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Sample records for 18s small-subunit ribosomal

  1. Phylogeny and systematics of demospongiae in light of new small-subunit ribosomal DNA (18S) sequences.

    PubMed

    Redmond, N E; Morrow, C C; Thacker, R W; Diaz, M C; Boury-Esnault, N; Cárdenas, P; Hajdu, E; Lôbo-Hajdu, G; Picton, B E; Pomponi, S A; Kayal, E; Collins, A G

    2013-09-01

    The most diverse and species-rich class of the phylum Porifera is Demospongiae. In recent years, the systematics of this clade, which contains more than 7000 species, has developed rapidly in light of new studies combining molecular and morphological observations. We add more than 500 new, nearly complete 18S sequences (an increase of more than 200%) in an attempt to further enhance understanding of the phylogeny of Demospongiae. Our study specifically targets representation of type species and genera that have never been sampled for any molecular data in an effort to accelerate progress in classifying this diverse lineage. Our analyses recover four highly supported subclasses of Demospongiae: Keratosa, Myxospongiae, Haploscleromorpha, and Heteroscleromorpha. Within Keratosa, neither Dendroceratida, nor its two families, Darwinellidae and Dictyodendrillidae, are monophyletic and Dictyoceratida is divided into two lineages, one predominantly composed of Dysideidae and the second containing the remaining families (Irciniidae, Spongiidae, Thorectidae, and Verticillitidae). Within Myxospongiae, we find Chondrosida to be paraphyletic with respect to the Verongida. We amend the latter to include species of the genus Chondrosia and erect a new order Chondrillida to contain remaining taxa from Chondrosida, which we now discard. Even with increased taxon sampling of Haploscleromorpha, our analyses are consistent with previous studies; however, Haliclona species are interspersed in even more clades. Haploscleromorpha contains five highly supported clades, each more diverse than previously recognized, and current families are mostly polyphyletic. In addition, we reassign Janulum spinispiculum to Haploscleromorpha and resurrect Reniera filholi as Janulum filholi comb. nov. Within the large clade Heteroscleromorpha, we confirmed 12 recently identified clades based on alternative data, as well as a sister-group relationship between the freshwater Spongillida and the family

  2. Assessing the odd secondary structural properties of nuclear small subunit ribosomal RNA sequences (18S) of the twisted-wing parasites (Insecta: Strepsiptera).

    PubMed

    Gillespie, J J; McKenna, C H; Yoder, M J; Gutell, R R; Johnston, J S; Kathirithamby, J; Cognato, A I

    2005-12-01

    We report the entire sequence (2864 nts) and secondary structure of the nuclear small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) gene (18S) from the twisted-wing parasite Caenocholax fenyesi texensis Kathirithamby & Johnston (Strepsiptera: Myrmecolacidae). The majority of the base pairings in this structural model map on to the SSU rRNA secondary and tertiary helices that were previously predicted with comparative analysis. These regions of the core rRNA were unambiguously aligned across all Arthropoda. In contrast, many of the variable regions, as previously characterized in other insect taxa, had very large insertions in C. f. texensis. The helical base pairs in these regions were predicted with a comparative analysis of a multiple sequence alignment (that contains C. f. texensis and 174 published arthropod 18S rRNA sequences, including eleven strepsipterans) and thermodynamic-based algorithms. Analysis of our structural alignment revealed four unusual insertions in the core rRNA structure that are unique to animal 18S rRNA and in general agreement with previously proposed insertion sites for strepsipterans. One curious result is the presence of a large insertion within a hairpin loop of a highly conserved pseudoknot helix in variable region 4. Despite the extraordinary variability in sequence length and composition, this insertion contains the conserved sequences 5'-AUUGGCUUAAA-3' and 5'-GAC-3' that immediately flank a putative helix at the 5'- and 3'-ends, respectively. The longer sequence has the potential to form a nine base pair helix with a sequence in the variable region 2, consistent with a recent study proposing this tertiary interaction. Our analysis of a larger set of arthropod 18S rRNA sequences has revealed possible errors in some of the previously published strepsipteran 18S rRNA sequences. Thus we find no support for the previously recovered heterogeneity in the 18S molecules of strepsipterans. Our findings lend insight to the evolution of RNA structure and

  3. Prevalence, Genetic Characterization, and 18S Small Subunit Ribosomal RNA Diversity of Trypanosoma rangeli in Triatomine and Mammal Hosts in Endemic Areas for Chagas Disease in Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Ocaña-Mayorga, Sofia; Aguirre-Villacis, Fernanda; Pinto, C Miguel; Vallejo, Gustavo A; Grijalva, Mario J

    2015-12-01

    Trypanosoma rangeli is a nonpathogenic parasite for humans; however, its medical importance relies in its similarity and overlapping distribution with Trypanosoma cruzi, causal agent of Chagas disease in the Americas. The genetic diversity of T. rangeli and its association with host species (triatomines and mammals) has been identified along Central and the South America; however, it has not included data of isolates from Ecuador. This study reports infection with T. rangeli in 18 genera of mammal hosts and five species of triatomines in three environments (domestic, peridomestic, and sylvatic). Higher infection rates were found in the sylvatic environment, in close association with Rhodnius ecuadoriensis. The results of this study extend the range of hosts infected with this parasite and the geographic range of the T. rangeli genotype KP1(-)/lineage C in South America. It was not possible to detect variation on T. rangeli from the central coastal region and southern Ecuador with the analysis of the small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU-rRNA) gene, even though these areas are ecologically different and a phenotypic subdivision of R. ecuadoriensis has been found. R. ecuadoriensis is considered one of the most important vectors for Chagas disease transmission in Ecuador due to its wide distribution and adaptability to diverse environments. An extensive knowledge of the trypanosomes circulating in this species of triatomine, and associated mammal hosts, is important for delineating transmission dynamics and preventive measures in the endemic areas of Ecuador and Northern Peru. PMID:26645579

  4. Morphology and Small-Subunit Ribosomal DNA Sequence of Henneguya Adiposa (Myxosporea) From Ictalurus punctatus (Siluriformes)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The original description of Henneguya adiposa, a myxozoan parasitizing channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus, is supplemented with new data on spore morphology, including photomicrographs and line drawings, as well as 18S small-subunit (SSU) ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequence. Elongate, translucent, linear...

  5. Ribosomal small subunit domains radiate from a central core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulen, Burak; Petrov, Anton S.; Okafor, C. Denise; Vander Wood, Drew; O'Neill, Eric B.; Hud, Nicholas V.; Williams, Loren Dean

    2016-02-01

    The domain architecture of a large RNA can help explain and/or predict folding, function, biogenesis and evolution. We offer a formal and general definition of an RNA domain and use that definition to experimentally characterize the rRNA of the ribosomal small subunit. Here the rRNA comprising a domain is compact, with a self-contained system of molecular interactions. A given rRNA helix or stem-loop must be allocated uniquely to a single domain. Local changes such as mutations can give domain-wide effects. Helices within a domain have interdependent orientations, stabilities and interactions. With these criteria we identify a core domain (domain A) of small subunit rRNA. Domain A acts as a hub, linking the four peripheral domains and imposing orientational and positional restraints on the other domains. Experimental characterization of isolated domain A, and mutations and truncations of it, by methods including selective 2‧OH acylation analyzed by primer extension and circular dichroism spectroscopy are consistent with our architectural model. The results support the utility of the concept of an RNA domain. Domain A, which exhibits structural similarity to tRNA, appears to be an essential core of the small ribosomal subunit.

  6. Ribosomal small subunit domains radiate from a central core

    PubMed Central

    Gulen, Burak; Petrov, Anton S.; Okafor, C. Denise; Vander Wood, Drew; O’Neill, Eric B.; Hud, Nicholas V.; Williams, Loren Dean

    2016-01-01

    The domain architecture of a large RNA can help explain and/or predict folding, function, biogenesis and evolution. We offer a formal and general definition of an RNA domain and use that definition to experimentally characterize the rRNA of the ribosomal small subunit. Here the rRNA comprising a domain is compact, with a self-contained system of molecular interactions. A given rRNA helix or stem-loop must be allocated uniquely to a single domain. Local changes such as mutations can give domain-wide effects. Helices within a domain have interdependent orientations, stabilities and interactions. With these criteria we identify a core domain (domain A) of small subunit rRNA. Domain A acts as a hub, linking the four peripheral domains and imposing orientational and positional restraints on the other domains. Experimental characterization of isolated domain A, and mutations and truncations of it, by methods including selective 2′OH acylation analyzed by primer extension and circular dichroism spectroscopy are consistent with our architectural model. The results support the utility of the concept of an RNA domain. Domain A, which exhibits structural similarity to tRNA, appears to be an essential core of the small ribosomal subunit. PMID:26876483

  7. Ribosomal small subunit domains radiate from a central core.

    PubMed

    Gulen, Burak; Petrov, Anton S; Okafor, C Denise; Vander Wood, Drew; O'Neill, Eric B; Hud, Nicholas V; Williams, Loren Dean

    2016-01-01

    The domain architecture of a large RNA can help explain and/or predict folding, function, biogenesis and evolution. We offer a formal and general definition of an RNA domain and use that definition to experimentally characterize the rRNA of the ribosomal small subunit. Here the rRNA comprising a domain is compact, with a self-contained system of molecular interactions. A given rRNA helix or stem-loop must be allocated uniquely to a single domain. Local changes such as mutations can give domain-wide effects. Helices within a domain have interdependent orientations, stabilities and interactions. With these criteria we identify a core domain (domain A) of small subunit rRNA. Domain A acts as a hub, linking the four peripheral domains and imposing orientational and positional restraints on the other domains. Experimental characterization of isolated domain A, and mutations and truncations of it, by methods including selective 2'OH acylation analyzed by primer extension and circular dichroism spectroscopy are consistent with our architectural model. The results support the utility of the concept of an RNA domain. Domain A, which exhibits structural similarity to tRNA, appears to be an essential core of the small ribosomal subunit. PMID:26876483

  8. Megraft: A software package to graft ribosomal small subunit (16S/18S) fragments onto full-length sequences for accurate species richness and sequencing depth analysis in pyrosequencing-length metagenomes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Metagenomic libraries represent subsamples of the total DNA found at a study site and offer unprecedented opportunities to study ecological and functional aspects of microbial communities. To examine the depth of the sequencing effort, rarefaction analysis of the ribosomal small sub-unit (SSU/16S/18...

  9. Substitution rate calibration of small subunit ribosomal RNA identifies chlorarachniophyte endosymbionts as remnants of green algae.

    PubMed Central

    Van de Peer, Y; Rensing, S A; Maier, U G; De Wachter, R

    1996-01-01

    Chlorarachniophytes are amoeboid algae with chlorophyll a and b containing plastids that are surrounded by four membranes instead of two as in plants and green algae. These extra membranes form important support for the hypothesis that chlorarachniophytes have acquired their plastids by the ingestion of another eukaryotic plastid-containing alga. Chlorarachniophytes also contain a small nucleus-like structure called the nucleomorph situated between the two inner and the two outer membranes surrounding the plastid. This nucleomorph is a remnant of the endosymbiont's nucleus and encodes, among other molecules, small subunit ribosomal RNA. Previous phylogenetic analyses on the basis of this molecule provided unexpected and contradictory evidence for the origin of the chlorarachniophyte endosymbiont. We developed a new method for measuring the substitution rates of the individual nucleotides of small subunit ribosomal RNA. From the resulting substitution rate distribution, we derived an equation that gives a more realistic relationship between sequence dissimilarity and evolutionary distance than equations previously available. Phylogenetic trees constructed on the basis of evolutionary distances computed by this new method clearly situate the chlorarachniophyte nucleomorphs among the green algae. Moreover, this relationship is confirmed by transversion analysis of the Chlorarachnion plastid small subunit ribosomal RNA. PMID:8755544

  10. Mammalian mitochondrial ribosomal small subunit (MRPS) genes: A putative role in human disease.

    PubMed

    Gopisetty, Gopal; Thangarajan, Rajkumar

    2016-09-01

    Mitochondria are prominently understood as power houses producing ATP the primary energy currency of the cell. However, mitochondria are also known to play an important role in apoptosis and autophagy, and mitochondrial dysregulation can lead to pathological outcomes. Mitochondria are known to contain 1500 proteins of which only 13 are coded by mitochondrial DNA and the rest are coded by nuclear genes. Protein synthesis in mitochondria involves mitochondrial ribosomes which are 55-60S particles and are composed of small 28S and large 39S subunits. A feature of mammalian mitoribosome which differentiate it from bacterial ribosomes is the increased protein content. The human mitochondrial ribosomal protein (MRP) gene family comprises of 30 genes which code for mitochondrial ribosomal small subunit and 50 genes for the large subunit. The present review focuses on the mitochondrial ribosomal small subunit genes (MRPS), presents an overview of the literature and data gleaned from publicly available gene and protein expression databases. The survey revealed aberrations in MRPS gene expression patterns in varied human diseases indicating a putative role in their etiology. PMID:27170550

  11. Phylogenetic position of Cryothecomonas inferred from nuclear-encoded small subunit ribosomal RNA.

    PubMed

    Kühn, S; Lange, M; Medlin, L K

    2000-12-01

    The systematic position of the genus Cryothecomonas has been determined from an analysis of the nuclear-encoded small subunit ribosomal RNA gene of Cryothecomonas longipes and two strains of Cryothecomonas aestivalis. Our phylogenetic trees inferred from maximum likelihood, distance and maximum parsimony methods robustly show that the genus Cryothecomonas clusters within the phylum Cercozoa, and is related to the sarcomonad flagellate Heteromita globosa. Morphological data supporting the taxonomic placement of Cryothecomonas near the sarcomonad flagellates has been compiled from the literature. The high number of nucleotide substitutions found between two morphologically indistinguishable strains of Cryothecomonas aestivalis suggests the possibility of cryptic species within Cryothecomonas aestivalis. PMID:11212894

  12. Prevalent Ciliate Symbiosis on Copepods: High Genetic Diversity and Wide Distribution Detected Using Small Subunit Ribosomal RNA Gene

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Zhiling; Liu, Sheng; Hu, Simin; Li, Tao; Huang, Yousong; Liu, Guangxing; Zhang, Huan; Lin, Senjie

    2012-01-01

    Toward understanding the genetic diversity and distribution of copepod-associated symbiotic ciliates and the evolutionary relationships with their hosts in the marine environment, we developed a small subunit ribosomal RNA gene (18S rDNA)-based molecular method and investigated the genetic diversity and genotype distribution of the symbiotic ciliates on copepods. Of the 10 copepod species representing six families collected from six locations of Pacific and Atlantic Oceans, 9 were found to harbor ciliate symbionts. Phylogenetic analysis of the 391 ciliate 18S rDNA sequences obtained revealed seven groups (ribogroups), six (containing 99% of all the sequences) belonging to subclass Apostomatida, the other clustered with peritrich ciliate Vorticella gracilis. Among the Apostomatida groups, Group III were essentially identical to Vampyrophrya pelagica, and the other five groups represented the undocumented ciliates that were close to Vampyrophrya/Gymnodinioides/Hyalophysa. Group VI ciliates were found in all copepod species but one (Calanus sinicus), and were most abundant among all ciliate sequences obtained, indicating that they are the dominant symbiotic ciliates universally associated with copepods. In contrast, some ciliate sequences were found only in some of the copepods examined, suggesting the host selectivity and geographic differentiation of ciliates, which requires further verification by more extensive sampling. Our results reveal the wide occurrence and high genetic diversity of symbiotic ciliates on marine copepods and highlight the need to systematically investigate the host- and geography-based genetic differentiation and ecological roles of these ciliates globally. PMID:23024768

  13. An overview of the secondary structure of the V4 region of eukaryotic small-subunit ribosomal RNA.

    PubMed Central

    Nickrent, D L; Sargent, M L

    1991-01-01

    The V4 region of the small subunit (18S) ribosomal RNA was examined in 72 different sequences representing a broad sample eukaryotic diversity. This domain is the most variable region of the 18S rRNA molecule and ranges in length from ca. 230 to over 500 bases. Based upon comparative analysis, secondary structural models were constructed for all sequences and the resulting generalized model shows that most organisms possess seven helices for this region. The protists and two insects show from one to as many as four helices in addition to the above seven. In this report, we summarize secondary structure information presented elsewhere for the V4 region, describe the general features for helical and apical regions, and identify signature sequences useful in helix identification. Our model generally agrees with other current concepts; however, we propose modifications or alternative structures for the start of the V4 region, the large protist inserts, and the sector that may possibly contain a pseudoknot. PMID:2014163

  14. Phylogenetic relationships of the green alga Volvox carteri deduced from small-subunit ribosomal RNA comparisons.

    PubMed

    Rausch, H; Larsen, N; Schmitt, R

    1989-09-01

    The 1788-nucleotide sequence of the small-subunit ribosomal RNA (srRNA) coding region from the chlorophyte Volvox carteri was determined. The secondary structure bears features typical of the universal model of srRNA, including about 40 helices and a division into four domains. Phylogenetic relationships to 17 other eukaryotes, including two other chlorophytes, were explored by comparing srRNA sequences. Similarity values and the inspection of phylogenetic trees derived by distance matrix methods revealed a close relationship between V. carteri and Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. The results are consistent with the view that these Volvocales, and the third green alga, Nanochlorum eucaryotum, are more closely related to higher plants than to any other major eukaryotic group, but constitute a distinct lineage that has long been separated from the line leading to the higher plants. PMID:2506359

  15. Small-subunit ribosomal RNA gene sequences of Phaeodarea challenge the monophyly of Haeckel's Radiolaria.

    PubMed

    Polet, Stephane; Berney, Cédric; Fahrni, José; Pawlowski, Jan

    2004-03-01

    In his grand monograph of Radiolaria, Ernst Haeckel originally included Phaeodarea together with Acantharea and Polycystinea, all three taxa characterized by the presence of a central capsule and the possession of axopodia. Cytological and ultrastructural studies, however, questioned the monophyly of Radiolaria, suggesting an independent evolutionary origin of the three taxa, and the first molecular data on Acantharea and Polycystinea brought controversial results. To test further the monophyly of Radiolaria, we sequenced the complete small subunit ribosomal RNA gene of three phaeodarians and three polycystines. Our analyses reveal that phaeodarians clearly branch among the recently described phylum Cercozoa, separately from Acantharea and Polycystinea. This result enhances the morphological variability within the phylum Cercozoa, which already contains very heterogeneous groups of protists. Our study also confirms the common origin of Acantharea and Polycystinea, which form a sister-group to the Cercozoa, and allows a phylogenetic reinterpretation of the morphological features of the three radiolarian groups. PMID:15144058

  16. Stage-specific assembly events of the 6-MDa small-subunit processome initiate eukaryotic ribosome biogenesis.

    PubMed

    Chaker-Margot, Malik; Hunziker, Mirjam; Barandun, Jonas; Dill, Brian D; Klinge, Sebastian

    2015-11-01

    Eukaryotic ribosome biogenesis involves a plethora of ribosome-assembly factors, and their temporal order of association with preribosomal RNA is largely unknown. By using Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model organism, we developed a system that recapitulates and arrests ribosome assembly at early stages, thus providing in vivo snapshots of nascent preribosomal particles. Here we report the stage-specific order in which 70 ribosome-assembly factors associate with preribosomal RNA domains, thereby forming the 6-MDa small-subunit processome. PMID:26479197

  17. Recognition of chimeric small-subunit ribosomal DNAs composed of genes from uncultivated microorganisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kopczynski, E. D.; Bateson, M. M.; Ward, D. M.

    1994-01-01

    When PCR was used to recover small-subunit (SSU) rRNA genes from a hot spring cyanobacterial mat community, chimeric SSU rRNA sequences which exhibited little or no secondary structural abnormality were recovered. They were revealed as chimeras of SSU rRNA genes of uncultivated species through separate phylogenetic analysis of short sequence domains.

  18. Late-assembly of human ribosomal protein S20 in the cytoplasm is essential for the functioning of the small subunit ribosome

    SciTech Connect

    Tai, Lin-Ru; Chou, Chang-Wei; Wu, Jing-Ying; Kirby, Ralph; Lin, Alan

    2013-11-15

    Using immuno-fluorescent probing and Western blotting analysis, we reveal the exclusive cytoplasm nature of the small subunit ribosomal protein S20. To illustrate the importance of the cellular compartmentation of S20 to the function of small subunit 40S, we created a nuclear resident S20{sub NLS} mutant gene and examined polysome profile of cells that had been transfected with the S20{sub NLS} gene. As a result, we observed the formation of recombinant 40S carried S20{sub NLS} but this recombinant 40S was never found in the polysome, suggesting such a recombinant 40S was translation incompetent. Moreover, by the tactic of the energy depletion and restoration, we were able to restrain the nuclear-resided S20{sub NLS} in the cytoplasm. Yet, along a progressive energy restoration, we observed the presence of recombinant 40S subunits carrying the S20{sub NLS} in the polysome. This proves that S20 needs to be cytoplasmic in order to make a functional 40S subunit. Furthermore, it also implies that the assembly order of ribosomal protein in eukaryote is orderly regulated. - Highlights: • The step of S20 assembled on 40S is happened in the cytoplasm. • A small subunit assembled with a nuclear S20{sub NLS} is translational incompetence. • Using energy depletion and recovery to manipulate the cellular compartment of S20{sub NLS}. • Cytoplasm-retained S20{sub NLS} is crucial for creating a functional small subunit.

  19. Proteomic analysis of the mammalian mitochondrial ribosome. Identification of protein components in the 28 S small subunit.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, T; Terasaki, M; Takemoto-Hori, C; Hanada, T; Ueda, T; Wada, A; Watanabe, K

    2001-08-31

    The mammalian mitochondrial ribosome (mitoribosome) has a highly protein-rich composition with a small sedimentation coefficient of 55 S, consisting of 39 S large and 28 S small subunits. In the previous study, we analyzed 39 S large subunit proteins from bovine mitoribosome (Suzuki, T., Terasaki, M., Takemoto-Hori, C., Hanada, T., Ueda, T., Wada, A., and Watanabe, K. (2001) J. Biol. Chem. 276, 21724-21736). The results suggested structural compensation for the rRNA deficit through proteins of increased molecular mass in the mitoribosome. We report here the identification of 28 S small subunit proteins. Each protein was separated by radical-free high-reducing two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and analyzed by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry using electrospray ionization/ion trap mass spectrometer to identify cDNA sequence by expressed sequence tag data base searches in silico. Twenty one proteins from the small subunit were identified, including 11 new proteins along with their complete cDNA sequences from human and mouse. In addition to these proteins, three new proteins were also identified in the 55 S mitoribosome. We have clearly identified a mitochondrial homologue of S12, which is a key regulatory protein of translation fidelity and a candidate for the autosomal dominant deafness gene, DFNA4. The apoptosis-related protein DAP3 was found to be a component of the small subunit, indicating a new function for the mitoribosome in programmed cell death. In summary, we have mapped a total of 55 proteins from the 55 S mitoribosome on the two-dimensional polyacrylamide gels. PMID:11402041

  20. Systematics of Chaetognatha under the light of molecular data, using duplicated ribosomal 18S DNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Papillon, Daniel; Perez, Yvan; Caubit, Xavier; Le Parco, Yannick

    2006-03-01

    While the phylogenetic position of Chaetognatha has became central to the question of early bilaterian evolution, the internal systematics of the phylum are still not clear. The phylogenetic relationships of the chaetognaths were investigated using newly obtained small subunit ribosomal RNA nuclear 18S (SSU rRNA) sequences from 16 species together with 3 sequences available in GenBank. As previously shown with the large subunit ribosomal RNA 28S gene, two classes of Chaetognatha SSU rRNA gene can be identified, suggesting a duplication of the whole ribosomal cluster; allowing the rooting of one class of genes by another in phylogenetic analyses. Maximum Parsimony, Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian analyses of the molecular data, and statistical tests showed (1) that there are three main monophyletic groups: Sagittidae/Krohnittidae, Spadellidae/Pterosagittidae, and Eukrohniidae/Heterokrohniidae, (2) that the group of Aphragmophora without Pterosagittidae (Sagittidae/Krohnittidae) is monophyletic, (3) the Spadellidae/Pterosagittidae and Eukrohniidae/Heterokrohniidae families are very likely clustered, (4) the Krohnittidae and Pterosagittidae groups should no longer be considered as families as they are included in other groups designated as families, (5) suborder Ctenodontina is not monophyletic and the Flabellodontina should no longer be considered as a suborder, and (6) the Syngonata/Chorismogonata and the Monophragmophora/Biphragmophora hypotheses are rejected. Such conclusions are considered in the light of morphological characters, several of which are shown to be prone to homoplasy. PMID:16434216

  1. Phylogenetic position of the genus Perkinsus (Protista, Apicomplexa) based on small subunit ribosomal RNA.

    PubMed

    Goggin, C L; Barker, S C

    1993-07-01

    Parasites of the genus Perkinsus destroy marine molluscs worldwide. Their phylogenetic position within the kingdom Protista is controversial. Nucleotide sequence data (1792 bp) from the small subunit rRNA gene of Perkinsus sp. from Anadara trapezia (Mollusca: Bivalvia) from Moreton Bay, Queensland, was used to examine the phylogenetic affinities of this enigmatic genus. These data were aligned with nucleotide sequences from 6 apicomplexans, 3 ciliates, 3 flagellates, a dinoflagellate, 3 fungi, maize and human. Phylogenetic trees were constructed after analysis with maximum parsimony and distance matrix methods. Our analyses indicate that Perkinsus is phylogenetically closer to dinoflagellates and to coccidean and piroplasm apicomplexans than to fungi or flagellates. PMID:8366895

  2. Eukaryote-specific extensions in ribosomal proteins of the small subunit: Structure and function.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Arnab; Komar, Anton A

    2015-01-01

    High-resolution structures of yeast ribosomes have improved our understanding of the architecture and organization of eukaryotic rRNA and proteins, as well as eukaryote-specific extensions present in some conserved ribosomal proteins. Despite this progress, assignment of specific functions to individual proteins and/or eukaryote-specific protein extensions remains challenging. It has been suggested that eukaryote-specific extensions of conserved proteins from the small ribosomal subunit may facilitate eukaryote-specific reactions in the initiation phase of protein synthesis. This review summarizes emerging data describing the structural and functional significance of eukaryote-specific extensions of conserved small ribosomal subunit proteins, particularly their possible roles in recruitment and spatial organization of eukaryote-specific initiation factors. PMID:26779416

  3. Cryo-EM structure of the small subunit of the mammalian mitochondrial ribosome.

    PubMed

    Kaushal, Prem S; Sharma, Manjuli R; Booth, Timothy M; Haque, Emdadul M; Tung, Chang-Shung; Sanbonmatsu, Karissa Y; Spremulli, Linda L; Agrawal, Rajendra K

    2014-05-20

    The mammalian mitochondrial ribosomes (mitoribosomes) are responsible for synthesizing 13 membrane proteins that form essential components of the complexes involved in oxidative phosphorylation or ATP generation for the eukaryotic cell. The mammalian 55S mitoribosome contains significantly smaller rRNAs and a large mass of mitochondrial ribosomal proteins (MRPs), including large mito-specific amino acid extensions and insertions in MRPs that are homologous to bacterial ribosomal proteins and an additional 35 mito-specific MRPs. Here we present the cryo-EM structure analysis of the small (28S) subunit (SSU) of the 55S mitoribosome. We find that the mito-specific extensions in homologous MRPs generally are involved in inter-MRP contacts and in contacts with mito-specific MRPs, suggesting a stepwise evolution of the current architecture of the mitoribosome. Although most of the mito-specific MRPs and extensions of homologous MRPs are situated on the peripheral regions, they also contribute significantly to the formation of linings of the mRNA and tRNA paths, suggesting a tailor-made structural organization of the mito-SSU for the recruitment of mito-specific mRNAs, most of which do not possess a 5' leader sequence. In addition, docking of previously published coordinates of the large (39S) subunit (LSU) into the cryo-EM map of the 55S mitoribosome reveals that mito-specific MRPs of both the SSU and LSU are involved directly in the formation of six of the 15 intersubunit bridges. PMID:24799711

  4. Cryo-EM structure of the small subunit of the mammalian mitochondrial ribosome

    PubMed Central

    Kaushal, Prem S.; Sharma, Manjuli R.; Booth, Timothy M.; Haque, Emdadul M.; Tung, Chang-Shung; Sanbonmatsu, Karissa Y.; Spremulli, Linda L.; Agrawal, Rajendra K.

    2014-01-01

    The mammalian mitochondrial ribosomes (mitoribosomes) are responsible for synthesizing 13 membrane proteins that form essential components of the complexes involved in oxidative phosphorylation or ATP generation for the eukaryotic cell. The mammalian 55S mitoribosome contains significantly smaller rRNAs and a large mass of mitochondrial ribosomal proteins (MRPs), including large mito-specific amino acid extensions and insertions in MRPs that are homologous to bacterial ribosomal proteins and an additional 35 mito-specific MRPs. Here we present the cryo-EM structure analysis of the small (28S) subunit (SSU) of the 55S mitoribosome. We find that the mito-specific extensions in homologous MRPs generally are involved in inter-MRP contacts and in contacts with mito-specific MRPs, suggesting a stepwise evolution of the current architecture of the mitoribosome. Although most of the mito-specific MRPs and extensions of homologous MRPs are situated on the peripheral regions, they also contribute significantly to the formation of linings of the mRNA and tRNA paths, suggesting a tailor-made structural organization of the mito-SSU for the recruitment of mito-specific mRNAs, most of which do not possess a 5′ leader sequence. In addition, docking of previously published coordinates of the large (39S) subunit (LSU) into the cryo-EM map of the 55S mitoribosome reveals that mito-specific MRPs of both the SSU and LSU are involved directly in the formation of six of the 15 intersubunit bridges. PMID:24799711

  5. One step engineering of the small-subunit ribosomal RNA using CRISPR/Cas9.

    PubMed

    Kannan, Krishna; Tsvetanova, Billyana; Chuang, Ray-Yuan; Noskov, Vladimir N; Assad-Garcia, Nacyra; Ma, Li; Hutchison Iii, Clyde A; Smith, Hamilton O; Glass, John I; Merryman, Chuck; Venter, J Craig; Gibson, Daniel G

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria are indispensable for the study of fundamental molecular biology processes due to their relatively simple gene and genome architecture. The ability to engineer bacterial chromosomes is quintessential for understanding gene functions. Here we demonstrate the engineering of the small-ribosomal subunit (16S) RNA of Mycoplasma mycoides, by combining the CRISPR/Cas9 system and the yeast recombination machinery. We cloned the entire genome of M. mycoides in yeast and used constitutively expressed Cas9 together with in vitro transcribed guide-RNAs to introduce engineered 16S rRNA genes. By testing the function of the engineered 16S rRNA genes through genome transplantation, we observed surprising resilience of this gene to addition of genetic elements or helix substitutions with phylogenetically-distant bacteria. While this system could be further used to study the function of the 16S rRNA, one could envision the "simple" M. mycoides genome being used in this setting to study other genetic structures and functions to answer fundamental questions of life. PMID:27489041

  6. One step engineering of the small-subunit ribosomal RNA using CRISPR/Cas9

    PubMed Central

    Kannan, Krishna; Tsvetanova, Billyana; Chuang, Ray-Yuan; Noskov, Vladimir N.; Assad-Garcia, Nacyra; Ma, Li; Hutchison III, Clyde A.; Smith, Hamilton O.; Glass, John I.; Merryman, Chuck; Venter, J. Craig; Gibson, Daniel G.

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria are indispensable for the study of fundamental molecular biology processes due to their relatively simple gene and genome architecture. The ability to engineer bacterial chromosomes is quintessential for understanding gene functions. Here we demonstrate the engineering of the small-ribosomal subunit (16S) RNA of Mycoplasma mycoides, by combining the CRISPR/Cas9 system and the yeast recombination machinery. We cloned the entire genome of M. mycoides in yeast and used constitutively expressed Cas9 together with in vitro transcribed guide-RNAs to introduce engineered 16S rRNA genes. By testing the function of the engineered 16S rRNA genes through genome transplantation, we observed surprising resilience of this gene to addition of genetic elements or helix substitutions with phylogenetically-distant bacteria. While this system could be further used to study the function of the 16S rRNA, one could envision the “simple” M. mycoides genome being used in this setting to study other genetic structures and functions to answer fundamental questions of life. PMID:27489041

  7. Phylogenetics of Bonamia parasites based on small subunit and internal transcribed spacer region ribosomal DNA sequence data.

    PubMed

    Hill, Kristina M; Stokes, Nancy A; Webb, Stephen C; Hine, P Mike; Kroeck, Marina A; Moore, James D; Morley, Margaret S; Reece, Kimberly S; Burreson, Eugene M; Carnegie, Ryan B

    2014-07-24

    The genus Bonamia (Haplosporidia) includes economically significant oyster parasites. Described species were thought to have fairly circumscribed host and geographic ranges: B. ostreae infecting Ostrea edulis in Europe and North America, B. exitiosa infecting O. chilensis in New Zealand, and B. roughleyi infecting Saccostrea glomerata in Australia. The discovery of B. exitiosa-like parasites in new locations and the observation of a novel species, B. perspora, in non-commercial O. stentina altered this perception and prompted our wider evaluation of the global diversity of Bonamia parasites. Samples of 13 oyster species from 21 locations were screened for Bonamia spp. by PCR, and small subunit and internal transcribed spacer regions of Bonamia sp. ribosomal DNA were sequenced from PCR-positive individuals. Infections were confirmed histologically. Phylogenetic analyses using parsimony and Bayesian methods revealed one species, B. exitiosa, to be widely distributed, infecting 7 oyster species from Australia, New Zealand, Argentina, eastern and western USA, and Tunisia. More limited host and geographic distributions of B. ostreae and B. perspora were confirmed, but nothing genetically identifiable as B. roughleyi was found in Australia or elsewhere. Newly discovered diversity included a Bonamia sp. in Dendostrea sandvicensis from Hawaii, USA, that is basal to the other Bonamia species and a Bonamia sp. in O. edulis from Tomales Bay, California, USA, that is closely related to both B. exitiosa and the previously observed Bonamia sp. from O. chilensis in Chile. PMID:25060496

  8. A definition of the domains Archaea, Bacteria and Eucarya in terms of small subunit ribosomal RNA characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winker, S.; Woese, C. R.

    1991-01-01

    The number of small subunit rRNA sequences is now great enough that the three domains Archaea, Bacteria and Eucarya (Woese et al., 1990) can be reliably defined in terms of their sequence "signatures". Approximately 50 homologous positions (or nucleotide pairs) in the small subunit rRNA characterize and distinguish among the three. In addition, the three can be recognized by a variety of nonhomologous rRNA characters, either individual positions and/or higher-order structural features. The Crenarchaeota and the Euryarchaeota, the two archaeal kingdoms, can also be defined and distinguished by their characteristic compositions at approximately fifteen positions in the small subunit rRNA molecule.

  9. Natural-abundance stable carbon isotopes of small-subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) from Guaymas Basin (Mexico)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacGregor, B. J.; Mendlovitz, H.; Albert, D.; Teske, A. P.

    2012-12-01

    Small-subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) is a phylogenetically informative molecule found in all species. Because it is poorly preserved in most environments, it is a useful marker for active microbial populations. We are using the natural-abundance stable carbon isotopic composition of specific microbial groups to help identify the carbon substrates contributing to microbial biomass in a variety of marine environments. At Guaymas Basin, hydrothermal fluids interact with abundant sedimentary organic carbon to produce natural gas and petroleum. Where this reaches the sediment surface, it can support dense patches of seafloor life, including Beggiatoa mats. We report here on the stable carbon isotopic composition of SSU rRNA from a Beggiatoa mat transect, a cold background site, a warm site with high oil concentration, and a second Beggiatoa mat. The central part of the transect mat overlay the steepest temperature gradient, and was visually dominated by orange Beggiatoa. This was fringed by white Beggiatoa mat and bare, but still warm, sediment. Methane concentrations were saturating beneath the orange and white mats and at the oily site, lower beneath bare sediment, and below detection at the background site. Our initial hypotheses were that rRNA isotopic composition would be strongly influenced by methane supply, and that archaeal rRNA might be lighter than bacterial due to contributions from methanogens and anaerobic methane oxidizers. We used biotin-labeled oligonucleotides to capture Bacterial and Archaeal SSU rRNA for isotopic determination. Background-site rRNA was isotopically heaviest, and bacterial RNA from below 2 cm at the oily site was lightest, consistent with control by methane. Within the transect mat, however, the pattern was more complicated; at some sediment depths, rRNA from the mat periphery was isotopically lightest. Part of this may be due to the spatially and temporally variable paths followed by hydrothermal fluid, which can include horizontal

  10. Redescription of Rhizodomus tagatzi (Ciliophora: Spirotrichea: Tintinnida), based on morphology and small subunit ribosomal RNA gene sequence.

    PubMed

    Saccà, Alessandro; Strüder-Kypke, Michaela C; Lynn, Denis H

    2012-01-01

    Herein, we redescribe a tintinnid ciliate that is most commonly known as Tintinnopsis corniger Hada, 1964; but it has been described several times with different names, specifically Tintinnopsis nudicauda Paulmier, 1997 and Rhizodomus tagatzi Strelkow & Wirketis, 1950. Neotype material was collected from the water column of the coastal saline Lake Faro, a meromictic basin connected to the Straits of Messina, Central Mediterranean. The Lake Faro population is characterized by a hyaline or sparsely agglomerated lorica, which made it possible to observe in detail the basal layer structure, usually concealed by abundant incrusting particles. Along with an improved description of the lorica, we provide novel information, such as the general zooid morphology, the ciliary pattern, and the small subunit rRNA (SSU rRNA) gene sequence. Our phylogenetic analysis, based on the SSU rRNA, groups this species with Tintinnopsis radix, while the first taxonomic study designated it as R. tagatzi, introducing a new genus due to peculiarities in lorica morphology. We conclude that the species should be known as R. tagatzi, the senior synonym for the species. However, we do not transfer any other species to this genus, despite strong molecular similarities. Although it is obvious that the genus Tintinnopsis is in need of a thorough revision, current molecular and cytological information for this genus is too sparse, and the type species has not yet been redescribed with modern methods. PMID:22452414

  11. Ribosomal 18S rRNA base pairs with mRNA during eukaryotic translation initiation.

    PubMed

    Martin, Franck; Ménétret, Jean-François; Simonetti, Angelita; Myasnikov, Alexander G; Vicens, Quentin; Prongidi-Fix, Lydia; Natchiar, S Kundhavai; Klaholz, Bruno P; Eriani, Gilbert

    2016-01-01

    Eukaryotic mRNAs often contain a Kozak sequence that helps tether the ribosome to the AUG start codon. The mRNA of histone H4 (h4) does not undergo classical ribosome scanning but has evolved a specific tethering mechanism. The cryo-EM structure of the rabbit ribosome complex with mouse h4 shows that the mRNA forms a folded, repressive structure at the mRNA entry site on the 40S subunit next to the tip of helix 16 of 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA). Toe-printing and mutational assays reveal that an interaction exists between a purine-rich sequence in h4 mRNA and a complementary UUUC sequence of helix h16. Together the present data establish that the h4 mRNA harbours a sequence complementary to an 18S rRNA sequence which tethers the mRNA to the ribosome to promote proper start codon positioning, complementing the interactions of the 40S subunit with the Kozak sequence that flanks the AUG start codon. PMID:27554013

  12. Ribosomal 18S rRNA base pairs with mRNA during eukaryotic translation initiation

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Franck; Ménétret, Jean-François; Simonetti, Angelita; Myasnikov, Alexander G.; Vicens, Quentin; Prongidi-Fix, Lydia; Natchiar, S. Kundhavai; Klaholz, Bruno P.; Eriani, Gilbert

    2016-01-01

    Eukaryotic mRNAs often contain a Kozak sequence that helps tether the ribosome to the AUG start codon. The mRNA of histone H4 (h4) does not undergo classical ribosome scanning but has evolved a specific tethering mechanism. The cryo-EM structure of the rabbit ribosome complex with mouse h4 shows that the mRNA forms a folded, repressive structure at the mRNA entry site on the 40S subunit next to the tip of helix 16 of 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA). Toe-printing and mutational assays reveal that an interaction exists between a purine-rich sequence in h4 mRNA and a complementary UUUC sequence of helix h16. Together the present data establish that the h4 mRNA harbours a sequence complementary to an 18S rRNA sequence which tethers the mRNA to the ribosome to promote proper start codon positioning, complementing the interactions of the 40S subunit with the Kozak sequence that flanks the AUG start codon. PMID:27554013

  13. RNA Cytidine Acetyltransferase of Small-Subunit Ribosomal RNA: Identification of Acetylation Sites and the Responsible Acetyltransferase in Fission Yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe

    PubMed Central

    Taoka, Masato; Ishikawa, Daisuke; Nobe, Yuko; Ishikawa, Hideaki; Yamauchi, Yoshio; Terukina, Goro; Nakayama, Hiroshi; Hirota, Kouji; Takahashi, Nobuhiro; Isobe, Toshiaki

    2014-01-01

    The eukaryotic small-subunit (SSU) ribosomal RNA (rRNA) has two evolutionarily conserved acetylcytidines. However, the acetylation sites and the acetyltransferase responsible for the acetylation have not been identified. We performed a comprehensive MS-based analysis covering the entire sequence of the fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, SSU rRNA and identified two acetylcytidines at positions 1297 and 1815 in the 3′ half of the rRNA. To identify the enzyme responsible for the cytidine acetylation, we searched for an S. pombe gene homologous to TmcA, a bacterial tRNA N-acetyltransferase, and found one potential candidate, Nat10. A temperature-sensitive strain of Nat10 with a mutation in the Walker A type ATP-binding motif abolished the cytidine acetylation in SSU rRNA, and the wild-type Nat10 supplemented to this strain recovered the acetylation, providing evidence that Nat10 is necessary for acetylation of SSU rRNA. The Nat10 mutant strain showed a slow-growth phenotype and was defective in forming the SSU rRNA from the precursor RNA, suggesting that cytidine acetylation is necessary for ribosome assembly. PMID:25402480

  14. PCR Primers for Metazoan Nuclear 18S and 28S Ribosomal DNA Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Machida, Ryuji J.; Knowlton, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    Background Metagenetic analyses, which amplify and sequence target marker DNA regions from environmental samples, are increasingly employed to assess the biodiversity of communities of small organisms. Using this approach, our understanding of microbial diversity has expanded greatly. In contrast, only a few studies using this approach to characterize metazoan diversity have been reported, despite the fact that many metazoan species are small and difficult to identify or are undescribed. One of the reasons for this discrepancy is the availability of universal primers for the target taxa. In microbial studies, analysis of the 16S ribosomal DNA is standard. In contrast, the best gene for metazoan metagenetics is less clear. In the present study, we have designed primers that amplify the nuclear 18S and 28S ribosomal DNA sequences of most metazoan species with the goal of providing effective approaches for metagenetic analyses of metazoan diversity in environmental samples, with a particular emphasis on marine biodiversity. Methodology/Principal Findings Conserved regions suitable for designing PCR primers were identified using 14,503 and 1,072 metazoan sequences of the nuclear 18S and 28S rDNA regions, respectively. The sequence similarity of both these newly designed and the previously reported primers to the target regions of these primers were compared for each phylum to determine the expected amplification efficacy. The nucleotide diversity of the flanking regions of the primers was also estimated for genera or higher taxonomic groups of 11 phyla to determine the variable regions within the genes. Conclusions/Significance The identified nuclear ribosomal DNA primers (five primer pairs for 18S and eleven for 28S) and the results of the nucleotide diversity analyses provide options for primer combinations for metazoan metagenetic analyses. Additionally, advantages and disadvantages of not only the 18S and 28S ribosomal DNA, but also other marker regions as targets

  15. Phylogenetic Analysis of Myobia musculi (Schranck, 1781) by Using the 18S Small Ribosomal Subunit Sequence

    PubMed Central

    Feldman, Sanford H; Ntenda, Abraham M

    2011-01-01

    We used high-fidelity PCR to amplify 2 overlapping regions of the ribosomal gene complex from the rodent fur mite Myobia musculi. The amplicons encompassed a large portion of the mite's ribosomal gene complex spanning 3128 nucleotides containing the entire 18S rRNA, internal transcribed spacer (ITS) 1, 5.8S rRNA, ITS2, and a portion of the 5′-end of the 28S rRNA. M. musculi’s 179-nucleotide 5.8S rRNA nucleotide sequence was not conserved, so this region was identified by conservation of rRNA secondary structure. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference phylogenetic analyses were performed by using multiple sequence alignment consisting of 1524 nucleotides of M. musculi 18S rRNA and homologous sequences from 42 prostigmatid mites and the tick Dermacentor andersoni. The phylograms produced by both methods were in agreement regarding terminal, secondary, and some tertiary phylogenetic relationships among mites. Bayesian inference discriminated most infraordinal relationships between Eleutherengona and Parasitengona mites in the suborder Anystina. Basal relationships between suborders Anystina and Eupodina historically determined by comparing differences in anatomic characteristics were less well-supported by our molecular analysis. Our results recapitulated similar 18S rRNA sequence analyses recently reported. Our study supports M. musculi as belonging to the suborder Anystina, infraorder Eleutherenona, and superfamily Cheyletoidea. PMID:22330574

  16. A Method for Studying Protistan Diversity Using Massively Parallel Sequencing of V9 Hypervariable Regions of Small-Subunit Ribosomal RNA Genes

    PubMed Central

    Amaral-Zettler, Linda A.; McCliment, Elizabeth A.; Ducklow, Hugh W.; Huse, Susan M.

