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1

[Astrologic and medical manuscript of the 18th Century].  

PubMed

We present a manuscript from the 18th century, an extract taken from the "Great and the Little Albert" attributed to Albertus Magnus. The linguistic variety in the paper is typical for a text composed in Luxembourg. Added to this text are two incantations and a short cartomancy paper. PMID:20882751

Kugener, Henri

2010-01-01

2

Early Portuguese meteorological measurements (18th century)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Natural proxies, documentary evidence and instrumental data are the only sources used to reconstruct past climates. In this paper, we present the 18th century meteorologists (either Portuguese or foreigners) who made the first observations at several sites in Continental Portugal, Madeira Island and Rio de Janeiro (Brazil), from 1749 until 1802. Information is given concerning observation site, variables observed, measurement period, methods of measurements and sources (both manuscript and printed). Some examples from the data usefulness are given: rainfall variability in Madeira (1749-1753) and in continental Portugal (1781-1793) was reconstructed, allowing to extend towards the late 18th century the well known negative correlation between the NAO index and seasonal rainfall. Furthermore, previously unpublished data for 1783-1784 have allowed analysing the consequences of the Lakagígar eruption in Portugal: foggy and haze days are referred to in summer 1783, but unlike the hot summer observed in northern and central Europe, temperatures in Portugal were lower than average. Additionally, observations from Rio de Janeiro in Brazil show that the Lakagígar consequences may well have spread to sectors of the Southern Hemisphere. Although the series are short, the data have been used for climate reconstruction studies and may also be useful to improve the quality of large scale reconstruction datasets.

Alcoforado, M. J.; Vaquero, J. M.; Trigo, R. M.; Taborda, J. P.

2012-02-01

3

Mingantu, 18th-Century Mongol Astronomer and Radioheliograph Namesake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 18th-century Mongol astronomer Mingantu (1692-1765) has been honored with a city named after him and a nearby solar telescope array. During the IAU/Beijing, my wife and I went to the new Chinese solar radioheliograph, the Mingantu Observing Station, in Inner Mongolia, ~400 km northwest of Beijing, a project of the National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences. It currently contains 40 dishes each 4.5 m across, with a correlator from Beijing. Within a year, 60 2-m dishes will be added. We passed by the 12-century ruins of Xanadu (about 20 km north of Zhangbei) about halfway. The radioheliograph is in a plane about 1 km across, forming a three-armed spiral for interferometric solar mapping, something colleagues and I had carried out with the Jansky Very Large Array, taking advantage of the lunar occultation before annularity at the 20 May 2012 solar eclipse. In the central square of Mingantu city, a statue ~10-m high of the Mongol astronomer Mingantu appears. Its base bears a plaque ~1-m high of IAU Minor Planet Circular MPC 45750 announcing the naming in 2002 of asteroid 28242 Mingantu, discovered at a Chinese observatory in 1999. Mingantu carried out orbital calculations, mapping, mathematical work on infinite series, and other scientific research. He is honored by a modern museum behind the statue. The museum's first 40% describes Mingantu and his work, and is followed by some artifacts of the region from thousands of years ago. The final, large room contains a two-meter-square scale model of the radioheliograph, flat-screen televisions running Solar Dynamics Observatory and other contemporary visualizations, orreries and other objects, and large transparencies of NASA and other astronomical imagery. See my post at http://www.skyandtelescope.com/community/skyblog/newsblog/ specfically Astro-Sightseeing_in_Inner_Mongolia-167712965.html. We thank Yihua Yan for arranging the visit and Wang Wei (both NAOC) for accompanying us. My solar research is supported by grant 1047726 from the Solar Research Program/Atmospheric and Geospace Sciences Division/NSF. I am also grateful for a NSF travel grant through AAS.

Pasachoff, Jay M.

2013-01-01

4

Adaptation to Climate Change: Evidence from 18th and 19th Century Iceland  

E-print Network

Adaptation to Climate Change: Evidence from 18th and 19th Century Iceland § Matthew A. Turner: We investigate the effect of climate change on population growth in 18th and 19th century Iceland. We Iceland: a year 1C cooler than average drives down pop- ulation growth rates by 0.57% in each of the next

Rosenthal, Jeffrey S.

5

[Public health of county Tolna in the 18th century].  

PubMed

The history of the plague in the 18th century Hungary had two main periods: for the first the defense, while for the second the prophylaxy was the characteristic. During the epidemics of the years 1708-1715 the losses caused by the illness were five times bigger, than those caused by the war of independence (1703-1711). When the Serbs, fighting on the side of the Hapsburgs, had overcome Hungarian troops, created a cordon militaire along the Danube on the borders of county Tolna, which proved to be so efficient, that plague could cross the river only as late as in 1709. At the time of the epidemics of the years 1739-1740 the cordon solitaire was already less effective, since people forced by hunger and fear crossed it several times, even by the help of the personnel responsible for it. The plague broke out in 1739 in the village Kajdács. The village however was so isolated, that the county got the first informations only one month later. The plague was spreading rapidly in the triangle made by rivers Sárviz and Kapos, inhabited mostly by German colonists. The surgeon-in-chief sent by the authorities to the place refused to do his duty. The majority of victims died in the bigger market towns: in Földvár 366, while in Paks 845 dead were registered. The county employed a plague-surgeon from Pest only when the plague had been already over. The county suffered severe losses: 3397 people-ca. 6.1 percent of its population has been lost. In the following period several county-physicians were employed and charged with special tasks. From 1734 county Fejér or Baranya and Tolna employed a common physician. The first physician in the county was called Queisar-he lived in Pécs. The county could employ a physician on its own, a certain Jakob Keller, only from 1769. Keller organized the work of surgeons and midwives according to the regulation of he Generale Normativum Sanitatis issued by the royal court. After grounding of the medical faculty in Buda and later in Pest (1769) surgeons had been thoroughly examined before they were allowed to be employed by a county. The first physicians merely living from their praxis, appeared in the county only in the 90th years of the century, exclusively at noblemen's courts. PMID:14628832

Károly, L

2000-01-01

6

John Stirling and the Classical Approach to Style in 18th Century England.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Most 18th-century rhetoricians viewed style as the expression of a writer's individual character and thought, placing little emphasis on the lists of figures common in many 17th-century rhetorics. John Stirling and others, however, continued the 17th-century tradition that reduced rhetoric largely to style and emphasized classical figures of…

Moran, Michael G.

7

The clocks and the perception of time in the 18th century society  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ownership of clocks and watches became widespread in 18th century society, particularly amongst the wealthy classes. They liked the decorative appearance, practical advantages, and social prestige which those objects conferred. The use of 'mechanized' time in the towns supplanted the age old reliance on time as dictated by nature and the Church. New temporal reference points gave the day

Catherine Cardinal

1992-01-01

8

Negative Numbers in the 18th and 19th Centuries: Phenomenology and Representations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents a categorization of the phenomena and representations used to introduce negative numbers in mathematics books published in Spain during the 18th and 19th centuries. Through a content analysis of fourteen texts which were selected for the study, we distinguished four phenomena typologies: physical, accounting, temporal and…

Maz-Machado, Alexander; Rico-Romero, Luis

2009-01-01

9

Visual Showcase: An Illustrative Data Graphic in an 18th Century Style  

E-print Network

it imitates the character of the writing used by a 18th century cartog- rapher. Similarly inspired imitating their style may entice people to spend more time engaging with the data. Our work arose as a lab, shapes, and writing had to be depicted accurately--only the inking tools were to exhibit slight noise due

Isenberg, Petra

10

Chemistry in colour: ceramics and glass in 18th-century Britain  

Microsoft Academic Search

For many 18th-century British manufacturers, chemistry offered a means to understand the materials and processes of their industry. The resulting knowledge would both improve industry and suggest new paths for its development. This connection between manufacturing and industry, although not as obvious in the production of colour for glassmaking, enamels and ceramics as it is elsewhere, was nevertheless of great

Sarah Lowengard

2002-01-01

11

Iatrogenic molar borings in 18th and early 19th century Native American dentitions.  

PubMed

Six iatrogenic dental borings were identified in four individuals of a Native American skeletal collection from an 18th and early 19th century Middle Columbia River burial site. The borings, all in maxillary first molars with severe dental attrition and secondary dentin, demonstrate striated walls and associated periapical alveolar lesions. An ethnographic review of the subsistence pattern during the burial period indicates a diet that is consistent in dental attrition with other riverine fisher-hunter-gathers. Histological changes of dental pulp tissue during the process of attrition may result in dental necrosis. Access into the pulp chamber is a technique used to drain necrotic fluid. A common Euro-American therapeutic dental practice of the 18th and 19th centuries for diseases of the pulp was dental extraction. Multiple dental borings indicate that the practice of molar drilling into the pulp chamber was an effective and independent technique used by the Wishram and Wasco people. PMID:15486962

Seidel, John C; Colten, Roger H; Thibodeau, Edward A; Aghajanian, John G

2005-05-01

12

To feel what others feel: two episodes from 18th century medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the late 18th century two medical fashions—Mesmerism in France and the Perkins ‘tractor’ in the USA and England—appealed to the principle that a single universal force acts on all of us and is responsible for health and illness. This principle served both fashions well, as it made it all the easier for those who came within their force fields

Stewart Justman

2011-01-01

13

Iatrogenic epidemics of puerperal fever in the 18th and 19th centuries.  

PubMed

The epidemics of puerperal fever in the 18th and 19th centuries began soon after the creation of Lying-in hospitals in the mid-18th century. The primary purpose of these hospitals was to provide physicians with training in obstetrics in general and in forceps deliveries in particular. The first reports describing epidemics of puerperal fever, its contagiousness and control were made by British physicians in the latter half of the 18th century. Alexander Gordon provided epidemiological evidence of contagion in 1792, and Oliver Wendell Holmes in the USA reviewed these reports in his paper on outbreaks of puerperal fever around Boston in 1843. Ignaz Semmelweis in Vienna, unaware of previous work on this disease, re-discovered the actions required to control the contagion in 1847, but published his paper much later in 1861. A few enlightened doctors struggled to prove that puerperal fever was contagious and could be spread by doctors and midwives. Their peers and colleagues predominantly displayed apathy and ignorance until forced to act by the weight of evidence. However, it was the multitude of parturient women who paid the ultimate price for these iatrogenic epidemics. PMID:8757690

Bridson, E Y

1996-06-01

14

Four candles. Original perspectives and insights into 18th century hospital child healthcare.  

PubMed

It has only recently been recognised that for more than a century before the opening of Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children (1852) children were treated and even admitted in English Voluntary Hospitals. Among the earliest English 18th century records, that contain the patient's age, are those found at the Northampton General Hospital within an archive dating from its foundation as the Northampton Infirmary in 1744. They afford a fascinating glimpse into both inpatient and outpatient child health. Although there are no medical notes as such, the hospital archive has recently rediscovered 1743 statutes, contemporary patient literature entitled Some Friendly Advice to a Patient (written by the Northampton Infirmary's founding physician Dr (later Sir) James Stonhouse), minute books, contemporary engravings of the outside and inside of the hospital and inpatient menus. Thus we can speculate with a high degree of certainty as to what would be the then current infirmary environment and treatments for illustrative examples of the children seen in the period 1744-45 (two inpatients and two outpatients). Interestingly one of the inpatient cases, Elizabeth Ager, a child with fever, was admitted against the infirmary regulations, suggesting already a stretching of boundaries in favour of paediatric admissions. This paper gives a flavour of 18th century hospital child healthcare in an era before the formal recognition of paediatrics as a medical specialty and preceding by more than a century the construction of specialist provision through the foundation of the first children's hospitals. PMID:17185447

Williams, A N

2007-01-01

15

PCR diagnostics of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in historic human long bone remains from 18th century burials in Kaiserebersdorf, Austria  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: In the present pilot study we applied recently published protocols for detecting Mycobacterium tuberculosis in human remains. We screened long bones from an 18th century cemetery and skulls from the anatomical \\

Lutz Bachmann; Barbara Däubl; Charlotte Lindqvist; Luise Kruckenhauser; Maria Teschler-Nicola; Elisabeth Haring

2008-01-01

16

Domenico Cirillo's collections. A recently rediscovered 18th-century Neapolitan herbarium.  

PubMed

The herbarium of the 19th-century Neapolitan botanists Vincenzo and Francesco Briganti was acquired by Orazio Comes in 1892 for the Royal Higher School of Agriculture in Naples. Based on a study of the handwriting on their labels, Comes concluded that some of the dried specimens were the sole remains of the herbarium of Domenico Cirillo, the distinguished 18th-century Neapolitan botanist, entomologist and physician. The current arrangement of the specimens not uniform and it is clear that they underwent extensive handling and rearrangement Some of the exsiccata are preserved in two packets, fixed on sheets bearing a printed label that reads "Herbarium D. Cyrilli". In an additional label Gaetano Nicodemi's handwriting and not Cirillo's as stated by Comes was identified. Other specimens, many of them mounted in a different manner from those in the first group, are arranged in another three packets. Certain characteristics of the herbarium may be explained by the vicissitudes of its history, including a hasty salvage operation. A study of the collection was conducted, including an analysis of the handwritten labels and notes, leading to conclusions that shed light on the significance of the Cirillo collection within the historical and scientific context of 18th-century Naples. PMID:25510076

Ricciardi, Massimo; Castellano, Maria Laura

2014-01-01

17

Six calendar systems in the European history from 18^{th} to 20^{th} Century  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The following calendar systems, introduced in Europe from 18^{th} to 20^{th} century, which were in use for a shorter or longer period by a larger or smaller community, were reviewed and discussed: The French Revolutionary Calendar, the Theosebic calendar invented by Theophilos Kairis, the Revolutionary Calendar of the Soviet Union (or 'Bolshevik calendar'), the Fascist calendar in Italy and the calendar of the Metaxas dictatorship in Greece before World War II. Also the unique of them, which is still in use, the New Rectified Julian calendar of the Orthodox Church, adopted according to proposition of Milutin Milankovi? on the Congress of Orthodox Churches in 1923 in Constantinople, is presented and discussed. At the end, difficulties to introduce a new calendar are discussed as well.

Theodossiou, Efstratios; Manimanis, Vassilios N.; Dimitrijevi?, Milan S.

18

The clocks and the perception of time in the 18th century society  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ownership of clocks and watches became widespread in 18th century society, particularly amongst the wealthy classes. They liked the decorative appearance, practical advantages, and social prestige which those objects conferred. The use of 'mechanized' time in the towns supplanted the age old reliance on time as dictated by nature and the Church. New temporal reference points gave the day its rhythm. Data from that era (correspondence, memoirs, newspapers, engravings, and paintings) make it possible to catch a glimpse of the influence of clocks on the perception of time. From the beginning of the 'mechanized time' era, efforts to improve the accuracy and the technical performance of mechanisms were made. The importance of such a precise time measurement in every day life is considered.

Cardinal, Catherine

19

To feel what others feel: two episodes from 18th century medicine.  

PubMed

In the late 18th century two medical fashions--Mesmerism in France and the Perkins 'tractor' in the USA and England--appealed to the principle that a single universal force acts on all of us and is responsible for health and illness. This principle served both fashions well, as it made it all the easier for those who came within their force fields to experience the sort of sensations that other subscribers to the fashion also seemed to feel. The first research on what is now known as the placebo effect was in connection with these two movements. The propensity to feel what we suppose or imagine that others like us feel remains even now one of the channels of the placebo effect. PMID:21515551

Justman, Stewart

2011-06-01

20

Isotopic Ag–Cu–Pb record of silver circulation through 16th–18th century Spain  

PubMed Central

Estimating global fluxes of precious metals is key to understanding early monetary systems. This work adds silver (Ag) to the metals (Pb and Cu) used so far to trace the provenance of coinage through variations in isotopic abundances. Silver, copper, and lead isotopes were measured in 91 coins from the East Mediterranean Antiquity and Roman world, medieval western Europe, 16th–18th century Spain, Mexico, and the Andes and show a great potential for provenance studies. Pre-1492 European silver can be distinguished from Mexican and Andean metal. European silver dominated Spanish coinage until Philip III, but had, 80 y later after the reign of Philip V, been flushed from the monetary mass and replaced by Mexican silver. PMID:21606351

Desaulty, Anne-Marie; Telouk, Philippe; Albalat, Emmanuelle; Albarède, Francis

2011-01-01

21

Head injuries in the 18th century: the management of the damaged brain.  

PubMed

The 18th century was the time when trauma neurosurgery began to develop into the modern discipline. Before this, the management had, for the most part, changed little from the days of Hippocrates, Celsus, and Galen. Attention was directed to skull injuries, and the brain was treated as the seat of the rational soul but without other function. Symptoms after trauma were attributed to injuries to the bone and meninges. Following the lead of the Royal Academy of Surgery in Paris, it was accepted from the 1730s that the brain was the seat of symptoms after cranial trauma. During the 18th century, at least 12 surgeons published articles on cranial injury, 6 describing significant clinical series on this topic. They were Henri-François Le Dran (1685-1770) of Paris, Percival Pott (1714-1788) of London, James Hill (1703-1776) from Dumfries, Sylvester O'Halloran (1728-1807) of Limerick (Ireland), William Dease (1750-1798) of Dublin, and John Abernethy (1764-1831) of London. This article analyzes these series. Each individual made a different contribution. It is suggested that the relatively lesser-known James Hill in Scotland demonstrated the greatest understanding of the management of brain trauma and achieved the best results. A product of the Scottish Enlightenment, he adapted his management to his own experience and was not tied to the accepted authorities of his day, but he improved the management of each case following his experience with previous patients. He deserves to be remembered. PMID:23615105

Ganz, Jeremy C

2013-07-01

22

Climate and history in the late 18th and early 19th centuries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As in many areas of human knowledge, the notion of climate acquired a deeper historical content around the turn of the 19th century. Natural philosophers, geographers, and others became increasingly aware of climate's own history and its relation to human, plant and animal, and Earth history. This article examines several aspects of this “historicization” of climate.The lively 18th century discussion of the influence of climate on society is well known. Montesquieu is its most famous representative, but Voltaire, Hume, Kant, and others also participated. Their debate was literary more than scientific, their goal the understanding of man, not climate. Partly for this reason and partly because of the lack of good information on climates, they made no attempt to gather substantial climatic data. In fact, the importance of systematically collecting reliable data was scarcely understood in any area of natural philosophy before the last decades of the century [Cf. Frängsmyr et al., 1990; Feldman, 1990]. Instead, participants in the debate repeated commonplaces dating from Aristotle and Hippocrates and based their conclusions on unreliable reports from travelers. As Glacken wrote of Montesquieu, “his dishes are from old and well-tested recipes” [Glacken, 1967, chapter 12]. This is not to say that the debate over climatic influence was not significant—only that its significance lay more in the history of man than in the atmospheric sciences.

Feldman, Theodore S.

23

The Struggle To Survive: Work for Racial Ethnic Women in the 18th- and 19th-Century United States.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The work situations of Black, Mexican American, and Chinese immigrant women in 18th- and 19th-century United States are explored. Generally, when engaged in agricultural work, all ethnic people were considered units of labor. However, because the slave owner needed to perpetuate his property, Black women were allowed lower rates of production when…

Higginbotham, Elizabeth

24

The "System of Chymists" and the "Newtonian Dream" in Greek-Speaking Communities in the 17th-18th Centuries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The acceptance of new chemical ideas, before the Chemical Revolution of Lavoisier, in Greek-speaking communities in the 17th and 18th centuries did not create a discourse of chemical philosophy, as it did in Europe, but rather a "philosophy" of chemistry as it was formed through the evolution of didactic traditions of Chemistry. This…

Bokaris, Efthymios P.; Koutalis, Vangelis

2008-01-01

25

Hydro-meteorological extreme events in the 18th century in Portugal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present work is carried out in the frame of the KLIMHIST PROJECT ("Reconstruction and model simulations of past climate in Portugal using documentary and early instrumental sources, 17th-19th century)", and is devoted to the study of hydro-meteorological extreme events during the last 350 years, in order to understand how they have changed in time and compare them with current analogues. More specifically, the results selected to this presentation will focus on some hydro-meteorological extreme events of the 18th century, like severe droughts, heavy precipitation episodes and windstorms. One of the most noteworthy events was the winterstorm Bárbara (3rd to 6th December 1739), already studied in prior investigations (Taborda et al, 2004; Pfister et al, 2010), a devastating storm with strong impacts in Portugal caused by violent winds and heavy rainfall. Several other extreme events were detected by searching different documentary archives, including individual, administrative and ecclesiastic sources. Moreover, a more detailed insight to the 1783-1787 period will be made with regard the Lisbon region, taking into consideration the availability of information for daily meteorological observations as well as documentary evidences, like descriptions from Gazeta de Lisboa, the periodic with more continuous publication in the 18thcentury. Key-words: Instrumental data, Documentary data, Extreme events, Klimhist Project, Portugal References Pfister, C., Garnier, E., Alcoforado, M.J., Wheeler, D. Luterbacher, J. Nunes, M.F., Taborda, J.P. (2010) The meteorological framework and the cultural memory of three severe winter-storms in early eighteenth-century Europe, Climatic Change, 101, 1-2, 281-310 Taborda, JP; Alcoforado, MJ and Garcia, JC (2004) O Clima do Sul de Portugal no Séc.XVIII, Centro de Estudos Geográficos, Área de de Investigação de Geo-Ecologia, relatório no 2

Fragoso, Marcelo; João Alcoforado, Maria; Taborda, João Paulo

2013-04-01

26

Analysis of Time Data in Chinese Astronomical Almanacs of the Late 18th Century  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigated the time data in Chinese astronomical almanacs of the late 18th century in order to estimate the accuracy of the Shixian calendar. It is known that the calendar was enforced during the period of the Ching dynasty (1664--1912), and several astronomical almanacs using the calendar are preserved in the Kyujanggak Institute for Korean Studies of Korea; these almanacs cover the years 1772, 1773, 1774, 1780, 1781, 1783, 1785, and 1787. We compiled the times of the new moon, sunrise/sunset, and twenty-four seasonal subdivisions from the almanacs and compared them with the results of modern calculations. As a result, we found that the times of the new moon and twenty-four seasonal subdivisions show average differences of ˜ 3.35 ± 4.43 and ˜ 9.67± 13.24 min, respectively. Regarding he sunrise/sunset time, however, we found that the difference was less than 1 min when we defined the time as the moment that the zenith distance (z) of the Sun is 90°, unlike the modern definition, z=90° 50'. We expect that this study to contribute to the understanding of the accuracy obtained by Shixian calendar in calculations of the movements of celestial bodies.

Lee, K.-W.; Mihn, B.-H.; Ahn, Y. S.; Choi, G.-E.

2012-09-01

27

A comparison of large 18th-century floods on Danube: Vienna - Bratislava - Budapest  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The documentation of historic floods can help in better understanding of factors that might cause and contribute to large and extreme flood events. In particular, the analysis of historic floods provides information about flood seasonality, its changes and anthropogenic impacts on river flood regime which in some cases strongly influenced flood behaviour. The main objective of the present contribution is to document large and medium size flood events on Danube in Vienna, Bratislava and Budapest in the 18th century. In the present study, based on contemporary documentary evidence, for each of the three towns a five-scaled flood index series is developed to describe the magnitude and intensity of flood events. According to this classification, the 100-year flood event was characterised by the index value 5, while great destructive floods - depending on their extension, destructivity and further impacts - received the values 4 and 3, respectively. Less significant but still harmful flood events were classified as No. 2, and floods without further specification remained in the lowest category (No. 1). Beside classification issues, seasonality and flood frequency differences between the three towns are as well discussed. The results indicate that a greater number of flood events took place in the last decades of the century, but only a few flood events of the same magnitude are documented simultaneously in all three towns. And whereas in 1775 no winter flood event was reported in Vienna, an important ice jam flood was documented in Bratislava, and a catastrophic ice jam flood event, greatest of the century, occurred in Budapest. In 1787 autumn the greatest flood event of the century occurred in Vienna, while hardly any flood waves were observed at Budapest. While in Vienna, summer (and partly autumn) floods had great importance, in Budapest a large number of ice jam floods were documented. In some cases the differences are likely caused by different hydrometeorological and morphological conditions, but the importance of human impact (e.g. different types and levels of flood protection in the towns, large-scale changes of land use in the catchment area) have to be as well emphasised.

Kiss, Andrea; Parajka, Juraj

2013-04-01

28

Comparing ground-penetrating radar (GPR) techniques in 18th-century yard spaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Yards surrounding historical homesteads are the liminal space between private houses and public space, and contain artifactural and structural remains that help us understand how the residents interfaced with the world. Comparing different yards means collecting reliable evidence, and what is missing is just as important as what is found. Excavations can rely on randomly placed 50-cm shovel test pits to locate features, but this can miss important features. Shallow geophysics, in particular ground-penetrating radar (GPR), can be used to identify features and reliably and efficiently collect evidence. GPR is becoming more integrated into archaeological investigations due to the potential to quickly and nondestructively identify archaeological features and to recent advancements in processing software that make these methods more user-friendly. The most efficacious GPR surveys must take into consideration what is expected to be below the surface, what features look like in GPR outputs, the best methods for detecting features, and the limitations of GPR surveys. Man-made landscape features are expected to have existed within yard spaces, and the alteration of these features shows how the domestic economy of the residence changed through time. This study creates an inventory of these features. By producing a standardized sampling method for GPR in yard spaces, archaeologists can quickly map subsurface features and carry out broad comparisons between yards. To determine the most effective sampling method, several GPR surveys were conducted at the 18th-century Durant-Kenrick House in Newton, Massachusetts, using varied line spacing, line direction, and bin size. Examples of the GPR signatures of features, obtained using GPR-Slice software, from the Durant-Kenrick House and similar sites were analyzed. The efficacy of each method was determined based on the number of features distinguished, clarity of the results, and the time involved. The survey at Newton showed that ground surface conditions are extremely important when using GPR. Furthermore, GPR and archaeological excavations together provide the most complete interpretation because GPR has the ability to detect large-scale features that might be missed with test units, while excavation provides more detailed information, finds small-scale objects, and can be used to test false negatives seen in GPR surveys.

Carducci, Christiane M.

29

Anthropometric comparison of portraits of Korean and Japanese beauty in the late 18th and early 19th centuries.  

PubMed

The aim of this study is to elaborate comparative portraits of Korean and Japanese beauty in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. Six portraits of beauty in the Korean Joseon Dynasty (early 19th century) and 5 in Japanese Edo Dynasty (late 18th century) were analyzed. Twenty anthropometric items were applied to the measure of the features on each portrait and 18 proportional indices of the face were calculated. Among the 18 indices, Korean and Japanese beauty did not show any significant differences in 13, but in 5: 1) the ratio of eye fissure to intercanthal distance was greater in Japanese beauty; 2) eye inclination was greater in Japanese beauty; 3) the ratio of nasal width to intercanthal distance was greater in Japanese beauty; 4) the ratio of nasal and facial width was greater in Korean beauty; and 5) the ratio of vermilion size to mouth width was greater in Japanese beauty. It is assumed that Korean had narrower eye fissure, lower eye inclination, wider nasal ala, and thinner lip than what Japanese craved during that era. PMID:16192857

Hwang, Kun; Hwang, Se Ho

2005-09-01

30

Venetian Rule and Control of Plague Epidemics on the Ionian Islands during 17th and 18th Centuries  

PubMed Central

During the 17th and 18th centuries, measures were taken by the Venetian administration to combat plague on the Ionian Islands. At that time, although the scientific basis of plague was unknown, the Venetians recognized its infectious nature and successfully decreased its spread by implementing an information network. Additionally, by activating a system of inspection that involved establishing garrisons along the coasts, the Venetians were able to control all local movements in plague-infested areas, which were immediately isolated. In contrast, the neighboring coast of mainland Greece, which was under Ottoman rule, was a plague-endemic area during the same period. We conclude that even in the absence of scientific knowledge, close observation and social and political measures can effectively restrain infectious outbreaks to the point of disappearance. PMID:19116047

Konstantinidou, Katerina; Mantadakis, Elpis; Sardi, Thalia; Samonis, George

2009-01-01

31

[History of leprosy in Reunion Island from the beginning of the 18th century until today].  

PubMed

This article traces the history of leprosy in Reunion from the early eighteenth century, which long paralleled the slave trace. Lepers were confined to a lazaretto and treated with herbs. Father Raimbault, "doctor" and chaplain of the lepers in the middle of the twentieth century, is still honored today. The improvement in living standards and the use of sulfones finally resulted in the control of leprosy. Nonetheless, from 2005 to 2011, an average of three new cases per year were detected among a population of 800,000 inhabitants. PMID:24113552

Gaüzere, B A; Aubry, P

2013-01-01

32

Textbooks at the Crossroads: Scientific and Philosophical Textbooks in 18th Century Greek Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Greek society of the eighteenth century did not have the institutional or theoretical background for the development of an original interest in scientific pursuits. The contact with the new scientific ideas aimed basically at the assimilation of these ideas in the body of the existing contemplative philosophy and the context where such undertaking…

Patiniotis, Manolis

2006-01-01

33

Spectres of Multiplicity. 18th -Century Literature Revisited from the Outside in , in Christie  

E-print Network

DISCONTENTS From the age of Louis XIV to the Jacobin Revolution, the French eighteenth century is often-demonstrations of the Revolution. So while many French Enlighteners saw themselves living in (or on the verge of) an age of global McDonald & Susan Rubin Suleiman (ed.), French Global: A New Approach to French Literary History, New

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

34

Tax collection in Spain in the 18th century: the case of the “décima”  

Microsoft Academic Search

If we compare the Castilian fiscal system with English, French or Dutch, two basic differences are apparent: in one hand, in England, France and Holland the fiscal system was a mixture of indirect taxes and direct taxes and in the other hand, the financial revolution had been carried out in the 16th century in Castilia (central Spain), when for different

Nadia Fernández de Pinedo Echevarría

2009-01-01

35

Malthus, the 18th century European explorers and the principle of population in Africa  

PubMed Central

In the second edition of his Essay on the Principle of Population, Malthus included twelve chapters that offer a remarkable description of population dynamics from all corners of the world. His discussion of (sub-Saharan) Africa was almost entirely based on the travel accounts of James Bruce and Mungo Park, two late eighteenth century British explorers. In this essay, I introduce these sources and discuss the insights that Malthus did, or perhaps should have, derived from both. PMID:24259758

Reniers, Georges

2012-01-01

36

Forging an Iron Woman: Piracy's effects on gender roles and other social conditions in the 18th century Caribbean, particularly in the cases of Anne Bonny & Mary Read  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gender plays a poignant role in almost any historical narrative, particularly in the record of piracy and government sponsored privateering. The opportunity for women to embrace various social classes at will in the late 18th century came out of an environment in which ideas about politics, economics, and race continually shifted. Society was in chaos, and social mores, therefore, changed

Christine Hernandez

37

Textbooks at the Crossroads: Scientific and Philosophical Textbooks in 18th Century Greek Education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Greek society of the eighteenth century did not have the institutional or theoretical background for the development of an original interest in scientific pursuits. The contact with the new scientific ideas aimed basically at the assimilation of these ideas in the body of the existing contemplative philosophy and the context where such undertaking took place was exclusively education. At the same time, education was the field where the political and ideological pursuits of various social groups intersected. A quasi modernistic profile of the educational activity was especially favored by a new generation of scholars who wished to assert their distinctive intellectual physiognomy, as well as by the emergent group of merchants who strove to establish their distinctive cultural and political authority. As a result, the new interest in the sciences reflects the confluence of the aims of these two social groups. The study of scientific textbooks, which were produced under these circumstances, depicts the consequences of this confluence and brings to light some important aspects of the social and intellectual environment within which the contact of Greek intellectual life with modern sciences occurred.

Patiniotis, Manolis

2006-11-01

38

The construction of the country landscape in Veneto plains (North of Italy) during 18th-21st centuries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper focuses on the transformation that has taken place in the last four centuries in Veneto's plain in northern Italy. The analysis of statistical data over a long period of time has made it possible to chronologically reconstruct the gradual transformation of wetlands into arable land, suitable for human settlement and for the development of industrial activities. Particularly relevant are the policies adopted by the Republic of Venice (14th-18th centuries) with regard to the management of waters, policies which were continued by the Italian State after its unification in 1861. The evolution of the concept of land reclamation gradually came to include draining, hygienic, agrarian and environmental factors, paying attention to the specific character of both mountain and lagoon areas. Over many centuries new country areas were created, 2/5 of them located below sea level, which can be cultivated due to complex systems of canalization and water pumping. Both the State and landowners invested capital in a project that was not only meant to sustain private interest but that also met public needs. Since 1882 (when the Baccarini law was passed) the subject of the 'sanitary reclamation' began to be discussed in Italy. This concerned 1/16 of the total surface of the country, 400,000 hectares of which in Veneto, where malaria was directly or indirectly responsible for the death of thousands of people. New livelihoods substituted those of the past: some economies based, for instance, on the harvesting of the marshes' products or on the common use of marginal lands disappeared. The recent process of industrialization in Veneto, often carried out with little consideration for the environment, has eventually opened up a new chapter in the history of the countryside of this region, that of environmental and landscape enhancement.

Borin, Maurizio; Novello, Elisabetta

2013-04-01

39

Limited urban growth: London's street network dynamics since the 18th century.  

PubMed

We investigate the growth dynamics of Greater London defined by the administrative boundary of the Greater London Authority, based on the evolution of its street network during the last two centuries. This is done by employing a unique dataset, consisting of the planar graph representation of nine time slices of Greater London's road network spanning 224 years, from 1786 to 2010. Within this time-frame, we address the concept of the metropolitan area or city in physical terms, in that urban evolution reveals observable transitions in the distribution of relevant geometrical properties. Given that London has a hard boundary enforced by its long standing green belt, we show that its street network dynamics can be described as a fractal space-filling phenomena up to a capacitated limit, whence its growth can be predicted with a striking level of accuracy. This observation is confirmed by the analytical calculation of key topological properties of the planar graph, such as the topological growth of the network and its average connectivity. This study thus represents an example of a strong violation of Gibrat's law. In particular, we are able to show analytically how London evolves from a more loop-like structure, typical of planned cities, toward a more tree-like structure, typical of self-organized cities. These observations are relevant to the discourse on sustainable urban planning with respect to the control of urban sprawl in many large cities which have developed under the conditions of spatial constraints imposed by green belts and hard urban boundaries. PMID:23950895

Masucci, A Paolo; Stanilov, Kiril; Batty, Michael

2013-01-01

40

Limited Urban Growth: London's Street Network Dynamics since the 18th Century  

PubMed Central

We investigate the growth dynamics of Greater London defined by the administrative boundary of the Greater London Authority, based on the evolution of its street network during the last two centuries. This is done by employing a unique dataset, consisting of the planar graph representation of nine time slices of Greater London's road network spanning 224 years, from 1786 to 2010. Within this time-frame, we address the concept of the metropolitan area or city in physical terms, in that urban evolution reveals observable transitions in the distribution of relevant geometrical properties. Given that London has a hard boundary enforced by its long standing green belt, we show that its street network dynamics can be described as a fractal space-filling phenomena up to a capacitated limit, whence its growth can be predicted with a striking level of accuracy. This observation is confirmed by the analytical calculation of key topological properties of the planar graph, such as the topological growth of the network and its average connectivity. This study thus represents an example of a strong violation of Gibrat's law. In particular, we are able to show analytically how London evolves from a more loop-like structure, typical of planned cities, toward a more tree-like structure, typical of self-organized cities. These observations are relevant to the discourse on sustainable urban planning with respect to the control of urban sprawl in many large cities which have developed under the conditions of spatial constraints imposed by green belts and hard urban boundaries. PMID:23950895

Masucci, A. Paolo; Stanilov, Kiril; Batty, Michael

2013-01-01

41

The first Finnish malariologist, Johan Haartman, and the discussion about malaria in 18th century Turku, Finland  

PubMed Central

After the Great Northern War in 1721, Sweden ceased to be an important military power. Instead, the kingdom concentrated on developing science. Swedish research got international fame with names as Carolus Linnaeus, Pehr Wargentin and Anders Celsius. Medical research remained limited and malaria was common especially in the coastal area and along the shores of the big lakes. Already in the beginning of the 18th century Swedish physicians recommended Peruvian bark as medication and they also emphasized that bleeding or blood-letting a malaria patient was harmful. Although malaria was a common disease in the kingdom, the situation was worst in the SW-part of Finland which consisted of the town of Turku and a large archipelago in the Baltic. The farmers had no opportunity to get modern healthcare until Johan Haartman was appointed district physician in 1754. To improve the situation he wrote a medical handbook intended for both the farmers and for persons of rank. Haartman's work was first published 1759 and he discussed all the different cures and medications. His aim was to recommend the best ones and warn against the harmful. His first choice was Peruvian bark, but he knew that the farmers could not afford it. Haartman was appointed professor in medicine at the Royal Academy of Turku in 1765. The malaria situation in Finland grew worse in the 1770's and Haartman analysed the situation. He found the connection between the warm summers and the spring epidemics next year. In a later thesis, Haartman analysed the late summer/early autumn malaria epidemics in the archipelago. Althouh Haartman did not know the connection between malaria and the vector, he gave astute advice and encouraged the farmers to build their cottages in windy places away from the shallow bays in which the Anopheles females hatched. Haartman died in 1788. After his death malaria research in Turku declined. His medical handbook would not be replaced until 1844. PMID:21324104

2011-01-01

42

[A good start for future reformation in rebus medicis". Georg Ernst Stahl's medical theory and piousness of the 18th century].  

PubMed

Historical research has generally claimed a close connection between Georg Ernst STAHL'S (1659-1734) medical theory and 18th century Pietism. STAHL himself has been often presented as a religious Pietist and as a follower of August Hermann FRANCKE (1663-1727). The present paper analyses the relationship between STAHL'S theory and the medical concepts of Pietist physicians. It is shown that (1.) the assertion, that STAHL'S theory was essentially influenced by religious Pietism, cannot be proved, and that (2.) Pietist physicians adopted, but also simplified and distorted STAHL'S medical theory. Furthermore it is shown, that STAHL kept himself aloof from the Halle Pietists and their institutions. PMID:21560512

Helm, Jürgen

2010-01-01

43

Plant phenological records in northern Finland since the 18th century as retrieved from databases, archives and diaries for biometeorological research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plant phenological data from northern Finland, compiled from several sources, were examined as potential biometeorological indicators of climate change since the 18th century. A common feature of individual series was their sporadic nature. In addition to waning enthusiasm, wartime hardships and crop failures had caused gaps in recording observations during the 18th and 19th centuries. The present study's challenge was to combine separate records, as retrieved from several historical archives and personal diaries, into a single continuous series. To avoid possible biases due to the variability of data availability each year, each phenomenon-specific mean series was transformed into normalized site-specific index series. These series were compared to each other and to a regional instrumental temperature series (years 1802-2011). The inter-phenomena correlations were high. Moreover, a strong biometeorological response of the phenological series, most especially to monthly mean temperature in May, and seasonally to the April through June temperatures, was identified. This response focused on slightly later spring months compared to the responses in an earlier study conducted for southern Finland. The findings encouraged us to compute a total phenological index series as an average of all available phenomenon-specific index series for northern Finland. The earliest phenological springs were found as a cluster in the recent end of the record, whereas the anomalously-late phenological spring could be found through the centuries. This finding could indicate that potential future warming could result in an earlier onset of phenological springs (i.e. as experienced by the plants), with a remaining possibility of late phenological springs. To conclude, it was shown that the indices are reliable biometeorological indicators of the April through June temperature variations and thus of the climate variability in the region.

Holopainen, Jari; Helama, Samuli; Lappalainen, Hanna; Gregow, Hilppa

2013-05-01

44

21H.433 The Age of Reason: Europe in the 18th and 19th Centuries, Spring 2002  

E-print Network

A study of the evolution of European society from the end of the seventeenth century to the outbreak of World War I. Its politics, the nature of its social system, the workings of its economy, and its intellectual ...

Ravel, Jeffrey S.

45

[The history of congenital malformations with special reference to conjoined twins. 1. From ancient times to the 18th century].  

PubMed

Congenital malformations are mentioned in Assyrian and Babylonian literature, and the opinions of Democritus, Empedocles and Aristotle regarding their origin persisted in modified form until the Middle Ages. Following the invention of printing, illustrations of congenital malformations began to appear on pamphlets. Although not always realistic, these illustrations provide a rich source of information regarding the spirit of those times. The first monographs containing collections and interpretations of malformations appeared in the 16th century. These were followed in the 17th century by increasingly realistic illustrations, and superstitious ideas regarding the causes of malformations, although still predominating, gradually started to recede. PMID:3322106

Schumacher, G H; Gill, H; Gill, H

1987-01-01

46

Acoustics of early music spaces from the 11th to 18th century: Rediscovery of the acoustical excellence of medium-sized rooms and new perspectives for modern concert hall design  

Microsoft Academic Search

The acoustical characteristics of 50 rooms that played a prominent role in the history of music between the 11th and 18th centuries were studied. The rooms include basilicas, oratorios, organ churches, and the great halls and courts of the European palaces. The research provides an understanding of the acoustical features that suit the early music repertoire, and how these rooms

Alban Bassuet

2001-01-01

47

"Diarium patris ministri", a Jesuit view of social structures at the break of 18th century in south-west Bohemian town of Klatovy.  

PubMed

The Jesuit college in the Czech town of Klatovy was founded in 1636 and canceled in 1773. It had its own grammar school and numerous contacts with local nobility and church dignitaries. The college was the most important house of a catholic order in the area and baroque festivities organised by the jesuits were visited (or it would be better to say taken part in) by a wide spectrum of members of the local society. The Jesuits concerned not only on careful arrangement of their ecclesiastical celebrations, but also on presence of the important guests. They recorded numbers of the guests who visited the college and their social status in the college manuscripts. The records were then used for an internal need of the order. Till the present day three manuscripts related to the college in Klatovy have been preserved. The most interesting records of the guests are in the diary of father "minister" of the college. The article focuses on a reconstruction of a not very conventional view of social structure in an average Czech town in the beginnig of 18th century. I'm trying to describe the social situation from the jesuit point of view using internal records of the order. PMID:20063670

Cerný, Karel

2009-01-01

48

The men of Nelson's navy: a comparative stable isotope dietary study of late 18th century and early 19th century servicemen from Royal Naval Hospital burial grounds at Plymouth and Gosport, England.  

PubMed

We present stable isotopic analyses of collagen from 80 servicemen excavated from the late 18th/early 19th century naval hospitals at Plymouth (50) and Haslar, Gosport (30) in southern England. Historical records suggest that, the diets of these two populations should be essentially identical. While ?(15) N of the rib collagen confirmed that naval servicemen were relatively well-catered for in terms of meat allowance (Plymouth average ?(15) N = 11.1‰, Gosport = 11.9‰), stable carbon isotope analysis produced average values for the two assemblages, which were significantly different (Plymouth average ?(13) C = -18.8‰, Gosport = -20.0‰). We postulate that these differences stem from divergent naval postings, with a greater proportion of Plymouth individuals serving in areas that entailed a greater input of C(4) foodstuffs. By comparison with published data from approximately contemporary burials at Snake Hill, Ontario, Canada and Chesapeake Bay, Virginia, we suggest that this area is the east coast of North America. For 15 of the 30 individuals from Gosport, we have data on ribs, femur, and dentine from the same skeleton, which appear to show that they came from a variety of locations in their preadolescence, but converged in dietary terms onto a "naval average," which is consistent with historical evidence for recruitment patterns into the Navy at the time. By comparison with published data from skeletons recovered from the wreck of the Mary Rose (sank 1545), we conclude that this naval diet was virtually unchanged from the 16th century to the end of the 18th century. PMID:22407735

Roberts, Patrick; Weston, Sam; Wild, Bastien; Boston, Ceridwen; Ditchfield, Peter; Shortland, Andrew J; Pollard, A Mark

2012-05-01

49

Human impacts of hydrometeorological extremes in the Bohemian-Moravian Highlands derived from documentary sources in the 18th-19th centuries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The extent of damage caused by hydrometeorological events or extremes (HME) has risen up in the entire world in the last few years. Especially the floods, flash floods, torrential rains and hailstorms are the most typical and one of the most frequent kind of natural disasters in the central Europe. Catastrophes are a part of human history and people were forced to cope with their consequences (e. g. material damage, economical losses, impacts on agriculture and society or losses of human lives). This paper analyses the human impacts of HME in the Bohemian-Moravian Highlands (central part of the Czech Republic) on the basis of documentary sources from the 18th-19th centuries. The paper presents various negative impacts of natural disasters on lives and property and subsequent inconveniences of Czech peasants. The preserved archival documents of estates or domains became the primary sources of data (e. g. taxation reliefs, damaged records, reports of afflicted farmers, administrative correspondence etc.). Particularly taxation reliefs relate to taxation system in the Czech lands during the 17th-19th centuries allowing to farmers to ask for tax alleviation when their crops were significantly damaged by any HME. These archival documents are a highly valuable source for the study of human impacts of natural disasters. Devastating consequences of these extremes affected individual farmers much more than the aristocracy. Floods caused inundations of farmer's fields, meadows, houses and farm buildings, washed away the arable land with crops, caused losses of cattle, clogged the land with gravel and mud and destroyed roads, bridges or agricultural equipment. Afflicted fields became worthless and it took them many years to become became fertile again. Crop was also damaged by hailstorms, droughts or late/early frosts. All these events led to lack of food and seeds in the following year and it meant the decrease of living standard, misery and poverty of farmers. Acquired results could give better insight of human impacts of HME in history and help to compare the negative consequences in the past and present.

Dolák, Lukáš; Brázdil, Rudolf; Valášek, Hubert

2014-05-01

50

Austrian-Hungarian Astronomical Observatories Run by the Society of Jesus at the Time of the 18th Century Venus Transits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Venus transit in June 1761 was the first one to be observed on a truly international scale: almost 250 astronomers followed this rare celestial event (e.g. Wulff 2012, p. 115), and at least 130 published successful observations of it (Aspaas 2012, p. 423). The present paper deals with the astronomical observatories built by the Society of Jesus in its eighteenth century "Provincia Austriae", at which the 1761 transit could be observed. Five Jesuit observatories are being presented in this context: three in today's Austria, namely, two in Vienna and one in Graz; one in Trnava in today's Slovakia and one in Cluj in today's Romania. Thereafter, we briefly examine which of these observatories submitted any Venus transit observations for publication in the appendix to Maximilian Hell's "Ephemerides astronomicae ad meridianum Vindobonensem" for the year 1762.

