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1

Archiving Early America: Historic Documents from 18th Century America  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A site of interest to students of 18th Century America is Archiving Early America. Archiving Early America contains selected facsimiles (in .jpg format) from the Keigwin and Mathews Collection of early American documents. Most of these facsimiles are taken from early American newspapers and magazines and include the Declaration of Independence and Constitution, the Northwest Ordinance, and Jay's Treaty, among others.

1997-01-01

2

Peer review in 18th-century scientific journalism.  

PubMed

Although the beginnings of "peer review" are frequently associated with the Royal Society of London when it took over official responsibility for the Philosophical Transactions in 1752, antecedents of peer review practices go back to the 17th century. Despite the differences in the academic, social, intellectual, and economic environments of the 18th century and today, we can find interesting and instructive similarities in the way early editors defined and exercised their prerogatives and responsibilities. These concerns extend to ideas and practices that are closely related to what we call peer review or refereeing today. PMID:2406469

Kronick, D A

1990-03-01

3

Mineralogy and mineral collections in 18th-century France.  

PubMed

During the 18th century, mineralogy constituted an integral part of natural history, sharing the concerns of botany and zoology over collection and classification. In Paris, many people owned private mineral collections, but these have been largely neglected by historians. Here, I examine the place of private collections in the history of mineralogy, arguing that they contributed socially, economically and intellectually to the field in a period before the dominance of the large national collection. I also show how the interests of private collectors diverged from those of the curators of public collections, particularly following the French Revolution. PMID:12535919

Simon, Jonathan

2002-12-01

4

Harvard in the 17th and 18th Centuries  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Several hundred years ago, Harvard University was a much smaller place, and higher education was only necessary to (or desired by) those hoping to enter a few select professions. Referring to this early period in Harvard's history, Josiah Quincy remarked in 1836 that "[Harvard] was, from the first, intimately connected with political and religious opinions and events." Supported by the Arcadia and the Sidney Verba Fund, this remarkable collection from the Harvard University Archives brings together thousands of items (such as diaries, maps, drawings, and legal documents) to tell the story of the institution during the 17th and 18th centuries. On the left side of the page, visitors will find topical headings that include College Life, Religion, and Personalities. It's a fine idea to start by looking through the College Life area. Here visitors will find droll commentaries on the cost and standard of living, along with notes on student discipline and humorous writings. Equally interesting is the Local and Regional History section. Here visitors can learn about Harvard's relationship with Cambridge, Native Americans, and the Commonwealth of Massachusetts.

2012-03-02

5

Highlights of Spanish chemistry at the time of the chemical revolution of the 18th century  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of outstanding Spanish chemists and some of their major chemical contributions in the 18th century are briefly considered indicating that Spanish chemistry got a very high level at the end of the century, departing practically from nothing at the beginning of the century. The Vergara School played a very important role as the first national institution for chemistry

J. A. Pérez-Bustamante de Monasterio

1990-01-01

6

ABORIGINAL CULTURE TRAITS AS REFLECTED IN 18TH- CENTURY DELAWARE INDIAN TREE NAMES1  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the Ohio Journal of Science (Mahr, 1953) the writer described a method of locating Indian localities on modern maps by means of analyzing a few 18th- century Delaware Indian place names as to their semantic components, and then checking the descriptions which they provided against the topography of the areas in question, as presented on the respective Quadrangle sheets

AUGUST C. MAHR

7

Unequal Opportunities The Economic Possibilities Open to Jewish Women in 18th Century Poland-Lithuania  

Microsoft Academic Search

The following texts present an image of economic opportunities, and gender roles in Jewish society in eastern Europe. The first text is an 18th-century supplication by a Jew, Bunim Szlomowicz, against his wife; the second is a 1751 decree by the Council of Lithuania regulating women's roles in trade.

Adam Teller

2006-01-01

8

Negative Numbers in the 18th and 19th Centuries: Phenomenology and Representations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents a categorization of the phenomena and representations used to introduce negative numbers in mathematics books published in Spain during the 18th and 19th centuries. Through a content analysis of fourteen texts which were selected for the study, we distinguished four phenomena typologies: physical, accounting, temporal and…

Maz-Machado, Alexander; Rico-Romero, Luis

2009-01-01

9

Gentility and Gender Roles Within the 18th-Century Merchant Class of Newport, Rhode Island  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Capt. Thomas Richardson household rose to prominence in Newport, Rhode Island during the community’s golden age of prosperity in the 18th century when Newport quickly became one of the leading seaports in the New World. However, all prosperity halted due to the hardships and damage Newport suffered during the American Revolutionary War. Much of the city’s property and economic

Nicki Hise

2010-01-01

10

Four candles. Original perspectives and insights into 18th century hospital child healthcare.  

PubMed

It has only recently been recognised that for more than a century before the opening of Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children (1852) children were treated and even admitted in English Voluntary Hospitals. Among the earliest English 18th century records, that contain the patient's age, are those found at the Northampton General Hospital within an archive dating from its foundation as the Northampton Infirmary in 1744. They afford a fascinating glimpse into both inpatient and outpatient child health. Although there are no medical notes as such, the hospital archive has recently rediscovered 1743 statutes, contemporary patient literature entitled Some Friendly Advice to a Patient (written by the Northampton Infirmary's founding physician Dr (later Sir) James Stonhouse), minute books, contemporary engravings of the outside and inside of the hospital and inpatient menus. Thus we can speculate with a high degree of certainty as to what would be the then current infirmary environment and treatments for illustrative examples of the children seen in the period 1744-45 (two inpatients and two outpatients). Interestingly one of the inpatient cases, Elizabeth Ager, a child with fever, was admitted against the infirmary regulations, suggesting already a stretching of boundaries in favour of paediatric admissions. This paper gives a flavour of 18th century hospital child healthcare in an era before the formal recognition of paediatrics as a medical specialty and preceding by more than a century the construction of specialist provision through the foundation of the first children's hospitals. PMID:17185447

Williams, A N

2007-01-01

11

Tremor in Latin texts of Dutch physicians: 16th-18th centuries.  

PubMed

In his monograph An essay on the shaking palsy (1817), James Parkinson mentioned tremor and propulsion to be the most important signs of the disease that he was describing. In this article, we study aspects of the history of one of the signs that he mentioned, that is, tremor, and see how the meaning of this term evolved since its description by Galen, particularly in the period from the 16th to the 18th centuries. We'll pay attention to the development of a distinction made between action tremor and rest tremor. Work by the following authors is covered: Pratensis and Forestus (16th century); Tulp, Van Beverwijck, an Sylvius (17th century); and Boerhaave and Van Swieten (18th century). Not all authors made the distinction, originally noticed by Galen, between action tremor and rest tremor. Parkinson tremor probably was observed but was classified among the tremors of the elderly. The meaning of palpitation changed through the ages and finally was applied only to pathologic heart and artery pulsations. Sylvius and Van Swieten were the only authors in this study who clearly distinguished between action and rest tremor. They are discussed in Parkinson's monograph. PMID:9380070

Koehler, P J; Keyser, A

1997-09-01

12

[Russia and Halle reciprocity in medicine of the 18th century. Correspondence, scientific communication and reception].  

PubMed

In the history of the interrelations of Halle and Russia in medicine during the 18th century Francke's Foundations, the Faculty of Medicine and the Academia Naturae Curiosorum are important institutions. The correspondence of these three institutions with the partners in Russia became remarkable for the scientific communication and reception. The activities of the working teams which were embedded in these authoritative bodies were scarcely inferior in importance to the centres of enlightenment of that time working in other towns (for instance in Leipzig). In the field of medicine Halle occupied a leading position for the early knowledge about Russia. PMID:3051739

Kaiser, W; Völker, A

1988-07-01

13

Auroras Observed in Portugal in Late 18th Century Obtained from Printed and Manuscript Meteorological Observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a new catalogue of observations of the aurora borealis at Lisbon, i.e., at low-latitudes, in the late 18th century by Jacob Præ torius and Henrique Schulze, two German artillery officers. Dates of 18 auroras compiled by Præ torius and Schulze are compared with those published in other catalogues for that period. The number of annual auroras observed by the two Germans is then compared with two indices of solar activity showing a very good level of consistency between all time series. Finally, we have assessed the number of auroras observed taking into consideration the phase of the lunar cycle and the geomagnetic latitude of Lisbon.

Vaquero, José M.; Trigo, Ricardo M.

2005-09-01

14

Analyses of Etna Eruptive Activity From 18th Century and Characterization of Flank Eruptions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Etna explosive activity has usually been considered subordinate with respect to the effusive eruptions. Nevertheless, in the last decade and overall after the 2001 and 2002 flank eruptions, explosive activity has drawn the attention of the scientific and politic communities owing to the damages that the long-lasting ash fall caused to Sicily's economy. We analyzed the eruptions from the 18th century to find some analogous behavior of Etna in the past. A study of the Etna historical record (Branca and Del Carlo, 2003) evidenced that after the 1727 eruption, there are no more errors in the attribution of the year of the eruption. Furthermore from this time on, the scientific quality of the chronicles allowed us to obtain volcanological information and to estimate the magnitude of the major explosive events. The main goal of this work was to characterize the different typologies of Etna eruptions in the last three centuries. Meanwhile, we have tried to find the possible relationship between the two kinds of activity (explosive and effusive) in order to understand the complexity of the eruptive phenomena and define the short-term behavior of Etna. On the base of the predominance of the eruptive typology (effusive or explosive) we have classified the flank eruptions in three classes: i) Type 1: almost purely effusive; ii) Type 2: the intensity of explosive activity comparable with the effusive; iii) Type 3: almost purely explosive with minor lava effusion (only the 1763 La Montagnola and 2002 eruptions belong to this class). Long-lasting explosive activity is produced by flank eruptions with continuous ash emission and prolonged fallout on the flanks (e.g. 1763, 1811, 1852-53, 1886, 1892, 2001 and 2002 eruptions). At summit craters continuous activity is weaker, whereas the strongest explosive eruptions are short-lived events. Furthermore, from the 18th to 20th century there were several years of intense and discontinuous summit explosive activity, from high strombolian to fire fountain. This activity produced abundant ash fall in the whole volcano area reaching the Calabria region and Malta Island. Generally, some of these periods preceded important flank eruptions. Concerning the occurrence of the higher magnitude explosive events, we observe that at least one subplinian eruption occurred both in the 18th and 19th centuries. In the 20th century the increased quality of the scientific reports has allowed to recognize 6 subplinian eruptions from summit craters.

del Carlo, P.; Branca, S.; Coltelli, M.

2003-12-01

15

The clocks and the perception of time in the 18th century society  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ownership of clocks and watches became widespread in 18th century society, particularly amongst the wealthy classes. They liked the decorative appearance, practical advantages, and social prestige which those objects conferred. The use of 'mechanized' time in the towns supplanted the age old reliance on time as dictated by nature and the Church. New temporal reference points gave the day its rhythm. Data from that era (correspondence, memoirs, newspapers, engravings, and paintings) make it possible to catch a glimpse of the influence of clocks on the perception of time. From the beginning of the 'mechanized time' era, efforts to improve the accuracy and the technical performance of mechanisms were made. The importance of such a precise time measurement in every day life is considered.

Cardinal, Catherine

16

Waxworks and the performance of anatomy in mid-18th-century Italy.  

PubMed

Anatomical waxworks lay at the centre of a composite world of social interaction in mid-18th-century Bologna. Sponsored by Pope Benedict XIV and included among Grand Tour attractions, they earned fame and authority for wax-modellers such as Anna Morandi, Giovanni Manzolini and Ercole Lelli. By dissecting bodies, making waxwork models of them and demonstrating their anatomical collections, these artificers became protagonists of the world of anatomy. Offering representations of the inner body some thought more faithful than the real thing, their collections gave expression to a new set of relations between the role of artefacts in the production and communication of knowledge, the emergence of new apparatuses for viewing and investigating the human body, the legacy of codified visual conventions and the authenticating power of natural spectacle. PMID:16466795

Dacome, Lucia

2006-02-07

17

Six calendar systems in the European history from 18^{th} to 20^{th} Century  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The following calendar systems, introduced in Europe from 18^{th} to 20^{th} century, which were in use for a shorter or longer period by a larger or smaller community, were reviewed and discussed: The French Revolutionary Calendar, the Theosebic calendar invented by Theophilos Kairis, the Revolutionary Calendar of the Soviet Union (or 'Bolshevik calendar'), the Fascist calendar in Italy and the calendar of the Metaxas dictatorship in Greece before World War II. Also the unique of them, which is still in use, the New Rectified Julian calendar of the Orthodox Church, adopted according to proposition of Milutin Milankovi? on the Congress of Orthodox Churches in 1923 in Constantinople, is presented and discussed. At the end, difficulties to introduce a new calendar are discussed as well.

Theodossiou, Efstratios; Manimanis, Vassilios N.; Dimitrijevi?, Milan S.

18

Isotopic Ag-Cu-Pb record of silver circulation through 16th-18th century Spain.  

PubMed

Estimating global fluxes of precious metals is key to understanding early monetary systems. This work adds silver (Ag) to the metals (Pb and Cu) used so far to trace the provenance of coinage through variations in isotopic abundances. Silver, copper, and lead isotopes were measured in 91 coins from the East Mediterranean Antiquity and Roman world, medieval western Europe, 16th-18th century Spain, Mexico, and the Andes and show a great potential for provenance studies. Pre-1492 European silver can be distinguished from Mexican and Andean metal. European silver dominated Spanish coinage until Philip III, but had, 80 y later after the reign of Philip V, been flushed from the monetary mass and replaced by Mexican silver. PMID:21606351

Desaulty, Anne-Marie; Telouk, Philippe; Albalat, Emmanuelle; Albarède, Francis

2011-05-23

19

Composition and state of alteration of 18th century glass from the Cistercian nunnery of Clairefontaine (Belgium)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An extended set of 18th century glass vessels was analyzed by means of SEM-EDX (major and minor element composition) The fragmented archaeological objects were recovered from a latrine belonging to the early 18th century building phase of the nunnery of Clairefontaine, near Arlon (B). On the basis of typology and decoration, the major part of the vessels could be dated around the middle of the 18th century. Variety in color and weathering of the glass suggest differences in glassmaking recipes and in the composition and origin of raw materials. The results of the analysis show how two main compositional groups constitute about 90% of the analyzed glass set, and these are constituted by potash glass (transparent beakers) and high lime low alkali glass (green bottles). Next to these, a few potash-lime and soda glasses are also found. The type of alteration has also a clear relation with the original glass composition.

Herremans, Davy; Cagno, Simone; Vincke, Anke; De Clercq, Wim; Janssens, Koen

20

The Economic Progress of American Jewry: From 18th Century Merchants to 21st Century Professionals  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper tracks the economic status of American Jewry over the past three centuries. It relies on qualitative material in the early period and quantitative data since 1890. The primary focus is on the occupational status of Jewish men and women, compared to non-Jews, with additional analyses of earnings, self-employment, and wealth. The Jews in Colonial America, many of Sephardic

Barry R. Chiswick

2009-01-01

21

Analysis of Time Data in Chinese Astronomical Almanacs of the Late 18th Century  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigated the time data in Chinese astronomical almanacs of the late 18th century in order to estimate the accuracy of the Shixian calendar. It is known that the calendar was enforced during the period of the Ching dynasty (1664--1912), and several astronomical almanacs using the calendar are preserved in the Kyujanggak Institute for Korean Studies of Korea; these almanacs cover the years 1772, 1773, 1774, 1780, 1781, 1783, 1785, and 1787. We compiled the times of the new moon, sunrise/sunset, and twenty-four seasonal subdivisions from the almanacs and compared them with the results of modern calculations. As a result, we found that the times of the new moon and twenty-four seasonal subdivisions show average differences of ˜ 3.35 ± 4.43 and ˜ 9.67± 13.24 min, respectively. Regarding he sunrise/sunset time, however, we found that the difference was less than 1 min when we defined the time as the moment that the zenith distance (z) of the Sun is 90°, unlike the modern definition, z=90° 50'. We expect that this study to contribute to the understanding of the accuracy obtained by Shixian calendar in calculations of the movements of celestial bodies.

Lee, K.-W.; Mihn, B.-H.; Ahn, Y. S.; Choi, G.-E.

2012-09-01

22

The Struggle To Survive: Work for Racial Ethnic Women in the 18th- and 19th-Century United States.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The work situations of Black, Mexican American, and Chinese immigrant women in 18th- and 19th-century United States are explored. Generally, when engaged in agricultural work, all ethnic people were considered units of labor. However, because the slave owner needed to perpetuate his property, Black women were allowed lower rates of production…

Higginbotham, Elizabeth

23

The Struggle To Survive: Work for Racial Ethnic Women in the 18th- and 19th-Century United States.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The work situations of Black, Mexican American, and Chinese immigrant women in 18th- and 19th-century United States are explored. Generally, when engaged in agricultural work, all ethnic people were considered units of labor. However, because the slave owner needed to perpetuate his property, Black women were allowed lower rates of production when…

Higginbotham, Elizabeth

24

A comparison of large 18th-century floods on Danube: Vienna - Bratislava - Budapest  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The documentation of historic floods can help in better understanding of factors that might cause and contribute to large and extreme flood events. In particular, the analysis of historic floods provides information about flood seasonality, its changes and anthropogenic impacts on river flood regime which in some cases strongly influenced flood behaviour. The main objective of the present contribution is to document large and medium size flood events on Danube in Vienna, Bratislava and Budapest in the 18th century. In the present study, based on contemporary documentary evidence, for each of the three towns a five-scaled flood index series is developed to describe the magnitude and intensity of flood events. According to this classification, the 100-year flood event was characterised by the index value 5, while great destructive floods - depending on their extension, destructivity and further impacts - received the values 4 and 3, respectively. Less significant but still harmful flood events were classified as No. 2, and floods without further specification remained in the lowest category (No. 1). Beside classification issues, seasonality and flood frequency differences between the three towns are as well discussed. The results indicate that a greater number of flood events took place in the last decades of the century, but only a few flood events of the same magnitude are documented simultaneously in all three towns. And whereas in 1775 no winter flood event was reported in Vienna, an important ice jam flood was documented in Bratislava, and a catastrophic ice jam flood event, greatest of the century, occurred in Budapest. In 1787 autumn the greatest flood event of the century occurred in Vienna, while hardly any flood waves were observed at Budapest. While in Vienna, summer (and partly autumn) floods had great importance, in Budapest a large number of ice jam floods were documented. In some cases the differences are likely caused by different hydrometeorological and morphological conditions, but the importance of human impact (e.g. different types and levels of flood protection in the towns, large-scale changes of land use in the catchment area) have to be as well emphasised.

Kiss, Andrea; Parajka, Juraj

2013-04-01

25

[Semantics of learned quackery in the 17th and 18th centuries].  

PubMed

In the 17th and 18th century republic of letters the problem of scientific fraud was met with a discourse of charlatanism. Departing from Johann Burchhard Menckes famous treatise on the Charlatanry of the learned the following essay traces how the accusations of academic and scientific misconduct put in terms of 'charlatanry' primarily helped to produce the new species of the erudite 'charlatan'. Facing a growing complexity of scientific culture this new frame of meaning, structured by numerous examples of scientific misconduct offered a new way of orientation in the world of learning. But besides its cognitive impacts the discourse of charlatanry allowed to create symbolic boundaries, which determined decisions upon the affiliation or non affiliation to the new forming scientific community by separating honourable from dishonourable scientific personae. Speaking of charlatanry therefore always implied a social distinction as much as a scientific. The discourses on charlatanry also mirror differentiations within the scientific field. At first dominated by a critique built on courteous or bourgeois values, the scientific field later on developed its own criteria of appraisal like authorship, originality, transparency etc. Attracting the attention of a further growing public sphere, the explicit verbalisation of claims not relating to the value system of a republic of letters primarily concerned with the production and distribution of knowledge finally led up to a more implicit moral economy of science. A change that at a large scale level can be described both as an internalisation of the values of scientific conduct and differentiation between justiciable and unjusticiable transgressions of the norms set up by the scientific community. PMID:15338535

Füssel, Marian

2004-06-01

26

[Surgeons, attendants and physicians in the estates belonging to the Radziwills in the Nieswiez line in the 18th century].  

PubMed

The Polish Republic entered the 18th century as a country, which exhibited anachronistic organization of social and economic relations in many respects. For surgery this meant preserving the nature of a guild craft, whereas the West European trends moved closer to the area of medicine. The changes in the above state of affairs led to improvement only in the period of the National Education Commission. However, the commenced changes could not cause any significant increase of the level of surgery in the Polish Republic in the 18th century. Although not many facts support the statement that the Radziwills of the 18th century started any activities aiming at increasing the level of surgical care in all the estates, as they focused mainly on their own court, the court surgeons practiced also outside the court. In the 18th century, for the needs of the prince's family a few highly qualified surgeons came from abroad or from the main Polish cities where good surgeons were more available. But the range of duties performed by the Radziwills' surgeons was broader and covered also the activities other than those related to the profession i.e. treatment of wounds, fractures and certain external symptoms of a disease. They frequently entered the area reserved for the physicians. They were usually employed to treat people from lower backgrounds, including courtiers. However, if they treated the members of the prince's family, their role was limited to surgical operations. The findings included in this article, with regard to the availability of surgeons and the quality surgical care in the Radziwills' estates, present two extremities. One of them represents the prince's family and the court who have a team of highly qualified surgeons and attendants, many of whom are foreigners. The other one represents the peasants in the Radziwills' villages who have no access even to attendants. There are no premises to conclude that the Radziwills did anything to ensure the surgical care to the country-folk. The Radziwills' estate which was in many respects governed by separate noble laws was also characterized by a specific nature of medical organization. However, all the weaknesses of inefficient social and economic system were also present in the Radziwills' estates. They were acerbated by inefficient management of such a big estate, which was typical of the Radziwills of the 18th century. The intellectual capacity of the heirs was another impediment to the introduction of new solutions in the area of the surgical organization in the 18th century. The situation in the estates of the Radziwills in the Nieswiez line in the 18th century resulted in focusing the article on the organization of surgical care at the prince's court. However, even if presented from this point of view, they supplement the existing picture of the Polish surgery in the 18th century with the elements which are hardly reflected in the articles published up to this date. PMID:11625738

Zuba, K

1999-01-01

27

Petrus Camper's Work on the Anatomy and Pathology of the Arm and Hand in the 18th Century  

Microsoft Academic Search

Petrus Camper (1722-1789) was a professor of anatomy and surgery at the Universities of Franeker, Amsterdam and Groningen. During the mid-18th century, he performed dissections to study the anatomy and pathology of the arm. Based on his findings, he published one of the most detailed anatomical atlases of the arm and hand in history, entitled Demonstrationum anatomico-pathologicarum liber primus brachii

F. F. A. Ijpma; Graaf van de R. C; Gulik van T. M

2010-01-01

28

[Animal nutrition in the dietetics of the 18th Century with "Materiae Medicae" by H.J.N. Crantz as an example].  

PubMed

H.J.N. Crantz (1722-1797), a physician and botanist born in the Duchy of Luxembourg and practising in Vienna under the Empress Maria Theresia during the 18th century, deals in his "materiae medicae et chirurgicae", written in Latin language, also with animal foodstuff. Animals from various species are commented on the utility of their meat and products to maintain health or to recover it after illness. The items of the text are described in free translation and in summary. Some more explanations are added. PMID:11100166

Theves, G

1999-01-01

29

Analysis of 18th-19th century's historical samples of Iranian ink and paper belonging to the Qajar dynasty  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thirteen historical Iranian manuscripts belonging to the Qajar dynasty (18th-19th Century BC) were investigated by micro-PIXE technique using Van de Graaff accelerator in the Nuclear Science & Technology Research Institute in Iran. The aim of the present work has mainly been to determine the elemental composition of different inks and papers. In addition, the effects due to the variation of thickness and texture of the paper were simultaneously measured with the off-axis STIM technique. Elemental maps by micro-PIXE were compared to photographs taken in visible light.

Agha-Aligol, D.; Khosravi, F.; Lamehi-Rachti, M.; Baghizadeh, A.; Oliaiy, P.; Shokouhi, F.

2007-11-01

30

The historical archaeology of the 17th- and 18th-century Jewish community of Nevis, British West Indies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This is an historical archaeological examination of a 17th- and 18th-century Jewish community on the island of Nevis in the British West Indies. Unlike earlier archaeological studies of the Jewish Caribbean Diaspora that focused on single sites, this investigation used a community-wide approach to elucidate the daily experience of Sephardic Jews within the colonial Caribbean. This project included an archaeological excavation at the purported location of the community's synagogue, an electrical resistivity survey of the surviving cemetery, the construction of a map of property ownership in 18th-century Charlestown, and archival research. This study was carded out within a multiscalar and contextual framework that emphasized the importance of understanding the diaspora that brought the Jews to the West Indies, the development of the colonial Caribbean, and the surrounding environs of the port city of Charlestown, Nevis. The archaeological analysis of the supposed site of the synagogue proved that it was in fact that of a late 18th-century townhouse, but the associated land record research revealed the actual location of the community's former synagogue. Furthermore, the reconstruction of the physical layout of colonial-period Charlestown from the land records indicated the presence of a distinct Jewish quarter in the undesirable southern portion of the town. Evidence from the public records of Nevis and the social history of the members of the Jewish population unveiled external social and political pressures placed upon the Sephardim as well as internal religious and ethnic ties dig bound the community together. It is argued in closing that the archival evidence, in conjunction with the continued presence of a clustered settlement pattern like that of European Jewish communities during the medieval period, indicates that the Jews of the Caribbean were not fully integrated socially or politically into British colonial society. This examination of the Nevis community bears testimony to a period of transition from the closed communities of the medieval period to the more open and widespread communities begun after Jewish emancipation in the late 18th century.

Terrell, Michelle M.

2000-11-01

31

Limits on the "Freed" Press of 18th- and 19th-Century Europe.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Surveys the status of freedom of the press in eighteenth and nineteenth century Europe, noting that although preliminary censorship was abolished in most of Europe by 1850, governments devised other means to influence what appeared in print. (GT)|

Ruud, Charles A.

1979-01-01

32

Needs and passions of human subsistence in the moral economy of the early 18th century  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.Introduction1.The analytical focus of the eighteenth-century social thinkers was human nature and the relationship between the individual and society. Along the century the discourse moved from a political and natural-law one to the political-economy analysis of the provision of necessities and conveniences that constitute the wealth of nations. The change was one of language, not of object as both analytical

Antonella Picchio

33

Welsh Indians and savage Scots: History, antiquarianism, and Indian languages in 18th-century Britain  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper compares late eighteenth-century claims for the authenticity of Macpherson's Ossian and for the existence of Welsh Indians. It shows that although both claims were supported in part by appeals to similarities between Celtic and American Indian languages, the appeals in each case were very different. On the one hand, the Edinburgh literati who supported Ossian's authenticity focused on

Matthew Lauzon

2008-01-01

34

Tax collection in Spain in the 18th century: the case of the “décima”  

Microsoft Academic Search

If we compare the Castilian fiscal system with English, French or Dutch, two basic differences are apparent: in one hand, in England, France and Holland the fiscal system was a mixture of indirect taxes and direct taxes and in the other hand, the financial revolution had been carried out in the 16th century in Castilia (central Spain), when for different

Nadia Fernández de Pinedo Echevarría

2009-01-01

35

Transitions of the 18th Century Jamaican Plantocracy: Edward Long and Bryan Edwards  

Microsoft Academic Search

Focusing on the mid- to-late eighteenth century the purpose of this thesis is to examine the ways in which white slaveholders in Jamaica developed a unique West Indian ideology grounded in the institution of slavery and the survival of the white plantocracy. Whites were a minority in Jamaican slave society, slaveholding was widespread amongst white settlers, and all white men

Robert Braxton Bird

2007-01-01

36

Relationship between Spain and the United States during the 18th and 19th Centuries.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The birth of the United States is one of the most important historic happenings in the XVIII Century. The European countries with interest in North America--England, France and Spain--played a very important role in the facts that preceded the Declaration...

F. Barbero

1990-01-01

37

Marked post-18th century environmental change in high-arctic ecosystems  

SciTech Connect

Paleolimnological data from three high-arctic ponds on Cape Herschel, Ellesmere Island, Canada, show that diatom assemblages were relatively stable over the last few millenia but then experienced unparalleled changes beginning in the 19th century. The environmental factors causing these assemblage shifts may be related to recent climatic warming. Regardless of the cause, the biota of these isolated and seemingly pristine ponds have changed dramatically in the recent past and any hopes of cataloging natural assemblages may already be fruitless.

Douglas, M.S.V.; Smol, J.P. [Queen`s Univ., Ontario (Canada); Blake, W. Jr. [Geological Survey of Canada, Ontario (Canada)

1994-10-21

38

[Climate and medicine in Quebec in the middle of the 18th century].  

PubMed

Jean-François Gaultier arrived in Quebec from Normandy in 1742 and succeded Michel Sarrazin as the King's physician of the colony. His correspondence with the 'Académie royale des sciences de Paris' consisted of a meticulous description of his meteorological, botanical, agricultural and medical observations, as well as brief notes on the 'reigning diseases' (fevers, pulmonary diseases, dysenteric diseases), in this city of New France. It is important to understand that he belonged to the European movement of meteorologic medicine, an approach conceived by Hippocrates and developed by Sydenham in England during the second half of the 17th century, which aimed at establishing a tight correlation between meteorology and diseases. In the light of the actual historiography, Gaultier is the first physician to officially endorse this movement in the French colonies. PMID:19569392

Tésio, Stéphanie

2008-01-01

39

Evaluation of lead concentrations in 18th-century Omaha Indian skeletons using ICP-MS.  

PubMed

The analysis of skeletal remains of Omaha Indians buried between AD 1780 and 1820 indicated that lead was incorporated in cortical bone. The diagenetic or biogenetic origin of the lead was evaluated by examination of lead isotope ratios of the bones and artifacts, and comparison of lead concentrations in burial soils with those of the bones. The isotopic values of the lead artifacts demonstrate that the lead was mined in the Missouri region. Although the isotope ratios in the bones are not identical with that from the lead artifacts, there is a strong relationship between them. This finding indicates that the lead in the bone was at least partly derived from the artifacts. Because lead artifacts rarely accompanied the burials but lead was ubiquitous in the bones, we suggest a biogenetic origin for the lead. There is also the possibility that some of the lead may have been derived from pigments applied to the corpse during mortuary ritual. PMID:1443093

Reinhard, K J; Ghazi, A M

1992-10-01

40

Limited Urban Growth: London's Street Network Dynamics since the 18th Century  

PubMed Central

We investigate the growth dynamics of Greater London defined by the administrative boundary of the Greater London Authority, based on the evolution of its street network during the last two centuries. This is done by employing a unique dataset, consisting of the planar graph representation of nine time slices of Greater London's road network spanning 224 years, from 1786 to 2010. Within this time-frame, we address the concept of the metropolitan area or city in physical terms, in that urban evolution reveals observable transitions in the distribution of relevant geometrical properties. Given that London has a hard boundary enforced by its long standing green belt, we show that its street network dynamics can be described as a fractal space-filling phenomena up to a capacitated limit, whence its growth can be predicted with a striking level of accuracy. This observation is confirmed by the analytical calculation of key topological properties of the planar graph, such as the topological growth of the network and its average connectivity. This study thus represents an example of a strong violation of Gibrat's law. In particular, we are able to show analytically how London evolves from a more loop-like structure, typical of planned cities, toward a more tree-like structure, typical of self-organized cities. These observations are relevant to the discourse on sustainable urban planning with respect to the control of urban sprawl in many large cities which have developed under the conditions of spatial constraints imposed by green belts and hard urban boundaries.

Masucci, A. Paolo; Stanilov, Kiril; Batty, Michael

2013-01-01

41

Limited Urban Growth: London's Street Network Dynamics since the 18th Century.  

PubMed

We investigate the growth dynamics of Greater London defined by the administrative boundary of the Greater London Authority, based on the evolution of its street network during the last two centuries. This is done by employing a unique dataset, consisting of the planar graph representation of nine time slices of Greater London's road network spanning 224 years, from 1786 to 2010. Within this time-frame, we address the concept of the metropolitan area or city in physical terms, in that urban evolution reveals observable transitions in the distribution of relevant geometrical properties. Given that London has a hard boundary enforced by its long standing green belt, we show that its street network dynamics can be described as a fractal space-filling phenomena up to a capacitated limit, whence its growth can be predicted with a striking level of accuracy. This observation is confirmed by the analytical calculation of key topological properties of the planar graph, such as the topological growth of the network and its average connectivity. This study thus represents an example of a strong violation of Gibrat's law. In particular, we are able to show analytically how London evolves from a more loop-like structure, typical of planned cities, toward a more tree-like structure, typical of self-organized cities. These observations are relevant to the discourse on sustainable urban planning with respect to the control of urban sprawl in many large cities which have developed under the conditions of spatial constraints imposed by green belts and hard urban boundaries. PMID:23950895

Masucci, A Paolo; Stanilov, Kiril; Batty, Michael

2013-08-12

42

[The creation of hospitals by charities in Minas Gerais (Brazil) from 18th to 20th century].  

PubMed

This article is the fruit of research into the cultural heritage of healthcare in Minas Gerais (Brazil) and explores the construction of hospitals supported by Catholic charities from the 18th to 20th century. Catholicism has always been strong in Minas Gerais, partly because the Portuguese Crown prohibited the free travel of priests, who were suspected of illegally trading in gold from the mines. A brotherhood was responsible for creating the first Santa Casa, in Vila Rica. Another very important religious group in Brazil, the Vincentians, was also devoted to charitable works and propagated the ideas on charity of Frederico Ozanan, based on the work of St. Vincent de Paul. This group comprised both a lay movement, supported by conferences organized by the St. Vincent de Paul Society, and a religious order, the Vincentian priests and nuns. Catholic physicians make up the third group studied here, organized in a professional association promoted by the Catholic Church. The brotherhoods, Vincentians, and associations, with their Santa Casas, represent a movement that is recognized worldwide. The enormous Catholic participation in these charitable works brought in the physicians, who would often make no charge and exerted efforts to create hospitals that served the population. Although the capital of Minas Gerais was the creation of republicans and positivists in the 20th century, with their ideas of modernity, it remained dependent on Christian charity for the treatment of the poor. PMID:21936227

Marques, Rita de Cássia

2011-01-01

43

Reconsidering the southern Europe model: Dowry, women's work and marriage patterns in pre-industrial urban Italy (Turin, second half of the 18th century)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper aims to investigate and analyse the impact of the dowry and the endowment system on marriage and household patterns and on the labour market in 18th century Turin. At the same time it enquires into the reliability of the northern\\/southern Europe pattern for the study of this topic. Two points are developed. Firstly the paper shows that the

Beatrice Zucca Micheletto

2011-01-01

44

(Re)Constructions of Etymology of the Term "Electricity" in French German and Modern Greek Textbooks of Physics of 18th-19th Centuries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The different and contrasting versions of the etymology of the term "electricity" in Modern Greek textbooks of Physics of the 18th and 19th century, which are influenced by French and German textbooks, are not mere (re)constructions that serve the didactic purposes and objectives of their authors. They are (in)directly related to the social and…

Patsopoulos, Dimitrios

2005-01-01

45

Atlantic salmon fisheries in the White and Barents Sea basins: Dynamic of catches in the 17–18th Century and comparison with 19–20th Century data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Catches of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, recorded in historical documents from the 17–18th Centuries have been analysed in four locations in the basins of the White and Barents Seas. Atlantic salmon was one of the most valuable products of the local economy in the 17–18th Centuries in the northern Russia. Therefore, catches were well recorded in the account books of

Dmitry L. Lajus; Zoya V. Dmitrieva; Alexei V. Kraikovski; Julia A. Lajus; Daniel A. Alexandrov

2007-01-01

46

The first Finnish malariologist, Johan Haartman, and the discussion about malaria in 18th century Turku, Finland  

PubMed Central

After the Great Northern War in 1721, Sweden ceased to be an important military power. Instead, the kingdom concentrated on developing science. Swedish research got international fame with names as Carolus Linnaeus, Pehr Wargentin and Anders Celsius. Medical research remained limited and malaria was common especially in the coastal area and along the shores of the big lakes. Already in the beginning of the 18th century Swedish physicians recommended Peruvian bark as medication and they also emphasized that bleeding or blood-letting a malaria patient was harmful. Although malaria was a common disease in the kingdom, the situation was worst in the SW-part of Finland which consisted of the town of Turku and a large archipelago in the Baltic. The farmers had no opportunity to get modern healthcare until Johan Haartman was appointed district physician in 1754. To improve the situation he wrote a medical handbook intended for both the farmers and for persons of rank. Haartman's work was first published 1759 and he discussed all the different cures and medications. His aim was to recommend the best ones and warn against the harmful. His first choice was Peruvian bark, but he knew that the farmers could not afford it. Haartman was appointed professor in medicine at the Royal Academy of Turku in 1765. The malaria situation in Finland grew worse in the 1770's and Haartman analysed the situation. He found the connection between the warm summers and the spring epidemics next year. In a later thesis, Haartman analysed the late summer/early autumn malaria epidemics in the archipelago. Althouh Haartman did not know the connection between malaria and the vector, he gave astute advice and encouraged the farmers to build their cottages in windy places away from the shallow bays in which the Anopheles females hatched. Haartman died in 1788. After his death malaria research in Turku declined. His medical handbook would not be replaced until 1844.

2011-01-01

47

Women's translations of scientific texts in the 18th century: a case study of Marie-Anne Lavoisier.  

PubMed

In the 18th century, many outstanding translations of scientific texts were done by women. These women were important mediators of science. However, I would like to raise the issue that the 'selection,' which is the process by which intellectual women chose to conduct translation works, and those 'selections' made by male translators, would not be made at the same level. For example, Émilie du Châtelet (1706-1749), the only French translator of Newton's "Principia," admitted her role as participating in important work, but, still, she was not perfectly satisfied with the position. For du Châtelet, the role as a translator was only an option under the current conditions that a female was denied the right to be a creator by society. In the case of Marie-Anne Lavoisier (1743-1794), like du Châtelet, we find an acute feeling in her mind that translation was not the work of creators. Because of her respect toward creative geniuses and her knowledge about the practical situation and concrete results of scientific studies, the translation works done by Marie-Anne Lavoisier were excellent. At the same time, the source of this excellence appears paradoxical at a glance: this excellence of translation was related closely with her low self-estimation in the field of science. Hence, we should not forget the gender problem that is behind such translations of scientific works done by women in that era. Such a possibility was a ray of light that was grasped by females, the sign of a gender that was eliminated from the center of scientific study due to social systems and norms and one of the few valuable opportunities to let people know of her own existence in the field of science. PMID:22606747

Kawashima, Keiko

2011-01-01

48

Surviving Disaster: Examination and Treatment of a Late 18th Century Desk and Bookcase from the Butler-McCook House  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the early morning hours of August 4th, 2002, a sport utility vehicle crashed through a wooden fence and into the south parlor of the recently opened and revitalized Butler-McCook house, the last 18th-century house in Hartford, Connecticut. The Antiquarian and Landmarks Society's house museum had opened two months earlier after a four-year, $1.3 million restoration. The SUV landed sideways

Tad D. Fallon; Wilkinson LLC

49

Industrial energy from water-mills in the European economy, 5th to 18th Centuries: the limitations of power  

Microsoft Academic Search

The water-mill, though known in the Roman Empire from the second century BCE, did not come to enjoy any widespread use until the 4th or 5th centuries CE, and then chiefly in the West, which was then experiencing not only a rapid decline in the supply of slaves, but also widespread depopulation, and thus a severe scarcity of labour. For

John H. Munro

2002-01-01

50

Composition of 12-18 th century window glass in Belgium: Non-figurative windows in secular buildings and stained-glass windows in religious buildings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A set of ca. 500 window glass fragments originating from different historical sites in Belgium and covering the period 12 th-18 th century was analyzed by means of electron probe microanalysis. Most samples are archaeological finds deriving from non-figurative windows in secular buildings. However, the analyzed set also contains glass sampled from still existing non-figurative windows in secular buildings and stained-glass windows in religious buildings. A sudden compositional change at the end of the 14 th century can be noticed among the series of glass compositions that were obtained. These changes could be related to the use of different glassmaker recipes and to the introduction of new raw materials for glass making.

Schalm, Olivier; Janssens, Koen; Wouters, Hilde; Caluwé, Danielle

2007-07-01

51

Plant phenological records in northern Finland since the 18th century as retrieved from databases, archives and diaries for biometeorological research.  

PubMed

Plant phenological data from northern Finland, compiled from several sources, were examined as potential biometeorological indicators of climate change since the 18th century. A common feature of individual series was their sporadic nature. In addition to waning enthusiasm, wartime hardships and crop failures had caused gaps in recording observations during the 18th and 19th centuries. The present study's challenge was to combine separate records, as retrieved from several historical archives and personal diaries, into a single continuous series. To avoid possible biases due to the variability of data availability each year, each phenomenon-specific mean series was transformed into normalized site-specific index series. These series were compared to each other and to a regional instrumental temperature series (years 1802-2011). The inter-phenomena correlations were high. Moreover, a strong biometeorological response of the phenological series, most especially to monthly mean temperature in May, and seasonally to the April through June temperatures, was identified. This response focused on slightly later spring months compared to the responses in an earlier study conducted for southern Finland. The findings encouraged us to compute a total phenological index series as an average of all available phenomenon-specific index series for northern Finland. The earliest phenological springs were found as a cluster in the recent end of the record, whereas the anomalously-late phenological spring could be found through the centuries. This finding could indicate that potential future warming could result in an earlier onset of phenological springs (i.e. as experienced by the plants), with a remaining possibility of late phenological springs. To conclude, it was shown that the indices are reliable biometeorological indicators of the April through June temperature variations and thus of the climate variability in the region. PMID:22744803

Holopainen, Jari; Helama, Samuli; Lappalainen, Hanna; Gregow, Hilppa

2012-06-29

52

Finnish wallpaper pigments in the 18th-19th century: presence of KFe3(CrO4)2(OH)6 and odd pigment mixtures.  

PubMed

Several Finish wallpapers from the 18th and 19th century were analysed by using Raman spectroscopy assisted with EDXRF instrumentation, in an attempt of determine the pigments used in their manufacture process as well as of trying to date some of the samples through pigment composition. All pigments present in samples were determined and surprisingly the unusual and strange iron (III) chromate yellow pigment was found. Besides, unusual mixtures were found to obtain fashionable colours, especially in blue and green areas, where more than one blue pigments were mixed with green and yellow pigments. Blue verditer, ultramarine blue, Prussian blue, chrome yellow, calcite, lead white, red and yellow iron oxide, gypsum and carbon black were identified. The presence of the risky and poisonous emerald green must be highlighted. The results were compared with those found in other wallpapers from Spain and France. PMID:23376265

Castro, Kepa; Knuutinen, Ulla; de Vallejuelo, Silvia Fdez-Ortiz; Irazola, Mireia; Madariaga, Juan Manuel

2013-01-10

53

The changing face of hospital care in the 18th-century Upper Normandy: the hospital of Caudebec and the arrival of "paying inmates" (1693-1789).  

