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  1. Paleoradiology of the Savoca Mummies, Sicily, Italy (18th-19th Centuries AD).

    PubMed

    Piombino-Mascali, Dario; Jankauskas, Rimantas; Zink, Albert R; Sergio Todesco, M; Aufderheide, Arthur C; Panzer, Stephanie

    2015-06-01

    Mummified remains have been successfully studied radiologically since the end of the 19th century, giving rise to a specific field of research-paleoradiology. In this paper, we present the results of the first radiological investigation of a collection of Sicilian mummies found in a subterranean chamber beneath the Capuchin Church of Savoca. The chamber contains a number of preserved bodies, either held in special niches in the walls or interred within coffins. A recent detailed radiological examination of these mummies allowed the authors to determine information relating to the funerary treatment and some of the pathological alterations witnessed in the remains. Specifically, evidence of gout and DISH was identified, along with frequent degenerative joint disease, suggestive of rich dietary habits and a longer life expectancy. These findings were interpreted in the light of historical information and the social status of the subjects concerned. PMID:25998633

  2. [Astrologic and medical manuscript of the 18th Century].

    PubMed

    Kugener, Henri

    2010-01-01

    We present a manuscript from the 18th century, an extract taken from the "Great and the Little Albert" attributed to Albertus Magnus. The linguistic variety in the paper is typical for a text composed in Luxembourg. Added to this text are two incantations and a short cartomancy paper. PMID:20882751

  3. The Floating World Revisited: 18th-Century Japanese Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osaki, Amy Boyce

    1996-01-01

    Presents an instructional resource consisting of 4 18th-century Japanese prints combined with discussion questions and related activities for grades 6-12. The prints illustrate various aspects of a society in transition. Includes background material on 18th-century Japan and the prints. (MJP)

  4. Roads and cities of 18th century France.

    PubMed

    Perret, Julien; Gribaudi, Maurizio; Barthelemy, Marc

    2015-01-01

    The evolution of infrastructure networks such as roads and streets are of utmost importance to understand the evolution of urban systems. However, datasets describing these spatial objects are rare and sparse. The database presented here represents the road network at the french national level described in the historical map of Cassini in the 18th century. The digitization of this historical map is based on a collaborative methodology that we describe in detail. This dataset can be used for a variety of interdisciplinary studies, covering multiple spatial resolutions and ranging from history, geography, urban economics to network science. PMID:26401316

  5. Roads and cities of 18th century France

    PubMed Central

    Perret, Julien; Gribaudi, Maurizio; Barthelemy, Marc

    2015-01-01

    The evolution of infrastructure networks such as roads and streets are of utmost importance to understand the evolution of urban systems. However, datasets describing these spatial objects are rare and sparse. The database presented here represents the road network at the french national level described in the historical map of Cassini in the 18th century. The digitization of this historical map is based on a collaborative methodology that we describe in detail. This dataset can be used for a variety of interdisciplinary studies, covering multiple spatial resolutions and ranging from history, geography, urban economics to network science. PMID:26401316

  6. Mingantu, 18th-Century Mongol Astronomer and Radioheliograph Namesake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasachoff, Jay M.

    2013-01-01

    The 18th-century Mongol astronomer Mingantu (1692-1765) has been honored with a city named after him and a nearby solar telescope array. During the IAU/Beijing, my wife and I went to the new Chinese solar radioheliograph, the Mingantu Observing Station, in Inner Mongolia, ~400 km northwest of Beijing, a project of the National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences. It currently contains 40 dishes each 4.5 m across, with a correlator from Beijing. Within a year, 60 2-m dishes will be added. We passed by the 12-century ruins of Xanadu (about 20 km north of Zhangbei) about halfway. The radioheliograph is in a plane about 1 km across, forming a three-armed spiral for interferometric solar mapping, something colleagues and I had carried out with the Jansky Very Large Array, taking advantage of the lunar occultation before annularity at the 20 May 2012 solar eclipse. In the central square of Mingantu city, a statue ~10-m high of the Mongol astronomer Mingantu appears. Its base bears a plaque ~1-m high of IAU Minor Planet Circular MPC 45750 announcing the naming in 2002 of asteroid 28242 Mingantu, discovered at a Chinese observatory in 1999. Mingantu carried out orbital calculations, mapping, mathematical work on infinite series, and other scientific research. He is honored by a modern museum behind the statue. The museum's first 40% describes Mingantu and his work, and is followed by some artifacts of the region from thousands of years ago. The final, large room contains a two-meter-square scale model of the radioheliograph, flat-screen televisions running Solar Dynamics Observatory and other contemporary visualizations, orreries and other objects, and large transparencies of NASA and other astronomical imagery. See my post at http://www.skyandtelescope.com/community/skyblog/newsblog/ specfically Astro-Sightseeing_in_Inner_Mongolia-167712965.html. We thank Yihua Yan for arranging the visit and Wang Wei (both NAOC) for accompanying us. My solar research is supported by grant 1047726 from the Solar Research Program/Atmospheric and Geospace Sciences Division/NSF. I am also grateful for a NSF travel grant through AAS.

  7. Regina Salomea Pilsztynowa, ophthalmologist in 18th-century Poland.

    PubMed

    Konczacki, Janina M; Aterman, Kurt

    2002-01-01

    Regina Salomea Rusiecki (later Pilsztynowa) was a young, poorly educated Polish Catholic woman in the 18th century who became well known in Eastern Europe and the Ottoman Empire because of her skill in the treatment of cataracts and some other medical problems. She was born in 1718, and at the age of 14 she married an experienced, but significantly older, German Lutheran physician and ophthalmologist, Jakob Halpir. By helping him eagerly in his work, Pilsztynowa learned a great deal of her husband's way of treating cataracts and other ailments, and she ambitiously made use of the friendship and help of other physicians whom she met on her travels. Although there are some occurrences that could lead one to question aspects of Pilsztynowa's straight and honest character, one has also to point to her readiness to help where she could. PMID:11918899

  8. Austrian Pharmacy in the 18th and 19th Century

    PubMed Central

    Kletter, Christa

    2010-01-01

    This overview reflects the extensive changes in the health care system which had significant effects on the apothecary’s profession and education. In the 18th century Maria Theresia assigned Gerard van Swieten to modernize the medical curriculum and to work out reforms for health care. The resulting sanitary bill released in 1770 and amended in 1773 became effective for the whole empire and influenced greatly the apothecary’s profession. The Viennese Medical Faculty continued to be the supervisory body for the apothecaries, a situation which prolonged the conflicts between the faculty and the apothecaries. The financial and social distress prevalent in the 19th century also affected the apothecary business and led to a crisis of the profession. Furthermore, the apothecaries’ missing influence over the sanitary authorities delayed the release of a badly needed new apothecary bill until 1906. The introduction of a specific pharmaceutical curriculum at the university in 1853 was a great step forward to improve the pharmaceutical education. Nevertheless, the secondary school exam was not compulsory for the studies until 1920 and, therefore, the graduates were not on a par with other university graduates before that date. Women, except nuns, were not allowed to work as pharmacists until 1900. PMID:21179353

  9. [Medical consultation by letter in the 18th century].

    PubMed

    Pilloud, Séverine; Hächler, Stefan; Barras, Vincent

    2004-01-01

    Medical consultations by letter are especially abundant in the 18th century; recent research in the history of medicine has focused on this kind of archives, hoping to get a better idea of lay medical culture and medical practice, everyday life of the patient in the early modern period, private experience of suffering, relationships between popular knowledge and medical theories of illness, as well as the major factors of the doctor-patient relationship. However, to interpret them is not an easy nor an univocal task. This article suggests to analyse medical consultations by letter as an elaborate practice, starting from the communicational structure of the material in order to legitimate a two-scale approach, i.e. from the perspective of the healer and the person who is asking for a healing advice. In the first case, we analyse the correspondence of the Bernese physician Albrecht von Haller (1708--1777), and in the second case, the correspondence of the Vaudois physician Samuel-Auguste Tissot (1728--1797), with the aim of developing an approach of systematic comparative research. PMID:15889706

  10. Classics and Charity: The English Grammar School in the 18th Century. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tompson, Richard S.

    The aim of this study was to examine English secondary education and its emergence in modern form in the 18th century. Three hundred thirty-four grammar schools (more than 50% of those in the 18th century) in 15 counties comprised the sample. County records, educational essays, and other sources were consulted for a general survey of, among other

  11. John Stirling and the Classical Approach to Style in 18th Century England.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moran, Michael G.

    Most 18th-century rhetoricians viewed style as the expression of a writer's individual character and thought, placing little emphasis on the lists of figures common in many 17th-century rhetorics. John Stirling and others, however, continued the 17th-century tradition that reduced rhetoric largely to style and emphasized classical figures of

  12. Normativity in 18th century discourse on speech.

    PubMed

    MacNamee, T

    1984-11-01

    Eighteenth century phoneticians, such as Dodart, Ferrein, and Hellwag, extended the taxonomy of visible articulatory processes into the realm of the invisible, notably with the exploration of the voicing mechanism. Remedial initiatives were not simply confined to consideration of the outward manifestations of speech and its disorders: The work of Haller, Kuestner, and Morgagni shows an acute awareness of the nervous organization underlying verbal behavior. There was a characteristic preoccupation with mechanical models of speech, which led to the attempts of Kempelen and other investigators to construct actual "speaking machines." Eighteenth century scholars regarded language as not only an innate capacity peculiar to human nature, but also as a bodily habit learned by experience. The function of the orthoepist was to teach the right speech habits, and the upward mobility of the bourgeoisie created a demand for his services. PMID:6394627

  13. Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi: 18th Century Swiss Educator and Correctional Reformer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowers, Fredalene B.; Gehring, Thom

    2004-01-01

    This is the second in a series of articles on famous correctional educators. The first article introduced Mary Carpenter: 19th Century English Correctional Education Hero. (Editor's Note: See the September 2003 Issue for the first article) This article focuses on Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi, 18th century Swiss educator. It begins with a summary of

  14. Negative Numbers in the 18th and 19th Centuries: Phenomenology and Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maz-Machado, Alexander; Rico-Romero, Luis

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a categorization of the phenomena and representations used to introduce negative numbers in mathematics books published in Spain during the 18th and 19th centuries. Through a content analysis of fourteen texts which were selected for the study, we distinguished four phenomena typologies: physical, accounting, temporal and

  15. Care of the insane in Lbeck during the 17th and 18th centuries.

    PubMed

    Dilling, Horst; Thomsen, Hans Peter; Hohagen, Fritz

    2010-12-01

    Only selected aspects of the history of the House of the Poor Insane in the Hanseatic Free City of Lbeck have been studied to date.This article presents the results of an entire source study of this small institution in the 17th and 18th centuries, and briefly also during the next 40 years after the opening of a new building. In addition to the minute-book of the Governors, now kept in the Lbeck Municipal Archives, the results are based primarily on the account-books,which illustrate the institution's social history and activities. Examples are given. During most of the 17th century, the House was generally rather like a prison for the insane, but at the end of this century and in the early 18th there was a reform phase.This was followed by phases of repression and 'containment' at the end of the 18th century and in the early 19th century, before a renewed reform by the medical profession.The findings for Lbeck are compared with the development of inpatient care in institutions elsewhere, and the decisive factors in Lbeck are discussed. PMID:21877417

  16. The Treatment of the Motion of a Simple Pendulum in Some Early 18th Century Newtonian Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gauld, Colin

    2004-01-01

    The treatment of pendulum motion in early 18th century Newtonian textbooks is quite different to what we find in today's physics textbooks and is based on presuppositions and mathematical techniques which are not widely used today. In spite of a desire to present Newton's new philosophy of nature as found in his "Principia" 18th century textbook

  17. The Treatment of the Motion of a Simple Pendulum in Some Early 18th Century Newtonian Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gauld, Colin

    2004-01-01

    The treatment of pendulum motion in early 18th century Newtonian textbooks is quite different to what we find in today's physics textbooks and is based on presuppositions and mathematical techniques which are not widely used today. In spite of a desire to present Newton's new philosophy of nature as found in his "Principia" 18th century textbook…

  18. Solutions To the Problem of Impact in the 17th and 18th Centuries and Teaching Newton's Third Law Today.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gauld, Colin

    1998-01-01

    Compares the ideas of young people about Newton's third law, focusing on youth of today and youth of the 17th and 18th centuries. Examines the use of Newton's third law in understanding impact phenomena in the 17th and 18th centuries. Contains 46 references. (DDR)

  19. Chapter 9: understanding the nervous system in the 18th century.

    PubMed

    Smith, Christopher U M

    2010-01-01

    The 18th century was an age of transition. The time-honored neuropsychology of classical and medieval times, mechanized in Descartes' hydraulic neurophysiology, was undermined by microscopical observations and careful physiological experimentation. Yet it was not until the very end of the century, when work on electric fish and amphibia began to suggest an acceptable successor to "animal spirit," that the old understanding of human neurophysiology began to fade. This chapter traces this slow retreat from the iatrophysics of the early part of the century, with its hollow nerves and animal spirits, through a number of stop-gap explanations involving mysterious subtle fluids or forces described variously as irritability, lan vital, vis viva, vis insita, the spirit of animation etc., or perhaps involving vibrations and vibratiuncles and mysterious magnetic effluvia, to the dawning electrophysiology of the end of the century and the beginning of the next. This developing understanding filtered slowly through to affect medical education, and the 18th century saw the development of strong medical schools at Leiden, Edinburgh, Paris, Bologna and London. Associated with these developments there was a great increase, as a well-known physician looking back at the beginning of the following century noted, in a class of diseases that had little concerned physicians in the preceding century - "nervous disorders." PMID:19892112

  20. Magnetic declination measurements over European Russia and Siberia in the 18th century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raspopov, O. M.; Meshcheryakov, V. V.

    2011-12-01

    The paper presents the history of measurements of the geomagnetic field parameters over the territory of Russia in the 18th century derived from archival and literature sources. Topographical mapping of the European territory and neighboring seas of the Russian Empire from the late 17th to the mid 18th century during which magnetic measurements were made was of great importance for determining magnetic declination. The magnetic declination in Siberia and its neighboring seas was measured for the first time during the first expedition of V. Bering in 1728 and then during his second expedition (the Great Northern Expedition) in 1733-1742. Magnetic measurements were carried out along the northern coast of Siberia and in the Bering Sea. The academic group of the expedition performed magnetic declination measurements over southern regions of Siberia (Krasnoyarsk, Irkutsk, Nerchinsk, Yakutsk, etc.) in 1735 and 1736. During the second half of the 18th century, Russian expeditions determined geographical coordinates of the cities of European Russia and carried out magnetic declination measurements for them. During these expeditions Inokhodtsev paid attention to the anomalous magnetic declination in the Kursk region. In his opinion, the anomaly could have been caused by the presence of iron ore.

  1. Tremor in Latin texts of Dutch physicians: 16th-18th centuries.

    PubMed

    Koehler, P J; Keyser, A

    1997-09-01

    In his monograph An essay on the shaking palsy (1817), James Parkinson mentioned tremor and propulsion to be the most important signs of the disease that he was describing. In this article, we study aspects of the history of one of the signs that he mentioned, that is, tremor, and see how the meaning of this term evolved since its description by Galen, particularly in the period from the 16th to the 18th centuries. We'll pay attention to the development of a distinction made between action tremor and rest tremor. Work by the following authors is covered: Pratensis and Forestus (16th century); Tulp, Van Beverwijck, an Sylvius (17th century); and Boerhaave and Van Swieten (18th century). Not all authors made the distinction, originally noticed by Galen, between action tremor and rest tremor. Parkinson tremor probably was observed but was classified among the tremors of the elderly. The meaning of palpitation changed through the ages and finally was applied only to pathologic heart and artery pulsations. Sylvius and Van Swieten were the only authors in this study who clearly distinguished between action and rest tremor. They are discussed in Parkinson's monograph. PMID:9380070

  2. Four candles. Original perspectives and insights into 18th century hospital child healthcare.

    PubMed

    Williams, A N

    2007-01-01

    It has only recently been recognised that for more than a century before the opening of Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children (1852) children were treated and even admitted in English Voluntary Hospitals. Among the earliest English 18th century records, that contain the patient's age, are those found at the Northampton General Hospital within an archive dating from its foundation as the Northampton Infirmary in 1744. They afford a fascinating glimpse into both inpatient and outpatient child health. Although there are no medical notes as such, the hospital archive has recently rediscovered 1743 statutes, contemporary patient literature entitled Some Friendly Advice to a Patient (written by the Northampton Infirmary's founding physician Dr (later Sir) James Stonhouse), minute books, contemporary engravings of the outside and inside of the hospital and inpatient menus. Thus we can speculate with a high degree of certainty as to what would be the then current infirmary environment and treatments for illustrative examples of the children seen in the period 1744-45 (two inpatients and two outpatients). Interestingly one of the inpatient cases, Elizabeth Ager, a child with fever, was admitted against the infirmary regulations, suggesting already a stretching of boundaries in favour of paediatric admissions. This paper gives a flavour of 18th century hospital child healthcare in an era before the formal recognition of paediatrics as a medical specialty and preceding by more than a century the construction of specialist provision through the foundation of the first children's hospitals. PMID:17185447

  3. Auroras Observed in Portugal in Late 18th Century Obtained from Printed and Manuscript Meteorological Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaquero, Jos M.; Trigo, Ricardo M.

    2005-09-01

    We present a new catalogue of observations of the aurora borealis at Lisbon, i.e., at low-latitudes, in the late 18th century by Jacob Pr torius and Henrique Schulze, two German artillery officers. Dates of 18 auroras compiled by Pr torius and Schulze are compared with those published in other catalogues for that period. The number of annual auroras observed by the two Germans is then compared with two indices of solar activity showing a very good level of consistency between all time series. Finally, we have assessed the number of auroras observed taking into consideration the phase of the lunar cycle and the geomagnetic latitude of Lisbon.

  4. [Hygiene and health preservation in the Luso-Brazilian medicine of the 18th century].

    PubMed

    Neves Abreu, Jean Luis

    2010-01-01

    The present article analyzes the problematic of hygiene in the Luso-Brazilian medicine during the second half of 18th century. The chosen context to analysis is related to the changes of medical thought in Portugal along the period related to the appropriation of medical theories that circulated around the Enlightenment Europe. Besides, this paper approaches the ideas presented in medicine treatises of that time related to body care and health conservation, calling attention to the central role of hygiene along that period. PMID:21189663

  5. Occupational medicine in the Idria mercury mine in the 18th century.

    PubMed

    Slavec, Z Z

    1998-12-01

    Of all medical sciences in Slovenia, occupational medicine has the longest tradition. It is not a mere coincidence that it had developed already at the beginning of 18th century in Idria. The Mercury mine in Idria, is the second largest European mine of its kind, next to the Spanish Almaden, and has been owned by the Habsburg dynasty for four centuries. To attain higher production, the miners in Idria received medical and social care much earlier than anywhere else; chronic intoxication caused by mercury fumes greatly hindered their working ability. The first and, at the same time, one of the most prominent doctors in Idria, J.A. Scopoli (1723-1788) perfectly described the symptoms of chronic intoxication with mercury in his work De Hydrargyro Idriensi Tentamina Physico-Chymico-Medica (Venice, 1761) and thus ranked himself among the early medical writers of occupational medicine, medical hygiene and toxicology. His predecessors were Ellenbog, Paracelsus, Mattioli and some others. The article describes the situation in the mine of Idria in the 17th and 18th century and focusses on Scopoli's mineralogical and medical discussion on mercury miners and mercurialism. PMID:11623564

  6. Domenico Cirillo's collections. A recently rediscovered 18th-century Neapolitan herbarium.

    PubMed

    Ricciardi, Massimo; Castellano, Maria Laura

    2014-01-01

    The herbarium of the 19th-century Neapolitan botanists Vincenzo and Francesco Briganti was acquired by Orazio Comes in 1892 for the Royal Higher School of Agriculture in Naples. Based on a study of the handwriting on their labels, Comes concluded that some of the dried specimens were the sole remains of the herbarium of Domenico Cirillo, the distinguished 18th-century Neapolitan botanist, entomologist and physician. The current arrangement of the specimens not uniform and it is clear that they underwent extensive handling and rearrangement Some of the exsiccata are preserved in two packets, fixed on sheets bearing a printed label that reads "Herbarium D. Cyrilli". In an additional label Gaetano Nicodemi's handwriting and not Cirillo's as stated by Comes was identified. Other specimens, many of them mounted in a different manner from those in the first group, are arranged in another three packets. Certain characteristics of the herbarium may be explained by the vicissitudes of its history, including a hasty salvage operation. A study of the collection was conducted, including an analysis of the handwritten labels and notes, leading to conclusions that shed light on the significance of the Cirillo collection within the historical and scientific context of 18th-century Naples. PMID:25510076

  7. Displayed dexterity and distorted knowledge: amateurism and precision in late 18th century Spain.

    PubMed

    Valverde, Nuria

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the links between scientific practice and precision both in expert networks and popular literature in the second half 18th century Spain. It will be argued that scientific instruments were used and understood in different ways in these two networks, which required opposing strategies for visualizing the degree and goodness of users' dexterities, thereby fostering the emergence of different collective and individual (epistemic) subjects. I will also argue that these subjects' differences and affinities were constructed around three themes: firstly, the degree of precision needed to establish a correlation between data and the world, or, in other words, the degree of fluidity admitted in connecting material and cultural worlds; secondly, the relevance attributed to body and bod(il)y knowledge in producing reliable data and stabilizing expertise; and thirdly, the weight attributed to opinion in leaning towards ephemeral or lasting data. The first part of the paper looks at the epistemological and political confluences which in late 18th century Spain nurtured the emergence of both a culture of precision and a sphere of public opinion, and to the strained relationship that existed between them. The other three sections explore how Spanish people used different sets of practices to construct different images of themselves as supporters of a moral of precision. PMID:21305796

  8. [Pharmacists and pharmacies in Bjelovar in the 18th-19th centuries].

    PubMed

    Habek, Dubravko

    2008-07-01

    Previously unknown data on the historical development of pharmacist service in Bjelovar, retrieved from registers of births, marriages and deaths, and from some published material are presented. In Bjelovar, the development of pharmacist service proceeded in parallel with foundation of the town of Bjelovar in the second half of the 18th century, with opening of the first pharmacy in 1768 and second, municipal pharmacy in 1780, along with the activity of initially military and later civilian pharmacists (Simon Peschowar, Josephus de Blüweis, Franz Antonius Bretner, Martinus Mathias Birker). Another pharmacy was opened in 1826; two pharmacies and pharmacists were continuously working during the 19th century (Antonio Eisenlaitner (Aisthleitner), Georg Valentovich, Kolman German, Josip Werklein, Vjekoslav pl. Dolovacak, Vilim Luterotti. In addition to scant known information, some new socio-historical data on Bjelovar pharmacists and their families are presented. PMID:18843855

  9. Isotopic Ag–Cu–Pb record of silver circulation through 16th–18th century Spain

    PubMed Central

    Desaulty, Anne-Marie; Telouk, Philippe; Albalat, Emmanuelle; Albarède, Francis

    2011-01-01

    Estimating global fluxes of precious metals is key to understanding early monetary systems. This work adds silver (Ag) to the metals (Pb and Cu) used so far to trace the provenance of coinage through variations in isotopic abundances. Silver, copper, and lead isotopes were measured in 91 coins from the East Mediterranean Antiquity and Roman world, medieval western Europe, 16th–18th century Spain, Mexico, and the Andes and show a great potential for provenance studies. Pre-1492 European silver can be distinguished from Mexican and Andean metal. European silver dominated Spanish coinage until Philip III, but had, 80 y later after the reign of Philip V, been flushed from the monetary mass and replaced by Mexican silver. PMID:21606351

  10. An analytical Raman spectroscopic study of an important english oil painting of the 18th Century.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Howell G M; Vandenabeele, Peter; Jehlicka, Jan; Benoy, Timothy J

    2014-01-24

    An opportunity was afforded to analyse pigment specimens from an unrestored oil painting in the style of the English School of the mid-18th Century prior to conservation being undertaken. Raman spectroscopy was adopted to characterise the pigments and indicated the presence of a novel red pigment which was assigned to the complex chromium mineral, hemihedrite, in addition to other interesting materials found in combination. This is the first recorded identification of hemihedrite spectral signals in an art context in a range of mineral pigments that are otherwise typical of this period and some hypotheses are presented to explain its presence based on its occurrence with associated mineral pigments. It is suggested that the presence of powdered glass identified in certain areas of the painting enhanced the reflectivity of the pigment matrix. PMID:24095770

  11. An analytical Raman spectroscopic study of an important english oil painting of the 18th Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, Howell G. M.; Vandenabeele, Peter; Jehlicka, Jan; Benoy, Timothy J.

    2014-01-01

    An opportunity was afforded to analyse pigment specimens from an unrestored oil painting in the style of the English School of the mid-18th Century prior to conservation being undertaken. Raman spectroscopy was adopted to characterise the pigments and indicated the presence of a novel red pigment which was assigned to the complex chromium mineral, hemihedrite, in addition to other interesting materials found in combination. This is the first recorded identification of hemihedrite spectral signals in an art context in a range of mineral pigments that are otherwise typical of this period and some hypotheses are presented to explain its presence based on its occurrence with associated mineral pigments. It is suggested that the presence of powdered glass identified in certain areas of the painting enhanced the reflectivity of the pigment matrix.

  12. The clocks and the perception of time in the 18th century society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardinal, Catherine

    The ownership of clocks and watches became widespread in 18th century society, particularly amongst the wealthy classes. They liked the decorative appearance, practical advantages, and social prestige which those objects conferred. The use of 'mechanized' time in the towns supplanted the age old reliance on time as dictated by nature and the Church. New temporal reference points gave the day its rhythm. Data from that era (correspondence, memoirs, newspapers, engravings, and paintings) make it possible to catch a glimpse of the influence of clocks on the perception of time. From the beginning of the 'mechanized time' era, efforts to improve the accuracy and the technical performance of mechanisms were made. The importance of such a precise time measurement in every day life is considered.

  13. Isotopic Ag-Cu-Pb record of silver circulation through 16th-18th century Spain.

    PubMed

    Desaulty, Anne-Marie; Telouk, Philippe; Albalat, Emmanuelle; Albarde, Francis

    2011-05-31

    Estimating global fluxes of precious metals is key to understanding early monetary systems. This work adds silver (Ag) to the metals (Pb and Cu) used so far to trace the provenance of coinage through variations in isotopic abundances. Silver, copper, and lead isotopes were measured in 91 coins from the East Mediterranean Antiquity and Roman world, medieval western Europe, 16th-18th century Spain, Mexico, and the Andes and show a great potential for provenance studies. Pre-1492 European silver can be distinguished from Mexican and Andean metal. European silver dominated Spanish coinage until Philip III, but had, 80 y later after the reign of Philip V, been flushed from the monetary mass and replaced by Mexican silver. PMID:21606351

  14. [Experiences and knowledge exchanged in medical consultations by post (16th-18th centuries)].

    PubMed

    Barroux, Gilles

    2014-03-01

    Consultations by post make up together a significant part of the medical literature, especially between the 16(th) and 18(th) centuries and bring irreplaceable testimonies on how physicians could follow up their patients from far away, in relation with local practitioners who were at their patients' bedside or who could visit them on a regular basis. These testimonies are of a scientific nature since they show how illustrious physicians diagnosed, predicted and prescribed, such as Fernel, Chirac and later on Barthez and Tissot, or less famous practitioners such as Le Thieullier, for instance. They are of a literary nature since every physician has his own writing style, and the lay out of their letters often respects codes. They are of an anthropological nature in the sense that a conception of man, ill, with his character, his own life, is rendered under the form of narratives. PMID:24685223

  15. Northern European storm surge climate since the mid-18th century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dangendorf, Sönke; Woodworth, Philip; Wöppelmann, Guy; Pinto, Joaquim G.; Niehüser, Sebastian; Jensen, Jürgen

    2015-04-01

    Storm surges represent a serious hazard affecting coastal communities. Their intensity and frequency may change in a warming climate, either due to rising mean sea levels or possible changes in regional wind fields. While there is a scientific consensus that sea levels are significantly rising since the late 19th century, possible changes in extreme winds or storminess depend on the region and time period assessed. A major issue is the limited availability of wind observations, hampering reliable estimates of long-term changes in storminess. Here we assess the characteristics of regional wind storm fingerprints in storm surges as measured by selective tide gauges over the Northern European Shelf. While the availability of reliable atmospheric reanalyses or direct wind observations is mostly limited to the second half of the 20th century, high quality tide gauge measurements extend as far back as the 18th century. Therefore, tide gauges provide a unique insight into the occurrence of land-falling or near-coastal storms, and their variability on decadal and longer time scales. Their use is thus attractive not only regarding the impact on coastal communities, but also for the investigation of long-term climate variability and change. In this study, we investigate the suitability of the six following long Northern European tide gauges as proxies for possible changes and variability in storminess over Northwestern Europe: Brest (1711-2012), Newlyn (1915-2012), Liverpool (1768-2012), Aberdeen (1930-2012), Cuxhaven (1843-2012), Rorvik (1969-2012), and Lerwick (1959-2012). Major extreme surge events are identified and compared to changes in winds in atmospheric pressure data. This is done by (i) an objective composite and correlation analysis using state of the art atmospheric reanalysis fields (NCEP, 20CR, ERA-20C), and (ii) a direct comparison of storm tracks and their respective storm surge fingerprints at each tide gauge. We discuss the spatial and temporal representativity of each tide gauge record with respect to the variability of storminess over the 2nd half of the 20th century. Hereafter, we assess their long-term changes back into the 18th century and compare them to conventional storminess proxies such as geostrophic winds.

  16. Climate and history in the late 18th and early 19th centuries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feldman, Theodore S.

    As in many areas of human knowledge, the notion of climate acquired a deeper historical content around the turn of the 19th century. Natural philosophers, geographers, and others became increasingly aware of climate's own history and its relation to human, plant and animal, and Earth history. This article examines several aspects of this historicization of climate.The lively 18th century discussion of the influence of climate on society is well known. Montesquieu is its most famous representative, but Voltaire, Hume, Kant, and others also participated. Their debate was literary more than scientific, their goal the understanding of man, not climate. Partly for this reason and partly because of the lack of good information on climates, they made no attempt to gather substantial climatic data. In fact, the importance of systematically collecting reliable data was scarcely understood in any area of natural philosophy before the last decades of the century [Cf. Frngsmyr et al., 1990; Feldman, 1990]. Instead, participants in the debate repeated commonplaces dating from Aristotle and Hippocrates and based their conclusions on unreliable reports from travelers. As Glacken wrote of Montesquieu, his dishes are from old and well-tested recipes [Glacken, 1967, chapter 12]. This is not to say that the debate over climatic influence was not significantonly that its significance lay more in the history of man than in the atmospheric sciences.

  17. Impotence in the 18th and 19th century: concepts of etiology and approaches to therapy.

    PubMed

    Santoro, Domenico; Savica, Vincenzo; Satta, Ersilia; Scaffidi, Mariella; Mallamace, Agostino; Li Vecchi, Maurizio; Bellinghieri, Guido

    2009-01-01

    The old word impotence is derived from the Latin word impotencia, which literally translated means "lack of power." Impotence, in the course of the history, has been attributed to mental pathology, anxiety, or demons or witches. Historically, the pharmacological treatments for impotence started in Greek times, when a myriad of herbal medications were applied locally to the genitals to enhance "sexual strength." In the 18th century, theories about the main factors inducing impotence saw it as an abnormal state of the fibers, a defect in the solid or liquid substances or a bad structure (tumor, inflammation, abscess, ulcer or foreign body). According to these mechanisms, when impotence depended on the state of the muscular fibers, treatment included a tepid bath and a clyster. In very fat or very weak people, who get particularly tired, it was important to use the remedies able to give energy to the fibers, such as ferrous mineral waters, for a month. Moreover, other suggestions were to ride a horse, to sleep few hours, to breathe good country air, to take a purge every 2 weeks, to drink half a glass of wine from Borgogne or to distract the mind continuously. In the 19th century, therapies regarding impotence included slight electric stimulation through the application of stimulators on the scrotum in the testis or epididymis areas, until pain was induced. In the same period, another method for treating impotence was flagellation. This method consisted of little flagellations with leather strips. PMID:20013735

  18. The Treatment of the Motion of a Simple Pendulum in some Early 18th Century Newtonian Textbooks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gauld, Colin

    The treatment of pendulum motion in early 18th century Newtonian textbooks is quite different to what we find in today's physics textbooks and is based on presuppositions and mathematical techniques which are not widely used today. In spite of a desire to present Newton's new philosophy of nature as found in his Principia 18th century textbook analysis of pendulum motion appears to owe more to Galileo's insights than to those of Newton. The following case study outlines this analysis and identifies some of its distinctive features as a resource for teachers wishing to refer to this period in the history of science.

  19. Hydro-meteorological extreme events in the 18th century in Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fragoso, Marcelo; Joo Alcoforado, Maria; Taborda, Joo Paulo

    2013-04-01

    The present work is carried out in the frame of the KLIMHIST PROJECT ("Reconstruction and model simulations of past climate in Portugal using documentary and early instrumental sources, 17th-19th century)", and is devoted to the study of hydro-meteorological extreme events during the last 350 years, in order to understand how they have changed in time and compare them with current analogues. More specifically, the results selected to this presentation will focus on some hydro-meteorological extreme events of the 18th century, like severe droughts, heavy precipitation episodes and windstorms. One of the most noteworthy events was the winterstorm Brbara (3rd to 6th December 1739), already studied in prior investigations (Taborda et al, 2004; Pfister et al, 2010), a devastating storm with strong impacts in Portugal caused by violent winds and heavy rainfall. Several other extreme events were detected by searching different documentary archives, including individual, administrative and ecclesiastic sources. Moreover, a more detailed insight to the 1783-1787 period will be made with regard the Lisbon region, taking into consideration the availability of information for daily meteorological observations as well as documentary evidences, like descriptions from Gazeta de Lisboa, the periodic with more continuous publication in the 18thcentury. Key-words: Instrumental data, Documentary data, Extreme events, Klimhist Project, Portugal References Pfister, C., Garnier, E., Alcoforado, M.J., Wheeler, D. Luterbacher, J. Nunes, M.F., Taborda, J.P. (2010) The meteorological framework and the cultural memory of three severe winter-storms in early eighteenth-century Europe, Climatic Change, 101, 1-2, 281-310 Taborda, JP; Alcoforado, MJ and Garcia, JC (2004) O Clima do Sul de Portugal no Sc.XVIII, Centro de Estudos Geogrficos, rea de de Investigao de Geo-Ecologia, relatrio no 2

  20. Two positive tuberculosis cases in the late Nigrovits family, 18th century, Vc, Hungary.

    PubMed

    Szikossy, Ildik; Plfi, Gyrgy; Molnr, Erika; Karlinger, Kinga; Kovcs, Balzs K; Korom, Csaba; Schultz, Michael; Schmidt-Schultz, Tyede H; Spigelman, Mark; Donoghue, Helen D; Kustr, gnes; Pap, Ildik

    2015-06-01

    Two mummies of the Hungarian mummy collection from Vc were the subjects of anthropological, paleopathological, radiological, paleomicrobiological, paleohistological and paleoproteomic studies. Both individuals belonged to the same family. The father, Jzsef Nigrovits (No 29), died at the age of 55 on the 11th of November 1793; his son, Antal Nigrovits (No 54), died on the 16th of July 1803, at the age of 22. They lived in the 18th century in Vc, a small town in northern Hungary. The macroscopic examination of the son showed a severely deformed neck and back region; the father has no visible mark of any illnesses. As earlier researches showed that tuberculosis was widespread in the community, the etiology of these deformities was examined. The paleomicrobiological results found that both individuals were infected with tuberculosis. Although they suffered from TB, the CT scan data of the bodies and their 3D reconstructions showed no skeletal evidence of tuberculosis. The deformity of the son turned to be a developmental abnormality of unknown origin, but no Pott's gibbus was present. PMID:25814300

  1. Reflection terahertz time-domain imaging for analysis of an 18th century neoclassical easel painting.

    PubMed

    Koch-Dandolo, Corinna L; Filtenborg, Troels; Fukunaga, Kaori; Skou-Hansen, Jacob; Jepsen, Peter Uhd

    2015-06-01

    Terahertz time-domain imaging (THz-TDI) has been applied for imaging a hidden portrait and other subsurface composition layers of an 18th century (18C) easel painting by Nicolai Abildgaard, the most important 18C Danish neoclassical painter of historical and mythological subjects. For the first time, a real hidden portrait on an easel painting has been imaged by THz-TDI, with an unexpected richness of detail. THz C- and B-scans have been compared with images obtained by x-ray radiography and invasive cross-sectional imaging, leading to a deeper understanding of the strengths and limitations of this technique for art diagnostic purposes and defining its role among complementary tools for the investigation of art objects. We present a fast and effective method to separate single THz pulse reflections of interest from the entire signal across the image, adapted for uneven surfaces typically encountered in practical applications of the technique. Interfaces between layers of the painting have been successfully imaged, contributing substantially to the understanding of the structure of the painting. PMID:26192674

  2. The "System of Chymists" and the "Newtonian Dream" in Greek-Speaking Communities in the 17th-18th Centuries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bokaris, Efthymios P.; Koutalis, Vangelis

    2008-01-01

    The acceptance of new chemical ideas, before the Chemical Revolution of Lavoisier, in Greek-speaking communities in the 17th and 18th centuries did not create a discourse of chemical philosophy, as it did in Europe, but rather a "philosophy" of chemistry as it was formed through the evolution of didactic traditions of Chemistry. This

  3. The Struggle To Survive: Work for Racial Ethnic Women in the 18th- and 19th-Century United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higginbotham, Elizabeth

    The work situations of Black, Mexican American, and Chinese immigrant women in 18th- and 19th-century United States are explored. Generally, when engaged in agricultural work, all ethnic people were considered units of labor. However, because the slave owner needed to perpetuate his property, Black women were allowed lower rates of production when

  4. The "System of Chymists" and the "Newtonian Dream" in Greek-Speaking Communities in the 17th-18th Centuries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bokaris, Efthymios P.; Koutalis, Vangelis

    2008-01-01

    The acceptance of new chemical ideas, before the Chemical Revolution of Lavoisier, in Greek-speaking communities in the 17th and 18th centuries did not create a discourse of chemical philosophy, as it did in Europe, but rather a "philosophy" of chemistry as it was formed through the evolution of didactic traditions of Chemistry. This…

  5. To cool or not to cool: evolution of the treatment of burns in the 18th century.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Amer; Choukairi, Fouzia

    2013-01-01

    The 18th century represents a transitional period in evolution of surgery and burn treatment, a time just before major advances such as asepsis, burn excision and skin grafting, were to revolutionise surgical practice. The medical minds of this era first began to question the centuries of dogma and speculation that were at the heart of medicine. The evolution of the treatment of burns in this crucial time is reviewed from the perspective of two of the exceptional medical minds of that era John Hunter and James Earle. Many of their observations are still valid today and their influence would prove inspirational in ushering in modern era of burn management. PMID:23648626

  6. The historical archaeology of the 17th- and 18th-century Jewish community of Nevis, British West Indies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terrell, Michelle M.

    2000-11-01

    This is an historical archaeological examination of a 17th- and 18th-century Jewish community on the island of Nevis in the British West Indies. Unlike earlier archaeological studies of the Jewish Caribbean Diaspora that focused on single sites, this investigation used a community-wide approach to elucidate the daily experience of Sephardic Jews within the colonial Caribbean. This project included an archaeological excavation at the purported location of the community's synagogue, an electrical resistivity survey of the surviving cemetery, the construction of a map of property ownership in 18th-century Charlestown, and archival research. This study was carded out within a multiscalar and contextual framework that emphasized the importance of understanding the diaspora that brought the Jews to the West Indies, the development of the colonial Caribbean, and the surrounding environs of the port city of Charlestown, Nevis. The archaeological analysis of the supposed site of the synagogue proved that it was in fact that of a late 18th-century townhouse, but the associated land record research revealed the actual location of the community's former synagogue. Furthermore, the reconstruction of the physical layout of colonial-period Charlestown from the land records indicated the presence of a distinct Jewish quarter in the undesirable southern portion of the town. Evidence from the public records of Nevis and the social history of the members of the Jewish population unveiled external social and political pressures placed upon the Sephardim as well as internal religious and ethnic ties dig bound the community together. It is argued in closing that the archival evidence, in conjunction with the continued presence of a clustered settlement pattern like that of European Jewish communities during the medieval period, indicates that the Jews of the Caribbean were not fully integrated socially or politically into British colonial society. This examination of the Nevis community bears testimony to a period of transition from the closed communities of the medieval period to the more open and widespread communities begun after Jewish emancipation in the late 18th century.

  7. [The techno-aesthetics of smithian economy the value and function of objects in 18(th) Century England].

    PubMed

    Hilaire-Prez, Liliane

    2012-01-01

    From The Theory of Moral Sentiments to his essay on The Nature of that Imitation Which Takes Place in What Are Called the Imitative Arts, Adam Smith offered a vision of aesthetics combining beauty and utility. An echo of exchange value as the "ability to buy other goods" - the "power" to organize and achieve one's goals - his definition of beauty was premised on the "aptness" of things, that is, the fact that they were also useful. Sustained by the commodification of products, a kind of "techno-aesthetics" thus emerged in England in the 18(th) century, one that implied designing, adapting, reducing and showcasing the means of production. PMID:23264137

  8. Soil resources and agriculture in the center of European Russia at the end of the 18th century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alyabina, I. O.; Golubinsky, A. A.; Kirillova, V. A.; Khitrov, D. A.

    2015-11-01

    Soil-geographic and socioeconomic data were compared with the use of geoinformation technologies. The history of agricultural development of the East European Plain and distribution of population in Russia in the 18th century were studied by the example of Yaroslavl, Vladimir, and Ryazan gubernias (governorates). The analysis of the obtained data demonstrated considerable differences in land uses between the regions of the old (prior to the 16th century) development and the regions actively populated since the end of the 16th century. The soils of Vladimir and a half of Yaroslavl gubernias were most developed; in some local districts (uezds), the maximum possible efficiency of the use of the natural soil fertility was achieved. In contrast, in some chernozemic areas, considerable opportunities for the further extensive development were preserved, and the limits to the population growth were not reached. The level of agricultural loads on the territory remained relatively low.

  9. Non Destructive Investigation on the 17th/18th Century Sicilian Jewellery Collection at the Messina Regional Museum Using Mobile Raman Equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barone, G.; Bersani, D.; Jehlicka, J.; Lottici, P. P.; Mazzoleni, P.; Raneri, S.; Vandenabeele, P.; Di Giacomo, C.; Larin, G.

    2014-06-01

    A handheld Raman spectrometer operating at 785 nm was used for the in situ analysis of the gems present in the 17th/18th century Sicilian jewelry collection preserved in the Messina Regional Museum (Italy).

