this comparative analysis. Images PMID:6201825

  13. Emergence of 16S rRNA methylase-producing Acinetobacter baumannii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates in hospitals in Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background 16S rRNA methylase-producing Gram-negative bacteria are highly resistant to all clinically important aminoglycosides. We analyzed clinical strains of 16S rRNA methylase-producing Acinetobactor baumannii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa obtained from clinical isolates in medical settings in Vietnam. Methods From 2008 to 2011, 101 clinical strains of A. baumannii and 15 of P. aeruginosa were isolated from patients in intensive care units (ICUs) in two medical settings in Vietnam. Antimicrobial susceptibilities were determined using the microdilution method and epidemiological analysis was performed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and MLST. Genes encoding the 16S rRNA methylases, OXAs and CTX-Ms were analyzed by PCR and sequence analysis. Results 16S rRNA methylase-producing Gram-negative pathogens were detected in two hospitals in Vietnam. Of the 101 clinical isolates of A. baumannii and the 15 of P. aeruginosa isolated from two ICUs in these hospitals, 72 (71.3%) were highly resistant to amikacin, arbekacin and gentamicin, with MICs greater than 1,024 mg/L. The 16S rRNA methylases ArmA and RmtB were produced by 61 and 9 isolates of A. baumannii, respectively, and RmtB was produced by 2 isolates of P. aeruginosa. Moreover, 52 of the A. baumannii isolates producing 16S rRNA methylases harbored both blaOXA-23-like and blaOXA-51-like genes. Most A. baumannii isolates producing 16S rRNA methylase obtained in hospital A in Hanoi were ST91 and ST231, whereas most from hospital B in Ho Chi Minh City were ST136, ST195, and ST254. The two P. aeruginosa isolates harboring rmtB showed different patterns on PFGE, one each corresponding to ST217 and ST313. Conclusions Gram-negative bacteria producing the 16S rRNA methylases ArmA and RmtB are emerging in medical settings in Vietnam. A. baumannii isolates in northern and southern regions of Vietnam may be of different lineages. PMID:23721359

  14. Assessing the Fecal Microbiota: An Optimized Ion Torrent 16S rRNA Gene-Based Analysis Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Foroni, Elena; Duranti, Sabrina; Turroni, Francesca; Lugli, Gabriele Andrea; Sanchez, Borja; Martín, Rebeca; Gueimonde, Miguel; van Sinderen, Douwe; Margolles, Abelardo; Ventura, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Assessing the distribution of 16S rRNA gene sequences within a biological sample represents the current state-of-the-art for determination of human gut microbiota composition. Advances in dissecting the microbial biodiversity of this ecosystem have very much been dependent on the development of novel high-throughput DNA sequencing technologies, like the Ion Torrent. However, the precise representation of this bacterial community may be affected by the protocols used for DNA extraction as well as by the PCR primers employed in the amplification reaction. Here, we describe an optimized protocol for 16S rRNA gene-based profiling of the fecal microbiota. PMID:23869230

  15. Intragenomic heterogeneity of the 16S rRNA gene in strain UFO1 caused by a 100-bp insertion in helix 6

    SciTech Connect

    Allison E. Ray; Stephanie A. Connon; Peter P. Sheridan; Jeremy Gilbreath; Malcolm S. Shields; Deborah T. Newby; Yoshiko Fujita; Timothy S. Magnuson

    2010-06-01

    The determination of variation in 16S rRNA gene sequences is perhaps the most common method for assessing microbial community diversity. However, the occurrence of multiple copies of 16S rRNA genes within some organisms can bias estimates of microbial diversity. During phylogenetic characterization of a metal-transforming, fermentative bacterium (strain UFO1) isolated from the Field Research Center (FRC) in Oak Ridge, TN, we detected an apparent 16S rRNA pseudogene. The putative 16S rRNA pseudogene was first detected in clone libraries constructed with 16S rRNA genes amplified from UFO1 genomic DNA. Sequencing revealed two distinct 16S rRNA genes, with one differing from the other by a 100 bp insert near the 5’ end. Ribosomal RNA was extracted from strain UFO1 and analyzed by RT-qPCR with insert and non-insert specific primers; however, only the non-insert 16S rRNA sequence was expressed. Reverse-transcribed rRNA from strain UFO1 was also used to construct a cDNA library. Of 190 clones screened by PCR, none contained the 16S rRNA gene with the 100 bp insert. Examination of GenBank 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that the same insert sequence was present in other clones, including those from an environmental library constructed from FRC enrichments. These findings demonstrate the existence of widely disparate copies of the 16S rRNA gene in the same species and a putative 16S rRNA pseudogene, which may confound 16S rRNA-based methods for assessments of microbial diversity in environmental samples.

  16. Microbial methane turnover at Marmara Sea cold seeps: a combined 16S rRNA and lipid biomarker investigation.

    PubMed

    Chevalier, N; Bouloubassi, I; Birgel, D; Taphanel, M-H; López-García, P

    2013-01-01

    Lipid biomarkers and their stable carbon isotopic composition, as well as 16S rRNA gene sequences, were investigated in sediment cores from active seepage zones in the Sea of Marmara (Turkey) located on the active North Anatolian Fault, to assess processes associated with methane turnover by indigenous microbial communities. Diagnostic (13) C-depleted archaeal lipids of anaerobic methane oxidizers were only found in one core from the South of Çinarcik Basin and consist mainly of archaeol, sn-2 hydroxyarchaeol and various unsaturated pentamethylicosenes. Concurrently, abundant fatty acids (FAs) and a substantial amount of monoalkylglycerolethers (MAGEs), assigned to sulphate-reducing bacteria, were detected with strong (13) C-depletions. Both microbial lipids and their δ(13) C values suggest that anaerobic oxidation of methane with sulphate reduction (AOM/SR) occurs, specially in the 10- to 12-cm depth interval. Lipid biomarker results accompanied by 16S rRNA-based microbial diversity analyses showed that ANME-2 (ANME-2a and -2c) archaea and Desulfosarcina/Desulfococcus and Desulfobulbus deltaproteobacterial clades are the major AOM assemblages, which indicate a shallow AOM community at high methane flux. Apart from the typical AOM lipid biomarker pattern, a (13) C-depleted diunsaturated hydrocarbon, identified as 7,14-tricosadiene, occurred in the inferred maximum AOM interval at 10-12 cm depth. Its isotopic fingerprint implies that its microbial precursor occurs in close association with the AOM communities. Interestingly, the presence of 7,14-tricosadiene coincides with the presence of the so-far uncultured bacterial Candidate Division JS1, often detected in AOM areas. We propose the hypothesis that the JS1 bacterial group could be the potential source of (13) C-depleted tricosadiene. Future testing of this hypothesis is essential to fully determine the role of this bacterial group in AOM. PMID:23205581

  17. 23S rRNA nucleotides in the peptidyl transferase center are essential for tryptophanase operon induction.

    PubMed

    Yang, Rui; Cruz-Vera, Luis R; Yanofsky, Charles

    2009-06-01

    Distinct features of the ribosomal peptide exit tunnel are known to be essential for recognition of specific amino acids of a nascent peptidyl-tRNA. Thus, a tryptophan residue at position 12 of the peptidyl-tRNA TnaC-tRNA(Pro) leads to the creation of a free tryptophan binding site within the ribosome at which bound tryptophan inhibits normal ribosome functions. The ribosomal processes that are inhibited are hydrolysis of TnaC-tRNA(Pro) by release factor 2 and peptidyl transfer of TnaC of TnaC-tRNA(Pro) to puromycin. These events are normally performed in the ribosomal peptidyl transferase center. In the present study, changes of 23S rRNA nucleotides in the 2585 region of the peptidyl transferase center, G2583A and U2584C, were observed to reduce maximum induction of tna operon expression by tryptophan in vivo without affecting the concentration of tryptophan necessary to obtain 50% induction. The growth rate of strains with ribosomes with either of these changes was not altered appreciably. In vitro analyses with mutant ribosomes with these changes showed that tryptophan was not as efficient in protecting TnaC-tRNA(Pro) from puromycin action as wild-type ribosomes. However, added tryptophan did prevent sparsomycin action as it normally does with wild-type ribosomes. These findings suggest that these two mutational changes act by reducing the ability of ribosome-bound tryptophan to inhibit peptidyl transferase activity rather than by reducing the ability of the ribosome to bind tryptophan. Thus, the present study identifies specific nucleotides within the ribosomal peptidyl transferase center that appear to be essential for effective tryptophan induction of tna operon expression. PMID:19329641

  18. RlmCD-mediated U747 methylation promotes efficient G748 methylation by methyltransferase RlmAII in 23S rRNA in Streptococcus pneumoniae; interplay between two rRNA methylations responsible for telithromycin susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    Shoji, Tatsuma; Takaya, Akiko; Sato, Yoshiharu; Kimura, Satoshi; Suzuki, Tsutomu; Yamamoto, Tomoko

    2015-01-01

    Adenine at position 752 in a loop of helix 35 from positions 745 to 752 in domain II of 23S rRNA is involved in binding to the ribosome of telithromycin (TEL), a member of ketolides. Methylation of guanine at position 748 by the intrinsic methyltransferase RlmAII enhances binding of telithromycin (TEL) to A752 in Streptococcus pneumoniae. We have found that another intrinsic methylation of the adjacent uridine at position 747 enhances G748 methylation by RlmAII, rendering TEL susceptibility. U747 and another nucleotide, U1939, were methylated by the dual-specific methyltransferase RlmCD encoded by SP_1029 in S. pneumoniae. Inactivation of RlmCD reduced N1-methylated level of G748 by RlmAII in vivo, leading to TEL resistance when the nucleotide A2058, located in domain V of 23S rRNA, was dimethylated by the dimethyltransferase Erm(B). In vitro methylation of rRNA showed that RlmAII activity was significantly enhanced by RlmCD-mediated pre-methylation of 23S rRNA. These results suggest that RlmCD-mediated U747 methylation promotes efficient G748 methylation by RlmAII, thereby facilitating TEL binding to the ribosome. PMID:26365244

  19. Large-scale synthesis of Cu2SnS3 and Cu1.8S hierarchical microspheres as efficient counter electrode materials for quantum dot sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jun; Yang, Xia; Wong, Tai-Lun; Lee, Chun-Sing