PubMed

This article questions the view that hospitals in early modern France were static and inflexible institutions. The small-town hospital of Caudebec in present-day Upper Normandy underwent three major transformations during the course of the 18th century. Founded in 1693 as a "local" hospital, the institution was designated as an hôpital général in 1724 and began incarcerating beggars and vagrants. Later, with the influx of sick and wounded soldiers brought on by the Seven Years' War, the hospital took on the functions of a small military hospital. On the eve of the French Revolution, the hospital's "civilian" population contained a growing number of individuals who offered to pay for the cost of their care. The arrival of these groups of "paying inmates" shows that the Caudebec hospital was capable of adapting to changing circumstances and was able to respond to the new priorities of the State. PMID:15981354

Robichaud, Marc

2005-01-01

54

The Early America Review: A Journal of Fact and Opinion On the People, Issues and Events Of 18th Century America  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A site of interest to students of 18th Century America is the Early America Review. Early America Review is a new quarterly e-journal produced by DEV Communications, Inc., that is aimed toward both scholarly and lay readers. In that spirit, the first edition contains a long scholarly article on Benjamin Franklin and the Presbyterians by a Creighton University history professor, an introduction to the novel The Quintumviri by Circian, a letter from Jefferson to Madison ("...a little rebellion now and then is a good thing"), a poem, and a crossword puzzle (available only with Macromedia Shockwave). Early America Review is also enhanced with RealAudio clips. Both Shockwave and RealAudio are available from the site.

1996-01-01

55

[The origin of the Wilno Obstetric and Gynaecological Clinic and its roots, which reach as far back as the 18th century].  

PubMed

Studies carried out in libraries and archives in Wilno, Cracow, Warsaw and Gdánsk raven how the clinic of obstetrics and gynaecology was created in Wilno, describe the first years activity, and the persons who had the greatest influence on its creation and position. This clinic, which was organized by Tadeusz Burdzi?ski and developed by W?adys?aw Jakowicki in cooperation with Wac?aw Zaleski, functioned in the years 1922-1939. In its scarcely 17 years of existence this clinic had a marked presence among the Polish clinics of obstetrics and gynaecology in the Second Republic (II RP). In the author's opinion this fact can be traced back to the roots of obstetrics and gynaecology in the university in Wilno, which reach as far as the 18th century and the person of Miko?aj Regnier. For the first half of the 19th century the gynaecologists and obstetrics of Wilno includes Andrzej Matusewicz and Miko?aj Mianowski carried out their scientific activities outside the University for nearly 80 years. It seems that this activity, which lead to numerous publications, is the platform upon which rests continuous scientific tradition of obstetrics and gynaecology in Wilno and lets us see to present clinic in the University of Stefan Batory - in 21st surely century - as her heiress of that tradition. PMID:11765760

Le?niewski, M

2000-01-01

56

Australian Literature Database: A Collection of 18th, 19th and early 20th century Australian texts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Part of the metasite of the Scholarly Electronic Text and Image Service (SETIS) at the University of Sydney Library, this site allows users to access hundreds of complete texts of literary and historical works written by Australians in the last three centuries. Included here are poems, short stories, novels, reference works, memoirs, historical narratives and documents, and much more. The texts can be browsed or searched with options allowing users to search or limit searches by date, publisher, author, title, genre, gender of author, or opening lines. A limited number of historically valuable texts are displayed in page image format; the rest are offered in standard .html. Since many of these texts can be difficult for students and researchers not on the southern continent to find, the database is all the more valuable to those doing work in this field.

57

Identification of animal glue species in artworks using proteomics: application to a 18th century gilt sample.  

PubMed

This study proposes a proteomic-based strategy for the identification of the origin species of glues used as binding media and adhesives in artworks. The methodology, based on FTICR high resolution mass spectrometry, was evaluated on glues from different animal origin (i.e., bovine, rabbit, and fish). The analysis of the peptide mixture resulting from the enzymatic hydrolysis of the proteins led to the identification of species-specific peptides. Up to 15 specific peptides were identified for the bovine species and three for the rabbit species and, in the case of sturgeon glue, three fish-specific peptides were found by sequence homology to the rainbow trout. Then, the method was applied to authenticate different rabbit skin glue samples, including a 100 year-old sample named "Colle à Doreurs" coming from the "Maison Totin-Frères". For this sample, two specific peptides of rabbit collagen were identified. To evaluate the method in a complex matrix, model paints composed of lead white, linseed oil, and animal glue were prepared. Species-specific peptides were identified in each paint sample. Finally, a gilt sample from St Maximin church dating from the eighteenth century was analyzed, and 13 peptides specific to bovine collagens were identified starting from very low sample amount (50 ?g). PMID:22014085

Dallongeville, Sophie; Koperska, Monika; Garnier, Nicolas; Reille-Taillefert, Geneviève; Rolando, Christian; Tokarski, Caroline

2011-11-17

58

Bites, nibbles, sips and puffs: new exotic goods in Norway in the 18th and the first half of the 19th century.  

PubMed

The slow but significant changes in the material culture of European households that took place in the pre-industrial period are visible in several ways, such as in the changing patterns of housing, furnishing and clothing which have been illustrated in several studies. However, most of these studies focus on the pre-industrial economic leaders, often ignoring the changes taking place on the margins of the economic growth centres. This article seeks to rectify this by looking at changes in the material culture in one such 'marginal' country, namely Norway. The goods focused upon in this case are sugar, tobacco and coffee, which are often termed as exotic goods. These were new commodities in the 18th century and precisely because of their novelty and foreign origin, it is in many cases possible to trace how they spread in rural society, as well as how they impacted it. The emphasis has been put on rural areas for the simple reason that this was where the overall majority of Norwegians lived at the time. PMID:21954491

Hutchison, Ragnhild

2011-01-01

59

Effects of birth rank, maternal age, birth interval, and sibship size on infant and child mortality: evidence from 18th and 19th century reproductive histories.  

PubMed Central

There has been long-standing interest in the effects of maternal age, birth rank, and birth spacing on infant and child mortality. Contradictory inferences about the role of these factors have arisen on occasion because of the absence of adequate controls, the use of cross-sectional or incomplete reproductive histories, and inattention to the effect of family size goals and birth limitation practices. This study analyzes completed reproductive histories for German village populations in the 18th and 19th centuries, a period when deliberate fertility control was largely absent. Our results confirm previous studies of the association of infant mortality with maternal age, although in the present data these differentials are largely limited to neonatal mortality. They also confirm the importance of birth interval as a factor in infant mortality. Sibship size is positively related to infant mortality even when birth rank is controlled. However, once sibship size is controlled, there are no systematic differences in infant and child mortality by birth order. The mechanisms relating sibship size and mortality are explored.

Knodel, J; Hermalin, A I

1984-01-01

60

Effects of birth rank, maternal age, birth interval, and sibship size on infant and child mortality: evidence from 18th and 19th century reproductive histories.  

PubMed

There has been long-standing interest in the effects of maternal age, birth rank, and birth spacing on infant and child mortality. Contradictory inferences about the role of these factors have arisen on occasion because of the absence of adequate controls, the use of cross-sectional or incomplete reproductive histories, and inattention to the effect of family size goals and birth limitation practices. This study analyzes completed reproductive histories for German village populations in the 18th and 19th centuries, a period when deliberate fertility control was largely absent. Our results confirm previous studies of the association of infant mortality with maternal age, although in the present data these differentials are largely limited to neonatal mortality. They also confirm the importance of birth interval as a factor in infant mortality. Sibship size is positively related to infant mortality even when birth rank is controlled. However, once sibship size is controlled, there are no systematic differences in infant and child mortality by birth order. The mechanisms relating sibship size and mortality are explored. PMID:6383084

Knodel, J; Hermalin, A I

1984-10-01

61

Catherine Walpole (1703-22), an 18th-century teenaged patient: a case study from the letters of the physician George Cheyne (1671 or 73-1743).  

PubMed

In 1720 Catherine Walpole the 16-year-old eldest daughter of Robert Walpole, later to become Prime Minister, became very ill. She was unable to eat, fainted, took fits frequently, and had a persistent pain and swelling in her side. Sir Hans Sloane, the Walpole's doctor, referred her to Dr Cheyne in Bath because he specialized in dietary problems and nervous diseases. Cheyne kept in regular touch with Sir Hans by letter and this correspondence tells the story of Catherine's treatment from her first referral to Cheyne to her death in 1722. The contents and purposes of treatments he used are identifiable in dispensatories of the period. The letters reflect Cheyne's medical skills and knowledge as well as his sympathetic personality. Catherine's family loyalties, personal concerns and personality also emerge as the correspondence progresses. The limitations of 18th-century diagnosis and treatments available are clear but Cheyne is always concerned with Catherine's quality of life, even when he becomes aware that he cannot cure her. PMID:20519712

Charlton, Anne

2010-05-01

62

The use of historical catch data to trace the influence of climate on fish populations: examples from the White and Barents Sea fisheries in the 17th and 18th centuries  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analysed catch records of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), cod (Gadus morhua), and halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus and Reinhardtius hippoglossoides) from the 17th and 18th centuries from several locations of the Barents and White Seas areas. Historical records, found in Russian archives, allow analysis of long-term series of catches, and sometimes of the average weight of the fish. In total, we

Dmitry L. Lajus; Julia A. Lajus; Zoya V. Dmitrieva; Alexei V. Kraikovski; Daniel A. Alexandrov

2005-01-01

63

The priority dispute over the function of the lymphatic system and Glisson's ghost (the 18th-century Hunter-Monro Feud).  

PubMed

Basic Immunology has had only two significant public priority disputes. The first began in the late 1650s and concerned the recognition of the peripheral network of vessels which collects lymph throughout the body. The publication of this major anatomical discovery prompted a priority feud discussed in a previous paper. The subject of this essay is the second dispute which occurred a century later in the late 1750s. It focused on the function of the lymphatic system and precipitated a heated war of words between a young Scotch medical graduate (Alexander Monro) and a noted London anatomist (William Hunter). Their published charges and responses ranged from feigned respect to ad hominen invectives. But in retrospect, the priority claims of both were precluded by the observations and speculations of an Englishman (Francis Glisson) a full century before. The several editions of his work were unknown to Hunter and Monro at the inception of their feud. PMID:17451660

Ambrose, Charles T

2007-04-23

64

Austrian-Hungarian Astronomical Observatories Run by the Society of Jesus at the Time of the 18th Century Venus Transits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Venus transit in June 1761 was the first one to be observed on a truly international scale: almost 250 astronomers followed this rare celestial event (e.g. Wulff 2012, p. 115), and at least 130 published successful observations of it (Aspaas 2012, p. 423). The present paper deals with the astronomical observatories built by the Society of Jesus in its eighteenth century "Provincia Austriae", at which the 1761 transit could be observed. Five Jesuit observatories are being presented in this context: three in today's Austria, namely, two in Vienna and one in Graz; one in Trnava in today's Slovakia and one in Cluj in today's Romania. Thereafter, we briefly examine which of these observatories submitted any Venus transit observations for publication in the appendix to Maximilian Hell's "Ephemerides astronomicae ad meridianum Vindobonensem" for the year 1762.

Posch, Thomas; Aspaas, Per Pippin; Bazso, Akos; Mueller, Isolde

2013-05-01

65

The Role of Education Redefined: 18th Century British and French Educational Thought and the Rise of the Baconian Conception of the Study of Nature  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The idea that science teaching in schools should prepare the ground for society's future technical and scientific progress has played an important role in shaping modern education. This idea, however, was not always present. In this article, I examine how this idea first emerged in educational thought. Early in the 17th century, Francis Bacon…

Gilead, Tal

2011-01-01

66

[Medical literature in the collections of 18th-19th century doctors and pharmacists in Cieszyn, on the basis of records kept at the Leopold Jan Szersznik Library in Cieszyn].  

PubMed

The L. J. Szersznik Library was founded in Cieszyn in 1802. It was formed out of the book collection of I. J. Szersznik, a citizen of Cieszyn who was principal of the Catholic grammar school in Cieszyn from 1786. Today the library has about 15,000 volumes, catalogued according to 27 thematic groups. The Medici section has about 380 medical works which once belonged to Szersznik and other citizens of Cieszyn - doctors, pharmacists, burgesses and noblemen. The article provides their names and the titles and descriptions of some of the medical works that form part of the collection, together with a brief outline of their history, the biographies of their authors, and general content of the publication. In this way it provides information on the medical knowledge of Cieszyn doctors on the threshold of the 18th and 19th centuries. PMID:12940254

Sztuchlik, Jolanta; Picha, Jadwiga

2002-01-01

67

[The beginnings of the nursing profession : the complementary relationship between secular caregivers and hospital nuns in France in the 17th and 18th centuries].  

PubMed

The words used for designating the caregivers are ambiguous. Little by little, the word "nurse" becomes widely used, mainly in the feminine form due to the need of specialized staff. Health care structures are developing in the 17th and 18 centuries, the remains of which you can find in today hospitals (Salpêtrière hospital, Hôtel-Dieu hospital in Paris). The government of Louis XIV cares for the poor sick people, the vagabonds and the beggars. It opens new general hospitals as it will be the case later in all Europe. In the 17th century, the staff of the general hospital in Paris is entirely secular. The Paris general hospital is headed by the magistrates of Paris Parliament. The healthcare institutions employ both secular and religious staff for example the Hotel Dieu in Paris and the one in Marseilles. In the 17th century, there are 2000 secular caregivers in France. The order of the "Filles de la Charité" (grey sisters) is not submitted to the rule of enclosure. They renew their vows every year. For their founders Vincent de Paul and Louise de Marcillac, their monastery should be the cells of the sick, their cloister should be the rooms of the hospitals or the streets of the town. The secular or religious caregivers are excellent in the apothecary and they open a network of small dispensaries. It improves the health of the French population and allows fighting against the epidemics. This activity allowed some women to have a rewarding activity and a social status of which they were apparently satisfied. PMID:23923734

Diebolt, Evelyne

2013-06-01

68

18th International Mouse Genome Conference  

SciTech Connect

The 18th International Mouse Genome Conference was held in Seattle, WA, US on October 18-22,2004. The meeting was partially supported by the Department of Energy, Grant No. DE-FG02-04ER63851. Abstracts can be seen at imgs.org and the summary of the meeting was published in â??Mammalian Genomeâ?, Vol 16, Number 7, Pages 471-475.

Darla R Miller

2005-07-01

69

The 18th annual electronics manufacturing seminar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Presented are the proceedings of the 18th Annual Electronics Manufacturing Seminar, held on 23-24 February 1994, in Ridgecrest, Calif. The proceedings include the papers presented at the Seminar and cover all aspects of soldering technology and electronics manufacturing. The proceedings are a compilation of information provided by both nongovernment and government sources. The proceedings are published in the interest of furthering communication and broadening awareness of current activities among soldering technology and electronics manufacturing specialists.

1994-02-01

70

Problema vizual'noj registratsii nablyudenij v opticheskoj astronomii XVII-XVIII vekov %t Problem of visual registration of observations in optical astronomy in the 17th-18th centuries  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper attempts to explain the growth of optical astronomy as a result of more general social and cultural change in European life during the two post-Renaissance centuries. It shows how the introduction of optical instruments into astronomical work was accompanied (and partly conditioned) by a few nonastronomical practices, such as collecting unusual things and their images, producing illusionary effects

Kostantin V. Ivanov

2005-01-01

71

Problema vizual'noj registratsii nablyudenij v opticheskoj astronomii XVII-XVIII vekov %t Problem of visual registration of observations in optical astronomy in the 17th-18th centuries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper attempts to explain the growth of optical astronomy as a result of more general social and cultural change in European life during the two post-Renaissance centuries. It shows how the introduction of optical instruments into astronomical work was accompanied (and partly conditioned) by a few nonastronomical practices, such as collecting unusual things and their images, producing illusionary effects by means of optical devices, manufacturing pictures that could disturb the common visual perception, etc. The paper draws particular attention to the practices of manipulation with visual images that could help to introduce "illusionary" optical knowledge into making "true" drawings from natural objects, including celestial ones. In this way, the formation of new astronomical language can be understood as closely connected to the explicit formulation of technological instructions and legal rules for making copies from natural objects, as well as the general development of printing production and broadening of the market of printed illustrations. These often not enough co-ordinated practices stipulated the shift of optical astronomy into a significant part of seigniorial culture, where it obtained recognition as an essentially new and elite knowledge, associated with particular technological vigilance. During the transition of European monarchies into the absolutist social order, astronomy, on a level with other court services, assumed a shape of professional occupation supplied with certain monetary salaries, a stable position in official hierarchy, and supreme privileges. This was the way by which astronomy merged with the other natural studies and became one of the publicly recognised scientific disciplines.

Ivanov, Kostantin V.

72

Adam Smith, Stoicism and religion in the 18th century  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores the influence of Stoicism and religion on Adam Smith. While other commentators have argued either that the main influence on Smith was Stoicism or that it was religion, the two influences have not been explicitly linked. In this article I attempt to make such a link, arguing that Smith can be seen as belonging to the strand

P. H. Clarke

2000-01-01

73

William Hogarth and 18th Century Print Culture  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site is an online version of an exhibition to commemorate the 300th anniversary of Hogarth's birth. Held at Northwestern University in April-June 1997, the exhibition reassessed Hogarth's satirical graphical work in thematic sections demonstrating his concern for the ills of the modern city, the lives of professional women, and issues of theatricality, race, class, and taste. In addition to seven sections of prints exploring these themes, the site also offers an overview of the technical process used by Hogarth and his contemporaries to etch and engrave their prints.

1997-01-01

74

Here Comes NASA's 18th Annual Great Moonbuggy Race  

NASA Video Gallery

Forty years after the first lunar rover rolled across the moon's surface, 84 teams of enterprising future engineers will demonstrate the same ingenuity and can-do spirit at the 18th annual NASA Great Moonbuggy Race, set for April 1-2 in Huntsville, Ala. Credit: NASA/MSFC

Kenneth Erickson

2010-11-04

75

EDITORIAL: The 18th Central European Workshop on Quantum Optics The 18th Central European Workshop on Quantum Optics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Much of our present understanding of the microscopic world is based on quantum mechanics. The field owes much of its existence to the venerable science of optics, since the fundamental ideas on the nature of the interaction between light and matter lie at the roots of its origin. We have now reached one century of quantum mechanics. In contrast, the splendid blossoming of quantum optics began only after the comparatively recent invention of the laser. Since then, it has become an exciting and always expanding area at the cutting-edge of research, in part because theory and experiment are more closely connected in this field than any other. Moreover, the technological distance between fundamental studies and practical applications has always been very short in quantum optics. As a result, modern engineering is increasingly based on quantum rather than classical physics; we are facing a transition similar to the one society confronted 200 years ago, at the start of the Industrial Revolution. In parallel with this, the physics community is witnessing the recent and vigorous emergence of quantum information. It aims at exploring the physical foundations of information and at developing efficient methods for processing quantum information. The questions driving this field reveal a profound change in attitude towards fundamental aspects of quantum theory. The photon turns out to be a tool extremely well suited to exploring theoretical quantum information schemes and their experimental implementations. Mirroring this continued progress has been the growth and development of the series of annual Central European Workshops on Quantum Optics (CEWQO). The series started at the beginning of the 1990s, as rather small meetings of physicists from a few countries in central-eastern Europe. In two decades, the workshops have transformed into important events that reach well beyond the original rather restricted geographical limits. The history of CEWQOs can be found in the preface to the proceedings of the 15th CEWQO (Physica Scripta 2009 T135 011005). The 18th edition of CEWQO (CEWQO11) was held in Madrid in 2011. There were about 250 participants, from practically every European country. Many colleagues from other continents also joined the event, including well-established researchers in the field. This is a clear demonstration that these meetings provide an excellent chance to hear about the latest results and new directions of research. The organization of CEWQO11 was carried out by a committee consisting of members active in this topic in Madrid. From Universidad Complutense, Alberto Galindo and Luis L Sánchez-Soto from Universidad Autónoma, Jose Calleja and Carlos Tejedor; from Universidad Politécnica, Enrique Calleja; from Universidad Carlos III, Alberto Ibort; and from the National Research Council (CSIC), Juan León and Juan J García-Ripoll. Special thanks go to the Spanish Ministry for Science and Innovation, Universidad Complutense and the Quitemad Consortium for financial support. The proceedings of the 16th CEWQO held at the University of Turku, Finland and the 17th CEWQO held at the University of St Andrews, Scotland, UK are also available (Physica Scripta 2010 T140 and Physica Scripta 2011 T143). The present Topical Issue is a collection of papers presented in Madrid; they represent an illustrative sample of the major achievements and trends in this area. In turn, they reflect the wide range of interests in this rapidly evolving field. Some collaborators from different scientific centres who could not, due to different reasons, come to Madrid, but participated in previous CEWQOs and plan to participate in future CEWQOs, also contributed to this issue. The papers are arranged alphabetically by the name of the first author. Special thanks goes to Roger Wäppling, the Managing Editor of Physica Scripta, and Graeme Watt, the Publisher, for the opportunity to publish CEWQO11. From a Physica Scripta Editorial Board meeting it was decided that Physica Scripta could offer a poster prize (200 euros + certificate) for young sc

Sánchez-Soto, Luis L.; Man'ko, Margarita A.

2012-02-01

76

The 2nd century AD earthquake in central Italy: archaeoseismological data and seismotectonic implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 2nd century AD earthquake in central Italy is only known by an epigraph that mentions restorations to a damaged weighing-house\\u000a at the ancient locality of Pagus Interpromium. The available seismic catalogues report this event with the conventional date of 101 AD, a magnitude M\\u000a aw of 6.3, and an epicentral location at the village of San Valentino in Abruzzo

Emanuela Ceccaroni; Gabriele Ameri; Antonio Augusto Gómez Capera; Fabrizio Galadini

2009-01-01

77

'Diabetes' as described by Byzantine writers from the fourth to the ninth century AD: the Graeco-Roman influence.  

PubMed

Diabetes was first extensively described by Aretaeus of Cappadocia, and his contemporary, Galen of Pergamum, in the second century AD. Aretaeus is said to have introduced the term diabetes, though there are some indications of previous references to the term. When referring to the disease, Galen accepts that the term belongs to 'other writers'. There are, in fact, many other Graeco-Roman accounts of diabetes, and in this paper we also examine the texts of Pliny the Elder (first century AD), Rufus of Ephesos (early second century AD), Oribasius (fourth century AD), Stephanus Alexandrinus (fifth century AD), Aetius (sixth century AD), Alexander of Tralles (sixth century AD), and Theophilus Protospatharius (seventh century AD ), together with his contemporaries Paulus of Aegina, Stephanus of Athens and Leon of Pella (ninth century AD). All these writers use almost the same terminology when referring to the disease, and consider that symptoms of excessive thirst and urination are due to disease of the kidneys and the bladder. Similar treatments are also advocated, and relate to nutritional advice, herbal medications, poultices, bloodletting and abstinence from diuretic substances. Although there are no notable differences between the writings of Byzantine physicians and the earlier descriptions attributed to Aretaeus and Galen, this literature testifies to the fact that these physicians were well aware of a disease that Galen considered rare. PMID:18365167

Christopoulou-Aletra, H; Papavramidou, N

2008-05-01

78

Musica colonial: 18th century music score meets 21st century digitalization technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Musica Colonial project is an initiative to preserve, digitize, and provide online access to the sole copy of a handwritten Colonial times cathedral music scores with Spanish lyrics collection in microfilm format archived at the Mesoamerican Center for Regional Research (CIRMA) located in Antigua, Guatemala. Various fields and methodologies of research can be done on this collection because of

Ting Gan

2005-01-01

79

Música colonial: 18th century music score meets 21st century digitalization technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Música Colonial project is an initiative to preserve, digitize, and provide online access to the sole copy of a handwritten Colonial times cathedral music scores with Spanish lyrics collection in microfilm format archived at the Mesoamerican Center for Regional Research (CIRMA) located in Antigua, Guatemala. Various fields and methodologies of research can be done on this collection because of

Ting Gan

2005-01-01

80

Dynamics of the properties of steppe paleosols of the Sarmatian time (2nd century BC-4th century AD) in relation to secular variations in climatic humidity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Paleosols buried under kurgans of the Early (2nd-1st centuries BC), Middle (1st-2nd centuries AD) and Late (2nd-IV centuries AD) Sarmatian epochs were studied in dry steppes and desert steppes of the Lower Volga region (the Privolzhskaya and Ergeni Uplands and the Caspian Lowland). It was found that temporal variations in the morphological, chemical, microbiological, and magnetic properties of the paleosols in the interval of 2200-1600 BP were characterized by the cyclic pattern related to secular dynamics of climatic humidity with changes in the mean annual precipitation of ±30-50 mm. These climate changes did not transform chestnut paleosols and paleosolonetzes at the type or subtype taxonomic levels. However, they led to certain changes in the humus, carbonate, and salt profiles of the soils; in the character of solonetzic horizon B1; and in the state of microbial communities. According to these data, the Sarmatian time was characterized by alternation of micropluvial and microarid stages lasting fro about 100-200 years. In particular, the stages of humidization were observed in the 1st century BC-1st century AD and in the 4th century AD; the most arid conditions were observed in the second half of the 2nd and the first half of the 3rd century AD.

Demkin, V. A.; Zolotareva, B. N.; Demkina, T. S.; Khomutova, T. E.; Kashirskaya, N. N.; El'Tsov, M. V.; Udal'Tsov, S. N.

2012-02-01

81

Characteristics of microbial communities in steppe paleosols buried under kurgans of the Sarmatian time (I-IV centuries AD)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microbiological studies of paleosols buried under steppe kurgans of different ages of the Middle (I-II centuries AD) and Late Sarmatian (II-IV centuries AD) time in different regions of the Lower Volga steppes were carried out. The regularities of the soil microbial communities’ development were determined in the I-IV centuries AD by the climate dynamics and the replacement of the relatively humid conditions (the I century to the first half of the II century) by dry (the second half of the II century to the first half of the III century) and then again by humid (the end of the III century to the IV century) conditions. In the humid climatic periods, the active biomass of the microorganisms and its portion in the total microbial biomass and the Corg of the soil increased, the portion of microorganisms consuming plant residues increased in the ecological-trophic structure of the microbial community, and the index of oligotrophy decreased. These changes had an opposite direction in the arid climatic periods. The variations of the microbiological parameters relative to the century-long dynamics of the climate over the historical time were synchronous and unidirectional, though the studied soils were found in different soil-geographical zones (dry and desert steppe), natural regions (the Privolzhskaya and Ergeni uplands and the Caspian Lowland), and landforms (watersheds, river terraces, marine plains).

Demkina, T. S.; Khomutova, T. E.; Kashirskaya, N. N.; Stretovich, I. V.; Demkin, V. A.

2009-07-01

82

EDITORIAL: 18th European Conference on Dynamics of Molecular Systems 18th European Conference on Dynamics of Molecular Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This special section of Comments on Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics (CAMOP) in Physica Scripta collects some of the papers that have been presented at the 18th European Conference on Dynamics of Molecular Systems MOLEC 2010 held in September 2010 in Curia, Portugal, as part of a series of biennial MOLEC conferences. This started in 1976 in Trento, Italy, and has continued, visiting 17 cities in 11 countries, namely Denmark, The Netherlands, Israel, France, Italy, Germany, Czech Republic, Spain, United Kingdom, Turkey and Russia. Following the MOLEC tradition, the scientific programme of the Curia meeting focused on experimental and theoretical studies of molecular interactions, collision dynamics, spectroscopy, and related fields. It included invited speakers from 22 countries, who were asked to summarize the problems reported in their presentations with the objective of revealing the current thinking of leading researchers in atomic, molecular and optical physics. It is hoped that their authoritative contributions presented in this CAMOP special section will also appeal to non-specialists through their clear and broad introductions to the field as well as references to the accessible literature. This CAMOP special section comprises ten contributions, which cover theoretical studies on the electronic structure of molecules and clusters as well as dynamics of elastic, inelastic and reactive encounters between atoms, molecules, ions, clusters and surfaces. Specifically, it includes electronic structure calculations using the traditional coupled-cluster method (Barreto et al 028111), the electron-attached equation-of-motion coupled cluster method (Hansen et al 028110), the diffusion Monte Carlo method (López-Durán et al 028107) and the path-integral Monte Carlo method (Barragán et al 028109). The contributions on molecular dynamics include on-the-fly quasi-classical trajectories on a five-atom molecule (Yu 028104), quantum reaction dynamics on triatomics (Bovino et al 028103, and Hankel et al 028102) and statistical reaction dynamics using a model based on the long-range interaction potential (McCarroll 028106). A contribution on gas-surface interactions is also included (Sahoo et al 028105) as well as first-principles ab initio calculations to explore the hydrogen-graphene interaction (Irving et al 028108). These articles reflect the recent progress made in this field and constructively build on work described in the previous three MOLEC special sections of CAMOP published in Physica Scripta. I thank, on behalf of the scientific organizing committee of MOLEC, all the authors who contributed and Physica Scripta for providing a platform for the publication of this special section dedicated to MOLEC 2010. A special thanks goes to the CAMOP Editor, Harold Linarz, for the excellent guidance in handling the editorial work. I hope that the articles catalyze the attention of the readers towards the topics covered and contribute in attracting them to attend MOLEC 2012 in Oxford, UK.

Varandas, A. J. C.

2011-08-01

83

1. GENERAL VIEW OF LIFT BRIDGE FROM 18TH STREET BRIDGE, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. GENERAL VIEW OF LIFT BRIDGE FROM 18TH STREET BRIDGE, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. - Pennsylvania Railroad, South Branch Chicago River Bridge, Spanning South Branch of Chicago River Bridge east of Canal Street, Chicago, Cook County, IL

84

Gestural Enthymemes: Delivering Movement in 18th- and 19th-Century Medical Images  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article contributes to recent efforts to add life and movement to rhetorical studies by focusing on the representation of movement in medical texts. More specifically, this study examines medical texts, illustrations, and photographs involving movement by Johann Casper Lavater, G. B. Duchenne de Bologne, Charles Darwin, and Etienne-Jules…

Newman, Sara

2009-01-01

85

Studying the Prevention of Acute Kidney Injury: Lessons from an 18th-Century Mathematician  

Microsoft Academic Search

cute kidney injury (AKI) complicates approximately 5 to 15% of hospitalizations, depending on its defini- tion (1-3), and is independently associated with a five-fold or more increase in in-hospital mortality rates (3-5). AKI also extends length of stay, obligates excess hospital ex- penditures, and may exert long-term adverse effects, including an increased risk for ESRD. Several known mechanisms contribute to

Glenn M. Chertow; Paul M. Palevsky; Thomas Greene

2006-01-01

86

[Distinguished doctors of the University of Padua and their works: 16th to 18th centuries].  

PubMed

Italian universities have been distinguished since their beginnings, within different specialties. One of them, if not the most important, is the teaching of medicine. One of the leaders is the University of Padua, founded in 1222, establishing itself as the second most important institution after the University of Bologna. In spite of the difficulties faced by this university, as with most other universities during the medieval period, it continued to perform and consolidate once again during the Renaissance as one of the most outstanding universities in Europe. The University of Bologna and the University of Padua shared the leadership in teaching during this period. At the University of Padua, the lectures were always full with teachers and students of great fame, such as Andreas Vesalio, Gabriele Falopio, William Harvey, Giovanni Battista Morgagni, Antonio Scarpa, to name just a few. In this article we discuss the rights the University had since it beginnings, from its establishment to the Renaissance, and the great influence of some of the teachers and students in the art and science of medicine. PMID:17470327

Romero-Y Huesca, Andrés; Soto-Miranda, Miguel Angel; Moreno-Rojas, Juan Carlos; Ramírez-Bollas, Julio

87

Widespread occurrence ofMycobacterium tuberculosis DNA from 18th-19th century Hungarians  

Microsoft Academic Search

A large number (265) of burials from 1731-1838 were discovered were discovered in sealed crypts of the Dominican Church, Vác, Hungary in 1994. Many bodies were naturally mummified so that both soft tissues and bones were available. Contemporary archives enabled the determination of age at death, and the identification of family groups. In some cases, symptoms before death were described

Helen A. Fletcher; Helen D. Donoghue; John Holton; Mark Spigelman

2003-01-01

88

[History of ether in the 18th century: George-Louis Lesage's system of corpuscules ultramondains].  

PubMed

The article presents an account of Lesage's theory of corpuscules ultramondains and ether. It shows that essential attributes of the antique concept of ether still belong to his speculative physics. In accordance with this concept, Lesage understood the corpuscules ultramondains as subtle celestial matter and carriers of the primordial movements in the universe which were characterised by their proximity to the divine. On the other hand, Lesage was engaged in the contemporary debate concerning the problem of causa gravitatis. His position turns out to be halfway between dynamic corpuscularity and mechanistic physics. With the former he shared the rejection of vortex theories and the adherence to the corpuscular theory of light and the nutshell theory, with the latter the rejection of action at-a-distance and forces inherent to matter. Contrary to the accusation that he plagiarised Fatio de Duillier's theory of gravitation, it is shown that Lesage formulated a gravitational mechanism essentially different to Fatio's. Lesage used the term ether for the theory of chemical affinities. His attempt to reduce them to gravitational force failed. The complexity of chemical phenomena could not be mastered theoretically by reduction to a uniform natural force. PMID:16689079

Berger, Jutta

2005-01-01

89

Bradley's Nutation, 18th-Century Analytic Argument, and the Contemporary Technical Communication Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of the more difficult elements to teach well in the introductory technical writing classroom is rhetorical form. Although textbooks have gotten much better than in the past at teaching this element, some still imply that structure is a matter of filling up a set form with content. One way to help students avoid this difficulty is to introduce…

Moran, Michael G.

90

Growing Up a Washington: Childhood in 18th-Century Virginia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Children surround us in our lives, today and in the past. It is these important individuals to whom we pass on our values, norms, and everyday culture and without which our society would cease to exist. Yet these individuals can be difficult to access in the historical and archaeological record, and until recently, few archeologists have included children in their

Heidi Elizabeth Krofft

2012-01-01

91

Frederica: An 18th-Century Planned Community. Teaching with Historic Places.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The excavated foundations of various structures in Frederica, Saint Simons Island, Georgia, remind visitors that from 1736 until 1758, this planned community served the military garrison quartered there and housed a population of 1000. This lesson is based on the Fort Frederica National Monument listed in the National Register of Historic Places.…

Robinson, Marion

92

Tabulating the Heavens: Computing the Nautical Almanac in 18th-Century England  

Microsoft Academic Search

The question of how to accurately find longitude at sea was hotly debated in the mid-1700s. This article describes the lunar distance method, promoted by Nevil Maskelyne, the British Astronomer Royal. In 1767, Maskelyne began publishing the Nautical Almanac, which contained astronomical tables prepared by a small network of human computers during the period 1765-1809. This article will describe the

Mary Croarken

2003-01-01

93

Statistical Accounts of Scotland: Accounts of Scottish Life from the 18th and 19th Centuries.  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Provided by the Edinburgh Data and Information Access (EDINA) on behalf of the Scottish Confederation of University and Research Libraries, this new site is an excellent resource for anyone researching Scotland, Britain, or the social impact of the industrial revolution. The site hosts the two Statistical Accounts of Scotland, which cover 1791-99 and 1834-1845. The information contained in the Accounts was largely provided by each parish church minister and covers topics such as "wealth, class and poverty; climate, agriculture, fishing and wildlife; population, schools, and the moral health of the people." Visitors can browse the Accounts via a table of contents, a general index, or by county or parish lists, or conduct a keyword search. The site provides digitized copies of the original texts which, unlike many similar projects, are easy to read and navigate. Further information about the Accounts and the project is available from the main page.

94

["Death of beautiful youth" or youthful suicide in Geneva in the 18th century].  

PubMed

Whether it is the unhappy ending of family grief, the only solution to an unrequited love or due to some pathological behaviour, juvenile suicide horrifies the community of the Ancien Régime, which tends to interpret it as an "illness of the soul" characteristic of a youth that combines bodily vitality with moral frailty, but whose role would be nonetheless to ensure the morrows of mankind. Juvenile suicide underlines the flaws of social solidarity in the tightly knit community of the Ancien Régime, and it deepens the social resentment against willful death which, since 1774, has often been attributed to the harmful influence of the kind of "philosophy" or free will advocated by Goethe's unfortunate Werther. PMID:1478488

Porret, M

1992-01-01

95

The Teaching of Astronomy in Jesuit Colleges in the 18th century  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On the occasion of the 250th anniversary of the foundation of the astronomical observatory at the college and seminary of Nagyszombat in 1755, it may be of interest to say something about the colleges of the Society of Jesus. The presence of the Jesuits there was brief, only two decades, as under the pressure of various external forces, the Jesuit Order was suppressed by Pope Clement XIV with the bull Dominus ac Redemptor on 23 July 1773. All the colleges that the Society had been running successfully all over the world either were closed, taken over by the governments, or given to the local bishops. Shortly after the Jesuits left the college of Nagyszombat, the king transferred it to Buda, where it gave rise to modern institutions of higher education derived. When Pope Pius VII returned to Rome after the Napoleonic wars, one of the first things he did was to reestablish the Society of Jesus in 1814. Old Jesuits, survivors of so many disgraces, joined younger Jesuits from Russia and Poland where in fact the order had never been suppressed. The most important of the Jesuit colleges, the Collegium Romanum in Rome, was given back to the Society of Jesus in 1823. Many other colleges were lost forever, but new ones were founded to continue the Society's previous successful activity.

Casanovas, J.

96

Healing with animals in the Levant from the 10th to the 18th century  

Microsoft Academic Search

Animals and products derived from different organs of their bodies have constituted part of the inventory of medicinal substances used in various cultures since ancient times. The article reviews the history of healing with animals in the Levant (The Land of Israel and parts of present-day Syria, Lebanon, and Jordan, defined by the Muslims in the Middle Ages as Bilad

Efraim Lev

2006-01-01

97

When reason reigns: madness, passion and sovereignty in late 18th-century England.  

PubMed

In 1788-89, King George III of Great Britain became physically and mentally ill. This has been well documented, in contrast to the sudden influx of mentally distressed patients into private asylums of England shortly after the highly publicized illness of the king. As told by political and social commentators during this period, the crisis of the two bodies of the king--as head of state and as a man--represented a significant threat to the stability of the nation. This essay investigates possible reasons for the increase in asylum populations, and argues that, in the age of reason and temperance as exemplified by George III, the illness and recovery of the king created the space of the asylum as one of the last places to allow the expression of the passions. PMID:17153472

Rovang, Dana

2006-03-01

98

Reconstruction of Late 18th Century Upper-air Circulation Using Forensic Synoptic Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study I attempt to develop an outline of the general atmospheric flow around the time of 1785 C.E., in North America. The results of my reconstruction of daily weather in the year 1785 in the northeastern part of North America imply a relatively cold flow over central and eastern North America for most of the year (McNally, 2004).

Louis K. McNally

99

Benjamin Franklin And The Changing World of 18th Century American Society  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is my intention in this paper to present some aspects of the work and thoughts of Benjamin Franklin which reflect the Puritan tradition from which he sprang. In some of his literary production, Franklin mirrors the great changes that occurred in Puritanism, from an elevated theological level into a practical utilitarian approach of more popular nature. Benjamin Franklin was

Paulo Werth Gick

100

George Cheyne (1671 or 73-1743): 18th-century physician.  

PubMed

George Cheyne was a well-known physician with a practice in Bath and London. He was a fat, jovial Scotsman weighing 32 stone at one time and with a great sense of humour who could be classed as one of the characters of the period. His health suffered seriously from eating and drinking too much in taverns with his 'bottle companions' when young, and he spent the rest of his life writing books for the public to help them avoid the problems he had experienced, with a particular emphasis on diet and nervous disorders. His book entitled An Essay on Health and Long Life had particular success. Although often lampooned, he had many famous patients including Beau Nash, Samuel Richardson, The Countess of Huntingdon and Catherine Walpole, the eldest daughter of the Prime Minister Robert Walpole. He was a skilled and caring doctor and health educator, and has been said to have established the agenda for psychiatric epidemiology. PMID:21558530

Charlton, Anne

2011-05-01

101

76 FR 25710 - Comment Request for Information Collection for Employment and Training (ET) Handbook 336, 18th...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Handbook 336, 18th Edition: ``Unemployment Insurance (UI) State Quality Service...ET Handbook 336, 18th Edition: ``Unemployment Insurance (UI) State Quality Service...Training Administration, Office of Unemployment Insurance, 200 Constitution...

2011-05-05

102

Roman glass: Art and technology in a 4th century A.D. opus sectile in Ostia (Rome)  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the most important Roman opus sectile (inlaid of stones and other materials to make a picture or pattern) is the both figurative and geometric decorated panel ensemble dating to the end of the 4th century A.D., discovered in 1959 near Porta Marina (Ostia, Rome) and now exposed in the National Museum of Early Middle Ages in Rome.A recent

Marco Verità; Maria Stella Arena; Anna Maria Carruba; Paola Santopadre

2008-01-01

103

MOSQUITO VECTOR CONTROL AND BIOLOGY IN LATIN AMERICA- An 18TH SYMPOSIUM  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The 18th Annual Latin American symposium presented by the American Mosquito Control Association (AMCA) was held as part of the 74th Annual Meeting in Sparks, NV, in March 2008. The principal objective, as for the previous 17 symposia, was to promote participation in the AMCA by vector control speci...

104

6. LOOKING WEST SOUTHWEST, 18th STREET BRIDGE AT RIGHT, PENNSYLVANIA ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. LOOKING WEST SOUTHWEST, 18th STREET BRIDGE AT RIGHT, PENNSYLVANIA RAILROAD BRIDGE IN MIDDLE, CHICAGO TRANSIT AUTHORITY ORANGE LINE AT LEFT. - Pennsylvania Railroad, South Branch Chicago River Bridge, Spanning South Branch of Chicago River Bridge east of Canal Street, Chicago, Cook County, IL

105

Multiple sclerosis or neuromyelitis optica? Re-evaluating an 18th-century illness using 21st-century software  

PubMed Central

In this paper we report the application of an extensive database of symptoms, signs, laboratory findings and illnesses, to the diagnosis of an historical figure. The medical diagnosis of Augustus d'Este (1794–1848) – widely held to be the first documented case of multiple sclerosis – is reviewed, using the detailed symptom diary, which he kept over many years, as clinical data. Some of the reported features prompted the competing claim that d'Este suffered from acute porphyria, which in turn was used in support of the hypothesis that his grandfather, King George III, also suffered from the disease. We find that multiple sclerosis is statistically the most likely diagnosis, with neuromyelitis optica a strong alternative possibility. The database did not support a diagnosis of any of the acute porphyrias.