Posch, Thomas; Aspaas, Per Pippin; Bazso, Akos; Mueller, Isolde

2013-05-01

51

Girls' Secondary Education in the Western World: From the 18th to the 20th Century. Secondary Education in a Changing World  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This long-awaited synthesis approaches the past three centuries with an eye to highlighting the importance of significant schools, as well as important women educators in the emergence of secondary education for girls. At the same time, each contributor pays careful attention to the specific political, cultural, and socio-economic factors that…

Albisetti, James C.; Goodman, Joyce; Rogers, Rebecca

2010-01-01

52

The Role of Education Redefined: 18th Century British and French Educational Thought and the Rise of the Baconian Conception of the Study of Nature  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The idea that science teaching in schools should prepare the ground for society's future technical and scientific progress has played an important role in shaping modern education. This idea, however, was not always present. In this article, I examine how this idea first emerged in educational thought. Early in the 17th century, Francis Bacon…

Gilead, Tal

2011-01-01

53

Structural and Behavioural Changes in the Short TermPreventive Check in the Northwest Balkans in the 18th and19th Centuries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fertility responded negatively to grain insufficiency(proxied by grain price increases), and mortality respondedpositively in Croatia-Slavonia-Srem in the 18thand 19th centuries, as in most of Europe. Shiftsin the intensity and timing of these responsesoccurred over time as social and economic structureschanged. Shifts in the elasticity of fertility withrespect to grain supply inversely mimic and lagchanges in the elasticity of mortality. Both

E. A. Hammel; Patrick R. Galloway

2000-01-01

54

Acoustics of early music spaces from the 11th to 18th century: Rediscovery of the acoustical excellence of medium-sized rooms and new perspectives for modern concert hall design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The acoustical characteristics of 50 rooms that played a prominent role in the history of music between the 11th and 18th centuries were studied. The rooms include basilicas, oratorios, organ churches, and the great halls and courts of the European palaces. The research provides an understanding of the acoustical features that suit the early music repertoire, and how these rooms achieved an enhanced emotional engagement through their unique acoustical characteristics. This paper provides a summary of the acoustic measurements, which include binaural and B-format recordings in each of the rooms, and presents a unique new approach to understanding their subjective characteristics through detailed analysis and auralization of their 3-D impulse response. The study shows that the timing and direction of reflections in three dimensions is critically important to defining the subjective characteristic of a room. The results emphasize the importance of developing techniques to understand the 3-D impulse response and using auralization techniques for interpreting results and making subjective judgments. The enhanced musical experience that is achieved in these early rooms offers an invitation to rethink modern acoustics and to develop a new design approach that focuses more strongly on the subjective response and emotional engagement of the music.

Bassuet, Alban

2001-05-01

55

Peterburgskaya akademiya nauk v XVIII v. i ee pol' v rasprostranenii N'yutonianstva na kontinente Evropy %t Petersburg Academy of Sciences of 18th century and its role in the dissemination of Newtonianism in teh continental Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

"Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica" by I. Newton were published and immediately recognized in England in 1687. However in countries of the continental Europe up to 1744 dominated the Cartesianism. Few newtonians were exposed to persecutions. Under such circumstances in 1724 Peter The Great decided to found an Academy of sciences in Russia. Since in this country there were no scientists, it was decided to invite them from the continental Europe. Two scientists arrived to Russia were newtonians. Other just were graduated from universities and had no hope for scientific work in their native lands. This situation turned out to be rather happy. The newtonians - J. N. Delisle and J. Hermann - trained the youth (D. Bernoulli, L. Euler, F. Ch. Mayer, G. W. Krafft, A. D. Kantemir, G. W. Richmann, M. V. Lomonosov, N. I. Popov, V. K. Trediakovskij, A. D. Krasilnikov etc.). They created the science of Russia and enhanced the doctrine of Newton. Their scientific works were printed in "Commentarii" in Latin. The newspaper "St.-Petersburg sheets" and its appendix, the magazine "Notes on the Sheet" (issued in Russian and German) - published the works of Petersburg Academy of sciences and promoted the Newtonianism. Everyone, who could read in German, used these materials. One of the readers was I. Kant. He relied upon these publications in preparing his lectures at Königsberg University, and then later, in working out the cosmogony theory. The works of J. N. Delisle, L. Euler and A. C. Clairaut on the theory of comets' and planets' movement justified Newtons doctrine. They also forced J. Cassini to accept the doctrine as well. Delisle's papers on the history of astronomy published there are helpful for understanding of the history of development the astronomy. The books of J. F. Weidler "A history of astronomy" (1741) and "Astronomical bibliography" (1755) formed the basis for all histories of astronomy in the XVIII-XIX centuries.

Nevskaya, N. I.

56

Restoration of an 18th century English clock  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The background knowledge and the steps required to repair ancient clocks and watches are described. The restoration of old clocks and watches involves the problem of making them work. The wear that results from years of use and the fact that parts are lost or broken leads the restorer to replace certain component parts of the watch or clock. The parts are made in such a way that they fit in with the appearance of the object. This work requires the watchmaker/restorer to have a thorough knowledge of all the mechanisms used in watchmaking and knowhow which covers the whole field, from watches to monumental clocks. An example of a restoration carried out on a Bracket clock is given.

Curtit, Daniel; Piguet, Jean-Michel

57

Restoration of an 18th century English clock  

Microsoft Academic Search

The background knowledge and the steps required to repair ancient clocks and watches are described. The restoration of old clocks and watches involves the problem of making them work. The wear that results from years of use and the fact that parts are lost or broken leads the restorer to replace certain component parts of the watch or clock. The

Daniel Curtit; Jean-Michel Piguet

1992-01-01

58

Adam Smith, Stoicism and religion in the 18th century  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores the influence of Stoicism and religion on Adam Smith. While other commentators have argued either that the main influence on Smith was Stoicism or that it was religion, the two influences have not been explicitly linked. In this article I attempt to make such a link, arguing that Smith can be seen as belonging to the strand

P. H. Clarke

2000-01-01

59

The butterfly diagram in the 18th century  

E-print Network

Digitized images of the drawings by J.C. Staudacher were used to determine sunspot positions for the period of 1749-1796. From the entire set of drawings, 6285 sunspot positions were obtained for a total of 999 days. Various methods have been applied to find the orientation of the solar disk which is not given for the vast majority of the drawings by Staudacher. Heliographic latitudes and longitudes in the Carrington rotation frame were determined. The resulting butterfly diagram shows a highly populated equator during the first two cycles (Cycles 0 and 1 in the usual counting since 1749). An intermediate period is Cycle 2, whereas Cycles 3 and 4 show a typical butterfly shape. A tentative explanation may be the transient dominance of a quadrupolar magnetic field during the first two cycles.

Rainer Arlt

2008-12-11

60

Human lead exposure in England from approximately 5500 bp to the 16th century ad  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lead concentration and isotope ratio data are presented for the tooth enamel of 77 individuals buried in England and spanning approximately 5000 years from the Neolithic until the 16th century ad. Whereas other tissues may be affected by diagenesis in the burial environment, the Pb concentration of tooth enamel is directly related to childhood exposure. This record is preserved post-mortem

P. Budd; J. Montgomery; J. Evans; M. Trickett

2004-01-01

61

Dynamics of the properties of steppe paleosols of the Sarmatian time (2nd century BC-4th century AD) in relation to secular variations in climatic humidity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Paleosols buried under kurgans of the Early (2nd-1st centuries BC), Middle (1st-2nd centuries AD) and Late (2nd-IV centuries AD) Sarmatian epochs were studied in dry steppes and desert steppes of the Lower Volga region (the Privolzhskaya and Ergeni Uplands and the Caspian Lowland). It was found that temporal variations in the morphological, chemical, microbiological, and magnetic properties of the paleosols in the interval of 2200-1600 BP were characterized by the cyclic pattern related to secular dynamics of climatic humidity with changes in the mean annual precipitation of ±30-50 mm. These climate changes did not transform chestnut paleosols and paleosolonetzes at the type or subtype taxonomic levels. However, they led to certain changes in the humus, carbonate, and salt profiles of the soils; in the character of solonetzic horizon B1; and in the state of microbial communities. According to these data, the Sarmatian time was characterized by alternation of micropluvial and microarid stages lasting fro about 100-200 years. In particular, the stages of humidization were observed in the 1st century BC-1st century AD and in the 4th century AD; the most arid conditions were observed in the second half of the 2nd and the first half of the 3rd century AD.

Demkin, V. A.; Zolotareva, B. N.; Demkina, T. S.; Khomutova, T. E.; Kashirskaya, N. N.; El'Tsov, M. V.; Udal'Tsov, S. N.

2012-02-01

62

The AD 365 Crete earthquake and possible seismic clustering during the fourth to sixth centuries AD in the Eastern Mediterranean: a review of historical and archaeological data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Historical and archaeological data are used to test geological claims that, in the fourth to sixth centuries AD, the Eastern Mediterranean experienced an unusual clustering of destructive earthquakes (the ‘Early Byzantine Tectonic Paroxsym’). A review of historical accounts of a notable earthquake at this time, that of 21 July AD 365, indicates that this event destroyed nearly all the towns

Stathis C Stiros

2001-01-01

63

EDITORIAL: The 18th Central European Workshop on Quantum Optics The 18th Central European Workshop on Quantum Optics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Much of our present understanding of the microscopic world is based on quantum mechanics. The field owes much of its existence to the venerable science of optics, since the fundamental ideas on the nature of the interaction between light and matter lie at the roots of its origin. We have now reached one century of quantum mechanics. In contrast, the splendid blossoming of quantum optics began only after the comparatively recent invention of the laser. Since then, it has become an exciting and always expanding area at the cutting-edge of research, in part because theory and experiment are more closely connected in this field than any other. Moreover, the technological distance between fundamental studies and practical applications has always been very short in quantum optics. As a result, modern engineering is increasingly based on quantum rather than classical physics; we are facing a transition similar to the one society confronted 200 years ago, at the start of the Industrial Revolution. In parallel with this, the physics community is witnessing the recent and vigorous emergence of quantum information. It aims at exploring the physical foundations of information and at developing efficient methods for processing quantum information. The questions driving this field reveal a profound change in attitude towards fundamental aspects of quantum theory. The photon turns out to be a tool extremely well suited to exploring theoretical quantum information schemes and their experimental implementations. Mirroring this continued progress has been the growth and development of the series of annual Central European Workshops on Quantum Optics (CEWQO). The series started at the beginning of the 1990s, as rather small meetings of physicists from a few countries in central-eastern Europe. In two decades, the workshops have transformed into important events that reach well beyond the original rather restricted geographical limits. The history of CEWQOs can be found in the preface to the proceedings of the 15th CEWQO (Physica Scripta 2009 T135 011005). The 18th edition of CEWQO (CEWQO11) was held in Madrid in 2011. There were about 250 participants, from practically every European country. Many colleagues from other continents also joined the event, including well-established researchers in the field. This is a clear demonstration that these meetings provide an excellent chance to hear about the latest results and new directions of research. The organization of CEWQO11 was carried out by a committee consisting of members active in this topic in Madrid. From Universidad Complutense, Alberto Galindo and Luis L Sánchez-Soto from Universidad Autónoma, Jose Calleja and Carlos Tejedor; from Universidad Politécnica, Enrique Calleja; from Universidad Carlos III, Alberto Ibort; and from the National Research Council (CSIC), Juan León and Juan J García-Ripoll. Special thanks go to the Spanish Ministry for Science and Innovation, Universidad Complutense and the Quitemad Consortium for financial support. The proceedings of the 16th CEWQO held at the University of Turku, Finland and the 17th CEWQO held at the University of St Andrews, Scotland, UK are also available (Physica Scripta 2010 T140 and Physica Scripta 2011 T143). The present Topical Issue is a collection of papers presented in Madrid; they represent an illustrative sample of the major achievements and trends in this area. In turn, they reflect the wide range of interests in this rapidly evolving field. Some collaborators from different scientific centres who could not, due to different reasons, come to Madrid, but participated in previous CEWQOs and plan to participate in future CEWQOs, also contributed to this issue. The papers are arranged alphabetically by the name of the first author. Special thanks goes to Roger Wäppling, the Managing Editor of Physica Scripta, and Graeme Watt, the Publisher, for the opportunity to publish CEWQO11. From a Physica Scripta Editorial Board meeting it was decided that Physica Scripta could offer a poster prize (200 euros + certificate) for young sc

Sánchez-Soto, Luis L.; Man'ko, Margarita A.

2012-02-01

64

18th Space Photovoltaic Research and Technology Conference  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The 18th Space Photovoltaic Research and Technology (SPRAT XVIII) Conference was held September 16 to 18, 2003, at the Ohio Aerospace Institute (OAI) in Brook Park, Ohio. The SPRAT conference, hosted by the Photovoltaic and Space Environments Branch of the NASA Glenn Research Center, brought together representatives of the space photovoltaic community from around the world to share the latest advances in space solar cell technology. This year s conference continued to build on many of the trends shown in SPRAT XVII-the continued advances of thin-film and multijunction solar cell technologies and the new issues required to qualify those types of cells for space applications.

Morton, Thomas L. (Compiler)

2005-01-01

65

JANNAF 18th Propulsion Systems Hazards Subcommittee Meeting. Volume 1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This volume, the first of two volumes is a compilation of 18 unclassified/unlimited-distribution technical papers presented at the Joint Army-Navy-NASA-Air Force (JANNAF) 18th Propulsion Systems Hazards Subcommittee (PSHS) meeting held jointly with the 36th Combustion Subcommittee (CS) and 24th Airbreathing Propulsion Subcommittee (APS) meetings. The meeting was held 18-21 October 1999 at NASA Kennedy Space Center and The DoubleTree Oceanfront Hotel, Cocoa Beach, Florida. Topics covered at the PSHS meeting include: shaped charge jet and kinetic energy penetrator impact vulnerability of gun propellants; thermal decomposition and cookoff behavior of energetic materials; violent reaction; detonation phenomena of solid energetic materials subjected to shock and impact stimuli; and hazard classification, insensitive munitions, and propulsion systems safety.

Cocchiaro, James E. (Editor); Gannaway, Mary T. (Editor)

1999-01-01

66

Couching for cataract and Sino-Indian medical exchange from the sixth to the twelfth century AD.  

PubMed

This paper investigates the processes of interpretation and integration of the Indian ophthalmic technique known as 'couching for cataract' into Chinese medicine from the sixth to the twelfth century ad. The Indian medical knowledge of this procedure was eventually accepted because it could be reconstructed following Chinese medical concepts. PMID:15807830

Fan, Ka Wai

2005-04-01

67

‘Diabetes’ as described by Byzantine writers from the fourth to the ninth century ad : the Graeco-Roman influence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diabetes was first extensively described by Aretaeus of Cappadocia, and his contemporary, Galen of Pergamum, in the second\\u000a century ad. Aretaeus is said to have introduced the term diabetes, though there are some indications of previous references to the term.\\u000a When referring to the disease, Galen accepts that the term belongs to ‘other writers’. There are, in fact, many other

H. Christopoulou-Aletra; N. Papavramidou

2008-01-01

68

FOREWORD: 18th International School on Condensed Matter Physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are delighted to present the Proceedings of the 18th International School on Condensed Matter Physics: Challenges of Nanoscale Science: Theory, Materials, Applications, organized by the Institute of Solid State Physics of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences and chaired by Professor Alexander G Petrov. On this occasion the School was held in memory of Professor Nikolay Kirov (1943-2013), former Director of the Institute and Chairman between 1991 and 1998. The 18ISCMP was one of several events dedicated to the 145th anniversary of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences in 2014, and was held in the welcoming Black Sea resort of St. Constantine and Helena near Varna, at the Hotel and Congress Centre Frederic Joliot-Curie. Participants from 16 countries delivered 32 invited lectures, and 71 contributed posters were presented over three lively and well-attended evening sessions. Manuscripts submitted to the Proceedings were refereed in accordance with the guidelines of the Journal of Physics: Conference Series, and we believe the papers published herein testify to the high technical quality and diversity of contributions. A satellite meeting, Transition Metal Oxide Thin Films - Functional Layers in Smart Windows and Water Splitting Devices: Technology and Optoelectronic Properties was held in parallel with the School (http://www.inera.org, 3-6 Sept 2014). This activity, which took place under the FP7-funded project INERA, offered opportunities for crossdisciplinary discussions and exchange of ideas between both sets of participants. As always, a major factor in the success of the 18ISCMP was the social programme, headed by the organized events (Welcome and Farewell Parties) and enhanced in no small measure by a variety of pleasant local restaurants, bars and beaches. We are most grateful to staff of the Journal of Physics: Conference Series for their continued support for the School, this being the third occasion on which the Proceedings have been published under its auspices.

Dimova-Malinovska, Doriana; Genova, Julia; Nesheva, Diana; Petrov, Alexander G.; Primatarowa, Marina T.

2014-12-01

69

Historical Astronomical Catalogs The first star catalog was published by Ptolemy in the second century AD. This catalog appeared in the book that later  

E-print Network

in the second century AD. This catalog appeared in the book that later became known as the Almagest. It had 1025 by Ptolemy. Most of the stars in the Almagest are given proper names, deriving from Babylonian or Arabic

Lowenthal, James D.

70

[French surgery in the eighteenth century].  

PubMed

The history of surgery in France begins practically during the 18th century which has been with the 20th century the period which has the more contributed to its progress. The 18th century during which have been practiced the first surgical operations has been inceasingly characterized by the dissensions between physicians and surgeons till the creation under the reign of Louis XV of a Royal Academy of Surgery of which the realizations have joined together all the surgical acquisitions of the century. PMID:11640311

Sicard, A

1994-01-01

71

Dynamic and Fatigue Analysis of an 18th Century Steel Arch Bridge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Within the "Oran-Tlemcen" railway line realization project (159 km), several bridges were built by the Railroads Algerian West Company. 7 km from the east of Tlemcen city, this railway line must cross a very broken mountainous collar, that's why the French engineer "Gustave Eiffel" was solicited to construct a 68 m length bridge. In 1890, an arch steel truss bridge was realized. The bridge presents 300 m of apron curvature radius and, currently, is considered as one of the most important monuments of the Algerian historical heritage. Considering the age of the bridge and the evolution of the railway loads in time, it was essential to check the good behavior of the studied structure. For that, analyses to verify the physical and mechanical properties of the growth iron members are made. A finite element model of the bridge was built and numerical simulations were drawn. The structural vibration conducted analysis permit to understand the behavior of this particular structure, then to evaluate (in detail) the rate of the structure fatigue.

Boumechra, Nadir; Hamdaoui, Karim

2008-07-01

72

Can legislation prevent debauchery? Mother gin and public health in 18th-century England.  

PubMed Central

The "gin epidemic" of 1720 to 1751 in England was the first time that government intervened in a systematic fashion to regulate and control sales of alcohol. The epidemic therefore provides an opportunity to gauge the effects of multiple legislative interventions over time. Toward that end, we employed time series analysis in conjunction with qualitative methodologies to test the interplay of multiple independent variables, including real wages and taxes, on the consumption of distilled spirits from 1700 through 1771. The results showed that each of the 3 major gin acts was successful in the short term only, consistent with the state's limited resources for enforcement at the local level, and that in each instance consumption actually increased shortly thereafter. This was true even of the Gin Act of 1751, which, contrary to the assumptions of contemporaries and many historians, succeeded by accident rather than by design. The results also suggest that the epidemic followed the inverse U-shaped trajectory of more recent drug scares and that consumption declined only after the more deleterious effects of distilled spirits had been experienced by large numbers of people. PMID:11236401

Warner, J; Her, M; Gmel, G; Rehm, J

2001-01-01

73

The Teaching of Astronomy in Jesuit Colleges in the 18th century  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On the occasion of the 250th anniversary of the foundation of the astronomical observatory at the college and seminary of Nagyszombat in 1755, it may be of interest to say something about the colleges of the Society of Jesus. The presence of the Jesuits there was brief, only two decades, as under the pressure of various external forces, the Jesuit Order was suppressed by Pope Clement XIV with the bull Dominus ac Redemptor on 23 July 1773. All the colleges that the Society had been running successfully all over the world either were closed, taken over by the governments, or given to the local bishops. Shortly after the Jesuits left the college of Nagyszombat, the king transferred it to Buda, where it gave rise to modern institutions of higher education derived. When Pope Pius VII returned to Rome after the Napoleonic wars, one of the first things he did was to reestablish the Society of Jesus in 1814. Old Jesuits, survivors of so many disgraces, joined younger Jesuits from Russia and Poland where in fact the order had never been suppressed. The most important of the Jesuit colleges, the Collegium Romanum in Rome, was given back to the Society of Jesus in 1823. Many other colleges were lost forever, but new ones were founded to continue the Society's previous successful activity.

Casanovas, J.

74

Gross enamel hypoplasia in molars from subadults in a 16th-18th century London graveyard.  

PubMed

Dental Enamel Hypoplasia has long been used as a common nonspecific stress indicator in teeth from archaeological samples. Most researchers report relatively minor linear and pitted hypoplastic defects on tooth crown surfaces. In this work we report a high prevalence and early age of onset of extensive enamel defects in deciduous and permanent molars in the subadults from the post-medieval cemetery of Broadgate, east central London. Analysis of the dentition of all 45 subadults from the cemetery, using both macroscopic and microscopic methods, reveals disturbed cusp patterns and pitted, abnormal and arrested enamel formation. Forty-one individuals from this group (93.2%) showed some evidence of enamel hypoplasia, 28 of them showing moderate or extensive lesions of molars, deciduous or permanent (63.6% of the sample). Scanning Electron Microscope images reveal many molars with grossly deformed cuspal architecture, multiple extra cusps and large areas of exposed Tomes' process pits, where the ameloblasts have abruptly ceased matrix production, well before normal completion. This indented, rough and poorly mineralized surface facilitates both bacterial adhesion and tooth wear, and when such teeth erupt fully into the mouth they are likely to wear and decay rapidly. We suggest that this complex combination of pitted and plane-form lesions, combined with disruption of cusp pattern and the formation of multiple small cusps, should henceforth be identified as "Cuspal Enamel Hypoplasia." PMID:17492667

Ogden, A R; Pinhasi, R; White, W J

2007-07-01

75

Healing with animals in the Levant from the 10th to the 18th century.  

PubMed

Animals and products derived from different organs of their bodies have constituted part of the inventory of medicinal substances used in various cultures since ancient times. The article reviews the history of healing with animals in the Levant (The Land of Israel and parts of present-day Syria, Lebanon, and Jordan, defined by the Muslims in the Middle Ages as Bilad al-Sham) in the medieval and early Ottoman periods. Intensive research into the phenomenon of zootherapy in the medieval and early Ottoman Levant has yielded forty-eight substances of animal origin that were used medicinally. The vast majority of these substances were local and relatively easy to obtain. Most of the substances were domestic (honey, wax, silkworm, etc.), others were part of the local wildlife (adder, cuttle fish, flycatcher, firefly, frog, triton, scorpion, etc.), part of the usual medieval household (milk, egg, cheese, lamb, etc.), or parasites (louse, mouse, stinkbug, etc.). Fewer substances were not local but exotic, and therefore rare and expensive (beaver testicles, musk oil, coral, ambergris, etc.). The range of symptoms that the substances of animal origin were used to treat was extensive and included most of the known diseases and maladies of that era: mainly hemorrhoids, burns, impotence, wounds, and skin, eye, and stomach diseases. Changes in the moral outlook of modern societies caused the use of several substances of animal origin to cease in the course of history. These include mummy, silkworm, stinkbug, scarabees, snail, scorpion, and triton. PMID:16504024

Lev, Efraim

2006-01-01

76

Gestural Enthymemes: Delivering Movement in 18th- and 19th-Century Medical Images  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article contributes to recent efforts to add life and movement to rhetorical studies by focusing on the representation of movement in medical texts. More specifically, this study examines medical texts, illustrations, and photographs involving movement by Johann Casper Lavater, G. B. Duchenne de Bologne, Charles Darwin, and Etienne-Jules…

Newman, Sara

2009-01-01

77

Statistical Accounts of Scotland: Accounts of Scottish Life from the 18th and 19th Centuries.  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Provided by the Edinburgh Data and Information Access (EDINA) on behalf of the Scottish Confederation of University and Research Libraries, this new site is an excellent resource for anyone researching Scotland, Britain, or the social impact of the industrial revolution. The site hosts the two Statistical Accounts of Scotland, which cover 1791-99 and 1834-1845. The information contained in the Accounts was largely provided by each parish church minister and covers topics such as "wealth, class and poverty; climate, agriculture, fishing and wildlife; population, schools, and the moral health of the people." Visitors can browse the Accounts via a table of contents, a general index, or by county or parish lists, or conduct a keyword search. The site provides digitized copies of the original texts which, unlike many similar projects, are easy to read and navigate. Further information about the Accounts and the project is available from the main page.

78

Analysis and reconstruction of impermanent structures of the 17th and 18th centuries  

E-print Network

~ Moderately Sized, Finished limbers ~ Extensive IMck Elements ~ Eiaborahly Designed Chimneys ~ Prefabricated Elements ~ Exhnsive Use of Imparted Rsw Materials ~ High Use of Nails ~ Finished Morfise and Tenon Joints ~ High Amount of Window Glass... ~ Some Brick Elements ~ large Plain Chimneys ~ Prefebrhated Elements ~ Local and Imported Rsw Material Used ~ Moderate Use of Nails ~ Finished Marfise and Tenon Joirns ~ Moderate Amount af Itfindaw Glass ~ Some Decorakive Elements ~ fiikxhrate...

Darrington, Glenn Paul

1994-01-01

79

VizieR Online Data Catalog: New standards in 18th century astrometry (Lequeux, 2014)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Catalogue of Flamsteed (flamstee.dat): John Flamsteed (1646-1719) was the first astronomer in charge of Greenwich Observatory. His stellar catalogue (Flamsteed 1725) was built on observations from 1675 to 1683 with a 6-feet radius sextant mounted on an axis parallel to the polar axis of the Earth, then from 1683 to 1719 with a mural circle with a radius of 79.5 inches (2m). 220 stars over 3925. Catalogue of Romer (romer.dat): Ole (or Olaus) Romer (1644-1710) is principally known for his 1676 discovery of the finite velocity of light, a discovery that he shared with Jean-Dominique Cassini. After a long stay in Paris, he returned to Copenhagen in 1681 and was appointed professor of astronomy at the University. The observatory and all the observations were destroyed in the great Copenhagen fire of 1728, with the exception of observations of 88 stars obtained during three observing nights, from 20 to 23 October 1706. La Caille's catalogue of fundamental stars (lacaifun.dat): Nicolas-Louis La Caille (or Lacaille, or de la Caille, 1713-1762) was a French astronomer who is remembered principally for his survey of the southern sky, where he introduced 14 new constellations that are still in use today. Before leaving for the Cape of Good Hope in 1750, he started a catalogue of the 400 brightest stars of both hemispheres, which he completed during his stays in Cape Town and in the Mauritius island, then after his return to Paris in 1754. He reduced the observations himself, including for the first time corrections for aberration and nutation, and published them with details of the observations and reductions (La Caille 1757). Bailly's adaptation of La Caille's catalogue of fundamental stars (bailly.dat): After the death of La Caille, Jean-Sylvain Bailly published a catalogue of the brighest stars of both hemispheres for the equinox B1750.0 in Ephemerides for 10 year from 1765 to 1775 (Anonymous (Bailly) 1763, p. lvii-lxiv). This catalogue obviously derives from the catalogue named lacaillefund.dat. La Caille's complete survey of the southern sky (lacaisur.dat): During his stay in Cape Town in 1751-1752, La Caille made the first systematic survey of the sky ever, in the modern sense. 244 stars over 9766. La Caille's catalogue of zodiacal stars (lacaizod.dat): When La Caille returned from his southern expedition in 1754, he undertook the construction of a catalogue of zodiacal stars. Mayer's zodiacal catalogue (mayer.dat): At exactly the same time as La Caille, Tobias Mayer (1723-1762) in Gottingen undertook a similar catalogue of zodiacal stars, using a 6-feet radius mural quadrant made by John Bird (1709-1776). 200 stars over 998. Bradley's stellar catalogue (bradley.dat): James Bradley (1693-1762) is famous for his discovery of aberration and nutation. From 1750 to his death in 1762, he built a large stellar catalogue, from observations first with an old mural sector and after 1753 with the Bird 8-ft mural sector located in Greenwich, where it 215 stars over 3220. Piazzi's stellar catalogue (piazzi.dat): Giuseppe Piazzi (1746-1846) built a large catalogue containing 7646 stars from 1792 to 1813, observed in Palermo with an altazimuthal circle of Jesse Ramsden (1735-1800) can still be seen. 202 stars over 7646. Lalande's stellar catalogue (lalande.dat): L'Histoire celeste francaise de Lalande (Lalande 1801), which contains the unreduced observations of approximately 40,000 stars, is the first very large stellar catalogue. 198 stars over ~45000. (10 data files).

Lequeux, J.

2014-05-01

80

Tabulating the Heavens: Computing the Nautical Almanac in 18th-Century England  

Microsoft Academic Search

The question of how to accurately find longitude at sea was hotly debated in the mid-1700s. This article describes the lunar distance method, promoted by Nevil Maskelyne, the British Astronomer Royal. In 1767, Maskelyne began publishing the Nautical Almanac, which contained astronomical tables prepared by a small network of human computers during the period 1765-1809. This article will describe the

Mary Croarken

2003-01-01

81

Tumors in the 18th and 19th centuries at Brno, Czech Republic.  

PubMed

Symptoms signs of benign and malignant tumors were observed during paleopathological analysis of skeletal remains from the city of Brno in the Czech Republic. Approximately 1,200 skeletons were examined from two Modern era archaeology sites: the Malá Nová ulice (Little New Street) cemetery and the cemetery of the Nemocnice Milosrdných bratrí (Merciful Brothers' Hospital). Osteomas, usually located on the flat bones of the cranial vault, were the most frequent skeletal pathology. Symptoms signs of malignant tumors were observed in three cases. In one case lytic foci caused by the metastases of a malignant tumor in the soft tissue was observed. Traces of myeloma multiplex were found in two individuals. Living conditions in that period, and possible carcinogenic environmental influences were assessed for the general population of Brno. This report contributes to a better understanding of the historical development of cancers and the clarification of possible causes for their modern increase of incidence. PMID:24620566

Vargová, Lenka; Horácková, Ladislava; Nemecková, Alena; Krupa, Petr; Mensíková, Miroslava

2013-01-01

82

Frederica: An 18th-Century Planned Community. Teaching with Historic Places.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The excavated foundations of various structures in Frederica, Saint Simons Island, Georgia, remind visitors that from 1736 until 1758, this planned community served the military garrison quartered there and housed a population of 1000. This lesson is based on the Fort Frederica National Monument listed in the National Register of Historic Places.…

Robinson, Marion

83

H.M.S. Pallas: historical reconstruction of an 18th-century Royal Navy frigate  

E-print Network

............................................................................. 24 A. Keel Assembly ............................................................... 24 B. Stem Assembly............................................................... 26 C. Sternpost Assembly.... Pillars or Stanchions....................................................... 57 N. Quarter Galleries ............................................................ 58 O. Rudder and Tiller Assembly........................................... 59 P...

Flynn, Peter Erik

2006-08-16

84

Performance and Impact Assessment Module Summary Due Monday March 18th  

E-print Network

Performance and Impact Assessment Module Summary Due Monday March 18th by 4 pm 1) Overview Process as an input or emission for your process complete the Physical/Chemical property, Human Health, and Eco

Iglesia, Enrique

85

EDITORIAL: 18th European Conference on Dynamics of Molecular Systems 18th European Conference on Dynamics of Molecular Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This special section of Comments on Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics (CAMOP) in Physica Scripta collects some of the papers that have been presented at the 18th European Conference on Dynamics of Molecular Systems MOLEC 2010 held in September 2010 in Curia, Portugal, as part of a series of biennial MOLEC conferences. This started in 1976 in Trento, Italy, and has continued, visiting 17 cities in 11 countries, namely Denmark, The Netherlands, Israel, France, Italy, Germany, Czech Republic, Spain, United Kingdom, Turkey and Russia. Following the MOLEC tradition, the scientific programme of the Curia meeting focused on experimental and theoretical studies of molecular interactions, collision dynamics, spectroscopy, and related fields. It included invited speakers from 22 countries, who were asked to summarize the problems reported in their presentations with the objective of revealing the current thinking of leading researchers in atomic, molecular and optical physics. It is hoped that their authoritative contributions presented in this CAMOP special section will also appeal to non-specialists through their clear and broad introductions to the field as well as references to the accessible literature. This CAMOP special section comprises ten contributions, which cover theoretical studies on the electronic structure of molecules and clusters as well as dynamics of elastic, inelastic and reactive encounters between atoms, molecules, ions, clusters and surfaces. Specifically, it includes electronic structure calculations using the traditional coupled-cluster method (Barreto et al 028111), the electron-attached equation-of-motion coupled cluster method (Hansen et al 028110), the diffusion Monte Carlo method (López-Durán et al 028107) and the path-integral Monte Carlo method (Barragán et al 028109). The contributions on molecular dynamics include on-the-fly quasi-classical trajectories on a five-atom molecule (Yu 028104), quantum reaction dynamics on triatomics (Bovino et al 028103, and Hankel et al 028102) and statistical reaction dynamics using a model based on the long-range interaction potential (McCarroll 028106). A contribution on gas-surface interactions is also included (Sahoo et al 028105) as well as first-principles ab initio calculations to explore the hydrogen-graphene interaction (Irving et al 028108). These articles reflect the recent progress made in this field and constructively build on work described in the previous three MOLEC special sections of CAMOP published in Physica Scripta. I thank, on behalf of the scientific organizing committee of MOLEC, all the authors who contributed and Physica Scripta for providing a platform for the publication of this special section dedicated to MOLEC 2010. A special thanks goes to the CAMOP Editor, Harold Linarz, for the excellent guidance in handling the editorial work. I hope that the articles catalyze the attention of the readers towards the topics covered and contribute in attracting them to attend MOLEC 2012 in Oxford, UK.

Varandas, A. J. C.

2011-08-01

86

Yersinia pestis DNA from Skeletal Remains from the 6th Century AD Reveals Insights into Justinianic Plague  

PubMed Central

Yersinia pestis, the etiologic agent of the disease plague, has been implicated in three historical pandemics. These include the third pandemic of the 19th and 20th centuries, during which plague was spread around the world, and the second pandemic of the 14th–17th centuries, which included the infamous epidemic known as the Black Death. Previous studies have confirmed that Y. pestis caused these two more recent pandemics. However, a highly spirited debate still continues as to whether Y. pestis caused the so-called Justinianic Plague of the 6th–8th centuries AD. By analyzing ancient DNA in two independent ancient DNA laboratories, we confirmed unambiguously the presence of Y. pestis DNA in human skeletal remains from an Early Medieval cemetery. In addition, we narrowed the phylogenetic position of the responsible strain down to major branch 0 on the Y. pestis phylogeny, specifically between nodes N03 and N05. Our findings confirm that Y. pestis was responsible for the Justinianic Plague, which should end the controversy regarding the etiology of this pandemic. The first genotype of a Y. pestis strain that caused the Late Antique plague provides important information about the history of the plague bacillus and suggests that the first pandemic also originated in Asia, similar to the other two plague pandemics. PMID:23658525

Harbeck, Michaela; Seifert, Lisa; Hänsch, Stephanie; Wagner, David M.; Birdsell, Dawn; Parise, Katy L.; Wiechmann, Ingrid; Grupe, Gisela; Thomas, Astrid; Keim, Paul; Zöller, Lothar; Bramanti, Barbara; Riehm, Julia M.; Scholz, Holger C.

2013-01-01

87

Composition, Preservation and Production Technology of Augusta Emerita Roman Glasses from the First to the Sixth Century a.d.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the results derived from an archaeometric study undertaken on glass samples from the Roman town of Augusta Emerita (Mérida, Spain). The main goal of the research was to provide for the first time some compositional and technological insights into the glass finds unearthed in this town. Glass samples from different sites and chronology, either from inside or from outside the perimeter of the ancient town and from the first to the sixth century AD, were analyzed and characterized through optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDS), X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometry and VIS spectrophotometry. Resulting data indicated that all the samples studied were natron-based soda lime silicate glasses, even though two chronological and compositionally distinct groups were distinguished. One composed of Early Empire glasses and a second one composed of glasses from the fourth century AD onward, which was characterized by the presence of the so-called HIMT (high iron, manganese, and titanium) glasses. Comparison with coeval glasses suggested that Augusta Emerita shared the same trade glass circles than other contemporary Roman towns, within the frame of a secondary production scale. Finally, some outstanding differences connected to composition and chronology were found, since Late Roman glasses presented a higher and distinct degree of alteration than Early Empire ones.

Palomar, Teresa; Garcia-Heras, Manuel; Sabio, Rafael; Rincon, Jesus-Maria; Villegas, Maria-Angeles

88

Seismic and sedimentological evidence of an early 6th century AD earthquake at Lake Ohrid (Macedonia/Albania)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lake Ohrid shared by the Republics of Albania and Macedonia is formed by a tectonically active graben within the South Balkan and suggested to be the oldest lake in Europe. Several studies have shown that the lake provides a valuable record of climatic and environmental changes and a distal tephrostratigraphic record of volcanic eruptions from Italy. Fault structures identified in seismic data demonstrate that sediments have also the potential to record tectonic activity in the region. Here, we provide an example of linking tephrostratigraphic information and environmental changes with tectonic activity and anthropogenic impact. Historical documents indicate that a major earthquake destroyed the city of Ohrid in the early 6th century AD. This earthquake is documented in multichannel seismic profiles, in parametric sediment echosounder profiles, and in a ca. 10 m long sediment record from the western part of the lake. The sediment record exhibits a ca. 2 m thick mass wasting deposit, which is chronologically well constrained by the underlying 472 AD/512 AD tephra and cross correlation with other sediment sequences with similar geochemical characteristics of the Holocene.

Wagner, B.; Francke, A.; Sulpizio, R.; Zanchetta, G.; Lindhorst, K.; Krastel, S.; Vogel, H.; Daut, G.; Grazhdani, A.; Lushaj, B.; Trajanovski, S.

2012-09-01

89

Synthesis of calcium antimonate nano-crystals by the 18th dynasty Egyptian glassmakers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the 18th Egyptian dynasty (1570-1292 B.C.), opaque white, blue and turquoise glasses were opacified by calcium antimonate crystals dispersed in a vitreous matrix. The technological processes as well as the antimony sources used to manufacture these crystals remain unknown. Our results shed a new light on glassmaking history: contrary to what was thought, we demonstrate that Egyptian glassmakers did not use in situ crystallization but first synthesized calcium antimonate opacifiers, which do not exist in nature, and then added them to a glass. Furthermore, using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) for the first time in the study of Egyptian opaque glasses, we show that these opacifiers were nano-crystals. Prior to this research, such a process for glassmaking has not been suggested for any kind of ancient opaque glass production. Studying various preparation methods for calcium antimonate, we propose that Egyptian craftsmen could have produced Ca2Sb2O7 by using mixtures of Sb2O3 or Sb2O5 with calcium carbonates (atomic ratio Sb/Ca=1) heat treated between 1000 and 1100°C. We developed an original strategy focused on the investigation of the crystals and the vitreous matrices using an appropriate suite of high-sensitivity and high-resolution micro- and nano-analytical techniques (scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), TEM). Synchrotron-based micro X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (?-XANES) proved to be very well suited to the selective measure of the antimony oxidation state in the vitreous matrix. This work is the starting point for a complete reassessment not only of ancient Egyptian glass studies but more generally of high-temperature technologies used throughout antiquity.

Lahlil, S.; Biron, I.; Cotte, M.; Susini, J.; Menguy, N.

2010-01-01

90

The Search for Astronomical Alignments in the Seventh Century A.D. Silla Capital at Kyongju, Korea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the center of the modern Korean city of Kyongju stands a modest structure dating from the 7th century AD, known as Chomsongdae, or the Star Observatory. Known locally as the oldest observatory in Asia, details of its precise use are lost, but its construction coincided with the height of Silla culture and its dominance over the Korean peninsula. Radially from the structure are located the so-called Moon Fortress, numerous large tombsites for elite of the culture, plus hillside fortresses and elaborate Buddhist temples. During 1999, we've conducted a course at Denver as part of our Core Curriculum program for The Women's College, that has examined the astronomical and cultural aspects of the Kyongju site, to attempt to determine whether the architects may have included astronomical alignments into the ``Feng Shui" of their city planning, spanning centuries. The preliminary result of our studies suggests that east and west of Star Observatory lay fortress and wall features that may have been useful for equinox determination. A discussion of ethnographic supporting evidence will be provided, but additional on-site observations will be needed to confirm the idea.

Nelson, S. M.; Stencel, R. E.

1999-05-01

91

Late-twentieth-century warming in Lake Tanganyika unprecedented since AD 500  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Instrumental observations suggest that Lake Tanganyika, the largest rift lake in East Africa, has become warmer, increasingly stratified and less productive over the past 90years (refs 1,2). These trends have been attributed to anthropogenic climate change. However, it remains unclear whether the decrease in productivity is linked to the temperature rise, and whether the twentieth-century trends are anomalous within the context of longer-term variability. Here, we use the TEX86 temperature proxy, the weight per cent of biogenic silica and charcoal abundance from Lake Tanganyika sediment cores to reconstruct lake-surface temperature, productivity and regional wildfire frequency, respectively, for the past 1,500years. We detect a negative correlation between lake-surface temperature and primary productivity, and our estimates of fire frequency, and hence humidity, preclude decreased nutrient input through runoff as a cause for observed periods of low productivity. We suggest that, throughout the past 1,500years, rising lake-surface temperatures increased the stratification of the lake water column, preventing nutrient recharge from below and limiting primary productivity. Our records indicate that changes in the temperature of Lake Tanganyika in the past few decades exceed previous natural variability. We conclude that these unprecedented temperatures and a corresponding decrease in productivity can be attributed to anthropogenic global warming, with potentially important implications for the Lake Tanganyika fishery.

Tierney, Jessica E.; Mayes, Marc T.; Meyer, Natacha; Johnson, Christopher; Swarzenski, Peter W.; Cohen, Andrew S.; Russell, James M.

2010-06-01

92

Multiple sclerosis or neuromyelitis optica? Re-evaluating an 18th-century illness using 21st-century software  

PubMed Central

In this paper we report the application of an extensive database of symptoms, signs, laboratory findings and illnesses, to the diagnosis of an historical figure. The medical diagnosis of Augustus d'Este (1794–1848) – widely held to be the first documented case of multiple sclerosis – is reviewed, using the detailed symptom diary, which he kept over many years, as clinical data. Some of the reported features prompted the competing claim that d'Este suffered from acute porphyria, which in turn was used in support of the hypothesis that his grandfather, King George III, also suffered from the disease. We find that multiple sclerosis is statistically the most likely diagnosis, with neuromyelitis optica a strong alternative possibility. The database did not support a diagnosis of any of the acute porphyrias. PMID:22299068

Garrard, Peter; Peters, Timothy J

2012-01-01

93

Hydraulics for Royal Gardens: Water Art as a Challenge for 18th Century Science and 21st Century Physics Teaching  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydraulics is an engineering specialty and largely neglected as a topic in physics teaching. But the history of hydraulics from the Renaissance to the Baroque, merits our attention because hydraulics was then more broadly conceived as a practical and theoretical science; it served as a constant bone of contention for mechanics and mathematics; its obvious practical importance from raising water in mines to the playful fountains in royal gardens illustrates the social role of science like few others do. The playful character of historic hydraulics problems makes it also an appealing topic for modern science education.

Eckert, Michael

2007-06-01

94

Hydraulics for Royal Gardens: Water Art as a Challenge for 18th Century Science and 21st Century Physics Teaching  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Hydraulics is an engineering specialty and largely neglected as a topic in physics teaching. But the history of hydraulics from the Renaissance to the Baroque, merits our attention because hydraulics was then more broadly conceived as a practical "and" theoretical science; it served as a constant bone of contention for mechanics and…

Eckert, Michael

2007-01-01

95

18th International Lightning Detection Conference 7 to 9 June 2004 Helsinki, Finland  

E-print Network

ILDC 2004 18th International Lightning Detection Conference 7 to 9 June 2004 Helsinki, Finland www.vaisala.com/ILDC2004 REF. NO. 4 UPGRADE AND EVALUATION OF A LIGHTNING DETECTION SYSTEM Hans Beekhuis Iwan Holleman ..................................................................................................................... 5 2.3 The KNMI HDF5 Lightning format

Stoffelen, Ad

96

Pacific Telecommunications Council Annual Conference Proceedings (18th, Honolulu, Hawaii, January 14-18, 1996).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Pacific Telecommunications Council's 18th annual conference is presented in two volumes. The PTC'96 gathering focused on seven streams: socio-economic issues; regulatory, legal and political issues; business and finance solutions; country studies; education, training, and human resources; convergence and networks; and technologies and…

Wedemeyer, Dan J. Ed.; Nickelson, Richard, Ed.

97

Climate, people, fire and vegetation: new insights into vegetation dynamics in the Eastern Mediterranean since the 1st century AD  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Anatolia forms a bridge between Europe, Africa and Asia and is influenced by all three continents in terms of climate, vegetation and human civilisation. Unfortunately, well-dated palynological records focussing on the period from the end of the classical Roman period until subrecent times are rare for Anatolia and completely absent for southwest Turkey, resulting in a lacuna in knowledge concerning the interactions of climatic change, human impact, and environmental change in this important region. Two well-dated palaeoecological records from the Western Taurus Mountains, Turkey, provide a first relatively detailed record of vegetation dynamics from late Roman times until the present in SW Turkey. Combining pollen, non-pollen palynomorphs, charcoal, sedimentological, archaeological data, and newly developed multivariate numerical analyses allows for the disentangling of climatic and anthropogenic influences on vegetation change. Results show changes in both the regional pollen signal as well as local soil sediment characteristics match shifts in regional climatic conditions. Both climatic as well as anthropogenic change had a strong influence on vegetation dynamics and land use. A moist environmental trend during the late-3rd century caused an increase in marshes and wetlands in the moister valley floors, limiting possibilities for intensive crop cultivation at such locations. A mid-7th century shift to pastoralism coincided with a climatic deterioration as well as the start of Arab incursions into the region, the former driving the way in which the vegetation developed afterwards. Resurgence in agriculture was observed in the study during the mid-10th century AD, coinciding with the Medieval Climate Anomaly. An abrupt mid-12th century decrease in agriculture is linked to socio-political change, rather than the onset of the Little Ice Age. Similarly, gradual deforestation occurring from the 16th century onwards has been linked to changes in land use during Ottoman times. The pollen data reveal that a fast rise in Pinus pollen after the end of the Bey?ehir Occupation Phase need not always occur. The notion of high Pinus pollen percentages indicating an open landscape incapable of countering the influx of pine pollen is also deemed unrealistic. While multiple fires occurred in the region through time, extended fire periods, as had occurred during the Bronze Age and Bey?ehir Occupation Phase, did not occur, and no signs of local fire activity were observed. Fires were never a major influence on vegetation dynamics. While no complete overview of post-BO Phase fire events can be presented, the available data indicates that fires in the vicinity of Gravgaz may have been linked to anthropogenic activity in the wider surroundings of the marsh. Fires in the vicinity of Bereket appeared to be linked to increased abundance of pine forests. There was no link with specifically wet or dry environmental conditions at either site. While this study reveals much new information concerning the impact of climate change and human occupation on the environment, more studies from SW Turkey are required in order to properly quantify the range of the observed phenomena and the magnitude of their impacts.

Bakker, J.; Paulissen, E.; Kaniewski, D.; Poblome, J.; De Laet, V.; Verstraeten, G.; Waelkens, M.