    2009-01-01

    Background Massively parallel pyrosequencing of amplicons from the V6 hypervariable regions of small-subunit (SSU) ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes is commonly used to assess diversity and richness in bacterial and archaeal populations. Recent advances in pyrosequencing technology provide read lengths of up to 240 nucleotides. Amplicon pyrosequencing can now be applied to longer variable regions of the SSU rRNA gene including the V9 region in eukaryotes. Methodology/Principal Findings We present a protocol for the amplicon pyrosequencing of V9 regions for eukaryotic environmental samples for biodiversity inventories and species richness estimation. The International Census of Marine Microbes (ICoMM) and the Microbial Inventory Research Across Diverse Aquatic Long Term Ecological Research Sites (MIRADA-LTERs) projects are already employing this protocol for tag sequencing of eukaryotic samples in a wide diversity of both marine and freshwater environments. Conclusions/Significance Massively parallel pyrosequencing of eukaryotic V9 hypervariable regions of SSU rRNA genes provides a means of estimating species richness from deeply-sampled populations and for discovering novel species from the environment. PMID:19633714

  17. Ultrastructural characteristics and small subunit ribosomal DNA sequence of Vairimorpha cheracis sp. nov., (Microspora: Burenellidae), a parasite of the Australian yabby, Cherax destructor (Decapoda: Parastacidae).

    PubMed

    Moodie, Elizabeth G; Le Jambre, Leo F; Katz, Margaret E

    2003-11-01

    This is the first record of a species of Vairimorpha infecting a crustacean host. Vairimorpha cheracis sp. nov. was found in a highland population of the Australian freshwater crayfish, Cherax destructor. The majority of spores and earlier developmental stages of V. cheracis sp. nov. were found within striated muscle cells of the thorax, abdomen, and appendages of the crayfish. Only octosporoblastic sporogony within sporophorous vesicles (SPVs) was observed. Diplokaryotic sporonts separated into two uninucleate daughter cells, each of which gave rise to four sporoblasts in a rosette-shaped plasmodium, so that eight uninucleate spores were produced within the persistent ovoid SPV. Ultrastructural features of stages in the octosporoblastic sequence were similar to those described for Vairimorpha necatrix, the type species. Mature spores were pyriform in shape and averaged 3.4x1.9 microm in dimensions. The anterior polaroplast was lamellar in structure, and the posterior polaroplast vesicular. The polar filament was coiled 10-12 times, lateral to the posterior vacuole. The small subunit ribosomal DNA (SSU rDNA) of V. cheracis sp. nov. was sequenced and compared with other microsporidia. V. cheracis sp. nov. showed over 97% sequence identity with Vairimorpha imperfecta and five species of Nosema, and only 86% sequence identity with V. necatrix. The need for a taxonomic revision of the Nosema/Vairimorpha group of species is discussed. PMID:14726242

  18. The Large Ribosomal Subunit Protein L9 Enables the Growth of EF-P Deficient Cells and Enhances Small Subunit Maturation

    PubMed Central

    Naganathan, Anusha; Wood, Matthew P.; Moore, Sean D.

    2015-01-01

    The loss of the large ribosomal protein L9 causes a reduction in translation fidelity by an unknown mechanism. To identify pathways affected by L9, we identified mutants of E. coli that require L9 for fitness. In a prior study, we characterized L9-dependent mutations in the essential GTPase Der (EngA). Here, we describe a second class of L9-dependent mutations that either compromise or inactivate elongation factor P (EF-P, eIF5A in eukaryotes). Without L9, Δefp cells are practically inviable. Cell fractionation studies revealed that, in both the Der and EF-P mutant cases, L9's activity reduces immature 16S rRNA in 30S particles and partially restores the abundance of monosomes. Inspired by these findings, we discovered that L9 also enhances 16S maturation in wild-type cells. Surprisingly, although the amount of immature 16S in 30S particles was found to be elevated in ΔrplI cells, the amount in polysomes was low and inversely correlated with the immature 16S abundance. These findings provide an explanation for the observed fitness increases afforded by L9 in these mutants and reveal particular physiological conditions in which L9 becomes critical. Additionally, L9 may affect the partitioning of small subunits containing immature 16S rRNA. PMID:25879934

  19. Sequence variation in nuclear ribosomal small subunit, internal transcribed spacer and large subunit regions of Rhizophagus irregularis and Gigaspora margarita is high and isolate-dependent.

    PubMed

    Thiéry, Odile; Vasar, Martti; Jairus, Teele; Davison, John; Roux, Christophe; Kivistik, Paula-Ann; Metspalu, Andres; Milani, Lili; Saks, Ülle; Moora, Mari; Zobel, Martin; Öpik, Maarja

    2016-06-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi are known to exhibit high intra-organism genetic variation. However, information about intra- vs. interspecific variation among the genes commonly used in diversity surveys is limited. Here, the nuclear small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene, internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region and large subunit (LSU) rRNA gene portions were sequenced from 3 to 5 individual spores from each of two isolates of Rhizophagus irregularis and Gigaspora margarita. A total of 1482 Sanger sequences (0.5 Mb) from 239 clones were obtained, spanning ~4370 bp of the ribosomal operon when concatenated. Intrasporal and intra-isolate sequence variation was high for all three regions even though variant numbers were not exhausted by sequencing 12-40 clones per isolate. Intra-isolate nucleotide variation levels followed the expected order of ITS > LSU > SSU, but the values were strongly dependent on isolate identity. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) densities over 4 SNP/kb in the ribosomal operon were detected in all four isolates. Automated operational taxonomic unit picking within the sequence set of known identity overestimated species richness with almost all cut-off levels, markers and isolates. Average intraspecific sequence similarity values were 99%, 96% and 94% for amplicons in SSU, LSU and ITS, respectively. The suitability of the central part of the SSU as a marker for AM fungal community surveys was further supported by its level of nucleotide variation, which is similar to that of the ITS region; its alignability across the entire phylum; its appropriate length for next-generation sequencing; and its ease of amplification in single-step PCR. PMID:27092961

  20. Phylogeny of chloromonas (chlorophyceae): A study of 18S ribosomal RNA gene sequences

    SciTech Connect

    Buchheim, M.A.; Buchheim, J.A.; Chapman, R.L.

    1997-04-01

    The unicellular, biflagellate genus Chloromonas differs from its ally, Chlamydomonas, primarily by the absence of pyrenoids in the vegetative stage of the former. As with most green flagellate genera, little is known about phylogenetic affinities within and among Chloromonas species. Phylogenetic analyses of nuclear-encoded small-subunit ribosomal RNA gene sequences demonstrate that a sampling of five Chloromonas taxa, obtained from major culture collections, do not form a monophyletic group. However, only three of these isolates, Chloromonas clathrata, Chloromonas serbinowi, and Chloromonas rosae, are diagnosable morphologically as Chloromonas species by the absence of a pyrenoid in the vegetative stage. The three diagnosable Chloromonas taxa form an alliance with two pyrenoid-bearing chlamydomonads, Chlamydomonas augustae and Chlamydomonas macrostellata. With the exception of Chloromonas serbinowi, which represents the basal lineage within the clade, each of the diagnosable Chloromonas taxa and their pyrenoid-bearing Chlamydomonas allies were isolated originally from mountain soils, snow, or cold peat. These observations suggest that hibitat, independent of pyrenoid status, may be most closely linked to the natural history of this clade of chlamydomonad flagellates. 51 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. Optimal Eukaryotic 18S and Universal 16S/18S Ribosomal RNA Primers and Their Application in a Study of Symbiosis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yong; Tian, Ren Mao; Gao, Zhao Ming; Bougouffa, Salim; Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2014-01-01

    Eukaryotic 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene primers that feature a wide coverage are critical in detecting the composition of eukaryotic microscopic organisms in ecosystems. Here, we predicted 18S rRNA primers based on consecutive conserved sites and evaluated their coverage efficiency and scope of application to different eukaryotic groups. After evaluation, eight of them were considered as qualified 18S primers based on coverage rate. Next, we examined common conserved regions in prokaryotic 16S and eukaryotic 18S rRNA sequences to design 16S/18S universal primers. Three 16S/18S candidate primers, U515, U1390 and U1492, were then considered to be suitable for simultaneous amplification of the rRNA sequences in three domains. Eukaryotic 18S and prokaryotic 16S rRNA genes in a sponge were amplified simultaneously using universal primers U515 and U1390, and the subsequent sorting of pyrosequenced reads revealed some distinctive communities in different parts of the sample. The real difference in biodiversity between prokaryotic and eukaryotic symbionts could be discerned as the dissimilarity between OTUs was increased from 0.005 to 0.1. A network of the communities in external and internal parts of the sponge illustrated the co-variation of some unique microbes in certain parts of the sponge, suggesting that the universal primers are useful in simultaneous detection of prokaryotic and eukaryotic microbial communities. PMID:24594623

  2. Using Small Subunit Ribosomal RNA to Follow Dark Incorporation of 14C-bicarbonate by Bacteria and Archaea in Sandy Sediment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacGregor, B. J.; Musat, N.; Kuypers, M. M.

    2007-12-01

    Small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) and the genes encoding it have become the basis of modern microbial phylogeny, and of numerous methods for characterizing the composition of bacterial, archaeal, and even eukaryotic communities as they occur in nature. A limitation of this approach has been that phylogeny alone is not a reliable guide to physiology, particularly for groups with no close relatives in culture. We have been developing ways of using the SSU rRNA molecule itself to identify and (eventually) quantify the carbon sources incorporated by particular phylogenetic groups. This can be done by taking advantage of natural variations in carbon isotopic composition among growth substrates, or by following incorporation of 13C- or 14C-labeled compounds. 14C has the advantage that natural background levels are negligible. In the present study, our goal is to identify species responsible for non-photosynthetic CO2 incorporation in sandy sediments of the German Wadden Sea. Sediment cores collected from the Janssand sand flats were percolated with 14C-bicarbonate at in situ temperature for 36-38h in the dark, total RNA isolated, and domain-specific oligonucleotide probes used to capture bacterial and archaeal SSU rRNA. Total and/or captured RNA was separated by denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and 14C detected by phosphor imager, autoradiography, or beta imager. Detection was fastest and most sensitive with the beta imager. Both Bacteria and Archaea had incorporated label, suggesting both groups may harbor non-photosynthetic autotrophs. The next step will be to use more specific capture probes. We are currently working to separate the captured domain-specific SSU rRNA on non-denaturing gels, with detection by the high-resolution mode of the beta imager, so that individual species incorporating label can be identified by RT-PCR and sequencing of labeled bands.

  3. A variant of Plasmodium ovale; analysis of its 18S ribosomal RNA gene sequence.

    PubMed

    Miyake, H; Suwa, S; Kimura, M; Wataya, Y

    1997-01-01

    We report here a new variant of human malaria parasite found by comparison of diagnostic results obtained from a new DNA diagnostic method named microtiter plate-hybridization (MPH) and traditional microscopic method. Total five cases of malaria were diagnosed as microscopy-positive but MPH-negative; one case was found in epidemiological research in Vietnam and four cases were obtained from imported malaria in Japan. Although they were quite similar to typical P. ovale morphologically in microscopy, sequence analysis of PCR-amplified DNA fragment revealed that their 18S ribosomal RNA gene sequence was different from published sequence of P. ovale. Combination of MPH and microscopic examination provides us a new method for detection of a new type of malaria parasite which is difficult to distinguish morphologically. PMID:9586115

  4. Molecular phylogeny of labyrinthulids and thraustochytrids based on the sequencing of 18S ribosomal RNA gene.

    PubMed

    Honda, D; Yokochi, T; Nakahara, T; Raghukumar, S; Nakagiri, A; Schaumann, K; Higashihara, T

    1999-01-01

    Labyrinthulids and thraustochytrids are unicellular heterotrophs, formerly considered as fungi, but presently are recognized as members in the stramenopiles of the kingdom Protista sensu lato. We determined the 18S ribosomal RNA gene sequences of 14 strains from different species of the six genera and analyzed the molecular phylogenetic relationships. The results conflict with the current classification based on morphology, at the genus and species levels. These organisms are separated, based on signature sequences and unique inserted sequences, into two major groups, which were named the labyrinthulid phylogenetic group and the thraustochytrid phylogenetic group. Although these groupings are in disagreement with many conventional taxonomic characters, they correlated better with the sugar composition of the cell wall. Thus, the currently used taxonomic criteria need serious reconsideration. PMID:10568038

  5. Depletion of U3 small nucleolar RNA inhibits cleavage in the 5' external transcribed spacer of yeast pre-ribosomal RNA and impairs formation of 18S ribosomal RNA.

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, J M; Ares, M

    1991-01-01

    Multiple processing events are required to convert a single eukaryotic pre-ribosomal RNA (pre-rRNA) into mature 18S (small subunit), 5.8S and 25-28S (large subunit) rRNAs. We have asked whether U3 small nucleolar RNA is required for pre-rRNA processing in vivo by depleting Saccharomyces cerevisiae of U3 by conditional repression of U3 synthesis. The resulting pattern of accumulation and depletion of specific pre-rRNAs indicates that U3 is required for multiple events leading to the maturation of 18S rRNA. These include an initial cleavage within the 5' external transcribed spacer, resembling the U3 dependent initial processing event of mammalian pre-rRNA. Formation of large subunit rRNAs is unaffected by U3 depletion. The similarity between the effects of U3 depletion and depletion of U14 small nucleolar RNA and the nucleolar protein fibrillarin (NOP1) suggests that these could be components of a single highly conserved processing complex. Images PMID:1756730

  6. Ribosome biogenesis factor Tsr3 is the aminocarboxypropyl transferase responsible for 18S rRNA hypermodification in yeast and humans

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Britta; Wurm, Jan Philip; Sharma, Sunny; Immer, Carina; Pogoryelov, Denys; Kötter, Peter; Lafontaine, Denis L. J.; Wöhnert, Jens; Entian, Karl-Dieter

    2016-01-01

    The chemically most complex modification in eukaryotic rRNA is the conserved hypermodified nucleotide N1-methyl-N3-aminocarboxypropyl-pseudouridine (m1acp3Ψ) located next to the P-site tRNA on the small subunit 18S rRNA. While S-adenosylmethionine was identified as the source of the aminocarboxypropyl (acp) group more than 40 years ago the enzyme catalyzing the acp transfer remained elusive. Here we identify the cytoplasmic ribosome biogenesis protein Tsr3 as the responsible enzyme in yeast and human cells. In functionally impaired Tsr3-mutants, a reduced level of acp modification directly correlates with increased 20S pre-rRNA accumulation. The crystal structure of archaeal Tsr3 homologs revealed the same fold as in SPOUT-class RNA-methyltransferases but a distinct SAM binding mode. This unique SAM binding mode explains why Tsr3 transfers the acp and not the methyl group of SAM to its substrate. Structurally, Tsr3 therefore represents a novel class of acp transferase enzymes. PMID:27084949

  7. Ribosome biogenesis factor Tsr3 is the aminocarboxypropyl transferase responsible for 18S rRNA hypermodification in yeast and humans.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Britta; Wurm, Jan Philip; Sharma, Sunny; Immer, Carina; Pogoryelov, Denys; Kötter, Peter; Lafontaine, Denis L J; Wöhnert, Jens; Entian, Karl-Dieter

    2016-05-19

    The chemically most complex modification in eukaryotic rRNA is the conserved hypermodified nucleotide N1-methyl-N3-aminocarboxypropyl-pseudouridine (m(1)acp(3)Ψ) located next to the P-site tRNA on the small subunit 18S rRNA. While S-adenosylmethionine was identified as the source of the aminocarboxypropyl (acp) group more than 40 years ago the enzyme catalyzing the acp transfer remained elusive. Here we identify the cytoplasmic ribosome biogenesis protein Tsr3 as the responsible enzyme in yeast and human cells. In functionally impaired Tsr3-mutants, a reduced level of acp modification directly correlates with increased 20S pre-rRNA accumulation. The crystal structure of archaeal Tsr3 homologs revealed the same fold as in SPOUT-class RNA-methyltransferases but a distinct SAM binding mode. This unique SAM binding mode explains why Tsr3 transfers the acp and not the methyl group of SAM to its substrate. Structurally, Tsr3 therefore represents a novel class of acp transferase enzymes. PMID:27084949

  8. Molecular Identification of Ptychodera flava (Hemichordata: Enteropneusta): Reconsideration in Light of Nucleotide Polymorphism in the 18S Ribosomal RNA Gene.

    PubMed

    Urata, Makoto

    2015-06-01

    Seven nuclear and mitochondrial DNA markers were examined in 12 specimens of Ptychodera flava, a model acorn worm used in molecular biology, collected in Japan from three local populations with different modes of living. A comparison of intraspecific results did not show genetically isolated populations despite the species' enclave habitats and asexual reproduction. Moreover, both the nuclear 18S ribosomal RNA gene and mitochondrial 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequences were identical to those from Moorea in French Polynesia, nearly 10,000 kilometers away from Japan. I also provide the first definitive information regarding polymorphisms in 18S ribosomal RNA gene, the external transcribed spacer (ETS), internal transcribed spacers (ITS), and mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (mtCO1) sequence in hemichordates using newly designed primer sets, and I show both high larval vagility and certain criteria for the molecular identification of this species. PMID:26003987

  9. A phylogenetic study on galactose-containing Candida species based on 18S ribosomal DNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Motofumi; Suh, Sung-Oui; Sugita, Takashi; Nakase, Takashi

    1999-10-01

    Phylogenetic relationships of 33 Candida species containing galactose in the cells were investigated by using 18S ribosomal DNA sequence analysis. Galactose-containing Candida species and galactose-containing species from nine ascomycetous genera were a heterogeneous assemblage. They were divided into three clusters (II, III, and IV) which were phylogenetically distant from cluster I, comprising 9 galactose-lacking Candida species, C. glabrata, C. holmii, C. krusei, C. tropicalis (the type species of Candida), C. albicans, C. viswanathii, C. maltosa, C. parapsilosis, C. guilliermondii, and C. lusitaniae, and 17 related ascomycetous yeasts. These three clusters were also phylogenetically distant from Schizosaccharomyces pombe, which contains galactomannan in its cell wall. Cluster II comprised C. magnoliae, C. vaccinii, C. apis, C. gropengiesseri, C. etchellsii, C. floricola, C. lactiscondensi, Wickerhamiella domercqiae, C. versatilis, C. azyma, C. vanderwaltii, C. pararugosa, C. sorbophila, C. spandovensis, C. galacta, C. ingens, C. incommunis, Yarrowia lipolytica, Galactomyces geotrichum, and Dipodascus albidus. Cluster III comprised C. tepae, C. antillancae and its synonym C. bondarzewiae, C. ancudensis, C. petrohuensis, C. santjacobensis, C. ciferrii (anamorph of Stephanoascus ciferrii), Arxula terrestris, C. castrensis, C. valdiviana, C. paludigena, C. blankii, C. salmanticensis, C. auringiensis, C. bertae, and its synonym C. bertae var. chiloensis, C. edax (anamorph of Stephanoascus smithiae), Arxula adeninivorans, and C. steatolytica (synonym of Zygoascus hellenicus). Cluster IV comprised C. cantarellii, C. vinaria, Dipodascopsis uninucleata, and Lipomyces lipofer. Two galactose-lacking and Q-8-forming species, C. stellata and Pichia pastoris, and 5 galactose-lacking and Q-9-forming species, C. apicola, C. bombi, C. bombicola, C. geochares, and C. insectalens, were included in Cluster II. Two galactose-lacking and Q-9-forming species, C. drimydis and C

  10. Chromosome Mapping of 18S Ribosomal RNA Genes in Eleven Hypostomus Species (Siluriformes, Loricariidae): Diversity Analysis of the Sites.

    PubMed

    Rubert, Marceléia; da Rosa, Renata; Zawadzki, Claudio H; Mariotto, Sandra; Moreira-Filho, Orlando; Giuliano-Caetano, Lucia

    2016-08-01

    We investigated the chromosomal distribution of 18S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) in different populations of 11 species of Hypostomus collected in important Brazilian basins, namely South Atlantic, Upper Paraná, and Paraguay applying the fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Hypostomus cochliodon, Hypostomus commersoni, Hypostomus hermanni, Hypostomus regani, Hypostomus albopunctatus, Hypostomus paulinus, Hypostomus aff. paulinus, Hypostomus iheringii, and Hypostomus mutucae presented multiple 18S rDNA sites while Hypostomus strigaticeps and Hypostomus nigromaculatus exhibited a single pair of chromosomes with 18S rDNA sites. The studied species presented variations in the number and position of these sites. The results accomplished were similar to those obtained by the analysis of AgNORs, revealing the same interspecific variability. Each species exhibited distinctive patterns of AgNOR and 18S rDNA distribution, which can be considered cytogenetic markers in each species of the genus and help improve the discussions on the phylogeny of the group. PMID:27192329

  11. Structural and functional studies of Bud23–Trm112 reveal 18S rRNA N7-G1575 methylation occurs on late 40S precursor ribosomes

    PubMed Central

    Létoquart, Juliette; Huvelle, Emmeline; Wacheul, Ludivine; Bourgeois, Gabrielle; Zorbas, Christiane; Graille, Marc; Heurgué-Hamard, Valérie; Lafontaine, Denis L. J.

    2014-01-01

    The eukaryotic small ribosomal subunit carries only four ribosomal (r) RNA methylated bases, all close to important functional sites. N7-methylguanosine (m7G) introduced at position 1575 on 18S rRNA by Bud23–Trm112 is at a ridge forming a steric block between P- and E-site tRNAs. Here we report atomic resolution structures of Bud23–Trm112 in the apo and S-adenosyl-l-methionine (SAM)-bound forms. Bud23 and Trm112 interact through formation of a β-zipper involving main-chain atoms, burying an important hydrophobic surface and stabilizing the complex. The structures revealed that the coactivator Trm112 undergoes an induced fit to accommodate its methyltransferase (MTase) partner. We report important structural similarity between the active sites of Bud23 and Coffea canephora xanthosine MTase, leading us to propose and validate experimentally a model for G1575 coordination. We identify Bud23 residues important for Bud23–Trm112 complex formation and recruitment to pre-ribosomes. We report that though Bud23–Trm112 binds precursor ribosomes at an early nucleolar stage, m7G methylation occurs at a late step of small subunit biogenesis, implying specifically delayed catalytic activation. Finally, we show that Bud23–Trm112 interacts directly with the box C/D snoRNA U3-associated DEAH RNA helicase Dhr1 supposedly involved in central pseudoknot formation; this suggests that Bud23–Trm112 might also contribute to controlling formation of this irreversible and dramatic structural reorganization essential to overall folding of small subunit rRNA. Our study contributes important new elements to our understanding of key molecular aspects of human ribosomopathy syndromes associated with WBSCR22 (human Bud23) malfunction. PMID:25489090

  12. Modified nucleotides in T1 RNase oligonucleotides of 18S ribosomal RNA of the Novikoff hepatoma.

    PubMed

    Choi, Y C; Busch, H

    1978-06-27

    The primary structure of 18S rRNA of the Novikoff hepatoma cells was investigated. Regardless of whether the primary sequence of 18S rRNA is finally determined by RNA sequencing methods or DNA sequencing methods, it is important to identify numbers and types of the modified nucleotides and accordingly the present study was designed to localize the modified regions in T1 RNase derived oligonucleotide. Modified nucleotides found in 66 different oligonucleotide sequences included 2 m62A, 1 m6A, 1 m7G, 1m1cap3psi, 7 Cm, 13 Am, 9 Gm, 11 Um, and 38 psi residues. A number of these modified nucleotides are now placed in defined sequences of T1 RNase oligonucleotides which are now being searched for in larger fragments derived from partial T1 RNase digests of 18S rRNA. Improved homochromatography fingerprinting (Choi et al. (1976) Cancer Res. 36, 4301) of T1 RNase derived oligonucleotides provided a distinctive pattern for 18S rRNA of Novikoff hepatoma ascites cells. The 116 spots obtained by homochromatography contain 176 oligonucleotide sequences. PMID:209819

  13. New Hosts of Simplicimonas similis and Trichomitus batrachorum Identified by 18S Ribosomal RNA Gene Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Dimasuay, Kris Genelyn B.; Lavilla, Orlie John Y.; Rivera, Windell L.

    2013-01-01

    Trichomonads are obligate anaerobes generally found in the digestive and genitourinary tract of domestic animals. In this study, four trichomonad isolates were obtained from carabao, dog, and pig hosts using rectal swab. Genomic DNA was extracted using Chelex method and the 18S rRNA gene was successfully amplified through novel sets of primers and undergone DNA sequencing. Aligned isolate sequences together with retrieved 18S rRNA gene sequences of known trichomonads were utilized to generate phylogenetic trees using maximum likelihood and neighbor-joining analyses. Two isolates from carabao were identified as Simplicimonas similis while each isolate from dog and pig was identified as Pentatrichomonas hominis and Trichomitus batrachorum, respectively. This is the first report of S. similis in carabao and the identification of T. batrachorum in pig using 18S rRNA gene sequence analysis. The generated phylogenetic tree yielded three distinct groups mostly with relatively moderate to high bootstrap support and in agreement with the most recent classification. Pathogenic potential of the trichomonads in these hosts still needs further investigation. PMID:23936631

  14. Analysis of environmental 18S ribosomal RNA sequences reveals unknown diversity of the cosmopolitan phylum Telonemia.

    PubMed

    Shalchian-Tabrizi, Kamran; Kauserud, Håvard; Massana, Ramon; Klaveness, Dag; Jakobsen, Kjetill S

    2007-04-01

    Telonemia has recently been described as a new eukaryotic phylum with uncertain evolutionary origin. So far, only two Telonemia species, Telonema subtilis and Telonema antarcticum, have been described, but there are substantial variations in size and morphology among Telonema isolates and field observations, indicating a hidden diversity of Telonemia-like species and populations. In this study, we investigated the diversity and the global distribution of this group by analyzing 18S rDNA sequences from marine environmental clone libraries published in GenBank as well as several unpublished sequences from the Indian Ocean. Phylogenetic analyses of the identified sequences suggest that the Telonemia phylum includes several undescribed 18S rDNA phylotypes, probably corresponding to a number of different species and/or populations. The Telonemia phylotypes form two main groups, here referred to as Telonemia Groups 1 and 2. Some of the closely related sequences originate from separate oceans, indicating worldwide distributions of various Telonemia phylotypes, while other phylotypes seem to have limited geographical distribution. Further investigations of the evolutionary relationships within Telonemia should be conducted on isolated cultures of Telonema-like strains using multi-locus sequencing and morphological data. PMID:17196879

  15. The phylogenetic position of Rhopalura ophiocomae (Orthonectida) based on 18S ribosomal DNA sequence analysis.

    PubMed

    Hanelt, B; Van Schyndel, D; Adema, C M; Lewis, L A; Loker, E S

    1996-11-01

    The Orthonectida is a small, poorly known phylum of parasites of marine invertebrates. Their phylogenetic placement is obscure; they have been considered to be multicellular protozoans, primitive animals at a "mesozoan" grade of organization, or secondarily simplified flatworm-like organisms. The best known species in the phylum, Rhopalura ophiocomae, was collected on San Juan Island, Wash. and a complete 18S rDNA sequence was obtained. Using the models of minimum evolution and parsimony, phylogenetic analyses were undertaken and the results lend support to the following hypotheses about orthonectids: (1) orthonectids are more closely aligned with triploblastic metazoan taxa than with the protist or diploblastic metazoan taxa considered in this analysis; (2) orthonectids are not derived members of the phylum Platyhelminthes; and (3) orthonectids and rhombozoans are not each other's closest relatives, thus casting further doubt on the validity of the phylum Mesozoa previously used to encompass both groups. PMID:8896370

  16. Physical mapping of 5S and 18S ribosomal DNA in three species of Agave (Asparagales, Asparagaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Gomez-Rodriguez, Victor Manuel; Rodriguez-Garay, Benjamin; Palomino, Guadalupe; Martínez, Javier; Barba-Gonzalez, Rodrigo

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Agave Linnaeus, 1753 is endemic of America and is considered one of the most important crops in Mexico due to its key role in the country’s economy. Cytogenetic analysis was carried out in Agave tequilana Weber, 1902 ‘Azul’, Agave cupreata Trelease et Berger, 1915 and Agave angustifolia Haworth, 1812. The analysis showed that in all species the diploid chromosome number was 2n = 60, with bimodal karyotypes composed of five pairs of large chromosomes and 25 pairs of small chromosomes. Furthermore, different karyotypical formulae as well as a secondary constriction in a large chromosome pair were found in all species. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) was used for physical mapping of 5S and 18S ribosomal DNA (rDNA). All species analyzed showed that 5S rDNA was located in both arms of a small chromosome pair, while 18S rDNA was associated with the secondary constriction of a large chromosome pair. Data of FISH analysis provides new information about the position and number of rDNA loci and helps for detection of hybrids in breeding programs as well as evolutionary studies. PMID:24260700

  17. A Single Acetylation of 18 S rRNA Is Essential for Biogenesis of the Small Ribosomal Subunit in Saccharomyces cerevisiae*

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Satoshi; Akamatsu, Yu; Noma, Akiko; Kimura, Satoshi; Miyauchi, Kenjyo; Ikeuchi, Yoshiho; Suzuki, Takeo; Suzuki, Tsutomu

    2014-01-01

    Biogenesis of eukaryotic ribosome is a complex event involving a number of non-ribosomal factors. During assembly of the ribosome, rRNAs are post-transcriptionally modified by 2′-O-methylation, pseudouridylation, and several base-specific modifications, which are collectively involved in fine-tuning translational fidelity and/or modulating ribosome assembly. By mass-spectrometric analysis, we demonstrated that N4-acetylcytidine (ac4C) is present at position 1773 in the 18 S rRNA of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In addition, we found an essential gene, KRE33 (human homolog, NAT10), that we renamed RRA1 (ribosomal RNA cytidine acetyltransferase 1) encoding an RNA acetyltransferase responsible for ac4C1773 formation. Using recombinant Rra1p, we could successfully reconstitute ac4C1773 in a model rRNA fragment in the presence of both acetyl-CoA and ATP as substrates. Upon depletion of Rra1p, the 23 S precursor of 18 S rRNA was accumulated significantly, which resulted in complete loss of 18 S rRNA and small ribosomal subunit (40 S), suggesting that ac4C1773 formation catalyzed by Rra1p plays a critical role in processing of the 23 S precursor to yield 18 S rRNA. When nuclear acetyl-CoA was depleted by inactivation of acetyl-CoA synthetase 2 (ACS2), we observed temporal accumulation of the 23 S precursor, indicating that Rra1p modulates biogenesis of 40 S subunit by sensing nuclear acetyl-CoA concentration. PMID:25086048

  18. The human 18S rRNA base methyltransferases DIMT1L and WBSCR22-TRMT112 but not rRNA modification are required for ribosome biogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Zorbas, Christiane; Nicolas, Emilien; Wacheul, Ludivine; Huvelle, Emmeline; Heurgué-Hamard, Valérie; Lafontaine, Denis L. J.

    2015-01-01

    At the heart of the ribosome lie rRNAs, whose catalytic function in translation is subtly modulated by posttranscriptional modifications. In the small ribosomal subunit of budding yeast, on the 18S rRNA, two adjacent adenosines (A1781/A1782) are N6-dimethylated by Dim1 near the decoding site, and one guanosine (G1575) is N7-methylated by Bud23-Trm112 at a ridge between the P- and E-site tRNAs. Here we establish human DIMT1L and WBSCR22-TRMT112 as the functional homologues of yeast Dim1 and Bud23-Trm112. We report that these enzymes are required for distinct pre-rRNA processing reactions leading to synthesis of 18S rRNA, and we demonstrate that in human cells, as in budding yeast, ribosome biogenesis requires the presence of the modification enzyme rather than its RNA-modifying catalytic activity. We conclude that a quality control mechanism has been conserved from yeast to human by which binding of a methyltransferase to nascent pre-rRNAs is a prerequisite to processing, so that all cleaved RNAs are committed to faithful modification. We further report that 18S rRNA dimethylation is nuclear in human cells, in contrast to yeast, where it is cytoplasmic. Yeast and human ribosome biogenesis thus have both conserved and distinctive features. PMID:25851604

  19. Ribosomal RNA sequence suggest microsporidia are extremely ancient eukaryotes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vossbrinck, C. R.; Maddox, J. V.; Friedman, S.; Debrunner-Vossbrinck, B. A.; Woese, C. R.

    1987-01-01

    A comparative sequence analysis of the 18S small subunit ribosomal RNA (rRNA) of the microsporidium Vairimorpha necatrix is presented. The results show that this rRNA sequence is more unlike those of other eukaryotes than any known eukaryote rRNA sequence. It is concluded that the lineage leading to microsporidia branched very early from that leading to other eukaryotes.

  20. HCV IRES interacts with the 18S rRNA to activate the 40S ribosome for subsequent steps of translation initiation

    PubMed Central

    Malygin, Alexey A.; Kossinova, Olga A.; Shatsky, Ivan N.; Karpova, Galina G.

    2013-01-01

    Previous analyses of complexes of 40S ribosomal subunits with the hepatitis C virus (HCV) internal ribosome entry site (IRES) have revealed contacts made by the IRES with ribosomal proteins. Here, using chemical probing, we show that the HCV IRES also contacts the backbone and bases of the CCC triplet in the 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) expansion segment 7. These contacts presumably provide interplay between IRES domain II and the AUG codon close to ribosomal protein S5, which causes a rearrangement of 18S rRNA structure in the vicinity of the universally conserved nucleotide G1639. As a result, G1639 becomes exposed and the corresponding site of the 40S subunit implicated in transfer RNA discrimination can select . These data are the first demonstration at nucleotide resolution of direct IRES–rRNA interactions and how they induce conformational transition in the 40S subunit allowing the HCV IRES to function without AUG recognition initiation factors. PMID:23873958

  1. gar2 is a nucleolar protein from Schizosaccharomyces pombe required for 18S rRNA and 40S ribosomal subunit accumulation.

    PubMed Central

    Gulli, M P; Girard, J P; Zabetakis, D; Lapeyre, B; Melese, T; Caizergues-Ferrer, M

    1995-01-01

    Several nucleolar proteins, such as nucleolin, NOP1/fibrillarin, SSB1, NSR1 and GAR1 share a common glycine and arginine rich structural motif called the GAR domain. To identify novel nucleolar proteins from fission yeast we screened Schizosaccharomyces pombe genomic DNA libraries with a probe encompassing the GAR structural motif. Here we report the identification and characterization of a S.pombe gene coding for a novel nucleolar protein, designated gar2. The structure of the fission yeast gar2 is reminiscent of that of nucleolin from vertebrates and NSR1 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In addition, like these proteins, gar2 has a nucleolar localisation. The disruption of the gar2+ gene affects normal cell growth, leads to an accumulation of 35S pre-rRNA and a decrease of mature 18S rRNA steady state levels. Moreover, ribosomal profiles of the mutant show an increase of free 60S ribosomal subunits and an absence of free 40S ribosomal subunits. gar2 is able to rescue a S.cerevisiae mutant lacking NSR1, thus establishing gar2 as a functional homolog of NSR1. We propose that gar2 helps the assembly of pre-ribosomal particles containing 18S rRNA. Images PMID:7596817

  2. Molecular Phylogenetic Analysis of Enterobius vermicularis and Development of an 18S Ribosomal DNA-Targeted Diagnostic PCR▿

    PubMed Central

    Zelck, Ulrike E.; Bialek, Ralf; Weiß, Michael

    2011-01-01

    We genetically characterized pinworms obtained from 37 children from different regions of Germany and established new species-specific molecular diagnostic tools. No ribosomal DNA diversity was found; the phylogenetic position of Enterobius vermicularis within the Oxyurida order and its close relationship to the Ascaridida and Spirurida orders was confirmed. PMID:21248085

  3. Human NAT10 Is an ATP-dependent RNA Acetyltransferase Responsible for N4-Acetylcytidine Formation in 18 S Ribosomal RNA (rRNA)*

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Satoshi; Horikawa, Sayuri; Suzuki, Tateki; Kawauchi, Hiroki; Tanaka, Yoshikazu; Suzuki, Takeo; Suzuki, Tsutomu

    2014-01-01

    Human N-acetyltransferase 10 (NAT10) is known to be a lysine acetyltransferase that targets microtubules and histones and plays an important role in cell division. NAT10 is highly expressed in malignant tumors, and is also a promising target for therapies against laminopathies and premature aging. Here we report that NAT10 is an ATP-dependent RNA acetyltransferase responsible for formation of N4-acetylcytidine (ac4C) at position 1842 in the terminal helix of mammalian 18 S rRNA. RNAi-mediated knockdown of NAT10 resulted in growth retardation of human cells, and this was accompanied by high-level accumulation of the 30 S precursor of 18 S rRNA, suggesting that ac4C1842 formation catalyzed by NAT10 is involved in rRNA processing and ribosome biogenesis. PMID:25411247

  4. Variation in the number of nucleoli and incomplete homogenization of 18S ribosomal DNA sequences in leaf cells of the cultivated Oriental ginseng (Panax ginseng Meyer)

    PubMed Central

    Chelomina, Galina N.; Rozhkovan, Konstantin V.; Voronova, Anastasia N.; Burundukova, Olga L.; Muzarok, Tamara I.; Zhuravlev, Yuri N.