    2012-09-01

    Exploration of new catalytic semiconductors with novel structures as counter electrode materials is a promising approach to improve performances of quantum dot sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs). In this work, nearly mono-disperse tetragonal Cu2SnS3 (CTS) and rhombohedral Cu1.8S hierarchical microspheres with nanometer-to-micrometer dimensions have been synthesized respectively via a simple solvothermal approach. These microspheres are also demonstrated as efficient counter electrode materials in solar cells using ZnO/ZnSe/CdSe nanocables as photoanode and polysulfide (Sn2-/S2-) solution as electrolyte. While copper sulfide is regarded as one of the most effective counter electrode materials in QDSSCs, we demonstrate the CTS microspheres to show higher electrocatalytic activity for the reduction of polysulfide electrolyte than the Cu1.8S microspheres. This contributes to obvious enhancement of photocurrent density (JSC) and fill factor (FF). Power conversion efficiency (PCE) is significantly enhanced from 0.25% for the cell using a pure FTO (SnO2:F) glass as counter electrode, to 3.65 and 4.06% for the cells using counter electrodes of FTO glasses coated respectively with Cu1.8S and CTS microspheres.Exploration of new catalytic semiconductors with novel structures as counter electrode materials is a promising approach to improve performances of quantum dot sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs). In this work, nearly mono-disperse tetragonal Cu2SnS3 (CTS) and rhombohedral Cu1.8S hierarchical microspheres with nanometer-to-micrometer dimensions have been synthesized respectively via a simple solvothermal approach. These microspheres are also demonstrated as efficient counter electrode materials in solar cells using ZnO/ZnSe/CdSe nanocables as photoanode and polysulfide (Sn2-/S2-) solution as electrolyte. While copper sulfide is regarded as one of the most effective counter electrode materials in QDSSCs, we demonstrate the CTS microspheres to show higher electrocatalytic activity for the reduction of polysulfide electrolyte than the Cu1.8S microspheres. This contributes to obvious enhancement of photocurrent density (JSC) and fill factor (FF). Power conversion efficiency (PCE) is significantly enhanced from 0.25% for the cell using a pure FTO (SnO2:F) glass as counter electrode, to 3.65 and 4.06% for the cells using counter electrodes of FTO glasses coated respectively with Cu1.8S and CTS microspheres. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: SEM images of ZnO/ZnSe/CdSe nanocables and Nyquist plots of real solar cells containing various counter electrodes and the same photoanode of ZnO/ZnSe/CdSe nanocables. See DOI: 10.1039/c2nr31724a

  20. Intragenomic heterogeneity in the 16S rRNA genes of Flavobacterium columnare and relevance to genomovar assignment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic variability in 16S rRNA gene sequences has been demonstrated among isolates of Flavobacterium columnare and a restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) assay is available for genetic typing this important fish pathogen. Interpretation of restriction patterns can be difficult due to th...

  1. Functional importance of individual rRNA 2′-O-ribose methylations revealed by high-resolution phenotyping

    PubMed Central

    Esguerra, Jonathan; Warringer, Jonas; Blomberg, Anders

    2008-01-01

    Ribosomal RNAs contain numerous modifications at specific nucleotides. Despite their evolutionary conservation, the functional role of individual 2′-O-ribose methylations in rRNA is not known. A distinct family of small nucleolar RNAs, box C/D snoRNAs, guides the methylating complex to specific rRNA sites. Using a high-resolution phenotyping approach, we characterized 20 box C/D snoRNA gene deletions for altered growth dynamics under a wide array of environmental perturbations, encompassing intraribosomal antibiotics, inhibitors of specific cellular features, as well as general stressors. Ribosome-specific antibiotics generated phenotypes indicating different and long-ranging structural effects of rRNA methylations on the ribosome. For all studied box C/D snoRNA mutants we uncovered phenotypes to extraribosomal growth inhibitors, most frequently reflected in alteration in growth lag (adaptation time). A number of strains were highly pleiotropic and displayed a great number of sensitive phenotypes, e.g., deletion mutants of snR70 and snR71, which both have clear human homologues, and deletion mutants of snR65 and snR68. Our data indicate that individual rRNA ribose methylations can play either distinct or general roles in the workings of the ribosome. PMID:18256246

  2. Distinct Ectomycorrhizospheres Share Similar Bacterial Communities as Revealed by Pyrosequencing-Based Analysis of 16S rRNA Genes

    PubMed Central

    Oger, P.; Morin, E.; Frey-Klett, P.

    2012-01-01

    Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequences generated from Xerocomus pruinatus and Scleroderma citrinum ectomycorrhizospheres revealed that similar bacterial communities inhabited the two ectomycorrhizospheres in terms of phyla and genera, with an enrichment of the Burkholderia genus. Compared to the bulk soil habitat, ectomycorrhizospheres hosted significantly more Alpha-, Beta-, and Gammaproteobacteria. PMID:22307291

  3. Microbial rRNA: rDNA gene ratios may be unexpectedly low due to extracellular DNA preservation in soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We tested a method of estimating the activity of detectable individual bacterial and archaeal OTUs within a community by calculating ratios of absolute 16S rRNA to rDNA copy numbers. We investigated phylogenetically coherent patterns of activity among soil prokaryotes in non-growing soil communitie...

  4. Evaluation of nearest-neighbor methods for detection of chimeric small-subunit rRNA sequences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robison-Cox, J. F.; Bateson, M. M.; Ward, D. M.

    1995-01-01

    Detection of chimeric artifacts formed when PCR is used to retrieve naturally occurring small-subunit (SSU) rRNA sequences may rely on demonstrating that different sequence domains have different phylogenetic affiliations. We evaluated the CHECK_CHIMERA method of the Ribosomal Database Project and another method which we developed, both based on determining nearest neighbors of different sequence domains, for their ability to discern artificially generated SSU rRNA chimeras from authentic Ribosomal Database Project sequences. The reliability of both methods decreases when the parental sequences which contribute to chimera formation are more than 82 to 84% similar. Detection is also complicated by the occurrence of authentic SSU rRNA sequences that behave like chimeras. We developed a naive statistical test based on CHECK_CHIMERA output and used it to evaluate previously reported SSU rRNA chimeras. Application of this test also suggests that chimeras might be formed by retrieving SSU rRNAs as cDNA. The amount of uncertainty associated with nearest-neighbor analyses indicates that such tests alone are insufficient and that better methods are needed.

  5. Karyotypic diversification in Mytilus mussels (Bivalvia: Mytilidae) inferred from chromosomal mapping of rRNA and histone gene clusters

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Mussels of the genus Mytilus present morphologically similar karyotypes that are presumably conserved. The absence of chromosome painting probes in bivalves makes difficult verifying this hypothesis. In this context, we comparatively mapped ribosomal RNA and histone gene families on the chromosomes of Mytilus edulis, M. galloprovincialis, M. trossulus and M. californianus by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). Results Major rRNA, core and linker histone gene clusters mapped to different chromosome pairs in the four taxa. In contrast, minor rRNA gene clusters showed a different behavior. In all Mytilus two of the 5S rDNA clusters mapped to the same chromosome pair and one of them showed overlapping signals with those corresponding to one of the histone H1 gene clusters. The overlapping signals on mitotic chromosomes became a pattern of alternate 5S rRNA and linker histone gene signals on extended chromatin fibers. Additionally, M. trossulus showed minor and major rDNA clusters on the same chromosome pair. Conclusion The results obtained suggest that at least some of the chromosomes bearing these sequences are orthologous and that chromosomal mapping of rRNA and histone gene clusters could be a good tool to help deciphering some of the many unsolved questions in the systematic classification of Mytilidae. PMID:25023072

  6. 23S rRNA gene mutations contributing to macrolide resistance in Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Operon specific 23S rRNA mutations affecting minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of macrolides (erythromycin [ERY], azithromycin [AZM], tylosin [TYL]) and a lincosamide (clindamycin [CLI]) were examined in a collection of Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli isolates. The three copies of the Campy...

  7. Species Identification and Profiling of Complex Microbial Communities Using Shotgun Illumina Sequencing of 16S rRNA Amplicon Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Lay, Christophe; Ho, Eliza Xin Pei; Low, Louie; Hibberd, Martin Lloyd; Nagarajan, Niranjan

    2013-01-01

    The high throughput and cost-effectiveness afforded by short-read sequencing technologies, in principle, enable researchers to perform 16S rRNA profiling of complex microbial communities at unprecedented depth and resolution. Existing Illumina sequencing protocols are, however, limited by the fraction of the 16S rRNA gene that is interrogated and therefore limit the resolution and quality of the profiling. To address this, we present the design of a novel protocol for shotgun Illumina sequencing of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene, optimized to amplify more than 90% of sequences in the Greengenes database and with the ability to distinguish nearly twice as many species-level OTUs compared to existing protocols. Using several in silico and experimental datasets, we demonstrate that despite the presence of multiple variable and conserved regions, the resulting shotgun sequences can be used to accurately quantify the constituents of complex microbial communities. The reconstruction of a significant fraction of the 16S rRNA gene also enabled high precision (>90%) in species-level identification thereby opening up potential application of this approach for clinical microbial characterization. PMID:23579286

  8. A pseudouridylation switch in rRNA is implicated in ribosome function during the life cycle of Trypanosoma brucei

    PubMed Central

    Chikne, Vaibhav; Doniger, Tirza; Rajan, K. Shanmugha; Bartok, Osnat; Eliaz, Dror; Cohen-Chalamish, Smadar; Tschudi, Christian; Unger, Ron; Hashem, Yaser; Kadener, Sebastian; Michaeli, Shulamit

    2016-01-01

    The protozoan parasite Trypanosoma brucei, which causes devastating diseases in humans and animals in sub-Saharan Africa, undergoes a complex life cycle between the mammalian host and the blood-feeding tsetse fly vector. However, little is known about how the parasite performs most molecular functions in such different environments. Here, we provide evidence for the intriguing possibility that pseudouridylation of rRNA plays an important role in the capacity of the parasite to transit between the insect midgut and the mammalian bloodstream. Briefly, we mapped pseudouridines (Ψ) on rRNA by Ψ-seq in procyclic form (PCF) and bloodstream form (BSF) trypanosomes. We detected 68 Ψs on rRNA, which are guided by H/ACA small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNA). The small RNome of both life cycle stages was determined by HiSeq and 83 H/ACAs were identified. We observed an elevation of 21 Ψs modifications in BSF as a result of increased levels of the guiding snoRNAs. Overexpression of snoRNAs guiding modification on H69 provided a slight growth advantage to PCF parasites at 30 °C. Interestingly, these modifications are predicted to significantly alter the secondary structure of the large subunit (LSU) rRNA suggesting that hypermodified positions may contribute to the adaption of ribosome function during cycling between the two hosts. PMID:27142987

  9. Phylogenetic Analysis of Bacteroidales 16S rRNA Genes Unveils Sequences Specific to Diverse Swine Fecal Sources

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two of the currently available methods to assess swine fecal pollution (Bac1 and PF163) target Bacteroidales 16S rRNA genes. However, these assays have been shown to exhibit poor host-specificity and low detection limits in environmental waters, in part due to the limited number...

  10. Ureaplasma urealyticum continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis-associated peritonitis diagnosed by 16S rRNA gene PCR.

    PubMed

    Yager, Jessica E; Ford, Emily S; Boas, Zachary P; Haseley, Leah A; Cookson, Brad T; Sengupta, Dhruba J; Fang, Ferric C; Gottlieb, Geoffrey S

    2010-11-01

    In some patients with peritonitis complicating continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD), a causative organism is never identified. We report a case of Ureaplasma urealyticum CAPD-associated peritonitis diagnosed by 16S rRNA gene PCR. Ureaplasma may be an underrecognized cause of peritonitis because it cannot be recovered using routine culture methods. PMID:20739488

  11. Comparison of gull-specific assays targeting 16S rRNA gene of Catellicoccus marimammalium and Streptococcus spp.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Gulls have been implicated as a source of fecal contamination in inland and coastal waters. Only one gull-specific assay is currently available (i.e., gull2 qPCR assay). This assay is based on the 16S rRNA gene of Catellicocclls marimammalium and has showed a high level of host-s...