  10. Detection of a Tumor Suppressor Gene Variant Predisposing to Colorectal Cancer in an 18th Century Hungarian Mummy.

    PubMed

    Feldman, Michal; Hershkovitz, Israel; Sklan, Ella H; Kahila Bar-Gal, Gila; Pap, Ildik; Szikossy, Ildik; Rosin-Arbesfeld, Rina

    2016-01-01

    Mutations of the Adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene are common and strongly associated with the development of colorectal adenomas and carcinomas. While extensively studied in modern populations, reports on visceral tumors in ancient populations are scarce. To the best of our knowledge, genetic characterization of mutations associated with colorectal cancer in ancient specimens has not yet been described. In this study we have sequenced hotspots for mutations in the APC gene isolated from 18th century naturally preserved human Hungarian mummies. While wild type APC sequences were found in two mummies, we discovered the E1317Q missense mutation, known to be a colorectal cancer predisposing mutation, in a large intestine tissue of an 18th century mummy. Our data suggests that this genetic predisposition to cancer already existed in the pre-industrialization era. This study calls for similar investigations of ancient specimens from different periods and geographical locations to be conducted and shared for the purpose of obtaining a larger scale analysis that will shed light on past cancer epidemiology and on cancer evolution. PMID:26863316

  11. [Health care in Western Europe in the late 18th century, as reported in Smuel Cseh-Szombaty's travel journal].

    PubMed

    Rab, Irn

    2015-07-19

    Medical doctors working in Hungary and Transylvania were all trained abroad before the medical faculty of the University of Nagyszombat was founded in 1769. Most Roman Catholic medical students were trained in Vienna and Italy, whereas Protestants in Germany, The Netherlands, and Switzerland. In the 18th century a total of 500 Hungarian medical students studied at universities in Western Europe. Medical students' peregrination did not involve academic training only: whenever they had the possibility, students visited renowned hospitals, university clinics and famous doctors in order to gain experience and medical practice to complete their education. Smuel Cseh-Szombaty studied in Pest and Gttingen, obtained his medical doctor's diploma in Vienna in 1790, and then spent a year and a half at various medical institutions in Germany, The Netherlands, and England. Cseh-Szombaty's so far unpublished travel journal and alba amicorum provide a wealth of information about the practical knowledge that could be learned during peregrination, characteristics of medical training, patients' treatment, quality of German hospitals of the late 18th century, where the most famous doctors worked. It is an exciting description, how a doctor from Hungary spent his time studying in Western Europe. PMID:26170183

  12. Detection of a Tumor Suppressor Gene Variant Predisposing to Colorectal Cancer in an 18th Century Hungarian Mummy

    PubMed Central

    Feldman, Michal; Hershkovitz, Israel; Sklan, Ella H.; Kahila Bar-Gal, Gila; Pap, Ildikó; Szikossy, Ildikó; Rosin-Arbesfeld, Rina

    2016-01-01

    Mutations of the Adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene are common and strongly associated with the development of colorectal adenomas and carcinomas. While extensively studied in modern populations, reports on visceral tumors in ancient populations are scarce. To the best of our knowledge, genetic characterization of mutations associated with colorectal cancer in ancient specimens has not yet been described. In this study we have sequenced hotspots for mutations in the APC gene isolated from 18th century naturally preserved human Hungarian mummies. While wild type APC sequences were found in two mummies, we discovered the E1317Q missense mutation, known to be a colorectal cancer predisposing mutation, in a large intestine tissue of an 18th century mummy. Our data suggests that this genetic predisposition to cancer already existed in the pre-industrialization era. This study calls for similar investigations of ancient specimens from different periods and geographical locations to be conducted and shared for the purpose of obtaining a larger scale analysis that will shed light on past cancer epidemiology and on cancer evolution. PMID:26863316

  13. [Genealogy of the Books of Practica medicinae in Europe before the End of 18th Century: From the Origin to the Disappearance].

    PubMed

    Sakai, Tatsuo

    2015-09-01

    The Practica medicinae represented the books written in Europe before the end of 18th century that dealt with individual deseases. In total, 100 Practica books, written by 95 authors, were collected and divided into four periods from the early 11th to the end of 18th century. The first Practica book was written at the Salernitan medical school on the basis of ancient medical books in the basic style, dealing with regional deseases arranged in "a capite ad calcem" manner, as well as with the fevers. The basic style comprised a majority in the first period and decreased gradually, becoming a minority in the 3rd and 4th periods. Sennert's practica was the largest and it elaborated with precise construction. The additional categories, such as female, children, and surgical deseases increased in the later periods. Those written in non-basic style based on pathogenesis or in alphabetical order also increased in the later periods. The practica books changed slightly and gradually, indicating the essential consistency of the concepts of diseases in these periods. PMID:26775338

  14. Empiric physiology in epidemiologic doctrines of the 18th century, Hungarian General Norm of Health in 1770.

    PubMed

    Balzs, P

    2006-03-01

    According to standard textbooks, the last episode of European New Age plague pandemic died out by 1720 in Marseilles. Despite this allegation, the pandemic continued in well-documented new outbreaks, which attacked and devastated Central and Eastern Europe throughout the first half of the 18th century. At the beginning, military campaigns spread the infection out of the Ottoman Empire. Later on commercial goods took over this role via land or sea from Asia or out of the eastern Mediterranean region. Finally, the plague in Europe--except Russia and the Ottoman Empire--"died out" virtually by the end of the 18th century. Explaining this, there many scientific reasons were suggested: 1. Oriental rat fleas as main vectors of infection could not tolerate any more the European weather conditions (although there were no virtual climate changes in the last 300 years). 2. Black rats that lived in close proximity to man, were being outplayed by brown rats living rather outside of human habitats; 3. There emerged less virulent Yersinia strains that caused natural human immunisation. In spite of these suggestions, which may have contributed to the success, joint civil and military health authorities blocked the plague indeed, as a result of disciplined and relentless law enforcement. In Hungary, respectively in the Hapsburg Empire, well-advised health legislation backed up the effectiveness of local authorities. Following the last great devastation in 1738-1740, the General Norm of Health Service--a voluminous decree--summed up by 1770 all the time honoured empiric rules of foregoing centuries. It can be excellently demonstrated, how exactly the empiric rules discovered a century later met scientific facts of physiology and microbiology. PMID:16830690

  15. PCR diagnostics of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in historic human long bone remains from 18th century burials in Kaiserebersdorf, Austria

    PubMed Central

    Bachmann, Lutz; Däubl, Barbara; Lindqvist, Charlotte; Kruckenhauser, Luise; Teschler-Nicola, Maria; Haring, Elisabeth

    2008-01-01

    Background In the present pilot study we applied recently published protocols for detecting Mycobacterium tuberculosis in human remains. We screened long bones from an 18th century cemetery and skulls from the anatomical "Weisbach collection" (19th century). In addition, besides the study of abundance of tuberculosis in inmates of the poorhouse itself, we were interested to test whether in this particular instance tuberculosis can be identified from cortical bones, which are rarely affected by tuberculosis, but mostly better preserved than the vertebral bodies or epiphyses. Method The DNA extractions from the bone samples were obtained following established ancient DNA protocols. Subsequently extracts were subjected to a series of PCR amplifications using primer pairs published previously [1,2]. PCR products of the expected size were subsequently sequenced. Results Only primers targeting the repetitive IS6110 insertion sequence yielded PCR products of appropriate size. In one sample only (skull sample WB354 of the "Weisbach collection") sequence analysis revealed an authentic M. tuberculosis sequence that matched to a reference sequence from GenBank. Conclusion With a variety of established PCR approaches we failed to detect M. tuberculosis DNA in historic human femurs from an 18th century cemetery relating to a poor house in Kaiserebersdorf, Austria. Our data may indicate that in this particular case, thoracic or lumbar vertebrae, i.e. bones that are severely affected by the disease, would be more suitable for molecular diagnostics than long bones. However, the unpredictable state of DNA preservation in bones from museum collections does not allow any general recommendation of any type of bone. PMID:18799009

  16. The Lawyers in the 16th-18th Century's Germany: A Historical Database.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ranieri, Filippo

    1990-01-01

    Investigates the sociological backgrounds of German lawyers of the Holy Roman Empire through an analysis of the dissertations and disputations written during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Focuses on their university education, family circumstances, and careers. Creates an information data bank to carry out the project. Predicts further

  17. Raja Sawai Jai Singh II: An 18th Century Medieval Astronomer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanpied, William A.

    1975-01-01

    Offers a description of the instrumentation and methods utilized in this attempt at naked eye astronomy one century after the invention of the telescope. Also examines the motives which resulted in the implementation of an antiquated mode of observation. (Author/CP)

  18. Electrical treatment of spinal cord injuries in the 18th and 19th centuries.

    PubMed

    Silver, John R; Weiner, M-F

    2013-05-01

    Two centuries ago, electricity was being used for the treatment of paraplegia and trials were taking place in France. This study aims to identify cases of traumatic paraplegia treated with electricity in the 19th century in order to assess the therapeutic benefit. Only four such cases were identified, none with a complete transection of the spinal cord since these patients would have died from pressure sores and urinary tract infections. The personalities involved, William Gull, William Erb, Guillaume Duchenne and Cyril Henry Golding Bird are portrayed and contemporaneous views on electrotherapy analysed. While the four patients apparently benefited from the treatment, the lack of follow-up and the incomplete data prevented a definitive conclusion on the therapeutic value of electrical treatment in traumatic paraplegia. PMID:24585746

  19. Malthus, the 18th century European explorers and the principle of population in Africa

    PubMed Central

    Reniers, Georges

    2012-01-01

    In the second edition of his Essay on the Principle of Population, Malthus included twelve chapters that offer a remarkable description of population dynamics from all corners of the world. His discussion of (sub-Saharan) Africa was almost entirely based on the travel accounts of James Bruce and Mungo Park, two late eighteenth century British explorers. In this essay, I introduce these sources and discuss the insights that Malthus did, or perhaps should have, derived from both. PMID:24259758

  20. Venetian Rule and Control of Plague Epidemics on the Ionian Islands during 17th and 18th Centuries

    PubMed Central

    Konstantinidou, Katerina; Mantadakis, Elpis; Sardi, Thalia; Samonis, George

    2009-01-01

    During the 17th and 18th centuries, measures were taken by the Venetian administration to combat plague on the Ionian Islands. At that time, although the scientific basis of plague was unknown, the Venetians recognized its infectious nature and successfully decreased its spread by implementing an information network. Additionally, by activating a system of inspection that involved establishing garrisons along the coasts, the Venetians were able to control all local movements in plague-infested areas, which were immediately isolated. In contrast, the neighboring coast of mainland Greece, which was under Ottoman rule, was a plague-endemic area during the same period. We conclude that even in the absence of scientific knowledge, close observation and social and political measures can effectively restrain infectious outbreaks to the point of disappearance. PMID:19116047

  1. [Sanitary state of the ships of the Baltic fleet and development of the navy hygiene in the 18th century].

    PubMed

    Kostyuk, A V

    2015-09-01

    Sanitary and hygienic state of the Baltic navy ships in the 18th century was considered as unsatisfactory due to inappropriate habitation conditions answering hygienic requirements. The reason for the low ship habitation of that time was limited technological possibilities of the sail shipbuilding, lack of appropriate labour, and life and rest conditions for navy servicemen. In fact, wooden ships were not suitable for life activity of the navy crew, but contributed to disease increase. Because of the rapid development of the' navy hygiene and improvement of shipbuilding technologies, sanitary and hygienic state of local navy ships had became improving. With a glance on recommendations, developed by physicians D.P.Sinopeus and A.G.Bakherakht, were made following improvements: were implemented ventilators on ships, daily fumigation of ships rooms, monitoring of personal hygiene. PMID:26827523

  2. In naming the dead: Autosomal and Y-chromosomal STR typing on human skeletal remains from an 18th/19th century aristocratic crypt in Gallspach, Upper Austria.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, Reinhard; Renhart, Silvia; Gruber, Heinz; Kli Mesch, Wolfgang; Neuhuber, Franz; Cemper-Kiesslich, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Ancient DNA analyses have shown to be a powerful tool in the joint transdisciplinary assessment of archaeological records involving human remains. In this study we set out to identify single inhumations by synoptically evaluating the historical, archaeological, anthropological and molecular records on human remains from the crypt of the aristocratic family of Hoheneck (or: Hohenegg) dating to the 18(th) and 19(th) century AD. A total of 11 individuals were under investigation, yielding complete autosomal and Y-chromosomal STR profiles for 5 persons clearly showing a family group. DNA results, anthropological data and archaeological records taken together resulted in (almost) unambiguous correlation to historical records on the persons entombed in the crypt. PMID:25806829

  3. [Relations between equilibrium and dynamics at the turn of the 17th and 18th centuries].

    PubMed

    Schmit, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    This article investigates the reception of Galileo and Descartes' principles of statics in the works of some French scientists in the second half of seventeenth century, tracing their importance for the genesis of a concept of force. Through an examination of the link between statics and dynamics--especially concerning the phenomena of collision and the motion of falling bodies--it will be shown, first, that these principles of statics actually contributed to the genesis of dynamics; secondly, that the authors examined in this article managed to unify the various fields of mechanics by building a common axiomatic basis, and, thirdly, that there exists a conceptual identity between actions in engines and actions in dynamic phenomena. The evidence brought fourth in this articles challenges the view according to which statics, and more particularly the law of the lever, was an obstacle for the development of dynamics, and particularly for the conceptualization of force. PMID:25577927

  4. Venusians: the Planet Venus in the 18th-Century Extraterrestrial Life Debate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duner, David

    2013-05-01

    In the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries it became possible to believe in the existence of life on other planets on scientific grounds. Once the Earth was no longer the center of the universe according to Copernicus, once Galileo had aimed his telescope at the Moon and found it a rough globe with mountains and seas, the assumption of life on other planets became much less far-fetched. In general there were no actual differences between Earth and Venus, since both planets orbited the Sun, were of similar size, and possessed mountains and an atmosphere. If there is life on Earth, one may ponder why it could not also exist on Venus. In the extraterrestrial life debate of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, the Moon, our closest celestial body, was the prime candidate for life on other worlds, although a number of scientists and scholars also speculated about life on Venus and on other planets, both within our solar system and beyond its frontiers. This chapter discusses the arguments for life on Venus and those scientific findings that were used to support them, which were based in particular on assumptions and claims that both mountains and an atmosphere had been found on Venus. The transits of Venus in the 1760s became especially important for the notion that life could thrive on Venus. Here, I detect two significant cognitive processes that were at work in the search for life on Venus, i.e., analogical reasoning and epistemic perception, while analogies and interpretations of sensory impressions based on prior knowledge played an important role in astrobiological theories.

  5. Evaluation of lead concentrations in 18th-century Omaha Indian skeletons using ICP-MS.

    PubMed

    Reinhard, K J; Ghazi, A M

    1992-10-01

    The analysis of skeletal remains of Omaha Indians buried between AD 1780 and 1820 indicated that lead was incorporated in cortical bone. The diagenetic or biogenetic origin of the lead was evaluated by examination of lead isotope ratios of the bones and artifacts, and comparison of lead concentrations in burial soils with those of the bones. The isotopic values of the lead artifacts demonstrate that the lead was mined in the Missouri region. Although the isotope ratios in the bones are not identical with that from the lead artifacts, there is a strong relationship between them. This finding indicates that the lead in the bone was at least partly derived from the artifacts. Because lead artifacts rarely accompanied the burials but lead was ubiquitous in the bones, we suggest a biogenetic origin for the lead. There is also the possibility that some of the lead may have been derived from pigments applied to the corpse during mortuary ritual. PMID:1443093

  6. Limited urban growth: London's street network dynamics since the 18th century.

    PubMed

    Masucci, A Paolo; Stanilov, Kiril; Batty, Michael

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the growth dynamics of Greater London defined by the administrative boundary of the Greater London Authority, based on the evolution of its street network during the last two centuries. This is done by employing a unique dataset, consisting of the planar graph representation of nine time slices of Greater London's road network spanning 224 years, from 1786 to 2010. Within this time-frame, we address the concept of the metropolitan area or city in physical terms, in that urban evolution reveals observable transitions in the distribution of relevant geometrical properties. Given that London has a hard boundary enforced by its long standing green belt, we show that its street network dynamics can be described as a fractal space-filling phenomena up to a capacitated limit, whence its growth can be predicted with a striking level of accuracy. This observation is confirmed by the analytical calculation of key topological properties of the planar graph, such as the topological growth of the network and its average connectivity. This study thus represents an example of a strong violation of Gibrat's law. In particular, we are able to show analytically how London evolves from a more loop-like structure, typical of planned cities, toward a more tree-like structure, typical of self-organized cities. These observations are relevant to the discourse on sustainable urban planning with respect to the control of urban sprawl in many large cities which have developed under the conditions of spatial constraints imposed by green belts and hard urban boundaries. PMID:23950895

  7. The construction of the country landscape in Veneto plains (North of Italy) during 18th-21st centuries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borin, Maurizio; Novello, Elisabetta

    2013-04-01

    This paper focuses on the transformation that has taken place in the last four centuries in Veneto's plain in northern Italy. The analysis of statistical data over a long period of time has made it possible to chronologically reconstruct the gradual transformation of wetlands into arable land, suitable for human settlement and for the development of industrial activities. Particularly relevant are the policies adopted by the Republic of Venice (14th-18th centuries) with regard to the management of waters, policies which were continued by the Italian State after its unification in 1861. The evolution of the concept of land reclamation gradually came to include draining, hygienic, agrarian and environmental factors, paying attention to the specific character of both mountain and lagoon areas. Over many centuries new country areas were created, 2/5 of them located below sea level, which can be cultivated due to complex systems of canalization and water pumping. Both the State and landowners invested capital in a project that was not only meant to sustain private interest but that also met public needs. Since 1882 (when the Baccarini law was passed) the subject of the 'sanitary reclamation' began to be discussed in Italy. This concerned 1/16 of the total surface of the country, 400,000 hectares of which in Veneto, where malaria was directly or indirectly responsible for the death of thousands of people. New livelihoods substituted those of the past: some economies based, for instance, on the harvesting of the marshes' products or on the common use of marginal lands disappeared. The recent process of industrialization in Veneto, often carried out with little consideration for the environment, has eventually opened up a new chapter in the history of the countryside of this region, that of environmental and landscape enhancement.

  8. Evidence for tuberculosis in 18th/19th century slaves in Anse Sainte-Marguerite (Guadeloupe - French Western Indies).

    PubMed

    Lsch, Sandra; Kim, Mi-Ra; Dutour, Olivier; Courtaud, Patrice; Maixner, Frank; Romon, Thomas; Sola, Christophe; Zink, Albert

    2015-06-01

    During the American colonization in the 18th and 19th century, Africans were captured and shipped to America. Harsh living and working conditions often led to chronic diseases and high mortality rates. Slaves in the Caribbean were forced to work mainly on sugar plantations. They were buried in cemeteries like Anse Sainte-Marguerite on the isle of Grande-Terre (Guadeloupe) which was examined by archaeologists and physical anthropologists. Morphological studies on osseous remains of 148 individuals revealed 15 cases with signs for bone tuberculosis and a high frequency of periosteal reactions which indicates early stages of the disease. 11 bone samples from these cemeteries were analysed for ancient DNA. The samples were extracted with established procedures and examined for the cytoplasmic multicopy ?-actin gene and Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex DNA (IS 6110) by PCR. An amplification product for M. tuberculosis with the size of 123 bp was obtained. Sequencing confirmed the result. This study shows evidence of M. tuberculosis complex DNA in a Caribbean slave population. PMID:25754341

  9. (Re)Constructions of Etymology of the Term "Electricity" in French German and Modern Greek Textbooks of Physics of 18th-19th Centuries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patsopoulos, Dimitrios

    2005-01-01

    The different and contrasting versions of the etymology of the term "electricity" in Modern Greek textbooks of Physics of the 18th and 19th century, which are influenced by French and German textbooks, are not mere (re)constructions that serve the didactic purposes and objectives of their authors. They are (in)directly related to the social and

  10. Humeral cross-sectional morphology from 18th century Quebec prisoners of war: Limits to activity reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Elizabeth

    2005-03-01

    This study uses measures of cross-sectional robusticity and asymmetry (based on humeral areal and inertial cross-sectional components) to test a prediction from bone remodeling theory that a physically active 18th century Quebec prisoner of war sample (N = 25) should have more robust and asymmetrical humeri than a nonphysically active 20th century New Mexico suburbanite sample (N = 27). Narrative accounts document that prisoners of war engaged in labor-intensive activities, and these activities were confirmed by observations of osteoarthritis and other pathologies. The suburbanite sample, for the most part, did not engage in such activities. The prisoners had higher levels of pathology than the suburbanites (e.g., 80% vs. 22% osteoarthritis; F = 17.95, P < 0.01). For robusticity, the populations did not differ significantly in total area, cortical area, moment areas of inertia about the mediolateral plane, or polar moment area of inertia. The Quebec prison sample did have significantly higher values for moment areas of inertia about the anteroposterior plane. For asymmetry, the populations did not differ in any values (total area, cortical area, moment areas of inertia about the mediolateral plane, moment areas of inertia about the anteroposterior plane, or polar moment of inertia). Thus, examinations of cross-sectional robusticity and asymmetry failed to conclusively confirm the hypothesis that intensive labor leads to changes in humeral morphology. Possible explanations for the lack of differences are discussed, such as poor diet impeding bone remodeling. Nevertheless, the one significant finding suggests that cross-sectional shape is more useful in reconstructing activity patterns than amount of bone in a cross section. Results from this study join those from other recent investigations to suggest that additional controls are required before cross-sectional differences may be confidently attributed to activity patterns. PMID:15386299

  11. [Were the Turks in the 18th century variolated against smallpox? the analysis of a typical example of misconception in medical cross-cultural transmission].

    PubMed

    Grant, Alicia

    2009-07-01

    There has been a continuing misconception for almost three centuries since the transmission of variolation from Turkey (actually the Ottoman Empire) to England that this was a practice of the Turkish Muslims. There are many sources of cogent evidence that variolation in the 18th century in the Ottoman Empire was opposed by Muslims due to their religious beliefs. This article uses cultural anthropology in its analysis of the reasons for the misconception. PMID:19930934

  12. The first Finnish malariologist, Johan Haartman, and the discussion about malaria in 18th century Turku, Finland

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    After the Great Northern War in 1721, Sweden ceased to be an important military power. Instead, the kingdom concentrated on developing science. Swedish research got international fame with names as Carolus Linnaeus, Pehr Wargentin and Anders Celsius. Medical research remained limited and malaria was common especially in the coastal area and along the shores of the big lakes. Already in the beginning of the 18th century Swedish physicians recommended Peruvian bark as medication and they also emphasized that bleeding or blood-letting a malaria patient was harmful. Although malaria was a common disease in the kingdom, the situation was worst in the SW-part of Finland which consisted of the town of Turku and a large archipelago in the Baltic. The farmers had no opportunity to get modern healthcare until Johan Haartman was appointed district physician in 1754. To improve the situation he wrote a medical handbook intended for both the farmers and for persons of rank. Haartman's work was first published 1759 and he discussed all the different cures and medications. His aim was to recommend the best ones and warn against the harmful. His first choice was Peruvian bark, but he knew that the farmers could not afford it. Haartman was appointed professor in medicine at the Royal Academy of Turku in 1765. The malaria situation in Finland grew worse in the 1770's and Haartman analysed the situation. He found the connection between the warm summers and the spring epidemics next year. In a later thesis, Haartman analysed the late summer/early autumn malaria epidemics in the archipelago. Althouh Haartman did not know the connection between malaria and the vector, he gave astute advice and encouraged the farmers to build their cottages in windy places away from the shallow bays in which the Anopheles females hatched. Haartman died in 1788. After his death malaria research in Turku declined. His medical handbook would not be replaced until 1844. PMID:21324104

  13. Women's translations of scientific texts in the 18th century: a case study of Marie-Anne Lavoisier.

    PubMed

    Kawashima, Keiko

    2011-01-01

    In the 18th century, many outstanding translations of scientific texts were done by women. These women were important mediators of science. However, I would like to raise the issue that the 'selection,' which is the process by which intellectual women chose to conduct translation works, and those 'selections' made by male translators, would not be made at the same level. For example, milie du Chtelet (1706-1749), the only French translator of Newton's "Principia," admitted her role as participating in important work, but, still, she was not perfectly satisfied with the position. For du Chtelet, the role as a translator was only an option under the current conditions that a female was denied the right to be a creator by society. In the case of Marie-Anne Lavoisier (1743-1794), like du Chtelet, we find an acute feeling in her mind that translation was not the work of creators. Because of her respect toward creative geniuses and her knowledge about the practical situation and concrete results of scientific studies, the translation works done by Marie-Anne Lavoisier were excellent. At the same time, the source of this excellence appears paradoxical at a glance: this excellence of translation was related closely with her low self-estimation in the field of science. Hence, we should not forget the gender problem that is behind such translations of scientific works done by women in that era. Such a possibility was a ray of light that was grasped by females, the sign of a gender that was eliminated from the center of scientific study due to social systems and norms and one of the few valuable opportunities to let people know of her own existence in the field of science. PMID:22606747

  14. The first Finnish malariologist, Johan Haartman, and the discussion about malaria in 18th century Turku, Finland.

    PubMed

    Hulden, Lena

    2011-01-01

    After the Great Northern War in 1721, Sweden ceased to be an important military power. Instead, the kingdom concentrated on developing science. Swedish research got international fame with names as Carolus Linnaeus, Pehr Wargentin and Anders Celsius. Medical research remained limited and malaria was common especially in the coastal area and along the shores of the big lakes.Already in the beginning of the 18th century Swedish physicians recommended Peruvian bark as medication and they also emphasized that bleeding or blood-letting a malaria patient was harmful. Although malaria was a common disease in the kingdom, the situation was worst in the SW-part of Finland which consisted of the town of Turku and a large archipelago in the Baltic. The farmers had no opportunity to get modern healthcare until Johan Haartman was appointed district physician in 1754. To improve the situation he wrote a medical handbook intended for both the farmers and for persons of rank. Haartman's work was first published 1759 and he discussed all the different cures and medications. His aim was to recommend the best ones and warn against the harmful. His first choice was Peruvian bark, but he knew that the farmers could not afford it. Haartman was appointed professor in medicine at the Royal Academy of Turku in 1765. The malaria situation in Finland grew worse in the 1770's and Haartman analysed the situation. He found the connection between the warm summers and the spring epidemics next year.In a later thesis, Haartman analysed the late summer/early autumn malaria epidemics in the archipelago. Althouh Haartman did not know the connection between malaria and the vector, he gave astute advice and encouraged the farmers to build their cottages in windy places away from the shallow bays in which the Anopheles females hatched. Haartman died in 1788. After his death malaria research in Turku declined. His medical handbook would not be replaced until 1844. PMID:21324104

  15. The ``System of Chymists'' and the ``Newtonian dream'' in Greek-speaking Communities in the 17th-18th Centuries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bokaris, Efthymios P.; Koutalis, Vangelis

    2008-06-01

    The acceptance of new chemical ideas, before the Chemical Revolution of Lavoisier, in Greek-speaking communities in the 17th and 18th centuries did not create a discourse of chemical philosophy, as it did in Europe, but rather a “philosophy” of chemistry as it was formed through the evolution of didactic traditions of Chemistry. This “philosophical” chemistry was not based on the existence of any academic institutions, it was focused on the ontology of principles and forces governing the analysis/synthesis of matter and formulated two didactic traditions. The one, named “the system of chymists”, close to the Boylean/Cartesian tradition, accepted, contrary to Aristotelianism, the five “chymical” principles and also the analytical ideal, but the “chymical” principles were not under a conceptual and experimental investigation, as they were in Europe. Also, a crucial issue for this tradition remained the “mechanical” principles which were under the influence of the metaphysical nature of the Aristotelian principles. The other, close to the Boylean/Newtonian tradition, was the integrated presentation of the Newtonian “dream”, which maintained a discursive attitude with reference to the “chemical attractions”-“chemical affinities” and actualised the mathematical atomism of Boscovich, according to which the elementary texture of matter could be causally explained within this complex architecture of mathematical “ punkta”. In this tradition also coexisted, in a discursive synthesis, the “chemical element” of Lavoisier and the arguments of the new theory and its opposition to the phlogiston theory, but the “chemical affinities” were under the realm of the “physical element” as “metaphysical point”.

  16. Flood hazard and a rapidly growing capital in the floodplain: Social response on major 18th-century Danube floods in Pest (East-Budapest)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiss, Andrea

    2014-05-01

    Due to its floodplain location, Pest was especially prone to damages caused by great flood events. Before water regulation works, the greatest flood events, and the highest rate of destruction occurred during ice jam floods. Whereas in the first half of the 18th century Pest is restricted to the medieval downtown located on a higher terrain (Danube terrace), from the mid 18th century onwards the rapidly growing population established suburbs around the downtown in the lower-lying flood plain. Thus, while in the first half of the century floods were more dangerous for the harvest in the agricultural lands, in the second half of the century at the same place suburbs, urban areas with thousands of inhabitants were prone to the same danger. In the first half of the century at least three particularly large flood events, in 1712, 1732 and 1744, caused increasing problems in the close vicinity of the town (and its lands), the second half of the century - as part of a climatic anomaly (Maldá) famous of its weather extremes - was characterised by two extreme (in 1775 and 1799), at least two larger (1789 and 1795) and some more, medium-sized ice jam floods. While in terms of damaged houses the loss was only some dozens in the early part of the century, several hundreds of houses - actually, complete suburbs were erased by floods in 1775 and 1799. In the poster presentation a series of known damaging 18th-century floods, occurred at Pest, is presented, the short-term impacts (e.g. damages), and medium-, long-term administrative responses as well as related long-term landscape changes influenced by floods and flood protection are discussed. Another important aim of the poster is to present the main reasons why in the 18th century these great ice jam floods caused much greater damages (e.g. percentage of collapsed houses in suburbs) in Pest protected by dams than, for example, in the Buda suburbs with no dams, partly also located in high flood-risk areas, in the immediate vicinity of the Danube.

  17. GRANTING A LICENCE FOR OPENING A PHARMACY IN BOLOGNA DURING ACTIVITY OF THE BOLOGNESE ARTE DE' SPEZIALI (13TH - 18TH CENTURY).

    PubMed

    Oszajca, Paulina; Bela, Zbigniew

    2015-01-01

    The article discusses the main changes in legislation concerning granting the licenses for opening a new pharmacy in Bologna in the Middle Ages and Early Modern period. The organization of all traders, including apothecaries, was subordinated, as almost everywhere in Italy, to the Guilds. In the 2nd half of 16th century the Arte de' Speziali of Bologna came under the jurisdiction of the Collegio di Medicina, leading to disagreements between the two corporations. Giovanni Baldi, in his Notizie storiche su la farmacia bolognese (Bologna, 1955) mentioned one of these controversies, dating on the second half of 18th century. The Authors present this controversy basing on original documents from Archivio di Stato di Bologna. PMID:26946818

  18. [Inadequate burials as an important factor in plague epidemic amongst Serbs in the Habsburg monarchy by the end of the 18th century: a historical analysis].

    PubMed

    Vasin, Goran; Božanić, Snežana; Božić, Milica Kisić

    2014-01-01

    Analysis of the archaic customs of burying the deceased in Srem, primarily amongst Serbs, in the second half of the 18th century is the essential part of the paper that aims at clarifying the consequences of this negative habit onto the spreading of plague epidemic. The Austrian Empire tried to stop and prevent the epidemic with an array of legal norms, but in practice, these orders were often not upheld. Serbian Metropolitans Pavle Nenadović and Stefan Stratimirović insisted on eradicating superstition and retrograde, often uncivilized actions in burial rituals, and they partially succeeded. The example of plague in Irig and the surroundings in 1795-1796 explicitly shows the hazardous effects of the inadequate attitude towards the deceased as one of the factors in spreading the epidemic. Using primary archives, and published sources, with adequate literature, authors depict this complex historical process. PMID:25731012

  19. Finnish wallpaper pigments in the 18th-19th century: Presence of KFe3(CrO4)2(OH)6 and odd pigment mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro, Kepa; Knuutinen, Ulla; Vallejuelo, Silvia Fdez-Ortiz de; Irazola, Mireia; Madariaga, Juan Manuel

    2013-04-01

    Several Finish wallpapers from the 18th and 19th century were analysed by using Raman spectroscopy assisted with EDXRF instrumentation, in an attempt of determine the pigments used in their manufacture process as well as of trying to date some of the samples through pigment composition. All pigments present in samples were determined and surprisingly the unusual and strange iron (III) chromate yellow pigment was found. Besides, unusual mixtures were found to obtain fashionable colours, especially in blue and green areas, where more than one blue pigments were mixed with green and yellow pigments. Blue verditer, ultramarine blue, Prussian blue, chrome yellow, calcite, lead white, red and yellow iron oxide, gypsum and carbon black were identified. The presence of the risky and poisonous emerald green must be highlighted. The results were compared with those found in other wallpapers from Spain and France.

  20. [An ethnographic study of an Ottoman city at the end of the 18th century. Viage a Esmirna by Pedro Mara Gonzlez].

    PubMed

    Olage de Ros, Guillermo

    2009-01-01

    In the summer of 1796, Pedro Mara Gonzlez, a surgeon trained at the College of Cadiz, took part in an expedition commissioned by the Cadiz Consulate with the aim of initiating trading relationships with Smyrna, the most important commercial centre in the Ottoman Empire. On his return, he wrote a document to facilitate future business ventures by Spaniards, describing in detail the customs and traditions of the various social and ethnic groups that inhabited the city of Smyrna. In this paper, I analyse the view of the Turks held by Europeans in the 17th and 18th centuries and the ideological and conceptual factors underlying their negative opinions. I then describe the viewpoint of Gonzlez himself, especially in relation to Jews, the ethnic group he studied in greatest depth. The fact that they shared a common language, Spanish, undoubtedly facilitated his relationships and his close analysis. PMID:19852390

  1. Finnish wallpaper pigments in the 18th-19th century: presence of KFe3(CrO4)2(OH)6 and odd pigment mixtures.

    PubMed

    Castro, Kepa; Knuutinen, Ulla; de Vallejuelo, Silvia Fdez-Ortiz; Irazola, Mireia; Madariaga, Juan Manuel

    2013-04-01

    Several Finish wallpapers from the 18th and 19th century were analysed by using Raman spectroscopy assisted with EDXRF instrumentation, in an attempt of determine the pigments used in their manufacture process as well as of trying to date some of the samples through pigment composition. All pigments present in samples were determined and surprisingly the unusual and strange iron (III) chromate yellow pigment was found. Besides, unusual mixtures were found to obtain fashionable colours, especially in blue and green areas, where more than one blue pigments were mixed with green and yellow pigments. Blue verditer, ultramarine blue, Prussian blue, chrome yellow, calcite, lead white, red and yellow iron oxide, gypsum and carbon black were identified. The presence of the risky and poisonous emerald green must be highlighted. The results were compared with those found in other wallpapers from Spain and France. PMID:23376265

  2. [Records of the invisible: Visa reperta in 18th- and 19th-century forensic medicine and their role as promoters of pathological-anatomical knowledge].

    PubMed

    Mller, Irmgard; Fangerau, Heiner

    2010-01-01

    Case reports in medicine serve as a tool to collect and to transfer knowledge. A special kind of case report in forensic medicine during the 18th and 19th centuries was the so-called Visum repertum. This format of note-taking and of rendering an expert opinion without presuppositions has rarely investigated in the history of medicine. Analyzing Visa reperta the authors argue that due to their special structure and mode of representation Visa reperta not only shaped the practice of forensic medicine but also the standardized examination and documentation in pathological anatomy. Based on previous studies on medical case reports, medical expert witnesses in court and traditions in pathological anatomy the authors examine two examples from the 18th and 19th centuries in order to show how semiological, classifying methods of presenting forensic examinations were replaced by the material aspect of the observation of examination results itself. The examples are a forensic case report by Michael Alberti (1682-1757) from 1728 and a Visum repertum by Joseph Bernt (1770-1842) from 1827. The authors argue that Visa reperta transcended their original forensic purpose and served as a guideline for pathology leading to an understanding of the origin of diseases in organs. They served as a promoter of scientific medicine, and their persuasiveness was backed by factors such as (a) the extreme conditions of forensic practice, (b) the claim to act as a tool for the sound and precise recording of facts and c) the awareness that they documented objects that were destroyed during the process of documentation. PMID:21328919

  3. Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy analysis of house paint and wallpaper samples from an 18th century historic property.

    PubMed

    Harroun, S G; Bergman, J; Jablonski, E; Brosseau, C L

    2011-09-01

    Conservation efforts for heritage buildings require a substantial knowledge of the chemical makeup of materials that were used throughout the lifetime of the property. In particular, conservators are often concerned with the identification of colorants used in both interior and exterior wall treatments (paint, wallpaper, etc.) in order to gain perspective into how the building may have appeared during a certain time period in its existence. Ideally, such an analysis requires a technique that provides molecular level information as to the identity of the colorant as well as other sample components (binders, fillers, etc.), which is useful for dating purposes. In addition, the technique should be easily applied to paint layer samples which can be extremely thin and fragile. Herein we report the surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) analysis of paint and wallpaper samples taken from exterior and interior surfaces of a historic building. Several pigments were identified in the samples, which ranged from early inorganic pigments (lead white, barium sulfate, calcium carbonate, anhydrous chromium(III) oxide) which have been used in house paints for centuries, to a more modern pigment (phthalocyanine blue), developed in the middle of the 20th century. This analysis highlights the usefulness of SERS in such a conservation effort, and demonstrates for the first time pigment identification in house paints and wallpaper using SERS, which has far-reaching implications not only in the field of conservation, but also in forensics, industrial process control, and environmental health and safety. PMID:21267481

  4. Identification of animal glue species in artworks using proteomics: application to a 18th century gilt sample.

    PubMed

    Dallongeville, Sophie; Koperska, Monika; Garnier, Nicolas; Reille-Taillefert, Genevive; Rolando, Christian; Tokarski, Caroline

    2011-12-15

    This study proposes a proteomic-based strategy for the identification of the origin species of glues used as binding media and adhesives in artworks. The methodology, based on FTICR high resolution mass spectrometry, was evaluated on glues from different animal origin (i.e., bovine, rabbit, and fish). The analysis of the peptide mixture resulting from the enzymatic hydrolysis of the proteins led to the identification of species-specific peptides. Up to 15 specific peptides were identified for the bovine species and three for the rabbit species and, in the case of sturgeon glue, three fish-specific peptides were found by sequence homology to the rainbow trout. Then, the method was applied to authenticate different rabbit skin glue samples, including a 100 year-old sample named "Colle Doreurs" coming from the "Maison Totin-Frres". For this sample, two specific peptides of rabbit collagen were identified. To evaluate the method in a complex matrix, model paints composed of lead white, linseed oil, and animal glue were prepared. Species-specific peptides were identified in each paint sample. Finally, a gilt sample from St Maximin church dating from the eighteenth century was analyzed, and 13 peptides specific to bovine collagens were identified starting from very low sample amount (50 ?g). PMID:22014085

  5. Quantitative analysis of human remains from 18(th)-19(th) centuries using X-ray fluorescence techniques: The mysterious high content of mercury in hair.

    PubMed

    Pessanha, Sofia; Carvalho, Marta; Carvalho, Maria Luisa; Dias, António

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we report the unusual concentration of mercury in the hair of an individual buried in the 18th to mid-19th centuries and the comparison with the elemental composition of other remains from the same individual. Two energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) setups, one with tri-axial geometry and the second one with micro-beam capabilities and a vacuum system, for light elements detection, have been used. Quantitative evaluation of the obtained spectra were made by fundamental parameters and winAXIL program by compare mode method. The levels of Hg in the hair of buried samples presented a concentration over 5% (w/w), a significantly lower presence of this element in the cranium, and no Hg in the remaining organs. Furthermore, there was no evidence of Hg in the burial soil, which has been also analyzed. From this result, we could conclude that the possibility of post-mortem contamination from the burial surroundings is very unlikely. The obtained results are indicative of the apparent use of a mercury-based compound for medical purposes, most likely lice infestation. PMID:26653740

  6. The inquisitorial trial of a cross-dressing lesbian: reactions and responses to female homosexuality in 18th-century portugal.

    PubMed

    Soyer, Franois

    2014-01-01

    This article analyzes the inquisitorial trial of Maria Duran, a Catalan novice in the Dominican convent of Nossa Senhora do Paraso in Portugal. Maria Duran was arrested by the Inquisition in 1741 and, after a lengthy trial, condemned in 1744 to a public lashing and exile. She was suspected of having made a pact with the Devil and was accused by many female witnesses of possessing a "secret penis" that she had allegedly used in her amorous relations with fellow nuns and novices. Her voluminous trial dossier offers a rare and fascinating documentary insight into the often extreme reactions that female homosexuality provoked from both men and women in early modern Portugal. Using the evidence offered by the 18th-century trial of Maria Duran, this article highlights female bewilderment when faced with female-on-female sexual violence and the difficulty that men (in this case, churchmen) had coming to terms with the existence of female homosexuality. It also discusses the case in light of the acts/identity debate among historians of the history of sexuality. PMID:25022623

  7. Catherine Walpole (1703-22), an 18th-century teenaged patient: a case study from the letters of the physician George Cheyne (1671 or 73-1743).

    PubMed

    Charlton, Anne

    2010-05-01

    In 1720 Catherine Walpole the 16-year-old eldest daughter of Robert Walpole, later to become Prime Minister, became very ill. She was unable to eat, fainted, took fits frequently, and had a persistent pain and swelling in her side. Sir Hans Sloane, the Walpole's doctor, referred her to Dr Cheyne in Bath because he specialized in dietary problems and nervous diseases. Cheyne kept in regular touch with Sir Hans by letter and this correspondence tells the story of Catherine's treatment from her first referral to Cheyne to her death in 1722. The contents and purposes of treatments he used are identifiable in dispensatories of the period. The letters reflect Cheyne's medical skills and knowledge as well as his sympathetic personality. Catherine's family loyalties, personal concerns and personality also emerge as the correspondence progresses. The limitations of 18th-century diagnosis and treatments available are clear but Cheyne is always concerned with Catherine's quality of life, even when he becomes aware that he cannot cure her. PMID:20519712

  8. Effects of birth rank, maternal age, birth interval, and sibship size on infant and child mortality: evidence from 18th and 19th century reproductive histories.

    PubMed Central

    Knodel, J; Hermalin, A I

    1984-01-01

    There has been long-standing interest in the effects of maternal age, birth rank, and birth spacing on infant and child mortality. Contradictory inferences about the role of these factors have arisen on occasion because of the absence of adequate controls, the use of cross-sectional or incomplete reproductive histories, and inattention to the effect of family size goals and birth limitation practices. This study analyzes completed reproductive histories for German village populations in the 18th and 19th centuries, a period when deliberate fertility control was largely absent. Our results confirm previous studies of the association of infant mortality with maternal age, although in the present data these differentials are largely limited to neonatal mortality. They also confirm the importance of birth interval as a factor in infant mortality. Sibship size is positively related to infant mortality even when birth rank is controlled. However, once sibship size is controlled, there are no systematic differences in infant and child mortality by birth order. The mechanisms relating sibship size and mortality are explored. PMID:6383084

  9. An early observation on the anatomy of the inguinal canal and the etiology of inguinal hernias by Petrus Camper in the 18th century.