    2015-01-01

    Background Wild ginseng, Panax ginseng Meyer, is an endangered species of medicinal plants. In the present study, we analyzed variations within the ribosomal DNA (rDNA) cluster to gain insight into the genetic diversity of the Oriental ginseng, P. ginseng, at artificial plant cultivation. Methods The roots of wild P. ginseng plants were sampled from a nonprotected natural population of the Russian Far East. The slides were prepared from leaf tissues using the squash technique for cytogenetic analysis. The 18S rDNA sequences were cloned and sequenced. The distribution of nucleotide diversity, recombination events, and interspecific phylogenies for the total 18S rDNA sequence data set was also examined. Results In mesophyll cells, mononucleolar nuclei were estimated to be dominant (75.7%), while the remaining nuclei contained two to four nucleoli. Among the analyzed 18S rDNA clones, 20% were identical to the 18S rDNA sequence of P. ginseng from Japan, and other clones differed in one to six substitutions. The nucleotide polymorphism was more expressed at the positions 440–640 bp, and distributed in variable regions, expansion segments, and conservative elements of core structure. The phylogenetic analysis confirmed conspecificity of ginseng plants cultivated in different regions, with two fixed mutations between P. ginseng and other species. Conclusion This study identified the evidences of the intragenomic nucleotide polymorphism in the 18S rDNA sequences of P. ginseng. These data suggest that, in cultivated plants, the observed genome instability may influence the synthesis of biologically active compounds, which are widely used in traditional medicine. PMID:27158239

  5. Phylogeny of the sundews, Drosera (Droseraceae), based on chloroplast rbcL and nuclear 18S ribosomal DNA Sequences.

    PubMed

    Rivadavia, Fernando; Kondo, Katsuhiko; Kato, Masahiro; Hasebe, Mitsuyasu

    2003-01-01

    The sundew genus Drosera consists of carnivorous plants with active flypaper traps and includes nearly 150 species distributed mainly in Australia, Africa, and South America, with some Northern Hemisphere species. In addition to confused intrageneric classification of Drosera, the intergeneric relationships among the Drosera and two other genera in the Droseraceae with snap traps, Dionaea and Aldrovanda, are problematic. We conducted phylogenetic analyses of DNA sequences of the chloroplast rbcL gene for 59 species of Drosera, covering all sections except one. These analyses revealed that five of 11 sections, including three monotypic sections, are polyphyletic. Combined rbcL and 18S rDNA sequence data were used to infer phylogenetic relationships among Drosera, Dionaea, and Aldrovanda. This analysis revealed that all Drosera species form a clade sister to a clade including Dionaea and Aldrovanda, suggesting that the snap traps of Aldrovanda and Dionaea are homologous despite their morphological differences. MacClade reconstructions indicated that multiple episodes of aneuploidy occurred in a clade that includes mainly Australian species, while the chromosome numbers in the other clades are not as variable. Drosera regia, which is native to South Africa, and most species native to Australia, were clustered basally, suggesting that Drosera originated in Africa or Australia. The rbcL tree indicates that Australian species expanded their distribution to South America and then to Africa. Expansion of distribution to the Northern Hemisphere from the Southern Hemispere occurred in a few different lineages. PMID:21659087

  6. The Strepsiptera problem: phylogeny of the holometabolous insect orders inferred from 18S and 28S ribosomal DNA sequences and morphology.

    PubMed

    Whiting, M F; Carpenter, J C; Wheeler, Q D; Wheeler, W C

    1997-03-01

    Phylogenetic relationships among the holometabolous insect orders were inferred from cladistic analysis of nucleotide sequences of 18S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) (85 exemplars) and 28S rDNA (52 exemplars) and morphological characters. Exemplar outgroup taxa were Collembola (1 sequence), Archaeognatha (1), Ephemerida (1), Odonata (2), Plecoptera (2), Blattodea (1), Mantodea (1), Dermaptera (1), Orthoptera (1), Phasmatodea (1), Embioptera (1), Psocoptera (1), Phthiraptera (1), Hemiptera (4), and Thysanoptera (1). Exemplar ingroup taxa were Coleoptera: Archostemata (1), Adephaga (2), and Polyphaga (7); Megaloptera (1); Raphidioptera (1); Neuroptera (sensu stricto = Planipennia): Mantispoidea (2), Hemerobioidea (2), and Myrmeleontoidea (2); Hymenoptera: Symphyta (4) and Apocrita (19); Trichoptera: Hydropsychoidea (1) and Limnephiloidea (2); Lepidoptera: Ditrysia (3); Siphonaptera: Pulicoidea (1) and Ceratophylloidea (2); Mecoptera: Meropeidae (1), Boreidae (1), Panorpidae (1), and Bittacidae (2); Diptera: Nematocera (1), Brachycera (2), and Cyclorrhapha (1); and Strepsiptera: Corioxenidae (1), Myrmecolacidae (1), Elenchidae (1), and Stylopidae (3). We analyzed approximately 1 kilobase of 18S rDNA, starting 398 nucleotides downstream of the 5' end, and approximately 400 bp of 28S rDNA in expansion segment D3. Multiple alignment of the 18S and 28S sequences resulted in 1,116 nucleotide positions with 24 insert regions and 398 positions with 14 insert regions, respectively. All Strepsiptera and Neuroptera have large insert regions in 18S and 28S. The secondary structure of 18S insert 23 is composed of long stems that are GC rich in the basal Strepsiptera and AT rich in the more derived Strepsiptera. A matrix of 176 morphological characters was analyzed for holometabolous orders. Incongruence length difference tests indicate that the 28S + morphological data sets are incongruent but that 28S + 18S, 18S + morphology, and 28S + 18S + morphology fail to reject the hypothesis of

  7. Ribosomal Protein S14 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Regulates Its Expression by Binding to RPS14B Pre-mRNA and to 18S rRNA

    PubMed Central

    Fewell, Sheara W.; Woolford, John L.

    1999-01-01

    Production of ribosomal protein S14 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is coordinated with the rate of ribosome assembly by a feedback mechanism that represses expression of RPS14B. Three-hybrid assays in vivo and filter binding assays in vitro demonstrate that rpS14 directly binds to an RNA stem-loop structure in RPS14B pre-mRNA that is necessary for RPS14B regulation. Moreover, rpS14 binds to a conserved helix in 18S rRNA with approximately five- to sixfold-greater affinity. These results support the model that RPS14B regulation is mediated by direct binding of rpS14 either to its pre-mRNA or to rRNA. Investigation of these interactions with the three-hybrid system reveals two regions of rpS14 that are involved in RNA recognition. D52G and E55G mutations in rpS14 alter the specificity of rpS14 for RNA, as indicated by increased affinity for RPS14B RNA but reduced affinity for the rRNA target. Deletion of the C terminus of rpS14, where multiple antibiotic resistance mutations map, prevents binding of rpS14 to RNA and production of functional 40S subunits. The emetine-resistant protein, rpS14-EmRR, which contains two mutations near the C terminus of rpS14, does not bind either RNA target in the three-hybrid or in vitro assays. This is the first direct demonstration that an antibiotic resistance mutation alters binding of an r protein to rRNA and is consistent with the hypothesis that antibiotic resistance mutations can result from local alterations in rRNA structure. PMID:9858605

  8. PFR²: a curated database of planktonic foraminifera 18S ribosomal DNA as a resource for studies of plankton ecology, biogeography and evolution.

    PubMed

    Morard, Raphaël; Darling, Kate F; Mahé, Frédéric; Audic, Stéphane; Ujiié, Yurika; Weiner, Agnes K M; André, Aurore; Seears, Heidi A; Wade, Christopher M; Quillévéré, Frédéric; Douady, Christophe J; Escarguel, Gilles; de Garidel-Thoron, Thibault; Siccha, Michael; Kucera, Michal; de Vargas, Colomban

    2015-11-01

    Planktonic foraminifera (Rhizaria) are ubiquitous marine pelagic protists producing calcareous shells with conspicuous morphology. They play an important role in the marine carbon cycle, and their exceptional fossil record serves as the basis for biochronostratigraphy and past climate reconstructions. A major worldwide sampling effort over the last two decades has resulted in the establishment of multiple large collections of cryopreserved individual planktonic foraminifera samples. Thousands of 18S rDNA partial sequences have been generated, representing all major known morphological taxa across their worldwide oceanic range. This comprehensive data coverage provides an opportunity to assess patterns of molecular ecology and evolution in a holistic way for an entire group of planktonic protists. We combined all available published and unpublished genetic data to build PFR(2), the Planktonic foraminifera Ribosomal Reference database. The first version of the database includes 3322 reference 18S rDNA sequences belonging to 32 of the 47 known morphospecies of extant planktonic foraminifera, collected from 460 oceanic stations. All sequences have been rigorously taxonomically curated using a six-rank annotation system fully resolved to the morphological species level and linked to a series of metadata. The PFR(2) website, available at http://pfr2.sb-roscoff.fr, allows downloading the entire database or specific sections, as well as the identification of new planktonic foraminiferal sequences. Its novel, fully documented curation process integrates advances in morphological and molecular taxonomy. It allows for an increase in its taxonomic resolution and assures that integrity is maintained by including a complete contingency tracking of annotations and assuring that the annotations remain internally consistent. PMID:25828689

  9. An 18S ribosomal DNA barcode for the study of Isomermis lairdi, a parasite of the blackfly Simulium damnosum s.l.

    PubMed

    Crainey, J L; Wilson, M D; Post, R J

    2009-09-01

    The mermithid parasite, Isomermis lairdi Mondet, Poinar & Bernadou (Nematoda: Mermithidae), is known to have a major impact on populations of Simulium damnosum s.l. Theobald (Diptera: Simuliidae) and on their efficiency as vectors of Onchocerca volvulus (Leuckart) (Nematoda: Filarioidea). However, the value of I. lairdi and other mermithid parasites as potential means of integrated vector control has not been fully realized. This is partly because traditional taxonomic approaches have been insufficient for describing and analysing important aspects of their biology and host range. In total, rDNA barcode sequences have been obtained from over 70 I. lairdi mermithids found parasitizing S. damnosum s.l. larvae in three different rivers. No two sequences were found to vary by more than 0.5%, and cytospecies identification of mermithid hosts revealed that I. lairdi with identical rDNA barcodes can parasitize multiple cytoforms of the S. damnosum complex, including S. squamosum (Enderlein). Phylogenetic analysis using a partial sequence from the 18S ribosomal DNA barcode, grouped I. lairdi in a monophyletic group with Gastromermis viridis Welch (Nematoda: Mermithidae) and Isomermis wisconsinensis Welch (Nematoda: Mermithidae). PMID:19712154

  10. Optimization of PCR—RFLP Directly from the Skin and Nails in Cases of Dermatophytosis, Targeting the ITS and the 18S Ribosomal DNA Regions

    PubMed Central

    Elavarashi, Elangovan; Kindo, Anupma Jyoti; Kalyani, Jagannathan

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: A pan fungal primer targeting the Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) region and optimization of PCR-RFLP using a dermatophyte specific primer targeted the 18S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) region were performed for the identification of dermatophyte species and strains directly from clinical specimens. Materials and Methods: One hundred and thirty eight specimens (129 skin scrapings and 9 nail clippings) from clinically suspected cases of dermatophytosis were collected and subjected to direct microscopy and culture. Among them, 66 skin scrapings and 3 nail clippings were processed for genotyping by PCR-RFLP analysis using the Mva I, Hae III and the Dde I restriction enzymes. Results: Of the 138 specimens, 81 specimens were positive for dermatophytosis, the most common one being Trichophyton rubrum (47), followed by Trichophyton mentagrophytes (25) and Epidermophyton floccosum (9). Of the 47 T. rubrum isolates, 10 were T. rubrum var. raubitschekii which were identified phenotypically as urease positive and by DNA sequencing. Since they exhibited minor morphological and physiological features, they have currently been synonymized with T. rubrum. Of the 25 T. mentagrophytes isolates, three were Trichophyton interdigitale, which were identified by DNA sequencing. Among the 66 skin specimens smear, culture and PCR showed the presence of dermatophytes in 36 (54.54%), 42 (63.63%) and 47 (71.21%) cases respectively. Among the three nail specimens, only one was found to be positive for dermatophytosis by smear, culture and PCR. Conclusion: Amplification of the dermatophyte specific primer is appropriate in the identification of dermatophytes directly from the clinical material. PCR targeting the ITS region by using the Mva I and the Dde I enzymes was equally good for the RFLP analysis. However, by using the above three restriction enzymes, no strain variations were detected among the T. rubrum and the T. mentagrophytes strains. PMID:23730638

  11. WBSCR22/Merm1 is required for late nuclear pre-ribosomal RNA processing and mediates N7-methylation of G1639 in human 18S rRNA

    PubMed Central

    Haag, Sara; Kretschmer, Jens

    2015-01-01

    Ribosomal (r)RNAs are extensively modified during ribosome synthesis and their modification is required for the fidelity and efficiency of translation. Besides numerous small nucleolar RNA-guided 2′-O methylations and pseudouridinylations, a number of individual RNA methyltransferases are involved in rRNA modification. WBSCR22/Merm1, which is affected in Williams–Beuren syndrome and has been implicated in tumorigenesis and metastasis formation, was recently shown to be involved in ribosome synthesis, but its molecular functions have remained elusive. Here we show that depletion of WBSCR22 leads to nuclear accumulation of 3′-extended 18SE pre-rRNA intermediates resulting in impaired 18S rRNA maturation. We map the 3′ ends of the 18SE pre-rRNA intermediates accumulating after depletion of WBSCR22 and in control cells using 3′-RACE and deep sequencing. Furthermore, we demonstrate that WBSCR22 is required for N7-methylation of G1639 in human 18S rRNA in vivo. Interestingly, the catalytic activity of WBSCR22 is not required for 18S pre-rRNA processing, suggesting that the key role of WBSCR22 in 40S subunit biogenesis is independent of its function as an RNA methyltransferase. PMID:25525153

  12. Characterization of three different clusters of 18S-26S ribosomal DNA genes in the sea urchin P. lividus: Genetic and epigenetic regulation synchronous to 5S rDNA.

    PubMed

    Bellavia, Daniele; Dimarco, Eufrosina; Caradonna, Fabio

    2016-04-15

    We previously reported the characterization 5S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) clusters in the common sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus and demonstrated the presence of DNA methylation-dependent silencing of embryo specific 5S rDNA cluster in adult tissue. In this work, we show genetic and epigenetic characterization of 18S-26S rDNA clusters in this specie. The results indicate the presence of three different 18S-26S rDNA clusters with different Non-Transcribed Spacer (NTS) regions that have different chromosomal localizations. Moreover, we show that the two largest clusters are hyper-methylated in the promoter-containing NTS regions in adult tissues, as in the 5S rDNA. These findings demonstrate an analogous epigenetic regulation in small and large rDNA clusters and support the logical synchronism in building ribosomes. In fact, all the ribosomal RNA genes must be synchronously and equally transcribed to perform their unique final product. PMID:26789074

  13. PCR amplification of a multi-copy mitochondrial gene (cox3) improves detection of Cytauxzoon felis infection as compared to a ribosomal gene (18S).

    PubMed

    Schreeg, Megan E; Marr, Henry S; Griffith, Emily H; Tarigo, Jaime L; Bird, David M; Reichard, Mason V; Cohn, Leah A; Levy, Michael G; Birkenheuer, Adam J

    2016-07-30

    Cytauxzoon felis is a tick-transmitted protozoan parasite that infects felids. Clinical disease caused by acute C. felis infection rapidly progresses in domestic cats, leading to high morbidity and mortality. Accurately diagnosing cytauxzoonosis as soon as possible during acute infection would allow for earlier initiation of antiprotozoal therapy which could lead to higher survival rates. Molecular detection of parasite rRNA genes (18S) by PCR has previously been shown to be a sensitive method of diagnosing C. felis infections. Based on evidence from related apicomplexan species, we hypothesized that C. felis mitochondrial genes would exist at higher copy numbers than 18S and would be a more sensitive diagnostic target. In this study we have designed a PCR assay targeting the C. felis mitochondrial gene cytochrome c oxidase subunit III (cox3). Herein we demonstrate that (1) the cox3 PCR can detect as low as 1 copy of DNA target and can detect C. felis in samples with known mitochondrial sequence heterogeneity, (2) cox3 copy number is increased relative to 18S in blood and tissue samples from acutely infected cats, and (3) the cox3 PCR is more sensitive than 18S PCR for detection of C. felis during early infections. PMID:27369587

  14. Both the Exact Target Site Sequence and a Long Poly(A) Tail Are Required for Precise Insertion of the 18S Ribosomal DNA-Specific Non-Long Terminal Repeat Retrotransposon R7Ag.

    PubMed

    Nichuguti, Narisu; Hayase, Mayumi; Fujiwara, Haruhiko

    2016-05-15

    Ribosomal elements (R elements) are site-specific non-long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons that target ribosomal DNA (rDNA). To elucidate how R elements specifically access their target sites, we isolated and characterized the 18S rDNA-specific R element R7Ag from Anopheles gambiae Using an in vivo and ex vivo recombinant baculovirus retrotransposition system, we found that the exact host 18S rDNA sequence at the target site is essential for the precise insertion of R7Ag. In addition, a long poly(A) tail is necessary for the accurate initiation of R7Ag reverse transcription, a novel mechanism found in non-LTR elements. We further compared the subcellular localizations of proteins in R7Ag as well as R1Bm, another R element that targets 28S rDNA. Although the open reading frame 1 proteins (ORF1ps) of both R7Ag and R1Bm localized predominantly in the cytoplasm, ORF2 proteins (ORF2ps) colocalized in the nucleus with the nucleolar marker fibrillarin. The ORF1ps and ORF2ps of both R elements colocalized largely in the nuclear periphery and to a lesser extent within the nucleus. These results suggest that R7Ag and R1Bm proteins may access nucleolar rDNA targets in an ORF2p-dependent manner. PMID:26976636

  15. Fungal community analysis in the deep-sea sediments of the Pacific Ocean assessed by comparison of ITS, 18S and 28S ribosomal DNA regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Wei; Luo, Zhu-Hua; Guo, Shuangshuang; Pang, Ka-Lai

    2016-03-01

    We investigated the diversity of fungal communities in 6 different deep-sea sediment samples of the Pacific Ocean based on three different types of clone libraries, including internal transcribed spacer (ITS), 18S rDNA, and 28S rDNA regions. A total of 1978 clones were generated from 18 environmental clone libraries, resulting in 140 fungal operational taxonomic units (OTUs), including 18 OTUs from ITS, 44 OTUs from 18S rDNA, and 78 OTUs from 28S rDNA gene primer sets. The majority of the recovered sequences belonged to diverse phylotypes of the Ascomycota and Basidiomycota. Additionally, our study revealed a total of 46 novel fungal phylotypes, which showed low similarities (<97%) with available fungal sequences in the GenBank, including a novel Zygomycete lineage, suggesting possible new fungal taxa occurring in the deep-sea sediments. The results suggested that 28S rDNA is an efficient target gene to describe fungal community in deep-sea environment.

  16. Phylogenetic position of the yeast-like symbiotes of Tagosodes orizicolus (Homoptera: Delphacidae) based on 18S ribosomal DNA partial sequences.

    PubMed

    Xet-Mull, Ana M; Quesada, Tania; Espinoza, Ana M

    2004-09-01

    Tagosodes orizicolus Muir (Homoptera: Delphacidae), the endemic delphacid species of tropical America carries yeast-like symbiotes (YLS) in the abdominal fat bodies and the ovarial tissues, like other rice planthoppers of Asia. These YLS are obligate symbiotes, which are transmitted transovarially, and maintain a mutualistic relationship with the insect host. This characteristic has made in vitro culture and classification of YLS rather difficult using conventional methods. Nevertheless, microorganisms of similar characteristics have been successfully classified by using molecular taxonomy. In the present work, the YLS of Tagosodes orizicolus (YLSTo) were purified on Percoll gradients, and specific segments of 18S rDNA were amplified by PCR, cloned and sequenced. Sequences were aligned by means of the CLUSTAL V (DNASTAR) program; phylogenetic trees were constructed with the Phylogeny Inference Package (PHYLIP), showing that YLSTo belong to the fungi class Pyrenomycetes, phylum Ascomycota. Similarities between 98% and 100% were observed among YLS of the rice delphacids Tagosodes orizicolus, Nilaparvata lugens, Laodelphax striatellus and Sogatella fur cifera, and between 89.8% and 90.8% when comparing the above to YLS of the aphid Hamiltonaphis styraci. These comparisons revealed that delphacid YLS are a highly conserved monophyletic group within the Pyrenomycetes and are closely related to Hypomyces chrysospermus. PMID:17361570

  17. Wide genetic variations at 18S ribosomal RNA locus of Cyclospora cayetanensis isolated from Egyptian patients using high resolution melting curve.

    PubMed

    Hussein, Eman M; El-Moamly, Amal A; Mahmoud, Moushira A; Ateek, Nayera S

    2016-07-01

    A variable clinical picture of cyclosporiasis including gastrointestinal tract (GIT) symptomatic or asymptomatic beside extraintestinal consequences suggests a possibility of heterogenicity of Cyclospora cayetanensis. The present work aimed to explore the possibility of genetic variation of C. cayetanensis using high-resolution melting (HRM) curve of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplified 18S rRNA genes. DNAs extracted from the stool samples of 70 cyclosporiasis patients were amplified and scanned by PCR/HRM curve. The results showed that there are four different genotypic profiles of C. cayetanensis with presence of mixed ones. Although Tm of all profiles was within the same range, they were discerned by plotting of the temperature-shifted florescence difference between normalized melting curves (dF/dT). Genotypic profile I was found alone in 40 % of patients and mixed with genotypic profile II and/or III in 25.7 % of patients, followed by genotypic profile II in 14.3 % then genotypic profile III and IV (10 % each). A significant relation was found between genotypic profiles and GIT symptomatic status as profile I and profile II were mostly detected in patients with acute GIT symptoms without or with chronic illness, respectively, while profile IV cases only were GIT asymptomatic. Statistical significance relations between genotypic profiles and age, gender, residence and oocyst shape index were determined. In conclusion, PCR/HRM proved a wide variation on C. cayetanensis genes that could be reflected on its pathogenic effects and explaining the variability of the clinical manifestations presented by cyclosporiasis patients. PMID:27041342

  18. Intragenomic sequence variation at the ITS1 - ITS2 region and at the 18S and 28S nuclear ribosomal DNA genes of the New Zealand mud snail, Potamopyrgus antipodarum (Hydrobiidae: mollusca)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoy, Marshal S.; Rodriguez, Rusty J.

    2013-01-01

    Molecular genetic analysis was conducted on two populations of the invasive non-native New Zealand mud snail (Potamopyrgus antipodarum), one from a freshwater ecosystem in Devil's Lake (Oregon, USA) and the other from an ecosystem of higher salinity in the Columbia River estuary (Hammond Harbor, Oregon, USA). To elucidate potential genetic differences between the two populations, three segments of nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA), the ITS1-ITS2 regions and the 18S and 28S rDNA genes were cloned and sequenced. Variant sequences within each individual were found in all three rDNA segments. Folding models were utilized for secondary structure analysis and results indicated that there were many sequences which contained structure-altering polymorphisms, which suggests they could be nonfunctional pseudogenes. In addition, analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) was used for hierarchical analysis of genetic variance to estimate variation within and among populations and within individuals. AMOVA revealed significant variation in the ITS region between the populations and among clones within individuals, while in the 5.8S rDNA significant variation was revealed among individuals within the two populations. High levels of intragenomic variation were found in the ITS regions, which are known to be highly variable in many organisms. More interestingly, intragenomic variation was also found in the 18S and 28S rDNA, which has rarely been observed in animals and is so far unreported in Mollusca. We postulate that in these P. antipodarum populations the effects of concerted evolution are diminished due to the fact that not all of the rDNA genes in their polyploid genome should be essential for sustaining cellular function. This could lead to a lessening of selection pressures, allowing mutations to accumulate in some copies, changing them into variant sequences.                   

  19. Three Group-I introns in 18S rDNA of Endosymbiotic Algae of Paramecium bursaria from Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoshina, Ryo; Kamako, Shin-ichiro; Imamura, Nobutaka

    2004-08-01

    In the nuclear encoded small subunit ribosomal DNA (18S rDNA) of symbiotic alga of Paramecium bursaria (F36 collected in Japan) possesses three intron-like insertions (Hoshina et al., unpubl. data, 2003). The present study confirmed these exact lengths and insertion sites by reverse transcription-PCR. Two of them were inserted at Escherichia coli 16S rRNA genic position 943 and 1512 that are frequent intron insertion positions, but another insertion position (nearly 1370) was the first finding. Their secondary structures suggested they belong to Group-I intron; one belongs to subgroup IE, others belong to subgroup IC1. Similarity search indicated these introns are ancestral ones.

  20. Dasytricha dominance in Surti buffalo rumen revealed by 18S rRNA sequences and real-time PCR assay.

    PubMed

    Singh, K M; Tripathi, A K; Pandya, P R; Rank, D N; Kothari, R K; Joshi, C G

    2011-09-01

    The genetic diversity of protozoa in Surti buffalo rumen was studied by amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis, 18S rDNA sequence homology and phylogenetic and Real-time PCR analysis methods. Three animals were fed diet comprised green fodder Napier bajra 21 (Pennisetum purpureum), mature pasture grass (Dicanthium annulatum) and concentrate mixture (20% crude protein, 65% total digestible nutrients). A protozoa-specific primer (P-SSU-342f) and a eukarya-specific primer (Medlin B) were used to amplify a 1,360 bp fragment of DNA encoding protozoal small subunit (SSU) ribosomal RNA from rumen fluid. A total of 91 clones were examined and identified 14 different 18S RNA sequences based on PCR-RFLP pattern. These 14 phylotypes were distributed into four genera-based 18S rDNA database sequences and identified as Dasytricha (57 clones), Isotricha (14 clones), Ostracodinium (11 clones) and Polyplastron (9 clones). Phylogenetic analyses were also used to infer the makeup of protozoa communities in the rumen of Surti buffalo. Out of 14 sequences, 8 sequences (69 clones) clustered with the Dasytricha ruminantium-like clone and 4 sequences (13 clones) were also phylogenetically placed with the Isotricha prostoma-like clone. Moreover, 2 phylotypes (9 clones) were related to Polyplastron multivesiculatum-like clone. In addition, the number of 18S rDNA gene copies of Dasytricha ruminantium (0.05% to ciliate protozoa) was higher than Entodinium sp. (2.0 × 10(5) vs. 1.3 × 10(4)) in per ml ruminal fluid. PMID:21744288

  1. Paradigms of ribosome synthesis: Lessons learned from ribosomal proteins

    PubMed Central

    Gamalinda, Michael; Woolford, John L

    2015-01-01

    The proteome in all cells is manufactured via the intricate process of translation by multimolecular factories called ribosomes. Nevertheless, these ribonucleoprotein particles, the largest of their kind, also have an elaborate assembly line of their own. Groundbreaking discoveries that bacterial ribosomal subunits can be self-assembled in vitro jumpstarted studies on how ribosomes are constructed. Until recently, ribosome assembly has been investigated almost entirely in vitro with bacterial small subunits under equilibrium conditions. In light of high-resolution ribosome structures and a more sophisticated toolkit, the past decade has been defined by a burst of kinetic studies in vitro and, importantly, also a shift to examining ribosome maturation in living cells, especially in eukaryotes. In this review, we summarize the principles governing ribosome assembly that emerged from studies focusing on ribosomal proteins and their interactions with rRNA. Understanding these paradigms has taken center stage, given the linkage between anomalous ribosome biogenesis and proliferative disorders. PMID:26779413

  2. A tRNA methyltransferase paralog is important for ribosome stability and cell division in Trypanosoma brucei.

    PubMed

    Fleming, Ian M C; Paris, Zdeněk; Gaston, Kirk W; Balakrishnan, R; Fredrick, Kurt; Rubio, Mary Anne T; Alfonzo, Juan D

    2016-01-01

    Most eukaryotic ribosomes contain 26/28S, 5S, and 5.8S large subunit ribosomal RNAs (LSU rRNAs) in addition to the 18S rRNA of the small subunit (SSU rRNA). However, in kinetoplastids, a group of organisms that include medically important members of the genus Trypanosoma and Leishmania, the 26/28S large subunit ribosomal RNA is uniquely composed of 6 rRNA fragments. In addition, recent studies have shown the presence of expansion segments in the large ribosomal subunit (60S) of Trypanosoma brucei. Given these differences in structure, processing and assembly, T. brucei ribosomes may require biogenesis factors not found in other organisms. Here, we show that one of two putative 3-methylcytidine methyltransferases, TbMTase37 (a homolog of human methyltransferase-like 6, METTL6), is important for ribosome stability in T. brucei. TbMTase37 localizes to the nucleolus and depletion of the protein results in accumulation of ribosomal particles lacking srRNA 4 and reduced levels of polysome associated ribosomes. We also find that TbMTase37 plays a role in cytokinesis, as loss of the protein leads to multi-flagellated and multi-nucleated cells. PMID:26888608

  3. A tRNA methyltransferase paralog is important for ribosome stability and cell division in Trypanosoma brucei

    PubMed Central

    Fleming, Ian M. C.; Paris, Zdeněk; Gaston, Kirk W.; Balakrishnan, R.; Fredrick, Kurt; Rubio, Mary Anne T.; Alfonzo, Juan D.

    2016-01-01

    Most eukaryotic ribosomes contain 26/28S, 5S, and 5.8S large subunit ribosomal RNAs (LSU rRNAs) in addition to the 18S rRNA of the small subunit (SSU rRNA). However, in kinetoplastids, a group of organisms that include medically important members of the genus Trypanosoma and Leishmania, the 26/28S large subunit ribosomal RNA is uniquely composed of 6 rRNA fragments. In addition, recent studies have shown the presence of expansion segments in the large ribosomal subunit (60S) of Trypanosoma brucei. Given these differences in structure, processing and assembly, T. brucei ribosomes may require biogenesis factors not found in other organisms. Here, we show that one of two putative 3-methylcytidine methyltransferases, TbMTase37 (a homolog of human methyltransferase-like 6, METTL6), is important for ribosome stability in T. brucei. TbMTase37 localizes to the nucleolus and depletion of the protein results in accumulation of ribosomal particles lacking srRNA 4 and reduced levels of polysome associated ribosomes. We also find that TbMTase37 plays a role in cytokinesis, as loss of the protein leads to multi-flagellated and multi-nucleated cells. PMID:26888608

  4. UtpA and UtpB chaperone nascent pre-ribosomal RNA and U3 snoRNA to initiate eukaryotic ribosome assembly

    PubMed Central

    Hunziker, Mirjam; Barandun, Jonas; Petfalski, Elisabeth; Tan, Dongyan; Delan-Forino, Clémentine; Molloy, Kelly R.; Kim, Kelly H.; Dunn-Davies, Hywel; Shi, Yi; Chaker-Margot, Malik; Chait, Brian T.; Walz, Thomas; Tollervey, David; Klinge, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    Early eukaryotic ribosome biogenesis involves large multi-protein complexes, which co-transcriptionally associate with pre-ribosomal RNA to form the small subunit processome. The precise mechanisms by which two of the largest multi-protein complexes—UtpA and UtpB—interact with nascent pre-ribosomal RNA are poorly understood. Here, we combined biochemical and structural biology approaches with ensembles of RNA–protein cross-linking data to elucidate the essential functions of both complexes. We show that UtpA contains a large composite RNA-binding site and captures the 5′ end of pre-ribosomal RNA. UtpB forms an extended structure that binds early pre-ribosomal intermediates in close proximity to architectural sites such as an RNA duplex formed by the 5′ ETS and U3 snoRNA as well as the 3′ boundary of the 18S rRNA. Both complexes therefore act as vital RNA chaperones to initiate eukaryotic ribosome assembly. PMID:27354316

  5. UtpA and UtpB chaperone nascent pre-ribosomal RNA and U3 snoRNA to initiate eukaryotic ribosome assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunziker, Mirjam; Barandun, Jonas; Petfalski, Elisabeth; Tan, Dongyan; Delan-Forino, Clémentine; Molloy, Kelly R.; Kim, Kelly H.; Dunn-Davies, Hywel; Shi, Yi; Chaker-Margot, Malik; Chait, Brian T.; Walz, Thomas; Tollervey, David; Klinge, Sebastian

    2016-06-01

    Early eukaryotic ribosome biogenesis involves large multi-protein complexes, which co-transcriptionally associate with pre-ribosomal RNA to form the small subunit processome. The precise mechanisms by which two of the largest multi-protein complexes--UtpA and UtpB--interact with nascent pre-ribosomal RNA are poorly understood. Here, we combined biochemical and structural biology approaches with ensembles of RNA-protein cross-linking data to elucidate the essential functions of both complexes. We show that UtpA contains a large composite RNA-binding site and captures the 5' end of pre-ribosomal RNA. UtpB forms an extended structure that binds early pre-ribosomal intermediates in close proximity to architectural sites such as an RNA duplex formed by the 5' ETS and U3 snoRNA as well as the 3' boundary of the 18S rRNA. Both complexes therefore act as vital RNA chaperones to initiate eukaryotic ribosome assembly.

  6. Molecular phylogenetic analysis among bryophytes and tracheophytes based on combined data of plastid coded genes and the 18S rRNA gene.

    PubMed

    Nishiyama, T; Kato, M

    1999-08-01

    The basal relationship of bryophytes and tracheophytes is problematic in land plant phylogeny. In addition to cladistic analyses of morphological data, molecular phylogenetic analyses of the nuclear small-subunit ribosomal RNA gene and the plastic gene rbcL have been performed, but no confident conclusions have been reached. Using the maximum-likelihood (ML) method, we analyzed 4,563 bp of aligned sequences from plastid protein-coding genes and 1,680 bp from the nuclear 18S rRNA gene. In the ML tree of deduced amino acid sequences of the plastid genes, hornworts were basal among the land plants, while mosses and liverworts each formed a clade and were sister to each other. Total-evidence evaluation of rRNA data and plastid protein-coding genes by TOTALML had an almost identical result. PMID:10474899

  7. Yeast Kre33 and human NAT10 are conserved 18S rRNA cytosine acetyltransferases that modify tRNAs assisted by the adaptor Tan1/THUMPD1

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Sunny; Langhendries, Jean-Louis; Watzinger, Peter; Kötter, Peter; Entian, Karl-Dieter; Lafontaine, Denis L.J.

    2015-01-01

    The function of RNA is subtly modulated by post-transcriptional modifications. Here, we report an important crosstalk in the covalent modification of two classes of RNAs. We demonstrate that yeast Kre33 and human NAT10 are RNA cytosine acetyltransferases with, surprisingly, specificity toward both 18S rRNA and tRNAs. tRNA acetylation requires the intervention of a specific and conserved adaptor: yeast Tan1/human THUMPD1. In budding and fission yeasts, and in human cells, we found two acetylated cytosines on 18S rRNA, one in helix 34 important for translation accuracy and another in helix 45 near the decoding site. Efficient 18S rRNA acetylation in helix 45 involves, in human cells, the vertebrate-specific box C/D snoRNA U13, which, we suggest, exposes the substrate cytosine to modification through Watson–Crick base pairing with 18S rRNA precursors during small subunit biogenesis. Finally, while Kre33 and NAT10 are essential for pre-rRNA processing reactions leading to 18S rRNA synthesis, we demonstrate that rRNA acetylation is dispensable to yeast cells growth. The inactivation of NAT10 was suggested to suppress nuclear morphological defects observed in laminopathic patient cells through loss of microtubules modification and cytoskeleton reorganization. We rather propose the effects of NAT10 on laminopathic cells are due to reduced ribosome biogenesis or function. PMID:25653167

  8. Yeast Kre33 and human NAT10 are conserved 18S rRNA cytosine acetyltransferases that modify tRNAs assisted by the adaptor Tan1/THUMPD1.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Sunny; Langhendries, Jean-Louis; Watzinger, Peter; Kötter, Peter; Entian, Karl-Dieter; Lafontaine, Denis L J

    2015-02-27

    The function of RNA is subtly modulated by post-transcriptional modifications. Here, we report an important crosstalk in the covalent modification of two classes of RNAs. We demonstrate that yeast Kre33 and human NAT10 are RNA cytosine acetyltransferases with, surprisingly, specificity toward both 18S rRNA and tRNAs. tRNA acetylation requires the intervention of a specific and conserved adaptor: yeast Tan1/human THUMPD1. In budding and fission yeasts, and in human cells, we found two acetylated cytosines on 18S rRNA, one in helix 34 important for translation accuracy and another in helix 45 near the decoding site. Efficient 18S rRNA acetylation in helix 45 involves, in human cells, the vertebrate-specific box C/D snoRNA U13, which, we suggest, exposes the substrate cytosine to modification through Watson-Crick base pairing with 18S rRNA precursors during small subunit biogenesis. Finally, while Kre33 and NAT10 are essential for pre-rRNA processing reactions leading to 18S rRNA synthesis, we demonstrate that rRNA acetylation is dispensable to yeast cells growth. The inactivation of NAT10 was suggested to suppress nuclear morphological defects observed in laminopathic patient cells through loss of microtubules modification and cytoskeleton reorganization. We rather propose the effects of NAT10 on laminopathic cells are due to reduced ribosome biogenesis or function. PMID:25653167

  9. Phylogenetic relationships of land plants using mitochondrial small-subunit rDNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Duff, R J; Nickrent, D L

    1999-03-01

    Phylogenetic relationships among embryophytes (tracheophytes, mosses, liverworts, and hornworts) were examined using 21 newly generated mitochondrial small-subunit (19S) rDNA sequences. The "core" 19S rDNA contained more phylogenetically informative sites and lower homoplasy than either nuclear 18S or plastid 16S rDNA. Results of phylogenetic analyses using parsimony (MP) and likelihood (ML) were generally congruent. Using MP, two trees were obtained that resolved either liverworts or hornworts as the basal land plant clade. The optimal ML tree showed hornworts as basal. That topology was not statistically different from the two MP trees, thus both appear to be equally viable evolutionary hypotheses. High bootstrap support was obtained for the majority of higher level embryophyte clades named in a recent morphologically based classification, e.g., Tracheophyta, Euphyllophytina, Lycophytina, and Spermatophytata. Strong support was also obtained for the following monophyletic groups: hornworts, liverworts, mosses, lycopsids, leptosporangiate and eusporangiate ferns, gymnosperms and angiosperms. This molecular analysis supported a sister relationship between Equisetum and leptosporangiate ferns and a monophyletic gymnosperms sister to angiosperms. The topologies of deeper clades were affected by taxon inclusion (particularly hornworts) as demonstrated by jackknife analyses. This study represents the first use of mitochondrial 19S rDNA for phylogenetic purposes and it appears well-suited for examining intermediate to deep evolutionary relationships among embryophytes. PMID:10077500

  10. Collection of small subunit (16S- and 16S-like) ribosomal RNA structures: 1994.

    PubMed Central

    Gutell, R R

    1994-01-01

    A collection of diverse 16S and 16S-like rRNA secondary structure diagrams are available. This set of rRNAs contains representative structures from all of the major phylogenetic groupings--Archaea, (eu)Bacteria, and the nucleus, mitochondrion, and chloroplast of Eucarya. Within this broad phylogenetic sampling are examples of the major forms of structural diversity currently known for this class of rRNAs. These structure diagrams are available online through our computer-network WWW server and anonymous ftp, as well as from the author in hardcopy format. PMID:7524024

  11. Plasmids containing small subunit ribosomal RNA gene fragments from Babesia bovis and Babesia bigemina

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    BEI Resources was developed by NIAID as a centralized biological resource center for research reagents to the scientific community (http://www.beiresources.org/). They have a considerable amount of reagents and isolates for parasitologists working with Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia, Toxoplasma, and...

  12. PHYLOGENETIC ANALYSIS OF CRYPTOSPORIDIUM PARASITES BASED ON THE SMALL SUBUNIT RIBOSOMAL RNA GENE LOCUS

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT
    Biologic data support the presence of multiple species in the genus Cryptosporidium, but
    a recent analysis of the available genetic data has suggested that there is insufficient evidence for species differentiation. In order to resolve the controversy in the taxono...