Garrard, Peter; Peters, Timothy J

2012-01-01

106

The conservation of a fourth century ad painted Egyptian mummy shroud  

Microsoft Academic Search

On 13 February 1993 Ipswich Borough Council Museums’ highly acclaimed exhibition “From the Mummy's Tomb” was opened to the public, and the Museums’ extensive and important collection of Egyptology went on view for the first time in over fifteen years. One of the objects prepared for display in the exhibition was a fragmentary Egyptian mummy shroud of the 2nd?4th century

Poppy Singer; Annabel Wylie

1995-01-01

107

Anthropometric Decline of the Roman Empire? Regional differences and temporal development of the quality of nutrition in the Roman provinces of Germania and Raetia from the first century to the fourth century AD  

Microsoft Academic Search

This interdisciplinary study examines nutritional status during the antiquity namely from the first century to the fourth century AD in the North Western Roman provinces in comparison with anthropological and demographic measures. In recent research, the variation in average height is often employed as an indicator of the quality of nutrition, because biological research has shown that quantitative und qualitative

Nikola Koepke

108

Muslim contributions to geography until the end of the 12th century AD  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conclusion  In the preceeding pages the story of the many-sided aspects of the Muslim contribution to geography has been related. It was\\u000a a part and parcel of that new expression of an intellectual renaissance which characterized the rise of Islamic civilization.\\u000a Throughout the century we come across an array of rationalist thinkers and scientists who not only resurrected the classical\\u000a age

Walled A. Al-Monaes

1991-01-01

109

Preservation of Fossil Seeds From a 10th Century AD Cess Pit at Coppergate, York  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fossilization processes were investigated in terrestrial archaeological deposits, focusing on the preservation of sub-fossil seeds from a 10th century cess pit at Coppergate in York. Flash pyrolysis-gas chromatography\\/mass spectrometry (Py-GC\\/MS) revealed that the bulk of the assemblage comprises well-preserved organic remains, exemplified by blackberry (Rubus fruticosus) endocarps which retain a near-pristine ligno-cellulose composition. Crab apple (Malus sylvestris) pips are unique

Lucy M. E. Mccobb; Derek E. G. Briggs; Richard P. Evershed; Allan R. Hall; Richard A. Hall

2001-01-01

110

Yersinia pestis DNA from Skeletal Remains from the 6th Century AD Reveals Insights into Justinianic Plague  

PubMed Central

Yersinia pestis, the etiologic agent of the disease plague, has been implicated in three historical pandemics. These include the third pandemic of the 19th and 20th centuries, during which plague was spread around the world, and the second pandemic of the 14th–17th centuries, which included the infamous epidemic known as the Black Death. Previous studies have confirmed that Y. pestis caused these two more recent pandemics. However, a highly spirited debate still continues as to whether Y. pestis caused the so-called Justinianic Plague of the 6th–8th centuries AD. By analyzing ancient DNA in two independent ancient DNA laboratories, we confirmed unambiguously the presence of Y. pestis DNA in human skeletal remains from an Early Medieval cemetery. In addition, we narrowed the phylogenetic position of the responsible strain down to major branch 0 on the Y. pestis phylogeny, specifically between nodes N03 and N05. Our findings confirm that Y. pestis was responsible for the Justinianic Plague, which should end the controversy regarding the etiology of this pandemic. The first genotype of a Y. pestis strain that caused the Late Antique plague provides important information about the history of the plague bacillus and suggests that the first pandemic also originated in Asia, similar to the other two plague pandemics.

Harbeck, Michaela; Seifert, Lisa; Hansch, Stephanie; Wagner, David M.; Birdsell, Dawn; Parise, Katy L.; Wiechmann, Ingrid; Grupe, Gisela; Thomas, Astrid; Keim, Paul; Zoller, Lothar; Bramanti, Barbara; Riehm, Julia M.; Scholz, Holger C.

2013-01-01

111

Composition, Preservation and Production Technology of Augusta Emerita Roman Glasses from the First to the Sixth Century a.d.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the results derived from an archaeometric study undertaken on glass samples from the Roman town of Augusta Emerita (Mérida, Spain). The main goal of the research was to provide for the first time some compositional and technological insights into the glass finds unearthed in this town. Glass samples from different sites and chronology, either from inside or from outside the perimeter of the ancient town and from the first to the sixth century AD, were analyzed and characterized through optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDS), X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometry and VIS spectrophotometry. Resulting data indicated that all the samples studied were natron-based soda lime silicate glasses, even though two chronological and compositionally distinct groups were distinguished. One composed of Early Empire glasses and a second one composed of glasses from the fourth century AD onward, which was characterized by the presence of the so-called HIMT (high iron, manganese, and titanium) glasses. Comparison with coeval glasses suggested that Augusta Emerita shared the same trade glass circles than other contemporary Roman towns, within the frame of a secondary production scale. Finally, some outstanding differences connected to composition and chronology were found, since Late Roman glasses presented a higher and distinct degree of alteration than Early Empire ones.

Palomar, Teresa; Garcia-Heras, Manuel; Sabio, Rafael; Rincon, Jesus-Maria; Villegas, Maria-Angeles

112

Heraklas on knots: sixteen surgical nooses and knots from the first century A.D.  

PubMed

In the first century of our common era, the Greek physician Heraklas wrote a brief essay on how to tie 16 knots and nooses for surgical and orthopedic purposes. His work is reintroduced and discussed here because its place in the origin and evolution of surgery needs to be properly acknowledged and recorded in the current medical literature. To do so, Raeder's definitive Greek edition of the oldest extant manuscripts of Heraklas' essay was studied along with the various illustrated interpretations of his text published over the last six centuries. Moreover, the contemporary literature was searched for current applications of Heraklas' knots by use of a database of surgical knots. It was found that seven of Heraklas' 16 knots and nooses were still applied surgically of late, and that four of these have even been recently rediscovered for such applications. Therefore, it is concluded that Hellenistic, Roman, and Byzantine medicine had a rich knowledge and high standards. Contemporary surgical techniques may be found to be truly ancient if we search deep enough, far enough, and long enough. PMID:18224483

Hage, J Joris

2008-04-01

113

TV for the Twenty-First Century: The Video Ad Model in Transition  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Historically, advertising has been evaluated and transacted on a placement basis. We have used location, context, time of\\u000a day (and other proxies) as ways to target audiences. Passive exposure and intrusiveness were the underlying components of\\u000a this ad model. The Internet, and more broadly digital distribution’s two-way path, allows for a transformation, one where\\u000a advertisers can purchase specific audiences with

Adam Gerber; Rick Mandler

114

Seismic and sedimentological evidence of an early 6th century AD earthquake at Lake Ohrid (Macedonia/Albania)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lake Ohrid shared by the Republics of Albania and Macedonia is formed by a tectonically active graben within the South Balkan and suggested to be the oldest lake in Europe. Several studies have shown that the lake provides a valuable record of climatic and environmental changes and a distal tephrostratigraphic record of volcanic eruptions from Italy. Fault structures identified in seismic data demonstrate that sediments have also the potential to record tectonic activity in the region. Here, we provide an example of linking tephrostratigraphic information and environmental changes with tectonic activity and anthropogenic impact. Historical documents indicate that a major earthquake destroyed the city of Ohrid in the early 6th century AD. This earthquake is documented in multichannel seismic profiles, in parametric sediment echosounder profiles, and in a ca. 10 m long sediment record from the western part of the lake. The sediment record exhibits a ca. 2 m thick mass wasting deposit, which is chronologically well constrained by the underlying 472 AD/512 AD tephra and cross correlation with other sediment sequences with similar geochemical characteristics of the Holocene.

Wagner, B.; Francke, A.; Sulpizio, R.; Zanchetta, G.; Lindhorst, K.; Krastel, S.; Vogel, H.; Daut, G.; Grazhdani, A.; Lushaj, B.; Trajanovski, S.

2012-09-01

115

Bone Lose of the Ancient Mediterranean lumbar vertebrae : Iasos, 6th century ad.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Evaluation of bone mineral density (BMD) of the ancient peoples has received great interest by anthropologists. The aims of this study are to investigate the lumbar vertebrae of the Iasos people during the Byzantine period, in order to determine the prevalence of bone loss and to interpret dietary conditions of ancient Mediterranean populations. Lumbar vertebrae belonging to twenty eight skeletons of the 6th c AD were analyzed by radiographs and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. The BMD values for each biologic sex and age group were compared. The correlation between the BMD and radiological features was also analyzed. The mean BMD was 0.940 g/cm2. BMD was decreased by aging in both sexes, but it was not significant. Osteopenia was found in 11 (39%) and osteoporosis in 4 (14.3%) out 28 vertebrae. The BMD was normal in 13 (46%) out of 28 vertebrae. Osteopenia was present in 7 (38%) of 18 male vertebrae and 4 (40%) of 10 female vertebrae. The spine score was high in the male group and there was a strong positive correlation between the BMD and spine score for both sexes. This study revealed that the BMD decreased by aging and that osteopenia was a problem in both sexes of the Iasos people during the 6th c AD. There was no correlation between the BMD and radiological features for age groups and biological sexes.

Kaya, Serdar; Solmaz, Ilker; Il?ca, A. Turan; Karaçal?o?lu, Özgür; Damla Y?lmaz, Nalan; Ba?o?lu, Ok?an; K?l?c, Selim; Izci, Yusuf

116

International Conference on Coastal Engineering (18th) Held at Cape Town on November 14-19, 1982. Abstracts.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report includes the papers given at the 18th International conference on Coastal engineering in Cape Town, South Africa held in November, 1982. Some of the subject areas described are: Beachfill; Coastal morphology; Breaking waves; Coastal engineering...

1982-01-01

117

Mosquito vector control and biology in Latin America--an 18th symposium.  

PubMed

The 18th Annual Latin American symposium presented by the American Mosquito Control Association (AMCA) was held as part of the 74th Annual Meeting in Sparks, NV, in March 2008. The principal objective, as for the previous 17 symposia, was to promote participation in the AMCA by vector control specialists, public health workers, and academicians from Latin America. This publication includes summaries of 35 presentations that were given orally in Spanish or presented as posters by participants from 5 countries in Latin America and Puerto Rico. Topics addressed in the symposium included surveillance, chemical and biological control, insecticide resistance, and repellency of Aedes aegypti; distribution, behavior, transmission of West Nile virus, and control of Culex; bionomics, ecology, and chemical and biological control of Anopheles vectors of malaria; insecticide resistance; and studies of Triatoma and Rhodnius. PMID:19181067

Clark, Gary G; Rubio-Palis, Yasmin

2008-12-01

118

Proceedings of the 18th Annual Conference on Fossil Energy Materials.  

SciTech Connect

The 18th Annual conference on Fossil Energy Materials was held in Knoxville, Tennessee, on June 2 through June 4, 2004. The meeting was sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy through the Advanced Research Materials Program (ARM). The objective of the ARM Program is to conduct research and development on materials for longer-term fossil energy applications, as well as for generic needs of various fossil fuel technologies. The management of the program has been decentralized to the DOE Oak Ridge Operations Office and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The research is performed by staff members at ORNL and by researchers at other national laboratories, universities, and in private industry. The work is divided into the following categories: (1) structural, ceramics, (2) new alloys and coatings, (3) functional materials, and (4) technology development and transfer.

Judkins, RR

2004-11-02

119

Reconstructing the diets of Greek Byzantine populations (6th-15th centuries AD) using carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios.  

PubMed

Documentary evidence and artistic representations have traditionally served as the primary sources of information about Byzantine diet. According to these sources, Byzantine diet was based on grain (primarily wheat and barley), oil, and wine, supplemented with legumes, dairy products, meat, and marine resources. Here, we synthesize and compare the results of stable isotope ratio analyses of eight Greek Byzantine populations (6th-15th centuries AD) from throughout Greece. The ?(13) C and ?(15) N values are tightly clustered, suggesting that all of these populations likely consumed a broadly similar diet. Both inland and coastal Byzantine populations consumed an essentially land-based C(3) diet, significant amounts of animal protein, and possibly some C(4) plants, while no evidence of a general dependence on low-?(15) N legumes was observed. One interesting result observed in the isotopic data is the evidence for the consumption of marine protein at both coastal sites (a reasonable expectation given their location) and for some individuals from inland sites. This pattern contrasts with previous isotopic studies mainly on prehistoric Greek populations, which have suggested that marine species contributed little, or not at all, to the diet. The possibility that fasting practices contributed to marine protein consumption in the period is discussed, as are possible parallels with published isotope data from western European medieval sites. PMID:21952735

Bourbou, Chryssi; Fuller, Benjamin T; Garvie-Lok, Sandra J; Richards, Michael P

2011-09-27

120

The Course of the Exchange: Measuring and Interpreting Returns Process in 18th and Early 19th Century Britain  

Microsoft Academic Search

As an introduction to a new database, this paper demonstrates some aspects of returns processes on equity share capital in the earliest companies publicly traded in Britain. Based upon not a sample, but the near universe of all publicly traded companies for which data are available for the period 1690-1834, the characteristics analysed are both cross-sectional and intertemporal. From the

Gary S Shea

2000-01-01

121

Ballistic blocks around K?lauea Caldera: Their vent locations and number of eruptions in the late 18th century  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Thousands of ballistic blocks occur around K?lauea Caldera and record part of the latest major period of explosive activity on the volcano, in late 1790 or within a few years thereafter. The sizes of the blocks – the largest of which is more than 2 m in nominal diameter – and differences in rock types allow the definition of at least 6 dispersal lobes of mostly undetermined relative age. The orientations of the lobes help approximate the locations of vents or explosion sources on the floor of the caldera, now deeply buried by younger lava flows. The vents may have been distributed northward for about 2 km from near the site of the modern Halema'uma'u Crater and were apparently confined to the western half of the caldera. The blocks are entirely lithic except for those in one dispersal lobe, which contains cored bombs and blocks as well as juvenile lapilli. Eruption parameters calculated from EJECT! suggest that the phreatic and phreatomagmatic explosions could have been generated at the water table, about 600 m below the high point on the caldera rim.

Swanson, Donald A.; Zolkos, Scott P.; Haravitch, Ben

2012-01-01

122

Ballistic blocks around K?lauea Caldera: Their vent locations and number of eruptions in the late 18th century  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thousands of ballistic blocks occur around K?lauea Caldera and record part of the latest major period of explosive activity on the volcano, in late 1790 or within a few years thereafter. The sizes of the blocks - the largest of which is more than 2 m in nominal diameter - and differences in rock types allow the definition of at least 6 dispersal lobes of mostly undetermined relative age. The orientations of the lobes help approximate the locations of vents or explosion sources on the floor of the caldera, now deeply buried by younger lava flows. The vents may have been distributed northward for about 2 km from near the site of the modern Halema'uma'u Crater and were apparently confined to the western half of the caldera. The blocks are entirely lithic except for those in one dispersal lobe, which contains cored bombs and blocks as well as juvenile lapilli. Eruption parameters calculated from EJECT! suggest that the phreatic and phreatomagmatic explosions could have been generated at the water table, about 600 m below the high point on the caldera rim.

Swanson, Donald A.; Zolkos, Scott P.; Haravitch, Ben

2012-06-01

123

Instrumental pressure observations and atmospheric circulation from the 17th and 18th centuries: London and Paris  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Daily pressure observations recorded by William Derham (1657-1735) at Upminster, Essex (near London), from 1697 to 1706 and 1708 have been corrected, converted to modern units and the Gregorian calendar, and adjusted for homogeneity. These pressure readings have been compared with previously published contemporary observations from Paris, and the two sets of early instrumental data used to calculate a daily series of the pressure difference between Paris and London. Frequency analysis of the daily series reveals that reversals of the south-north pressure gradient and easterly winds were more common from 1697 to 1708 than during the 1990s. Monthly mean values of Paris-London pressure differences have been compared with previously published monthly mean reconstructed surface pressure maps and to a reconstructed North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index. There is a good agreement between the strength and direction of monthly mean flow between London and Paris estimated from the circulation maps and the sign and magnitude of the Paris-London westerly flow index, but the correlation between the Paris-London index, known to be a good proxy for European zonal circulation, and the reconstructed NAO index, is low (0.2). Correlations between the monthly mean Paris-London zonal circulation index and central England temperatures suggest a strong relationship during winter and late summer from 1697 to 1708. The meticulous daily instrumental observations and the monthly and seasonal climate descriptions of Derham, his collection of instrumental observations and climatic descriptions from contemporary observers throughout Europe, and his early theories on the causes of climate change make his publications a valuable source of information for studies on climate during the early instrumental period. It is hoped that more of Derham's papers related to weather and climate may eventually come to light.

Slonosky, V. C.; Jones, P. D.; Davies, T. D.

2001-03-01

124

Instrumental pressure observations and atmospheric circulation from the 17th and 18th centuries: London and Paris  

Microsoft Academic Search

Daily pressure observations recorded by William Derham (1657-1735) at Upminster, Essex (near London), from 1697 to 1706 and 1708 have been corrected, converted to modern units and the Gregorian calendar, and adjusted for homogeneity. These pressure readings have been compared with previously published contemporary observations from Paris, and the two sets of early instrumental data used to calculate a daily

V. C. Slonosky; P. D. Jones; T. D. Davies

2001-01-01

125

The Editorial Policy as a Mirror of Petrine Reforms: Textbooks and Their Translators in Early 18th Century Russia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Peter I's editorial policy appears as a starting point in the birth of secular Russian textbooks. Since the printing production was then organized on a massive scale as a response to the needs of European-like modernization, it should be safely suggested that nearly "all" books produced during this pioneering period focused teaching objectives.…

Gouzevitch, Irina

2006-01-01

126

Economic Literature for Merchants: Handbooks, Dictionaries and Periodicals on Commerce during the 18th Century in Spain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Questo saggio delinea un profile di Daniel de Leon, figura fra le più carismatiche e discusse fra i leaders del socialismo Americano. Si approfondisce il suo contributo al pensiero marxista e radicale negli Stati Uniti fra la fine del 19° secolo e l’inizio del 20° secolo. In particolare questo saggio analizza lo sviluppo della teoria del sindacato di De Leon

Jesùs Astigarraga; Juan Zabalza

2010-01-01

127

Living an American Lifestyle in 18th Century Philadelphia—Robert Morris, Prosperous Merchant and Family Man  

Microsoft Academic Search

Robert Morris (1734-1806), an English-born merchant and later one of the American Founding Fathers, has not attracted the attention of national icons like Benjamin Franklin, Thomas Jefferson, or Alexander Hamilton. There are obvious reasons for his comparative obscurity. Morris was not a charismatic speaker; he did not write influential books or pamphlets and did not actively take part in military

Marko Junkkarinen

2005-01-01

128

Technological Characterization of Wall Paintings from the A Mithraic Tomb Dated to 4th-5th Century AD, Gargaresc, Libya  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The excavations of Gargaresc started in 1965 and were one of the most important archaeological sites in Tripoli because it includes a period of about 500 years starting from the 1stc. AD was and continuing until the 5th century AD. The Mithraic tomb is one of the most important outlying monuments of Oea, 200 yards south of the western end of Gargaresc oasis, on the left of the Tripoli-Zuara road between kilometers 5 & 6. The tomb is cut in an outcrop of soft sandstone. The wall paintings found were symbolic to the religion of that period; which contained a mixture of older religions and Christian, and presented the interaction between the artistic and religious elements of that time. Several optical, chemical and mineralogical methods were applied to identify the materials, composition and technology of the plasters and mortars, as well as, the pigments used in the tomb. These are: -OP: Optical microscopy was used as the initial examination of polished cross-sections to identify the structure and microstratigraphy of the plasters and mortars as well as the painted layers. -MCT: Micro-chemical tests were used to identify the type of the plasters and mortars- calcium aluminium silicate and water-soluble salt to identify sulphates, chlorides, carbonates, nitrites and nitrates. -SM: Standard methods for chemical analysis to identify the quantitative and qualitative nature of the plasters and mortars and their mixture. -SEM & EDS: Analytical Scanning electron microscope with energy dispersive x-ray analysis system to examine the micrmorphology and determine the chemical composition of the plasters, pigments and the inclusions. -XRD: X-ray powder diffraction to identify the mineralogical composition of the plasters, mortars and pigments. On the bases of all the data obtained, it was possible to establish the nature of the plasters, mortars and their binder. The examination and analysis gave a full picture about the materials and the approximate ratio of amount of additives to lime used for making the mortars and plasters. In addition the results showed the stratigraphy of the various layers applied. The lime plasters and mortars contained apart from lime as binder quartz grains, charcoal, ironstone, brick and some other inclusions. Furthermore the mineralogical analysis provided information on the main mineralogical phases present in the plasters and pigments. The use of gypsum was detected in some cases but it was identified as a result of conservation. The analytical results provided also information on the deterioration factors and alterations that have affected the materials of the wall paintings and present quite interesting challenges for conservation science.

Abd El Salam, S.; Maniatis, Y.

2009-04-01

129

Pakistan's health system: performance and prospects after the 18th Constitutional Amendment.  

PubMed

Pakistan has undergone massive changes in its federal structure under the 18th Constitutional Amendment. To gain insights that will inform reform plans, we assessed several aspects of health-systems performance in Pakistan. Some improvements were noted in health-systems performance during the past 65 years but key health indicators lag behind those in peer countries. 78·08% of the population pay out of pocket at the point of health care. The private sector provides three-quarters of the health services, and physicians outnumber nurses and midwives by a ratio of about 2:1. Complex governance challenges and underinvestment in health have hampered progress. With devolution of the health mandate, an opportunity has arisen to reform health. The federal government has constitutional responsibility of health information, interprovincial coordination, global health, and health regulation. All other health responsibilities are a provincial mandate. With appropriate policy, institutional, and legislative action within and outside the health system, the existing challenges could be overcome. PMID:23684254

Nishtar, Sania; Boerma, Ties; Amjad, Sohail; Alam, Ali Yawar; Khalid, Faraz; ul Haq, Ihsan; Mirza, Yasir A

2013-05-17

130

The earthquake of Carnuntum in the fourth century a.d. – archaeological results, seismologic scenario and seismotectonic implications for the Vienna Basin fault, Austria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Excavations in the former Roman provincial capital of Pannonia Superior, Carnuntum, 40 km east of Vienna revealed damaged masonry structures from many parts of the ancient settlements. A compilation of structurally damaged buildings has formerly been given by Kandler (Acta Archaeol Acad Sci Hung, 41:313–336, 1989), who related damage to an earthquake in the middle of the fourth century a.d. This

Kurt Decker; Georg Gangl; Manfred Kandler

2006-01-01

131

Vaccines: the Fourth Century?  

PubMed Central

Vaccine development, which began with Edward Jenner's observations in the late 18th century, has entered its 4th century. From its beginnings, with the use of whole organisms that had been weakened or inactivated, to the modern-day use of genetic engineering, it has taken advantage of the tools discovered in other branches of microbiology. Numerous successful vaccines are in use, but the list of diseases for which vaccines do not exist is long. However, the multiplicity of strategies now available, discussed in this article, portends even more successful development of vaccines.

Plotkin, Stanley A.

2009-01-01

132

Vaccines: the fourth century.  

PubMed

Vaccine development, which began with Edward Jenner's observations in the late 18th century, has entered its 4th century. From its beginnings, with the use of whole organisms that had been weakened or inactivated, to the modern-day use of genetic engineering, it has taken advantage of the tools discovered in other branches of microbiology. Numerous successful vaccines are in use, but the list of diseases for which vaccines do not exist is long. However, the multiplicity of strategies now available, discussed in this article, portends even more successful development of vaccines. PMID:19793898

Plotkin, Stanley A

2009-09-30

133

The bodies I have lived with: keynote for 18th Lesbian Lives Conference, Brighton, England, 2011.  

PubMed

Nestle pays homage in ideas and images to the bodies, both familial and communal, that have informed her life's work-an exploration of the mid-twentieth-century American fem-butch community by creating an archive of primary sources, faces and words, that challenge prevailing national and sometimes communal narratives of what is history and what is absence. PMID:23855937

Nestle, Joan

2013-01-01

134

First chemical evidence of royal purple as a material used for funeral treatment discovered in a Gallo–Roman burial (Naintré, France, third century AD)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Violet–purple residues collected from a Gallo–Roman burial dated back to the second half of the third century A.D. and excavated\\u000a at Naintré (France) were chemically investigated by multi-analytical methodology involving the use of Raman spectroscopy,\\u000a direct exposure-mass spectrometry (DE-MS) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC–UV–visible). Little is known about\\u000a funeral treatment and rituals during Roman times. Retrieving valuable information on these

Thibaut Devièse; Erika Ribechini; Pietro Baraldi; Bernard Farago-Szekeres; Henri Duday; Martine Regert; Maria Perla Colombini

135

The North-Western Region of the Black Sea during the 6th and Early 7th Century AD  

Microsoft Academic Search

Early Byzantine authors knew very little about the north-western region of the Black Sea. 6th- to 7th-century archaeological assemblages display a remarkable polarity of distribution. This has often been viewed as an indication of distinct ethnic groups (Slavs in the north and nomads in the south), but a closer examination of the archaeological record suggests a different interpretation. Burial assemblages

Florin CURTA

2008-01-01

136

Vocational Rehabilitation: Preparing for the 21st Century. A Report on the Mary E. Switzer Memorial Seminar (18th, Alexandria, Virginia, September 19-21, 1994). Switzer Seminar Series. Switzer Monograph, 18th Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This monograph on vocational rehabilitation programs and future directions contains papers from the 1994 Switzer Seminar. Contents are as follows: "State/Federal Program Issues and Trends" (Nell C. Carney); "Consumerism and Choice: Basic Standards for Judging Efforts and Expectations in the Vocational Rehabilitation Process" (Patricia A.…

Perlman, Leonard G., Ed.; Hansen, Carl E., Ed.

137

Towards the twenty?first century  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is suggested that the change in thought and technology in France, North America and England in the late 18th century is paralleled in the change in contemporary modes of behaviour and ways of looking at the self. The philosophy articulated at that time was by the philosophers of the Enlightenment and poets of Romanticism. Contemporary psychologies are concerned with

Michael P. Ellis

1987-01-01

138

Integrating Women into U.S. History: A Sourcebook. Part I: Women in the 18th and 19th Centuries. Part II: Women in the 20th Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This sourcebook, in two parts, aims at supplementing the limited material dealing with women's history normally found in junior and senior high school U.S. history textbooks. The lessons were developed by teachers at an intensive summer institute dealing with women's issues. The teachers and their colleagues field-tested the lessons and revised…

Campbell, D'Ann; And Others

139

A Century of Progress in Weed Control in Hardwood Seedbeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Weeds have existed in nurseries since before the time Bartram grew hardwoods during the 18th century. Hand weeding was the primary method of weed control during the first part of the 20th century. From 1931 to 1970, advances in chemistry increased the use of herbicides, and advances in engineering increased the reliance on machines for cultivation. Many managers now rely

David B. South

140

Unprecedented low twentieth century winter sea ice extent in the Western Nordic Seas since A.D. 1200  

Microsoft Academic Search

We reconstructed decadal to centennial variability of maximum sea ice extent in the Western Nordic Seas for A.D. 1200–1997\\u000a using a combination of a regional tree-ring chronology from the timberline area in Fennoscandia and ?18O from the Lomonosovfonna ice core in Svalbard. The reconstruction successfully explained 59% of the variance in sea ice extent\\u000a based on the calibration period 1864–1997.

M. Macias Fauria; A. Grinsted; S. Helama; J. Moore; M. Timonen; T. Martma; E. Isaksson; M. Eronen

2010-01-01

141

The construction of fertility in al-Andalus. Geoarchaeology in Ricote (Murcia, Spain, 8th century AD)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Traditional irrigated terraces of Spain (known as 'huertas') are among the most emblematic and productive agricultural fields of the Mediterranean. Several of these huertas were first built by Arab and Berber tribes and clans that entered the Iberian Peninsula (al-Andalus) after 711 AD, coinciding with the spread of Islam during Middle Ages (>632 AD). One thousand and three hundred years after their construction they are still operative, presenting a topic case of sustainable and resilient agricultural areas. However, up until recently no data was available regarding the pre-existing features of the terrains where they were built, the timing of their construction nor their construction process. In this communication I will present the results of the study of a palaeosoil buried under an Andalusi irrigated terrace in the huerta of Ricote (Murcia, Spain). Soil micromorphology, physico-chemical analysis (Loss On Ignition, Magnetic Susceptibility, Particle Size Distribution, pH/Electrical Conductivity) and AMS dating allowed to determine that 1) Andalusi peasants selected a highly saline Hypercalcic Calcisol to build up the first irrigated terraces; 2) They clear the slope of bushes by fire; 3) They used the slope soil to build the terrace fill, possibly by inverting the original soil horizonation, and 4) According to the date obtained from the organic matter embedded in the topmost horizon of the palaeosoil (647-778 AD), the original Andalusi irrigated fields of Ricote were possibly built shortly after 711 AD. The communication, in sum, will show through a case study how past peasant societies transformed semi-arid environments to create highly productive agrarian areas.

Puy, Arnald

2013-04-01

142

Highlights of the Annual Conference (18th): Veterans Administration Studies in Mental Health and Behavioral Sciences, New Orleans, Louisiana, March 28-30, 1973.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document contains highlights from the Veterans Administration (VA) Studies in Mental Health and Behavioral Sciences 18th Annual Conference. Included are symposia on the following subjects: therapeutic efficacy in the treatment of senility, fact or ar...

1973-01-01

143

Analysis of archaeological triacylglycerols by high resolution nanoESI, FT-ICR MS and IRMPD MS/MS: Application to 5th century BC-4th century AD oil lamps from Olbia (Ukraine)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work presents the precise identification of triacylglycerols (TAGs) extracted from archaeological samples using a methodology based on nanoelectrospray and Fourier transform mass spectrometry. The archaeological TAG identification needs adapted sample preparation protocols to trace samples in advanced degradation state. More precisely, the proposed preparation procedure includes extraction of the lipid components from finely grinded ceramic using dichloromethane/methanol mixture with additional ultrasonication treatment, and TAG purification by solid phase extraction on a diol cartridge. Focusing on the analytical approach, the implementation of "in-house" species-dependent TAG database was investigated using MS and InfraRed Multiphoton Dissociation (IRMPD) MS/MS spectra; several vegetal oils, dairy products and animal fats were studied. The high mass accuracy of the Fourier transform analyzer ([Delta]m below 2.5 ppm) provides easier data interpretation, and allows distinction between products of different origins. In details, the IRMPD spectra of the lithiated TAGs reveal fragmentation reactions including loss of free neutral fatty acid and loss of fatty acid as [alpha],[beta]-unsaturated moieties. Based on the developed preparation procedure and on the constituted database, TAG extracts from 5th century BC to 4th century AD Olbia lamps were analyzed. The structural information obtained succeeds in identifying that bovine/ovine fats were used as fuel used in these archaeological Olbia lamps.

Garnier, Nicolas; Rolando, Christian; Høtje, Jakob Munk; Tokarski, Caroline

2009-07-01

144

Pre-Columbian treponemal disease from 14th century AD Safed, Israel, and implications for the medieval eastern Mediterranean.  

PubMed

In 1912, 68 medieval crania were excavated from a cave at Safed in the eastern Mediterranean and brought to the United Kingdom. It is only recently that these skulls have been studied for evidence of disease. One adult individual demonstrates multiple lesions of the cranial vault, compatible with treponematosis. Radiocarbon dating suggests the year of death to be between 1290-1420 AD. This range equates to the mamluk period, just after the crusades. This is the oldest dated case of treponematosis in the Middle East, and the first to confirm its presence there before the epidemiologically important transatlantic voyage of Christopher Columbus. The finding has significant implications for our understanding of the introduction of the disease to the Middle East and of the medieval diagnosis of ulcerating skin conditions by medical practitioners in the Mediterranean world. PMID:12740955

Mitchell, Piers D

2003-06-01

145

Real-World Vehicle Emissions: A Summary of the 18th Coordinating Research Council On-Road Vehicle Emissions Workshop  

SciTech Connect

The Coordinating Research Council (CRC) convened its 18th On-Road Vehicle Emissions Workshop March 31-April 2, 2008, with 104 presentations describing the most recent mobile source-related emissions research. In this paper we summarize the presentations from researchers whose efforts are improving our understanding of the contribution of mobile sources to air quality. Participants in the workshop discussed emission models and emissions inventories, results from gas- and particle-phase emissions studies from spark-ignition and diesel-powered vehicles (with an emphasis in this workshop on particle emissions), effects of fuels on emissions, evaluation of in-use emission-control programs, and efforts to improve our capabilities in performing on-board emissions measurements, as well as topics for future research.

Cadle, S. H.; Ayala, A.; Black, K. N.; Graze, R. R.; Koupal, J.; Minassian, F.; Murray, H. B.; Natarajan, M.; Tennant, C. J.; Lawson, D. R.

2009-02-01

146

A Historical Vignette: Language Learning Eighteenth-Century Style.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|French became the foremost medium of communication in Europe in the 18th century. In Germany the most widely used French textbook was Johan Valentin Meidinger's "Practische Franzoesische Grammatik." This textbook was apparently a huge success from the pedagogical and the commerical points of view. With a few minor revisions, it would probably…

Kalwies, Howard H.

1977-01-01

147

As the Europeans Saw Them: The Aleuts of the Eighteenth Century, Social Studies Unit, Book II.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet is intended for use as reading material for the social studies unit, The Aleuts of the Eighteenth Century. Excerpts from journals of seven 18th-century explorers or travelers describe the inhabitants of the Aleutian Islands. The accounts have been translated from original notes kept by members of the Russian navy, ship commanders, a…

Partnow, Patricia H., Comp.

148

Teaching of Psychology: Ideas and Innovations. Proceedings of the Annual Conference on Undergraduate Teaching of Psychology (18th, Monticello, New York, March 24-26, 2004)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document includes the proceedings and papers of the 18th Annual Conference on Undergraduate Teaching of Psychology, which was held on March 24-26, 2004 in Monticello, NY. The conference, which dealt with ideas and innovations in the teaching of psychology, was sponsored by the Psychology Department of the Farmingdale State University. The…

Oswald, Patricia A., Ed.; Zaromatidis, Katherine, Ed.; Levine, Judith R., Ed.; Indenbaum, Gene, Ed.

2004-01-01

149

A fluid dynamics approach to modelling the 18th March 2007 lahar at Mt. Ruapehu, New Zealand  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lahars are water-sediment mass flows from a volcanic source. They can be triggered by a variety of mechanisms and span a continuum of flow rheology and hydraulic properties, even within the same event. Lahars are extremely powerful landscaping agents and represent a considerable hazard potential. However, this highly dynamic character and a lack of direct measurements has made modelling lahars difficult. This study therefore applies a fluid dynamics model; Delft3D, to analyse the 18th March 2007 dam break lahar at Mount Ruapehu, New Zealand. The modelled lahar routed through the Whangaehu gorge in ~30 min, crossed the Whangaehu fan in ~60 min, and then over a further 3 h travelled an additional ~22 km distance along the Whangaehu River to the Tangiwai bridge. The modelled mean frontal velocity was 6.5 m s-1 along the gorge although peak velocity reached up to 19.6 m s-1. The modelled lahar flow front progressively slowed across the fan but along the River it accelerated from 2.1-3.3 m s-1. Calculated peak velocity along the River was <4.5 m s-1. These results generally compare well with gauged records, with historical records, and with other modelling approaches. However, discrepancies in frontal velocity and time to peak stage arise due to (1) specifying roughness, which arises from slope variations between adjacent computational nodes, and which is stage-dependant, and (2) due to rapid topographic changes that produce frequent hydraulic jumps, which are inadequately accommodated in the numerical scheme. The overall pattern of discharge attenuation, and of relationships between topographic and hydraulic variables, is similar to that calculated for lahars on other volcanoes. This modelling method could be applied at other similar sites where a likely source hydrograph and high-resolution topographic data are available. These results have important implications for hazard management at Ruapehu and for examining geomorphic and sedimentary impacts of this lahar.

Carrivick, Jonathan L.; Manville, Vern; Cronin, Shane J.

2009-03-01

150

Mortality in the Family of Origin and Its Effect on Marriage Partner Selection in a Flemish Village 18th–20th Centuries  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter addresses the role of health-related characteristics as a basis of marriage partner selection in a preindustrial\\u000a population with a low level of social differentiation and a high level of mortality. We measured health characteristics by\\u000a the level of infant and child mortality in the family of origin of the marriage partners. We observed a homogamous marriage\\u000a pattern according

Bart Van de Putte; Koen Matthijs; Robert Vlietinck

151

Short- and long-term consequences of early parental loss in the historical population of the Krummhörn (18th and 19th century).  

PubMed

The impact of the early loss of one's father or one's mother on the survival and age at death of children was investigated on the basis of a historical reconstitution of families from the Krummhörn (East Frisia/Ostfriesland; Germany) with the aid of Kaplan-Meier plots and the Cox regression. In our analyses, we took into account the changed situation of the family after the death of a parent by incorporating the surviving spouse's remarriage or relationships with stepparents. We find that the impact on survival of the children was sex-specific and also depended on whether and at what point in time during childhood their father or mother had died. As expected, children's immediate survival was strongly affected by maternal loss. A few results can be construed as survival diminishing long-term consequences of the early loss of a parent. Daughters who lost their fathers before their first birthday proved to have increased mortality over a longer period of their youth. The age at death of daughters was also lowered if they had to live with a step-mother during early childhood. To interpret these results, three hypotheses, including an (intrinsic) trade-off, compensation and a selection scenario, were tested. Other approaches, which are based, for example, on the extrinsic trade-off between mating effort and parental investment of the surviving parent, also appear to be suitable as an explanation for the long-term consequences, which eventually draws the conclusion that the compensation scenario is the most likely explanation for the consequences of early parental loss. PMID:19309684

Willführ, Kai P

152

Richard Bradley: A Unified, Living Agent Theory of the Cause of Infectious Diseases of Plants, Animals, and Humans in the First Decades of the 18th Century  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the years 1714 to 1721, Richard Bradley, who was later to become the first Professor of Botany at Cambridge University, proposed a unified, unique, living agent theory of the cause of infectious diseases of plants and animals and the plague of humans. Bradley's agents included microscopic organisms, revealed by the studies of Robert Hooke and Antony van Leeuwenhoek. His

Melvin Santer

2009-01-01

153

Pietro Verri’s Contribution to the Economic Theory of the 18th Century: Commercial Society, Civil Society and Governance of the Economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

'Count Pietro Verri (1728-97) - Schumpeter writes (History, p. 178) - - would have to be included in any list of the greatest economists'. Within the Milanese school, he certainly stands out, alongside with Cesare Beccaria, during one of the most interesting periods from a history of analysis point of view. Luigi Cossa's famous introduction to the study of political

Pier Luigi Porta; Roberto Scazzieri

1998-01-01

154

[Vampires in the village Žrnovo on the island of Kor?ula: following an archival document from the 18th century].  

PubMed

The main interest of this essay is the analysis of the document from the State Archive in Venice (file: Capi del Consiglio de' Dieci: Lettere di Rettori e di altre cariche) which is connected with the episode from 1748 when the inhabitants of the village žrnove on the island of Kor?ula in Croatia opened tombs on the local cemetery in the fear of the vampires treating. This essay try to show some social circumstances connected with this event as well as a local vernacular tradition concerning superstitions. PMID:22047480

Coralic, Lovorka; Dugac, Zeljko; Sardelic, Sani

2011-01-01

155

From Poverty to Prosperity: The Impact of Socio-Economic Change on Finnish Elementary Education in the Late 18th and Early 19th Centuries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study describes the private pursuit of improved Finnish elementary education in the time of Gustavus (1771-1808). In those days, the Government did not have enough resources to reorganise the Swedish educational system as a whole; therefore, the most efficient way to promote elementary education was to rely on private initiatives. The…

Ikonen, Risto

2004-01-01

156

[High prevalence of antiHTLV-1 antibodies in the Boni, an ethnic group of African origin isolated in French Guiana since the 18th century].  

PubMed

Antibodies to HTLV-1 (ELISA test using disrupted virus) were studied in different ethnic groups in French Guiana, including 135 blood donors from Cayenne, 97 Boni Blacks and 57 Wayana Indians from Maripasoula area, and 57 Hmong from Cacao village. We observed significant differences between Boni Blacks and Wayana Indians, having respectively 10.3% versus 0% of high antibody titers. The Hmong, recent refugees from Kampuchea, exhibited an intermediate level (3.5%) of infection. These results favour an African origin of HTLV-1 and raise, for the Hmong, the question of an infection acquired in Guiana. PMID:6095973

Gessain, A; Calender, A; Strobel, M; Lefait-Robin, R; de Thé, G

1984-01-01

157

Richard Bradley: a unified, living agent theory of the cause of infectious diseases of plants, animals, and humans in the first decades of the 18th century.  

PubMed

During the years 1714 to 1721, Richard Bradley, who was later to become the first Professor of Botany at Cambridge University, proposed a unified, unique, living agent theory of the cause of infectious diseases of plants and animals and the plague of humans. Bradley's agents included microscopic organisms, revealed by the studies of Robert Hooke and Antony van Leeuwenhoek. His theory derived from his experimental studies of plants and their diseases and from microscopic observation of animalcules in different naturally occurring and artificial environments. He concluded that there was a microscopic world of "insects" that lived and reproduced under the appropriate conditions, and that infectious diseases of plants were caused by such "insects." Since there are structural and functional similarities between plants and animals, Bradley concluded that microscopic organisms caused human and animal infectious diseases as well. However, his living agent cause of infectious diseases was not accepted by the contemporary scientific society. PMID:19855125

Santer, Melvin

2009-01-01

158

From poverty to prosperity: the impact of socio-economic change on finnish elementary education in the late 18th and early 19th centuries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study describes the private pursuit of improved Finnish elementary education in the time of Gustavus (1771–1808). In those days, the Government did not have enough resources to reorganise the Swedish educational system as a whole; therefore, the most efficient way to promote elementary education was to rely on private initiatives. The common course of action was to collect

Risto Ikonen

2004-01-01

159

18th Workshop on Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells and Modules: Materials and Processes; Workshop Proceedings, 3-6 August 2008, Vail, Colorado  

SciTech Connect

The National Center for Photovoltaics sponsored the 18th Workshop on Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells & Modules: Materials and Processes, held in Vail, CO, August 3-6, 2008. This meeting provided a forum for an informal exchange of technical and scientific information between international researchers in the photovoltaic and relevant non-photovoltaic fields. The theme of this year's meeting was 'New Directions for Rapidly Growing Silicon Technologies.'