2013-01-01

98

Technological Characterization of Wall Paintings from the A Mithraic Tomb Dated to 4th-5th Century AD, Gargaresc, Libya  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The excavations of Gargaresc started in 1965 and were one of the most important archaeological sites in Tripoli because it includes a period of about 500 years starting from the 1stc. AD was and continuing until the 5th century AD. The Mithraic tomb is one of the most important outlying monuments of Oea, 200 yards south of the western end of Gargaresc oasis, on the left of the Tripoli-Zuara road between kilometers 5 & 6. The tomb is cut in an outcrop of soft sandstone. The wall paintings found were symbolic to the religion of that period; which contained a mixture of older religions and Christian, and presented the interaction between the artistic and religious elements of that time. Several optical, chemical and mineralogical methods were applied to identify the materials, composition and technology of the plasters and mortars, as well as, the pigments used in the tomb. These are: -OP: Optical microscopy was used as the initial examination of polished cross-sections to identify the structure and microstratigraphy of the plasters and mortars as well as the painted layers. -MCT: Micro-chemical tests were used to identify the type of the plasters and mortars- calcium aluminium silicate and water-soluble salt to identify sulphates, chlorides, carbonates, nitrites and nitrates. -SM: Standard methods for chemical analysis to identify the quantitative and qualitative nature of the plasters and mortars and their mixture. -SEM & EDS: Analytical Scanning electron microscope with energy dispersive x-ray analysis system to examine the micrmorphology and determine the chemical composition of the plasters, pigments and the inclusions. -XRD: X-ray powder diffraction to identify the mineralogical composition of the plasters, mortars and pigments. On the bases of all the data obtained, it was possible to establish the nature of the plasters, mortars and their binder. The examination and analysis gave a full picture about the materials and the approximate ratio of amount of additives to lime used for making the mortars and plasters. In addition the results showed the stratigraphy of the various layers applied. The lime plasters and mortars contained apart from lime as binder quartz grains, charcoal, ironstone, brick and some other inclusions. Furthermore the mineralogical analysis provided information on the main mineralogical phases present in the plasters and pigments. The use of gypsum was detected in some cases but it was identified as a result of conservation. The analytical results provided also information on the deterioration factors and alterations that have affected the materials of the wall paintings and present quite interesting challenges for conservation science.

Abd El Salam, S.; Maniatis, Y.

2009-04-01

99

DNA extraction: an anthropologic aspect of bone remains from sixth- to seventh-century ad bone remains.  

PubMed

In the archeological site of the early Christian Episcopal complex of Saint Peter, in Canosa di Puglia (Bari, Italy), during the operations of archaeological excavations, tombs were discovered. They were dated between the sixth and seventh centuries ad with carbon 14 methodology. Five skeletons were found in the 5 tombs: 28A: male individual, 43 years old. The height was 170 cm; the biomass was 65.7 kg. The analysis of the bones indicated several noteworthy pathologies, such as a number of hypoplasia lines of the enamel, the presence of Schmorl hernias on the first 2 lumbar vertebrae, and the outcome of subacromial impingement syndrome. 28E was a male individual, with a biologic age of death of between 44 and 60 years. The height was 177 cm. He had a posttraumatic fracture callus of the medial third of the clavicle, with an oblique fracture rima. 29B was a female individual, 44-49 years old. The height was 158.8 cm; the biomass was 64.8 kg. There was Wells bursitis on the ischial tuberosity on both sides. 29E was a male individual, 45-50 years old. The height was 169.47 cm; the biomass was 70.8 kg. The third and the fourth vertebrae showed Baastrup syndrome (compression of the vertebral spine). There were radiologic signs of deformity on the higher edge of the acetabula and results of frequent sprains of the ankles. 31A was a male individual, 47-54 years old. The height was 178.65 cm; the biomass was 81 kg. The vertebral index showed a heavy overloading in the thoracic lumbar region. There were bony formations under the periosteum on both on the higher and medium facets of the first metatarsus and on the higher and lateral facets of the fifth metatarsus on both sides. As the topography indicates, these small ossifications coincided with the contact points between the back of the foot and parts of the upper shoe. From the osseous remains, in particular from the teeth (central incisors), the DNA was extracted and typed to identify potential family ties among all the subjects. The extraction technique used came from the DNA Promega technique, partially modified by the authors. Stay times of the sample in the extraction buffer were increased and were increased the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) cycles. PMID:18043022

Di Nunno, Nunzio; Saponetti, Sandro Sublimi; Scattarella, Vito; Emanuel, Patrizia; Baldassarra, Stefania Lonero; Volpe, Giuliano; Di Nunno, Cosimo

2007-12-01

100

Treatment of the mentally ill in the Chola Empire in 11th -12th centuries AD: A study of epigraphs  

PubMed Central

The paper deals with the epigraphs of the Chola emperors Veera Rajendra Deva (1063-1069 AD) and Raja Raja III (1216-1256 AD), found at the temples of Thirumukkudal and Vedaranyam, with emphasis on the treatment given to the residents of the attached hospitals with special reference to treatment of mental disorders. PMID:24891715

Raghavan, D. Vijaya; Tejus Murthy, A. G.; Somasundaram, O.

2014-01-01

101

Rose Art Museum Catalogues Century of Modern European Painting: An Exhibition Inaugurating the Rose Art Museum 1961  

E-print Network

Inaugurating the Rose Art Museum 1961 Sobriety and Elegance in the Baroque 1961 17th and 18th Century Paintings of American Synagogue Architecture 1976 Mitchell Siporin: A Retrospective 1976 Naftali Bezem 1977 From Women

Fraden, Seth

102

Proceedings of the 18th Annual Conference on Fossil Energy Materials.  

SciTech Connect

The 18th Annual conference on Fossil Energy Materials was held in Knoxville, Tennessee, on June 2 through June 4, 2004. The meeting was sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy through the Advanced Research Materials Program (ARM). The objective of the ARM Program is to conduct research and development on materials for longer-term fossil energy applications, as well as for generic needs of various fossil fuel technologies. The management of the program has been decentralized to the DOE Oak Ridge Operations Office and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The research is performed by staff members at ORNL and by researchers at other national laboratories, universities, and in private industry. The work is divided into the following categories: (1) structural, ceramics, (2) new alloys and coatings, (3) functional materials, and (4) technology development and transfer.

Judkins, RR

2004-11-02

103

Instrumental pressure observations and atmospheric circulation from the 17th and 18th centuries: London and Paris  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Daily pressure observations recorded by William Derham (1657-1735) at Upminster, Essex (near London), from 1697 to 1706 and 1708 have been corrected, converted to modern units and the Gregorian calendar, and adjusted for homogeneity. These pressure readings have been compared with previously published contemporary observations from Paris, and the two sets of early instrumental data used to calculate a daily series of the pressure difference between Paris and London. Frequency analysis of the daily series reveals that reversals of the south-north pressure gradient and easterly winds were more common from 1697 to 1708 than during the 1990s. Monthly mean values of Paris-London pressure differences have been compared with previously published monthly mean reconstructed surface pressure maps and to a reconstructed North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index. There is a good agreement between the strength and direction of monthly mean flow between London and Paris estimated from the circulation maps and the sign and magnitude of the Paris-London westerly flow index, but the correlation between the Paris-London index, known to be a good proxy for European zonal circulation, and the reconstructed NAO index, is low (0.2). Correlations between the monthly mean Paris-London zonal circulation index and central England temperatures suggest a strong relationship during winter and late summer from 1697 to 1708. The meticulous daily instrumental observations and the monthly and seasonal climate descriptions of Derham, his collection of instrumental observations and climatic descriptions from contemporary observers throughout Europe, and his early theories on the causes of climate change make his publications a valuable source of information for studies on climate during the early instrumental period. It is hoped that more of Derham's papers related to weather and climate may eventually come to light.

Slonosky, V. C.; Jones, P. D.; Davies, T. D.

2001-03-01

104

The Editorial Policy as a Mirror of Petrine Reforms: Textbooks and Their Translators in Early 18th Century Russia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Peter I's editorial policy appears as a starting point in the birth of secular Russian textbooks. Since the printing production was then organized on a massive scale as a response to the needs of European-like modernization, it should be safely suggested that nearly "all" books produced during this pioneering period focused teaching objectives. To…

Gouzevitch, Irina

2006-01-01

105

The Analysis of 18th Century Glass Trade Beads from Fort Niagara: Insight into Compositional Variation and Manufacturing Techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

An assemblage of 445 archaeological glass trade beads excavated from Old Fort Niagara, Youngstown, New York in 2007 were analyzed to determine their manufacturing technology and elemental composition. Analytical techniques included reflected light microscopy, handheld X-ray fluorescence (XRF), and scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS). Optical microscopy revealed the manufacturing technology of the beads and uncovered discrepancies

Aaron Shugar; Ariel O’Connor

2011-01-01

106

A 18^th century thermometer recipe: The begin of experimental physics courses in Guadalajara, M'exico?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As a part of the Special Funds Collection of the Jalisco's State Public Library ``Juan Jos'e Arreola'' is a physics course manuscript attributed to Francisco Javier Clavigero s.j. (1731-1787), teacher at the Jesuit Colegio de Santo Tom'as (a college-level institution in Guadalajara before the university opening), inside of the vellum bounded volume is a unbounded folio containing instructions on how to build a thermometer. In this work are discussed some evidences of the belonging of such folio to the manuscript in spite of their differences (it is written in Spanish not in Latin as the whole), we also describe the process to construct the thermometer and how could be the experimental part of the physics course. Also is briefly exposed the importance of the educational role of Clavigero as a builder of the concept of mexicanity.

de Alba Martinez, Durruty Jesus

2007-03-01

107

Ballistic blocks around K?lauea Caldera: Their vent locations and number of eruptions in the late 18th century  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Thousands of ballistic blocks occur around K?lauea Caldera and record part of the latest major period of explosive activity on the volcano, in late 1790 or within a few years thereafter. The sizes of the blocks – the largest of which is more than 2 m in nominal diameter – and differences in rock types allow the definition of at least 6 dispersal lobes of mostly undetermined relative age. The orientations of the lobes help approximate the locations of vents or explosion sources on the floor of the caldera, now deeply buried by younger lava flows. The vents may have been distributed northward for about 2 km from near the site of the modern Halema'uma'u Crater and were apparently confined to the western half of the caldera. The blocks are entirely lithic except for those in one dispersal lobe, which contains cored bombs and blocks as well as juvenile lapilli. Eruption parameters calculated from EJECT! suggest that the phreatic and phreatomagmatic explosions could have been generated at the water table, about 600 m below the high point on the caldera rim.

Swanson, Donald A.; Zolkos, Scott P.; Haravitch, Ben

2012-01-01

108

21H.433 The Age of Reason: Europe in the 18th and 19th Centuries, Spring 2005  

E-print Network

Has there ever been an "Age of Reason?" In the western tradition, one might make claims for various moments during Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and the Renaissance. In this class, however, we will focus on the two and a ...

Ravel, Jeffrey S.

109

Chemistry Everywhere. The 18th Biennial Conference on Chemical Education, Iowa State University, July 18-22, 2004  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article provides an overview of the upcoming 18th Biennial Conference on Chemical Education (BCCE) to be held on the campus of Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa, July 18-22, 2004. The report includes details of conference registration, campus housing, campus dining, off-campus housing, tours, social activities, plenary speakers, the conference banquet, travel, and Sci-Mix. The 18th BCCE is using an online abstract submission system, registration and campus housing, and campus dining system. Everything about the conference can be found at the conference Web site (accessed Mar 2004).

Burke, K. A.; Freilich, Mark; Greenbowe, Thomas J.; Harwood, William S.

2004-04-01

110

Analysis of archaeological triacylglycerols by high resolution nanoESI, FT-ICR MS and IRMPD MS/MS: Application to 5th century BC-4th century AD oil lamps from Olbia (Ukraine)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work presents the precise identification of triacylglycerols (TAGs) extracted from archaeological samples using a methodology based on nanoelectrospray and Fourier transform mass spectrometry. The archaeological TAG identification needs adapted sample preparation protocols to trace samples in advanced degradation state. More precisely, the proposed preparation procedure includes extraction of the lipid components from finely grinded ceramic using dichloromethane/methanol mixture with additional ultrasonication treatment, and TAG purification by solid phase extraction on a diol cartridge. Focusing on the analytical approach, the implementation of "in-house" species-dependent TAG database was investigated using MS and InfraRed Multiphoton Dissociation (IRMPD) MS/MS spectra; several vegetal oils, dairy products and animal fats were studied. The high mass accuracy of the Fourier transform analyzer ([Delta]m below 2.5 ppm) provides easier data interpretation, and allows distinction between products of different origins. In details, the IRMPD spectra of the lithiated TAGs reveal fragmentation reactions including loss of free neutral fatty acid and loss of fatty acid as [alpha],[beta]-unsaturated moieties. Based on the developed preparation procedure and on the constituted database, TAG extracts from 5th century BC to 4th century AD Olbia lamps were analyzed. The structural information obtained succeeds in identifying that bovine/ovine fats were used as fuel used in these archaeological Olbia lamps.

Garnier, Nicolas; Rolando, Christian; Høtje, Jakob Munk; Tokarski, Caroline

2009-07-01

111

The construction of fertility in al-Andalus. Geoarchaeology in Ricote (Murcia, Spain, 8th century AD)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Traditional irrigated terraces of Spain (known as 'huertas') are among the most emblematic and productive agricultural fields of the Mediterranean. Several of these huertas were first built by Arab and Berber tribes and clans that entered the Iberian Peninsula (al-Andalus) after 711 AD, coinciding with the spread of Islam during Middle Ages (>632 AD). One thousand and three hundred years after their construction they are still operative, presenting a topic case of sustainable and resilient agricultural areas. However, up until recently no data was available regarding the pre-existing features of the terrains where they were built, the timing of their construction nor their construction process. In this communication I will present the results of the study of a palaeosoil buried under an Andalusi irrigated terrace in the huerta of Ricote (Murcia, Spain). Soil micromorphology, physico-chemical analysis (Loss On Ignition, Magnetic Susceptibility, Particle Size Distribution, pH/Electrical Conductivity) and AMS dating allowed to determine that 1) Andalusi peasants selected a highly saline Hypercalcic Calcisol to build up the first irrigated terraces; 2) They clear the slope of bushes by fire; 3) They used the slope soil to build the terrace fill, possibly by inverting the original soil horizonation, and 4) According to the date obtained from the organic matter embedded in the topmost horizon of the palaeosoil (647-778 AD), the original Andalusi irrigated fields of Ricote were possibly built shortly after 711 AD. The communication, in sum, will show through a case study how past peasant societies transformed semi-arid environments to create highly productive agrarian areas.

Puy, Arnald

2013-04-01

112

EELS IN MATERIALS SCIENCES The workshop on EELS in materials sciences will be held in June 18th  

E-print Network

EELS IN MATERIALS SCIENCES The workshop on EELS in materials sciences will be held in June 18th -20 that want to learn EELS, or who have made the first steps in EELS or EFTEM as well as those who are experts. The topics of the meeting will include a general introduction to EELS/EFTEM, expert presentations as well

113

Proceedings of the 18th International Symposium on Sea Turtle Biology and Conservation 24 Conservation and Management / Oral presentations  

E-print Network

meat was readily available, and although the law protected nesting female green turtles, in fact, its to environmental protection, given the unsustainably high levels of sea turtle exploitation tak- ing place. AfterProceedings of the 18th International Symposium on Sea Turtle Biology and Conservation 24

Prestwich, Ken

114

Proc. 18th Int'l Workshop on Qualitative Reasoning, 2004. Gaussian Processes for Active Data Mining of Spatial Aggregates  

E-print Network

Proc. 18th Int'l Workshop on Qualitative Reasoning, 2004. Gaussian Processes for Active Data Mining an active data mining mechanism for quali- tative analysis of spatial datasets, integrating identifica- tion and analysis of structures in spatial data with tar- geted collection of additional samples. The mechanism

Bailey-Kellogg, Chris

115

WYGIWYS! ! Antony Unwin! Oxford, 18th/25th February 2010 What You Get Is What You See  

E-print Network

! Oxford, 18th/25th February 2010 Examples from R · Aspirin · Anorexia · Divorce · Lanza · Sexual Fun Plusth February 2010 Aspirin (HSAUR2) Efficacy of Aspirin in preventing death after a myocardial infarct number subjects treated with placebo da number of deaths after Aspirin ta total number of subjects

Goldschmidt, Christina

116

Obsessions from the past: a study of the chapter on "blasphemous thoughts" in "The Ladder of Divine Ascent" (7th century AD).  

PubMed

In this study, we examine the similarities and the differences between obsessions and the phenomena described in religious language as "blasphemous thoughts". The basis of our study is an ascetic text of the 7th century AD, entitled "The Ladder of Divine Ascent", written by Saint John Climacus (ca. 579-649), abbot of St. Catherine Monastery, Sinai. The book is considered to be one of the fundamental sources of monastic literature, which has influenced Christian anthropology. Research on the "Ladder" gives an insight in where the religious and the psychiatric pathogenic, diagnostic and therapeutic approaches converge or diverge. In addition to the scientific value, the data derived from the research could be useful to the therapist, especially when he/she copes with religious patients, in order to acquire a better empathy and thus lesser the patient's resistance toward therapy. PMID:24309880

Avgoustidis, Adamantios G

2013-12-01

117

Synoptic and mesoscale diagnosis of a tornado event in Castellcir, Catalonia, on 18th October 2006  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a synoptic and mesoscale analysis of a tornadic event in Castellcir, north of Barcelona (Spain), on 18th October 2006. The tornado caused F2 damage but, fortunately, there were no injuries. No strong forcing for upward vertical motion was identified from the synoptic analysis, but conditions were suitable for the development of convection. Despite the fact that CAPE values were not very high (more than 800 J/kg at 12 UTC), the level of free convection was low enough to favour the vertical development. A pivotal factor was the presence of an easterly low level jet and the shear profile of the hodograph near surface. Also, a thermal boundary was detected using surface observations. Operational radar observations allowed defining the precipitating structure as a mesoscale convective system (MCS) but no clear meso-cyclone was found linked to supercells features. The analysis of lightning data suggested three stages of the MCS, and similar results were obtained from the IR images study. Moreover, at the last stage of the MCS a bow echo which caused a microburst was detected at the northeast of Catalonia.

Aran, Montserrat; Amaro, Jéssica; Arús, Joan; Bech, Joan; Figuerola, Francesc; Gayà, Miquel; Vilaclara, Eliseu

118

Parameterization of 18th January 2011 earthquake in Dalbadin Region, Southwest Pakistan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An earthquake of magnitude 7.3 Mw occurred on 18th January 2011 in Southwestern Pakistan, Baluchistan province (Dalbadin Region). The area has complex tectonics due to interaction of Indian, Eurasian and Arabian plates. Both thrust and strike slip earthquakes are dominant in this region with minor, localized normal faulting events. This earthquake under consideration (Dalbadin Earthquake) posed constraints in depth and focal parameters due to lack of data for evaluation of parameters from Pakistan, Iran or Afghanistan region. Normal faulting mechanism has been proposed by many researchers for this earthquake. In the present study the earthquake was relocated using the technique of travel time residuals. Relocated coordinates and depth were utilized to calculate the focal mechanism solution with outcome of a dominant strike slip mechanism, which is contrary to normal faulting. Relocated coordinates and resulting mechanism are more reliable than many reporting agencies as evaluation in this study is augmented by data from local seismic monitoring network of Pakistan. The tectonics in the area is governed by active subduction along the Makran Subduction Zone. This particular earthquake has strike slip mechanism due to breaking of subducting oceanic plate. This earthquake is located where oceanic lithosphere is subducting along with relative movements between Lut and Helmand blocks. Magnitude of this event i.e. Mw = 7.3, re evaluated depth and a previous study of mechanism of earthquake in same region (Shafiq et al., 2011) also supports the strike slip movement.

Shafiq-Ur-Rehman; Azeem, Tahir; Abd el-aal, Abd el-aziz Khairy; Nasir, Asma

2013-12-01

119

Pre-Columbian treponemal disease from 14th century AD Safed, Israel, and implications for the medieval eastern Mediterranean.  

PubMed

In 1912, 68 medieval crania were excavated from a cave at Safed in the eastern Mediterranean and brought to the United Kingdom. It is only recently that these skulls have been studied for evidence of disease. One adult individual demonstrates multiple lesions of the cranial vault, compatible with treponematosis. Radiocarbon dating suggests the year of death to be between 1290-1420 AD. This range equates to the mamluk period, just after the crusades. This is the oldest dated case of treponematosis in the Middle East, and the first to confirm its presence there before the epidemiologically important transatlantic voyage of Christopher Columbus. The finding has significant implications for our understanding of the introduction of the disease to the Middle East and of the medieval diagnosis of ulcerating skin conditions by medical practitioners in the Mediterranean world. PMID:12740955

Mitchell, Piers D

2003-06-01

120

18th World Conference on Nondestructive Testing, 16-20 April 2012, Durban, South Africa Multidomain modelling of the magneto-mechanical behaviour of dual-  

E-print Network

18th World Conference on Nondestructive Testing, 16-20 April 2012, Durban, South Africa Multidomain.g. temperature of ovens). ArcelorMittal plans to set up a non-destructive monitoring technique to evaluate2012 Author manuscript, published in "18th World Conference on Nondestructive Testing, Durban : South

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

121

A ring-width-based reconstruction of June-July minimum temperatures since AD 1245 from white spruce stands in the Mackenzie Delta region, northwestern Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a reconstruction of June-July minimum temperatures since AD 1245 for the Mackenzie Delta region based on a 29-site network of white spruce (Picea glauca) ring-width series. Most but not all trees experienced a divergent temperature-growth response, similar to the divergence that has affected other white spruce trees across Yukon and Alaska. However, divergence in the study region began as early as AD 1900 and we have documented our methods to avoid including divergent signals in the reconstruction. Calibration/verification testing based on local temperature data, and multi-century coherence with nearby and large-scale temperature proxy records, confirm that our reconstruction is robust. The reconstruction shows cool conditions in the late 13th, early 18th and early 19th centuries, corresponding with solar minima and increased volcanism. These cool periods are interrupted by warm periods consistent with early to mid-20th century warmth. The late 20th century is the warmest interval, and the last decade is estimated to be 1.4°C warmer than any decade before the mid-20th century. The reconstructed climate history corroborates other proxy-based inferences and supports the notion that high-latitude regions such as the Mackenzie Delta have experienced rapid warming in recent decades that is exceptional in the last eight centuries.

Porter, Trevor J.; Pisaric, Michael F. J.; Kokelj, Steven V.; deMontigny, Peter

2013-09-01

122

The Lassee segment of the Vienna Basin fault system as a potential source of the earthquake of Carnuntum in the fourth century a.d.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Vienna Basin fault system is a slow moving (1-2 mm/y) active sinistral fault extending from the Alps through the Vienna Basin into the Carpathians. It comprises an array of NE-striking sinistral strike-slip segments, which differ both by their kinematic and seismologic properties. Among these, the Lassee segment 30 km east of Vienna is of particular interest for seismic hazard assessment as it shows a significant seismic slip deficit. The segment is located about 8 km from the Roman city of Carnuntum, for which archaeological data indicate a destructive earthquake in the fourth century a.d. (local intensity about 9 EMS-98). Mapping of the Lassee segment using 2D seismic, GPR, tectonic geomorphology and Pleistocene basin analysis shows a negative flower structure at a releasing bend of the Vienna Basin fault. The hanging wall of the flower structure includes a Quaternary basin filled with up to 100-m thick Pleistocene growth strata. Faults root in the basal detachment of the Alpine-Carpathian floor thrust at about 8 km depth. The active faults east of the flower structure offset a Middle Pleistocene terrace of the Danube River forming an up to 20-m high composite fault scarp. High-resolution GPR (40, 500 MHz) mapped at least four distinct surface-breaking faults along this scarp including three faults, which are covered by about 2 m of post-tectonic strata. The youngest fault offsets these strata and coincides with a 0.5-m high scarp. This scarp may be interpreted as the product of a single surface-breaking earthquake, provided that the mapped fault offset formed during coseismic surface rupture. Data indicate that the Lassee segment may well be regarded the source of the fourth century earthquake. The interpretation is in line with local attenuation relations indicating a source close to the damaged site, observed fault dimensions and the fault offsets recorded by GPR and morphology.

Beidinger, A.; Decker, K.; Roch, K. H.

2010-05-01

123

[Cardiopulmonary resuscitation through centuries].  

PubMed

THE ANCIENT TIMES: Many early civilisations left testimonies about ancient times and resuscitation, as well. Some of them did it successfully and some of them did it less successfully; however, all of them wished to help a dying person and to bring him back to life. The first trustworthy note can be found in the Bible--Old Testament as a very realistic description of resuscitation of a child. THE MIDDLE AGES: The medieval scientists, Paracelsus and Vesalius, described first successful resuscitation attempts in the 15th and 16th century. These two men successfully applied ventilation methods by air inflation with blacksmith bellows. THE MODERN ERA: The first defibrillation was recorded in the 18th century in England, which was conducted by one of the volunteer society members. With the development of mechanics and techniques, the first precursors of modern respirators were introduced in the 19th century. The age of modern cardiopulmonary resuscitation began in the middle of 20th century, when Dr Peter Safar brought in the combination of artificial ventilation and chest compressions as the standard for implementing resuscitation. Adrenalin and defibrillation were introduced into the resuscitation techniques by Dr Redding and Dr Kouwenhaven, respectively; thus beginning the advance life support administration, which has been applied, with minor changes, until today. PMID:21905608

Gaji?, Vladimir

2011-01-01

124

Integrating Women into U.S. History: A Sourcebook. Part I: Women in the 18th and 19th Centuries. Part II: Women in the 20th Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This sourcebook, in two parts, aims at supplementing the limited material dealing with women's history normally found in junior and senior high school U.S. history textbooks. The lessons were developed by teachers at an intensive summer institute dealing with women's issues. The teachers and their colleagues field-tested the lessons and revised…

Campbell, D'Ann; And Others

125

The shape variability of human tibial epiphyses in an early medieval Great Moravian population (9th-10th century AD): a geometric morphometric assessment.  

PubMed

Limb bone morphology is influenced by external factors, including changes in subsistence and socioeconomic shifts. The aim of this study was to identify and describe any trends in morphological variation in human tibial epiphyses within an early medieval population of central Europe using surface scanning and geometric morphometric methods. The results are discussed in terms of three potential sources of variation in shape variability: sexual dimorphism, age at death and social status. These parameters were tested on a Great Moravian population sample (35 men and 30 women) from a Mikulcice settlement (9th-10th century AD). Proximal (13 landmarks) and distal (8 landmarks) tibial epiphyses were evaluated independently. The most significant differences in morphology of both articular ends were found between the groups separated by sex. Proximal tibial variability in the studied sample was characterized by a strong relationship between tibial size and shape of sexual dimorphic traits. Significant shape differences were also identified between adultus (20 - 40 years) and maturus (40 - 60) age groups regarding the proximal epiphysis but neither of the epiphyses was affected by the presumed social status as derived from location within the context of the settlement. PMID:25065117

Brzobohatá, Hana; Krajícek, Václav; Velemínský, Petr; Polácek, Lumír; Velemínská, Jana

2014-01-01

126

Vocational Rehabilitation: Preparing for the 21st Century. A Report on the Mary E. Switzer Memorial Seminar (18th, Alexandria, Virginia, September 19-21, 1994). Switzer Seminar Series. Switzer Monograph, 18th Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This monograph on vocational rehabilitation programs and future directions contains papers from the 1994 Switzer Seminar. Contents are as follows: "State/Federal Program Issues and Trends" (Nell C. Carney); "Consumerism and Choice: Basic Standards for Judging Efforts and Expectations in the Vocational Rehabilitation Process" (Patricia A.…

Perlman, Leonard G., Ed.; Hansen, Carl E., Ed.

127

History of the Balkans: Twentieth Century. Volume 2. The Joint Committee on Eastern Europe Publication Series. No. 12.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Principal issues in the 20th century development of the Balkan Peninsula are discussed in this introductory history text. Three themes--national rivalries, great power interference, and the economic, social, and political problems of modernization--are given special emphasis. An overview of 18th and 19th century history precedes the two major…

Jelavich, Barbara

128

Long-term variability of storm surge frequency in the Venice Lagoon: an update thanks to eighteenth century sea level observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sea level observations made in the Venice Lagoon between 1751 and 1792 have been recovered, consisting of two time series of daily data on high and low waters at Venice and Chioggia. From comparisons with modern observations the quality of the 18th century data appears to be good enough to allow a useful analysis. A composite time series of daily mean sea level is obtained by merging the 18th century data and 1872-2004 observations at Venice Punta della Salute. The absence of reliable information on vertical references prevents the connection of the two 18th century time series with each other and with modern observations. However, daily sea level anomalies relative to the mean sea level enable to recognize storm surge events, that appear to occur more frequently in the second half of the 18th century than in the late 19th and 20th centuries, particularly during the 1751-1769 period. The record-breaking storm surge of 4 November 1966 turns out to be a remarkable event also in comparison with the events extracted from the 18th century time series. Further work is required to fill the gap between the old and modern observations.

Raicich, F.

2014-12-01

129

Floral Resources in Makushin Bay: The Aleuts of the Eighteenth Century, Social Studies Unit, Book III.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet illustrates the major plant resources in Makushin Bay and explains how each plant was used by the 18th-century Aleuts in their daily lives. Seventeen plants are illustrated and identified by their common names and, for many, the Latin names are mentioned, also. The plants represent a variety of habitats that include sandy areas;…

Partnow, Patricia H.

130

Luigi Galvani and animal electricity: two centuries after the foundation of electrophysiology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Luigi Galvani and his famous experiments on frogs carried out in the second half of the 18th century belong more to legend than to the history of science. Galvani not only laid the foundations of a new science, electrophysiology, but also opened the way for the invention of the electric battery, and thus for the development of the physical investigations

Marco Piccolino

1997-01-01

131

18th Annual International Conference of the IEEEEngineering in Medicine and Biology Society, Amsterdam 1996 2.8.3:Reflex Function  

E-print Network

18th Annual International Conference of the IEEEEngineering in Medicine and Biology Society & Cognitive Sciences,Massachusetts Institute of Technology,Cambridge,MA 02139 ABSTRACT Convergent force fields the parameters but train duration also affect the force rate of rise. Furthermore, we found that the vectorial

Bizzi, Emilio

132

CC II RR EE DD 18th International Conference on Electricity Distribution Turin, 6-9 June 2005 Session No 4  

E-print Network

CC II RR EE DD 18th International Conference on Electricity Distribution Turin, 6-9 June 2005 CIRED VERSUS PFC To date, Distribution Network Operators have generally been reluctant to allow any operation a radial feeder is approximated by the equation: QXPRV += (1) where R+jX is the line impedance and P, Q

Harrison, Gareth

133

18th Annual International Conferenceof the TEEE Engineering in Medicineand Biology Society, Amsterdam 1996 4.4.5: Image EnhancementI -MultiscaleMethods  

E-print Network

18th Annual International Conferenceof the TEEE Engineering in Medicineand Biology Society ON MAMMOGRAMS USING A FRACTAL MO.DELING APPROACH Huai Li'12, K. J. Ray Liu', and ShihChung B. Lo2 'Electrical Engineering Department and Institute for Systems Research University of Maryland at College Park, College Park

Liu, K. J. Ray

134

The 18th Annual IEEE International Symposium on Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications (PIMRC'07) 1-4244-1144-0/07/$25.00 2007 IEEE.  

E-print Network

or simply SITs. The DVB-RCS Hub is vital for the operation of the DVB-RCS satellite communications network the new developments in satellite networks such as DVB-RCS. In fact, satellite communication systemsThe 18th Annual IEEE International Symposium on Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications

Vouyioukas, Demosthenes

135

Source Parameters of the 18th September 2011 Nepal-Sikkim Earthquake of Mw 6.9 and its aftershocks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We compute earthquake source parameters of the 18th September 2011 Nepal-Sikkim earthquake and the subsequent four Sikkim earthquakes (Mw > 3.5) using waveform data from broadband seismic stations in Sikkim and its neighborhood. The relocated hypocenters of these earthquakes and the computed fault radius of the Nepal-Sikkim (~12 km) and Sikkim earthquakes (<1 km) reveal that they are spatially distinct and must have occurred on different fault(s). Considering the USGS focal mechanism and the relocated epicenter, we identify the Nepal-Sikkim earthquake to have occurred on the NE-SW striking transverse KanchenDzonga fault with left-lateral strike slip motion. A study of aftershock frequency of the Nepal-Sikkim earthquake show that the readjustment of stress through aftershock occurrences has a normal decay following Omori's Law. The hypocentral depths of the four Sikkim earthquakes lie within mid-to-lower crust, revealing that the lower crust beneath Sikkim Himalaya is seismically active.

Mitra, S.; Paul, H.; Bhattacharya, S. N.

2012-12-01

136

Early 20th Century Education in the United States: The Role of the Brothers of Holy Cross  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The French Revolution bears an ironic responsibility for generating works of charity. To counteract the devastating social effects of that late 18th century uprising, numerous religious communities were founded in France, among them the Congregation of Holy Cross. The Congregation of Holy Cross, the founding religious community behind the…

Armstrong, Philip C.

2007-01-01

137

Loss of genetic diversity in sea otters (Enhydra lutris) associated with the fur trade of the 18th and 19th centuries  

USGS Publications Warehouse

During 1969 and 1970, surveys of the endangered Yuma Clapper Rail were conducted using taped calls to elicit responses from the birds. During the two summers, more than 158 Yuma clappers were located in cattailtule marshes along the Colorado River south of Needles, California, to the International Boundary, a distance of about 240 miles. Clappers (probably of the same race) were also found in estuarian marshes of the Colorado River Delta of Mexico; in the Salton Sea; in two freshwater marsh areas near Phoenix, Arizona; and in two freshwater marshes adjacent to the lower Gila River near Tacna, Arizona.....Populations of Sonora Clapper Rails were discovered as permanent residents in five separate mangrove swamps along the west coast of Mexico in the vicinity of Kino Bay, Sonora. These observations were farther north than any heretofore reported for the race R. l. rhizophorae, and the swamps also represent the extreme northward limit of mangroves in Sonora.....During the winter, Yuma clappers did not respond to taped calls north of the International Boundary, whereas clappers along the coast of Sonora readily answered the calls during the same period of time. We conclude that most Yuma Clapper Rails migrate from their summer habitat along the Colorado River in September and do not return to the breeding areas until late April.

Larson, S.; Jameson, R.; Etnier, M.; Flemings, M.; Bentzen, P.

2002-01-01

138

Wood Densitometry in 17th and 18th Century Dutch, German, Austrian and French Violins, Compared to Classical Cremonese and Modern Violins  

PubMed Central

Classical violins produced by makers such as Antonio Stradivari and Guarneri del Gesu have long been considered the epitome of the luthier's art and the expressive tool of choice for the most celebrated violinists. It has been speculated these makers had access to wood that was unique in some way and that this was responsible for their acclaimed tonal characteristics. In an attempt to discern whether the above conjecture is true, we analyzed 17 modern and classical Dutch, German, Austrian and French violins by wood densitometry using computed tomography and correlated these results with our previous study of modern and Cremonese violins; in all studying 30 instruments of the violin family. In order to make this comparison possible we developed methods to cross calibrate results from different CT manufacturers using calibration wood pieces. We found no significant differences in median densities between modern and classical violins, or between classical violins from different origins. These results suggest that it is unlikely classical Cremonese makers had access to wood with significantly different wood density characteristics than that available to contemporaneous or modern makers. PMID:23071602

Stoel, Berend C.; Borman, Terry M.; de Jongh, Ronald

2012-01-01

139

Illustrative Data Graphics in 18th19th Century Style: A Case Study Benjamin Bach, Pierre Dragicevic, Samuel Huron, Petra Isenberg, Yvonne Jansen, Charles Perin,  

E-print Network

to imitate the graphical appeal of historic infographics. Our goal was to emulate, in particular, the hand infographics style as described in more detail below then marks a point in the second part of the illustrative

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

140

Population and Governance in mid-18th Century Bhutan, as Revealed in the Enthronement Record of Thugs-sprul ’Jigs med grags pa I (1725-1761)  

E-print Network

), Sha- gnyer (Meat Master), rTa-dpon (Stable Chief), Ba-gnyer (Cattle Master), Tsa-gnyer (Fodder Master), Drung-pa and rDzong-bzung- pa or masters of the satellite fortresses under a district Dzong. Tshogs-thob dKar-’dra-ma Servants and attendants... -paying family units of ordinary people, countless as the stars, whose necks were subject to the firm golden yoke of the royal laws and who paid annual taxes in money and in grain” (Chos rje ’brug pa’i chab ’bangs la ... dmangs mi khyim Journal of Bhutan Studies...

Ura, John Ardussi; Ura, Karma

2000-01-01

141

Isotopic tracing (Sr, Nd, U and Hf) of continental and marine aerosols in an 18th century section of the Dye-3 ice core (Greenland)  

E-print Network

environment, mineral dust also promotes oceanic productivity thereby affecting the global carbon cycle for carbonate contributions are compared to literature potential source area (PSA) data (b5 µm size fraction to the Greenland dust load with contributions from the Taklimakan, Gobi desert and the Ordos Plateau. However

Stocker, Thomas

142

Intrafamilial resource competition and mate competition shaped social-group-specific natal dispersal in the 18th and 19th century Krummhörn population.  

PubMed

We describe the natal dispersal patterns of the Krummhörn population as the outcome of intrafamilial competition. Depending on the affiliation with a specific social group and the sex of the individual, this competition is driven by different factors and obeys a different functional logic: The dispersal patterns of the daughters of landless workers allow a mate competition scenario to be detected, whereas the dispersal behavior of the children of farmers (especially of the sons) is driven by a resource competition scenario. PMID:18186514

Beise, Jan; Voland, Eckart

2008-01-01

143

Seven peasant communities in pre-industrial Europe. A comparative study of French, Italian and Swedish rural parishes (18th and early 19th century)  

E-print Network

'ed. We cannot r'eally derive gener'al propositions on peasants and the peasantr'Y from an incomplete analysis of only seven peasant communities. The pr'esent essay is no t a wOr'k of synthesis. It is mo s tly analytical as it attempts to es t ablish... .... , __ ~ _ ___ • _ • _ .... _ •••• • •••• __ • • _. _ _ • -, ... ,,-~ f~ I~R I t: \\ ~ \\ ~ ' - - .......... --.--- .---------- -----~ N :1 lUn. Kom --_ .. - ... _------- 171,-t"acl " • j L< ,I ---r-- I .-.. _.' !'~' , . " , / ,' , \\ ' , i i " I EtQ CHAPTER I POUR 1'YPES OP AGRARIAN ORGANIZATION...

Todd, Emmanuel

1976-07-29

144

Richard Bradley: a unified, living agent theory of the cause of infectious diseases of plants, animals, and humans in the first decades of the 18th century.  

PubMed

During the years 1714 to 1721, Richard Bradley, who was later to become the first Professor of Botany at Cambridge University, proposed a unified, unique, living agent theory of the cause of infectious diseases of plants and animals and the plague of humans. Bradley's agents included microscopic organisms, revealed by the studies of Robert Hooke and Antony van Leeuwenhoek. His theory derived from his experimental studies of plants and their diseases and from microscopic observation of animalcules in different naturally occurring and artificial environments. He concluded that there was a microscopic world of "insects" that lived and reproduced under the appropriate conditions, and that infectious diseases of plants were caused by such "insects." Since there are structural and functional similarities between plants and animals, Bradley concluded that microscopic organisms caused human and animal infectious diseases as well. However, his living agent cause of infectious diseases was not accepted by the contemporary scientific society. PMID:19855125

Santer, Melvin

2009-01-01

145

A Study of Some of the 17th and 18th Century Dramatic Versions of the Oedipus Legend in French and English with some Reference to Spanish  

E-print Network

of Master of Arts 1914 BIBLIOGRAPHY Alfieri , Vittori* , . . . . . . . . translated by E. A* Bowring, London, 1876, Vol. 6. A r i s t o t l e , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . • " R h e t o r i c and Poetics," London, 1903. "Autores Dramaticos... is the first to make Polybus king of Corinth instead of Sicyon. (2) "Other Greek writers besides the great tragedians 1. Introduction to"GEdipus Tyrannus,"Earle, p. 38. 2 • " " " " 6 used the tale of the OEdipus as a dramatic subject, we know...

Malott, Anne C.

1914-01-01

146

Regional tree growth and inferred summer climate in the Winnipeg River basin, Canada, since AD 1783  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A network of 54 ring-width chronologies is used to estimate changes in summer climate within the Winnipeg River basin, Canada, since AD 1783. The basin drains parts of northwestern Ontario, northern Minnesota and southeastern Manitoba, and is a key area for hydroelectric power production. Most chronologies were developed from Pinus resinosa and P. strobus, with a limited number of Thuja occidentalis, Picea glauca and Pinus banksiana. The dominant pattern of regional tree growth can be recovered using only the nine longest chronologies, and is not affected by the method used to remove variability related to age or stand dynamics from individual trees. Tree growth is significantly, but weakly, correlated with both temperature (negatively) and precipitation (positively) during summer. Simulated ring-width chronologies produced by a process model of tree-ring growth exhibit similar relationships with summer climate. High and low growth across the region is associated with cool/wet and warm/dry summers, respectively; this relationship is supported by comparisons with archival records from early 19th century fur-trading posts. The tree-ring record indicates that summer droughts were more persistent in the 19th and late 18th century, but there is no evidence that drought was more extreme prior to the onset of direct monitoring.

St. George, Scott; Meko, David M.; Evans, Michael N.

2008-09-01

147

Variation of Solar ``11-year cycle'' during the grand solar minimum in the 4th century BC by measurement of 14C content in tree rings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sunspot numbers, which reflect solar activity, have presented clear 11-year periodicity since the early 18th century. However in the period around 1645 to 1715 AD sunspots were almost absent, and this period is called the Maunder Minimum, one of grand solar minima implying weak solar activity. Variation of solar activity in grand solar minima can be investigated by determining the concentration of cosmogenic isotope 14C in annual tree rings. We obtained the 14C records of 1413 to 1745 AD including the Spoerer Minimum and the Maunder Minimum with annual time resolution. As a result of frequency analysis of these 14C records, we found that the cycle length of the "11-year cycle" during the Maunder Minimum was around 14 years while that during the Spoerer Minimum was around 11 years. This suggests that a pattern of the "11-year" cycle length variation depends on a type of minima classified by their duration of 14C increase. In order to verify this hypothesis, we have measured 14C content in Japanese camphor tree rings during a possible grand solar minimum in the 4th century BC. Preliminary result shows the solar cycle length was several years longer than 11 years, as in the Maunder Minimum.

Nagaya, K.; Kitazawa, K.; Masuda, K.; et al.

148

Learning health care systems: leading through research: the 18th Annual HMO Research Network Conference, April 29-May 2, 2012, Seattle, Washington.  

PubMed

The Health Maintenance Organization Research Network (HMORN), a consortium of 19 health care delivery systems with integrated research centers, held their 18th annual conference in Seattle, Washington from April 29 to May 2, 2012. Group Health Research Institute hosted the conference, "Learning health care systems: Leading through research". The 2012 theme was chosen to reflect the critical role of collaboration among researchers, clinicians and health systems to improve health care nationally. Over 500 researchers and health care professionals participated in this conference. Representatives from the NCI, NHLBI, NIMH, and PCORI met with researchers to advance the quality and breadth of public domain research in HMOs. In this article we summarize information about the HMORN and its 18th annual conference. PMID:22904375

Newton, Katherine M; Larson, Eric B

2012-08-01

149

Spatial trends in S and Cl in ash leachates of the May 18th, 1980 eruption of Mt. St Helens  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has long been known that surficial deposits of salts and acids on volcanic ash particles derive from interactions of ash with sulphur and halide species within the eruption plume and volcanic cloud. These compounds are mobilised as ash particles are wetted, and beneficial or detrimental environmental and health impacts may be induced where the most concentrated solutions are produced. However, limited mechanistic understanding of gas-ash interactions currently precludes prediction of the spatial distribution or variation in leachate chemistry and concentration following an eruption. Sampling and leachate analysis of freshly-fallen ash therefore offers the sole method by which such variations can be observed. Previous ash leachate studies often involve a limited number of ash samples, and utilise a 'one-dimensional' analysis that considers variation in terms of absolute distance from the source volcano. Here, we demonstrate that extensive sampling and a 'two-dimensional' analysis can uncover more complex spatial trends. We compiled over 358 leachate compositions from the May 18th 1980 eruption of Mt. St. Helens. Of the water-extracted leachates, only 95 compositions from ash sampled at 45 localities between 35 and 1129 km from the volcano are sufficiently documented to be retrospectively comparable. To consider the effects of intra-deposit variability, we calculated average concentrations of leachate data within 11×22 km grid cells across the region, and defined a data quality parameter to reflect confidence in the derived values. To investigate any dependence of leachate composition on the grain size distribution, we generated an interpolated map of geometric specific surface area variation across the deposit, normalising ash leachate data to the calculated specific surface area at the corresponding sampling location. The data treatment identifies S and Cl enrichments in proximal blast deposits; relatively constant Cl concentrations across the ashfall deposits; and a core region of depleted S concentrations in ashfall deposits between 240 and 400 km from the volcano, coinciding with the distal thickening of the deposit attributed to particle aggregation and enhanced fallout. Blast deposit enrichments can be attributed to pre-eruptive uptake of SO2 and HCl gases within the cryptodome, while ashfall deposit trends could reflect differences in the rates of HCl and SO2 uptake by ash, modified by in-plume aggregation processes. However, to validate and interpret such trends with greater confidence would have required a greater spatial density and temporal resolution of sampling, with comprehensive characterisation of the recovered ash and the surrounding deposit. In the future, rigorous study and sampling of equivalent extent to that in the aftermath of the historic Mt. St. Helens eruption is likely required to extend insight into processes affecting the spatial distribution of leachate chemistry.

Ayris, Paul M.; Delmelle, Pierre; Durant, Adam J.; Damby, David E.; Maters, Elena C.

2014-05-01

150

Was the formation of a 15 mile wide meteorite crater on the Moon observed in June 1178 AD?  

E-print Network

Was the formation of a 15 mile wide meteorite crater on the Moon observed in June 1178 AD to the night of 18th June, 1178 AD: " ... after sunset when the moon had first become visible a marvellous phenomenon was witnessed by some five or more men who were sitting there facing the moon. Now

Withers, Paul

151

Dendroclimatic Reconstruction of Summer Temperatures in Northwestern Canada since A.D. 1638 Based on Age-Dependent Modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ring widths from five Picea glauca stands at the alpine treeline in northwestern Canada are used to investigate climate-growth responses and to develop a long reconstruction of summer temperatures. Response function and linear regression analyses indicate that the radial growth response of these trees to climate varies with age and site. At most sites, the period of significant positive response to growing season temperatures declines with tree age. Age-dependent and standard (age independent) models are then used to develop two reconstructions of June-July temperatures for northwestern Canada extending back to A.D. 1638. Calibration statistics were similar for both models, but the standard model performed poorly during verification. The reconstruction produced using age-dependent modeling suggests June-July temperatures were cooler than present throughout most of the past 350 years, with the exception of the late 18th century. Particularly cool periods occurred at ˜1700 and in the mid-19th century. In constast, the standard model suggests that temperatures were similar to or warmer than present during the last 350 years. The age-dependent reconstruction compares favorably with other proxy climate records from northern North America. Age-dependent dendroclimatic modeling can provide a sensitive record of recent climatic change that allows the inclusion of previously rejected sites into dendroclimatic analyses.

Szeicz, Julian M.; MacDonald, Glen M.