  13. The phylogenetic relationships of Rhodosporidium dacryoidum Fell, Hunter et Tallman based on the partial sequences of 18S and 26S ribosomal RNAs: the proposal of Sakaguchia gen. nov., a heterobasidiomycetous yeast genus.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Y; Maeda, K; Mikata, K

    1994-01-01

    The partial base sequences of 18S and 26S rRNAs of Rhodosporidium fluviale, R. lusitaniae, and Erythrobasidium hasegawianum were analyzed. In the 26S rRNA partial base sequencings, R. fluviale CBS 6568 and R. lusitaniae IGC 4599 and IGC 4641 had 81-82 and 77 percent similarities compared with R. toruloides (type species of genus Rhodosporidium) IFO 0559 and IFO 0880. Erythrobasidium hasegawianum IFO 1058 showed 69-71, 59, 63, and 61 percent similarities with R. toruloides IFO 0559 and IFO 0880, L. scottii (type species of genus Leucosporidium) IFO 1923, R. dacryoidum IFO 1930 and IFO 1931, and Kondoa malvinella IFO 1936, respectively. In the 18S rRNA partial base sequencings, R. fluviale CBS 6568 and R. lusitaniae IGC 4599 and IGC 4641 had zero and two base differences with R. toruloides. Erythrobasidium hasegawianum IFO 1058 showed ten, sixteen, three, and twenty base differences with R. toruloides IFO 0559 and IFO 0880, L. scottii IFO 1923, R. dacryoidum IFO 1930 and IFO 1931, and K. malvinella IFO 1936, respectively. Based on the sequence data obtained, a new genus, Sakaguchia was proposed for R. dacryoidum with a new combination, Sakaguchia dacryoides. PMID:7765151

  14. Soybean ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase small subunit: Mechanisms and determinants on RNA turnover: Progress report, May 1988--December 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Meagher, R.

    1989-01-01

    The goal of this work is to elucidate the mechanisms and determinants behind the light induced turnover and general chemical instability of Rubisco small subunit (SSU) RNA. Three approaches are being used: (A) to use molecular physiology to help define the phenomena and identify the possible cellular machinery involved in these processes; (B) SSU RNA stability will be assayed in transgenic plants; and (C) in vivo RNA structure is being examined via chemical modification of RNA. The tremendous success we have had with assaying in vivo RNA structure by DMS modification and a need to validate this technique with sufficient controls has resulted in our adding an additional goal to the project: to develop a DMS modification map of 18S rRNA and portions of Rubisco SSU RNA and predict a potential secondary structures.

  15. Autophagy induction is a Tor- and Tp53-independent cell survival response in a zebrafish model of disrupted ribosome biogenesis.

    PubMed

    Boglev, Yeliz; Badrock, Andrew P; Trotter, Andrew J; Du, Qian; Richardson, Elsbeth J; Parslow, Adam C; Markmiller, Sebastian J; Hall, Nathan E; de Jong-Curtain, Tanya A; Ng, Annie Y; Verkade, Heather; Ober, Elke A; Field, Holly A; Shin, Donghun; Shin, Chong H; Hannan, Katherine M; Hannan, Ross D; Pearson, Richard B; Kim, Seok-Hyung; Ess, Kevin C; Lieschke, Graham J; Stainier, Didier Y R; Heath, Joan K

    2013-01-01

    Ribosome biogenesis underpins cell growth and division. Disruptions in ribosome biogenesis and translation initiation are deleterious to development and underlie a spectrum of diseases known collectively as ribosomopathies. Here, we describe a novel zebrafish mutant, titania (tti(s450)), which harbours a recessive lethal mutation in pwp2h, a gene encoding a protein component of the small subunit processome. The biochemical impacts of this lesion are decreased production of mature 18S rRNA molecules, activation of Tp53, and impaired ribosome biogenesis. In tti(s450), the growth of the endodermal organs, eyes, brain, and craniofacial structures is severely arrested and autophagy is up-regulated, allowing intestinal epithelial cells to evade cell death. Inhibiting autophagy in tti(s450) larvae markedly reduces their lifespan. Somewhat surprisingly, autophagy induction in tti(s450) larvae is independent of the state of the Tor pathway and proceeds unabated in Tp53-mutant larvae. These data demonstrate that autophagy is a survival mechanism invoked in response to ribosomal stress. This response may be of relevance to therapeutic strategies aimed at killing cancer cells by targeting ribosome biogenesis. In certain contexts, these treatments may promote autophagy and contribute to cancer cells evading cell death. PMID:23408911

  16. The utility of diversity profiling using Illumina 18S rRNA gene amplicon deep sequencing to detect and discriminate Toxoplasma gondii among the cyst-forming coccidia.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Madalyn K; Phalen, David N; Donahoe, Shannon L; Rose, Karrie; Šlapeta, Jan

    2016-01-30

    Next-generation sequencing (NGS) has the capacity to screen a single DNA sample and detect pathogen DNA from thousands of host DNA sequence reads, making it a versatile and informative tool for investigation of pathogens in diseased animals. The technique is effective and labor saving in the initial identification of pathogens, and will complement conventional diagnostic tests to associate the candidate pathogen with a disease process. In this report, we investigated the utility of the diversity profiling NGS approach using Illumina small subunit ribosomal RNA (18S rRNA) gene amplicon deep sequencing to detect Toxoplasma gondii in previously confirmed cases of toxoplasmosis. We then tested the diagnostic approach with species-specific PCR genotyping, histopathology and immunohistochemistry of toxoplasmosis in a Risso's dolphin (Grampus griseus) to systematically characterise the disease and associate causality. We show that the Euk7A/Euk570R primer set targeting the V1-V3 hypervariable region of the 18S rRNA gene can be used as a species-specific assay for cyst-forming coccidia and discriminate T. gondii. Overall, the approach is cost-effective and improves diagnostic decision support by narrowing the differential diagnosis list with more certainty than was previously possible. Furthermore, it supplements the limitations of cryptic protozoan morphology and surpasses the need for species-specific PCR primer combinations. PMID:26801593

  17. Structure of Csm2 elucidates the relationship between small subunits of CRISPR-Cas effector complexes.

    PubMed

    Venclovas, Česlovas

    2016-05-01

    Type I and type III CRISPR-Cas effector complexes share similar architecture and have homologous key subunits. However, the relationship between the so-called small subunits of these complexes remains a contentious issue. Here, it is shown that the recently solved structure of Thermotoga maritima Csm2 represents a dimer with the extensive structure swapping between monomers. Unswapping the structure generates a compact globular monomer which shares similar structure and surface properties with Cmr5, the small subunit of a related Cmr complex. Detailed analysis of available structures of small subunits reveals that they all have a common fold suggesting their common origin. PMID:27091242

  18. Functional Role of Ribosomal Signatures

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ke; Eargle, John; Sarkar, Krishnarjun; Gruebele, Martin; Luthey-Schulten, Zaida

    2010-01-01

    Although structure and sequence signatures in ribosomal RNA and proteins are defining characteristics of the three domains of life and instrumental in constructing the modern phylogeny, little is known about their functional roles in the ribosome. In this work, the largest coevolving RNA/protein signatures in the bacterial 30S ribosome are investigated both experimentally and computationally through all-atom molecular-dynamics simulations. The complex includes the N-terminal fragment of the ribosomal protein S4, which is a primary binding protein that initiates 30S small subunit assembly from the 5′ domain, and helix 16 (h16), which is part of the five-way junction in 16S rRNA. Our results show that the S4 N-terminus signature is intrinsically disordered in solution, whereas h16 is relatively stable by itself. The dynamic disordered property of the protein is exploited to couple the folding and binding process to the five-way junction, and the results provide insight into the mechanism for the early and fast binding of S4 in the assembly of the ribosomal small subunit. PMID:21156135

  19. Evaluation of nearest-neighbor methods for detection of chimeric small-subunit rRNA sequences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robison-Cox, J. F.; Bateson, M. M.; Ward, D. M.

    1995-01-01

    Detection of chimeric artifacts formed when PCR is used to retrieve naturally occurring small-subunit (SSU) rRNA sequences may rely on demonstrating that different sequence domains have different phylogenetic affiliations. We evaluated the CHECK_CHIMERA method of the Ribosomal Database Project and another method which we developed, both based on determining nearest neighbors of different sequence domains, for their ability to discern artificially generated SSU rRNA chimeras from authentic Ribosomal Database Project sequences. The reliability of both methods decreases when the parental sequences which contribute to chimera formation are more than 82 to 84% similar. Detection is also complicated by the occurrence of authentic SSU rRNA sequences that behave like chimeras. We developed a naive statistical test based on CHECK_CHIMERA output and used it to evaluate previously reported SSU rRNA chimeras. Application of this test also suggests that chimeras might be formed by retrieving SSU rRNAs as cDNA. The amount of uncertainty associated with nearest-neighbor analyses indicates that such tests alone are insufficient and that better methods are needed.

  20. Transcriptional regulation of a gene encoding the small subunit of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase in soybean tissue is linked to the phytochrome response.

    PubMed Central

    Berry-Lowe, S L; Meagher, R B

    1985-01-01

    The effects of white light, far-red light, and darkness on the transcription of a soybean ribulose-1,5-biphosphate carboxylase small subunit gene, SRS1, were investigated. RNA was labeled with [alpha-32P]UTP in nuclei isolated from plants grown under different conditions of light and darkness and used to probe Southern blots and dot blots. The levels of small subunit mRNA synthesis were normalized to ribosomal RNA synthesis. We demonstrate that the SRS1 gene is transcribed at a rate 16- to 32-fold higher in plants grown in the light than in those grown in darkness. Transcription of the small subunit increased dramatically when plants grown in darkness were given 30 min to 6 h of light and then leveled off after 24 to 48 h of exposure. When light-grown seedlings were exposed to greater than 2 h of darkness, a gradual decrease in transcription was detected. This decrease in transcription reached basal dark-grown levels after 48 h of exposure to darkness. The increase in transcription in etiolated seedlings treated with white light for 15 min could be reduced to basal levels if the treatment was followed by treatment with far-red light for 15 min. In addition, transcription in ligh-grown seedlings was reduced to basal levels when plants were exposed to far-red light for 15 min. The transcription of this ribulose-1,5-biphosphate carboxylase small subunit gene is strongly positively regulated by white light, is negatively regulated by far-red light, and exhibits a classic phytochrome-linked response. Images PMID:3837851

  1. Ribosomal Database Project II

    DOE Data Explorer

    The Ribosomal Database Project (RDP) provides ribosome related data and services to the scientific community, including online data analysis and aligned and annotated Bacterial small-subunit 16S rRNA sequences. As of March 2008, RDP Release 10 is available and currently (August 2009) contains 1,074,075 aligned 16S rRNA sequences. Data that can be downloaded include zipped GenBank and FASTA alignment files, a histogram (in Excel) of the number of RDP sequences spanning each base position, data in the Functional Gene Pipeline Repository, and various user submitted data. The RDP-II website also provides numerous analysis tools.[From the RDP-II home page at http://rdp.cme.msu.edu/index.jsp

  2. Stepwise and dynamic assembly of the earliest precursors of small ribosomal subunits in yeast.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liman; Wu, Chen; Cai, Gaihong; Chen, She; Ye, Keqiong

    2016-03-15

    The eukaryotic ribosomal RNA (rRNA) is associated cotranscriptionally with numerous factors into an enormous 90S preribosomal particle that conducts early processing of small ribosomal subunits. The assembly pathway and structure of the 90S particle is poorly understood. Here, we affinity-purified and analyzed the constituents of yeast 90S particles that were assembled on a series of plasmid-encoded 3'-truncated pre-18S RNAs. We determined the assembly point of 65 proteins and the U3, U14, and snR30 small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs), revealing a stepwise and dynamic assembly map. The 5' external transcribed spacer (ETS) alone can nucleate a large complex. When the 18S rRNA is nearly complete, the 90S structure undergoes a dramatic reorganization, releasing U14, snR30, and 14 protein factors that bind earlier. We also identified a reference state of 90S that is fully assembled yet has not undergone 5'ETS processing. The assembly map present here provides a new framework to understand small subunit biogenesis. PMID:26980190

  3. Essential ribosome assembly factor Fap7 regulates a hierarchy of RNA-protein interactions during small ribosomal subunit biogenesis.

    PubMed

    Hellmich, Ute A; Weis, Benjamin L; Lioutikov, Anatoli; Wurm, Jan Philip; Kaiser, Marco; Christ, Nina A; Hantke, Katharina; Kötter, Peter; Entian, Karl-Dieter; Schleiff, Enrico; Wöhnert, Jens

    2013-09-17

    Factor activating Pos9 (Fap7) is an essential ribosome biogenesis factor important for the assembly of the small ribosomal subunit with an uncommon dual ATPase and adenylate kinase activity. Depletion of Fap7 or mutations in its ATPase motifs lead to defects in small ribosomal subunit rRNA maturation, the absence of ribosomal protein Rps14 from the assembled subunit, and retention of the nascent small subunit in a quality control complex with the large ribosomal subunit. The molecular basis for the role of Fap7 in ribosome biogenesis is, however, not yet understood. Here we show that Fap7 regulates multiple interactions between the precursor rRNA, ribosomal proteins, and ribosome assembly factors in a hierarchical manner. Fap7 binds to Rps14 with a very high affinity. Fap7 binding blocks both rRNA-binding elements of Rps14, suggesting that Fap7 inhibits premature interactions of Rps14 with RNA. The Fap7/Rps14 interaction is modulated by nucleotide binding to Fap7. Rps14 strongly activates the ATPase activity but not the adenylate kinase activity of Fap7, identifying Rps14 as an example of a ribosomal protein functioning as an ATPase-activating factor. In addition, Fap7 inhibits the RNA cleavage activity of Nob1, the endonuclease responsible for the final maturation step of the small subunit rRNA, in a nucleotide independent manner. Thus, Fap7 may regulate small subunit biogenesis at multiple stages. PMID:24003121

  4. Crystallography of ribosomal particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yonath, A.; Frolow, F.; Shoham, M.; Müssig, J.; Makowski, I.; Glotz, C.; Jahn, W.; Weinstein, S.; Wittmann, H. G.

    1988-07-01

    Several forms of three-dimensional crystals and two-dimensional sheets of intact ribosomes and their subunits have been obtained as a result of: (a) an extensive systematic investigation of the parameters involved in crystallization, (b) a development of an experimental procedure for controlling the volumes of the crystallization droplets, (c) a study of the nucleation process, and (d) introducing a delicate seeding procedure coupled with variations in the ratios of mono- and divalent ions in the crystallization medium. In all cases only biologically active particles could be crystallized, and the crystalline material retains its integrity and activity. Crystallographic data have been collected from crystals of 50S ribosomal subunits, using synchrotron radiation at temperatures between + 19 and - 180°C. Although at 4°C the higher resolution reflections decay within minutes in the synchrotron beam, at cryo-temperature there was hardly any radiation damage, and a complete set of data to about 6Åresolution could be collected from a single crystal. Heavy-atom clusters were used for soaking as well as for specific binding to the surface of the ribosomal subunits prior to crystallization. The 50S ribosomal subunits from a mutant of B. stearothermophilus which lacks the ribosomal protein BL11 crystallize isomorphously with in the native ones. Models, aimed to be used for low resolution phasing, have been reconstructed from two-dimensional sheets of 70S ribosomes and 50S subunits at 47 and 30Å, respectively. These models show the overall structure of these particles, the contact areas between the large and small subunits, the space where protein synthesis might take place and a tunnel which may provide the path for the nascent protein chain.

  5. Evaluating hypotheses of basal animal phylogeny using complete sequences of large and small subunit rRNA

    SciTech Connect

    Medina, Monica; Collins, Allen G.; Silberman, Jeffrey; Sogin, Mitchell L.

    2001-06-21

    We studied the evolutionary relationships among basal metazoan lineages by using complete large subunit (LSU) and small subunit (SSU) ribosomal RNA sequences for 23 taxa. After identifying competing hypotheses, we performed maximum likelihood searches for trees conforming to each hypothesis. Kishino-Hasegawa tests were used to determine whether the data (LSU, SSU, and combined) reject any of the competing hypotheses. We also conducted unconstrained tree searches, compared the resulting topologies, and calculated bootstrap indices. Shimodaira-Hasegawa tests were applied to determine whether the data reject any of the topologies resulting from the constrained and unconstrained tree searches. LSU, SSU, and the combined data strongly contradict two assertions pertaining to sponge phylogeny. Hexactinellid sponges are not likely to be the basal lineage of amonophyletic Porifera or the sister group to all other animals. Instead, Hexactinellida and Demospongia form a well-supported clade of siliceous sponges, Silicea. It remains unclear, on the basis of these data alone, whether the calcarean sponges are more closely related to Silicea or to nonsponge animals. The SSU and combined data reject the hypothesis that Bilateria is more closely related to Ctenophora than it is to Cnidaria, whereas LSU data alone do not refute either hypothesis. LSU and SSU data agree in supporting the monophyly of Bilateria, Cnidaria, Ctenophora, and Metazoa. LSU sequence data reveal phylogenetic structure in a data set with limited taxon sampling. Continued accumulation of LSU sequences should increase our understanding of animal phylogeny.

  6. Evaluating hypotheses of basal animal phylogeny using complete sequences of large and small subunit rRNA

    PubMed Central

    Medina, Mónica; Collins, Allen G.; Silberman, Jeffrey D.; Sogin, Mitchell L.

    2001-01-01

    We studied the evolutionary relationships among basal metazoan lineages by using complete large subunit (LSU) and small subunit (SSU) ribosomal RNA sequences for 23 taxa. After identifying competing hypotheses, we performed maximum likelihood searches for trees conforming to each hypothesis. Kishino–Hasegawa tests were used to determine whether the data (LSU, SSU, and combined) reject any of the competing hypotheses. We also conducted unconstrained tree searches, compared the resulting topologies, and calculated bootstrap indices. Shimodaira–Hasegawa tests were applied to determine whether the data reject any of the topologies resulting from the constrained and unconstrained tree searches. LSU, SSU, and the combined data strongly contradict two assertions pertaining to sponge phylogeny. Hexactinellid sponges are not likely to be the basal lineage of a monophyletic Porifera or the sister group to all other animals. Instead, Hexactinellida and Demospongia form a well-supported clade of siliceous sponges, Silicea. It remains unclear, on the basis of these data alone, whether the calcarean sponges are more closely related to Silicea or to nonsponge animals. The SSU and combined data reject the hypothesis that Bilateria is more closely related to Ctenophora than it is to Cnidaria, whereas LSU data alone do not refute either hypothesis. LSU and SSU data agree in supporting the monophyly of Bilateria, Cnidaria, Ctenophora, and Metazoa. LSU sequence data reveal phylogenetic structure in a data set with limited taxon sampling. Continued accumulation of LSU sequences should increase our understanding of animal phylogeny. PMID:11504944

  7. Structural Insights Into Ribosome Recycling Factor Interactions with the 70S Ribosome

    PubMed Central

    Pai, Raj D.; Zhang, Wen; Schuwirth, Barbara S.; Hirokawa, Go; Kaji, Hideko; Kaji, Akira; Cate, Jamie H.D.

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY At the end of translation in bacteria, ribosome recycling factor (RRF) is used together with Elongation Factor G (EF-G) to recycle the 30S and 50S ribosomal subunits for the next round of translation. In x-ray crystal structures of RRF with the Escherichia coli 70S ribosome, RRF binds to the large ribosomal subunit in the cleft that contains the peptidyl transferase center (PTC). Upon binding of either E. coli or T. thermophilus RRF to the E. coli ribosome, the tip of ribosomal RNA helix H69 in the large subunit moves away from the small subunit toward RRF by 8 Å, thereby disrupting a key contact between the small and large ribosomal subunits, termed bridge B2a. In the ribosome crystals, the ability of RRF to destabilize bridge B2a is influenced by crystal packing forces. Movement of H69 involves an ordered to disordered transition upon binding of RRF to the ribosome. The disruption of bridge B2a upon RRF binding to the ribosome seen in the present structures reveals one of the key roles that RRF plays in ribosome recycling, the dissociation of 70S ribosomes into subunits. The structures also reveal contacts between Domain II of RRF and protein S12 in the 30S subunit that may also play a role in ribosome recycling. PMID:18234219

  8. Expression of a foreign Rubisco small subunit in tobacco with reduced levels of the native protein

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cDNA, ArRbcS3, for the small subunit of Rubisco from Amaranthus retroflexus (pigweed) was expressed in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) under the control of a strong leaf-specific Lhcb promoter. The coding region of the ArRbcS3 was fused to the plastid targeting sequence of the native tobacco rbcS to...

  9. RNA chaperones stimulate formation and yield of the U3 snoRNA-pre-rRNA duplexes needed for eukaryotic ribosome biogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Gérczei, Tímea; Shah, Binal N.; Manzo, Anthony J.; Walter, Nils G.; Correll, Carl C.

    2010-01-01

    To satisfy the high demand for ribosome synthesis in rapidly growing eukaryotic cells, short duplexes between the U3 small nucleolar RNA (snoRNA) and the precursor ribosomal RNA (pre-rRNA) must form quickly and with high yield. These interactions, designated the U3-ETS and U3-18S duplexes, are essential to initiate the processing of small subunit rRNA. Previously, we showed in vitro that duplexes corresponding to those in Saccharomyces cerevisiae are only observed after addition of one of two proteins: Imp3p or Imp4p. Here, we used fluorescence-based and other in vitro assays to determine whether these proteins possess RNA chaperone activities and to assess whether these activities are sufficient to satisfy the duplex yield and rate requirements expected in vivo. Assembly of both proteins with the U3 snoRNA into a chaperone complex destabilizes a U3-stem structure, apparently to expose its 18S base-pairing site. As a result, the chaperone complex accelerates formation of the U3-18S duplex from an undetectable rate to one comparable to the intrinsic rate observed for hybridizing short duplexes. The chaperone complex also stabilizes the U3-ETS duplex by 2.7 kcal/mol. These chaperone activities provide high U3-ETS duplex yield and rapid U3-18S duplex formation over a broad concentration range to help ensure that the U3-pre-rRNA interactions limit neither ribosome biogenesis nor rapid cell growth. The thermodynamic and kinetic framework used is general and thus suitable to investigate the mechanism of action of other RNA chaperones. PMID:19482034

  10. Ribosomal History Reveals Origins of Modern Protein Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Harish, Ajith; Caetano-Anollés, Gustavo

    2012-01-01

    The origin and evolution of the ribosome is central to our understanding of the cellular world. Most hypotheses posit that the ribosome originated in the peptidyl transferase center of the large ribosomal subunit. However, these proposals do not link protein synthesis to RNA recognition and do not use a phylogenetic comparative framework to study ribosomal evolution. Here we infer evolution of the structural components of the ribosome. Phylogenetic methods widely used in morphometrics are applied directly to RNA structures of thousands of molecules and to a census of protein structures in hundreds of genomes. We find that components of the small subunit involved in ribosomal processivity evolved earlier than the catalytic peptidyl transferase center responsible for protein synthesis. Remarkably, subunit RNA and proteins coevolved, starting with interactions between the oldest proteins (S12 and S17) and the oldest substructure (the ribosomal ratchet) in the small subunit and ending with the rise of a modern multi-subunit ribosome. Ancestral ribonucleoprotein components show similarities to in vitro evolved RNA replicase ribozymes and protein structures in extant replication machinery. Our study therefore provides important clues about the chicken-or-egg dilemma associated with the central dogma of molecular biology by showing that ribosomal history is driven by the gradual structural accretion of protein and RNA structures. Most importantly, results suggest that functionally important and conserved regions of the ribosome were recruited and could be relics of an ancient ribonucleoprotein world. PMID:22427882

  11. Morphology and 18S rDNA of Henneguya gurlei (Myxosporea) from Ameiurus nebulosus (Siluriformes) in North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Iwanowicz, L.R.; Iwanowicz, D.D.; Pote, L.M.; Blazer, V.S.; Schill, W.B.

    2008-01-01

    Henneguya gurlei was isolated from Ameiurus nebulosus captured in North Carolina and redescribed using critical morphological features and 18S small-subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rDNA) gene sequence. Plasmodia are white, spherical, or subspherical, occur in clusters, measure up to 1.8 mm in length, and are located on the dorsal, pectoral, and anal fins. Histologically, plasmodia are located in the dermis and subdermally, and the larger cysts disrupt the melanocyte pigment layer. The spore body is lanceolate, 18.2 ?? 0.3 ??m (range 15.7-20.3) in length, and 5.4 ?? 0.1 ??m (range 3.8-6.1) in width in valvular view. The caudal appendages are 41.1 ?? 1.1 ??m (range 34.0-49.7) in length. Polar capsules are pyriform and of unequal size. The longer polar capsule measures 6.2 ?? 0.1 ??m (range 5.48-7.06), while the shorter is 5.7 ?? 0.1 ??m (range 4.8-6.4) in length. Polar capsule width is 1.2 ?? 0.03 ??m (range 1.0-1.54). The total length of the spore is 60.9 ?? 1.2 ??m (range 48.7-68.5). Morphologically, this species is similar to other species of Henneguya that are known to infect ictalurids. Based on SSU rDNA sequences, this species is most closely related to H. exilis and H. ictaluri, which infect Ictalurus punctatus. ?? American Society of Parasitologists 2008.

  12. Phylogenetic position of the Phacotaceae within the Chlamydophyceaeas revealed by analysis of 18S rDNA and rbcL sequences.

    PubMed

    Hepperle, D; Nozaki, H; Hohenberger, S; Huss, V A; Morita, E; Krienitz, L

    1998-10-01

    Four genera of the Phacotaceae (Phacotus, Pteromonas, Wislouchiella, Dysmorphococcus), a family of loricated green algal flagellates within the Volvocales, were investigated by means of transmission electron microscopy and analysis of the nuclear encoded small-subunit ribosomal RNA (18S rRNA) genes and the plastid-encoded rbcL genes. Additionally, the 18S rDNA of Haematococcus pluvialis and the rbcL sequences of Chlorogonium elongatum, C. euchlorum, Dunaliella parva, Chloromonas serbinowii, Chlamydomonas radiata, and C. tetragama were determined. Analysis of ultrastructural data justified the separation of the Phacotaceae into two groups. Phacotus, Pteromonas, and Wislouchiella generally shared the following characters: egg-shaped protoplasts, a single pyrenoid with planar thylakoid double-lamellae, three-layered lorica, flagellar channels as part of the central lorica layer, mitochondria located in the central cytoplasm, lorica development that occurs in mucilaginous zoosporangia that are to be lysed, and no acid-resistant cell walls. Dysmorphococcus was clearly different in each of the characters mentioned. Direct comparison of sequences of Phacotus lenticularis, Pteromonas sp., Pteromonas protracta, and Wislouchiella planctonica revealed DNA sequence homologies of >/=98. 0% within the 18S gene and 93.9% within the rbcL gene. D. globosus was quite different from these species, with a maximum of 92.9% homology in the 18S rRNA and 18S rDNA of Dunaliella salina, with 95.3%, and to the rbcL sequence of Chlamydomonas tetragama, with 90.3% sequence homology. Additionally, the Phacotaceae sensu stricto exclusively shared 10 (rbcL: 4) characters which were present neither in other Chlamydomonadales nor in Dysmorphococcus globosus. Different phylogenetic analysis methods confirmed the hypothesis that the Phacotaceae are polyphyletic. The Phacotaceae sensu stricto form a stable cluster with affinities to the

  13. A polymorphic motif in the small subunit of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase modulates interactions between the small and large subunits.

    PubMed

    Cross, Joanna M; Clancy, Maureen; Shaw, Janine R; Boehlein, Susan K; Greene, Thomas W; Schmidt, Robert R; Okita, Thomas W; Hannah, L Curtis

    2005-02-01

    The heterotetrameric, allosterically regulated enzyme, adenosine-5'-diphosphoglucose pyrophosphorylase (AGPase) catalyzes the rate-limiting step in starch synthesis. Despite vast differences in allosteric properties and a long evolutionary separation, heterotetramers of potato small subunit and maize large subunit have activity comparable to either parent in an Escherichia coli expression system. In contrast, co-expression of maize small subunit with the potato large subunit produces little activity as judged by in vivo activity stain. To pinpoint the region responsible for differential activity, we expressed chimeric maize/potato small subunits in E. coli. This identified a 55-amino acid motif of the potato small subunit that is critical for glycogen production when expressed with the potato large subunit. Potato and maize small subunit sequences differ at five amino acids in this motif. Replacement experiments revealed that at least four amino acids of maize origin were required to reduce staining. An AGPase composed of a chimeric potato small subunit containing the 55-amino acid maize motif with the potato large subunit exhibited substantially less affinity for the substrates, glucose-1-phosphate and ATP and an increased Ka for the activator, 3-phosphoglyceric acid. Placement of the potato motif into the maize small subunit restored glycogen synthesis with the potato large subunit. Hence, a small polymorphic motif within the small subunit influences both catalytic and allosteric properties by modulating subunit interactions. PMID:15686515

  14. Structures of the ribosome in intermediate states of ratcheting

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wen; Dunkle, Jack; Cate, Jamie H. D.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Structures of the E. coli 70S ribosome show how the large and small subunits rotate to facilitate protein synthesis. Protein biosynthesis on the ribosome requires repeated cycles of ratcheting, which couples rotation of the two ribosomal subunits with respect to each other and swiveling of the head domain of the small subunit. However, the molecular basis for how the two ribosomal subunits rearrange contacts with each other during ratcheting while remaining stably associated is not known. Here we describe x-ray crystal structures of the intact Escherichia coli ribosome, either in the apo form (3.5 Å resolution) or with one (4.0 Å res) or two (4.0 Å res) anticodon stem-loop tRNA mimics bound, that reveal intermediate states of intersubunit rotation. In the structures, the interface between the small and large ribosomal subunits rearranges in discrete steps along the ratcheting pathway. Positioning of the head domain of the small subunit is controlled by interactions with the large subunit and with the tRNA bound in the peptidyl-tRNA site. The intermediates observed here provide insight into how tRNAs move into the hybrid state of binding that precedes the final steps of mRNA and tRNA translocation. PMID:19696352

  15. Ribosome engineering to promote new crystal forms

    SciTech Connect

    Selmer, Maria; Gao, Yong-Gui; Weixlbaumer, Albert; Ramakrishnan, V.

    2012-05-01

    Truncation of ribosomal protein L9 in T. thermophilus allows the generation of new crystal forms and the crystallization of ribosome–GTPase complexes. Crystallographic studies of the ribosome have provided molecular details of protein synthesis. However, the crystallization of functional complexes of ribosomes with GTPase translation factors proved to be elusive for a decade after the first ribosome structures were determined. Analysis of the packing in different 70S ribosome crystal forms revealed that regardless of the species or space group, a contact between ribosomal protein L9 from the large subunit and 16S rRNA in the shoulder of a neighbouring small subunit in the crystal lattice competes with the binding of GTPase elongation factors to this region of 16S rRNA. To prevent the formation of this preferred crystal contact, a mutant strain of Thermus thermophilus, HB8-MRCMSAW1, in which the ribosomal protein L9 gene has been truncated was constructed by homologous recombination. Mutant 70S ribosomes were used to crystallize and solve the structure of the ribosome with EF-G, GDP and fusidic acid in a previously unobserved crystal form. Subsequent work has shown the usefulness of this strain for crystallization of the ribosome with other GTPase factors.

  16. Morphology and small subunit rRNA gene sequence of Uronemita parabinucleata n. sp. (Ciliophora, Uronematidae), with an improved generic diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Mingjian; Gao, Feng; Al-Farraj, Saleh A; Hu, Xiaozhong

    2016-06-01

    The morphology and infraciliature of a new species, Uronemita parabinucleata n. sp., isolated from intertidal sediments in a coastal region in northern China, were investigated using live observation and silver impregnation methods. The new species is characterized by an in vivo body size of about 20-50×10-25μm, 22 or 23 somatic kineties, two macronuclear nodules, and one caudal cilium. Its small subunit ribosomal RNA gene (SSU rDNA) was sequenced and compared with those of other Uronemita species to reveal nucleotide differences. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that Uronemita is monophyletic and that the new species clusters with its congener Uronemita filificum, with full support provided by both Bayesian inference and maximum likelihood algorithms. Based on previous studies and the present study, an improved diagnosis of the genus Uronemita is supplied, which has been absent since the establishment of this genus. A key to the Uronemita species is also provided. PMID:26999559

  17. Discovery of a free-living chlorophyll d-producing cyanobacterium with a hybrid proteobacterial/cyanobacterial small-subunit rRNA gene

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Scott R.; Augustine, Sunny; Olson, Tien Le; Blankenship, Robert E.; Selker, Jeanne; Wood, A. Michelle

    2005-01-01

    Chlorophyll d-producing cyanobacteria are a recently described group of phototrophic bacteria that is a major focus of photosynthesis research, previously known only from marine environments in symbiosis with eukaryotes. We have discovered a free-living member of this group from a eutrophic hypersaline lake. Phylogenetic analyses indicated these strains are closely related to each other but not to prochlorophyte cyanobacteria that also use an alternative form of chlorophyll as the major light-harvesting pigment. We have also demonstrated that these bacteria acquired a fragment of the small-subunit rRNA gene encoding a conserved hairpin in the bacterial ribosome from a proteobacterial donor at least 10 million years before the present. Thus, our most widely used phylogenetic marker can be a mosaic of sequence fragments with widely divergent evolutionary histories. PMID:15637160

  18. The Splicing Factor U2AF Small Subunit Is Functionally Conserved between Fission Yeast and Humans

    PubMed Central

    Webb, Christopher J.; Wise, Jo Ann

    2004-01-01

    The small subunit of U2AF, which functions in 3′ splice site recognition, is more highly conserved than its heterodimeric partner yet is less thoroughly investigated. Remarkably, we find that the small subunit of Schizosaccharomyces pombe U2AF (U2AFSM) can be replaced in vivo by its human counterpart, demonstrating that the conservation extends to function. Precursor mRNAs accumulate in S. pombe following U2AFSM depletion in a time frame consistent with a role in splicing. A comprehensive mutational analysis reveals that all three conserved domains are required for viability. Notably, however, a tryptophan in the pseudo-RNA recognition motif implicated in a key contact with the large subunit by crystallographic data is dispensable whereas amino acids implicated in RNA recognition are critical. Mutagenesis of the two zinc-binding domains demonstrates that they are neither equivalent nor redundant. Finally, two- and three-hybrid analyses indicate that mutations with effects on large-subunit interactions are rare whereas virtually all alleles tested diminished RNA binding by the heterodimer. In addition to demonstrating extraordinary conservation of U2AF small-subunit function, these results provide new insights into the roles of individual domains and residues. PMID:15121844

  19. Role of the Rubisco small subunit. Final report for period May 1, 1997--April 30,2000

    SciTech Connect

    Spreitzer, Robert J.

    2000-10-04

    CO{sub 2} and O{sub 2} are mutually competitive at the active site of ribulose-1,5-biphosphate (RuBP) carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco). Rubisco contains two subunits, each present in eight copies. The 15-kD small subunit is coded by a family of nuclear RbcS genes. Until now, the role of the small subunit in Rubisco structure or catalytic efficiency is not known. Because of other work in eliminating the two RbcS genes in the green algo Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, it is now possible to address questions about the structure-function relationships of the eukaryotic small subunit. There are three specific aims in this project: (1) Alanine scanning mutagenesis is being used to dissect the importance of the {beta}A/{beta}B loop, a feature unique to the eukaryotic small subunit. (2) Random mutagenesis is being used to identify additional residues or regions of the small subunit that are important for holoenzyme assembly and function. (3) Attempts are being made to express foreign small subunits in Chlamydomonas to examine the contribution of small subunits to holoenzyme assembly, catalytic efficiency, and CO{sub 2}/O{sub 2} specificity.

  20. Identification of Cryptosporidium isolates from cockatiels by direct sequencing of the PCR-amplified small subunit ribosomal RNA gene.

    PubMed

    Abe, Niichiro; Iseki, Motohiro

    2004-04-01

    Cryptosporidium is a significant pathogen in humans and animals. Cases of infection by C. meleagridis or C. baileyi with zoonotic potential have also been reported in domestic birds; and recent studies indicate the presence of new host-adapted species or genotype in birds. Therefore, accurately identifying isolates is important for understanding the epizootiology of Cryptosporidium infection in birds and for the control of human cryptosporidiosis. Cryptosporidium has been detected in cockatiels, but the species or genotype of isolates remains unclear because identification was performed using conventional microscopy. We report herein the species or genotype of isolates from two cockatiels distinguished by a PCR-based diagnostic method. The isolates were found to be C. meleagridis and C. baileyi, respectively. This study documents the first discovery of C. meleagridis and C. baileyi in cockatiels and suggests that pet birds may play an important role in the epidemiology of cryptosporidiosis. PMID:14999470

  1. Molecular phylogeny of brachiopods and phoronids based on nuclear-encoded small subunit ribosomal RNA gene sequences

    PubMed Central

    L.Cohen, B.

    1998-01-01

    Brachiopod and phoronid phylogeny is inferred from SSU rDNA sequences of 28 articulate and nine inarticulate brachiopods, three phoronids, two ectoprocts and various outgroups, using gene trees reconstructed by weighted parsimony, distance and maximum likelihood methods. Of these sequences, 33 from brachiopods, two from phoronids and one each from an ectoproct and a priapulan are newly determined. The brachiopod sequences belong to 31 different genera and thus survey about 10% of extant genus-level diversity. Sequences determined in different laboratories and those from closely related taxa agree well, but evidence is presented suggesting that one published phoronid sequence (GenBank accession UO12648) is a brachiopod-phoronid chimaera, and this sequence is excluded from the analyses. The chiton, Acanthopleura, is identified as the phenetically proximal outgroup; other selected outgroups were chosen to allow comparison with recent, non-molecular analyses of brachiopod phylogeny. The different outgroups and methods of phylogenetic reconstruction lead to similar results, with differences mainly in the resolution of weakly supported ancient and recent nodes, including the divergence of inarticulate brachiopod sub-phyla, the position of the rhynchonellids in relation to long- and short-looped articulate brachiopod clades and the relationships of some articulate brachiopod genera and species. Attention is drawn to the problem presented by nodes that are strongly supported by non-molecular evidence but receive only low bootstrap resampling support. Overall, the gene trees agree with morphology-based brachiopod taxonomy, but novel relationships are tentatively suggested for thecideidine and megathyrid brachiopods. Articulate brachiopods are found to be monophyletic in all reconstructions, but monophyly of inarticulate brachiopods and the possible inclusion of phoronids in the inarticulate brachiopod clade are less strongly established. Phoronids are clearly excluded from a sister-group relationship with articulate brachiopods, this proposed relationship being due to the rejected, chimaeric sequence (GenBank UO12648). Lineage relative rate tests show no heterogeneity of evolutionary rate among articulate brachiopod sequences, but indicate that inarticulate brachiopod plus phoronid sequences evolve somewhat more slowly. Both brachiopods and phoronids evolve slowly by comparison with other invertebrates. A number of palaeontologically dated times of earliest appearance are used to make upper and lower estimates of the global rate of brachiopod SSU rDNA evolution, and these estimates are used to infer the likely divergence times of other nodes in the gene tree. There is reasonable agreement between most inferred molecular and palaeontological ages. The estimated rates of SSU rDNA sequence evolution suggest that the last common ancestor of brachiopods, chitons and other protostome invertebrates (Lophotrochozoa and Ecdysozoa) lived deep in Precambrian time. Results of this first DNA-based, taxonomically representative analysis of brachiopod phylogeny are in broad agreement with current morphology-based classification and systematics and are largely consistent with the hypothesis that brachiopod shell ontogeny and morphology are a good guide to phylogeny.

  2. Synthesis of the small subunit of ribulose-bisphosphate carboxylase from genes cloned into plasmids containing the SP6 promoter.

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, S; Smith, S M

    1986-01-01

    DNA sequences encoding ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase small subunit precursor from Pisum sativum L. have been transcribed from plasmids containing the SP6 promoter, and translated in a wheat germ cell-free system. The small subunit precursor polypeptide, its N-terminal leader sequence (transit peptide) and the mature small subunit have each been synthesized independently from three different plasmid constructs. The precursor polypeptide is imported into isolated pea chloroplasts and processed to the mature small subunit by a stromal proteinase. The mature polypeptide is neither imported, nor subject to proteolysis by stromal extracts. The transit peptide alone is very rapidly degraded by a stromal proteinase activity which can be inhibited by EDTA or 1,10-phenanthroline. The use of these gene constructs helps to establish the crucial role of the transit peptide in protein import into the chloroplast. Images Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. PMID:3827863

  3. Ribosome dynamics and the evolutionary history of ribosomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fox, George E.; Paci, Maxim; Tran, Quyen; Petrov, Anton S.; Williams, Loren D.

    2015-09-01

    The ribosome is a dynamic nanomachine responsible for coded protein synthesis. Its major subsystems were essentially in place at the time of the last universal common ancestor (LUCA). Ribosome evolutionary history thus potentially provides a window into the pre- LUCA world. This history begins with the origins of the peptidyl transferase center where the actual peptide is synthesized and then continues over an extended timeframe as additional functional centers including the GTPase center are added. The large ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs) have grown over time by an accretion process and a model exists that proposes a relative age of each accreted element. We have compared atomic resolution ribosome structures before and after EF-G bound GTP hydrolysis and thereby identified the location of 23 pivot points in the large rRNAs that facilitate ribosome dynamics. Pivots in small subunit helices h28 and h44 appear to be especially central to the process and according to the accretion model significantly older than the other helices containing pivots. Overall, the results suggest that ribosomal dynamics occurred in two phases. In the first phase, an inherently mobile h28/h44 combination provided the flexibility needed to create a dynamic ribosome that was essentially a Brownian machine. This addition likely made coded peptide synthesis possible by facilitating movement of a primitive mRNA. During the second phase, addition of pivoting elements and the creation of a factor binding site allowed the regulation of the inherent motion created by h28/h44. All of these events likely occurred before LUCA.