    PubMed

    IJpma, Frank F A; van de Graaf, Robert C; van Geldere, Dick; van Gulik, Thomas M

    2009-06-01

    The famous Dutch medical doctor Petrus Camper (1722-1789) was appointed professor of anatomy and surgery at the University of Franeker, Amsterdam, and Groningen. As Praelector Anatomiae of the Amsterdam Guild of Surgeons, he gave public anatomy lessons in the Anatomy theatre in Amsterdam. During the mid 18th century he performed dissections on corpses of children and adults to investigate the anatomy and etiology of inguinal hernias. The concept that a hernia was caused by "a rupture of the peritoneum" was common at that time. Camper concluded that this was incorrect and provided a clear description of the etiology of hernias in children and adults. For the treatment of inguinal hernias, he designed a truss based on the geometrical proportions of the pelvis. This "truss of Camper" was much used and internationally renowned. His anatomical studies and perfect, self-drawn illustrations contributed to a better understanding of the anatomy of the inguinal canal, on the national as well as international level. Camper's "Icones Herniarum" is his most widely known work on inguinal hernias and included a series of outstanding anatomical illustrations. Petrus Camper should be considered one of the pioneers in the field of inguinal hernias. PMID:19350324

  10. The Problem of Longitude in the 18th Century: Jorge Juan, Antonio de Ulloa and the Expedition of the Paris Academy of Sciences to the Kingdom of Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutiérrez, Manuel Pérez

    2015-05-01

    Jorge Juan and Antonio de Ulloa, naval officers of the Spanish Navy in the Midshipmen's Royal Academy were appointed to take part in one of the most important scientific expeditions of the 18th century. The question of the shape of the Earth, of vital importance for navigation, was solved by the Paris Academy of Sciences by request of Louis XV of France in 1735. The aim was to determine the form of the ellipsoid that Newton had described in the 17th century for any spherical and homogeneous body in rotation about an axis. Two expeditions were prepared for the geodetic measures of meridian arc both in high latitudes (Lapland, Finland) and in the equatorial zone (the Kingdom of Peru); Pierre Louis Maupertuis took charge of the northern expedition whereas the second one was charged to La Condamine, along with Jorge Juan and Antonio de Ulloa. The results obtained by the Spaniards were gathered in a publication: Observaciones astronómicas y físicas hechas en los Reinos del Perú. In it, they dedicate a chapter to the determination of astronomic longitude with the only technology that was providing certain precision at the moment: the simultaneous observation of the same astronomic phenomenon in two different places. Specifically, they explain in detail in Book III: Las Observaciones de la Inmersiones y Emersiones de los satélites de Júpiter, como asimismo de los eclipses de Luna; de las cuales de deduce la Longitud de los Lugares, incluyendo las correcciones a efectuar por la variación de la declinación diaria del Sol.

  11. Human impacts of hydrometeorological extremes in the Bohemian-Moravian Highlands derived from documentary sources in the 18th-19th centuries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolk, Luk; Brzdil, Rudolf; Valek, Hubert

    2014-05-01

    The extent of damage caused by hydrometeorological events or extremes (HME) has risen up in the entire world in the last few years. Especially the floods, flash floods, torrential rains and hailstorms are the most typical and one of the most frequent kind of natural disasters in the central Europe. Catastrophes are a part of human history and people were forced to cope with their consequences (e. g. material damage, economical losses, impacts on agriculture and society or losses of human lives). This paper analyses the human impacts of HME in the Bohemian-Moravian Highlands (central part of the Czech Republic) on the basis of documentary sources from the 18th-19th centuries. The paper presents various negative impacts of natural disasters on lives and property and subsequent inconveniences of Czech peasants. The preserved archival documents of estates or domains became the primary sources of data (e. g. taxation reliefs, damaged records, reports of afflicted farmers, administrative correspondence etc.). Particularly taxation reliefs relate to taxation system in the Czech lands during the 17th-19th centuries allowing to farmers to ask for tax alleviation when their crops were significantly damaged by any HME. These archival documents are a highly valuable source for the study of human impacts of natural disasters. Devastating consequences of these extremes affected individual farmers much more than the aristocracy. Floods caused inundations of farmer's fields, meadows, houses and farm buildings, washed away the arable land with crops, caused losses of cattle, clogged the land with gravel and mud and destroyed roads, bridges or agricultural equipment. Afflicted fields became worthless and it took them many years to become became fertile again. Crop was also damaged by hailstorms, droughts or late/early frosts. All these events led to lack of food and seeds in the following year and it meant the decrease of living standard, misery and poverty of farmers. Acquired results could give better insight of human impacts of HME in history and help to compare the negative consequences in the past and present.

  12. Paleoclimate Reconstruction during the 17th to 18th Century Using Fossil Coral Tsunami Boulders from Ishigaki Island, the Ryukyus, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuzuki, K.; Yokoyama, Y.; Seki, A.; Kawakubo, Y.; Araoka, D.; Suzuki, A.

    2014-12-01

    Little Ice Age (LIA) which lasted during approximately 1450 to 1850 (e.g. Grove, 1988) is known as naturally occurring climate fluctuation, so knowing LIA in detail is necessary to improve climate models. Instrumental records can only extend back to about 100 years in many areas, thus paleoclimate records are reconstructed using proxies in tree rings, sediments and so force. However there are differences in reconstructed timings and magnitudes of LIA occurred in each area (Overpack et al., 1997), and most of the records are based mainly on terrestrial proxies such as tree ring records, whereas only limited numbers of marine records are available (Mann et al., 2008). Coral skeletal climatology is a useful tool to reconstruct marine paleoclimate records in tropics and subtropics. Hermatypic corals, Porites spp. have aragonite skeletons and they have annual bands, which are suitable to reconstruct high-resolution paleoclimate in seasonal scale by measuring chemical compositions. Skeletal Sr/Ca ratio in Porites spp. has been widely used as a reliable proxy of SST (Sea Surface Temperature). However, corals grow for approximately several decades to 200 years, hence it is difficult to reconstruct LIA paleoclimate using living corals. Cobb et al. (2003) used fossil corals casted on shore by storms to reconstruct millennial scale paleoclimate. There are fossil coral boulders in the eastern coast of Ishigaki Island, Ryukyus, Japan. These fossil coral boulders were casted on shore by paleo Tsunami events, thus they are called "Tsunami boulders" (Araoka et al., 2010). Fossil corals used by Cobb et al. have 30-90-year records while some large Tsunami boulders have multi-centennial continuous records. In this study, we reconstruct paleo SST using the Tsunami boulder from Ishigaki Island. The boulder has 185 years of annual banding. U-series dating shows the boulder was moved on shore at Meiwa earthquake in 1771. We measure Sr/Ca ratio using LA-HR-ICPMS (Laser Ablation High Resolution Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry) to reconstruct paleo SST during LIA (Kawakubo et al., 2014). LA-HR-ICPMS enables us to measure the long coral core rapidly. Our result shows SST variation in 17th-18th century in this area and SST declined in around 1700. This result reveals the response of Little Ice Age in the northwestern Pacific.

  13. Austrian-Hungarian Astronomical Observatories Run by the Society of Jesus at the Time of the 18th Century Venus Transits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Posch, Thomas; Aspaas, Per Pippin; Bazso, Akos; Mueller, Isolde

    2013-05-01

    The Venus transit in June 1761 was the first one to be observed on a truly international scale: almost 250 astronomers followed this rare celestial event (e.g. Wulff 2012, p. 115), and at least 130 published successful observations of it (Aspaas 2012, p. 423). The present paper deals with the astronomical observatories built by the Society of Jesus in its eighteenth century "Provincia Austriae", at which the 1761 transit could be observed. Five Jesuit observatories are being presented in this context: three in today's Austria, namely, two in Vienna and one in Graz; one in Trnava in today's Slovakia and one in Cluj in today's Romania. Thereafter, we briefly examine which of these observatories submitted any Venus transit observations for publication in the appendix to Maximilian Hell's "Ephemerides astronomicae ad meridianum Vindobonensem" for the year 1762.

  14. Age of linear enamel hypoplasia formation based on Massler and colleagues' and Reid and Dean's standards in a Polish sample dated to 13th-18th century CE.

    PubMed

    Lukasik, S; Krenz-Niedba?a, M

    2014-08-01

    In the study of enamel hypoplasia formation ages basically two standards of dental development are being applied. According to some authors, different methods produce different results, thus it is critical to decide which method to use. This study focuses on the comparison of three methods for estimating ages of linear enamel hypoplasia (LEH) formation. The skeletal material derives from three burial grounds localized on the territory of Poland, dated to 13th-18th c. CE. In total 642 teeth of 77 individuals were qualified for the study. The position of LEHs on the crown surface was measured and then converted to age at formation using the regression equations proposed by Goodman and Rose, Goodman and Song, and the data provided by Reid and Dean. There were 51.9% of individuals and 17.9% of teeth affected by LEH. The lowest age estimates were provided by the Goodman and Rose's method then higher by the Goodman and Song's method and the highest using the Reid and Dean's data. The age ranges and peaks of LEH provided by the three methods differed more for the maxillary than for the mandibular teeth. Crown formation ages supplied by Reid and Dean account for intra- and inter-tooth as well as inter-population variation in the timing of tooth development and also for variation in crown heights. This approach undoubtedly increases reliability of the results. Thus, it seems advisable to use the Reid and Dean's standard when calculating ages of enamel hypoplasia formation. PMID:24767821

  15. Girls' Secondary Education in the Western World: From the 18th to the 20th Century. Secondary Education in a Changing World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albisetti, James C.; Goodman, Joyce; Rogers, Rebecca

    2010-01-01

    This long-awaited synthesis approaches the past three centuries with an eye to highlighting the importance of significant schools, as well as important women educators in the emergence of secondary education for girls. At the same time, each contributor pays careful attention to the specific political, cultural, and socio-economic factors that

  16. The Role of Education Redefined: 18th Century British and French Educational Thought and the Rise of the Baconian Conception of the Study of Nature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilead, Tal

    2011-01-01

    The idea that science teaching in schools should prepare the ground for society's future technical and scientific progress has played an important role in shaping modern education. This idea, however, was not always present. In this article, I examine how this idea first emerged in educational thought. Early in the 17th century, Francis Bacon…

  17. The Role of Education Redefined: 18th Century British and French Educational Thought and the Rise of the Baconian Conception of the Study of Nature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilead, Tal

    2011-01-01

    The idea that science teaching in schools should prepare the ground for society's future technical and scientific progress has played an important role in shaping modern education. This idea, however, was not always present. In this article, I examine how this idea first emerged in educational thought. Early in the 17th century, Francis Bacon

  18. [The beginnings of the nursing profession : the complementary relationship between secular caregivers and hospital nuns in France in the 17th and 18th centuries].

    PubMed

    Diebolt, Evelyne

    2013-06-01

    The words used for designating the caregivers are ambiguous. Little by little, the word "nurse" becomes widely used, mainly in the feminine form due to the need of specialized staff. Health care structures are developing in the 17th and 18 centuries, the remains of which you can find in today hospitals (Salptrire hospital, Htel-Dieu hospital in Paris). The government of Louis XIV cares for the poor sick people, the vagabonds and the beggars. It opens new general hospitals as it will be the case later in all Europe. In the 17th century, the staff of the general hospital in Paris is entirely secular. The Paris general hospital is headed by the magistrates of Paris Parliament. The healthcare institutions employ both secular and religious staff for example the Hotel Dieu in Paris and the one in Marseilles. In the 17th century, there are 2000 secular caregivers in France. The order of the "Filles de la Charit" (grey sisters) is not submitted to the rule of enclosure. They renew their vows every year. For their founders Vincent de Paul and Louise de Marcillac, their monastery should be the cells of the sick, their cloister should be the rooms of the hospitals or the streets of the town. The secular or religious caregivers are excellent in the apothecary and they open a network of small dispensaries. It improves the health of the French population and allows fighting against the epidemics. This activity allowed some women to have a rewarding activity and a social status of which they were apparently satisfied. PMID:23923734

  19. [Friedrich Wilhelm von Halem and his contributions to the inauguration of the thalasso-therapy in Prussia in the 18th century. A medico-historical survey].

    PubMed

    Rummler, S

    2004-06-01

    This article is dedicated in remembrance of Friedrich Wilhelm von Halem, a former student of the University Frankfurt-on-Oder (Viadrina) in later eighteenth-century Germany. Friedrich Wilhelm von Halem from Aurich, was the first physician in the period of the German Enlightenment, who had introduced the thalasso-therapy as a part of a new health-conception. His pioneering achievement led to the foundation of the first health resort on the german coast of the North-Sea in Norderney (East Frisian Islands), May 1797. PMID:15236096

  20. The garden as a laboratory: the role of domestic gardens as places of scientific exploration in the long 18th century

    PubMed Central

    HICKMAN, CLARE

    2014-01-01

    Eighteenth-century gardens have traditionally been viewed as spaces designed for leisure, and as representations of political status, power and taste. In contrast, this paper will explore the concept that gardens in this period could be seen as dynamic spaces where scientific experiment and medical practice could occur. Two examples have been explored in the pilot study which has led to this paper — the designed landscapes associated with John Hunter’s Earl’s Court residence, in London, and the garden at Edward Jenner’s house in Berkeley, Gloucestershire. Garden history methodologies have been implemented in order to consider the extent to which these domestic gardens can be viewed as experimental spaces. PMID:26052165

  1. New information on earthquake history of the Aksehir-Afyon Graben System, Turkey, since the second half of 18th century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozer, N.

    2006-12-01

    Researches aimed at enriching the number of available documentary sources on earthquakes have an important role in seismology. To this end, this paper documents the history of prominent earthquakes associated with the NW-SE trending Sultandag-Aksehir Fault and Aksehir-Afyon graben system in Western-Central Anatolia since the historical times through 1766. This work also combines the earthquake data for both historical and instrumental periods, previously listed in various catalogues and resources, for the studied area. Documents from the Ottoman archives and libraries as well as the Ottoman and Turkish newspapers were scrutinized, and eight previously unreported earthquakes in the latter half of the nineteenth century and four new earthquakes in the period 1900-1931 were revealed. For the period from 1766 to 1931, the total number of known earthquakes for the area under investigation increased from eighteen to thirty thanks to the document search. Furthermore, the existing information on eleven previously reported earthquakes is updated for the period from 1862 to 1946. Earthquakes from 1946 to 1964 are compiled from the catalogues for data completeness.

  2. Isotopic tracing (Sr, Nd, U and Hf) of continental and marine aerosols in an 18th century section of the Dye-3 ice core (Greenland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lupker, M.; Aciego, S. M.; Bourdon, B.; Schwander, J.; Stocker, T. F.

    2010-06-01

    Determining the sources and pathways of atmospheric mineral dust and marine aerosols remains a difficult problem. In order to address this problem, the radiogenic isotopic composition of the dust and soluble ice components of Greenland ice has been determined and used as a source tracer for mineral dust and marine aerosols. Sr and Nd isotopic composition was measured, with a yearly to seasonal resolution, on both the bulk dust and soluble fractions of a section of the Dye-3 (1988) ice core from Greenland in the age range of 1786-1793 A.D. Hf isotopic composition was also measured for three of the dust samples as a complementary tracer of dust origin, the first direct measurement of Hf in paleo-atmospheric dust. Measured Nd and Sr isotopic composition of the dust corrected for carbonate contributions are compared to literature potential source area (PSA) data (<5 ?m size fraction) and shows variability of the potential source area on short time scales. Half of the samples show similar Sr and Nd compositions as previous work from Greenland ice cores, indicating Asia as one potential source to the Greenland dust load with contributions from the Taklimakan, Gobi desert and the Ordos Plateau. However, the remaining samples, with less radiogenic Sr compositions, suggest another dust source mixing with the Asian dust. Hf isotopic compositions exclude volcanic aerosols as the other main mixing source and we propose the Sahara as being this additional dust source to Greenland based on the limited data set from this region. The radiogenic isotopes within the soluble fraction are found to be of marine origin with 87Sr/86Sr values and 234U/238U activity ratios close to seawater. ?Nd variations are significant (>6 ? units) and are decoupled from dust composition, indicating that the Nd composition of seawater is preserved in the ice. The ?Nd of the ice suggests variable mixing of aerosols from Arctic sea salts with another, more radiogenic, source during transport.

  3. Two 18th Century Observatories of Ireland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hambleton, Robert

    A visit to the two major observatories of Ireland, Armagh Observatory in Northern Ireland, and Dunsink Observatory in Dublin. Mentioned are Herschel, Thomas Grubb, Thomas Jones transit instrument, Howard Grubb, Kew Observatory, John Arnold & Sons clocks, Birr Castle, and the Earl of Rosse.

  4. Acoustics of early music spaces from the 11th to 18th century: Rediscovery of the acoustical excellence of medium-sized rooms and new perspectives for modern concert hall design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bassuet, Alban

    2001-05-01

    The acoustical characteristics of 50 rooms that played a prominent role in the history of music between the 11th and 18th centuries were studied. The rooms include basilicas, oratorios, organ churches, and the great halls and courts of the European palaces. The research provides an understanding of the acoustical features that suit the early music repertoire, and how these rooms achieved an enhanced emotional engagement through their unique acoustical characteristics. This paper provides a summary of the acoustic measurements, which include binaural and B-format recordings in each of the rooms, and presents a unique new approach to understanding their subjective characteristics through detailed analysis and auralization of their 3-D impulse response. The study shows that the timing and direction of reflections in three dimensions is critically important to defining the subjective characteristic of a room. The results emphasize the importance of developing techniques to understand the 3-D impulse response and using auralization techniques for interpreting results and making subjective judgments. The enhanced musical experience that is achieved in these early rooms offers an invitation to rethink modern acoustics and to develop a new design approach that focuses more strongly on the subjective response and emotional engagement of the music.

  5. A Multi-Analytical Approach for the Evaluation of the Efficiency of the Conservation-Restoration Treatment of Moroccan Historical Manuscripts Dating to the 16th, 17th, and 18th Centuries.

    PubMed

    Hajji, Latifa; Boukir, Abdellatif; Assouik, Jamal; Kerbal, Abdelali; Kajjout, Mohamed; Doumenq, Pierre; De Carvalho, Maria Luisa

    2015-08-01

    The most critical steps during the conservation-restoration treatment applied in Moroccan libraries are the deacidification using immersion in a saturated aqueous calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) solution and the consolidation of degraded manuscripts using Japanese paper. The present study aims to assess the efficiency of this restoration method using a multi-analytical approach. For this purpose, three ancient Arabic Moroccan manuscript papers dating back to the 16th, 17th, and 18th centuries were investigated to characterize the paper support and make a comparative study between pre-restoration and post-restoration states. Three structural and molecular characterization techniques including solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy on (13)C with cross-polarization and magic-angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance ((13)C CP-MAS NMR), attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR FT-IR), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to elucidate the cellulose main features, to identify the inorganic composition of the papers, and to study the crystallinity of the samples. Inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) allowed us to obtain a qualitative and quantitative characterization of the mineral fillers used in the manufacturing of the papers. Scanning electron microscopy coupled to energy dispersive spectrometry (SEM-EDS) ascertained the state of conservation of the different papers and helped us to study the elemental composition of the samples. After restoration, it was shown that the deacidification improved the stability of papers by providing an important alkaline buffer, as demonstrated using FT-IR and energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS) results. However, XRD and ICP-AES did not confirm the pertinence of the treatment for all samples because of the unequal distribution of Ca on the paper surface during the restoration. The consolidation process was studied using SEM analysis; its effectiveness in restoring torn areas was found to be significant. PMID:26162347

  6. PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF EAST (FRONT) ELEVATION DURING EXCAVATION OF 18TH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF EAST (FRONT) ELEVATION DURING EXCAVATION OF 18TH CENTURY BASEMENT ENTRY WELL AND DRAINAGE SYSTEM, LOOKING NORTHWEST - Belair, Tulip Grove Drive, Belair-at-Bowie, Bowie, Prince George's County, MD

  7. 18th International Conference on Antiviral Research.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, William M

    2005-08-01

    The 18th International Conference on Antiviral Research (ICAR) was held at the Princess Sofia Hotel in Barcelona, Spain, from 11th-14th April, 2005. This is a yearly international meeting sponsored by the International Society for Antiviral Research (ISAR). The current president of ISAR is John A Secrest 3rd of the Southern Research Institute. The scientific programme committee was chaired by John C Drach from the University of Michigan. ISAR was founded in 1987 to exchange prepublication basic, applied and clinical information on the development of antiviral, chemical and biological agents as well as to promote collaborative research. The ISAR has had a major role in the significant advances of the past decade in the reduction of the societal burdens of viral diseases by the focus of ICAR on the discovery and clinical application of antiviral agents. The 18th ICAR was organised as a series of focus presentations on specific viral groups consisting of oral and poster presentations of original research findings. In addition, the conference included plenary speakers, award presentations, a minisymposium on bioterrorism, and a satellite symposium on clinical antiviral drug developments. The size of the conference (> 50 oral and 250 poster presentations) necessitates limitation to the most noteworthy in the judgment of this reviewer. The current membership of the ISAR is approximately 700 with approximately 50% the membership in attendance. PMID:16086663

  8. Problema vizual'noj registratsii nablyudenij v opticheskoj astronomii XVII-XVIII vekov %t Problem of visual registration of observations in optical astronomy in the 17th-18th centuries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, Kostantin V.

    This paper attempts to explain the growth of optical astronomy as a result of more general social and cultural change in European life during the two post-Renaissance centuries. It shows how the introduction of optical instruments into astronomical work was accompanied (and partly conditioned) by a few nonastronomical practices, such as collecting unusual things and their images, producing illusionary effects by means of optical devices, manufacturing pictures that could disturb the common visual perception, etc. The paper draws particular attention to the practices of manipulation with visual images that could help to introduce "illusionary" optical knowledge into making "true" drawings from natural objects, including celestial ones. In this way, the formation of new astronomical language can be understood as closely connected to the explicit formulation of technological instructions and legal rules for making copies from natural objects, as well as the general development of printing production and broadening of the market of printed illustrations. These often not enough co-ordinated practices stipulated the shift of optical astronomy into a significant part of seigniorial culture, where it obtained recognition as an essentially new and elite knowledge, associated with particular technological vigilance. During the transition of European monarchies into the absolutist social order, astronomy, on a level with other court services, assumed a shape of professional occupation supplied with certain monetary salaries, a stable position in official hierarchy, and supreme privileges. This was the way by which astronomy merged with the other natural studies and became one of the publicly recognised scientific disciplines.

  9. Peterburgskaya akademiya nauk v XVIII v. i ee pol' v rasprostranenii N'yutonianstva na kontinente Evropy %t Petersburg Academy of Sciences of 18th century and its role in the dissemination of Newtonianism in teh continental Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nevskaya, N. I.

    "Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica" by I. Newton were published and immediately recognized in England in 1687. However in countries of the continental Europe up to 1744 dominated the Cartesianism. Few newtonians were exposed to persecutions. Under such circumstances in 1724 Peter The Great decided to found an Academy of sciences in Russia. Since in this country there were no scientists, it was decided to invite them from the continental Europe. Two scientists arrived to Russia were newtonians. Other just were graduated from universities and had no hope for scientific work in their native lands. This situation turned out to be rather happy. The newtonians - J. N. Delisle and J. Hermann - trained the youth (D. Bernoulli, L. Euler, F. Ch. Mayer, G. W. Krafft, A. D. Kantemir, G. W. Richmann, M. V. Lomonosov, N. I. Popov, V. K. Trediakovskij, A. D. Krasilnikov etc.). They created the science of Russia and enhanced the doctrine of Newton. Their scientific works were printed in "Commentarii" in Latin. The newspaper "St.-Petersburg sheets" and its appendix, the magazine "Notes on the Sheet" (issued in Russian and German) - published the works of Petersburg Academy of sciences and promoted the Newtonianism. Everyone, who could read in German, used these materials. One of the readers was I. Kant. He relied upon these publications in preparing his lectures at Königsberg University, and then later, in working out the cosmogony theory. The works of J. N. Delisle, L. Euler and A. C. Clairaut on the theory of comets' and planets' movement justified Newtons doctrine. They also forced J. Cassini to accept the doctrine as well. Delisle's papers on the history of astronomy published there are helpful for understanding of the history of development the astronomy. The books of J. F. Weidler "A history of astronomy" (1741) and "Astronomical bibliography" (1755) formed the basis for all histories of astronomy in the XVIII-XIX centuries.

  10. Lightning and Gunpowder in the 18th Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krider, E. P.

    2006-12-01

    On or before June, 1751, Benjamin Franklin and co-workers showed that gunpowder could be ignited by a small electric spark, and subsequently people used gunpowder to enhance the explosions of "thunder houses" to demonstrate that grounded metallic rods would protect model structures against lightning damage. Even before the sentry box and kite experiments proved that thunderclouds are electrified and that lightning is an electrical discharge in 1752, Franklin had hypothesized that a tall, well-grounded conductor might reduce or prevent lightning damage by silently discharging the cloud, and if a discharge did occur, then the tall rod would offer a preferred place for the lightning to strike, and the grounding conductors would guide the current into the ground in a harmless fashion. Over the next 10 years, experience gained through practice showed that grounded rods did indeed protect ordinary structures from lightning damage, but a question remained about the best way to protect gunpowder magazines. In 1762, Franklin recommended a tall "mast not far from it, which may reach 15 or 20 feet above the top of it, with a thick iron rod in one piece fastened to it, pointed at the highest end, and reaching down through the earth till it comes to water," and in 1772 he made a similar recommendation for protecting the British powder magazine at Purfleet. In 1780, Jan Ingenhousz asked Franklin to "communicate to me some short hints, which may occur to you about the most convenient manner of constructing gun powder magazines, the manner of preserving the powder from moisture and securing the building in the best manner from the effects of lightning." In his reply, Franklin detailed a method of protection that is almost perfect, "they should be constructed in the Ground; that the Walls should be lin'd with Lead, the Floor Lead, all 1/4 Inch thick & the Joints well solder'd; the Cover Copper; with a little Scuttle to enter, the whole in the Form of a Canister for Tea. If the Edges of the Cover scuttle fall into a Copper Channel containing Mercury, not the smallest Particle of Air or Moisture can enter to the Powder, even tho' the Walls stood in Water, or the whole was under Water." In 1876, the Scottish physicist, James Clerk Maxwell, made almost exactly the same recommendation for protecting against lightning, a method known today as a "Faraday cage."

  11. Razi's report about seasonal allergic rhinitis (hay fever) from the 10th century AD.

    PubMed

    Bungy, G A; Mossawi, J; Nojoumi, S A; Brostoff, J

    1996-07-01

    Seasonal allergic rhinitis (hay fever) is considered a disease of the postindustrial revolution era. Clinical reports of patients are readily available from the 19th century starting with John Bostock's description of his own summer symptoms. Also patients with "rose catarrh' are described in the 16th and 17th century. Although asthma is well described by Maimonides, clear descriptions of diagnosis, prevention and treatment of hay fever are rare in the first millennium. This report by Razi (prior to 925 AD) is perhaps the earliest such report yet. It is contained in a compendium written by Ibn Sharabeyun ben Ibrahim in the 13th or 14th century AD. The volume also contains work by Avicenna (Abo Ali-Sina; a friend of Razi) and other contemporary writers. Some of the treatments suggested in this early report may not be so acceptable to modern sufferers. PMID:8688667

  12. [The anamnesis in antiquity; medical questions by Rufus Ephesius (1st to 2nd century AD)].

    PubMed

    Haak, H L; Horstmanshoff, H F J

    2006-12-23

    Only one treatise devoted to medical history taking (anamnesis) has come down to us from antiquity: Medical questions by Rufus Ephesius (from about 80 to about 150 AD). The work was rediscovered, published and translated from Greek into French by Daremberg and Ruelle in the 19th century. The word 'anamnesis' for history taking only came into use halfway through the 19th century in German-speaking countries and in the Netherlands. The term was not used in this sense by physicians in antiquity. In contrast to several authors of the Corpus Hippocraticum (5th to 1st century BC), Rufus attached great importance to the interview with the patient and in particular to questions concerning the patient's lifestyle prior to the illness. In this respect, his opinions are remarkably close to modern views. PMID:17216732

  13. Dynamics of the properties of steppe paleosols of the Sarmatian time (2nd century BC-4th century AD) in relation to secular variations in climatic humidity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demkin, V. A.; Zolotareva, B. N.; Demkina, T. S.; Khomutova, T. E.; Kashirskaya, N. N.; El'Tsov, M. V.; Udal'Tsov, S. N.

    2012-02-01

    Paleosols buried under kurgans of the Early (2nd-1st centuries BC), Middle (1st-2nd centuries AD) and Late (2nd-IV centuries AD) Sarmatian epochs were studied in dry steppes and desert steppes of the Lower Volga region (the Privolzhskaya and Ergeni Uplands and the Caspian Lowland). It was found that temporal variations in the morphological, chemical, microbiological, and magnetic properties of the paleosols in the interval of 2200-1600 BP were characterized by the cyclic pattern related to secular dynamics of climatic humidity with changes in the mean annual precipitation of ±30-50 mm. These climate changes did not transform chestnut paleosols and paleosolonetzes at the type or subtype taxonomic levels. However, they led to certain changes in the humus, carbonate, and salt profiles of the soils; in the character of solonetzic horizon B1; and in the state of microbial communities. According to these data, the Sarmatian time was characterized by alternation of micropluvial and microarid stages lasting fro about 100-200 years. In particular, the stages of humidization were observed in the 1st century BC-1st century AD and in the 4th century AD; the most arid conditions were observed in the second half of the 2nd and the first half of the 3rd century AD.

  14. 18th Space Photovoltaic Research and Technology Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morton, Thomas L. (Compiler)

    2005-01-01

    The 18th Space Photovoltaic Research and Technology (SPRAT XVIII) Conference was held September 16 to 18, 2003, at the Ohio Aerospace Institute (OAI) in Brook Park, Ohio. The SPRAT conference, hosted by the Photovoltaic and Space Environments Branch of the NASA Glenn Research Center, brought together representatives of the space photovoltaic community from around the world to share the latest advances in space solar cell technology. This year s conference continued to build on many of the trends shown in SPRAT XVII-the continued advances of thin-film and multijunction solar cell technologies and the new issues required to qualify those types of cells for space applications.

  15. Characteristics of microbial communities in steppe paleosols buried under kurgans of the Sarmatian time (I-IV centuries AD)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demkina, T. S.; Khomutova, T. E.; Kashirskaya, N. N.; Stretovich, I. V.; Demkin, V. A.

    2009-07-01

    Microbiological studies of paleosols buried under steppe kurgans of different ages of the Middle (I-II centuries AD) and Late Sarmatian (II-IV centuries AD) time in different regions of the Lower Volga steppes were carried out. The regularities of the soil microbial communities’ development were determined in the I-IV centuries AD by the climate dynamics and the replacement of the relatively humid conditions (the I century to the first half of the II century) by dry (the second half of the II century to the first half of the III century) and then again by humid (the end of the III century to the IV century) conditions. In the humid climatic periods, the active biomass of the microorganisms and its portion in the total microbial biomass and the Corg of the soil increased, the portion of microorganisms consuming plant residues increased in the ecological-trophic structure of the microbial community, and the index of oligotrophy decreased. These changes had an opposite direction in the arid climatic periods. The variations of the microbiological parameters relative to the century-long dynamics of the climate over the historical time were synchronous and unidirectional, though the studied soils were found in different soil-geographical zones (dry and desert steppe), natural regions (the Privolzhskaya and Ergeni uplands and the Caspian Lowland), and landforms (watersheds, river terraces, marine plains).

  16. Student awards given at 18th Annual Hydrology Days

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morel-Seytoux, Hubert

    Four students received awards for best student presentations at the 18th annual Hydrology Days (HD) held earlier this year at Colorado State University. The event is sponsored by AGU's Hydrology Section.Mohamed Bennani Lakhim, Colorado State University, received the award in the Ph.D. oral presentation category for developing a stochastic risk-assessment methodology, based on numerical modeling of contaminant fate and transport in a heterogeneous aquifer, to better estimate the potential magnitude of exposure of an individual. His study analyzed the effects of the uncertainty of different groundwater parameters on the uncertainty of contaminant concentration in the aquifer. The Ph.D. poster category award went to Tarek A. Saba from the University of Colorado, Boulder, for his studies of the effect of groundwater flow dimensionality on mass transfer from entrapped nonaqueous phase liquid contaminants.

  17. JANNAF 18th Propulsion Systems Hazards Subcommittee Meeting. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cocchiaro, James E. (Editor); Gannaway, Mary T. (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    This volume, the first of two volumes is a compilation of 18 unclassified/unlimited-distribution technical papers presented at the Joint Army-Navy-NASA-Air Force (JANNAF) 18th Propulsion Systems Hazards Subcommittee (PSHS) meeting held jointly with the 36th Combustion Subcommittee (CS) and 24th Airbreathing Propulsion Subcommittee (APS) meetings. The meeting was held 18-21 October 1999 at NASA Kennedy Space Center and The DoubleTree Oceanfront Hotel, Cocoa Beach, Florida. Topics covered at the PSHS meeting include: shaped charge jet and kinetic energy penetrator impact vulnerability of gun propellants; thermal decomposition and cookoff behavior of energetic materials; violent reaction; detonation phenomena of solid energetic materials subjected to shock and impact stimuli; and hazard classification, insensitive munitions, and propulsion systems safety.

  18. Akhenaten and the strange physiques of Egypt's 18th dynasty.

    PubMed

    Braverman, Irwin M; Redford, Donald B; Mackowiak, Philip A

    2009-04-21

    Akhenaten was one of Egypt's most controversial pharaohs, in part because of his strange appearance in images produced after he had declared Aten, the Sun-disc, his one-and-only god. Whether these were symbolic representations or realistic ones that indicate a deforming genetic disorder is the subject of continuing debate. The authors present evidence that the bizarre physical features portrayed in these images are not only realistic but were shared by many members of Egypt's 18th Dynasty. The features are best explained by either 2 different familial disorders-the aromatase excess syndrome and the sagittal craniosynostosis syndrome-or a variant of the Antley-Bixler syndrome caused by a novel mutation in one of the genes controlling the P450 enzymes, which regulate steroidogenesis and cranial bone formation. PMID:19380856

  19. EDITORIAL: The 18th Central European Workshop on Quantum Optics The 18th Central European Workshop on Quantum Optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez-Soto, Luis L.; Man'ko, Margarita A.

    2012-02-01

    Much of our present understanding of the microscopic world is based on quantum mechanics. The field owes much of its existence to the venerable science of optics, since the fundamental ideas on the nature of the interaction between light and matter lie at the roots of its origin. We have now reached one century of quantum mechanics. In contrast, the splendid blossoming of quantum optics began only after the comparatively recent invention of the laser. Since then, it has become an exciting and always expanding area at the cutting-edge of research, in part because theory and experiment are more closely connected in this field than any other. Moreover, the technological distance between fundamental studies and practical applications has always been very short in quantum optics. As a result, modern engineering is increasingly based on quantum rather than classical physics; we are facing a transition similar to the one society confronted 200 years ago, at the start of the Industrial Revolution. In parallel with this, the physics community is witnessing the recent and vigorous emergence of quantum information. It aims at exploring the physical foundations of information and at developing efficient methods for processing quantum information. The questions driving this field reveal a profound change in attitude towards fundamental aspects of quantum theory. The photon turns out to be a tool extremely well suited to exploring theoretical quantum information schemes and their experimental implementations. Mirroring this continued progress has been the growth and development of the series of annual Central European Workshops on Quantum Optics (CEWQO). The series started at the beginning of the 1990s, as rather small meetings of physicists from a few countries in central-eastern Europe. In two decades, the workshops have transformed into important events that reach well beyond the original rather restricted geographical limits. The history of CEWQOs can be found in the preface to the proceedings of the 15th CEWQO (Physica Scripta 2009 T135 011005). The 18th edition of CEWQO (CEWQO11) was held in Madrid in 2011. There were about 250 participants, from practically every European country. Many colleagues from other continents also joined the event, including well-established researchers in the field. This is a clear demonstration that these meetings provide an excellent chance to hear about the latest results and new directions of research. The organization of CEWQO11 was carried out by a committee consisting of members active in this topic in Madrid. From Universidad Complutense, Alberto Galindo and Luis L Sánchez-Soto from Universidad Autónoma, Jose Calleja and Carlos Tejedor; from Universidad Politécnica, Enrique Calleja; from Universidad Carlos III, Alberto Ibort; and from the National Research Council (CSIC), Juan León and Juan J García-Ripoll. Special thanks go to the Spanish Ministry for Science and Innovation, Universidad Complutense and the Quitemad Consortium for financial support. The proceedings of the 16th CEWQO held at the University of Turku, Finland and the 17th CEWQO held at the University of St Andrews, Scotland, UK are also available (Physica Scripta 2010 T140 and Physica Scripta 2011 T143). The present Topical Issue is a collection of papers presented in Madrid; they represent an illustrative sample of the major achievements and trends in this area. In turn, they reflect the wide range of interests in this rapidly evolving field. Some collaborators from different scientific centres who could not, due to different reasons, come to Madrid, but participated in previous CEWQOs and plan to participate in future CEWQOs, also contributed to this issue. The papers are arranged alphabetically by the name of the first author. Special thanks goes to Roger Wäppling, the Managing Editor of Physica Scripta, and Graeme Watt, the Publisher, for the opportunity to publish CEWQO11. From a Physica Scripta Editorial Board meeting it was decided that Physica Scripta could offer a poster prize (200 euros + certificate) for young scientists (less than 30 years old) at the annual CEWQO conference. A panel of experts was formed to judge the posters which included Apostol Vourdas, University of Bradford, UK (Chairman), Alberto Ibort, University Carlos III of Madrid, Spain, Andrei Klimov, University of Guadalajara, Mexico, Margarita A Man'ko, P N Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow, Russia and Antonino Messina, University of Palermo, Italy. The poster ''How can we check the uncertainty relation?'' by Vladimir Chernega, PhD student of the P N Lebedev Physical Institute, won the prize. The 19th Central European Workshop on Quantum Optics will be held in Sinaia, Romania on 2-6 July 2012. It will be chaired by Professor Aurelian Isar from the Horia Hulubei National Institute for Research and Development in Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Bucharest.

  20. FOREWORD: 18th International School on Condensed Matter Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimova-Malinovska, Doriana; Genova, Julia; Nesheva, Diana; Petrov, Alexander G.; Primatarowa, Marina T.

    2014-12-01

    We are delighted to present the Proceedings of the 18th International School on Condensed Matter Physics: Challenges of Nanoscale Science: Theory, Materials, Applications, organized by the Institute of Solid State Physics of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences and chaired by Professor Alexander G Petrov. On this occasion the School was held in memory of Professor Nikolay Kirov (1943-2013), former Director of the Institute and Chairman between 1991 and 1998. The 18ISCMP was one of several events dedicated to the 145th anniversary of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences in 2014, and was held in the welcoming Black Sea resort of St. Constantine and Helena near Varna, at the Hotel and Congress Centre Frederic Joliot-Curie. Participants from 16 countries delivered 32 invited lectures, and 71 contributed posters were presented over three lively and well-attended evening sessions. Manuscripts submitted to the Proceedings were refereed in accordance with the guidelines of the Journal of Physics: Conference Series, and we believe the papers published herein testify to the high technical quality and diversity of contributions. A satellite meeting, Transition Metal Oxide Thin Films - Functional Layers in Smart Windows and Water Splitting Devices: Technology and Optoelectronic Properties was held in parallel with the School (http://www.inera.org, 3-6 Sept 2014). This activity, which took place under the FP7-funded project INERA, offered opportunities for crossdisciplinary discussions and exchange of ideas between both sets of participants. As always, a major factor in the success of the 18ISCMP was the social programme, headed by the organized events (Welcome and Farewell Parties) and enhanced in no small measure by a variety of pleasant local restaurants, bars and beaches. We are most grateful to staff of the Journal of Physics: Conference Series for their continued support for the School, this being the third occasion on which the Proceedings have been published under its auspices.

  1. Gut Microbiome of an 11th Century A.D. Pre-Columbian Andean Mummy

    PubMed Central

    Santiago-Rodriguez, Tasha M.; Fornaciari, Gino; Luciani, Stefania; Dowd, Scot E.; Toranzos, Gary A.; Marota, Isolina; Cano, Raul J.