1995-09-01

152

Sixteenth to eightteenth century depictions of cole crops (Brassica oleracea L.), turnip (B. rapa L. cultivar group Vegetable turnip) and radish (Raphanus sativus L.) in Flandres and the present-day Netherlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cole and neep crops are old crops in the Low Countries. The first archival records date from the 14th century. The crops have been described in herbals of the 16th and 17th century. During the 16th to 18th century they have also been depicted on paintings. In a herbal of 1554 by Dodonaeus white, red and Savoy cabbages, cauliflower and

A. C. Zeven

1996-01-01

153

Oceanic evidence of climate change in southern Australia over the last three centuries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemical analysis of deepwater octocorals collected at 1000 m depth off southern Australia indicates long-term cooling, beginning in the mid-18th century. This cooling appears to reflect shoaling of isotherms along the continental shelf, that can be related statistically, observationally and by modeling to increasing coastal sea-surface temperatures, that in turn reflect a poleward extension of the SW Pacific boundary current

Ronald Thresher; Stephen R. Rintoul; J. Anthony Koslow; Chris Weidman; Jess Adkins; Craig Proctor

2004-01-01

154

The American College of nuclear physicians 18th annual meeting and scientific sessions DOE day: Substance abuse and nuclear medicine abstracts  

SciTech Connect

Despite the enormous personal and social cost Of substance abuse, there is very little knowledge with respect to the mechanisms by which these drugs produce addiction as well as to the mechanisms of toxicity. Similarly, there is a lack of effective therapeutic intervention to treat the drug abusers. In this respect, nuclear medicine could contribute significantly by helping to gather information using brain imaging techniques about mechanisms of drug addiction which, in turn, could help design better therapeutic interventions, and by helping in the evaluation and diagnosis of organ toxicity from the use of drugs of abuse. This volume contains six short descriptions of presentations made at the 18th Meeting of the American College of Nuclear Physicians -- DOE Day: Substance Abuse and Nuclear Medicine.

Not Available

1992-02-01

155

Clear cutting (10-13th century) and deep stable economy (18-19th century) as responsible interventions for sand drifting and plaggic deposition in cultural landscapes on aeolian sands (SE-Netherlands).  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The landscape in extensive areas in SE-Netherlands is underlain by coversand, deposited during the Late Glacial of the Weichselian. In the Preboreal, aeolian processes reduced soil formation. From the Preboreal to the Atlantic a deciduous climax forest developed. The geomorphology was a coversand landscape, composed of ridges (umbric podzols), coversand plains (gleyic podzols), coversand depressions (histic podzols) and small valleys (gleysols). The area was used by hunting people during the Late Paleolithic and Mesolithic. During the Bronze and Iron Ages the area was populated by people, living from forest grazing, shifting cultivation and trade. The natural deciduous forest gradually degraded into Calluna heath. The deforestation accelerated the soil acidification and affected the hydrology, which is reflected in drying out of ridges and wetting of depressions, promoting the development of histic podzols and even histosols. Aeolian erosion was during this period restricted to local, small scale sand drifting, related to natural hazards as forest fires and hurricanes and shifting cultivation. Sustainable crop productivity on chemically poor sandy substrates required application of organic fertilizers, composed of a mixture of organic litter and animal manure with a very low mineral compound, produced in shallow stables. At least since 1000 AD, heath management was regulated by a series of rules that aimed to protect the valuable heat lands against degradation. During the 11th, 12th and 13th centuries there was an increasing demand for wood and clear cutting transformed the majority of the forests in driftsand landscapes. The most important market was formed by the very wealthy Flemish cities. The exposed soil surface was subjected to wind erosion and sand drifting which endangered the Calluna heath, arable land and even farmhouses. As a consequence, umbric podzols, the natural climax soil under deciduous forests on coversand, degraded into larger scale driftsand landscapes, characterized by deflation plains (gleyic arenosols) and complexes of inland dunes (haplic arenosols). Clear cutting was responsible for the mediaeval first large scale expansion of drift sand landscapes. In such driftsand landscapes, the majority of the podzolic soils in coversand has been truncated by aeolian erosion. Only on scattered sheltered sites in the landscape, palaeopodzols were buried under mono or polycyclic driftsand deposits. They are now the valuable soil archives for palaeoecological research. During the 18th century, the population growth and regional economic activity stimulated the agricultural productivity. Farmers introduced the innovative 'deep stable' technique to increase the production of fertilizers. Farmers started sod digging, including the top of the Ah horizon of the humus forms. This consequently promoted heath degradation and sand drifting, resulting in the extension of driftsand landscapes. Deep stable economy and sod digging was responsible for the 18th century second large scale expansion of drift sand landscapes. During the 19th century, farmers tried to find alternative fertilizers and authorities initiated reforestation projects. The invention of chemical fertilizers at the end of the 19th century marked the end of the period of heath management and plaggic agriculture. The heath was no longer used for the harvesting of plaggic matter and new land management practices were introduced. Heath was reclaimed to new arable land or reforested with Scotch pine. Geomorphological features as inland dunes and plaggic covers survived in the landscape and are now included in the geological inheritance.

van Mourik, Jan; Vera, Hein; Wallinga, Jakob

2013-04-01

156

Making a stand: five centuries of population growth in colonizing populations of Pinus ponderosa.  

PubMed

The processes underlying the development of new populations are important for understanding how species colonize new territory and form viable long-term populations. Life-history-mediated processes such as Allee effects and dispersal capability may interact with climate variability and site-specific factors to govern population success and failure over extended time frames. We studied four disjunct populations of ponderosa pine in the Bighorn Basin of north-central Wyoming to examine population growth spanning more than five centuries. The study populations are separated from continuous ponderosa pine forest by distances ranging from 15 to >100 km. Strong evidence indicates that the initial colonizing individuals are still present, yielding a nearly complete record of population history. All trees in each population were aged using dendroecological techniques. The populations were all founded between 1530 and 1655 cal yr CE. All show logistic growth patterns, with initial exponential growth followed by a slowing during the mid to late 20th century. Initial population growth was slower than expectations from a logistic regression model at all four populations, but increased during the mid-18th century. Initial lags in population growth may have been due to strong Allee effects. A combination of overcoming Allee effects and a transition to favorable climate conditions may have facilitated a mid-18th century pulse in population growth rate. PMID:22764493

Lesser, Mark R; Jackson, Stephen T

2012-05-01

157

Rf. : Munoz, M.I., Bouldi, N., Barcellini F. & Nascimento, A. (2012). Designing the safety of healthcare. Participation of ergonomics to the design of cooperative systems in radiotherapy. 18th  

E-print Network

of healthcare. Participation of ergonomics to the design of cooperative systems in radiotherapy. 18th World Congress on Ergonomics (International Ergonomics Association), February 11-16, Recife, Bra- zil. In: Work producing treatment in radiotherapy. The general framework of our ap- proach is the ergonomics management

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

158

Ankylosing spondylitis or diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH) in Royal Egyptian mummies of 18(th) -20(th) Dynasties? CT and archaeology studies.  

PubMed

Objective: We aimed to study the computed tomography (CT) scans of the royal Ancient Egyptian mummies dated to the eighteenth to early twentieth Dynasties for the claimed diagnoses of Ankylosing spondylitis and diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH) and to correlate the findings with the archaeology literature. Methods: We studied the CT images of thirteen royal Ancient Egyptian mummies (1492-1153 BC) for ankylosing spondylitis and DISH diseases. We correlated the findings with the archaeology literature. Results: CT findings excluded the diagnosis of ankylosing spondylitis based on absence of sacroiliac joints erosions, or fusion of the facet joints. Four mummies fulfilled the diagnostic criteria of DISH: Amenhotep III (18th Dynasty), Ramesses II, his son Merenptah, and Ramesses III (19th to early 20th Dynasties). Diagnosis of DISH, a commonly asymptomatic disease of the old age, in the four Pharaohs concord the longevity and active life styles that they have lived. Conclusion: CT findings excluded the diagnosis of ankylosing spondylitis in the studied royal Ancient Egyptian mummies and questioned the antiquity of the disease. CT features of DISH in this ancient period were similar to those commonly seen in modern populations and likely they will be in the future. Affection of Ramesses II and his son Merenptah supports familial clustering of DISH. The process of mummification may induce changes in the spine that should be considered during investigations of mummy diseases. © 2014 American College of Rheumatology. PMID:25329920

Saleem, Sahar N; Hawass, Zahi

2014-10-20

159

Droughts in the Czech Lands, 1090-2012 AD  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper addresses droughts in the Czech Lands in the 1090-2012 AD period, basing its findings on documentary evidence and instrumental records. Various documentary sources were employed for the selection of drought events, which were then interpreted at a monthly level. While the data on droughts before 1500 AD are scarce, the analysis concentrated mainly on droughts after this time. A dry year in 1501-1804 period (i.e. pre-instrumental times) was defined as a calendar year in the course of which dry patterns occurred on at least two consecutive months. Using this definition, 129 dry years were identified (an average of one drought per 2.4 yr). From the 16th to the 18th centuries these figures become 41, 36 and 49 yr respectively, with the prevailing occurrence of dry months from April to September (73.7%). Drought indices - SPEI-1, Z-index and PDSI - calculated for the Czech Lands for April-September describe drought patterns between 1805 and 2012 (the instrumental period). N-year recurrence intervals were calculated for each of the three indices. Using N ? 5 yr, SPEI-1 indicates 40 drought years, Z-index 39 yr and PDSI 47 yr. SPEI-1 and Z-index recorded 100 yr drought in 1834, 1842, 1868, 1947 and 2003 (50 yr drought in 1992). PDSI as an indicator of long-term drought disclosed two important drought periods: 1863-1874 and 2004-2012. The first period was related to a lack of precipitation, the other may be attributed to recent temperature increases without significant changes in precipitation. Droughts from the pre-instrumental and instrumental period were used to compile a long-term chronology for the Czech Lands. The number of years with drought has fluctuated between 26 in 1951-2000 and 16 in 1651-1700. Only nine drought years were recorded between 1641 and 1680, while between 1981 and 2012 the figure was 22 yr. A number of past severe droughts are described in detail: in 1540, 1590, 1616, 1718 and 1719. A discussion of the results centres around the uncertainty problem, the spatial variability of droughts, comparison with tree-ring reconstructions from southern Moravia, and the broader central European context.

Brázdil, R.; Dobrovolný, P.; Trnka, M.; Kotyza, O.; ?ezní?ková, L.; Valášek, H.; Zahradní?ek, P.; Št?pánek, P.

2013-08-01

160

Droughts in the Czech Lands, 1090-2012 AD  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper addresses droughts in the Czech Lands in the 1090-2012 AD period, basing its findings on documentary evidence and instrumental records. Various documentary sources were employed for the selection of drought events, which were then interpreted at a monthly level. While the data on droughts before 1500 AD are scarce, the analysis concentrated mainly on droughts after this time. A dry year in 1501-1804 period (i.e. pre-instrumental times) was defined as a calendar year in the course of which dry patterns occurred on at least two consecutive months. Using this definition, 129 dry years were identified (an average of one drought per 2.4 yr). From the 16th to the 18th centuries these figures become 41, 36 and 49 yr, respectively, with the prevailing occurrence of dry months from April to September (73.7%). Drought indices - SPEI-1, Z-index and PDSI - calculated for the Czech Lands for April-September describe drought patterns between 1805 and 2012 (the instrumental period). N year recurrence intervals were calculated for each of the three indices. Using N ? 5 yr, SPEI-1 indicates 40 drought years, Z-index 39 yr and PDSI 47 yr. SPEI-1 and Z-index recorded 100 yr drought in 1834, 1842, 1868, 1947 and 2003 (50 yr drought in 1992). PDSI as an indicator of long-term drought disclosed two important drought periods: 1863-1874 and 2004-2012. The first period was related to a lack of precipitation, the other may be attributed to recent temperature increases without significant changes in precipitation. Droughts from the pre-instrumental and instrumental period were used to compile a long-term chronology for the Czech Lands. The number of years with drought has fluctuated between 26 in 1951-2000 and 16 in 1651-1700. Only nine drought years were recorded between 1641 and 1680, while between 1981 and 2012 the figure was 22 yr. A number of past severe droughts are described in detail: in 1540, 1590, 1616, 1718 and 1719. A discussion of the results centres around the uncertainty problem, the spatial variability of droughts, comparison with tree-ring reconstructions from southern Moravia, and the broader Central European context.

Brázdil, R.; Dobrovolný, P.; Trnka, M.; Kotyza, O.; ?ezní?ková, L.; Valášek, H.; Zahradní?ek, P.; Št?pánek, P.

2013-05-01

161

18TH ANNUAL Sponsored by  

E-print Network

be found online at www.math.unl.edu/~agam Questions: Please call (402) 472-8965 or e-mail: agam Breakfast Codes and cryptology class Lunch Tour of campus Mini-course Dinner Night out at the movies Free time / study time Saturday Checkout Problem workshop with breakfast #12;

Logan, David

162

Friday 18th September 2009  

E-print Network

and, on occasions, our nation. They can re-emerge, evolve or even emerge anew. From a recent Foresight programme (www.foresight.gov.uk ), it is clear that the risks are ever- present; with one new worldwide. The technology for their diagnosis is impressive although not universally implemented. However, the issue of `who

Burn, Charlotte

163

New adventures among old books; an essay in eighteenth century bibliography  

E-print Network

of Publications Compiled by MARY MAUD SMELSER 1935 2. University of Kansas Graduate School Theses, 1888-1947 Compiled by BESSIE E. WILDER (Paper, $1.50) 1949 3. Two Augustan Booksellers: John Dunton and Edmund Curll by PETER MURRAY HILL (Paper, $1.50) 1958...), 49-54, and references therein. * Papers of the Bib. Soc. of America, XLVII (1953), 70-75. 6 Poems, Somerville's The Chace, and Thomson's Sopho- nisba? All these represent a risky gamble in the present lottery of 18th century books. Even so, I...

Todd, William B. (William Burton)

1958-01-01

164

Island Universes, Novae and Supernovae. A Great Debate of the XX Century  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The concept of island universes as very great stellar structures, was conceived in the 18th century. This fascinating idea started to be taken into consideration as soon as great telescopes permitted to observe and classify numerous and different--shape nebulae, especially spirals, in which novae were discovered. In 1920, a public debate concerning the scale of the universe, took place in Washington: Heber D. Curtis and Harlow Shapley presented their different opinion on this subject. Since that time, a new view of the universe and its dimension started to be considered.

Pigatto, L.

2005-12-01

165

Nutrition, aspects of land use and environment in medieval times in southern Germany: plant macro-remain analysis from latrines (late 11th–13th century a.d .) at the town of Überlingen, Lake Constance  

Microsoft Academic Search

From high medieval courtyards at Überlingen, Lake Constance (Bodensee), 17 archaeobotanical samples from seven latrines (11th–13th\\u000a century) were analysed for plant macrofossils. They contained small amounts of cultivated plants and many well preserved seeds\\u000a and fruits of wild plants. The most numerous cereal finds were of Triticum spelta followed by Secale cereale. Recorded oil plants were Papaver somniferum and Linum

Tanja Märkle

2005-01-01

166

Climatic information of Western Sahel (1535-1793 AD) in original documentary sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Sahel is the semi-arid transition zone between arid Sahara and humid tropical Africa, extending approximately 10-20° N from Mauritania in the West to Sudan in the East. The African continent, one of the most vulnerable regions to climate change, is subject to frequent droughts and famine. One climate challenge research is to isolate those aspects of climate variability that are natural from those that are related to human influences. Therefore, the study of climatic conditions before mid-19th century, when anthropogenic influence was of minor importance, is very interesting. In this work the frequency of extreme events, such as droughts and floods, in Western Sahel from the 16th to 18th centuries is investigated using documentary data. Original manuscripts with historical chronicles from Walata and Nema (Mauritania), Timbuktu and Arawan (Mali), and Agadez (Niger) have been analyzed. Information on droughts, intense rainfall, storms and floods, as well as socioeconomic aspects (famines, pests, scarcity, prosperity) has been codified in an ordinal scale ranging from -2 (drought and famines) to +2 (floods) to obtain a numerical index of the annual rainfall in the region. Results show wet conditions in the 17th century, as well as dry conditions in the 18th century (interrupted by a short wet period in the 1730s decade).

Millán, V.; Rodrigo, F. S.

2014-09-01

167

Added Sugars  

MedlinePLUS

... don’t need sugar to function properly. Added sugars contribute zero nutrients but many added calories that can lead to extra pounds or even obesity, thereby reducing heart health. If you think of ...

168

[Age-related changes in antioxidant parameters in healthy calves between the first day of life and the 18th month taking into consideration selected metabolic parameters.  

PubMed

Objective: To follow the age-dependent development of anti-oxidative metabolic parameters in healthy cattle from birth until 18 months of age. Material and methods: Blood samples from healthy female cattle were collected at days 1 and 7 post natum (p. n.) and during the 1st, 3rd, 6th, 9th, 12th and 18th months p. n. The antioxidant parameters superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and Trolox equivalent antioxidative capacity (TEAC), haematocrit (Hct) and the metabolic parameters total protein, albumin, bilirubin, calcium, inorganic phosphate, iron, urea, cholesterol, ?-hydroxybutyrate, alkaline phosphatase, aspartate transaminase, glutamate dehydrogenase, creatine kinase and haptoglobin were determined. Results: All three antioxidant parameters displayed a comparable time-course, with a maximum at 6 months p. n. With the exception of the 9th month p. n., significantly positive correlations were found constantly. GPX activity increased continuously from 50-80 U/ml Hct on day 1 p. n. to 100-190 U/ml Hct in the 6th month p. n. The significantly lowest activities were found on the 1st and 7th days p. n. SOD activity at the 1st (4500-5600 U/g haemoglobin [Hb]) and 7th days p. n. were significantly lower than in the 1st and 3rd months p. n. Activities at 12 and 18 months displayed significantly lower values compared to the 1st, 3rd and 6th (5000-9100 U/g Hb) months p. n. The increase in the TEAC concentration from 220-290 µmol/l on day 1 to 260-340 µmol/l in the 6th month p. n. was non-significant. Thereafter, a significant decrease in the concentrations (p > 0.05) was found. Conclusion: Parallel trends for SOD, GPX and TEAC found in this study indicate a fully functioning antioxidant defence system in the calf, which is well adjusted to and able to compensate the inevitable oxidative stress of birth, onset of respiration, haemoglobin remodelling, forestomach development and other physiological processes. PMID:25427759

Haser, D; Fürll, M

2014-11-27

169

Effects of slope on the formation of dunes in dilute, turbulent pyroclastic currents: May 18th, 1980 Mt. St. Helens eruption  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The flanks of Mt St Helens volcano (MSH) are draped with thin, cross-stratified and stratified pyroclastic density current (PDC) deposits. These are known as the proximal bedded deposits produced during the May 18th, 1980 eruption of MSH. While the concentrated portions of the afternoon PDCs followed deep topographic drainages down the steep flanks of the volcano, the dilute overriding cloud partially decoupled to develop fully dilute, turbulent PDCs on the flanks of the volcano (Beeson, D.L. 1988. Proximal Flank Facies of the May 18, 1980 Ignimbrite: Mt. St. Helens, Washington.). The deposits along the flank thus vary greatly from those found in the pumice plain, which are generally thick, massive, poorly-sorted, block-rich deposits associated with the more concentrated portions of the flow (Brand et al, accepted. Dynamics of pyroclastic density currents: Conditions that promote substrate erosion and self-channelization - Mount St Helens, Washington (USA). JVGR). We explore the influence of topography on the formation of these dilute currents and influence of slope on the currents transport and depositional mechanisms. The deposits on steeper slopes (>15°) are fines depleted relative to the proximal bedded deposits on shallower slopes (<15°). Bedform amplitude and wavelength increase with increasing slope, as does the occurrence of regressive dunes. Increasing slope causes an increase in flow velocity and thus an increase in flow turbulence. The fines depleted deposits suggest that fine ash elutriation is more efficient in flows with stronger turbulence. The longer wavelength and amplitudes suggest that bedform morphology is directly related to flow velocity, an important finding since the controls on bedform wavelength and amplitude in density stratified flows remains poorly constrained. The occurrence of regressive dunes, often interpreted as high flow-regime bedforms, on steeper slopes relative to progressive dunes on shallower slopes further attests to the control of velocity and flow regime on bedform morphology. Samples collected from recently exposed deposits and analyzed by grain size measurements, density analyses, and crystal morphoscopy studies further assess modes of origin and transport of dilute PDCs.

Bendana, Sylvana; Brand, Brittany D.; Self, Stephen

2014-05-01

170

Papers and Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Midwest History of Education Society (18th, Chicago, Illinois, October 29-30, 1982).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The papers of this proceedings are organized into four parts : religion and education; the politics of urban education; issues in minority education; and concepts of childhood. The first paper in part 1 "I will Declare What He Hath Done for My Soul: Female Conversion Narratives in the Early Nineteenth Century" (V. L. Brereton) explores the…

Rutkowski, Edward, Ed.

1983-01-01

171

An Odyssey into the New Millennium: Rediscover 21st Century Business & Marketing Education. Proceedings of the Annual Atlantic Coast Business & Marketing Education Conference (18th, Raleigh, North Carolina, February 15-17, 2001).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The following 13 papers on business and marketing education are included in this document: "Internet Marketing" (Herb Brown, Jerry Kandies); "Disk This . . . Paper Flow on the Go!" (Mary Evans, Wilbur Whitley); "Production and Evaluation of On-Line Tutorials" (Margie Gallagher, Evelyn Farrior, Jane Geissler); "Basic Skills Needed for Entry-Level…

Tucker, Sheila, Ed.

172

News and Views: Gemini hits 1000 papers; Comet Elenin? Forget it! Sellers launches course; Merry Christmas from 18th-century Lapland; ET: where are they all hiding? SETI in the city; Complex organic molecules may not mean life  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

No-one has yet found artefacts from an alien civilization, but have we looked hard enough? Astronomers seeking signs of extraterrestrial intelligence have suggested a novel approach: look for alien cities. The search for signs of life in the universe has included the detection of complex organic molecules, seen as a step on the way to living things. But now analysis of spectral signatures known as Unidentified Infrared Emission features found in stars, interstellar space and galaxies suggest that complex organic molecules can be made in stars in a matter of weeks without the presence of life.

2011-12-01

173

Adding Fractions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this web-based tutorial, students learn procedures for adding fractions with like and unlike denominators. The tutorial includes visual representations of the problems using pizzas, animations of the algorithm, and links to related lessons, worksheets, and practice problems.

Website, Math I.

2011-09-23

174

???History of Cholera Outbreaks in Iran during the 19th and 20th Centuries  

PubMed Central

Cholera is an acute infectious disease with high mortality if left untreated. Historically, between the 19th and 20th centuries seven great pandemics of cholera occurred and worldwide, thousands of people died. Based on an old theory, cholera was considered an air-born disease and the emergence of its outbreaks were attributed to bad weather or miasma. However later in the 18th century, British physician John Snow (1813-1858) explained the association of a terrible cholera outbreak in London in 1849 to contamination of the drinking water supply with human excreta. Despite his finding, the causative agent of this dreaded illness was unidentified until later in the 19th century. In 1854, Filippo Pacini (1812-1883) an anatomist from Italy and then in 1883, Robert Koch (1843-1910) the German bacteriologist, discovered ‘vibrio cholerae’ as the etiologic agent. During the major pandemics of cholera in 19th and 20th centuries this illness reached Iran and led to vast depopulation and a crucial impact on the country’s socioeconomic status. Poor public health conditions, lack of a well-organized public health authority for implementing preventive and quarantine measures as well as Iran’s specific geographic location were the main facilitating factors of the emergence of various epidemics, including cholera in Iran. The present paper briefly reviews the cholera outbreaks in Iran during the 19th and 20th centuries. PMID:25197514

Azizi, MH; Azizi, F

2010-01-01

175

Spinning AdS Propagators  

E-print Network

We develop the embedding formalism to describe symmetric traceless tensors in Anti-de Sitter space. We use this formalism to construct the bulk-to-bulk propagator of massive spin J fields and check that it has the expected short distance and massless limits. We also and a split representation for the bulk-to-bulk propagator, by writing it as an integral over the boundary of the product of two bulk-to-boundary propagators. We exemplify the use of this representation with the computation of the conformal partial wave decomposition of Witten diagrams. In particular, we determine the Mellin amplitude associated to AdS graviton exchange between minimally coupled scalars of general dimension, including the regular part of the amplitude.

Costa, Miguel S; Penedones, Joao

2014-01-01

176

[The century of noise].  

PubMed

When did, actually, "noise pollution" begin to coexist along with our daily life and activities and change our environmental natural sounds, which hadn't changed for centuries? Industrial revolution, first, and the introduction of new technologies later, introduced "noise" as one of the most relevant features that marked the development of progress. Later on, it became the distinctive characteristic of the XX century. The incessant rumble of industrial machinery, of weapons and cannons from the wars, the roar of cars in the streets and aeroplanes from the sky, the deafening sound of XX century music, as well as the shouting out of new political ideas suddenly invaded the new century. They became part of our daily life so much as almost to become a new lay religion of modernity. As the century proceeded towards economic boom, a "new noisy Man" complied with this change, becoming the anthropologic prototype who was able to adapt to the new style of life and even contribute to its expansion. All this finally allows, to day, a definition of the XX century as the "century of noise". PMID:22073664

Pivato, Stefano

2011-01-01

177

New high-precision, high-resolution records of atmospheric methane from Greenland and Antarctic ice cores: 0-1800 A.D  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atmospheric methane has caused the second largest increase in radiative forcing from greenhouse gases since the start of the industrial revolution, and methane sources and sinks are sensitive to climate variations. Here we present high-precision, high-resolution records of atmospheric methane from the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) Divide 05A ice core (WDC05A, 1000-1800 A.D., [Mitchell et al., in prep.]) and preliminary results from the WAIS Divide deep ice core (WDC06A, 0-1270 A.D.) and the Greenland ice core (GISP2D, 0-1800 A.D.). These records have decadal scale temporal resolution and an analytical precision of <3 ppb, and when complete will provide a high resolution interpolar gradient (IPG) record allowing investigation of geographical changes in atmospheric methane sources on multi-decadal timescales. The WDC05A methane record is highly correlated with the only previous high resolution record which comes from Law Dome (r2 = 0.73). The high degree of correlation increases confidence in both records and shows that the multidecadal variability present in both records is real. An offset between the gas age timescales is apparent and the maximum correlation (r2 = 0.81) is attained when one of the timescales is shifted by 9 years which is within the published uncertainty of ±10 years for WAIS Divide [Mischler et al., accepted]. Large changes in methane concentration during large, rapid climate changes (i.e. Dansgaard-Oeschger events) have been used to synchronize gas age timescales from a variety of ice cores. Our results demonstrate that high-precision records of methane with decadal scale sample resolution from ice cores that experience moderate smoothing from the firn can be used to synchronize gas age timescales between different ice cores on fine time scales. Finally we compare these atmospheric methane records with numerous paleoclimate archives that could have played a dominant role in regulating past emissions, namely records of temperature, hydrologic, and anthropogenic changes. We find no correlation with hemispheric scale temperature reconstructions, but it is possible that specific events occurring in methane source regions such as the large temperature drop from 1550-1600 A.D. in the high latitude northern hemisphere were significant enough to cause a reduction in global methane concentration. We have also identified a possible correlation with a proxy for East Asian monsoon strength. Comparison with records of anthropogenic activities does not provide compelling evidence for humans having a significant impact on methane emissions prior to the start of the Industrial Revolution in the 18th century.

Mitchell, L. E.; Brook, E.

2009-12-01

178

The study of anatomy in England from 1700 to the early 20th century  

PubMed Central

The study of anatomy in England during the 18th and 19th century has become infamous for bodysnatching from graveyards to provide a sufficient supply of cadavers. However, recent discoveries have improved our understanding of how and why anatomy was studied during the enlightenment, and allow us to see the context in which dissection of the human body took place. Excavations of infirmary burial grounds and medical school cemeteries, study of hospital archives, and analysis of the content of surviving anatomical collections in medical museums enables us to re-evaluate the field from a fresh perspective. The pathway from a death in poverty, sale of the corpse to body dealer, dissection by anatomist or medical student, and either the disposal and burial of the remains or preservation of teaching specimens that survive today in medical museums is a complex and fascinating one. PMID:21496014

Mitchell, Piers D; Boston, Ceridwen; Chamberlain, Andrew T; Chaplin, Simon; Chauhan, Vin; Evans, Jonathan; Fowler, Louise; Powers, Natasha; Walker, Don; Webb, Helen; Witkin, Annsofie

2011-01-01

179

When to celebrate the end of the century  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I was saddened to read an ad for AGU's Fall Meeting that described it as “the last geophysical meeting to be held in this century” It is not. “This” century (the twentieth) ends on December 31, 2000. If scientists aren't sure what the word “century” means or have difficulty counting off intervals of one hundred, starting at one, how can we ever expect the news media and general public to get things right?Some say this is just a matter of semantics or religious significance. Not so: it is about consistent definitions and counting—something scientists are supposed to care about and attend to.

Warren, Bruce A.

181

EAST 18TH AVE (limited vehicle access)  

E-print Network

sleeping bags or wash tents. A minimum $10 fee will be assessed to each item determined to require cleaning Students and OP Co-op Members ONLY! Co-op Membership Costs: $20/year for UO faculty, sta and alumni $25

182

2012 Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Friday, May 18th  

E-print Network

Company: Embedded Systems for Military Aircraft" [10 mins] Stephen Buckley: "Building a Traffic Operations of Interest" [10 mins] Lynne Matthews: "L-3 Communications Collaborative Research: Ensuring the Trust, Safety Patient Assessment in ICUs" [10 mins] Yan Lu: "Siemens Corporate Research - Integrated Building Energy

Plotkin, Joshua B.

183

The 18th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Topics concerning aerospace mechanisms, their functional performance, and design specifications are presented. Discussed subjects include the design and development of release mechanisms, actuators, linear driver/rate controllers, antenna and appendage deployment systems, position control systems, and tracking mechanisms for antennas and solar arrays. Engine design, spaceborne experiments, and large space structure technology are also examined.

1984-01-01

184

Seminar Series Monday, June 18th  

E-print Network

University of Agriculture Morogoro, Tanzania and Linda Engström SLU and NAI, Sweden Jumanne Abdallah is employed as a Senior Lecturer at Sokoine University of Agriculture in the Department of Forest economics work with internationalization and development issues, initiated at the Department for Urban and Rural

185

Researcher Discovers 18th Moon Orbiting Uranus  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Scientist Erich Karkoschka, at the Lunar and Planetary Lab at the University of Arizona, has discovered another moon, the eighteenth, orbiting Uranus. The unusual aspect of this discovery is that while most moons are discovered within days of an image being taken, in this case, the image is more than thirteen years-old. The spacecraft Voyager 2 captured the original image when it flew by Uranus in January 1986. However, no one was able to recognize this satellite until Karkoschka investigated these images. A summary of this discovery can be found at the site, a news release from Astronomy Now Online.

186

Chinese syzygy calculation established in the 13th century  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the 13th century, a new type of Chinese astronomical calculation was put into use, and it was almost entirely included in the calendar of Shoushi (formulated by Guo shou-jing and his collaborators, epoch AD 1281, adopted from AD 1281-1644). Afterwards, this calendar has been thought of as one of the most accurate in the history of China. The perfectly

Y. Li; C. Z. Zhang

1998-01-01

187

Twentieth-century Authors  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

College and Research Library News has posted this new annotated directory to aid students and researchers working with English literature of the twentieth century. This site focuses on major English-language writers, offering mainly "biographical and bibliographic information, with some information on literary criticism."

188

Two Centuries of Progress in Technical Communication  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A common aphorism in the halls of education is that the writing skills of Americans decline over time. Compared to the "golden age of letters," so the argument goes, each subsequent generation of writers is worse than the last. Although contemporary readers and educators commiserate over encounters with bad writing, a fair comparison of 18th

Connatser, Bradford R.

2007-01-01

189

Southeast Asian Mega-Droughts of the Past 5 Centuries from Tree Rings and Historical Records  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The need for understanding the natural range of climate variability in the monsoon regions of Asia - among the worldês most heavily populated and most dependent on agriculture - is critical for making sound planning decisions in the face of expected hydrological changes associated with global climate change. As part of a US National Science Foundation-funded project (Tree Ring Reconstructions of Asian Monsoon Climate Variability) we have produced climate-responsive tree-ring records from tropical Asia that span the past five centuries. We find compelling evidence for 18th century decadal-scale summer monsoon droughts that span from India to Vietnam. Historical records corroborate that periods of severe drought occurred across much of the region during this time, while speleothem and coral records suggest multiple decadal-scale droughts for much of the Little Ice Age period in India, and elevated Sea Surface Temperature (SST) during the 18th century for much of the tropical Pacific, respectively. Tropical Pacific SST anomalies are seen as one key component to monsoon variability over the study region, with El Ni?o and La Ni?a like conditions resulting in rainfall reductions and increases, respectively, with corresponding opposite-sign anomalies across much of western North America. Persistent anomaly trends in the SST fields can result in the kinds of decadal-scale variability our studies suggest, although this is not the entire story. We explore the role of the Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation (IPO), first defined in 1999 as a Pacific-wide measure of variability that is physically distinct from both the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) and the El Ni?o Southern Oscillation (ENSO), in contributing to protracted -mega-droughts" in the region related to weakening monsoon strength, as suggested by recent research. Interestingly, near-millennium-aged conifers from Vietnam and Laos have been located and much longer records are now being constructed. Of great interest is the period of the late 14th and early 15th centuries when a very week monsoon is thought to have occurred, possibly contributing to the demise of the Angkor Wat civilization in Cambodia.

Buckley, B. M.

2007-12-01

190

AdS spacetime in warped spacetimes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We obtain a large class of AdS spacetimes warped with certain internal spaces in 11-dimensional and type IIA or IIB supergravities. The warp factors depend only on the internal coordinates. These solutions arise as the near-horizon geometries of more general semilocalized multi-intersections of p-branes. We achieve this by noting that any sphere (or AdS spacetime) of dimension greater than 3

M. Cvetic; H. Lü; C. N. Pope; J. F. Vázquez-Poritz

2000-01-01

191

Gaugino mass in AdS space  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study supersymmetric QED in AdS4 with massless matter. At 1-loop the ultra-violet regulator of the theory generates a contribution to the gaugino mass that is naïvely inconsistent with unbroken supersymmetry. We show that this effect, known in flat space as anomaly mediated supersymmetry breaking, is required to cancel an infra-red contribution arising from the boundary conditions in AdS space,

Ben Gripaios; Hyung Do Kim; Riccardo Rattazzi; Michele Redi; Claudio A. Scrucca

2009-01-01

192

Magnetic Monopoles in AdS  

SciTech Connect

Applications to holographic theories have led to some recent interest in magnetic monopoles in four-dimensional Anti-de Sitter (AdS) spacetime. Some analytic and numerical results are discussed for monopoles in AdS, including the symmetries of minimal energy monopoles (which are often Platonic), a connection to Skyrmions, and the emergence of a hexagonal lattice in the large charge limit.

Sutcliffe, Paul [Department of Mathematical Sciences, Durham University, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom)

2011-09-22

193

Evaluation of the 2012 18th Maternal and Child Health (MCH) Epidemiology and 22nd CityMatCH MCH Urban Leadership Conference: six month impact on science, program, and policy.  

PubMed

The 18th Maternal and Child Health (MCH) Epidemiology and 22nd CityMatCH MCH Urban Leadership Conference took place in December 2012, covering MCH science, program, and policy issues. Assessing the impact of the Conference on attendees' work 6 months post-Conference provides information critical to understanding the impact and the use of new partnerships, knowledge, and skills gained during the Conference. Evaluation assessments, which included collection of quantitative and qualitative data, were administered at two time points: at Conference registration and 6 months post-Conference. The evaluation files were merged using computer IP address, linking responses from each assessment. Percentages of attendees reporting Conference impacts were calculated from quantitative data, and common themes and supporting examples were identified from qualitative data. Online registration was completed by 650 individuals. Of registrants, 30 % responded to the 6 month post-Conference assessment. Between registration and 6 month post-Conference evaluation, the distribution of respondents did not significantly differ by organizational affiliation. In the 6 months following the Conference, 65 % of respondents reported pursuing a networking interaction; 96 % shared knowledge from the Conference with co-workers and others in their agency; and 74 % utilized knowledge from the Conference to translate data into public health action. The Conference produced far-reaching impacts among Conference attendees. The Conference served as a platform for networking, knowledge sharing, and attaining skills that advance the work of attendees, with the potential of impacting organizational and workforce capacity. Increasing capacity could improve MCH programs, policies, and services, ultimately impacting the health of women, infants, and children. PMID:25107597

Arellano, Danielle E; Goodman, David A; Howlette, Travis; Kroelinger, Charlan D; Law, Mark; Phillips, Donna; Jones, Jessica; Brantley, Mary D; Fitzgerald, Maureen

2014-09-01

194

Identifying 21st Century Capabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

What are the capabilities necessary to meet 21st century challenges? Much of the literature on 21st century skills focuses on skills necessary to meet those challenges associated with future work in a globalised world. The result is a limited characterisation of those capabilities necessary to address 21st century social, health and particularly…

Stevens, Robert

2012-01-01

195

Century 21 Digital Collection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From April 21 to October 21, 1962, Seattle played host to millions of people who sought out a glimpse into the future through the Century 21 Exposition. This world's fair presented an optimistic vision of "a future improved through science and technology" and this online collection from the Seattle Public Library presents over 1,200 photographs of the fair, along with books, brochures, reports, and more. The photos were taken by Werner Lenggenhager, a Swiss immigrant who donated his works to the Seattle Public Library after his death. Visitors can browse the suggested topics, which include Aerial Views, Space Needle, and Seattle Center Before Century 21. Visitors should also be sure to catch the six photos of Elvis Presley as he sang and danced his way across the grounds while filming, "It Happened at the World's Fair."

196

AdS in Warped Spacetimes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We obtain a large class of AdS spacetimes warped with certain internal spaces\\u000ain eleven-dimensional and type IIA\\/IIB supergravities. The warp factors depend\\u000aonly on the internal coordinates. These solutions arise as the near-horizon\\u000ageometries of more general semi-localised multi-intersections of $p$-branes. We\\u000aachieve this by noting that any sphere (or AdS spacetime) of dimension greater\\u000athan 3 can be

M. Cvetiÿc; H. Lu; C. N. Pope; J. F. Vazquez-Poritz

2000-01-01

197

Stability in Asymptotically AdS Spaces  

E-print Network

We discuss two types of instabilities which may arise in string theory compactified to asymptotically AdS spaces: perturbative, due to discrete modes in the spectrum of the Laplacian, and non-perturbative, due to brane nucleation. In the case of three dimensional Einstein manifolds, we completely characterize the presence of these instabilities, and in higher dimensions we provide a partial classification. The analysis may be viewed as an extension of the Breitenlohner-Freedman bound. One interesting result is that, apart from a very special class of exceptions, all Euclidean asymptotically AdS spaces with more than one conformal boundary component are unstable, if the compactification admits BPS branes or scalars saturating the Breitenlohner-Freedman bound. As examples, we analyze quotients of AdS in any dimension and AdS Taub-NUT spaces, and show a space which was previously discussed in the context of AdS/CFT is unstable both perturbatively and non-perturbatively.

M. Kleban; M. Porrati; R. Rabadan

2004-09-23

198

AdBlockVideo  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Video ads can be quite a nuisance. AdBlockVideo can help users out by effectively blocking such ads. Visitors will need to download the program and they can toggle AdBlockVideo on and off as they see fit. This application is compatible with computers running Windows 98 and newer, Max OS 10.3 and newer, and Linux.

2011-01-01

199

Supersymmetric holography on AdS3  

E-print Network

The proposed duality between Vasiliev's supersymmetric higher spin theory on AdS3 and the 't Hooft limit of the 2d superconformal Kazama-Suzuki models is analysed in detail. In particular, we show that the partition functions of the two theories agree in the large N limit.

Constantin Candu; Matthias R. Gaberdiel

2012-03-08

200

AdS Solutions Through Transgression  

E-print Network

We present new classes of explicit supersymmetric AdS_3 solutions of type IIB supergravity with non-vanishing five-form flux and AdS_2 solutions of D=11 supergravity with electric four-form flux. The former are dual to two-dimensional SCFTs with (0,2) supersymmetry and the latter to supersymmetric quantum mechanics with two supercharges. We also investigate more general classes of AdS_3 solutions of type IIB supergravity and AdS_2 solutions of D=11 supergravity which in addition have non-vanishing three-form flux and magnetic four-form flux, respectively. The construction of these more general solutions makes essential use of the Chern-Simons or "transgression" terms in the Bianchi identity or the equation of motion of the field strengths in the supergravity theories. We construct infinite new classes of explicit examples and for some of the type IIB solutions determine the central charge of the dual SCFTs. The type IIB solutions with non-vanishing three-form flux that we construct include a two-torus, and af...

Donos, Aristomenis; Kim, Nakwoo

2008-01-01

201

Stability in asymptotically AdS spaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

We discuss two types of instabilities which may arise in string theory compactified to asymptotically AdS spaces: perturbative, due to discrete modes in the spectrum of the laplacian, and non-perturbative, due to brane nucleation. In the case of three dimensional Einstein manifolds, we completely characterize the presence of these instabilities, and in higher dimensions we provide a partial classification. The

Matthew Kleban; Massimo Porrati; Raul Rabadan

2005-01-01

202

AdS. Klein-Gordon equation  

E-print Network

I propose a generalization of the Klein-Gordon equation in the framework of AdS space-time and exhibit a four parameter family of solutions among which there is a two parameter family of time-dependent bound states.

Ll. Bel

2014-05-22

203

AdS null deformations with inhomogeneities  

E-print Network

We study $AdS\\times X$ null deformations arising as near horizon limits of D3-brane analogs of inhomogenous plane waves. Restricting to normalizable deformations for the $AdS_5$ case, these generically correspond in the dual field theory to SYM states with lightcone momentum density $T_{++}$ varying spatially, the homogenous case studied in arXiv:1202.5935 [hep-th] corresponding to uniform $T_{++}$. All of these preserve some supersymmetry. Generically these inhomogenous solutions exhibit analogs of horizons in the interior where a timelike Killing vector becomes null. From the point of view of $x^+$-dimensional reduction, the circle pinches off on these horizon loci in the interior. We discuss similar inhomogenous solutions with asymptotically Lifshitz boundary conditions, as well as aspects of Lifshitz singularities in string constructions involving $AdS$ null deformations. We also briefly discuss holographic entanglement entropy for some of these.

Narayan, K

2012-01-01

204

AdS spacetime in warped spacetimes  

SciTech Connect

We obtain a large class of AdS spacetimes warped with certain internal spaces in 11-dimensional and type IIA or IIB supergravities. The warp factors depend only on the internal coordinates. These solutions arise as the near-horizon geometries of more general semilocalized multi-intersections of p-branes. We achieve this by noting that any sphere (or AdS spacetime) of dimension greater than 3 can be viewed as a foliation involving S{sup 3} (or AdS{sub 3}). Then the S{sup 3} (or AdS{sub 3}) can be replaced by a three-dimensional lens space (or a BTZ black hole), which arises naturally from the introduction of a NUT (or a pp wave) to the M-branes or the D3-brane. We then obtain multi-intersections by performing a Kaluza-Klein reduction or Hopf T-duality transformation on the fiber coordinate of the lens space (or the BTZ black hole). These geometries provide further possible examples of the AdS/CFT correspondence and of consistent embeddings of lower-dimensional gauged supergravities in D=11 or D=10.

Cvetic, M.; Lu'', H.; Pope, C. N.; Vazquez-Poritz, J. F.

2000-12-15

205

AdS spacetimes and isometric embeddings  

E-print Network

An algebraic global isometric embedding of the nonrotating BTZ black hole is presented. The ambient spacetime is $\\mathbb{M}^{2,3}$, the 3+2 dimensional flat spacetime. We also present the analogous embedding for the Euclidean BTZ spacetime and by performing a kind of double analytic continuation construct a 1-parameter family of embeddings of cosmological AdS spacetime into $\\mathbb{M}^{2,3}$ which coincide asymptotically with the embedded BTZ manifold of the appropriate mass. Finally we note that the family of embeddings of cosmological AdS$_{n}$ into $\\mathbb{M}^{2,n}$ generalises to higher dimensions.

Steven Willison

2013-02-07

206

AdS spacetimes and isometric embeddings  

E-print Network

An algebraic global isometric embedding of the nonrotating BTZ black hole is presented. The ambient spacetime is $\\mathbb{M}^{2,3}$, the 3+2 dimensional flat spacetime. We also present the analogous embedding for the Euclidean BTZ spacetime and by performing a kind of double analytic continuation construct a 1-parameter family of embeddings of cosmological AdS spacetime into $\\mathbb{M}^{2,3}$ which coincide asymptotically with the embedded BTZ manifold of the appropriate mass. Finally we note that the family of embeddings of cosmological AdS$_{n}$ into $\\mathbb{M}^{2,n}$ generalises to higher dimensions.

Willison, Steven

2013-01-01

207

Advances on the Understanding of the Origins of Synaptic Pathology in AD  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although Alzheimer's disease (AD) was first discovered a century ago, we are still facing a lack of definitive diagnosis during the patient's lifetime and are unable to prescribe a curative treatment. However, the past 10 years have seen a \\

Pascale Nathalie Lacor

2007-01-01

208

Instability corners in AdS space  

E-print Network

We investigate whether arbitrarily small perturbations in global AdS space are generically unstable and collapse into black holes on the time scale set by gravitational interactions. We argue that current evidence, combined with our analysis, strongly suggests that a set of nonzero measure in the space of initial conditions does not collapse on this time scale. On the other hand, existing results do not provide an equally strong indication whether the unstable solutions also form a set of nonzero measure. We perform an analysis in position space to address this puzzle, and our formalism allows us to directly address the vanishing-amplitude limit. We show that gravitational self-interaction leads to tidal deformations which are equally likely to focus or defocus energy, and we sketch the phase diagram accordingly. We also clarify the connection between gravitational evolution in global AdS and holographic thermalization.

Fotios V. Dimitrakopoulos; Ben Freivogel; Matthew Lippert; I-Sheng Yang

2014-10-07

209

On the AdS stability problem  

E-print Network

We discuss the notion of stability and the choice of boundary conditions for AdS-type space-times and point out difficulties in the construction of Cauchy data which arise if reflective boundary conditions are imposed.

Helmut Friedrich

2014-01-28

210

Seventeenth-century uplift in eastern Hokkaido, Japan  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Shores of eastern Hokkaido rose by perhaps 1 m a few centuries ago. The uplifted area extended at least 50 km along the southern Kuril Trench. It included the estuaries Akkeshi-ko and Hichirippu, on the Pacific coast, and Fu??ren-ko and Onneto??, which open to the Okhotsk Sea. At each estuary, intertidal and subtidal flats rose with respect to tide level; wetland plants colonized the emerging land; and peaty wetland deposits thereby covered mud and sand of the former flats. Previous work at Akkeshi-ko and Onneto?? showed that such emergence occurred at least three times in the past 3000 years. Volcanic-ash layers date the youngest emergence to the seventeenth century AD. New evidence from Akkeshi-ko, Hichirippu and Fu??ren-ko clarifies the age and amount of this youngest emergence. Much of it probably dates from the century's middle decades. Some of the newly emerged land remained above high tides into the middle of the eighteenth century or later. The emergence in the last half of the seventeenth century probably exceeded 0.5 m (inferred from stratigraphy and diatom palaeoecology) without far exceeding 1 m (estimated by comparing seventeenth- and eighteenth-century descriptions of Akkeshi-ko). The stratigraphy and palaeoecology of the emergence are better explained by tectonic uplift than by bay-mouth blockage, tidal-flat accretion or sea-level fall. Eastern Hokkaido needs occasional uplift, moreover, to help reconcile its raised marine terraces with its chronic twentieth-century subsidence. Because it took place above forearc mantle, eastern Hokkaido's seventeenth-century uplift probably lacks analogy with coseismic uplift that occurs above typical plate-boundary ruptures at subduction zones.