  4. Large and small subunits of the Aujeszky's disease virus ribonucleotide reductase: nucleotide sequence and putative structure.

    PubMed

    Kaliman, A V; Boldogköi, Z; Fodor, I

    1994-09-13

    We determined the entire DNA sequence of two adjacent open reading frames of Aujeszky's disease virus encoding ribonucleotide reductase genes with the intergenic sequence of 9 bp. From the sequence analysis we deduce that ORFs encode large and small subunits, with sizes of 835 and 303 amino acids, respectively. Amino acid sequence comparison of ADV RR2 with that of equine herpesvirus type 1, bovine herpesvirus type 1, HSV-1 and varicella zoster virus revealed that 48% of amino acids represent clusters of residues conserved in all compared sequences. In the N-terminal part ADV RR1 shows low homology to the RR1 of other herpesviruses. Rest of the RR1 protein contains highly conserved amino acid sequences divided by blocks of low homology. PMID:8086454

  5. Substrate specificity determinants of the methanogen homoaconitase enzyme: structure and function of small subunit residues

    SciTech Connect

    Jeyakanthan, Jeyaraman; Drevland, Randy; Gayathri, Dasara; Velmurugan, Devadasan; Shinkai, Akeo; Graham, David E

    2010-01-01

    The aconitase family of hydro-lyase enzymes includes three classes of proteins that catalyze the isomerization of -hydroxyacids to -hydroxyacids. Besides aconitase, isopropylmalate isomerase (IPMI) proteins specifically catalyze the isomerization of , -dicarboxylates with hydrophobic -chain groups, and homoaconitase (HACN) proteins catalyze the isomerization of tricarboxylates with variable chain length -carboxylate groups. These enzymes stereospecific hydro-lyase activities make them attractive catalysts to produce diastereomers from unsaturated precursors. However, sequence similarity and convergent evolution among these proteins leads to widespread misannotation and uncertainty about gene function. To find the substrate specificity determinants of homologous IPMI and HACN proteins from Methanocaldococcus jannaschii, the small-subunit HACN protein (MJ1271) was crystallized for X-ray diffraction. The structural model showed characteristic residues in a flexible loop region between 2 and 3 that distinguish HACN from IPMI and aconitase proteins. Site-directed mutagenesis of MJ1271 produced loop-region variant proteins that were reconstituted with wild-type MJ1003 large-subunit protein. The heteromers formed promiscuous hydro-lyases with reduced activity but broader substrate specificity. Both R26K and R26V variants formed relatively efficient IPMI enzymes, while the T27A variant had uniformly lower specificity constants for both IPMI and HACN substrates. The R26V T27Y variant resembles the MJ1277 IPMI small subunit in its flexible loop sequence, but demonstrated the broad substrate specificity of the R26V variant. These mutations may reverse the evolution of HACN activity from an ancestral IPMI gene, demonstrating the evolutionary potential for promiscuity in hydro-lyase enzymes. Understanding these specificity determinants enables the functional reannotation of paralogous HACN and IPMI genes in numerous genome sequences. These structural and kinetic results will

  6. Development and application of small-subunit rRNA probes for assessment of selected Thiobacillus species and members of the genus Acidiphilium.

    PubMed

    Peccia, J; Marchand, E A; Silverstein, J; Hernandez, M

    2000-07-01

    Culture-dependent studies have implicated sulfur-oxidizing bacteria as the causative agents of acid mine drainage and concrete corrosion in sewers. Thiobacillus species are considered the major representatives of the acid-producing bacteria in these environments. Small-subunit rRNA genes from all of the Thiobacillus and Acidiphilium species catalogued by the Ribosomal Database Project were identified and used to design oligonucleotide DNA probes. Two oligonucleotide probes were synthesized to complement variable regions of 16S rRNA in the following acidophilic bacteria: Thiobacillus ferrooxidans and T. thiooxidans (probe Thio820) and members of the genus Acidiphilium (probe Acdp821). Using (32)P radiolabels, probe specificity was characterized by hybridization dissociation temperature (T(d)) with membrane-immobilized RNA extracted from a suite of 21 strains representing three groups of bacteria. Fluorochrome-conjugated probes were evaluated for use with fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) at the experimentally determined T(d)s. FISH was used to identify and enumerate bacteria in laboratory reactors and environmental samples. Probing of laboratory reactors inoculated with a mixed culture of acidophilic bacteria validated the ability of the oligonucleotide probes to track specific cell numbers with time. Additionally, probing of sediments from an active acid mine drainage site in Colorado demonstrated the ability to identify numbers of active bacteria in natural environments that contain high concentrations of metals, associated precipitates, and other mineral debris. PMID:10877807

  7. Further consideration of the phylogeny of some "traditional" heterotrichs (Protista, Ciliophora) of uncertain affinities, based on new sequences of the small subunit rRNA gene.

    PubMed

    Miao, Miao; Song, Weibo; Clamp, John C; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A S; Al-Khedhairy, Abdulaziz A; Al-Arifi, Saud

    2009-01-01

    The systematic relationships and taxonomic positions of the traditional heterotrich genera Condylostentor, Climacostomum, Fabrea, Folliculina, Peritromus, and Condylostoma, as well as the licnophorid genus Licnophora, were re-examined using new data from sequences of the gene coding for small subunit ribosomal RNA. Trees constructed using distance-matrix, Bayesian inference, and maximum-parsimony methods all showed the following relationships: (1) the "traditional" heterotrichs consist of several paraphyletic groups, including the current classes Heterotrichea, Armophorea and part of the Spirotrichea; (2) the class Heterotrichea was confirmed as a monophyletic assemblage based on our analyses of 31 taxa, and the genus Peritromus was demonstrated to be a peripheral group; (3) the genus Licnophora occupied an isolated branch on one side of the deepest divergence in the subphylum Intramacronucleata and was closely affiliated with spirotrichs, armophoreans, and clevelandellids; (4) Condylostentor, a recently defined genus with several truly unique morphological features, is more closely related to Condylostoma than to Stentor; (5) Folliculina, Eufolliculina, and Maristentor always clustered together with high bootstrap support; and (6) Climacostomum occupied a paraphyletic position distant from Fabrea, showing a close relationship with Condylostomatidae and Chattonidiidae despite of modest support. PMID:19527351

  8. A genetic link between epigenetic repressor AS1-AS2 and a putative small subunit processome in leaf polarity establishment of Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Matsumura, Yoko; Ohbayashi, Iwai; Takahashi, Hiro; Kojima, Shoko; Ishibashi, Nanako; Keta, Sumie; Nakagawa, Ayami; Hayashi, Rika; Saéz-Vásquez, Julio; Echeverria, Manuel; Sugiyama, Munetaka; Nakamura, Kenzo; Machida, Chiyoko

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Although the DEAD-box RNA helicase family is ubiquitous in eukaryotes, its developmental role remains unelucidated. Here, we report that cooperative action between the Arabidopsis nucleolar protein RH10, an ortholog of human DEAD-box RNA helicase DDX47, and the epigenetic repressor complex of ASYMMETRIC-LEAVES1 (AS1) and AS2 (AS1-AS2) is critical to repress abaxial (ventral) genes ETT/ARF3 and ARF4, which leads to adaxial (dorsal) development in leaf primordia at shoot apices. Double mutations of rh10-1 and as2 (or as1) synergistically up-regulated the abaxial genes, which generated abaxialized filamentous leaves with loss of the adaxial domain. DDX47 is part of the small subunit processome (SSUP) that mediates rRNA biogenesis. In rh10-1 we found various defects in SSUP-related events, such as: accumulation of 35S/33S rRNA precursors; reduction in the 18S/25S ratio; and nucleolar hypertrophy. Double mutants of as2 with mutations of genes that encode other candidate SSUP-related components such as nucleolin and putative rRNA methyltransferase exhibited similar synergistic defects caused by up-regulation of ETT/ARF3 and ARF4. These results suggest a tight link between putative SSUP and AS1-AS2 in repression of the abaxial-determining genes for cell fate decisions for adaxial development. PMID:27334696

  9. A genetic link between epigenetic repressor AS1-AS2 and a putative small subunit processome in leaf polarity establishment of Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Matsumura, Yoko; Ohbayashi, Iwai; Takahashi, Hiro; Kojima, Shoko; Ishibashi, Nanako; Keta, Sumie; Nakagawa, Ayami; Hayashi, Rika; Saéz-Vásquez, Julio; Echeverria, Manuel; Sugiyama, Munetaka; Nakamura, Kenzo; Machida, Chiyoko; Machida, Yasunori

    2016-01-01

    Although the DEAD-box RNA helicase family is ubiquitous in eukaryotes, its developmental role remains unelucidated. Here, we report that cooperative action between the Arabidopsis nucleolar protein RH10, an ortholog of human DEAD-box RNA helicase DDX47, and the epigenetic repressor complex of ASYMMETRIC-LEAVES1 (AS1) and AS2 (AS1-AS2) is critical to repress abaxial (ventral) genes ETT/ARF3 and ARF4, which leads to adaxial (dorsal) development in leaf primordia at shoot apices. Double mutations of rh10-1 and as2 (or as1) synergistically up-regulated the abaxial genes, which generated abaxialized filamentous leaves with loss of the adaxial domain. DDX47 is part of the small subunit processome (SSUP) that mediates rRNA biogenesis. In rh10-1 we found various defects in SSUP-related events, such as: accumulation of 35S/33S rRNA precursors; reduction in the 18S/25S ratio; and nucleolar hypertrophy. Double mutants of as2 with mutations of genes that encode other candidate SSUP-related components such as nucleolin and putative rRNA methyltransferase exhibited similar synergistic defects caused by up-regulation of ETT/ARF3 and ARF4 These results suggest a tight link between putative SSUP and AS1-AS2 in repression of the abaxial-determining genes for cell fate decisions for adaxial development. PMID:27334696

  10. Two Chlamydomonas OPR proteins stabilize chloroplast mRNAs encoding small subunits of photosystem II and cytochrome b6 f.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fei; Johnson, Xenie; Cavaiuolo, Marina; Bohne, Alexandra-Viola; Nickelsen, Joerg; Vallon, Olivier

    2015-06-01

    In plants and algae, chloroplast gene expression is controlled by nucleus-encoded proteins that bind to mRNAs in a specific manner, stabilizing mRNAs or promoting their splicing, editing, or translation. Here, we present the characterization of two mRNA stabilization factors of the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, which both belong to the OctotricoPeptide Repeat (OPR) family. MCG1 is necessary to stabilize the petG mRNA, encoding a small subunit of the cytochrome b6 f complex, while MBI1 stabilizes the psbI mRNA, coding for a small subunit of photosystem II. In the mcg1 mutant, the small RNA footprint corresponding to the 5'-end of the petG transcript is reduced in abundance. In both cases, the absence of the small subunit perturbs assembly of the cognate complex. Whereas PetG is essential for formation of a functional cytochrome b6 f dimer, PsbI appears partly dispensable as a low level of PSII activity can still be measured in its absence. Thus, nuclear control of chloroplast gene expression is not only exerted on the major core subunits of the complexes, but also on small subunits with a single transmembrane helix. While OPR proteins have thus far been involved in translation or trans-splicing of plastid mRNAs, our results expand the potential roles of this repeat family to their stabilization. PMID:25898982

  11. A novel 3′ splice site recognition by the two zinc fingers in the U2AF small subunit

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, Hisashi; Park, Sam-Yong; Oda, Takashi; Akiyoshi, Taeko; Sato, Mamoru; Shirouzu, Mikako; Tsuda, Kengo; Kuwasako, Kanako; Unzai, Satoru; Muto, Yutaka; Urano, Takeshi; Obayashi, Eiji

    2015-01-01

    The pre-mRNA splicing reaction of eukaryotic cells has to be carried out extremely accurately, as failure to recognize the splice sites correctly causes serious disease. The small subunit of the U2AF heterodimer is essential for the determination of 3′ splice sites in pre-mRNA splicing, and several single-residue mutations of the U2AF small subunit cause severe disorders such as myelodysplastic syndromes. However, the mechanism of RNA recognition is poorly understood. Here we solved the crystal structure of the U2AF small subunit (U2AF23) from fission yeast, consisting of an RNA recognition motif (RRM) domain flanked by two conserved CCCH-type zinc fingers (ZFs). The two ZFs are positioned side by side on the β sheet of the RRM domain. Further mutational analysis revealed that the ZFs bind cooperatively to the target RNA sequence, but the RRM domain acts simply as a scaffold to organize the ZFs and does not itself contact the RNA directly. This completely novel and unexpected mode of RNA-binding mechanism by the U2AF small subunit sheds light on splicing errors caused by mutations of this highly conserved protein. PMID:26215567

  12. Characterization of an ADP-glucose Pyrophosphorylase Small Subunit Gene Expressed in Developing Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) Fibers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (ADPGp) plays a rate limiting role in the biosynthesis of starch and has been shown to be involved in cell expansion of tobacco sepals. A cotton gene encoding ADPGp small subunit was isolated and sequenced. The gene contains 8 introns similar to other ADPGp genes. The o...

  13. Rubisco small-subunit α-helices control pyrenoid formation in Chlamydomonas

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Moritz T.; Genkov, Todor; Skepper, Jeremy N.; Jouhet, Juliette; Mitchell, Madeline C.; Spreitzer, Robert J.; Griffiths, Howard

    2012-01-01

    The pyrenoid is a subcellular microcompartment in which algae sequester the primary carboxylase, ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco). The pyrenoid is associated with a CO2-concentrating mechanism (CCM), which improves the operating efficiency of carbon assimilation and overcomes diffusive limitations in aquatic photosynthesis. Using the model alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, we show that pyrenoid formation, Rubisco aggregation, and CCM activity relate to discrete regions of the Rubisco small subunit (SSU). Specifically, pyrenoid occurrence was shown to be conditioned by the amino acid composition of two surface-exposed α-helices of the SSU: higher plant-like helices knock out the pyrenoid, whereas native algal helices establish a pyrenoid. We have also established that pyrenoid integrity was essential for the operation of an active CCM. With the algal CCM being functionally analogous to the terrestrial C4 pathway in higher plants, such insights may offer a route toward transforming algal and higher plant productivity for the future. PMID:23112177

  14. Investigation of the interaction between the large and small subunits of potato ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase.

    PubMed

    Baris, Ibrahim; Tuncel, Aytug; Ozber, Natali; Keskin, Ozlem; Kavakli, Ibrahim Halil

    2009-10-01

    ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGPase), a key allosteric enzyme involved in higher plant starch biosynthesis, is composed of pairs of large (LS) and small subunits (SS). Current evidence indicates that the two subunit types play distinct roles in enzyme function. Recently the heterotetrameric structure of potato AGPase has been modeled. In the current study, we have applied the molecular mechanics generalized born surface area (MM-GBSA) method and identified critical amino acids of the potato AGPase LS and SS subunits that interact with each other during the native heterotetrameric structure formation. We have further shown the role of the LS amino acids in subunit-subunit interaction by yeast two-hybrid, bacterial complementation assay and native gel. Comparison of the computational results with the experiments has indicated that the backbone energy contribution (rather than the side chain energies) of the interface residues is more important in identifying critical residues. We have found that lateral interaction of the LS-SS is much stronger than the longitudinal one, and it is mainly mediated by hydrophobic interactions. This study will not only enhance our understanding of the interaction between the SS and the LS of AGPase, but will also enable us to engineer proteins to obtain better assembled variants of AGPase which can be used for the improvement of plant yield. PMID:19876371

  15. Differential distribution of calpain small subunit 1 and 2 in rat brain.

    PubMed

    Friedrich, Peter; Papp, Henrietta; Halasy, Katalin; Farkas, Attila; Farkas, Bence; Tompa, Peter; Kása, Peter

    2004-04-01

    Calpains, the Ca(2+)-dependent thiol proteases, are abundant in the nervous tissue. The ubiquitous enzyme forms in mammals are heterodimers consisting of a specific, micro or m, large (catalytic) subunit and, apparently, a common small (regulatory) subunit (CSS1). Recently, however, we described a second form of small subunit (CSS2), which is of restricted occurrence [Schád, E., Farkas, A., Jékely, G., Tompa, P. & Friedrich, P. (2002) Biochem. J., 362, 383-388]. Here we analysed the distribution of immunoreactivity in various parts of rat brain against two anti-CSS1 and two anti-CSS2 antibodies by correlated light and electron microscopy. Remarkably, the antibodies showed differential distribution in various parts of rat cortex: anti-CSS1 reacted mainly with perikarya and dendrites, whereas anti-CSS2 was more prominent in axons. In serial sections CSS2 and synaptophysin gave very similar patterns, i.e. these epitopes seem to colocalize. Electron microscopy confirmed that CSS1 was mainly localized postsynaptically in dendrites and somata, whereas CSS2 was found presynaptically. The hypothesis is advanced that these distinct distributions of calpain subunits may be related to the transport of these enzymes in nerve cells. PMID:15078555

  16. Soybean ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase small subunit: Mechanisms and determinants of RNA turnover. Annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Meagher, R.B.

    1993-12-31

    An in vitro degradation system has been developed from petunia and soybean polysomes in order to investigate the mechanisms and determinants controlling RNA turnover in higher plants. This system faithfully degrades soybean ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase small subunit (rbcS) mRNA into the same products observed in total RNA preparations. In previous years it was shown that the most stable products represent a nested constellation of fragments, which are shortened from their 3{prime} ends, and have intact 5{prime} ends. Exogenous rbcS RNA tagged with novel 5{prime} sequence 15 or 56 bp long were synthesized in vitro as Sp6 and T7 runoff transcripts, respectively. When added to the system they were degraded faithfully into constellation of products which were 15 or 56 bp longer than the endogenous products, respectively. Detailed kinetics on the appearance of these exogenous products confirmed degradation proceeds in an overall 3{prime} to 5{prime} direction but suggested that there are multiple pathways through which the RNA may be degraded. To further demonstrate a precursor product relationships, in vitro synthesized transcripts truncated at their 3{prime} ends were shown to degrade into the expected smaller fragments previously mapped in the 5{prime} portion of the rbcS RNA.

  17. Incorporation of single dinitrophenyl-modified proteins in to the 30S subunit of Escherichia coli ribosomes by total reconstitution for localization by immune electron microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Olah, T.V.

    1989-01-01

    The ribosome is a structurally defined organelle whose function is central to the existence of all organisms. It is the unique site of protein biosynthesis in all cells. A detailed understanding of ribosome structure is essential in understanding the process of translation. This thesis represents a new approach to the systematic localization of individual proteins contained in the small subunit of Escherichia coli ribosomes using immunoelectron microscopy. All 30S proteins were purified using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and eight isolated proteins (S12,S21,S14,S19,S18,S17,S16 and S13) were derivatized with 2,4-(3,5-{sup 3}H)dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB). The extent of modification of these proteins was estimated by both radioactivity and integrated peak areas, using dual wavelength monitoring at 214nm to detect protein and 360nm (to detect dinitrophenyl groups). Each dinitrophenylated protein was introduced in place of the corresponding unmodified protein into totally reconstituted 30S subunits. Antibodies raised against the DNP-hapten bound effectively to such reconstituted subunits and did not cause dissociation of the modified protein from the subunit. Electron microscopy of the immune complexes was used to localize the modified protein on the subunit surface. Incorporation of any of the DNP-modified proteins, with the exception of DNP-S18, does not interfere with the functionality of the ribosome as measure by the binding of Phe-tRNA{sup Phe} or the synthesis of poly(Phe) in a poly(U)-dependent manner. Results show that unmodified protein competes with DNP-protein and that DNP-protein can function, as its native counterpart, in stimulating uptake of specific proteins during reconstitution. This data provides evidence that each DNP-protein occupies the same position in 30S subunits as does the corresponding unmodified protein.

  18. Structures of the Ribosome in Intermediate States of Ratcheting

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Wen; Dunkle, Jack A.; Cate, Jamie H.D.

    2009-10-21

    Protein biosynthesis on the ribosome requires repeated cycles of ratcheting, which couples rotation of the two ribosomal subunits with respect to each other, and swiveling of the head domain of the small subunit. However, the molecular basis for how the two ribosomal subunits rearrange contacts with each other during ratcheting while remaining stably associated is not known. Here, we describe x-ray crystal structures of the intact Escherichia coli ribosome, either in the apo-form (3.5 angstrom resolution) or with one (4.0 angstrom resolution) or two (4.0 angstrom resolution) anticodon stem-loop tRNA mimics bound, that reveal intermediate states of intersubunit rotation. In the structures, the interface between the small and large ribosomal subunits rearranges in discrete steps along the ratcheting pathway. Positioning of the head domain of the small subunit is controlled by interactions with the large subunit and with the tRNA bound in the peptidyl-tRNA site. The intermediates observed here provide insight into how tRNAs move into the hybrid state of binding that precedes the final steps of mRNA and tRNA translocation.

  19. Energy landscape of the ribosomal decoding center.

    PubMed

    Sanbonmatsu, K Y

    2006-08-01

    The ribosome decodes the genetic information that resides in nucleic acids. A key component of the decoding mechanism is a conformational switch in the decoding center of the small ribosomal subunit discovered in high-resolution X-ray crystallography studies. It is known that small subunit nucleotides A1492 and A1493 flip out of helix 44 upon transfer RNA (tRNA) binding; however, the operation principles of this switch remain unknown. Replica molecular dynamics simulations reveal a low free energy barrier between flipped-out and flipped-in states, consistent with a switch that can be controlled by shifting the equilibrium between states. The barrier determined by the simulations is sufficiently small for the binding of ligands, such as tRNAs or aminoglycoside antibiotics, to shift the equilibrium. PMID:16905237

  20. Role of Small Subunit in Mediating Assembly of Red-type Form I Rubisco

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Jidnyasa; Mueller-Cajar, Oliver; Tsai, Yi-Chin C.; Hartl, F. Ulrich; Hayer-Hartl, Manajit

    2015-01-01

    Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) is the key enzyme involved in photosynthetic carbon fixation, converting atmospheric CO2 to organic compounds. Form I Rubisco is a cylindrical complex composed of eight large (RbcL) subunits that are capped by four small subunits (RbcS) at the top and four at the bottom. Form I Rubiscos are phylogenetically divided into green- and red-type. Some red-type enzymes have catalytically superior properties. Thus, understanding their folding and assembly is of considerable biotechnological interest. Folding of the green-type RbcL subunits in cyanobacteria is mediated by the GroEL/ES chaperonin system, and assembly to holoenzyme requires specialized chaperones such as RbcX and RAF1. Here, we show that the red-type RbcL subunits in the proteobacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides also fold with GroEL/ES. However, assembly proceeds in a chaperone-independent manner. We find that the C-terminal β-hairpin extension of red-type RbcS, which is absent in green-type RbcS, is critical for efficient assembly. The β-hairpins of four RbcS subunits form an eight-stranded β-barrel that protrudes into the central solvent channel of the RbcL core complex. The two β-barrels stabilize the complex through multiple interactions with the RbcL subunits. A chimeric green-type RbcS carrying the C-terminal β-hairpin renders the assembly of a cyanobacterial Rubisco independent of RbcX. Our results may facilitate the engineering of crop plants with improved growth properties expressing red-type Rubisco. PMID:25371207

  1. Isolation and Characterization of the Small Subunit of the Uptake Hydrogenase from the Cyanobacterium Nostoc punctiforme*

    PubMed Central

    Raleiras, Patrícia; Kellers, Petra; Lindblad, Peter; Styring, Stenbjörn; Magnuson, Ann

    2013-01-01

    In nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria, hydrogen evolution is associated with hydrogenases and nitrogenase, making these enzymes interesting targets for genetic engineering aimed at increased hydrogen production. Nostoc punctiforme ATCC 29133 is a filamentous cyanobacterium that expresses the uptake hydrogenase HupSL in heterocysts under nitrogen-fixing conditions. Little is known about the structural and biophysical properties of HupSL. The small subunit, HupS, has been postulated to contain three iron-sulfur clusters, but the details regarding their nature have been unclear due to unusual cluster binding motifs in the amino acid sequence. We now report the cloning and heterologous expression of Nostoc punctiforme HupS as a fusion protein, f-HupS. We have characterized the anaerobically purified protein by UV-visible and EPR spectroscopies. Our results show that f-HupS contains three iron-sulfur clusters. UV-visible absorption of f-HupS has bands ∼340 and 420 nm, typical for iron-sulfur clusters. The EPR spectrum of the oxidized f-HupS shows a narrow g = 2.023 resonance, characteristic of a low-spin (S = ½) [3Fe-4S] cluster. The reduced f-HupS presents complex EPR spectra with overlapping resonances centered on g = 1.94, g = 1.91, and g = 1.88, typical of low-spin (S = ½) [4Fe-4S] clusters. Analysis of the spectroscopic data allowed us to distinguish between two species attributable to two distinct [4Fe-4S] clusters, in addition to the [3Fe-4S] cluster. This indicates that f-HupS binds [4Fe-4S] clusters despite the presence of unusual coordinating amino acids. Furthermore, our expression and purification of what seems to be an intact HupS protein allows future studies on the significance of ligand nature on redox properties of the iron-sulfur clusters of HupS. PMID:23649626

  2. Metabolism of 18S rRNA in rat liver cells in different functional states of protein-synthesizing apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Chirkov, G.P.; Druzhinina, M.K.; Todorov, I.N.

    1986-04-10

    The ratio of the absolute radioactivities of 28S and 18S RNAs in the fractions of membrane-bound and free polysomes and the fraction of free rat liver ribosomes was studied under conditions of inhibition of translation by cycloheximide, insulin, and cAMP. It was found that insulin and cAMP, in contrast to cycloheximide, do not induce selective degradation of 18S rRNA. The results are discussed from the standpoint of the possible role of the phosphorylation of protein S6 in the degradation of the 40S ribosomal subunit.

  3. Regulation of the mammalian elongation cycle by subunit rolling: a eukaryotic-specific ribosome rearrangement.

    PubMed

    Budkevich, Tatyana V; Giesebrecht, Jan; Behrmann, Elmar; Loerke, Justus; Ramrath, David J F; Mielke, Thorsten; Ismer, Jochen; Hildebrand, Peter W; Tung, Chang-Shung; Nierhaus, Knud H; Sanbonmatsu, Karissa Y; Spahn, Christian M T

    2014-07-01

    The extent to which bacterial ribosomes and the significantly larger eukaryotic ribosomes share the same mechanisms of ribosomal elongation is unknown. Here, we present subnanometer resolution cryoelectron microscopy maps of the mammalian 80S ribosome in the posttranslocational state and in complex with the eukaryotic eEF1A⋅Val-tRNA⋅GMPPNP ternary complex, revealing significant differences in the elongation mechanism between bacteria and mammals. Surprisingly, and in contrast to bacterial ribosomes, a rotation of the small subunit around its long axis and orthogonal to the well-known intersubunit rotation distinguishes the posttranslocational state from the classical pretranslocational state ribosome. We term this motion "subunit rolling." Correspondingly, a mammalian decoding complex visualized in substates before and after codon recognition reveals structural distinctions from the bacterial system. These findings suggest how codon recognition leads to GTPase activation in the mammalian system and demonstrate that in mammalia subunit rolling occurs during tRNA selection. PMID:24995983

  4. Characterization and phylogenetic relationships among microsporidia infecting silkworm, Bombyx mori, using inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) and small subunit rRNA (SSU-rRNA) sequence analysis.

    PubMed

    Rao, S Nageswara; Nath, B Surendra; Saratchandra, B

    2005-06-01

    This study is the first report on the genetic characterization and relationships among different microsporidia infecting the silkworm, Bombyx mori, using inter simple sequence repeat PCR (ISSR-PCR) analysis. Six different microsporidians were distinguished through molecular DNA typing using ISSR-PCR. Thus, ISSR-PCR analysis can be a powerful tool to detect polymorphisms and identify microsporidians, which are difficult to study with microscopy because of their extremely small size. Of the 100 ISSR primers tested, only 28 primers had reproducibility and high polymorphism (93%). A total of 24 ISSR primers produced 55 unique genetic markers, which could be used to differentiate the microsporidians from each other. Among the 28 SSRs tested, the most abundant were (CA)n, (GA)n, and (GT)n repeats. The degree of band sharing was used to evaluate genetic similarity between different microsporidian isolates and to construct a phylogenetic tree using Jaccard's similarity coefficient. The results indicate that the DNA profiles based on ISSR markers can be used as diagnostic tools to identify different microsporidia with considerable accuracy. In addition, the small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU-rRNA) sequence gene was amplified, cloned, and sequenced from each of the 6 microsporidian isolates. These sequences were compared with 20 other microsporidian SSU-rRNA sequences to develop a phylogenetic tree for the microsporidia isolated from the silkworms. This method was found to be useful in establishing the phylogenetic relationships among the different microsporidians isolated from silkworms. Of the 6 microsporidian isolates, NIK-1s revealed an SSU-rRNA gene sequence similar to Nosema bombycis, indicating that NIK-1s is similar to N. bombycis; the remaining 5 isolates, which differed from each other and from N. bombycis, were considered to be different variants belonging to the species N. bombycis. PMID:16121233

  5. Ribosomal proteins: functions beyond the ribosome

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xiang; Liao, Wen-Juan; Liao, Jun-Ming; Liao, Peng; Lu, Hua

    2015-01-01

    Although ribosomal proteins are known for playing an essential role in ribosome assembly and protein translation, their ribosome-independent functions have also been greatly appreciated. Over the past decade, more than a dozen of ribosomal proteins have been found to activate the tumor suppressor p53 pathway in response to ribosomal stress. In addition, these ribosomal proteins are involved in various physiological and pathological processes. This review is composed to overview the current understanding of how ribosomal stress provokes the accumulation of ribosome-free ribosomal proteins, as well as the ribosome-independent functions of ribosomal proteins in tumorigenesis, immune signaling, and development. We also propose the potential of applying these pieces of knowledge to the development of ribosomal stress-based cancer therapeutics. PMID:25735597

  6. Mitomycin C Inhibits Ribosomal RNA

    PubMed Central

    Snodgrass, Ryan G.; Collier, Abby C.; Coon, Amy E.; Pritsos, Chris A.

    2010-01-01

    Mitomycin C (MMC) is a commonly used and extensively studied chemotherapeutic agent requiring biological reduction for activity. Damage to nuclear DNA is thought to be its primary mechanism of cell death. Due to a lack of evidence for significant MMC activation in the nucleus and for in vivo studies demonstrating the formation of MMC-DNA adducts, we chose to investigate alternative nucleic acid targets. Real-time reverse transcription-PCR was used to determine changes in mitochondrial gene expression induced by MMC treatment. Although no consistent effects on mitochondrial mRNA expression were observed, complementary results from reverse transcription-PCR experiments and gel-shift and binding assays demonstrated that MMC rapidly decreased the transcript levels of 18S ribosomal RNA in a concentration-dependent manner. Under hypoxic conditions, transcript levels of 18S rRNA decreased by 1.5-fold compared with untreated controls within 30 min. Recovery to base line required several hours, indicating that de novo synthesis of 18S was necessary. Addition of MMC to an in vitro translation reaction significantly decreased protein production in the cell-free system. Functional assays performed using a luciferase reporter construct in vivo determined that protein translation was inhibited, further confirming this mechanism of toxicity. The interaction of MMC with ribosomal RNA and subsequent inhibition of protein translation is consistent with mechanisms proposed for other natural compounds. PMID:20418373

  7. Residues in three conserved regions of the small subunit of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase are required for quaternary structure

    SciTech Connect

    Fitchen, J.H.; McIntosh, L. ); Knight, S.; Andersson, I.; Branden, C.I. )

    1990-08-01

    To explore the role of individual residues in the small subunit of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase, small subunits with single amino acid substitutions in three regions of relative sequence conservation were produced by directed mutagenesis of the rbcS gene from Anabaena 7120. These altered small subunits were cosythesized with large subunits (from an expressed Anabaena rbcL gene) in Escherichia coli. Mutants were analyzed for effects on quaternary structure and catalytic activity. Changing Glu-13S (numbering used is that of the spinach enzyme) to Val, Trp-67S to Arg, Pro-73S to His, or Tyr-98S to Asn prevented accumulation of stable holoenzyme. Interpretation of these results using a model for the three-dimensional structure of the spinach enzyme based on x-ray crystallographic data suggests that our small subunit mutants containing substitutions at positions 13S and 67S probably do not assemble because of mispairing or nonpairing of charged residues on the interfacing surfaces of the large and small subunits. The failure of small subunits substituted at positions 73S or 98S to assemble correctly may result from disruption of intersubunit or intrasubunit hydrophobic pockets, respectively.

  8. MPV17L2 is required for ribosome assembly in mitochondria

    PubMed Central

    Dalla Rosa, Ilaria; Durigon, Romina; Pearce, Sarah F.; Rorbach, Joanna; Hirst, Elizabeth M.A.; Vidoni, Sara; Reyes, Aurelio; Brea-Calvo, Gloria; Minczuk, Michal; Woellhaf, Michael W.; Herrmann, Johannes M.; Huynen, Martijn A.; Holt, Ian J.; Spinazzola, Antonella

    2014-01-01

    MPV17 is a mitochondrial protein of unknown function, and mutations in MPV17 are associated with mitochondrial deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) maintenance disorders. Here we investigated its most similar relative, MPV17L2, which is also annotated as a mitochondrial protein. Mitochondrial fractionation analyses demonstrate MPV17L2 is an integral inner membrane protein, like MPV17. However, unlike MPV17, MPV17L2 is dependent on mitochondrial DNA, as it is absent from ρ0 cells, and co-sediments on sucrose gradients with the large subunit of the mitochondrial ribosome and the monosome. Gene silencing of MPV17L2 results in marked decreases in the monosome and both subunits of the mitochondrial ribosome, leading to impaired protein synthesis in the mitochondria. Depletion of MPV17L2 also induces mitochondrial DNA aggregation. The DNA and ribosome phenotypes are linked, as in the absence of MPV17L2 proteins of the small subunit of the mitochondrial ribosome are trapped in the enlarged nucleoids, in contrast to a component of the large subunit. These findings suggest MPV17L2 contributes to the biogenesis of the mitochondrial ribosome, uniting the two subunits to create the translationally competent monosome, and provide evidence that assembly of the small subunit of the mitochondrial ribosome occurs at the nucleoid. PMID:24948607

  9. Structural Comparison, Substrate Specificity, and Inhibitor Binding of AGPase Small Subunit from Monocot and Dicot: Present Insight and Future Potential

    PubMed Central

    Choudhury, Manabendra D.; Modi, Mahendra K.

    2014-01-01

    ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGPase) is the first rate limiting enzyme of starch biosynthesis pathway and has been exploited as the target for greater starch yield in several plants. The structure-function analysis and substrate binding specificity of AGPase have provided enormous potential for understanding the role of specific amino acid or motifs responsible for allosteric regulation and catalytic mechanisms, which facilitate the engineering of AGPases. We report the three-dimensional structure, substrate, and inhibitor binding specificity of AGPase small subunit from different monocot and dicot crop plants. Both monocot and dicot subunits were found to exploit similar interactions with the substrate and inhibitor molecule as in the case of their closest homologue potato tuber AGPase small subunit. Comparative sequence and structural analysis followed by molecular docking and electrostatic surface potential analysis reveal that rearrangements of secondary structure elements, substrate, and inhibitor binding residues are strongly conserved and follow common folding pattern and orientation within monocot and dicot displaying a similar mode of allosteric regulation and catalytic mechanism. The results from this study along with site-directed mutagenesis complemented by molecular dynamics simulation will shed more light on increasing the starch content of crop plants to ensure the food security worldwide. PMID:25276800

  10. Elevation of 20-carbon long chain bases due to a mutation in serine palmitoyltransferase small subunit b results in neurodegeneration

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Lihong; Spassieva, Stefka; Gable, Kenneth; Gupta, Sita D.; Shi, Lan-Ying; Wang, Jieping; Bielawski, Jacek; Hicks, Wanda L.; Krebs, Mark P.; Naggert, Juergen; Hannun, Yusuf A.; Dunn, Teresa M.; Nishina, Patsy M.

    2015-01-01

    Sphingolipids typically have an 18-carbon (C18) sphingoid long chain base (LCB) backbone. Although sphingolipids with LCBs of other chain lengths have been identified, the functional significance of these low-abundance sphingolipids is unknown. The LCB chain length is determined by serine palmitoyltransferase (SPT) isoenzymes, which are trimeric proteins composed of two large subunits (SPTLC1 and SPTLC2 or SPTLC3) and a small subunit (SPTssa or SPTssb). Here we report the identification of an Sptssb mutation, Stellar (Stl), which increased the SPT affinity toward the C18 fatty acyl-CoA substrate by twofold and significantly elevated 20-carbon (C20) LCB production in the mutant mouse brain and eye, resulting in surprising neurodegenerative effects including aberrant membrane structures, accumulation of ubiquitinated proteins on membranes, and axon degeneration. Our work demonstrates that SPT small subunits play a major role in controlling SPT activity and substrate affinity, and in specifying sphingolipid LCB chain length in vivo. Moreover, our studies also suggest that excessive C20 LCBs or C20 LCB-containing sphingolipids impair protein homeostasis and neural functions. PMID:26438849

  11. Phylogenetic relationships of Cryptosporidium determined by ribosomal RNA sequence comparison.

    PubMed

    Johnson, A M; Fielke, R; Lumb, R; Baverstock, P R

    1990-04-01

    Reverse transcription of total cellular RNA was used to obtain a partial sequence of the small subunit ribosomal RNA of Cryptosporidium, a protist currently placed in the phylum Apicomplexa. The semi-conserved regions were aligned with homologous sequences in a range of other eukaryotes, and the evolutionary relationships of Cryptosporidium were determined by two different methods of phylogenetic analysis. The prokaryotes Escherichia coli and Halobacterium cuti were included as outgroups. The results do not show an especially close relationship of Cryptosporidium to other members of the phylum Apicomplexa. PMID:2332273

  12. Comprehensive analysis of phosphorylated proteins of Escherichia coli ribosomes.

    PubMed

    Soung, George Y; Miller, Jennifer L; Koc, Hasan; Koc, Emine C

    2009-07-01

    Phosphorylation of bacterial ribosomal proteins has been known for decades; however, there is still very limited information available on specific locations of the phosphorylation sites in ribosomal proteins and the role they might play in protein synthesis. In this study, we have mapped the specific phosphorylation sites in 24 Escherichia coli ribosomal proteins by tandem mass spectrometry. Detection of phosphorylation was achieved by either phosphorylation specific visualization techniques, ProQ staining, and antibodies for phospho-Ser, Thr, and Tyr; or by mass spectrometry equipped with a capability to detect addition and loss of the phosphate moiety. Enrichment by immobilized metal affinity and/or strong cation exchange chromatography was used to improve the success of detection of the low abundance phosphopeptides. We found the small subunit (30S) proteins S3, S4, S5, S7, S11, S12, S13, S18, and S21 and the large subunit (50S) proteins L1, L2, L3, L5, L6, L7/L12, L13, L14, L16, L18, L19, L21, L22, L28, and L31 to be phosphorylated at one or more residues. Potential roles for each specific site in ribosome function were deduced through careful evaluation of the given phosphorylation sites in 3D-crystal structure models of ribosomes and the previous mutational studies of E. coli ribosomal proteins. PMID:19469554

  13. Identification of new 18S rRNA strains of Babesia canis isolated from dogs with subclinical babesiosis.

    PubMed

    Łyp, P; Adaszek, Ł; Furmaga, B; Winiarczyk, S

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we used PCR to detect and characterize B. canis from naturally infected dogs in Poland with subclinical babesiosis by amplifying and sequencing a portion of the 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene. Venous blood samples were collected from ten dogs with subclinical babesiosis. A 559-bp fragment of the B. canis 18S rRNA gene was amplified by PCR. Sequencing of the PCR products led to the identification of a new variant of Babesia canis, differing from the previously detected protozoa genotypes (18S rRNA-A and 18S rRNA-B) with nucleotide substitutions in positions 150 and 151 of the tested gene fragment. The results indicate the emergence within the Polish territory of a new, previously unencountered Babesia canis genotype responsible for the development of subclinical babesiosis. PMID:26618590

  14. Cloning of the cDNAs for the small subunits of bovine and human DNA polymerase {delta} and chromosomal location of the human gene (POLD2)

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Jian; Tan, Cheng-Keat; Downey, K.M.

    1995-09-01

    cDNAs encoding the small subunit of bovine and human DNA polymerase {delta} have been cloned and sequenced. The predicted polypeptides, 50,885 and 51,289 Daltons, respectively, are 94% identical, similar to the catalytic subunits. The high degree of conservation of the polypeptides suggests an essential function for the small subunit in the heterodimeric core enzyme. Although the catalytic subunit of DNA polymerase 5 shares significant homology with those of the herpes virus family of DNA polymerases, the small subunit of mammalian DNA polymerase 6 is not homologous to the small subunit of either herpes simplex virus type 1 DNA polymerase (UL42 protein) or the Epstein-Barr virus DNA polymerase (BMRF1 protein). Searches of the protein databases failed to detect significant homology with any protein sequenced thus far. PCR analysis of DNA from a panel of human-hamster hybrid cell lines localized the gene (POLD2) for the small subunit of DNA polymerase 5 to human chromosome 7. 45 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Genetic polymorphisms of loci D18S53, D18S59, and D18S488 in fetuses from a Chinese Tianjin Han population.