    2015-01-01

    The process of natural mummification is a rare and unique process from which little is known about the resulting microbial community structure. In the present study, we characterized the microbiome of paleofeces, and ascending, transverse and descending colon of an 11th century A.D. pre-Columbian Andean mummy by 16S rRNA gene high-throughput sequencing and metagenomics. Firmicutes were the most abundant bacterial group, with Clostridium spp. comprising up to 96.2% of the mummified gut, while Turicibacter spp. represented 89.2% of the bacteria identified in the paleofeces. Microbiome profile of the paleofeces was unique when compared to previously characterized coprolites that did not undergo natural mummification. We identified DNA sequences homologous to Clostridium botulinum, Trypanosoma cruzi and human papillomaviruses (HPVs). Unexpectedly, putative antibiotic-resistance genes including beta-lactamases, penicillin-binding proteins, resistance to fosfomycin, chloramphenicol, aminoglycosides, macrolides, sulfa, quinolones, tetracycline and vancomycin, and multi-drug transporters, were also identified. The presence of putative antibiotic-resistance genes suggests that resistance may not necessarily be associated with a selective pressure of antibiotics or contact with European cultures. Identification of pathogens and antibiotic-resistance genes in ancient human specimens will aid in the understanding of the evolution of pathogens as a way to treat and prevent diseases caused by bacteria, microbial eukaryotes and viruses. PMID:26422376

  2. Gut Microbiome of an 11th Century A.D. Pre-Columbian Andean Mummy.

    PubMed

    Santiago-Rodriguez, Tasha M; Fornaciari, Gino; Luciani, Stefania; Dowd, Scot E; Toranzos, Gary A; Marota, Isolina; Cano, Raul J

    2015-01-01

    The process of natural mummification is a rare and unique process from which little is known about the resulting microbial community structure. In the present study, we characterized the microbiome of paleofeces, and ascending, transverse and descending colon of an 11th century A.D. pre-Columbian Andean mummy by 16S rRNA gene high-throughput sequencing and metagenomics. Firmicutes were the most abundant bacterial group, with Clostridium spp. comprising up to 96.2% of the mummified gut, while Turicibacter spp. represented 89.2% of the bacteria identified in the paleofeces. Microbiome profile of the paleofeces was unique when compared to previously characterized coprolites that did not undergo natural mummification. We identified DNA sequences homologous to Clostridium botulinum, Trypanosoma cruzi and human papillomaviruses (HPVs). Unexpectedly, putative antibiotic-resistance genes including beta-lactamases, penicillin-binding proteins, resistance to fosfomycin, chloramphenicol, aminoglycosides, macrolides, sulfa, quinolones, tetracycline and vancomycin, and multi-drug transporters, were also identified. The presence of putative antibiotic-resistance genes suggests that resistance may not necessarily be associated with a selective pressure of antibiotics or contact with European cultures. Identification of pathogens and antibiotic-resistance genes in ancient human specimens will aid in the understanding of the evolution of pathogens as a way to treat and prevent diseases caused by bacteria, microbial eukaryotes and viruses. PMID:26422376

  3. Preface: 18th Aps-Sccm and 24th Airapt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, Gilbert; Moore, David S.; Yoo, Choong-Shik; Buttler, William; Furlanetto, Michael; Evans, William

    2014-05-01

    The 18th Biennial International Conference of the APS Topical Group on Shock Compression of Condensed Matter in conjunction with the 24th Biennial International Conference of the International Association for the Advancement of High Pressure Science & Technology (AIRAPT) was held at the Westin Hotel in Seattle, Washington from 7-12 July, 2013. This is only the second time that these two organizations have held a Joint Conference — the first was 20 years previous (1993) in Colorado Springs, Colorado. Seattle was chosen for this joint conference because of its central location for the world-wide attendees as well as its metropolitan vibrancy. The scientific program consisted of 858 scheduled presentations organized into 23 topical areas and included contributed (537), invited (95), and plenary (6) lectures, as well as two poster sessions with 110 posters each. The scientific focus of the Joint Conference was on fundamental and applied research topics related to the static or dynamic compression of condensed matter. This multidisciplinary field of research encompasses areas of physics, chemistry, materials science, mechanics, geophysics and planetary physics, and applied mathematics. Experimental, computational and theoretical studies all play important roles. The organizers endeavored to intertwine static and dynamic experimental alongside computational and theoretical studies of similar materials in the organization of the sessions. This goal was aided by the addition of three special focus sessions on deep carbon budget, high energy density materials, and dynamic response of materials. 722 scientists and engineers from 25 countries registered at the conference, including 132 students from 12 countries. The attendee countries represented included: Argentina (2), Australia (2), Brazil (3), Canada (25), China (22), Czech Republic (2), France (35), Germany (19), India (6), Israel (21), Italy (10), Japan (49), Netherlands (1), Poland (1), Portugal (2), Russia (26), Singapore (1), Slovakia (1), South Korea (5), Spain (7), Sweden (4), Switzerland (1), United Kingdom (69), United States of America (402). 79 of the students were supported by travel awards, funded in part by the APS Topical Group, the AIRAPT, and other sources. New for this conference was an expanded Student Program, including an all-day Student, Post-Doc, and Early Career Symposium held on Sunday 7 July . During the Conference, Gennady Kanel of the Institute for High Temperatures, Russian Academy of Sciences, was presented the 2013 George E Duval Shock Compression Science Award, and gave a plenary lecture ''Unusual behavior of usual materials in shock waves.'' Similarly, Karl Syassen of the Max Planck Institute Stuttgart received the 2013 Percy Bridgman Award at the conference, and presented a plenary lecture ''Stressed solids probed by diffraction and spectroscopy.'' In addition, there were two young investigator awards presented. First was the AIRAPT Jamieson Award, presented to Duck Young Kim of the Geophysical Laboratory, Carnegie Institution of Washington, DC. The other was a new APS SCCM Topical Group Student Award, presented to Rick Kraus of Harvard University. The two awardees shared a plenary talk slot on 8 July, with Duck Young Kim presenting ''Novel materials prediction and experimental synthesis under pressure'' and Rick Kraus ''Thermodynamic paths in planetary collisions: Shock vaporization of SiO2, MgO, and Fe.'' Details of the committees are available in the PDF

  4. Patterns of Irregular Burials in Western Europe (1st-5th Century A.D.)

    PubMed Central

    Milella, Marco; Mariotti, Valentina; Belcastro, Maria Giovanna; Knüsel, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Irregular burials (IB—burials showing features that contrast with the majority of others in their geographic and chronological context) have been the focus of archaeological study because of their relative rarity and enigmatic appearance. Interpretations of IB often refer to supposed fear of the dead or to social processes taking place in time-specific contexts. However, a comprehensive and quantitative analysis of IB for various geographical contexts is still lacking, a fact that hampers any discussion of these burials on a larger scale. Methods Here, we collected a bibliographic dataset of 375 IB from both Britain and Continental Europe, altogether spanning a time period from the 1st to the 5th century AD. Each burial has been coded according to ten dichotomous variables, further analyzed by means of chi-squared tests on absolute frequencies, non-metric multidimensional scaling, and cluster analysis. Results Even acknowledging the limits of this study, and in particular the bias represented by the available literature, our results point to interesting patterns. Geographically, IB show a contrast between Britain and Continental Europe, possibly related to historical processes specific to these regions. Different types of IB (especially prone depositions and depositions with the cephalic extremity displaced) present a series of characteristics and associations between features that permit a more detailed conceptualization of these occurrences from a socio-cultural perspective that aids to elucidate their funerary meaning. Conclusions and Significance Altogether, the present work stresses the variability of IB, and the need to contextualize them in a proper archaeological and historical context. It contributes to the discussion of IB by providing a specific geographic and chronological frame of reference that supports a series of hypotheses about the cultural processes possibly underlying their occurrence. PMID:26115408

  5. EDITORIAL: 18th European Conference on Dynamics of Molecular Systems 18th European Conference on Dynamics of Molecular Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varandas, A. J. C.

    2011-08-01

    This special section of Comments on Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics (CAMOP) in Physica Scripta collects some of the papers that have been presented at the 18th European Conference on Dynamics of Molecular Systems MOLEC 2010 held in September 2010 in Curia, Portugal, as part of a series of biennial MOLEC conferences. This started in 1976 in Trento, Italy, and has continued, visiting 17 cities in 11 countries, namely Denmark, The Netherlands, Israel, France, Italy, Germany, Czech Republic, Spain, United Kingdom, Turkey and Russia. Following the MOLEC tradition, the scientific programme of the Curia meeting focused on experimental and theoretical studies of molecular interactions, collision dynamics, spectroscopy, and related fields. It included invited speakers from 22 countries, who were asked to summarize the problems reported in their presentations with the objective of revealing the current thinking of leading researchers in atomic, molecular and optical physics. It is hoped that their authoritative contributions presented in this CAMOP special section will also appeal to non-specialists through their clear and broad introductions to the field as well as references to the accessible literature. This CAMOP special section comprises ten contributions, which cover theoretical studies on the electronic structure of molecules and clusters as well as dynamics of elastic, inelastic and reactive encounters between atoms, molecules, ions, clusters and surfaces. Specifically, it includes electronic structure calculations using the traditional coupled-cluster method (Barreto et al 028111), the electron-attached equation-of-motion coupled cluster method (Hansen et al 028110), the diffusion Monte Carlo method (Lpez-Durn et al 028107) and the path-integral Monte Carlo method (Barragn et al 028109). The contributions on molecular dynamics include on-the-fly quasi-classical trajectories on a five-atom molecule (Yu 028104), quantum reaction dynamics on triatomics (Bovino et al 028103, and Hankel et al 028102) and statistical reaction dynamics using a model based on the long-range interaction potential (McCarroll 028106). A contribution on gas-surface interactions is also included (Sahoo et al 028105) as well as first-principles ab initio calculations to explore the hydrogen-graphene interaction (Irving et al 028108). These articles reflect the recent progress made in this field and constructively build on work described in the previous three MOLEC special sections of CAMOP published in Physica Scripta. I thank, on behalf of the scientific organizing committee of MOLEC, all the authors who contributed and Physica Scripta for providing a platform for the publication of this special section dedicated to MOLEC 2010. A special thanks goes to the CAMOP Editor, Harold Linarz, for the excellent guidance in handling the editorial work. I hope that the articles catalyze the attention of the readers towards the topics covered and contribute in attracting them to attend MOLEC 2012 in Oxford, UK.

  6. PREFACE: 18th Microscopy of Semiconducting Materials Conference (MSM XVIII)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walther, T.; Hutchison, John L.

    2013-11-01

    YRM logo This volume contains invited and contributed papers from the 18th international conference on 'Microscopy of Semiconducting Materials' held at St Catherine's College, University of Oxford, on 7-11 April 2013. The meeting was organised under the auspices of the Royal Microscopical Society and supported by the Institute of Physics as well as the Materials Research Society of the USA. This conference series deals with recent advances in semiconductor studies carried out by all forms of microscopy, with an emphasis on electron microscopy and scanning probe microscopy with high spatial resolution. This time the meeting was attended by 109 delegates from 17 countries world-wide. We were welcomed by Professor Sir Peter Hirsch, who noted that this was the first of these conferences where Professor Tony Cullis was unable to attend, owing to ill-health. During the meeting a card containing greetings from many of Tony's friends and colleagues was signed, and duly sent to Tony afterwards. As semiconductor devices shrink further new routes for device processing and characterisation need to be developed, and, for the latter, methods that offer sub-nanometre spatial resolution are particularly valuable. The various forms of imaging, diffraction and spectroscopy available in modern microscopes are powerful tools for studying the microstructure, electronic structure, chemistry and also electric fields in semiconducting materials. Recent advances in instrumentation, from lens aberration correction in both TEM and STEM instruments, to the development of a wide range of scanning probe techniques, as well as new methods of signal quantification have been presented at this conference. Two topics that have at this meeting again highlighted the interesting contributions of aberration corrected transmission electron microscopy were: contrast quantification of annular dark-field STEM images in terms of chemical composition (Z-contrast), sample thickness and strain, and the study of dislocation core structures at atomic resolution. Conference photograph Figure 1. Conference photo taken by JLH inside St Catherine's College Each of the 49 manuscripts submitted for publication in this proceedings volume has been independently reviewed, most by two reviewers, and revised where necessary before being accepted for publication. The Editors are grateful to the following colleagues for their rapid and careful reviewing of manuscripts: R Beanland, C B Boothroyd, P D Brown, D Cherns, A J Craven, K Durose, C J Humphreys, U Kaiser, L Lari, G A Moebus, A G Norman, P Pecz, I M Ross, D J Smith and K Tillmann. Poster prizes were awarded to the following students: joint first prizes to Robert Schewski, Leibniz-Institut für Kristallzüchtung, Berlin and Xiaowei Wu, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy; and joint second prizes to Tyche Perkisas, University of Antwerp and Adi Pantzer, Ben Gurion University of the Negev. These presentations indicated both a broad range of microscopy techniques and materials issues covered as well as the excellent standard of microscopy now being achieved by younger scientists. They also reflected the internationality of the attending scientists. On the evening of 9 April 2013, the RMS Annual Materials Lecture was delivered by Professor Sir Colin J Humphreys from the University of Cambridge. Colin's highly entertaining talk on 'How microscopy and semiconductors can help to solve some major world problems' spanned a very broad range, from detailed atomistic investigation of lattice defects in gallium nitride layers by transmission electron microscopy, to the production of new light emitting diodes and its impact on reducing both our electricity bills and the effect of global warming. Entertainment during the conference dinner was provided by the Ariella String Trio, and during the meal we held a friendly competition in which teams had to recognise invited speakers and organisers from photos of them as babies or young children. The organisers are very grateful to the following companies who contributed to the success of the meeting by presenting trade stands on 9 and 10 April: Agar Scientific, Fischione, Gatan, ISS Group Services and Leica Microsystems. St Catherine's College is thanked for provision of excellent accommodation, superb lecture facilities and the very friendly catering staff who served food and drink during the days. There was even a compliment from some of our French visitors for the cheese board during the conference dinner! Finally, we would like to thank the staff of the Royal Microscopical Society for their expert help in planning and support of this conference - in particular Victoria Masters and her assistant Alice Pyper for their dedicated professional support and always joyful approach to any issues that arose. September 2013 Thomas Walther John L Hutchison

  7. Akhawayni (?-983 AD): A Persian neuropsychiatrist in the early medieval era (9th-12th Century AD).

    PubMed

    Zargaran, Arman; Kordafshari, Gholamreza; Hosseini, Seyyed Rouhollah; Mehdizadeh, Alireza

    2014-03-21

    The early medieval era is also called the Islamic Golden Age because of the significant rise in sciences, including medicine. Abū Bakr Rabi' ibn Ahmad Akhawayni Bukhāri (better known as Akhawayni) was one of the notable medical practitioners in his lifetime. His fame was in neuroscience and he became known as Pezeshk-e-Divanegan (Physician to the Insane). His only surviving book, Hidāyat al-Muta'allimin fi al-Tibb (The Students' Handbook of Medicine), is the first medical textbook in Persian, after Islam. Akhawayni gathered and categorized available knowledge on neuropsychiatry and added his own. He was the first to describe sleep paralysis and to suggest pragmatic rather than supernatural treatment. He was also the first to present fever cure and his descriptions of meningitis (Lisarghos in Hidāyat), mania, psychosis (Malikhulia), dementia (Ghotrab), etc., are close to current concepts. PMID:24658213

  8. [Distinguished doctors of the University of Padua and their works: 16th to 18th centuries].

    PubMed

    Romero-Y Huesca, Andrs; Soto-Miranda, Miguel Angel; Moreno-Rojas, Juan Carlos; Ramrez-Bollas, Julio

    2007-01-01

    Italian universities have been distinguished since their beginnings, within different specialties. One of them, if not the most important, is the teaching of medicine. One of the leaders is the University of Padua, founded in 1222, establishing itself as the second most important institution after the University of Bologna. In spite of the difficulties faced by this university, as with most other universities during the medieval period, it continued to perform and consolidate once again during the Renaissance as one of the most outstanding universities in Europe. The University of Bologna and the University of Padua shared the leadership in teaching during this period. At the University of Padua, the lectures were always full with teachers and students of great fame, such as Andreas Vesalio, Gabriele Falopio, William Harvey, Giovanni Battista Morgagni, Antonio Scarpa, to name just a few. In this article we discuss the rights the University had since it beginnings, from its establishment to the Renaissance, and the great influence of some of the teachers and students in the art and science of medicine. PMID:17470327

  9. Gestural Enthymemes: Delivering Movement in 18th- and 19th-Century Medical Images

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Sara

    2009-01-01

    This article contributes to recent efforts to add life and movement to rhetorical studies by focusing on the representation of movement in medical texts. More specifically, this study examines medical texts, illustrations, and photographs involving movement by Johann Casper Lavater, G. B. Duchenne de Bologne, Charles Darwin, and Etienne-Jules

  10. George Cheyne (1671 or 73-1743): 18th-century physician.

    PubMed

    Charlton, Anne

    2011-05-01

    George Cheyne was a well-known physician with a practice in Bath and London. He was a fat, jovial Scotsman weighing 32 stone at one time and with a great sense of humour who could be classed as one of the characters of the period. His health suffered seriously from eating and drinking too much in taverns with his 'bottle companions' when young, and he spent the rest of his life writing books for the public to help them avoid the problems he had experienced, with a particular emphasis on diet and nervous disorders. His book entitled An Essay on Health and Long Life had particular success. Although often lampooned, he had many famous patients including Beau Nash, Samuel Richardson, The Countess of Huntingdon and Catherine Walpole, the eldest daughter of the Prime Minister Robert Walpole. He was a skilled and caring doctor and health educator, and has been said to have established the agenda for psychiatric epidemiology. PMID:21558530

  11. Healing with animals in the Levant from the 10th to the 18th century.

    PubMed

    Lev, Efraim

    2006-01-01

    Animals and products derived from different organs of their bodies have constituted part of the inventory of medicinal substances used in various cultures since ancient times. The article reviews the history of healing with animals in the Levant (The Land of Israel and parts of present-day Syria, Lebanon, and Jordan, defined by the Muslims in the Middle Ages as Bilad al-Sham) in the medieval and early Ottoman periods. Intensive research into the phenomenon of zootherapy in the medieval and early Ottoman Levant has yielded forty-eight substances of animal origin that were used medicinally. The vast majority of these substances were local and relatively easy to obtain. Most of the substances were domestic (honey, wax, silkworm, etc.), others were part of the local wildlife (adder, cuttle fish, flycatcher, firefly, frog, triton, scorpion, etc.), part of the usual medieval household (milk, egg, cheese, lamb, etc.), or parasites (louse, mouse, stinkbug, etc.). Fewer substances were not local but exotic, and therefore rare and expensive (beaver testicles, musk oil, coral, ambergris, etc.). The range of symptoms that the substances of animal origin were used to treat was extensive and included most of the known diseases and maladies of that era: mainly hemorrhoids, burns, impotence, wounds, and skin, eye, and stomach diseases. Changes in the moral outlook of modern societies caused the use of several substances of animal origin to cease in the course of history. These include mummy, silkworm, stinkbug, scarabees, snail, scorpion, and triton. PMID:16504024

  12. VizieR Online Data Catalog: New standards in 18th century astrometry (Lequeux, 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lequeux, J.

    2014-05-01

    Catalogue of Flamsteed (flamstee.dat): John Flamsteed (1646-1719) was the first astronomer in charge of Greenwich Observatory. His stellar catalogue (Flamsteed 1725) was built on observations from 1675 to 1683 with a 6-feet radius sextant mounted on an axis parallel to the polar axis of the Earth, then from 1683 to 1719 with a mural circle with a radius of 79.5 inches (2m). 220 stars over 3925. Catalogue of Romer (romer.dat): Ole (or Olaus) Romer (1644-1710) is principally known for his 1676 discovery of the finite velocity of light, a discovery that he shared with Jean-Dominique Cassini. After a long stay in Paris, he returned to Copenhagen in 1681 and was appointed professor of astronomy at the University. The observatory and all the observations were destroyed in the great Copenhagen fire of 1728, with the exception of observations of 88 stars obtained during three observing nights, from 20 to 23 October 1706. La Caille's catalogue of fundamental stars (lacaifun.dat): Nicolas-Louis La Caille (or Lacaille, or de la Caille, 1713-1762) was a French astronomer who is remembered principally for his survey of the southern sky, where he introduced 14 new constellations that are still in use today. Before leaving for the Cape of Good Hope in 1750, he started a catalogue of the 400 brightest stars of both hemispheres, which he completed during his stays in Cape Town and in the Mauritius island, then after his return to Paris in 1754. He reduced the observations himself, including for the first time corrections for aberration and nutation, and published them with details of the observations and reductions (La Caille 1757). Bailly's adaptation of La Caille's catalogue of fundamental stars (bailly.dat): After the death of La Caille, Jean-Sylvain Bailly published a catalogue of the brighest stars of both hemispheres for the equinox B1750.0 in Ephemerides for 10 year from 1765 to 1775 (Anonymous (Bailly) 1763, p. lvii-lxiv). This catalogue obviously derives from the catalogue named lacaillefund.dat. La Caille's complete survey of the southern sky (lacaisur.dat): During his stay in Cape Town in 1751-1752, La Caille made the first systematic survey of the sky ever, in the modern sense. 244 stars over 9766. La Caille's catalogue of zodiacal stars (lacaizod.dat): When La Caille returned from his southern expedition in 1754, he undertook the construction of a catalogue of zodiacal stars. Mayer's zodiacal catalogue (mayer.dat): At exactly the same time as La Caille, Tobias Mayer (1723-1762) in Gottingen undertook a similar catalogue of zodiacal stars, using a 6-feet radius mural quadrant made by John Bird (1709-1776). 200 stars over 998. Bradley's stellar catalogue (bradley.dat): James Bradley (1693-1762) is famous for his discovery of aberration and nutation. From 1750 to his death in 1762, he built a large stellar catalogue, from observations first with an old mural sector and after 1753 with the Bird 8-ft mural sector located in Greenwich, where it 215 stars over 3220. Piazzi's stellar catalogue (piazzi.dat): Giuseppe Piazzi (1746-1846) built a large catalogue containing 7646 stars from 1792 to 1813, observed in Palermo with an altazimuthal circle of Jesse Ramsden (1735-1800) can still be seen. 202 stars over 7646. Lalande's stellar catalogue (lalande.dat): L'Histoire celeste francaise de Lalande (Lalande 1801), which contains the unreduced observations of approximately 40,000 stars, is the first very large stellar catalogue. 198 stars over ~45000. (10 data files).

  13. [History of ether in the 18th century: George-Louis Lesage's system of corpuscules ultramondains].

    PubMed

    Berger, Jutta

    2005-01-01

    The article presents an account of Lesage's theory of corpuscules ultramondains and ether. It shows that essential attributes of the antique concept of ether still belong to his speculative physics. In accordance with this concept, Lesage understood the corpuscules ultramondains as subtle celestial matter and carriers of the primordial movements in the universe which were characterised by their proximity to the divine. On the other hand, Lesage was engaged in the contemporary debate concerning the problem of causa gravitatis. His position turns out to be halfway between dynamic corpuscularity and mechanistic physics. With the former he shared the rejection of vortex theories and the adherence to the corpuscular theory of light and the nutshell theory, with the latter the rejection of action at-a-distance and forces inherent to matter. Contrary to the accusation that he plagiarised Fatio de Duillier's theory of gravitation, it is shown that Lesage formulated a gravitational mechanism essentially different to Fatio's. Lesage used the term ether for the theory of chemical affinities. His attempt to reduce them to gravitational force failed. The complexity of chemical phenomena could not be mastered theoretically by reduction to a uniform natural force. PMID:16689079

  14. Translation Studies and the History of Science: The Greek Textbooks of the 18th Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petrou, Georgia

    2006-01-01

    The process of translation has been studied extensively from a philological point of view, and has been lately regarded as a creative activity, during which the translated text is not treated in isolation from the circumstances of its reception. Current research has related communicational and functional approaches with concepts such as

  15. The Reconvery of a Long Forgotten, Early 18th Century 6-inch Newtonian reflector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuller, Dudley M.

    An article about a telescope recovered from a dumpster near the ancient Chapel of St. Mary Magdalen in Guy's Cliffe, Warwickshire, the telescope now being restored, although the primary mirror and the eyepieces have been lost. It is engraved, "Cary, London".

  16. The Teaching of Astronomy in Jesuit Colleges in the 18th century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casanovas, J.

    On the occasion of the 250th anniversary of the foundation of the astronomical observatory at the college and seminary of Nagyszombat in 1755, it may be of interest to say something about the colleges of the Society of Jesus. The presence of the Jesuits there was brief, only two decades, as under the pressure of various external forces, the Jesuit Order was suppressed by Pope Clement XIV with the bull Dominus ac Redemptor on 23 July 1773. All the colleges that the Society had been running successfully all over the world either were closed, taken over by the governments, or given to the local bishops. Shortly after the Jesuits left the college of Nagyszombat, the king transferred it to Buda, where it gave rise to modern institutions of higher education derived. When Pope Pius VII returned to Rome after the Napoleonic wars, one of the first things he did was to reestablish the Society of Jesus in 1814. Old Jesuits, survivors of so many disgraces, joined younger Jesuits from Russia and Poland where in fact the order had never been suppressed. The most important of the Jesuit colleges, the Collegium Romanum in Rome, was given back to the Society of Jesus in 1823. Many other colleges were lost forever, but new ones were founded to continue the Society's previous successful activity.

  17. [Exploration of salt in Poland in the second half of the 18th century].

    PubMed

    Danowska, Ewa

    2014-01-01

    Following the First Partition in 1772, Poland lost the salt mines in Wieliczka, Bochnia and in the territory of Ruthenia to Austria. This was a serious blow to the economy, because since then, it became necessary to import salt, which was primarily taken advantage of by the Royal Prussian Maritime Trading Company (Pruska Kompania Morska) importing it from Austria. King Stanislaw August Poniatowski tried to initiate the exploration and exploitation of salt in the areas where it could be profitable. To this end, he ordered the exploration to Filip Carosi and Stanislaw Okraszewski, among other. The salt-works of the Castellan of Leukow, Jacek Jezierski in the town of Solca, in the Lqczyckie Region, active since 1780, was a private investment. Leopold von Beust's Kompania akcyjna obtained salt from a brine near the town of Busko, and Kompania z Osob Krajowych--from a brine in the town of Raczki nad Pilica. In 1782, the King appointed The Ore Commission (Komisja Kruszcowa), consisted of twelve commissioners, in order to conduct the exploration for minerals, including salt, their extraction and further administration. The Crown Treasury Commission (Komisja Skarbu Koronnego), a magistracy dealing with, among others, the economy of the country in a broad sense, was also involved in the exploration and exploatation of salt. At its command, in the summer of 1788, Tadeusz Czacki made a tour of the Kielce region in search of traces of salt. In view of the important events of the Four-Year Sejm (Sejm Czteroletni) and the subsequent loss of independence, the subject of salt exploration had to be abandoned. PMID:25675732

  18. Healing with animals in the Levant from the 10th to the 18th century

    PubMed Central

    Lev, Efraim

    2006-01-01

    Animals and products derived from different organs of their bodies have constituted part of the inventory of medicinal substances used in various cultures since ancient times. The article reviews the history of healing with animals in the Levant (The Land of Israel and parts of present-day Syria, Lebanon, and Jordan, defined by the Muslims in the Middle Ages as Bilad al-Sham) in the medieval and early Ottoman periods. Intensive research into the phenomenon of zootherapy in the medieval and early Ottoman Levant has yielded forty-eight substances of animal origin that were used medicinally. The vast majority of these substances were local and relatively easy to obtain. Most of the substances were domestic (honey, wax, silkworm, etc.), others were part of the local wildlife (adder, cuttle fish, flycatcher, firefly, frog, triton, scorpion, etc.), part of the usual medieval household (milk, egg, cheese, lamb, etc.), or parasites (louse, mouse, stinkbug, etc.). Fewer substances were not local but exotic, and therefore rare and expensive (beaver testicles, musk oil, coral, ambergris, etc.). The range of symptoms that the substances of animal origin were used to treat was extensive and included most of the known diseases and maladies of that era: mainly hemorrhoids, burns, impotence, wounds, and skin, eye, and stomach diseases. Changes in the moral outlook of modern societies caused the use of several substances of animal origin to cease in the course of history. These include mummy, silkworm, stinkbug, scarabees, snail, scorpion, and triton. PMID:16504024

  19. Communicating the New Chemistry in 18th-Century Portugal: Seabra's "Elementos de Chimica"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carneiro, Ana; Diogo, Maria Paula; Simoes, Ana

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we analyse the aims, contents and impact of Seabra's two-volume textbook--"Elementos de Chimica" ("Elements of Chemistry")--published in 1788 and 1790. Seabra's "Elements of Chemistry" does not conform to the characteristics usually ascribed to textbooks by traditional historiography, and in particular to textbooks published in the

  20. Bradley's Nutation, 18th-Century Analytic Argument, and the Contemporary Technical Communication Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moran, Michael G.

    One of the more difficult elements to teach well in the introductory technical writing classroom is rhetorical form. Although textbooks have gotten much better than in the past at teaching this element, some still imply that structure is a matter of filling up a set form with content. One way to help students avoid this difficulty is to introduce

  1. A magnificent circumcision carnival in the early 18th century Ottoman period.

    PubMed

    Verit, Ayhan; Cengiz, Mustafa; Yeni, Ercan; Unal, Dogan

    2005-01-01

    Circumcision has always been regarded as both an important social event and a milestone of a young man's life in Turkish culture, especially in the Ottoman period. Herein we study an exceptional circumcision festivity which lasted 15 days in the early autumn of the year 1720, for the 4 princes of Sultan III Ahmed, some sons of two high-ranking Ottoman officials and thousands of male children of poor citizens of Istanbul as representing the beneficent of the Sultan. All the organizations of the Empire participated in this huge event, including many shows and a feast, and the preparations were initiated months before. Traditionally, this kind of important social event of Ottoman culture had been described in a literary manner, and Surname-i Vehbi was the special name for the book of this circumcision festivity with 137 colored paintings and a total of 175 pages. The original of this work, which is in the library of Topkapi Palace Museum in Istanbul, was written by Vehbi and illustrated by Levni. The importance of this antique book is that it is the last important example of the illustrated festivity books of Ottoman literature. PMID:16327294

  2. Gestural Enthymemes: Delivering Movement in 18th- and 19th-Century Medical Images

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Sara

    2009-01-01

    This article contributes to recent efforts to add life and movement to rhetorical studies by focusing on the representation of movement in medical texts. More specifically, this study examines medical texts, illustrations, and photographs involving movement by Johann Casper Lavater, G. B. Duchenne de Bologne, Charles Darwin, and Etienne-Jules…

  3. [Reform of public health in Central Europe during the 18th century].

    PubMed

    Kapronczay, Kroly

    2010-01-01

    Author outlines the history of making and of development of public health during the period of enlightenment in Central Europe, with special regards on the Habsurg Empire, on Poland and on Russia. This development--including the foundation or reforms of medical education--was highly influenced by the ideas of the enlightened absolutism and by other international trends of the age as well. The detailed analysis of the factors shaping the history of public health in the three rather different countries shows an interesing parallelism regarding main issues. While re-organization of public health in all these countries was initiated and directed by the government and shaped according to western models, it was strongly influenced by local possibilities, culture and history. PMID:21661255

  4. Astronomical Influences of Henry Hindley, Clockmaker in 18th Century York, England.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abrahams, P.

    2005-12-01

    Henry Hindley (1701-1771), was an innovative clockmaker who influenced the development of the astronomical instrumentation of his time. Hindley fabricated two telescopes, using a very early version of an equatorial drive with a complex worm gear. He developed a dividing engine, and new techniques for graduating circles, which were published and utilized to improve the accuracy of positional astronomy. Hindley's designs and techniques were used by James Short, Jesse Ramsden, and other instrument makers.

  5. Fortified Settlements of the 9th and 10th Centuries ad in Central Europe: Structure, Function and Symbolism

    PubMed Central

    Herold, Hajnalka

    2012-01-01

    THE STRUCTURE, FUNCTION(S) and symbolism of early medieval (9th10th centuries ad) fortified settlements from central Europe, in particular todays Austria, Hungary, Czech Republic and Slovakia, are examined in this paper. It offers an overview of the current state of research together with new insights based on analysis of the site of Gars-Thunau in Lower Austria. Special emphasis is given to the position of the fortified sites in the landscape, to the elements of the built environment and their spatial organisation, as well as to graves within the fortified area. The region under study was situated on the SE border of the Carolingian (and later the Ottonian) Empire, with some of the discussed sites lying in the territory of the Great Moravian Empire in the 9th and 10th centuries. These sites can therefore provide important comparative data for researchers working in other parts of the Carolingian Empire and neighbouring regions. PMID:23564981

  6. How Galen's "sixteen books" came to China in the tenth century AD.

    PubMed

    Klein-Franke, Felix; Ming, Zhu

    2005-01-01

    Ibn an-Nadim, the famous 10th century bookseller and bibliographer of Baghdad and author of the "Fihrist" (Catalogue), tells the story of an unnamed Chinese student who found in the library of the famous physician and philosopher ar-Razi the so-called "Sixteen Books," i.e. the Arabic summary of the most influential books written by Galen, and translated them into Chinese. We do not know if this Chinese translation was safely transported to China. PMID:15974492

  7. Synthesis of calcium antimonate nano-crystals by the 18th dynasty Egyptian glassmakers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lahlil, S.; Biron, I.; Cotte, M.; Susini, J.; Menguy, N.

    2010-01-01

    During the 18th Egyptian dynasty (1570-1292 B.C.), opaque white, blue and turquoise glasses were opacified by calcium antimonate crystals dispersed in a vitreous matrix. The technological processes as well as the antimony sources used to manufacture these crystals remain unknown. Our results shed a new light on glassmaking history: contrary to what was thought, we demonstrate that Egyptian glassmakers did not use in situ crystallization but first synthesized calcium antimonate opacifiers, which do not exist in nature, and then added them to a glass. Furthermore, using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) for the first time in the study of Egyptian opaque glasses, we show that these opacifiers were nano-crystals. Prior to this research, such a process for glassmaking has not been suggested for any kind of ancient opaque glass production. Studying various preparation methods for calcium antimonate, we propose that Egyptian craftsmen could have produced Ca2Sb2O7 by using mixtures of Sb2O3 or Sb2O5 with calcium carbonates (atomic ratio Sb/Ca=1) heat treated between 1000 and 1100C. We developed an original strategy focused on the investigation of the crystals and the vitreous matrices using an appropriate suite of high-sensitivity and high-resolution micro- and nano-analytical techniques (scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), TEM). Synchrotron-based micro X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (?-XANES) proved to be very well suited to the selective measure of the antimony oxidation state in the vitreous matrix. This work is the starting point for a complete reassessment not only of ancient Egyptian glass studies but more generally of high-temperature technologies used throughout antiquity.

  8. Composition, Preservation and Production Technology of Augusta Emerita Roman Glasses from the First to the Sixth Century a.d.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palomar, Teresa; Garcia-Heras, Manuel; Sabio, Rafael; Rincon, Jesus-Maria; Villegas, Maria-Angeles

    This paper presents the results derived from an archaeometric study undertaken on glass samples from the Roman town of Augusta Emerita (Mrida, Spain). The main goal of the research was to provide for the first time some compositional and technological insights into the glass finds unearthed in this town. Glass samples from different sites and chronology, either from inside or from outside the perimeter of the ancient town and from the first to the sixth century AD, were analyzed and characterized through optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDS), X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometry and VIS spectrophotometry. Resulting data indicated that all the samples studied were natron-based soda lime silicate glasses, even though two chronological and compositionally distinct groups were distinguished. One composed of Early Empire glasses and a second one composed of glasses from the fourth century AD onward, which was characterized by the presence of the so-called HIMT (high iron, manganese, and titanium) glasses. Comparison with coeval glasses suggested that Augusta Emerita shared the same trade glass circles than other contemporary Roman towns, within the frame of a secondary production scale. Finally, some outstanding differences connected to composition and chronology were found, since Late Roman glasses presented a higher and distinct degree of alteration than Early Empire ones.

  9. MOSQUITO VECTOR CONTROL AND BIOLOGY IN LATIN AMERICA- An 18TH SYMPOSIUM

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The 18th Annual Latin American symposium presented by the American Mosquito Control Association (AMCA) was held as part of the 74th Annual Meeting in Sparks, NV, in March 2008. The principal objective, as for the previous 17 symposia, was to promote participation in the AMCA by vector control speci...

  10. 6. LOOKING WEST SOUTHWEST, 18th STREET BRIDGE AT RIGHT, PENNSYLVANIA ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. LOOKING WEST SOUTHWEST, 18th STREET BRIDGE AT RIGHT, PENNSYLVANIA RAILROAD BRIDGE IN MIDDLE, CHICAGO TRANSIT AUTHORITY ORANGE LINE AT LEFT. - Pennsylvania Railroad, South Branch Chicago River Bridge, Spanning South Branch of Chicago River Bridge east of Canal Street, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  11. Pacific Telecommunications Council Annual Conference Proceedings (18th, Honolulu, Hawaii, January 14-18, 1996).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wedemeyer, Dan J. Ed.; Nickelson, Richard, Ed.

    The Pacific Telecommunications Council's 18th annual conference is presented in two volumes. The PTC'96 gathering focused on seven streams: socio-economic issues; regulatory, legal and political issues; business and finance solutions; country studies; education, training, and human resources; convergence and networks; and technologies and…

  12. Bone Lose of the Ancient Mediterranean lumbar vertebrae : Iasos, 6th century ad.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaya, Serdar; Solmaz, Ilker; Ilıca, A. Turan; Karaçalıoğlu, Özgür; Damla Yılmaz, Nalan; Başoğlu, Okşan; Kılıc, Selim; Izci, Yusuf

    Evaluation of bone mineral density (BMD) of the ancient peoples has received great interest by anthropologists. The aims of this study are to investigate the lumbar vertebrae of the Iasos people during the Byzantine period, in order to determine the prevalence of bone loss and to interpret dietary conditions of ancient Mediterranean populations. Lumbar vertebrae belonging to twenty eight skeletons of the 6th c AD were analyzed by radiographs and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. The BMD values for each biologic sex and age group were compared. The correlation between the BMD and radiological features was also analyzed. The mean BMD was 0.940 g/cm2. BMD was decreased by aging in both sexes, but it was not significant. Osteopenia was found in 11 (39%) and osteoporosis in 4 (14.3%) out 28 vertebrae. The BMD was normal in 13 (46%) out of 28 vertebrae. Osteopenia was present in 7 (38%) of 18 male vertebrae and 4 (40%) of 10 female vertebrae. The spine score was high in the male group and there was a strong positive correlation between the BMD and spine score for both sexes. This study revealed that the BMD decreased by aging and that osteopenia was a problem in both sexes of the Iasos people during the 6th c AD. There was no correlation between the BMD and radiological features for age groups and biological sexes.

  13. Hydraulics for Royal Gardens: Water Art as a Challenge for 18th Century Science and 21st Century Physics Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckert, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Hydraulics is an engineering specialty and largely neglected as a topic in physics teaching. But the history of hydraulics from the Renaissance to the Baroque, merits our attention because hydraulics was then more broadly conceived as a practical "and" theoretical science; it served as a constant bone of contention for mechanics and

  14. Multiple sclerosis or neuromyelitis optica? Re-evaluating an 18th-century illness using 21st-century software

    PubMed Central

    Garrard, Peter; Peters, Timothy J

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we report the application of an extensive database of symptoms, signs, laboratory findings and illnesses, to the diagnosis of an historical figure. The medical diagnosis of Augustus d'Este (17941848) widely held to be the first documented case of multiple sclerosis is reviewed, using the detailed symptom diary, which he kept over many years, as clinical data. Some of the reported features prompted the competing claim that d'Este suffered from acute porphyria, which in turn was used in support of the hypothesis that his grandfather, King George III, also suffered from the disease. We find that multiple sclerosis is statistically the most likely diagnosis, with neuromyelitis optica a strong alternative possibility. The database did not support a diagnosis of any of the acute porphyrias. PMID:22299068

  15. Multiple sclerosis or neuromyelitis optica? Re-evaluating an 18th-century illness using 21st-century software.

    PubMed

    Garrard, Peter; Peters, Timothy J

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we report the application of an extensive database of symptoms, signs, laboratory findings and illnesses, to the diagnosis of an historical figure. The medical diagnosis of Augustus d'Este (1794-1848) - widely held to be the first documented case of multiple sclerosis - is reviewed, using the detailed symptom diary, which he kept over many years, as clinical data. Some of the reported features prompted the competing claim that d'Este suffered from acute porphyria, which in turn was used in support of the hypothesis that his grandfather, King George III, also suffered from the disease. We find that multiple sclerosis is statistically the most likely diagnosis, with neuromyelitis optica a strong alternative possibility. The database did not support a diagnosis of any of the acute porphyrias. PMID:22299068

  16. Hydraulics for Royal Gardens: Water Art as a Challenge for 18th Century Science and 21st Century Physics Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckert, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Hydraulics is an engineering specialty and largely neglected as a topic in physics teaching. But the history of hydraulics from the Renaissance to the Baroque, merits our attention because hydraulics was then more broadly conceived as a practical "and" theoretical science; it served as a constant bone of contention for mechanics and…

  17. Climate, people, fire and vegetation: new insights into vegetation dynamics in the Eastern Mediterranean since the 1st century AD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakker, J.; Paulissen, E.; Kaniewski, D.; Poblome, J.; De Laet, V.; Verstraeten, G.; Waelkens, M.

    2012-08-01

    Anatolia forms a bridge between Europe, Africa and Asia and is influenced by all three continents in terms of climate, vegetation and human civilisation. Unfortunately, well dated palynological records focussing on the period from the end of the classical Roman period until subrecent times are rare for Anatolia and completely absent for southwest Turkey, resulting in a lacuna in knowledge concerning the interactions of climatic change, human impact, and environmental change in this important region. Two well dated palaeoecological records from the Western Taurus Mountains, Turkey, provide a first relatively detailed record of vegetation dynamics from late Roman times until the present in SW Turkey. Combining pollen, non-pollen palynomorphs, charcoal, sedimentological, archaeological data, and newly developed multivariate numerical analyses, allows for the disentangling of climatic and anthropogenic influences on vegetation change. Results show both the regional pollen signal as well as local soil sediment characteristics respond accurately to shifts in regional climatic conditions. Both climatic as well as anthropogenic change had a strong influence on vegetation dynamics and land use. A moist environmental trend during the late 3rd century caused an increase in marshes and wetlands in the moister valley floors, limiting possibilities for intensive crop cultivation at such locations. A mid 7th century shift to pastoralism coincided with a climatic deterioration as well as the start of Arab incursions into the region, the former driving the way in which the vegetation developed afterwards. Resurgence in agriculture was observed in the study during the mid 10th century AD, coinciding with the Medieval Climate Anomaly. An abrupt mid 12th century decrease in agriculture is linked to socio-political change, rather than the onset of the Little Ice Age. Similarly, gradual deforestation occurring from the 16th century onwards has been linked to changes in lands use during Ottoman times. The pollen data reveals that the old model of a fast rise in Pinus pollen after the end of the Beyşehir Occupation Phase is not necessarily accurate. The notion of high Pinus pollen percentages indicating an open landscape incapable of countering the influx of pine pollen is also deemed unrealistic. While multiple fires occurred in the region through time, they were never a major influence on vegetation dynamics and were mostly linked to increased abundance of pine forests, rather than the presence of human impact or of specifically wet or dry environmental conditions. While this study reveals much new information concerning the impact of climate change and human occupation on the environment, more studies from SW turkey are required in order to properly quantify the range of the observed phenomena and the magnitude of their impacts.