Atwater, B.F.; Furakawa, R.; Hemphill-Haley, E.; Ikeda, Y.; Kashima, K.; Kawase, K.; Kelsey, H.M.; Moore, A.L.; Nanayama, F.; Nishimura, Y.; Odagiri, S.; Ota, Y.; Park, S.-C.; Satake, K.; Sawai, Y.; Shimokawa, K.

2004-01-01

211

Hadrons in AdS / QCD correspondence  

E-print Network

We present an holographical soft wall model which is able to reproduce not only Regge spectra for hadrons with arbitrary integer spin, but also with spin 1/2 and 3/2, and with an arbitrary number of constituents. The model includes the anomalous dimension of operators than create hadrons, together with a dilaton, whose form is suggested by Einstein equations and the AdS metric.

Alfredo Vega; Ivan Schmidt

2008-11-28

212

21st Century Skills Map  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Partnership for 21st Century Skills (P21) has forged alliances with key national organizations representing the core academic subjects, including Social Studies, English, Math, Science, Geography, World Languages and the Arts. These collaborations have resulted in the development of 21st Century Skills Maps that illustrate the essential…

Partnership for 21st Century Skills, 2011

2011-01-01

213

Reading in the Twentieth Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper discusses reading instruction in the 20th century. The paper begins with a tour of the historical pathways that have led people, at the century's end, to the "rocky and highly contested terrain educators currently occupy in reading pedagogy." After the author/educator unfolds his version of a map of that terrain in the paper, he…

Pearson, P. David

214

Century Learning through Apple Technology  

E-print Network

21st Century Learning through Apple Technology July 4 ­ 5, 2013 This exciting institute will appeal to educators who wish to enhance their teaching in support of 21st century learning using Apple technology. This sets the stage for the remaining two days where educators can learn how to leverage Apple technology

215

Securing Ad Hoc Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ad hoc networks are a new wireless networking paradigm for mobile hosts. Unlike traditional mobile wireless networks, ad hoc networks do not rely on any fixed infrastructure. Instead, hosts rely on each other to keep the network connected. The military tactical and other security-sensitive operations are still the main applications of ad hoc networks, although there is a trend to

Lidong Zhou; Zygmunt J. Haas

1999-01-01

216

Secure Ad hoc Networking  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ad hoc networking technology can enable novel civilian and military applications. However, ad hoc networking protocols are vulnerable to a wide range of attacks. The design of defense mechanisms is a challenging problem, especially in comparison to securing traditional, fixed-infrastructure networks. In this paper, we discuss challenges and guidelines to secure ad hoc networking protocols, and describe a protocol

Panagiotis Papadimitratos

2006-01-01

217

Ad Hoc Information Spaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe the concept of ad hoc information spaces as a way of distributing information in an environment depending on user mobility and relative location. Ad hoc information spaces are realised using a decentralised approach to ubiquitous computing, which is based on functionally self- contained devices and ad hoc networking. Users are able to construct and manipulate the properties of

Johan Redström; Lars Erik Holmquist; Per Dahlberg; Peter Ljungstrand

218

Nineteenth Century Documents Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Produced by the History department at Furman University in South Carolina, this site features full texts of primary documents in nineteenth-century American history "with special emphasis on those sources that shed light on sectional conflict and transformations in regional identity." The site has thus far posted documents ranging from newspaper editorials and abolitionist tracts to political speeches and legislative resolutions. These materials will aid researchers examining issues of Slavery and Sectionalism, the Kansas-Nebraska Bill of 1854, the Dred Scott Case, the election of 1860, the secession of the Southern states, and the immediate aftermath of the Civil War in the South. The site also features a statistical almanac of the 1850s, which includes but is not limited to data on slave mortality and survival; the ratio of slaveholders to families in 1860 (by state); presidential elections, 1844-1860; and Growth in Railroad Mileage, 1850-1860. Some documents may have some minor errors, but fully proofed documents are clearly marked.

Benson, Lloyd.

219

The Cosmic Century  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Part I. Stars and Stellar Evolution up to the Second World War: 1. The legacy of the nineteenth century; 2. The classification of stellar spectra; 3. Stellar structure and evolution; 4. The end points of stellar evolution; Part II. The Large-Scale Structure of the Universe, 1900-1939: 5. The Galaxy and the nature of spiral nebulae; 6. The origins of astrophysical cosmology; Part III. The Opening up of the Electromagnetic Spectrum: 7. The opening up of the electromagnetic spectrum and the new astronomies; Part IV. The Astrophysics of Stars and Galaxies since 1945: 8. Stars and stellar evolution; 9. The physics of the interstellar medium; 10. The physics of galaxies and clusters of galaxies; 11. High-energy astrophysics; Part V. Astrophysical Cosmology since 1945: 12. Astrophysical cosmology; 13. The determination of cosmological parameters; 14. The evolution of galaxies and active galaxies with cosmic epoch; 15. The origin of galaxies and the large-scale structure of the Universe; 16. The very early Universe; References; Name index; Object index; Subject index.

Longair, Malcolm S.

2006-06-01

220

Megadrought and Megadeath in 16th Century Mexico  

PubMed Central

The native population collapse in 16th century Mexico was a demographic catastrophe with one of the highest death rates in history. Recently developed tree-ring evidence has allowed the levels of precipitation to be reconstructed for north central Mexico, adding to the growing body of epidemiologic evidence and indicating that the 1545 and 1576 epidemics of cocoliztli (Nahuatl for "pest”) were indigenous hemorrhagic fevers transmitted by rodent hosts and aggravated by extreme drought conditions. PMID:11971767

Acuna-Soto, Rodolfo; Cleaveland, Malcolm K.; Therrell, Matthew D.

2002-01-01

221

AdS null deformations with inhomogeneities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study AdS×X null deformations arising as near horizon limits of D3-brane analogs of inhomogeneous plane waves. Restricting to normalizable deformations for the AdS5 case, these generically correspond in the dual field theory to super Yang-Mills states with light cone momentum density T++ varying spatially, the homogeneous case studied in [K. Narayan, arXiv:1202.5935] corresponding to uniform T++. All of these preserve some supersymmetry. Generically these inhomogeneous solutions exhibit analogs of horizons in the interior where a timelike Killing vector becomes null. From the point of view of x+-dimensional reduction, the circle pinches off on these horizon loci in the interior. We discuss similar inhomogeneous solutions with asymptotically Lifshitz boundary conditions, as well as aspects of Lifshitz singularities in string constructions involving anti-de Sitter null deformations. We also briefly discuss holographic entanglement entropy for some of these.

Narayan, K.

2012-12-01

222

Winding Strings in AdS_3  

E-print Network

Correlation functions of one unit spectral flowed states in string theory on AdS_3 are considered. We present the modified Knizhnik-Zamolodchikov and null vector equations to be satisfied by amplitudes containing states in winding sector one and study their solution corresponding to the four point function including one w=1 field. We compute the three point function involving two one unit spectral flowed operators and find expressions for amplitudes of three w=1 states satisfying certain particular relations among the spins of the fields. Several consistency checks are performed.

Estanislao Herscovich; Pablo Minces; Carmen Nunez

2005-12-15

223

Genetically Engineered Food AD  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How has biotechnology been used to improve the quality of food available today? Students are placed in groups of 2 to create an advertisement for a genetically engineered food and are then asked to present their ad. The ads are created with small poster board or paper, markers, and construction paper. Students also use the computer for lettering and clip art. If enough computers and suitable software was available, the ads could be completely done on the computer.

BEGIN:VCARD VERSION:2.1 FN:Lana Hays N:Hays;Lana ORG:Saint Henry District High School REV:2005-04-11 END:VCARD

2005-04-11

224

Banner Ad Placement Study  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Webreference.com (discussed in the April 19, 1996 Scout Report) has recently added this interesting and thought-provoking resource to its site. The resource presents the results of a study of banner ad placement at webreference.com, conducted between March 25 and April 15, 1997 by three University of Michigan School of Business Administration students. The study concludes that changes in placement of banner ads affects "click-through" rates.

Doyle, Kim.; Minor, Anastasia.; Weyrich, Carolyn.

1997-01-01

225

Topologically massive gravity on AdS2 spacetimes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the topologically massive gravity with a negative cosmological constant on AdS2 spacetimes by making use of Kaluza-Klein dimensional reduction. For a constant dilaton, this two-dimensional model admits three AdS2 vacuum solutions, which are related to AdS3 and warped AdS3 with an identification upon uplifting three dimensions. We carry out perturbation analysis around these backgrounds to find what is

Yun Soo Myung; Yong-Wan Kim; Young-Jai Park

2009-01-01

226

Nonlinear realization of supersymmetric AdS space isometries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The isometries of AdS(5) space and supersymmetric AdS(5)circle times S-1 space are nonlinearly realized on four-dimensional Minkowski space. The resultant effective actions in terms of the Nambu-Goldstone modes are constructed. The dilatonic mode governing the motion of the Minkowski space probe brane into the covolume of supersymmetric AdS(5) space is found to be unstable and the bulk of the AdS(5)

T. E. Clark; S. T. Love

2006-01-01

227

Aeronautical ad hoc networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been an enormous growth in mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) in land based small to medium size networks with relatively strict power and resources. In this paper the concept of ad hoc networking between aircraft is introduced, which can be considered as a novel approach in increasing the data rate and practicality of future in-flight broadband Internet access.

Ehssan Sakhaee; Abbas Jamalipour; Nei Kato

2006-01-01

228

The Shorts of Bury St Edmunds: medicine, Catholicism and politics in the 17th century.  

PubMed

The Short family of Bury St Edmunds produced at least eight doctors between the first half of the 17th century and the first half of the 18th. Some of these practised locally and others went on to achieve fame in London or abroad. They included Richard Short (d. 1668), a medical polemicist, and Thomas Short (1635-85) who treated Charles II in his last illness and became the subject of poetry and other literature. The Shorts generated controversy through their adherence to the Roman Catholic faith at a time of persecution and suspicion. Richard Short used medical polemic as a vehicle for advancing his religious views, and his son and nephew became involved in James II's political programme to introduce religious toleration in 1688. After the Revolution the Shorts withdrew from political life but continued in their medical practice and their recusancy. This paper is the first to unravel the family relationships of the Shorts, which previously have eluded most historians. PMID:18952986

Young, Francis

2008-11-01

229

Luigi Galvani and animal electricity: two centuries after the foundation of electrophysiology.  

PubMed

Luigi Galvani and his famous experiments on frogs carried out in the second half of the 18th century belong more to legend than to the history of science. Galvani not only laid the foundations of a new science, electrophysiology, but also opened the way for the invention of the electric battery, and thus for the development of the physical investigations of electricity. However, in spite of the widespread celebration of his work, Galvani's scientific endeavours have been largely misrepresented in the history of science. The scholar of Bologna has a stereotyped image as an 'occasional' scientist, who started his studies by chance, largely ignored the scientific theories of his time and wandered aimlessly in mental elaborations until the physicist of Pavia, Alessandro Volta, entered the field, correctly interpreted Galvani's results and eventually developed the electric battery. With the present understanding of electrical phenomena in excitable membranes, it is now time to reconsider the real matter raised by Galvani's discoveries and by his hypothesis of an intrinsic 'animal electricity', and to make a clearer evaluation of a revolutionary phase of scientific progress. PMID:9347609

Piccolino, M

1997-10-01

230

White Macael marble: a key element in the architectonic heritage of Andalusia for over 25 centuries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Marble from Macael (Andalusia) is one of the most important natural stones in the architectonic heritage of Andalusia; in particular the variety commercially known as "White Macael". This natural stone has been used outdoors as well as indoors for decorative, ornamental or structural purposes. During the 7th century (B.C.) the Phoenicians began to systematically extract these quarries to be used in their more social important elements such as sarcophagus. During the Roman period this rock had a greater importance in construction; we find columns, pavements, tombstones… in many historical buildings such as the Roman amphitheatre in Mérida (1st century B.C.) and the city of Itálica in Seville (3rd century B.C.). But it is during the Muslim period when marble from Macael is more widely used: the Mosque of Córdoba (8th century), the Lions Court in the Alhambra palace, the Alcazaba in Almería, the Medina-Azahara palace in Córdoba (10th century). Other important buildings using the white marble are: Carlos V palace or the Royal Chapel in Granada (15th century), the Almería cathedral or El Escorial monastery in Madrid (16th century), San Telmo palace in Seville (17th century) or The Royal Palace in Madrid (18th century). Uncountable number of buildings, both historical and contemporary, show different elements made of this marble. From a geological point of view, the quarries are located in the upper part of the Nevado-Filábride Complex, the lowest nappe of the Internal Zones of the Betic Chains. Under the "White Macael" name is also possible to include another commercial denominations such "White Macael Río" or "White Macael Río Veteado". It is a clear white coloured, calcitic marble (up than 97% calcite), with average grain size between 0,16 y 3,2 mm in a mosaic texture with a very homogenous aspect. Regarding the main physical and mechanical properties, this rock has an open porosity value between 0,1-0,6%, bulk density 2,50-2,75 g/cm3, water absorption at atmospheric pressure between 0,1-0,2%, compressive strength (dry) between 81,1-87,4 MPa, flexural resistance (dry) between 12,1-14,2 MPa and salt crystallization loss of mass of 1,25-2,20%. We suggest to consider this natural stone as Global Heritage Stone Resource because of its aesthetic characteristics, its optimal behaviour when emplaced in construction as can be evident throughout the more than 25 centuries of use of this rock all over the country, and because the volume of international trade and exploitation. Macael white marble can be considered the main ornamental rock in Andalusia. This is a contribution of the Spanish network CONSTRUROCK.

Navarro, Rafael; Sol Cruz, Ana; Arriaga, Lourdes; Baltuille, José Manuel

2013-04-01

231

Vesalius four centuries later. Medicine in the eighteenth century.  

E-print Network

CENTURIES LATER Cusliing he also shared an abiding interest in Andreas Vesalius. In his Source Boo\\ of Medical History there is a long section which he had had translated from his copy of the first edition of the Fabrica. He regretted that neither... long, unquestioned period of rest." Andreas Vesalius is one of the most colorful figures in all medical history—not only was he a man much talked of in his own time, but through the centuries he has been the subject of many studies which have...

Fulton, John F.

1950-01-01

232

The 19th Century World  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Harpweek, "a privately funded project begun in 1992 to digitize the entire contents of the nineteenth-century, illustrated periodical Harper's Weekly" (see the March 31, 2000 Scout Report) offers a number of free Websites archiving materials from Harper's Weekly on specific historical topics of the nineteenth century. In addition to the materials on Black America, reviewed in the Scout Report issue cited above, there are collections on the impeachment of Andrew Johnson, Civil War literature, education, immigrant and ethnic America, the editorial cartoons of Thomas Nast, the American West, and 19th Century advertising. These free sites offer a wealth of primary documentation on their respective subjects, including, for example, over 200 article excerpts dealing with the Andrew Johnson and his impeachment drawn from 1865-1869 issues; examples of 19th-century advertisements for appliances, packaged goods, pest killers, insurance policies, and memorabilia; political cartoons of the famous editorial illustrator Thomas Nast; and much more. The sections are well organized and are introduced by contemporary scholarship. This is a superb source for both researchers and those planning to teach primary historical and cultural research to secondary and post-secondary students. Note: those who purchase a subscription to Harpweek will have access to numerous other 19th Century Harper's Weekly materials in addition to these.

233

Trade in Value Added and the Valued Added in Trade  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discussed two measures of value added flows between countries ‘Trade in value added’ accounts for value added of one country directly and indirectly embodied in final consumption of another country. ‘Value added in trade’ measures the value added embodied in gross trade flows. The paper shows that both measures result in the same overall net trade of a

Robert Stehrer

2012-01-01

234

Recently Added Antibodies  

Cancer.gov

Reagents Data Portal AntibodiesNCI announces the release of monoclonal antipeptide antibodies from rabbit for distribution on the antibody portal. There are 60 recently added monoclonal antibodies, with 56 generated from mouse and 4 generated from rabbit. Print

235

Adding and Subtracting  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Test your brain at some addition and subtraction! Practice adding and subtracting on a number line using Line Jumper. When playing Alien Munchtime (addition) and Alien Munchtime (subtraction) select levels 1-9 and press play. ...

Miss Sullivan

2011-10-21

236

Ad Hoc Advisors  

Cancer.gov

The Long Island Breast Cancer Study Project (LIBCSP) had an Ad Hoc Advisory Committee of expert scientists and community breast cancer advocates. This committee was chaired by Dr. Mimi C. Yu. The committee met annually or as needed.

237

From nerves and hormones to bacteria in the stomach; Nobel prize for achievements in gastrology during last century.  

PubMed

Rapid progress in gastroenterological research, during past century, was initiated by the discovery by W. Prout in early 18th century of the presence of inorganic, hydrochloric acid in the stomach and by I.P. Pavlov at the end of 19th century of neuro-reflex stimulation of secretion of this acid that was awarded by Nobel prize in 1904. Then, J. W. Black, who followed L. Popielski's concept of histamine involvement in the stimulation of this secretion, was awarded second Nobel prize in gastrology within the same century for the identification of histamine H2-receptor (H2-R) antagonists, potent gastric acid inhibitors, accelerating ulcer healing. The concept of H2-R interaction with other receptors such as muscarinic receptors (M3-R), mediating the action of acetylocholine released from local cholinergic nerves, and those mediating the action of gastrin (CCK2-R) on parietal cells, has been confirmed both in vivo studies and in vitro isolated parietal cells. The discovery of H2-R antagonists by Black and their usefulness in control of gastric secretion and ulcer healing, were considered as real breakthrough both in elucidation of gastric secretory mechanisms and in ulcer therapy. Discovery of even more powerful gastric acid inhibitors, proton pump inhibitors (PPI), also highly effective in acceleration of ulcer healing was, however, not awarded Nobel prize. Unexpectedly, two Australian clinical researchers, R.J. Warren and B.J. Marshall, who discovered in the stomach spiral bacteria, named Helicobacter pylori, received the third in past century Nobel prize in gastrology for the finding that this bacterium, is related to the pathogenesis of gastritis and peptic ulcer. They documented that eradication of H. pylori from the stomach, using antibiotics and potent gastric inhibitors, not only accelerates healing of ulcer but also prevents its recurrence, the finding considered as greatest discovery in practical gastrology during last century. Thus, the outstanding achievements in gastroenterology during last century have been awarded by three Nobel prizes and appreciated by millions of ulcer patients all over the world. PMID:16391411

Konturek, S J; Konturek, P C; Brzozowski, T; Konturek, J W; Pawlik, W W

2005-12-01

238

Economic Value Added  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Economic Value Added, kurz EVA, ist eine Methode bei der Finanzanalyse, die eingesetzt wird, um zu messen, ob ein Unternehmen\\u000a über den Kapitalkosten der eingesetzten Assets Wert schafft. EVA misst den Wert, der in einer definierten Periode durch Erhöhung\\u000a von Margen oder den modifizierten Einsatz unter-\\/ungenutzter Assets generiert wird. Der Economic Value Added einer Periode\\u000a ergibt sich als Residualgewinn, wenn

Christian Schawel; Fabian Billing

239

Economic Value Added  

Microsoft Academic Search

Economic Value Added, kurz EVA, ist eine Methode bei der Finanzanalyse, die eingesetzt wird, um zu messen, ob ein Unternehmen\\u000a über den Kapitalkosten der eingesetzten Assets Wert schafft. EVA misst den Wert, der in einer definierten Periode durch Erhöhung\\u000a von Margen oder den modifizierten Einsatz unter-\\/ungenutzter Assets generiert wird. Der Economic Value Added einer Periode\\u000a ergibt sich als Residualgewinn, wenn

Christian Schawel; Fabian Billing

240

Toward 21st Century Supports  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents an interview with Linda Darling-Hammond, Charles Ducommun Professor of Education at Stanford University, director of the Stanford Center for Opportunity Policy and Education, and codirector of the school redesign network at Stanford. In this interview, Darling-Hammond describes the term "21st century skills" and shares her…

Umphrey, Jan

2010-01-01

241

Three Centuries of American Inequality.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Income inequality in the United States displays considerable variance since the seventeenth century. There is no eternal constancy to the degree of inequality in total income, in labor earnings, or in income from conventional nonhuman wealth either before or after the effects of government taxes and spending. When all the necessary adjustments to…

Lindert, Peter H.; Williamson, Jeffrey G.

242

Two Centuries of Soil Conservation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Narrates U.S. soil conservation history since the late eighteenth century. Discusses early practices such as contour plowing. Profiles individuals who promoted soil conservation and were largely responsible for the creation of the Soil Conservation Service. Explains the causes of erosion and how soil conservation districts help farmers prevent…

Helms, Douglas

1991-01-01

243

Leaders for a New Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The turn of the century will signal a profound change in the composition and character of the leadership of community colleges. Future leaders will have in common with their peers in the private sector a global perspective and a mastery of technology seldom seen in today's leaders. More of them will be women, minorities, and immigrants. Beyond…

Shaw, Ruth G.

244

Physics in the Twentieth Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides a review of the great discoveries, theoretical concepts and development of physics in the 20th century. The growth and significance of diverse fields such as quantum theory, relativity theory, atomic physics, molecular physics, the physics of the solid state, nuclear physics, astrophysics, plasma physics, and particle physics are…

Weisskopf, Victor F.

1970-01-01

245

The 21st Century Learner.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The profound changes of the 21st century are transforming America into what must become a learning society. Never before have museums, libraries and the whole of the non-formal sector of educational institutions faced such challenges and opportunities. The demand is great for fresh and innovative thinking to construct a bold, new learning network…

Sheppard, Beverly

246

Selenography in the seventeenth century.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Contents: 1. Pre-telescopic observations. 2. The first telescopic observations. 3. Galileo's lunar observations. 4. Two new selenographical programmes. 5. A flurry of activity. 6. Hevelius and his Selenographia. 7. Riccioli, Grimaldi, and nomenclature. 8. Robert Hooke and selenology. 9. Cassini and La Hire. 10. Other seventeenth-century selenography. 11. Conclusion.

Whitaker, E. A.

247

Hadronization at the AdS wall  

SciTech Connect

We describe hadronization events, using the AdS/CFT Correspondence, which display many of the qualitative features expected in QCD. In particular we study the motion of strings with separating end points in a back-reacted hard wall geometry. The solutions show the development of a linear QCD-like string. The end points oscillate in the absence of string breaking. We introduce string breaking by hand and evolve the new state forward in time to observe the separation of two string segments. A kink associated with this breaking evolves to the end points of the string inducing rho meson production. We explicitly compute the rho meson production at the end point.

Evans, Nick; French, James; Threlfall, Ed [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, Southampton, SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Jensen, Kristan [Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States)

2010-03-15

248

Viruses in a 14th-Century Coprolite  

PubMed Central

Coprolites are fossilized fecal material that can reveal information about ancient intestinal and environmental microbiota. Viral metagenomics has allowed systematic characterization of viral diversity in environmental and human-associated specimens, but little is known about the viral diversity in fossil remains. Here, we analyzed the viral community of a 14th-century coprolite from a closed barrel in a Middle Ages site in Belgium using electron microscopy and metagenomics. Viruses that infect eukaryotes, bacteria, and archaea were detected, and we confirmed the presence of some of them by ad hoc suicide PCR. The coprolite DNA viral metagenome was dominated by sequences showing homologies to phages commonly found in modern stools and soil. Although their phylogenetic compositions differed, the metabolic functions of the viral communities have remained conserved across centuries. Antibiotic resistance was one of the reconstructed metabolic functions detected. PMID:24509925

Appelt, Sandra; Fancello, Laura; Le Bailly, Matthieu; Raoult, Didier; Drancourt, Michel

2014-01-01

249

Nonlinear Realization of Supersymmetric AdS Space Isometries  

E-print Network

The isometries of $AdS_5$ space and supersymmetric $AdS_5\\otimes S_1$ space are nonlinearly realized on four dimensional Minkowski space. The resultant effective actions in terms of the Nambu-Goldstone modes are constructed. The dilatonic mode governing the motion of the Minkowski space probe brane into the covolume of supersymmetric $AdS_5$ space is found to be unstable and the bulk of the $AdS_5$ space is unable to sustain the brane. No such instablility appears in the non-supersymmetric case.

T. E. Clark; S. T. Love

2005-10-31

250

[Mercury (and...) through the centuries].  

PubMed

Mercury has a long history, fascinating in its many aspects. Through the centuries--from ancient times to the present day--the metal in its various forms, also known under the name "quicksilver", accompanied the man and was used for diversified purposes. Today, mercury is employed in manufacturing thermometers, barometers, vacuum pumps and explosives. It is also used in silver and gold mining processes. Mercury compounds play a significant role in dentistry, pharmaceutical industry and crop protection. The contemporary use of mercury markedly decreases, but historically speaking, the archives abound in materials that document facts and events occurring over generations and the immense intellectual effort aiming at discovering the true properties and mechanisms of mercury activity. Mercury toxicity, manifested in destruction of biological membranes and binding of the element with proteins, what disturbs biochemical processes occurring in the body, was discovered only after many centuries of the metal exerting its effect on the lives of individuals and communities. For centuries, mercury was present in the work of alchemists, who searched for the universal essence or quintessence and the so-called philosopher's stone. In the early modern era, between the 16th and 19th centuries, mercury was used to manufacture mirrors. Mercury compounds were employed as a medication against syphilis, which plagued mankind for more than four hundred years--from the Middle Ages till mid 20th century, when the discovery of penicillin became the turning point. This extremely toxic therapy resulted in much suffering, individual tragedies, chronic poisonings leading to fatalities and dramatic sudden deaths. In the last fifty years, there even occurred attempts of mentally imbalanced individuals at injecting themselves with metallic mercury, also as a performance-enhancing drug. Instances of mass mercury poisoning occurred many times in the past in consequence of eating food products poisoned with organic mercury compounds originating from the natural environment. PMID:21863739

K?ys, Ma?gorzata

2010-01-01

251

M. Tillier, Qs and the political use of the malim jurisdiction under the Abbsids , dans Maribel Fierro et Christian Lange (d.), Public Violence in Islamic Societies: Power, Discipline, and the Construction of the Public Sphere, 7th-18th Centuries CE, Edi  

E-print Network

Fierro et Christian Lange (éd.), Public Violence in Islamic Societies: Power, Discipline », dans Maribel Fierro et Christian Lange (éd.), Public Violence in Islamic Societies: Power, Discipline certaine difficulté à identifier ce qui relève spécifiquement de cette justice aux premiers siècles de l'Islam

Boyer, Edmond

252

Johann Gottfried Köhler - inspector at the Mathematical-Physical Salon in Dresden - an active observer of the starry sky in the last quarter of the 18th century (German Title: Johann Gottfried Köhler - Inspektor am Mathematisch-Physikalischen Salon Dresden - aktiver Beobachter des gestirnten Himmels im letzten Viertel des 18. Jahrhunderts )  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 1777, J. G. Köhler, an academician trained in mathematics and the sciences and with a deep interest in astronomy, was appointed inspector of the Mathematical-Physical Salon. He was lucky to find, in the person of the Saxonian electoral prince and later king, August the Righteous, a ruler who was open-minded to science, and thus he could combine his private interests with those of the sovereign. While the files of the Mathematical-Physical Salon from his time were lost during World War II, his actions can be reconstructed from a few archival sources and notes in the diaries of his successors. The Saxonian residence did not have an astronomical observatory. Köhler used the instruments from the collection of the Mathematical-Physical Salon for numerous celestial observations. He was in close contact with a number of other astronomers like Bode and Zach. They took care of his results, sometimes after editing them. Time determinations based on longitude and latitude determinations, as well as other astronomical observations, led to the development of a time service, which was carried out for about 150 years. Köhler himself constructed the clocks. Because of his responsibilities as an inspector, as well as due to local and material constraints, he was not able to carry out systematic and reproducible measurements over a long time span. His improvement of the circular micrometer and his stop-down photometer are of special interest. He also had considerable talent in drawing, as is shown in his drawings of lunar mountains. A number of instruments used by Köhler are still to be found in the Mathematical-Physical Salon.

Schillinger, Klaus

253

Rhazes (865-925AD), the icon of Persian cardiology.  

PubMed

For many long centuries, the function of the human cardiovascular system was an important issue among scholars of different eras and areas. Abubakr Muhammad ibn Zakariyya al-Razi (865-925AD), known by the Latin name Rhazes, was one of the scholars concerned with this issue. This physician is recognized as the first great scientist of the Golden Age of Islamic Medicine (9th-12th centuries AD). He authored Kitab al-Mansuri (Liber Al-Mansuri), a ten-volume medical encyclopedia that covers a large number of medical subjects. The first chapter of this book is allocated to human anatomy and functions. In this article, we review the chapter from Al-Mansuri that deals with Rhazes' views on the cardiovascular system. PMID:25465822

Mahmoudi Nezhad, Golnoush Sadat; Dalfardi, Behnam

2014-11-01

254

The group approach to AdS space propagators  

E-print Network

We show that AdS two-point functions can be obtained by connecting two points in the interior of AdS space with one point on its boundary by a dual pair of Dobrev's boundary-to-bulk intertwiners and integrating over the boundary point.

Thorsten Leonhardt; Ruben Manvelyan; Werner Ruehl

2003-05-27

255

The group approach to AdS space propagators  

Microsoft Academic Search

We show that AdS two-point functions can be obtained by connecting two points in the interior of AdS space with one point on its boundary by a dual pair of Dobrev's boundary-to-bulk intertwiners and integrating over the boundary point.

Thorsten Leonhardt; Ruben Manvelyan; Werner Rühl

2003-01-01

256

Conformal symmetry of supergravities in AdS spaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

We show that the background field method applied to supergravity in AdS space-time provides the path integral for the theory in the bulk with conformal symmetry associated with the isometry of the AdS space. This in turn allows us to establish the rigid conformal invariance of the generating functional for the supergravity correlators on the boundary.

Renata Kallosh; Antoine van Proeyen

1999-01-01

257

Conformal Symmetry of Supergravities in AdS spaces  

E-print Network

We show that the background field method applied to supergravity in adS space-time provides the path integral for the theory in the bulk with conformal symmetry associated with the isometry of the adS space. This in turn allows to establish the rigid conformal invariance of the generating functional for the supergravity correlators on the boundary.

Renata Kallosh; Antoine Van Proeyen

1998-04-14

258

ECONOMIC IMPACT OF CENTURY ALUMINUM OF  

E-print Network

ECONOMIC IMPACT OF CENTURY ALUMINUM OF WEST VIRGINIA, INC. By Randall A represent those of the West Virginia University Board of Trustees. #12;2 OVERVIEW Century Aluminum of West Virginia, Inc. (Century) is located in Ravenswood, West Virginia and produces aluminum products

Mohaghegh, Shahab

259

What is a Twentieth-Century Constitution?  

Microsoft Academic Search

At present, almost all of the constitutions in the world are twentieth-century constitutions; indeed, most of them were not adopted until the second half of the twentieth century. Accordingly, the eighteenth-century Constitution of the United States -- which includes the original constitution of 1787-89; the first ten amendments, adopted in 1791; and the Eleventh Amendment, adopted in 1798 -- antedates

Peter E. Quint

2007-01-01

260

The 21st Century Skills Movement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since 2002, the Partnership for 21st Century Skills has been the leading advocacy organization in the United States focused on infusing 21st century skills into education. Its "Framework for 21st Century Learning," the result of a consensus among hundreds of stakeholders, describes the skills, knowledge, and expertise students need to succeed in…

Johnson, Paige

2009-01-01

261

21st Century Skills Literacy in  

E-print Network

enGauge® 21st Century Skills Literacy in the Digital Age www.ncrel.org/engauge FOR 21ST CENTURY Skills: Literacy in the Digital Age Gina Burkhardt CEO/Executive Director, NCREL Margaret Monsour Deputy Dawson Program Associate, Center for Technology, NCREL enGauge® 21st Century Skills: Literacy

Al-Qahtani, Mohammad

262

Floodplain deposits, channel changes and riverbank stratigraphy of the Mekong River area at the 14th-Century city of Chiang Saen, Northern Thailand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Riverbank stratigraphy and paleochannel patterns of the Mekong River at Chiang Saen provide a geoarchaeological framework to explore for evidence of Neolithic, Bronze-age, AD 5th Century Yonok and AD 14–16th Century Lan Na Cultures. Typical bank stratigraphy charted on the Thailand side is imbricate cobble gravel overlain by 5–10 m of reddish-brown sandy silt. The silt section is composed chiefly of

Spencer H. Wood; Alan D. Ziegler; Tharaporn Bundarnsin

2008-01-01

263

ad hoc networks.\\  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Mobile ad hoc networks rely on cooperation to perform essential network mechanisms such as routing. Therefore, network performance depends to a great extent on giving participating nodes an incentive for cooperation. The level of trust among nodes is the most frequently used parameter for promoting cooperation in distributed systems. There are different models for representing trust, each of

Marcela Mejia; Néstor M. Peña; Jose L. Muñoz; Oscar Esparza

2009-01-01

264

Economic Value Added  

Microsoft Academic Search

Economic Value Added (EVA), when applied properly in a company, impacts all departments and decisions. The equation for EVA as well as the adjustments that must be made to current accounting practices is the basis for an understanding of EVA. The success of EVA is displayed as companies that have implemented EVA to varying degrees are compared with companies that

Michael D Houle

2008-01-01

265

Two Virasoro symmetries in stringy warped AdS3  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study three-dimensional consistent truncations of type IIB supergravity which admit warped AdS3 solutions. These theories contain subsectors that have no bulk dynamics. We show that the symplectic form for these theories, when restricted to the non-dynamical subsectors, equals the symplectic form for pure Einstein gravity in AdS3. Consequently, for each consistent choice of boundary conditions in AdS3, we can define a consistent phase space in warped AdS3 with identical conserved charges. This way, we easily obtain a Virasoro × Virasoro asymptotic symmetry algebra in warped AdS3; two different types of Virasoro × Ka?-Moody symmetries are also consistent alternatives.

Compère, Geoffrey; Guica, Monica; Rodriguez, Maria J.

2014-12-01

266

Pathologies in Lovelock AdS Black Branes and AdS/CFT  

E-print Network

We study the pathologies in AdS black branes in Lovelock theory. More precisely, we examine the conditions that AdS black branes have the naked singularity, the ghost instability and the dynamical instability. From the point of view of the AdS/CFT correspondence, the pathologies in AdS black branes indicate the pathologies in the corresponding CFT. Hence, we need to be careful when we apply AdS/CFT in Lovelock theory to various phenomena such as the shear viscosity to entropy ratio in strongly coupled quantum filed theory.

Tomohiro Takahashi; Jiro Soda

2011-08-25

267

The 21st century propulsion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The prediction of future space travel in the next millennium starts by examining the past and extrapolating into the far future. Goals for the 21st century include expanded space travel and establishment of permanent manned outposts, and representation of Lunar and Mars outposts as the most immediate future in space. Nuclear stage design/program considerations; launch considerations for manned Mars missions; and far future propulsion schemes are outlined.

Haloulakos, V. E.; Boehmer, C.

1990-01-01

268

21st Century Retirement Calculator  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Available from US News Online and Watson Wyatt Worldwide, the 21st Century Retirement Calculator creates a "financial picture" of retirement for planning purposes. A variety of "dig deeper" links educate users as they calculate, and links to related articles supply "fund picks" for types from "Ally McBeal" (single, mid-20s) to "George Costanza" (no savings) and "the cigarette smoker" (a prospective retiree).

269

Introducing ADS Labs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ADS Labs is a platform that ADS is introducing in order to test and receive feedback from the community on new technologies and prototype services. Currently, ADS Labs features a new interface for abstract searches, faceted filtering of results, visualization of co-authorship networks, article-level recommendations, and a full-text search service. The streamlined abstract search interface provides a simple, one-box search with options for ranking results based on a paper relevancy, freshness, number of citations, and downloads. In addition, it provides advanced rankings based on collaborative filtering techniques. The faceted filtering interface allows users to narrow search results based on a particular property or set of properties ("facets"), allowing users to manage large lists and explore the relationship between them. For any set or sub-set of records, the co-authorship network can be visualized in an interactive way, offering a view of the distribution of contributors and their inter-relationships. This provides an immediate way to detect groups and collaborations involved in a particular research field. For a majority of papers in Astronomy, our new interface will provide a list of related articles of potential interest. The recommendations are based on a number of factors, including text similarity, citations, and co-readership information. The new full-text search interface allows users to find all instances of particular words or phrases in the body of the articles in our full-text archive. This includes all of the scanned literature in ADS as well as a select portion of the current astronomical literature, including ApJ, ApJS, AJ, MNRAS, PASP, A&A, and soon additional content from Springer journals. Fulltext search results include a list of the matching papers as well as a list of "snippets" of text highlighting the context in which the search terms were found. ADS Labs is available at http://adslabs.org

Accomazzi, Alberto; Henneken, E.; Grant, C. S.; Kurtz, M. J.; Di Milia, G.; Luker, J.; Thompson, D. M.; Bohlen, E.; Murray, S. S.

2011-05-01

270

Cardy-Verlinde formula and AdS black holes  

SciTech Connect

In a recent paper by E. Verlinde, hep-th/0008140, an interesting formula has been put forward, which relates the entropy of a conformal formal field in arbitrary dimensions to its total energy and Casimir energy. This formula has been shown to hold for the conformal field theories that have anti{endash}de Sitter (AdS) duals in the cases of AdS Schwarzschild black holes and AdS Kerr black holes. In this paper we further check this formula with various black holes with AdS asymptotics. For the hyperbolic AdS black holes, the Cardy-Verlinde formula is found to hold if we choose the ''massless'' black hole as the ground state, but in this case, the Casimir energy is negative. For the AdS Reissner-Nordstro''m black holes in arbitrary dimensions and charged black holes in D=5, D=4, and D=7 maximally supersymmetric gauged supergravities, the Cardy-Verlinde formula holds as well, but a proper internal energy, which corresponds to the mass of supersymmetric backgrounds, must be subtracted from the total energy. We fail to rewrite the entropy of corresponding conformal field theories in terms of the Cardy-Verlinde formula for the AdS black holes in Lovelock gravity.

Cai, Rong-Gen

2001-06-15

271

Political Ad Critic  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Brought to you by the folks at Adcritic.com, this Website features sixteen 30-second spots from the Presidential primary and general elections campaign. Political Ad Critic lists a "top ten," with Ralph Nader's hip parody ("The Truth: Priceless") of the popular MasterCard commercials awarded number one, and posts new ads from the campaign each week. Currently, there are four commercials from the Gore campaign posted here -- one of which has Gore speaking Spanish -- and six from Bush's camp, including the now-infamous "bureaucRATS" spot. (The QuickTime control bar allows users to advance frame by frame so they can judge for themselves the commercial's disputed subliminal content.) Commercials from the Libertarian party candidate Harry Browne, and primary contenders John McCain and Bill Bradley round out the Website. May the best commercial win.

272

AdViews  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The AdViews section of the Internet Archive site contains thousands of vintage television commercials dating from the 1950s to the 1980s. These items of commercial ephemera were created or collected by the ad agency Benton & Bowles or its successor, D'Arcy Masius Benton & Bowles (DMB&B). The commercials are currently found at the John W. Hartman Center for Sales, Advertising & Marketing History in Duke University's David M. Rubenstein Rare Book & Manuscript Library. Visitors will find work created for clients such as Post, Kraft, Old Spice, Pan Am, and many others. As with other Internet Archive collections, visitors can look on the Most Downloaded Items Last Week area. Here they will most likely find advertisements for Charlie's Angels dolls, Borden's Milk, and Sugar Rice Krinkles. Visitors shouldn't miss the Subcollections area, which divides the commercials into their constituent companies, such as Beech Nut Foods, Folgers, and dozens of others.

273

Ad*Access  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A collaboration of the John W. Hartman Center for Sales, Advertising & Marketing History and the Rare Book, Manuscript, and Special Collections Library at Duke University, this database contains images of more than 7,000 advertisements printed mainly in US newspapers and magazines between 1911 and 1955. The images are divided into five major categories: Beauty and Hygiene; Radio; Television; Transportation; and World War II. Each category can be browsed by a number of subtopics, listed by year. Users also have several search options, including keyword, complex, and Boolean searching. In addition, brief histories of the industries and timelines of world and national events are provided. While the site has obvious potential for cultural and business historians, general users may also enjoy browsing the images, which offer an interesting glimpse into how Americans conceived of themselves and consumer culture in the first half of this century.

274

On deformations of AdS n × S n supercosets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the deformed AdS 5 × S 5 supercoset model of arXiv:1309.5850 which depends on one parameter ? and has classical quantum group symmetry. We confirm the conjecture that in the "maximal" deformation limit, ? ? ?, this model is T-dual to "flipped" double Wick rotation of the target space AdS 5 × S 5, i.e. dS 5 × H 5 space supported by an imaginary 5-form flux. In the imaginary deformation limit, ? ? i, the corresponding target space metric is of a pp-wave type and thus the resulting light-cone gauge S-matrix becomes relativistically invariant. Omitting non-unitary contributions of imaginary WZ terms, we find that this tree-level S-matrix is equivalent to that of the generalized sine-Gordon model representing the Pohlmeyer reduction of the undeformed AdS 5 × S 5 superstring model. We also study in some detail similar deformations of the AdS 3 × S 3 and AdS 2 × S 2 supercosets. The bosonic part of the deformed AdS 3 × S 3 model happens to be equivalent to the symmetric case of the sum of the Fateev integrable deformation of the SL(2) and SU(2) principal chiral models, while in the AdS 2 × S 2 case the role of the Fateev model is played by the 2d "sausage" model. The ? = i limits are again directly related to the Pohlmeyer reductions of the corresponding AdS n × S n supercosets: (2,2) super sine-Gordon model and its complex sine-Gordon analog. We also discuss possible deformations of AdS 3 × S 3 with more than one parameter.

Hoare, B.; Roiban, R.; Tseytlin, A. A.

2014-06-01

275

Early 21st-Century Drought in Mexico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Prolonged drought conditions have persisted over western North America since at least 1999, affecting snowpack, stream discharge, reservoir levels, and wildfire activity [Mote et al., 2005; Westerling et al., 2006; MacDonald et al., 2008]. Instrumental precipitation, temperature, and Palmer Drought Severity Indices (PDSI) indicate that severe and sustained drought began in 1994 in Mexico, where it has continued with only limited relief for the past 15 years. This late twentieth- and early 21st-century Mexican drought (referred to below as the “early 21st-century drought”) has equaled some aspects of the 1950s drought, which is the most severe drought evident in the instrumental climate record for Mexico (1900-2008). Large-scale changes in ocean-atmospheric circulation have contributed to the lower than normal precipitation that has led to the current drought [Seager, 2007], but global warming and the sharp regional warming across Mexico, which appears to have been aggravated by land cover changes [Englehart and Douglas, 2005], may have added an anthropogenic component to the early 21st-century drought.

Stahle, David W.; Cook, Edward R.; Villanueva Díaz, Jose; Fye, Falko K.; Burnette, Dorian J.; Griffin, R. Daniel; Soto, Rodolfo Acuña; Seager, Richard; Heim, Richard R.

2009-03-01

276

Plague: the dreadful visitation occupying the human mind for centuries.  

PubMed

Plague is one of mankind's greatest scourges, which has swept away millions of people over the centuries. The first available record of the occurrence of this calamity, in humans, is from the Bible, in 1000 bc, in the city of Ashdod. The first definitely identified pandemic originated in Egypt in ad 542 (the Justinian Plague) and is estimated to have caused 100 million deaths. The second one, lasting for three centuries and claiming over 25 million lives appeared in 1334 in China spreading to many spots on the globe. The third pandemic occurred in Europe from the fifteenth to eighteenth century. The current pandemic began around 1860, in the Chinese province Yunnan; it reached Hong Kong in 1894 killing 100 000 individuals. Within 20 years the disease spread from southern Chinese ports throughout the world resulting in more than 10 million deaths. Since the discovery of the causative agent in 1894, there have been remarkable advancements in immunoprophylaxis and chemoprophylaxis. However, the disease is still active in Africa, in Asia and in Americas and has been classified as a currently re-emerging disease. A 'Plague-free World' will probably remain a dream for an indefinite period. PMID:15109549

Khan, Iqbal Akhtar

2004-05-01

277

Global geometric properties of AdS space and the AdS\\/CFT correspondence  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Poisson kernels and relations between them for a massive scalar field in a unit ball $B^n$ with Hua's metric and conformal flat metric are obtained by describing the $B^n$ as a submanifold of an $(n+1)$-dimensional embedding space. Global geometric properties of the AdS space are discussed. We show that the $(n+1)$-dimensional AdS space AdS$_{n+1}$ is isomorphic to $RP^1\\\\times B^n$

Qi-Keng Lu; Zhe Chang; Han-Ying Guo

2000-01-01

278

Nineteenth Century Exploration of Australia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by Dr. Charles H. Smith and Jennifer Rakestraw, this well-crafted site is built around an Australian map that details the routes taken by nineteenth century Australian explorers. The map has been reproduced into three online sections -- western, central, and eastern -- and each section contains a list of explorers who navigated that region of the continent. Also included are Internet links to all of the explorers, which can be accessed from the left-side panel on the home page or at the bottom of each map section.

Rakestraw, Jennifer.

2002-01-01

279

Three Dimensional Origin of AdS_2 Quantum Gravity  

E-print Network

We study AdS_2 quantum gravity with emphasis on consistency with results from AdS_3. We lift AdS_2 black holes to three dimensions and map fluctuations around the solutions. Comparison with near extremal BTZ are discussed, with due emphasis on global aspects. The results confirm that parameters like central charges and conformal weights computed directly in 2D are consistent with standard results in 3D. Applying our results to the thermodynamics of near extreme Kerr black holes, we show that AdS_2 quantum gravity gives the correct central charge c=12J, and the entropy of excitations above the extremal limit is captured correctly.

Alejandra Castro; Cynthia Keeler; Finn Larsen

2010-04-05

280

Supersymmetric warped AdS in extended topologically massive supergravity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We determine the most general form of off-shell N=(1,1) supergravity field configurations in three dimensions by requiring that at least one off-shell Killing spinor exists. We then impose the field equations of the topologically massive off-shell supergravity and find a class of solutions whose properties crucially depend on the norm of the auxiliary vector field. These are spacelike-squashed and timelike-stretched AdS3 for the spacelike and timelike norms, respectively. At the transition point where the norm vanishes, the solution is null warped AdS3. This occurs when the coefficient of the Lorentz-Chern-Simons term is related to the AdS radius by ??=2. We find that the spacelike-squashed AdS3 can be modded out by a suitable discrete subgroup of the isometry group, yielding an extremal black hole solution which avoids closed timelike curves.

Deger, N. S.; Kaya, A.; Samtleben, H.; Sezgin, E.

2014-07-01

281

Note on new massive gravity in AdS3  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this note we study the properties of linearized gravitational excitations in the new massive gravity theory in asymptotically AdS3 spacetime and find that there is also a critical point for the mass parameter at which massive gravitons become massless as in topological massive gravity in AdS3. However, at this critical point in the new massive gravity the energy of

Yan Liu; Ya-Wen Sun

2009-01-01

282

Toroidal AdS Charged Branes and Toda Equations  

E-print Network

In this note, we consider the equations of motion for charged branes in AdS space and show that they can be cast into one-dimensional coupled Toda type. Then we solve the equations of motion to construct static charged AdS brane solutions which are invariant under translation along $p$ directions and have toroidal symmetry. The solutions are described by mass, charges and a dilaton coupling constant.