  12. Complication of Corticosteroid Treatment by Acute Plasmodium malariae Infection Confirmed by Small-Subunit rRNA Sequencing▿

    PubMed Central

    To, Kelvin K. W.; Teng, Jade L. L.; Wong, Samson S. Y.; Ngan, Antonio H. Y.; Yuen, Kwok-Yung; Woo, Patrick C. Y.

    2010-01-01

    We report a case of acute Plasmodium malariae infection complicating corticosteroid treatment for membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis in a patient from an area where P. malariae infection is not endemic. A peripheral blood smear showed typical band-form trophozoites compatible with P. malariae or Plasmodium knowlesi. SSU rRNA sequencing confirmed the identity to be P. malariae. PMID:20739487

  13. A pseudouridylation switch in rRNA is implicated in ribosome function during the life cycle of Trypanosoma brucei.

    PubMed

    Chikne, Vaibhav; Doniger, Tirza; Rajan, K Shanmugha; Bartok, Osnat; Eliaz, Dror; Cohen-Chalamish, Smadar; Tschudi, Christian; Unger, Ron; Hashem, Yaser; Kadener, Sebastian; Michaeli, Shulamit

    2016-01-01

    The protozoan parasite Trypanosoma brucei, which causes devastating diseases in humans and animals in sub-Saharan Africa, undergoes a complex life cycle between the mammalian host and the blood-feeding tsetse fly vector. However, little is known about how the parasite performs most molecular functions in such different environments. Here, we provide evidence for the intriguing possibility that pseudouridylation of rRNA plays an important role in the capacity of the parasite to transit between the insect midgut and the mammalian bloodstream. Briefly, we mapped pseudouridines (Ψ) on rRNA by Ψ-seq in procyclic form (PCF) and bloodstream form (BSF) trypanosomes. We detected 68 Ψs on rRNA, which are guided by H/ACA small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNA). The small RNome of both life cycle stages was determined by HiSeq and 83 H/ACAs were identified. We observed an elevation of 21 Ψs modifications in BSF as a result of increased levels of the guiding snoRNAs. Overexpression of snoRNAs guiding modification on H69 provided a slight growth advantage to PCF parasites at 30 °C. Interestingly, these modifications are predicted to significantly alter the secondary structure of the large subunit (LSU) rRNA suggesting that hypermodified positions may contribute to the adaption of ribosome function during cycling between the two hosts. PMID:27142987

  14. Intragenomic heterogeneity in the 16S rRNA genes of Flavobacterium columnare and relevance to genomovar assignment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flavobacterium columnare is the causative agent of columnaris disease which severely impacts channel catfish production in the USA and may be emerging as an important pathogen in the rainbow trout industry. The 16S rRNA gene is a housekeeping gene commonly used for bacterial taxonomy and genotyping...

  15. Intra-Genomic Heterogeneity in 16S rRNA Genes in Strictly Anaerobic Clinical Isolates from Periodontal Abscesses

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jiazhen; Miao, Xinyu; Xu, Meng; He, Junlin; Xie, Yi; Wu, Xingwen; Chen, Gang; Yu, Liying; Zhang, Wenhong

    2015-01-01

    Background Members of the genera Prevotella, Veillonella and Fusobacterium are the predominant culturable obligate anaerobic bacteria isolated from periodontal abscesses. When determining the cumulative number of clinical anaerobic isolates from periodontal abscesses, ambiguous or overlapping signals were frequently encountered in 16S rRNA gene sequencing chromatograms, resulting in ambiguous identifications. With the exception of the genus Veillonella, the high intra-chromosomal heterogeneity of rrs genes has not been reported. Methods The 16S rRNA genes of 138 clinical, strictly anaerobic isolates and one reference strain were directly sequenced, and the chromatograms were carefully examined. Gene cloning was performed for 22 typical isolates with doublet sequencing signals for the 16S rRNA genes, and four copies of the rrs-ITS genes of 9 Prevotella intermedia isolates were separately amplified by PCR, sequenced and compared. Five conserved housekeeping genes, hsp60, recA, dnaJ, gyrB1 and rpoB from 89 clinical isolates of Prevotella were also amplified by PCR and sequenced for identification and phylogenetic analysis along with 18 Prevotella reference strains. Results Heterogeneity of 16S rRNA genes was apparent in clinical, strictly anaerobic oral bacteria, particularly in the genera Prevotella and Veillonella. One hundred out of 138 anaerobic strains (72%) had intragenomic nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in multiple locations, and 13 strains (9.4%) had intragenomic insertions or deletions in the 16S rRNA gene. In the genera Prevotella and Veillonella, 75% (67/89) and 100% (19/19) of the strains had SNPs in the 16S rRNA gene, respectively. Gene cloning and separate amplifications of four copies of the rrs-ITS genes confirmed that 2 to 4 heterogeneous 16S rRNA copies existed. Conclusion Sequence alignment of five housekeeping genes revealed that intra-species nucleotide similarities were very high in the genera Prevotella, ranging from 94.3–100%. However, the

  16. Prevalence of 16S rRNA methylase genes among β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae clinical isolates in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Al Sheikh, Yazeed A.; Marie, Mohammed Ali M.; John, James; Krishnappa, Lakshmana Gowda; Dabwab, Khaled Homoud M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Co production of 16S rRNA methylases gene and β-Lactamase gene among Enterobacteriaceae isolates conferring resistance to both therapeutic options has serious implications for clinicians worldwide. Methods To study co existence of 16S rRNA methylases (armA, rmtA, rmtB, rmtC, rmtD, and npmA) and β-Lactamase (blaTEM-1, blaSHV-12, blaCTX-M-14) genes, we screened all phenotypic positive β-Lactamase producing enterobacteriaceae by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting above genes. A total of 330 enterobacteriaceae strains were collected during study period out of that 218 isolates were identified phenotypically as β-Lactamase producers, which include 50 (22.9%) Escherichia coli; 92 (42.2%) Klebsiella pneumoniae, 44 (20.2%), Citrobactor freundii and 32 (14.7%) Enterobacter spp. Results Among this 218, only 188 isolates harbored the resistant gene for β-Lactamase production. Major β-Lactamase producing isolates were bla TEM-1 type. 122 (56 %) isolates were found to produce any one of the 16S rRNA methylase genes. A total of 116 isolates co produced β-Lactamase and at least one 16S rRNA methylases gene Co production of armA gene was found in 26 isolates with rmtB and in 4 isolates with rmtC. The rmtA and rmtD genes were not detected in any of the tested isolates. Six isolates were positive for a 16S rRNA methylase gene alone. Conclusion β-Lactamase producing isolates appears to coexist with 16S rRNA methylase predominantly armA and rmtB genes in the same isolate. We conclude the major β-Lactamase and 16S rRNA methylases co-producer was K. pneumoniae followed by E. coli. We suggest further work on evaluating other β-lactamases types and novel antibiotic resistance mechanisms among Enterobacteriaceae. PMID:25005152

  17. IL-6, IL-18, sIL-2R, and TNFα proinflammatory markers in depression and schizophrenia patients who are free of overt inflammation.

    PubMed

    Al-Hakeim, Hussein Kadhem; Al-Rammahi, Duaa Abdulzahraa; Al-Dujaili, Arafat Hussein

    2015-08-15

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) and schizophrenia are associated with inflammatory processes. Studies have shown that these disorders exhibit increase in the level of one or more proinflammatory markers. However, these studies did not exclude patients with obvious inflammation (i.e., CRP>6mg/L). Therefore, a comprehensive study should include those inflammatory disorders. In the present study, the inflammatory natures of MDD and schizophrenia were investigated. To achieve this goal, serum levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-18 (IL-18), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), and soluble interleukin 2 receptor (sIL-2R) in depressed and schizophrenic patients were obtained and compared with those of the control group. Results showed a significant increase (p<0.05) in serum levels of IL-6, IL-18, TNFα, and sIL-2R in MDD and schizophrenic patients compared with the control group. Also patients with schizophrenia group showed higher levels of the inflammatory markers than MDD and control groups. The current study concluded that the immunological response in the MDD and schizophrenic patients groups was significantly stimulated. These disorders may be considered an inflammatory disorder because of elevated levels of proinflammatory cytokines in spite of lacking an overt inflammation. Furthermore results of this study suggested the possibility of the use of anti-inflammatory drugs as adjuvant therapy in schizophrenic and depressive disorders. PMID:25985379

  18. Nearly complete 28S rRNA gene sequences confirm new hypotheses of sponge evolution.

    PubMed

    Thacker, Robert W; Hill, April L; Hill, Malcolm S; Redmond, Niamh E; Collins, Allen G; Morrow, Christine C; Spicer, Lori; Carmack, Cheryl A; Zappe, Megan E; Pohlmann, Deborah; Hall, Chelsea; Diaz, Maria C; Bangalore, Purushotham V

    2013-09-01

    The highly collaborative research sponsored by the NSF-funded Assembling the Porifera Tree of Life (PorToL) project is providing insights into some of the most difficult questions in metazoan systematics. Our understanding of phylogenetic relationships within the phylum Porifera has changed considerably with increased taxon sampling and data from additional molecular markers. PorToL researchers have falsified earlier phylogenetic hypotheses, discovered novel phylogenetic alliances, found phylogenetic homes for enigmatic taxa, and provided a more precise understanding of the evolution of skeletal features, secondary metabolites, body organization, and symbioses. Some of these exciting new discoveries are shared in the papers that form this issue of Integrative and Comparative Biology. Our analyses of over 300 nearly complete 28S ribosomal subunit gene sequences provide specific case studies that illustrate how our dataset confirms new hypotheses of sponge evolution. We recovered monophyletic clades for all 4 classes of sponges, as well as the 4 major clades of Demospongiae (Keratosa, Myxospongiae, Haploscleromorpha, and Heteroscleromorpha), but our phylogeny differs in several aspects from traditional classifications. In most major clades of sponges, families within orders appear to be paraphyletic. Although additional sampling of genes and taxa are needed to establish whether this pattern results from a lack of phylogenetic resolution or from a paraphyletic classification system, many of our results are congruent with those obtained from 18S ribosomal subunit gene sequences and complete mitochondrial genomes. These data provide further support for a revision of the traditional classification of sponges. PMID:23748742

  19. Nearly Complete 28S rRNA Gene Sequences Confirm New Hypotheses of Sponge Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Thacker, Robert W.; Hill, April L.; Hill, Malcolm S.; Redmond, Niamh E.; Collins, Allen G.; Morrow, Christine C.; Spicer, Lori; Carmack, Cheryl A.; Zappe, Megan E.; Pohlmann, Deborah; Hall, Chelsea; Diaz, Maria C.; Bangalore, Purushotham V.