  18. Opisthorchiasis in infant remains from the medieval Zeleniy Yar burial ground of XII-XIII centuries AD.

    PubMed

    Slepchenko, Sergey Mikhailovich; Gusev, Alexander Vasilevich; Ivanov, Sergey Nikolaevich; Svyatova, Evgenia Olegovna

    2015-12-01

    We present a paleoparasitological analysis of the medieval Zeleniy Yar burial ground of the XII-XII centuries AD located in the northern part of Western Siberia. Parasite eggs, identified as eggs of Opisthorchis felineus, were found in the samples from the pelvic area of a one year old infant buried at the site. Presence of these eggs in the soil samples from the infant's abdomen suggests that he/she was infected with opisthorchiasis and imply consumption of undercooked fish. Ethnographic records collected among the population of the northern part of Western Siberia reveal numerous cases of feeding raw fish to their children. Zeleniy Yar case of opisthorchiasis suggests that this dietary custom has persisted from at least medieval times. PMID:26602874

  19. Age-associated reduction in cortical bone in males, trends from the third century AD to the present day.

    PubMed

    Mays, Simon

    2015-04-01

    Osteoporosis is increasingly recognised as a health threat in the ageing male. Risk factors for osteoporosis appear to have increased through time. This study investigates the hypothesis that lifestyle changes (e.g. increasing sedentism, tobacco use) over the past 1,800years have resulted in greater age-related reduction in cortical bone in males in more recent compared with earlier times in England. Skeletons (N=215) from three English archaeological sites dating from the third to nineteenth century AD, together with comparison with a modern reference population, are used to investigate this hypothesis. Metacarpal cortical thickness is used as a measure of cortical bone status. Results of this cross-sectional study do not support the above hypothesis but instead suggest that patterns of age-related reduction in cortical bone in males have remained stable over an 1,800year period. PMID:25673504

  20. Opisthorchiasis in infant remains from the medieval Zeleniy Yar burial ground of XII-XIII centuries AD

    PubMed Central

    Slepchenko, Sergey Mikhailovich; Gusev, Alexander Vasilevich; Ivanov, Sergey Nikolaevich; Svyatova, Evgenia Olegovna

    2015-01-01

    We present a paleoparasitological analysis of the medieval Zeleniy Yar burial ground of the XII-XII centuries AD located in the northern part of Western Siberia. Parasite eggs, identified as eggs of Opisthorchis felineus, were found in the samples from the pelvic area of a one year old infant buried at the site. Presence of these eggs in the soil samples from the infant’s abdomen suggests that he/she was infected with opisthorchiasis and imply consumption of undercooked fish. Ethnographic records collected among the population of the northern part of Western Siberia reveal numerous cases of feeding raw fish to their children. Zeleniy Yar case of opisthorchiasis suggests that this dietary custom has persisted from at least medieval times. PMID:26602874

  1. Magma chamber recharge at Vesuvius in the century prior to the eruption of A.D. 79

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, D. J.; Blake, S.; Rogers, N. W.; de Vivo, B.; Rolandi, G.; Davidson, J. P.

    2006-10-01

    Evaluating volcanic hazards requires knowledge of the processes that trigger eruptions and the nature and timing of geophysical signals related to these processes. One approach to addressing this need is to link geophysically observable signals (e.g., those related to seismic, aeromagnetic, inflationary, or degassing processes) to pre-eruptive magmatic events deduced (in hindsight) from studies of erupted magmas. Here we present data on sanidine crystals from the A.D. 79 eruption of Vesuvius that show abrupt changes in Ba concentration caused by magma chamber recharge events prior to eruption. These changes have been degraded by diffusion during the time interval between recharge and eruption, and we have determined the length of this time interval by modeling the measured Ba concentration gradients. The results identify three distinct recharge events in the century before the eruption, the most recent occurring ˜20 yr beforehand.

  2. The Search for Astronomical Alignments in the Seventh Century A.D. Silla Capital at Kyongju, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, S. M.; Stencel, R. E.

    1999-05-01

    In the center of the modern Korean city of Kyongju stands a modest structure dating from the 7th century AD, known as Chomsongdae, or the Star Observatory. Known locally as the oldest observatory in Asia, details of its precise use are lost, but its construction coincided with the height of Silla culture and its dominance over the Korean peninsula. Radially from the structure are located the so-called Moon Fortress, numerous large tombsites for elite of the culture, plus hillside fortresses and elaborate Buddhist temples. During 1999, we've conducted a course at Denver as part of our Core Curriculum program for The Women's College, that has examined the astronomical and cultural aspects of the Kyongju site, to attempt to determine whether the architects may have included astronomical alignments into the ``Feng Shui" of their city planning, spanning centuries. The preliminary result of our studies suggests that east and west of Star Observatory lay fortress and wall features that may have been useful for equinox determination. A discussion of ethnographic supporting evidence will be provided, but additional on-site observations will be needed to confirm the idea.

  3. Climate, people, fire and vegetation: new insights into vegetation dynamics in the Eastern Mediterranean since the 1st century AD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakker, J.; Paulissen, E.; Kaniewski, D.; Poblome, J.; De Laet, V.; Verstraeten, G.; Waelkens, M.

    2013-01-01

    Anatolia forms a bridge between Europe, Africa and Asia and is influenced by all three continents in terms of climate, vegetation and human civilisation. Unfortunately, well-dated palynological records focussing on the period from the end of the classical Roman period until subrecent times are rare for Anatolia and completely absent for southwest Turkey, resulting in a lacuna in knowledge concerning the interactions of climatic change, human impact, and environmental change in this important region. Two well-dated palaeoecological records from the Western Taurus Mountains, Turkey, provide a first relatively detailed record of vegetation dynamics from late Roman times until the present in SW Turkey. Combining pollen, non-pollen palynomorphs, charcoal, sedimentological, archaeological data, and newly developed multivariate numerical analyses allows for the disentangling of climatic and anthropogenic influences on vegetation change. Results show changes in both the regional pollen signal as well as local soil sediment characteristics match shifts in regional climatic conditions. Both climatic as well as anthropogenic change had a strong influence on vegetation dynamics and land use. A moist environmental trend during the late-3rd century caused an increase in marshes and wetlands in the moister valley floors, limiting possibilities for intensive crop cultivation at such locations. A mid-7th century shift to pastoralism coincided with a climatic deterioration as well as the start of Arab incursions into the region, the former driving the way in which the vegetation developed afterwards. Resurgence in agriculture was observed in the study during the mid-10th century AD, coinciding with the Medieval Climate Anomaly. An abrupt mid-12th century decrease in agriculture is linked to socio-political change, rather than the onset of the Little Ice Age. Similarly, gradual deforestation occurring from the 16th century onwards has been linked to changes in land use during Ottoman times. The pollen data reveal that a fast rise in Pinus pollen after the end of the Beyşehir Occupation Phase need not always occur. The notion of high Pinus pollen percentages indicating an open landscape incapable of countering the influx of pine pollen is also deemed unrealistic. While multiple fires occurred in the region through time, extended fire periods, as had occurred during the Bronze Age and Beyşehir Occupation Phase, did not occur, and no signs of local fire activity were observed. Fires were never a major influence on vegetation dynamics. While no complete overview of post-BO Phase fire events can be presented, the available data indicates that fires in the vicinity of Gravgaz may have been linked to anthropogenic activity in the wider surroundings of the marsh. Fires in the vicinity of Bereket appeared to be linked to increased abundance of pine forests. There was no link with specifically wet or dry environmental conditions at either site. While this study reveals much new information concerning the impact of climate change and human occupation on the environment, more studies from SW Turkey are required in order to properly quantify the range of the observed phenomena and the magnitude of their impacts.

  4. Reconstructing the diets of Greek Byzantine populations (6th-15th centuries AD) using carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios.

    PubMed

    Bourbou, Chryssi; Fuller, Benjamin T; Garvie-Lok, Sandra J; Richards, Michael P

    2011-12-01

    Documentary evidence and artistic representations have traditionally served as the primary sources of information about Byzantine diet. According to these sources, Byzantine diet was based on grain (primarily wheat and barley), oil, and wine, supplemented with legumes, dairy products, meat, and marine resources. Here, we synthesize and compare the results of stable isotope ratio analyses of eight Greek Byzantine populations (6th-15th centuries AD) from throughout Greece. The ?(13) C and ?(15) N values are tightly clustered, suggesting that all of these populations likely consumed a broadly similar diet. Both inland and coastal Byzantine populations consumed an essentially land-based C(3) diet, significant amounts of animal protein, and possibly some C(4) plants, while no evidence of a general dependence on low-?(15) N legumes was observed. One interesting result observed in the isotopic data is the evidence for the consumption of marine protein at both coastal sites (a reasonable expectation given their location) and for some individuals from inland sites. This pattern contrasts with previous isotopic studies mainly on prehistoric Greek populations, which have suggested that marine species contributed little, or not at all, to the diet. The possibility that fasting practices contributed to marine protein consumption in the period is discussed, as are possible parallels with published isotope data from western European medieval sites. PMID:21952735

  5. Campus Activism in the 21st Century: A Historical Framing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broadhurst, Christopher J.

    2014-01-01

    This chapter frames campus activism by introducing the historical movements that have been important for higher education since the 18th century to the present and exploring the connections and shared characteristics among these various movements.

  6. Proceedings of the 18th Annual Conference on Fossil Energy Materials.

    SciTech Connect

    Judkins, RR

    2004-11-02

    The 18th Annual conference on Fossil Energy Materials was held in Knoxville, Tennessee, on June 2 through June 4, 2004. The meeting was sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy through the Advanced Research Materials Program (ARM). The objective of the ARM Program is to conduct research and development on materials for longer-term fossil energy applications, as well as for generic needs of various fossil fuel technologies. The management of the program has been decentralized to the DOE Oak Ridge Operations Office and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The research is performed by staff members at ORNL and by researchers at other national laboratories, universities, and in private industry. The work is divided into the following categories: (1) structural, ceramics, (2) new alloys and coatings, (3) functional materials, and (4) technology development and transfer.

  7. The 18th Congress of the International Society for Aerosols in Medicine.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Jolyon P; Nichols, Steven C

    2011-09-01

    The 18th biennial Congress of ISAM was held for 4 days at the De Doelen Congress Centre, Rotterdam, Netherlands, at which approximately 350 delegates, including 60 session chairs and speakers, attended. The abstracts of the 49 podium talks and the 126 posters that were presented have been published in the society's technical journal (journal of Aerosol Medicine and Pulmonary Delivery), and the detailed program can be found on the ISAM website (www.isam.org). Postgraduate courses on the topics: 'Inhalation Therapy at the Intensive Care Unit'; 'Walking the Standards Maze: Standards for Device Development, Device Performance and Regulatory Approval'; and 'Nuts and Bolts of Aerosol Delivery: Theory, Guidelines and Practice', were offered to participants prior to the Congress itself. PMID:22833908

  8. Forming, transfer and globalization of medical-pharmaceutical knowledge in South East Asian missions (17th to 18th c.) - historical dimensions and modern perspectives.

    PubMed

    Anagnostou, Sabine

    2015-06-01

    From the 17th to the 18th centuries, missionaries in Southeast Asia dedicated themselves to providing and establishing a professional medical-pharmaceutical supply for the local population and therefore explored the genuine Materia medica for easily available and affordable remedies, especially medicinal plants. In characteristic medical-pharmaceutical compendia, which can be classified as missionary pharmacopoeias, they laid down their knowledge to advise others and to guarantee a professional health care. As their knowledge often resulted from an exchange with indigenous communities, these compendia provide essential information about traditional plant uses of Southeast Asian people. Individual missionaries such as the Jesuit Georg Joseph Kamel (1661-1706) not only strove to explore medicinal plants but performed botanical studies and even composed comprehensive herbals. The Jesuit missionaries in particular played roles in both the order's own global network of transfer of medicinal drugs and knowledge about the application, and within the contemporary local and European scientific networks which included, for example, the famous Royal Society of London. The results of their studies were distributed all over the world, were introduced into the practical Materia medica of other regions, and contributed significantly to the academization of knowledge. In our article we will explain the different intentions and methods of exploring, the resulting works and the consequences for the forming of the pharmaceutical and scientific knowledge. Finally, we will show the options which the works of the missionaries can offer for the saving of traditional ethnopharmacological knowledge and for the development of modern phytotherapeutics and pharmaceutical supply. The publication is based on a comprehensive study on the phenomenon of missionary pharmacy which has been published as a book in 2011 (Anagnostou, 2011a) and shows now the potential of historical medical-pharmaceutical works written in the Asian missions of the 17th to 18th century and influenced by ethnopharmaceutical knowledge and the relevance of historical studies for modern investigation in phytotherapy. PMID:25446634

  9. Treatment of the mentally ill in the Chola Empire in 11th -12th centuries AD: A study of epigraphs

    PubMed Central

    Raghavan, D. Vijaya; Tejus Murthy, A. G.; Somasundaram, O.

    2014-01-01

    The paper deals with the epigraphs of the Chola emperors Veera Rajendra Deva (1063-1069 AD) and Raja Raja III (1216-1256 AD), found at the temples of Thirumukkudal and Vedaranyam, with emphasis on the treatment given to the residents of the attached hospitals with special reference to treatment of mental disorders. PMID:24891715

  10. The Editorial Policy as a Mirror of Petrine Reforms: Textbooks and Their Translators in Early 18th Century Russia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gouzevitch, Irina

    2006-01-01

    Peter I's editorial policy appears as a starting point in the birth of secular Russian textbooks. Since the printing production was then organized on a massive scale as a response to the needs of European-like modernization, it should be safely suggested that nearly "all" books produced during this pioneering period focused teaching objectives. To

  11. Instrumental pressure observations and atmospheric circulation from the 17th and 18th centuries: London and Paris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slonosky, V. C.; Jones, P. D.; Davies, T. D.

    2001-03-01

    Daily pressure observations recorded by William Derham (1657-1735) at Upminster, Essex (near London), from 1697 to 1706 and 1708 have been corrected, converted to modern units and the Gregorian calendar, and adjusted for homogeneity. These pressure readings have been compared with previously published contemporary observations from Paris, and the two sets of early instrumental data used to calculate a daily series of the pressure difference between Paris and London. Frequency analysis of the daily series reveals that reversals of the south-north pressure gradient and easterly winds were more common from 1697 to 1708 than during the 1990s. Monthly mean values of Paris-London pressure differences have been compared with previously published monthly mean reconstructed surface pressure maps and to a reconstructed North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index. There is a good agreement between the strength and direction of monthly mean flow between London and Paris estimated from the circulation maps and the sign and magnitude of the Paris-London westerly flow index, but the correlation between the Paris-London index, known to be a good proxy for European zonal circulation, and the reconstructed NAO index, is low (0.2). Correlations between the monthly mean Paris-London zonal circulation index and central England temperatures suggest a strong relationship during winter and late summer from 1697 to 1708. The meticulous daily instrumental observations and the monthly and seasonal climate descriptions of Derham, his collection of instrumental observations and climatic descriptions from contemporary observers throughout Europe, and his early theories on the causes of climate change make his publications a valuable source of information for studies on climate during the early instrumental period. It is hoped that more of Derham's papers related to weather and climate may eventually come to light.

  12. Ballistic blocks around Kīlauea Caldera: Their vent locations and number of eruptions in the late 18th century

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swanson, Donald A.; Zolkos, Scott P.; Haravitch, Ben

    2012-01-01

    Thousands of ballistic blocks occur around Kīlauea Caldera and record part of the latest major period of explosive activity on the volcano, in late 1790 or within a few years thereafter. The sizes of the blocks – the largest of which is more than 2 m in nominal diameter – and differences in rock types allow the definition of at least 6 dispersal lobes of mostly undetermined relative age. The orientations of the lobes help approximate the locations of vents or explosion sources on the floor of the caldera, now deeply buried by younger lava flows. The vents may have been distributed northward for about 2 km from near the site of the modern Halema'uma'u Crater and were apparently confined to the western half of the caldera. The blocks are entirely lithic except for those in one dispersal lobe, which contains cored bombs and blocks as well as juvenile lapilli. Eruption parameters calculated from EJECT! suggest that the phreatic and phreatomagmatic explosions could have been generated at the water table, about 600 m below the high point on the caldera rim.

  13. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry characterization of the varnish and glue of an ancient 18th century double bass.

    PubMed

    Caruso, Francesco; Orecchio, Santino; Cicero, Maria Grazia; Di Stefano, Cosimo

    2007-04-20

    A GC-MS investigation is conducted on the double bass "Panormus", property of Conservatorio di Musica "Vincenzo Bellini" in Palermo. The most important components of the varnish (fatty acids) and of the glue (proteinaceous amino acids), with which the musical instrument was treated in the past, are determined. The analyses are carried out by prior derivatization of fatty acids by acidic methanol and of amino acids by acidic methanol and trifluoroacetic anhydride (TFAA). Analytes identification is achieved by direct comparison with several reference materials and the use of a digitized library. PMID:17376455

  14. Pakistan's health system: performance and prospects after the 18th Constitutional Amendment.

    PubMed

    Nishtar, Sania; Boerma, Ties; Amjad, Sohail; Alam, Ali Yawar; Khalid, Faraz; ul Haq, Ihsan; Mirza, Yasir A

    2013-06-22

    Pakistan has undergone massive changes in its federal structure under the 18th Constitutional Amendment. To gain insights that will inform reform plans, we assessed several aspects of health-systems performance in Pakistan. Some improvements were noted in health-systems performance during the past 65 years but key health indicators lag behind those in peer countries. 7808% of the population pay out of pocket at the point of health care. The private sector provides three-quarters of the health services, and physicians outnumber nurses and midwives by a ratio of about 2:1. Complex governance challenges and underinvestment in health have hampered progress. With devolution of the health mandate, an opportunity has arisen to reform health. The federal government has constitutional responsibility of health information, interprovincial coordination, global health, and health regulation. All other health responsibilities are a provincial mandate. With appropriate policy, institutional, and legislative action within and outside the health system, the existing challenges could be overcome. PMID:23684254

  15. Vaccines: the fourth century.

    PubMed

    Plotkin, Stanley A

    2009-12-01

    Vaccine development, which began with Edward Jenner's observations in the late 18th century, has entered its 4th century. From its beginnings, with the use of whole organisms that had been weakened or inactivated, to the modern-day use of genetic engineering, it has taken advantage of the tools discovered in other branches of microbiology. Numerous successful vaccines are in use, but the list of diseases for which vaccines do not exist is long. However, the multiplicity of strategies now available, discussed in this article, portends even more successful development of vaccines. PMID:19793898

  16. Vaccines: the Fourth Century?

    PubMed Central

    Plotkin, Stanley A.

    2009-01-01

    Vaccine development, which began with Edward Jenner's observations in the late 18th century, has entered its 4th century. From its beginnings, with the use of whole organisms that had been weakened or inactivated, to the modern-day use of genetic engineering, it has taken advantage of the tools discovered in other branches of microbiology. Numerous successful vaccines are in use, but the list of diseases for which vaccines do not exist is long. However, the multiplicity of strategies now available, discussed in this article, portends even more successful development of vaccines. PMID:19793898

  17. The construction of fertility in al-Andalus. Geoarchaeology in Ricote (Murcia, Spain, 8th century AD)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puy, Arnald

    2013-04-01

    Traditional irrigated terraces of Spain (known as 'huertas') are among the most emblematic and productive agricultural fields of the Mediterranean. Several of these huertas were first built by Arab and Berber tribes and clans that entered the Iberian Peninsula (al-Andalus) after 711 AD, coinciding with the spread of Islam during Middle Ages (>632 AD). One thousand and three hundred years after their construction they are still operative, presenting a topic case of sustainable and resilient agricultural areas. However, up until recently no data was available regarding the pre-existing features of the terrains where they were built, the timing of their construction nor their construction process. In this communication I will present the results of the study of a palaeosoil buried under an Andalusi irrigated terrace in the huerta of Ricote (Murcia, Spain). Soil micromorphology, physico-chemical analysis (Loss On Ignition, Magnetic Susceptibility, Particle Size Distribution, pH/Electrical Conductivity) and AMS dating allowed to determine that 1) Andalusi peasants selected a highly saline Hypercalcic Calcisol to build up the first irrigated terraces; 2) They clear the slope of bushes by fire; 3) They used the slope soil to build the terrace fill, possibly by inverting the original soil horizonation, and 4) According to the date obtained from the organic matter embedded in the topmost horizon of the palaeosoil (647-778 AD), the original Andalusi irrigated fields of Ricote were possibly built shortly after 711 AD. The communication, in sum, will show through a case study how past peasant societies transformed semi-arid environments to create highly productive agrarian areas.

  18. Cancer and its Treatment in Main Ancient Books of Islamic Iranian Traditional Medicine (7th to 14th Century AD)

    PubMed Central

    Emami, Seyed Ahmad; Sahebkar, Amirhossein; Tayarani-Najaran, Nilufar; Tayarani-Najaran, Zahra

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Islamic medicine is regarded as a comprehensive medical school with a long, glorious and worldwide reputation. Some of the physicians of this school are famous worldwide and have contributed valuable services to the scientific world. Given the dramatically increasing prevalence of cancer and the relative inefficacy of current medications, there is a great demand for the introduction of effective therapeutic approaches. To this end, integration of traditional medicine with modern medical treatments represents a promising option. In this essay, methods of diagnosis and treatment of cancer have been mentioned from the viewpoint of five famous physicians before the Mongolian attack who used Islamic medicine, namely Rhazes, Akhaveyni, Ahwazi, Avicenna and Jorjani. The ideas discussed dates back to a period between the eighth and fourteenth centuries. PMID:23482830

  19. Pre-Columbian treponemal disease from 14th century AD Safed, Israel, and implications for the medieval eastern Mediterranean.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Piers D

    2003-06-01

    In 1912, 68 medieval crania were excavated from a cave at Safed in the eastern Mediterranean and brought to the United Kingdom. It is only recently that these skulls have been studied for evidence of disease. One adult individual demonstrates multiple lesions of the cranial vault, compatible with treponematosis. Radiocarbon dating suggests the year of death to be between 1290-1420 AD. This range equates to the mamluk period, just after the crusades. This is the oldest dated case of treponematosis in the Middle East, and the first to confirm its presence there before the epidemiologically important transatlantic voyage of Christopher Columbus. The finding has significant implications for our understanding of the introduction of the disease to the Middle East and of the medieval diagnosis of ulcerating skin conditions by medical practitioners in the Mediterranean world. PMID:12740955

  20. Obsessions from the past: a study of the chapter on "blasphemous thoughts" in "The Ladder of Divine Ascent" (7th century AD).

    PubMed

    Avgoustidis, Adamantios G

    2013-12-01

    In this study, we examine the similarities and the differences between obsessions and the phenomena described in religious language as "blasphemous thoughts". The basis of our study is an ascetic text of the 7th century AD, entitled "The Ladder of Divine Ascent", written by Saint John Climacus (ca. 579-649), abbot of St. Catherine Monastery, Sinai. The book is considered to be one of the fundamental sources of monastic literature, which has influenced Christian anthropology. Research on the "Ladder" gives an insight in where the religious and the psychiatric pathogenic, diagnostic and therapeutic approaches converge or diverge. In addition to the scientific value, the data derived from the research could be useful to the therapist, especially when he/she copes with religious patients, in order to acquire a better empathy and thus lesser the patient's resistance toward therapy. PMID:24309880

  1. Analysis of archaeological triacylglycerols by high resolution nanoESI, FT-ICR MS and IRMPD MS/MS: Application to 5th century BC-4th century AD oil lamps from Olbia (Ukraine)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garnier, Nicolas; Rolando, Christian; Htje, Jakob Munk; Tokarski, Caroline

    2009-07-01

    This work presents the precise identification of triacylglycerols (TAGs) extracted from archaeological samples using a methodology based on nanoelectrospray and Fourier transform mass spectrometry. The archaeological TAG identification needs adapted sample preparation protocols to trace samples in advanced degradation state. More precisely, the proposed preparation procedure includes extraction of the lipid components from finely grinded ceramic using dichloromethane/methanol mixture with additional ultrasonication treatment, and TAG purification by solid phase extraction on a diol cartridge. Focusing on the analytical approach, the implementation of "in-house" species-dependent TAG database was investigated using MS and InfraRed Multiphoton Dissociation (IRMPD) MS/MS spectra; several vegetal oils, dairy products and animal fats were studied. The high mass accuracy of the Fourier transform analyzer ([Delta]m below 2.5 ppm) provides easier data interpretation, and allows distinction between products of different origins. In details, the IRMPD spectra of the lithiated TAGs reveal fragmentation reactions including loss of free neutral fatty acid and loss of fatty acid as [alpha],[beta]-unsaturated moieties. Based on the developed preparation procedure and on the constituted database, TAG extracts from 5th century BC to 4th century AD Olbia lamps were analyzed. The structural information obtained succeeds in identifying that bovine/ovine fats were used as fuel used in these archaeological Olbia lamps.

  2. American veterinary history: before the nineteenth century. 1940.

    PubMed

    Bierer, Bert W

    2014-11-01

    With the development of our present day domesticated animals in America (during the 16th and 17th centuries), it was not long before animal diseases became troublesome and destructive (especially during the latter half of the 18th century). Though veterinary medicine became rather firmly established in many European countries (including England) during the latter half of the 18th century, veterinary medicine was relatively nonexistent in America, with only self-styled animal doctors and farriers (with their empirical and often destructive remedies). PMID:25799615

  3. Integrating Women into U.S. History: A Sourcebook. Part I: Women in the 18th and 19th Centuries. Part II: Women in the 20th Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, D'Ann; And Others

    This sourcebook, in two parts, aims at supplementing the limited material dealing with women's history normally found in junior and senior high school U.S. history textbooks. The lessons were developed by teachers at an intensive summer institute dealing with women's issues. The teachers and their colleagues field-tested the lessons and revised…

  4. The Lassee segment of the Vienna Basin fault system as a potential source of the earthquake of Carnuntum in the fourth century a.d.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beidinger, A.; Decker, K.; Roch, K. H.

    2010-05-01

    The Vienna Basin fault system is a slow moving (1-2 mm/y) active sinistral fault extending from the Alps through the Vienna Basin into the Carpathians. It comprises an array of NE-striking sinistral strike-slip segments, which differ both by their kinematic and seismologic properties. Among these, the Lassee segment 30 km east of Vienna is of particular interest for seismic hazard assessment as it shows a significant seismic slip deficit. The segment is located about 8 km from the Roman city of Carnuntum, for which archaeological data indicate a destructive earthquake in the fourth century a.d. (local intensity about 9 EMS-98). Mapping of the Lassee segment using 2D seismic, GPR, tectonic geomorphology and Pleistocene basin analysis shows a negative flower structure at a releasing bend of the Vienna Basin fault. The hanging wall of the flower structure includes a Quaternary basin filled with up to 100-m thick Pleistocene growth strata. Faults root in the basal detachment of the Alpine-Carpathian floor thrust at about 8 km depth. The active faults east of the flower structure offset a Middle Pleistocene terrace of the Danube River forming an up to 20-m high composite fault scarp. High-resolution GPR (40, 500 MHz) mapped at least four distinct surface-breaking faults along this scarp including three faults, which are covered by about 2 m of post-tectonic strata. The youngest fault offsets these strata and coincides with a 0.5-m high scarp. This scarp may be interpreted as the product of a single surface-breaking earthquake, provided that the mapped fault offset formed during coseismic surface rupture. Data indicate that the Lassee segment may well be regarded the source of the fourth century earthquake. The interpretation is in line with local attenuation relations indicating a source close to the damaged site, observed fault dimensions and the fault offsets recorded by GPR and morphology.

  5. Extraction of urinary bladder stone as described by Abul-Qasim Khalaf Ibn Abbas Alzahrawi (Albucasis) (325-404 H, 930-1013 AD). A translation of original text and a commentary.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Halim, Rabie E; Altwaijiri, Ali S; Elfaqih, Salah R; Mitwalli, Ahmad H

    2003-12-01

    This is a detailed study of the technique of cystolithotomy as practiced by the Muslim surgeon Alzahrawi (Albucasis) in Cordova more than 1000 years ago. In addition to translating the relevant chapter in his book Al-Tasreef, his technique is critically evaluated comparing it with that of his predecessors and his successors. The study confirmed the originality of Alzahrawi who described operative steps and invented operative instruments not known in the Greco-Roman era. He was also the first to describe, in details, the operative technique in women and to recommend the 2-stage operation in complicated cases. His modifications and innovations greatly influenced surgery in Middle Ages Europe up to the 18th century which witnessed the beginnings of the modern method using the suprapubic, instead of the perineal, approach. Alzahrawi's influence is vividly seen in the practice of the Italian lithotomist "Marianus Sanctus" (16th century), the French "Jack De Beaulieu" (17th century) and the English "Shelsden" (18th century). Alzahrawi is the founder of lithotripsy. He introduced Al-Kalaleeb forceps to crush large bladder stones and Al-Mishaab to drill and fragment an impacted urethral stone. Andreas a Cruce (18th century) only added screw action to Al-Kalaleeb lithotrite but Amussat managed in 1822 to apply it transurethrally. Similarly, by the notion of transurethrally getting at the stone while within the bladder, Alzahrawi's idea of drilling by Al-Mishaab was the foundation of the litholepte of Fournier de Lempdes (1812), the instrument of Gruithusien (1813), Civiale's trilabe (1818) and the brise coque of Rigal De Galliac (1829). PMID:14710270

  6. Identifications of ancient Egyptian royal mummies from the 18th Dynasty reconsidered.

    PubMed

    Habicht, M E; Bouwman, A S; Rühli, F J

    2016-01-01

    For centuries, ancient Egyptian Royal mummies have drawn the attention both of the general public and scientists. Many royal mummies from the New Kingdom have survived. The discoveries of the bodies of these ancient rulers have always sparked much attention, yet not all identifications are clear even nowadays. This study presents a meta-analysis to demonstrate the difficulties in identifying ancient Egyptian royal mummies. Various methods and pitfalls in the identification of the Pharaohs are reassessed since new scientific methods can be used, such as ancient DNA-profiling and CT-scanning. While the ancestors of Tutankhamun have been identified, some identities are still highly controversial (e.g., the mystery of the KV-55 skeleton, recently most likely identified as the genetic father of Tutankhamun). The meta-analysis confirms the suggested identity of some mummies (e.g., Amenhotep III, Thutmosis IV, and Queen Tjye). Am J Phys Anthropol 159:S216-S231, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26808107

  7. Stable isotopic evidence for diet at the Imperial Roman coastal site of Velia (1st and 2nd centuries AD) in Southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Craig, Oliver E; Biazzo, Marco; O'Connell, Tamsin C; Garnsey, Peter; Martinez-Labarga, Cristina; Lelli, Roberta; Salvadei, Loretana; Tartaglia, Gianna; Nava, Alessia; Ren, Lorena; Fiammenghi, Antonella; Rickards, Olga; Bondioli, Luca

    2009-08-01

    Here we report on a stable isotope palaeodietary study of a Imperial Roman population interred near the port of Velia in Southern Italy during the 1st and 2nd centuries AD. Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope analyses were performed on collagen extracted from 117 adult humans as well as a range of fauna to reconstruct individual dietary histories. For the majority of individuals, we found that stable isotope data were consistent with a diet high in cereals, with relatively modest contributions of meat and only minor contributions of marine fish. However, substantial isotopic variation was found within the population, indicating that diets were not uniform. We suggest that a number of individuals, mainly but not exclusively males, had greater access to marine resources, especially high trophic level fish. However, the observed dietary variation did not correlate with burial type, number of grave goods, nor age at death. Also, individuals buried at the necropolis at Velia ate much less fish overall compared with the contemporaneous population from the necropolis of Portus at Isola Sacra, located on the coast close to Rome. Marine and riverine transport and commerce dominated the economy of Portus, and its people were in a position to supplement their own stocks of fish with imported goods in transit to Rome, whereas at Velia marine exploitation existed side-by-side with land-based economic activities. PMID:19280672

  8. Evaluation of elemental status of ancient human bone samples from Northeastern Hungary dated to the 10th century AD by XRF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    János, I.; Szathmáry, L.; Nádas, E.; Béni, A.; Dinya, Z.; Máthé, E.

    2011-11-01

    The present study is a multielemental analysis of bone samples belonging to skeletal individuals originating from two contemporaneous (10th century AD) cemeteries (Tiszavasvári Nagy-Gyepáros and Nagycserkesz-Nádasibokor sites) in Northeastern Hungary, using the XRF analytical technique. Emitted X-rays were detected in order to determine the elemental composition of bones and to appreciate the possible influence of the burial environment on the elemental content of the human skeletal remains. Lumbar vertebral bodies were used for analysis. Applying the ED(P)XRF technique concentration of the following elements were determined: P, Ca, K, Na, Mg, Al, Cl, Mn, Fe, Zn, Br and Sr. The results indicated post mortem mineral exchange between the burial environment (soil) and bones (e.g. the enhanced levels of Fe and Mn) and referred to diagenetic alteration processes during burials. However, other elements such as Zn, Sr and Br seemed to be accumulated during the past life. On the basis of statistical analysis, clear separation could not be observed between the two excavation sites in their bone elemental concentrations which denoted similar diagenetic influences, environmental conditions. The enhanced levels of Sr might be connected with the past dietary habits, especially consumption of plant food.

  9. Real-World Vehicle Emissions: A Summary of the 18th Coordinating Research Council On-Road Vehicle Emissions Workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Cadle, S. H.; Ayala, A.; Black, K. N.; Graze, R. R.; Koupal, J.; Minassian, F.; Murray, H. B.; Natarajan, M.; Tennant, C. J.; Lawson, D. R.

    2009-02-01

    The Coordinating Research Council (CRC) convened its 18th On-Road Vehicle Emissions Workshop March 31-April 2, 2008, with 104 presentations describing the most recent mobile source-related emissions research. In this paper we summarize the presentations from researchers whose efforts are improving our understanding of the contribution of mobile sources to air quality. Participants in the workshop discussed emission models and emissions inventories, results from gas- and particle-phase emissions studies from spark-ignition and diesel-powered vehicles (with an emphasis in this workshop on particle emissions), effects of fuels on emissions, evaluation of in-use emission-control programs, and efforts to improve our capabilities in performing on-board emissions measurements, as well as topics for future research.

  10. Shedding New Light on the 18th Dynasty Mummies of the Royal Architect Kha and His Spouse Merit.

    PubMed

    Bianucci, Raffaella; Habicht, Michael E; Buckley, Stephen; Fletcher, Joann; Seiler, Roger; hrstrm, Lena M; Vassilika, Eleni; Bni, Thomas; Rhli, Frank J

    2015-01-01

    The mummies of Kha and his wife Merit were found intact in an undisturbed tomb in western Thebes near the ancient workers' village of Deir el-Medina. Previous MDCT (this abbreviation needs spelling out) investigations showed that the bodies of Kha and Merit did not undergo classical royal 18th Dynasty artificial mummification, which included removal of the internal organs. It was, therefore, concluded that the retention of the viscera in the body, combined with an absence of canopic jars in the burial chamber, meant the couple underwent a short and shoddy funerary procedure, despite their relative wealth at death. Nevertheless, all internal organs - brain, ocular bulbs/ocular nerves, thoracic and abdominal organs - showed a very good state of preservation, which contradicts the previous interpretation above. In order to better understand the type of mummification used to embalm these bodies, both wrapped mummies were reinvestigated using new generation X-ray imaging and chemical microanalyses Here we provide evidence that both individuals underwent a relatively high quality of mummification, fundamentally contradicting previous understanding. Elucidated "recipes", whose components had anti-bacterial and anti-insecticidal properties, were used to treat their bodies. The time and effort undoubtedly employed to embalm both Kha and Merit and the use of imported costly resins, notably Pistacia, do not support the previously held view that the two individuals were poorly mummified. Despite a lack of evisceration, the approach clearly allowed their in situ preservation as well as affording a fairly successful mummification. PMID:26200778

  11. Shedding New Light on the 18th Dynasty Mummies of the Royal Architect Kha and His Spouse Merit

    PubMed Central

    Bianucci, Raffaella; Habicht, Michael E.; Buckley, Stephen; Fletcher, Joann; Seiler, Roger; Öhrström, Lena M.; Vassilika, Eleni; Böni, Thomas; Rühli, Frank J.

    2015-01-01

    The mummies of Kha and his wife Merit were found intact in an undisturbed tomb in western Thebes near the ancient workers’ village of Deir el-Medina. Previous MDCT (this abbreviation needs spelling out) investigations showed that the bodies of Kha and Merit did not undergo classical royal 18th Dynasty artificial mummification, which included removal of the internal organs. It was, therefore, concluded that the retention of the viscera in the body, combined with an absence of canopic jars in the burial chamber, meant the couple underwent a short and shoddy funerary procedure, despite their relative wealth at death. Nevertheless, all internal organs - brain, ocular bulbs/ocular nerves, thoracic and abdominal organs - showed a very good state of preservation, which contradicts the previous interpretation above. In order to better understand the type of mummification used to embalm these bodies, both wrapped mummies were reinvestigated using new generation X-ray imaging and chemical microanalyses Here we provide evidence that both individuals underwent a relatively high quality of mummification, fundamentally contradicting previous understanding. Elucidated “recipes”, whose components had anti-bacterial and anti-insecticidal properties, were used to treat their bodies. The time and effort undoubtedly employed to embalm both Kha and Merit and the use of imported costly resins, notably Pistacia, do not support the previously held view that the two individuals were poorly mummified. Despite a lack of evisceration, the approach clearly allowed their in situ preservation as well as affording a fairly successful mummification. PMID:26200778

  12. The initial giant umbrella cloud of the May 18th, 1980, explosive eruption of Mount St. Helens

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sparks, R.S.J.; Moore, J.G.; Rice, C.J.

    1986-01-01

    The initial eruption column of May 18th, 1980 reached nearly 30 km altitude and released 1017 joules of thermal energy into the atmosphere in only a few minutes. Ascent of the cloud resulted in forced intrusion of a giant umbrella-shaped cloud between altitudes of 10 and 20 km at radial horizontal velocities initially in excess of 50 m/s. The mushroom cloud expanded 15 km upwind, forming a stagnation point where the radial expansion velocity and wind velocity were equal. The cloud was initiated when the pyroclastic blast flow became buoyant. The flow reduced its density as it moved away from the volcano by decompression, by sedimentation, and by mixing with and heating the surrounding air. Observations indicate that much of the flow, covering an area of 600 km2, became buoyant within 1.5 minutes and abruptly ascended to form the giant cloud. Calculations are presented for the amount of air that must have been entrained into the flow to make it buoyant. Assuming an initial temperature of 450??C and a magmatic origin for the explosion, these calculations indicate that the flow became buoyant when its temperature was approximately 150??C and the flow consisted of a mixture of 3.25 ?? 1011 kg of pyroclasts and 5.0 ?? 1011 kg of air. If sedimentation is considered, these figures reduce to 1.1 ?? 1011 kg of pyroclasts and 1.0 ?? 1011 kg of air. ?? 1986.

  13. Early 19th Century Music Pedagogy--German and English Connections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southcott, Jane E.

    2007-01-01

    Calls to improve congregational psalmody in 18th century England strongly influenced early music pedagogy. In the first decades of the 19th century English music educators, concerned with psalmody and music in charitable schools, looked to Germany for models of successful practice. The Musikalisches Schulgesangbuch (1826) by Carl Gotthelf Glser

  14. Early 19th Century Music Pedagogy--German and English Connections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southcott, Jane E.

    2007-01-01

    Calls to improve congregational psalmody in 18th century England strongly influenced early music pedagogy. In the first decades of the 19th century English music educators, concerned with psalmody and music in charitable schools, looked to Germany for models of successful practice. The Musikalisches Schulgesangbuch (1826) by Carl Gotthelf Gläser…

  15. As the Europeans Saw Them: The Aleuts of the Eighteenth Century, Social Studies Unit, Book II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Partnow, Patricia H., Comp.

    This booklet is intended for use as reading material for the social studies unit, The Aleuts of the Eighteenth Century. Excerpts from journals of seven 18th-century explorers or travelers describe the inhabitants of the Aleutian Islands. The accounts have been translated from original notes kept by members of the Russian navy, ship commanders, a

  16. Strangers, the Russian Side: The Aleuts of the Eighteenth Century, Social Studies Unit, Book Ib.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Partnow, Patricia H.

    This story is to be used as part of the social studies unit, The Aleuts of the Eighteenth Century, to show the Russian perspective on their first interaction with the Aleuts. A Russian trapper tells of his experiences on one of the first Russian ships to explore the Aleutian Islands in the 18th century. Written as a diary, the story describes

  17. New Information Technologies--New Opportunities. Papers Presented at the Clinic on Library Applications of Data Processing (18th, Urbana-Champaign, Illinois, April 26-29, 1981).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Linda C., Ed.

    The papers presented at the 18th Clinic on Library Applications of Data Processing discuss current developments and applications of new technologies for processing, transmitting, and storing information, as well as some issues raised by these new technologies. Ten papers are included: (1) a keynote speech on the changing roles of the information

  18. A fluid dynamics approach to modelling the 18th March 2007 lahar at Mt. Ruapehu, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrivick, Jonathan L.; Manville, Vern; Cronin, Shane J.

    2009-03-01

    Lahars are water-sediment mass flows from a volcanic source. They can be triggered by a variety of mechanisms and span a continuum of flow rheology and hydraulic properties, even within the same event. Lahars are extremely powerful landscaping agents and represent a considerable hazard potential. However, this highly dynamic character and a lack of direct measurements has made modelling lahars difficult. This study therefore applies a fluid dynamics model; Delft3D, to analyse the 18th March 2007 dam break lahar at Mount Ruapehu, New Zealand. The modelled lahar routed through the Whangaehu gorge in ~30 min, crossed the Whangaehu fan in ~60 min, and then over a further 3 h travelled an additional ~22 km distance along the Whangaehu River to the Tangiwai bridge. The modelled mean frontal velocity was 6.5 m s-1 along the gorge although peak velocity reached up to 19.6 m s-1. The modelled lahar flow front progressively slowed across the fan but along the River it accelerated from 2.1-3.3 m s-1. Calculated peak velocity along the River was <4.5 m s-1. These results generally compare well with gauged records, with historical records, and with other modelling approaches. However, discrepancies in frontal velocity and time to peak stage arise due to (1) specifying roughness, which arises from slope variations between adjacent computational nodes, and which is stage-dependant, and (2) due to rapid topographic changes that produce frequent hydraulic jumps, which are inadequately accommodated in the numerical scheme. The overall pattern of discharge attenuation, and of relationships between topographic and hydraulic variables, is similar to that calculated for lahars on other volcanoes. This modelling method could be applied at other similar sites where a likely source hydrograph and high-resolution topographic data are available. These results have important implications for hazard management at Ruapehu and for examining geomorphic and sedimentary impacts of this lahar.

  19. [Cardiopulmonary resuscitation through centuries].

    PubMed

    Gaji?, Vladimir

    2011-01-01

    THE ANCIENT TIMES: Many early civilisations left testimonies about ancient times and resuscitation, as well. Some of them did it successfully and some of them did it less successfully; however, all of them wished to help a dying person and to bring him back to life. The first trustworthy note can be found in the Bible--Old Testament as a very realistic description of resuscitation of a child. THE MIDDLE AGES: The medieval scientists, Paracelsus and Vesalius, described first successful resuscitation attempts in the 15th and 16th century. These two men successfully applied ventilation methods by air inflation with blacksmith bellows. THE MODERN ERA: The first defibrillation was recorded in the 18th century in England, which was conducted by one of the volunteer society members. With the development of mechanics and techniques, the first precursors of modern respirators were introduced in the 19th century. The age of modern cardiopulmonary resuscitation began in the middle of 20th century, when Dr Peter Safar brought in the combination of artificial ventilation and chest compressions as the standard for implementing resuscitation. Adrenalin and defibrillation were introduced into the resuscitation techniques by Dr Redding and Dr Kouwenhaven, respectively; thus beginning the advance life support administration, which has been applied, with minor changes, until today. PMID:21905608

  20. Short- and long-term consequences of early parental loss in the historical population of the Krummhrn (18th and 19th century).