    PubMed

    Li, X Z; Liu, J; Shi, Y F; Ju, D; Zhang, Y; Yue, T F

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the genetic polymorphisms of three short tandem repeat (STR) loci, D18S53, D18S59, and D18S488, on chromosome 18 in fetuses from a Chinese Tianjin Han population. Sixty-four villus samples and 374 amniotic fluid samples were collected from fetuses. Quantitative fluorescence polymerase chain reaction was performed to amplify the STR loci, followed by scanned electrophoresis and quantitative analysis of the fluorescence signals. Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) analysis was performed based on the genotype distributions of the STR loci to obtain the following population genetic data: genotype frequency, heterozygosity of observation (HO), polymorphism information content (PIC), probability of discrimination power (PD), and probability of exclusion (PE). We detected 15, 13, and 15 alleles of D18S53, D18S59, and D18S488, respectively. The genotype frequencies were found to be in line with HWE. The HO values of the three loci, D18S53, D18S59, and D18S488, were 0.797, 0.847, and 0.792; the PIC values were 0.81, 0.75, and 0.73; the PD values were 0.944, 0.901, and 0.881; and the PE values were 0.593, 0.689, and 0.585, respectively. D18S53, D18S59, and D18S488 loci are good genetic markers of chromosome 18, and show potential for use in the prenatal genetic diagnosis of Edwards' syndrome. PMID:27323182

  16. Morphology, ultrastructure, and small subunit rDNA phylogeny of the marine heterotrophic flagellate Goniomonas aff. amphinema.

    PubMed

    Martin-Cereceda, Mercedes; Roberts, Emily C; Wootton, Emma C; Bonaccorso, Elisa; Dyal, Patricia; Guinea, Almudena; Rogers, Dale; Wright, Chris J; Novarino, Gianfranco

    2010-01-01

    Marine goniomonads have a worldwide distribution but ultrastructural information has not been available so far. An isolate of the heterotrophic marine nanoflagellate Goniomonas (G. aff. amphinema) from North Wales (UK) has been studied, providing information on its morphology and cellular structure using video, electron, laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM), and atomic force microscopy. Here, we describe a new feature, a granular area, potentially involved in particle capture and feeding. The binding of the lectin wheat germ agglutinin to the granular area of cells with discharged ejectisomes indicates the adhesive nature of this novel feature. The presence of a microtubular intracellular cytopharynx, apparently also used for feeding, has been revealed by LSCM. The small subunit rRNA gene of the isolate has been sequenced (1,788 bp). Phylogenetic results corroborate significant genetic divergence within the marine members of Goniomonas. This work highlights the need for integrated morphological, ultrastructural, and molecular investigation when describing and studying heterotrophic nanoflagellates. PMID:20015186

  17. Group-specific small-subunit rRNA hybridization probes to characterize filamentous foaming in activated sludge systems.

    PubMed Central

    de los Reyes, F L; Ritter, W; Raskin, L

    1997-01-01

    Foaming in activated sludge systems is characterized by the formation of a thick, chocolate brown-colored scum that floats on the surface of aeration basins and secondary clarifiers. These viscous foams have been associated with the presence of filamentous mycolic acid-containing actinomycetes. To aid in evaluating the microbial representation in foam, we developed and characterized group-, genus-, and species-specific oligonucleotide probes targeting the small subunit rRNA of the Mycobacterium complex, Gordona spp., and Gordona (Nocardia) amarae, respectively. The use of a universal base analog, 5-nitroindole, in oligonucleotide probe design was evaluated by comparing the characteristics of two different versions of the Mycobacterium complex probe. The temperature of dissociation of each probe was determined. Probe specificity studies with a diverse collection of 67 target and nontarget rRNAs demonstrated the specificity of the probes to the target groups. Whole-cell hybridizations with fluorescein- and rhodamine-labeled probes were performed with pure cultures of various members of the Mycobacterium complex as well as with environmental samples from a full-scale activated sludge plant which experienced foaming. Quantitative membrane hybridizations with activated sludge and anaerobic digester foam showed that 15.0 to 18.3% of the total small-subunit rRNAs could be attributed to members of the Mycobacterium complex, of which a vast majority consisted of Gordona rRNA. Several G. amarae strains made up only a very small percentage of the Gordona strains present. We demonstrated that group-specific rRNA probes are useful tools for the in situ monitoring and identification of filamentous bacteria in activated sludge systems. PMID:9055425

  18. Group-specific small-subunit rRNA hybridization probes to characterize filamentous foaming in activated sludge systems.

    PubMed

    de los Reyes, F L; Ritter, W; Raskin, L

    1997-03-01

    Foaming in activated sludge systems is characterized by the formation of a thick, chocolate brown-colored scum that floats on the surface of aeration basins and secondary clarifiers. These viscous foams have been associated with the presence of filamentous mycolic acid-containing actinomycetes. To aid in evaluating the microbial representation in foam, we developed and characterized group-, genus-, and species-specific oligonucleotide probes targeting the small subunit rRNA of the Mycobacterium complex, Gordona spp., and Gordona (Nocardia) amarae, respectively. The use of a universal base analog, 5-nitroindole, in oligonucleotide probe design was evaluated by comparing the characteristics of two different versions of the Mycobacterium complex probe. The temperature of dissociation of each probe was determined. Probe specificity studies with a diverse collection of 67 target and nontarget rRNAs demonstrated the specificity of the probes to the target groups. Whole-cell hybridizations with fluorescein- and rhodamine-labeled probes were performed with pure cultures of various members of the Mycobacterium complex as well as with environmental samples from a full-scale activated sludge plant which experienced foaming. Quantitative membrane hybridizations with activated sludge and anaerobic digester foam showed that 15.0 to 18.3% of the total small-subunit rRNAs could be attributed to members of the Mycobacterium complex, of which a vast majority consisted of Gordona rRNA. Several G. amarae strains made up only a very small percentage of the Gordona strains present. We demonstrated that group-specific rRNA probes are useful tools for the in situ monitoring and identification of filamentous bacteria in activated sludge systems. PMID:9055425

  19. Characterization of GE82832, a peptide inhibitor of translocation interacting with bacterial 30S ribosomal subunits

    PubMed Central

    Brandi, Letizia; Fabbretti, Attilio; Stefano, Michele Di; Lazzarini, Ameriga; Abbondi, Monica; Gualerzi, Claudio O.

    2006-01-01

    GE82832, a secondary metabolite produced by Streptosporangium cinnabarinum (strain GE82832), has been identified as a translational inhibitor by in vitro screening of a library of natural products. Secondary functional tests specific for individual steps of the translational pathway demonstrated that translocation is the specific target of GE82832. Chemical probing in situ demonstrated that this antibiotic protects bases A1324 and A1333 and exposes C1336 of 16S rRNA, thereby indicating that its binding site is located on the head of the 30S ribosomal subunit. The ribosomal location of GE82832, near ribosomal protein S13 and G1338, two elements of the small subunit that are part of or close to the B1a intrasubunit bridge, suggests that translocation inhibition results from an altered dynamics of 30S–50S ribosomal subunit interaction. PMID:16699167

  20. Choreography of molecular movements during ribosome progression along mRNA.

    PubMed

    Belardinelli, Riccardo; Sharma, Heena; Caliskan, Neva; Cunha, Carlos E; Peske, Frank; Wintermeyer, Wolfgang; Rodnina, Marina V

    2016-04-01

    During translation elongation, ribosome translocation along an mRNA entails rotations of the ribosomal subunits, swiveling motions of the small subunit (SSU) head and stepwise movements of the tRNAs together with the mRNA. Here, we reconstructed the choreography of the collective motions of the Escherichia coli ribosome during translocation promoted by elongation factor EF-G, by recording the fluorescence signatures of nine different reporters placed on both ribosomal subunits, tRNA and mRNA. We captured an early forward swiveling of the SSU head taking place while the SSU body rotates in the opposite, clockwise direction. Backward swiveling of the SSU head starts upon tRNA translocation and continues until the post-translocation state is reached. This work places structures of translocation intermediates along a time axis and unravels principles of the motions of macromolecular machines. PMID:26999556

  1. Multiperspective smFRET reveals rate-determining late intermediates of ribosomal translocation.

    PubMed

    Wasserman, Michael R; Alejo, Jose L; Altman, Roger B; Blanchard, Scott C

    2016-04-01

    Directional translocation of the ribosome through the mRNA open reading frame is a critical determinant of translational fidelity. This process entails a complex interplay of large-scale conformational changes within the actively translating particle, which together coordinate the movement of tRNA and mRNA substrates with respect to the large and small ribosomal subunits. Using pre-steady state, single-molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer imaging, we tracked the nature and timing of these conformational events within the Escherichia coli ribosome from five structural perspectives. Our investigations revealed direct evidence of structurally and kinetically distinct late intermediates during substrate movement, whose resolution determines the rate of translocation. These steps involve intramolecular events within the EF-G-GDP-bound ribosome, including exaggerated, reversible fluctuations of the small-subunit head domain, which ultimately facilitate peptidyl-tRNA's movement into its final post-translocation position. PMID:26926435

  2. Gene cloning of the 18S rRNA of an ancient viable moss from the permafrost of northeastern Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marsic, Damien; Hoover, Richard B.; Gilichinsky, David A.; Ng, Joseph D.

    1999-12-01

    A moss plant dating as much as 40,000 years old was collected from the permafrost of the Kolyma Lowlands of Northeastern Siberia. The plant tissue was revived and cultured for the extraction of its genomic DNA. Using the polymerase chain reaction technique, the 18S ribosomal RNA gene was cloned and its sequence studied. Comparative sequence analysis of the cloned ribosomal DNA to other known 18S RNA showed very high sequence identity and was revealed to be closest to the moss specie, Aulacomnium turgidum. The results of this study also show the ability of biological organisms to rest dormant in deep frozen environments where they can be revived and cultured under favorable conditions. This is significant in the notion that celestial icy bodies can be media to preserve biological function and genetic material during long term storage or transport.

  3. E2F1 promote the aggressiveness of human colorectal cancer by activating the ribonucleotide reductase small subunit M2

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, Zejun; Gong, Chaoju; Liu, Hong; Zhang, Xiaomin; Mei, Lingming; Song, Mintao; Qiu, Lanlan; Luo, Shuchai; Zhu, Zhihua; Zhang, Ronghui; Gu, Hongqian; Chen, Xiang

    2015-08-21

    As the ribonucleotide reductase small subunit, the high expression of ribonucleotide reductase small subunit M2 (RRM2) induces cancer and contributes to tumor growth and invasion. In several colorectal cancer (CRC) cell lines, we found that the expression levels of RRM2 were closely related to the transcription factor E2F1. Mechanistic studies were conducted to determine the molecular basis. Ectopic overexpression of E2F1 promoted RRM2 transactivation while knockdown of E2F1 reduced the levels of RRM2 mRNA and protein. To further investigate the roles of RRM2 which was activated by E2F1 in CRC, CCK-8 assay and EdU incorporation assay were performed. Overexpression of E2F1 promoted cell proliferation in CRC cells, which was blocked by RRM2 knockdown attenuation. In the migration and invasion tests, overexpression of E2F1 enhanced the migration and invasion of CRC cells which was abrogated by silencing RRM2. Besides, overexpression of RRM2 reversed the effects of E2F1 knockdown partially in CRC cells. Examination of clinical CRC specimens demonstrated that both RRM2 and E2F1 were elevated in most cancer tissues compared to the paired normal tissues. Further analysis showed that the protein expression levels of E2F1 and RRM2 were parallel with each other and positively correlated with lymph node metastasis (LNM), TNM stage and distant metastasis. Consistently, the patients with low E2F1 and RRM2 levels have a better prognosis than those with high levels. Therefore, we suggest that E2F1 can promote CRC proliferation, migration, invasion and metastasis by regulating RRM2 transactivation. Understanding the role of E2F1 in activating RRM2 transcription will help to explain the relationship between E2F1 and RRM2 in CRC and provide a novel predictive marker for diagnosis and prognosis of the disease. - Highlights: • E2F1 promotes RRM2 transactivation in CRC cells. • E2F1 promotes the proliferation of CRC cells by activating RRM2. • E2F1 promotes the migration and

  4. The ATPase hCINAP regulates 18S rRNA processing and is essential for embryogenesis and tumour growth

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Dongmei; Zhang, Jinfang; Li, Tingting; Hang, Runlai; Liu, Yong; Tian, Yonglu; Huang, Dadu; Qu, Linglong; Cao, Xiaofeng; Ji, Jiafu; Zheng, Xiaofeng

    2016-01-01

    Dysfunctions in ribosome biogenesis cause developmental defects and increased cancer susceptibility; however, the connection between ribosome assembly and tumorigenesis remains unestablished. Here we show that hCINAP (also named AK6) is required for human 18S rRNA processing and 40S subunit assembly. Homozygous CINAP−/− mice show embryonic lethality. The heterozygotes are viable and show defects in 18S rRNA processing, whereas no delayed cell growth is observed. However, during rapid growth, CINAP haploinsufficiency impairs protein synthesis. Consistently, hCINAP depletion in fast-growing cancer cells inhibits ribosome assembly and abolishes tumorigenesis. These data demonstrate that hCINAP reduction is a specific rate-limiting controller during rapid growth. Notably, hCINAP is highly expressed in cancers and correlated with a worse prognosis. Genome-wide polysome profiling shows that hCINAP selectively modulates cancer-associated translatome to promote malignancy. Our results connect the role of hCINAP in ribosome assembly with tumorigenesis. Modulation of hCINAP expression may be a promising target for cancer therapy. PMID:27477389

  5. Establishment of a continuous culture system for Entamoeba muris and analysis of the small subunit rRNA gene.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, S; Suzuki, J; Takeuchi, T

    2009-06-01

    We established a culture system for Entamoeba muris (MG-EM-01 strain isolated from a Mongolian gerbil) using a modified Balamuth's egg yolk infusion medium supplemented with 4% adult bovine serum and Bacteroides fragilis cocultured with Escherichia coli. Further, encystation was observed in the culture medium. The morphological characteristics of E. muris are similar to those of Entamoeba coli (E. coli); moreover, the malic isoenzyme electrophoretic band, which shows species-specific electrophoretic mobility, of E. muris had almost the same mobility as that observed with the malic isoenzyme electrophorectic band of E. coli (UZG-EC-01 strain isolated from a gorilla). We determined the small subunit rRNA (SSU-rRNA) gene sequence of the MG-EM-01 strain, and this sequence was observed to show 82.7% homology with that of the UZG-EC-01 strain. Further, the resultant phylogenetic tree for molecular taxonomy based on the SSU-rRNA genes of the 21 strains of the intestinal parasitic amoeba species indicated that the MG-EM-01 strain was most closely related to E. coli. PMID:19585892

  6. Identification of bovine Neospora parasites by PCR amplification and specific small-subunit rRNA sequence probe hybridization.

    PubMed

    Ho, M S; Barr, B C; Marsh, A E; Anderson, M L; Rowe, J D; Tarantal, A F; Hendrickx, A G; Sverlow, K; Dubey, J P; Conrad, P A

    1996-05-01

    Neospora is a newly recognized genus of pathogenic coccidia, closely related to Toxoplasma gondii, that can cause abortion or congenital disease in a variety of domestic animal hosts. On the basis of the small-subunit rRNA gene sequences of Neospora spp. and other apicomplexa coccidia, oligonucleotide primers COC-1 and COC-2 were used for PCR amplification of conserved sequences of approximately 300 bp in size. A Neospora-specific chemiluminescent probe hybridized to Southern blots of amplification products from Neospora DNA but not to Southern blots with amplified DNA from the other coccidian parasites tested. A Toxoplasma-specific probe whose sequence differed from that of the probe for Neospora spp. by a single base pair was used to distinguish these parasites by specific Southern blot hybridization. The PCR system detected as few as one Neospora tachyzoite in the culture medium or five tachyzoites in samples of whole blood or amniotic fluid spiked with Neospora parasites. In addition, Neospora PCR products were successfully amplified from whole blood and amniotic fluid samples of experimentally infected bovine and rhesus macaque fetuses. These results indicate that this PCR and probe hybridization system could be a valuable adjunct to serology and immunohistochemistry for the diagnosis of Neospora infections in bovine or primate fetuses. PMID:8727903

  7. Novel Eukaryotic Lineages Inferred from Small-Subunit rRNA Analyses of Oxygen-Depleted Marine Environments†

    PubMed Central

    Stoeck, Thorsten; Epstein, Slava

    2003-01-01

    Microeukaryotes in oxygen-depleted environments are among the most diverse, as well as the least studied, organisms. We conducted a cultivation-independent, small-subunit (SSU) rRNA-based survey of microeukaryotes in suboxic waters and anoxic sediments in the great Sippewisset salt marsh, Cape Cod, Mass. We generated two clone libraries and analyzed approximately 300 clones, which contained a large diversity of microeukaryotic SSU rRNA signatures. Only a few of these signatures were closely related (sequence similarity of >97%) to the sequences reported earlier. The bulk of our sequences represented deep novel branches within green algae, fungi, cercozoa, stramenopiles, alveolates, euglenozoa and unclassified flagellates. In addition, a significant number of detected rRNA sequences exhibited no affiliation to known organisms and sequences and thus represent novel lineages of the highest taxonomical order, most of them branching off the base of the global phylogenetic tree. This suggests that oxygen-depleted environments harbor diverse communities of novel organisms, which may provide an interesting window into the early evolution of eukaryotes. PMID:12732534

  8. Mutational analysis of S12 protein and implications for the accuracy of decoding by the ribosome

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Divya; Cukras, Anthony R.; Rogers, Elizabeth J.; Southworth, Daniel R.; Green, Rachel

    2007-01-01

    The fidelity of aminoacyl-tRNA selection by the ribosome depends on a conformational switch in the decoding center of the small ribosomal subunit induced by cognate but not by near-cognate aminoacyl tRNA. The aminoglycosides paromomycin and streptomycin bind to the decoding center and induce related structural rearrangements that explain their observed effects on miscoding. Structural and biochemical studies have identified ribosomal protein S12 (as well as specific nucleotides in 16S rRNA) as a critical molecular contributor in distinguishing between cognate and near-cognate tRNA species as well as in promoting more global rearrangements in the small subunit referred to as “closure”. Here we use a mutational approach to define contributions made by two highly conserved loops in S12 to the process of tRNA selection. Most S12 variant ribosomes tested display increased levels of fidelity (a “restrictive” phenotype). Interestingly, several variants, K42A and R53A, were substantially resistant to the miscoding effects of paromomycin. Further characterization of the compromised paromomycin response identified a probable second, fidelity modulating binding site for paromomycin in the 16S rRNA that facilitates closure of the small subunit and compensates for defects associated with the S12 mutations. PMID:17967466

  9. Identification of a potential fungal species by 18S rDNA for ligninases production.

    PubMed

    Ferhan, M; Santos, S N; Melo, I S; Yan, N; Sain, M

    2013-12-01

    Fungal species for ligninases production was investigated by 18S ribosomal DNA sequence analysis. Two primer sets were chosen to amplify a major part of the 18S rDNA, which resulted in intense PCR product of approximately 550-820 bp in size per sample. The results suggest that the 18S rDNA-based approach is a useful tool for identification of unknown potential fungal species for ligninases production. The isolated fungal species produces mainly manganese peroxidase (MnP). The enzyme oxidized a variety of the usual MnP substrates, including lignin related polyphenols. Time course studies showed that maximum production of ligninolytic enzymes MnP (64 IU L⁻¹), lignin peroxidase (26.35 IU L⁻¹), and laccase (5.44 IU L⁻¹), respectively, were achieved after 10 days of cultivation under optimum conditions. Furthermore, the biological decolorization of Remazol Brilliant Blue R dye following 10 days of cultivation was 94 %. NCBI BLAST was used to search for closest matched sequences in the GenBank database and based on sequence homology the first BLAST hit was Dothioraceae sp. LM572 with accession number EF060858.1. PMID:23744034

  10. Key intermolecular interactions in the E. coli 70S ribosome revealed by coarse-grained analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhiyong; Sanbonmatsu, Karissa Y; Voth, Gregory A

    2011-10-26

    The ribosome is a very large complex that consists of many RNA and protein molecules and plays a central role in protein biosynthesis in all organisms. Extensive interactions between different molecules are critical to ribosomal functional dynamics. In this work, intermolecular interactions in the Escherichia coli 70S ribosome are investigated by coarse-grained (CG) analysis. CG models are defined to preserve dynamic domains in RNAs and proteins and to capture functional motions in the ribosome, and then the CG sites are connected by harmonic springs, and spring constants are obtained by matching the computed fluctuations to those of an all-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. Those spring constants indicate how strong the interactions are between the ribosomal components, and they are in good agreement with various experimental data. Nearly all the bridges between the small and large ribosomal subunits are indicated by CG interactions with large spring constants. The head of the small subunit is very mobile because it has minimal CG interactions with the rest of the subunit; however, a large number of small subunit proteins bind to maintain the internal structure of the head. The results show a clear connection between the intermolecular interactions and the structural and functional properties of the ribosome because of the reduced complexity in domain-based CG models. The present approach also provides a useful strategy to map interactions between molecules within large biomolecular complexes since it is not straightforward to investigate these by either atomistic MD simulations or residue-based elastic network models. PMID:21910449

  11. Complete sequence and gene organization of the Nosema heliothidis ribosomal RNA gene region.

    PubMed

    Dong, Shinan; Shen, Zhongyuan; Zhu, Feng; Tang, Xudong; Xu, Li

    2011-01-01

    By sequencing the entire ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene region of Nosema heliothidis isolated from cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera), we showed that its gene organization is similar to the type species, Nosema bombycis: the 5'-large subunit rRNA (2,490 bp)-internal transcribed spacer (192 bp)-small subunit rRNA (1,232 bp)-intergenic spacer (274 bp)-5S rRNA (115 bp)-3'. We constructed two phylogenetic trees, analyzed phylogenetic relationships, examined rRNA organization of microsporidia, and compared the secondary structure of small subunit rRNA with closely related microsporidia. The latter two features may provide important information for the classification and phylogenetic analysis of microsporidia. PMID:21895841

  12. Affinity labeling of the ribosomal P site in Drosophila melanogaster

    SciTech Connect

    North, D.

    1987-01-01

    Several recent studies have probed the peptidyl transferase region of the Drosophila ribosome via the use of reactive site specific analogues (affinity labels). P site proteins adjacent to the 3' end of the amino acid bearing tRNA strand were labeled with modified tRNA fragments. Drugs affecting the binding of these agents were used to further clarify the nature of the region. The nascent peptide region of the P site was not labeled in previous experiments. To label that region radioactive Bromoacetylphenylalanyl-tRNA (BrAcphe-tRNA) was synthesized. The alpha-bromoacetyl group of this analogue is potentially reactive with nucleophiles present in either proteins or RNAs. Charged tRNAs and tRNA analogues bearing a peptide bond on the N-terminus of their amino acid are recognized as having affinity for the ribosomal P site. Specific labeling of the P site by BrAcphe-tRNA was confirmed by its ability to radioactively label proteins indirectly. As many as 8 ribosomal proteins may be labeled under these conditions, however, the majority of the bound label is associated with 3 large subunit proteins and 2 small subunit proteins. Overlaps between the proteins labeled by BrAcphe-tRNA and those labeled by other affinity labels are examined and a model of the peptidyl transferase region of Drosophila ribosomes is presented.

  13. Ribosomal protein uS19 mutants reveal its role in coordinating ribosome structure and function

    PubMed Central

    Bowen, Alicia M; Musalgaonkar, Sharmishtha; Moomau, Christine A; Gulay, Suna P; Mirvis, Mary; Dinman, Jonathan D

    2015-01-01

    Prior studies identified allosteric information pathways connecting functional centers in the large ribosomal subunit to the decoding center in the small subunit through the B1a and B1b/c intersubunit bridges in yeast. In prokaryotes a single SSU protein, uS13, partners with H38 (the A-site finger) and uL5 to form the B1a and B1b/c bridges respectively. In eukaryotes, the SSU component was split into 2 separate proteins during the course of evolution. One, also known as uS13, participates in B1b/c bridge with uL5 in eukaryotes. The other, called uS19 is the SSU partner in the B1a bridge with H38. Here, polyalanine mutants of uS19 involved in the uS19/uS13 and the uS19/H38 interfaces were used to elucidate the important amino acid residues involved in these intersubunit communication pathways. Two key clusters of amino acids were identified: one located at the junction between uS19 and uS13, and a second that appears to interact with the distal tip of H38. Biochemical analyses reveal that these mutations shift the ribosomal rotational equilibrium toward the unrotated state, increasing ribosomal affinity for tRNAs in the P-site and for ternary complex in the A-site, and inhibit binding of the translocase, eEF2. These defects in turn affect specific aspects of translational fidelity. These findings suggest that uS19 plays a critical role as a conduit of information exchange between the large and small ribosomal subunits directly through the B1a, and indirectly through the B1b/c bridges. PMID:26824029

  14. Ribosomal protein uS19 mutants reveal its role in coordinating ribosome structure and function.

    PubMed

    Bowen, Alicia M; Musalgaonkar, Sharmishtha; Moomau, Christine A; Gulay, Suna P; Mirvis, Mary; Dinman, Jonathan D

    2015-01-01

    Prior studies identified allosteric information pathways connecting functional centers in the large ribosomal subunit to the decoding center in the small subunit through the B1a and B1b/c intersubunit bridges in yeast. In prokaryotes a single SSU protein, uS13, partners with H38 (the A-site finger) and uL5 to form the B1a and B1b/c bridges respectively. In eukaryotes, the SSU component was split into 2 separate proteins during the course of evolution. One, also known as uS13, participates in B1b/c bridge with uL5 in eukaryotes. The other, called uS19 is the SSU partner in the B1a bridge with H38. Here, polyalanine mutants of uS19 involved in the uS19/uS13 and the uS19/H38 interfaces were used to elucidate the important amino acid residues involved in these intersubunit communication pathways. Two key clusters of amino acids were identified: one located at the junction between uS19 and uS13, and a second that appears to interact with the distal tip of H38. Biochemical analyses reveal that these mutations shift the ribosomal rotational equilibrium toward the unrotated state, increasing ribosomal affinity for tRNAs in the P-site and for ternary complex in the A-site, and inhibit binding of the translocase, eEF2. These defects in turn affect specific aspects of translational fidelity. These findings suggest that uS19 plays a critical role as a conduit of information exchange between the large and small ribosomal subunits directly through the B1a, and indirectly through the B1b/c bridges. PMID:26824029

  15. Regulation of Plasmodium yoelii Oocyst Development by Strain- and Stage-Specific Small-Subunit rRNA

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Yanwei; Zhu, Feng; Eastman, Richard T.; Fu, Young; Zilversmit, Martine; Pattaradilokrat, Sittiporn; Hong, Lingxian; Liu, Shengfa; McCutchan, Thomas F.; Pan, Weiqing; Xu, Wenyue

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT One unique feature of malaria parasites is the differential transcription of structurally distinct rRNA (rRNA) genes at different developmental stages: the A-type genes are transcribed mainly in asexual stages, whereas the S-type genes are expressed mostly in sexual or mosquito stages. Conclusive functional evidence of different rRNAs in regulating stage-specific parasite development, however, is still absent. Here we performed genetic crosses of Plasmodium yoelii parasites with one parent having an oocyst development defect (ODD) phenotype and another producing normal oocysts to identify the gene(s) contributing to the ODD. The parent with ODD—characterized as having small oocysts and lacking infective sporozoites—was obtained after introduction of a plasmid with a green fluorescent protein gene into the parasite genome and subsequent passages in mice. Quantitative trait locus analysis of genome-wide microsatellite genotypes of 48 progeny from the crosses linked an ~200-kb segment on chromosome 6 containing one of the S-type genes (D-type small subunit rRNA gene [D-ssu]) to the ODD. Fine mapping of the plasmid integration site, gene expression pattern, and gene knockout experiments demonstrated that disruption of the D-ssu gene caused the ODD phenotype. Interestingly, introduction of the D-ssu gene into the same parasite strain (self), but not into a different subspecies, significantly affected or completely ablated oocyst development, suggesting a stage- and subspecies (strain)-specific regulation of oocyst development by D-ssu. This study demonstrates that P. yoelii D-ssu is essential for normal oocyst and sporozoite development and that variation in the D-ssu sequence can have dramatic effects on parasite development. PMID:25759501

  16. Nuclear localization of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae ribonucleotide reductase small subunit requires a karyopherin and a WD40 repeat protein

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhen; An, Xiuxiang; Yang, Kui; Perlstein, Deborah L.; Hicks, Leslie; Kelleher, Neil; Stubbe, JoAnne; Huang, Mingxia

    2006-01-01

    Ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) catalyzes the reduction of ribonucleotides to the corresponding deoxyribonucleotides and is an essential enzyme for DNA replication and repair. Cells have evolved intricate mechanisms to regulate RNR activity to ensure high fidelity of DNA replication during normal cell-cycle progression and of DNA repair upon genotoxic stress. The RNR holoenzyme is composed of a large subunit R1 (α, oligomeric state unknown) and a small subunit R2 (β2). R1 binds substrates and allosteric effectors; R2 contains a diferric-tyrosyl radical [(Fe)2-Y·] cofactor that is required for catalysis. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, R1 is predominantly localized in the cytoplasm, whereas R2, which is a heterodimer (ββ′), is predominantly in the nucleus. When cells encounter DNA damage or stress during replication, ββ′ is redistributed from the nucleus to the cytoplasm in a checkpoint-dependent manner, resulting in the colocalization of R1 and R2. We have identified two proteins that have an important role in ββ′ nuclear localization: the importin β homolog Kap122 and the WD40 repeat protein Wtm1. Deletion of either WTM1 or KAP122 leads to loss of ββ′ nuclear localization. Wtm1 and its paralog Wtm2 are both nuclear proteins that are in the same protein complex with ββ′. Wtm1 also interacts with Kap122 in vivo and requires Kap122 for its nuclear localization. Our results suggest that Wtm1 acts either as an adaptor to facilitate nuclear import of ββ′ by Kap122 or as an anchor to retain ββ′ in the nucleus. PMID:16432237

  17. Molecular microbial diversity of an anaerobic digestor as determined by small-subunit rDNA sequence analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Godon, J J; Zumstein, E; Dabert, P; Habouzit, F; Moletta, R

    1997-01-01

    The bacterial community structure of a fluidized-bed reactor fed by vinasses (wine distillation waste) was analyzed. After PCR amplification, four small-subunit (SSU) rDNA clone libraries of Bacteria, Archaea, Procarya, and Eucarya populations were established. The community structure was determined by operational taxonomic unit (OTU) phylogenetic analyses of 579 partial rDNA sequences (about 500 bp long). A total of 146 OTUs were found, comprising 133, 6, and 7 from the Bacteria, Archaea, and Eucarya domains, respectively. A total of 117 bacterial OTU were affiliated with major phyla: low-G+C gram-positive bacteria, Cytophaga-Flexibacter-Bacteroides, Proteobacteria, high-G+C gram-positive bacteria, and Spirochaetes, where the clone distribution was 34, 26, 17, 6, and 4%, respectively. The other 16 bacterial OTUs represent 13% of the clones. They were either affiliated with narrow phyla such as Planctomyces-Chlamydia, green nonsulfur bacteria, or Synergistes, or deeply branched on the phylogenetic tree. A large number of bacterial OTUs are not closely related to any other hitherto determined sequences. The most frequent bacterial OTUs represents less than 5% of the total bacterial SSU rDNA sequences. However, the 20 more frequent bacterial OTUs describe at least 50% of these sequences. Three of the six Archaea OTUs correspond to 95% of the Archaea population and are very similar to already known methanogenic species: Methanosarcina barkeri, Methanosarcina frisius, and Methanobacterium formicicum. In contrast, the three other Archaea OTUs are unusual and are related to thermophilic microorganisms such as Crenarchaea or Thermoplasma spp. Five percent of the sequences analyzed were chimeras and were removed from the analysis. PMID:9212428

  18. The ribosome filter redux.

    PubMed

    Mauro, Vincent P; Edelman, Gerald M

    2007-09-15

    The ribosome filter hypothesis postulates that ribosomes are not simply translation machines but also function as regulatory elements that differentially affect or filter the translation of particular mRNAs. On the basis of new information, we take the opportunity here to review the ribosome filter hypothesis, suggest specific mechanisms of action, and discuss recent examples from the literature that support it. PMID:17890902

  19. Inferring the Ancient History of the Translation Machinery and Genetic Code via Recapitulation of Ribosomal Subunit Assembly Orders

    PubMed Central

    Fournier, Gregory P.; Neumann, Justin E.; Gogarten, J. Peter

    2010-01-01

    Universally conserved positions in ribosomal proteins have significant biases in amino acid usage, likely indicating the expansion of the genetic code at the time leading up to the most recent common ancestor(s) (MRCA). Here, we apply this principle to the evolutionary history of the ribosome before the MRCA. It has been proposed that the experimentally determined order of assembly for ribosomal subunits recapitulates their evolutionary chronology. Given this model, we produce a probabilistic evolutionary ordering of the universally conserved small subunit (SSU) and large subunit (LSU) ribosomal proteins. Optimizing the relative ordering of SSU and LSU evolutionary chronologies with respect to minimizing differences in amino acid usage bias, we find strong compositional evidence for a more ancient origin for early LSU proteins. Furthermore, we find that this ordering produces several trends in specific amino acid usages compatible with models of genetic code evolution. PMID:20208990

  20. E. coli metabolic protein aldehyde-alcohol dehydrogenase-E binds to the ribosome: a unique moonlighting action revealed.

    PubMed

    Shasmal, Manidip; Dey, Sandip; Shaikh, Tanvir R; Bhakta, Sayan; Sengupta, Jayati

    2016-01-01

    It is becoming increasingly evident that a high degree of regulation is involved in the protein synthesis machinery entailing more interacting regulatory factors. A multitude of proteins have been identified recently which show regulatory function upon binding to the ribosome. Here, we identify tight association of a metabolic protein aldehyde-alcohol dehydrogenase E (AdhE) with the E. coli 70S ribosome isolated from cell extract under low salt wash conditions. Cryo-EM reconstruction of the ribosome sample allows us to localize its position on the head of the small subunit, near the mRNA entrance. Our study demonstrates substantial RNA unwinding activity of AdhE which can account for the ability of ribosome to translate through downstream of at least certain mRNA helices. Thus far, in E. coli, no ribosome-associated factor has been identified that shows downstream mRNA helicase activity. Additionally, the cryo-EM map reveals interaction of another extracellular protein, outer membrane protein C (OmpC), with the ribosome at the peripheral solvent side of the 50S subunit. Our result also provides important insight into plausible functional role of OmpC upon ribosome binding. Visualization of the ribosome purified directly from the cell lysate unveils for the first time interactions of additional regulatory proteins with the ribosome. PMID:26822933

  1. E. coli metabolic protein aldehyde-alcohol dehydrogenase-E binds to the ribosome: a unique moonlighting action revealed

    PubMed Central

    Shasmal, Manidip; Dey, Sandip; Shaikh, Tanvir R.; Bhakta, Sayan; Sengupta, Jayati

    2016-01-01

    It is becoming increasingly evident that a high degree of regulation is involved in the protein synthesis machinery entailing more interacting regulatory factors. A multitude of proteins have been identified recently which show regulatory function upon binding to the ribosome. Here, we identify tight association of a metabolic protein aldehyde-alcohol dehydrogenase E (AdhE) with the E. coli 70S ribosome isolated from cell extract under low salt wash conditions. Cryo-EM reconstruction of the ribosome sample allows us to localize its position on the head of the small subunit, near the mRNA entrance. Our study demonstrates substantial RNA unwinding activity of AdhE which can account for the ability of ribosome to translate through downstream of at least certain mRNA helices. Thus far, in E. coli, no ribosome-associated factor has been identified that shows downstream mRNA helicase activity. Additionally, the cryo-EM map reveals interaction of another extracellular protein, outer membrane protein C (OmpC), with the ribosome at the peripheral solvent side of the 50S subunit. Our result also provides important insight into plausible functional role of OmpC upon ribosome binding. Visualization of the ribosome purified directly from the cell lysate unveils for the first time interactions of additional regulatory proteins with the ribosome. PMID:26822933

  2. Deconstructing ribosome construction

    PubMed Central

    Connolly, Keith; Culver, Gloria

    2013-01-01

    The ribosome is an essential ribonucleoprotein enzyme, and its biogenesis is a fundamental process in all living cells. Recent X-ray crystal structures of the bacterial ribosome and new technologies have allowed a greater interrogation of in vitro ribosome assembly; however, substantially less is known about ribosome biogenesis in vivo. Ongoing investigations are focused on elucidating the cellular processes that facilitate biogenesis of the ribosomal subunits, and many extraribosomal factors, including modification enzymes, remodeling enzymes and GTPases, are being uncovered. Moreover, specific roles for ribosome biogenesis factors in subunit maturation are now being elaborated. Ultimately, such studies will reveal a more complete understanding of processes at work in in vivo ribosome biogenesis. PMID:19376708

  3. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of the small subunit of the heterodimeric laccase POXA3b from Pleurotus ostreatus

    PubMed Central

    Ferraroni, Marta; Scozzafava, Andrea; Ullah, Sana; Tron, Thierry; Piscitelli, Alessandra; Sannia, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    Laccases are multicopper oxidases of great biotechnological potential. While laccases are generally monomeric glycoproteins, the white-rot fungus Pleurotus ostreatus produces two closely related heterodimeric isoenzymes composed of a large subunit, homologous to the other fungal laccases, and a small subunit. The sequence of the small subunit does not show significant homology to any other protein or domain of known function and consequently its function is unknown. The highest similarity to proteins of known structure is to a putative enoyl-CoA hydratase/isomerase from Acinetobacter baumannii, which shows an identity of 27.8%. Diffraction-quality crystals of the small subunit of the heterodimeric laccase POXA3b (sPOXA3b) from P. ostreatus were obtained using the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method at 294 K from a solution consisting of 1.8 M sodium formate, 0.1 M Tris–HCl pH 8.5. The crystals belonged to the tetragonal space group P41212 or P43212, with unit-cell parameters a = 126.6, c = 53.9 Å. The asymmetric unit contains two molecules related by a noncrystallographic twofold axis. A complete data set extending to a maximum resolution of 2.5 Å was collected at 100 K using a wavelength of 1.140 Å. PMID:24419623

  4. Major centers of motion in the large ribosomal RNAs

    PubMed Central

    Paci, Maxim; Fox, George E.

    2015-01-01

    Major centers of motion in the rRNAs of Thermus thermophilus are identified by alignment of crystal structures of EF-G bound and EF-G unbound ribosomal subunits. Small rigid helices upstream of these ‘pivots’ are aligned, thereby decoupling their motion from global rearrangements. Of the 21 pivots found, six are observed in the large subunit rRNA and 15 in the small subunit rRNA. Although the magnitudes of motion differ, with only minor exceptions equivalent pivots are seen in comparisons of Escherichia coli structures and one Saccharomyces cerevisiae structure pair. The pivoting positions are typically associated with structurally weak motifs such as non-canonical, primarily U-G pairs, bulge loops and three-way junctions. Each pivot is typically in direct physical contact with at least one other in the set and often several others. Moving helixes include rRNA segments in contact with the tRNA, intersubunit bridges and helices 28, 32 and 34 of the small subunit. These helices are envisioned to form a network. EF-G rearrangement would then provide directional control of this network propagating motion from the tRNA to the intersubunit bridges to the head swivel or along the same path backward. PMID:25870411

  5. Visualization of the hybrid state of tRNA binding promoted by spontaneous ratcheting of the ribosome.

    PubMed

    Agirrezabala, Xabier; Lei, Jianlin; Brunelle, Julie L; Ortiz-Meoz, Rodrigo F; Green, Rachel; Frank, Joachim

    2008-10-24

    A crucial step in translation is the translocation of tRNAs through the ribosome. In the transition from one canonical site to the other, the tRNAs acquire intermediate configurations, so-called hybrid states. At this stage, the small subunit is rotated with respect to the large subunit, and the anticodon stem loops reside in the A and P sites of the small subunit, while the acceptor ends interact with the P and E sites of the large subunit. In this work, by means of cryo-EM and particle classification procedures, we visualize the hybrid state of both A/P and P/E tRNAs in an authentic factor-free ribosome complex during translocation. In addition, we show how the repositioning of the tRNAs goes hand in hand with the change in the interplay between S13, L1 stalk, L5, H68, H69, and H38 that is caused by the ratcheting of the small subunit. PMID:18951087

  6. VISUALIZATION OF THE HYBRID STATE OF tRNA BINDING PROMOTED BY SPONTANEOUS RATCHETING OF THE RIBOSOME

    PubMed Central

    Agirrezabala, Xabier; Lei, Jianlin; Brunelle, Julie L.; Ortiz-Meoz, Rodrigo F.; Green, Rachel; Frank, Joachim

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY A crucial step in protein translation is the translocation of tRNAs through the ribosome. In the transition from one canonical site to the other, the tRNAs acquire intermediate configurations, so-called hybrid states. At this stage, the small subunits is rotated with respect to the large subunit, and the anticodon stem loops reside in the A and P sites of the small subunit, while the acceptor ends interact with the P and E sites of the large subunit. In this work, by means of cryo-EM and particle classification procedures, we visualize for the first time the hybrid state of both A/P and P/E tRNAs in an authentic factor-free ribosome complex during translocation. In addition, we show how the repositioning of the tRNAs goes hand in hand with the change in the interplay between S13, L1 stalk, L5, H68, H69 and H38 that is caused by the ratcheting of the small subunit. PMID:18951087

  7. ITS-2 and 18S rRNA gene phylogeny of Aplysinidae (Verongida, Demospongiae).

    PubMed

    Schmitt, Susanne; Hentschel, Ute; Zea, Sven; Dandekar, Thomas; Wolf, Matthias

    2005-03-01

    18S ribosomal DNA and internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS-2) full-length sequences, each of which was sequenced three times, were used to construct phylogenetic trees with alignments based on secondary structures, in order to elucidate genealogical relationships within the Aplysinidae (Verongida). The first poriferan ITS-2 secondary structures are reported. Altogether 11 Aplysina sponges and 3 additional sponges (Verongula gigantea, Aiolochroia crassa, Smenospongia aurea) from tropical and subtropical oceans were analyzed. Based on these molecular studies, S. aurea, which is currently affiliated with the Dictyoceratida, should be reclassified to the Verongida. Aplysina appears as monophyletic. A soft form of Aplysina lacunosa was separated from other Aplysina and stands at a basal position in both 18S and ITS-2 trees. Based on ITS-2 sequence information, the Aplysina sponges could be distinguished into a single Caribbean-Eastern Pacific cluster and a Mediterranean cluster. The species concept for Aplysina sponges as well as a phylogenetic history with a possibly Tethyan origin is discussed. PMID:15871043

  8. A new version of the RDP (Ribosomal Database Project)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maidak, B. L.; Cole, J. R.; Parker, C. T. Jr; Garrity, G. M.; Larsen, N.; Li, B.; Lilburn, T. G.; McCaughey, M. J.; Olsen, G. J.; Overbeek, R.; Pramanik, S.; Schmidt, T. M.; Tiedje, J. M.; Woese, C. R.