Sopori, B. L.

2008-09-01

160

ADS Communications: A Cornerstone.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

ADS Communications forms a cornerstone to the applications and communications networks of the 21st century. The need to communicate operational data between an aircraft and the Air Traffic Services is becoming focused and will lead to ever increasing appl...

G. A. Cobley

1991-01-01

161

The Campi Flegrei caldera: historical revision and new data on seismic crises, bradyseisms, the Monte Nuovo eruption and ensuing earthquakes (twelfth century 1582 uc(ad))  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the results of a systematic historical study of the seismic, bradyseismic and eruptive activity of the Campi Flegrei caldera. The aim is to make a revised historical data available for accurate volcanological interpretation, supplying additional data and highlighting spurious previous data. The analysis begins with the supposed 1198 eruption, which did not actually take place. No information is available for the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. As far as the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries are concerned, only direct sources were examined for this paper, and they include many different types of evidence. The chronological breadth of the analysis has also provided information about the seismic crises and bradyseisms prior to the eruption of 1538. The exceptional nature of this 1538 eruption attracted the attention of intellectuals, diplomats and natural philosophers, who left valuable accounts, which we have analysed, and which include many that are still available in their original manuscript form. The previous studies concerning the 1538 eruption were based on 23 (variously used) sources. We have examined 35 additional sources bringing the overall corpus of sources analysed to 58. The results provide a more precise scenario of events preceding the 1538 eruption, including bradyseismic activity starting from the end of the fifteenth century. The chronology of the phenomena described comprises the core result of this study, and has been constructed so as to clarify the time, location and impact of each event. For the 1538 eruption, a countdown is included which may also have a predictive value. For the last 36 hours before eruption began, the countdown is hour-by-hour. The effects of the eruption and earthquakes on people, structures and society are also described for Pozzuoli, Agnano and Naples. The areas where heavy materials and ash fell are likewise indicated, as well are the earth tremors felt by the population from the eruptive crisis up to 1582.

Guidoboni, Emanuela; Ciuccarelli, Cecilia

2010-12-01

162

The Campi Flegrei caldera: historical revision and new data on seismic crises, bradyseisms, the Monte Nuovo eruption and ensuing earthquakes (twelfth century 1582 AD)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the results of a systematic historical study of the seismic, bradyseismic and eruptive activity of the Campi Flegrei caldera. The aim is to make a revised historical data available for accurate volcanological interpretation, supplying additional data and highlighting spurious previous data. The analysis begins with the supposed 1198 eruption, which did not actually take place. No information is available for the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. As far as the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries are concerned, only direct sources were examined for this paper, and they include many different types of evidence. The chronological breadth of the analysis has also provided information about the seismic crises and bradyseisms prior to the eruption of 1538. The exceptional nature of this 1538 eruption attracted the attention of intellectuals, diplomats and natural philosophers, who left valuable accounts, which we have analysed, and which include many that are still available in their original manuscript form. The previous studies concerning the 1538 eruption were based on 23 (variously used) sources. We have examined 35 additional sources bringing the overall corpus of sources analysed to 58. The results provide a more precise scenario of events preceding the 1538 eruption, including bradyseismic activity starting from the end of the fifteenth century. The chronology of the phenomena described comprises the core result of this study, and has been constructed so as to clarify the time, location and impact of each event. For the 1538 eruption, a countdown is included which may also have a predictive value. For the last 36?| hours before eruption began, the countdown is hour-by-hour. The effects of the eruption and earthquakes on people, structures and society are also described for Pozzuoli, Agnano and Naples. The areas where heavy materials and ash fell are likewise indicated, as well are the earth tremors felt by the population from the eruptive crisis up to 1582.

Guidoboni, Emanuela; Ciuccarelli, Cecilia

2011-08-01

163

Floral Resources in Makushin Bay: The Aleuts of the Eighteenth Century, Social Studies Unit, Book III.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This booklet illustrates the major plant resources in Makushin Bay and explains how each plant was used by the 18th-century Aleuts in their daily lives. Seventeen plants are illustrated and identified by their common names and, for many, the Latin names are mentioned, also. The plants represent a variety of habitats that include sandy areas;…

Partnow, Patricia H.

164

A Role for the Business Attorney in the Twenty-First Century: Adding Value to the Client's Enterprise in the Knowledge Economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mr. Gardner explores the evolving role of business lawyers in the knowledge economy and explains how they must add value to clients' business endeavors. Intellectual property law is the central legal framework through which the business attorney will meet increasingly sophisticated client expectations. The attorney's value-adding service will enable the client to make better business decisions based on the attorney's

Peter J. Gardner

2003-01-01

165

Dendroseismology on the central North Anatolian fault; Turkey: Documenting three centuries of surface rupture history using tree rings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tree rings provide a precise dating source for characterizing natural hazards. Specifically, seismogenic disturbances on trees have been successfully documented on major faults such as San Andres fault in California or Denali fault in Alaska. Dendroseismology was employed along a 15-km-long stretch of the central North Anatolian fault (NAF) between Ilgaz and Tosya, Turkey where most recent surface rupturing event was the M7.6 1943 A.D. earthquake. Morphologic documentation and dendrochronologic analyses on 28 Pinus sylvestris trees demonstrated the effects of surface rupture and secondary earthquake deformation. Fourteen trees show similar abrupt growth suppression and accelerated recovery trends following the 1943 A.D. Tosya earthquake. Number of trees yielding positive results, linear spatial distribution of the traumatized trees along the NAF, similarity in the trend of annual ring growth response, and synchronity of these anomalies with the 1943 A.D. earthquake provide robust evidence for the attribution of the observed anomalies and the earthquake. In addition, four trees going back to early 18th century provide evidence for the lack of another surface rupturing large magnitude earthquake through this stretch of the fault. This finding corroborates that the historical 1668 A.D. earthquake is most likely the penultimate event for the Ilgaz-Tosya segment of the NAF.

Kozaci, O.

2011-12-01

166

Dendroseismology on the central North Anatolian fault, Turkey: Documenting three centuries of surface rupture history using tree rings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tree ring analysis provides a precise dating source for characterizing the timing of natural hazards. Specifically, seismogenic disturbances on trees have been successfully documented on major faults such as the San Andreas fault in California and Denali fault in Alaska. In this study, dendroseismology was employed along a 15-km-long stretch of the central North Anatolian fault (NAF) between Ilgaz and Tosya, Turkey where the most recent surface rupturing event was the Mw 7.6 1943 A.D. earthquake. Morphologic documentation and dendrochronologic analyses of 28Pinus sylvestristrees demonstrates the effects of proximal surface rupture and secondary earthquake deformation. Fourteen trees show similar abrupt growth suppression and accelerated recovery trends following the 1943 A.D. Tosya earthquake. The number of trees yielding similar results, the linear spatial distribution of the traumatized trees along the NAF, similarity in the trend of annual ring growth response, and synchronity of these anomalies with the 1943 A.D. earthquake provide robust evidence for the correlation of the observed anomalies and the earthquake. In addition, four trees going back to early 18th century provide evidence for the lack of another surface rupturing large magnitude earthquake along this stretch of the fault. This finding corroborates that the historical 1668 A.D. earthquake is most likely the penultimate event for the Ilgaz-Tosya segment of the NAF.

Kozac?, Ã.-Zgür

2012-01-01

167

American Catholic Schools for the 21st Century: Reflections on the Future of American Catholic Elementary Schools. Volume 1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Catholic schools in the United States today are very different from the Catholic schools that first opened in the 18th and 19th centuries. This handbook is a call to action for all Catholic elementary schools, inviting and challenging all Catholic educators to plan for the future. The volume is the first in a series of handbooks containing essays…

Kealey, Robert J., Ed.

168

Children's books as a commodity: The rise of a new literary subsystem in the eighteenth-century Dutch republic  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes the rise of a new literary subsystem, that of children's books, as an integral part of the Dutch literary field. An analysis was made of the strategies of 18th-century Dutch publishers of children's books. Data on booksellers' lists, patents, and other historic sources, especially newspaper advertisements, made it possible to qualify current assumptions and to describe in

Jeroen Salman

2001-01-01

169

Education and Social Control of the Lower Classes in England in the Second Half of the Eighteenth Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Education for the poor and laboring classes in the latter part of the 18th century was characterized by the goal of maintaining social order and fitting the poor for their duties in the established order of the universe. (Author/DN)

Rosen, Bruce

1974-01-01

170

American Catholic Schools for the 21st Century: Reflections on the Future of American Catholic Elementary Schools. Volume 1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Catholic schools in the United States today are very different from the Catholic schools that first opened in the 18th and 19th centuries. This handbook is a call to action for all Catholic elementary schools, inviting and challenging all Catholic educators to plan for the future. The volume is the first in a series of handbooks containing essays…

Kealey, Robert J., Ed.

171

Fasting Women, Living Skeletons and Hunger Artists: Spectacles of Body and Miracles at the Turn of a Century  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the historically embedded relations of three 19th-century phenomena in which the non-consuming body is constituted as a spectacle of admiration. These three phenomena, known as Fasting Women, Living Skeletons and Hunger Artists, all emerged and disappeared in Europe in the 18th and 19th centuries. Viewing the emergence and disappearance of the three phenomena as embedded in the

SIGAL GOOLDIN

2003-01-01

172

On the variability of return periods of European winter precipitation extremes over the last three centuries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the changes of extreme European winter (December-February) precipitation back to 1700 and show for various European regions that return periods of extremely wet and dry winters are subject to significant changes both before and after the onset of anthropogenic influences. Generally, winter precipitation has become more extreme. We also examine the spatial pattern of the changes of the extremes covering the last 300 years where data quality is sufficient. Over central and Eastern Europe dry winters occurred more frequently during the 18th and the second part of the 19th century relative to 1951-2000. Dry winters were less frequent during both the 18th and 19th century over the British Isles and the Mediterranean. Wet winters have been less abundant during the last three centuries compared to 1951-2000 except during the early 18th century in central Europe. Although winter precipitation extremes are affected by climate change, no obvious connection of these changes was found to solar, volcanic or anthropogenic forcing. However, physically meaningful interpretation with atmospheric circulation changes was possible.

Pauling, A.; Paeth, H.

2007-02-01

173

On the variability of return periods of European winter precipitation extremes over the last five centuries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the changes of extreme European winter (December-February) precipitation over the last half millennium and show for various European regions that return periods of extremely wet and dry winters are subject to significant changes both before and after the onset of anthropogenic influences. Additionally, we examine the spatial pattern of the changes of the extremes covering the last 300 years where data quality is sufficient. Over central and eastern Europe dry winters occurred more frequently during the 18th and the second part of the 19th century relative to 1951-2000. Dry winters were less frequent during both the 18th and 19th century over the British Isles and the Mediterranean. Wet winters have been less abundant during the last three centuries compared to 1951-2000 except during the early 18th century in central Europe. Although winter precipitation extremes are affected by climate change, no obvious connection of these changes was found to solar, volcanic or anthropogenic forcing. However, physically meaningful interpretation with atmospheric circulation changes was possible.

Pauling, A.; Paeth, H.

2006-04-01

174

Francesco Paolo De Ceglia - Rotten Corpses, a Disembowelled Woman, a Flayed Man. Images of the Body from the End of the 17th to the Beginning of the 19th Century. Florentine Wax Models in the First-hand Accounts of Visitors - Perspectives on Science 14:4  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article analyses some of the anatomical waxes in the Museo della Specola in Florence. Executed in at least two different periods in the history of Florentine wax modelling (in the late 17th century and between the 18th and 19th centuries), they project culturally determined images of the body which are analysed from a historico-semiotic perspective. \\

Francesco de Ceglia

2007-01-01

175

Papers and Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Midwest History of Education Society (18th, Chicago, Illinois, October 29-30, 1982).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The papers of this proceedings are organized into four parts : religion and education; the politics of urban education; issues in minority education; and concepts of childhood. The first paper in part 1 "I will Declare What He Hath Done for My Soul: Female Conversion Narratives in the Early Nineteenth Century" (V. L. Brereton) explores the…

Rutkowski, Edward, Ed.

1983-01-01

176

Records of climatic changes and volcanic events in an ice core from Central Dronning Maud Land (East Antarctica) during the past century  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The depth profiles of electrical conductance, ?18O,210Pb and cosmogenic radio isotopes10Be and36Cl have been measured in a 30 m ice core from east Antarctica near the Indian station, Dakshin Gangotri. Using210Pb and ?18O, the mean annual accumulation rates have been calculated to be 20 and 21 cm of ice equivalent per year during the past ˜ 150 years. Using these acumulation rates, the volcanic event that occurred in 1815 AD, has been identified based on electrical conductance measurements. Based on ?18O measurements, the mean annual surface air temperatures (MASAT) data observed during the last 150 years indicates that the beginning of the 19th century was cooler by about 2‡ C than the recent past and the middle of 18th century. The fallout of cosmogenic radio isotope10Be compares reasonably well with those obtained on other stations (73‡ S to 90‡ S) from Antarctica and higher latitudes beyond 77‡N. The fallout of36Cl calculated based on the present work agrees well with the mean global production rate estimated earlier by Lal and Peters (1967). The bomb pulse of36Cl observed in Greenland is not observed in the present studies - a result which is puzzling and needs to be studied on neighbouring ice cores from the same region.

Nijampurkar, V. N.; Rao, D. K.; Clausen, H. B.; Kaul, M. K.; Chaturvedi, A.

2002-03-01

177

American medical students in 19th-century Europe.  

PubMed

Many Americans studied medicine in Britain in the 18th century, but the major influx to Europe began after 1815, when the French Revolution's reforms of health care and medical teaching had reached their zenith. Americans were well trained in France (and later in Germany) in medicine, surgery, pathology and clinical science, and brought these skills back to the US. Their training had been in countries with government-run, relatively egalitarian health care systems. On their return, they did not seek to transplant such a system to the US, but they did introduce European medical science and medical techniques, and something of the European medical education system. PMID:16021322

Baron, Jeremy Hugh

2005-07-01

178

Ad Critic  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Ad Critic strives to enter every television advertisement into its database of online commercials, which can be downloaded for free and viewed with QuickTime. A complete list of advertisements is indexed by company and by ad title. There are, however, also indexes of newly added ads, most-downloaded ads, movie trailers, and music found in ads, making it easier for users to search for a new or favorite advertisement. Ad Critic includes a section on advertising news and commentary and provides services for advertising agencies including online market research and detailed viewer statistics.

179

Exciting AdS Orbifolds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The supersymmetric (AdS3 × S3)\\/Bbb ZN orbifold constructed by the authors in hep-th\\/0106171 is shown to describe AdS fragmentation, where fivebranes are emerging from the F1-NS5 background. The twisted sector moduli of the orbifold are the collective coordinates of groups of n5\\/N fivebranes. We discuss the relation between the descriptions of this background as a perturbative string orbifold and as

Emil J. Martinec; Will McElgin

2002-01-01

180

An Odyssey into the New Millennium: Rediscover 21st Century Business & Marketing Education. Proceedings of the Annual Atlantic Coast Business & Marketing Education Conference (18th, Raleigh, North Carolina, February 15-17, 2001).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The following 13 papers on business and marketing education are included in this document: "Internet Marketing" (Herb Brown, Jerry Kandies); "Disk This . . . Paper Flow on the Go!" (Mary Evans, Wilbur Whitley); "Production and Evaluation of On-Line Tutorials" (Margie Gallagher, Evelyn Farrior, Jane Geissler); "Basic Skills Needed for Entry-Level…

Tucker, Sheila, Ed.

181

The correlates of infant and childhood mortality: A theoretical overview and new evidence from the analysis of longitudinal data of the Bejsce (Poland) parish register reconstitution study of the 18th-20th centuries  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper has two main goals. The first is to review the context for studying infant mortality, which includes a review of the theoretical framework, the covariates used to examine mortality over the first 60 months of life, and the major findings of empirical studies. Second, the paper adds some new empirical evidence that comes from the longitudinal reconstitution of

Krzysztof Tymicki

2009-01-01

182

Leaning tower of Nev'yansk: A metallographic study of the structure of metal produced at the Nev'yansk ironwork and iron-making factory of Akinfii Demidov in 18th century  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The structure of metal of cast-iron and iron parts of the Leaning Tower of Nev’yansk has been studied by metallographic methods. A comparative analysis of the chemical composition of various metal samples and literature data has shown that the quality of the Ural bloomery iron is not inferior to the best samples of European metal (probably, Swedish one) produced in the same period of time. It is demonstrated that the strength properties of the steel samples tested are close to those of the modern St3kp and St4kp steels with a close amount of carbon and silicon.

Rodionov, D. P.; Schastlivtsev, V. M.; Khlebnikova, Yu. V.

2009-07-01

183

High frequency variations of water flux and sediment discharge during the Little Ice Age (1586–1725 AD) in the Rhône Delta (Mediterranean France). Relationship to the catchment basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the 17th and 18th centuries, the Rhône delta recorded high frequency fluctuations in water and sediment influx. These variations resulted from the drastic climatic changes that took place during the Little Ice Age, which were intensified by dense land settlement in the catchment basin. The use of complementary types of information (iconographic and textual archives, photo-interpretation of traces of

G. Arnaud-Fassetta; M. Provansal

1999-01-01

184

Droughts in the Czech Lands, 1090-2012 AD  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper addresses droughts in the Czech Lands in the 1090-2012 AD period, basing its findings on documentary evidence and instrumental records. Various documentary sources were employed for the selection of drought events, which were then interpreted at a monthly level. While the data on droughts before 1500 AD are scarce, the analysis concentrated mainly on droughts after this time. A dry year in 1501-1804 period (i.e. pre-instrumental times) was defined as a calendar year in the course of which dry patterns occurred on at least two consecutive months. Using this definition, 129 dry years were identified (an average of one drought per 2.4 yr). From the 16th to the 18th centuries these figures become 41, 36 and 49 yr respectively, with the prevailing occurrence of dry months from April to September (73.7%). Drought indices - SPEI-1, Z-index and PDSI - calculated for the Czech Lands for April-September describe drought patterns between 1805 and 2012 (the instrumental period). N-year recurrence intervals were calculated for each of the three indices. Using N ? 5 yr, SPEI-1 indicates 40 drought years, Z-index 39 yr and PDSI 47 yr. SPEI-1 and Z-index recorded 100 yr drought in 1834, 1842, 1868, 1947 and 2003 (50 yr drought in 1992). PDSI as an indicator of long-term drought disclosed two important drought periods: 1863-1874 and 2004-2012. The first period was related to a lack of precipitation, the other may be attributed to recent temperature increases without significant changes in precipitation. Droughts from the pre-instrumental and instrumental period were used to compile a long-term chronology for the Czech Lands. The number of years with drought has fluctuated between 26 in 1951-2000 and 16 in 1651-1700. Only nine drought years were recorded between 1641 and 1680, while between 1981 and 2012 the figure was 22 yr. A number of past severe droughts are described in detail: in 1540, 1590, 1616, 1718 and 1719. A discussion of the results centres around the uncertainty problem, the spatial variability of droughts, comparison with tree-ring reconstructions from southern Moravia, and the broader central European context.

Brázdil, R.; Dobrovolný, P.; Trnka, M.; Kotyza, O.; ?ezní?ková, L.; Valášek, H.; Zahradní?ek, P.; Št?pánek, P.

2013-08-01

185

Droughts in the Czech Lands, 1090-2012 AD  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper addresses droughts in the Czech Lands in the 1090-2012 AD period, basing its findings on documentary evidence and instrumental records. Various documentary sources were employed for the selection of drought events, which were then interpreted at a monthly level. While the data on droughts before 1500 AD are scarce, the analysis concentrated mainly on droughts after this time. A dry year in 1501-1804 period (i.e. pre-instrumental times) was defined as a calendar year in the course of which dry patterns occurred on at least two consecutive months. Using this definition, 129 dry years were identified (an average of one drought per 2.4 yr). From the 16th to the 18th centuries these figures become 41, 36 and 49 yr, respectively, with the prevailing occurrence of dry months from April to September (73.7%). Drought indices - SPEI-1, Z-index and PDSI - calculated for the Czech Lands for April-September describe drought patterns between 1805 and 2012 (the instrumental period). N year recurrence intervals were calculated for each of the three indices. Using N ? 5 yr, SPEI-1 indicates 40 drought years, Z-index 39 yr and PDSI 47 yr. SPEI-1 and Z-index recorded 100 yr drought in 1834, 1842, 1868, 1947 and 2003 (50 yr drought in 1992). PDSI as an indicator of long-term drought disclosed two important drought periods: 1863-1874 and 2004-2012. The first period was related to a lack of precipitation, the other may be attributed to recent temperature increases without significant changes in precipitation. Droughts from the pre-instrumental and instrumental period were used to compile a long-term chronology for the Czech Lands. The number of years with drought has fluctuated between 26 in 1951-2000 and 16 in 1651-1700. Only nine drought years were recorded between 1641 and 1680, while between 1981 and 2012 the figure was 22 yr. A number of past severe droughts are described in detail: in 1540, 1590, 1616, 1718 and 1719. A discussion of the results centres around the uncertainty problem, the spatial variability of droughts, comparison with tree-ring reconstructions from southern Moravia, and the broader Central European context.

Brázdil, R.; Dobrovolný, P.; Trnka, M.; Kotyza, O.; ?ezní?ková, L.; Valášek, H.; Zahradní?ek, P.; Št?pánek, P.

2013-05-01

186

Superstrings in AdS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This is a comprehensive review of the worldsheet techniques for the quantization of type IIB superstring theory on the AdS×S5 background, using the pure spinor formalism. Particular emphasis is devoted to AdS/CFT applications, with several examples worked out in detail. The review is self-contained and pedagogical.

Mazzucato, Luca

2012-12-01

187

Making a stand: five centuries of population growth in colonizing populations of Pinus ponderosa.  

PubMed

The processes underlying the development of new populations are important for understanding how species colonize new territory and form viable long-term populations. Life-history-mediated processes such as Allee effects and dispersal capability may interact with climate variability and site-specific factors to govern population success and failure over extended time frames. We studied four disjunct populations of ponderosa pine in the Bighorn Basin of north-central Wyoming to examine population growth spanning more than five centuries. The study populations are separated from continuous ponderosa pine forest by distances ranging from 15 to >100 km. Strong evidence indicates that the initial colonizing individuals are still present, yielding a nearly complete record of population history. All trees in each population were aged using dendroecological techniques. The populations were all founded between 1530 and 1655 cal yr CE. All show logistic growth patterns, with initial exponential growth followed by a slowing during the mid to late 20th century. Initial population growth was slower than expectations from a logistic regression model at all four populations, but increased during the mid-18th century. Initial lags in population growth may have been due to strong Allee effects. A combination of overcoming Allee effects and a transition to favorable climate conditions may have facilitated a mid-18th century pulse in population growth rate. PMID:22764493

Lesser, Mark R; Jackson, Stephen T

2012-05-01

188

THE 21st CENTURY AS WHOSE CENTURY?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Macro-analysis and East-West encounter are shown through consideration of objective yet subjective constructed concepts for the international system and international economy in the 21st century. Three paradigms are considered, namely the 21st century as the 'Pacific Century', as 'China's Century' and as the 'Asian Century'. Overlaps are shown between these three paradigms, as also developments in time, and gradually shift

David Scott

189

'Lazy, slothful and indolent': medical and social perceptions of obesity in Europe to the eighteenth century.  

PubMed

There is a considerable stigma associated with obesity, among healthcare professionals as well as the general population, which often leads to discrimination and weight bias. But why is there a stigma attached to obesity? The origin of this stigma has been identified in the 18th century but its roots lie much further back in history. There is some debate about how this negative perception of obesity arose and the role of medical professionals in its creation. This paper examines both positive and negative conceptions by following three major aspects of the modern stigma through from Palaeolithic statues to the medical texts of ancient Greece and Rome, finishing with the medical and literary sources of the 18th century 'Enlightenment'. The modern perception of obesity originated in the social and scientific climate of the Enlightenment through the combination of three key themes; obesity as conspicuous consumption, associations with suspect morals and excess, and as an outward representation of the soul. The evolution of each of these themes can be clearly identfied in pre-Enlightenment sources. By the eighteenth century, these perceptions became amplified by, and disseminated through, the literary and media boom to create a recognisably modern stigma against the obese. PMID:20527324

Sawbridge, D T; Fitzgerald, R

2009-12-01

190

First illustrations of female "Neurosurgeons" in the fifteenth century by Serefeddin Sabuncuoglu.  

PubMed

Males have dominated medicine for many centuries. Females could not appear in the medical history equally till the end of the 18th century; although they always have been in medicine as healers. It is worth mentioning that first illustrations indicating female surgeons were found in the book written in Turkish by Serefeddin Sabuncuoglu in the 15th century; while Europe was newly waking up from its dark ages and Middle East was under the influence of strict rules of Arabic and Islamic culture. Serefeddin Sabuncuoglu (1385-1470) was the author of the first illustrated surgical textbook Cerrahiyyetu'l-Haniyye (Imperial surgery) in Turkish Literature. Inside miniatures drawn by Serefeddin Sabuncuoglu indicated that the female surgeons, acknowledged "Tabibe", had been allowed to practice alone in Anatolia. Tabibes are illustrated in the miniatures practicing on the management of dead foetus with foetal hydrocephalus and macrocephalus which were the first clues by means of Turkish women in Neurosurgery. PMID:16721484

Bademci, G

2006-04-01

191

Trends in the occurrence of extreme floods in central Europe since A.D. 1000  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Elbe and Oder are major rivers in central Europe, draining basins under low-range mountainous climate. Floods in hydrological summer (May to October) are caused by heavy rainfall, in the winter additionally by thawing snow and breaking river ice. Records of floods in the middle parts of the rivers were constructed using documentary data (mainly the Weikinn sources, which contain also historical flood levels) for the interval up to 1850 and extended to September 2002 using measurements (mainly from the Global Runoff Data Centre). Time resolution of the records is seasonally or better, magnitude resolution is set coarse (3 classes: minor, strong, exceptionally strong) to achieve robustness, start of observations is A.D. 1021 (Elbe) and A.D. 1269 (Oder). Homogeneity is assessed as good since A.D. 1500, also across 1850. Results are robust as regards magnitude classes. Elbe and Oder floods show a clear seasonal dependence, with winter floods occurring mainly in February to March (Elbe, Oder) and summer floods in June to July (Elbe) or August (Oder). Winter floods before 1850 were usually connected with a frozen river, whereas for the interval 1930 to 1970 that was rarely the case. A peak-over-threshold approach and kernel estimation (Gaussian with ? = 35 years), treating the flood data as realisations of an inhomogeneous Poisson process, allowed detailed inspection of time-dependent flood occurrence rates and to assess significant changes with the help of bootstrap confidence bands. The main result is the absence of increasing trends in occurrence rate in the last decades (summer, Elbe and Oder) and the significant downward trend (winter, Elbe and Oder), despite the recent heavy floods (Elbe, August 2002; Oder, July 1997). This was corroborated using the statistical test of Cox and Lewis (1966). We link reduced winter flood occurrence to fewer freezing events, itself caused by warming or pollution of river waters. A significant low of Elbe winter flood occurrence at around 1700 may reflect cold and dry Late Maunder Minimum climate. Major river regulations (mid-18th to mid-19th century), directed towards better navigability, had little or even adverse (increasing) effect. The limited correlation (r=0.3) between Elbe and Oder floods during 1500 to 2002 means that orographic differences between catchment areas are effective. To evaluate future trends using coupled atmospheric-hydrological models, this indicates that a rather high spatial resolution is required.

Mudelsee, M.; Börngen, M.; Tetzlaff, G.

2003-04-01

192

The 18th Project Integration Meeting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Progress in the low cost solar array project during the period February to July 1981 is reported. Included are: (1) project analysis and integration; (2) technology development in silicon material, large area silicon sheer and encapsulation; (3) process development; (4) engineering, and operations.

1981-07-01

193

19th Century Advertising History  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

During the 19th century, one of the most consistently popular American periodicals was Harper's Weekly, an illustrated paper whose circulation was well in excess of over 100,000 on a regular basis. This fine site highlights some of the many creative and inventive advertisements that were prominently displayed in the periodical during the 19th and early 20th centuries. The project was the brainchild of John Adler, a longtime history buff, who came across a complete set of the periodical for the period from 1857 to 1916. On the site visitors can browse through advertisements for appliances, insurance, foreign travel, farm land, and various medicinal potions. The selection of ads includes one for "pain paint," which begins with a brief doggerel that includes a mention of the impeachment of President Andrew Johnson in 1868.

194

The heat kernel on AdS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We explicitly evaluate the heat kernel for the Laplacian of arbitrary spin tensor fields on the thermal quotient of (Euclidean) AdS N for N ? 3 using the group theoretic techniques employed for AdS 3 in arXiv:0911.5085. Our approach is general and can be used, in principle, for other quotients as well as other symmetric spaces.

Gopakumar, Rajesh; Gupta, Rajesh Kumar; Lal, Shailesh

2011-11-01

195

Les Mains de Michel-Ange : How eighteenth-century connoisseurs made sense of the artist's hand.  

PubMed

This article focuses on a drawing, regarded by 18(th)-century amateurs as a masterpiece by Michelangelo, and serves as a point of departure to illuminate the amateur's fascination with the artist's hand. This self-referential representation of the artistic process attracted much comment among connoisseurs. As virtually all amateurs had their say on the meaning of « les mains de Michel-Ange » the drawing sheds further light on the objects of desire which informed the amateur's discourse and the mediality such discourse needed in order to join word and image. PMID:21424354

Rees, Joachim

2011-03-01

196

Effects of Syn-Pandemic Reforestation on Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide From 1500 to 1700 A.D.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent analysis of paleoclimate proxies suggests that biomass burning by humans during the past eight millennia produced quantities of CO2 sufficient to counteract the effects of decreasing insolation driven by orbital variations and thus prevented ice sheet expansion. Correlation between periods of declining population and biomass burning, such as implied by the synchroneity of the American pandemics and decreasing atmospheric CO2 concentration during the 16th-18th centuries, provides an important test of the extent to which pre-industrial anthropogenic activity affected the atmospheric greenhouse gas budget. Numerous studies have attributed the ~5 ppm decline of atmospheric CO2 concentration, as well as the synchronous ~0.1 per mil increase of the ?13C of atmospheric CO2 between 1500 and 1700 A.D., to the effects of Little Ice Age cooling. However, this interpretation is not supported by recent multiproxy-based surface temperature reconstructions, which demonstrate a diminutive global temperature anomaly of ~0.1 C that was unlikely to have independently produced the distinct effect observed in atmospheric CO2 concentration. Alternatively, it is possible that a decline in CO2 concentration driven by massive reforestation produced cooling as a by-product. The timing and magnitude of changes in both the concentration and carbon-isotope composition of atmospheric CO2 recorded by globally distributed climate proxies from the tropics (sponges), temperate latitudes (tree rings), and polar regions (ice cores) are compatible with fixation of >10 Gt C due to reforestation. Reforestation, which explains pre-industrial atmospheric CO2 variations between 1500 and 1700 A.D. in a manner more consistent with the global surface temperature record than explanations requiring substantial cooling, presumably occurred on lands that were cultivated and seasonally burned, then subsequently abandoned, by indigenous Americans who perished in pandemics during European conquest. The present proxy data point to reforestation in the wake of the American pandemic, with its consequent affects on atmospheric CO2, as unique in human history. These findings redefine the duration and extent of human activities affecting composition of the atmosphere during the past millennium. The anthropogenic influence on the partial pressure of atmospheric CO2 since ~1800 A.D. is well documented by the exponential rise in concentration and simultaneous decline in ?13C of atmospheric CO2, but these recent trends represent dramatic reversals in the behavior of atmospheric CO2 concentration and ?13C prior to the Industrial Revolution between 1500 and 1700. During this time the concentration of atmospheric CO2 decreased and its ?13C increased due to land use changes resulting from pandemics that killed ~90% of the indigenous American population (~50 million people).

Nevle, R. J.; Bird, D. K.

2005-12-01

197

On Fish in Manasollasa (c. 1131 AD)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We came across a very interesting description of fishing for royal recreation in the 12 th century compendium in Sanskrit titled Abhilashitarthachintamani or Manasollasa and authored by the Western Chalukya King Someshvardeva (1126-1138 AD). The text includes description of 35 kinds of marine and fresh water fishes, each with a distinct name, the feeds provided to few fishes, and the

Nalini Sadhale; Y L Nene; Hardikar Bagh

2005-01-01

198

Per aspirin ad astra...  

PubMed

Taking the 110th anniversary of marketing of aspirin as starting point, the almost scary toxicological profile of aspirin is contrasted with its actual use experience. The author concludes that we are lucky that, in 1899, there was no regulatory toxicology. Adding, for the purpose of this article, a fourth R to the Three Rs, i.e. Realism, three reality-checks are carried out. The first one comes to the conclusion that the tools of toxicology are hardly adequate for the challenges ahead. The second one concludes that, specifically, the implementation of the EU REACH system is not feasible with these tools, mainly with regard to throughput. The third one challenges the belief that classical alternative methods, i.e. replacing animal test-based tools one by one, is actually leading to a new toxicology - it appears to change only patches of the patchwork, but not to overcome any inherent limitations other than ethical ones. The perspective lies in the Toxicology for the 21st Century initiatives, which aim to create a new approach from the scratch, by an evidence-based toxicology and a global "Human Toxicology Programme". PMID:20105011

Hartung, Thomas

2009-12-01

199

A soliton menagerie in AdS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We explore the behaviour of charged scalar solitons in asymptotically global AdS4 spacetimes. This is motivated in part by attempting to identify under what circumstances such objects can become large relative to the AdS length scale. We demonstrate that such solitons generically do get large and in fact in the planar limit smoothly connect up with the zero temperature limit of planar scalar hair black holes. In particular, for given Lagrangian parameters we encounter multiple branches of solitons: some which are perturbatively connected to the AdS vacuum and surprisingly, some which are not. We explore the phase space of solutions by tuning the charge of the scalar field and changing scalar boundary conditions at AdS asymptopia, finding intriguing critical behaviour as a function of these parameters. We demonstrate these features not only for phenomenologically motivated gravitational Abelian-Higgs models, but also for models that can be consistently embedded into eleven dimensional supergravity.

Gentle, Simon A.; Rangamani, Mukund; Withers, Benjamin

2012-05-01

200

Magnetic Monopoles in AdS  

SciTech Connect

Applications to holographic theories have led to some recent interest in magnetic monopoles in four-dimensional Anti-de Sitter (AdS) spacetime. Some analytic and numerical results are discussed for monopoles in AdS, including the symmetries of minimal energy monopoles (which are often Platonic), a connection to Skyrmions, and the emergence of a hexagonal lattice in the large charge limit.

Sutcliffe, Paul [Department of Mathematical Sciences, Durham University, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom)

2011-09-22

201

Welcome To Century Village  

Microsoft Academic Search

Welcome to Century Village is a collection of short stories narrated by second and third generation Jewish Americans living in South Florida. All of the stories are told in first-person, in a distinctly Yiddish idiom. Most of the stories in the collection are about elderly Jews living in Building E of Century Village, a retirement community in Boca Raton and

Dan Melzer

2003-01-01

202

MBA: The First Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book traces the development of the curriculum, the objectives, the popularity, and the reputation of graduate business programs during the 20th century, the first century of the MBA degree. The chapters are: (1) "Getting Started: Before 1910"; (2) "1910-1918: Searching for a Curriculum"; (3) "1919-1922: Explosive Growth, Descriptive Era"; (4)…

Daniel, Carter A.

203

AdBlockVideo  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Video ads can be quite a nuisance. AdBlockVideo can help users out by effectively blocking such ads. Visitors will need to download the program and they can toggle AdBlockVideo on and off as they see fit. This application is compatible with computers running Windows 98 and newer, Max OS 10.3 and newer, and Linux.

2011-01-01

204

AdS orbifolds and Penrose limits  

SciTech Connect

In this paper we study the Penrose limit of AdS{sub 5} orbifolds. The orbifold can be either in the pure spatial directions or space and time directions. For the AdS{sub 5}/{Lambda} x S{sup 5} spatial orbifold we observe that after the Penrose limit we obtain the same result as the Penrose limit of AdS{sub 5} x S{sup 5}/{Lambda}. We identify the corresponding BMN operators in terms of operators of the gauge theory on R x S{sup 3}/{Lambda}. The semi-classical description of rotating strings in these backgrounds have also been studied. For the spatial AdS orbifold we show that in the quadratic order the obtained action for the fluctuations is the same as that in S{sup 5} orbifold, however, the higher loop correction can distinguish between two cases.

Alishahiha, Mohsen; Sheikh-Jabbari, Mohammad M.; Tatar, Radu

2002-12-09

205

A record of ENSO variability in the Western Pacific Warm Pool during the 19th century  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is the largest source of interannual climate variability on Earth and influences climate worldwide via teleconnections. ENSO variability during much of the 20th century is well documented through instrumental and proxy climate records. Prior to the 20th century, records from key ENSO sensitive regions and with the appropriate resolution are sparse. We present a monthly resolved coral Sr/Ca-SST record from Vanuatu with the goal of enhancing our understanding of the natural variability of the ENSO system during the late 18th and 19th centuries. This record fills in critical missing sections of the coral-based ENSO record from the early 19th century and earlier. The chronology of the core, extracted from a live Porites coral at Sabine Bank, Vanuatu (~166° E, 16° S) in 2007, was established by annual band counting. Calibration of the Sr/Ca-SST proxy is enhanced by the existence of an in situ thermistor dataset. These in situ data are used to scale SST data from gridded SST data products. ENSO warm phase events in the 20th century, as identified in instrumental records, are well recorded in our coral Sr/Ca-SST record. We use this relationship to established criteria for defining ENSO warm phase events in the pre-20th century portion of our coral record. We identify several ENSO warm phase events in the 19th century, some with SST anomalies comparable to those of the events of ‘82/’83 and ‘97/’98. Many of the ENSO warm phase events identified in our coral records are consistent in timing with those noted from the historical record.

Gorman, M. K.; Quinn, T. M.; Taylor, F. W.; Dunn, E. M.; Cabioch, G.; Ballu, V.; Maes, C.; Austin, J. A.; Saustrup, S.; Pelletier, B.

2010-12-01

206

Changing climatic and anthropogenic influences on the Bermejo wetland, through archival documents - Mendoza, Argentina, 16th-20th centuries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The wrong management of watering in the highest zones of the Mendoza northern oasis, the topography of the terrain and the deficient drainage, together with neotectonics phenomena, but mostly a dramatic and progressive increase of the Rio Mendoza flow volume originated the expansion of the wetlands area at the NE of the city of Mendoza at the turn of the 18th century, while in previous centuries it had retracted to a minimum. The area grew until reaching the dimension of large wetlands in the lowest oasis zones, resulting from a larger runoff and soil saturation by the rise of the phreatic layers. This situation remained throughout the 19th century, affecting the extension and use of the available land for human activity. The purpose of this study was to research this process that culminated in 1930 with the partial desiccation of the area. We have given particular importance to the influence of the climatic fluctuations in the Cordillera de los Andes and to the consequent variations of the Rio Mendoza flow volume in this process. For the analysis we used snowfall series at the cordillera and flow volume of the Rio Mendoza, built by Prieto (2009) with documental data. We analyzed which were the mediate and immediate consequences of the growth and later desiccation of the wetlands over the environment and its present repercussion on the ecosystem (salinization, poor soil drainage, soil alkalinization, sedimentation). In addition, we have also worked over georeferenced historic charts that partially reflect the behavior of the Cienaga del Bermejo during the 18th, 19th and 20th centuries. This behavior characterized by "growth pulses" and retraction moments is reflected in the analyzed charts, where those moments of major growth coincide with cycles of bigger snowstorms and larger flow volume in the Rio Mendoza.

Prieto, M. R.; Rojas, F.

2011-11-01

207

Matrix Models of AdS Gravity  

Microsoft Academic Search

We explore the connection between anti-deSitter supergravity and gauge\\u000atheory, in the context of bound states of many D1 and D5 branes. The\\u000anear-horizon $AdS_3$ supergravity describes the identity sector of the\\u000aconformal field theory produced by the brane dynamics. A variant of anomaly\\u000ainflow (for the 2d conformal anomaly) is involved. Dynamical matter fields on\\u000a$AdS_3$ couple to the

Emil J. Martinec

1998-01-01

208

Polynesia and polygenism: the scientific use of travel literature in the early 19th century.  

PubMed

Christoph Meiners (1747-1810) was one of 18th-century Europe's most important readers of global travel literature, and he has been credited as a founder of the disciplines of ethnology and anthropology. This article examines a part of his final work, "Untersuchungen über die Verschiedenheiten der Menschennaturen" [Inquiries on the differences of human natures], published posthumously in the 1810s. Here Meiners developed an elaborate argument, based on empirical evidence, that the different races of men emerged indigenously at different times and in different places in natural history. Specifically this article shows how a sedentary scholar who never left Europe constructed a narrative of human origins and migrations on the basis of (1) French theory from the 1750s (Charles de Brosses and Simon Pelloutier) and (2) data gathered by explorers as reported in travel literature (J.R. Forster, Pérouse, Cook, Marsden). PMID:19999832

Carhart, Michael C

2009-04-01

209

AdS2 D-branes in Lorentzian AdS3  

Microsoft Academic Search

The boundary states for two dimensional anti de Sitter (AdS2) Dirichlet-branes (D-branes) in Lorentzian AdS3 space-time are presented. AdS2 D-branes are algebraically defined by twisted Dirichlet boundary conditions and are located on twisted conjugacy classes of SL(2,R). Using the free-field representation of symmetry currents in the SL(2,R) Wess-Zumino-Novikov-Witten model, the twisted Dirichlet gluing conditions among currents are translated to matching

Cemsinan Deliduman; Feza Gursey

2003-01-01

210

AdFlip.com  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Here's a site that's both fun and useful to students of American pop culture. Billing itself "the world's largest searchable database of classic print ads," AdFlip may be keyword searched or browsed by several methods. The ads are indexed by category (automotive, electronic, fashion, etc.), decade (1940s to current), and several specialty categories (ad as art, famous, advocacy, provocative [a few nudes here], today's top ten). Each collection of ads (presented as thumbnails) can be displayed by date, name, or ID number. Each of the decade collections can be further refined by a number of categories, such as automotive manufacturers, women's fashion, alcohol, and furniture and appliances, among others.