Sangheon Yun

2009-10-15

283

Minimal surfaces in AdS space and integrable systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider the Pohlmeyer reduction for spacelike minimal area worldsheets in AdS5. The Lax pair for the reduced theory is found, and written entirely in terms of the A3 = D3 root system, generalizing the B2 affine Toda system which appears for the AdS4 string. For the B2 affine Toda system, we show that the area of the worlsheet is

Benjamin A. Burrington; Peng Gao

2010-01-01

284

From free fields to AdS space. I  

Microsoft Academic Search

Free N=4 super Yang-Mills theory (in the large-N limit) is dual to an, as yet, intractable closed string theory on AdS5×S5. We aim to implement open-closed string duality in this system and thereby recast the free-field correlation functions as amplitudes in AdS space. The basic strategy is to implement this duality directly on planar field theory correlation functions in the

Rajesh Gopakumar

2004-01-01

285

Adding Slide Rule  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students construct adding slide rules, scaled with linear calibrations like ordinary rulers. Students learn to move these scales relative to each other in ways that add and subtract distances, thus calculating sums and differences. This is Activity A1 in the "Far Out Math" educator's guide. Lessons within the guide include activities in which students measure, compare quantities as orders of magnitude, use scientific notation, and develop an understanding of exponents and logarithms using examples from NASA's GLAST mission. These are skills needed to understand the very large and very small quantities characteristic of astronomical observations. Note: In 2008, the GLAST mission was renamed Fermi, for the physicist Enrico Fermi.

286

The constraint algebra of topologically massive AdS gravity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three-dimensional topologically massive AdS gravity has a complicated constraint algebra, making it difficult to count nonperturbative degrees of freedom. I show that a new choice of variables greatly simplifies this algebra, and confirm that the theory contains a single propagating mode for all values of the mass parameter and the cosmological constant. As an added benefit, I rederive the central

S. Carlip

2008-01-01

287

[Value-Added--Adding Economic Value in the Food Industry].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet focuses on the economic concept of "value added" to goods and services. A student activity worksheet illustrates how the steps involved in processing food are examples of the concept of value added. The booklet further links food processing to the idea of value added to the Gross National Product (GNP). Discussion questions, a student…

Welch, Mary A., Ed.

1989-01-01

288

Two Virasoro symmetries in stringy warped AdS$_3$  

E-print Network

We study three-dimensional consistent truncations of type IIB supergravity which admit warped AdS$_3$ solutions. These theories contain subsectors that have no bulk dynamics. We show that the symplectic form for these theories, when restricted to the non-dynamical subsectors, equals the symplectic form for pure Einstein gravity in AdS$_3$. Consequently, for each consistent choice of boundary conditions in AdS$_3$, we can define a consistent phase space in warped AdS$_3$ with identical conserved charges. This way, we easily obtain a Virasoro $\\times$ Virasoro asymptotic symmetry algebra in warped AdS$_3$; two different types of Virasoro $\\times$ Ka\\v{c}-Moody symmetries are also consistent alternatives. Next, we study the phase space of these theories when propagating modes are included. We show that, as long as one can define a conserved symplectic form without introducing instabilities, the Virasoro $\\times$ Virasoro asymptotic symmetries can be extended to the entire (linearized) phase space. This implies that, at least at semi-classical level, consistent theories of gravity in warped AdS$_3$ are described by a two-dimensional conformal field theory, as long as stability is not an issue.

Geoffrey Compère; Monica Guica; Maria J. Rodriguez

2014-07-29

289

19th century denture base materials revisited.  

PubMed

Dentistry in the 19th century witnessed the development of a variety of denture base materials, the aim being to find a suitable substitute for the expensive and technique-sensitive noble metal denture bases. The century was marked by the introduction of natural and plastic materials for use as denture bases. Naturally-occurring materials, especially vulcanite, enjoyed great popularity for over 100 years. This article makes an attempt to summarize the historical 19th-century denture base materials. PMID:21563724

Ladha, Komal; Verma, Mahesh

2011-01-01

290

Teaching health in the 21st century.  

PubMed

School nurses have a broad scope of practice, including direct clinical care, as well as teaching health lessons. Students in the 21st century require educators who understand the current global needs of these learners. Effective health teaching meets these 21st-century needs. This article presents a background of 21st-century learning, with specific recommendations for teaching this generation of students. PMID:25626242

Halbert, Lee-Ann

2015-01-01

291

Adding Value to Agricultural Products  

E-print Network

You can significantly increase farm income by adding value to agricultural products and marketing those products effectively. This publication explains how to design a value-added product based on consumer preferences and how to build a business...

Anderson, David P.; Hanselka, Daniel

2009-06-01

292

YI Suki's Y?ksimanpil and the Professional Identity of a Chung'in Medical Official in Eighteenth Century Chos?n Korea.  

PubMed

About one hundred years after the publication of Tong?ibogam (1613), a physician at the court YI Suki (1664-?) wrote a medical manuscript titled Y?ksimanpil (Miscellaneous Jottings on Medical Experiences and Tests, 1734). As indicated in its title, Y?ksimanpil was a medical essay composed of 130 medical case histories, drawing on what YI Suki himself had experienced in his medical practices. This paper examines the messages YI Suki in Y?ksimanpil tried to address to his fellow Korean doctors, and by doing so illuminates an aspect of the medicine in the late Chos?n period. The argument goes that YI Suki wrote Y?ksimanpil as a vehicle for promulgating his professional identity as a bureaucratic physician who belonged to the network of the chung'in technical officials-a group of government technical functionaries in late Chos?n Korea. Throughout the late Chos?n period, the chung'in technical officials had been discriminated, institutionally and socioculturally, against the yangban literati, while their promotion to honored higher positions was blocked. It was in the late 17th and early 18th century that a group of chung'in officials tried to secure their sociocultural places for their professional activity, thus bringing to light their social and professional identity in Chos?n society. A member of the network of the chung'in technical officials in the early 18th century, YI Suki was in an effort to position himself as a doctor somewhere between the medical tradition and the Confucian literary tradition. In these sociocultural contexts, we can see more clearly what YI Suki tried to speak of in his book and the historical meaning of the medical writing Y?ksimanpil. First, the way he practiced medicine was testing and confirming what the received medical textbooks had asserted (Ch?ngh?mkobang). This style of practicing medicine could be viewed as a reflection of the comprehensivity trait of bureaucratic court physicians network YI Suki belonged to. Also this type of practice has the implication that YI Suki himself was a well-versed practitioner following the medical textual tradition, which was closely associated with the medical officials network. The emergence of the practice Ch?ngh?mkobang could be better understood in the backdrop of over 100 years of maturation process of Tong?ibogam in the clinical practices. Second, he formulated the professional identity of physicians only in terms of medical proficiency without recourse to the Confucian literary tradition. In other words, in promoting the social status of medicine, he did not resort to Confucian morality. He instead emphasized his dexterity or resourcefulness in dealing with millions of ever-changing diseases (Imsikw?nby?n ). Conceivably, this way of characterizing his own medical practice-by way of strongly combining the textual tradition and the experiential tradition while keeping distance with the Confucian literary tradition-reflected the complexity of the ambivalent identity of the technical chung'in officials, especially in regard to Confucianism, between Confucian physicians and hereditary doctors. All in all, YI Suki presented himself as an ideal image of the physician, which arguably reflected the sociocultural and academic context of the network of the chung'in technical officials in early 18th century Chos?n Korea. PMID:24005648

Yi, Kiebok

2013-08-01

293

Global geometric properties of AdS space and the AdS/CFT correspondence  

E-print Network

The Poisson kernels and relations between them for a massive scalar field in a unit ball $B^n$ with Hua's metric and conformal flat metric are obtained by describing the $B^n$ as a submanifold of an $(n+1)$-dimensional embedding space. Global geometric properties of the AdS space are discussed. We show that the $(n+1)$-dimensional AdS space AdS$_{n+1}$ is isomorphic to $RP^1\\times B^n$ and boundary of the AdS is isomorphic to $RP^1\\times S^{n-1}$. Bulk-boundary propagator and the AdS/CFT like correspondence are demonstrated based on these global geometric properties of the $RP^1\\times B^n$.

Qi-Keng Lu; Zhe Chang; Han-Ying Guo

2000-08-30

294

Exploring 20th Century London  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From the expansion of the Underground to the waves of new arrivals from the British colonies, London was greatly transformed through the 20th century. Recently, several London institutions, including the Museum of London, combed through their respective resources to create this interactive exhibit and archive that would tell visitors a bit about the city's evolution during those 100 years. The materials can be viewed through three sections: "Timeline", "Themes", and "Places". In the "Timeline" section, visitors can browse through featured objects and also learn about major events during the period. Moving on, the "Themes" area organizes the city's recent past into topical areas that focus on art and design, the built environment, ethnic communities, and leisure activities. The "Places" section features a clickable map of London's boroughs which reveals artifacts from each of these respective areas.

295

Adding and Subtracting Integers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Now that you have mastered the common math operations of adding, subtracting, multiplying and dividing, you are ready to tackle some more challenging, yet practical problems. For example: How much money do you have if your Mom paid you $20 for every time you mowed the lawn, but you had to pay your little brother $5 for every time he helped you, and together you accomplished the job 7 times? Or how about this one: if you picked 5 apples but 2 were rotten and you had to divide them equally between you and your five friends, how much would each person get? Current Knowledge You will need a piece of paper to record information and to write down examples, so grab one now. Number the paper from 1 to 10. Get with a partner and write down how you think the equations to solve the above problems will be written. Write these ...

Richins, Mrs.

2008-09-10

296

Large rotating AdS black holes from fluid mechanics  

E-print Network

We use the AdS/CFT correspondence to argue that large rotating black holes in global AdS(D) spaces are dual to stationary solutions of the relativistic Navier-Stokes equations on S**(D-2). Reading off the equation of state of this fluid from the thermodynamics of non-rotating black holes, we proceed to construct the nonlinear spinning solutions of fluid mechanics that are dual to rotating black holes. In all known examples, the thermodynamics and the local stress tensor of our solutions are in precise agreement with the thermodynamics and boundary stress tensor of the spinning black holes. Our fluid dynamical description applies to large non-extremal black holes as well as a class of large non-supersymmetric extremal black holes, but is never valid for supersymmetric black holes. Our results yield predictions for the thermodynamics of all large black holes in all theories of gravity on AdS spaces, for example, string theory on AdS(5) x S**5 and M theory on AdS(4) x S**7 and AdS(7) x S**4.

Sayantani Bhattacharyya; Subhaneil Lahiri; R. Loganayagam; Shiraz Minwalla

2007-08-14

297

AUTUMN PROGRAMME 2011 3RD OCT -18TH DECREINVENTYOUR FREETIME  

E-print Network

entrance to Bar One at 13:00. The ice hockey will finish at 16:00. Tickets £7. JUDO Judo improves your, falls and techniques that make Judo the exciting and fast paced sport it is. Everybody is welcome

Oakley, Jeremy

298

18th Annual February 21-22, 2012  

E-print Network

Accessible: Expanding the Scope of Science Research and Communication", reflects Symposium has always provided a forum for students to communicate their research a growing recognition that communicating scientific research to public audiences

299

CSE 509 System Security 18th Nov 2013  

E-print Network

. So the Big question is running untrusted code in a trusted program. We would need separation. We don't want the untrusted code to open random files Trusted region Untrusted region Trusted region's the use of the code? We need to have the untrusted component to access the trusted component in some

Sekar, R.

300

Foreword: 18th Aps-Sccm and 24th Airapt  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This second joint conference between the APS Topical Group on Shock Compression of Condensed Matter and the International Association for the Advancement of High Pressure Science and Technology (AIRAPT) demonstrates that static and dynamic compression of condensed matter continues to be a vibrant field of science and engineering. It is also by its nature an interdisciplinary field, incorporating chemistry, materials science, solid mechanics, plasma physics, and condensed matter physics, and utilizes theoretical, computational, and experimental tools. Recent years have brought about many advances in loading platforms, diagnostics, and computations that are leading to the emergence of many new avenues of research. These advances are also breathing new life into traditional topics such as equations of state, phase transformations, and chemistry at extreme conditions. The plenary lectures by Gennady Kanel, Karl Syassen, David Ceperley, Jon Eggert, Duck Young Kim, and Richard Kraus spanned the disciplines of static and dynamic high pressure physics and illustrated the breadth of the field. They also showed that interesting and important problems remain for researchers of the future to solve. The main guiding principal in the organization of this conference was to intertwine static and dynamical experimental alongside computational and theoretical studies of similar materials. To achieve this goal, we arranged the conference to include static, dynamic, and computational components in the same sessions, quite often taking presenters out of their comfort zone. The three special sessions on Deep Carbon Budget (organized by Giulia Galli and Rus Hemley), High Energy Density Materials (organized by Raymond Jeanloz and Jon Eggert), and Dynamic Response of Materials (organized by Yogendra Gupta and John Sarrao) furthered this guiding principal. We also endeavored to represent the breadth of static and dynamic high pressure science and technology, notably beyond that done at national laboratories. To this end, a significant fraction of the plenary, invited and contributed presentations showcased work done in academia, defense laboratories and industry, as well as internationally. Although travel distance and visa issues always present difficulties, the conference had strong representation from a record number of international participants, including sizable groups from Russia and China (thanks to Tony Zocher and Frank Cherne), as well as Japan, the United Kingdom, France, Canada, Germany, Israel, and Italy. It is our sincere hope that international interactions that occurred at the conference will lead to further collaborations in the future. Finally, we strived to increase student participation at the conference. Through the leadership of Scott Alexander and his committee, a new all-day student symposium was held the day before the main conference, with only student attendees and presenters, in order to acclimate the students to conference participation and help them network with their peers. In cooperation with the APS Topical Group and the AIRAPT and with additional support from DTRA and the AWE, the conference was able to provide financial assistance to a large number of students to attend the conference and present their research. This aid helped increase the number of student attendees significantly over previous conferences. Finally, the conference sponsored a networking lunch for students and representatives from a number of laboratories and other institutions, which was well attended. Seattle proved itself to be an excellent venue for the conference. The international flavor of the city provided ample dining options and numerous activity choices outside of the conference sessions. The major international airport made travel as easy as possible, as Seattle is a convenient central location for attendees from Europe and Asia. The conference was truly a team effort with critical contributions from many individuals. We deeply appreciate their contributions to the success of the conference and the publication of these proceedings. G

Collins, Gilbert; Moore, David S.; Yoo, Choong-Shik

2014-05-01

301

"Astronomers Anticipate Meteor "Storm" on November 18th"  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The annual Leonid meteor shower, named for its emanation from the constellation Leo, will blow past Earth on November 18, 2001. Astronomers predict that North America will get the most spectacular Leonid shower it has seen in 35 years. "Earth is about to plow through a cloud of space dust that could light up our skies with celestial fireworks," notes Alan MacRobert, senior editor for Sky and Telescope (S&T) magazine. For more about the Leonids, refer to Sky and Telescope online. From the press release above, users can access a special report, peak activity prediction tables, images and QuickTime animations (intended for the press), and a .pdf of the S&T print article on the Leonid showers.

2001-01-01

302

British Council Higher Education Conference : 18th October 2012  

E-print Network

to the remarkable courage and foresight which underpinned the land-grant colleges: all of these speak to America led in what the rest of the world calls knowledge or technology transfer, and the appreciation

Birmingham, University of

303

Franklin College Senate Minutes the Meeting of January 18th  

E-print Network

), Sarah Blackwell (Romance Languages), Adrian Burd (Marine Sciences), Keith Campbell (Psychology) Stacey (Speech Communication), Marshall Shepherd (Geography), Michael Tiemeyer (BMB), Anne Summers (Microbiology on nominations. Life Sciences, Humanities and Art either have the minimal number or less than the minimal number

Arnold, Jonathan

304

18th Australasian Fluid Mechanics Conference Launceston, Australia  

E-print Network

extend to large streamwise lengths and substantially meander in the spanwise direction. In addition, also investigating how these features modulate with the small-scale fluctuations near the wall observed by Hutchins et al. [5] in their atmospheric boundary layer studies. They reported such features

Marusic, Ivan

305

Franklin College Faculty Senate Meeting Thursday, October 18th  

E-print Network

Sciences), J. P. Caillault (Physics), Keith Campbell (Psychology), Stacey Casado (Romance Lang.), Jim de Fusillo (Dance), Michael Hahn (Plant Biology), Benjamin Ehlers (proxy for Shane Hamilton [History]), Linda Grant (proxy for Joe Hermanowicz [Sociology]), Kenneth Honerkamp (Religion), Thomas Houser (Art), Sarah

Arnold, Jonathan

306

21st Century Skills Map: Social Studies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This 21st Century Skills Map is the result of hundreds of hours of research, development and feedback from educators and business leaders across the nation. The Partnership for 21st Century Skills has issued this map for the core subject of Social Studies.

Partnership for 21st Century Skills, 2007

2007-01-01

307

21st Century Skills Map: Geography  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This 21st Century Skills Map is the result of hundreds of hours of research, development and feedback from educators and business leaders across the nation. The Partnership for 21st Century Skills has issued this map for the core subject of Geography.

Partnership for 21st Century Skills, 2009

2009-01-01

308

21st Century Skills Map: Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This 21st Century Skills Map is the result of hundreds of hours of research, development and feedback from educators and business leaders across the nation. The Partnership for 21st Century Skills has issued this map for the core subject of Science.

Partnership for 21st Century Skills, 2008

2008-01-01

309

21st Century Skills Map: English  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This 21st Century Skills Map is the result of hundreds of hours of research, development and feedback from educators and business leaders across the nation. The Partnership for 21st Century Skills has issued this map for the core subject of English.

Partnership for 21st Century Skills, 2008

2008-01-01

310

The Century of Education. CEE DP 109  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Global economic transformations have never been as dramatic as in the twentieth century. Most countries have experienced radical changes in the standards of income per capita, technology, fertility, mortality, income inequality and the extent of democracy in the course of the past century. It is the goal of many disciplines--economics, history,…

Morrisson, Christian; Murtin, Fabrice

2009-01-01

311

21st Century Skills Map: World Languages  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This 21st Century Skills Map is the result of hundreds of hours of research, development and feedback from educators and business leaders across the nation. The Partnership for 21st Century Skills has issued this map for the core subject of World Languages. [Funding for this paper was provided by EF Education.

Partnership for 21st Century Skills, 2011

2011-01-01

312

21st Century Skills Map: The Arts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This 21st Century Skills Map is the result of hundreds of hours of research, development and feedback from educators and business leaders across the nation. The Partnership for 21st Century Skills has issued this map for the core subject of the Arts.

Dean, Colleen; Ebert, Christie M. Lynch; McGreevy-Nichols, Susan; Quinn, Betsy; Sabol, F. Robert; Schmid, Dale; Shauck, R. Barry; Shuler, Scott C.

2010-01-01

313

Note on New Massive Gravity in $AdS_3$  

E-print Network

In this note we study the properties of linearized gravitational excitations in the new massive gravity theory in asymptotically $AdS_3$ spacetime and find that there is also a critical point for the mass parameter at which massive gravitons become massless as in topological massive gravity in $AdS_3$. However, at this critical point in the new massive gravity the energy of all branches of highest weight gravitons vanish and the central charges also vanish within the Brown-Henneaux boundary conditions. The new massive gravity in asymptotically $AdS_3$ spacetime seems to be trivial at this critical point under the Brown-Henneaux boundary conditions if the Brown-Henneaux boundary conditions can be consistent with this theory. At this point, the boundary conditions of log gravity may be preferred.

Yan Liu; Ya-Wen Sun

2009-03-03

314

New massive gravity and AdS(4) counterterms.  

PubMed

We show that the recently proposed Dirac-Born-Infeld extension of new massive gravity emerges naturally as a counterterm in four-dimensional anti-de Sitter space (AdS(4)). The resulting on-shell Euclidean action is independent of the cutoff at zero temperature. We also find that the same choice of counterterm gives the usual area law for the AdS(4) Schwarzschild black hole entropy in a cutoff-independent manner. The parameter values of the resulting counterterm action correspond to a c=0 theory in the context of the duality between AdS(3) gravity and two-dimensional conformal field theory. We rewrite this theory in terms of the gauge field that is used to recast 3D gravity as a Chern-Simons theory. PMID:21635026

Jatkar, Dileep P; Sinha, Aninda

2011-04-29

315

All AdS_7 solutions of type II supergravity  

E-print Network

In M-theory, the only AdS_7 supersymmetric solutions are AdS_7 x S^4 and its orbifolds. In this paper, we find and classify new supersymmetric solutions of the type AdS_7 x M_3 in type II supergravity. While in IIB none exist, in IIA with Romans mass (which does not lift to M-theory) there are many new ones. We use a pure spinor approach reminiscent of generalized complex geometry. Without the need for any Ansatz, the system determines uniquely the form of the metric and fluxes, up to solving a system of ODEs. Namely, the metric on M_3 is that of an S^2 fibered over an interval; this is consistent with the Sp(1) R-symmetry of the holographically dual (1,0) theory. By including D8 brane sources, one can numerically obtain regular solutions, where topologically M_3 = S^3.

Fabio Apruzzi; Marco Fazzi; Dario Rosa; Alessandro Tomasiello

2014-02-22

316

Logarithmic AdS Waves and Zwei-Dreibein Gravity  

E-print Network

We show that the parameter space of Zwei-Dreibein Gravity (ZDG) in AdS3 exhibits critical points, where massive graviton modes coincide with pure gauge modes and new `logarithmic' modes appear, similar to what happens in New Massive Gravity. The existence of critical points is shown both at the linearized level, as well as by finding AdS wave solutions of the full non-linear theory, that behave as logarithmic modes towards the AdS boundary. In order to find these solutions explicitly, we give a reformulation of ZDG in terms of a single Dreibein, that involves an infinite number of derivatives. At the critical points, ZDG can be conjectured to be dual to a logarithmic conformal field theory with zero central charges, characterized by new anomalies whose conjectured values are calculated.

Eric A. Bergshoeff; Andrés F. Goya; Wout Merbis; Jan Rosseel

2014-01-21

317

A century of oceanographic and fisheries exploration on the continental shelf off Argentina  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A detailed analysis is presented of the main contributions, both local and international, to the fields of oceanography and fishery sciences resulting from exploratory cruises carried out on the continental shelf off Argentina over the last 100 years. The end of the 19th century is chosen as a starting point for this analysis as it marks the beginning of active marine research by Argentinian scientists and an accumulation of information on Antarctic and Subantarctic organisms in foreign journals. Mention is also made of previous contributions derived from the classic expeditions and global circumnavigational voyages during the 18th and 19th centuries. Although the aims of those were not always strictly oceanographic, they rendered significant information to this field of knowledge. In the early years, references arose mainly from the particular geographic situation of the Argentinian shelf, a necessary passage in the navigation routes to the Pacific Ocean, and later on the way to Antarctica. Sources of information are divided into four categories: (a) foreign scientific projects in the area; (b) investigation by Argentinian scientists and research vessels; (c) joint projects between Argentinian and foreign institutions; and (d) contributions from sources other than oceanographic cruises (commercial navigation, maritime weather reports, satellite images, etc.). The analysis includes an updated and classified bibliographical list of the main contributions to the fields of oceanography and fishery sciences derived from those sources, published either in international or local journals or appearing as technical and internal reports. The motivations, objectives and main achievements of foreign surveys and programmes in the area and their impact on local scientific progress are discussed. The early sixties mark a turning point in the evolution of international research in the area. The creation of biological stations along the Argentinian coast, and the support given to the pooling of human resources set the basis for the development of bilateral programmes. Similar progress in Brazil and Uruguay led to the outgrowth of regional activities. Joint scientific efforts described in this analysis include the programmes carried out by the research vessels of Germany (“Walther Herwig”, “Meteor”), Japan (“Kaiyo Maru”, “Orient Maru”, “Shinkai Maru”), Poland (“Professor Siedlecki”), Russia (“Evrika”, “Dimitry Stefanov”) and the USA (“Vema”, “Atlantis II”), the achievements of which are a landmark in the evolution of marine science in the aea.

Angelescu, V.; Sánchez, R. P.

1995-03-01

318

Theoretical astrophysics in the 19th century (Homage to Radó von Kövesligethy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The nature of astronomical information is determined mostly by the incoming light. Theoretical astrophysics means basically the theory of light emission and its relation to the physical constitution of the emitting celestial bodies. The necessary physical disciplines include theory of gravitation, theory of radiation, thermodynamics, matter--radiation interaction. The most significant theoretical achievement in the 17th - 18th century was the axiomatic foundation of mechanics and the law of gravitation. In the context of the nature of light, there were two conceptions: Newton contra Huygens, i.e. particle versus wave phenomenon. Using the theory of gravitation, first speculations appeared on black holes (Michell, Laplace), cosmogony (Kant-Laplace theory), the structure of the Milky Way (Kant), and the explanation of motion of the celestial bodies. The Olbers Paradox, formulated in the 19th century, is still one of the most significant constraints on observational cosmology. The development of thermodynamics, matter-radiation interaction, development of the theory of electromagnetism became important milestones. Maxwell's theory was the classical framework of the interaction between matter and radiation. Kirchhoff and Bunsen's revolutionary discovery of spectral analysis (1859) showed that observation of spectra makes it possible to study the chemical composition of emitting bodies. Thermodynamics predicted the existence of the black body radiation. It did not succeed, however, to determine the functional form of the wavelength dependence. A combination of the thermodynamic equation of state with the equation of hydrostatics resulted in the first stellar models (Lane, Ritter, Schuster). The first successful spectral equation of black body radiation was the theory of continuous spectra of celestial bodies by Radó von Kövesligethy (published 1885 in Hungarian, 1890 in German). Kövesligethy made several assumptions on the matter-radiation interaction: radiating matter consists of interacting particles, the form of interaction is an inverse power law, the radiation field is represented by the aether, aether is made also from interacting particles, light is the propagation of the oscillation of the aether particles, there is an equipartition between the oscillations energy of material and aetheric particles. Based on these assumptions, he derived a spectral equation with the following properties: the spectral distribution of radiation depends only on the temperature, the total irradiated energy is finite (15 years before Planck!), the wavelength of the intensity maximum is inversely proportional to the temperature (eight years before Wien!). Using his spectral equation, he estimated the temperature of several celestial bodies, including the Sun.

Balázs, Lajos G.

319

On the Generalized Massive Gravity in $AdS_3$  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this note we investigate the generalized massive gravity in asymptotically\\u000a$AdS_3$ spacetime by combining the two mass terms of topological massive\\u000agravity and new massive gravity theory. We study the linearized excitations\\u000aaround the $AdS_3$ background and find that at a specific value of a certain\\u000acombination of the two mass parameters (chiral line), one of the massive\\u000agraviton

Yan Liu; Ya-Wen Sun

2009-01-01

320

Comments on String Theory on $AdS_3$  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study string propagation on $AdS_3$ times a compact space from an ``old fashioned'' worldsheet point of view of perturbative string theory. We derive the spacetime CFT and its Virasoro and current algebras, thus establishing the conjectured $AdS$\\/CFT correspondence for this case in the full string theory. Our results have implications for the extreme IR limit of the $D1-D5$ system,

Amit Giveon; David Kutasov; Nathan Seiberg

1998-01-01

321

Mixed-symmetry fields in AdS(5), conformal fields, and AdS/CFT  

E-print Network

Mixed-symmetry arbitrary spin massive, massless, and self-dual massive fields in AdS(5) are studied. Light-cone gauge actions for such fields leading to decoupled equations of motion are constructed. Light-cone gauge formulation of mixed-symmetry anomalous conformal currents and shadows in 4d flat space is also developed. AdS/CFT correspondence for normalizable and non-normalizable modes of mixed-symmetry AdS fields and the respective boundary mixed-symmetry anomalous conformal currents and shadows is studied. We demonstrate that the light-cone gauge action for massive mixed-symmetry AdS field evaluated on solution of the Dirichlet problem amounts to the light-cone gauge 2-point vertex of mixed-symmetry anomalous shadow. Also we show that UV divergence of the action for mixed-symmetry massive AdS field with some particular value of mass parameter evaluated on the Dirichlet problem amounts to the action of long mixed-symmetry conformal field, while UV divergence of the action for mixed-symmetry massless AdS field evaluated on the Dirichlet problem amounts to the action of short mixed-symmetry conformal field. We speculate on string theory interpretation of a model which involves short low-spin conformal fields and long higher-spin conformal fields.

R. R. Metsaev

2014-10-27

322

Compact AdS space, Brane geometry and the AdS/CFT correspondence  

E-print Network

The AdS/CFT correspondence can be realized in spaces that are globally different but share the same asymptotic behavior. Two known cases are: a compact AdS space and the space generated by a large number of coincident branes. We discuss the physical consistency, in the sense of the Cauchy problem, of these two formulations. We show that the role of the boundary in the compact AdS space is equivalent to that of the flat asymptotic region in the brane space. We also show, by introducing a second coordinate chart for the pure AdS space, that a point at its spatial infinity corresponds to a horizon in the brane system.

Henrique Boschi-Filho; Nelson R. F. Braga

2001-12-20

323

p. 9 Caption: Hoplite of the fifth century BC (after P.Ducrey, 1985). p. 13 Celtic shield of gilded bronze (Northern Italy, second or third century BC?) (Wrtembergisches  

E-print Network

in the Vendée region of France, undoubtedly a nineteenth century fake based on reliefs on Trajan's Column (after, modified). p. 42 The military diploma from Geiselprechting, dated mid-June AD 64, sheets 3 and 4 (photo Prähist. Staatsammlung, Munich). The systematic study of the military diplomas given to soldiers

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

324

Circa a.d. 626 volcanic eruption, climatic cooling, and the collapse of the Eastern Turkic Empire  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the late sixth century and early seventh century, the Eastern Turkic Empire (i.e., the Eastern Turkic Khanate) was\\u000a the most powerful country in the Northeast Asia. It collapsed suddenly in a.d. 630, and historians concluded that the combination of social, political and economic factors, as well as the invasion of\\u000a the Tang Empire, would be the root cause. Here

Jie Fei; Jie Zhou; Yongjian Hou

2007-01-01

325

Recent evidence of animal exploitation in the Axumite epoch, 1st-5th centuries AD.  

PubMed

This study reports evidence of animal exploitation during the Axumite era based on a survey of architectural features, rock art and artefacts recovered from the archaeological site at Axum, northern Ethiopia. Animals and agricultural tools were identified from materials not previously examined. Pottery, rock art and animal remains revealed a range of zoological species. Agricultural implements and sacrificial vessels also provided indirect evidence of animal exploitation. It is concluded that, in addition to plough-based agriculture, the hunting of large wild animals, such as elephants and lions, and the exploitation of domestic cattle, small ruminants and poultry were part of the Axumite subsistence regime. Although it is difficult to reconstruct an overall subsistence pattern based on this study alone, the physical and biological evidence suggests that the Axumites practised combined cultivation and animal herding. Further investigation is required to study the types and breeds of animals and their distribution in time and space. PMID:14998309

Tefera, M

2004-02-01

326

Hadronic spectra in AdS / QCD correspondence  

E-print Network

We present an holographical soft wall model which is able to reproduce Regge spectra for hadrons with an arbitrary number of constituents. The model includes the anomalous dimension of operators that create hadrons, together with a dilaton, whose form is suggested by Einstein`s equations and the AdS metric

Alfredo Vega; Ivan Schmidt

2010-02-08

327

Topologically massive gravity on AdS$_2$ spacetimes  

E-print Network

We study the topologically massive gravity with a negative cosmological constant on AdS$_2$ spacetimes by making use of dimensional reduction. For a constant dilaton, this two-dimensional model admits three AdS$_2$ vacuum solutions, which are related to AdS$_3$ and warped AdS$_3$ with an identification upon uplifting three dimensions. We carry out the perturbation analysis around these backgrounds to find what is a physically propagating field. It turns out that a mode of $\\delta F = (h-f/e)$ is merely a redundant field of dilaton $\\varphi$ in the absence of Chern-Simons terms, while it becomes a massive scalar in the presence of Chern-Simons terms. This shows clearly that the proper number of physically propagating degrees of freedom is one for the topologically massive gravity. Moreover, at the points of $K=l,l/3$, $\\delta F$ becomes a massless scalar which implies that there is no physically propagating degrees of freedom at the chiral point.

Yun Soo Myung; Yong-Wan Kim; Young-Jai Park

2009-01-15

328

The Universal Phase Space of AdS3 Gravity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe what can be called the "universal" phase space of AdS3 gravity, in which the moduli spaces of globally hyperbolic AdS spacetimes with compact spatial sections, as well as the moduli spaces of multi-black-hole spacetimes are realized as submanifolds. The universal phase space is parametrized by two copies of the universal Teichmüller space {{T}(1)} and is obtained from the correspondence between maximal surfaces in AdS3 and quasisymmetric homeomorphisms of the unit circle. We also relate our parametrization to the Chern-Simons formulation of 2+1 gravity and, infinitesimally, to the holographic (Fefferman-Graham) description. In particular, we obtain a relation between the generators of quasiconformal deformations in each {{T}(1)} sector and the chiral Brown-Henneaux vector fields. We also relate the charges arising in the holographic description (such as the mass and angular momentum of an AdS3 spacetime) to the periods of the quadratic differentials arising via the Bers embedding of {{T}(1)×{T}(1)} . Our construction also yields a symplectic map {T^ ast {T}(1) ? {T}(1) × {T}(1)} generalizing the well-known Mess map in the compact spatial surface setting.

Scarinci, Carlos; Krasnov, Kirill

2013-08-01

329

On the Eikonal approximation in AdS space  

Microsoft Academic Search

We explore the eikonal approximation to graviton exchange in AdS5 space, as relevant to scattering in gauge theories. We restrict ourselves to the regime where conformal invariance of the dual gauge theory holds, and to large 't Hooft coupling where the computation involves pure gravity. We give a heuristic argument, a direct loop computation, and a shock wave derivation. The

Richard C. Brower; Matthew J. Strassler; Chung-I Tan

2009-01-01

330

Euclidean and Noetherian entropies in AdS space  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine the Euclidean action approach, as well as that of Wald, to the entropy of black holes in asymptotically AdS spaces. From the point of view of holography these two approaches are somewhat complementary in spirit and it is not obvious why they should give the same answer in the presence of arbitrary higher derivative gravity corrections. For the

Suvankar Dutta; Rajesh Gopakumar

2006-01-01

331

Holography in the Penrose limit of AdS space  

Microsoft Academic Search

We discuss the Penrose limit of pure AdS space, which is flat Minkowski space. Even though there is no holographic principle, we construct a “holographic screen” on which information on the corresponding CFT is encoded. The screen is obtained as a gauge-fixing condition upon restricting the Hilbert space to the states that are annihilated by the generator of scale transformations.

George Siopsis

2002-01-01

332

A Hidden Symmetry of AdS Resonances  

E-print Network

Recent investigations have revealed powerful selection rules for resonant energy transfer between modes of non-linear perturbations in global anti-de Sitter (AdS) space-time. It is likely that these selection rules are due to the highly symmetric nature of the underlying AdS background, though the precise relation has remained unclear. In this article, we demonstrate that the equation satisfied by the scalar field mode functions in AdS(d+1) has a hidden SU(d) symmetry, and explicitly specify the multiplets of this SU(d) symmetry furnished by the mode functions. We also comment on the role this structure might play in explaining the selection rules.

Oleg Evnin; Chethan Krishnan

2015-02-12

333

A Hidden Symmetry of AdS Resonances  

E-print Network

Recent investigations have revealed powerful selection rules for resonant energy transfer between modes of non-linear perturbations in global anti-de Sitter (AdS) space-time. It is likely that these selection rules are due to the highly symmetric nature of the underlying AdS background, though the precise relation has remained unclear. In this article, we demonstrate that the equation satisfied by the scalar field mode functions in AdS(d+1) has a hidden SU(d) symmetry, and explicitly specify the multiplets of this SU(d) symmetry furnished by the mode functions. We also comment on the role this structure might play in explaining the selection rules.

Evnin, Oleg

2015-01-01

334

AdS space compactification and holographic mapping in the AdS/CFT correspondence  

E-print Network

Physical consistency of quantum fields in anti-de Sitter space time requires that the space must be compactified by the inclusion of a boundary where appropriate conditions are imposed. An interpretation for the presence of this boundary is found taking AdS as a limiting case of the space generated by a large number of coincident branes. The compactification of AdS leads to a discretization of the spectrum of bulk fields. As a consequence, we find a one to one mapping between the quantum states of scalar fields in AdS bulk and boundary. Using this mapping as an approximation for the dual relation between string dilaton field and scalar QCD glueballs the high energy QCD scaling is reproduced. We also use this map to estimate the ratio of scalar glueball masses.

Henrique Boschi-Filho; Nelson R. F. Braga

2003-05-14

335

The Enigma of 20th century sea level change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sea level has been constant at near-present levels from ~5500 calendar years BP to the end of the Little Ice Age at ~1860 AD. Since ~1900, tide gauge measurements indicate that it has risen steadily at ~2 mm/yr by about 18 cm. The comparative stability of sealevel from 5500 cal yr BP to 1860 AD is robust, being suggested by near-shore Mediterranean archeological sites, the few sea level records that extend back to 1700 AD, and the impossibility of projecting the current sea level rise of ~2 mm/y back 5000 years (it would produce a global 10 m inundation, which is not observed) (Douglas et al., 2001, Academic Press). The post 1870 sea level rise is not due to heating of the upper ocean (Liviticus et al., 2000, Science). Munk (2002, PNAS) characterized it as an "enigma", dismissing an upper ocean steric sea level explanation as "too little" (~3 cm), "too late" (the rise started in 1860), and "too linear" (not accelerating with the accelerating CO2 increase). GRACE gravity measurements show a near zero change in ocean mass. Cazenave et al. (2009, Global and Planetary Change) indicate a slight decrease in ocean mass between 2003 and 2008. The rate of meltwater mass being added to the oceans essentially equals the GIA correction (Chambers et al., 2010, JGR). Different GIA models give ocean mass increase ranging from 0.5 to 2 mm/y of equivalent sea level rise. Our GIA model suggests no ocean mass increases (~0 mm/y of equivalent sea level rise). In this talk I show that the heating of a two layer ocean model driven by the temperature changes that have occurred over the last 1000 years since the peak of the Medieval Warm Period produces a ~2mm/yr linear sea level rise over the last 100 years with much smaller preceding sea level changes. Ocean mass could be unchanging over the last century as well as the last ~5000 years. This result is compatible with GRACE measurements and eclipse data constraints, predictions of our GIA model, and it resolves the enigma the 20th Century sea level change noted by Munk.

Cathles, Larry

2014-05-01

336

[Modern medicine environment and adaptation of Korean trader for medicinal herbs from the late 19th century to the early 20th century].  

PubMed

Since the late 18th century, the Korean traditional medicine trade witnessed a steady growth. There were lots of stores which sold Korean medicinal herbs in Seoul and every major towns had at least one or more stores in Korea, which led to a subsequent growth of people involved in the trade. However, Korean medicine merchants encountered a new environment with the influx of western medicines after the Opening of Ports and the execution of modern medicine policies. Such change of atmosphere led the merchants to seek new breakthroughs. Some of the merchants found the answer in producing and selling patent medicine. The people in the industry had little knowledge of western medicine, so that they had little choice but to combine their experience of Korean medicine with whatever information they had about western counterpart. Such resolution generated a new kind of medicine known as patent medicine. Patent medicine businessmen observed the new medicine policies of the Korean Empire. Some visionary ones even sought to eagerly utilize the trademark system to secure the selling route. The Japanese colonial government strengthened the medicine policies. It revised the legislature and mobilized administrative powers to manage and control the industry. However, such colonial policies in the 1910s implicated certain limits due to its lack of understanding of Korean medicine industry. Also, the colonial government showed poor efforts in introducing modern medicine facilities and systems, so that the ground was set for the patent medicine business to flourish. Patent medicine enjoyed a high turnover. So, the entrepreneurs endeavored to promote the sales in whatever means necessary. The most basic form of advertisement was through the newspaper. Indirect promotion through newspaper articles, issuing medicine flyers, free gift draw, reputation of an influential expert were widely used for its sales. Consequently, patent medicine industry in the 1910s saw a healthy prosperity. One example of such golden days was the case of Hwuapyungdangyakbabg (one of the biggest patent medicine companies), which won a third place along with Kyungsungbangjik, which was the top Korean company at that time, in the advertisement design contest hosted by the classified department of Dong-a Daily in 1926. But actually, a few Japanese medicine merchants led the industry. So prosperity of Korean medicine merchant had its limits. PMID:17575704

Yang, Jeongpil

2006-12-01

337

Compact AdS space, brane geometry, and the AdS\\/CFT correspondence  

Microsoft Academic Search

The AdS\\/CFT correspondence can be realized in spaces that are globally different but share the same asymptotic behavior. Two known cases are a compact AdS space and the space generated by a large number of coincident branes. We discuss the physical consistency, in the sense of the Cauchy problem, of these two formulations. We show that the role of the

Henrique Boschi-Filhoand; Nelson R. Braga

2002-01-01

338

Authentication in Ad hoc Networking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Authentication is an aspect of communication network security that deals with ensuring that the principals with whom one interacts are the expected ones. Informally, authentication allows the receiver to verify that the claimed sender really sent the data. Authentication inherently secures other aspects of ad hoc wireless communication such as freshness, availability, integrity and confidentiality. The defin ition of Ad

A O Salako

339

Usual Intake of Added sugars  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Added sugars Table A40. Added sugars: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 teaspoons3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 9.4 (0.31) 3.1 (0.17) 4.1

340

Thermalization with a chemical potential from AdS spaces  

E-print Network

The time-scale of thermalization in holographic dual models with a chemical potential in diverse number of dimensions is systematically investigated using the gauge/gravity duality. We consider a model with a thin-shell of charged dust collapsing from the boundary toward the bulk interior of asymptotically anti-de Sitter (AdS) spaces. In the outer region there is a Reissner-Nordstr\\"om-AdS black hole (RNAdS-BH), while in the inner region there is an anti-de Sitter space. We consider renormalized geodesic lengths and minimal area surfaces as probes of thermalization, which in the dual quantum field theory (QFT) correspond to two-point functions and expectation values of Wilson loops, respectively. We show how the behavior of these extensive probes changes for charged black holes in comparison with Schwarzschild-AdS black holes (AdS-BH), for different values of the black hole mass and charge. The full range of values of the chemical potential over temperature ratio in the dual QFT is investigated. In all cases, the structure of the thermalization curves shares similar features with those obtained from the AdS-BH. On the other hand, there is an important difference in comparison with the AdS-BH: the thermalization times obtained from the renormalized geodesic lengths and the minimal area surfaces are larger for the RNAdS-BH, and they increase as the black hole charge increases.

Damian Galante; Martin Schvellinger

2012-05-07

341

China's March on the 21st Century  

E-print Network

#12;China's March on the 21st Century A Report of the Aspen Strategy Group Kurt M. Campbell, Editor at the Crossroads: The Future of China's Economy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 Lael Brainard Adjusting to China's Rise

Deutch, John

342

The Ninth-Century Renaissance in Astronomy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the events in the ninth century that moved astronomy away from the pursuit of mystical hermetic sciences and astrology back toward observation and measurement. Describes the achievements of astronomers and the instruments and calculations used during that period. (JRH)

Farrell, Charlotte

1996-01-01

343

Harold Bloom on Eighteenth-Century Fiction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the early 1960s. publishers have provided students of eighteenth-century fiction with a steady stream of collections of reprinted critical essays, both on major authors and on individual works. Prentice-Hall has issued Twentieth-Century Views of Defoe, Swift, Richardson, Fielding, Sterne, and Austen; Routledge's Critical Heritage series contains all of these except Richardson, as well as Smollett and Walpole; the short-lived

Peter Sabor

1991-01-01

344

The Constraint Algebra of Topologically Massive AdS Gravity  

E-print Network

Three-dimensional topologically massive AdS gravity has a complicated constraint algebra, making it difficult to count nonperturbative degrees of freedom. I show that a new choice of variables greatly simplifies this algebra, and confirm that the theory contains a single propagating mode for all values of the mass parameter and the cosmological constant. As an added benefit, I rederive the central charges and conformal weights of the boundary conformal field theory from an explicit analysis of the asymptotic algebra of constraints.

S. Carlip

2008-07-25

345

New boundary conditions for AdS3  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New chiral boundary conditions are found for quantum gravity with matter on AdS3. The associated asymptotic symmetry group is generated by a single right-moving U(1) Kac-Moody-Virasoro algebra with {c_R}={3?}/2G . The Kac-Moody zero mode generates global left-moving translations and equals, for a BTZ black hole, the sum of the total mass and spin. The level is positive about the global vacuum and negative in the black hole sector, corresponding to ergosphere formation. Realizations arising in Chern-Simons gravity and string theory are analyzed. The new boundary conditions are shown to naturally arise for warped AdS3 in the limit that the warp parameter is taken to zero.

Compère, Geoffrey; Song, Wei; Strominger, Andrew

2013-05-01

346

Four Dimensional Conformal Supergravity From AdS Space  

E-print Network

Exploring the role of conformal theories of gravity in string theory, we show that the minimal (N=2) gauged supergravities in five dimensions induce the multiplets and transformations of N=1 four dimensional conformal supergravity on the spacetime boundary. N=1 Poincare supergravity can be induced by explicitly breaking the conformal invariance via a radial cutoff in the 5d space. The AdS/CFT correspondence relates the maximal gauged supergravity in five dimensions to N=4 super Yang-Mills on the 4d spacetime boundary. In this context we show that the conformal anomaly of the gauge theory induces conformal gravity on the boundary of the space and that this theory, via the renormalization group, encapsulates the gravitational dynamics of the skin of asymptotically AdS spacetimes. Our results have several applications to the AdS/CFT correspondence and the Randall-Sundrum scenario.

Vijay Balasubramanian; Eric Gimon; Djordje Minic; Joachim Rahmfeld

2000-07-26

347

Properties of Schroedinger Black Holes from AdS Space  

E-print Network

Properties of Schroedinger black holes are derived from AdS black holes expressed in light-cone coordinates with a particular normalization. The advantages of this method over the direct analysis of the Schroedinger geometry are the simplicity and the well-defined Brown-York procedure with the standard counterterms. The method is demonstrated for several physical interests, including the computation of the DC conductivity and the derivation of the R-charged black hole thermodynamic properties.

Bom Soo Kim; Daiske Yamada

2011-08-27

348

Spiky Strings on AdS(4) X CP**3  

E-print Network

We study a giant magnon and a spike solution for the string rotating on AdS(4) X CP**3 geometry. We consider rigid rotating fundamental string in the SU(2) X SU(2) sector inside the CP**3 and find out the general form of all the conserved charges. We find out the dispersion relation corresponding to both the known giant magnon and the new spike solutions. We further study the finite size correction in both cases.

Bum-Hoon Lee; Kamal L. Panigrahi; Chanyong Park

2008-11-07

349

Universal Kounterterms in Lovelock AdS gravity  

E-print Network

We show the universal form of the boundary term (Kounterterm series) which regularizes the Euclidean action and background-independent definition of conserved quantities for any Lovelock gravity theory with AdS asymptotics (including Einstein-Hilbert and Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet). We discuss on the connection of this procedure to the existence of topological invariants and Chern-Simons forms in the corresponding dimensions.