    1999-01-01

    The Ribosomal Database Project (RDP-II), previously described by Maidak et al. [ Nucleic Acids Res. (1997), 25, 109-111], is now hosted by the Center for Microbial Ecology at Michigan State University. RDP-II is a curated database that offers ribosomal RNA (rRNA) nucleotide sequence data in aligned and unaligned forms, analysis services, and associated computer programs. During the past two years, data alignments have been updated and now include >9700 small subunit rRNA sequences. The recent development of an ObjectStore database will provide more rapid updating of data, better data accuracy and increased user access. RDP-II includes phylogenetically ordered alignments of rRNA sequences, derived phylogenetic trees, rRNA secondary structure diagrams, and various software programs for handling, analyzing and displaying alignments and trees. The data are available via anonymous ftp (ftp.cme.msu. edu) and WWW (http://www.cme.msu.edu/RDP). The WWW server provides ribosomal probe checking, approximate phylogenetic placement of user-submitted sequences, screening for possible chimeric rRNA sequences, automated alignment, and a suggested placement of an unknown sequence on an existing phylogenetic tree. Additional utilities also exist at RDP-II, including distance matrix, T-RFLP, and a Java-based viewer of the phylogenetic trees that can be used to create subtrees.

  9. The ribosomal database project.

    PubMed Central

    Larsen, N; Olsen, G J; Maidak, B L; McCaughey, M J; Overbeek, R; Macke, T J; Marsh, T L; Woese, C R

    1993-01-01

    The Ribosomal Database Project (RDP) is a curated database that offers ribosome data along with related programs and services. The offerings include phylogenetically ordered alignments of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) sequences, derived phylogenetic trees, rRNA secondary structure diagrams and various software packages for handling, analyzing and displaying alignments and trees. The data are available via ftp and electronic mail. Certain analytic services are also provided by the electronic mail server. PMID:8332524

  10. Intrageneric relationships of Enterococci as determined by reverse transcriptase sequencing of small-subunit rRNA.

    PubMed

    Williams, A M; Rodrigues, U M; Collins, M D

    1991-01-01

    The 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) sequences of eleven Enterococcus species were determined by reverse transcription in an attempt to clarify their intrageneric relationships. Comparative analysis of the sequence data revealed the presence of several species groups within the genus. The species E. avium, E. malodoratus, E. pseudoavium and E. raffinosus formed a distinct group as did E. durans, E. faecium, E. hirae and E. mundtii and the pair of species E. casseliflavus and E. gallinarum. Of the remaining species, E. cecorum, E. columbae, E. faecalis and E. saccharolyticus formed distinct lines of descent within the genus, whereas E. solitarius displayed a closer affinity with Tetragenococcus halophilus than with other enterococcal species. PMID:1712504

  11. The Ribosomal Database Project.

    PubMed Central

    Maidak, B L; Larsen, N; McCaughey, M J; Overbeek, R; Olsen, G J; Fogel, K; Blandy, J; Woese, C R

    1994-01-01

    The Ribosomal Database Project (RDP) is a curated database that offers ribosome-related data, analysis services, and associated computer programs. The offerings include phylogenetically ordered alignments of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) sequences, derived phylogenetic trees, rRNA secondary structure diagrams, and various software for handling, analyzing and displaying alignments and trees. The data are available via anonymous ftp (rdp.life.uiuc.edu), electronic mail (server/rdp.life.uiuc.edu) and gopher (rdpgopher.life.uiuc.edu). The electronic mail server also provides ribosomal probe checking, approximate phylogenetic placement of user-submitted sequences, screening for chimeric nature of newly sequenced rRNAs, and automated alignment. PMID:7524021

  12. Regulation of the mammalian elongation cycle by subunit rolling: a eukaryotic-specific ribosome rearrangement

    PubMed Central

    Budkevich, Tatyana V.; Giesebrecht, Jan; Behrmann, Elmar; Loerke, Justus; Ramrath, David J.F.; Mielke, Thorsten; Ismer, Jochen; Hildebrand, Peter W.; Tung, Chang-Shung; Nierhaus, Knud H.; Sanbonmatsu, Karissa Y.; Spahn, Christian M.T.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY The extent to which bacterial ribosomes and the significantly larger eukaryotic ribosomes share the same mechanisms of ribosomal elongation is unknown. Here, we present sub-nanometer resolution cryo-electron microscopy maps of the mammalian 80S ribosome in the post-translocational state and in complex with the eukaryotic eEF1A•Val-tRNA•GMPPNP ternary complex, revealing significant differences in the elongation mechanism between bacteria and mammals. Surprisingly, and in contrast to bacterial ribosomes, a rotation of the small subunit around its long axis and orthogonal to the well-known intersubunit rotation distinguishes the post-translocational state from the classical pre-translocational state ribosome. We term this motion “subunit rolling”. Correspondingly, a mammalian decoding complex visualized in sub-states before and after codon recognition reveals structural distinctions from the bacterial system. These findings suggest how codon recognition leads to GTPase activation in the mammalian system and demonstrate that in mammalia subunit rolling occurs during tRNA selection. PMID:24995983

  13. Karyotypic Variability in Ribosomal DNA Subchromosome Size among Colpodid Ciliates, a Possible Tool To Differentiate Colpodid Species

    PubMed Central

    Martin, A.; Palacios, G.; Olmo, A.; Martin-Gonzalez, A.; Ruiz-Perez, L. M.; Gutierrez, J. C.

    1997-01-01

    Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis has been applied to analyze the karyotypic variability among colpodid ciliates. The 18S ribosomal gene was found at different locations in the electrophoretic pattern, and these size variations in the ribosomal DNA subchromosomal molecule seem to be species specific. This could potentially be a useful new tool with which to differentiate colpodid ciliates. PMID:16535582

  14. Key Inter-molecular Interactions in the E. Coli 70S Ribosome Revealed by Coarse-Grained Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhiyong; Sanbonmatsu, Karissa Y.; Voth, Gregory A.

    2011-01-01

    The ribosome is a very large complex, which consists of many RNA and protein molecules and plays a central role in protein biosynthesis in all organisms. Extensive interactions between different molecules are critical to ribosomal functional dynamics. In this work, inter-molecular interactions in the E. coli 70S ribosome are investigated by coarse-grained (CG) analysis. CG models are defined to preserve dynamic domains in RNAs and proteins, and capture functional motions in the ribosome, then the CG sites are connected by harmonic springs and spring constants are obtained by matching the computed fluctuations to those of an all-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. Those spring constants indicate how strong the interactions are between the ribosomal components, which are in good agreement with various experimental data. Nearly all of bridges between the small and large ribosomal subunits are indicated by CG interactions with large spring constants. The head of the small subunit is very mobile because it has the minimal CG interactions with the rest of the subunit; However, a large number of small subunit proteins bind to maintain the internal structure of the head. The results show a clear connection between the inter-molecular interactions and the structural and functional properties of the ribosome because of the reduced complexity in domain-based CG models. The present approach also provides a useful strategy to map interactions between molecules within large biomolecular complexes since it is not straightforward to investigate these by either atomistic MD simulations or residue-based elastic network models. PMID:21910449

  15. Identification of Species and Sources of Cryptosporidium Oocysts in Storm Waters with a Small-Subunit rRNA-Based Diagnostic and Genotyping Tool

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Lihua; Alderisio, Kerri; Limor, Josef; Royer, Michael; Lal, Altaf A.

    2000-01-01

    The identification of Cryptosporidium oocysts in environmental samples is largely made by the use of an immunofluorescent assay. In this study, we have used a small-subunit rRNA-based PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism technique to identify species and sources of Cryptosporidium oocysts present in 29 storm water samples collected from a stream in New York. A total of 12 genotypes were found in 27 positive samples; for 4 the species and probable origins were identified by sequence analysis, whereas the rest represent new genotypes from wildlife. Thus, this technique provides an alternative method for the detection and differentiation of Cryptosporidium parasites in environmental samples. PMID:11097935

  16. The Ribosomal Database Project

    PubMed Central

    Olsen, Gary J.; Overbeek, Ross; Larsen, Niels; Marsh, Terry L.; McCaughey, Michael J.; Maciukenas, Michael A.; Kuan, Wen-Min; Macke, Thomas J.; Xing, Yuqing; Woese, Carl R.

    1992-01-01

    The Ribosomal Database Project (RDP) compiles ribosomal sequences and related data, and redistributes them in aligned and phylogenetically ordered form to its user community. It also offers various software packages for handling, analyzing and displaying sequences. In addition, the RDP offers (or will offer) certain analytic services. At present the project is in an intermediate stage of development. PMID:1598241

  17. Functional interaction of yeast elongation factor 3 with yeast ribosomes.

    PubMed

    Chakraburtty, K

    1999-01-01

    Elongation factor 3 (EF-3) is a unique and essential requirement of the fungal translational apparatus. EF-3 is a monomeric protein with a molecular mass of 116,000. EF-3 is required by yeast ribosomes for in vitro translation and for in vivo growth. The protein stimulates the binding of EF-1 alpha :GTP:aa-tRNA ternary complex to the ribosomal A-site by facilitating release of deacylated-tRNA from the E-site. The reaction requires ATP hydrolysis. EF-3 contains two ATP-binding sequence motifs (NBS). NBSI is sufficient for the intrinsic ATPase function. NBSII is essential for ribosome-stimulated activity. By limited proteolysis, EF-3 was divided into two distinct functional domains. The N-terminal domain lacking the highly charged lysine blocks failed to bind ribosomes and was inactive in the ribosome-stimulated ATPase activity. The C-terminally derived lysine-rich fragment showed strong binding to yeast ribosomes. The purported S5 homology region of EF-3 at the N-terminal end has been reported to interact with 18S ribosomal RNA. We postulate that EF-3 contacts rRNA and/or protein(s) through the C-terminal end. Removal of these residues severely weakens its interaction mediated possibly through the N-terminal domain of the protein. PMID:10216951

  18. Structure of psoralen-crosslinked ribosomal RNA from Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed Central

    Wollenzien, P L; Youvan, D C; Hearst, J E

    1978-01-01

    Ribosomal RNA from Drosophila melanogaster photoreacted with hydroxymethyltrioxsalen has been examined by electron microscopy. Reproducible patterns of hairpins were found in both the 26S and 18S RNA. The frequency of these hairpins and the amount of incorporated drug were dependent upon the conditions under which the crosslinking was performed. A prominent central hairpin occurs in the 26S RNA and the break that interrupts the continuity of the RNA chain is located within it. In addition to several small hairpins, the crosslinked 18S RNA contains a large open loop. Images PMID:417342

  19. Mapping of a conformational epitope on the cashew allergen Ana o 2: a discontinuous large subunit epitope dependent upon homologous or heterologous small subunit association.

    PubMed

    Xia, Lixin; Willison, LeAnna N; Porter, Lauren; Robotham, Jason M; Teuber, Suzanne S; Sathe, Shridhar K; Roux, Kenneth H

    2010-05-01

    The 11S globulins are members of the cupin protein superfamily and represent an important class of tree nut allergens for which a number of linear epitopes have been mapped. However, specific conformational epitopes for these allergens have yet to be described. We have recently reported a cashew Ana o 2 conformational epitope defined by murine mAb 2B5 and competitively inhibited by a subset of patient IgE antibodies. The 2B5 epitope appears to reside on the large (acidic) subunit, is dependent upon small (basic) subunit association for expression, and is highly susceptible to denaturation. Here we fine map the epitope using a combination of recombinant chimeric cashew Ana o 2-soybean Gly m 6 chimeras, deletion and point mutations, molecular modeling, and electron microscopy of 2B5-Ana o 2 immune complexes. Key residues appear confined to a 24 amino acid segment near the N-terminus of the large subunit peptide, a portion of which makes direct contact with the small subunit. These data provide an explanation for both the small subunit dependence and the structurally labile nature of the epitope. PMID:20362338

  20. Heat stability of maize endosperm ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase is enhanced by insertion of a cysteine in the N terminus of the small subunit.

    PubMed

    Linebarger, Carla R Lyerly; Boehlein, Susan K; Sewell, Aileen K; Shaw, Janine; Hannah, L Curtis

    2005-12-01

    ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGPase) is a key regulatory enzyme in starch biosynthesis. However, plant AGPases differ in several parameters, including spatial and temporal expression, allosteric regulation, and heat stability. AGPases of cereal endosperms are heat labile, while those in other tissues, such as the potato (Solanum tuberosum) tuber, are heat stable. Sequence comparisons of heat-stable and heat-labile AGPases identified an N-terminal motif unique to heat-stable enzymes. Insertion of this motif into recombinant maize (Zea mays) endosperm AGPase increased the half-life at 58 degrees C more than 70-fold. Km values for physiological substrates were unaffected, although Kcat was doubled. A cysteine within the inserted motif gives rise to small subunit homodimers not found in the wild-type maize enzyme. Placement of this N-terminal motif into a mosaic small subunit containing the N terminus from maize endosperm and the C terminus from potato tuber AGPase increases heat stability more than 300-fold. PMID:16299180

  1. Phytoplankton distribution patterns in the northwestern Sargasso Sea revealed by small subunit rRNA genes from plastids.

    PubMed

    Treusch, Alexander H; Demir-Hilton, Elif; Vergin, Kevin L; Worden, Alexandra Z; Carlson, Craig A; Donatz, Michael G; Burton, Robert M; Giovannoni, Stephen J

    2012-03-01

    Phytoplankton species vary in their physiological properties, and are expected to respond differently to seasonal changes in water column conditions. To assess these varying distribution patterns, we used 412 samples collected monthly over 12 years (1991-2004) at the Bermuda Atlantic Time-Series Study site, located in the northwestern Sargasso Sea. We measured plastid 16S ribosomal RNA gene abundances with a terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism approach and identified distribution patterns for members of the Prymnesiophyceae, Pelagophyceae, Chrysophyceae, Cryptophyceae, Bacillariophyceae and Prasinophyceae. The analysis revealed dynamic bloom patterns by these phytoplankton taxa that begin early in the year, when the mixed layer is deep. Previously, unreported open-ocean prasinophyte blooms dominated the plastid gene signal during convective mixing events. Quantitative PCR confirmed the blooms and transitions of Bathycoccus, Micromonas and Ostreococcus populations. In contrast, taxa belonging to the pelagophytes and chrysophytes, as well as cryptophytes, reached annual peaks during mixed layer shoaling, while Bacillariophyceae (diatoms) were observed only episodically in the 12-year record. Prymnesiophytes dominated the integrated plastid gene signal. They were abundant throughout the water column before mixing events, but persisted in the deep chlorophyll maximum during stratified conditions. Various models have been used to describe mechanisms that drive vernal phytoplankton blooms in temperate seas. The range of taxon-specific bloom patterns observed here indicates that different 'spring bloom' models can aptly describe the behavior of different phytoplankton taxa at a single geographical location. These findings provide insight into the subdivision of niche space by phytoplankton and may lead to improved predictions of phytoplankton responses to changes in ocean conditions. PMID:21955994

  2. Retroposons do jump: a B2 element recently integrated in an 18S rDNA gene.

    PubMed Central

    Oberbäumer, I

    1992-01-01

    Several cDNA clones were isolated from cDNA libraries constructed with mRNA longer than 28S RNA from the murine cell line PYS-2/12. The plasmids have inserts containing 1-1.2 kb of the ribosomal 5' external transcribed spacer followed by nearly 700 nt of sequence for 18S rRNA and ending with a B2 element (retroposon). The cloned sequence differed in a few positions from published ribosomal sequences. The 3' adjacent genomic sequence was obtained by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and showed that the B2 element has a poly(A) tail of about 50 nt and is surrounded by perfect direct repeats of 15 nt. Analysis of genomic DNA from several murine cell lines revealed that PYS cells contain at least one copy of 18S RNA with the B2 element which is not present in the genome of other murine cell lines derived from the same teratocarcinoma. Similarly, rRNA transcripts containing the B2 element were only detected in PYS cells. According to the publication dates of the different cell lines, the B2 element must have been integrated into an rRNA transcription unit during the years 1970 through 1974 thus proving that retroposons (SINEs) can still be inserted into the genome in our times. Images PMID:1311830

  3. Distinct 18S rRNA precursors are targets of the exosome complex, the exoribonuclease RRP6L2 and the terminal nucleotidyltransferase TRL in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Sikorski, Pawel J; Zuber, Hélène; Philippe, Lucas; Sement, François M; Canaday, Jean; Kufel, Joanna; Gagliardi, Dominique; Lange, Heike

    2015-09-01

    The biosynthesis of ribosomal RNA and its incorporation into functional ribosomes is an essential and intricate process that includes production of mature ribosomal RNA from large precursors. Here, we analyse the contribution of the plant exosome and its co-factors to processing and degradation of 18S pre-RNAs in Arabidopsis thaliana. Our data show that, unlike in yeast and humans, an RRP6 homologue, the nucleolar exoribonuclease RRP6L2, and the exosome complex, together with RRP44, function in two distinct steps of pre-18S rRNA processing or degradation in Arabidopsis. In addition, we identify TRL (TRF4/5-like) as the terminal nucleotidyltransferase that is mainly responsible for oligoadenylation of rRNA precursors in Arabidopsis. We show that TRL is required for efficient elimination of the excised 5' external transcribed spacer and of 18S maturation intermediates that escaped 5' processing. Our data also suggest involvement of additional nucleotidyltransferases, including terminal uridylyltransferase(s), in modifying rRNA processing intermediates in plants. PMID:26216451

  4. When ribosomes go bad: diseases of ribosome biogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Freed, Emily F.; Bleichert, Franziska; Dutca, Laura M.; Baserga, Susan J.

    2010-01-01

    Ribosomes are vital for cell growth and survival. Until recently, it was believed that mutations in ribosomes or ribosome biogenesis factors would be lethal, due to the essential nature of these complexes. However, in the last few decades, a number of diseases of ribosome biogenesis have been discovered. It remains a challenge in the field to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying them. PMID:20174677

  5. Ribosomal RNA analysis in the diagnosis of Diamond-Blackfan Anaemia.

    PubMed

    Quarello, Paola; Garelli, Emanuela; Carando, Adriana; Mancini, Cecilia; Foglia, Luiselda; Botto, Carlotta; Farruggia, Piero; De Keersmaecker, Kim; Aspesi, Anna; Ellis, Steve R; Dianzani, Irma; Ramenghi, Ugo

    2016-03-01

    Diamond-Blackfan anaemia (DBA) is an inherited disease characterized by pure erythroid aplasia that has been tagged as a 'ribosomopathy'. We report a multi-centre study focused on the analysis of rRNA processing of 53 Italian DBA patients using capillary electrophoresis analysis of rRNA maturation of the 40S and 60S ribosomal subunits. The ratio of 28S/18S rRNA was higher in patients with mutated ribosomal proteins (RPs) of the small ribosomal subunit. In contrast, patients with mutated RPs of the large ribosomal subunit (RPLs) had a lower 28S/18S ratio. The assay reported here would be amenable for development as a diagnostic tool. PMID:26763766

  6. Physical mapping of 5S and 18S-5.8S-26S RNA gene families in polyploid series of Cenchrus ciliaris Linnaeus, 1771 (Poaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Kharrat-Souissi, Amina; Siljak-Yakovlev, Sonja; Pustahija, Fatima; Chaieb, Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The Buffelgrass (Cenchrus ciliaris L., Poaceae) is one of the most important pasturage grasses due to its high productivity and good forage qualities. This species possess a high adaptability to bioclimatic constraints of arid zones and may be used for the restoration of degraded arid ecosystems. Tunisian populations present three ploidy levels (4x, 5x and 6x) with a basic chromosome number x=9. This study reported for the first time the distribution of the ribosomal genes (rRNA) for pentaploid and hexaploid cytotypes of Cenchrus ciliaris. Molecular cytogenetic study using double fluorescence in situ hybridization has shown that the two rDNA families, 5S and 18S-5.8S-26S (18S), displayed intraspecific variation in number of loci among different ploidy levels. Each ploidy level was characterized by specific number of both 5S and 18S rDNA loci (two loci in tetraploid, five in pentaploid and six in hexaploid level). For three studied cytotypes (4x, 5x and 6x) all 5S rDNA loci were localized on the subcentromeric region of chromosomes, while 18S loci were situated on the telomeric region of short chromosome arms. Data of the FISH experiments show proportional increase of ribosomal loci number during polyploidization processes. PMID:24260668

  7. The ribosomal subunit assembly line

    PubMed Central

    Dlakić, Mensur

    2005-01-01

    Recent proteomic studies in Saccharomyces cerevisiae have identified nearly 200 proteins, other than the structural ribosomal proteins, that participate in the assembly of ribosomal subunits and their transport from the nucleus. In a separate line of research, proteomic studies of mature plant ribosomes have revealed considerable variability in the protein composition of individual ribosomes. PMID:16207363

  8. The ribosome returned

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Peter B

    2009-01-01

    Since the mid-1990s, insights obtained from electron microscopy and X-ray crystallography have transformed our understanding of how the most important ribozyme in the cell, the ribosome, catalyzes protein synthesis. This review provides a brief account of how this structural revolution came to pass, and the impact it has had on our understanding of how the ribosome decodes messenger RNAs. PMID:19222865

  9. Ribosome-omics of the human ribosome

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Varun; Warner, Jonathan R.

    2014-01-01

    The torrent of RNA-seq data becoming available not only furnishes an overview of the entire transcriptome but also provides tools to focus on specific areas of interest. Our focus on the synthesis of ribosomes asked whether the abundance of mRNAs encoding ribosomal proteins (RPs) matched the equimolar need for the RPs in the assembly of ribosomes. We were at first surprised to find, in the mapping data of ENCODE and other sources, that there were nearly 100-fold differences in the level of the mRNAs encoding the different RPs. However, after correcting for the mapping ambiguities introduced by the presence of more than 2000 pseudogenes derived from RP mRNAs, we show that for 80%–90% of the RP genes, the molar ratio of mRNAs varies less than threefold, with little tissue specificity. Nevertheless, since the RPs are needed in equimolar amounts, there must be sluggish or regulated translation of the more abundant RP mRNAs and/or substantial turnover of unused RPs. In addition, seven of the RPs have subsidiary genes, three of which are pseudogenes that have been “rescued” by the introduction of promoters and/or upstream introns. Several of these are transcribed in a tissue-specific manner, e.g., RPL10L in testis and RPL3L in muscle, leading to potential variation in ribosome structure from one tissue to another. Of the 376 introns in the RP genes, a single one is alternatively spliced in a tissue-specific manner. PMID:24860015

  10. An updated 18S rRNA phylogeny of tunicates based on mixture and secondary structure models

    PubMed Central

    Tsagkogeorga, Georgia; Turon, Xavier; Hopcroft, Russell R; Tilak, Marie-Ka; Feldstein, Tamar; Shenkar, Noa; Loya, Yossi; Huchon, Dorothée; Douzery, Emmanuel JP; Delsuc, Frédéric

    2009-01-01

    Background Tunicates have been recently revealed to be the closest living relatives of vertebrates. Yet, with more than 2500 described species, details of their evolutionary history are still obscure. From a molecular point of view, tunicate phylogenetic relationships have been mostly studied based on analyses of 18S rRNA sequences, which indicate several major clades at odds with the traditional class-level arrangements. Nonetheless, substantial uncertainty remains about the phylogenetic relationships and taxonomic status of key groups such as the Aplousobranchia, Appendicularia, and Thaliacea. Results Thirty new complete 18S rRNA sequences were acquired from previously unsampled tunicate species, with special focus on groups presenting high evolutionary rate. The updated 18S rRNA dataset has been aligned with respect to the constraint on homology imposed by the rRNA secondary structure. A probabilistic framework of phylogenetic reconstruction was adopted to accommodate the particular evolutionary dynamics of this ribosomal marker. Detailed Bayesian analyses were conducted under the non-parametric CAT mixture model accounting for site-specific heterogeneity of the evolutionary process, and under RNA-specific doublet models accommodating the occurrence of compensatory substitutions in stem regions. Our results support the division of tunicates into three major clades: 1) Phlebobranchia + Thaliacea + Aplousobranchia, 2) Appendicularia, and 3) Stolidobranchia, but the position of Appendicularia could not be firmly resolved. Our study additionally reveals that most Aplousobranchia evolve at extremely high rates involving changes in secondary structure of their 18S rRNA, with the exception of the family Clavelinidae, which appears to be slowly evolving. This extreme rate heterogeneity precluded resolving with certainty the exact phylogenetic placement of Aplousobranchia. Finally, the best fitting secondary-structure and CAT-mixture models suggest a sister

  11. Sequence Variation in the Small-Subunit rRNA Gene of Plasmodium malariae and Prevalence of Isolates with the Variant Sequence in Sichuan, China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qing; Zhu, Shenghua; Mizuno, Sahoko; Kimura, Masatsugu; Liu, Peina; Isomura, Shin; Wang, Xingzhen; Kawamoto, Fumihiko

    1998-01-01

    By two PCR-based diagnostic methods, Plasmodium malariae infections have been rediscovered at two foci in the Sichuan province of China, a region where no cases of P. malariae have been officially reported for the last 2 decades. In addition, a variant form of P. malariae which has a deletion of 19 bp and seven substitutions of base pairs in the target sequence of the small-subunit (SSU) rRNA gene was detected with high frequency. Alignment analysis of Plasmodium sp. SSU rRNA gene sequences revealed that the 5′ region of the variant sequence is identical to that of P. vivax or P. knowlesi and its 3′ region is identical to that of P. malariae. The same sequence variations were also found in P. malariae isolates collected along the Thai-Myanmar border, suggesting a wide distribution of this variant form from southern China to Southeast Asia. PMID:9774600

  12. Redescriptions of three trachelocercid ciliates (Protista, Ciliophora, Karyorelictea), with notes on their phylogeny based on small subunit rRNA gene sequences.

    PubMed

    Yan, Ying; Xu, Yuan; Yi, Zhenzhen; Warren, Alan

    2013-09-01

    Three trachelocercid ciliates, Kovalevaia sulcata (Kovaleva, 1966) Foissner, 1997, Trachelocerca sagitta (Müller, 1786) Ehrenberg, 1840 and Trachelocerca ditis (Wright, 1982) Foissner, 1996, isolated from two coastal habitats at Qingdao, China, were investigated using live observation and silver impregnation methods. Data on their infraciliature and morphology are supplied. The small subunit rRNA (SSU rRNA) genes of K. sulcata and Trachelocerca sagitta were sequenced for the first time. Phylogenetic analyses based on SSU rRNA gene sequence data indicate that both organisms, and the previously sequenced Trachelocerca ditis, are located within the trachelocercid assemblage and that K. sulcata is sister to an unidentified taxon forming a clade that is basal to the core trachelocercids. PMID:23847285

  13. Cloning and characterization of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase small subunit (RbcS) cDNA from green microalga Ankistrodesmus convolutus.

    PubMed

    Thanh, Tran; Chi, Vu Thi Quynh; Abdullah, Mohd Puad; Omar, Hishamuddin; Noroozi, Mostafa; Napis, Suhaimi

    2011-11-01

    An initial study on gene cloning and characterization of unicellular green microalga Ankistrodesmus convolutus was carried out to isolate and characterize the full-length cDNA of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase small subunit (RbcS) as a first step towards elucidating the structure of A. convolutus RbcS gene. The full-length of A. convolutus RbcS cDNA (AcRbcS) contained 28 bp of 5' untranslated region (UTR), 225 bp of 3' non-coding region, and an open reading frame of 165 amino acids consisting of a chloroplast transit peptide with 24 amino acids and a mature protein of 141 amino acids. The amino acid sequence has high identity to those of other green algae RbcS genes. The AcRbcS contained a few conserved domains including protein kinase C phosphorylation site, tyrosine kinase phosphorylation site and N-myristoylation sites. The AcRbcS was successfully expressed in Escherichia coli and a ~21 kDa of anticipated protein band was observed on SDS-PAGE. From the phylogenetic analysis of RbcS protein sequences, it was found that the RbcS of A. convolutus has closer genetic relationship with green microalgae species compared to those of green seaweed and green macroalgae species. Southern hybridization analysis revealed that the AcRbcS is a member of a small multigene family comprising of two to six members in A. convolutus genome. Under different illumination conditions, RT-PCR analysis showed that AcRbcS transcription was reduced in the dark, and drastically recovered in the light condition. Results presented in this paper established a good foundation for further study on the photosynthetic process of A. convolutus and other green algae species where little information is known on Rubisco small subunit. PMID:21287365

  14. Chromosomal location of 18S and 5S rDNA sites in Triportheus fish species (Characiformes, Characidae)

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    The location of 18S and 5S rDNA sites was determined in eight species and populations of the fish genus Triportheus by using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). The males and females of all species had 2n = 52 chromosomes and a ZZ/ZW sex chromosome system. A single 18S rDNA site that was roughly equivalent to an Ag-NOR was detected on the short arms of a submetacentric pair in nearly all species, and up to two additional sites were also observed in some species. In addition, another 18S rDNA cluster was identified in a distal region on the long arms of the W chromosome; this finding corroborated previous evidence that this cluster would be a shared feature amongst Triportheus species. In T. angulatus, a heterozygotic paracentric inversion involving the short arms of one homolog of a metacentric pair was associated with NORs. The 5S rDNA sites were located on the short arms of a single submetacentric chromosomal pair, close to the centromeres, except in T. auritus, which had up to ten 5S rDNA sites. The 18S and 5S rDNA sites were co-localized and adjacent on the short arms of a chromosomal pair in two populations of T. nematurus. Although all Triportheus species have a similar karyotypic macrostructure, the results of this work show that in some species ribosomal genes may serve as species-specific markers when used in conjunction with other putatively synapomorphic features. PMID:21637644

  15. The Ribosome Comes Alive

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    This essay is a reflection on the ways the X-ray structures of the ribosome are helping in the interpretation of cryogenic electron microscopy (cryo-EM) density maps showing the translating ribosome in motion. Through advances in classification methods, cryo-EM and single-particle reconstruction methods have recently evolved to the point where they can yield an array of structures from a single sample (“story in a sample”), providing snapshots of an entire subprocess of translation, such as translocation or decoding. PMID:21072331

  16. The Ribosome Comes Alive.

    PubMed

    Frank, Joachim

    2010-06-18

    This essay is a reflection on the ways the X-ray structures of the ribosome are helping in the interpretation of cryogenic electron microscopy (cryo-EM) density maps showing the translating ribosome in motion. Through advances in classification methods, cryo-EM and single-particle reconstruction methods have recently evolved to the point where they can yield an array of structures from a single sample ("story in a sample"), providing snapshots of an entire subprocess of translation, such as translocation or decoding. PMID:21072331

  17. Analysis of interactions between ribosomal proteins and RNA structural motifs

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background One important goal of structural bioinformatics is to recognize and predict the interactions between protein binding sites and RNA. Recently, a comprehensive analysis of ribosomal proteins and their interactions with rRNA has been done. Interesting results emerged from the comparison of r-proteins within the small subunit in T. thermophilus and E. coli, supporting the idea of a core made by both RNA and proteins, conserved by evolution. Recent work showed also that ribosomal RNA is modularly composed. Motifs are generally single-stranded sequences of consecutive nucleotides (ssRNA) with characteristic folding. The role of these motifs in protein-RNA interactions has been so far only sparsely investigated. Results This work explores the role of RNA structural motifs in the interaction of proteins with ribosomal RNA (rRNA). We analyze composition, local geometries and conformation of interface regions involving motifs such as tetraloops, kink turns and single extruded nucleotides. We construct an interaction map of protein binding sites that allows us to identify the common types of shared 3-D physicochemical binding patterns for tetraloops. Furthermore, we investigate the protein binding pockets that accommodate single extruded nucleotides either involved in kink-turns or in arbitrary RNA strands. This analysis reveals a new structural motif, called tripod. It corresponds to small pockets consisting of three aminoacids arranged at the vertices of an almost equilateral triangle. We developed a search procedure for the recognition of tripods, based on an empirical tripod fingerprint. Conclusion A comparative analysis with the overall RNA surface and interfaces shows that contact surfaces involving RNA motifs have distinctive features that may be useful for the recognition and prediction of interactions. PMID:20122215

  18. Sequence of steps in ribosome recycling as defined by kinetic analysis.

    PubMed

    Peske, Frank; Rodnina, Marina V; Wintermeyer, Wolfgang

    2005-05-13

    After termination of protein synthesis in bacteria, ribosomes are recycled from posttermination complexes by the combined action of elongation factor G (EF-G), ribosome recycling factor (RRF), and initiation factor 3 (IF3). The functions of the factors and the sequence in which ribosomal subunits, tRNA, and mRNA are released from posttermination complexes are unclear and, in part, controversial. Here, we study the reaction by rapid kinetics monitoring fluorescence. We show that RRF and EF-G with GTP, but not with GDPNP, promote the dissociation of 50S subunits from the posttermination complex without involving translocation or a translocation-like event. IF3 does not affect subunit dissociation but prevents reassociation, thereby masking the dissociating effect of EF-G-RRF under certain experimental conditions. IF3 is required for the subsequent ejection of tRNA and mRNA from the small subunit. The latter step is slower than subunit dissociation and constitutes the rate-limiting step of ribosome recycling. PMID:15893724

  19. The linkage between ribosomal crystallography, metal ions, heteropolytungstates and functional flexibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bashan, Anat; Yonath, Ada

    2008-11-01

    Crystallography of ribosomes, the universal cell nucleoprotein assemblies facilitating the translation of the genetic-code into proteins, met with severe problems owing to the large size, complex structure, inherent flexibility and high conformational variability of the ribosome. For the case of the small ribosomal subunit, which caused extreme difficulties, post-crystallization treatment by minute amounts of a heteropolytungstate cluster allowed structure determination at atomic resolution. This cluster played a dual role: providing anomalous phasing power and dramatically increased the resolution, by stabilization of a selected functional conformation. Thus, four out of the fourteen clusters that bind to each of the crystallized small subunits are attached to a specific ribosomal protein in a fashion that may control a significant component of the subunit internal flexibility, by "gluing" symmetrical related subunits. Here, we highlight basic issues in the relationship between metal ions and macromolecules and present common traits controlling in the interactions between polymetalates and various macromolecules, which may be extended towards the exploitation of polymetalates for therapeutical treatment.

  20. An unexpected type of ribosomes induced by kasugamycin: A look into ancestral times of protein synthesis?

    PubMed Central

    Kaberdina, Anna Chao; Szaflarski, Witold; Nierhaus, Knud H.; Moll, Isabella

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY Translation of leaderless mRNAs, lacking ribosomal recruitment signals other than the 5′-terminal AUG-initiating codon, occurs in all three domains of life. Contemporary leaderless mRNAs may therefore be viewed as molecular fossils resembling ancestral mRNAs. Here, we analyzed the phenomenon of sustained translation of a leaderless mRNA in the presence of the antibiotic kasugamycin. Unexpected from the known in vitro effects of the drug, kasugamycin induced the formation of stable ~61S ribosomes in vivo, which were proficient in selectively translating leaderless mRNA. 61S particles are devoid of more than six proteins of the small subunit including the functionally important proteins S1 and S12. The lack of these proteins could be reconciled with structural changes in the 16S rRNA. These studies provide in vivo evidence for the functionality of ribosomes devoid of multiple proteins, and shed light on the evolutionary history of ribosomes. PMID:19187763

  1. Ribosome-inactivating proteins

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Matthew J; Dodd, Jennifer E; Hautbergue, Guillaume M

    2013-01-01

    Ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs) were first isolated over a century ago and have been shown to be catalytic toxins that irreversibly inactivate protein synthesis. Elucidation of atomic structures and molecular mechanism has revealed these proteins to be a diverse group subdivided into two classes. RIPs have been shown to exhibit RNA N-glycosidase activity and depurinate the 28S rRNA of the eukaryotic 60S ribosomal subunit. In this review, we compare archetypal RIP family members with other potent toxins that abolish protein synthesis: the fungal ribotoxins which directly cleave the 28S rRNA and the newly discovered Burkholderia lethal factor 1 (BLF1). BLF1 presents additional challenges to the current classification system since, like the ribotoxins, it does not possess RNA N-glycosidase activity but does irreversibly inactivate ribosomes. We further discuss whether the RIP classification should be broadened to include toxins achieving irreversible ribosome inactivation with similar turnovers to RIPs, but through different enzymatic mechanisms. PMID:24071927

  2. Architecture of the 90S Pre-ribosome: A Structural View on the Birth of the Eukaryotic Ribosome.

    PubMed

    Kornprobst, Markus; Turk, Martin; Kellner, Nikola; Cheng, Jingdong; Flemming, Dirk; Koš-Braun, Isabelle; Koš, Martin; Thoms, Matthias; Berninghausen, Otto; Beckmann, Roland; Hurt, Ed

    2016-07-14

    The 90S pre-ribosome is an early biogenesis intermediate formed during co-transcriptional ribosome formation, composed of ∼70 assembly factors and several small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs) that associate with nascent pre-rRNA. We report the cryo-EM structure of the Chaetomium thermophilum 90S pre-ribosome, revealing how a network of biogenesis factors including 19 β-propellers and large α-solenoid proteins engulfs the pre-rRNA. Within the 90S pre-ribosome, we identify the UTP-A, UTP-B, Mpp10-Imp3-Imp4, Bms1-Rcl1, and U3 snoRNP modules, which are organized around 5'-ETS and partially folded 18S rRNA. The U3 snoRNP is strategically positioned at the center of the 90S particle to perform its multiple tasks during pre-rRNA folding and processing. The architecture of the elusive 90S pre-ribosome gives unprecedented structural insight into the early steps of pre-rRNA maturation. Nascent rRNA that is co-transcriptionally folded and given a particular shape by encapsulation within a dedicated mold-like structure is reminiscent of how polypeptides use chaperone chambers for their protein folding. PMID:27419870

  3. Cryptic diversity of free-living parabasalids, Pseudotrichomonas keilini and Lacusteria cypriaca n. g., n. sp., as inferred from small subunit rDNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Yubuki, Naoji; Céza, Vít; Cepicka, Ivan; Yabuki, Akinori; Inagaki, Yuji; Nakayama, Takeshi; Inouye, Isao; Leander, Brian S

    2010-01-01

    Ultrastructural and molecular phylogenetic evidence indicate that the Parabasalia consists of seven main subgroups: the Trichomonadida, Honigbergiellida, Hypotrichomonadida, Tritrichomonadida, Cristamonadida, Spirotrichonymphida, and Trichonymphida. Only five species of free-living parabasalids are known: Monotrichomonas carabina, Ditrichomonas honigbergii, Honigbergiella sp., Tetratrichomonas undula, and Pseudotrichomonas keilini. Phylogenetic analyses show that free-living species do not form a clade and instead branch in several different positions within the context of their parasitic relatives. Because the diversity of free-living parabasalids is poorly understood, the systematics of these lineages is in a significant state of disarray. In order to better understand the phylogenetic distribution of free-living parabasalids, we sequenced the small subunit rDNA from three different strains reminiscent of P. keilini; the strains were isolated from different geographical locations: (1) mangrove sediments in Japan and (2) sediments in Cyprus. These data demonstrated that the free-living parabasalids P. keilini and Lacusteria cypriaca n. g., n. sp., form a paraphyletic assemblage near the origin of a clade consisting mostly of parasitic trichomonadids (e.g. Trichomonas vaginalis). This paraphyletic distribution of similar morphotypes indicates that free-living trichomonadids represent a compelling example of morphostasis that provides insight into the suite of features present in the most recent free-living ancestor of their parasitic relatives. PMID:20880033

  4. Phylogenetic relationships of Trypanosoma chelodina and Trypanosoma binneyi from Australian tortoises and platypuses inferred from small subunit rRNA analyses.