    PubMed

    Willfhr, Kai P

    2009-01-01

    The impact of the early loss of one's father or one's mother on the survival and age at death of children was investigated on the basis of a historical reconstitution of families from the Krummhrn (East Frisia/Ostfriesland; Germany) with the aid of Kaplan-Meier plots and the Cox regression. In our analyses, we took into account the changed situation of the family after the death of a parent by incorporating the surviving spouse's remarriage or relationships with stepparents. We find that the impact on survival of the children was sex-specific and also depended on whether and at what point in time during childhood their father or mother had died. As expected, children's immediate survival was strongly affected by maternal loss. A few results can be construed as survival diminishing long-term consequences of the early loss of a parent. Daughters who lost their fathers before their first birthday proved to have increased mortality over a longer period of their youth. The age at death of daughters was also lowered if they had to live with a step-mother during early childhood. To interpret these results, three hypotheses, including an (intrinsic) trade-off, compensation and a selection scenario, were tested. Other approaches, which are based, for example, on the extrinsic trade-off between mating effort and parental investment of the surviving parent, also appear to be suitable as an explanation for the long-term consequences, which eventually draws the conclusion that the compensation scenario is the most likely explanation for the consequences of early parental loss. PMID:19309684

  1. The heliospheric Hale cycle over the last 300 years and its implications for a "lost" late 18th century solar cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owens, Mathew J.; McCracken, Ken G.; Lockwood, Mike; Barnard, Luke

    2015-09-01

    A Hale cycle, one complete magnetic cycle of the Sun, spans two complete Schwabe cycles (also referred to as sunspot and, more generally, solar cycles). The approximately 22-year Hale cycle is seen in magnetic polarities of both sunspots and polar fields, as well as in the intensity of galactic cosmic rays reaching Earth, with odd- and even-numbered solar cycles displaying qualitatively different waveforms. Correct numbering of solar cycles also underpins empirical cycle-to-cycle relations which are used as first-order tests of stellar dynamo models. There has been much debate about whether the unusually long solar cycle 4 (SC4), spanning 1784-1799, was actually two shorter solar cycles combined as a result of poor data coverage in the original Wolf sunspot number record. Indeed, the group sunspot number does show a small increase around 1794-1799 and there is evidence of an increase in the mean latitude of sunspots at this time, suggesting the existence of a cycle "4b". In this study, we use cosmogenic radionuclide data and associated reconstructions of the heliospheric magnetic field (HMF) to show that the Hale cycle has persisted over the last 300 years and that data prior to 1800 are more consistent with cycle 4 being a single long cycle (the "no SC4b" scenario). We also investigate the effect of cycle 4b on the HMF using an open solar flux (OSF) continuity model, in which the OSF source term is related to sunspot number and the OSF loss term is determined by the heliospheric current sheet tilt, assumed to be a simple function of solar cycle phase. The results are surprising; Without SC4b, the HMF shows two distinct peaks in the 1784-1799 interval, while the addition of SC4b removes the secondary peak, as the OSF loss term acts in opposition to the later rise in sunspot number. The timing and magnitude of the main SC4 HMF peak is also significantly changed by the addition of SC4b. These results are compared with the cosmogenic isotope reconstructions of HMF and historical aurora records. These data marginally favour the existence of SC4b (the "SC4b" scenario), though the result is less certain than that based on the persistence of the Hale cycle. Thus while the current uncertainties in the observations preclude any definitive conclusions, the data favour the "no SC4b" scenario. Future improvements to cosmogenic isotope reconstructions of the HMF, through either improved modelling or additional ice cores from well-separated geographic locations, may enable questions of the existence of SC4b and the phase of Hale cycle prior to the Maunder minimum to be settled conclusively.

  2. Wood densitometry in 17th and 18th century Dutch, German, Austrian and French violins, compared to classical Cremonese and modern violins.

    PubMed

    Stoel, Berend C; Borman, Terry M; de Jongh, Ronald

    2012-01-01

    Classical violins produced by makers such as Antonio Stradivari and Guarneri del Gesu have long been considered the epitome of the luthier's art and the expressive tool of choice for the most celebrated violinists. It has been speculated these makers had access to wood that was unique in some way and that this was responsible for their acclaimed tonal characteristics. In an attempt to discern whether the above conjecture is true, we analyzed 17 modern and classical Dutch, German, Austrian and French violins by wood densitometry using computed tomography and correlated these results with our previous study of modern and Cremonese violins; in all studying 30 instruments of the violin family. In order to make this comparison possible we developed methods to cross calibrate results from different CT manufacturers using calibration wood pieces. We found no significant differences in median densities between modern and classical violins, or between classical violins from different origins. These results suggest that it is unlikely classical Cremonese makers had access to wood with significantly different wood density characteristics than that available to contemporaneous or modern makers. PMID:23071602

  3. Loss of genetic diversity in sea otters (Enhydra lutris) associated with the fur trade of the 18th and 19th centuries

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larson, S.; Jameson, R.; Etnier, M.; Flemings, M.; Bentzen, P.

    2002-01-01

    During 1969 and 1970, surveys of the endangered Yuma Clapper Rail were conducted using taped calls to elicit responses from the birds. During the two summers, more than 158 Yuma clappers were located in cattailtule marshes along the Colorado River south of Needles, California, to the International Boundary, a distance of about 240 miles. Clappers (probably of the same race) were also found in estuarian marshes of the Colorado River Delta of Mexico; in the Salton Sea; in two freshwater marsh areas near Phoenix, Arizona; and in two freshwater marshes adjacent to the lower Gila River near Tacna, Arizona.....Populations of Sonora Clapper Rails were discovered as permanent residents in five separate mangrove swamps along the west coast of Mexico in the vicinity of Kino Bay, Sonora. These observations were farther north than any heretofore reported for the race R. l. rhizophorae, and the swamps also represent the extreme northward limit of mangroves in Sonora.....During the winter, Yuma clappers did not respond to taped calls north of the International Boundary, whereas clappers along the coast of Sonora readily answered the calls during the same period of time. We conclude that most Yuma Clapper Rails migrate from their summer habitat along the Colorado River in September and do not return to the breeding areas until late April.

  4. Wood Densitometry in 17th and 18th Century Dutch, German, Austrian and French Violins, Compared to Classical Cremonese and Modern Violins

    PubMed Central

    Stoel, Berend C.; Borman, Terry M.; de Jongh, Ronald

    2012-01-01

    Classical violins produced by makers such as Antonio Stradivari and Guarneri del Gesu have long been considered the epitome of the luthier's art and the expressive tool of choice for the most celebrated violinists. It has been speculated these makers had access to wood that was unique in some way and that this was responsible for their acclaimed tonal characteristics. In an attempt to discern whether the above conjecture is true, we analyzed 17 modern and classical Dutch, German, Austrian and French violins by wood densitometry using computed tomography and correlated these results with our previous study of modern and Cremonese violins; in all studying 30 instruments of the violin family. In order to make this comparison possible we developed methods to cross calibrate results from different CT manufacturers using calibration wood pieces. We found no significant differences in median densities between modern and classical violins, or between classical violins from different origins. These results suggest that it is unlikely classical Cremonese makers had access to wood with significantly different wood density characteristics than that available to contemporaneous or modern makers. PMID:23071602

  5. [High prevalence of antiHTLV-1 antibodies in the Boni, an ethnic group of African origin isolated in French Guiana since the 18th century].

    PubMed

    Gessain, A; Calender, A; Strobel, M; Lefait-Robin, R; de Thé, G

    1984-01-01

    Antibodies to HTLV-1 (ELISA test using disrupted virus) were studied in different ethnic groups in French Guiana, including 135 blood donors from Cayenne, 97 Boni Blacks and 57 Wayana Indians from Maripasoula area, and 57 Hmong from Cacao village. We observed significant differences between Boni Blacks and Wayana Indians, having respectively 10.3% versus 0% of high antibody titers. The Hmong, recent refugees from Kampuchea, exhibited an intermediate level (3.5%) of infection. These results favour an African origin of HTLV-1 and raise, for the Hmong, the question of an infection acquired in Guiana. PMID:6095973

  6. Fragmentation of the Qubec population genetic pool (Canada): evidence from the genetic contribution of founders per region in the 17th and 18th centuries.

    PubMed

    Gagnon, A; Heyer, E

    2001-01-01

    The 6 million French-Canadians of Qubec derive from a relatively small number of founders. Consequently, some hereditary diseases, which may or may not present a worldwide distribution, have been detected in high frequency in this population. Several studies, however, indicate a nonuniform distribution of these diseases through the population, suggesting that the French-Canadian founder effect has been geographically stratified. Here we explore this stratification by using a demographic database, the Population Register of Early Qubec, that contains almost all birth, marriage, and death certificates (>712,000) recorded in parish registers between 1608-1800. In this database, every genealogical link has been traced back to the founders of the population, so that we can compute the genetic contribution of founder per region, and then account for the early events that have shaped the distribution of diseases. Ten regions, comprising varying numbers of parishes, have been selected. We first describe each region in terms of homogeneity and concentration of its gene pool. For this purpose, a new concept is introduced, the founders' uniform contribution number (FUN), i.e., the number of founders a population would have if all its founders had an equal contribution. Second, we estimate genetic similarity between regions on the basis of differential genetic contribution. To classify the regions, we use principal component and cluster analysis. Our results show a tripartite clustering of the population, and invite us to reconsider the results obtained from biomolecular and clinical studies, which show a bipartite clustering. PMID:11150050

  7. [Vampires in the village rnovo on the island of Kor?ula: following an archival document from the 18th century].

    PubMed

    Coralic, Lovorka; Dugac, Zeljko; Sardelic, Sani

    2011-01-01

    The main interest of this essay is the analysis of the document from the State Archive in Venice (file: Capi del Consiglio de' Dieci: Lettere di Rettori e di altre cariche) which is connected with the episode from 1748 when the inhabitants of the village rnove on the island of Kor?ula in Croatia opened tombs on the local cemetery in the fear of the vampires treating. This essay try to show some social circumstances connected with this event as well as a local vernacular tradition concerning superstitions. PMID:22047480

  8. 18th Workshop on Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells and Modules: Materials and Processes; Workshop Proceedings, 3-6 August 2008, Vail, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Sopori, B. L.

    2008-09-01

    The National Center for Photovoltaics sponsored the 18th Workshop on Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells & Modules: Materials and Processes, held in Vail, CO, August 3-6, 2008. This meeting provided a forum for an informal exchange of technical and scientific information between international researchers in the photovoltaic and relevant non-photovoltaic fields. The theme of this year's meeting was 'New Directions for Rapidly Growing Silicon Technologies.'

  9. Evidence for a warmer period during the 12th and 13th centuries AD from chironomid assemblages in Southampton Island, Nunavut, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rolland, Nicolas; Larocque, Isabelle; Francus, Pierre; Pienitz, Reinhard; Laperrire, Laurence

    2009-07-01

    This study presents the Late-Holocene evolution of a northern Southampton Island (Nunavut, Canada) lake, using fossil chironomids supported by sedimentological evidences (XRF, grain size and CNS). All proxies revealed a relatively stable environment during the last millennium with short-lived events driving changes in the entire lake ecosystem. The chironomid-based paleotemperatures revealed variations of significant amplitude coincident with changes in the sediment density and chemical composition of the core. Higher temperature intervals were generally correlated to lower sediment density with higher chironomid concentration and diversity. Higher temperatures were recorded from cal yr AD 1160 to AD 1360, which may correspond to the Medieval Warm Period. Between cal yr AD 1360 and AD 1700, lower temperatures were probably related to a Little Ice Age event. This study presents new information on the timing of known climatic events which will refine our knowledge of the paleoclimate and climatic models of the Foxe Basin region. It also provides a new framework for the evolution of such freshwater ecosystems under the "Anthropocene" and underlines the importance of including sedimentological proxies when interpreting chironomid remains as this combined approach provides an extended overview of the past hydrological and geochemical changes and their impacts on lake biota.

  10. History of the Balkans: Twentieth Century. Volume 2. The Joint Committee on Eastern Europe Publication Series. No. 12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jelavich, Barbara

    Principal issues in the 20th century development of the Balkan Peninsula are discussed in this introductory history text. Three themes--national rivalries, great power interference, and the economic, social, and political problems of modernization--are given special emphasis. An overview of 18th and 19th century history precedes the two major…

  11. History of the Balkans: Twentieth Century. Volume 2. The Joint Committee on Eastern Europe Publication Series. No. 12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jelavich, Barbara

    Principal issues in the 20th century development of the Balkan Peninsula are discussed in this introductory history text. Three themes--national rivalries, great power interference, and the economic, social, and political problems of modernization--are given special emphasis. An overview of 18th and 19th century history precedes the two major

  12. Energy spectrum and arrival direction of primary cosmic rays of energy above 10 to the 18th power eV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teshima, M.; Nagano, M.; Hayashida, N.; He, C. X.; Honda, M.; Ishikawa, F.; Kamata, K.; Matsubara, Y.; Mori, M.; Ohoka, H.

    1985-01-01

    The observation of ultra high energy cosmic rays with 20 sq km array has started at Akeno. The preliminary results on energy spectrum and arrival direction of energies above 10 to the 18th eV are prsented with data accumulated for four years with the 1 sq km array, for two years with the 4 sq km array and for a half year with the new array. The energy spectrum is consistent with the previous experiments showing the flattening above 10 to the 18.5 eV.

  13. Contributions to Botany, the Female Science, by Two Eighteenth-Century Women Technical Communicators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shirk, Henrietta Nickels

    1997-01-01

    Focuses on the botanical publications of two 18th-century English women writers, Elizabeth Blackwell and Priscilla Bell Wakefield. Analyzes their books. Indicates that they contribute new perspectives and techniques to the historical tradition of botanical writing and illustrating and exhibit modern techniques for effective technical

  14. Floral Resources in Makushin Bay: The Aleuts of the Eighteenth Century, Social Studies Unit, Book III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Partnow, Patricia H.

    This booklet illustrates the major plant resources in Makushin Bay and explains how each plant was used by the 18th-century Aleuts in their daily lives. Seventeen plants are illustrated and identified by their common names and, for many, the Latin names are mentioned, also. The plants represent a variety of habitats that include sandy areas;

  15. Ankylosing spondylitis or diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis in royal Egyptian mummies of 18th -20th Dynasties? CT and archaeology studies.

    PubMed

    Saleem, Sahar N; Hawass, Zahi

    2014-12-01

    Objective. To study the computed tomography(CT) images of royal Ancient Egyptian mummies dated to the 18th to early 20th Dynasties for the claimed diagnoses of ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH) and to correlate the findings with the archaeology literature.Methods. We studied the CT images of 13 royal Ancient Egyptian mummies (1492–1153 BC) for evidence of AS and DISH and correlated our findings with the archaeology literature.Results. The findings of the CT scans excluded the diagnosis of AS, based on the absence of sacroiliac joint erosions or fusion of the facet joints. Four mummies fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for DISH:Amenhotep III (18th Dynasty), Ramesses II, his son Merenptah, and Ramesses III (19th to early 20th Dynasties).The diagnosis of DISH, a commonly a symptomatic disease of old age, in the 4 pharaohs is in concordance with their longevity and active lifestyles.Conclusion. CT findings excluded the diagnosis of AS in the studied royal Ancient Egyptian mummies and brought into question the antiquity of the disease. The CT features of DISH during this ancient period were similar to those commonly seen in modern populations,and it is likely that they will also be similar in the future.The affection of Ramesses II and his son Merenptah supports familial clustering of DISH. The process of mummification may induce changes in the spine that should be considered during investigations of disease in ancient mummies. PMID:25329920

  16. Dendroseismology on the central North Anatolian fault, Turkey: Documenting three centuries of surface rupture history using tree rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozac?, .-Zgr

    2012-01-01

    Tree ring analysis provides a precise dating source for characterizing the timing of natural hazards. Specifically, seismogenic disturbances on trees have been successfully documented on major faults such as the San Andreas fault in California and Denali fault in Alaska. In this study, dendroseismology was employed along a 15-km-long stretch of the central North Anatolian fault (NAF) between Ilgaz and Tosya, Turkey where the most recent surface rupturing event was the Mw 7.6 1943 A.D. earthquake. Morphologic documentation and dendrochronologic analyses of 28Pinus sylvestristrees demonstrates the effects of proximal surface rupture and secondary earthquake deformation. Fourteen trees show similar abrupt growth suppression and accelerated recovery trends following the 1943 A.D. Tosya earthquake. The number of trees yielding similar results, the linear spatial distribution of the traumatized trees along the NAF, similarity in the trend of annual ring growth response, and synchronity of these anomalies with the 1943 A.D. earthquake provide robust evidence for the correlation of the observed anomalies and the earthquake. In addition, four trees going back to early 18th century provide evidence for the lack of another surface rupturing large magnitude earthquake along this stretch of the fault. This finding corroborates that the historical 1668 A.D. earthquake is most likely the penultimate event for the Ilgaz-Tosya segment of the NAF.

  17. Dendroseismology on the central North Anatolian fault; Turkey: Documenting three centuries of surface rupture history using tree rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozaci, O.

    2011-12-01

    Tree rings provide a precise dating source for characterizing natural hazards. Specifically, seismogenic disturbances on trees have been successfully documented on major faults such as San Andres fault in California or Denali fault in Alaska. Dendroseismology was employed along a 15-km-long stretch of the central North Anatolian fault (NAF) between Ilgaz and Tosya, Turkey where most recent surface rupturing event was the M7.6 1943 A.D. earthquake. Morphologic documentation and dendrochronologic analyses on 28 Pinus sylvestris trees demonstrated the effects of surface rupture and secondary earthquake deformation. Fourteen trees show similar abrupt growth suppression and accelerated recovery trends following the 1943 A.D. Tosya earthquake. Number of trees yielding positive results, linear spatial distribution of the traumatized trees along the NAF, similarity in the trend of annual ring growth response, and synchronity of these anomalies with the 1943 A.D. earthquake provide robust evidence for the attribution of the observed anomalies and the earthquake. In addition, four trees going back to early 18th century provide evidence for the lack of another surface rupturing large magnitude earthquake through this stretch of the fault. This finding corroborates that the historical 1668 A.D. earthquake is most likely the penultimate event for the Ilgaz-Tosya segment of the NAF.

  18. The American College of nuclear physicians 18th annual meeting and scientific sessions DOE day: Substance abuse and nuclear medicine abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-02-01

    Despite the enormous personal and social cost Of substance abuse, there is very little knowledge with respect to the mechanisms by which these drugs produce addiction as well as to the mechanisms of toxicity. Similarly, there is a lack of effective therapeutic intervention to treat the drug abusers. In this respect, nuclear medicine could contribute significantly by helping to gather information using brain imaging techniques about mechanisms of drug addiction which, in turn, could help design better therapeutic interventions, and by helping in the evaluation and diagnosis of organ toxicity from the use of drugs of abuse. This volume contains six short descriptions of presentations made at the 18th Meeting of the American College of Nuclear Physicians -- DOE Day: Substance Abuse and Nuclear Medicine.

  19. Tree-ring based reconstructions of interannual to decadal scale precipitation variability for northeastern Utah since 1226 A.D.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gray, S.T.; Jackson, S.T.; Betancourt, J.L.

    2004-01-01

    Samples from 107 pin??on pines (Pinus edulis) at four sites were used to develop a proxy record of annual (June to June) precipitation spanning the 1226 to 2001 AD interval for the Uinta Basin Watershed of northeastern Utah. The reconstruction reveals significant precipitation variability at interannual to decadal scales. Single-year dry events before the instrumental period tended to be more severe than those after 1900. In general, decadal scale dry events were longer and more severe prior to 1900. In particular, dry events in the late 13th, 16th, and 18th Centuries surpass the magnitude and duration of droughts seen in the Uinta Basin after 1900. The last four decades of the 20th Century also represent one of the wettest periods in the reconstruction. The proxy record indicates that the instrumental record (approximately 1900 to the Present) underestimates the potential frequency and severity of severe, sustained droughts in this area, while over representing the prominence of wet episodes. In the longer record, the empirical probability of any decadal scale drought exceeding the duration of the 1954 through 1964 drought is 94 percent, while the probability for any wet event exceeding the duration of the 1965 through 1999 wet spell is only 1 percent. Hence, estimates of future water availability in the Uinta Basin and forecasts for exports to the Colorado River, based on the 1961 to 1990 and 1971 to 2000 "normal" periods, may be overly optimistic.

  20. American Catholic Schools for the 21st Century: Reflections on the Future of American Catholic Elementary Schools. Volume 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kealey, Robert J., Ed.

    Catholic schools in the United States today are very different from the Catholic schools that first opened in the 18th and 19th centuries. This handbook is a call to action for all Catholic elementary schools, inviting and challenging all Catholic educators to plan for the future. The volume is the first in a series of handbooks containing essays

  1. Early 20th Century Education in the United States: The Role of the Brothers of Holy Cross

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Philip C.

    2007-01-01

    The French Revolution bears an ironic responsibility for generating works of charity. To counteract the devastating social effects of that late 18th century uprising, numerous religious communities were founded in France, among them the Congregation of Holy Cross. The Congregation of Holy Cross, the founding religious community behind the…

  2. Overview of the needs and realities for developing new and improved vaccines in the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Hilleman, Maurice R

    2002-01-01

    The science of present day vaccinology is based on the pioneering discoveries of the late 18th and late 19th centuries and the technologic breakthroughs of the past 60 years. The driving force for the development of new vaccines resides in technologic feasibility, public need and economic incentive for translating the basic knowledge into a product. Past efforts by government to define which particular vaccines to develop were mostly irrelevant to the realistic choices which were made. There is a vast array of viral, bacterial, parasitic and fungal disease agents against which preventative vaccines may be developed, and to this may be added cancer and certain amyloidoses such as Alzheimer's and 'mad cow' diseases. The proven past for vaccines has relied on live, killed, protein and polysaccharide antigens plus the single example of recombinant-expressed hepatitis B vaccine. The validity of redirection of vaccinology to exploration of simplified vaccines such as recombinant vectored and DNA preparations and reductionist vaccines based on peptides of contrived epitope composition remains to be proved. Reductionism imposes vastly increased complexity and difficulty on vaccine development and might not be capable of achievement. The challenge in the 21st century will involve new and uncertain pathways toward worthwhile accomplishments. PMID:12566702

  3. Eighteenth-century forms of quasicrystals.

    PubMed

    Pina, Carlos M; López-Acevedo, Victoria

    2016-01-01

    A careful inspection of the drawings and baked clay models created by the mineralogist Romé de L'Isle in the 18th century has revealed the existence of a number of intriguing forms with pentagonal symmetries. These forms cannot be classified in any of the 32 crystal classes. They can thus be considered the first crystallographic descriptions of polyhedral forms found in quasicrystals two centuries later. This paper presents a symmetry analysis of the fascinating drawings and clay models with pentagonal symmetries described in the book Cristallographie published in 1783 by Romé de L'Isle, as well as a comparison with quasicrystals recently synthesized. The paper also briefly discusses what could induce Romé de L'Isle to consider forms with pentagonal symmetries as plausible crystal forms. PMID:26697870

  4. Value Added?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    UCLA IDEA, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Value added measures (VAM) uses changes in student test scores to determine how much "value" an individual teacher has "added" to student growth during the school year. Some policymakers, school districts, and educational advocates have applauded VAM as a straightforward measure of teacher effectiveness: the better a teacher, the better students…

  5. Effects of prenatal X-irradiation on the 14th-18th days of gestation on postnatal growth and development in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Jensh, R.P.; Brent, R.L.

    1988-11-01

    Thirty-nine pregnant adult Wistar strain rats were randomly assigned to one of three exposure groups: 0, 0.75, or 1.50 Gy X-radiation total exposure. Animals were exposed from the 14th to the 18th days of gestation at 0, 0.15, or 0.30 Gy per day. At term, 15 rats were killed and morphologic analyses were completed. Twenty-four rats were allowed to deliver their offspring. On the first day of postnatal life, litters were reduced to a maximum of eight pups per litter, with equal numbers of male and female offspring wherever possible. A total of 187 pups were observed for the age of acquisition of five reflexes (air righting, surface righting, visual placing, negative geotaxis, auditory startle) and the appearance of four physiologic markers (pinna detachment, eye opening, vaginal opening, testes descent). There was significant dose-related weight reduction in term fetuses and offspring throughout the 86-day postnatal period. Postnatal growth rate (g gained/day) was unaffected. Adult offspring brain and gonadal weight and organ weight:body weight ratios were reduced. Using the PAC50 methodology, dose-related alterations occurred in the acquisition of several reflexes. All physiologic markers exhibited a dose-related delay in appearance. These results indicate that fractionated exposure to X-radiation during the fetal period in the rat results in dose-dependent alterations in postnatal growth and physiologic development. These studies are important for our understanding of the long-range effects of prenatal exposure to ionizing radiation late in gestation.

  6. "...A Place to which Idle Vagrants May Be Sent." The First Phase of Child Migration During the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coldrey, Barry M.

    1999-01-01

    Explores the first phase of juvenile emigration from Britain to the Americas in the 17th and 18th centuries. Finds eerie parallels with the last phase of this British social policy in the 1960s as has been discussed in the media during recent years. (SD)

  7. Views of Chemistry and Chemical Theories: A Comparison between Two University Textbooks in the Bolognese Context at the Beginning of the 19th Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seligardi, Raffaella

    2006-01-01

    After surveying some 18th century chemistry textbooks in Italy, this case study compares two Bolognese university textbooks related to the subject. Although the works in question represented two different ways of conceiving and using chemistry, both were within the Lavoisian framework. In other words, when a revolutionary theory passes from one

  8. Added Sugars

    MedlinePLUS

    ... fruit punch); dairy desserts and milk products (ice cream, sweetened yogurt and sweetened milk); and other grains ( ... Tips for Reducing Sugar in Your Diet Simple Cooking with Heart Added Sugar is not so Sweet ...

  9. A tree-ring perspective on temporal changes in the frequency and intensity of hydroclimatic extremes in the territory of the Czech Republic since 761 AD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobrovolný, P.; Rybníček, M.; Kolář, T.; Brázdil, R.; Trnka, M.; Büntgen, U.

    2015-07-01

    It is generally accepted that anthropogenic-induced climate change may affect the frequency and intensity of hydrological extremes, together with a variety of subsequent impacts on ecosystems and human society. Proxy records that are absolutely dated and annually resolved are indispensable to a better understanding of temporal changes in the occurrence of floods and droughts. This contribution presents a new dataset of 3194 oak (Quercus spp.) ring width samples from living trees and historical timbers, collected across the Czech Republic. A composite tree-ring width (TRW) chronology is developed that best captures the high-frequency extremes over the past 1250 years. The temporal distribution of negative and positive extremes is regular with no indication of clustering. The highest number of negative extremes was found in the 19th century, while positive extremes were most frequent in the 12th century. The lowest number of negative and positive extremes occurred in the 18th and 13th centuries respectively. Negative and positive TRW extremes were compared with the instrumental measurements back to 1805 AD, with documentary-based temperature and precipitation reconstructions from 1804 to 1500, and with documentary evidence before 1500 AD. Negative TRW extremes coincided with above-average March-May and June-August temperature means and below-average precipitation totals. Positive extremes coincided with higher summer precipitation, while temperatures were mostly normal. Mean sea level pressure (SLP) over the European/North Atlantic sector suggested drought for the negative oak TRW extremes, whereas the positive extremes corresponded to wetter conditions overall. More consistent patterns of synoptic SLP were found for negative rather than for positive extremes. Reasons for the possible offset between the oak-based hydroclimatic extremes and their counterparts from meteorological observations and documentary evidence may be manifold and emphasize the need for multi-proxy approaches and proxy-model comparisons.

  10. A tree-ring perspective on temporal changes in the frequency and intensity of hydroclimatic extremes in the territory of the Czech Republic since 761 AD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobrovolný, P.; Rybníček, M.; Kolář, T.; Brázdil, R.; Trnka, M.; Büntgen, U.

    2015-10-01

    It is generally accepted that anthropogenic-induced climate change may affect the frequency and intensity of hydrological extremes, together with a variety of subsequent impacts on ecosystems and human society. Proxy records that are absolutely dated and annually resolved are indispensable to a better understanding of temporal changes in the occurrence of floods and droughts. This contribution presents a new data set of 3194 oak (Quercus spp.) ring width samples from living trees and historical timbers, collected across the Czech Republic. A composite tree-ring width (TRW) chronology is developed that best captures the high-frequency extremes over the past 1250 years. The temporal distribution of negative and positive extremes is regular with no indication of clustering. The highest number of negative extremes was found in the 19th century, while positive extremes were most frequent in the 12th century. The lowest number of negative and positive extremes occurred in the 18th and 13th centuries respectively. Negative and positive TRW extremes were compared with the instrumental measurements back to 1805 AD, with documentary-based temperature and precipitation reconstructions from 1804 to 1500, and with documentary evidence before 1500 AD. Negative TRW extremes coincided with above-average March-May and June-August temperature means and below-average precipitation totals. Positive extremes coincided with higher summer precipitation, while temperatures were mostly normal. Mean sea level pressure (SLP) over the European/North Atlantic sector suggested drought for the negative oak TRW extremes, whereas the positive extremes corresponded to wetter conditions overall. More consistent patterns of synoptic SLP were found for negative rather than for positive extremes. Reasons for the possible offset between the oak-based hydroclimatic extremes and their counterparts from meteorological observations and documentary evidence may be manifold and emphasize the need for multi-proxy approaches.

  11. Effects of slope on the formation of dunes in dilute, turbulent pyroclastic currents: May 18th, 1980 Mt. St. Helens eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bendana, Sylvana; Brand, Brittany D.; Self, Stephen

    2014-05-01

    The flanks of Mt St Helens volcano (MSH) are draped with thin, cross-stratified and stratified pyroclastic density current (PDC) deposits. These are known as the proximal bedded deposits produced during the May 18th, 1980 eruption of MSH. While the concentrated portions of the afternoon PDCs followed deep topographic drainages down the steep flanks of the volcano, the dilute overriding cloud partially decoupled to develop fully dilute, turbulent PDCs on the flanks of the volcano (Beeson, D.L. 1988. Proximal Flank Facies of the May 18, 1980 Ignimbrite: Mt. St. Helens, Washington.). The deposits along the flank thus vary greatly from those found in the pumice plain, which are generally thick, massive, poorly-sorted, block-rich deposits associated with the more concentrated portions of the flow (Brand et al, accepted. Dynamics of pyroclastic density currents: Conditions that promote substrate erosion and self-channelization - Mount St Helens, Washington (USA). JVGR). We explore the influence of topography on the formation of these dilute currents and influence of slope on the currents transport and depositional mechanisms. The deposits on steeper slopes (>15°) are fines depleted relative to the proximal bedded deposits on shallower slopes (<15°). Bedform amplitude and wavelength increase with increasing slope, as does the occurrence of regressive dunes. Increasing slope causes an increase in flow velocity and thus an increase in flow turbulence. The fines depleted deposits suggest that fine ash elutriation is more efficient in flows with stronger turbulence. The longer wavelength and amplitudes suggest that bedform morphology is directly related to flow velocity, an important finding since the controls on bedform wavelength and amplitude in density stratified flows remains poorly constrained. The occurrence of regressive dunes, often interpreted as high flow-regime bedforms, on steeper slopes relative to progressive dunes on shallower slopes further attests to the control of velocity and flow regime on bedform morphology. Samples collected from recently exposed deposits and analyzed by grain size measurements, density analyses, and crystal morphoscopy studies further assess modes of origin and transport of dilute PDCs.

  12. Droughts in the Czech Lands, 1090-2012 AD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brzdil, R.; Dobrovoln, P.; Trnka, M.; Kotyza, O.; ?ezn?kov, L.; Valek, H.; Zahradn?ek, P.; t?pnek, P.

    2013-08-01

    This paper addresses droughts in the Czech Lands in the 1090-2012 AD period, basing its findings on documentary evidence and instrumental records. Various documentary sources were employed for the selection of drought events, which were then interpreted at a monthly level. While the data on droughts before 1500 AD are scarce, the analysis concentrated mainly on droughts after this time. A dry year in 1501-1804 period (i.e. pre-instrumental times) was defined as a calendar year in the course of which dry patterns occurred on at least two consecutive months. Using this definition, 129 dry years were identified (an average of one drought per 2.4 yr). From the 16th to the 18th centuries these figures become 41, 36 and 49 yr respectively, with the prevailing occurrence of dry months from April to September (73.7%). Drought indices - SPEI-1, Z-index and PDSI - calculated for the Czech Lands for April-September describe drought patterns between 1805 and 2012 (the instrumental period). N-year recurrence intervals were calculated for each of the three indices. Using N ? 5 yr, SPEI-1 indicates 40 drought years, Z-index 39 yr and PDSI 47 yr. SPEI-1 and Z-index recorded 100 yr drought in 1834, 1842, 1868, 1947 and 2003 (50 yr drought in 1992). PDSI as an indicator of long-term drought disclosed two important drought periods: 1863-1874 and 2004-2012. The first period was related to a lack of precipitation, the other may be attributed to recent temperature increases without significant changes in precipitation. Droughts from the pre-instrumental and instrumental period were used to compile a long-term chronology for the Czech Lands. The number of years with drought has fluctuated between 26 in 1951-2000 and 16 in 1651-1700. Only nine drought years were recorded between 1641 and 1680, while between 1981 and 2012 the figure was 22 yr. A number of past severe droughts are described in detail: in 1540, 1590, 1616, 1718 and 1719. A discussion of the results centres around the uncertainty problem, the spatial variability of droughts, comparison with tree-ring reconstructions from southern Moravia, and the broader central European context.

  13. Droughts in the Czech Lands, 1090-2012 AD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brzdil, R.; Dobrovoln, P.; Trnka, M.; Kotyza, O.; ?ezn?kov, L.; Valek, H.; Zahradn?ek, P.; t?pnek, P.

    2013-05-01

    This paper addresses droughts in the Czech Lands in the 1090-2012 AD period, basing its findings on documentary evidence and instrumental records. Various documentary sources were employed for the selection of drought events, which were then interpreted at a monthly level. While the data on droughts before 1500 AD are scarce, the analysis concentrated mainly on droughts after this time. A dry year in 1501-1804 period (i.e. pre-instrumental times) was defined as a calendar year in the course of which dry patterns occurred on at least two consecutive months. Using this definition, 129 dry years were identified (an average of one drought per 2.4 yr). From the 16th to the 18th centuries these figures become 41, 36 and 49 yr, respectively, with the prevailing occurrence of dry months from April to September (73.7%). Drought indices - SPEI-1, Z-index and PDSI - calculated for the Czech Lands for April-September describe drought patterns between 1805 and 2012 (the instrumental period). N year recurrence intervals were calculated for each of the three indices. Using N ? 5 yr, SPEI-1 indicates 40 drought years, Z-index 39 yr and PDSI 47 yr. SPEI-1 and Z-index recorded 100 yr drought in 1834, 1842, 1868, 1947 and 2003 (50 yr drought in 1992). PDSI as an indicator of long-term drought disclosed two important drought periods: 1863-1874 and 2004-2012. The first period was related to a lack of precipitation, the other may be attributed to recent temperature increases without significant changes in precipitation. Droughts from the pre-instrumental and instrumental period were used to compile a long-term chronology for the Czech Lands. The number of years with drought has fluctuated between 26 in 1951-2000 and 16 in 1651-1700. Only nine drought years were recorded between 1641 and 1680, while between 1981 and 2012 the figure was 22 yr. A number of past severe droughts are described in detail: in 1540, 1590, 1616, 1718 and 1719. A discussion of the results centres around the uncertainty problem, the spatial variability of droughts, comparison with tree-ring reconstructions from southern Moravia, and the broader Central European context.

  14. Papers and Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Midwest History of Education Society (18th, Chicago, Illinois, October 29-30, 1982).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutkowski, Edward, Ed.

    1983-01-01

    The papers of this proceedings are organized into four parts : religion and education; the politics of urban education; issues in minority education; and concepts of childhood. The first paper in part 1 "I will Declare What He Hath Done for My Soul: Female Conversion Narratives in the Early Nineteenth Century" (V. L. Brereton) explores the…

  15. Papers and Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Midwest History of Education Society (18th, Chicago, Illinois, October 29-30, 1982).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutkowski, Edward, Ed.

    1983-01-01

    The papers of this proceedings are organized into four parts : religion and education; the politics of urban education; issues in minority education; and concepts of childhood. The first paper in part 1 "I will Declare What He Hath Done for My Soul: Female Conversion Narratives in the Early Nineteenth Century" (V. L. Brereton) explores the

  16. Adding Value.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orsini, Larry L.; Hudack, Lawrence R.; Zekan, Donald L.

    1999-01-01

    The value-added statement (VAS), relatively unknown in the United States, is used in financial reports by many European companies. Saint Bonaventure University (New York) has adapted a VAS to make it appropriate for not-for-profit universities by identifying stakeholder groups (students, faculty, administrators/support personnel, creditors, the…

  17. Preliminary estimation of the peak discharge at the Su Gologone spring (Central-East Sardinia) during the flood event of November 18th, 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cossu, Antonello; De Waele, Jo; Sanna, Francesco; Sanna, Laura

    2014-05-01

    Last November 2013, an exceptional rainfall has occurred in Sardinia causing 18 casualties at Olbia and Bitti and severe economic damage to infrastructures and land in many areas (e.g. Torp and Cedrino plains). From a meteorological point of view, this rainfall event was caused by south-western warm and humid air currents moving from Africa coming in contact with cold air masses located above the higher parts of the island, creating convective phenomena of a certain intensity. Estimating the peak discharge of the rivers related to these high intensity rainfall events is of fundamental importance to improve flood-risk management and to prevent and/or reduce the damages. In carbonate areas, quantifying the karst aquifer recharge is an even more difficult task due to the fact that the precipitation and resulting surface flow is rapidly transferred to the underground cave systems, and then suddenly released at karst outflows. We report the case of the Su Gologone spring, in Supramonte area (Central-East Sardinia, Italy), a karst resurgence located only twenty metres from the Cedrino river and one of the main water supplies to this river. The freshwater of this karst spring feeds the Preda 'e Othoni dam, located a few kilometres downstream of the resurgence, and originally built to regulate the flooding of Cedrino river but currently used for all sorts of purposes, as electricity supply, irrigation of farmlands, industrial uses and especially for drinking water, an important source that has to be quantified and preserved. With the purpose of evaluating the contribution of this karst spring to the river discharge, at the beginning of the hydrological year 2013-14, Su Gologone has been equipped with a multi-parametric probe for in-continuous monitoring, at regular intervals, of the values of pressure (and therefore the level of water), electrical conductivity and water temperature. During the entire monitoring period flow rate measurements have been performed three times at the spring, based on the speed of the water taken with a hydraulic reel specially dedicated for this type of survey. These data show that an increase in water level of just 60 cm, produces a flow rate ten times higher than that during low discharge. During the peak discharge at the spring the probe has recorded a rise in the water level of over 11 metres, between 18:00 and 21:00 on November 18th, 2013. Part of this increase, however, was due to the barrier function of the nearby Cedrino river, whose high water level has blocked the drainage of the water from the karst system. The water spring level curve shows a temporary lowering around noon, before the flood peak, probably due to the opening of the dam. On the basis of the comparison between the measured speed of water flow in the stages immediately preceding and succeeding the flood event and of the values of water level recorded by the multi-parametric probe, it has been possible to estimate the contribution of the karst spring to the peak discharge of the river in around 40 cubic metres per second, a value of two orders of magnitude greater than the average flow of the spring (around 200 L/s).

  18. Three centuries of heavy metal pollution in Paris (France) recorded by urban speleothems.

    PubMed

    Pons-Branchu, Edwige; Ayrault, Sophie; Roy-Barman, Matthieu; Bordier, Louise; Borst, Wolfgang; Branchu, Philippe; Douville, Eric; Dumont, Emmanuel

    2015-06-15

    The first record of urban speleothems used to reconstruct the history of heavy metal pollution of shallow groundwaters is presented. Two speleothems grew during the last 300 years in an underground aqueduct in the north-eastern part of Paris. They display high Pb, Mn V, Cu, Cd and Al concentrations since 1900 due to the urbanization of the site which triggered anthropogenic contamination of the water feeding the speleothems. Surprisingly, these heavy metal concentrations are also high in the oldest part. This early pollution could come from the use of Parisian waste as fertilizers in the orchards and vineyards cultivated above the aqueduct before urbanization. Lead isotopes were measured in these carbonates as well as in lead artifacts from the 17th-18th centuries ((206)Pb/(207)Pb=1.180+/-0.003). The mean (206)Pb/(207)Pb ratio, for one of the speleothems is 1.181+/-0.003 unvarying with time. These lead signatures are close to those of coal and old lead from northern European mines, lower than the natural background signature. It confirms that the high metal concentrations found come from anthropogenic pollution. Conversely, the lead isotopic composition of the second speleothem presents two temporal trends: for the oldest levels, the mean value (1.183+/-0.003) is similar to the first speleothem. For the youngest part, a lower value (1.172+/-0.005) is recorded, evidencing the contribution of a new lead source at the beginning of the industrial revolution. Pb isotopes were also measured in recent samples from a nearby superficial site. The first sample is a recent (AD 1975+/-15 years) deposit ((206)Pb/(207)Pb=1.148+/-0.003), and the second, a thin subactual layer ((206)Pb/(207)Pb=1.181+/-0.002). These data are compatible with the adding of anthropogenic sources (leaded gasoline and industrial lead from Rio Tinto ore). PMID:25747368

  19. Spinning AdS propagators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, Miguel S.; Gonalves, Vasco; Penedones, Joo

    2014-09-01

    We develop the embedding formalism to describe symmetric traceless tensors in Anti-de Sitter space. We use this formalism to construct the bulk-to-bulk propagator of massive spin J fields and check that it has the expected short distance and massless limits. We also find a split representation for the bulk-to-bulk propagator, by writing it as an integral over the boundary of the product of two bulk-to-boundary propagators. We exemplify the use of this representation with the computation of the conformal partial wave decomposition of Witten diagrams. In particular, we determine the Mellin amplitude associated to AdS graviton exchange between minimally coupled scalars of general dimension, including the regular part of the amplitude.

  20. Credentialing Kepler: Transits in the Seventeenth Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gingerich, O.

    2005-08-01

    Kepler's successful prediction of the 1631 transit of Mercury spurred an interest in his decidedly user-unfriendly Rudolfine Tables. Because his Ephemerides went only to 1636, he did not draw attention to the 1639 transit of Venus, although the tables actually predicted the phenomenon, and the observation by Horrocks again proved the superiority of Kepler's work. By mid-century alternative user-friendly versions of the Rudolfine Tables were published by V. Renieri in Italy, J.B. Morin in France, Maria Cunitia in Germany, and (in a more modified form) by J. Shakerley in England. Transits of Mercury were observed in 1651 (by Shakerley in Surat, India), 1661, 1667, 1690, and 1697, giving astronomers opportunities to compare the predictions from these tables as well as those of Lansbergen (which were a variant of the Copernican Prutenic Tables). Because of the subsequent interest in transits for determining the length of the astronomical unit, the 18th-century French astronomer J-N. Delisle compiled for these early transits extensive systematic records, which are now preserved at the Paris Observatory. By his day, however, the as-yet-unpublished tables of Edmond Halley gave the most successful predictions, and Delisle showed little interest in further credentialing the Rudolfine Tables, a process that had already taken place in the previous century.