Georgios Kofinas; Rodrigo Olea

2008-06-06

350

Crystal manyfold universes in AdS space  

Microsoft Academic Search

We derive crystal braneworld solutions, comprising of intersecting families of parallel n+2-branes in a 4+n-dimensional AdS space. Each family consists of alternating positive and negative tension branes. In the simplest case of exactly orthogonal families, there arise different crystals with unbroken 4D Poincaré invariance on the intersections, where our world can reside. A crystal can be finite along some direction,

Nemanja Kaloper

2000-01-01

351

Possible earthquake trigger for 6th century mass wasting deposit at Lake Ohrid (Macedonia/Albania)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lake Ohrid shared by the Republics of Albania and Macedonia is formed by a tectonically active graben within the south Balkans and suggested to be the oldest lake in Europe. Several studies have shown that the lake provides a valuable record of climatic and environmental changes and a distal tephrostratigraphic record of volcanic eruptions from Italy. Fault structures identified in seismic data demonstrate that sediments have also the potential to record tectonic activity in the region. Here, we provide an example of linking seismic and sedimentological information with tectonic activity and historical documents. Historical documents indicate that a major earthquake destroyed the city of Lychnidus (today: city of Ohrid) in the early 6th century AD. Multichannel seismic profiles, parametric sediment echosounder profiles, and a 10.08 m long sediment record from the western part of the lake indicate a 2 m thick mass wasting deposit, which is tentatively correlated with this earthquake. The mass wasting deposit is chronologically well constrained, as it directly overlays the AD 472/AD 512 tephra. Moreover, radiocarbon dates and cross correlation with other sediment sequences with similar geochemical characteristics of the Holocene indicate that the mass wasting event took place prior to the onset of the Medieval Warm Period, and is attributed it to one of the known earthquakes in the region in the early 6th century AD.

Wagner, B.; Francke, A.; Sulpizio, R.; Zanchetta, G.; Lindhorst, K.; Krastel, S.; Vogel, H.; Rethemeyer, J.; Daut, G.; Grazhdani, A.; Lushaj, B.; Trajanovski, S.

2012-12-01

352

AD-1 aircraft in flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Ames-Dryden (AD)-1 was a research aircraft designed to investigate the concept of an oblique (or pivoting) wing. The movie clip runs about 17 seconds and has two air-to-air views of the AD-1. The first shot is from slightly above as the wing pivots to 60 degrees. The other angle is almost directly below the aircraft when the wing is fully pivoted.

1980-01-01

353

ADS/CFT and QCD  

SciTech Connect

The AdS/CFT correspondence between string theory in AdS space and conformal .eld theories in physical spacetime leads to an analytic, semi-classical model for strongly-coupled QCD which has scale invariance and dimensional counting at short distances and color confinement at large distances. Although QCD is not conformally invariant, one can nevertheless use the mathematical representation of the conformal group in five-dimensional anti-de Sitter space to construct a first approximation to the theory. The AdS/CFT correspondence also provides insights into the inherently non-perturbative aspects of QCD, such as the orbital and radial spectra of hadrons and the form of hadronic wavefunctions. In particular, we show that there is an exact correspondence between the fifth-dimensional coordinate of AdS space z and a specific impact variable {zeta} which measures the separation of the quark and gluonic constituents within the hadron in ordinary space-time. This connection allows one to compute the analytic form of the frame-independent light-front wavefunctions, the fundamental entities which encode hadron properties and allow the computation of decay constants, form factors, and other exclusive scattering amplitudes. New relativistic lightfront equations in ordinary space-time are found which reproduce the results obtained using the 5-dimensional theory. The effective light-front equations possess remarkable algebraic structures and integrability properties. Since they are complete and orthonormal, the AdS/CFT model wavefunctions can also be used as a basis for the diagonalization of the full light-front QCD Hamiltonian, thus systematically improving the AdS/CFT approximation.

Brodsky, Stanley J.; /SLAC; de Teramond, Guy F.; /Costa Rica U. /SLAC

2007-02-21

354

Bending AdS Waves with New Massive Gravity  

E-print Network

We study AdS-waves in the three-dimensional new theory of massive gravity recently proposed by Bergshoeff, Hohm, and Townsend. The general configuration of this type is derived and shown to exhibit different branches, with different asymptotic behaviors. In particular, for the special fine tuning $m^2=\\pm1/(2l^2)$, solutions with logarithmic fall-off arise, while in the range $m^2>-1/(2l^2)$, spacetimes with Schrodinger isometry group are admitted as solutions. Solutions that are asymptotically AdS$_3$, both for Brown-Henneaux and for the weakened boundary conditions, are also identified. The metric function that characterizes the profile of the AdS-wave behaves as a massive excitation on the spacetime, with an effective mass given by $m_{eff}^2=m^2-1/(2l^2)$. For the critical value $m^2=-1/(2l^2)$, the value of the effective mass precisely saturates the Breitenlohner-Freedman bound for the AdS$_3$ space where the wave is propagating on. The analogies with the AdS-wave solutions of topologically massive gravity are also discussed. Besides, we consider the coupling of both massive deformations to Einstein gravity and find the exact configurations for the complete theory, discussing all the different branches exhaustively. One of the effects of introducing the Chern-Simons gravitational term is that of breaking the degeneracy in the effective mass of the generic modes of pure New Massive Gravity, producing a fine structure due to parity violation. Another effect is that the zoo of exact logarithmic specimens becomes considerably enlarged.

Eloy Ayón-Beato; Gaston Giribet; Mokhtar Hassaïne

2009-04-05

355

Understanding Fraudulent Activities in Online Ad Exchanges  

E-print Network

), marketplaces known as "ad exchanges" are employed. These exchanges allow publishers (sellers of ad space) and adver- tisers (buyers of this ad space) to dynamically broker traffic through ad networks to efficiently/seller relationship between those who want to show ads (advertisers, who buy space on Web pages) and those who get

California at Santa Barbara, University of

356

Euclidean and Noetherian entropies in AdS space  

SciTech Connect

We examine the Euclidean action approach, as well as that of Wald, to the entropy of black holes in asymptotically AdS spaces. From the point of view of holography these two approaches are somewhat complementary in spirit and it is not obvious why they should give the same answer in the presence of arbitrary higher derivative gravity corrections. For the case of the AdS{sub 5} Schwarzschild black hole, we explicitly study the leading correction to the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy in the presence of a variety of higher derivative corrections studied in the literature, including the Type IIB R{sup 4} term. We find a nontrivial agreement between the two approaches in every case. Finally, we give a general way of understanding the equivalence of these two approaches.

Dutta, Suvankar; Gopakumar, Rajesh [Harish-Chandra Research Institute, Chhatnag Road, Jhusi, Allahabad 211019 (India)

2006-08-15

357

Journal of Seventeenth-Century Music  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From the tones of the viola da gamba to the mellifluence of the lute, seventeenth-century music (and its instruments) is considered a premier subject of inquiry by musicologists and others around the world. Published by the Society for Seventeenth-Century Music, the Journal of Seventeenth-Century Music is dedicated to studying all aspects of music from this era, including performance practice and theater. The Journal was started in 1995, and visitors with a penchant for such topics can utilize this website to look over past and current issues of the Journal as they see fit. Along with looking over the past articles, book reviews, and commentaries, visitors can also learn about the guidelines for submitting items for review.

Gustafson, Bruce, 1945-

358

New Features in ADS Labs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) has been working hard on updating its services and interfaces to better support our community's research needs. ADS Labs is a new interface built on the old tried-and-true ADS Abstract Databases, so all of ADS's content is available through it. In this presentation we highlight the new features that have been developed in ADS Labs over the last year: new recommendations, metrics, a citation tool and enhanced fulltext search. ADS Labs has long been providing article-level recommendations based on keyword similarity, co-readership and co-citation analysis of its corpus. We have now introduced personal recommendations, which provide a list of articles to be considered based on a individual user's readership history. A new metrics interface provides a summary of the basic impact indicators for a list of records. These include the total and normalized number of papers, citations, reads, and downloads. Also included are some of the popular indices such as the h, g and i10 index. The citation helper tool allows one to submit a set of records and obtain a list of top 10 papers which cite and/or are cited by papers in the original list (but which are not in it). The process closely resembles the network approach of establishing "friends of friends" via an analysis of the citation network. The full-text search service now covers more than 2.5 million documents, including all the major astronomy journals, as well as physics journals published by Springer, Elsevier, the American Physical Society, the American Geophysical Union, and all of the arXiv eprints. The full-text search interface interface allows users and librarians to dig deep and find words or phrases in the body of the indexed articles. ADS Labs is available at http://adslabs.org

Accomazzi, Alberto; Kurtz, M. J.; Henneken, E. A.; Grant, C. S.; Thompson, D.; Di Milia, G.; Luker, J.; Murray, S. S.

2013-01-01

359

Kinky Strings in AdS_5 x S^5  

E-print Network

We construct a family of closed string solutions with kinks in a subspace of AdS_5 x S^5 and study their properties. In certain limits these solutions become folded pulsating strings, although in general they are made of multiple pulsating rectangles. One unusual feature of these solutions is that their monodromy matrices are trivial, leading to vanishing quasi-momenta. Exact Backlund transformations of these solutions are found, again giving vanishing higher conserved charges. We also consider the fluctuation modes around these solutions as well as the semiclassical splitting of these strings.

Tristan McLoughlin; Xinkai Wu

2006-06-24

360

Static nonextremal AdS4 black hole solutions  

E-print Network

We find new static nonextremal black hole solutions that asymptote to AdS_4 in D=4 gauged N=2 supergravity. Solutions include electric and magnetic black holes with constant scalars that in the BPS limit reduce to naked singularities, but also magnetic black holes with running scalars that at extremality reduce to BPS black holes with finite horizon area. For all these solutions we compute area product formulae and show they are independent of the mass. Finally, we also find new examples of nonextremal magnetic black branes.

Chiara Toldo; Stefan Vandoren

2014-09-16

361

Holography in the Penrose limit of AdS space  

E-print Network

We discuss the Penrose limit of pure AdS space, which is flat Minkowski space. Even though there is no holographic principle, we construct a ``holographic screen'' on which information on the corresponding CFT is encoded. The screen is obtained as a gauge-fixing condition upon restricting the Hilbert space to the states that are annihilated by the generator of scale transformations. This constraint leads to Dirac brackets which turn the Poincare algebra into the algebra of the conformal group on the ``holographic screen.''

George Siopsis

2002-05-30

362

Rapid landscape change in 6th century Jordan: driven by climate or man-made?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Compared to the rich cities of antiquity, many areas in the Levant appear today degraded. European travel reports of the 19th century and excavations in Jordan created the impression that population numbers were strongly reduced during the Islamic periods, leading to 'empty' lands which were only resettled during the early 20th century. However, our case study near the ancient site Abila of the Decapolis in northern Jordan found that the land was probably never 'empty' and always fertile - but valley fills provide evidence for a rapid and intense landscape change during the Late Byzantine period. This was probably caused by a significant shift to aridity which also triggered socio-economic changes of subsistence strategies from agriculture to pastoralism. The dates of sediments which are available so far indicate that the climatic change seemingly occurred rapidly within approximately 100 years during the late 6th and early 7th century AD, and rubble layers let it seem probable that it was associated with frequent heavy rainfall events. It might have been caused or triggered by a global climate event creating the "year without sun" or 'Mystery Veil' which the Byzantine historian Procopius described in the year 536 AD. If similar events repeat under the current climate change, it will be difficult to mitigate them.

Lucke, Bernhard

2014-05-01

363

Maglev: Transportation for the 21st century  

SciTech Connect

The noise, gaseous and particulate pollution inherent in 19th and 20th century transportation must be eliminated from the city of the 21st century. If cities are to achieve their full potential as economic and cultural centers they must possess superior transportation systems. Ultra-silent, energy stingy, non-polluting maglevs can furnish the passenger and freight transportation system that the coming millennium will demand. Maglev floats railroad-like cars on a magnetic field a few inches above an elevated guideway. The cars can move at any convenient speed up to 300 mph. Yet, maglev produces less noise than a well muffled automobile, no vibration and no pollution.

Andrus, G.M.; Gillies, G.T.

1987-04-01

364

21st Century Skills Map: Math  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This 34-page document (pdf) identifies student learning outcomes for each of eleven 21st Century Skills and provides examples of tasks for grade 4, 8, and 12. It strives to fuse mathematical content and mathematical practices with the 4Cs (communication, collaboration, critical thinking and creativity) and integrate them with interdisciplinary themes. Each skill is aligned with CCSS mathematical practices. This map was designed by the Partnership for 21st Century Skills (P21) in cooperation with the Mathematical Association of America (MAA), the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM), and dozens of math educators across the country.

Susan Saltrick, Et A.

2012-04-01

365

Introducing ADS 2.0  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the spring of 1993, the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) first launched its bibliographic search system. It was known then as the ADS Abstract Service, a component of the larger Astrophysics Data System effort which had developed an interoperable data system now seen as a precursor of the Virtual Observatory. As a result of the massive technological and sociological changes in the field of scholarly communication, the ADS is now completing the most ambitious technological upgrade in its twenty-year history. Code-named ADS 2.0, the new system features: an IT platform built on web and digital library standards; a new, extensible, industrial strength search engine; a public API with various access control capabilities; a set of applications supporting search, export, visualization, analysis; a collaborative, open source development model; and enhanced indexing of content which includes the full-text of astronomy and physics publications. The changes in the ADS platform affect all aspects of the system and its operations, including: the process through which data and metadata are harvested, curated and indexed; the interface and paradigm used for searching the database; and the follow-up analysis capabilities available to the users. This poster describes the choices behind the technical overhaul of the system, the technology stack used, and the opportunities which the upgrade is providing us with, namely gains in productivity and enhancements in our system capabilities.

Accomazzi, Alberto; Kurtz, M. J.; Henneken, E. A.; Grant, C. S.; Thompson, D.; Luker, J.; Chyla, R.; Murray, S. S.

2014-01-01

366

On the Generalized Massive Gravity in $AdS_3$  

E-print Network

In this note we investigate the generalized massive gravity in asymptotically $AdS_3$ spacetime by combining the two mass terms of topological massive gravity and new massive gravity theory. We study the linearized excitations around the $AdS_3$ background and find that at a specific value of a certain combination of the two mass parameters (chiral line), one of the massive graviton solutions becomes the left moving massless mode. It is shown that the theory is chiral at this line under Brown-Henneaux boundary condition. Because of this degeneration of the gravitons the new log solution which has a logarithmic asymptotic behavior is also a solution to this gravity theory at the chiral line. The log boundary condition which was proposed to accommodate this log solution is proved to be consistent at this chiral line. The resulting theory is no longer chiral except at a special point on the chiral line, where another new solution with log-square asymptotic behavior exists. At this special point, we prove that a new kind of boundary condition called log-square boundary condition, which accommodates this new solution, can be consistent.

Yan Liu; Ya-Wen Sun

2009-04-02

367

Scattering States in AdS/CFT  

SciTech Connect

We show that suitably regulated multi-trace primary states in large N CFTs behave like 'in' and 'out' scattering states in the flat-space limit of AdS. Their transition matrix elements approach the exact scattering amplitudes for the bulk theory, providing a natural CFT definition of the flat space S-Matrix. We study corrections resulting from the AdS curvature and particle propagation far from the center of AdS, and show that AdS simply provides an IR regulator that disappears in the flat space limit.

Fitzpatrick, A.Liam; /Boston U.; Kaplan, Jared; /SLAC

2012-02-14

368

Strings on AdS wormholes and nonsingular black holes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Certain AdS black holes in the STU model can be conformally scaled to wormhole and black hole backgrounds which have two asymptotically AdS regions and are completely free of curvature singularities. While there is a delta-function source for the dilaton, classical string probes are not sensitive to this singularity. According to the AdS/CFT correspondence, the dual field theory lives on the union of the disjoint boundaries. For the wormhole background, causal contact exists between the two boundaries and the structure of certain correlation functions is indicative of an interacting phase for which there is a coupling between the degrees of freedom living at each boundary. The nonsingular black hole describes an entangled state in two non-interacting identical conformal field theories. By studying the behavior of open strings on these backgrounds, we extract a number of features of the ‘quarks’ and ‘anti-quarks’ that live in the field theories. In the interacting phase, we find that there is a maximum speed with which the quarks can move without losing energy, beyond which energy is transferred from a quark in one field theory to a quark in the other. We also compute the rate at which moving quarks within entangled states lose energy to the two surrounding plasmas. While a quark-antiquark pair within a single field theory exhibits Coulomb interaction for small separation, a quark in one field theory exhibits spring-like confinement with an anti-quark in the other field theory. For the entangled states, we study how the quark-antiquark screening length depends on temperature and chemical potential.

Lü, H.; Vázquez-Poritz, Justin F.; Zhang, Zhibai

2015-01-01

369

"Stakes is High": Educating New Century Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

My apologies to iconic hip-hop artists, De La Soul for I have shamelessly appropriated the title, "Stakes is high" to underscore the importance of the work ahead for educators, students, parents, community members, and researchers as we attempt to develop a generation of what I call "new century" students for a world we can hardly imagine. Through…

Ladson-Billings, Gloria

2013-01-01

370

Elihu Burritt's Nineteenth Century Peace Education Efforts  

Microsoft Academic Search

A self-taught blacksmith by trade who developed some of the most innovative forms of peace education in the nineteenth century. Burritt's peace adventures took place in the arena of international affairs rather than the classroom. He wrote numerous peace pamphlets and delivered hundreds of speeches that focused on gaining the support of the working masses for world peace and goodwill.

Charles F. Howlett

371

The College Board and the Twentieth Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The profile of American education in the twentieth century, especially at the secondary and postsecondary undergraduate levels, is mirrored in the chronology of College Board policies and programs over its 75-year history. After a review of the first 75 years, speculation is made on the next 25 years and the shapes that may be taken by American…

Marland, Sidney P., Jr.

372

Building Olin for the Next Century  

E-print Network

Building Olin for the Next Century Page 2 Navigating the Brave New World of Social Media Page 22 ALUMNI NEWS 16 BY THE NUMBERS 19 SEEN & HEARD 20 CLASS NOTES 28 22 Navigating the Brave New World, and proactive were part of Robert Brookings' vision for the university's new business school 95 years ago. He

Subramanian, Venkat

373

The Constitution in the Twentieth Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigates the development of the United States Constitution in the twentieth century up to and including the Burger Court. Contends that interpreting the Constitution is an important issue of our times. Consequently argues that we should teach students about the development of this document. (RKM)

Murphy, Paul L.

1987-01-01

374

Curriculum for the 21st Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Urges reconsideration of educational ends. Suggests eight curriculum principles that can help Canadian schools move into the next century. Explains six educational needs roughly based on Maslow's hierarchy (aesthetic needs, need for meaning, self-actualization, self-concept, social needs, need for survival) and relates them to curriculum…

Pratt, David

1983-01-01

375

21st Century Skills: The Challenges Ahead  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The skills that students need for the 21st century are not really new, assert Rotherham and Willingham. Critical thinking, problem solving, information literacy, and global awareness have been important to human progress throughout history, at least among the elites in different societies. What is new is the extent to which individual and…

Rotherham, Andrew J.; Willingham, Daniel

2009-01-01

376

Virtual Schools and 21st Century Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Online learning through virtual schools is one of the most important advancements in attempting to rethink the effectiveness of education in the United States. The virtual school provides access to online, collaborative and self-paced learning environments--settings that can facilitate 21st Century skills. Today's students must be able to combine…

North American Council for Online Learning, 2006

2006-01-01

377

Reality Therapy for the 21st Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book serves as a comprehensive and practical guide to reality therapy, and extends its principles and practices beyond the initial descriptions. A central theme of this edition is that reality therapy is a method inherently designed for the exigencies of the 21st century. It contains 22 types of self-evaluations counselors can use to shorten…

Wubbolding, Robert E.

378

Japanese Lifetime Employment: A Century's Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the origins and dynamic evolution of the lifetime employment system in Japan from the beginning of the 20th century to present. Based on the historical perspective developed in the paper, we derive implications to the future course of the Japanese employment system. In this paper, we view lifetime employment as an economic as well as social institution,

Chiaki Moriguchi; Hiroshi Ono

2004-01-01

379

Advanced Propulsion for the XXIst Century  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This document represents a poster presentation offered at the AIAA/CAS International Air & Space Symposium and Exposition from July 14-17, 2003 in Dayton Ohio. This presentation outlines advanced space propulsion concepts as well as associated research and industry activities during the 21st century.

Frisbee, Robert H.

2003-01-01

380

20th-Century Gold Rush.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents Nevada's gold rush activities spurred by technological advancements in search methods. Describes the events that led to the twentieth-century gold rush, the techniques for finding deposits and the geological formation process of disseminated gold deposits. Vignettes present the gold extraction process, cross-section, and profile of a…

Wargo, Joseph G.

1992-01-01

381

CHARLES DARWIN UNIVERSITY Our Asian centuries: provenance  

E-print Network

CHARLES DARWIN UNIVERSITY Our Asian centuries: provenance and proximity Professor Sharon Bell Deputy Vice-Chancellor, Charles Darwin University 5:30pm ­ 7:00pm 30 July 2013 Nitmiluk Lounge, Level 4 Bell Deputy Vice-Chancellor, Charles Darwin University; Professorial Fellow, LH Martin Institute

382

The 21st Century Information Environment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper on the 21st century information environment begins with a section that discusses the impact of e-commerce over the next ten years. The second section addresses government focus areas, including ensuring a telecommunications infrastructure, developing the IT (information technology) industry, promoting innovation and entrepreneurship,…

Badger, Rod

383

Poetry at Buffalo: The Twentieth Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the Special Collections at the State University of New York at Buffalo and the role of Charles Abbott in their development. His interest and a serendipitous lack of funds have created an unusual collection containing a Twentieth Century Poetry Collection, James Joyce holographs, and rare book collections. (CHC)

Knoer, Wanda

1981-01-01

384

Museums, Libraries, and 21st Century Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes a project that underscores the critical role of this nation's museums and libraries in helping citizens build such 21st century skills as information, communications and technology literacy, critical thinking, problem solving, creativity, civic literacy, and global awareness. Recognizing that every individual requires these…

Institute of Museum and Library Services, 2009

2009-01-01

385

One Century of Relativity. Djamel Dou.  

E-print Network

CUE-02-26 One Century of Relativity. Djamel Dou. + Institute of Exact Science and Technology the theory of relativity, mathematicians have already enough axioms. We will rather attempt to explain the basic physical ideas of relativity at an introductory level using standard geometrical terms.With an eye

Zeghib, Abdelghani

386

Lifelong Learning for the 21st Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Lifelong Learning Center for the 21st Century was proposed to provide personal renewal and technical training for employees at a major United States automotive manufacturing company when it implemented a new, computer-based Computer Numerical Controlled (CNC) machining, robotics, and high technology facility. The employees needed training for…

Goodnight, Ron

387

Century High School: Better Than Accessible.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A 6-minute videotape shows ways that one newly-built high school (Century High School, Rochester, MN) accommodates the needs of people with disabilities. Various building and room designs are detailed showing both poor and good design provisions. The accessibility and usefulness of the auditorium control room, emergency exits, elevators, science…

Century High School, Rochester, MN.

388

Glaciers in 21st Century Himalayan Geopolitics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glaciers are ablating rapidly the world over. Nowhere are the rates of retreat and downwasting greater than in the Hindu Kush-Himalaya (HKH) region. It is estimated that over the next century, 40,000 square kilometers of present glacier area in the HKH region will become ice free. Most of this area is in major valleys and the lowest glaciated mountain passes.

J. S. Kargel; R. Wessels; H. H. Kieffer

2002-01-01

389

Developing Leaders for the 21st Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes the Leadership Development for the 21st Century: Linking Research, Academics and Extension program that began in June 2005. This 12-month program, designed to explore different models of leadership, develop peer networks, and enhance skills and knowledge in leadership competencies, is specifically for land grand educators…

Phillips, John L.

2005-01-01

390

Transcendent Schools for the 21st Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Amidst the debate over funding cuts, an increased focus on teacher effectiveness, and the move toward e-learning, many question the importance of quality educational facilities. But an examination of developmental and psychological theory suggests that exceptional schools have an exciting and crucial role to play in 21st century education. So,…

Monberg, Greg; Kacan, George; Bannourah, Riyad

2011-01-01

391

Economists & Higher Learning in the Nineteenth Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As part of a multi-nation research project on the institutionalization of political economy in European, Japanese, and North American universities, the 14 essays in this volume explore the roots of academic economics in the United States during the 19th century. The organization of the essays is designed to show the catalytic role economists…

Barber, William J., Ed.

392

Workforce Education: Issues for the New Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book contains 22 papers on workforce education issues for the new century: "Introduction" (Alfred J. Pautler, Jr.); "Vocational Education: Past, Present, and Future" (Cheryl L. Hogg); "A Philosophic View for Seeing the Past of Vocational Education and Envisioning the Future of Workforce Education: Pragmatism Revisited" (Melvin D. Miller,…

Pautler, Albert J., Jr., Ed.

393

Edkins and a Century of Acid Suppression  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1905, John Edkins (1863–1940) undertook the studies of gastrin that have subsequently formed the basis for a century of investigation into the physiological basis of acid secretion and led to the elucidation of a variety of acid-suppressive pharmacological agents that have revolutionized the management of acid peptic disease. Although his name is known to few, his contributions to the

I. M. Modlin; G. Sachs; N. Wright; M. Kidd

2005-01-01

394

Vortex hair on AdS black holes  

E-print Network

We analyse vortex hair for charged rotating asymptotically AdS black holes in the abelian Higgs model. We give analytical and numerical arguments to show how the vortex interacts with the horizon of the black hole, and how the solution extends to the boundary. The solution is very close to the corresponding asymptotically flat vortex, once one transforms to a frame that is non-rotating at the boundary. We show that there is a Meissner effect for extremal black holes, with the vortex flux being expelled from sufficiently small black holes. The phase transition is shown to be first order in the presence of rotation, but second order without rotation. We comment on applications to holography.

Ruth Gregory; Peter C. Gustainis; David Kubiznak; Robert B. Mann; Danielle Wills

2014-07-16

395

Aspects of warped AdS3/CFT2 correspondence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we apply the thermodynamics method to investigate the holographic pictures for the BTZ black hole, the spacelike and the null warped black holes in three-dimensional topologically massive gravity (TMG) and new massive gravity (NMG). Even though there are higher derivative terms in these theories, the thermodynamics method is still effective. It gives consistent results with the ones obtained by using asymptotical symmetry group (ASG) analysis. In doing the ASG analysis we develop a brute-force realization of the Barnich-Brandt-Compere formalism with Mathematica code, which also allows us to calculate the masses and the angular momenta of the black holes. In particular, we propose the warped AdS3/CFT2 correspondence in the new massive gravity, which states that quantum gravity in the warped spacetime could holographically dual to a two-dimensional CFT with {c_R}={c_L}=24 /{Gm{?^2?{{2( {21-4{?^2}} )}}}}.

Chen, Bin; Zhang, Jia-Ju; Zhang, Jian-Dong; Zhong, De-Liang

2013-04-01

396

Chiral gauge theory on AdS domain wall  

SciTech Connect

We describe a realization of chiral gauge theories based on the domaim wall fermion construction implemented on an interval in five dimensional AdS spacetime. At semi-classical level deconstructed description of the theory is given in terms of 4-dimensional Minkowski slices supporting chiral zero modes at the ends. Energy scales warp down along the fifth dimension. When the theory is augmented by 4-dimensional neutral Majorana spinors together with the Higgs mechanism at the low energy end, we can arrange for a theory where the lightest gauge boson mode as well as chiral zero mode at the high energy end are parametrically lighter than other states. Triangle anomalies and instanton effects are expected to make gauge bosons heavy if the resulting effective theory is anomalous. Due to the strong coupling effects at the quantum level, full non-perturbative calculation will be necessary to validate this construction.

Shirman, Yuri [T-8, Theoretical Division, MS B285, LANL, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

2005-12-02

397

Higher spin AdS3 holography with extended supersymmetry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a holographic duality between a higher spin AdS3 gravity with so( p) extended supersymmetry and a large N limit of a 2-dimensional Grassmannian-like model with a specific critical level k = N and a non-diagonal modular invariant. As evidence, we show the match of one-loop partition functions. Moreover, we construct symmetry generators of the coset model for low spins which are dual to gauge fields in the supergravity. Further, we discuss a possible relation to superstring theory by noticing an supersymmetry of critical level model at finite k, N. In particular, we examine BPS states and marginal deformations. Inspired by the supergravity side, we also propose and test another large N CFT dual obtained as a automorphism truncation of a similar coset model, but at a non-critical level.

Creutzig, Thomas; Hikida, Yasuaki; Rønne, Peter B.

2014-10-01

398

Vortex hair on AdS black holes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We analyse vortex hair for charged rotating asymptotically AdS black holes in the abelian Higgs model. We give analytical and numerical arguments to show how the vortex interacts with the horizon of the black hole, and how the solution extends to the boundary. The solution is very close to the corresponding asymptotically flat vortex, once one transforms to a frame that is non-rotating at the boundary. We show that there is a Meissner effect for extremal black holes, with the vortex flux being expelled from sufficiently small black holes. The phase transition is shown to be first order in the presence of rotation, but second order without rotation. We comment on applications to holography.

Gregory, Ruth; Gustainis, Peter C.; Kubiz?ák, David; Mann, Robert B.; Wills, Danielle

2014-11-01

399

AdS black holes with arbitrary scalar coupling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A general class of axionic and electrically charged black holes for a self-interacting scalar field nonminimally coupled to Einstein gravity with a negative cosmological constant is presented. These solutions are the first examples of black holes with an arbitrary nonminimal coupling ? in four dimensions. Moreover, due to the presence of two three-forms fields, the topology of the horizon of these black holes is planar. We discuss some properties of these solutions electing particular values of the nonminimal coupling parameter. A special case arises when ? = 1/4, for which the gravitational field is confined in a region close to the event horizon. We also show that these black holes emerge from stealth AdS configurations as the axionic fields are switched on, and that they can be generated through a Kerr-Schild transformation. Finally, in the appendix, we extend these results to arbitrary dimension.

Caldarelli, Marco M.; Charmousis, Christos; Hassaïne, Mokhtar

2013-10-01

400

AdS strings with torsion: Noncomplex heterotic compactifications  

SciTech Connect

Combining the effects of fluxes and gaugino condensation in heterotic supergravity, we use a ten-dimensional approach to find a new class of four-dimensional supersymmetric AdS{sub 4} compactifications on almost-Hermitian manifolds of SU(3) structure. Computation of the torsion allows a classification of the internal geometry, which for a particular combination of fluxes and condensate, is nearly Kaehler. We argue that all moduli are fixed, and we show that the Kaehler potential and superpotential proposed in the literature yield the correct AdS{sub 4} radius. In the nearly Kaehler case, we are able to solve the H Bianchi identity using a nonstandard embedding. Finally, we point out subtleties in deriving the effective superpotential and understanding the heterotic supergravity in the presence of a gaugino condensate.

Frey, Andrew R.; Lippert, Matthew [California Institute of Technology, Mail Code 452-48, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States); University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky 40506, USA and University of Louisville, Louisville, Kentucky 40292 (United States)

2005-12-15

401

Bending AdS waves with new massive gravity  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study AdS-waves in the three-dimensional new theory of massive gravity recently proposed by Bergshoeff, Hohm, and Townsend. The general configuration of this type is derived and shown to exhibit different branches, with different asymptotic behaviors. In particular, for the special fine tuning m2 = ±1\\/(2l2), solutions with logarithmic fall-off arise, while in the range m2 > -1\\/(2l2), spacetimes with

Eloy Ayón-Beato; Gaston Giribet; Mokhtar Hassaïne

2009-01-01

402

How to make ad-hoc polymorphism less ad hoc  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents type classes, a new approach to ad-hoc polymorphism. Type classes permit overloading of arithmetic operators such as multiplication, and generalise the “eqtype variables” of Standard ML. Type classes extend the Hindley\\/Milner polymorphic type system, and provide a new approach to issues that arise in object-oriented programming, bounded type quantification, and abstract data types. This paper provides an

Philip Wadler; Stephen Blott

1989-01-01

403

Systematics of coupling flows in AdS backgrounds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We give an effective field theory derivation, based on the running of Planck brane gauge correlators, of the large logarithms that arise in the predictions for low energy gauge couplings in compactified AdS5 backgrounds, including the one-loop effects of bulk scalars, fermions, and gauge bosons. In contrast with the case of charged scalars coupled to Abelian gauge fields that has been considered previously in the literature, the one-loop corrections are not dominated by a single 4D Kaluza-Klein mode. Nevertheless, in the case of gauge field loops, the amplitudes can be reorganized into a leading logarithmic contribution that is identical to the running in 4D non-Abelian gauge theory, and a term which is not logarithmically enhanced and is analogous to a two-loop effect in 4D. In a warped grand unified theory (GUT) model broken by the Higgs mechanism in the bulk, we show that the matching scale that appears in the large logarithms induced by the non-Abelian gauge fields is m2XY/k where mXY is the bulk mass of the XY bosons and k is the AdS curvature. This is in contrast with the UV scale in the logarithmic contributions of scalars, which is simply the bulk mass m. Our results are summarized in a set of simple rules that can be applied to compute the leading logarithmic predictions for coupling constant relations within a given warped GUT model. We present results for both boundary breaking of the GUT gauge group and bulk breaking through the Higgs mechanism.

Goldberger, Walter D.; Rothstein, Ira Z.

2003-12-01

404

Systematics of Coupling Flows in AdS Backgrounds  

SciTech Connect

We give an effective field theory derivation, based on the running of Planck brane gauge correlators, of the large logarithms that arise in the predictions for low energy gauge couplings in compactified AdS}_5 backgrounds, including the one-loop effects of bulk scalars, fermions, and gauge bosons. In contrast to the case of charged scalars coupled to Abelian gauge fields that has been considered previously in the literature, the one-loop corrections are not dominated by a single 4D Kaluza-Klein mode. Nevertheless, in the case of gauge field loops, the amplitudes can be reorganized into a leading logarithmic contribution that is identical to the running in 4D non-Abelian gauge theory, and a term which is not logarithmically enhanced and is analogous to a two-loop effect in 4D. In a warped GUT model broken by the Higgs mechanism in the bulk,we show that the matching scale that appears in the large logarithms induced by the non-Abelian gauge fields is m_{XY}^2/k where m_{XY} is the bulk mass of the XY bosons and k is the AdS curvature. This is in contrast to the UV scale in the logarithmic contributions of scalars, which is simply the bulk mass m. Our results are summarized in a set of simple rules that can be applied to compute the leading logarithmic predictions for coupling constant relations within a given warped GUT model. We present results for both bulk Higgs and boundary breaking of the GUT gauge

Goldberger, Walter D.; Rothstein, Ira Z.

2003-03-18

405

Four-dimensional conformal supergravity from AdS space  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exploring the role of conformal theories of gravity in string theory, we show that the minimal (N=2) gauged supergravities in five dimensions induce the multiplets and transformations of N=1 four-dimensional conformal supergravity on the spacetime boundary. N=1 Poincaré supergravity can be induced by explicitly breaking the conformal invariance via a radial cutoff in the 5D space. The AdS\\/CFT correspondence relates

Vijay Balasubramanian; Eric Gimon; Djordje Minic; Joachim Rahmfeld

2001-01-01

406

77 FR 32391 - Building a 21st Century Digital Government  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Memorandum of May 23, 2012 Building a 21st Century Digital...computing power, the rise of high-speed networks, and...innovations that are giving rise to new industries and...Digital Government: Building a 21st Century...

2012-06-01

407

Holography beyond conformal invariance and AdS isometry?  

E-print Network

We suggest that the principle of holographic duality can be extended beyond conformal invariance and AdS isometry. Such an extension is based on a special relation between functional determinants of the operators acting in the bulk and on its boundary, provided that the boundary operator represents the inverse propagators of the theory induced on the boundary by the Dirichlet boundary value problem from the bulk spacetime. This relation holds for operators of general spin-tensor structure on generic manifolds with boundaries irrespective of their background geometry and conformal invariance, and it apparently underlies numerous $O(N^0)$ tests of AdS/CFT correspondence, based on direct calculation of the bulk and boundary partition functions, Casimir energies and conformal anomalies. The generalized holographic duality is discussed within the concept of the "double-trace" deformation of the boundary theory, which is responsible in the case of large $N$ CFT coupled to the tower of higher spin gauge fields for t...

Barvinsky, A O

2014-01-01

408

Holography beyond conformal invariance and AdS isometry?  

E-print Network

We suggest that the principle of holographic duality can be extended beyond conformal invariance and AdS isometry. Such an extension is based on a special relation between functional determinants of the operators acting in the bulk and on its boundary, provided that the boundary operator represents the inverse propagators of the theory induced on the boundary by the Dirichlet boundary value problem from the bulk spacetime. This relation holds for operators of general spin-tensor structure on generic manifolds with boundaries irrespective of their background geometry and conformal invariance, and it apparently underlies numerous $O(N^0)$ tests of AdS/CFT correspondence, based on direct calculation of the bulk and boundary partition functions, Casimir energies and conformal anomalies. The generalized holographic duality is discussed within the concept of the "double-trace" deformation of the boundary theory, which is responsible in the case of large $N$ CFT coupled to the tower of higher spin gauge fields for the renormalization group flow between infrared and ultraviolet fixed points. Potential extension of this method beyond one-loop order is also briefly discussed.

A. O. Barvinsky

2014-10-23

409

Ads\\/CFT correspondence and symmetry breaking  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study, using the dual AdS description, the vacua of field theories where some of the gauge symmetry is broken by expectation values of scalar fields. In such vacua, operators built out of the scalar fields acquire expectation values, and we show how to calculate them from the behavior of perturbations to the AdS background near the boundary. Specific examples

Igor R. Klebanov; Edward Witten

1999-01-01

410

State of the Earth's Cryosphere at the Beginning of the 21st Century: Glaciers, Global Snow Cover, Floating Ice, and Permafrost and Periglacial  

E-print Network

State of the Earth's Cryosphere at the Beginning of the 21st Century: Glaciers, Global Snow Cover, Floating Ice, and Permafrost and Periglacial Environments-- INTRODUCTION--CHANGES IN THE EARTH'S CRYOSPHERE of the more than 7.0 billion human beings on Earth today [in 2012], almost 2 billion more people added since

Fleskes, Joe

411

A 1,200-year perspective of 21st century drought in southwestern North America  

PubMed Central

A key feature of anticipated 21st century droughts in Southwest North America is the concurrence of elevated temperatures and increased aridity. Instrumental records and paleoclimatic evidence for past prolonged drought in the Southwest that coincide with elevated temperatures can be assessed to provide insights on temperature-drought relations and to develop worst-case scenarios for the future. In particular, during the medieval period, ?AD 900–1300, the Northern Hemisphere experienced temperatures warmer than all but the most recent decades. Paleoclimatic and model data indicate increased temperatures in western North America of approximately 1?°C over the long-term mean. This was a period of extensive and persistent aridity over western North America. Paleoclimatic evidence suggests drought in the mid-12th century far exceeded the severity, duration, and extent of subsequent droughts. The driest decade of this drought was anomalously warm, though not as warm as the late 20th and early 21st centuries. The convergence of prolonged warming and arid conditions suggests the mid-12th century may serve as a conservative analogue for severe droughts that might occur in the future. The severity, extent, and persistence of the 12th century drought that occurred under natural climate variability, have important implications for water resource management. The causes of past and future drought will not be identical but warm droughts, inferred from paleoclimatic records, demonstrate the plausibility of extensive, severe droughts, provide a long-term perspective on the ongoing drought conditions in the Southwest, and suggest the need for regional sustainability planning for the future. PMID:21149683

Woodhouse, Connie A.; Meko, David M.; MacDonald, Glen M.; Stahle, Dave W.; Cook, Edward R.

2010-01-01

412

Learning Environments: A 21st Century Skills Implementation Guide  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To succeed in college, career and life in the 21st century, students must be supported in mastering both content and skills. This Implementation Guide presents state leaders, policymakers and/or district and school leaders with assessment tactics and examples to assist in statewide 21st century skills initiatives. The Partnership for 21st Century

Partnership for 21st Century Skills, 2009

2009-01-01

413

Assessment: A 21st Century Skills Implementation Guide  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To succeed in college, career and life in the 21st century, students must be supported in mastering both content and skills. This Implementation Guide presents state leaders, policymakers and/or district and school leaders with assessment tactics and examples to assist in statewide 21st century skills initiatives. The Partnership for 21st Century

Partnership for 21st Century Skills, 2009

2009-01-01

414

Professional Development: A 21st Century Skills Implementation Guide  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To succeed in college, career and life in the 21st century, students must be supported in mastering both content and skills. This Implementation Guide presents state leaders, policymakers and/or district and school leaders with assessment tactics and examples to assist in statewide 21st century skills initiatives. The Partnership for 21st Century

Partnership for 21st Century Skills, 2009

2009-01-01

415

Standards: A 21st Century Skills Implementation Guide  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To succeed in college, career and life in the 21st century, students must be supported in mastering both content and skills. This Implementation Guide presents state leaders, policymakers and/or district and school leaders with assessment tactics and examples to assist in statewide 21st century skills initiatives. The Partnership for 21st Century

Partnership for 21st Century Skills, 2009

2009-01-01

416

Curriculum and Instruction: A 21st Century Skills Implementation Guide  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To succeed in college, career and life in the 21st century, students must be supported in mastering both content and skills. This Implementation Guide presents state leaders, policymakers and/or district and school leaders with assessment tactics and examples to assist in statewide 21st century skills initiatives. The Partnership for 21st Century

Partnership for 21st Century Skills, 2009

2009-01-01

417

Twentieth Century Thinkers in Adult & Continuing Education. Second Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book contains 19 papers on 20th century thinkers in adult and continuing education. The book is arranged in four parts as follows: early 20th century English thinkers; early 20th century American thinkers; theorists of adult and continuing education; and theorists of adult education and social change. The following papers are included:…

Jarvis, Peter, Ed.

418

Twenty-First Century Learning: Communities, Interaction and Ubiquitous Computing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Advanced technology makes 21st century learning, communities and interactions unique and leads people to an era of ubiquitous computing. The purpose of this article is to contribute to the discussion of learning in the 21st century. The paper will review literature on learning community, community learning, interaction, 21st century learning and…

Leh, Amy S.C.; Kouba, Barbara; Davis, Dirk

2005-01-01

419

Surgical Diseases of the Womb According to Aetius of Amida (6th Century a . d .)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  In the interest of presenting historical background for modern-day medicine and surgery, the authors comment on the concepts\\u000a of the eminent Byzantine physician Aetius of Amida (sixth century a.d.) in surgical treatment of diseases of the womb.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Study design  The 16th book of Aetius’ work Tetrabiblus, in the original Greek language, a treatise on gynecology and obstetrics of his era, was

Dimitrios P. Lazaris; Faidon J. Laskaratos; Gerassimos J. Lascaratos

2009-01-01

420

Multi-spin string solutions in AdS 5× S 5  

Microsoft Academic Search

Motivated by attempts to extend AdS\\/CFT duality to non-BPS states we consider classical closed string solutions with several angular momenta in different directions of AdS5 and S5. We find a novel solution describing a circular closed string located at a fixed value of AdS5 radius while rotating simultaneously in two planes in AdS5 with equal spins S. This solution is

S. Frolov; A. A. Tseytlin

2003-01-01

421

Archaeology Data Service (ADS) Library  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Archaeology Data Service yesterday announced the opening of its digital library, "a virtual library of on-line publications concerned with the historic environment." The library is currently divided into Books, Bibliographies, Journals, and Other resources. The book section includes the Council for British Archaeology's Research Report series and ADS's own Guides to Good Practice, among other texts, and the journal section links to a large number of scholarly journals. The other sections are still a bit thin, but no doubt will fill out soon. Resources are conveniently labelled "archived," for those available on-site or for download as .pdf files, and "linked," to alert users they are accessing off-site resources. This brand new library is sure to grow and will be a great source for archaeological researchers. Note: To access the library, users must first accept the terms of use on ADS's front page, then click on the Library link in the sidebar.

422

The 19th Century Trade Card  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

During the 19th century, the ever-popular trade card was a way for American businesses to effectively promote their goods and services. Some examples include a colorful business card depicting freshly caught mackerel in a net (appropriately enough for "Deep Sea Mackerel") and the Charter Oak Lawn Mower, which feature two Victorian women enjoying a leisurely mowing session in a pastoral setting. This online collection was created by Harvard Business School's Baker Library, which happens to have over 8000 of these cards. The online archive contains around 1000 cards which date from the 1870s to the 1890s. Visitors can search this archive via Harvard's Visual Information Access (VIA) union catalog which will allow them to focus in on subjects of particular interest. Finally, visitors can also avail themselves of the site's digital exhibition entitled "A New and Wonderful Invention: The Nineteenth-Century American Trade Card".

423

Gastric acid secretion: Changes during a century.  

PubMed

The advances in knowledge of gastric physiology within the past century have been the most exciting and important in this area of interest for many decades. The aim of this presentation consists of a comprehensive review of the extensive recent literature on this topic in order to highlight milestones in the field of gastric physiology, in particular in gastric acid secretion, gastric pathophysiology, acid-related diseases and use of acid regulatory drugs. Moreover, in the 21st century there have been many epidemiologic changes as well as a decrease of Helicobacter pylori infection and gastric cancer together with an increase of gastroesophageal reflux disease and the related increase of pomp proton inhibitor wide use. PMID:25439063

Di Mario, Francesco; Goni, Elisabetta

2014-12-01

424

Paris: Capital of the 19th Century  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The world of Paris in the 19th century was one that might be called a gaudy yet rich mixture of cultural, social, and other such delights. From the poems of Baudelaire to the architectural fancies of the Second Empire, the City of Lights became an icon of all that was (and is) urban, for good and for ill. Much of this world can be explored through a variety of visual documents offered by this ongoing project that is being developed as part of the digital projects initiative at Brown University. Visitors to the site can browse the materials here by subject, title, or by historical period. The site also contains a number of historical essays that provide additional background to this subject. The essays deal with the emerging condition of modernity, panoramic literature, and alienation in the city. The site is rounded out by a nice listing of additional online resources dealing with 19th century France.

425

Education for the 21st Century: UNESCO  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) was founded in 1945 on the premise that, in addition to political and economic agreements, âÂÂpeace must be established on the basis of humanityâÂÂs moral and intellectual solidarity.â UNESCOâÂÂs goals include advocating for quality education for every child on the planet, building intercultural understanding, pursuing scientific cooperation, and protecting freedom of expression. This site, which provides an overview of Education in the 21st Century, bursts with informative articles. Start with Latest News, where you can read up on initiatives, conferences, and progress reports. Take a look at the Publications list for access to full academic articles on the topic of 21st Century Education, including âÂÂBRICS: building education for the future; priorities for national development and international communicationâ and âÂÂHarnessing the potential of ICTs for literacy teaching and learning.âÂÂ

426

NASA's Vision for 21st Century Aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents NASA's Vision for the 21st Century Aircraft. The contents include: 1) NASA Vision; 2) NASA Installations; 3) Research and Technology Products; 4) Future Plans; 5) Revolutionary Vehicles; 6) Aeropropulsion-NASA's Future Direction; 7) Gas Turbine Revolution; 8) Variable Capability, Ultra High Bypass Ratio Intelligent Engines: Fundamental Technologies; 9) Distributed Vectored Propulsion; and 10) Alternative Energy Propulsion. This paper is in viewgraph form.

Whitlow, Woodrow, Jr.

2002-01-01

427

Flexibility in 21st Century Power Systems  

SciTech Connect

Flexibility of operation--the ability of a power system to respond to change in demand and supply--is a characteristic of all power systems. Flexibility is especially prized in twenty-first century power systems, with higher levels of grid-connected variable renewable energy (primarily, wind and solar). This paper summarizes the analytic frameworks that have emerged to measure this characteristic and distills key principles of flexibility for policy makers.