    2013-01-01

    The highly collaborative research sponsored by the NSF-funded Assembling the Porifera Tree of Life (PorToL) project is providing insights into some of the most difficult questions in metazoan systematics. Our understanding of phylogenetic relationships within the phylum Porifera has changed considerably with increased taxon sampling and data from additional molecular markers. PorToL researchers have falsified earlier phylogenetic hypotheses, discovered novel phylogenetic alliances, found phylogenetic homes for enigmatic taxa, and provided a more precise understanding of the evolution of skeletal features, secondary metabolites, body organization, and symbioses. Some of these exciting new discoveries are shared in the papers that form this issue of Integrative and Comparative Biology. Our analyses of over 300 nearly complete 28S ribosomal subunit gene sequences provide specific case studies that illustrate how our dataset confirms new hypotheses of sponge evolution. We recovered monophyletic clades for all 4 classes of sponges, as well as the 4 major clades of Demospongiae (Keratosa, Myxospongiae, Haploscleromorpha, and Heteroscleromorpha), but our phylogeny differs in several aspects from traditional classifications. In most major clades of sponges, families within orders appear to be paraphyletic. Although additional sampling of genes and taxa are needed to establish whether this pattern results from a lack of phylogenetic resolution or from a paraphyletic classification system, many of our results are congruent with those obtained from 18S ribosomal subunit gene sequences and complete mitochondrial genomes. These data provide further support for a revision of the traditional classification of sponges. PMID:23748742

  20. A framework for establishing predictive relationships between specific bacterial 16S rRNA sequence abundances and biotransformation rates.

    PubMed

    Helbling, Damian E; Johnson, David R; Lee, Tae Kwon; Scheidegger, Andreas; Fenner, Kathrin

    2015-03-01

    The rates at which wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) microbial communities biotransform specific substrates can differ by orders of magnitude among WWTP communities. Differences in taxonomic compositions among WWTP communities may predict differences in the rates of some types of biotransformations. In this work, we present a novel framework for establishing predictive relationships between specific bacterial 16S rRNA sequence abundances and biotransformation rates. We selected ten WWTPs with substantial variation in their environmental and operational metrics and measured the in situ ammonia biotransformation rate constants in nine of them. We isolated total RNA from samples from each WWTP and analyzed 16S rRNA sequence reads. We then developed multivariate models between the measured abundances of specific bacterial 16S rRNA sequence reads and the ammonia biotransformation rate constants. We constructed model scenarios that systematically explored the effects of model regularization, model linearity and non-linearity, and aggregation of 16S rRNA sequences into operational taxonomic units (OTUs) as a function of sequence dissimilarity threshold (SDT). A large percentage (greater than 80%) of model scenarios resulted in well-performing and significant models at intermediate SDTs of 0.13-0.14 and 0.26. The 16S rRNA sequences consistently selected into the well-performing and significant models at those SDTs were classified as Nitrosomonas and Nitrospira groups. We then extend the framework by applying it to the biotransformation rate constants of ten micropollutants measured in batch reactors seeded with the ten WWTP communities. We identified phylogenetic groups that were robustly selected into all well-performing and significant models constructed with biotransformation rates of isoproturon, propachlor, ranitidine, and venlafaxine. These phylogenetic groups can be used as predictive biomarkers of WWTP microbial community activity towards these specific

  1. De novo Synthesis and Assembly of rRNA into Ribosomal Subunits during Cold Acclimation in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Piersimoni, Lolita; Giangrossi, Mara; Marchi, Paolo; Brandi, Anna; Gualerzi, Claudio O; Pon, Cynthia L

    2016-04-24

    During the cold adaptation that follows a cold stress, bacterial cells undergo many physiological changes and extensive reprogramming of their gene expression pattern. Bulk gene expression is drastically reduced, while a set of cold shock genes is selectively and transiently expressed. The initial stage of cold acclimation is characterized by the establishment of a stoichiometric imbalance of the translation initiation factors (IFs)/ribosomes ratio that contributes to the preferential translation of cold shock transcripts. Whereas de novo synthesis of the IFs following cold stress has been documented, nothing was known concerning the activity of the rrn operons during the cold acclimation period. In this work, we focus on the expression of the rrn operons and the fate of rRNA after temperature downshift. We demonstrate that in Escherichia coli, rRNA synthesis does not stop during the cold acclimation phase, but continues with greater contribution of the P2 compared to the P1 promoter and all seven rrn operons are active, although their expression levels change with respect to pre-stress conditions. Eight hours after the 37°→10°C temperature downshift, the newly transcribed rRNA represents up to 20% of total rRNA and is preferentially found in the polysomes. However, with respect to the de novo synthesis of the IFs, both rRNA transcription and maturation are slowed down drastically by cold stress, thereby accounting in part for the stoichiometric imbalance of the IFs/ribosomes. Overall, our data indicate that new ribosomes, which are possibly suitable to function at low temperature, are slowly assembled during cold acclimation. PMID:26953262

  2. Characterization of three different clusters of 18S-26S ribosomal DNA genes in the sea urchin P. lividus: Genetic and epigenetic regulation synchronous to 5S rDNA.

    PubMed

    Bellavia, Daniele; Dimarco, Eufrosina; Caradonna, Fabio

    2016-04-15

    We previously reported the characterization 5S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) clusters in the common sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus and demonstrated the presence of DNA methylation-dependent silencing of embryo specific 5S rDNA cluster in adult tissue. In this work, we show genetic and epigenetic characterization of 18S-26S rDNA clusters in this specie. The results indicate the presence of three different 18S-26S rDNA clusters with different Non-Transcribed Spacer (NTS) regions that have different chromosomal localizations. Moreover, we show that the two largest clusters are hyper-methylated in the promoter-containing NTS regions in adult tissues, as in the 5S rDNA. These findings demonstrate an analogous epigenetic regulation in small and large rDNA clusters and support the logical synchronism in building ribosomes. In fact, all the ribosomal RNA genes must be synchronously and equally transcribed to perform their unique final product. PMID:26789074

  3. Both the Exact Target Site Sequence and a Long Poly(A) Tail Are Required for Precise Insertion of the 18S Ribosomal DNA-Specific Non-Long Terminal Repeat Retrotransposon R7Ag.

    PubMed

    Nichuguti, Narisu; Hayase, Mayumi; Fujiwara, Haruhiko

    2016-05-15

    Ribosomal elements (R elements) are site-specific non-long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons that target ribosomal DNA (rDNA). To elucidate how R elements specifically access their target sites, we isolated and characterized the 18S rDNA-specific R element R7Ag from Anopheles gambiae Using an in vivo and ex vivo recombinant baculovirus retrotransposition system, we found that the exact host 18S rDNA sequence at the target site is essential for the precise insertion of R7Ag. In addition, a long poly(A) tail is necessary for the accurate initiation of R7Ag reverse transcription, a novel mechanism found in non-LTR elements. We further compared the subcellular localizations of proteins in R7Ag as well as R1Bm, another R element that targets 28S rDNA. Although the open reading frame 1 proteins (ORF1ps) of both R7Ag and R1Bm localized predominantly in the cytoplasm, ORF2 proteins (ORF2ps) colocalized in the nucleus with the nucleolar marker fibrillarin. The ORF1ps and ORF2ps of both R elements colocalized largely in the nuclear periphery and to a lesser extent within the nucleus. These results suggest that R7Ag and R1Bm proteins may access nucleolar rDNA targets in an ORF2p-dependent manner. PMID:26976636

  4. Reassignment of the land tortoise haemogregarine Haemogregarina fitzsimonsi Dias 1953 (Adeleorina: Haemogregarinidae) to the genus Hepatozoon Miller 1908 (Adeleorina: Hepatozoidae) based on parasite morphology, life cycle and phylogenetic analysis of 18S rDNA sequence fragments.

    PubMed

    Cook, Courtney A; Lawton, Scott P; Davies, Angela J; Smit, Nico J

    2014-06-13

    SUMMARY Research was undertaken to clarify the true taxonomic position of the terrestrial tortoise apicomplexan, Haemogregarina fitzsimonsi (Dias, 1953). Thin blood films were screened from 275 wild and captive South African tortoises of 6 genera and 10 species between 2009-2011. Apicomplexan parasites within films were identified, with a focus on H. fitzsimonsi. Ticks from wild tortoises, especially Amblyomma sylvaticum and Amblyomma marmoreum were also screened, and sporogonic stages were identified on dissection of adult ticks of both species taken from H. fitzsimonsi infected and apparently non-infected tortoises. Parasite DNA was extracted from fixed, Giemsa-stained tortoise blood films and from both fresh and fixed ticks, and PCR was undertaken with two primer sets, HEMO1/HEMO2, and HepF300/HepR900, to amplify parasite 18S rDNA. Results indicated that apicomplexan DNA extracted from tortoise blood films and both species of tick had been amplified by one or both primer sets. Haemogregarina  fitzsimonsi 18S rDNA sequences from tortoise blood aligned with those of species of Hepatozoon, rather than those of species of Haemogregarina or Hemolivia. It is recommended therefore that this haemogregarine be re-assigned to the genus Hepatozoon, making Hepatozoon fitzsimonsi (Dias, 1953) the only Hepatozoon known currently from any terrestrial chelonian. Ticks are its likely vectors. PMID:24923767

  5. Anaplasma phagocytophilum in Questing Ixodes ricinus Ticks: Comparison of Prevalences and Partial 16S rRNA Gene Variants in Urban, Pasture, and Natural Habitats

    PubMed Central

    Pfister, Kurt; Thiel, Claudia; Herb, Ingrid; Mahling, Monia; Silaghi, Cornelia

    2013-01-01

    Urban, natural, and pasture areas were investigated for prevalences and 16S rRNA gene variants of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in questing Ixodes ricinus ticks. The prevalences differed significantly between habitat types, and year-to-year variations in prevalence and habitat-dependent occurrence of 16S rRNA gene variants were detected. PMID:23263964

  6. Changes in the Composition of Drinking Water Bacterial Clone Libraries Introduced by Using Two Different 16S rRna Gene PCR Primers

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sequence analysis of 16S rRNA gene clone libraries is a popular tool used to describe the composition of natural microbial communities. Commonly, clone libraries are developed by direct cloning of 16S rRNA gene PCR products. Different primers are often employed in the initial amp...

  7. Changes in the Composition of Drinking Water Bacterial Clone Libraries Introduced by Using Two Different 16S rRNA Gene PCR Primers

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sequence analysis of 16S rRNA gene clone libraries is a popular tool used to describe the composition of natural microbial communities. Commonly, clone libraries are developed by direct cloning of 16S rRNA gene PCR products. Different primers are often employed in the initial amp...

  8. Development of a Multiplex PCR Method for Detection of the Genes Encoding 16S rRNA, Coagulase, Methicillin Resistance and Enterotoxins in Staphylococcus aureus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A multiplex PCR method was developed for simultaneous detection of the genes encoding methicillin resistance (mecA), staphylococcal enterotoxins A, B and C (sea, seb and sec), coagulase (coa) and 16S rRNA. The primers for amplification of the 16S rRNA gene were specific for Staphylococcus spp., and ...