211

BadAds  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The creators of BadAds believe that advertising has become far too intrusive in American lives. Along with TV, magazine, radio ads, and billboards, advertisements and commercials are popping up in movie theatres, schools, public bathrooms, and even on stickers on fruit. Four criteria determine whether advertising is intrusive: an inability to turn the ad off; its entrance into your home without your consent; your lack of choice whether or not to watch it; and ads that don't support anything in particular and may actually cost you money. Rather than just venting about intrusive advertising, BadAds urges visitors to become active in the fight against bad ads by writing complaint letters to a host of venues that support intrusive advertising including movie theaters, sporting venues, television networks, and the heads of educational institutions. BadAds offers instructions on writing complaint letters as well as many suggestions as to who should receive these letters.

212

Magnetic catalysis in AdS4  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the formation of fermion condensates in anti-de Sitter space. In particular, we describe a novel version of magnetic catalysis that arises for fermions in asymptotically AdS4 geometries which cap off in the infrared with a hard wall. We show that in the presence of a magnetic field, a \\langle \\bar{\\psi }\\gamma ^5\\psi \\rangle condensate develops in the bulk, spontaneously breaking CP symmetry. From the perspective of the dual boundary theory, this corresponds to a strongly coupled version of d = 2 + 1 magnetic catalysis.

Bolognesi, Stefano; Tong, David

2012-10-01

213

Boson stars in AdS spacetime  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We construct boson stars in global anti-de Sitter (AdS) space and study their stability. Linear perturbation results suggest that the ground state along with the first three excited state boson stars are stable. We evolve some of these solutions and study their nonlinear stability in light of recent work , arguing that a weakly turbulent instability drives scalar perturbations of AdS to black hole formation. However, evolutions suggest that boson stars are nonlinearly stable and immune to the instability for sufficiently small perturbation. Furthermore, these studies find other families of initial data which similarly avoid the instability for sufficiently weak parameters. Heuristically, we argue that initial data families with widely distributed mass energy distort the spacetime sufficiently to oppose the coherent amplification favored by the instability. From the dual CFT perspective our findings suggest that there exist families of rather generic initial conditions in strongly coupled CFT (with large number of degrees of freedom) that do not thermalize in the infinite future.

Buchel, Alex; Liebling, Steven L.; Lehner, Luis

2013-06-01

214

Winter temperature variations over the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River since 1736 AD  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present statistically reconstructed mean annual winter (December-February) temperatures from the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River (24° N-34° N, 108° E-123° E within mainland China) extending back to 1736. The reconstructions are based on information regarding snowfall days from historical documents of the Yu-Xue-Fen-Cun archive recorded during the Qing Dynasty (1644-1911). This information is calibrated with regional winter temperature series spanning the period from 1951 to 2007. The gap from 1912 to 1950 is filled using early instrumental observations. With the reference period of 1951-2007, the 18th century was 0.76 °C colder, and the 19th century was 1.18 °C colder. However, since the 20th century, the climate has been in a warming phase, particularly in the last 30 yr, and the mean temperature from 1981 to 2007 was 0.25 °C higher than that of the reference period of 1951-2007, representing the highest temperatures of the past 300 yr. Uncertainty existed for the period prior to 1900, and possible causes of this uncertainty, such as physical processes involved in the interaction between temperature and snowfall days and changing of observers, are discussed herein.

Hao, Z.-X.; Zheng, J.-Y.; Ge, Q.-S.; Wang, W.-C.

2012-06-01

215

Southeast Asian Mega-Droughts of the Past 5 Centuries from Tree Rings and Historical Records  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The need for understanding the natural range of climate variability in the monsoon regions of Asia - among the worldês most heavily populated and most dependent on agriculture - is critical for making sound planning decisions in the face of expected hydrological changes associated with global climate change. As part of a US National Science Foundation-funded project (Tree Ring Reconstructions of Asian Monsoon Climate Variability) we have produced climate-responsive tree-ring records from tropical Asia that span the past five centuries. We find compelling evidence for 18th century decadal-scale summer monsoon droughts that span from India to Vietnam. Historical records corroborate that periods of severe drought occurred across much of the region during this time, while speleothem and coral records suggest multiple decadal-scale droughts for much of the Little Ice Age period in India, and elevated Sea Surface Temperature (SST) during the 18th century for much of the tropical Pacific, respectively. Tropical Pacific SST anomalies are seen as one key component to monsoon variability over the study region, with El Ni?o and La Ni?a like conditions resulting in rainfall reductions and increases, respectively, with corresponding opposite-sign anomalies across much of western North America. Persistent anomaly trends in the SST fields can result in the kinds of decadal-scale variability our studies suggest, although this is not the entire story. We explore the role of the Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation (IPO), first defined in 1999 as a Pacific-wide measure of variability that is physically distinct from both the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) and the El Ni?o Southern Oscillation (ENSO), in contributing to protracted -mega-droughts" in the region related to weakening monsoon strength, as suggested by recent research. Interestingly, near-millennium-aged conifers from Vietnam and Laos have been located and much longer records are now being constructed. Of great interest is the period of the late 14th and early 15th centuries when a very week monsoon is thought to have occurred, possibly contributing to the demise of the Angkor Wat civilization in Cambodia.

Buckley, B. M.

2007-12-01

216

Twentieth-century Authors  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

College and Research Library News has posted this new annotated directory to aid students and researchers working with English literature of the twentieth century. This site focuses on major English-language writers, offering mainly "biographical and bibliographic information, with some information on literary criticism."

217

Aeronautical ad hoc networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been an enormous growth in mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) in land based small to medium size networks with relatively strict power and resources. In this paper the concept of ad hoc networking between aircraft is introduced, which can be considered as a novel approach in increasing the data rate and practicality of future in-flight broadband Internet access.

Ehssan Sakhaee; Abbas Jamalipour; Nei Kato

2006-01-01

218

Advances on the Understanding of the Origins of Synaptic Pathology in AD  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although Alzheimer's disease (AD) was first discovered a century ago, we are still facing a lack of definitive diagnosis during the patient's lifetime and are unable to prescribe a curative treatment. However, the past 10 years have seen a \\

Pascale Nathalie Lacor

2007-01-01

219

Nineteenth Century Children's Literature  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This database, maintained by the publishing house of Chadwyck-Healey, Ltd., provides searchable records of the British Library's Children's Literature collection, which contains 2,369 titles on 5,527 fiches. Search parameters include title and complete record keyword, author, subject, publisher, year(s) of publication, microfiche number, and number of records retrieved. (Users may also browse possible search terms for each parameter.) Each entry gives a full bibliographic record for the individual text, including author, uniform title, imprint, place and date of publication, pagination, copy-specific notes, British Library shelfmark, and Fiche quantity and number. The site is part of The Nineteenth Century, a larger collection from Chadwyck-Healey and the British Library that catalogs an impressive array of nineteenth-century texts useful for historical and cultural studies.

220

Treatise on the Clothes and Uniforms of the 18th Century: A Guide to the Use and Understanding of the Reproduction Clothing at Guilford Courthouse National Military Park for the General Use of the NPS Interpreter Involved in the Park's Living History Program. Living History Manual.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

One of the most important parts of any effective 'living history' type program is the clothing worn by the interpreter. It is the clothing that first catches the attention of the visitor and properly stages the entire presentation. The strangeness and the...

1968-01-01

221

Gottfried Kirch (1639-1710) and astronomy in Berlin in the 18th century. Contributions of the colloquium held in Berlin-Treptow on March 6, 2010 (German Title: Gottfried Kirch (1639-1710) und die Berliner Astronomie im 18. Jahrhundert.) Beiträge des Kolloquiums am 6. März 2010 in Berlin-Treptow  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The contributions of this volume are dedicated to Gottfried Kirch (1639-1710), the first Berlin astronomer, on the occasion of the 300th anniversary of his death. They deal with the astronomy of his times and developments in later times, which are connected to his work. The papers deal with the following topics: The instrumental equipment of Berlin Observatory at the time of G. Kirch and its modernisation up to around 1780; the instruments of Johann Makob Marioni's Viennese observatory around 1730; the heraldic celestial globe by Kirch's teacher Erhard Weigel. In addition, they deal with Kirch's share in the propagation of ideas of the Enlightenment, and with the Berlin meteorological record and its consequences for the investigation of anthropogenous climatic changes. They also deal with astronomical topics in the exchange of letters between Leonhard Euler and Daniel Bernoulli, and with the Berlin "Astronomisches Jahrbuch", which is based on Kirch's activities, as a biographical source.

Hamel, Jürgen

2010-12-01

222

Japan ADS Program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has been proceeding with the research and development on accelerator-driven system (ADS) for the transmutation of long-lived radioactive nuclides. The ADS proposed by JAEA is a lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE) cooled fast subcritical core with 800 MWth. Various activities were conducted to investigate the feasibility of the ADS from viewpoints of the accelerator, LBE handling technology, minor actinide bearing fuel and subcritical core design. The design study and discussion of effective application on the Transmutation Experimental Facility (TEF) was also continued under a framework of J-PARC (Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex) project.

Sasa, Toshinobu

2010-06-01

223

A century of antivenom.  

PubMed

Because it primarily affects the poor in undeveloped parts of the world where medical care is often inadequate and insufficient, envenomation is considered a neglected public health issue, despite the existence of antivenom therapy for more than a century. This article provides an overview of the epidemiological situation for important venomous animals, together with achievements in the production, control, technological progress and safety of antivenoms since their discovery. PMID:21667541

Lovrecek, Dijana; Tomi?, Sinisa

2011-03-01

224

Product Claim Ad (Correct)  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

... Product claim ads may provide sources of ... the basic concepts related to drug advertising. ... consumers about DTC prescription drug advertisements. ... More results from www.fda.gov/drugs/resourcesforyou/consumers

225

Ad Hoc Advisors  

Cancer.gov

The Long Island Breast Cancer Study Project (LIBCSP) had an Ad Hoc Advisory Committee of expert scientists and community breast cancer advocates. This committee was chaired by Dr. Mimi C. Yu. The committee met annually or as needed.

226

Reminder Ad (Correct)  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

... Notice that neither allergies nor any allergy symptoms are ... This site was developed as a collaborative effort between FDA and EthicAd to ... More results from www.fda.gov/drugs/resourcesforyou/consumers

227

Avionics Diagnostic System (ADS).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The presentation will provide system design including a description of the commands, outputs and diagnostic capabilities provided by the ADS we created. Issues and decisions will also be described as will thoughts on potential new features that could be a...

T. Risko

1999-01-01

228

ADS and its Potential  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accelerator driven systems offer the possibility to make nuclear fission energy sustainable and acceptable to society. The Energy Amplifier proposed by Carlo Rubbia at CERN is used to illustrate the potential of ADS, and the resulting R&D activity wave it triggered in Europe and in the world is briefly discussed. ADS must be part of the strategy to provide clean, safe and abundant energy for a harmonious development of society.

Revol, Jean-Pierre

2010-06-01

229

AdS backgrounds from black hole horizons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We utilize the classification of IIB horizons with 5-form flux to present a unified description for the geometry of AdSn, n = 3, 5, 7 solutions. In particular, we show that all such backgrounds can be constructed from eight-dimensional 2-strong Calabi-Yau geometries with torsion which admit some additional isometries. We explore the geometry of AdS3 and AdS5 solutions but we do not find AdS7 solutions.

Gran, U.; Gutowski, J.; Papadopoulos, G.

2013-03-01

230

Hadronization at the AdS wall  

SciTech Connect

We describe hadronization events, using the AdS/CFT Correspondence, which display many of the qualitative features expected in QCD. In particular we study the motion of strings with separating end points in a back-reacted hard wall geometry. The solutions show the development of a linear QCD-like string. The end points oscillate in the absence of string breaking. We introduce string breaking by hand and evolve the new state forward in time to observe the separation of two string segments. A kink associated with this breaking evolves to the end points of the string inducing rho meson production. We explicitly compute the rho meson production at the end point.

Evans, Nick; French, James; Threlfall, Ed [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, Southampton, SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Jensen, Kristan [Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States)

2010-03-15

231

Multi-century variability in the Pacific North American circulation pattern reconstructed from tree rings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We here present a reconstruction (1725-1999) of the winter Pacific North American (PNA) pattern based on three winter climate sensitive tree ring records from the western USA. Positive PNA phases in our record are associated with warm phases of ENSO and PDO and the reorganization of the PNA pattern towards a positive mode is strongest when ENSO and PDO are in phase. Regime shifts in our PNA record correspond to climatic shifts in other proxies of Pacific climate variability, including two well-documented shifts in the instrumental period (1976 and 1923). The correspondence breaks down in the early 19th century, when our record shows a prolonged period of positive PNA, with a peak in 1800-1820. This period corresponds to a period of low solar activity (Dalton Minimum), suggesting a `positive PNA like' response to decreased solar irradiance. The distinct 30-year periodicity that dominates the PNA reconstruction in the 18th century and again from 1875 onwards is disrupted during this period.

Trouet, Valerie; Taylor, Alan H.

2010-11-01

232

Ad Hoc Routing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chapter 1 presented multi-hop communication as one of the opportunities to reduce the energy consumption of the devices, thus extending their lifetime. The development of efficient multi-hop routing protocols is therefore a fundamental aspect for the successful deployment of wireless ad hoc networks. However, routing in wireless ad hoc networks is fundamentally different from the apparently similar problem in wired networks, because bandwidth is scarce and topology changes frequently. This raises a double challenge for multi-hop routing in wireless ad hoc networks: nodes are less powerful and routing is more difficult. Given this fact, it is not surprising to observe that multi-hop routing has been one of the most active fields of research in MANETs.

Araujo, Filipe; Miranda, Hugo

233

The management century.  

PubMed

In 1886, addressing the nascent American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Henry R. Towne proposed that "the management of works" be considered a modern art--thereby heralding the Management Century, when management as we know it came into being and shaped the world in which we work. Kiechel, a past editorial director of Harvard Business Publishing, elucidates the three eras that punctuate this period: the years leading up to World War II, during which scientific exactitude gave wings to a new managerial elite; the early postwar decades, managerialism's apogee of self-confidence and a time when wartime principles of strategy were adapted, sometimes ruthlessly, to the running of companies; and the 1980s to the present, years that saw fast-moving changes, disequilibrium, and a servitude to market forces but also ushered in globalism, unprecedented innovation, and heightened expectations about how workers are to be treated. Along the way he examines the contributions of thinkers such as Frederick Taylor, Elton Mayo, Peter Drucker, and Michael Porter. What lies ahead? Perhaps the biggest challenge facing the 21st-century company, Kiechel posits, is to truly free the spark of human imagination from the organization's tidal pull toward the status quo. There's almost always a better way, he concludes--and management will continue to seek it. PMID:23155998

Kiechel, Walter

2012-11-01

234

AdS bubbles, entropy and closed string tachyons  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the conjectured connection between AdS bubbles (AdS solitons) and closed string tachyon condensations. We confirm that the entanglement entropy, which measures the degree of freedom, decreases under the tachyon condensation. The entropies in supergravity and free Yang-Mills agree with each other remarkably. Next we consider the tachyon condensation on the AdS twisted circle and argue that its endpoint

Tatsuma Nishioka; Tadashi Takayanagi

2007-01-01

235

The 18th Annual Condensed Matter Physics Meeting  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Handbook contains abstracts of oral and poster presentations covering various aspects of condensed matter physics such as magnetism, superconductivity, semiconductor materials and their properties, as well as the use of nuclear techniques in studies of these materials. 162 contributions have been considered to be in the INIS subject scope and were indexed separately.

Don Chaplin; Wayne Hutchinson; Nick Yazidjoglou; Glen Stewart

1994-01-01

236

The 18th International Workshop on Vertex detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Yearly workshop on vertex detectors and related techniques. All presentations are plenary and will cover running LHC experiments, Performance and Alignment, Radiation Hardness, Pixel Detectors, Electronics, sLHC Developments, Space and Medical applications and Enabling Technologies.

237

Medical Electricity and Madness in the 18th Centur y  

Microsoft Academic Search

Benjamin Franklin had at least two accidents that resulted in elec- tricity passing through his brain. In addition, he witnessed a patient's similar accident and performed an experiment that showed how humans could endure shocks to the head without serious ill effects, other than amnesia. Jan Ingenhousz, Franklin's Dutch- born medical correspondent better known for his discovery of photosynthesis, also

Jan Ingenhousz; Sherry Ann Beaudreau; Stanley Finger

2006-01-01

238

Innovations Without Added Costs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is no question that we are in a tight money market, and schools are among the first institutions to feel the squeeze. Therefore, when a plan is offered that provides for innovations without added costs, its something worth noting. (Editor)

Cereghino, Edward

1974-01-01

239

Ad Hoc Distributed Simulations  

Microsoft Academic Search

An ad hoc distributed simulation is a collection of autonomous on-line simulations, each modeling some portion of a larger physical system, that are brought together through a mobile, wireless network to predict future states of the overall system. Unlike conventional distributed simulations that are designed in a largely top-down fashion by partitioning the physical system and mapping each element to

Richard M. Fujimoto; Michael Hunter; Jason Sirichoke; Mahesh Palekar; Hoe Kyoung Kim; Wonho Suh

2007-01-01

240

Ad Astra Magazine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Ad Astra ("To the Stars") is the award-winning magazine of the National Space Society. It features space exploration news and full-color photography. It is published quarterly and mailed to all National Space Society members as part of their membership benefits, as well as to subscriber libraries, schools, and businesses.

2005-04-25

241

ADS in a Nutshell  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The bibliographic databases maintained by the NASA Astrophysics Data System are updated approximately biweekly with records gathered from over 125 sources all over the world. Data are either sent to us electronically, retrieved by our staff via semi-automated procedures, or entered in our databases through supervised OCR procedures. PERL scripts are run on the data to convert them from their incoming format to our standard format so that they can be added to the master database at SAO. Once new data has been added, separate index files are created for authors, objects, title words, and text word, allowing these fields to be searched for individually or in combination with each other. During the indexing procedure, discipline-specific knowledge is taken into account through the use of rule-based procedures performing string normalization, context-sensitive word translation, and synonym and stop word replacement. Once the master text and index files have been updated at SAO, an automated procedure mirrors the changes in the database to the ADS mirror site via a secure network connection. The use of a public domain software tool called rsync allows incremental updating of the database files, with significant savings in the amount of data being transferred. In the past year, the ADS Abstract Service databases have grown by approximately 30%, including 50% growth in Physics, 25% growth in Astronomy and 10% growth in the Instrumentation datasets. The ADS Abstract Service now contains over 1.4 million abstracts (475K in Astronomy, 430K in Physics, 510K in Instrumentation, and 3K in Preprints), 175,000 journal abstracts, and 115,000 full text articles. In addition, we provide links to over 40,000 electronic HTML articles at other sites, 20,000 PDF articles, and 10,000 postscript articles, as well as many links to other external data sources.

Demleitner, M.; Eichhorn, G.; Grant, C. S.; Accomazzi, A.; Murray, S. S.; Kurtz, M. J.

1999-05-01

242

Introducing ADS Labs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ADS Labs is a platform that ADS is introducing in order to test and receive feedback from the community on new technologies and prototype services. Currently, ADS Labs features a new interface for abstract searches, faceted filtering of results, visualization of co-authorship networks, article-level recommendations, and a full-text search service. The streamlined abstract search interface provides a simple, one-box search with options for ranking results based on a paper relevancy, freshness, number of citations, and downloads. In addition, it provides advanced rankings based on collaborative filtering techniques. The faceted filtering interface allows users to narrow search results based on a particular property or set of properties ("facets"), allowing users to manage large lists and explore the relationship between them. For any set or sub-set of records, the co-authorship network can be visualized in an interactive way, offering a view of the distribution of contributors and their inter-relationships. This provides an immediate way to detect groups and collaborations involved in a particular research field. For a majority of papers in Astronomy, our new interface will provide a list of related articles of potential interest. The recommendations are based on a number of factors, including text similarity, citations, and co-readership information. The new full-text search interface allows users to find all instances of particular words or phrases in the body of the articles in our full-text archive. This includes all of the scanned literature in ADS as well as a select portion of the current astronomical literature, including ApJ, ApJS, AJ, MNRAS, PASP, A&A, and soon additional content from Springer journals. Fulltext search results include a list of the matching papers as well as a list of "snippets" of text highlighting the context in which the search terms were found. ADS Labs is available at http://adslabs.org

Accomazzi, Alberto; Henneken, E.; Grant, C. S.; Kurtz, M. J.; Di Milia, G.; Luker, J.; Thompson, D. M.; Bohlen, E.; Murray, S. S.

2011-05-01

243

19th Century Schoolbooks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This demonstration project by the University of Pittsburgh Digital Research Library proves that digital versions of rare books can be as enjoyable as the original print. Currently, digitized versions of 30 nineteenth-century textbooks selected from the Nietz Old Textbook Collection are available, covering reading, writing, and 'rithmatic, and beyond. The site allows users to page through the books as they would with hard copies. There is a table of contents for each book, including a bookmarkable URL and bibliographic citation, from which one can proceed to chapters and even skip to the pictures. Powerful Boolean and simple searching are provided, with ample help screens. In addition, a searchable citation bibliography contains entried for the complete Nietz Collection, some 16,000 volumes.

244

Ad Element Liking and Its Relationship to Overall Ad Liking  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explored differences in affective response content across three cultures and the role of these responses in predicting overall advertising liking. Based on a field survey, subjects from England, Norway and Spain evaluated cosmetic ads on a series of liking scales. Ad content was coded into elements reflecting product- or ad-related affect based on existing theory on ad evaluation

Rune Bjerke; Tom Rosendahl; Pradeep Gopalakrishna; Dennis Sandler

2006-01-01

245

Ad*Access  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A collaboration of the John W. Hartman Center for Sales, Advertising & Marketing History and the Rare Book, Manuscript, and Special Collections Library at Duke University, this database contains images of more than 7,000 advertisements printed mainly in US newspapers and magazines between 1911 and 1955. The images are divided into five major categories: Beauty and Hygiene; Radio; Television; Transportation; and World War II. Each category can be browsed by a number of subtopics, listed by year. Users also have several search options, including keyword, complex, and Boolean searching. In addition, brief histories of the industries and timelines of world and national events are provided. While the site has obvious potential for cultural and business historians, general users may also enjoy browsing the images, which offer an interesting glimpse into how Americans conceived of themselves and consumer culture in the first half of this century.

246

Ad*Access  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Duke University Libraries has an extensive physical and online collection of advertisements that appeared in magazines and newspapers in the U.S. and Canada from 1911-1955. The Ad*Access collection focuses on advertisements in five main subject areas: Radio, Television, Transportation, Beauty and Hygiene, and World War II. Visitors should read the "About Us" section to learn about why the collection was created and its importance for research. Visitors can "browse" the collection by the aforementioned categories, product, year, and company. For example, "War Bonds" are listed under "Product", and visitors will find that the messages in war bond advertisements are quite frank, and insistent, that people should help the war effort. Visitors should check out the following ads found when browsing war bonds: "I'm Saving to go to Ag College...And Buying Bullets for Pete!", "Avenge Pearl Harbor! Buy Bonds! Give Bonds!", and "Your Bond Purchase Makes These Nazis Shiver".

247

AdViews  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The AdViews section of the Internet Archive site contains thousands of vintage television commercials dating from the 1950s to the 1980s. These items of commercial ephemera were created or collected by the ad agency Benton & Bowles or its successor, D'Arcy Masius Benton & Bowles (DMB&B). The commercials are currently found at the John W. Hartman Center for Sales, Advertising & Marketing History in Duke University's David M. Rubenstein Rare Book & Manuscript Library. Visitors will find work created for clients such as Post, Kraft, Old Spice, Pan Am, and many others. As with other Internet Archive collections, visitors can look on the Most Downloaded Items Last Week area. Here they will most likely find advertisements for Charlie's Angels dolls, Borden's Milk, and Sugar Rice Krinkles. Visitors shouldn't miss the Subcollections area, which divides the commercials into their constituent companies, such as Beech Nut Foods, Folgers, and dozens of others.

248

AdS5xS5 untwisted  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Noting that T-duality untwists S5 to CP2 xS1, we construct the duality chain: n=4 super Yang-Mills --> type IIB superstring on AdS5 xS5 --> type IIA superstring on AdS5 xCP2 xS1 --> M-theory on AdS5 xCP2 xT2. This provides another example of supersymmetry without supersymmetry: on AdS5 xCP2 xS1, type IIA supergravity has SU(3) xU(1)xU(1) xU(1) and N=0 supersymmetry but type IIA string theory has SO(6) and N=8. The missing superpartners are provided by stringy winding modes. We also discuss IIB compactifications to AdS5 with N=4, N=2 and N=0.

Duff, M. J.; Lü, H.; Pope, C. N.

1998-11-01

249

Adding with Uncommon Denominators  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Teachers can use this interactive tool to help students build a conceptual understanding of adding fractions with uncommon denominators by linking visual models to procedures. Students make use of fractions with a value of one. This page includes a video demonstration of the tool and sample lessons from the Conceptua curriculum. Free registration is required to use the tool. A paid subscription is necessary to access full curriculum and allow full student use.

2011-01-01

250

Towards Asynchronous AD Conversion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analogue to digital (A-D) converters with a fixed conversion time are subject to errors due tometastability. These errors will occur in all converter designs with a bounded time for decisions,and are potentially severe. We estimate the frequency of these errors in a successive approximationconverter, and compare the results with asynchronous designs using both a fully speed-independent,and a bundled data approach.

D. J. Kinniment; Alexandre Yakovlev; Fei Xia; B. Gao

1998-01-01

251

ADS Abstract Service Enhancements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Astrophysics Data System is enhancing functionality and access to the Abstract Service in several areas. A new WAIS server running the freeWAIS search engine has been added to the existing HTTP and ANSA-based servers. Abstract coverage will be expanded to include more of the NASA ``RECON'' categories as well as abstracts obtained directly from astronomical journals. In addition, we are enhancing the service to include full journal articles in a suitable electronic format.

Accomazzi, A.; Grant, C. S.; Eichhorn, G.; Kurtz, M. J.; Murray, S. S.

252

A Century of Technology Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The history of technology and industrial education in the United States provides lessons that should be heeded if current advances such as tech prep are to succeed. Practical, vocation-oriented education has been an urgent objective for U.S. education three times in the 20th century. At the turn of the century, manual training (later manual arts)…

Foster, Patrick N.

253

Fueling the 21st century  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book discusses fueling of the 21st century. Topics include: Basic World Energy Problems at the Turn of the 21st Century, Natural Gas at the Present Stage of Development of Power Engineering, and Biomass-Powered Ice- Making Machine.

A. E. Sheindlin; P. Zaleski

1989-01-01

254

Supersymmetric AdS6 via T Duality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a new supersymmetric AdS6 solution of type IIB supergravity with SU(2) isometry. Through the AdS/CFT correspondence, this has potentially very interesting implications for 5D fixed point theories. This solution is the result of a non-Abelian T duality on the known supersymmetric AdS6 solution of massive IIA. The SU(2) R symmetry is untouched, leading to sixteen supercharges and preserved supersymmetry.

Lozano, Y.; Ó Colgáin, E.; Rodríguez-Gómez, D.; Sfetsos, K.

2013-06-01

255

Antisymmetric tensor field on AdS 5  

Microsoft Academic Search

By using the Hamiltonian version of the AdS\\/CFT correspondence, we compute the two-point Green function of a local operator in D=4 N=4 super Yang-Mills theory, which corresponds to a massive antisymmetric tensor field of the second rank on the AdS5 background. We discuss the conformal transformations induced on the boundary by isometries of AdS5.

G. E. Arutyunov; S. A. Frolov

1998-01-01

256

Indian Astronomy: History of  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

From the time of A macronryabhat under dota (ca AD 500) there appeared in India a series of Sanskrit treatises on astronomy. Written always in verse, and normally accompanied by prose commentaries, these served to create an Indian tradition of mathematical astronomy which continued into the 18th century. There are as well texts from earlier centuries, grouped under the name Jyotishaveda macronn d...

Mercier, R.; Murdin, P.

2002-01-01

257

The ethics of psychoactive ads  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many of today's ads work by arousing the viewer's emotions. Although emotion-arousing ads are widely used and are commonly thought to be effective, their careless use produces a side-effect: the psychoactive ad. A psychoactive ad is any emotion-arousing ad that can cause a meaningful, well-defined group of viewers to feel extremely anxious, to feel hostile toward others, or to feel

Michael R. Hyman; Richard Tansey

1990-01-01

258

Nineteenth Century Documents Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Produced by the History department at Furman University in South Carolina, this site features full texts of primary documents in nineteenth-century American history "with special emphasis on those sources that shed light on sectional conflict and transformations in regional identity." The site has thus far posted documents ranging from newspaper editorials and abolitionist tracts to political speeches and legislative resolutions. These materials will aid researchers examining issues of Slavery and Sectionalism, the Kansas-Nebraska Bill of 1854, the Dred Scott Case, the election of 1860, the secession of the Southern states, and the immediate aftermath of the Civil War in the South. The site also features a statistical almanac of the 1850s, which includes but is not limited to data on slave mortality and survival; the ratio of slaveholders to families in 1860 (by state); presidential elections, 1844-1860; and Growth in Railroad Mileage, 1850-1860. Some documents may have some minor errors, but fully proofed documents are clearly marked.

Benson, Lloyd.

259

Megadrought and Megadeath in 16th Century Mexico  

PubMed Central

The native population collapse in 16th century Mexico was a demographic catastrophe with one of the highest death rates in history. Recently developed tree-ring evidence has allowed the levels of precipitation to be reconstructed for north central Mexico, adding to the growing body of epidemiologic evidence and indicating that the 1545 and 1576 epidemics of cocoliztli (Nahuatl for "pest”) were indigenous hemorrhagic fevers transmitted by rodent hosts and aggravated by extreme drought conditions.

Acuna-Soto, Rodolfo; Cleaveland, Malcolm K.; Therrell, Matthew D.

2002-01-01

260

Sixteenth Century Astronomical Telescopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ophelia in Shakespeare's Hamlet is named for the ``moist star" which in mythology is the partner of Hamlet's royal Sun. Together the couple seem destined to rule on earth just as their celestial counterparts rule the heavens, but the tragedy is that they are afflicted, just as the Sun and Moon are blemished. In 1.3 Laertes lectures Ophelia on love and chastity, describing first Cytherean phases (crescent to gibbous) and then Lunar craters. Spots mar the Sun (1.1, 3.1). Also reported are Jupiter's Red Spot (3.4) and the resolution of the Milky Way into stars (2.2). These interpretations are well-founded and support the cosmic allegory. Observations must have been made with optical aid, probably the perspective glass of Leonard Digges, father of Thomas Digges. Notably absent from Hamlet is mention of the Galilean moons, owing perhaps to the narrow field-of-view of the telescope. That discovery is later celebrated in Cymbeline, published soon after Galileo's Siderius Nuncius in 1610. In 5.4 of Cymbeline the four ghosts dance ``in imitation of planetary motions" and at Jupiter's behest place a book on the chest of Posthumus Leonatus. His name identifies the Digges father and son as the source of data in Hamlet since Jupiter's moons were discovered after the deaths of Leonard (``leon+hart") and Thomas (the ``lion's whelp"). Lines in 5.4 urge us not to read more into the book than is contained between its covers; this is understandable because Hamlet had already reported the other data in support of heliocentricism and the cosmic model discussed and depicted by Thomas Digges in 1576. I conclude therefore that astronomical telescopy began in England before the last quarter of the sixteenth century.

Usher, P. D.

2001-12-01

261

Dressing phases of AdS3/CFT2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We determine the all-loop dressing phases of the AdS3/CFT2 integrable system related to type IIB string theory on AdS3×S3×T4 by solving the recently found crossing relations and studying their singularity structure. The two resulting phases present a novel structure with respect to the ones appearing in AdS5/CFT4 and AdS4/CFT3. In the strongly coupled regime, their leading order reduces to the universal Arutyunov-Frolov-Staudacher phase as expected. We also compute their subleading order and compare it with recent one-loop perturbative results and comment on their weak-coupling expansion.

Borsato, Riccardo; Ohlsson Sax, Olof; Sfondrini, Alessandro; Stefa?ski, Bogdan, Jr.; Torrielli, Alessandro

2013-09-01

262

Tuscaloosa redevelopment adding reserves  

SciTech Connect

Amoco reports positive initial results from a redevelopment program in the deep, geologically complex Upper Cretaceous Tuscaloosa trend of Southeast Louisiana. The program, heavy on the synergy of geoscience disciplines, has resulted in eight deep completions without a failure. They include six wells in Port Hudson field that averaged 10 MMcfd/well of gas and 1,300 b/d well of condensate. Geologic complexity meant 3D data alone couldn`t carry the program, but none of the wells at Port Hudson could have been drilled based on Amoco`s pre-3D geologic knowledge. Success required a synthesis of 3D with geology ad engineering expertise. Geologic predictions derived from the advance geoscience work helped cut drilling costs, and a seismic service company alliance has brought down 3D seismic costs. The paper discusses the well completions, the geoscience program, and cost savings.

Petzet, G.A.

1995-12-04

263

Correct Help-Seeking Ad  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

... The image in this ad identifies a person who may have seasonal allergy symptoms. The ad does not show an image of a specific drug. Back to top, ... More results from www.fda.gov/drugs/resourcesforyou/consumers

264

AdS spacetimes from wrapped M5 branes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We derive a complete geometrical characterisation of a large class of\\u000a$AdS_3$, $AdS_4$ and $AdS_5$ supersymmetric spacetimes in eleven-dimensional\\u000asupergravity using G-structures. These are obtained as special cases of a class\\u000aof supersymmetric $\\\\mathbb{R}^{1,1}$, $\\\\mathbb{R}^{1,2}$ and $\\\\mathbb{R}^{1,3}$\\u000ageometries, naturally associated to M5-branes wrapping calibrated cycles in\\u000amanifolds with $G_2$, SU(3) or SU(2) holonomy. Specifically, the latter class\\u000ais defined by

Jerome P. Gauntlett; A. P. Mac Conamhna; Toni Mateos

2006-01-01

265

AdS3 Solutions of IIB Supergravity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider pure D3-brane configurations of IIB string theory which lead to supergravity solutions containing an AdS3 factor. They can provide new examples of AdS3/CFT2 examples on D3-branes whose worldvolume is partially compactified. When the internal 7 dimensional space is non-compact, they are related to fluctuations of higher dimensional AdS/CFT duality examples, thus dual to the BPS operators of D = 4 superconformal field theories. We find that supersymmetry requires the 7 dimensional space is warped Hopf-fibration of (real) 6 dimensional Kahler manifolds.

Kim, Nakwoo

2005-12-01

266

AdS3 Solutions of IIB Supergravity  

SciTech Connect

We consider pure D3-brane configurations of IIB string theory which lead to supergravity solutions containing an AdS3 factor. They can provide new examples of AdS3/CFT2 examples on D3-branes whose worldvolume is partially compactified. When the internal 7 dimensional space is non-compact, they are related to fluctuations of higher dimensional AdS/CFT duality examples, thus dual to the BPS operators of D = 4 superconformal field theories. We find that supersymmetry requires the 7 dimensional space is warped Hopf-fibration of (real) 6 dimensional Kahler manifolds.

Kim, Nakwoo [Department of Physics, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 130-701 (Korea, Republic of); Research Institute of Basic Science, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 130-701 (Korea, Republic of)

2005-12-02

267

AdS field theory from conformal field theory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We provide necessary and sufficient conditions for a Conformal Field Theory to have a description in terms of a perturbative Effective Field Theory in AdS. The first two conditions are well-known: the existence of a perturbative `1/ N ' expansion and an approximate Fock space of states generated by a finite number of low-dimension operators. We add a third condition, that the Mellin amplitudes of the CFT correlators must be well- approximated by functions that are bounded by a polynomial at infinity in Mellin space, or in other words, that the Mellin amplitudes have an effective theory-type expansion. We explain the relationship between our conditions and unitarity, and provide an analogy with scattering amplitudes that becomes exact in the flat space limit of AdS. The analysis also yields a simple connection between conformal blocks and AdS diagrams, providing a new calculational tool very much in the spirit of the S-Matrix program. We also begin to explore the potential pathologies associated with higher spin fields in AdS by generalizing Weinberg's soft theorems to AdS/CFT. The AdS analog of Weinberg's argument constrains the interactions of conserved currents in CFTs, but there are potential loopholes that are unavailable to theories of massless higher spin particles in flat spacetime.

Fitzpatrick, A. Liam; Kaplan, Jared

2013-02-01

268

Constructing the AdS dual of a Fermi liquid: AdS black holes with Dirac hair  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We provide evidence that the holographic dual to a strongly coupled charged Fermi liquid has a non-zero fermion density in the bulk. We show that the pole-strength of the stable quasiparticle characterizing the Fermi surface is encoded in the AdS probability density of a single normalizable fermion wavefunction in AdS. Recalling Migdal's theorem which relates the pole strength to the Fermi-Dirac characteristic discontinuity in the number density at ? F , we conclude that the AdS dual of a Fermi liquid is described by occupied on-shell fermionic modes in AdS. Encoding the occupied levels in the total spatially averaged probability density of the fermion field directly, we show that an AdS Reissner-Nordström black holein a theory with charged fermions has a critical temperature, at which the system undergoes a first-order transition to a black hole with a non-vanishing profile for the bulk fermion field. Thermodynamics and spectral analysis support that the solution with non-zero AdS fermion-profile is the preferred ground state at low temperatures.

?ubrovi?, Mihailo; Zaanen, Jan; Schalm, Koenraad

2011-10-01

269

[The mummification in Sicily during the late Modern Age (XVIII-XIX century)].  

PubMed

Sicily is one of the Italian regions richest in mummified corpses. In addition to the Capuchin Catacombs of Palermo, a true unicum for their exceptional number of individuals, several other mummies collections, dated back to the late Modern Age, are present in many churches, convents and funerary chapels. The Sicilian mummies are the result of a particular treatment, obtained by drying the body in favourable microclimatic conditions without evisceration, a method which permitted equally to achieve a good state of preservation. The mummification was an extremely diffuse phenomenon in Sicily during the 18th and 19th centuries, not only among the privileged classes, but also among the middle-class. Besides the "Cappuccini Catacombs" of Palermo, at present the sites of Sicilian mummies known in scientific literature are restricted to Comiso (Ragusa) and Savoca (Messina); up to now in fact this historical-biological heritage has not been properly surveyed. In this article we present the first results of a survey carried out in the Messina's province during July 2005. The research enabled us to investigate this cultural phenomenon, to document the architectural structures appointed to the mummification process and to enrich the knowledge about the presence of mummified bodies in eastern Sicily during the Modern Age. PMID:18175629

Fornaciari, Antonio; Giuffra, Valentina

2006-01-01

270

Analysis of Collections from the Huston Ranch Site (39HU211), The Amos Shields Site (39HU220), 39SL22, and 39SL24. Volume 1.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report describes results of test excavations conducted during 1956 and 1959 at four archeological sites in Hughes and Sully Counties, South Dakota. The Site date to about A.D. 1700, A.D. 950-1400 and the mid-18th century, respectively. Detailed artifa...

K. A. Roetzel R. A. Strachan

1986-01-01

271

Historic Building Information Modelling - Adding intelligence to laser and image based surveys of European classical architecture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Historic Building Information Modelling (HBIM) is a novel prototype library of parametric objects, based on historic architectural data and a system of cross platform programmes for mapping parametric objects onto point cloud and image survey data. The HBIM process begins with remote collection of survey data using a terrestrial laser scanner combined with digital photo modelling. The next stage involves the design and construction of a parametric library of objects, which are based on the manuscripts ranging from Vitruvius to 18th century architectural pattern books. In building parametric objects, the problem of file format and exchange of data has been overcome within the BIM ArchiCAD software platform by using geometric descriptive language (GDL). The plotting of parametric objects onto the laser scan surveys as building components to create or form the entire building is the final stage in the reverse engineering process. The final HBIM product is the creation of full 3D models including detail behind the object's surface concerning its methods of construction and material make-up. The resultant HBIM can automatically create cut sections, details and schedules in addition to the orthographic projections and 3D models (wire frame or textured) for both the analysis and conservation of historic objects, structures and environments.

Murphy, Maurice; McGovern, Eugene; Pavia, Sara

2013-02-01

272

Superstring theory in AdS(3) and plane waves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis is devoted to the study of string theory in AdS 3 and its applications to recent developments in string theory. The difficulties associated with formulating a consistent string theory in AdS3 and its underlying SL(2, R) WZW model are explained. We describe how these difficulties can be overcome by assuming that the SL(2, R) WZW model contains spectral flow symmetry. The existence of spectral flow symmetry in the fully quantum treatment is proved by a calculation of the one-loop string partition function. We consider Euclidean AdS 3 with the time direction periodically identified, and compute the torus partition function in this background. The string spectrum can be reproduced by viewing the one-loop calculation as the free energy of a gas of strings, thus providing a rigorous proof of the results based on spectral flow arguments. Next, we turn to spacetimes that are quotients of AdS 3, which include the BTZ black hole and conical spaces. Strings propagating in the conical space are described by taking an orbifold of strings in AdS3. We show that the twisted states of these orbifolds can be obtained by fractional spectral flow. We show that the shift in the ground state energy usually associated with orbifold twists is absent in this case, and offer a unified framework in which to view spectral flow. Lastly, we consider the RNS superstrings in AdS 3 x S3 x M , where M may be K3 or T 4, based on supersymmetric extensions of SL(2, R) and SU(2) WZW models. We construct the physical states and calculate the spectrum. A subsector of this theory describes strings propagating in the six dimensional plane wave obtained by the Penrose limit of AdS3 x S3 x M . We reproduce the plane wave spectrum by taking J and the radius to infinity. We show that the plane wave spectrum actually coincides with the large J spectrum at fixed radius, i.e. in AdS3 x S3. Relation to some recent topics of interest such as the Frolov-Tseytlin string and strings with critical tension or in zero radius AdS are discussed.

Son, John Sang Won

273

Supergravity at the boundary of AdS supergravity  

SciTech Connect

We give a general analysis of AdS boundary conditions for spin-3/2 Rarita-Schwinger fields and investigate boundary conditions preserving supersymmetry for a graviton multiplet in AdS{sub 4}. Linear Rarita-Schwinger fields in AdS{sub d} are shown to admit mixed Dirichlet-Neumann boundary conditions when their mass is in the range 0{<=}|m|<1/2l{sub AdS}. We also demonstrate that mixed boundary conditions are allowed for larger masses when the inner product is 'renormalized' accordingly with the action. We then use the results obtained for |m|=1/l{sub AdS} to explore supersymmetric boundary conditions for N=1 AdS{sub 4} supergravity in which the metric and Rarita-Schwinger fields are fluctuating at the boundary. We classify boundary conditions that preserve boundary supersymmetry or superconformal symmetry. Under the AdS/CFT dictionary, Neumann boundary conditions in d=4 supergravity correspond to gauging the superconformal group of the three-dimensional CFT describing M2-branes, while N=1 supersymmetric mixed boundary conditions couple the CFT to N=1 superconformal topologically massive gravity.