  1. [The union of three families of apothecaries in Paris in the 17th and 18th centuries--The apothecaries Franois Pihou, Franois Regnault, Henry Charas and Marie Fourneau].

    PubMed

    Warolin, Christian

    2015-06-01

    The family network started with Marie Fourneau, daughter of the apothecary Jacques Fourneau, married successively two apothecaries first Franois Pihou and then Franois Regnault and whose only daughter Marie Anne married the apothecary Henry Charas grandson of the famous apothecary Moyse Charas. PMID:26189312

  2. News and Views: Gemini hits 1000 papers; Comet Elenin? Forget it! Sellers launches course; Merry Christmas from 18th-century Lapland; ET: where are they all hiding? SETI in the city; Complex organic molecules may not mean life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2011-12-01

    No-one has yet found artefacts from an alien civilization, but have we looked hard enough? Astronomers seeking signs of extraterrestrial intelligence have suggested a novel approach: look for alien cities. The search for signs of life in the universe has included the detection of complex organic molecules, seen as a step on the way to living things. But now analysis of spectral signatures known as Unidentified Infrared Emission features found in stars, interstellar space and galaxies suggest that complex organic molecules can be made in stars in a matter of weeks without the presence of life.

  3. An Odyssey into the New Millennium: Rediscover 21st Century Business & Marketing Education. Proceedings of the Annual Atlantic Coast Business & Marketing Education Conference (18th, Raleigh, North Carolina, February 15-17, 2001).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Sheila, Ed.

    The following 13 papers on business and marketing education are included in this document: "Internet Marketing" (Herb Brown, Jerry Kandies); "Disk This . . . Paper Flow on the Go!" (Mary Evans, Wilbur Whitley); "Production and Evaluation of On-Line Tutorials" (Margie Gallagher, Evelyn Farrior, Jane Geissler); "Basic Skills Needed for Entry-Level…

  4. [Medicine and natural sciences in the Dessau cultural district of the 18th century. On the 250th anniversary of the birth of Leopold Friedrich Franz (1740-1817) of Anhalt-Dessau].

    PubMed

    Kaiser, W

    1990-08-01

    The 250th anniversary of the birthday of Prince Leopold Friedrich Franz of Anhalt-Dessau gives occasion to the appreciation of the progressive achievements of this representative of an enlightened absolutism, taking into particular consideration medicine and natural sciences. Under his reign a public health was established which was exemplarily organized by Dessau community physicians, the benefit of which the whole population of the country enjoyed. PMID:2247994

  5. A possible case of acquired syphilis at the former Royal Hospital of All-Saints (RHAS) in Lisbon, Portugal (18th century): a comparative methodological approach to differential diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Assis, Sandra; Casimiro, Sílvia; Alves Cardoso, Francisca

    2015-01-01

    Between the years of 1999 and 2001, during the excavation of the Praça da Figueira (Lisbon, Portugal), several human osteological remains from various chronological periods were discovered. Amongst them several skeletons are known to be related with the Hospital Real de Todos-os-Santos (Royal Hospital of All Saints - RHAS), which had an important role. The hospital history begun in 1492 and ended in 1755 largely as a consequence of the Lisbon earthquake. Of the skeletons exhumed, one in particular, the adult female Sk. 1310 showed significant pathological changes. The bone lesions characterized by new bone deposition, with a symmetric and disseminate pattern, were found in the upper limbs, distal end of femurs and in tibia and fibula diaphyses. A bowing deformity with "sabre shape" morphology was also observed in the tibiae. The most striking lesions, characterized by healed nodular cavitations and similar to those of caries sicca, were recorded on the frontal bone. Considering the value of a complete description, as well as the application of multiple lines of enquiry for a reliable differential diagnosis, three distinct techniques were applied and compared: visual examination, imagiology and histology. The results showed that the macroscopic analysis coupled with conventional X-ray analysis were fundamental to obtain a possible diagnosis of acquired syphilis. In contrast, the CT-scan and the histological analyses were less informative. The application of a new scoring system also supports a diagnosis of acquired syphilis. This case-study constitutes the first evidence of syphilis associated with the RHAS, supporting historical data on the pivotal role that this hospital had on the treatment of several conditions, namely, syphilis. PMID:26244715

  6. Bubbling AdS3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martelli, Dario; Morales, Jose F.

    2005-02-01

    In the light of the recent Lin, Lunin, Maldacena (LLM) results, we investigate 1/2-BPS geometries in minimal (and next to minimal) supergravity in D = 6 dimensions. In the case of minimal supergravity, solutions are given by fibrations of a two-torus T2 specified by two harmonic functions. For a rectangular torus the two functions are related by a non-linear equation with rare solutions: AdS3 S3, the pp-wave and the multi-center string. ``Bubbling'', i.e. superpositions of droplets, is accommodated by allowing the complex structure of the T2 to vary over the base. The analysis is repeated in the presence of a tensor multiplet and similar conclusions are reached, with generic solutions describing D1D5 (or their dual fundamental string-momentum) systems. In this framework, the profile of the dual fundamental string-momentum system is identified with the boundaries of the droplets in a two-dimensional plane.

  7. Climatic information of Western Sahel (1535-1793 AD) in original documentary sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milln, V.; Rodrigo, F. S.

    2014-09-01

    The Sahel is the semi-arid transition zone between arid Sahara and humid tropical Africa, extending approximately 10-20 N from Mauritania in the West to Sudan in the East. The African continent, one of the most vulnerable regions to climate change, is subject to frequent droughts and famine. One climate challenge research is to isolate those aspects of climate variability that are natural from those that are related to human influences. Therefore, the study of climatic conditions before mid-19th century, when anthropogenic influence was of minor importance, is very interesting. In this work the frequency of extreme events, such as droughts and floods, in Western Sahel from the 16th to 18th centuries is investigated using documentary data. Original manuscripts with historical chronicles from Walata and Nema (Mauritania), Timbuktu and Arawan (Mali), and Agadez (Niger) have been analyzed. Information on droughts, intense rainfall, storms and floods, as well as socioeconomic aspects (famines, pests, scarcity, prosperity) has been codified in an ordinal scale ranging from -2 (drought and famines) to +2 (floods) to obtain a numerical index of the annual rainfall in the region. Results show wet conditions in the 17th century, as well as dry conditions in the 18th century (interrupted by a short wet period in the 1730s decade).

  8. The added value of biomarker analysis to the genesis of Plaggic Anthrosols.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Mourik, Jan; Jansen, Boris

    2015-04-01

    Coversands (chemical poor Late-glacial aeolian sand deposits) dominate the surface geology of an extensive area in northwestern Europe. Plaggic Anthrosols occur in cultural landscapes, developed on coversands. They are the characteristic soils that developed on ancient fertilized arable fields. Plaggic Anthrosols have a complex genesis. They are records of aspects environmental and agricultural history. In previous studies information of the soil records was unlocked by application of pollen analysis, 14C and OSL dating. In this study we applied biomarker analysis to unlock additional information about the applied organic sources in the production of plaggic manure. Radiocarbon dating suggested the start of sedentary agriculture (after a period, characterized by shifting cultivation and Celtic fields) between 3000 and 2000 BP. In previous studies is assumed that farmers applied organic sods, dug on forest soils and heath to produce organic stable manure to fertilize the fields. The mineral fraction of the sods was supposed to be responsible for the development of the plaggic horizon and the raise of the land surface. Optically stimulated Luminescence dating however suggested that plaggic deposition on the fields started relatively late, in the 18th century. The use of ectorganic matter from the forest soils must have been ended in the 10th-12th century, due to commercial forest clear cuttings as recorded in archived documents. These deforestations resulted in the first extension of sand drifting and famers had to protect the valuable heath against this ' environmental catastrophe' . The use of heath for sheep grazing and other purposes as honey production could continue till the 18th century, as recorded in archived documents. In the course of the 18th century, the population growth resulted in increasing demand for food. The deep stable economy was introduced and the booming demand for manure resulted in intensive sod digging on the heath. This caused heath degradation, resulting in the second extension of sand drifting. To improve our knowledge about the evolution of plaggen soils we can combine data of pollen and biomarker spectra of samples of plaggic deposits. Species, present in pollen spectra of plaggic deposits, can have three sources: 1. Pollen, already present in sods, used in the stable to produce manure. 2. Pollen, originating from flowering crop species. 3. Pollen, originating from flowering species in the surroundings. Species, present in biomarker spectra, can have three sources: 1. Biomarkers from tissues, present in sods, used for manure production. 2. Biomarkers from decomposed roots of crop species. 3. Biomarkers from straw of crop species, used in the stable for manure production. Comparison pollen and biomarker spectra of samples of a regular Anthrosol (Posteles, NE-Netherlands) and a Buried (Nabbegat, SE-Netherlands, buried around 1800 AD) Plaggic Anthrosol yielded some interesting features: a. The biomarker spectra of the 2Ap horizons (agricultural layer below the plaggic deposits) are dominated by biomarkers of deciduous trees (dominated by Quercus), indicating the use of organic litter from the forests. These trees are also present in the pollen spectra. b. The biomarker spectra of the plaggic deposits are dominated by crop species (Avena, Secale, Fagpyrum), Calluna is absent in most of the spectra. This is different from pollen spectra where Calluna is present, together with crop species and transported pollen of other species. Only the biomarker spectra of the upper 10 cm of the plaggic horizons are dominated by Calluna. c. Comparison of the spectra of the buried and regular Plaggic Anthrosols show the contribution of biomarkers of roots of Zea mais (introduced around 1950 AD), suppressing the other species. The negligible percentages of Calluna in biomarker spectra of plaggic deposits suggest an overestimating of the use of heath sods in the traditional interpretation of the genesis of plaggic horizons, the dominance of crop species in biomarker spectra of plaggic deposits suggests underestimating of the use of straw as source material for the production of organic stable manure to fertilize ancient arable fields. While the results of biomarker analyses seem to indicate compelling new insights in the practices of plaggen agriculture in The Netherlands, we wish to stress that the biomarker method using VERHIB is still in the early stages of its development and some care must be taken with the interpretation of the results. References: 1. van Mourik, J.M., Slotboom, R.T., Wallinga, J., 2011. Chronology of plaggic deposits; palynology, radiocarbon and optically stimulated luminescence dating of the Posteles (NE-Netherlands). Catena 84, 54-60. 2. Van Mourik, J.M., Seijmonsbergen, A.C., Slotboom, R.T. and Wallinga, J, (2011a). The impact of human land use on soils and landforms in cultural landscapes on aeolian sandy substrates (Maashorst, SE Netherlands). Quaternary International 265 (2012) 74-89.

  9. Clear cutting (10-13th century) and deep stable economy (18-19th century) as responsible interventions for sand drifting and plaggic deposition in cultural landscapes on aeolian sands (SE-Netherlands).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Mourik, Jan; Vera, Hein; Wallinga, Jakob

    2013-04-01

    The landscape in extensive areas in SE-Netherlands is underlain by coversand, deposited during the Late Glacial of the Weichselian. In the Preboreal, aeolian processes reduced soil formation. From the Preboreal to the Atlantic a deciduous climax forest developed. The geomorphology was a coversand landscape, composed of ridges (umbric podzols), coversand plains (gleyic podzols), coversand depressions (histic podzols) and small valleys (gleysols). The area was used by hunting people during the Late Paleolithic and Mesolithic. During the Bronze and Iron Ages the area was populated by people, living from forest grazing, shifting cultivation and trade. The natural deciduous forest gradually degraded into Calluna heath. The deforestation accelerated the soil acidification and affected the hydrology, which is reflected in drying out of ridges and wetting of depressions, promoting the development of histic podzols and even histosols. Aeolian erosion was during this period restricted to local, small scale sand drifting, related to natural hazards as forest fires and hurricanes and shifting cultivation. Sustainable crop productivity on chemically poor sandy substrates required application of organic fertilizers, composed of a mixture of organic litter and animal manure with a very low mineral compound, produced in shallow stables. At least since 1000 AD, heath management was regulated by a series of rules that aimed to protect the valuable heat lands against degradation. During the 11th, 12th and 13th centuries there was an increasing demand for wood and clear cutting transformed the majority of the forests in driftsand landscapes. The most important market was formed by the very wealthy Flemish cities. The exposed soil surface was subjected to wind erosion and sand drifting which endangered the Calluna heath, arable land and even farmhouses. As a consequence, umbric podzols, the natural climax soil under deciduous forests on coversand, degraded into larger scale driftsand landscapes, characterized by deflation plains (gleyic arenosols) and complexes of inland dunes (haplic arenosols). Clear cutting was responsible for the mediaeval first large scale expansion of drift sand landscapes. In such driftsand landscapes, the majority of the podzolic soils in coversand has been truncated by aeolian erosion. Only on scattered sheltered sites in the landscape, palaeopodzols were buried under mono or polycyclic driftsand deposits. They are now the valuable soil archives for palaeoecological research. During the 18th century, the population growth and regional economic activity stimulated the agricultural productivity. Farmers introduced the innovative 'deep stable' technique to increase the production of fertilizers. Farmers started sod digging, including the top of the Ah horizon of the humus forms. This consequently promoted heath degradation and sand drifting, resulting in the extension of driftsand landscapes. Deep stable economy and sod digging was responsible for the 18th century second large scale expansion of drift sand landscapes. During the 19th century, farmers tried to find alternative fertilizers and authorities initiated reforestation projects. The invention of chemical fertilizers at the end of the 19th century marked the end of the period of heath management and plaggic agriculture. The heath was no longer used for the harvesting of plaggic matter and new land management practices were introduced. Heath was reclaimed to new arable land or reforested with Scotch pine. Geomorphological features as inland dunes and plaggic covers survived in the landscape and are now included in the geological inheritance.

  10. The Environmental History of Cetaceans in Portugal: Ten Centuries of Whale and Dolphin Records

    PubMed Central

    Brito, Cristina; Sousa, Andreia

    2011-01-01

    The history between cetaceans and humans is documented throughout time not only in reports, descriptions, and tales but also in legal documents, laws and regulations, and tithes. This wealth of information comes from the easy spotting and identification of individuals due to their large size, surface breathing, and conspicuous above water behaviour. This work is based on historical sources and accounts accounting for cetacean presence for the period between the 12th and 17th centuries, as well as scientific articles, newspapers, illustrations, maps, non-published scientific reports, and other grey literature from the 18th century onwards. Information on whale use in Portugal's mainland has been found since as early as the 12th century and has continued to be created throughout time. No certainty can be given for medieval and earlier events, but both scavenging of stranded whales or use of captured ones may have happened. There is an increasing number of accounts of sighted, stranded, used, or captured cetaceans throughout centuries which is clearly associated with a growing effort towards the study of these animals. Scientific Latin species denominations only started to be registered from the 18th century onwards, as a consequence of the evolution of natural sciences in Portugal and increasing interest from zoologists. After the 19th century, a larger number of observations were recorded, and from the 20th century to the present day, regular scientific records have been collected. Research on the environmental history of cetaceans in Portugal shows a several-centuries-old exploitation of whales and dolphins, as resources mainly for human consumption, followed in later centuries by descriptions of natural history documenting strandings and at sea encounters. Most cetaceans species currently thought to be present in Portuguese mainland waters were at some point historically recorded. PMID:21931627

  11. Lens making for scientific instrumentation in the seventeenth century.

    PubMed

    Bedini, S A

    1966-05-01

    With the invention of the telescope and the microscope early in the 17th century, the production of optical lenses became an important factor in the development of these instruments for scientific observation and investigation. In spite of improvements in equipment and techniques, the obstacles to the production of suitable lenses were not surmounted until the 18th century because of lack of knowledge of the optical properties of lenses, and the difficulties in producing glass of suitable clarity due to primitive grinding and polishing techniques. The early astronomical lenses were produced by means of the primitive equipment of the mirror makers and polishers of pietre dure in Murano and Venice. The first professional apparatus for lens grinding and polishing was developed by Ippolito Francini of Florence, and subsequently improved by Eustachio Divini and Carlo Antonio Manzini. A major advance in the equipment and techniques was made by Giuseppe Campani of Rome in the second half of the century. Other important contributions were made by Christiaan Huygens in Holland and John Marshall in England. Toward the end of the 17th century, craftsmen in England and France made great strides in the improvement of apparatus and techniques for lens grinding and polishing. In spite of them, however, optical workshop practice improved extremely slowly, and it remained virtually unchanged into the 19th century. PMID:20048929

  12. Water-related occupations and diet in two Roman coastal communities (Italy, first to third century AD): correlation between stable carbon and nitrogen isotope values and auricular exostosis prevalence.

    PubMed

    Crowe, Fiona; Sperduti, Alessandra; O'Connell, Tamsin C; Craig, Oliver E; Kirsanow, Karola; Germoni, Paola; Macchiarelli, Roberto; Garnsey, Peter; Bondioli, Luca

    2010-07-01

    The reconstruction of dietary patterns in the two Roman imperial age coastal communities of Portus and Velia (I-III AD) by means of stable isotope analysis of bone remains has exposed a certain degree of heterogeneity between and within the two samples. Results do not correlate with any discernible mortuary practices at either site, which might have pointed to differential social status. The present study tests the hypothesis of a possible connection between dietary habits and occupational activities in the two communities. Among skeletal markers of occupation, external auricular exostosis (EAE) has proved to be very informative. Clinical and retrospective epidemiological surveys have revealed a strong positive correlation between EAE development and habitual exposure to cold water. In this study, we show that there is a high rate of occurrence of EAE among adult males in both skeletal samples (21.1% in Portus and 35.3% in Velia). Further, there is a statistically significant higher prevalence of EAE among those individuals at Velia with very high nitrogen isotopic values. This points to fishing (coastal, low-water fishing) as the sea-related occupation most responsible for the onset of the ear pathology. For Portus, where the consumption of foods from sea and river seems to be more widespread through the population, and where the scenario of seaport and fluvial activities was much more complex than in Velia, a close correlation between EAE and fish consumption by fishermen is less easy to establish. PMID:20014179

  13. A soliton menagerie in AdS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gentle, Simon A.; Rangamani, Mukund; Withers, Benjamin

    2012-05-01

    We explore the behaviour of charged scalar solitons in asymptotically global AdS4 spacetimes. This is motivated in part by attempting to identify under what circumstances such objects can become large relative to the AdS length scale. We demonstrate that such solitons generically do get large and in fact in the planar limit smoothly connect up with the zero temperature limit of planar scalar hair black holes. In particular, for given Lagrangian parameters we encounter multiple branches of solitons: some which are perturbatively connected to the AdS vacuum and surprisingly, some which are not. We explore the phase space of solutions by tuning the charge of the scalar field and changing scalar boundary conditions at AdS asymptopia, finding intriguing critical behaviour as a function of these parameters. We demonstrate these features not only for phenomenologically motivated gravitational Abelian-Higgs models, but also for models that can be consistently embedded into eleven dimensional supergravity.

  14. 'Lazy, slothful and indolent': medical and social perceptions of obesity in Europe to the eighteenth century.

    PubMed

    Sawbridge, D T; Fitzgerald, R

    2009-12-01

    There is a considerable stigma associated with obesity, among healthcare professionals as well as the general population, which often leads to discrimination and weight bias. But why is there a stigma attached to obesity? The origin of this stigma has been identified in the 18th century but its roots lie much further back in history. There is some debate about how this negative perception of obesity arose and the role of medical professionals in its creation. This paper examines both positive and negative conceptions by following three major aspects of the modern stigma through from Palaeolithic statues to the medical texts of ancient Greece and Rome, finishing with the medical and literary sources of the 18th century 'Enlightenment'. The modern perception of obesity originated in the social and scientific climate of the Enlightenment through the combination of three key themes; obesity as conspicuous consumption, associations with suspect morals and excess, and as an outward representation of the soul. The evolution of each of these themes can be clearly identfied in pre-Enlightenment sources. By the eighteenth century, these perceptions became amplified by, and disseminated through, the literary and media boom to create a recognisably modern stigma against the obese. PMID:20527324

  15. Segmented strings in AdS 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Callebaut, Nele; Gubser, Steven S.; Samberg, Andreas; Toldo, Chiara

    2015-11-01

    We study segmented strings in flat space and in AdS 3. In flat space, these well known classical motions describe strings which at any instant of time are piecewise linear. In AdS 3, the worldsheet is composed of faces each of which is a region bounded by null geodesics in an AdS 2 subspace of AdS 3. The time evolution can be described by specifying the null geodesic motion of kinks in the string at which two segments are joined. The outcome of collisions of kinks on the worldsheet can be worked out essentially using considerations of causality. We study several examples of closed segmented strings in AdS 3 and find an unexpected quasi-periodic behavior. We also work out a WKB analysis of quantum states of yo-yo strings in AdS 5 and find a logarithmic term reminiscent of the logarithmic twist of string states on the leading Regge trajectory.

  16. Eighteenth century Yersinia pestis genomes reveal the long-term persistence of an historical plague focus.

    PubMed

    Bos, Kirsten I; Herbig, Alexander; Sahl, Jason; Waglechner, Nicholas; Fourment, Mathieu; Forrest, Stephen A; Klunk, Jennifer; Schuenemann, Verena J; Poinar, Debi; Kuch, Melanie; Golding, G Brian; Dutour, Olivier; Keim, Paul; Wagner, David M; Holmes, Edward C; Krause, Johannes; Poinar, Hendrik N

    2016-01-01

    The 14th-18th century pandemic of Yersinia pestis caused devastating disease outbreaks in Europe for almost 400 years. The reasons for plague's persistence and abrupt disappearance in Europe are poorly understood, but could have been due to either the presence of now-extinct plague foci in Europe itself, or successive disease introductions from other locations. Here we present five Y. pestis genomes from one of the last European outbreaks of plague, from 1722 in Marseille, France. The lineage identified has not been found in any extant Y. pestis foci sampled to date, and has its ancestry in strains obtained from victims of the 14th century Black Death. These data suggest the existence of a previously uncharacterized historical plague focus that persisted for at least three centuries. We propose that this disease source may have been responsible for the many resurgences of plague in Europe following the Black Death. PMID:26795402

  17. The 18th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Topics concerning aerospace mechanisms, their functional performance, and design specifications are presented. Discussed subjects include the design and development of release mechanisms, actuators, linear driver/rate controllers, antenna and appendage deployment systems, position control systems, and tracking mechanisms for antennas and solar arrays. Engine design, spaceborne experiments, and large space structure technology are also examined.

  18. SWANA 18th annual landfill gas symposium

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    This document contains reports presented from the Annual Landfill Gas Symposium. The reports represent a wide variety of topics of importance to professionals in the municipal solid waste field. Topics are organized under the following headings: control technologies; landfill gas utilization; environmental compliance; landfill gas utilization economics; field practices; and future issues in LFG-to-energy. Individual reports have been processed separately for the Department of Energy databases.

  19. 18th Annual Residence Hall Construction Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agron, Joe

    2007-01-01

    It is said that "home is where the heart is." Many colleges and universities are keeping that in mind as they continue to invest in building residential facilities to attract students to on-campus living. Residence hall construction at the nation's higher-education institutions remains strong, as the benefits to students, parents, and the college

  20. Constructing Lifshitz solutions from AdS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassani, Davide; Faedo, Anton F.

    2011-05-01

    Under general assumptions, we show that a gravitational theory in d + 1 dimensions admitting an AdS solution can be reduced to a d-dimensional theory containing a Lifshitz solution with dynamical exponent z = 2. Working in a d = 4, mathcal{N} = 2 supergravity setup, we prove that if the AdS background is mathcal{N} = 2 supersymmetric, then the Lifshitz geometry preserves 1/4 of the supercharges, and we construct the corresponding Killing spinors. We illustrate these results in examples from supersymmetric consistent truncations of type IIB supergravity, enhancing the class of known 4-dimensional Lifshitz solutions of string theory. As a byproduct, we find a new AdS4 × S 1 × T 1,1 solution of type IIB.

  1. Effects of Syn-Pandemic Reforestation on Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide From 1500 to 1700 A.D.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nevle, R. J.; Bird, D. K.

    2005-12-01

    Recent analysis of paleoclimate proxies suggests that biomass burning by humans during the past eight millennia produced quantities of CO2 sufficient to counteract the effects of decreasing insolation driven by orbital variations and thus prevented ice sheet expansion. Correlation between periods of declining population and biomass burning, such as implied by the synchroneity of the American pandemics and decreasing atmospheric CO2 concentration during the 16th-18th centuries, provides an important test of the extent to which pre-industrial anthropogenic activity affected the atmospheric greenhouse gas budget. Numerous studies have attributed the ~5 ppm decline of atmospheric CO2 concentration, as well as the synchronous ~0.1 per mil increase of the ?13C of atmospheric CO2 between 1500 and 1700 A.D., to the effects of Little Ice Age cooling. However, this interpretation is not supported by recent multiproxy-based surface temperature reconstructions, which demonstrate a diminutive global temperature anomaly of ~0.1 C that was unlikely to have independently produced the distinct effect observed in atmospheric CO2 concentration. Alternatively, it is possible that a decline in CO2 concentration driven by massive reforestation produced cooling as a by-product. The timing and magnitude of changes in both the concentration and carbon-isotope composition of atmospheric CO2 recorded by globally distributed climate proxies from the tropics (sponges), temperate latitudes (tree rings), and polar regions (ice cores) are compatible with fixation of >10 Gt C due to reforestation. Reforestation, which explains pre-industrial atmospheric CO2 variations between 1500 and 1700 A.D. in a manner more consistent with the global surface temperature record than explanations requiring substantial cooling, presumably occurred on lands that were cultivated and seasonally burned, then subsequently abandoned, by indigenous Americans who perished in pandemics during European conquest. The present proxy data point to reforestation in the wake of the American pandemic, with its consequent affects on atmospheric CO2, as unique in human history. These findings redefine the duration and extent of human activities affecting composition of the atmosphere during the past millennium. The anthropogenic influence on the partial pressure of atmospheric CO2 since ~1800 A.D. is well documented by the exponential rise in concentration and simultaneous decline in ?13C of atmospheric CO2, but these recent trends represent dramatic reversals in the behavior of atmospheric CO2 concentration and ?13C prior to the Industrial Revolution between 1500 and 1700. During this time the concentration of atmospheric CO2 decreased and its ?13C increased due to land use changes resulting from pandemics that killed ~90% of the indigenous American population (~50 million people).

  2. Controlling Beam Halo-Chaos for ADS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Jin-Qing; Zhao, Geng; Zhou, Liu-Lai; Chen, Guanrong

    Accelerator driven clean nuclear power system (ADS) as an innovative technique in the 21st century is among the most challenge of high-tech fields since it makes nuclear power system safer, cleaner, cheaper, and more reliable. ADS is very necessary option for sustainable development of nuclear energy in the 21st century. However, beam halo-chaos occurred in high-current accelerators of ADS has become a key concerned issue for many important applications of intensity ion beam.To understand the complex of beam halo-chaos, this paper analyzes one of the main physical mechanism for halo-chaos formation, i.e. nonlinear resonance overlapping routes to halo-chaos. Then some efficient nonlinear control methods of beam halo-chaos are presented. The simulation results demonstrate that the control methods we proposed are very effective for beam halo-chaos suppression.

  3. Smeared antibranes polarise in AdS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gautason, Fridrik Freyr; Truijen, Brecht; Van Riet, Thomas

    2015-07-01

    In the recent literature it has been questioned whether the local backreaction of antibranes in flux throats can induce a perturbative brane-flux decay. Most evidence for this can be gathered for D6 branes and D p branes smeared over 6 - p compact directions, in line with the absence of finite temperature solutions for these cases. The solutions in the literature have flat worldvolume geometries and non-compact transversal spaces. In this paper we consider what happens when the worldvolume is AdS and the transversal space is compact. We show that in these circumstances brane polarisation smoothens out the flux singularity, which is an indication that brane-flux decay is prevented. This is consistent with the fact that the cosmological constant would be less negative after brane-flux decay. Our results extend recent results on AdS7 solutions from D6 branes to AdS p+1 solutions from D p branes. We show that supersymmetry of the AdS solutions depend on p non-trivially.

  4. AdS orbifolds and Penrose limits

    SciTech Connect

    Alishahiha, Mohsen; Sheikh-Jabbari, Mohammad M.; Tatar, Radu

    2002-12-09

    In this paper we study the Penrose limit of AdS{sub 5} orbifolds. The orbifold can be either in the pure spatial directions or space and time directions. For the AdS{sub 5}/{Lambda} x S{sup 5} spatial orbifold we observe that after the Penrose limit we obtain the same result as the Penrose limit of AdS{sub 5} x S{sup 5}/{Lambda}. We identify the corresponding BMN operators in terms of operators of the gauge theory on R x S{sup 3}/{Lambda}. The semi-classical description of rotating strings in these backgrounds have also been studied. For the spatial AdS orbifold we show that in the quadratic order the obtained action for the fluctuations is the same as that in S{sup 5} orbifold, however, the higher loop correction can distinguish between two cases.

  5. Was Cheselden's One-Century-Long Otological Writings Concordant With His Time?

    PubMed

    Corrales, C Eduardo; Mudry, Albert

    2015-08-01

    William Cheselden's famous anatomical treatise spanned the entire 18th century period with its 15 editions. The aim of this study is to analyze the otological knowledge described in all these editions, to identify key 18th century otological advancements, and to study their concordance.In the first edition (1713), Cheselden notably mentioned four middle ear ossicles: malleus, incus, fourth ossicle, and stapes; four auditory muscles: "external tympani," "external oblique," tensor tympani, and stapedial; and a small opening in the tympanic membrane. In subsequent editions, minimal changes appeared, except for nomenclature changes and the proposal of an artificial opening of the tympanic membrane. Virtually no changes were performed up to the last edition (1806). All Cheselden's Editions confirm the uncertain presence of a fourth ossicle, the disputable presence of a tympanic membrane opening and the "usual" accepted presence of three muscles to the malleus. Key otologic advancements, not found in any of Cheselden's writings, were catherization of the Eustachian tube, presence of fluid in the inner ear, and the surgical opening of the mastoid.This study demonstrates that Cheselden, and his subsequent editors, were unaware of some important otologic developments that revolutionized the field of otology. Description of key advancements lacking in his treatise includes catherization of the Eustachian tube, the presence of fluid in the inner ear, and the surgical opening of the mastoid. Nevertheless, Cheselden is first in proposing to artificially open the tympanic membrane in humans. PMID:25522200

  6. Evaluation of the 2012 18th Maternal and Child Health (MCH) Epidemiology and 22nd CityMatCH MCH Urban Leadership Conference: six month impact on science, program, and policy.

    PubMed

    Arellano, Danielle E; Goodman, David A; Howlette, Travis; Kroelinger, Charlan D; Law, Mark; Phillips, Donna; Jones, Jessica; Brantley, Mary D; Fitzgerald, Maureen

    2014-09-01

    The 18th Maternal and Child Health (MCH) Epidemiology and 22nd CityMatCH MCH Urban Leadership Conference took place in December 2012, covering MCH science, program, and policy issues. Assessing the impact of the Conference on attendees' work 6months post-Conference provides information critical to understanding the impact and the use of new partnerships, knowledge, and skills gained during the Conference. Evaluation assessments, which included collection of quantitative and qualitative data, were administered at two time points: at Conference registration and 6months post-Conference. The evaluation files were merged using computer IP address, linking responses from each assessment. Percentages of attendees reporting Conference impacts were calculated from quantitative data, and common themes and supporting examples were identified from qualitative data. Online registration was completed by 650 individuals. Of registrants, 30% responded to the 6month post-Conference assessment. Between registration and 6month post-Conference evaluation, the distribution of respondents did not significantly differ by organizational affiliation. In the 6months following the Conference, 65% of respondents reported pursuing a networking interaction; 96% shared knowledge from the Conference with co-workers and others in their agency; and 74% utilized knowledge from the Conference to translate data into public health action. The Conference produced far-reaching impacts among Conference attendees. The Conference served as a platform for networking, knowledge sharing, and attaining skills that advance the work of attendees, with the potential of impacting organizational and workforce capacity. Increasing capacity could improve MCH programs, policies, and services, ultimately impacting the health of women, infants, and children. PMID:25107597

  7. [Origins of the coat, appearance of physicians of the Russian fleet in the first third of XVIII century].

    PubMed

    Danchenko, V G

    2011-05-01

    The article is devoted to the reconstruction of medical uniforms Russian navy first third of the 18th century. It can be assumed that doctors were in varying degrees, the senior officer's dress, but of course without the braid, although there are exceptions, which related to doctors willing to go to a more senior hypostasis. A number of documents of different structures gives rise to speak with a high probability that the doctors of different ranks, serving in the Marine units that had shaped dress that is largely consistent with their position in the hierarchy of ranks and received in the near future, its development. PMID:21874889

  8. Eighteenth century classification of mental illness: Linnaeus, de Sauvages, Vogel, and Cullen.

    PubMed

    Munsche, Heather; Whitaker, Harry A

    2012-12-01

    Classification was an important aspect of the 17th and 18th century development of Western science, epitomized by Linnaeus's 1735 Systema Naturae (Nature's System), in which he divided each kingdom of nature into classes, orders, and species. Linnaeus, a physician in addition to being a renowned taxonomist, endeavored to classify all known human diseases, largely on the basis of symptoms, in his 1759 Genera Morborum (Varieties of Diseases). We focus on his classification of mental disorders, a large subset of the Genera Morborum. We compare and contrast the Linnaean system with Franois Boissier de Sauvages's 1772 Nosologie mthodique (A Systematic Nosology) and Rudolph Augustin Vogel's 1764 Generum Morborum (Varieties of Diseases). We consider the impact of these nosologies on William Cullen's (1769/1800) Nosology, a popular system of disease classification that persisted through much of the 19th century. PMID:23277141

  9. Extraterrestrial Life as the Great Analogy, Two Centuries Ago and in Modern Astrobiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sullivan, Woodruff T.

    Mainstream ideas on the existence of extraterrestrial life in the late 18th and early 19th centuries are examined, with a focus on William Herschel, one of the greatest astronomers of all time. Herschel viewed all of the planets and moons of our solar system as inhabited, and gave logical arguments that even the Sun, and by extension all of the stars, was a giant planet fit for habitation by intelligent beings. The importance for astrobiology both two centuries ago and now of the type of inductive reasoning called "analogy" is emphasized. Analogy is an imperfect tool, but given that we have only one known case of life and of a life-bearing planet, it is very difficult to make progress in astrobiology without resorting to analogy, in particular between known life and possible other life. We cannot overcome the "N = 1 Problem" without resorting to this "Great Analogy" to guide our research.

  10. [Changes in eating habits and disease symptoms in the 16th and 17th centuries].

    PubMed

    Van Hee, R

    1996-01-01

    The Renaissance period in Europe saw many dietary changes due to imports of new ingredients from the Far East as well as from newly discovered Central and South America. Maize and potatoes rapidly conquered European markets and because of their easier cultivation and higher calorie content, displaced grains such as wheat and rye. Drinking habits too changed, when tea, coffee and chocolate were introduced, first as strengthening medicines, later as 'delicatessen' in the aristocratic British and French cafs. These new foods and beverages may have helped diminish the periods of famine typical of Medieval and Early Renaissance times. In the 16th and 17th century, new diseases were described that were directly related to dietary intake. Ergotism and scurvy, particularly, sometimes decimated whole populations in rural areas or at sea. It was not until the 18th century that scientific research elucidated the cause of such diseases and helped us to understand the importance of a balanced diet. PMID:8848874

  11. Agricultural Education: Value Adding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riesenberg, Lou E.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    This issue develops the theme of "Agricultural Education--Value Adding." The concept value adding has been a staple in the world of agricultural business for describing adding value to a commodity that would profit the producer and the local community. Agricultural education should add value to individuals and society to justify agricultural

  12. Probing crunching AdS cosmologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, S. Prem; Vaganov, Vladislav

    2016-02-01

    Holographic gravity duals of deformations of CFTs formulated on de Sitter spacetime contain FRW geometries behind a horizon, with cosmological big crunch singularities. Using a specific analytically tractable solution within a particular single scalar truncation of {N}=8 supergravity on AdS4, we first probe such crunching cosmologies with spacelike radial geodesics that compute spatially antipodal correlators of large dimension boundary operators. At late times, the geodesics lie on the FRW slice of maximal expansion behind the horizon. The late time two-point functions factorise, and when transformed to the Einstein static universe, they exhibit a temporal non-analyticity determined by the maximal value of the scale factor ã max. Radial geodesics connecting antipodal points necessarily have de Sitter energy Ɛ ≲ ã max, while geodesics with Ɛ > ã max terminate at the crunch, the two categories of geodesics being separated by the maximal expansion slice. The spacelike crunch singularity is curved "outward" in the Penrose diagram for the deformed AdS backgrounds, and thus geodesic limits of the antipodal correlators do not directly probe the crunch. Beyond the geodesic limit, we point out that the scalar wave equation, analytically continued into the FRW patch, has a potential which is singular at the crunch along with complex WKB turning points in the vicinity of the FRW crunch. We then argue that the frequency space Green's function has a branch point determined by ã max which corresponds to the lowest quasinormal frequency.

  13. Austrian pharmacy in the 18 and 19th century.

    PubMed

    Kletter, Christa

    2010-01-01

    This overview reflects the extensive changes in the health care system which had significant effects on the apothecarys profession and education. In the 18(th) century Maria Theresia assigned Gerard van Swieten to modernize the medical curriculum and to work out reforms for health care. The resulting sanitary bill released in 1770 and amended in 1773 became effective for the whole empire and influenced greatly the apothecarys profession. The Viennese Medical Faculty continued to be the supervisory body for the apothecaries, a situation which prolonged the conflicts between the faculty and the apothecaries. The financial and social distress prevalent in the 19(th) century also affected the apothecary business and led to a crisis of the profession. Furthermore, the apothecaries missing influence over the sanitary authorities delayed the release of a badly needed new apothecary bill until 1906. The introduction of a specific pharmaceutical curriculum at the university in 1853 was a great step forward to improve the pharmaceutical education. Nevertheless, the secondary school exam was not compulsory for the studies until 1920 and, therefore, the graduates were not on a par with other university graduates before that date. Women, except nuns, were not allowed to work as pharmacists until 1900. PMID:21179353

  14. Shadows, currents, and AdS fields

    SciTech Connect

    Metsaev, R. R.

    2008-11-15

    Conformal totally symmetric arbitrary spin currents and shadow fields in flat space-time of dimension greater than or equal to four are studied. A gauge invariant formulation for such currents and shadow fields is developed. Gauge symmetries are realized by involving the Stueckelberg fields. A realization of global conformal boost symmetries is obtained. Gauge invariant differential constraints for currents and shadow fields are obtained. AdS/CFT correspondence for currents and shadow fields and the respective normalizable and non-normalizable solutions of massless totally symmetric arbitrary spin AdS fields are studied. The bulk fields are considered in a modified de Donder gauge that leads to decoupled equations of motion. We demonstrate that leftover on shell gauge symmetries of bulk fields correspond to gauge symmetries of boundary currents and shadow fields, while the modified de Donder gauge conditions for bulk fields correspond to differential constraints for boundary conformal currents and shadow fields. Breaking conformal symmetries, we find interrelations between the gauge invariant formulation of the currents and shadow fields, and the gauge invariant formulation of massive fields.

  15. Consequences of land use and climate changes on sediment deposition in estuaries during the last centuries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poirier, Clément; Chaumillon, Eric; Arnaud, Fabien; Goubert, Evelyne; Sauriau, Pierre-Guy; Caurant, Florence

    2010-05-01

    Estuaries are the downstream end-member of fluvial systems. They are experiencing high sedimentation rates, thus providing good opportunities for high resolution studies of Holocene environmental changes at the land/ocean interface. From a thorough literature survey, it appears that a rapid siltation and/or an increase in sedimentation rate were recorded in many estuarine environments, concomitantly to major migrations of human population throughout the world, both in time and space. It has been clearly related to an increase in sediment supply to estuaries in Minor Asia (Bronze Age, e.g. Spezzaferri et al, 2000) and in North America and Southwest Pacific (18th and 19th centuries, e.g. Goff, 1997), in response to deforestation on catchment areas. However, this relationship is less obvious in Europe (Sorrel et al., 2009), because deforestation occurred concomitantly to climate changes of the last millennium (climate instability at the end of Medieval Warm Period, Little Ice Age) that can also explain an increase in soil erosion. Indeed, these hypotheses have been proposed to explain a similar change in Marennes-Oléron Bay (Atlantic coast of France), which consists in the sudden deposition of a few meters-thick mud drape on basal mixed mud and sand bodies (Billeaud et al., 2005). The methods used to investigate this estuarine bay so far (very high resolution seismic stratigraphy, grain size analysis and radiocarbon dating) provided relevant information about recent environmental changes, but new data are now needed for further investigation. In the present study, we provide a multi-proxy analysis of the Marennes-Oléron Bay mud drape. A new 8 m-long core (M7UC01) was sampled on an intertidal flat, its location being determined on the basis of seismic stratigraphy. Core processing included visual description, physical measurements, grain size analysis every 2.5 to 5 cm, AMS radiocarbon dating, XRF core scanning, clay mineralogy and Rock Eval analysis. Fossil molluscs and foraminifers were also recovered to provide paleoenvironmental reconstructions. Clay mineralogy of the mud drape is similar to that of the turbid plume of the Charente River, which is an important source of terrestrial sediment in the bay, and to surrounding marsh soils. Examination of sediment smear slides shows that the sediment contains abundant plant debris. The very low values of Hydrogen Index determined by Rock-Eval analysis (mean HI: 150 ± 25 mg HC.g-1 TOC) are typical of organic matter derived from land higher plants. These three results strongly suggest that the Marennes-Oléron Bay mud drape is composed of soil relicts derived from the watershed. The mud drape started to deposit at 1400 AD, which coincides with the start of the Spörer minimum. Fossil mollusc and foraminifer assemblages provide evidences of another environmental change dated to 1670 AD, which corresponds to the Maunder minimum. These data suggest a strong impact of Little Ice Age climate changes, superimposed to land reclamation and deforestation, on the increase of sediment supply in the study area. These results, compared with the detailed literature survey performed meanwhile, would provide new insights into the impact of simultaneous land use and climate changes on the sediment deposition in estuaries during the last centuries. References: Billeaud I. et al., 2005. Geo-Marine Letters 25, 1-10. Goff J.R., 1997. Marine Geology 138, 105-117. Sorrel P. et al., 2009. Quaternary Science Reviews 28, 499-516. Spezzaferri S. et al., 2000. Mediterranean Marine Science 1(1), 19-43.