  9. Two distinct promoter elements in the human rRNA gene identified by linker scanning mutagenesis.

    PubMed Central

    Haltiner, M M; Smale, S T; Tjian, R

    1986-01-01

    A cell-free RNA polymerase I transcription system was used to evaluate the transcription efficiency of 21 linker scanning mutations that span the human rRNA gene promoter. Our analysis revealed the presence of two major control elements, designated the core and upstream elements, that affect the level of transcription initiation. The core element extends from -45 to +18 relative to the RNA start site, and transcription is severely affected (up to 100-fold) by linker scanning mutations in this region. Linker scanning and deletion mutations in the upstream element, located between nucleotides -156 and -107, cause a three- to fivefold reduction in transcription. Under certain reaction conditions, such as the presence of a high ratio of protein to template or supplementation of the reaction with partially purified protein fractions, sequences upstream of the core element can have an even greater effect (20- to 50-fold) on RNA polymerase I transcription. Primer extension analysis showed that RNA synthesized from all of these mutant templates is initiated at the correct in vivo start site. To examine the functional relationship between the core and the upstream region, mutant promoters were constructed that alter the orientation, distance, or multiplicity of these control elements relative to each other. The upstream control element appears to function in only one orientation, and its position relative to the core is constrained within a fairly narrow region. Moreover, multiple core elements in close proximity to each other have an inhibitory effect on transcription. Images PMID:3785147

  10. CATCh, an ensemble classifier for chimera detection in 16S rRNA sequencing studies.

    PubMed

    Mysara, Mohamed; Saeys, Yvan; Leys, Natalie; Raes, Jeroen; Monsieurs, Pieter

    2015-03-01

    In ecological studies, microbial diversity is nowadays mostly assessed via the detection of phylogenetic marker genes, such as 16S rRNA. However, PCR amplification of these marker genes produces a significant amount of artificial sequences, often referred to as chimeras. Different algorithms have been developed to remove these chimeras, but efforts to combine different methodologies are limited. Therefore, two machine learning classifiers (reference-based and de novo CATCh) were developed by integrating the output of existing chimera detection tools into a new, more powerful method. When comparing our classifiers with existing tools in either the reference-based or de novo mode, a higher performance of our ensemble method was observed on a wide range of sequencing data, including simulated, 454 pyrosequencing, and Illumina MiSeq data sets. Since our algorithm combines the advantages of different individual chimera detection tools, our approach produces more robust results when challenged with chimeric sequences having a low parent divergence, short length of the chimeric range, and various numbers of parents. Additionally, it could be shown that integrating CATCh in the preprocessing pipeline has a beneficial effect on the quality of the clustering in operational taxonomic units. PMID:25527546

  11. Phylogenetic relationship of phosphate solubilizing bacteria according to 16S rRNA genes.

    PubMed

    Javadi Nobandegani, Mohammad Bagher; Saud, Halimi Mohd; Yun, Wong Mui

    2015-01-01

    Phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB) can convert insoluble form of phosphorous to an available form. Applications of PSB as inoculants increase the phosphorus uptake by plant in the field. In this study, isolation and precise identification of PSB were carried out in Malaysian (Serdang) oil palm field (University Putra Malaysia). Identification and phylogenetic analysis of 8 better isolates were carried out by 16S rRNA gene sequencing in which as a result five isolates belong to the Beta subdivision of Proteobacteria, one isolate was related to the Gama subdivision of Proteobacteria, and two isolates were related to the Firmicutes. Bacterial isolates of 6upmr, 2upmr, 19upmnr, 10upmr, and 24upmr were identified as Alcaligenes faecalis. Also, bacterial isolates of 20upmnr and 17upmnr were identified as Bacillus cereus and Vagococcus carniphilus, respectively, and bacterial isolates of 31upmr were identified as Serratia plymuthica. Molecular identification and characterization of oil palm strains as the specific phosphate solubilizer can reduce the time and cost of producing effective inoculate (biofertilizer) in an oil palm field. PMID:25632387

  12. Primer and platform effects on 16S rRNA tag sequencing

    SciTech Connect

    Tremblay, Julien; Singh, Kanwar; Fern, Alison; Kirton, Edward S.; He, Shaomei; Woyke, Tanja; Lee, Janey; Chen, Feng; Dangl, Jeffery L.; Tringe, Susannah G.

    2015-08-04

    Sequencing of 16S rRNA gene tags is a popular method for profiling and comparing microbial communities. The protocols and methods used, however, vary considerably with regard to amplification primers, sequencing primers, sequencing technologies; as well as quality filtering and clustering. How results are affected by these choices, and whether data produced with different protocols can be meaningfully compared, is often unknown. Here we compare results obtained using three different amplification primer sets (targeting V4, V6–V8, and V7–V8) and two sequencing technologies (454 pyrosequencing and Illumina MiSeq) using DNA from a mock community containing a known number of species as well as complex environmental samples whose PCR-independent profiles were estimated using shotgun sequencing. We find that paired-end MiSeq reads produce higher quality data and enabled the use of more aggressive quality control parameters over 454, resulting in a higher retention rate of high quality reads for downstream data analysis. While primer choice considerably influences quantitative abundance estimations, sequencing platform has relatively minor effects when matched primers are used. In conclusion, beta diversity metrics are surprisingly robust to both primer and sequencing platform biases.

  13. Evolution of green plants as deduced from 5S rRNA sequences

    PubMed Central

    Hori, Hiroshi; Lim, Byung-Lak; Osawa, Syozo

    1985-01-01

    We have constructed a phylogenic tree for green plants by comparing 5S rRNA sequences. The tree suggests that the emergence of most of the uni- and multicellular green algae such as Chlamydomonas, Spirogyra, Ulva, and Chlorella occurred in the early stage of green plant evolution. The branching point of Nitella is a little earlier than that of land plants and much later than that of the above green algae, supporting the view that Nitella-like green algae may be the direct precursor to land plants. The Bryophyta and the Pteridophyta separated from each other after emergence of the Spermatophyta. The result is consistent with the view that the Bryophyta evolved from ferns by degeneration. In the Pteridophyta, Psilotum (whisk fern) separated first, and a little later Lycopodium (club moss) separated from the ancestor common to Equisetum (horsetail) and Dryopteris (fern). This order is in accordance with the classical view. During the Spermatophyta evolution, the gymnosperms (Cycas, Ginkgo, and Metasequoia have been studied here) and the angiosperms (flowering plants) separated, and this was followed by the separation of Metasequoia and Cycas (cycad)/Ginkgo (maidenhair tree) on one branch and various flowering plants on the other. PMID:16593540

  14. Evolution of green plants as deduced from 5S rRNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Hori, H; Lim, B L; Osawa, S

    1985-02-01

    We have constructed a phylogenic tree for green plants by comparing 5S rRNA sequences. The tree suggests that the emergence of most of the uni- and multicellular green algae such as Chlamydomonas, Spirogyra, Ulva, and Chlorella occurred in the early stage of green plant evolution. The branching point of Nitella is a little earlier than that of land plants and much later than that of the above green algae, supporting the view that Nitella-like green algae may be the direct precursor to land plants. The Bryophyta and the Pteridophyta separated from each other after emergence of the Spermatophyta. The result is consistent with the view that the Bryophyta evolved from ferns by degeneration. In the Pteridophyta, Psilotum (whisk fern) separated first, and a little later Lycopodium (club moss) separated from the ancestor common to Equisetum (horsetail) and Dryopteris (fern). This order is in accordance with the classical view. During the Spermatophyta evolution, the gymnosperms (Cycas, Ginkgo, and Metasequoia have been studied here) and the angiosperms (flowering plants) separated, and this was followed by the separation of Metasequoia and Cycas (cycad)/Ginkgo (maidenhair tree) on one branch and various flowering plants on the other. PMID:16593540

  15. Primer and platform effects on 16S rRNA tag sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Tremblay, Julien; Singh, Kanwar; Fern, Alison; Kirton, Edward S.; He, Shaomei; Woyke, Tanja; Lee, Janey; Chen, Feng; Dangl, Jeffery L.; Tringe, Susannah G.

    2015-01-01

    Sequencing of 16S rRNA gene tags is a popular method for profiling and comparing microbial communities. The protocols and methods used, however, vary considerably with regard to amplification primers, sequencing primers, sequencing technologies; as well as quality filtering and clustering. How results are affected by these choices, and whether data produced with different protocols can be meaningfully compared, is often unknown. Here we compare results obtained using three different amplification primer sets (targeting V4, V6–V8, and V7–V8) and two sequencing technologies (454 pyrosequencing and Illumina MiSeq) using DNA from a mock community containing a known number of species as well as complex environmental samples whose PCR-independent profiles were estimated using shotgun sequencing. We find that paired-end MiSeq reads produce higher quality data and enabled the use of more aggressive quality control parameters over 454, resulting in a higher retention rate of high quality reads for downstream data analysis. While primer choice considerably influences quantitative abundance estimations, sequencing platform has relatively minor effects when matched primers are used. Beta diversity metrics are surprisingly robust to both primer and sequencing platform biases. PMID:26300854

  16. Predictive functional profiling of microbial communities using 16S rRNA marker gene sequences

    PubMed Central

    Langille, Morgan G. I.; Zaneveld, Jesse; Caporaso, J. Gregory; McDonald, Daniel; Knights, Dan; Reyes, Joshua A.; Clemente, Jose C.; Burkepile, Deron E.; Vega Thurber, Rebecca L.; Knight, Rob; Beiko, Robert G.; Huttenhower, Curtis

    2013-01-01

    Profiling phylogenetic marker genes, such as the 16S rRNA gene, is a key tool for studies of microbial communities but does not provide direct evidence of a community’s functional capabilities. Here we describe PICRUSt (Phylogenetic Investigation of Communities by Reconstruction of Unobserved States), a computational approach to predict the functional composition of a metagenome using marker gene data and a database of reference genomes. PICRUSt uses an extended ancestral-state reconstruction algorithm to predict which gene families are present and then combines gene families to estimate the composite metagenome. Using 16S information, PICRUSt recaptures key findings from the Human Microbiome Project and accurately predicts the abundance of gene families in host-associated and environmental communities, with quantifiable uncertainty. Our results demonstrate that phylogeny and function are sufficiently linked that this ‘predictive metagenomic’ approach should provide useful insights into the thousands of uncultivated microbial communities for which only marker gene surveys are currently available. PMID:23975157

  17. Phylogenetic Relationship of Phosphate Solubilizing Bacteria according to 16S rRNA Genes

    PubMed Central

    Javadi Nobandegani, Mohammad Bagher; Saud, Halimi Mohd; Yun, Wong Mui

    2015-01-01

    Phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB) can convert insoluble form of phosphorous to an available form. Applications of PSB as inoculants increase the phosphorus uptake by plant in the field. In this study, isolation and precise identification of PSB were carried out in Malaysian (Serdang) oil palm field (University Putra Malaysia). Identification and phylogenetic analysis of 8 better isolates were carried out by 16S rRNA gene sequencing in which as a result five isolates belong to the Beta subdivision of Proteobacteria, one isolate was related to the Gama subdivision of Proteobacteria, and two isolates were related to the Firmicutes. Bacterial isolates of 6upmr, 2upmr, 19upmnr, 10upmr, and 24upmr were identified as Alcaligenes faecalis. Also, bacterial isolates of 20upmnr and 17upmnr were identified as Bacillus cereus and Vagococcus carniphilus, respectively, and bacterial isolates of 31upmr were identified as Serratia plymuthica. Molecular identification and characterization of oil palm strains as the specific phosphate solubilizer can reduce the time and cost of producing effective inoculate (biofertilizer) in an oil palm field. PMID:25632387

  18. Analysis of a 5S rRNA gene cloned from Euplotes eurstomus

    SciTech Connect

    Roberson, A.E.; Wolffe, A.; Olins, D.E.