Amsel, Aaron J.; Compere, Geoffrey [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States)

2009-04-15

274

The 19th Century World  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Harpweek, "a privately funded project begun in 1992 to digitize the entire contents of the nineteenth-century, illustrated periodical Harper's Weekly" (see the March 31, 2000 Scout Report) offers a number of free Websites archiving materials from Harper's Weekly on specific historical topics of the nineteenth century. In addition to the materials on Black America, reviewed in the Scout Report issue cited above, there are collections on the impeachment of Andrew Johnson, Civil War literature, education, immigrant and ethnic America, the editorial cartoons of Thomas Nast, the American West, and 19th Century advertising. These free sites offer a wealth of primary documentation on their respective subjects, including, for example, over 200 article excerpts dealing with the Andrew Johnson and his impeachment drawn from 1865-1869 issues; examples of 19th-century advertisements for appliances, packaged goods, pest killers, insurance policies, and memorabilia; political cartoons of the famous editorial illustrator Thomas Nast; and much more. The sections are well organized and are introduced by contemporary scholarship. This is a superb source for both researchers and those planning to teach primary historical and cultural research to secondary and post-secondary students. Note: those who purchase a subscription to Harpweek will have access to numerous other 19th Century Harper's Weekly materials in addition to these.

275

Comments on String Theory on $AdS_3$  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study string propagation on $AdS_3$ times a compact space from an ``old fashioned'' worldsheet point of view of perturbative string theory. We derive the spacetime CFT and its Virasoro and current algebras, thus establishing the conjectured $AdS$\\/CFT correspondence for this case in the full string theory. Our results have implications for the extreme IR limit of the $D1-D5$ system,

Amit Giveon; David Kutasov; Nathan Seiberg

1998-01-01

276

Nonlinear realization of supersymmetric AdS space isometries  

SciTech Connect

The isometries of AdS{sub 5} space and supersymmetric AdS{sub 5}xS{sub 1} space are nonlinearly realized on four-dimensional Minkowski space. The resultant effective actions in terms of the Nambu-Goldstone modes are constructed. The dilatonic mode governing the motion of the Minkowski space probe brane into the covolume of supersymmetric AdS{sub 5} space is found to be unstable and the bulk of the AdS{sub 5} space is unable to sustain the brane. No such instability appears in the nonsupersymmetric case.

Clark, T. E.; Love, S. T. [Department of Physics, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907-1396 (United States)

2006-01-15

277

Worldsheet correlators in AdS(3)\\/CFT(2)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The AdS_3\\/CFT_2 correspondence is checked beyond the supergravity\\u000aapproximation by comparing correlation functions. To this end we calculate 2-\\u000aand 3-point functions on the sphere of certain chiral primary operators for\\u000astrings on AdS_3 x S^3 x T^4. These results are then compared with the\\u000acorresponding amplitudes in the dual 2-dimensional conformal field theory. In\\u000athe limit of small string

Matthias R. Gaberdiel; Ingo Kirsch

2007-01-01

278

Worldsheet correlators in AdS3/CFT2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The AdS3/CFT2 correspondence is checked beyond the supergravity approximation by comparing correlation functions. To this end we calculate 2- and 3-point functions on the sphere of certain chiral primary operators for strings on AdS3 × S3 × T4. These results are then compared with the corresponding amplitudes in the dual 2-dimensional conformal field theory. In the limit of small string coupling, where the sphere diagrams dominate the string perturbation series, beautiful agreement is found.

Gaberdiel, Matthias R.; Kirsch, Ingo

2007-04-01

279

Unified BRST description of AdS gauge fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A concise formulation for mixed-symmetry gauge fields on AdS space is proposed. It is explicitly local, gauge invariant, and has manifest AdS symmetry. Various other known formulations (including the original formulation of Metsaev and the unfolded formulation) can be derived through the appropriate reductions and gauge fixing. As a byproduct, we also identify some new useful formulations of the theory that can be interesting for further developments. The formulation is presented in the BRST terms and extensively uses Howe duality. In particular, the BRST operator is a sum of the term associated to the spacetime isometry algebra and the term associated to the Howe dual symplectic algebra.

Alkalaev, Konstantin; Grigoriev, Maxim

2010-08-01

280

From nerves and hormones to bacteria in the stomach; Nobel prize for achievements in gastrology during last century.  

PubMed

Rapid progress in gastroenterological research, during past century, was initiated by the discovery by W. Prout in early 18th century of the presence of inorganic, hydrochloric acid in the stomach and by I.P. Pavlov at the end of 19th century of neuro-reflex stimulation of secretion of this acid that was awarded by Nobel prize in 1904. Then, J. W. Black, who followed L. Popielski's concept of histamine involvement in the stimulation of this secretion, was awarded second Nobel prize in gastrology within the same century for the identification of histamine H2-receptor (H2-R) antagonists, potent gastric acid inhibitors, accelerating ulcer healing. The concept of H2-R interaction with other receptors such as muscarinic receptors (M3-R), mediating the action of acetylocholine released from local cholinergic nerves, and those mediating the action of gastrin (CCK2-R) on parietal cells, has been confirmed both in vivo studies and in vitro isolated parietal cells. The discovery of H2-R antagonists by Black and their usefulness in control of gastric secretion and ulcer healing, were considered as real breakthrough both in elucidation of gastric secretory mechanisms and in ulcer therapy. Discovery of even more powerful gastric acid inhibitors, proton pump inhibitors (PPI), also highly effective in acceleration of ulcer healing was, however, not awarded Nobel prize. Unexpectedly, two Australian clinical researchers, R.J. Warren and B.J. Marshall, who discovered in the stomach spiral bacteria, named Helicobacter pylori, received the third in past century Nobel prize in gastrology for the finding that this bacterium, is related to the pathogenesis of gastritis and peptic ulcer. They documented that eradication of H. pylori from the stomach, using antibiotics and potent gastric inhibitors, not only accelerates healing of ulcer but also prevents its recurrence, the finding considered as greatest discovery in practical gastrology during last century. Thus, the outstanding achievements in gastroenterology during last century have been awarded by three Nobel prizes and appreciated by millions of ulcer patients all over the world. PMID:16391411

Konturek, S J; Konturek, P C; Brzozowski, T; Konturek, J W; Pawlik, W W

2005-12-01

281

Advanced Doubling Adding Method for Radiative Transfer in Planetary Atmospheres  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The doubling adding method (DA) is one of the most accurate tools for detailed multiple-scattering calculations. The principle of the method goes back to the nineteenth century in a problem dealing with reflection and transmission by glass plates. Since then the doubling adding method has been widely used as a reference tool for other radiative transfer models. The method has never been used in operational applications owing to tremendous demand on computational resources from the model. This study derives an analytical expression replacing the most complicated thermal source terms in the doubling adding method. The new development is called the advanced doubling adding (ADA) method. Thanks also to the efficiency of matrix and vector manipulations in FORTRAN 90/95, the advanced doubling adding method is about 60 times faster than the doubling adding method. The radiance (i.e., forward) computation code of ADA is easily translated into tangent linear and adjoint codes for radiance gradient calculations. The simplicity in forward and Jacobian computation codes is very useful for operational applications and for the consistency between the forward and adjoint calculations in satellite data assimilation.

Liu, Quanhua; Weng, Fuzhong

2006-12-01

282

Super M-brane actions in AdS4×S7 and AdS7×S4  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The world-volume action of the M2-brane and the M5-brane in an AdS4×S7 and an AdS7×S4 background is derived to all orders in anticommuting superspace coordinates ?. Contrary to recent constructions of super p-brane actions relying on supercoset methods, we only use 11-dimensional supergravity torsion and curvature constraints. Complete agreement between the two methods is found. The possible simplification of the action by choosing a suitable ? gauge is discussed.

Claus, Piet

1999-03-01

283

AdS Branes from Partial Breaking of Superconformal Symmetries  

SciTech Connect

It is shown how the static-gauge world-volume superfield actions of diverse superbranes on the AdS{sub d+1} superbackgrounds can be systematically derived from nonlinear realizations of the appropriate AdS supersymmetries. The latter are treated as superconformal symmetries of flat Minkowski superspaces of the bosonic dimension d. Examples include the N = 1 AdS{sub 4} supermembrane, which is associated with the 1/2 partial breaking of the OSp(1|4) supersymmetry down to the N = 1, d = 3 Poincare supersymmetry, and the T-duality related L3-brane on AdS{sub 5} and scalar 3-brane on AdS{sub 5} x S{sup 1}, which are associated with two different patterns of 1/2 breaking of the SU(2, 2|1) supersymmetry. Another (closely related) topic is the AdS/CFT equivalence transformation. It maps the world-volume actions of the codimension-one AdS{sub d+1} (super)branes onto the actions of the appropriate Minkowski (super)conformal field theories in the dimension d.

Ivanov, E.A. [Bogolyubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, Moscow oblast, 141980 (Russian Federation)

2005-10-01

284

Physics in the Twentieth Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Provides a review of the great discoveries, theoretical concepts and development of physics in the 20th century. The growth and significance of diverse fields such as quantum theory, relativity theory, atomic physics, molecular physics, the physics of the solid state, nuclear physics, astrophysics, plasma physics, and particle physics are…

Weisskopf, Victor F.

1970-01-01

285

A century of poultry genetics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 20th Century saw an astonishing advance in our understanding of genetics and the scientific basis of the genetic improvement of farm animals. The application of genetic principles to chickens in the 1950s and 1960s led to a rapid change in the productivity and efficiency of laying hens and broiler chickens, turkeys and ducks. Subsequently, the application of increasingly powerful

M. Tixier-Boichard; F. R. Leenstra; D. Flock; A. D. Hocking; S. Weigend

2012-01-01

286

Physics in the Twentieth Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides a review of the great discoveries, theoretical concepts and development of physics in the 20th century. The growth and significance of diverse fields such as quantum theory, relativity theory, atomic physics, molecular physics, the physics of the solid state, nuclear physics, astrophysics, plasma physics, and particle physics are…

Weisskopf, Victor F.

1970-01-01

287

A quarter century of granzymes  

PubMed Central

Granzymes (Grs) were discovered just over a quarter century ago. They are produced by cytotoxic T cells and natural killer cells and are released upon interaction with target cells. Intensive biochemical, genetic, and biological studies have been performed in order to study their roles in immunity and inflammation. This review summarizes research on the family of Grs.

Ewen, C L; Kane, K P; Bleackley, R C

2012-01-01

288

Two Centuries of Soil Conservation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Narrates U.S. soil conservation history since the late eighteenth century. Discusses early practices such as contour plowing. Profiles individuals who promoted soil conservation and were largely responsible for the creation of the Soil Conservation Service. Explains the causes of erosion and how soil conservation districts help farmers prevent…

Helms, Douglas

1991-01-01

289

Toward 21st Century Supports  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents an interview with Linda Darling-Hammond, Charles Ducommun Professor of Education at Stanford University, director of the Stanford Center for Opportunity Policy and Education, and codirector of the school redesign network at Stanford. In this interview, Darling-Hammond describes the term "21st century skills" and shares her…

Umphrey, Jan

2010-01-01

290

The 21st Century Learner.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The profound changes of the 21st century are transforming America into what must become a learning society. Never before have museums, libraries and the whole of the non-formal sector of educational institutions faced such challenges and opportunities. The demand is great for fresh and innovative thinking to construct a bold, new learning network…

Sheppard, Beverly

291

Toward 21st Century Supports  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article presents an interview with Linda Darling-Hammond, Charles Ducommun Professor of Education at Stanford University, director of the Stanford Center for Opportunity Policy and Education, and codirector of the school redesign network at Stanford. In this interview, Darling-Hammond describes the term "21st century skills" and shares her…

Umphrey, Jan

2010-01-01

292

[Mercury (and...) through the centuries].  

PubMed

Mercury has a long history, fascinating in its many aspects. Through the centuries--from ancient times to the present day--the metal in its various forms, also known under the name "quicksilver", accompanied the man and was used for diversified purposes. Today, mercury is employed in manufacturing thermometers, barometers, vacuum pumps and explosives. It is also used in silver and gold mining processes. Mercury compounds play a significant role in dentistry, pharmaceutical industry and crop protection. The contemporary use of mercury markedly decreases, but historically speaking, the archives abound in materials that document facts and events occurring over generations and the immense intellectual effort aiming at discovering the true properties and mechanisms of mercury activity. Mercury toxicity, manifested in destruction of biological membranes and binding of the element with proteins, what disturbs biochemical processes occurring in the body, was discovered only after many centuries of the metal exerting its effect on the lives of individuals and communities. For centuries, mercury was present in the work of alchemists, who searched for the universal essence or quintessence and the so-called philosopher's stone. In the early modern era, between the 16th and 19th centuries, mercury was used to manufacture mirrors. Mercury compounds were employed as a medication against syphilis, which plagued mankind for more than four hundred years--from the Middle Ages till mid 20th century, when the discovery of penicillin became the turning point. This extremely toxic therapy resulted in much suffering, individual tragedies, chronic poisonings leading to fatalities and dramatic sudden deaths. In the last fifty years, there even occurred attempts of mentally imbalanced individuals at injecting themselves with metallic mercury, also as a performance-enhancing drug. Instances of mass mercury poisoning occurred many times in the past in consequence of eating food products poisoned with organic mercury compounds originating from the natural environment. PMID:21863739

K?ys, Ma?gorzata

293

Sources of the AD 551, 1202 and 1759 earthquakes (Lebanon and Syria)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sources of three large (M ˜7.5) Near East earthquakes - in July, AD 551, May 1202 and Nov. 1759 - remain controversial, because their mesoseismal areas overlap, straddling the three sub-parallel active faults of the Lebanese restraining bend. Paleoseismic trenching in the Yammoûneh basin yields unambiguous evidence both for slip on the Yammoûneh fault in the 12th-13th centuries AD,

M. Daëron; A. Elias; Y. Klinger; P. Tapponnier; E. Jacques; A. Sursock

2004-01-01

294

Beware the "Argumentum ad Hominem."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Differences between arguing "ad hominem" and "ad rem" are explored in two case studies of fifth-grade gifted boys, demonstrating the need for gifted children to be helped to approach problems by considering issues rather than personalities. (Author/DB)

Grau, Phyllis Nelson

1986-01-01

295

One-loop diagrams in AdS space  

SciTech Connect

We study the complex scalar loop corrections to the boundary-boundary gauge two-point function in pure AdS space in Poincare coordinates, in the presence of boundary quadratic perturbations to the scalar. These perturbations correspond to double-trace perturbations in the dual CFT and modify the boundary conditions of the bulk scalars in AdS. We find that, in addition to the usual UV divergences, the one-loop calculation suffers from a divergence originating in the limit as the loop vertices approach the AdS horizon. We show that this type of divergence is independent of the boundary coupling; making use of this we extract the finite relative variation of the imaginary part of the loop via Cutkosky rules as the boundary perturbation varies. Applying our methods to compute the effects of a time-dependent impurity to the conductivities using the replica trick in AdS/CFT, we find that generally an IR-relevant disorder reduces the conductivity and that in the extreme low frequency limit the correction due to the impurities overwhelms the planar CFT result even though it is supposedly 1/N{sup 2} suppressed. We also comment on the more physical scenario of a time-independent impurity.

Hung Lingyan; Shang Yanwen [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 2Y5 (Canada)

2011-01-15

296

Mysterious zero in AdS5×S5 supergravity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is shown that all the states in AdS5×S5 supergravity have zero eigenvalue for all Casimir eigenvalues of its symmetry group SU(2,2|4). To compute this zero in supergravity we refine the oscillator methods for studying the lowest weight unitary representations of SU(N,M|R+S). We solve the reduction problem when one multiplies an arbitrary number of super-doubletons. This enters in the computation of the Casimir eigenvalues of the lowest weight representations. We apply the results to SU(2,2|4) that classifies the Kaluza-Klein towers of ten-dimensional type IIB supergravity compactified on AdS5×S5. We show that the vanishing of the SU(2,2|4) Casimir eigenvalues for all the states is indeed a group-theoretical fact in AdS5×S5 supergravity. By the AdS-CFT correspondence, it is also a fact for gauge invariant states of super-Yang-Mills theory with four supersymmetries in four dimensions. This nontrivial and mysterious zero is very interesting because it is predicted as a straightforward consequence of the fundamental local Sp(2) symmetry in 2T-physics. Via the 2T-physics explanation of this zero we find a global indication that these special supergravity and super-Yang-Mills theories hide a twelve-dimensional structure with (10,2) signature.

Bars, Itzhak

2002-11-01

297

Lorentzian AdS geometries, wormholes, and holography  

SciTech Connect

We investigate the structure of two-point functions for the quantum field theory dual to an asymptotically Lorentzian Anti de Sitter (AdS) wormhole. The bulk geometry is a solution of five-dimensional second-order Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet gravity and causally connects two asymptotically AdS spacetimes. We revisit the Gubser-Klebanov-Polyakov-Witten prescription for computing two-point correlation functions for dual quantum field theories operators O in Lorentzian signature and we propose to express the bulk fields in terms of the independent boundary values {phi}{sub 0}{sup {+-}} at each of the two asymptotic AdS regions; along the way we exhibit how the ambiguity of normalizable modes in the bulk, related to initial and final states, show up in the computations. The independent boundary values are interpreted as sources for dual operators O{sup {+-}} and we argue that, apart from the possibility of entanglement, there exists a coupling between the degrees of freedom living at each boundary. The AdS{sub 1+1} geometry is also discussed in view of its similar boundary structure. Based on the analysis, we propose a very simple geometric criterion to distinguish coupling from entanglement effects among two sets of degrees of freedom associated with each of the disconnected parts of the boundary.

Arias, Raul E.; Silva, Guillermo A. [IFLP-CONICET and Departamento de Fisica Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata , CC 67, 1900, La Plata (Argentina); Botta Cantcheff, Marcelo [Theory Division, CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); IFLP-CONICET and Departamento de Fisica Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata , CC 67, 1900, La Plata (Argentina)

2011-03-15

298

Kolmogorov-Zakharov Spectrum in AdS Gravitational Collapse.  

PubMed

We study black hole formation during the gravitational collapse of a massless scalar field in asymptotically D-dimensional anti-de Sitter AdS_{D} spacetimes for D=4, 5. We conclude that spherically symmetric gravitational collapse in asymptotically AdS spaces is turbulent and characterized by a Kolmogorov-Zakharov spectrum. Namely, we find that after an initial period of weakly nonlinear evolution, there is a regime where the power spectrum of the Ricci scalar evolves as ?^{-s} with the frequency, ?, and s?1.7±0.1. PMID:23952380

de Oliveira, H P; Pando Zayas, Leopoldo A; Rodrigues, E L

2013-08-01

299

A deformation of AdS5 × S5  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We analyse a one-parameter family of supersymmetric solutions of type IIB supergravity that includes AdS5 × S5. For small values of the parameter the solutions are causally well behaved, but beyond a critical value closed timelike curves (CTCs) appear. The solutions are holographically dual to {\\cal N}=4 supersymmetric Yang Mills theory on a non-conformally flat background with non-vanishing R-currents. We compute the holographic energy momentum tensor for the spacetime and show that it remains finite even when the CTCs appear. The solutions, as well as the uplift of some recently discovered AdS5 black-hole solutions, are shown to preserve precisely two supersymmetries.

Gauntlett, Jerome P.; Gutowski, Jan B.; Suryanarayana, Nemani V.

2004-11-01

300

Second century megadrought in the Rio Grande headwaters, Colorado: How unusual was medieval drought?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new tree-ring record from living and remnant bristlecone pine (Pinus aristata) wood from the headwaters region of the Rio Grande River, Colorado is used in conjunction with other regional records to evaluate periods of unusually severe drought over the past two millennia (B.C. 268 to A.D. 2009). Our new record contains a multi-century period of unusual dryness between 1 and 400 A.D., including an extreme drought during the 2nd century. Characterized by almost five decades of drought (below average ring width), we hypothesize this megadrought is equally, if not more severe than medieval period megadroughts in this region. Published paleoclimate time series help define the spatial extent, severity, and potential causes of the 2nd century megadrought. Furthermore, this early period of unusual dryness has intriguing similarities to later medieval period aridity. Our findings suggest we should anticipate similar severe drought conditions in an even warmer and drier future.

Routson, Cody C.; Woodhouse, Connie A.; Overpeck, Jonathan T.

2011-11-01

301

Contesting the Norm: Women and Professional Sports in Late Nineteenth-Century America  

Microsoft Academic Search

Athletic opportunities for females have reached an extent that few women living in the nineteenth century might ever have imagined. For more than two decades the women's 10,000-metre run has been part of the Olympics. Women's wrestling was added at Athens in 2004 and women's boxing competitions will begin at the 2012 London Games. Changing cultural norms, especially those brought

Roberta J. Park

2012-01-01

302

Pilot Course in Century 21 Shorthand. Fourth Semester. An Evaluation of the Project. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An evaluation project conducted at Dona Ana County Occupational Education Branch of New Mexico State University was designed to compare the effectiveness of Century 21 with Gregg Shorthand. Two classes of shorthand students were set up as experimental groups (due to student attrition, two more groups were added during the third semester). Their…

New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces.

303

Quantum field theory and unification in AdS5  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider gauge bosons in the bulk of AdS5 in a two-brane theory that addresses the hierarchy problem. We demonstrate that one can do a perturbative calculation above the IR scale associated with the second brane. We show such a theory can be consistent with gauge coupling unification at a high scale. We discuss subtleties in this calculation and show

Lisa Randall; Matthew D. Schwartz

2001-01-01

304

Sport and visions of the “American century”  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1899, as the United States prepared to enter the twentieth century, the man who would in just two years become its president declared a global culture war. Theodore Roosevelt proclaimed that the new century could be and should be an “American century.” Roosevelt predicted that if the republic committed itself to the strenuous life it would become the world's

Mark Dyreson

1999-01-01

305

What is a Twentieth-Century Constitution?  

Microsoft Academic Search

At present, almost all of the constitutions in the world are twentieth-century constitutions; indeed, most of them were not adopted until the second half of the twentieth century. Accordingly, the eighteenth-century Constitution of the United States -- which includes the original constitution of 1787-89; the first ten amendments, adopted in 1791; and the Eleventh Amendment, adopted in 1798 -- antedates

Peter E. Quint

2007-01-01

306

Editorial: the American Century in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1999, the Whitney Museum of American Art had a very successful exhibition called The American Century. Indeed, there were two exhibitions, The American Century, Part I about the first half of the 20th century and Part II dealing with the following 50 years. The presentation was divided up into decades, each of them having its own motto. The one

H. L. WESSELING

2004-01-01

307

The 21st Century Skills Movement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Since 2002, the Partnership for 21st Century Skills has been the leading advocacy organization in the United States focused on infusing 21st century skills into education. Its "Framework for 21st Century Learning," the result of a consensus among hundreds of stakeholders, describes the skills, knowledge, and expertise students need to succeed in…

Johnson, Paige

2009-01-01

308

Supersymmetric giant graviton solutions in AdS3  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We parametrize all classical probe brane configurations that preserve four supersymmetries in (a) the extremal D1-D5 geometry, (b) the extremal D1-D5-P geometry, (c) the smooth D1-D5 solutions proposed by Lunin and Mathur, and (d) global AdS3×S3×T4/K3. These configurations consist of D1 branes, D5 branes, and bound states of D5 and D1 branes with the property that a particular Killing vector is tangent to the brane world volume at each point. We show that the supersymmetric sector of the D5-brane world volume theory may be analyzed in an effective 1+1 dimensional framework that places it on the same footing as D1 branes. In global AdS and the corresponding Lunin-Mathur solution, the solutions we describe are “bound” to the center of AdS for generic parameters and cannot escape to infinity. We show that these probes only exist on the submanifold of moduli space where the background BNS field and theta angle vanish. We quantize these probes in the near-horizon region of the extremal D1-D5 geometry and obtain the theory of long strings discussed by Seiberg and Witten.

Mandal, Gautam; Raju, Suvrat; Smedbäck, Mikael

2008-02-01

309

Paul Fritts and company, organ builders: The evolution of the mechanical-action organ in the United States during the 20th century with historical emphasis on the instruments of Paul Fritts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Paul Fritts is known internationally as a builder of mechanical-action pipe organs based on historical models of the 17th and 18 th centuries. He is one of a number of contemporary builders who have researched renaissance and baroque organs as a point of departure for their designs. As builders have returned to antique models to inform their craft, they have debated the importance of certain aspects of classical design. Included here is discussion of some aspects of design with regard to Fritts and other important mechanical-action organbuilders. Topics of discussion include the significance of pipe metals, temperaments and tunings, key action and case design. Some of the professional debate is scientific, other is subjective and very emotional. This dissertation explores the work of Paul Fritts and chronicles his contribution. Biographical information is included.

Still, Tamara G.

310

Adding fluoride to water supplies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adding fluoride to water supplies to prevent dental caries is controversial. K K Cheng, Iain Chalmers, and Trevor A Sheldon identify the issues it raises in the hope of furthering constructive public consultation and debate

K K Cheng; Iain Chalmers; Trevor A Sheldon

2007-01-01

311

ADS/CFT and QCD  

SciTech Connect

The AdS/CFT correspondence between string theory in AdS space and conformal .eld theories in physical spacetime leads to an analytic, semi-classical model for strongly-coupled QCD which has scale invariance and dimensional counting at short distances and color confinement at large distances. Although QCD is not conformally invariant, one can nevertheless use the mathematical representation of the conformal group in five-dimensional anti-de Sitter space to construct a first approximation to the theory. The AdS/CFT correspondence also provides insights into the inherently non-perturbative aspects of QCD, such as the orbital and radial spectra of hadrons and the form of hadronic wavefunctions. In particular, we show that there is an exact correspondence between the fifth-dimensional coordinate of AdS space z and a specific impact variable {zeta} which measures the separation of the quark and gluonic constituents within the hadron in ordinary space-time. This connection allows one to compute the analytic form of the frame-independent light-front wavefunctions, the fundamental entities which encode hadron properties and allow the computation of decay constants, form factors, and other exclusive scattering amplitudes. New relativistic lightfront equations in ordinary space-time are found which reproduce the results obtained using the 5-dimensional theory. The effective light-front equations possess remarkable algebraic structures and integrability properties. Since they are complete and orthonormal, the AdS/CFT model wavefunctions can also be used as a basis for the diagonalization of the full light-front QCD Hamiltonian, thus systematically improving the AdS/CFT approximation.

Brodsky, Stanley J.; /SLAC; de Teramond, Guy F.; /Costa Rica U. /SLAC

2007-02-21

312

Ellisford Cremations: Internecine Hostilities in the 5th Century A.D..  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Trenching for an irrigation line near the town of Ellisford, uncovered human remains. Burial recovery by Central Washington Archeological Survey revealed hundreds of charred bone fragments representing five Native-Americans. The two men, young woman, and ...

J. C. Chatters H. Krentz

1986-01-01

313

Recent Evidence of Animal Exploitation in the Axumite Epoch, 1st– 5th Centuries AD  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study reports evidence of animal exploitation during the Axumite era based on a survey of architectural features, rock art and artefacts recovered from the archaeological site at Axum, northern Ethiopia. Animals and agricultural tools were identified from materials not previously examined. Pottery, rock art and animal remains revealed a range of zoological species. Agricultural implements and sacrificial vessels also

M. Tefera

2004-01-01

314

A two century record of strontium isotopes from an ice core drilled at Mt Blanc, France  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New techniques which allow small amounts of Sr to be reliably analysed [G.R. Burton, V.I. Morgan, C.F. Boutron, K.J.R. Rosman, High-sensitivity measurements of strontium isotopes in polar ice, Anal. Chim. Acta 469 (2002) 225-233] by TIMS (Thermal Ionisation Mass Spectrometry) have been used to measure the isotopic composition of Sr and the concentration of Rb and Sr at sub-nanogram per gram levels in a Mt Blanc snow and ice core. This two century time series of Sr isotopes is the first to be reported in an Alpine glacier. The Sr and Rb concentrations range from 3 ng/g to 20 pg/g and 1 ng/g to 10 pg/g, respectively, with higher concentrations evident in more recent times. This trend is consistent with that reported previously for other metals such as Cd, Cu and Zn [K. Van de Velde, C. Barbante, G. Cozzi, I. Moret, T. Bellomi, C. Ferrari, C. Boutron, Changes in the occurrence of silver, gold, platinum, palladium and rhodium in Mont Blanc ice and snow since the 18th century, Atmos. Environ. 34 (2000) 3117-3127; K. Van de Velde, C. Boutron, C. Ferrari, T. Bellomi, C. Barbante, S. Rudnev, M. Bolshov, Seasonal variations of heavy metals in the 1960s Alpine ice: sources versus meteorological factors, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 164 (1998) 521-533; K.J.R. Rosman, C. Ly, K. Van de Velde, C.F. Boutron, A two century record of lead isotopes in high altitude Alpine snow and ice, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 176 (2000) 413-424]. The 87Sr/ 86Sr ratios vary between 0.7020 and 0.7176 and display relatively larger variations in recent times which have been attributed to seasonal variations made evident by the increased sampling resolution available at shallower depths. No change with time is evident in this ratio which has a mean value of ˜ 0.712 and is similar to Glacial ice at Summit Greenland, suggesting that aerosols reaching Mt Blanc represent the same mixture of sources. Also, anthropogenic sources would appear to have the same isotopic ratio. The presence of Saharan dust in some samples is confirmed here by their strontium isotopic ratios.

Burton, G. R.; Rosman, K. J. R.; Van de Velde, K. P.; Boutron, C. F.

2006-08-01

315

Euclidean and Noetherian entropies in AdS space  

SciTech Connect

We examine the Euclidean action approach, as well as that of Wald, to the entropy of black holes in asymptotically AdS spaces. From the point of view of holography these two approaches are somewhat complementary in spirit and it is not obvious why they should give the same answer in the presence of arbitrary higher derivative gravity corrections. For the case of the AdS{sub 5} Schwarzschild black hole, we explicitly study the leading correction to the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy in the presence of a variety of higher derivative corrections studied in the literature, including the Type IIB R{sup 4} term. We find a nontrivial agreement between the two approaches in every case. Finally, we give a general way of understanding the equivalence of these two approaches.

Dutta, Suvankar; Gopakumar, Rajesh [Harish-Chandra Research Institute, Chhatnag Road, Jhusi, Allahabad 211019 (India)

2006-08-15

316

Arms and the Men; 14th century Japanese swordsmanship illustrated by skeletons from Zaimokuza, near Kamakura, Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 14th century in Japan was a time of complex and protracted feudal warfare, accompanied by changes in swordsmanship techniques away from the 13th century classical ideal. Cranial injuries on warriors buried in the Zaimokuza cemetery (A.D. 1333) suggest that single?combat cavalry fighting was still prevalent, with a light sword (tachi) as the favoured weapon. There are indications that a

Myra Shackley

1986-01-01

317

Semiclassical short strings in AdS5 × S 5  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the short-string limit, we present results for the one-loop correction to the energy of string solutions in AdS 5 × S 5 that belong to a certain class. The computations are based on the observation that the fluctuation operators, just as for rigid spinning-string elliptic solutions, can be written in the single-gap Lamé form. Based on these computations, we reveal a remarkable universality of the expression for the energy of short semiclassical strings, which may help in better understanding the structure of the strongcoupling expansion of the anomalous dimensions of dual gauge theory operators.

Beccaria, M.; Macorini, G.; Tirziu, A.

2011-06-01

318

On the thermodynamics of periodic AdS black branes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider asymptotically AdS black brane solutions that are dual to CFTs with periodic dependence on the spatial directions, arising from either a spontaneous or an explicit breaking of translational symmetry. We derive a simple expression for the variation of the free-energy with respect to changing the periods. This explains some observations, based on numerics, that have arisen in the explicit construction of thermodynamically preferred black holes in the case that the spatial directions are infinite in extent and the symmetry is spontaneously broken. It also leads to Smarr-type relations involving the boundary stress tensor.

Donos, Aristomenis; Gauntlett, Jerome P.

2013-10-01

319

The AdS central charge in string theory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We evaluate the vacuum expectation value of the central charge operator in string theory in an AdS vacuum. Our calculation provides a rare non-zero one-point function on a spherical worldsheet. The evaluation involves the regularization both of a worldsheet ultraviolet divergence (associated to the infinite volume of the conformal Killing group), and a space-time infrared divergence (corresponding to the infinite volume of space-time). The two divergences conspire to give a finite result, which is the classical general relativity value for the central charge, corrected in bosonic string theory by an infinite series of tree level higher derivative terms.

Troost, Jan

2011-11-01

320

Diffractive Higgs production by AdS Pomeron fusion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The double diffractive Higgs production at central rapidity is formulated in terms of the fusion of two AdS gravitons/Pomerons first introduced by Brower, Polchinski, Strassler and Tan in elastic scattering. Here we propose a simple self-consistent holographic framework intended to provide new phenomenologically compelling estimates of diffractive cross sections at the LHC. As a first step, we evaluate the lowest order two Pomeron fusion diagram, fixing the overall normalization. The important suppression factor due to multiple Pomeron exchange (the "survival probability") is presented in the eikonal approximation but its evaluation is left to future phenomenological analysis.

Brower, Richard C.; Djuri?, Marko; Tan, Chung-I.

2012-09-01

321

Gravitational charges of transverse asymptotically AdS spacetimes  

SciTech Connect

Using Killing-Yano symmetries, we construct conserved charges of spacetimes that asymptotically approach to the flat or anti-de Sitter spaces only in certain directions. In D dimensions, this allows one to define gravitational charges (such as mass and angular momenta densities) of p-dimensional branes/solitons or any other extended objects that curve the transverse space into an asymptotically flat or AdS one. Our construction answers the question of what kind of charges the antisymmetric Killing-Yano tensors lead to.

Cebeci, Hakan; Sarioglu, Oezguer; Tekin, Bayram [Department of Physics, Anadolu University, Yunus Emre Campus, 26470, Eskisehir (Turkey); Department of Physics, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Middle East Technical University, 06531, Ankara (Turkey)

2006-12-15

322

Was pre-twentieth century sea level stable?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sea level rise (SLR) ranks high on the list of climate change issues because the expected acceleration from the current rate (about 3.1 millimeters per year) poses threats to coastal regions. Tide gauge, salt marsh, and archaeological records, and modeling of glacioisostatic adjustment (GIA) have led to the widely accepted idea that late Holocene (the past ?2000 years) sea level was stable prior to acceleration beginning around 1850-1900 C.E. For instance, according to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fourth Assessment Report, before the last century, sea level had “stabilized” over the past 2000 years, rising at a mean rate of 0-0.2 millimeter per year [Bindoff et al., 2007]. Others maintain that sea level was “nearly stable” over the past few thousand years [Nicholls and Cazenave, 2010], pre-twentieth century rates were “close to zero” [Church et al., 2008], or “stable from at least BC 100 until AD 950” and “stable, or slightly falling” from 1350 until the nineteenth century [Kemp et al., 2011].

Cronin, Thomas M.

2011-12-01

323

Early 21st-Century Drought in Mexico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Prolonged drought conditions have persisted over western North America since at least 1999, affecting snowpack, stream discharge, reservoir levels, and wildfire activity [Mote et al., 2005; Westerling et al., 2006; MacDonald et al., 2008]. Instrumental precipitation, temperature, and Palmer Drought Severity Indices (PDSI) indicate that severe and sustained drought began in 1994 in Mexico, where it has continued with only limited relief for the past 15 years. This late twentieth- and early 21st-century Mexican drought (referred to below as the “early 21st-century drought”) has equaled some aspects of the 1950s drought, which is the most severe drought evident in the instrumental climate record for Mexico (1900-2008). Large-scale changes in ocean-atmospheric circulation have contributed to the lower than normal precipitation that has led to the current drought [Seager, 2007], but global warming and the sharp regional warming across Mexico, which appears to have been aggravated by land cover changes [Englehart and Douglas, 2005], may have added an anthropogenic component to the early 21st-century drought.

Stahle, David W.; Cook, Edward R.; Villanueva Díaz, Jose; Fye, Falko K.; Burnette, Dorian J.; Griffin, R. Daniel; Soto, Rodolfo Acuña; Seager, Richard; Heim, Richard R.

2009-03-01

324

A XANES study of the structural role of lead in glazes from decorated tiles, XVI to XVIII century manufacture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aged lead-rich, tin-opacified glazes from polychrome tiles manufactured in the 16th 18th century were studied to ascertain the structural role of lead. Glaze fragments with white, blue, yellow, brown and green colouring were analysed using non-destructive X-ray techniques, both laboratorial X-ray diffraction to identify crystalline components and synchrotron-based. Elemental analyses by synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence were performed at the former LURE photon microprobe (line D15A at DCI, in Orsay). The instrumental set-up of beamline BM29 at the ESRF, in Grenoble, was applied to collect X-ray absorption spectra at the Pb L3-edge. Natural minerals and synthetics with known crystal structure were used as model oxy-compounds to configure different formal valences and coordinations of lead ions by oxygen anions, and to interpret the effects upon details of X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES) spectra. Experimental evidence supports the general conclusion that lead is hosted by the glassy matrix, irrespective of the glaze colour. Furthermore, it was concluded that lead ions assume coordinations higher than usual for silica glasses, acting as network modifiers in the silica-lime-alkali glasses of ancient tile glazes.

Figueiredo, M. O.; Silva, T. P.; Veiga, J. P.

2006-05-01

325

Response of a benthic suspension feeder ( Crassostrea virginica Gmelin) to three centuries of anthropogenic eutrophication in Chesapeake Bay  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biogenic reefs built by oysters and other suspension feeders are vital components of estuarine ecosystems. By consuming phytoplankton, suspension feeders act to suppress accumulation of organic matter in the water column. Nutrient loading increases the rate of primary production, thereby causing eutrophication. As suspension feeders consume more organic matter from increasing abundance of phytoplankton, their rate of growth should also increase if they are food limited. We show here that the eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica (Gmelin), from St. Mary's and Patuxent rivers, Chesapeake Bay, grew faster during anthropogenic eutrophication relative to C. virginica before eutrophication. Growth of shell height, shell thickness and adductor muscle increased after eutrophication began in the late 18th century. After 1860, growth decreased, perhaps reflecting the negative effects of hypoxia, harmful algal blooms, disease and fishing on oyster growth. These results are consistent with the view that an increasing supply of phytoplankton resulting from eutrophication enhanced growth of C. virginica between 1760 and 1860, before oyster reefs were degraded by destructive fishing practices between 1870 and 1930. Alternative factors, such as changes in water temperature, salinity, and fishing are less likely to be responsible for this pattern. These results have implications for restoration of oyster reefs in order to mitigate the effects of eutrophication in estuaries, as well as the paleoecological relationship between suspension feeders and paleoproductivity.

Kirby, Michael X.; Miller, Henry M.

2005-03-01

326

[The influence of anatomical treaties on the works of Wendel Dietterlin and his successors in the second half of the 16th century].  

PubMed

In 1543 in Basel, Johannes Oporinus published one of the most famous treatises in the history of anatomy, De humani corporis fabrica by Andreas Vesalius. The book was an immediate success all over Europe, especially in the Upper Rhine region. In Strasbourg, Walter Ryff (Gualterius Rivius) was responsible for an early copy; others followed, as for example Felix Platter in Basel in 1581. One of the novelties of all these books consisted in the fact that for the first time the human body was dissected into its smallest units. Anatomical elements such as the opened thorax, the vertebral column, the kidney sectionned, or the laryngeal cartilages apparently stimulated an artist of the late 16th century in the same geographical region: Wendel Dietterlin (c.1550-1599) who principally worked in Strasbourg and introduced these elements into his treatise on architecture as architectural ornaments. This seems to be the first instance of a transfer of motifs from human anatomy to architecture. From this time on, the transfer reappeared in some works until William Hogarth's era in the 18th century. PMID:22400472

Gampp, Axel

327

Nineteenth Century Exploration of Australia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by Dr. Charles H. Smith and Jennifer Rakestraw, this well-crafted site is built around an Australian map that details the routes taken by nineteenth century Australian explorers. The map has been reproduced into three online sections -- western, central, and eastern -- and each section contains a list of explorers who navigated that region of the continent. Also included are Internet links to all of the explorers, which can be accessed from the left-side panel on the home page or at the bottom of each map section.

Smith, Charles H. (Charles Hyde), 1950-; Rakestraw, Jennifer.

2002-01-01

328

Asymmetry in Metacarpal Cortical Bone in a Collection of British Post-Mediaeval Human Skeletons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bilateral asymmetry in measures of metacarpal cortical bone, particularly second moments of area, in a group of 18th–19th century ad skeletons was investigated. The aim was to study variation in bilateral asymmetry with respect to sex and occupation. The skeletal material came from the crypt at Christ Church Spitalfields, London. The study sample comprised individuals with personal identifications from coffin

S. A. Mays

2002-01-01

329

Landscape of nonsupersymmetric AdS vacua on coset manifolds  

SciTech Connect

We construct new families of nonsupersymmetric sourceless type IIA AdS{sub 4} vacua on those coset manifolds that also admit supersymmetric solutions. We investigate the spectrum of left-invariant modes and find that most, but not all, of the vacua are stable under these fluctuations. Generically, there are also no massless moduli.

Koerber, Paul; Koers, Simon [Instituut voor Theoretische Fysica, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Heidelberg, Philosophenweg 16-19, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany)

2010-05-15

330

Observatory Publications in the ADS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The NASA Astrophysics Data System in conjunction with the Wolbach Library at the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics is working on a project to microfilm historical observatory publications. The microfilm is scanned for inclusion in the ADS. These observatory publications are an important part of the historical astronomical literature. We currently have over 300,000 pages from over 50 observatory publications online. Many of these publications do not have tables of contents or indices which are needed to be able to take full advantage of the ADS searching capabilities. A software tool has been developed to capture the necessary metadata and the ADS has solicited volunteers from the astronomy and library communities to participate in this project. If you are interested in participating please contact Guenther Eichhorn at gei@cfa.harvard.edu. This paper summarizes efforts to date and plans for the future.

Thompson, D. M.; Eichhorn, G.; Kurtz, M. J.; Accomazzi, A.; Grant, C. S.; Murray, S. S.