Cochran, J.; Miller, M.; Zinaman, O.; Milligan, M.; Arent, D.; Palmintier, B.; O'Malley, M.; Mueller, S.; Lannoye, E.; Tuohy, A.; Kujala, B.; Sommer, M.; Holttinen, H.; Kiviluoma, J.; Soonee, S. K.

2014-05-01

428

Great Universalist of the 20TH Century  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the most prominent physicists of the 20th century, Lev Davidovich Landau, was at the same time a great universalist who made fundamental contributions in diverse areas of physics: quantum mechanics, solid state physics, theory of magnetism, phase transition theory, nuclear and particle physics, quantum electrodynamics (QED), low-temperature physics, fluid dynamics, atomic collision theory, theory of chemical reactions, and other disciplines.

Gershtein, S. S.

2013-06-01

429

Childbed Fever A Nineteenth-Century Mystery  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This case describes the pioneering work of Ignaz Semmelweis and his efforts to remedy the problem of childbed fever in mid-19th century Europe.  Its purpose is to teach students about the scientific method by “dissecting” the various steps involved in this important, historical medical breakthrough. The case is an interrupted case, that is, students receive only one piece of information at a time, followed by discussion, before moving on to the next piece of information to solve the mystery.

Christa Colyer

1999-01-01

430

Medical Articles in Eighteenth Century American Magazines  

PubMed Central

Formal medical publication began in the United States with The Medical Repository in 1797. Between 1741, the date of the first American magazine, and 1797 medical articles were included in general magazines. This study deals with ten representative magazines and reviews their general content. The varying content of the medical articles is analyzed into broad categories, and several important physicians, contributors to the magazines, are discussed. The Medical Repository is treated as a culmination of eighteenth century medical publication. PMID:14306031

Coggins, Clemency Chase

1965-01-01

431

Population in the Twenty-First Century  

Microsoft Academic Search

The changing trends in global population in the 21st century are examined. The fall of the fertility rate and resulting actual decline of population will be evident in the major Western countries and Japan by 2005–2015, spreading to others thereafter. Difficult economic and noneconomic problems, for example, aging populations, must be confronted. A 2.1 replacement fertility rate is the key.

Walt W. Rostow

2001-01-01

432

A Quarter Century of Court Psychiatry  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study surveys a quarter of a century of continuous opera tion of the Psychiatric Clinic of the Court of General Sessions of New York County.The statistical findings are based on some 71,000 examinations of approximately 57,000 persons involved in felonies.Most of these persons are not significantly psychotic, neurotic, or even intellectually deficient in the ordinary clinical sense. Approximately 1.5

Emanuel Messinger; Benjamin Apfelberg

1961-01-01

433

Poisson's ratio over two centuries: challenging hypotheses  

PubMed Central

This article explores Poisson's ratio, starting with the controversy concerning its magnitude and uniqueness in the context of the molecular and continuum hypotheses competing in the development of elasticity theory in the nineteenth century, moving on to its place in the development of materials science and engineering in the twentieth century, and concluding with its recent re-emergence as a universal metric for the mechanical performance of materials on any length scale. During these episodes France lost its scientific pre-eminence as paradigms switched from mathematical to observational, and accurate experiments became the prerequisite for scientific advance. The emergence of the engineering of metals followed, and subsequently the invention of composites—both somewhat separated from the discovery of quantum mechanics and crystallography, and illustrating the bifurcation of technology and science. Nowadays disciplines are reconnecting in the face of new scientific demands. During the past two centuries, though, the shape versus volume concept embedded in Poisson's ratio has remained invariant, but its application has exploded from its origins in describing the elastic response of solids and liquids, into areas such as materials with negative Poisson's ratio, brittleness, glass formation, and a re-evaluation of traditional materials. Moreover, the two contentious hypotheses have been reconciled in their complementarity within the hierarchical structure of materials and through computational modelling. PMID:24687094

Greaves, G. Neville

2013-01-01

434

Annually-resolved lake record of extreme hydro-meteorological events since AD 1347 in NE Iberian Peninsula  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an annual reconstruction of extreme rainfall events interpreted from detrital layers and turbidites interbedded within a varved sediment record since the 14th century in Montcortés Lake (NE Spain, 1027 m a.s.l.). Clastic microfacies intercalated within the biochemical calcite varves were characterized and their depositional dynamics interpreted using high-resolution geochemical and sedimentological analyses. Annual number of detrital layers was compared against instrumental records of extreme daily rainfalls providing minimum rainfall thresholds and return periods associated to the identified types of clastic microfacies. Non-continuous detrital layers were deposited during rainfall events higher than 80 mm (>2-year return period) while graded detrital layers and turbidites were associated with higher magnitude rainfall events (>90 mm and >4-year return period). The frequency distribution of extreme hydro-meteorological events is not stationary and its pattern coincides with historical floods from the nearby Segre River. High frequency of heavy rainfalls occurred during the periods AD 1347-1400 and AD 1844-1894. A lower frequency of heavy rainfall was found during the periods AD 1441-1508, 1547-1592, 1656-1712, 1765-1822 and 1917-2012. The 20th century stands out as the longest interval within the studied period of very low number of extreme rainfall events. Variability in extreme rainfall events prior to the 20th century is in phase with solar activity, suggesting a mechanistic link in mid-latitude atmospheric circulation patterns that ceased during the 20th century.

Corella, J. P.; Benito, G.; Rodriguez-Lloveras, X.; Brauer, A.; Valero-Garcés, B. L.

2014-06-01

435

Ocean Acoustic Tomography: 197021st CenturyOcean Acoustic Tomography: 197021st Century Brian Dushaw, Bruce Howe  

E-print Network

Ocean Acoustic Tomography: 1970­21st CenturyOcean Acoustic Tomography: 1970­21st Century Brian for the Role of Acoustic Tomography in Ocean Climate Observation. In: Observing the Ocean in the 21st Century ATOC--Acoustic Thermometry of Ocean Climate ACOUS--Arctic Climate Observations Using Underwater Sound

Dushaw, Brian

436

Thermodynamic and classical instability of AdS black holes in fourth-order gravity  

E-print Network

We study thermodynamic and classical instability of AdS black holes in fourth-order gravity. These include the BTZ black hole in new massive gravity, Schwarzschild-AdS black hole, and higher-dimensional AdS black holes in fourth-order gravity. All thermodynamic quantities which are computed using the Abbot-Deser-Tekin method are used to study thermodynamic instability of AdS black holes. On the other hand, we investigate the $s$-mode Gregory-Laflamme instability of the massive graviton propagating around the AdS black holes. We establish the connection between the thermodynamic instability and the GL instability of AdS black holes in fourth-order gravity. This may show the Gubser-Mitra conjecture which holds for AdS black holes found from fourth-order gravity.

Yun Soo Myung; Taeyoon Moon

2014-03-07

437

Statament of results Existence of maximal surfaces in AdS space-times  

E-print Network

Statament of results Existence of maximal surfaces in AdS space-times The three dimensional case surfaces in AdS space-times The three dimensional case Maximal surfaces Minimal Lagrangian maps The Anti de Sitter space-time AdSn+1= model manifold of Lorentzian geometry of constant curvature -1 in dimension n

Zeghib, Abdelghani

438

Lifshitz-like systems and AdS null deformations  

SciTech Connect

Following K. Balasubramanian and K. Narayan [J. High Energy Phys. 08 (2010) 014], we discuss certain lightlike deformations of AdS{sub 5}xX{sup 5} in type IIB string theory sourced by a lightlike dilaton {Phi}(x{sup +}) dual to the N=4 super Yang-Mills theory with a lightlike varying gauge coupling. We argue that, in the case where the x{sup +} direction is noncompact, these solutions describe anisotropic 3+1-dim Lifshitz-like systems with a potential in the x{sup +} direction generated by the lightlike dilaton. We then describe solutions of this sort with a linear dilaton. This enables a detailed calculation of two-point correlation functions of operators dual to bulk scalars and helps illustrate the spatial structure of these theories. Following this, we discuss a nongeometric string construction involving a compactification along the x{sup +} direction of this linear dilaton system. We also point out similar IIB axionic solutions. Similar bulk arguments for x{sup +}-noncompact can be carried out for deformations of AdS{sub 4}xX{sup 7} in M theory.

Narayan, K. [Chennai Mathematical Institute, SIPCOT IT Park, Padur PO, Siruseri 603103 (India)

2011-10-15

439

ADS History in the USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nearly all risks to future generations arising from long-term disposal of used nuclear fuel are attributable to the transuranic elements and long-lived fission products, about 2% of its content. The transuranic elements of concern are plutonium, neptunium, americium, and curium. Long-lived (>100,000-year half-life) isotopes of iodine and technetium are also created by nuclear fission of uranium. We can reduce the problem transuranics through accelerator-based transmutation. Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS) have been proposed for over two decades as one technique to transmute used nuclear fuel. This paper covers the history and some new possible applications of accelerator driven systems.

Sheffield, Richard L.; Pitcher, Eric J.

2010-06-01

440

Adding Fractions with Unlike Denominators  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource from the National Library of Virtual Manipulatives shows students how to rename fractions to have a common denominator and then add them. It is appealing because it visually engages the students by showing them what happens to a unit (a rectangle is used here) as the denominator increases or decreases. As the denominator increases or decreases, the partitions are shown accordingly, and the effect on the numerator is shown as well. This is a convenient, visual way to show students how to manipulate fractions for adding.

Manipulatives, National L.

2012-03-20

441

Hallmarks in the history of cerebral palsy: from antiquity to mid-20th century.  

PubMed

Cerebral palsy (CP) is a term that has been applied over the years to a group of children with motor disability and related service requirements. The first conceptions of cerebral palsy and our knowledge about aetiology and pathogeny allow us to assume that cerebral palsy existed in the Ancient World. Although there is lack of detailed medical descriptions from before the 19th century, mentions to cerebral palsy can be found in representational art, literary sources and paleopathology; however, because of the poor medical documentation, the diagnosis of cerebral palsy must remain a more or less well-justified supposition. In the Ancient World, the first medical description of cerebral palsy was made by Hippocrates in his work "Corpus Hippocraticum". Concrete examples and definitions of cerebral palsy, however, did not emerge until the early 19th century with observations by William John Little; thus, Little was the first personality to intensely engage cerebral palsy. Towards the end of the 19th century, two more personalities emerged, adding to the historical hallmarks of cerebral palsy: William Osler and Sigmund Freud. The significant developments that have followed since then are all due to the contributions of these three personalities in the field of cerebral palsy. PMID:22658818

Panteliadis, Christos; Panteliadis, Panos; Vassilyadi, Frank

2013-04-01

442

High energy QCD from Planckian scattering in AdS space and the Froissart bound  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We reanalyze high-energy QCD scattering regimes from scattering in cutoff AdS space via gravity-gauge dualities (a la Polchinski-Strassler). We look at ’t Hooft scattering, Regge behavior, and black hole creation in AdS space. Black hole creation in the gravity dual is analyzed via gravitational shockwave collisions. We prove the saturation of the QCD Froissart unitarity bound, corresponding to the creation of black holes of AdS size, as suggested by Giddings.

Kang, Kyungsik; Nastase, Horatiu

2005-11-01

443

The inside outs of AdS3/CFT2: exact AdS wormholes with entangled CFT duals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the complete family of solutions of 3D gravity (? < 0) with two asymptotically AdS exterior regions. The solutions are constructed from data at the two boundaries, which correspond to two independent and arbitrary stress tensors T R , , and T L , . The two exteriors are smoothly joined on to an interior region through a regular horizon. We find CFT duals of these geometries which are entangled states of two CFT's. We compute correlators between general operators at the two boundaries and find perfect agreement between CFT and bulk calculations. We calculate and match the CFT entanglement entropy (EE) with the holographic EE which involves geodesics passing through the wormhole. We also compute a holographic, non-equilibrium entropy for the CFT using properties of the regular horizon. The construction of the bulk solutions here uses an exact version of Brown-Henneaux type diffeomorphisms which are asymptotically nontrivial and transform the CFT states by two independent unitary operators on the two sides. Our solutions provide an infinite family of explicit examples of the ER=EPR relation of Maldacena and Susskind [1].

Mandal, Gautam; Sinha, Ritam; Sorokhaibam, Nilakash

2015-01-01

444

Quantum Corrections to Supergravity on AdS$_2\\times S^2$  

E-print Network

We compute the off-shell spectrum of supergravity on AdS$_2\\times S^2$ by explicit diagonalization of the equations of motion for an effective AdS$_2$ theory where all fields are dualized to scalars and spin-${1\\over 2}$ fermions. Classifying all bulk modes as physical, gauge violating, and pure gauge let us identify boundary modes as physical fields on $S^2$ that are formally pure gauge but with gauge function that is non-normalizable on AdS$_2$. As an application we compute the leading quantum correction to AdS$_2\\times S^2$ as a sum over physical fields including boundary states.

Larsen, Finn

2014-01-01

445

Quantum Corrections to Supergravity on AdS$_2\\times S^2$  

E-print Network

We compute the off-shell spectrum of supergravity on AdS$_2\\times S^2$ by explicit diagonalization of the equations of motion for an effective AdS$_2$ theory where all fields are dualized to scalars and spin-${1\\over 2}$ fermions. Classifying all bulk modes as physical, gauge violating, and pure gauge let us identify boundary modes as physical fields on $S^2$ that are formally pure gauge but with gauge function that is non-normalizable on AdS$_2$. As an application we compute the leading quantum correction to AdS$_2\\times S^2$ as a sum over physical fields including boundary states.

Finn Larsen; Pedro Lisbao

2014-11-26

446

Medieval Warm Period, Little Ice Age and 20th century temperature variability from Chesapeake Bay  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We present paleoclimate evidence for rapid (< 100 years) shifts of ??? 2-4??C in Chesapeake Bay (CB) temperature ???2100, 1600, 950, 650, 400 and 150 years before present (years BP) reconstructed from magnesium/calcium (Mg/Ca) paleothermometry. These include large temperature excursions during the Little Ice Age (???1400-1900 AD) and the Medieval Warm Period (???800-1300 AD) possibly related to changes in the strength of North Atlantic thermohaline circulation (THC). Evidence is presented for a long period of sustained regional and North Atlantic-wide warmth with low-amplitude temperature variability between ???450 and 1000 AD. In addition to centennial-scale temperature shifts, the existence of numerous temperature maxima between 2200 and 250 years BP (average ???70 years) suggests that multi-decadal processes typical of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) are an inherent feature of late Holocene climate. However, late 19th and 20th century temperature extremes in Chesapeake Bay associated with NAO climate variability exceeded those of the prior 2000 years, including the interval 450-1000 AD, by 2-3??C, suggesting anomalous recent behavior of the climate system. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

Cronin, T. M.; Dwyer, G.S.; Kamiya, T.; Schwede, S.; Willard, D.A.

2003-01-01

447

Myths & Facts about Value-Added Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents myths as well as facts about value-added analysis. These myths include: (1) "Value-added isn't fair to teachers who work in high-need schools, where students tend to lag far behind academically"; (2) "Value-added scores are too volatile from year-to-year to be trusted"; (3) "There's no research behind value-added"; (4) "Using…

TNTP, 2011

2011-01-01

448

Gateway to 21st Century Skills  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Gateway to 21st Century Skills, or GEM (from the organization's former name, Gateway to Educational Materials) provides teachers with quality resource and tools from federal, state, university, nonprofit and commercial internet sites. The GEM catalog is browseable and searchable by subject, type of resource, grade level, keyword, and several other parameters. The site also includes the Achievement Standards Network, a repository of learning standards documents for K-12 education from departments of education in all 50 states plus standards from nationally recognized content groups.

449

Half a Century of Physical Review Letters  

ScienceCinema

Fifty years ago, Sam Goudsmit started an experiment: the journal Physical Review Letters.  Since 1958, the experiment has thrived. PRL has gone through many changes, published many important papers, and become a leader in international scientific publication.  I will trace the rise of PRL from its early 20th century roots as "Letters to the Editor," through changes in editorial process and advents of new technology. Along the way I'll show what has gone on behind the scenes, and give a glimpse of our plans for the future.  I'll also give some advice to would-be authors and referees, illustrated with interesting correspondence we've received.

Robert Garisto

2010-01-08

450

The Ricci 21st Century Roundtable  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Ricci 21st Century Roundtable is an international database for the study of the history of Christianity in China developed by the Ricci Institute for Chinese-Western Cultural History at the Center for the Pacific Rim, University of San Francisco. The extensive database contains archival, bibliographical, and biographical resources on the history of Christian missions in China. In addition, the database includes directories of scholars and institutions conducting research on Christianity in China; a list of recent conferences, published books, and articles; and collections of related images and sounds.

451

Child Labor in the 19th Century  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Child Labor in the 19th Century, from The Spartacus Internet Encyclopedia, documents the lives of British child laborers through photographs, drawings, and biographies of the children, factory workers, owners, and labor reformers. The information is divided into the sections Factory Reformers, Supporters of Child Labor, Life in the Factory, The Factory Workers, Tactics and Issues, The Factory Acts, and Statistics. Most entries link to other relevant sections of the encyclopedia, and include quotes from individuals or primary documents. The most compelling sections of this collection detail the lives of the child laborers themselves, including first-hand accounts from the children.

452

Newer Antibacterial Drugs for a New Century  

PubMed Central

Antibacterial drug discovery and development has slowed considerably in recent years with novel classes discovered decades ago and regulatory approvals tougher to get. This article describes newer classes of antibacterial drugs introduced or approved after year 2000, their mechanisms of action/ resistance, improved analogs, spectrum of activity and clinical trials. It also discusses new compounds in development with novel mechanisms of action as well as novel unexploited bacterial targets and strategies which may pave the way for combating drug resistance and emerging pathogens in the 21st century. PMID:20053150

Devasahayam, Gina; Scheld, W. Michael; Hoffman, Paul S.

2010-01-01

453

Mammalian Developmental Genetics in the Twentieth Century  

PubMed Central

This Perspectives is a review of the breathtaking history of mammalian genetics in the past century and, in particular, of the ways in which genetic thinking has illuminated aspects of mouse development. To illustrate the power of that thinking, selected hypothesis-driven experiments and technical advances are discussed. Also included in this account are the beginnings of mouse genetics at the Bussey Institute, Columbia University, and The Jackson Laboratory and a retrospective discussion of one of the classic problems in developmental genetics, the T/t complex and its genetic enigmas. PMID:23212897

Artzt, Karen

2012-01-01

454

Medicine in the twenty-fourth century.  

PubMed

This paper discusses one vision of medicine's future as penned by a noted current writer of science fiction. Medical progress is seen as an outgrowth of the overall advancement of human technology, especially as a result of routine exploration of deep space. Much of 24th century medicine is to be based on the merging of bioengineering with the classical medical arts. A great deal more will be known about the human animal then than now, so more healing can be done. In spite of numerous items of medical gadgetry at his disposal, the physician of 400 years hence will remain sympathetic and caring. PMID:2334774

Frenger, P

1990-01-01

455

Health Physics in the 21st Century  

E-print Network

Adopting a proactive approach and focusing on emerging radiation-generating technologies, Health Physics in the 21st Century meets the growing need for a presentation of the relevant radiological characteristics and hazards. As such, this monograph discusses those technologies that will affect the health physics and radiation protection profession over the decades to come. After an introductory overview, the second part of this book looks at fission and fusion energy, followed by a section devoted to accelerators, while the final main section deals with radiation on manned space missions.

Bevelacqua, Joseph John

2008-01-01

456

MOBILE, MULTIMEDIA, AD HOC AND SENSOR NETWORKS  

E-print Network

MOBILE, MULTIMEDIA, AD HOC AND SENSOR NETWORKS Guest Editor Professor Min Chen School of Computer and computing. Along with the rapid development of hardware and embedded systems, ad hoc and sensor networks of mobile, multimedia, ad hoc and sensor networks. In response to the call for contributions, we have

Chen, Min

457

IT Licentiate theses Ad Hoc Routing Protocol  

E-print Network

for certain types of applications. Keywords: Mobile ad hoc networks, routing protocols, live testing, for- malIT Licentiate theses 2005-004 Ad Hoc Routing Protocol Validation OSKAR WIBLING UPPSALA UNIVERSITY Department of Information Technology #12;#12;Ad Hoc Routing Protocol Validation BY OSKAR WIBLING September

Flener, Pierre

458

Automatized Verification of Ad Hoc Routing Protocols  

E-print Network

- derlay Network Ad hoc Routing protocol (LUNAR) as a case study. Insights are reported in terms realistically be verified. Keywords: Mobile ad hoc networks, routing protocols, formal verifi- cation, model, 16]. An ad hoc network needs a specifically de- signed routing protocol. There is ideally no pre

Parrow, Joachim

459

Geographyinformed Energy Conservation for Ad Hoc Routing  

E-print Network

that it can consume 40% to 60% less energy than an un- modi#12;ed ad hoc routing protocol. Moreover maintaining application #12;delity. 1. INTRODUCTION Multihop, ad hoc networking has been the focus of many-hop communication in wireless, ad hoc networks #3; This research is supported by the Defense Advanced Re- search

Heidemann, John

460

What's the Value in Value-Added?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A growing number of school districts are adopting "value-added" measures of teaching quality to award bonuses or even tenure. And two competitive federal grants are spurring them on. Districts using value-added data are encouraged by the results. But researchers who support value-added measures advise caution. The ratings, which use a statistical…

Duffrin, Elizabeth

2011-01-01

461

The different phases of hairy black holes in AdS5 space  

E-print Network

We investigate the thermodynamics of hairy black holes in asymptotically Anti-de Sitter (AdS) space, including backreaction. Resorting to the Euclidean path integral approach, we show that matter conformally coupled to Einstein gravity in five dimensions may exhibit a phase transition whose endpoint turns out to be a hairy black hole in AdS5 space. The scalar field configuration happens to be regular everywhere outside and on the horizon, and behaves asymptotically in such a way that respects the AdS boundary conditions that are relevant for AdS/CFT. The theory presents other peculiar features in the ultraviolet, like the existence of black holes with arbitrarily low temperature in AdS5. This provides a simple setup in which the fully backreacting problem of a hair forming in AdS at certain critical temperature can be solved analytically.

Giribet, Gaston; Oliva, Julio

2015-01-01

462

Learning 21st-Century Skills Requires, 21st-Century Teaching  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For students to learn 21st-century skills, we will have to teach them differently than we have in the past. The outdated, transmission model, through which teachers transmit factual knowledge to students via lectures and textbooks, remains the dominant approach to compulsory education in much of the world, yet it is not the most effective way to…

Saavedra, Anna Rosefsky; Opfer, V. Darleen

2012-01-01

463

A Vision of A 22nd century building Building the 22nd Century Conference  

E-print Network

panel technology. In the 22nd century, global warming will have caused countless storms to rack of the efficiency. With an expected global population of 15-20 billion, new styles of builds will require adaptation such storms, for they are easily damaged. As well as protecting the solar panels from harm, this material must

Farritor, Shane

464

A 21st Century Library in a 20th Century Space  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The library at George C. Marshall High School in Fairfax County, Virginia, needed an update to better meet the needs of 21st century students. A major renovation was in the works, but head librarian Graboyes wanted to do something to make the library useful and appealing for current students. With careful budgeting and donations of time and money,…

Graboyes, Alanna S.

2012-01-01

465

Heroin: Challenge for the 21st Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The rise in heroin use in the 1990s is attributed to an increase in snorting and smoking heroin as opposed to earlier epidemics that relied on intravenous use. An increase in purity has also added to the addiction problem. The trend towards use by young people was confirmed by the 2000 Monitoring the Future Study, which reported that 10.6% of high…

Gordon, Susan M.

466

Paleoanthropology: The last half-century  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leaving aside the multifarious brands of millenarian alarmism (which actu- ally have the comforting effect of re- minding us that, for better or for worse, human nature has not changed one bit since the very beginnings of recorded history), the upcoming cen- tury's end does at least have the ad- vantage of providing us with an excel- lent occasion to

Ian Tattersall

2000-01-01

467

Nursing heroism in the 21st Century'  

PubMed Central

Background The Vivian Bullwinkel Oration honours the life and work of an extraordinary nurse. Given her story and that of her World War II colleagues, the topic of nursing heroism in the 21st century could not be more germane. Discussion Is heroism a legitimate part of nursing, or are nurses simply 'just doing their job' even when facing extreme personal danger? In this paper I explore the place and relevance of heroism in contemporary nursing. I propose that nursing heroism deserves a broader appreciation and that within the term lie many hidden, 'unsung' or 'unrecorded' heroisms. I also challenge the critiques of heroism that would condemn it as part of a 'militarisation' of nursing. Finally, I argue that nursing needs to be more open in celebrating our heroes and the transformative power of nursing achievements. Summary The language of heroism may sound quaint by 21st Century standards but nursing heroism is alive and well in the best of our contemporary nursing ethos and practice. PMID:21324152

2011-01-01

468

Visualizing "race" in the eighteenth century.  

PubMed

This paper looks at the conditions of the emergence of "race" as a new scientific category during the eighteenth century, arguing that two modes of discourse and visualization played a significant role: that on society, civility, and civilization -- as found principally in the travel literature -- and that on nature, as found in natural history writings, especially in botanical classifications. The European colonizing enterprise had resulted in an extensive flow of new objects at every level. Visual representations of these new objects circulated in the European cultural world and were transferred and transformed within travelogue and natural history writings. The nature, boundaries, and potentialities of humankind were discussed in this exchange within the conceptual grid of classifications and their visual representations. Over the course of the century the discourse on society, civility, and civilization collapsed into the discourse on nature. Humans became classified and visually represented along the same lines as flora, according to similar assumptions about visible features. Concurrently, these visible features were related necessarily to bundles of social, civilized, and cognitive characteristics taken from the discourse on society, civility, civilization, as found in the contemporaneous travelogue. PMID:21465839

Gissis, Snait B

2011-01-01

469

Dimming of the 17th Century Sun  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reconstructions of total solar irradiance (TSI) rely mainly on linear relations between TSI variation and indices of facular area. When these are extrapolated to the prolonged 15th - 17th century Spörer and Maunder solar activity minima, the estimated solar dimming is insufficient to explain the mid- millennial climate cooling of the Little Ice Age. We draw attention here to evidence that the relation departs from linearity at the lowest activity levels. Imaging photometry and radiometry indicate an increased TSI contribution per unit area from small network faculae by a factor of 2-4 compared to larger faculae in and around active regions. Even partial removal of this more TSI - effective network at prolonged minima could enable climatically significant solar dimming, yet be consistent with the weakened but persistent 11- yr cycle observed in Be 10 during the Maunder Minimum. The mechanism we suggest would not alter previous findings that increased solar radiative forcing is insufficient to account for 20th century global warming. This work was supported at Heliophysics, Inc. by NASA grants NNX09AP96G and NNX10AC09G.

Foukal, Peter V.; Ortiz, A.; Schnerr, R.

2011-05-01

470

Astrology in seventeenth-century Peru.  

PubMed

This article discusses three aspects of the history of astrology in seventeenth-century Peru that are of larger interest for the history of science in Latin America: Creole concerns about indigenous idolatry, the impact of the Inquisition on natural philosophy, and communication between scholars within the Spanish colonies and the transatlantic world. Drawing mainly on the scholars Antonio de la Calancha, Juan de Figueroa, and Ruiz de Lozano, along with several Jesuits, the article analyzes how natural and medical astrology took shape in Peru and how they fostered astronomical investigations of the southern skies. While natural and medical astrology, showing New and Old World influences, oscillated between orthodoxy and heterodoxy, and between scholasticism and new science, judicial astrology remained undeveloped. Toward the end of the seventeenth century the discourse about astrology took an unexpected turn, reflecting a newly invigorated moral and Christian reading of the heavens that was in part a response to a deep-rooted dissatisfaction with the failure of the extirpation of idolatry campaigns. Inscribing divine and cardinal virtues, the Virgin Mary, Christian saints, and Greco-Roman allegories into the heavens was considered a way to finally solve the problem of idolatry and to convey Creole greatness. PMID:20513626

Brosseder, Claudia

2010-06-01

471

DIMMING OF THE 17TH CENTURY SUN  

SciTech Connect

Reconstructions of total solar irradiance (TSI) rely mainly on linear relations between TSI variation and indices of facular area. When these are extrapolated to the prolonged 15th-17th century Spoerer and Maunder solar activity minima, the estimated solar dimming is insufficient to explain the mid-millennial climate cooling of the Little Ice Age. We draw attention here to evidence that the relation departs from linearity at the lowest activity levels. Imaging photometry and radiometry indicate an increased TSI contribution per unit area from small network faculae by a factor of 2-4 compared with larger faculae in and around active regions. Even partial removal of this more TSI-effective network at prolonged minima could enable climatically significant solar dimming, yet be consistent with the weakened but persistent 11 yr cycle observed in Be 10 during the Maunder Minimum. The mechanism we suggest would not alter previous findings that increased solar radiative forcing is insufficient to account for 20th century global warming.

Foukal, Peter [Heliophysics, Inc., Nahant, MA 01908 (United States); Ortiz, Ada [Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1029, Blindern, N 0315 Oslo (Norway); Schnerr, Roald [Institute for Solar Physics, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Alba Nova University Center, Stockholm (Sweden)

2011-06-01

472

Challenges in 21st Century Physics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We are truly fortunate to live in one of the great epochs of human discovery, a time when science is providing new visions and understanding about ourselves and the world in which we live. At last, we are beginning to explore the Universe itself. One particularly exciting area of advancement is high-energy physics where several existing concepts will be put to the test. A brief survey will be given of accomplishments in 20th Century physics. These include relativity and quantum physics which have produced breakthroughs in cosmology, astrophysics, and high-energy particle physics. The current situation is then assessed, combining the last 100 years of progress with new 21st Century challenges about unification and where to go next. Finally, the future is upon us. The next frontier in experimental high-energy physics, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN in Geneva, is scheduled to begin coming online this year (2007). The potential for the LHC to address several of the significant problems in physics today will be discussed, as this great accelerator examines the predictions of the Standard Model of particle physics and even cosmology. New physics and new science will surely emerge and a better vision of the world will unfold.

Wilson, Thomas L.

2007-01-01

473

Federal laboratories for the 21st century  

SciTech Connect

Federal laboratories have successfully filled many roles for the public; however, as the 21st Century nears it is time to rethink and reevaluate how Federal laboratories can better support the public and identify new roles for this class of publicly-owned institutions. The productivity of the Federal laboratory system can be increased by making use of public outcome metrics, by benchmarking laboratories, by deploying innovative new governance models, by partnerships of Federal laboratories with universities and companies, and by accelerating the transition of federal laboratories and the agencies that own them into learning organizations. The authors must learn how government-owned laboratories in other countries serve their public. Taiwan`s government laboratory, Industrial Technology Research Institute, has been particularly successful in promoting economic growth. It is time to stop operating Federal laboratories as monopoly institutions; therefore, competition between Federal laboratories must be promoted. Additionally, Federal laboratories capable of addressing emerging 21st century public problems must be identified and given the challenge of serving the public in innovative new ways. Increased investment in case studies of particular programs at Federal laboratories and research on the public utility of a system of Federal laboratories could lead to increased productivity of laboratories. Elimination of risk-averse Federal laboratory and agency bureaucracies would also have dramatic impact on the productivity of the Federal laboratory system. Appropriately used, the US Federal laboratory system offers the US an innovative advantage over other nations.

Gover, J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Huray, P.G. [Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States)

1998-04-01

474

The restart of meteorological observations in the 19th century in Lisbon: the contribution of Marino Miguel FRANZINI (1779-1861)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

After the early meteorological observations of the 1770s to the 1790s in continental Portugal (including a 5 year daily series by J. Velho), there were hardly any until 1815. In December 1815, a meteorological station was set up in Lisbon by Marino Miguel Franzini (1779-1861), an engineer who was also actively involved in Politics (liberal party). Following the tradition of the 18th century enlightenment movement, he took a keen interest in Nature and Sciences, particularly in the "influence" of weather and climate on health and agriculture. Franzini started his observations by request of a physician who sought to understand the reasons why the maximum mortality occurred on the summer months, unlike in northern countries of Europe where maximum mortality occurred in winter (as it happens nowadays in Portugal). The deterministic background of the two scientists is clear. Franzini was a member of the Lisbon Academy of Sciences (founded in 1799) and had contact with foreign Academies and foreign scientists. His instruments were carefully constructed and described, including graduation scales, and stations' location was indicated. Data from two years observations (several meteorological variables) was published in the Academy of Sciences Memoirs. From 1818 until 1826 and from 1835 until 1856 data was divulged in journals and newspapers, such as the "Journal of Medical Sciences", together with data on necrology in some of Lisbon parishes (illustrating the interest of physicians on weather); meteorological data and information about agriculture was also published in the "Lisbon Gazette". Unfortunately, there are hardly any daily data, as Franzini grouped his records according to weather types, as will be explained. Franzini's series will be presented in our talk. The gap between 1826 and 1835 was due to the political activities in which Franzini was involved: the civil war (liberals against absolutist) disruptedscientific research in Portugal. Official meteorological observations began in Lisbon,in December 1854, in a site not far away from Franzini's station. The long series of Lisbon includes the 1835-54 Franzini's series.

Alcoforado, Maria-Joao; Nunes, Fatima

2013-04-01

475

Non-relativistic AdS branes and Newton-Hooke superalgebra  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We examine a non-relativistic limit of D-branes in AdS5 × S5 and M-branes in AdS4/7 × S7/4. First, Newton-Hooke superalgebras for the AdS branes are derived from AdS × S superalgebras as Inönü-Wigner contractions. It is shown that the directions along which the AdS-brane worldvolume extends are restricted by requiring that the isometry on the AdS-brane worldvolume and the Lorentz symmetry in the transverse space naturally extend to the super-isometry. We also derive Newton-Hooke superalgebras for pp-wave branes and show that the directions along which a brane worldvolume extends are restricted. Then the Wess-Zumino terms of the AdS branes are derived by using the Chevalley-Eilenberg cohomology on the super-AdS × S algebra, and the non-relativistic limit of the AdS-brane actions is considered. We show that the consistent limit is possible for the following branes: Dp (even,even) for p = 1 mod 4 and Dp (odd,odd) for p = 3 mod 4 in AdS5 × S5, and M2 (0,3), M2 (2,1), M5 (1,5) and M5 (3,3) in AdS4 × S7 and S4 × AdS7. We furthermore present non-relativistic actions for the AdS branes.

Sakaguchi, Makoto; Yoshida, Kentaroh

2006-10-01

476

Math / Adding and Subtracting Integers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Now that you have mastered the common math operations of adding, subtracting, multiplying and dividing, you are ready to tackle some more challenging, yet practical problems. For example: How much money do you have if your Mom paid you $20 for every time you mowed the lawn, but you had to pay your little brother $5 for every time he helped you, and together you accomplished the job 7 times? Or how about this one: if you picked 5 apples but 2 were rotten and you had to divide them equally between you and your five friends, how much would each person get? Current Knowledge You will need a piece of paper to record information and to write down examples, so grab one now. Number the paper from 1 to 10. Get with a partner and write down how you think the equations to solve the above problems will be written. Write these ...

Petersen, Mr. L.

2008-10-01

477

Multi-century tree-ring based reconstruction of the Neuquén River streamflow, northern Patagonia, Argentina  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In most cases, gauged river flow records in southern South America exist for only a few decades, hampering the detection of long-term, decadal to centennial-scale cycles and trends. Long streamflow series can be reconstructed from tree-ring records, offering the opportunity of extending the limited hydrological instrumental data for several centuries or millennia. In northern Patagonia, Argentina, the Neuquén River has great importance for local and national socio-economic activities such as hydroelectric power generation, agriculture and tourism. In this study, new and updated tree-ring chronologies from Araucaria araucana and Austrocedrus chilensis are used to reconstruct the October-June mean streamflow for the Neuquén River and place the period of gauged flows, 1903-2009, in a long-term, multi-century context. The reconstruction covers the period 1346-2000 AD and was developed through a nested principal components regression approach using a network of 43 tree-ring chronologies grouped in composite series. Analyses of the frequency, intensity, and duration of droughts and pluvial events indicate that the 20th century contains some of the driest and wettest annual to decadal-scale events in the past millennium, but longer and more severe events can also be observed in previous centuries. Blackman-Tukey and Singular Spectral Analyses identified various multi-decadal quasiperiodic oscillations with a dominant 6.8-year cycle explaining ca. 23.6% of the total variance in the Neuquén River streamflow reconstruction. We also found that the Neuquén River discharges are related to variations in the Southern Annular Mode (SAM), a measure of air mass exchanges between middle and high latitudes in the Southern Hemisphere. This association is consistent with previous studies which indicate a strong connection between rainfall patterns in northern Patagonia and SAM activity.

Mundo, I. A.; Masiokas, M. H.; Villalba, R.; Morales, M. S.; Neukom, R.; Le Quesne, C.; Urrutia, R. B.; Lara, A.

2011-10-01

478

Multi-century tree-ring based reconstruction of the Neuquén River streamflow, northern Patagonia, Argentina  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In most cases, gauged river flow records in southern South America extend for only a few decades, hampering the detection of long-term, decadal to centennial-scale cycles and trends. Long streamflow series can be reconstructed from tree-ring records, offering the opportunity of extending the limited hydrological instrumental data to several centuries. In northern Patagonia, Argentina, the Neuquén River has great importance for local and national socio-economic activities such as hydroelectric power generation, agriculture and tourism. In this study, new and updated tree-ring chronologies from Araucaria araucana and Austrocedrus chilensis are used to reconstruct the October-June mean streamflow for the Neuquén River and place the period of gauged flows (1903-2009), in a long-term, multi-century context. The reconstruction covers the period 1346-2000 AD and was developed from a network of 43 tree-ring chronologies, grouped in composite series, using a nested principal component regression approach. Analyses of the frequency, intensity, and duration of droughts and pluvial events indicate that the 20th century contains some of the driest and wettest annual to decadal-scale events in the last 654 yr, but longer and more severe events were recorded in previous centuries. Blackman-Tukey and singular spectral analyses identified quasiperiodic oscillations from 3.5 to 17.5 yr. A dominant 6.8-yr cycle explains ca. 23.6% of the total variance in the Neuquén River streamflow reconstruction. Correlation analyses showed that discharges of the Neuquén River are related to variations in the Southern Annular Mode (SAM), a measure of air mass exchanges between middle and high latitudes in the Southern Hemisphere. This association is consistent with previous studies that indicate a strong correlation between rainfall in northern Patagonia and SAM variations.

Mundo, I. A.; Masiokas, M. H.; Villalba, R.; Morales, M. S.; Neukom, R.; Le Quesne, C.; Urrutia, R. B.; Lara, A.

2012-04-01

479

Aeolian responses to climate variability during the past century on Mesquite Lake Playa, Mojave Desert  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The erosion and deposition of sediments by wind from 1901 to 2013 have created large changes in surface features of Mesquite Lake playa in the Mojave Desert. The decadal scale recurrence of sand-sheet development, migration, and merging with older dunes appears related to decadal climatic changes of drought and wetness as recorded in the precipitation history of the Mojave Desert, complemented by modeled soil-moisture index values. Historical aerial photographs, repeat land photographs, and satellite images document the presence and northward migration of a mid-20th century sand sheet that formed during a severe regional drought that coincided with a multi-decadal cool phase of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO). The sand sheet slowly eroded during the wetter conditions of the subsequent PDO warm phase (1977-1998) due to a lack of added sediment. Sand cohesion gradually increased in the sand sheet by seasonal additions of salt and clay and by re-precipitation of gypsum, which resulted in the wind-carving of yardangs in the receding sand sheet. Smaller yardangs were aerodynamically shaped from coppice dunes with salt-clay crusts, and larger yardangs were carved along the walls and floor of trough blowouts. Evidence of a 19th century cycle of sand-sheet formation and erosion is indicated by remnants of yardangs, photographed in 1901 and 1916, that were found buried in the mid-20th century sand sheet. Three years of erosion measurements on the playa, yardangs, and sand sheets document relatively rapid wind erosion. The playa has lowered 20 to 40 cm since the mid-20th century and a shallow deflation basin has developed since 1999. Annually, 5-10 cm of surface sediment was removed from yardang flanks by a combination of wind abrasion, deflation, and mass movement. The most effective erosional processes are wind stripping of thin crusts that form on the yardang surfaces after rain events and the slumping of sediment blocks from yardang flanks. These wind-eroded landforms persist several decades to a century before eroding away or being buried by younger sands. On Mesquite Lake playa the climatic history of alternating PDO phases of multi-decadal drought and wetness is recorded twice by the presence of yardangs formed nearly a century apart.

Whitney, J. W.; Breit, G. N.; Buckingham, S. E.; Reynolds, R. L.; Bogle, R. C.; Luo, L.; Goldstein, H. L.; Vogel, J. M.

2015-02-01

480

Ad-hoc and Hybrid Networks Performance Comparison of MANET Routing Protocols in Ad-hoc  

E-print Network

Ad-hoc and Hybrid Networks Performance Comparison of MANET Routing Protocols in Ad-hoc and Hybrid References 28 A Source Code 30 B Source Code Hybrid 32 2 #12;Abstract An ad-hoc network is an accumulation. Furthermore, the idea of extending a cellular network with ad-hoc routing facilities is haunted

Braun, Torsten

481

Created by the UTHSC Adobe Connect TeamAdding a URL -1 Adding a URL  

E-print Network

Created by the UTHSC Adobe Connect TeamAdding a URL - 1 Adding a URL Select an image to show where URL will be added. #12;Created by the UTHSC Adobe Connect TeamAdding a URL - 2 Create a Web Link Hover your mouse over the Build Content drop down menu. From the Create section, select Web Link. URL

Cui, Yan

482

Matching the observed cosmological constant with vacuum energy density in AdS  

E-print Network

We calculate the vacuum energy density by taking account of different massive scalar fields in AdS spacetime. It is found that the mass spectrum of a scalar field in AdS spacetime is discrete because of a natural boundary condition. The results match well with the observed cosmological constant.

Zhe Chang; Xin-Bing Huang

2001-03-27

483

Gauge invariant Lagrangian formulation of higher spin massive bosonic field theory in AdS space  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work we develop the BRST approach to Lagrangian construction for the massive integer higher spin fields in an arbitrary dimensional AdS space. The theory is formulated in terms of auxiliary Fock space. Closed nonlinear symmetry algebra of higher spin bosonic theory in AdS space is found and a method of deriving the BRST operator for such an algebra

I. L. Buchbinder; V. A. Krykhtin; P. M. Lavrov

2007-01-01

484

On the covariant quantization of tensionless bosonic strings in AdS spacetime  

Microsoft Academic Search

The covariant quantization of the tensionless free bosonic (open and closed) strings in AdS spaces is obtained. This is done by representing the AdS space as an hyperboloid in a flat auxiliary space and by studying the resulting string constrained hamiltonian system in the tensionless limit. It turns out that the constraint algebra simplifies in the tensionless case in such

Giulio Bonelli

2003-01-01

485

Cascading climate effects and related ecological consequences during past centuries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The interface between climate and ecosystem structure and function is incompletely understood, partly because few ecological records start before the recent warming phase. Here, we analyse an exceptional 100-yr long record of the great tit (Parus major) population in Switzerland in relation to climate and habitat phenology. Using structural equation analysis, we demonstrate an uninterrupted cascade of significant influences of the large-scale atmospheric circulation (North-Atlantic Oscillation, NAO, and North-sea - Caspian Pattern, NCP) on habitat and breeding phenology, and further on fitness-relevant life history traits within great tit populations. We then apply the relationships of this analysis to reconstruct the circulation-driven component of fluctuations in great tit breeding phenology and productivity on the basis of new seasonal NAO and NCP indices back to 1500 AD. According to the structural equation model, the multi-decadal oscillation of the atmospheric circulation likely led to substantial variation in habitat phenology, productivity and consequently, tit population fluctuations with minima during the "Maunder Minimum" (∼ 1650-1720) and the Little Ice Age Type Event I (1810-1850). The warming since 1975 was not only related with a quick shift towards earlier breeding, but also with the highest productivity since 1500, and thus, the impact of the NAO and NCP has contributed to an unprecedented increase of the population. A verification of the structural equation model against two independent data series (1970-2000 and 1750-1900) corroborates that the retrospective model reliably depicts the major long-term NAO/NCP impact on ecosystem parameters. The results suggest a complex cascade of climate effects beginning at a global scale and ending at the level of individual life histories. This sheds light on how large-scale climate conditions substantially affect major life history parameters within a population, and thus influence key ecosystem parameters at the scale of centuries.

Naef-Daenzer, B.; Luterbacher, J.; Nuber, M.; Rutishauser, T.; Winkel, W.

2012-10-01

486

On the origin of supergravity boundary terms in the AdS /CFT correspondence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The standard formulation of the AdS/CFT correspondence is incomplete since it requires adding to a supergravity action some a priori unknown boundary terms. We suggest a modification of the correspondence principle based on the Hamiltonian formulation of the supergravity action, which does not require any boundary terms. Then all the boundary terms of the standard formulation naturally appear by passing from the Hamiltonian version to the Lagrangian one. As examples the graviton part of the supergravity action on the product of AdS d+1 with a compact Einstein manifold ? and fermions on AdS d+1 , are considered. We also discuss conformal transformations of gravity fields on the boundary of AdS and show that they are induced by the isometrics of AdS.

Arutyunov, G. E.; Frolov, S. A.

1999-04-01

487

Preliminary analysis of acceleration of sea level rise through the twentieth century using extended tide gauge data sets (August 2014)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

work explores the potential for extending tide gauge time series from the Permanent Service for Mean Sea Level (PSMSL) using historical documents, PSMSL ancillary data, and by developing additional composite time series using near neighbor tide gauges. The aim was to increase the number, completeness, and geographical extent of records covering most or all of the twentieth century. The number of at least 75% complete century-scale time series have been approximately doubled over the original PSMSL data set. In total, over 4800 station years have been added, with 294 of these added to 10 long Southern Hemisphere records. Individual century-scale acceleration values derived from this new extended data set tend to converge on a value of 0.01 ± 0.008 mm/yr2. This result agrees closely with recent work and is statistically significant at the 1 sigma level. Possible causes of acceleration and errors are briefly discussed. Results confirm the importance of current data archeology projects involving digitization of the remaining archives of hard copy tide gauge data for sea level and climate studies.

Hogarth, Peter

2014-11-01

488

Global Warming and 21st Century Drying  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Global warming is expected to increase the frequency and intensity of droughts in the twenty-first century, but the relative contributions from changes in moisture supply (precipitation) versus evaporative demand (potential evapotranspiration; PET) have not been comprehensively assessed. Using output from a suite of general circulation model (GCM) simulations from phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, projected twentyfirst century drying and wetting trends are investigated using two offline indices of surface moisture balance: the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) and the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI). PDSI and SPEI projections using precipitation and Penman- Monteith based PET changes from the GCMs generally agree, showing robust cross-model drying in western North America, Central America, the Mediterranean, southern Africa, and the Amazon and robust wetting occurring in the Northern Hemisphere high latitudes and east Africa (PDSI only). The SPEI is more sensitive to PET changes than the PDSI, especially in arid regions such as the Sahara and Middle East. Regional drying and wetting patterns largely mirror the spatially heterogeneous response of precipitation in the models, although drying in the PDSI and SPEI calculations extends beyond the regions of reduced precipitation. This expansion of drying areas is attributed to globally widespread increases in PET, caused by increases in surface net radiation and the vapor pressure deficit. Increased PET not only intensifies drying in areas where precipitation is a