    1987-05-01

    The macronucleus of the hypotrichous ciliated protozoan Euplotes eurystomus lends itself to the study of eukaryotic gene and chromatin structure because native macronuclear DNA exists as linear, gene-sized fragments between 400 and 20,000 bp in length. The macronuclear chromatin, while arranged in a typical nucleosomal structure, is freely soluble in low ionic strength buffers without treatment by nucleases. Thus, specific genes may be enriched as native, intact chromatin molecules. The 5S rRNA gene from Euplotes has been cloned to facilitate investigation of 5S gene-chromatin following characterization of the gene at the DNA level. It has been demonstrated that the gene, while in circular or linear form, can be transcribed in vitro by a Xenopus oocyte nuclear extract. The transcript generated in vitro is 120 nucleotides in length and is synthesized by RNA polymerase III. Anti-Xenopus TFIIIA antibodies recognize a Euplotes macronuclear chromatin-associated protein which is approx. 80 KD in size. It has been established that the sequence of the telomere flanking the 5S gene in Euplotes eurystomus is the same telomeric sequence published for Euplotes aediculatus.

  19. Formation of Tertiary Interactions during rRNA GTPase Center Folding.

    PubMed

    Rau, Michael J; Welty, Robb; Tom Stump, W; Hall, Kathleen B

    2015-08-28

    The 60-nt GTPase center (GAC) of 23S rRNA has a phylogenetically conserved secondary structure with two hairpin loops and a 3-way junction. It folds into an intricate tertiary structure upon addition of Mg(2+) ions, which is stabilized by the L11 protein in cocrystal structures. Here, we monitor the kinetics of its tertiary folding and Mg(2+)-dependent intermediate states by observing selected nucleobases that contribute specific interactions to the GAC tertiary structure in the cocrystals. The fluorescent nucleobase 2-aminopurine replaced three individual adenines, two of which make long-range stacking interactions and one that also forms hydrogen bonds. Each site reveals a unique response to Mg(2+) addition and temperature, reflecting its environmental change from secondary to tertiary structure. Stopped-flow fluorescence experiments revealed that kinetics of tertiary structure formation upon addition of MgCl2 are also site specific, with local conformational changes occurring from 5 ms to 4s and with global folding from 1 to 5s. Site-specific substitution with (15)N-nucleobases allowed observation of stable hydrogen bond formation by NMR experiments. Equilibrium titration experiments indicate that a stable folding intermediate is present at stoichiometric concentrations of Mg(2+) and suggest that there are two initial sites of Mg(2+) ion association. PMID:26210661

  20. Primer and platform effects on 16S rRNA tag sequencing

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Tremblay, Julien; Singh, Kanwar; Fern, Alison; Kirton, Edward S.; He, Shaomei; Woyke, Tanja; Lee, Janey; Chen, Feng; Dangl, Jeffery L.; Tringe, Susannah G.

    2015-08-04

    Sequencing of 16S rRNA gene tags is a popular method for profiling and comparing microbial communities. The protocols and methods used, however, vary considerably with regard to amplification primers, sequencing primers, sequencing technologies; as well as quality filtering and clustering. How results are affected by these choices, and whether data produced with different protocols can be meaningfully compared, is often unknown. Here we compare results obtained using three different amplification primer sets (targeting V4, V6–V8, and V7–V8) and two sequencing technologies (454 pyrosequencing and Illumina MiSeq) using DNA from a mock community containing a known number of species as wellmore » as complex environmental samples whose PCR-independent profiles were estimated using shotgun sequencing. We find that paired-end MiSeq reads produce higher quality data and enabled the use of more aggressive quality control parameters over 454, resulting in a higher retention rate of high quality reads for downstream data analysis. While primer choice considerably influences quantitative abundance estimations, sequencing platform has relatively minor effects when matched primers are used. In conclusion, beta diversity metrics are surprisingly robust to both primer and sequencing platform biases.« less

  1. Identification of Mushroom Species by Automated rRNA Intergenic Spacer Analysis (ARISA) and Its Application to a Suspected Case of Food Poisoning with Tricholoma ustale.

    PubMed

    Sugawara, Ryota; Yamada, Sayumi; Tu, Zhihao; Sugawara, Akiko; Hoshiba, Toshihiro; Eisaka, Sadao; Yamaguchi, Akihiro

    2016-01-01

    Automated rRNA intergenic spacer analysis (ARISA), a method of microbiome analysis, was evaluated for species identification of mushrooms based on the specific fragment sizes. We used 51 wild mushroom-fruiting bodies collected in the centre of Hokkaido and two cultivated mushrooms. Samples were hot-air-dried and DNA were extracted by a beads beating procedure. Sequencing analysis of portions of the rRNA gene (rDNA) provided 33 identifications of mushrooms by genus or species. The results of ARISA identification based on the combination of the fragment sizes corresponding to two inter spacer regions (ITS2 and ITS1) of rDNA within±0.1% accuracy showed that 27 out of the 33 species had specific fragment sizes differentiated from other species. The remaining 6 species formed 3 pairs that showed overlapping fragment sizes. In addition, within-species polymorphisms were observed as 1 bp differences among 32 samples of 13 species. ARISA was applied to investigate a case of suspected food poisoning in which the mushroom was thought to be a toxic Kakishimeji. The morphological identification of the mushroom was ambiguous since the remaining sample lacked a part of the fruiting body. Further, yeast colonies had grown on the surface of the fruiting body during storage. The ARISA fragment size of the mushroom showed 7 bp difference from that of the candidate toxic mushroom. Although ARISA could be a useful tools for estimation of mushroom species, especially in case where the fruiting bodies have deteriorated or been processed, further studies are necessary for reliable identification. For example, it may be necessary to adopt more informative genes which could provide clearer species-specific polymorphisms than the ITS regions. PMID:27211917

  2. Natural-abundance stable carbon isotopes of small-subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) from Guaymas Basin (Mexico)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacGregor, B. J.; Mendlovitz, H.; Albert, D.; Teske, A. P.

    2012-12-01

    Small-subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) is a phylogenetically informative molecule found in all species. Because it is poorly preserved in most environments, it is a useful marker for active microbial populations. We are using the natural-abundance stable carbon isotopic composition of specific microbial groups to help identify the carbon substrates contributing to microbial biomass in a variety of marine environments. At Guaymas Basin, hydrothermal fluids interact with abundant sedimentary organic carbon to produce natural gas and petroleum. Where this reaches the sediment surface, it can support dense patches of seafloor life, including Beggiatoa mats. We report here on the stable carbon isotopic composition of SSU rRNA from a Beggiatoa mat transect, a cold background site, a warm site with high oil concentration, and a second Beggiatoa mat. The central part of the transect mat overlay the steepest temperature gradient, and was visually dominated by orange Beggiatoa. This was fringed by white Beggiatoa mat and bare, but still warm, sediment. Methane concentrations were saturating beneath the orange and white mats and at the oily site, lower beneath bare sediment, and below detection at the background site. Our initial hypotheses were that rRNA isotopic composition would be strongly influenced by methane supply, and that archaeal rRNA might be lighter than bacterial due to contributions from methanogens and anaerobic methane oxidizers. We used biotin-labeled oligonucleotides to capture Bacterial and Archaeal SSU rRNA for isotopic determination. Background-site rRNA was isotopically heaviest, and bacterial RNA from below 2 cm at the oily site was lightest, consistent with control by methane. Within the transect mat, however, the pattern was more complicated; at some sediment depths, rRNA from the mat periphery was isotopically lightest. Part of this may be due to the spatially and temporally variable paths followed by hydrothermal fluid, which can include horizontal

  3. Use of 16S rRNA gene based clone libraries to assess microbial communities potentially involved in anaerobic methane oxidation in a Mediterranean cold seep.

    PubMed

    Heijs, Sander K; Haese, Ralf R; van der Wielen, Paul W J J; Forney, Larry J; van Elsas, Jan Dirk

    2007-04-01

    This study provides data on the diversities of bacterial and archaeal communities in an active methane seep at the Kazan mud volcano in the deep Eastern Mediterranean sea. Layers of varying depths in the Kazan sediments were investigated in terms of (1) chemical parameters and (2) DNA-based microbial population structures. The latter was accomplished by analyzing the sequences of directly amplified 16S rRNA genes, resulting in the phylogenetic analysis of the prokaryotic communities. Sequences of organisms potentially associated with processes such as anaerobic methane oxidation and sulfate reduction were thus identified. Overall, the sediment layers revealed the presence of sequences of quite diverse bacterial and archaeal communities, which varied considerably with depth. Dominant types revealed in these communities are known as key organisms involved in the following processes: (1) anaerobic methane oxidation and sulfate reduction, (2) sulfide oxidation, and (3) a range of (aerobic) heterotrophic processes. In the communities in the lowest sediment layer sampled (22-34 cm), sulfate-reducing bacteria and archaea of the ANME-2 cluster (likely involved in anaerobic methane oxidation) were prevalent, whereas heterotrophic organisms abounded in the top sediment layer (0-6 cm). Communities in the middle layer (6-22 cm) contained organisms that could be linked to either of the aforementioned processes. We discuss how these phylogeny (sequence)-based findings can support the ongoing molecular work aimed at unraveling both the functioning and the functional diversities of the communities under study. PMID:17431711

  4. Cysteine Methylation Controls Radical Generation in the Cfr Radical AdoMet rRNA Methyltransferase

    PubMed Central

    Challand, Martin R.; Salvadori, Enrico; Driesener, Rebecca C.; Kay, Christopher W. M.; Roach, Peter L.; Spencer, James

    2013-01-01

    The ‘radical S-adenosyl-L-methionine (AdoMet)’ enzyme Cfr methylates adenosine 2503 of the 23S rRNA in the peptidyltransferase centre (P-site) of the bacterial ribosome. This modification protects host bacteria, notably methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), from numerous antibiotics, including agents (e.g. linezolid, retapamulin) that were developed to treat such organisms. Cfr contains a single [4Fe-4S] cluster that binds two separate molecules of AdoMet during the reaction cycle. These are used sequentially to first methylate a cysteine residue, Cys338; and subsequently generate an oxidative radical intermediate that facilitates methyl transfer to the unreactive C8 (and/or C2) carbon centres of adenosine 2503. How the Cfr active site, with its single [4Fe-4S] cluster, catalyses these two distinct activities that each utilise AdoMet as a substrate remains to be established. Here, we use absorbance and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy to investigate the interactions of AdoMet with the [4Fe-4S] clusters of wild-type Cfr and a Cys338 Ala mutant, which is unable to accept a methyl group. Cfr binds AdoMet with high (∼ 10 µM) affinity notwithstanding the absence of the RNA cosubstrate. In wild-type Cfr, where Cys338 is methylated, AdoMet binding leads to rapid oxidation of the [4Fe-4S] cluster and production of 5'-deoxyadenosine (DOA). In contrast, while Cys338 Ala Cfr binds AdoMet with equivalent affinity, oxidation of the [4Fe-4S] cluster is not observed. Our results indicate that the presence of a methyl group on Cfr Cys338 is a key determinant of the activity of the enzyme towards AdoMet, thus enabling a single active site to support two distinct modes of AdoMet cleavage. PMID:23861844

  5. Accurate, Rapid Taxonomic Classification of Fungal Large-Subunit rRNA Genes

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Kuan-Liang; Porras-Alfaro, Andrea; Eichorst, Stephanie A.