2002-12-01

331

Managing the ADS Citation Database  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) has become the standard tool for searching the literature in the astronomy and astrophysics community. Within the ADS we are now consolidating the article reference catalog. Reference sources come in a variety of data formats. OCR'ed scanned articles (HTML, LaTeX, XML...) from a large number of different publications. We present in this paper new developments allowing the automation of the reference digester through a set of highly configurable, object-oriented, Python/XML applications and tools. We expect the use of these tools to ease the burden of incorporating new publications to the reference databases.

Rey-Bakaikoa, V.; Accomazzi, A.; Eichhorn, G.; Grant, C. S.

332

Cryosphere during the twentieth century  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the 20th century earth's ice bodies underwent substantial changes. This article reviews the present state of the cryosphere and investigates important variations observed in the seasonal snow cover, sea ice and glaciers. The seasonal snow cover area increased slowly until about 1970 when the area rapidly started to recede. The fastest recession was observed from the 1970s to the 1980s with a mean loss of 1.45 × 106 km2. The most significant retreat occurred in late spring, amounting to 3 × 106 km2 in area and shifting the end of the snow cover season by 3 weeks. While the sea ice extent decreased by 2.8%/decade in the north polar region, it increased by 1.3%/decade in the Antarctic during the last quarter century. The sea ice in the Arctic lost 40% of its thickness during the same time. The retreat of the sea ice limit was most significant in the warmer season. Most mountain glaciers and small ice caps showed significant mass loss during the second half of the last century. The mean increase in the equilibrium line altitude of 36 glaciers was 200 m for the second half of the 20th century. The small number of glaciers with a positive balance also showed increasing rates of melting. The global average specific mean mass balance for the last three decades was -265 mm y-1 or a loss of 135 km3 y-1 corresponding to a 0.4 mm y-1 sea level rise. The rate of mass loss accelerated at 12 mm y-2. The last decade showed an especially strong loss amounting to -475 mm y-1, -242 km3 y-1 or + 0.7 mm y-1 sea level equivalent. The mass balance of Greenland is negative: -50 to -90 km3 y-1, or -34 to -52 mm y-1 in mean specific balance, corresponding to a sea level contribution of 0.15 to 0.25 mm y-1. The range of uncertainty for the Antarctic Ice sheet is still large. There is a report giving much less annual loss than the last IPCC report. The present work proposes 260 km3 y-1 as the annual total discharge of the terrestrial cryosphere for the second half of 20th century, corresponding to +0.7 mm y-1 sea level equivalent. The most significant change in the Antarctic is the loss of ice shelves. Since the disappearance of an ice shelf tends to accelerate the flow of the background glaciers directly into the ocean, this may become a dominant mechanism in the future by which the Antarctic ice sheet can influence the sea level.

Ohmura, Atsumu

333

Charged dilatonic ads black holes and magnetic AdS D-2 × R 2 vacua  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider D-dimensional Einstein gravity coupled to two U(1) fields and a dilaton with a scalar potential. We derive the condition that the analytical AdS black holes with two independent charges can be constructed. Turning off the cosmological constant, the extremal Reissner-Nordstrøm black hole emerges as the harmonic superposition of the two U(1) building blocks. With the non-vanishing cosmological constant, our extremal solutions contain the near-horizon geometry of AdS2 × R D-2 with or without a hyperscaling. We also obtain the magnetic vacua where can be R 2, S 2 or hyperbolic 2-space. These vacua arise as the fix points of some super potentials and recover the known supersymmetric vacua when the theory can be embedded in gauged supergravities. The AdSD-2 × R 2 vacua are of particular interest since they are dual to some quantum field theories at the lowest Landau level. By studying the embedding of some of these solutions in the string and M-theory, we find that the M2/M5-system with the equal M2 and M5 charges can intersect with another such M2/M5 on to a dyonic black hole. Analogous intersection rule applies also to the D1/D5-system. The intersections are non-supersymmetric but in the manner of harmonic superpositions.

Lü, H.

2013-09-01

334

[Hospitals in Europe and Yugoslavia through the centuries].  

PubMed

The primary object of this paper is to give a retrospective of hospital development in Europe and Yugoslavia for the past twenty-five centuries. The earliest records of hospitals called the "iatreia" date back to the V century B.C., ancient Greece. The sick in those hospitals were treated with drugs as well operated on. The Romans, during the reign of the emperor Augustus, built valetudinaries within military camps. The name "hospital" was introduced in the IV century A.D. and has been used ever since. The first hospital was founded in Cesarea, i.e. in the East Roman Empire in Asia Minor. The chronology of the hospital development in the Middle Ages is given in table 1--"Chronology of Hospital Development in the Middle Ages." St. Sava (Nemanji?) founded the first Serbian hospital in the Monastery of Hilandar about 1199 and in 1208/1209 a hospital in the Monastery of Studenica. In the hospital of the Monastery of St. Arhangel in Prizren, according to the regulations prescribed by tzar Dusan, only curable patients were to be treated. The first hospital in Vojvodina in Bac near Novi Sad dates back to 1234. More data about hospitals in former Yugoslavia are given in table 2--"The Oldest Hospitals in former Yugoslavia" and about the Frontier Hospitals in Vojvodina in table 3--"Frontier Hospitals for the Wounded and Sick in Vojvodina". The first medical high school was established in Salerno in the IX century and the first European University in Bologna in 1088, where the School of Medicine was founded in 1156. The University in Paris was founded in 1107 and in Oxford in 1145. PMID:10081281

Topalovi?, R

335

Century Bonds: Debt Or Equity Securities?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we examine the characteristics of firms that have issued century bonds and the debt- versus-equity classification of these bonds. Although it is commonly assumed that such bonds are issued for tax-avoidance purpose, an examination of firm characteristics suggests that firms have non-tax related motives in issuing century bonds. The formal structure of century bonds also suggests that

Kam C. Chan; Annie Wong

336

Courtship American Style: Newspaper Ads  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated an increasing social phenomenon--newspaper advertising for dating or marital partners--in terms of the bargaining process involved. Content analysis of personal ads in a popular "respectable" singles newspaper revealed a pattern of offers and requests reminiscent of a heterosexual stock market. (Author)

Cameron, Catherine; And Others

1977-01-01

337

Adding Value to Indiana's Commodities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Food processing plants are adding value to bulk and intermediate products to sell overseas. The Asian Pacific Rim economies constituted the largest market for consumer food products in 1993. This shift toward consumer food imports in this area is due to more women working outside the home, the internationalization of populations, and dramatic…

Welch, Mary A., Ed.

1995-01-01

338

Adding Value to Indiana's Commodities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Food processing plants are adding value to bulk and intermediate products to sell overseas. The Asian Pacific Rim economies constituted the largest market for consumer food products in 1993. This shift toward consumer food imports in this area is due to more women working outside the home, the internationalization of populations, and dramatic…

Welch, Mary A., Ed.

1995-01-01

339

AdS black holes with arbitrary scalar coupling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A general class of axionic and electrically charged black holes for a self-interacting scalar field nonminimally coupled to Einstein gravity with a negative cosmological constant is presented. These solutions are the first examples of black holes with an arbitrary nonminimal coupling ? in four dimensions. Moreover, due to the presence of two three-forms fields, the topology of the horizon of these black holes is planar. We discuss some properties of these solutions electing particular values of the nonminimal coupling parameter. A special case arises when ? = 1/4, for which the gravitational field is confined in a region close to the event horizon. We also show that these black holes emerge from stealth AdS configurations as the axionic fields are switched on, and that they can be generated through a Kerr-Schild transformation. Finally, in the appendix, we extend these results to arbitrary dimension.

Caldarelli, Marco M.; Charmousis, Christos; Hassaïne, Mokhtar

2013-10-01

340

Supersymmetric AdS5 solutions of type IIB supergravity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We analyse the most general bosonic supersymmetric solutions of type IIB supergravity whose metrics are warped products of five-dimensional anti-de Sitter space (AdS5) with a five-dimensional Riemannian manifold M5. All fluxes are allowed consistent with SO(4, 2) symmetry. We show that the necessary and sufficient conditions can be phrased in terms of a local identity structure on M5. For a special class, with constant dilaton and vanishing axion, we reduce the problem to solving a second-order nonlinear ODE. We find an exact solution of the ODE which reproduces a solution first found by Pilch and Warner. A numerical analysis of the ODE reveals an additional class of local solutions giving complete metrics on S5 but with three-form flux and Killing spinors that are not globally defined.

Gauntlett, Jerome P.; Martelli, Dario; Sparks, James; Waldram, Daniel

2006-07-01

341

Superconformal algebras on the boundary of AdS3  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Motivated by recent progress on the correspondence between string theory on nti-de Sitter space and conformal field theory, we provide an explicit construction of an infinite dimensional class of superconformal algebras on the boundary of AdS3. These space-time algebras are N extended superconformal algebras of the kind obtainable by hamiltonian reduction of affine SL(2|N/2) current superalgebras for N even, and are induced by the same current superalgebras residing on the world sheet. Thus, such an extended superconformal algebra is generated by N supercurrents and an SL(N/2) current algebra in addition to a U(1) current algebra. The results are obtained within the framework of free field realizations.

Rasmussen, Jørgen

1999-07-01

342

YI Suki's Y?ksimanpil and the Professional Identity of a Chung'in Medical Official in Eighteenth Century Chos?n Korea.  

PubMed

About one hundred years after the publication of Tong?ibogam (1613), a physician at the court YI Suki (1664-?) wrote a medical manuscript titled Y?ksimanpil (Miscellaneous Jottings on Medical Experiences and Tests, 1734). As indicated in its title, Y?ksimanpil was a medical essay composed of 130 medical case histories, drawing on what YI Suki himself had experienced in his medical practices. This paper examines the messages YI Suki in Y?ksimanpil tried to address to his fellow Korean doctors, and by doing so illuminates an aspect of the medicine in the late Chos?n period. The argument goes that YI Suki wrote Y?ksimanpil as a vehicle for promulgating his professional identity as a bureaucratic physician who belonged to the network of the chung'in technical officials-a group of government technical functionaries in late Chos?n Korea. Throughout the late Chos?n period, the chung'in technical officials had been discriminated, institutionally and socioculturally, against the yangban literati, while their promotion to honored higher positions was blocked. It was in the late 17th and early 18th century that a group of chung'in officials tried to secure their sociocultural places for their professional activity, thus bringing to light their social and professional identity in Chos?n society. A member of the network of the chung'in technical officials in the early 18th century, YI Suki was in an effort to position himself as a doctor somewhere between the medical tradition and the Confucian literary tradition. In these sociocultural contexts, we can see more clearly what YI Suki tried to speak of in his book and the historical meaning of the medical writing Y?ksimanpil. First, the way he practiced medicine was testing and confirming what the received medical textbooks had asserted (Ch?ngh?mkobang). This style of practicing medicine could be viewed as a reflection of the comprehensivity trait of bureaucratic court physicians network YI Suki belonged to. Also this type of practice has the implication that YI Suki himself was a well-versed practitioner following the medical textual tradition, which was closely associated with the medical officials network. The emergence of the practice Ch?ngh?mkobang could be better understood in the backdrop of over 100 years of maturation process of Tong?ibogam in the clinical practices. Second, he formulated the professional identity of physicians only in terms of medical proficiency without recourse to the Confucian literary tradition. In other words, in promoting the social status of medicine, he did not resort to Confucian morality. He instead emphasized his dexterity or resourcefulness in dealing with millions of ever-changing diseases (Imsikw?nby?n ). Conceivably, this way of characterizing his own medical practice-by way of strongly combining the textual tradition and the experiential tradition while keeping distance with the Confucian literary tradition-reflected the complexity of the ambivalent identity of the technical chung'in officials, especially in regard to Confucianism, between Confucian physicians and hereditary doctors. All in all, YI Suki presented himself as an ideal image of the physician, which arguably reflected the sociocultural and academic context of the network of the chung'in technical officials in early 18th century Chos?n Korea. PMID:24005648

Yi, Kiebok

2013-08-01

343

Systematics of Coupling Flows in AdS Backgrounds  

SciTech Connect

We give an effective field theory derivation, based on the running of Planck brane gauge correlators, of the large logarithms that arise in the predictions for low energy gauge couplings in compactified AdS}_5 backgrounds, including the one-loop effects of bulk scalars, fermions, and gauge bosons. In contrast to the case of charged scalars coupled to Abelian gauge fields that has been considered previously in the literature, the one-loop corrections are not dominated by a single 4D Kaluza-Klein mode. Nevertheless, in the case of gauge field loops, the amplitudes can be reorganized into a leading logarithmic contribution that is identical to the running in 4D non-Abelian gauge theory, and a term which is not logarithmically enhanced and is analogous to a two-loop effect in 4D. In a warped GUT model broken by the Higgs mechanism in the bulk,we show that the matching scale that appears in the large logarithms induced by the non-Abelian gauge fields is m_{XY}^2/k where m_{XY} is the bulk mass of the XY bosons and k is the AdS curvature. This is in contrast to the UV scale in the logarithmic contributions of scalars, which is simply the bulk mass m. Our results are summarized in a set of simple rules that can be applied to compute the leading logarithmic predictions for coupling constant relations within a given warped GUT model. We present results for both bulk Higgs and boundary breaking of the GUT gauge

Goldberger, Walter D.; Rothstein, Ira Z.

2003-03-18

344

Scattering States in AdS/CFT  

SciTech Connect

We show that suitably regulated multi-trace primary states in large N CFTs behave like 'in' and 'out' scattering states in the flat-space limit of AdS. Their transition matrix elements approach the exact scattering amplitudes for the bulk theory, providing a natural CFT definition of the flat space S-Matrix. We study corrections resulting from the AdS curvature and particle propagation far from the center of AdS, and show that AdS simply provides an IR regulator that disappears in the flat space limit.

Fitzpatrick, A.Liam; /Boston U.; Kaplan, Jared; /SLAC

2012-02-14

345

ADS's Dexter Data Extraction Applet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) now holds 1.3 million scanned pages, containing numerous plots and figures for which the original data sets are lost or inaccessible. The availability of scans of the figures can significantly ease the regeneration of the data sets. For this purpose, the ADS has developed Dexter, a Java applet that supports the user in this process. Dexter's basic functionality is to let the user manually digitize a plot by marking points and defining the coordinate transformation from the logical to the physical coordinate system. Advanced features include automatic identification of axes, tracing lines and finding points matching a template. This contribution both describes the operation of Dexter from a user's point of view and discusses some of the architectural issues we faced during implementation.

Demleitner, M.; Accomazzi, A.; Eichhorn, G.; Grant, C. S.; Kurtz, M. J.; Murray, S. S.

346

Synchronous and asynchronous AD conversion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analog-digital (A-D) converters with a fixed conversion time are subject to errors due to metastability. It is shown that an asynchronous converter in which the conversion time is not bounded is faster, on average, than the synchronous design. Real-time applications require the data to be produced within a fixed time, and failures may occur with the long conversion times that

David Kinniment; Alexandre Yakovlev; B. Gao

2000-01-01

347

Enhanced ADS-B Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Automatic dependent surveillance-broadcast (ADS-B) is gaining acceptance around the world as the next-generation surveillance technology. It can provide surveillance to air traffic controllers to support today's procedures as well as surveillance in the cockpit to support air-to-air applications. Pilots and ground personnel have begun to benefit from this technology but further benefits from technological improvements can still be realized. These

Edward Valovage

2007-01-01

348

A century of Chinese developmental psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

At the turn of last century, psychology, including developmental psychology, was introduced into China. Since then, developmental psychology has always been one of the main branches of Chinese psychology. This paper reviews the progress of Chinese developmental psychology in the last century, with special emphasis on its development during the recent 20 years. The paper consists of three sections. The

Xiaochun Miao; Wei Wang

2003-01-01

349

Arts Education Policy in the Twentieth Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores arts education policy throughout the twentieth century focusing on topics such as the rapid development of music education in the early part of the century, training music teachers due to this growth, and the state of music education between the 1960s and the 1990s. (CMK)

Werner, Robert J.

2000-01-01

350

Experimental psychology and nineteenth-century physics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comments on the report of the Committee on Scientific and Professional Aims of Psychology (1967). Cowan suggests that the report made a faulty analogy between experimental psychology and 19th-century physics. Experimental psychology, with the rest of 20th-century science, relies on a methodology that is bounded by logical inference.

Thaddeus M. Cowan

1968-01-01

351

The Century of Education. CEE DP 109  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Global economic transformations have never been as dramatic as in the twentieth century. Most countries have experienced radical changes in the standards of income per capita, technology, fertility, mortality, income inequality and the extent of democracy in the course of the past century. It is the goal of many disciplines--economics, history,…

Morrisson, Christian; Murtin, Fabrice

2009-01-01

352

The 21st-Century Urban Student  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Like schools in the early twentieth century, urban schools in the early 21st century pose challenges to educators at all levels. Large and growing numbers of students whose first language is not English, students with special needs, students of color and students from low-income homes demand new approaches for which many educators might not have…

Rothman, Robert

2007-01-01

353

Oceanography for the 21st Century  

Microsoft Academic Search

Textbooks and most oceanography courses are organized around the 19th century concepts of biological, chemical, geological, and physical oceanography. This approach fails to involve students in the interesting problems of the 21st century: the role of the ocean in climate and weather, fisheries, and coastal problems, all of which involve a complex interplay of chemical, biological, and physical systems plus

R. H. Stewart

2005-01-01

354

Women in nineteenth century homeopathic medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The novels,Dr. Breen's Practice andDr. Zay provide the twentieth century reader with some interesting and intimate insights into nineteenth century homeopathy as practiced by two women physicians. It becomes apparent after reading these two books that the existing knowledge about women in homeopathic medicine is inadequate to answer the questions that the novels raise. More investigation in this area would

Harriet A. Squier

1995-01-01

355

Meeting the Challenges of the Global Century  

Microsoft Academic Search

astering the challenges of the 21st century will require governments and citizens everywhere to see, think, and act globally—in ways never de- manded of them before. In previous centuries, the course of history was determined largely by events in only a few regions, particularly Europe and North America. The world's continents existed mostly apart, not influencing each other a great

Stephen J. Flanagan

356

Global Cooling the in 21 Century  

Microsoft Academic Search

[Objective] To predict the climate in the 21 Century [Methods employed] Evaluating the functions to control the surface temperature of the Earth in order of potentials from high to low, 1) albedo mainly by glacier and cloud, 2) Sun activity (relative Sunspot number), 3) greenhouse gas, and Millancovich effect, we estimate the climate change in 21 Century. [Result] Albedo is

S. Maruyama; H. Genda; M. Ikoma

2008-01-01

357

21st Century Skills Map: Social Studies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This 21st Century Skills Map is the result of hundreds of hours of research, development and feedback from educators and business leaders across the nation. The Partnership for 21st Century Skills has issued this map for the core subject of Social Studies.|

Partnership for 21st Century Skills, 2007

2007-01-01

358

A century of oceanographic and fisheries exploration on the continental shelf off Argentina  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A detailed analysis is presented of the main contributions, both local and international, to the fields of oceanography and fishery sciences resulting from exploratory cruises carried out on the continental shelf off Argentina over the last 100 years. The end of the 19th century is chosen as a starting point for this analysis as it marks the beginning of active marine research by Argentinian scientists and an accumulation of information on Antarctic and Subantarctic organisms in foreign journals. Mention is also made of previous contributions derived from the classic expeditions and global circumnavigational voyages during the 18th and 19th centuries. Although the aims of those were not always strictly oceanographic, they rendered significant information to this field of knowledge. In the early years, references arose mainly from the particular geographic situation of the Argentinian shelf, a necessary passage in the navigation routes to the Pacific Ocean, and later on the way to Antarctica. Sources of information are divided into four categories: (a) foreign scientific projects in the area; (b) investigation by Argentinian scientists and research vessels; (c) joint projects between Argentinian and foreign institutions; and (d) contributions from sources other than oceanographic cruises (commercial navigation, maritime weather reports, satellite images, etc.). The analysis includes an updated and classified bibliographical list of the main contributions to the fields of oceanography and fishery sciences derived from those sources, published either in international or local journals or appearing as technical and internal reports. The motivations, objectives and main achievements of foreign surveys and programmes in the area and their impact on local scientific progress are discussed. The early sixties mark a turning point in the evolution of international research in the area. The creation of biological stations along the Argentinian coast, and the support given to the pooling of human resources set the basis for the development of bilateral programmes. Similar progress in Brazil and Uruguay led to the outgrowth of regional activities. Joint scientific efforts described in this analysis include the programmes carried out by the research vessels of Germany (“Walther Herwig”, “Meteor”), Japan (“Kaiyo Maru”, “Orient Maru”, “Shinkai Maru”), Poland (“Professor Siedlecki”), Russia (“Evrika”, “Dimitry Stefanov”) and the USA (“Vema”, “Atlantis II”), the achievements of which are a landmark in the evolution of marine science in the aea.

Angelescu, V.; Sánchez, R. P.

1995-03-01

359

Ads\\/CFT correspondence and symmetry breaking  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study, using the dual AdS description, the vacua of field theories where some of the gauge symmetry is broken by expectation values of scalar fields. In such vacua, operators built out of the scalar fields acquire expectation values, and we show how to calculate them from the behavior of perturbations to the AdS background near the boundary. Specific examples

Igor R. Klebanov; Edward Witten

1999-01-01

360

16 CFR 460.18 - Insulation ads.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 2009-01-01 false Insulation ads. 460.18 Section 460.18 Commercial...HOME INSULATION § 460.18 Insulation ads. (a) If your ad gives an R-value...requirements in § 460.18 do not apply to ads on television or radio. [44 FR...

2009-01-01

361

16 CFR 460.18 - Insulation ads.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Insulation ads. 460.18 Section 460.18 Commercial...HOME INSULATION § 460.18 Insulation ads. (a) If your ad gives an R-value...requirements in § 460.18 do not apply to ads on television or radio. [44 FR...

2010-01-01

362

Lifshitz-like systems and AdS null deformations  

SciTech Connect

Following K. Balasubramanian and K. Narayan [J. High Energy Phys. 08 (2010) 014], we discuss certain lightlike deformations of AdS{sub 5}xX{sup 5} in type IIB string theory sourced by a lightlike dilaton {Phi}(x{sup +}) dual to the N=4 super Yang-Mills theory with a lightlike varying gauge coupling. We argue that, in the case where the x{sup +} direction is noncompact, these solutions describe anisotropic 3+1-dim Lifshitz-like systems with a potential in the x{sup +} direction generated by the lightlike dilaton. We then describe solutions of this sort with a linear dilaton. This enables a detailed calculation of two-point correlation functions of operators dual to bulk scalars and helps illustrate the spatial structure of these theories. Following this, we discuss a nongeometric string construction involving a compactification along the x{sup +} direction of this linear dilaton system. We also point out similar IIB axionic solutions. Similar bulk arguments for x{sup +}-noncompact can be carried out for deformations of AdS{sub 4}xX{sup 7} in M theory.

Narayan, K. [Chennai Mathematical Institute, SIPCOT IT Park, Padur PO, Siruseri 603103 (India)

2011-10-15

363

AdS crunches, CFT falls and cosmological complementarity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We discuss aspects of the holographic description of crunching AdS cosmologies. We argue that crunching FRW models with hyperbolic spatial sections are dual to semiclassical condensates in deformed de Sitter CFTs. De Sitter-invariant condensates with a sharply defined energy scale are induced by effective negative-definite relevant or marginal operators, which may or may not destabilize the CFT. We find this result by explicitly constructing a `complementarity map' for this model, given by a conformal transformation of the de Sitter CFT into a static time-frame, which reveals the crunch as an infinite potential-energy fall in finite time. We show that, quite generically, the crunch is associated to a finite mass black hole if the de Sitter O( d, 1)-invariance is an accidental IR symmetry, broken down to U(1) × O( d) in the UV. Any such regularization cuts off the eternity of de Sitter space-time. Equivalently, the dimension of the Hilbert space propagating into the crunch is finite only when de Sitter is not eternal.

Barbón, José L. F.; Rabinovici, Eliezer

2011-04-01

364

Creating the second electrical century  

SciTech Connect

Through the use of innovative microprocessor technologies, improved resource refining and increased electrification of the economy, electric utilities can gain both social and business advantages and at the same time protect the environment. The officers of America's investor owned utilities can best assure a prosperous energy future by linking electricity, the environment and innovation. Through innovation, that is improving electricity's value and cost through technological advancements, utility leaders have the means to seize the initiative. In so doing, they can maintain the competitive high ground for the industry and the value it provides. This article contemplates the vision of utility leadership in what is now the Second Electrical Century. As the premier energy option, producible from domestic resources at the highest productivity, electricity is best positioned to meet the fundamental competitive challenge that the industry faces. That is, resolution of the tension among economic progress, energy security, and environmental protection. Success in meeting this challenge will largely determine this nation's prosperity on which the industry depends.

Yeager, K.E. (Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (USA))

1990-10-11

365

ADS History in the USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nearly all risks to future generations arising from long-term disposal of used nuclear fuel are attributable to the transuranic elements and long-lived fission products, about 2% of its content. The transuranic elements of concern are plutonium, neptunium, americium, and curium. Long-lived (>100,000-year half-life) isotopes of iodine and technetium are also created by nuclear fission of uranium. We can reduce the problem transuranics through accelerator-based transmutation. Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS) have been proposed for over two decades as one technique to transmute used nuclear fuel. This paper covers the history and some new possible applications of accelerator driven systems.

Sheffield, Richard L.; Pitcher, Eric J.

2010-06-01

366

Glass technology in Spain in XVIIIth century according to printed sources: the Spanish annotated translation of L'Arte Vetraria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The French book The art of glass of Neri, Merret and Kunckel, was translated to Spanish and published by Miguel Jerónimo Suarez Núñez in the XVIIIth century as a part of the collection of works entitled Instructive and curious reports on Agriculture, Trade, Industry, Economy, Chemistry, Botany, Natural History etc (1778–1791). The original text was modified by Suárez Núñez adding

Joaquín Pérez-Pariente; Ana Belén Martín Rojo

2008-01-01

367

Urban Violence in Fifth Century Antioch: Riot Culture and Dynamics in Late Antique Eastern Mediterranean Cities  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the early fourth century, during the reign of the first Christian emperor, Constantine the Great (AD 324-337), Antioch was one of the largest and most important political, cultural, and religious centers of the Greco-Roman and Christian world.1 Christians, Jews, Pagans, Greeks, Syrians, et al, vied for control within the city. This form of internal urban violence and armed revolt

David A. Heayn

368

Spring precipitation variations over the western Himalaya, India, since A.D. 1731 as deduced from tree rings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spring precipitation, representative of regional-scale features, was reconstructed since A.D. 1731 using 15 site ring width chronologies of Himalayan cedar (Cedrus deodara (Roxb. ex Lambert) G. Don), prepared from distantly located moisture-stressed sites in the western Himalayan region. This is so far the strongest tree-ring-based precipitation reconstruction in terms of variance explained in the calibration model (A.D. 1897-1986) from the western Himalayan region. The twentieth century experienced the driest and wettest years in the whole reconstructed series. The 10- and 20-year means also indicate extreme precipitation periods in the twentieth century. The increasing precipitation trend noticed in the reconstructed data of the late twentieth century closely matches with instrumental data.

Singh, Jayendra; Yadav, Ram R.

2005-01-01

369

Decadal periodicities of Nile River historical discharge (A.D. 622-1470) and climatic implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Roda Nilometer (Cairo, Egypt) has recorded more than 2,000 gauge readings, i.e. annual low-water and flood levels, from A.D. 622 to the beginning of this century. Spectral analysis of the A.D. 622-1470 data set yields several statistically significant periodicities, for both low-water (256; 75.9; 52.6; 38; 28.9; 20.9; 18.5 and 13.4 yr) and flood levels (75.9; 33.6; 21.4; 14.7;

Thierry De Putter; Marie-France Loutre; Guy Wansard

1998-01-01

370

High Power Linacs for ADS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accelerator Driven Sub-critical (ADS) fission systems are proposed for energy production and for burners of long-lived fission product wastes. Generally the ADS concepts involve using beams of ˜ 1 GeV protons with powers of ˜10 MW. An important requirement is high reliability, with minimal machine trip rates. Superconducting RF powered linear accelerators have been proposed as an accelerator choice, as an approach to high reliability, modest operating cost accelerator technology. The advantage in operational reliability arises from the possibility of providing additional standby accelerating cavities that can be rapidly brought online to compensate for accelerating components that may have equipment issues. Also, the recent demonstration of 1 MW, 1 GeV proton beam operation with a superconducting linac for over 5000 hours/year at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) offers confidence in the approach. A description of the technologies involved in high power proton linacs and a review of the SNS experience will be given. Also beam loss requirements and experience will be discussed.

Galambos, John

2012-03-01

371

Coral Evidence Indicating More Spatially Coherent South Pacific Interdecadal Climate Variability Since ~1880 A.D  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have generated multi-century long, subannually resolved time-series of Sr\\/Ca and oxygen isotopes (delta18O) from corals growing at the islands of Rarotonga (21°S, 160°W) and Fiji (17°S, 179°E). The longest record from Rarotonga extends from 1997 back to 1726 A.D. and the delta18O signal since 1874 has been replicated using other corals from the island. At Fiji we have analyzed

B. K. Linsley; G. M. Wellington; D. P. Schrag; L. Ren; M. J. Salinger; A. W. Tudhope

2002-01-01

372

Digital pathology: a tool for 21st century neuropathology.  

PubMed

Digital pathology represents an electronic environment for performing pathologic analysis and managing the information associated with this activity. The technology to create and support digital pathology has largely developed over the last decade. The use of digital pathology tools is essential to adapt and lead in the rapidly changing environment of 21st century neuropathology. The utility of digital pathology has already been demonstrated by pathologists in several areas including consensus reviews, quality assurance (Q/A), tissue microarrays (TMAs), education and proficiency testing. These utilities notwithstanding, interface issues, storage and image formatting all present challenges to the integration of digital pathology into the neuropathology work environment. With continued technologic improvements, as well as the introduction of fluorescent side scanning and multispectral detection, future developments in digital pathology offer the promise of adding powerful analytic tools to the pathology work environment. The integration of digital pathology with biorepositories offers particular promise for neuropathologists engaged in tissue banking. The utilization of these tools will be essential for neuropathologists to continue as leaders in diagnostics, translational research and basic science in the 21st century. PMID:19290997

Guzman, Miguel; Judkins, Alexander R

2009-04-01

373

Projected distributions of novel and disappearing climates by 2100 AD  

PubMed Central

Key risks associated with projected climate trends for the 21st century include the prospects of future climate states with no current analog and the disappearance of some extant climates. Because climate is a primary control on species distributions and ecosystem processes, novel 21st-century climates may promote formation of novel species associations and other ecological surprises, whereas the disappearance of some extant climates increases risk of extinction for species with narrow geographic or climatic distributions and disruption of existing communities. Here we analyze multimodel ensembles for the A2 and B1 emission scenarios produced for the fourth assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, with the goal of identifying regions projected to experience (i) high magnitudes of local climate change, (ii) development of novel 21st-century climates, and/or (iii) the disappearance of extant climates. Novel climates are projected to develop primarily in the tropics and subtropics, whereas disappearing climates are concentrated in tropical montane regions and the poleward portions of continents. Under the high-end A2 scenario, 12–39% and 10–48% of the Earth's terrestrial surface may respectively experience novel and disappearing climates by 2100 AD. Corresponding projections for the low-end B1 scenario are 4–20% and 4–20%. Dispersal limitations increase the risk that species will experience the loss of extant climates or the occurrence of novel climates. There is a close correspondence between regions with globally disappearing climates and previously identified biodiversity hotspots; for these regions, standard conservation solutions (e.g., assisted migration and networked reserves) may be insufficient to preserve biodiversity.

Williams, John W.; Jackson, Stephen T.; Kutzbach, John E.

2007-01-01

374

Projected distributions of novel and disappearing climates by 2100 AD.  

PubMed

Key risks associated with projected climate trends for the 21st century include the prospects of future climate states with no current analog and the disappearance of some extant climates. Because climate is a primary control on species distributions and ecosystem processes, novel 21st-century climates may promote formation of novel species associations and other ecological surprises, whereas the disappearance of some extant climates increases risk of extinction for species with narrow geographic or climatic distributions and disruption of existing communities. Here we analyze multimodel ensembles for the A2 and B1 emission scenarios produced for the fourth assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, with the goal of identifying regions projected to experience (i) high magnitudes of local climate change, (ii) development of novel 21st-century climates, and/or (iii) the disappearance of extant climates. Novel climates are projected to develop primarily in the tropics and subtropics, whereas disappearing climates are concentrated in tropical montane regions and the poleward portions of continents. Under the high-end A2 scenario, 12-39% and 10-48% of the Earth's terrestrial surface may respectively experience novel and disappearing climates by 2100 AD. Corresponding projections for the low-end B1 scenario are 4-20% and 4-20%. Dispersal limitations increase the risk that species will experience the loss of extant climates or the occurrence of novel climates. There is a close correspondence between regions with globally disappearing climates and previously identified biodiversity hotspots; for these regions, standard conservation solutions (e.g., assisted migration and networked reserves) may be insufficient to preserve biodiversity. PMID:17389402

Williams, John W; Jackson, Stephen T; Kutzbach, John E

2007-03-27

375

Multidecadal hydroclimatic variability in northeastern North America since 1550 AD  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A network of varve and dendrochronological time series that provide annual resolution of Boreal tree growth conditions and Arctic snow pack and melt variability were used to investigate the imprint of the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) on continental hydroclimatic variability in northeastern and northern North America from 1550 to 1986 AD. The hydroclimatic proxies show a coherent, AMO-like spectral pattern active since the late sixteenth and the early eighteenth century in the Canadian Arctic and southeastern Boreal regions, respectively. Positive AMO phases are associated with more intense spring runoff in the Arctic and with longer growth season and increased summer moisture availability in the southeastern boreal forest. These results offer new insights about the widespread response of North American hydroclimate to low frequency changes in North Atlantic sea surface temperatures.

Fortin, David; Lamoureux, Scott F.

2009-08-01

376

Seeing the small picture: Ad-self versus ad-culture congruency in international advertising  

Microsoft Academic Search

Participants in a cross-cultural study in the United States and Taiwan indicated no preference for ads depicting values (individualist or collectivist) consistent with those of their culture. Congruency between personal and ad-portrayed values, however, significantly affected responses. The higher the congruency between ad and self, the more participants related personally to the ad. In addition, affective response, ad liking, perceived

Chingching Chang

2006-01-01

377

Century of Women's Health: 1900-2000.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The 20th century witnessed remarkable advances in women's health. The average life span for American women increased by more than 30 years. Improvements in sanitation practices, health care training, public health information, preventive health practices,...

2002-01-01

378

21st Century Energy Sustainability: Nuclear's Role.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In contemplating nuclear's role in 21st century sustainability, it has been useful to consider energy supply infrastructures as a whole and the historical and projected future energy clients and their special energy product needs in the decades following ...

D. C. Wade

2000-01-01

379

Historical mathematics in the French eighteenth century.  

PubMed

At least since the seventeenth century, the strange combination of epistemological certainty and ontological power that characterizes mathematics has made it a major focus of philosophical, social, and cultural negotiation. In the eighteenth century, all of these factors were at play as mathematical thinkers struggled to assimilate and extend the analysis they had inherited from the seventeenth century. A combination of educational convictions and historical assumptions supported a humanistic mathematics essentially defined by its flexibility and breadth. This mathematics was an expression of l'esprit humain, which was unfolding in a progressive historical narrative. The French Revolution dramatically altered the historical and educational landscapes that had supported this eighteenth-century approach, and within thirty years Augustin Louis Cauchy had radically reconceptualized and restructured mathematics to be rigorous rather than narrative. PMID:17367006

Richards, Joan L

2006-12-01

380

Energy problems of the 21st century  

SciTech Connect

This forum discussed the major problems of the development of the world's energy and fuel economics to the end of the century and also over a longer range. Problems discussed include: General problems of generation and consumption of energy; Role of natural gas in the fuel picture of the 21st century; Coal and new technologies of utilization as a major component of the world's fuel and energy supply; New energy sources and energy technologies; Prospects for the use of controlled thermonuclear synthesis in the 21st century; Problems in the development of nuclear energy; and International cooperation in the field of energetics and stability of the world's society at the end of the 20th and start of the 21st centuries.

Kuz'minov, V.A.

1989-01-01

381

21st century advanced hydropower turbine system.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

While hydropower turbine manufacturers have incrementally improved turbine technology to increase efficiency, the basic design concepts haven't changed for decades. These late 19th and early 20th century designs did not consider environmental effects, sin...

P. A. Brookshier J. V. Flynn R. R. Loose

1995-01-01

382

Twentieth century sea level: An enigma  

PubMed Central

Changes in sea level (relative to the moving crust) are associated with changes in ocean volume (mostly thermal expansion) and in ocean mass (melting and continental storage): ?(t) = ?steric(t) + ?eustatic(t). Recent compilations of global ocean temperatures by Levitus and coworkers are in accord with coupled ocean/atmosphere modeling of greenhouse warming; they yield an increase in 20th century ocean heat content by 2 × 1023 J (compared to 0.1 × 1023 J of atmospheric storage), which corresponds to ?greenhouse(2000) = 3 cm. The greenhouse-related rate is accelerating, with a present value ??greenhouse(2000) ? 6 cm/century. Tide records going back to the 19th century show no measurable acceleration throughout the late 19th and first half of the 20th century; we take ??historic = 18 cm/century. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change attributes about 6 cm/century to melting and other eustatic processes, leaving a residual of 12 cm of 20th century rise to be accounted for. The Levitus compilation has virtually foreclosed the attribution of the residual rise to ocean warming (notwithstanding our ignorance of the abyssal and Southern Oceans): the historic rise started too early, has too linear a trend, and is too large. Melting of polar ice sheets at the upper limit of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change estimates could close the gap, but severe limits are imposed by the observed perturbations in Earth rotation. Among possible resolutions of the enigma are: a substantial reduction from traditional estimates (including ours) of 1.5–2 mm/y global sea level rise; a substantial increase in the estimates of 20th century ocean heat storage; and a substantial change in the interpretation of the astronomic record.

Munk, Walter

2002-01-01

383

3?Staffing Twenty?first?century Organizations  

Microsoft Academic Search

We highlight important differences between twenty?first?century organizations as compared with those of the previous century, and offer a critical review of the basic principles, typical applications, general effectiveness, and limitations of the current staffing model. That model focuses on identifying and measuring job?related individual characteristics to predict individual?level job performance. We conclude that the current staffing model has reached a

Wayne F. Cascio; Herman Aguinis

2008-01-01

384

Environmental catalysis into the 21st century  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes existing catalyst technologies and trends in research as we enter the 21st century. Catalytic technologies developed during the 20th century for end-of-pipe clean up of pollutant emissions will continue for mobile and stationary sources. The catalytic problems associated with the fuel-efficient lean-burn engine, with lower emissions of greenhouse gases, offers significant challenges, especially for lean NOx reduction

R. J. Farrauto; R. M. Heck

2000-01-01

385

Adding Nonlinear Tools to the Strategist's Toolbox.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Since the seventeenth century, Sir Isaac Newton's laws of motion have had tremendous impact on the Western world's mind-sets for understanding nature as predictable and orderly. Consequently, Western strategic culture has been based on a linear paradigm. ...

D. T. Gyllensporre

2001-01-01

386

IP Address Autoconfiguration for Ad Hoc Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

If a node lacks an IP address, it cannot yet participate in ad hocnetworks as currently designed, because the connectivity in an ad hocnetwork is typically determined by mechanisms that depend upon usingPerkins Expires 10 January 2001 [Page i]Internet Draft Ad Hoc Address Autoconfiguration 10 July 2000the IP address as the identifier for the nodes in the ad hoc network.In

Charles E. Perkins; Elizabeth M. Royer; Samir R. Das

2000-01-01

387

Myths & Facts about Value-Added Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper presents myths as well as facts about value-added analysis. These myths include: (1) "Value-added isn't fair to teachers who work in high-need schools, where students tend to lag far behind academically"; (2) "Value-added scores are too volatile from year-to-year to be trusted"; (3) "There's no research behind value-added"; (4) "Using…

TNTP, 2011

2011-01-01

388

Symmetry breaking, central charges and the AdS2/CFT1 correspondence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When two-dimensional Anti-de Sitter space (AdS2) is endowed with a non-constant dilaton the origin of the central charge in the Virasoro algebra generating the asymptotic symmetries of AdS2 can be traced back to the breaking of the /SL(2,R) isometry group of AdS2. We use this fact to clarify some controversial results appeared in the literature about the value of the central charge in these models.

Cadoni, M.; Mignemi, S.

2000-09-01

389

Exploring Antismoking Ads: Appeals, Themes, and Consequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study we seek a descriptive understanding of antismoking television advertising in light of the problem cigarette consumption poses for society today. We establish relationships between ad characteristics and whether ads have a youth or adult or- ientation, based on a content analysis of 197 antismoking television advertisements produced between 1991 and 1999. The study énds that youth-oriented ads

Christopher E. Beaudoin

2002-01-01

390

Gifted Children with AD/HD.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This brief paper on gifted children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD) focuses on the special educational needs of this population. Emphasis is on four major conclusions: (1) gifted children with AD/HD differ from average children with AD/HD in cognitive, social, and emotional variables (e.g., the gifted child is likely to show…

Lovecky, Deirdre V.

391

Inflation in AdS/CFT.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We study the realization of inflation within the AdS/CFT correspondence. We assume the existence of a string landscape containing at least one stable AdS vacuum and a (nearby) metastable de Sitter state. Standard arguments imply that the bulk physics in t...

B. Freivogel V. E. Hubeny A. Maloney R. Myers M. Rangamani S. Shenker

2006-01-01

392

AdS/CFT and QCD.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The AdS/CFT correspondence between string theory in AdS space and conformal field theories in physical spacetime leads to an analytic, semi-classical model for strongly-coupled QCD which has scale invariance and dimensional counting at short distances and...

S. J. Brodsky G. F. de Teramond

2007-01-01

393

[From the creation of the Veterinary Schools to the evolution of the notion of contagion in the 19th and 20th centuries].  

PubMed

The creation of the Veterinary Schools in the 18th century would reveal a plethora of scientists, some of whom would be the precursors of Pasteur, some rivals, others followers collaborators or friends of the Master. Among the precursors let us name Chabbert, Huzard, Girard, Delafond, Renault, Toussaint, Galtier ; among the rivals: Chauveau, Arloing, Cornevin and Thomas; among the followers, collaborators or friends of Pasteur: Bouley, at first a resolute spontaneist, then the most fervent in defense of Pasteur (President of the Academy of Medicine and of the Academy of Sciences) and Nocard, Director of the School in Alfort, an important collaborator of Pasteur. Later, there was Leclainche, who created the International Office of Epizootics, and who was President of the Academy of Sciences; Guérin, who with Calmette developed the BCG vaccination; Ramon, the father of anatoxins (vaccines against diphtheria, and tetanus, combined vaccines, adjuvants to immunity). Thus, the creation of the Veterinary Schools contributed not only to the evolution of the notion of contagion, to the amelioration of animal health and the economics of agricultural production, but also to serious advances in human care, and to the protection of public health. PMID:22682352

Pilet, Charles

2012-05-03

394

Condom ads promote illicit sex.  