    PubMed

    Jakes, K A; O'Donoghue, P J; Adlard, R D

    2001-11-01

    Trypanosome infections are often difficult to detect by conventional microscopy and their pleomorphy often confounds differential diagnosis. Molecular techniques are now being used to diagnose infections and to determine phylogenetic relationships between species. Complete small subunit rRNA gene sequences were determined for isolates of Trypanosoma chelodina from the Brisbane River tortoise (Emydura signata), the saw-shelled tortoise (Elseya latisternum), and the eastern snake-necked tortoise (Chelodina longicollis) from southeast Queensland, Australia. Partial sequence data were also obtained for T. binneyi from a platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus) from Tasmania. Phylogenetic relationships between T. chelodina, T. binneyi and other species were examined by maximum parsimony and likelihood methods. The Australian tortoise and platypus trypanosomes did not exhibit any close phylogenetic relationships with those of mammals, reptiles or amphibians, but were closely related to each other, and to fish trypanosomes. This contra-indicates their co-evolution with their vertebrate hosts but does not exclude co-evolution with different groups of invertebrate vectors, notably insects and leeches. PMID:11719959

  5. Morphology and Small Subunit rDNA Phylogeny of Two New Marine Urostylid Ciliates, Caudiholosticha marina sp. nov. and Nothoholosticha flava sp. nov. (Ciliophora, Hypotrichia).

    PubMed

    Li, Ju; Chen, Xumiao; Xu, Kuidong

    2016-07-01

    Two marine urostylid ciliates, Caudiholosticha marina sp. nov. and Nothoholosticha flava sp. nov., isolated from intertidal sediment in the Yellow Sea, are investigated using morphological and small subunit rDNA phylogenetic analyses. Caudiholosticha marina is 210-310 μm × 40-55 μm in vivo, and has 10-20 macronuclear nodules, 23-37 midventral cirral pairs extending to 5-8 transverse cirri, and two caudal cirri. It differs from congeners by its marine habitat, larger size, macronuclear arrangement pattern and high number of midventral pairs. Molecular phylogenetic analyses indicate a polyphyly of Caudiholosticha. Nothoholosticha flava is yellow to brownish and 240-320 μm × 40-60 μm sized, and has a bipartite adoral zone, six frontal cirri in atypical bicorona, usually four frontoterminal, one buccal and 5-7 transverse cirri and 28-54 midventral pairs. Phylogenetic analyses allocate N. flava as sister of N. fasciola, type of the genus. The two Nothoholosticha species differ distinctly by the presence/absence of frontoterminal cirri, a feature often used to define genera in the Hypotrichia. However, the SSU rDNA sequence similarity between these two species is 99.3%, which weakens the justification for separating the new isolate at genus level. The taxonomic significance of frontoterminal cirri is discussed based on morphological and molecular data. PMID:26663360

  6. Isolation and characterization of cDNAs and genomic DNAs encoding ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase large and small subunits from sweet potato.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yu-Xi; Chen, Yu-Xiang; Tao, Xiang; Cheng, Xiao-Jie; Wang, Hai-Yan

    2016-04-01

    Sweet potato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.], the world's seventh most important food crop, is also a major industrial raw material for starch and ethanol production. In the plant starch biosynthesis pathway, ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGPase) catalyzes the first, rate-limiting step and plays a pivotal role in regulating this process. In spite of the importance of sweet potato as a starch source, only a few studies have focused on the molecular aspects of starch biosynthesis in sweet potato and almost no intensive research has been carried out on the AGPase gene family in this species. In this study, cDNAs encoding two small subunits (SSs) and four large subunits (LSs) of AGPase isoforms were cloned from sweet potato and the genomic organizations of the corresponding AGPase genes were elucidated. Expression pattern analysis revealed that the two SSs were constitutively expressed, whereas the four LSs displayed differential expression patterns in various tissues and at different developmental stages. Co-expression of SSs with different LSs in Escherichia coli yielded eight heterotetramers showing different catalytic activities. Interactions between different SSs and LSs were confirmed by a yeast two-hybrid experiment. Our findings provide comprehensive information about AGPase gene sequences, structures, expression profiles, and subunit interactions in sweet potato. The results can serve as a foundation for elucidation of molecular mechanisms of starch synthesis in tuberous roots, and should contribute to future regulation of starch biosynthesis to improve sweet potato starch yield. PMID:26499957

  7. Molecular evolution inferred from small subunit rRNA sequences: what does it tell us about phylogenetic relationships and taxonomy of the parabasalids?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Viscogliosi, E.; Edgcomb, V. P.; Gerbod, D.; Noel, C.; Delgado-Viscogliosi, P.; Sogin, M. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    The Parabasala are a primitive group of protists divided into two classes: the trichomonads and the hypermastigids. Until recently, phylogeny and taxonomy of parabasalids were mainly based on the comparative analysis of morphological characters primarily linked to the development of their cytoskeleton. Recent use of molecular markers, such as small subunit (SSU) rRNA has led to now insights into the systematics of the Parabasala and other groups of prolists. An updated phylogeny based on SSU rRNA is provided and compared to that inferred from ultrastructural data. The SSU rRNA phylogeny contradicts the dogma equating simple characters with pumitive characters. Hypermastigids, possessing a hyperdeveloped cytoskeleton, exhibit the most basal emergence in the parabasalid lineage. Other observations emerge from the SSU rRNA analysis, such as the secondary loss of some cytoskeleton structures in all representatives of the Monocercomonadidae, the existence of secondarily free living taxa (reversibility of parasitism) and the evidence against the co-evolution of the endobiotic parabasalids and their animal hosts. According to phylogenies based on SSU rRNA, all the trichomonad families are not monophyletic groups, putting into question the validity of current taxonomic assignments. The precise branching order of some taxa remains unclear, but this issue can possibly be addressed by the molecular analysis of additional parabasalids. The goal of such additional analyses would be to propose, in a near future, a revision of the taxonomy of this group of protists that takes into account both molecular and morphological data.

  8. The small subunit rRNA gene sequence of the chonotrich Chilodochona carcini Jankowski, 1973 confirms chonotrichs as a dysteriid-derived clade (Phyllopharyngea, Ciliophora).

    PubMed

    Lynn, Denis H

    2016-08-01

    The chonotrichs are sessile ciliated protozoa that are ectosymbiotic on the body parts of a variety of crustaceans. They have long been considered a separate group because their sessile habit has resulted in the evolution of a very divergent body form and reproductive strategy compared to free-living ciliates. In the mid-20th Century, the free-living dysteriid cyrtophorian ciliates were proposed as a potential sister clade because the chonotrich bud or daughter cell showed similarities during division morphogenesis (i.e. ontogeny) to these free-living dysteriids. A single small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene sequence is available for the chonotrich Isochona sp. However, its authenticity has recently been questioned, and the placement of this sequence within the dysteriid clade has added to this controversy. In this report, the SSUrRNA gene sequence of the chonotrich Chilodochona carcini, ectosymbiotic on the green crab Carcinus maenas, is provided. Topology testing of the SSUrRNA gene phylogeny, constructed by Bayesian Inference, robustly supports the sister-group relationship of Isochona sp. and Chilodochona carcini, the monophyly of these two chonotrichs, and the divergence of the chonotrich clade within the dysteriid clade. PMID:27151876

  9. Ribosome Assembly as Antimicrobial Target.

    PubMed

    Nikolay, Rainer; Schmidt, Sabine; Schlömer, Renate; Deuerling, Elke; Nierhaus, Knud H

    2016-01-01

    Many antibiotics target the ribosome and interfere with its translation cycle. Since translation is the source of all cellular proteins including ribosomal proteins, protein synthesis and ribosome assembly are interdependent. As a consequence, the activity of translation inhibitors might indirectly cause defective ribosome assembly. Due to the difficulty in distinguishing between direct and indirect effects, and because assembly is probably a target in its own right, concepts are needed to identify small molecules that directly inhibit ribosome assembly. Here, we summarize the basic facts of ribosome targeting antibiotics. Furthermore, we present an in vivo screening strategy that focuses on ribosome assembly by a direct fluorescence based read-out that aims to identify and characterize small molecules acting as primary assembly inhibitors. PMID:27240412

  10. Ribosome Assembly as Antimicrobial Target

    PubMed Central

    Nikolay, Rainer; Schmidt, Sabine; Schlömer, Renate; Deuerling, Elke; Nierhaus, Knud H.

    2016-01-01

    Many antibiotics target the ribosome and interfere with its translation cycle. Since translation is the source of all cellular proteins including ribosomal proteins, protein synthesis and ribosome assembly are interdependent. As a consequence, the activity of translation inhibitors might indirectly cause defective ribosome assembly. Due to the difficulty in distinguishing between direct and indirect effects, and because assembly is probably a target in its own right, concepts are needed to identify small molecules that directly inhibit ribosome assembly. Here, we summarize the basic facts of ribosome targeting antibiotics. Furthermore, we present an in vivo screening strategy that focuses on ribosome assembly by a direct fluorescence based read-out that aims to identify and characterize small molecules acting as primary assembly inhibitors. PMID:27240412

  11. Mechanisms underlying the evolution and maintenance of functionally heterogeneous 18S rRNA genes in Apicomplexans.

    PubMed

    Rooney, Alejandro P

    2004-09-01

    In many species of the protist phylum Apicomplexa, ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene copies are structurally and functionally heterogeneous, owing to distinct requirements for rRNA-expression patterns at different developmental stages. The genomic mechanisms underlying the maintenance of this system over long-term evolutionary history are unclear. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate what processes underlie the long-term evolution of apicomplexan 18S genes in representative species. The results show that these genes evolve according to a birth-and-death model under strong purifying selection, thereby explaining how divergent 18S genes are generated over time while continuing to maintain their ability to produce fully functional rRNAs. In addition, it was found that Cryptosporidium parvum undergoes a rapid form of birth-and-death evolution that may facilitate host-specific adaptation, including that of type I and II strains found in humans. This represents the first case in which an rRNA gene family has been found to evolve under the birth-and-death model. PMID:15175411

  12. Structural insights into ribosome translocation.

    PubMed

    Ling, Clarence; Ermolenko, Dmitri N

    2016-09-01

    During protein synthesis, tRNA and mRNA are translocated from the A to P to E sites of the ribosome thus enabling the ribosome to translate one codon of mRNA after the other. Ribosome translocation along mRNA is induced by the universally conserved ribosome GTPase, elongation factor G (EF-G) in bacteria and elongation factor 2 (EF-2) in eukaryotes. Recent structural and single-molecule studies revealed that tRNA and mRNA translocation within the ribosome is accompanied by cyclic forward and reverse rotations between the large and small ribosomal subunits parallel to the plane of the intersubunit interface. In addition, during ribosome translocation, the 'head' domain of small ribosomal subunit undergoes forward- and back-swiveling motions relative to the rest of the small ribosomal subunit around the axis that is orthogonal to the axis of intersubunit rotation. tRNA/mRNA translocation is also coupled to the docking of domain IV of EF-G into the A site of the small ribosomal subunit that converts the thermally driven motions of the ribosome and tRNA into the forward translocation of tRNA/mRNA inside the ribosome. Despite recent and enormous progress made in the understanding of the molecular mechanism of ribosome translocation, the sequence of structural rearrangements of the ribosome, EF-G and tRNA during translocation is still not fully established and awaits further investigation. WIREs RNA 2016, 7:620-636. doi: 10.1002/wrna.1354 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. PMID:27117863

  13. Polymorphisms in the 18S rDNA gene of Cystoisospora belli and clinical features of cystoisosporosis in HIV-infected patients.

    PubMed

    Resende, Deisy V; Pedrosa, André L; Correia, Dalmo; Cabrine-Santos, Marlene; Lages-Silva, Eliane; Meira, Wendell S F; Oliveira-Silva, Márcia B

    2011-03-01

    Intraspecific variability among Cystoisospora belli isolates and its clinical implications in human cystoisosporosis have not been established. In this study, the restriction fragment length polymorphisms in a 1.8-kb amplicon of the small subunit ribosomal DNA (SSU rDNA) of the parasite was investigated in 20 C. belli-positive stool samples obtained from 15 HIV-infected patients. Diarrheic syndrome was observed in all patients with cystoisosporosis and the number of diarrheic episodes per patient during hospitalization ranged from 1 to 26 (mean of 9.64 ± 9.30), with a mean duration of 2 to 12 days (mean of 5.90 ± 3 days). Three restriction profiles (RF) were generated with MboII digestion, which were named RFI, RFII, and RFIII. Two isolates obtained from a patient with extraintestinal cystoisosporosis showed distinct restriction profiles with MboII. This study demonstrates that patients can be infected with different C. belli genotypes, and this information may be useful for identifying new C. belli genotypes infecting humans. PMID:20967461

  14. Distribution of Mosquitoes in the South East of Argentina and First Report on the Analysis Based on 18S rDNA and COI Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Díaz-Nieto, Leonardo M.; Maciá, Arnaldo; Parisi, Gustavo; Farina, Juan L.; Vidal-Domínguez, María E.; Perotti, M. Alejandra; Berón, Corina M.

    2013-01-01

    Although Mar del Plata is the most important city on the Atlantic coast of Argentina, mosquitoes inhabiting such area are almost uncharacterized. To increase our knowledge in their distribution, we sampled specimens of natural populations. After the morphological identification based on taxonomic keys, sequences of DNA from small ribosomal subunit (18S rDNA) and cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) genes were obtained from native species and the phylogenetic analysis of these sequences were done. Fourteen species from the genera Uranotaenia, Culex, Ochlerotatus and Psorophora were found and identified. Our 18S rDNA and COI-based analysis indicates the relationships among groups at the supra-species level in concordance with mosquito taxonomy. The introduction and spread of vectors and diseases carried by them are not known in Mar del Plata, but some of the species found in this study were reported as pathogen vectors. PMID:24098700

  15. Ribosome recycling induces optimal translation rate at low ribosomal availability.

    PubMed

    Marshall, E; Stansfield, I; Romano, M C

    2014-09-01

    During eukaryotic cellular protein synthesis, ribosomal translation is made more efficient through interaction between the two ends of the messenger RNA (mRNA). Ribosomes reaching the 3' end of the mRNA can thus recycle and begin translation again on the same mRNA, the so-called 'closed-loop' model. Using a driven diffusion lattice model of translation, we study the effects of ribosome recycling on the dynamics of ribosome flow and density on the mRNA. We show that ribosome recycling induces a substantial increase in ribosome current. Furthermore, for sufficiently large values of the recycling rate, the lattice does not transition directly from low to high ribosome density, as seen in lattice models without recycling. Instead, a maximal current phase becomes accessible for much lower values of the initiation rate, and multiple phase transitions occur over a wide region of the phase plane. Crucially, we show that in the presence of ribosome recycling, mRNAs can exhibit a peak in protein production at low values of the initiation rate, beyond which translation rate decreases. This has important implications for translation of certain mRNAs, suggesting that there is an optimal concentration of ribosomes at which protein synthesis is maximal, and beyond which translational efficiency is impaired. PMID:25008084

  16. Ribosome recycling induces optimal translation rate at low ribosomal availability

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, E.; Stansfield, I.; Romano, M. C.

    2014-01-01

    During eukaryotic cellular protein synthesis, ribosomal translation is made more efficient through interaction between the two ends of the messenger RNA (mRNA). Ribosomes reaching the 3′ end of the mRNA can thus recycle and begin translation again on the same mRNA, the so-called ‘closed-loop’ model. Using a driven diffusion lattice model of translation, we study the effects of ribosome recycling on the dynamics of ribosome flow and density on the mRNA. We show that ribosome recycling induces a substantial increase in ribosome current. Furthermore, for sufficiently large values of the recycling rate, the lattice does not transition directly from low to high ribosome density, as seen in lattice models without recycling. Instead, a maximal current phase becomes accessible for much lower values of the initiation rate, and multiple phase transitions occur over a wide region of the phase plane. Crucially, we show that in the presence of ribosome recycling, mRNAs can exhibit a peak in protein production at low values of the initiation rate, beyond which translation rate decreases. This has important implications for translation of certain mRNAs, suggesting that there is an optimal concentration of ribosomes at which protein synthesis is maximal, and beyond which translational efficiency is impaired. PMID:25008084

  17. The SILVA ribosomal RNA gene database project: improved data processing and web-based tools

    PubMed Central

    Quast, Christian; Pruesse, Elmar; Yilmaz, Pelin; Gerken, Jan; Schweer, Timmy; Yarza, Pablo; Peplies, Jörg; Glöckner, Frank Oliver

    2013-01-01

    SILVA (from Latin silva, forest, http://www.arb-silva.de) is a comprehensive web resource for up to date, quality-controlled databases of aligned ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequences from the Bacteria, Archaea and Eukaryota domains and supplementary online services. The referred database release 111 (July 2012) contains 3 194 778 small subunit and 288 717 large subunit rRNA gene sequences. Since the initial description of the project, substantial new features have been introduced, including advanced quality control procedures, an improved rRNA gene aligner, online tools for probe and primer evaluation and optimized browsing, searching and downloading on the website. Furthermore, the extensively curated SILVA taxonomy and the new non-redundant SILVA datasets provide an ideal reference for high-throughput classification of data from next-generation sequencing approaches. PMID:23193283

  18. Molecular characterization and phylogenetic relationships among microsporidian isolates infecting silkworm, Bombyx mori using small subunit rRNA (SSU-rRNA) gene sequence analysis.

    PubMed

    Nath, B Surendra; Gupta, S K; Bajpai, A K

    2012-12-01

    The life cycle, spore morphology, pathogenicity, tissue specificity, mode of transmission and small subunit rRNA (SSU-rRNA) gene sequence analysis of the five new microsporidian isolates viz., NIWB-11bp, NIWB-12n, NIWB-13md, NIWB-14b and NIWB-15mb identified from the silkworm, Bombyx mori have been studied along with type species, NIK-1s_mys. The life cycle of the microsporidians identified exhibited the sequential developmental cycles that are similar to the general developmental cycle of the genus, Nosema. The spores showed considerable variations in their shape, length and width. The pathogenicity observed was dose-dependent and differed from each of the microsporidian isolates; the NIWB-15mb was found to be more virulent than other isolates. All of the microsporidians were found to infect most of the tissues examined and showed gonadal infection and transovarial transmission in the infected silkworms. SSU-rRNA sequence based phylogenetic tree placed NIWB-14b, NIWB-12n and NIWB-11bp in a separate branch along with other Nosema species and Nosema bombycis; while NIWB-15mb and NIWB-13md together formed another cluster along with other Nosema species. NIK-1s_mys revealed a signature sequence similar to standard type species, N. bombycis, indicating that NIK-1s_mys is similar to N. bombycis. Based on phylogenetic relationships, branch length information based on genetic distance and nucleotide differences, we conclude that the microsporidian isolates identified are distinctly different from the other known species and belonging to the genus, Nosema. This SSU-rRNA gene sequence analysis method is found to be more useful approach in detecting different and closely related microsporidians of this economically important domestic insect. PMID:23129193

  19. The Conserved Lys-95 Charged Residue Cluster Is Critical for the Homodimerization and Enzyme Activity of Human Ribonucleotide Reductase Small Subunit M2*

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xinhuan; Xu, Zhijian; Zhang, Lingna; Liu, Hongchuan; Liu, Xia; Lou, Meng; Zhu, Lijun; Huang, Bingding; Yang, Cai-Guang; Zhu, Weiliang; Shao, Jimin

    2014-01-01

    Ribonucleotide reductase (RR) catalyzes the reduction of ribonucleotides to deoxyribonucleotides for DNA synthesis. Human RR small subunit M2 exists in a homodimer form. However, the importance of the dimer form to the enzyme and the related mechanism remain unclear. In this study, we tried to identify the interfacial residues that may mediate the assembly of M2 homodimer by computational alanine scanning based on the x-ray crystal structure. Co-immunoprecipitation, size exclusion chromatography, and RR activity assays showed that the K95E mutation in M2 resulted in dimer disassembly and enzyme activity inhibition. In comparison, the charge-exchanging double mutation of K95E and E98K recovered the dimerization and activity. Structural comparisons suggested that a conserved cluster of charged residues, including Lys-95, Glu-98, Glu-105, and Glu-174, at the interface may function as an ionic lock for M2 homodimer. Although the measurements of the radical and iron contents showed that the monomer (the K95E mutant) was capable of generating the diiron and tyrosyl radical cofactor, co-immunoprecipitation and competitive enzyme inhibition assays indicated that the disassembly of M2 dimer reduced its interaction with the large subunit M1. In addition, the immunofluorescent and fusion protein-fluorescent imaging analyses showed that the dissociation of M2 dimer altered its subcellular localization. Finally, the transfection of the wild-type M2 but not the K95E mutant rescued the G1/S phase cell cycle arrest and cell growth inhibition caused by the siRNA knockdown of M2. Thus, the conserved Lys-95 charged residue cluster is critical for human RR M2 homodimerization, which is indispensable to constitute an active holoenzyme and function in cells. PMID:24253041

  20. Small subunit of a cold-resistant plant, Timothy, does not significantly alter the catalytic properties of Rubisco in transgenic rice.

    PubMed

    Fukayama, Hiroshi; Koga, Atsushi; Hatanaka, Tomoko; Misoo, Shuji

    2015-04-01

    Effects of overexpression of high activity-type Rubisco small subunit (RbcS) from a cold-resistant plant, timothy (Phleum pratense), on kinetic properties of Rubisco were studied in rice (Oryza sativa). The full-length mRNA sequence of timothy RbcS (PpRbcS1) was determined by 5'RACE and 3'RACE. The coding sequence of PpRbcS1 was fused to the chlorophyll a/b-binding protein promoter and introduced into rice. PpRbcS was highly expressed in leaf blade and accounted for approximately 30 % of total RbcS in homozygous transgenic lines. However, the catalytic turnover rate and K m for CO2 of Rubisco did not significantly change in these transgenic lines compared to non-transgenic rice, suggesting that PpRbcS1 is not effective for improvement of catalytic efficiency of rice Rubisco. The photosynthetic rate and growth were essentially unchanged, whereas the photosynthetic rate at low CO2 condition was marginally increased in transgenic lines. Rubisco content was significantly increased, whereas soluble protein, nitrogen, and chlorophyll contents were unchanged in transgenic lines compared to non-transgenic rice. Because the kinetic properties were similar, observed slight increase in photosynthetic rate at low CO2 is considered to be large due to increase in Rubisco content in transgenic lines. Introduction of foreign RbcS is an effective approach for the improvement of Rubisco kinetics and photosynthesis. However, in this study, it was suggested that RbcS of high activity-type Rubisco, even showing higher amino acid identity with rice RbcS, did not always enhance the catalytic turnover rate of Rubisco in rice. Thus, we should carefully select RbcS to be overexpressed before introduction. PMID:25595546

  1. Evaluation of phylogenetic relationships in Lemnaceae using nuclear ribosomal data.

    PubMed

    Tippery, N P; Les, D H; Crawford, D J

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear DNA sequence data are essential for obtaining a complete understanding of plant species relationships, yet these data have been conspicuously absent from phylogenetic analyses of Lemnaceae (duckweeds). Using a modified Sanger sequencing protocol, we obtained DNA sequences of duckweed nuclear ribosomal regions, including 18S and 26S rDNA genes, the external transcribed spacer (ETS) and the frequently used internal transcribed spacer (ITS). After obtaining sequence data for all Lemnaceae species, we ascertained that prior difficulty in sequencing the ITS regions likely resulted from extremely rigid secondary structures, precipitated by a high proportion of G/C nucleotides. In phylogenetic analyses, nuclear ribosomal data largely supported relationships that had been inferred using chloroplast DNA sequence data. PMID:24942778

  2. Complete nuclear ribosomal DNA sequence amplification and molecular analyses of Bangia (Bangiales, Rhodophyta) from China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jiajie; Jiang, Bo; Chai, Sanming; He, Yuan; Zhu, Jianyi; Shen, Zonggen; Shen, Songdong

    2016-01-01

    Filamentous Bangia, which are distributed extensively throughout the world, have simple and similar morphological characteristics. Scientists can classify these organisms using molecular markers in combination with morphology. We successfully sequenced the complete nuclear ribosomal DNA, approximately 13 kb in length, from a marine Bangia population. We further analyzed the small subunit ribosomal DNA gene (nrSSU) and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequence regions along with nine other marine, and two freshwater Bangia samples from China. Pairwise distances of the nrSSU and 5.8S ribosomal DNA gene sequences show the marine samples grouping together with low divergences (00.003; 0-0.006, respectively) from each other, but high divergences (0.123-0.126; 0.198, respectively) from freshwater samples. An exception is the marine sample collected from Weihai, which shows high divergence from both other marine samples (0.063-0.065; 0.129, respectively) and the freshwater samples (0.097; 0.120, respectively). A maximum likelihood phylogenetic tree based on a combined SSU-ITS dataset with maximum likelihood method shows the samples divided into three clades, with the two marine sample clades containing Bangia spp. from North America, Europe, Asia, and Australia; and one freshwater clade, containing Bangia atropurpurea from North America and China.

  3. Complete nuclear ribosomal DNA sequence amplification and molecular analyses of Bangia (Bangiales, Rhodophyta) from China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jiajie; Jiang, Bo; Chai, Sanming; He, Yuan; Zhu, Jianyi; Shen, Zonggen; Shen, Songdong

    2016-09-01

    Filamentous Bangia, which are distributed extensively throughout the world, have simple and similar morphological characteristics. Scientists can classify these organisms using molecular markers in combination with morphology. We successfully sequenced the complete nuclear ribosomal DNA, approximately 13 kb in length, from a marine Bangia population. We further analyzed the small subunit ribosomal DNA gene (nrSSU) and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequence regions along with nine other marine, and two freshwater Bangia samples from China. Pairwise distances of the nrSSU and 5.8S ribosomal DNA gene sequences show the marine samples grouping together with low divergences (00.003; 0-0.006, respectively) from each other, but high divergences (0.123-0.126; 0.198, respectively) from freshwater samples. An exception is the marine sample collected from Weihai, which shows high divergence from both other marine samples (0.063-0.065; 0.129, respectively) and the freshwater samples (0.097; 0.120, respectively). A maximum likelihood phylogenetic tree based on a combined SSU-ITS dataset with maximum likelihood method shows the samples divided into three clades, with the two marine sample clades containing Bangia spp. from North America, Europe, Asia, and Australia; and one freshwater clade, containing Bangia atropurpurea from North America and China.

  4. Accommodation of tmRNA-SmpB into stalled ribosomes: a cryo-EM study.

    PubMed

    Weis, Felix; Bron, Patrick; Rolland, Jean-Paul; Thomas, Daniel; Felden, Brice; Gillet, Reynald

    2010-02-01

    In eubacteria, translation of defective messenger RNAs (mRNAs) produces truncated polypeptides that stall on the ribosome. A quality control mechanism referred to as trans-translation is performed by transfer-messenger RNA (tmRNA), a specialized RNA acting as both a tRNA and an mRNA, associated with small protein B (SmpB). So far, a clear view of the structural movements of both the protein and RNA necessary to perform accommodation is still lacking. By using a construct containing the tRNA-like domain as well as the extended helix H2 of tmRNA, we present a cryo-electron microscopy study of the process of accommodation. The structure suggests how tmRNA and SmpB move into the ribosome decoding site after the release of EF-Tu.GDP. While two SmpB molecules are bound per ribosome in a preaccommodated state, our results show that during accommodation the SmpB protein interacting with the small subunit decoding site stays in place while the one interacting with the large subunit moves away. Relative to canonical translation, an additional movement is observed due to the rotation of H2. This suggests that the larger movement required to resume translation on a tmRNA internal open reading frame starts during accommodation. PMID:20038631

  5. The Fragmented Mitochondrial Ribosomal RNAs of Plasmodium falciparum

    PubMed Central

    Feagin, Jean E.; Harrell, Maria Isabel; Lee, Jung C.; Coe, Kevin J.; Sands, Bryan H.; Cannone, Jamie J.; Tami, Germaine; Schnare, Murray N.; Gutell, Robin R.

    2012-01-01

    Background The mitochondrial genome in the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum is most unusual. Over half the genome is composed of the genes for three classic mitochondrial proteins: cytochrome oxidase subunits I and III and apocytochrome b. The remainder encodes numerous small RNAs, ranging in size from 23 to 190 nt. Previous analysis revealed that some of these transcripts have significant sequence identity with highly conserved regions of large and small subunit rRNAs, and can form the expected secondary structures. However, these rRNA fragments are not encoded in linear order; instead, they are intermixed with one another and the protein coding genes, and are coded on both strands of the genome. This unorthodox arrangement hindered the identification of transcripts corresponding to other regions of rRNA that are highly conserved and/or are known to participate directly in protein synthesis. Principal Findings The identification of 14 additional small mitochondrial transcripts from P. falcipaurm and the assignment of 27 small RNAs (12 SSU RNAs totaling 804 nt, 15 LSU RNAs totaling 1233 nt) to specific regions of rRNA are supported by multiple lines of evidence. The regions now represented are highly similar to those of the small but contiguous mitochondrial rRNAs of Caenorhabditis elegans. The P. falciparum rRNA fragments cluster on the interfaces of the two ribosomal subunits in the three-dimensional structure of the ribosome. Significance All of the rRNA fragments are now presumed to have been identified with experimental methods, and nearly all of these have been mapped onto the SSU and LSU rRNAs. Conversely, all regions of the rRNAs that are known to be directly associated with protein synthesis have been identified in the P. falciparum mitochondrial genome and RNA transcripts. The fragmentation of the rRNA in the P. falciparum mitochondrion is the most extreme example of any rRNA fragmentation discovered. PMID:22761677

  6. Cryo-EM structure of the tetracycline resistance protein TetM in complex with a translating ribosome at 3.9-Å resolution.

    PubMed

    Arenz, Stefan; Nguyen, Fabian; Beckmann, Roland; Wilson, Daniel N

    2015-04-28

    Ribosome protection proteins (RPPs) confer resistance to tetracycline by binding to the ribosome and chasing the drug from its binding site. Current models for RPP action are derived from 7.2- to 16-Å resolution structures of RPPs bound to vacant or nontranslating ribosomes. Here we present a cryo-electron microscopy reconstruction of the RPP TetM in complex with a translating ribosome at 3.9-Å resolution. The structure reveals the contacts of TetM with the ribosome, including interaction between the conserved and functionally critical C-terminal extension of TetM with a unique splayed conformation of nucleotides A1492 and A1493 at the decoding center of the small subunit. The resolution enables us to unambiguously model the side chains of the amino acid residues comprising loop III in domain IV of TetM, revealing that the tyrosine residues Y506 and Y507 are not responsible for drug-release as suggested previously but rather for intrafactor contacts that appear to stabilize the conformation of loop III. Instead, Pro509 at the tip of loop III is located directly within the tetracycline binding site where it interacts with nucleotide C1054 of the 16S rRNA, such that RPP action uses Pro509, rather than Y506/Y507, to directly dislodge and release tetracycline from the ribosome. PMID:25870267

  7. Nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region as a universal DNA barcode marker for Fungi.

    PubMed

    Schoch, Conrad L; Seifert, Keith A; Huhndorf, Sabine; Robert, Vincent; Spouge, John L; Levesque, C André; Chen, Wen

    2012-04-17

    Six DNA regions were evaluated as potential DNA barcodes for Fungi, the second largest kingdom of eukaryotic life, by a multinational, multilaboratory consortium. The region of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 used as the animal barcode was excluded as a potential marker, because it is difficult to amplify in fungi, often includes large introns, and can be insufficiently variable. Three subunits from the nuclear ribosomal RNA cistron were compared together with regions of three representative protein-coding genes (largest subunit of RNA polymerase II, second largest subunit of RNA polymerase II, and minichromosome maintenance protein). Although the protein-coding gene regions often had a higher percent of correct identification compared with ribosomal markers, low PCR amplification and sequencing success eliminated them as candidates for a universal fungal barcode. Among the regions of the ribosomal cistron, the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region has the highest probability of successful identification for the broadest range of fungi, with the most clearly defined barcode gap between inter- and intraspecific variation. The nuclear ribosomal large subunit, a popular phylogenetic marker in certain groups, had superior species resolution in some taxonomic groups, such as the early diverging lineages and the ascomycete yeasts, but was otherwise slightly inferior to the ITS. The nuclear ribosomal small subunit has poor species-level resolution in fungi. ITS will be formally proposed for adoption as the primary fungal barcode marker to the Consortium for the Barcode of Life, with the possibility that supplementary barcodes may be developed for particular narrowly circumscribed taxonomic groups. PMID:22454494

  8. Nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region as a universal DNA barcode marker for Fungi

    PubMed Central

    Schoch, Conrad L.; Seifert, Keith A.; Huhndorf, Sabine; Robert, Vincent; Spouge, John L.; Levesque, C. André; Chen, Wen; Bolchacova, Elena; Voigt, Kerstin; Crous, Pedro W.; Miller, Andrew N.; Wingfield, Michael J.; Aime, M. Catherine; An, Kwang-Deuk; Bai, Feng-Yan; Barreto, Robert W.; Begerow, Dominik; Bergeron, Marie-Josée; Blackwell, Meredith; Boekhout, Teun; Bogale, Mesfin; Boonyuen, Nattawut; Burgaz, Ana R.; Buyck, Bart; Cai, Lei; Cai, Qing; Cardinali, G.; Chaverri, Priscila; Coppins, Brian J.; Crespo, Ana; Cubas, Paloma; Cummings, Craig; Damm, Ulrike; de Beer, Z. Wilhelm; de Hoog, G. Sybren; Del-Prado, Ruth; Dentinger, Bryn; Diéguez-Uribeondo, Javier; Divakar, Pradeep K.; Douglas, Brian; Dueñas, Margarita; Duong, Tuan A.; Eberhardt, Ursula; Edwards, Joan E.; Elshahed, Mostafa S.; Fliegerova, Katerina; Furtado, Manohar; García, Miguel A.; Ge, Zai-Wei; Griffith, Gareth W.; Griffiths, K.; Groenewald, Johannes Z.; Groenewald, Marizeth; Grube, Martin; Gryzenhout, Marieka; Guo, Liang-Dong; Hagen, Ferry; Hambleton, Sarah; Hamelin, Richard C.; Hansen, Karen; Harrold, Paul; Heller, Gregory; Herrera, Cesar; Hirayama, Kazuyuki; Hirooka, Yuuri; Ho, Hsiao-Man; Hoffmann, Kerstin; Hofstetter, Valérie; Högnabba, Filip; Hollingsworth, Peter M.; Hong, Seung-Beom; Hosaka, Kentaro; Houbraken, Jos; Hughes, Karen; Huhtinen, Seppo; Hyde, Kevin D.; James, Timothy; Johnson, Eric M.; Johnson, Joan E.; Johnston, Peter R.; Jones, E.B. Gareth; Kelly, Laura J.; Kirk, Paul M.; Knapp, Dániel G.; Kõljalg, Urmas; Kovács, Gábor M.; Kurtzman, Cletus P.; Landvik, Sara; Leavitt, Steven D.; Liggenstoffer, Audra S.; Liimatainen, Kare; Lombard, Lorenzo; Luangsa-ard, J. Jennifer; Lumbsch, H. Thorsten; Maganti, Harinad; Maharachchikumbura, Sajeewa S. N.; Martin, María P.; May, Tom W.; McTaggart, Alistair R.; Methven, Andrew S.; Meyer, Wieland; Moncalvo, Jean-Marc; Mongkolsamrit, Suchada; Nagy, László G.; Nilsson, R. Henrik; Niskanen, Tuula; Nyilasi, Ildikó; Okada, Gen; Okane, Izumi; Olariaga, Ibai; Otte, Jürgen; Papp, Tamás; Park, Duckchul; Petkovits, Tamás; Pino-Bodas, Raquel; Quaedvlieg, William; Raja, Huzefa A.; Redecker, Dirk; Rintoul, Tara L.; Ruibal, Constantino; Sarmiento-Ramírez, Jullie M.; Schmitt, Imke; Schüßler, Arthur; Shearer, Carol; Sotome, Kozue; Stefani, Franck O.P.; Stenroos, Soili; Stielow, Benjamin; Stockinger, Herbert; Suetrong, Satinee; Suh, Sung-Oui; Sung, Gi-Ho; Suzuki, Motofumi; Tanaka, Kazuaki; Tedersoo, Leho; Telleria, M. Teresa; Tretter, Eric; Untereiner, Wendy A.; Urbina, Hector; Vágvölgyi, Csaba; Vialle, Agathe; Vu, Thuy Duong; Walther, Grit; Wang, Qi-Ming; Wang, Yan; Weir, Bevan S.; Weiß, Michael; White, Merlin M.; Xu, Jianping; Yahr, Rebecca; Yang, Zhu L.; Yurkov, Andrey; Zamora, Juan-Carlos; Zhang, Ning; Zhuang, Wen-Ying; Schindel, David

    2012-01-01

    Six DNA regions were evaluated as potential DNA barcodes for Fungi, the second largest kingdom of eukaryotic life, by a multinational, multilaboratory consortium. The region of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 used as the animal barcode was excluded as a potential marker, because it is difficult to amplify in fungi, often includes large introns, and can be insufficiently variable. Three subunits from the nuclear ribosomal RNA cistron were compared together with regions of three representative protein-coding genes (largest subunit of RNA polymerase II, second largest subunit of RNA polymerase II, and minichromosome maintenance protein). Although the protein-coding gene regions often had a higher percent of correct identification compared with ribosomal markers, low PCR amplification and sequencing success eliminated them as candidates for a universal fungal barcode. Among the regions of the ribosomal cistron, the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region has the highest probability of successful identification for the broadest range of fungi, with the most clearly defined barcode gap between inter- and intraspecific variation. The nuclear ribosomal large subunit, a popular phylogenetic marker in certain groups, had superior species resolution in some taxonomic groups, such as the early diverging lineages and the ascomycete yeasts, but was otherwise slightly inferior to the ITS. The nuclear ribosomal small subunit has poor species-level resolution in fungi. ITS will be formally proposed for adoption as the primary fungal barcode marker to the Consortium for the Barcode of Life, with the possibility that supplementary barcodes may be developed for particular narrowly circumscribed taxonomic groups. PMID:22454494

  9. Ribosomes in a Stacked Array

    PubMed Central

    Yamashita, Yui; Kadokura, Yoshitomo; Sotta, Naoyuki; Fujiwara, Toru; Takigawa, Ichigaku; Satake, Akiko; Onouchi, Hitoshi; Naito, Satoshi

    2014-01-01

    Expression of CGS1, which codes for an enzyme of methionine biosynthesis, is feedback-regulated by mRNA degradation in response to S-adenosyl-l-methionine (AdoMet). In vitro studies revealed that AdoMet induces translation arrest at Ser-94, upon which several ribosomes stack behind the arrested one, and mRNA degradation occurs at multiple sites that presumably correspond to individual ribosomes in a stacked array. Despite the significant contribution of stacked ribosomes to inducing mRNA degradation, little is known about the ribosomes in the stacked array. Here, we assigned the peptidyl-tRNA species of the stacked second and third ribosomes to their respective codons and showed that they are arranged at nine-codon intervals behind the Ser-94 codon, indicating tight stacking. Puromycin reacts with peptidyl-tRNA in the P-site, releasing the nascent peptide as peptidyl-puromycin. This reaction is used to monitor the activity of the peptidyltransferase center (PTC) in arrested ribosomes. Puromycin reaction of peptidyl-tRNA on the AdoMet-arrested ribosome, which is stalled at the pre-translocation step, was slow. This limited reactivity can be attributed to the peptidyl-tRNA occupying the A-site at this step rather than to suppression of PTC activity. In contrast, puromycin reactions of peptidyl-tRNA with the stacked second and third ribosomes were slow but were not as slow as pre-translocation step ribosomes. We propose that the anticodon end of peptidyl-tRNA resides in the A-site of the stacked ribosomes and that the stacked ribosomes are stalled at an early step of translocation, possibly at the P/E hybrid state. PMID:24652291

  10. Exploring Ribosome Positioning on Translating Transcripts with Ribosome Profiling.

    PubMed

    Spealman, Pieter; Wang, Hao; May, Gemma; Kingsford, Carl; McManus, C Joel

    2016-01-01

    Recent technological advances (e.g., microarrays and massively parallel sequencing) have facilitated genome-wide measurement of many aspects of gene regulation. Ribosome profiling is a high-throughput sequencing method used to measure gene expression at the level of translation. This is accomplished by quantifying both the number of translating ribosomes and their locations on mRNA transcripts. The inventors of this approach have published several methods papers detailing its implementation and addressing the basics of ribosome profiling data analysis. Here we describe our lab's procedure, which differs in some respects from those published previously. In addition, we describe a data analysis pipeline, Ribomap, for ribosome profiling data. Ribomap allocates sequence reads to alternative mRNA isoforms, normalizes sequencing bias along transcripts using RNA-seq data, and outputs count vectors of per-codon ribosome occupancy for each transcript. PMID:26463378