    2012-01-01

    Taxonomic and phylogenetic fingerprinting based on sequence analysis of gene fragments from the large-subunit rRNA (LSU) gene or the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region is becoming an integral part of fungal classification. The lack of an accurate and robust classification tool trained by a validated sequence database for taxonomic placement of fungal LSU genes is a severe limitation in taxonomic analysis of fungal isolates or large data sets obtained from environmental surveys. Using a hand-curated set of 8,506 fungal LSU gene fragments, we determined the performance characteristics of a naïve Bayesian classifier across multiple taxonomic levels and compared the classifier performance to that of a sequence similarity-based (BLASTN) approach. The naïve Bayesian classifier was computationally more rapid (>460-fold with our system) than the BLASTN approach, and it provided equal or superior classification accuracy. Classifier accuracies were compared using sequence fragments of 100 bp and 400 bp and two different PCR primer anchor points to mimic sequence read lengths commonly obtained using current high-throughput sequencing technologies. Accuracy was higher with 400-bp sequence reads than with 100-bp reads. It was also significantly affected by sequence location across the 1,400-bp test region. The highest accuracy was obtained across either the D1 or D2 variable region. The naïve Bayesian classifier provides an effective and rapid means to classify fungal LSU sequences from large environmental surveys. The training set and tool are publicly available through the Ribosomal Database Project (http://rdp.cme.msu.edu/classifier/classifier.jsp). PMID:22194300

  6. Emergence of Multidrug-Resistant Campylobacter Species Isolates with a Horizontally Acquired rRNA Methylase

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yang; Zhang, Maojun; Deng, Fengru; Shen, Zhangqi; Wu, Congming; Zhang, Jianzhong

    2014-01-01

    Antibiotic-resistant Campylobacter constitutes a serious threat to public health, and resistance to macrolides is of particular concern, as this class of antibiotics is the drug of choice for clinical therapy of campylobacteriosis. Very recently, a horizontally transferrable macrolide resistance mediated by the rRNA methylase gene erm(B) was reported in a Campylobacter coli isolate, but little is known about the dissemination of erm(B) among Campylobacter isolates and the association of erm(B)-carrying isolates with clinical disease. To address this question and facilitate the control of antibiotic-resistant Campylobacter, we determined the distribution of erm(B) in 1,554 C. coli and Campylobacter jejuni isolates derived from food-producing animals and clinically confirmed human diarrheal cases. The results revealed that 58 of the examined isolates harbored erm(B) and exhibited high-level resistance to macrolides, and most were recent isolates, derived in 2011-2012. In addition, the erm(B)-positive isolates were all resistant to fluoroquinolones, another clinically important antibiotic used for treating campylobacteriosis. The erm(B) gene is found to be associated with chromosomal multidrug resistance genomic islands (MDRGIs) of Gram-positive origin or with plasmids of various sizes. All MDRGIs were transferrable to macrolide-susceptible C. jejuni by natural transformation under laboratory conditions. Molecular typing of the erm(B)-carrying isolates by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) identified diverse genotypes and outbreak-associated diarrheal isolates. Molecular typing also suggested zoonotic transmission of erm(B)-positive Campylobacter. These findings reveal an emerging and alarming trend of dissemination of erm(B) and MDRGIs in Campylobacter and underscore the need for heightened efforts to control their further spread. PMID:24982085

  7. The inconstant gut microbiota of Drosophila species revealed by 16S rRNA gene analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Adam C-N; Chaston, John M; Douglas, Angela E

    2013-01-01

    The gut microorganisms in some animals are reported to include a core microbiota of consistently associated bacteria that is ecologically distinctive and may have coevolved with the host. The core microbiota is promoted by positive interactions among bacteria, favoring shared persistence; its retention over evolutionary timescales is evident as congruence between host phylogeny and bacterial community composition. This study applied multiple analyses to investigate variation in the composition of gut microbiota in drosophilid flies. First, the prevalence of five previously described gut bacteria (Acetobacter and Lactobacillus species) in individual flies of 21 strains (10 Drosophila species) were determined. Most bacteria were not present in all individuals of most strains, and bacterial species pairs co-occurred in individual flies less frequently than predicted by chance, contrary to expectations of a core microbiota. A complementary pyrosequencing analysis of 16S rRNA gene amplicons from the gut microbiota of 11 Drosophila species identified 209 bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs), with near-saturating sampling of sequences, but none of the OTUs was common to all host species. Furthermore, in both of two independent sets of Drosophila species, the gut bacterial community composition was not congruent with host phylogeny. The final analysis identified no common OTUs across three wild and four laboratory samples of D. melanogaster. Our results yielded no consistent evidence for a core microbiota in Drosophila. We conclude that the taxonomic composition of gut microbiota varies widely within and among Drosophila populations and species. This is reminiscent of the patterns of bacterial composition in guts of some other animals, including humans. PMID:23719154

  8. The inconstant gut microbiota of Drosophila species revealed by 16S rRNA gene analysis.

    PubMed

    Wong, Adam C-N; Chaston, John M; Douglas, Angela E

    2013-10-01

    The gut microorganisms in some animals are reported to include a core microbiota of consistently associated bacteria that is ecologically distinctive and may have coevolved with the host. The core microbiota is promoted by positive interactions among bacteria, favoring shared persistence; its retention over evolutionary timescales is evident as congruence between host phylogeny and bacterial community composition. This study applied multiple analyses to investigate variation in the composition of gut microbiota in drosophilid flies. First, the prevalence of five previously described gut bacteria (Acetobacter and Lactobacillus species) in individual flies of 21 strains (10 Drosophila species) were determined. Most bacteria were not present in all individuals of most strains, and bacterial species pairs co-occurred in individual flies less frequently than predicted by chance, contrary to expectations of a core microbiota. A complementary pyrosequencing analysis of 16S rRNA gene amplicons from the gut microbiota of 11 Drosophila species identified 209 bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs), with near-saturating sampling of sequences, but none of the OTUs was common to all host species. Furthermore, in both of two independent sets of Drosophila species, the gut bacterial community composition was not congruent with host phylogeny. The final analysis identified no common OTUs across three wild and four laboratory samples of D. melanogaster. Our results yielded no consistent evidence for a core microbiota in Drosophila. We conclude that the taxonomic composition of gut microbiota varies widely within and among Drosophila populations and species. This is reminiscent of the patterns of bacterial composition in guts of some other animals, including humans. PMID:23719154

  9. 16S rRNA Gene Survey of Microbial Communities in Winogradsky Columns

    PubMed Central

    Rundell, Ethan A.; Banta, Lois M.; Ward, Doyle V.; Watts, Corey D.; Birren, Bruce; Esteban, David J.

    2014-01-01

    A Winogradsky column is a clear glass or plastic column filled with enriched sediment. Over time, microbial communities in the sediment grow in a stratified ecosystem with an oxic top layer and anoxic sub-surface layers. Winogradsky columns have been used extensively to demonstrate microbial nutrient cycling and metabolic diversity in undergraduate microbiology labs. In this study, we used high-throughput 16s rRNA gene sequencing to investigate the microbial diversity of Winogradsky columns. Specifically, we tested the impact of sediment source, supplemental cellulose source, and depth within the column, on microbial community structure. We found that the Winogradsky columns were highly diverse communities but are dominated by three phyla: Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Firmicutes. The community is structured by a founding population dependent on the source of sediment used to prepare the columns and is differentiated by depth within the column. Numerous biomarkers were identified distinguishing sample depth, including Cyanobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, and Betaproteobacteria as biomarkers of the soil-water interface, and Clostridia as a biomarker of the deepest depth. Supplemental cellulose source impacted community structure but less strongly than depth and sediment source. In columns dominated by Firmicutes, the family Peptococcaceae was the most abundant sulfate reducer, while in columns abundant in Proteobacteria, several Deltaproteobacteria families, including Desulfobacteraceae, were found, showing that different taxonomic groups carry out sulfur cycling in different columns. This study brings this historical method for enrichment culture of chemolithotrophs and other soil bacteria into the modern era of microbiology and demonstrates the potential of the Winogradsky column as a model system for investigating the effect of environmental variables on soil microbial communities. PMID:25101630

  10. Identification of goat cashmere and sheep wool by PCR-RFLP analysis of mitochondrial 12S rRNA gene.

    PubMed

    Geng, Rong-Qing; Yuan, Chao; Chen, Yu-Lin

    2012-12-01

    The efficacy of polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis of mitochondrial 12S rRNA gene in identification of goat cashmere and sheep wool samples was evaluated. The specific fragments of the mitochondrial 12S rRNA gene, which were about 440 bp, were obtained using the PCR. Restriction enzyme digestion of the PCR products with endonucleases BspT I and Hinf I revealed species-specific RFLP patterns. Application of this technique on mixed samples could identify goat cashmere and sheep wool from each other within the proportion of 8:1. The technique, however, could detect only one species when the proportion of mixture was more than 9:1. The PCR-RFLP technique was demonstrated to possess potential value in precise identification of goat cashmere and sheep wool. PMID:22943150

  11. Analysis of rRNA Gene Methylation in Arabidopsis thaliana by CHEF-Conventional 2D Gel Electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Mohannath, Gireesha; Pikaard, Craig S

    2016-01-01

    Contour-clamped homogenous electric field (CHEF) gel electrophoresis, a variant of Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), is a powerful technique for resolving large fragments of DNA (10 kb-9 Mb). CHEF has many applications including the physical mapping of chromosomes, artificial chromosomes, and sub-chromosomal DNA fragments, etc. Here, we describe the use of CHEF and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis to analyze rRNA gene methylation patterns within the two ~4 million base pair nucleolus organizer regions (NORs) of Arabidopsis thaliana. The method involves CHEF gel electrophoresis of agarose-embedded DNA following restriction endonuclease digestion to cut the NORs into large but resolvable segments, followed by digestion with methylation-sensitive restriction endonucleases and conventional (or CHEF) gel electrophoresis, in a second dimension. Resulting products are then detected by Southern blotting or PCR analyses capable of discriminating rRNA gene subtypes. PMID:27576719

  12. The Deinococcus-Thermus phylum and the effect of rRNA composition on phylogenetic tree construction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weisburg, W. G.; Giovannoni, S. J.; Woese, C. R.