PubMed

Written in 1987, this opinion was republished in the wake of US President Bill Clinton's AIDS prevention media campaign promoting condom use which began January 1994, targeted at young adults aged 18-25. The author staunchly opposes condom use even though he admits that people do not consider abstinence from sex to be a serious option for the prevention of HIV/STD infection. He believes that there is no moral use of sex with a condom and that condoms have always been a sign of immorality, be it prostitution, adultery, fornication, or marital contraception. Likewise, the author laments the success enjoyed by Planned Parenthood in achieving the social acceptance of marital contraception and sex outside of marriage. The complete social acceptance of homosexual activity, however, remains to be achieved. Magazines, newspapers, and television receive income in exchange for publishing or airing advertisements. Finding offensive advertisements which promote the use of condoms against HIV infection, the author recommends writing letters of complaint to the responsible media sources. If the television stations or publications in question continue to advertise condoms to the public, stop watching them or end one's subscriptions to the particular printed media. Such action taken collectively among many individuals will reduce product sales and income, and potentially sway corporate policy against condom ads. PMID:12345946

Kippley, J F

395

Possible earthquake trigger for 6th century mass wasting deposit at Lake Ohrid (Macedonia/Albania)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lake Ohrid shared by the Republics of Albania and Macedonia is formed by a tectonically active graben within the south Balkans and suggested to be the oldest lake in Europe. Several studies have shown that the lake provides a valuable record of climatic and environmental changes and a distal tephrostratigraphic record of volcanic eruptions from Italy. Fault structures identified in seismic data demonstrate that sediments have also the potential to record tectonic activity in the region. Here, we provide an example of linking seismic and sedimentological information with tectonic activity and historical documents. Historical documents indicate that a major earthquake destroyed the city of Lychnidus (today: city of Ohrid) in the early 6th century AD. Multichannel seismic profiles, parametric sediment echosounder profiles, and a 10.08 m long sediment record from the western part of the lake indicate a 2 m thick mass wasting deposit, which is tentatively correlated with this earthquake. The mass wasting deposit is chronologically well constrained, as it directly overlays the AD 472/AD 512 tephra. Moreover, radiocarbon dates and cross correlation with other sediment sequences with similar geochemical characteristics of the Holocene indicate that the mass wasting event took place prior to the onset of the Medieval Warm Period, and is attributed it to one of the known earthquakes in the region in the early 6th century AD.

Wagner, B.; Francke, A.; Sulpizio, R.; Zanchetta, G.; Lindhorst, K.; Krastel, S.; Vogel, H.; Rethemeyer, J.; Daut, G.; Grazhdani, A.; Lushaj, B.; Trajanovski, S.

2012-12-01

396

A Gathering of Great Minds: Designing Twenty-First Century Education with Twentieth Century Ideas  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As the 21st century turns five and a half and looks forward to summer vacation, the higher education community seems poised to undertake an endeavor of epic proportions: the remodeling of the American approach to college student learning. To begin building structures and designing strategies for 21st century education, the "Greater Expectations: A…

Taylor, Kari B.

2005-01-01

397

Nineteenth-Century American and British Poets on Columbus: A Twentieth-Century View.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In the 19th century alone, Christopher Columbus was the subject of hundreds of poems that rarely questioned his voyage, his methods, or his place in human history. However, the scholarly work and political realities of the 20th century have undermined the noble, heroic visions conveyed by the poets. Modern readers/students have a dual duty to…

Gorman, Anita G.

398

Centuries of Childhood\\/ Centuries of Parenting: Philippe Ariès and the Modernization of Privileged Infancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Centuries of Childhood Philippe Ariès studied the evolution of par ental investment among the materially and socially privileged families of France from the sixteenth to the nineteenth century. His general hypothesis, interpreted in the vocabulary of modern research, was that both the financial and emotional costs of elite childrear ing were rising during this period Once greater emotional involvement

S. Ryan Johansson

1987-01-01

399

Centuries of Childhood\\/Centuries of Parenting: Philippe Ariès and the Modernization of Privileged Infancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Centuries of Childhood Philippe Ariès studied the evolution of parental investment among the materially and socially privileged families of France from the sixteenth to the nineteenth century. His general hypothesis, interpreted in the vocabulary of modern research, was that both the financial and emotional costs of elite childrearing were rising during this period Once greater emotional involvement led to

S. Ryan Johansson

1987-01-01

400

Nineteenth-Century American and British Poets on Columbus: A Twentieth-Century View.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the 19th century alone, Christopher Columbus was the subject of hundreds of poems that rarely questioned his voyage, his methods, or his place in human history. However, the scholarly work and political realities of the 20th century have undermined the noble, heroic visions conveyed by the poets. Modern readers/students have a dual duty to…

Gorman, Anita G.

401

21st Century Processes for Acquiring 21st Century Software-Intensive Systems of Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our experiences in helping to define, acquire, develop, and assess 21st century software-intensive systems of systems (SISOS) have taught us that traditional 20th century acquisition and development processes do not work well on such systems. This article summarizes the characteristics of such systems, and indicates the major problem areas in using traditional processes on them. We also present new processes

Barry Boehm

402

Learning for the 21st Century: A Report and MILE Guide for 21st Century Skills.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Partnership for 21st Century Skills is a public-private organization of leaders and educators in business and education that works to close the gap between the knowledge and skills most students learn in school and the knowledge and skills they need in a typical 21st century community and workplace. The Partnership's work includes:…

2002

403

LWR (Light Water Reactor) power plant simulations using the AD10 and AD100 systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Boiling (BWR) and Pressurized (PWR) Water Reactor Power Plants are being simulated at BNL with the AD10 and AD100 Peripheral Processor Systems. The AD10 system has been used for BWR simulations since 1984 for safety analyses, emergency training and optimization studies. BWR simulation capabilities have been implemented recently on the AD100 system and PWR simulation capabilities are currently being developed

W. Wulff; H. S. Cheng; C. J. Chien; J. Y. Jang; H. C. Lin; A. N. Mallen; S. J. Wang

1989-01-01

404

On the covariant quantization of tensionless bosonic strings in AdS spacetime  

Microsoft Academic Search

The covariant quantization of the tensionless free bosonic (open and closed) strings in AdS spaces is obtained. This is done by representing the AdS space as an hyperboloid in a flat auxiliary space and by studying the resulting string constrained hamiltonian system in the tensionless limit. It turns out that the constraint algebra simplifies in the tensionless case in such

Giulio Bonelli

2003-01-01

405

The Advantage of Hybrid Split Ads Over Uninterrupted Ads and How to Augment it  

Microsoft Academic Search

“Split ads” involve presenting advertising information as two separate and distinct parts, such as when two short commercials for a given brand are separated by other television content. An emerging form of the split ad strategy combines a short ad in one medium with a second short ad that appears in a completely different medium. Two studies investigate the relative

Michelle L. Roehm; Harper A. Roehm

2001-01-01

406

What's Bad in an Ad: Thirty Years of Opinion from Ad Age's “Ads-We-Can-Do-Without” Letters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advertising practitioners' criticism of ad content was studied through the lens of Advertising Age's ads-we-can-do-without letters for a thirty-year period from 1962 to 1992. A content analysis of 404 complaint letters and accompanying ads found significant changes in practitioner criticism as we movefrom the 1960s to the 1970s. The 1960s produced significantly more complaints about executional errors while the 1970s

Bruce G. Vanden Bergh; Nora J. Rifon; Molly Catherine Ziske

1995-01-01

407

The moderating influence of ad framing for ad-self-congruency effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prior research indicates that ad-self-congruency effects are signifi- cant only when participants are not motivated to process ad messages, as when they are in a positive rather than negative affective state (Chang, 2002a). In line with this reasoning, it was expected that ad tac- tics such as ad framing that can evoke emotional responses would determine reliance on ad-self-congruency for

Chingching Chang

2005-01-01

408

Hydration: issues for the 21st century.  

PubMed

Historically, hydration research reflected critical issues of the day. War, illness, surviving a shipwreck or time in the dessert, supplying fall-out shelters, and space exploration drove hydration research in the first half of the 20th century. The fitness revolution of the 1970s spurred research on dehydration in physically active people and athletes. The 1990s introduced the "fluid/disease relationship." What will be the driving force behind hydration research in the 21st century? Where are the gaps in our knowledge? This review provides an overview of issues pertinent to determining future directions in hydration research. PMID:13677588

Grandjean, Ann C; Reimers, Kristin J; Buyckx, Maxime E

2003-08-01

409

21st Century Skills Map: Math  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This 34-page document (pdf) identifies student learning outcomes for each of eleven 21st Century Skills and provides examples of tasks for grade 4, 8, and 12. It strives to fuse mathematical content and mathematical practices with the 4Cs (communication, collaboration, critical thinking and creativity) and integrate them with interdisciplinary themes. Each skill is aligned with CCSS mathematical practices. This map was designed by the Partnership for 21st Century Skills (P21) in cooperation with the Mathematical Association of America (MAA), the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM), and dozens of math educators across the country.

Susan Saltrick, Et A.

2012-04-01

410

Nursing theory: the 21st century.  

PubMed

On September 21, 1990, at the University of California, Los Angeles, Neuropsychiatric Institute and Hospital, six nurse theorists participated in a panel discussion on theory development for the 21st century. The theorists included Dorothy Johnson, Betty Neuman, Dorothea E. Orem, Rosemarie Rizzo Parse, Martha E. Rogers and Callista Roy. The panel provided the participants the opportunity to speculate on the course for future development of nursing knowledge. Three questions were posed to the panel relating to the development of their models, the direction nursing theory will take in the 21st century, and current research emerging from the extant theories. The panel also addressed questions from the audience. PMID:1454278

Randell, B P

1992-01-01

411

Inseparability of photon-added Gaussian states  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The inseparability of photon-added Gaussian states which are generated from two-mode Gaussian states by adding photons is investigated. According to the established inseparability conditions [New J. Phys. 7, 211 (2005); Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 050503 (2006)], we find that even if a two-mode Gaussian state is separable, the photon-added Gaussian state becomes entangled when the purity of the Gaussian state is larger than a certain value. The lower bound of entanglement of symmetric photon-added Gaussian states is derived. The result shows that entanglement of the photon-added Gaussian states is involved with high-order moment correlations. We find that fidelity of teleporting coherent states cannot be raised by employing the photon-added Gaussian states as a quantum channel of teleportation.

Li, Hong-Rong; Li, Fu-Li; Zhu, Shi-Yao

2007-06-01

412

Inseparability of photon-added Gaussian states  

SciTech Connect

The inseparability of photon-added Gaussian states which are generated from two-mode Gaussian states by adding photons is investigated. According to the established inseparability conditions [New J. Phys. 7, 211 (2005); Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 050503 (2006)], we find that even if a two-mode Gaussian state is separable, the photon-added Gaussian state becomes entangled when the purity of the Gaussian state is larger than a certain value. The lower bound of entanglement of symmetric photon-added Gaussian states is derived. The result shows that entanglement of the photon-added Gaussian states is involved with high-order moment correlations. We find that fidelity of teleporting coherent states cannot be raised by employing the photon-added Gaussian states as a quantum channel of teleportation.

Li Hongrong [Department of Applied Physics, Xian Jiaotong University, Xian 710049 (China); Department of Physics, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong (China); Institute of Theoretical Physics, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China); Li Fuli [Department of Applied Physics, Xian Jiaotong University, Xian 710049 (China); Zhu Shiyao [Department of Physics, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong (China)

2007-06-15

413

Mobile ad hoc networking: imperatives and challenges  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) represent complex distributed systems that comprise wireless mobile nodes that can freely and dynamically self-organize into arbitrary and temporary, ''ad-hoc'' network topologies, allowing people and devices to seamlessly internetwork in areas with no pre-existing communication infrastructure, e.g., disaster re- covery environments. Ad hoc networking concept is not a new one, having been around in various

Imrich Chlamtac; Marco Conti; Jennifer J.-N. Liu

2003-01-01

414

Semiclassical Strings and AdS\\/CFT  

Microsoft Academic Search

We discuss AdS\\/CFT duality in the sector of “semiclassical” string states with large quantum numbers. We review the coherent-state\\u000a effective action approach, in which similar 2d sigma model actions appear from the AdS5 × S5 string action and from the integrable spin chain Hamiltonian representing the N=4 super Yang-Mills dilatation operator. We\\u000a consider mostly the leading-order terms in the energies\\/anomalous

Arkady A. Tseytlin

2006-01-01

415

CAIO GRACO AND HIS RELATIONSHIP WITH THE EQUITES (1st century BC): A BRIEF ANALYSIS OF APIAN OF ALEXANDRIA'S INTERPRETATION (2nd century AD)  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO: Propomos aqui uma análise do relato de Apiano de Alexandria sobre a relação de Caio Graco com a ordem eqüestre no final do século II a.C.. Apiano escreveu suas Guerras Civis já no fim da vida, durante o reinado de Marco Aurélio, época de paz interna e estabilidade e expansão. Em seu relato, Apiano demonstra simpatia pelo projeto reformista

Alice Maria de Souza

416

Global perspective on energy. [Projecting into 21st century  

SciTech Connect

The technological world of today finds us with a population of over 4 billion with a doubling time of 30 to 40 years. Even with the rapid introduction of effective fertility control, the momentum of population - a phenomenon caused by a population age structure biased toward the young - will carry us to a population of 12 to 16 billion in the 21st century. With fixed land resources, the energy inputs to support the increased population will be several tims the present world energy consumption. How does this conclusion square with the notion that we are running out of energy. Are the billions of new people doomed to malnutrition and disease because we cannot provide the energy needed to support them. Answering in the negative, the author says: (1) proved reserves of conventional energy resources are substantial and the prospects of adding to these reserves are good; (2) unconventional resources of oil, gas, and uranium are many times larger than our present conventional reserves; and (3) nuclear fisson energy alone could support the world for several centuries. Even though the general energy picture is bright, the outlook for the less developed countries is not, he feels. To exploit the energy sources of the future requires large capital investments - something that only the developed countries can manage. One of the major contributions the developed countries can make to those that are less fortunate is to take the pressure off oil so as to stabilize the price and supply situation. In this regard, the US is in an excellent position to take the lead.

Anderson, T.D.

1980-04-11

417

Three-dimensional mathcal{N} = 2 (AdS) supergravity and associated supercurrents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Long ago, Achúcarro and Townsend discovered that in three dimensions (3D) mathcal{N} -extended anti-de Sitter (AdS) supergravity exists in several incarnations, which were called the ( p, q) AdS supergravity theories with non-negative integers p ? q such that mathcal{N} = p + q . Using the superspace approach to 3D mathcal{N} -extended supergravity developed in arXiv:1101.4013, we present three superfield formulations for mathcal{N} = 2 supergravity that allow for well defined cosmological terms and supersymmetric AdS solutions. The conformal compensators corresponding to these theories are respectively: (i) a chiral scalar multiplet; (ii) a vector multiplet; and (iii) an improved complex linear multiplet. The theories corresponding to (i) and (iii) are shown to provide two dually equivalent realizations of the (1,1) AdS supergravity, while (ii) describes the (2,0) AdS supergravity. We associate with each supergravity formulation, with and without a cosmological term, a consistent super-current multiplet. The supercurrents in the (1,1) and (2,0) AdS backgrounds are derived for the first time. We elaborate on rigid supersymmetric theories in (1,1) and (2,0) AdS superspaces.

Kuzenko, Sergei M.; Tartaglino-Mazzucchelli, Gabriele

2011-12-01

418

Supersymmetric asymptotic AdS and Lifshitz solutions in Einstein-Weyl and conformal supergravities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We show that there exist supersymmetric Lifshitz vacua in off-shell Einstein- Weyl supergravity, in addition to the BPS AdS4 vacuum. The Lifshitz exponents are determined by the product of the cosmological constant and the coupling of the Weyl- squared term. We then obtain the equations of the supersymmetric solutions that are asymptotic to the AdS or Lifshitz vacua. We obtain many examples of exact solutions as well as numerical ones. We find examples of extremal AdS black branes whose near-horizon geometry is AdS2 × T 2. We also find an extremal Lifshitz black hole with z = -2, whose horizon coincides with the curvature singularity. However the asymptotic Lifshitz solutions are in general smooth wormholes. In conformal supergravity, we find intriguing examples of non-extremal "BPS" AdS and Lifshitz black holes whose local Killing spinor is divergent on the horizon. We show that all the supersymmetric asymptotic AdS and Lifshitz solutions have the vanishing Noether charge associated with some scaling symmetry. We also study the integrability condition of the Killing spinor equation and the supersymmetric invariance of the action. Finally we show that the only spherically-symmetric BPS solution is the AdS vacuum.

Lü, H.; Wang, Zhao-Long

2012-08-01

419

Late Twentieth-Century Racial Uplift Work.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper presents a description and brief history of the concept of "racial uplift" and describes its implications for a contemporary, Black college professor. The phrase "racial uplift," for 19th-century Black women, describes almost any type of political activity designed to improve conditions for Black people during the critical…

Logan, Shirley Wilson

420

Twentieth-Century Art: Issues of Representation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents lesson plans designed for secondary students that assess the role of naturalistic representation in twentieth-century art by examining the artwork of four artists: Pablo Picasso, Rene Magritte, David Smith, and Jackson Pollock. Provides background information on each illustration, and outlines discussion and art production activities for…

Springer, Julie

1990-01-01

421

The Greatest Artists of the Twentieth Century  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pablo Picasso was by far the greatest artist of the 20th century: textbooks of art history contain more than twice as many illustrations of his work as of that of his closest rival, Henri Matisse. A survey of textbooks also identifies Jackson Pollock as the greatest American artist, by a narrow margin over Andy Warhol. The 15 greatest artists of

David W. Galenson

2005-01-01

422

Equity for the 21st Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper explores how the education system of the 21st century has reached its current state and discusses where it needs to go, noting that the depth and quality of the education system reflects the wellness of the society. The goal that schools, districts, parents, and governments are attempting to achieve is one of equity for all students.…

Sheldon, George H.

423

Poetry at Buffalo: The Twentieth Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses the Special Collections at the State University of New York at Buffalo and the role of Charles Abbott in their development. His interest and a serendipitous lack of funds have created an unusual collection containing a Twentieth Century Poetry Collection, James Joyce holographs, and rare book collections. (CHC)|

Knoer, Wanda

1981-01-01

424

Radiation oncology: a century of achievements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the twentieth century the discipline of radiation oncology has developed from an experimental application of X-rays to a highly sophisticated treatment of cancer. Experts from many disciplines — chiefly clinicians, physicists and biologists — have contributed to these advances. Whereas the emphasis in the past was on refining techniques to ensure the accurate delivery of radiation, the future of

Eric J. Hall; Amato Giaccia; Jacques Bernier

2004-01-01

425

Energy Economists in the 21st Century  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ladies and gentlemen, when I asked what the customary procedure was for this ceremony, I was told that the person receiving the award habitually gave a little talk on the subject of his choice. Since futurology is familiar to me, I have chosen to speak of energy economists in the twenty-first century.

Pierre Desprairies

1989-01-01

426

William Monroe Trotter: A Twentieth Century Abolitionist  

Microsoft Academic Search

William Monroe Trotter was a twentieth century abolitionist. He was a man of principle whose dedication to the cause of equality was never disputed. Many criticized his methodology, but the l960s saw a revitalization of his direct action approach. His life is an interesting profile in the study of leadership. He left no long standing organization, but in the history

William A. Edwards

1988-01-01

427

Century of Women's Health 1990-2000.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In the 20th century, we witnessed the most dramatic improvements in women's health in human history. At every level, the quality of women's health care was enhanced and strengthened through advances in research, behavioral patterns, diet, pre- and post-na...

2001-01-01

428

English Character in the Twentieth Century  

Microsoft Academic Search

The major divisions of English society by social class and geographical regions are outlined. Historical evi dence suggests that the typical character of the middle classes has been modified relatively little in the last two centuries, but that the typical character of the urban working classes has had two major modifications: in the middle of the nineteenth cen tury when

Geoffrey Gorer

1967-01-01

429

Wackernagel's Law in Fifth-Century Greek  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This dissertation investigates the distribution of the pronominal clitics and the modal particle [Special characters omitted.] in fifth-century Greek (more specifically in Herodotus, the tragedians, and Aristophanes), which is typically assumed to be governed by Wackernagel's Law. It argues for a prosody-dominant model of clitic distribution,…

Goldstein, David Michael

2010-01-01

430

Listening Education in the 21 Century  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 1999 tragic shootings at Columbine High School in Littleton, Colorado, served as a wake-up call for Americans that we need to listen to our teenagers. How unfortunate it is that it takes a tragedy to reawaken educational interest in listening as a crucial component of human communication behavior. As we enter the 21 Century, this article re-emphasizes the crucial

Andrew D. Wolvin; Carolyn G. Coakley

2000-01-01

431

The Constitution in the Twentieth Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Investigates the development of the United States Constitution in the twentieth century up to and including the Burger Court. Contends that interpreting the Constitution is an important issue of our times. Consequently argues that we should teach students about the development of this document. (RKM)|

Murphy, Paul L.

1987-01-01

432

Public Affairs in the 21st Century.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Public affairs is enjoying a renaissance in the Army, an awakening that holds bright promise for the 21st century. In 1997, for example, U.S. Rep. Ike Skelton (D-Mo.) proposed legislation to create a PA branch, recognizing the unique mission and training ...

M. J. Burbach

1999-01-01

433

Edkins and a Century of Acid Suppression  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1905, John Edkins (1863–1940) undertook the studies of gastrin that have subsequently formed the basis for a century of investigation into the physiological basis of acid secretion and led to the elucidation of a variety of acid-suppressive pharmacological agents that have revolutionized the management of acid peptic disease. Although his name is known to few, his contributions to the

I. M. Modlin; G. Sachs; N. Wright; M. Kidd

2005-01-01

434

Computerized Farm of the 21st Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Advancement in computer technology comes at a time when agriculture is in transition from a production-oriented to a business-oriented activity and will require new skills and knowledge if farmers are to be prepared for the future. Electronic technology applications on 21st century commercial farms and ranches will include farm decision support…

McGrann, James M.

435

Beef nutrition in the 21st century  

Microsoft Academic Search

Consumer demand for a leaner product will drive to some extent how finishing cattle are fed in the 21st century. A major challenge is to produce a leaner product while maintaining the flavor characteristics desired in quality beef. Several compounds are currently being evaluated that increase lean and reduce fat and if these compounds are approved for use in cattle,

Jerry W. Spears

1996-01-01

436

Business Education for the 21st Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Each year, the Policies Commission for Business and Economic Education develops statements regarding business education. The following are among the commission's guidelines regarding planning the business education curriculum for the new century: (1) making business education an integral and equal partner within schools' educational communities…

Missouri State Dept. of Elementary and Secondary Education, Jefferson City. Div. of Vocational and Adult Education.

437

Musical Composition in Twentieth-Century Korea  

Microsoft Academic Search

:This article explores the nature of musical creation in Korea and traces the development of the Western notion of composition through the main figures of twentieth-century Korean music. Korean composers have long been divided into composers of kugak (traditional music) and yangak (Western music). There have been attempts to cross the barrier between these two groups, and the extension of

Andrew P. Killick

1992-01-01

438

Making a Comeback in the New Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reveals how Ohio's Central State University avoided state closure with a bold mission to rebuild both the academic programs and the facilities. What the new century holds for maintenance, software, card systems, contract services, and security and online purchasing are discussed. (GR)

Sturgeon, Julie

2001-01-01

439

Developing Leaders for the 21st Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article describes the Leadership Development for the 21st Century: Linking Research, Academics and Extension program that began in June 2005. This 12-month program, designed to explore different models of leadership, develop peer networks, and enhance skills and knowledge in leadership competencies, is specifically for land grand educators…

Phillips, John L.

2005-01-01

440

Music Education Half a Century Hence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Focuses on what music education will be like in the year 2050. Addresses issues such as: technology's impact on music, cognitive science's role in music education, the effects of changing delivery systems, and the relationship of music and the elderly. Highlights the next half century's impact on music education. (CMK)|

Mahlmann, John J.

2000-01-01

441

National Security Strategy for a New Century.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

As we approach the beginning of the 21st century, the United States remains the world's most powerful force for peace, prosperity and the universal values of democracy and freedom. Our nation's challenge- and our responsibility- is to sustain that role by...

1998-01-01

442

Workforce Education: Issues for the New Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This book contains 22 papers on workforce education issues for the new century: "Introduction" (Alfred J. Pautler, Jr.); "Vocational Education: Past, Present, and Future" (Cheryl L. Hogg); "A Philosophic View for Seeing the Past of Vocational Education and Envisioning the Future of Workforce Education: Pragmatism Revisited" (Melvin D. Miller,…

Pautler, Albert J., Jr., Ed.

443

Creating 21st Century Learning Environments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|What is involved in creating learning environments for the 21st century? How can school facilities serve as tools for teaching and meet the needs of students in the future? What components are required to design effective schools, and how does architecture relate to the purposes of schooling? These are some of the questions addressed at the…

Li, Phan P.; Locke, John; Nair, Prakash; Bunting, Andrew

2005-01-01

444

Lifelong Learning for the 21st Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Lifelong Learning Center for the 21st Century was proposed to provide personal renewal and technical training for employees at a major United States automotive manufacturing company when it implemented a new, computer-based Computer Numerical Controlled (CNC) machining, robotics, and high technology facility. The employees needed training for…

Goodnight, Ron

445

Economists & Higher Learning in the Nineteenth Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As part of a multi-nation research project on the institutionalization of political economy in European, Japanese, and North American universities, the 14 essays in this volume explore the roots of academic economics in the United States during the 19th century. The organization of the essays is designed to show the catalytic role economists…

Barber, William J., Ed.

446

The College Board and the Twentieth Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The profile of American education in the twentieth century, especially at the secondary and postsecondary undergraduate levels, is mirrored in the chronology of College Board policies and programs over its 75-year history. After a review of the first 75 years, speculation is made on the next 25 years and the shapes that may be taken by American…

Marland, Sidney P., Jr.

447

Simulation of 20th century temperature trends  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results are reported from simulations with an atmospheric general circulation model (GCM) covering the 20th century. These results focus primarily on the continental surface air temperature (SAT) record, with some discussion of large spatial scale precipitation averages as well. These experiments were conducted using the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology ECHAM3 GCM configured at triangular-21 truncation, giving a spatial resolution

Nicholas E. Graham; Mary Tyree

1998-01-01

448

Looking back at the century of population.  

PubMed

This article reports experts' views on the important population trends and events observed in the 20th century. One expert mentioned that demographically the 20th century was the most remarkable century ever. Among its major features were the following: highest rate of growth; highest annual increment; shortest period in history to add 1 billion people; unprecedented decline in fertility; unparalleled increases in life expectancy, with dramatic declines in mortality; and rapid urbanization and the emergence of megacities. An expert from Paris cited changes in ethnic composition in the US and changes in the religious composition of Europe. Among the events considered as important population trends for the 20th century are the following: fertility decline; increase in proportion of older persons; development of hormonal contraceptives; stagnation of population growth in economically rich and industrialized countries; literacy rate of the population; promotion of gender equality and equity; women's empowerment; adoption of broad reproductive health/rights policies; and prevention and treatment of sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV/AIDS. PMID:12295707

2000-01-01

449

Developing Leaders for the 21st Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes the Leadership Development for the 21st Century: Linking Research, Academics and Extension program that began in June 2005. This 12-month program, designed to explore different models of leadership, develop peer networks, and enhance skills and knowledge in leadership competencies, is specifically for land grand educators…

Phillips, John L.

2005-01-01

450

Movements of Thought in the Nineteenth Century  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the very nature of things, reviewing a posthumous book involves a different approach on the part of the critic. The decent reticence that protects the author of the book, however, need not embrace his literary trustees or editors. Those persons who share the responsibility for the publication of Movements of Thought in the Nineteenth Century can rest assured that

Charles F. Mullett

1937-01-01

451

Transcendent Schools for the 21st Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Amidst the debate over funding cuts, an increased focus on teacher effectiveness, and the move toward e-learning, many question the importance of quality educational facilities. But an examination of developmental and psychological theory suggests that exceptional schools have an exciting and crucial role to play in 21st century education. So,…

Monberg, Greg; Kacan, George; Bannourah, Riyad

2011-01-01

452

Faculty Development for the 21st Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the 21st century, colleges and universities need to consider faculty development programs in the same way that they view academic programs for their Net Gen and Millennial students. In other words, successful faculty development programs should include mentoring, delivery in a variety of on-campus and off-campus formats (face-to-face, blended,…

Diaz, Veronica; Garrett, P. B.; Kinley, Edward R.; Moore, John F.; Schwartz, Celeste M.; Kohrman, Pat

2009-01-01

453

Nuclear power of the 21st century  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the period after the F-1 start-up in Russia, tens of nuclear systems for different applications have been designed, built, tested, and put into operation. To satisfy a predicted growth of energy consumption, a competitive development of different power sources will be required. In the first half of the 21st century, natural gas will dominate over other power sources. But

N. Ponomarev-Stepnoi

1997-01-01

454

Federal laboratories for the 21st century  

Microsoft Academic Search

Federal laboratories have successfully filled many roles for the public; however, as the 21st Century nears it is time to rethink and reevaluate how Federal laboratories can better support the public and identify new roles for this class of publicly-owned institutions. The productivity of the Federal laboratory system can be increased by making use of public outcome metrics, by benchmarking

J. Gover; P. G. Huray

1998-01-01

455

Energy Problems of the 21st Century  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Eleventh International Scientific Forum on Problems on Energetics in the 21st Century took place in the autumn of 1987 in Moscow. This conference was regarded by many as the starting point for a new series of international scientific forums on energetics, to analyze in detail key problems in the development of the world's fuel and energy economy.

V. A. KUZMINOV

1989-01-01

456

Executive Education in the 21st Century  

Microsoft Academic Search

Executive education is changing. As we move into the 21st century, numerous forces are causing a transformation in not only its delivery but also its purpose. According to executives from 25 global firms, executive education will be more directly geared to making leadership and change management work. We describe shifts in six areas: learning needs, learning content, pedagogy, instructors, participant

Jay A. Conger; Katherine Xin

2000-01-01

457

Moxa in Nineteenth-century Medical Practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

While we may think of moxa as a therapeutic technique that has been introduced to the United States in the last few decades of the twentieth century, this oriental healing procedure that applies the heat of burning herbs to acupuncture points was first employed in the United States by American physicians nearly two hundred years ago. Conceptualized as a counter-irritation

2010-01-01

458

Coloured Woods on Eighteenth-Century Furniture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marquetry has long been used as a mean of decorating furniture and wooden artefacts. Widely used in Europe from the 15th century onwards, marquetry involved the use of various materials such as wood, metals, stones, shells, and animal derivatives. To date no reference has been found on the dyeing techniques and ingredients used at the time. The pictorial technique employing

Flavia Perugini Philp

1999-01-01

459

Marine Aviation for the Coming Century.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In closing, my thoughts on modernizing Marine Corps' aviation forces for the coming century can be summarized as follows: We are planning for small levels of real growth less than one percent in the defense topline, and this will in turn put great pressur...

1996-01-01

460

Influenza Pandemics of the 20th Century  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three worldwide (pandemic) outbreaks of influenza occurred in the 20th century: in 1918, 1957, and 1968. The latter 2 were in the era of modern virology and most thor- oughly characterized. All 3 have been informally identified by their presumed sites of origin as Spanish, Asian, and Hong Kong influenza, respectively. They are now known to represent 3 different antigenic

Edwin D. Kilbourne

2006-01-01

461

Lifelong Learning for the 21st Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Lifelong Learning Center for the 21st Century was proposed to provide personal renewal and technical training for employees at a major United States automotive manufacturing company when it implemented a new, computer-based Computer Numerical Controlled (CNC) machining, robotics, and high technology facility. The employees needed training for…

Goodnight, Ron

462

Mozart and medicine in the eighteenth century.  

PubMed Central

Over the years the medical history and death of Mozart have been the subject of many studies, but in spite of all this attention much remains controversial. In an attempt to resolve some of the difficulty it is useful to see his life, and that of his family as recorded in their letters, in the context of medicine in eighteenth-century Europe.

Jenkins, J S

1995-01-01

463

Using twentieth century masterworks in school  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes methods of learning based on the use of architectural masterpieces of the first half of the twentieth century. A particular case, involving the rehabilitation of Le Corbusier's Unite d'Habitation in Firminy, is presented in detail to demonstrate that the benefits of such methods encompass more than learning technology and detailing, and to show that such student work

Daniel Bernstein; Paolo Carrozzino; Joel Loial; Carine Natali; Fabrice Pilorge

1997-01-01

464

Educational Psychology’s First Century  

Microsoft Academic Search

Educational psychology mediates between the disciplines of psychology and education. Scholars have seldom agreed on a single definition of the field but have incorporated knowledge from several areas. The discipline of educational psychology was fostered primarily in the United States by such eminent psychologists as William James, Edward L. Thorndike, and James McKeen Cattell. Over the past century, several philosophical

Herbert J. Walberg; Geneva D. Haertel

1992-01-01

465

Twentieth-Century Art: Issues of Representation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents lesson plans designed for secondary students that assess the role of naturalistic representation in twentieth-century art by examining the artwork of four artists: Pablo Picasso, Rene Magritte, David Smith, and Jackson Pollock. Provides background information on each illustration, and outlines discussion and art production activities for…

Springer, Julie

1990-01-01

466

PR in the 21st Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The ways in which advancing technology will affect college and university public relations and the mass media in the next century are examined, and a survey of 60 campus public relations specialists and 40 journalists concerning predicted changes is reported. Implications for campus communications with the media are also discussed. (MSE)|

Forbush, Dan; Toon, John

1994-01-01

467

Leadership in the 21st Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Successful 21st-century teachers will be proficient at mentoring and managing relationships and will possess excellent skills in managing classrooms and designing and delivering lessons. A successful school will be administered by a principal who has mastered similar skills and who dares to take charge and do what is right. Supporting teachers…

Hoover, Irene J.

1998-01-01

468

The "Casa dei Bambini": A Century Concept.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Reviews the early history of Montessori education from the Italian State Orthophrenic School to the opening of the original Casa dei Bambini in San Lorenzo, Italy on January 6, 1907. Includes a synopsis of Maria Montessori's progressive revelations of the child's developing self over the past century. (JPB)|

Hall, Elizabeth

2000-01-01

469

Glaciers in 21st Century Himalayan Geopolitics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glaciers are ablating rapidly the world over. Nowhere are the rates of retreat and downwasting greater than in the Hindu Kush-Himalaya (HKH) region. It is estimated that over the next century, 40,000 square kilometers of present glacier area in the HKH region will become ice free. Most of this area is in major valleys and the lowest glaciated mountain passes.

J. S. Kargel; R. Wessels; H. H. Kieffer

2002-01-01

470

Planetary Missions of the 20th Century  

Microsoft Academic Search

Among of the highlights of the 20th century were flights of spacecraft to other bodies of the Solar System. This paper describes briefly the missions attempted, their goals, and fate. Information is presented in five tables on the missions launched, their goals, mission designations, dates, discoveries when successful, and what happened if they failed. More detailed explanations are given in

V. I. Moroz; W. T. Huntress; I. L. Shevalev

2002-01-01

471

Economists & Higher Learning in the Nineteenth Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|As part of a multi-nation research project on the institutionalization of political economy in European, Japanese, and North American universities, the 14 essays in this volume explore the roots of academic economics in the United States during the 19th century. The organization of the essays is designed to show the catalytic role economists…

Barber, William J., Ed.

472

Engaging twenty-first century learners  

Microsoft Academic Search

The gulf between the educational methods in UK secondary and tertiary education has never been wider. Students are increasingly driven by marks a nd the expectation is of 'teaching' not 'learning'. Ev en a mild spell of disengagement can quickly lead to a r equest for transfer. Respected sources agree that twenty-f irst century students demand more than ever before:

Peter Willmot; Tony Sutton; Sarah Bamforth

2007-01-01

473

Curriculum for the 21st Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The question explored here is this: Is curriculum for the 21st century best organized around the traditional disciplines, or is there a more promising alternative? The answered offered is that our best option is to stretch the disciplines from within, push back the boundaries now separating them, and ask how each of the expanded subjects can be…

Noddings, Nel

2007-01-01

474

Elihu Burritt's Nineteenth Century Peace Education Efforts  

Microsoft Academic Search

A self-taught blacksmith by trade who developed some of the most innovative forms of peace education in the nineteenth century. Burritt's peace adventures took place in the arena of international affairs rather than the classroom. He wrote numerous peace pamphlets and delivered hundreds of speeches that focused on gaining the support of the working masses for world peace and goodwill.

Charles F. Howlett

475

Interpreting Genesis in the 21st Century  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rise of modernism during the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries was associated with two contrasting trends within Christian theology, both of which influenced the interpretation of the Bible. The dominant trend encouraged a more critical analysis of the biblical text in which it was handled 'scientifically' with respect to sources, authorship and dating. But the rise of mod- ernism,

Ernest Lucas

476

21ST CENTURY MOLD ANALYSIS IN FOOD  

EPA Science Inventory

Traditionally, the indoor air community has relied on mold analysis performed by either microscopic observations or the culturing of molds on various media to assess indoor air quality. These techniques were developed in the 19th century and are very laborious and time consumin...

477

Remaining Relevant in the 21st Century.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Is the Marine Corps operational concept 'Operational Maneuver from the Sea' and the 31st Commandant's Planning Guidance the direction in which the Marine Corps should be going to remain relevant in the 21st century political and military environment. Are ...

C. L. Hudson

1996-01-01

478

Rural Policy in a New Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Past rural policies are reviewed, noting the effects of globalization and information technology. Rural business profits can be maximized by direct cost or value-added competition, but cost competition limits the development of productive capacity and leads to unequal income distribution. In contrast, value-added competition could create steep…

Marshall, Ray

479

AdS3 solutions of IIB supergravity from D3-branes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider pure D3-brane configurations of IIB string theory which lead to supersymmetric solutions containing an AdS3 factor. They can provide new examples of AdS3/CFT2 duality pairs on D3-branes whose worldvolume is partially compactified. When the internal 7 dimensional space is non-compact, they can be identified as supersymmetric fluctuations of higher dimensional AdS solutions and are in general dual to 1/8-BPS operators thereof. We find that supersymmetry requires the 7 dimensional space take the form of a warped U(1) fibration over a 6 dimensional Kahler manifold.

Kim, Nakwoo

2006-01-01

480

Lagrangian mechanics of massless superparticle on AdS4×CP3 superbackground  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Massless superparticle model is considered on the OSp(4|6)/(SO(1,3)×U(3)) supercoset manifold and in the AdS4×CP3 superspace. In the former case integrability of the equations of motion is rather obvious, while for the AdS4×CP3 superparticle we prove integrability in the partial ?-symmetry gauge for which 4 anticommuting coordinates related to the broken conformal supersymmetry are set to zero. This allows us to propose expression for the Lax pair that may encode complete equations of motion for the AdS4×CP3 superparticle.

Uvarov, D. V.

2013-02-01

481

Values to Be Added to an \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

:The rise of China and India has transformed the former collective dominance of the United States, Europe, and Japan into a multipolar world. Within this multipolar world, relations between the United States and China will constitute an important bilateral contour for the twenty-first century, as illustrated by the United States-China Strategic and Economic Dialogue that convened in July 2009. In

Chang-fa Lo

2010-01-01

482

Values to Be Added to an \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rise of China and India has transformed the former collective dominance of the United States, Europe, and Japan into a multipolar world. Within this multipolar world, relations between the United States and China will constitute an important bilateral contour for the twenty-first century, as illustrated by the United States-China Strategic and Economic Dialogue that convened in July 2009. In

Chang-fa Lo

2010-01-01

483

"Classroom" of the Future: 2058 AD.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|What the classroom of the next century will be like can only be speculated upon, but, almost certainly, any changes will require self-examination of the human essence in relation to technology. One outcome of technological change may be increased freedom for humans to relate to each other on a more human basis. Also, it appears that education…

Cervantes, Robert A.; Castaneda, Celia Z.

484

Fatal Wounding of the Byzantine Emperor Julian the Apostate (361–363 a.d.): Approach to the Contribution of Ancient Surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Byzantine surgery flourished from the early stages of the Byzantine empire (324–1453 a.d.). The first great Byzantine physicians,\\u000a among the most eminent being Oribasius from Pergamun (fourth century), not only compiled anthologies of the works of ancient\\u000a Greek, Alexandrian, and Roman physicians but added their own personal practical experience and observations. The circumstances\\u000a surrounding, and the treatment of, the

John Lascaratos; Dionysios Voros

2000-01-01

485

Ad Hoc UAV Ground Network (AUGNet)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes an implementation of a wireless mobile ad hoc network with radio nodes mounted at fixed sites, on ground vehicles, and in small (10kg) UAVs. The ad hoc networking allows any two nodes to communicate either directly or through an arbitrary number of other nodes which act as relays. We envision two scenarios for this type of network.

Timothy X Brown; Brian Argrow; Cory Dixon; Sheetalkumar Doshi; Roshan-George Thekkekunnel; Daniel Henkel

2004-01-01

486

Connectivity of Aeronautical Ad hoc Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

AANETs (Aeronautical Ad hoc Networks) are a new type of ad hoc networks composed of aircrafts as nodes in network. On one hand, it enhances the situation awareness of aircrafts by multi-hop transmission and correspondingly improves air traffic safety. On the other hand, the high velocity of aircrafts brings in lots of challenges. Connectivity is the fundamental performance index of

Hua Li; Bo Yang; Cailian Chen; Xinping Guan

2010-01-01

487

Singles ads: Gender, social class, and time  

Microsoft Academic Search

The contents of 800 singles ads were examined. They were compared by the gender of the advertiser, the year of appearance (1991 and 1986), and the SES of the target readership (affluent and general). There were very few advertisers who listed themselves as black, so these ads were not included in the study. Gender differences were most important. Men were

Frank N. Willis; Roger A. Carlson

1993-01-01

488

Scrutiny Heightens for "Value Added" Research Methods  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As value-added research designs gain in popularity and undergo increasing scrutiny, experts are beginning to wave cautionary flags about how best to make use of the