    1989-01-01

    Through comparative analysis of 16S ribosomal RNA sequences, it can be shown that two seemingly dissimilar types of eubacteria Deinococcus and the ubiquitous hot spring organism Thermus are distantly but specifically related to one another. This confirms an earlier report based upon 16S rRNA oligonucleotide cataloging studies (Hensel et al., 1986). Their two lineages form a distinctive grouping within the eubacteria that deserved the taxonomic status of a phylum. The (partial) sequence of T. aquaticus rRNA appears relatively close to those of other thermophilic eubacteria. e.g. Thermotoga maritima and Thermomicrobium roseum. However, this closeness does not reflect a true evolutionary closeness; rather it is due to a "thermophilic convergence", the result of unusually high G+C composition in the rRNAs of thermophilic bacteria. Unless such compositional biases are taken into account, the branching order and root of phylogenetic trees can be incorrectly inferred.

  13. EzEditor: a versatile sequence alignment editor for both rRNA- and protein-coding genes.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Yoon-Seong; Lee, Kihyun; Park, Sang-Cheol; Kim, Bong-Soo; Cho, Yong-Joon; Ha, Sung-Min; Chun, Jongsik

    2014-02-01

    EzEditor is a Java-based molecular sequence editor allowing manipulation of both DNA and protein sequence alignments for phylogenetic analysis. It has multiple features optimized to connect initial computer-generated multiple alignment and subsequent phylogenetic analysis by providing manual editing with reference to biological information specific to the genes under consideration. It provides various functionalities for editing rRNA alignments using secondary structure information. In addition, it supports simultaneous editing of both DNA sequences and their translated protein sequences for protein-coding genes. EzEditor is, to our knowledge, the first sequence editing software designed for both rRNA- and protein-coding genes with the visualization of biologically relevant information and should be useful in molecular phylogenetic studies. EzEditor is based on Java, can be run on all major computer operating systems and is freely available from http://sw.ezbiocloud.net/ezeditor/. PMID:24425826

  14. [Phylogeny of protostome moulting animals (Ecdysozoa) inferred from 18 and 28S rRNA gene sequences].

    PubMed

    Petrov, N B; Vladychenskaia, N S

    2005-01-01

    Reliability of reconstruction of phylogenetic relationships within a group of protostome moulting animals was evaluated by means of comparison of 18 and 28S rRNA gene sequences sets both taken separately and combined. Reliability of reconstructions was evaluated by values of the bootstrap support of major phylogenetic tree nodes and by degree of congruence of phylogenetic trees inferred by various methods. By both criteria, phylogenetic trees reconstructed from the combined 18 and 28S rRNA gene sequences were better than those inferred from 18 and 28S sequences taken separately. Results obtained are consistent with phylogenetic hypothesis separating protostome animals into two major clades, moulting Ecdysozoa (Priapulida + Kinorhyncha, Nematoda + Nematomorpha, Onychophora + Tardigrada, Myriapoda + Chelicerata, Crustacea + Hexapoda) and unmoulting Lophotrochozoa (Plathelminthes, Nemertini, Annelida, Mollusca, Echiura, Sipuncula). Clade Cephalorhyncha does not include nematomorphs (Nematomorpha). Conclusion was taken that it is necessary to use combined 18 and 28S data in phylogenetic studies. PMID:16083008

  15. Functional variants of 5S rRNA in the ribosomes of common sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus.

    PubMed

    Dimarco, Eufrosina; Cascone, Eleonora; Bellavia, Daniele; Caradonna, Fabio

    2012-10-15

    We have previously reported a molecular and cytogenetic characterization of three different 5S rDNA clusters in the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus; this study, performed at DNA level only, lends itself as starting point to verify that these clusters could contain transcribed genes, then, to demonstrate the presence of heterogeneity at functional RNA level, also. In the present work we report in P. lividus ribosomes the existence of several transcribed variants of the 5S rRNA and we associate all transcribed variants to the cluster to which belong. Our finding is the first demonstration of the presence of high heterogeneity in functional 5S rRNA molecules in animal ribosomes, a feature that had been considered a peculiarity of some plants. PMID:22967708

  16. Evolution of multicellular animals as deduced from 5S rRNA sequences: a possible early emergence of the Mesozoa.

    PubMed

    Ohama, T; Kumazaki, T; Hori, H; Osawa, S

    1984-06-25

    The nucleotide sequences of 5S rRNA from a mesozoan Dicyema misakiense and three metazoan species, i.e., an acorn-worm Saccoglossus kowalevskii, a moss-animal Bugula neritina, and an octopus Octopus vulgaris have been determined. A phylogenic tree of multicellular animals has been constructed from 73 5S rRNA sequences available at present including those from the above four sequences. The tree suggests that the mesozoan is the most ancient multicellular animal identified so far, its emergence time being almost the same as that of flagellated or ciliated protozoans. The branching points of planarians and nematodes are a little later than that of the mesozoan but are clearly earlier than other metazoan groups including sponges and jellyfishes. Many metazoan groups seem to have diverged within a relatively short period. PMID:6539911

  17. Population studies for STR loci (D3S1358, D5S818, D7S820, D18S51 and FGA) in NWFP and Sindhi populations of Pakistan for forensic use.

    PubMed

    Saqib Shahzad, M; Abbas Bokhari, S Yassir; Rao, Abdul Qayyum; Raza, M Hashim; Ullah, Obaid; Zia-Ur-rahman; Shahid, A Ali; Ahmad, Zahoor; Riazuddin, S

    2004-01-01

    CEMB's Forensic DNA typing project is directed towards the introduction of DNA typing technique in Pakistan's criminal justice system so as to exonerate an innocent and wrongly accused person and incriminates the culprit. The present study is a part of the project of CEMB to analyze Sindhi and NWFP (North West Frontier Province) populations for five STR (Short Tandem Repeat) loci out of 13 CODIS (Combined DNA Index System) loci. Allelic frequencies and heterozygosity for STR markers D3S1358, D5S818, D7S820, D18S51 and FGA (FIBRA) were determined. Samples from unrelated individuals were amplified by multiplex PCR using the unlabelled primers for these markers followed by denaturing Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis (PAGE). Statistical analysis was performed to determine the allelic frequencies and was evaluated using the Chi Square Test. PMID:15782779

  18. The Identification of Discriminating Patterns from 16S rRNA Gene to Generate Signature for Bacillus Genus.

    PubMed

    More, Ravi P; Purohit, Hemant J

    2016-08-01

    The 16S ribosomal RNA (16S rRNA) gene has been widely used for the taxonomic classification of bacteria. A molecular signature is a set of nucleotide patterns, which constitute a regular expression that is specific to each particular taxon. Our main goal was to identify discriminating nucleotide patterns in 16S rRNA gene and then to generate signatures for taxonomic classification. To demonstrate our approach, we used the phylum Firmicutes as a model using representative taxa Bacilli (class), Bacillales (order), Bacillaceae (family), and Bacillus (genus), according to their dominance at each hierarchical taxonomic level. We applied combined composite vector and multiple sequence alignment approaches to generate gene-specific signatures. Further, we mapped all the patterns into the different hypervariable regions of 16S rRNA gene and confirmed the most appropriate distinguishing region as V3-V4 for targeted taxa. We also examined the evolution in discriminating patterns of signatures across taxonomic levels. We assessed the comparative classification accuracy of signatures with other methods (i.e., RDP Classifier, KNN, and SINA). Results revealed that the signatures for taxa Bacilli, Bacillales, Bacillaceae, and Bacillus could correctly classify isolate sequences with sensitivity of 0.99, 0.97, 0.94, and 0.89, respectively, and specificity close to 0.99. We developed signature-based software DNA Barcode Identification (DNA BarID) for taxonomic classification that is available at website http://www.neeri.res.in/DNA_BarID.htm . This pattern-based study provides a deeper understanding of taxon-specific discriminating patterns in 16S rRNA gene with respect to taxonomic classification. PMID:27104769

  19. Assessing hog lagoon waste contamination in the Cape Fear Watershed using Bacteroidetes 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing.

    PubMed

    Arfken, Ann M; Song, Bongkeun; Mallin, Michael A

    2015-09-01

    Hog lagoons can be major sources of waste and nutrient contamination to watersheds adjacent to pig farms. Fecal source tracking methods targeting Bacteroidetes 16S rRNA genes in pig fecal matter may underestimate or fail to detect hog lagoon contamination in riverine environments. In order to detect hog lagoon wastewater contamination in the Cape Fear Watershed, where a large number of hog farms are present, we conducted pyrosequencing analyses of Bacteroidetes 16S rRNA genes in hog lagoon waste and identified new hog lagoon-specific marker sequences. Additional pyrosequencing analyses of Bacteroidetes 16S rRNA genes were conducted with surface water samples collected at 4 sites during 5 months in the Cape Fear Watershed. Using an operational taxonomic unit (OTU) identity cutoff value of 97 %, these newly identified hog lagoon markers were found in 3 of the river samples, while only 1 sample contained the pig fecal marker. In the sample containing the pig fecal marker, there was a relatively high percentage (14.1 %) of the hog lagoon markers and a low pig fecal marker relative abundance of 0.4 % in the Bacteroidetes 16S rRNA gene sequences. This suggests that hog lagoon contamination must be somewhat significant in order for pig fecal markers to be detected, and low levels of hog lagoon contamination cannot be detected targeting only pig-specific fecal markers. Thus, new hog lagoon markers have a better detection capacity for lagoon waste contamination, and in conjunction with a pig fecal marker, provide a more comprehensive and accurate detection of hog lagoon waste contamination in susceptible watersheds. PMID:26189016

  20. Molecular characterization of Sarcocystis species from Polish roe deer based on ssu rRNA and cox1 sequence analysis.

    PubMed

    Kolenda, Rafał; Ugorski, Maciej; Bednarski, Michał

    2014-08-01

    Sarcocysts from four Polish roe deer were collected and examined by light microscopy, small subunit ribosomal RNA (ssu rRNA), and the subunit I of cytochrome oxidase (cox1) sequence analysis. This resulted in identification of Sarcocystis gracilis, Sarcocystis oviformis, and Sarcocystis silva. However, we were unable to detect Sarcocystis capreolicanis, the fourth Sarcocystis species found previously in Norwegian roe deer. Polish sarcocysts isolated from various tissues differed in terms of their shape and size and were larger than the respective Norwegian isolates. Analysis of ssu rRNA gene revealed the lack of differences between Sarcocystis isolates belonging to one species and a very low degree of genetic diversity between Polish and Norwegian sarcocysts, ranging from 0.1% for Sarcocystis gracilis and Sarcocystis oviformis to 0.44% for Sarcocystis silva. Contrary to the results of the ssu rRNA analysis, small intraspecies differences in cox1 sequences were found among Polish Sarcocystis gracilis and Sarcocystis silva isolates. The comparison of Polish and Norwegian cox1 sequences representing the same Sarcocystis species revealed similar degree of sequence identity, namely 99.72% for Sarcocystis gracilis, 98.76% for Sarcocystis silva, and 99.85% for Sarcocystis oviformis. Phylogenetic reconstruction and genetic population analyses showed an unexpected high degree of identity between Polish and Norwegian isolates. Moreover, cox1 gene sequences turned out to be more accurate than ssu rRNA when used to reveal phylogenetic relationships among closely related species. The results of our study revealed that the same Sarcocystis species isolated from the same hosts living in different geographic regions show a very high level of genetic similarity. PMID:24948101