  16. 21st Century Scholars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Terrence

    2009-01-01

    Bethpage Union Free School District in New York is a high-performing district by almost any current accountability measure. Yet administrators and teachers worried that they were not doing enough to prepare their students as critical thinkers for the 21st century. Inspired by the curriculum framework of the Partnership for 21st Century Skills, the…

  17. 21st Century Scholars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Terrence

    2009-01-01

    Bethpage Union Free School District in New York is a high-performing district by almost any current accountability measure. Yet administrators and teachers worried that they were not doing enough to prepare their students as critical thinkers for the 21st century. Inspired by the curriculum framework of the Partnership for 21st Century Skills, the

  18. Ad Hoc Advisors

    Cancer.gov

    The Long Island Breast Cancer Study Project (LIBCSP) had an Ad Hoc Advisory Committee of expert scientists and community breast cancer advocates. This committee was chaired by Dr. Mimi C. Yu. The committee met annually or as needed.

  19. ADS pilot program Plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clauson, J.; Heuser, J.

    1981-01-01

    The Applications Data Service (ADS) is a system based on an electronic data communications network which will permit scientists to share the data stored in data bases at universities and at government and private installations. It is designed to allow users to readily locate and access high quality, timely data from multiple sources. The ADS Pilot program objectives and the current plans for accomplishing those objectives are described.

  20. Hadronization at the AdS wall

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, Nick; French, James; Threlfall, Ed; Jensen, Kristan

    2010-03-15

    We describe hadronization events, using the AdS/CFT Correspondence, which display many of the qualitative features expected in QCD. In particular we study the motion of strings with separating end points in a back-reacted hard wall geometry. The solutions show the development of a linear QCD-like string. The end points oscillate in the absence of string breaking. We introduce string breaking by hand and evolve the new state forward in time to observe the separation of two string segments. A kink associated with this breaking evolves to the end points of the string inducing rho meson production. We explicitly compute the rho meson production at the end point.

  1. Changing climatic and anthropogenic influences on the Bermejo wetland, through archival documents - Mendoza, Argentina, 16th-20th centuries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prieto, M. R.; Rojas, F.

    2011-11-01

    The wrong management of watering in the highest zones of the Mendoza northern oasis, the topography of the terrain and the deficient drainage, together with neotectonics phenomena, but mostly a dramatic and progressive increase of the Rio Mendoza flow volume originated the expansion of the wetlands area at the NE of the city of Mendoza at the turn of the 18th century, while in previous centuries it had retracted to a minimum. The area grew until reaching the dimension of large wetlands in the lowest oasis zones, resulting from a larger runoff and soil saturation by the rise of the phreatic layers. This situation remained throughout the 19th century, affecting the extension and use of the available land for human activity. The purpose of this study was to research this process that culminated in 1930 with the partial desiccation of the area. We have given particular importance to the influence of the climatic fluctuations in the Cordillera de los Andes and to the consequent variations of the Rio Mendoza flow volume in this process. For the analysis we used snowfall series at the cordillera and flow volume of the Rio Mendoza, built by Prieto (2009) with documental data. We analyzed which were the mediate and immediate consequences of the growth and later desiccation of the wetlands over the environment and its present repercussion on the ecosystem (salinization, poor soil drainage, soil alkalinization, sedimentation). In addition, we have also worked over georeferenced historic charts that partially reflect the behavior of the Cienaga del Bermejo during the 18th, 19th and 20th centuries. This behavior characterized by "growth pulses" and retraction moments is reflected in the analyzed charts, where those moments of major growth coincide with cycles of bigger snowstorms and larger flow volume in the Rio Mendoza.

  2. The study of anatomy in England from 1700 to the early 20th century

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Piers D; Boston, Ceridwen; Chamberlain, Andrew T; Chaplin, Simon; Chauhan, Vin; Evans, Jonathan; Fowler, Louise; Powers, Natasha; Walker, Don; Webb, Helen; Witkin, Annsofie

    2011-01-01

    The study of anatomy in England during the 18th and 19th century has become infamous for bodysnatching from graveyards to provide a sufficient supply of cadavers. However, recent discoveries have improved our understanding of how and why anatomy was studied during the enlightenment, and allow us to see the context in which dissection of the human body took place. Excavations of infirmary burial grounds and medical school cemeteries, study of hospital archives, and analysis of the content of surviving anatomical collections in medical museums enables us to re-evaluate the field from a fresh perspective. The pathway from a death in poverty, sale of the corpse to body dealer, dissection by anatomist or medical student, and either the disposal and burial of the remains or preservation of teaching specimens that survive today in medical museums is a complex and fascinating one. PMID:21496014

  3. Polynesia and polygenism: the scientific use of travel literature in the early 19th century.

    PubMed

    Carhart, Michael C

    2009-04-01

    Christoph Meiners (1747-1810) was one of 18th-century Europe's most important readers of global travel literature, and he has been credited as a founder of the disciplines of ethnology and anthropology. This article examines a part of his final work, "Untersuchungen ber die Verschiedenheiten der Menschennaturen" [Inquiries on the differences of human natures], published posthumously in the 1810s. Here Meiners developed an elaborate argument, based on empirical evidence, that the different races of men emerged indigenously at different times and in different places in natural history. Specifically this article shows how a sedentary scholar who never left Europe constructed a narrative of human origins and migrations on the basis of (1) French theory from the 1750s (Charles de Brosses and Simon Pelloutier) and (2) data gathered by explorers as reported in travel literature (J.R. Forster, Prouse, Cook, Marsden). PMID:19999832

  4. What Value "Value Added"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Two quantitative measures of school performance are currently used, the average points score (APS) at Key Stage 2 and value-added (VA), which measures the rate of academic improvement between Key Stage 1 and 2. These figures are used by parents and the Office for Standards in Education to make judgements and comparisons. However, simple

  5. ADS in a Nutshell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demleitner, M.; Eichhorn, G.; Grant, C. S.; Accomazzi, A.; Murray, S. S.; Kurtz, M. J.

    1999-05-01

    The bibliographic databases maintained by the NASA Astrophysics Data System are updated approximately biweekly with records gathered from over 125 sources all over the world. Data are either sent to us electronically, retrieved by our staff via semi-automated procedures, or entered in our databases through supervised OCR procedures. PERL scripts are run on the data to convert them from their incoming format to our standard format so that they can be added to the master database at SAO. Once new data has been added, separate index files are created for authors, objects, title words, and text word, allowing these fields to be searched for individually or in combination with each other. During the indexing procedure, discipline-specific knowledge is taken into account through the use of rule-based procedures performing string normalization, context-sensitive word translation, and synonym and stop word replacement. Once the master text and index files have been updated at SAO, an automated procedure mirrors the changes in the database to the ADS mirror site via a secure network connection. The use of a public domain software tool called rsync allows incremental updating of the database files, with significant savings in the amount of data being transferred. In the past year, the ADS Abstract Service databases have grown by approximately 30%, including 50% growth in Physics, 25% growth in Astronomy and 10% growth in the Instrumentation datasets. The ADS Abstract Service now contains over 1.4 million abstracts (475K in Astronomy, 430K in Physics, 510K in Instrumentation, and 3K in Preprints), 175,000 journal abstracts, and 115,000 full text articles. In addition, we provide links to over 40,000 electronic HTML articles at other sites, 20,000 PDF articles, and 10,000 postscript articles, as well as many links to other external data sources.

  6. Introducing ADS Labs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Accomazzi, Alberto; Henneken, E.; Grant, C. S.; Kurtz, M. J.; Di Milia, G.; Luker, J.; Thompson, D. M.; Bohlen, E.; Murray, S. S.

    2011-05-01

    ADS Labs is a platform that ADS is introducing in order to test and receive feedback from the community on new technologies and prototype services. Currently, ADS Labs features a new interface for abstract searches, faceted filtering of results, visualization of co-authorship networks, article-level recommendations, and a full-text search service. The streamlined abstract search interface provides a simple, one-box search with options for ranking results based on a paper relevancy, freshness, number of citations, and downloads. In addition, it provides advanced rankings based on collaborative filtering techniques. The faceted filtering interface allows users to narrow search results based on a particular property or set of properties ("facets"), allowing users to manage large lists and explore the relationship between them. For any set or sub-set of records, the co-authorship network can be visualized in an interactive way, offering a view of the distribution of contributors and their inter-relationships. This provides an immediate way to detect groups and collaborations involved in a particular research field. For a majority of papers in Astronomy, our new interface will provide a list of related articles of potential interest. The recommendations are based on a number of factors, including text similarity, citations, and co-readership information. The new full-text search interface allows users to find all instances of particular words or phrases in the body of the articles in our full-text archive. This includes all of the scanned literature in ADS as well as a select portion of the current astronomical literature, including ApJ, ApJS, AJ, MNRAS, PASP, A&A, and soon additional content from Springer journals. Fulltext search results include a list of the matching papers as well as a list of "snippets" of text highlighting the context in which the search terms were found. ADS Labs is available at http://adslabs.org

  7. What was Glaucoma Called Before the 20th Century?

    PubMed Central

    Leffler, Christopher T.; Schwartz, Stephen G.; Giliberti, Francesca M.; Young, Matthew T.; Bermudez, Dennis

    2015-01-01

    Glaucoma involves a characteristic optic neuropathy, often with elevated intraocular pressure. Before 1850, poor vision with a normal eye appearance, as occurs in primary open-angle glaucoma, was termed amaurosis, gutta serena, or black cataract. Few observers noted palpable hardness of the eye in amaurosis. On the other hand, angle-closure glaucoma can produce a green or gray pupil, and therefore was called, variously, glaucoma (derived from the Greek for glaucous, a nonspecific term connoting blue, green, or light gray) and viriditate oculi. Angle closure, with palpable hardness of the eye, mydriasis, and anterior prominence of the lens, was described in greater detail in the 18th and 19th centuries. The introduction of the ophthalmoscope in 1850 permitted the visualization of the excavated optic neuropathy in eyes with a normal or with a dilated greenish-gray pupil. Physicians developed a better appreciation of the role of intraocular pressure in both conditions, which became subsumed under the rubric “glaucoma”. PMID:26483611

  8. Solar activity and climate change during the 1750 A.D. solar minimum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bard, Edouard; Baroni, Mélanie; Aster Team

    2015-04-01

    The number of sunspots and other characteristics have been widely used to reconstruct the solar activity beyond the last three decades of accurate satellite measurements. It has also been possible to reconstruct the long-term solar behavior by measuring the abundance on Earth of cosmogenic nuclides such as carbon 14 and beryllium 10. These isotopes are formed by the interaction of galactic cosmic rays with atmospheric molecules. Accelerator mass spectrometry is used to measure the abundance of these isotopes in natural archives such as polar ice (for 10Be), tree rings and corals (for 14C). Over the last millennium, the solar activity has been dominated by alternating active and quiet periods, such as the Maunder Minimum, which occurred between 1645 and 1715 A.D. The climate forcing of this solar variability is the subject of intense research, both because the exact scaling in terms of irradiance is still a matter of debate and because other solar variations may have played a role in amplifying the climatic response. Indeed, the past few decades of accurate solar measurements do not include conditions equivalent to an extended solar minimum. A further difficulty of the analysis lies in the presence of other climate forcings during the last millennium, which are superimposed on the solar variations. Finally, the inherent precision of paleotemperature proxies are close to the signal amplitude retrieved from various paleoclimate archives covering the last millennium. Recent model-data comparisons for the last millennium have led to the conclusion that the solar forcing during this period was minor in comparison to volcanic eruptions and greenhouse gas concentrations (e.g. Schurer et al. 2013 J. Clim., 2014 Nat. Geo.). In order to separate the different forcings, it is useful to focus on a temperature change in phase with a well-documented solar minimum so as to maximize the response to this astronomical forcing. This is the approach followed by Wagner et al. (2005 Clim. Dyn.), who focused their data-model comparison on the Dalton Minimum, which occurred between 1790 and 1830 A.D. and which, fortuitously, included several major volcanic eruptions such as the Tambora eruption in 1815. Their conclusion was that the global imprint of the volcanic forcing was significantly larger than that of contemporaneous solar forcing and the increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations. A different approach is to consider another recent solar minimum over a period characterized by a low volcanicity and minimal changes of greenhouse gases. Such a minimum does exist between the Maunder and the Dalton Minima and lasted for a mere two decades between 1745 and 1765 A.D. The sunspot number exhibits a clear 11-year cycle, but it only reaches a maximal value lower than 100, i.e. less than observed for the past seven 11-year cycles. Incidentally, the maximal values observed between 1745 and 1765 are similar to those observed during the maximum of the present solar cycle. The 1750 A.D. solar minimum can also be studied in other records such as counts of auroras at mid-latitudes and cosmogenic isotopes such as 14C and 10Be. In addition to reviewing published time series, we will report a new 10Be record from a well-dated ice core from Dome C in Antarctica. Sulfate concentration, a proxy for volcanic eruptions, has also been measured in the very same samples, allowing a precise comparison of both 10Be and sulfate profiles. The full record covers the last millennium and will be presented separately by Baroni, Bard and the ASTER Team. Zooming in on the century between 1700 and 1800 A.D. allows to identify an extended period of low volcanicity and to observe a clear 10Be increase corresponding to the solar minimum. We will present the new data over the 18th century as well as their first interpretation in the context of other useful records based on greenhouse gas concentrations, paleotemperature proxies and climate modeling available in the literature.

  9. Multi-archive summer temperature reconstruction for the European Alps, AD 1053-1996

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trachsel, Mathias; Kamenik, Christian; Grosjean, Martin; McCarroll, Danny; Moberg, Anders; Brzdil, Rudolf; Bntgen, Ulf; Dobrovoln, Petr; Esper, Jan; Frank, David C.; Friedrich, Michael; Glaser, Rdiger; Larocque-Tobler, Isabelle; Nicolussi, Kurt; Riemann, Dirk

    2012-07-01

    We present a multi-archive, multi-proxy summer temperature reconstruction for the European Alps covering the period AD 1053-1996 using tree-ring and lake sediment data. The new reconstruction is based on nine different calibration approaches and errors were estimated conservatively. Summer temperatures of the last millennium are characterised by two warm (AD 1053-1171 and 1823-1996) and two cold phases (AD 1172-1379 and 1573-1822). Highest pre-industrial summer temperatures of the 12th century were 0.3 C warmer than the 20th century mean but 0.35 C colder than proxy derived temperatures at the end of the 20th century. The lowest temperatures at the end of the 16th century were 1 C lower than the 20th century mean.

  10. News Conference: Take a hold of Hands-on Science Meeting: Prize-winning physics-education talks are a highlight of the DPG spring meeting in Jena Event: Abstracts flow in for ICPE-EPEC 2013 Schools: A new Schools Physics Partnership in Oxfordshire Conference: 18th MPTL is forum for multimedia in education Meeting: Pursuing playful science with Science on Stage Forthcoming events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2013-03-01

    Conference: Take a hold of Hands-on Science Meeting: Prize-winning physics-education talks are a highlight of the DPG spring meeting in Jena Event: Abstracts flow in for ICPE-EPEC 2013 Schools: A new Schools Physics Partnership in Oxfordshire Conference: 18th MPTL is forum for multimedia in education Meeting: Pursuing playful science with Science on Stage Forthcoming events

  11. Two Virasoro symmetries in stringy warped AdS3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Compre, Geoffrey; Guica, Monica; Rodriguez, Maria J.

    2014-12-01

    We study three-dimensional consistent truncations of type IIB supergravity which admit warped AdS3 solutions. These theories contain subsectors that have no bulk dynamics. We show that the symplectic form for these theories, when restricted to the non-dynamical subsectors, equals the symplectic form for pure Einstein gravity in AdS3. Consequently, for each consistent choice of boundary conditions in AdS3, we can define a consistent phase space in warped AdS3 with identical conserved charges. This way, we easily obtain a Virasoro Virasoro asymptotic symmetry algebra in warped AdS3; two different types of Virasoro Ka?-Moody symmetries are also consistent alternatives.

  12. Supersymmetric AdS6 via T duality.

    PubMed

    Lozano, Y; Colgáin, E Ó; Rodríguez-Gómez, D; Sfetsos, K

    2013-06-01

    We present a new supersymmetric AdS(6) solution of type IIB supergravity with SU(2) isometry. Through the AdS/CFT correspondence, this has potentially very interesting implications for 5D fixed point theories. This solution is the result of a non-Abelian T duality on the known supersymmetric AdS(6) solution of massive IIA. The SU(2) R symmetry is untouched, leading to sixteen supercharges and preserved supersymmetry. PMID:25167481

  13. Aspects of AdS (super)gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaya, Ali

    2001-11-01

    Motivated by AdS/CFT duality, certain aspects of (super)gravity theories on AdS spaces are studied. After a short review of AdS/CFT correspondence, in the first part the complete spectrum of D = 6, N = 4b supergravity with n tensor multiplets compactified on AdS3 S3 is determined. The D = 6 theory obtained from the K3 compactification of Type IIB string theory requires n = 21 but our results are valid for arbitrary n. The spectrum of states arranges itself into a tower of spin-2, a tower of SO(n) singlet spin-1 and a tower of SO(n) n-plet spin-1 supermultiplets. In the second part, we construct an N = (2, 0) supergravity in 3-dimensions coupled to n copies of N = (2, 0) scalar multiplets which admits AdS 3 as a vacuum. The model is expected to arise from one of the AdS compactifications of string/M theory or from the truncation of the AdS3 S3 compactification of D = 6, N = 4b supergravity. The scalar fields are charged under the gauged R-symmetry group U(1) and parametrize certain Khler manifolds with compact or non-compact isometries. The radii of the scalar manifolds are quantized in the compact case, but arbitrary otherwise. We also study half supersymmetry preserving string solutions of our model. In the third part, we consider AdS instantons which would be responsible for vacuum decay by barrier penetration of a specific supergravity solution called AdS soliton. By AdS /CFT duality AdS soliton should have minimum energy among all asymptotically locally AdS solutions which have one of the coordinates compactified on S 1 at infinity. Certain geometric properties of instantons are studied using Hermitian differential operators. Finally, in the fourth part, we reformulate the Randall-Sundrum model on the AdS space without introducing singular brane sources. Compactifying the radial AdS coordinate and adding a boundary term proportional to the area of the boundary to the usual gravity action with a negative cosmological constant, we show that gravity is still localized on the boundary. The boundary conditions now follow from field equations, which are obtained by letting the induced metric vary on the boundary. We also show that the same conclusions hold for a massless scalar field.

  14. [Purgatory, mercy and charity: structural conditions of care in Portugal (15th to 19th centuries)].

    PubMed

    Abreu, L

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this article is to show how the Portuguese welfare system was organized and how it survived for several centuries. It was rebuilt by the monarchy in the late 15th century, a process that coincided with the birth of the Misericordias under the protection of the King. After the Council of Trent, these fraternities ran the health system, which was financed by people who believed in the power of perpetual Masses to evade Purgatory. These institutions were run by the political elite, who exploited them for their own benefit. The article also analyses the main measures taken by the state in the 18th century to change the old and weak system of public care. These laws were ineffectual and unable to change the real situation: the Misericordias were alone--the elite had run away when money was short--and they received no support from the public purse or from the faithful, who at that time had less faith in the perpetual Mass. PMID:11640188

  15. Eighteenth century Yersinia pestis genomes reveal the long-term persistence of an historical plague focus

    PubMed Central

    Bos, Kirsten I; Herbig, Alexander; Sahl, Jason; Waglechner, Nicholas; Fourment, Mathieu; Forrest, Stephen A; Klunk, Jennifer; Schuenemann, Verena J; Poinar, Debi; Kuch, Melanie; Golding, G Brian; Dutour, Olivier; Keim, Paul; Wagner, David M; Holmes, Edward C; Krause, Johannes; Poinar, Hendrik N

    2016-01-01

    The 14th–18th century pandemic of Yersinia pestis caused devastating disease outbreaks in Europe for almost 400 years. The reasons for plague’s persistence and abrupt disappearance in Europe are poorly understood, but could have been due to either the presence of now-extinct plague foci in Europe itself, or successive disease introductions from other locations. Here we present five Y. pestis genomes from one of the last European outbreaks of plague, from 1722 in Marseille, France. The lineage identified has not been found in any extant Y. pestis foci sampled to date, and has its ancestry in strains obtained from victims of the 14th century Black Death. These data suggest the existence of a previously uncharacterized historical plague focus that persisted for at least three centuries. We propose that this disease source may have been responsible for the many resurgences of plague in Europe following the Black Death. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.12994.001 PMID:26795402

  16. Suidas (tenth century)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Greek encyclopedist. In the course of reading Suidas's Lexicon, EDMOND HALLEY mistakenly connected the naming of the Saros cycle of 223 synodic months by the tenth century Greek lexicographer Suidas with the eclipse cycle of the same period. The solar eclipse cycle is thus now known by the name that Suidas used for another phenomenon. Halley's mistake accounts for the historical confusion that th...

  17. The Chemical Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapp, Ralph E.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses present and future problems of producing clean energy. Graphically presents the changing patterns of fuel use in the United States over the past century, and predicts population growth and energy sources and consumption up to the year 2100 for the United States and the world. (JR)

  18. Value added data archiving

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berard, Peter R.

    1993-01-01

    Researchers in the Molecular Sciences Research Center (MSRC) of Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) currently generate massive amounts of scientific data. The amount of data that will need to be managed by the turn of the century is expected to increase significantly. Automated tools that support the management, maintenance, and sharing of this data are minimal. Researchers typically manage their own data by physically moving datasets to and from long term storage devices and recording a dataset's historical information in a laboratory notebook. Even though it is not the most efficient use of resources, researchers have tolerated the process. The solution to this problem will evolve over the next three years in three phases. PNL plans to add sophistication to existing multilevel file system (MLFS) software by integrating it with an object database management system (ODBMS). The first phase in the evolution is currently underway. A prototype system of limited scale is being used to gather information that will feed into the next two phases. This paper describes the prototype system, identifies the successes and problems/complications experienced to date, and outlines PNL's long term goals and objectives in providing a permanent solution.

  19. ADS Development in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikuchi, Kenji

    2010-06-01

    Accelerator driven nuclear transmutation system has been pursued to have a clue to the solution of high-level radioactive waste management. The concept consists of super conducting linac, sub-critical reactor and the beam window. Reference model is set up to 800MW thermal power by using 1.5GeV proton beams with considerations multi-factors such as core criticality. Materials damage is simulated by high-energy particle transport codes and so on. Recent achievement on irradiation materials experiment is stated and the differences are pointed out if core burn-up is considered or not. Heat balance in tank-type ADS indicates the temperature conditions of steam generator, the beam widow and cladding materials. Lead-bismuth eutectics demonstration has been conducted. Corrosion depth rate was shown by experiments.

  20. Tuscaloosa redevelopment adding reserves

    SciTech Connect

    Petzet, G.A.

    1995-12-04

    Amoco reports positive initial results from a redevelopment program in the deep, geologically complex Upper Cretaceous Tuscaloosa trend of Southeast Louisiana. The program, heavy on the synergy of geoscience disciplines, has resulted in eight deep completions without a failure. They include six wells in Port Hudson field that averaged 10 MMcfd/well of gas and 1,300 b/d well of condensate. Geologic complexity meant 3D data alone couldn`t carry the program, but none of the wells at Port Hudson could have been drilled based on Amoco`s pre-3D geologic knowledge. Success required a synthesis of 3D with geology ad engineering expertise. Geologic predictions derived from the advance geoscience work helped cut drilling costs, and a seismic service company alliance has brought down 3D seismic costs. The paper discusses the well completions, the geoscience program, and cost savings.

  1. Bubbling geometries for AdS2× S2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lunin, Oleg

    2015-10-01

    We construct BPS geometries describing normalizable excitations of AdS2×S2. All regular horizon-free solutions are parameterized by two harmonic functions in R 3 with sources along closed curves. This local structure is reminiscent of the "bubbling solutions" for the other AdS p ×S q cases, however, due to peculiar asymptotic properties of AdS2, one copy of R 3 does not cover the entire space, and we discuss the procedure for analytic continuation, which leads to a nontrivial topological structure of the new geometries. We also study supersymmetric brane probes on the new geometries, which represent the AdS2×S2 counterparts of the giant gravitons.

  2. Models of AdS2 backreaction and holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almheiri, Ahmed; Polchinski, Joseph

    2015-11-01

    We develop models of 1+1 dimensional dilaton gravity describing flows to AdS2 from higher dimensional AdS and other spaces. We use these to study the effects of backreaction on holographic correlators. We show that this scales as a relevant effect at low energies, for compact transverse spaces. We also discuss effects of matter loops, as in the CGHS model.

  3. [Value-Added--Adding Economic Value in the Food Industry].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welch, Mary A., Ed.

    1989-01-01

    This booklet focuses on the economic concept of "value added" to goods and services. A student activity worksheet illustrates how the steps involved in processing food are examples of the concept of value added. The booklet further links food processing to the idea of value added to the Gross National Product (GNP). Discussion questions, a student…

  4. Managing Reliability in the 21st Century

    SciTech Connect

    Dellin, T.A.

    1998-11-23

    The rapid pace of change at Ike end of the 20th Century should continue unabated well into the 21st Century. The driver will be the marketplace imperative of "faster, better, cheaper." This imperative has already stimulated a revolution-in-engineering in design and manufacturing. In contrast, to date, reliability engineering has not undergone a similar level of change. It is critical that we implement a corresponding revolution-in-reliability-engineering as we enter the new millennium. If we are still using 20th Century reliability approaches in the 21st Century, then reliability issues will be the limiting factor in faster, better, and cheaper. At the heart of this reliability revolution will be a science-based approach to reliability engineering. Science-based reliability will enable building-in reliability, application-specific products, virtual qualification, and predictive maintenance. The purpose of this paper is to stimulate a dialogue on the future of reliability engineering. We will try to gaze into the crystal ball and predict some key issues that will drive reliability programs in the new millennium. In the 21st Century, we will demand more of our reliability programs. We will need the ability to make accurate reliability predictions that will enable optimizing cost, performance and time-to-market to meet the needs of every market segment. We will require that all of these new capabilities be in place prior to the stint of a product development cycle. The management of reliability programs will be driven by quantifiable metrics of value added to the organization business objectives.

  5. Identifying 21st Century Capabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Robert

    2012-01-01

    What are the capabilities necessary to meet 21st century challenges? Much of the literature on 21st century skills focuses on skills necessary to meet those challenges associated with future work in a globalised world. The result is a limited characterisation of those capabilities necessary to address 21st century social, health and particularly

  6. [Surgical instruments and the emblems of Alsatien craftsmen and the archives of Obernai (16th-17th centuries)].

    PubMed

    Muller, Christine

    2011-01-01

    This study presents some original data concerning the instruments used by Alsatian surgeons-barbers from the 16th to the 18th century. Emblems of professions frequently appear on private houses in Alsace, and 35 emblems of surgeons-barbers have been discovered; six, particularly chararacteristic, are analysed here (Soultz 1568, Marlenheim 1581, Sainte-Croix-en-Plaine 1587, Rosheim 1681, Rosheim 1733, and Wasselonne 1738). The razor (Schermesser), the lancet (Lanzette), and the "flame" (Lasseisen, Fliete) are the most frequently represented instruments. Unpublished inventories after death also bring instructive data and in particular those of the barbers Hans Artz of Molsheim (1597) and Jacob Pflieger of Obernai (c. 1608-1609). At last, are evoked unpublished mentions concerning two barbers originating from Obernai who exercised in Eastern Europe (Sebald Korn around 1583, and Johannes Baur around 1637). PMID:22400473

  7. Johann Gottfried Khler - inspector at the Mathematical-Physical Salon in Dresden - an active observer of the starry sky in the last quarter of the 18th century (German Title: Johann Gottfried Khler - Inspektor am Mathematisch-Physikalischen Salon Dresden - aktiver Beobachter des gestirnten Himmels im letzten Viertel des 18. Jahrhunderts )

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schillinger, Klaus

    In 1777, J. G. Khler, an academician trained in mathematics and the sciences and with a deep interest in astronomy, was appointed inspector of the Mathematical-Physical Salon. He was lucky to find, in the person of the Saxonian electoral prince and later king, August the Righteous, a ruler who was open-minded to science, and thus he could combine his private interests with those of the sovereign. While the files of the Mathematical-Physical Salon from his time were lost during World War II, his actions can be reconstructed from a few archival sources and notes in the diaries of his successors. The Saxonian residence did not have an astronomical observatory. Khler used the instruments from the collection of the Mathematical-Physical Salon for numerous celestial observations. He was in close contact with a number of other astronomers like Bode and Zach. They took care of his results, sometimes after editing them. Time determinations based on longitude and latitude determinations, as well as other astronomical observations, led to the development of a time service, which was carried out for about 150 years. Khler himself constructed the clocks. Because of his responsibilities as an inspector, as well as due to local and material constraints, he was not able to carry out systematic and reproducible measurements over a long time span. His improvement of the circular micrometer and his stop-down photometer are of special interest. He also had considerable talent in drawing, as is shown in his drawings of lunar mountains. A number of instruments used by Khler are still to be found in the Mathematical-Physical Salon.

  8. Gottfried Kirch (1639-1710) and astronomy in Berlin in the 18th century. Contributions of the colloquium held in Berlin-Treptow on March 6, 2010 (German Title: Gottfried Kirch (1639-1710) und die Berliner Astronomie im 18. Jahrhundert.) Beiträge des Kolloquiums am 6. März 2010 in Berlin-Treptow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamel, Jürgen

    2010-12-01

    The contributions of this volume are dedicated to Gottfried Kirch (1639-1710), the first Berlin astronomer, on the occasion of the 300th anniversary of his death. They deal with the astronomy of his times and developments in later times, which are connected to his work. The papers deal with the following topics: The instrumental equipment of Berlin Observatory at the time of G. Kirch and its modernisation up to around 1780; the instruments of Johann Makob Marioni's Viennese observatory around 1730; the heraldic celestial globe by Kirch's teacher Erhard Weigel. In addition, they deal with Kirch's share in the propagation of ideas of the Enlightenment, and with the Berlin meteorological record and its consequences for the investigation of anthropogenous climatic changes. They also deal with astronomical topics in the exchange of letters between Leonhard Euler and Daniel Bernoulli, and with the Berlin "Astronomisches Jahrbuch", which is based on Kirch's activities, as a biographical source.

  9. AdS spacetimes from wrapped D3-branes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gauntlett, Jerome P.; MacConamhna, Oisín A. P.

    2007-12-01

    We derive a geometrical characterization of a large class of AdS3 and AdS2 supersymmetric spacetimes in type IIB supergravity with non-vanishing five-form flux using G-structures. These are obtained as special cases of a class of supersymmetric spacetimes with an {{\\bb R}}^{1,1} or {{\\bb R}} (time) factor that are associated with D3 branes wrapping calibrated two or three cycles, respectively, in manifolds with SU(2), SU(3), SU(4) and G2 holonomy. We show how two explicit AdS solutions, previously constructed in gauged supergravity, satisfy our more general G-structure conditions. For each explicit solution, we also derive a special holonomy metric which, although singular, has an appropriate calibrated cycle. After analytic continuation, some of the classes of AdS spacetimes give rise to known classes of BPS bubble solutions with {{\\bb R}}\\times {\\it SO}(4)\\times {\\it SO}(4), {{\\bb R}}\\times {\\it SO}(4)\\times U(1) and {{\\bb R}}\\times {\\it SO}(4) symmetry. These have 1/2, 1/4 and 1/8 supersymmetry, respectively. We present a new class of 1/8 BPS geometries with {{\\bb R}}\\times {\\it SU}(2) symmetry, obtained by analytic continuation of the class of AdS spacetimes associated with D3-brane wrapped on associative three cycles.

  10. Supergravity at the boundary of AdS supergravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amsel, Aaron J.; Compre, Geoffrey

    2009-04-01

    We give a general analysis of AdS boundary conditions for spin-3/2 Rarita-Schwinger fields and investigate boundary conditions preserving supersymmetry for a graviton multiplet in AdS4. Linear Rarita-Schwinger fields in AdSd are shown to admit mixed Dirichlet-Neumann boundary conditions when their mass is in the range 0?|m|<1/2lAdS. We also demonstrate that mixed boundary conditions are allowed for larger masses when the inner product is renormalized accordingly with the action. We then use the results obtained for |m|=1/lAdS to explore supersymmetric boundary conditions for N=1 AdS4 supergravity in which the metric and Rarita-Schwinger fields are fluctuating at the boundary. We classify boundary conditions that preserve boundary supersymmetry or superconformal symmetry. Under the AdS/CFT dictionary, Neumann boundary conditions in d=4 supergravity correspond to gauging the superconformal group of the three-dimensional CFT describing M2-branes, while N=1 supersymmetric mixed boundary conditions couple the CFT to N=1 superconformal topologically massive gravity.

  11. Supergravity at the boundary of AdS supergravity

    SciTech Connect

    Amsel, Aaron J.; Compere, Geoffrey

    2009-04-15

    We give a general analysis of AdS boundary conditions for spin-3/2 Rarita-Schwinger fields and investigate boundary conditions preserving supersymmetry for a graviton multiplet in AdS{sub 4}. Linear Rarita-Schwinger fields in AdS{sub d} are shown to admit mixed Dirichlet-Neumann boundary conditions when their mass is in the range 0{<=}|m|<1/2l{sub AdS}. We also demonstrate that mixed boundary conditions are allowed for larger masses when the inner product is 'renormalized' accordingly with the action. We then use the results obtained for |m|=1/l{sub AdS} to explore supersymmetric boundary conditions for N=1 AdS{sub 4} supergravity in which the metric and Rarita-Schwinger fields are fluctuating at the boundary. We classify boundary conditions that preserve boundary supersymmetry or superconformal symmetry. Under the AdS/CFT dictionary, Neumann boundary conditions in d=4 supergravity correspond to gauging the superconformal group of the three-dimensional CFT describing M2-branes, while N=1 supersymmetric mixed boundary conditions couple the CFT to N=1 superconformal topologically massive gravity.

  12. Rhazes (865-925 AD), the icon of Persian cardiology.

    PubMed

    Nezhad, Golnoush Sadat Mahmoudi; Dalfardi, Behnam

    2014-12-20

    For many long centuries, the function of the human cardiovascular system was an important issue among scholars of different eras and areas. Abubakr Muhammad ibn Zakariyya al-Razi (865-925 AD), known by the Latin name Rhazes, was one of the scholars concerned with this issue. This physician is recognized as the first great scientist of the Golden Age of Islamic Medicine (9th-12th centuries AD). He authored Kitab al-Mansuri (Liber Al-Mansuri), a ten-volume medical encyclopedia that covers a large number of medical subjects. The first chapter of this book is allocated to human anatomy and functions. In this article, we review the chapter from Al-Mansuri that deals with Rhazes' views on the cardiovascular system. PMID:25465822

  13. Null warped AdS in higher spin gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breunhlder, Veronika; Gary, Mirah; Grumiller, Daniel; Prohazka, Stefan

    2015-12-01

    We equip three-dimensional spin-3 gravity in the principal embedding with a new set of boundary conditions that we call "asymptotically null warped AdS". We find a chiral copy of the Polyakov-Bershadsky algebra as asymptotic symmetry algebra, reminiscent of the situation in topologically massive gravity with strict null warped AdS boundary conditions. We prove the invertibility of the map between zuvielbein and metric variables and construct a global gauge transformation to half of AdS spin-3 gravity in the diagonal embedding. This explains why the theory is chiral and why the Polyakov-Bershadsky algebra arises. We then introduce chemical potentials, derive the entropy, free energy, and the holographic response functions, and conclude with a discussion.

  14. New massive gravity and AdS(4) counterterms.

    PubMed

    Jatkar, Dileep P; Sinha, Aninda

    2011-04-29

    We show that the recently proposed Dirac-Born-Infeld extension of new massive gravity emerges naturally as a counterterm in four-dimensional anti-de Sitter space (AdS(4)). The resulting on-shell Euclidean action is independent of the cutoff at zero temperature. We also find that the same choice of counterterm gives the usual area law for the AdS(4) Schwarzschild black hole entropy in a cutoff-independent manner. The parameter values of the resulting counterterm action correspond to a c=0 theory in the context of the duality between AdS(3) gravity and two-dimensional conformal field theory. We rewrite this theory in terms of the gauge field that is used to recast 3D gravity as a Chern-Simons theory. PMID:21635026

  15. Logarithmic AdS waves and Zwei-Dreibein gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergshoeff, Eric A.; Goya, Andrs F.; Merbis, Wout; Rosseel, Jan

    2014-04-01

    We show that the parameter space of Zwei-Dreibein Gravity (ZDG) in AdS3 exhibits critical points, where massive graviton modes coincide with pure gauge modes and new `logarithmic' modes appear, similar to what happens in New Massive Gravity. The existence of critical points is shown both at the linearized level, as well as by finding AdS wave solutions of the full non-linear theory, that behave as logarithmic modes towards the AdS boundary. In order to find these solutions explicitly, we give a reformulation of ZDG in terms of a single Dreibein, that involves an infinite number of derivatives. At the critical points, ZDG can be conjectured to be dual to a logarithmic conformal field theory with zero central charges, characterized by new anomalies whose conjectured values are calculated.

  16. Diffusion of knowledge and globalization in the web of twentieth century science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naumis, G. G.; Phillips, J. C.

    2012-08-01

    Scientific communication is an essential part of modern science: whereas Archimedes worked alone, Newton (correspondence with Hooke, 1676) acknowledged that If I have seen a little further, it is by standing on the shoulders of Giants. How is scientific communication reflected in the patterns of citations in scientific papers? How have these patterns changed in the 20th century, as both means of communication and individual transportation changed rapidly, compared to the earlier post-Newton 18th and 19th centuries? Here we discuss a diffusive model for scientific communications, based on a unique 2009 scientometric study of 25 million papers and 600 million citations that encapsulates the epistemology of modern science. The diffusive model predicts and explains, using no adjustable parameters, a surprisingly universal internal structure in the development of scientific research, which is essentially constant across the natural sciences, but which because of globalization changed qualitatively around 1960. Globalization corresponds physically to anomalous diffusion, which has been observed near the molecular glass transition, and can enhance molecular diffusion by factors as large as 100.

  17. Holography and AdS4 self-gravitating dyons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lugo, A. R.; Moreno, E. F.; Schaposnik, F. A.

    2010-11-01

    We present a self-gravitating dyon solution of the Einstein-Yang-Mills-Higgs equations of motion in asymptotically AdS space. The back reaction of gauge and Higgs fields on the space-time geometry leads to the metric of an asymptotically AdS black hole. Using the gauge/gravity correspondence we analyze relevant properties of the finite temperature quantum field theory defined on the boundary. In particular we identify an order operator, characterize a phase transition of the dual theory on the border and also compute the expectation value of the finite temperature Wilson loop.

  18. Semi-classical stability of AdS NUT instantons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warnick, Claude

    2006-06-01

    The semi-classical stability of several AdS NUT instantons is studied. Throughout, the notion of stability is that of stability at the one-loop level of Euclidean quantum gravity. Instabilities manifest themselves as negative eigenmodes of a modified Lichnerowicz Laplacian acting on the transverse, traceless perturbations. An instability is found for one branch of the AdS-Taub-Bolt family of metrics and it is argued that the other branch is stable. It is also argued that the AdS-Taub-NUT family of metrics is stable. A component of the continuous spectrum of the modified Lichnerowicz operator on all three families of metrics is found.

  19. a GIS of SARDINIA'S Coastal Defense System (xvi - XVIII Century)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deidda, M.; Musa, C.; Vacca, G.

    2015-06-01

    The use of GIS as a tool for archival, analysis and representation of geographic information has become significantly popular in many scientific fields that are directly concerned with the "territory" as their object of study. The field of application of GIS, however, has expanded also in other areas, such as those related to humanities and architecture, in which the territory is studied in an "indirect" mode because it constitutes a kind of substrate on which to develop a specific spatial analysis for particular purposes. Among these areas are to be included certainly archeology and restoration, fields in which the GIS has become a useful tool for historical studies. In this work we present a GIS developed for the study of the historical and territorial coastal defense system of Sardinia (16th - 18th century), in order to respond to the need to store, analyze and efficiently manage the information regarding cultural heritage and landscape heritage such as that consisting of the coastal defensive towers of Sardinia. This defensive system, in fact, was composed by over 100 towers positioned around the entire coastal perimeter of Sardinia, of which more than 90 still exist today. Their position was planned on the basis of the following criteria: - Warning the neighboring towers about the sighting of enemy ships - Protecting coasts located near the towns - Monitoring the water sources near the coast - Allowing for the full visibility of the coasts of any morphology With this study we also verified, through the use of high resolution and high accuracy DTM (LiDAR) and the topographic databases, whether the positioning criteria specified in the design of the system were respected and effective.

  20. The forecaster's added value

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turco, M.; Milelli, M.

    2009-09-01

    To the authors' knowledge there are relatively few studies that try to answer this topic: "Are humans able to add value to computer-generated forecasts and warnings ?". Moreover, the answers are not always positive. In particular some postprocessing method is competitive or superior to human forecast (see for instance Baars et al., 2005, Charba et al., 2002, Doswell C., 2003, Roebber et al., 1996, Sanders F., 1986). Within the alert system of ARPA Piemonte it is possible to study in an objective manner if the human forecaster is able to add value with respect to computer-generated forecasts. Every day the meteorology group of the Centro Funzionale of Regione Piemonte produces the HQPF (Human QPF) in terms of an areal average for each of the 13 regional warning areas, which have been created according to meteo-hydrological criteria. This allows the decision makers to produce an evaluation of the expected effects by comparing these HQPFs with predefined rainfall thresholds. Another important ingredient in this study is the very dense non-GTS network of rain gauges available that makes possible a high resolution verification. In this context the most useful verification approach is the measure of the QPF and HQPF skills by first converting precipitation expressed as continuous amounts into exceedance'' categories (yes-no statements indicating whether precipitation equals or exceeds selected thresholds) and then computing the performances for each threshold. In particular in this work we compare the performances of the latest three years of QPF derived from two meteorological models COSMO-I7 (the Italian version of the COSMO Model, a mesoscale model developed in the framework of the COSMO Consortium) and IFS (the ECMWF global model) with the HQPF. In this analysis it is possible to introduce the hypothesis test developed by Hamill (1999), in which a confidence interval is calculated with the bootstrap method in order to establish the real difference between the skill scores of two competitive forecast. It is important to underline that the conclusions refer to the analysis of the Piemonte operational alert system, so they cannot be directly taken as universally true. But we think that some of the main lessons that can be derived from this study could be useful for the meteorological community. In details, the main conclusions are the following: - despite the overall improvement in global scale and the fact that the resolution of the limited area models has increased considerably over recent years, the QPF produced by the meteorological models involved in this study has not improved enough to allow its direct use, that is, the subjective HQPF continues to offer the best performance; - in the forecast process, the step where humans have the largest added value with respect to mathematical models, is the communication. In fact the human characterisation and communication of the forecast uncertainty to end users cannot be replaced by any computer code; - eventually, although there is no novelty in this study, we would like to show that the correct application of appropriated statistical techniques permits a better definition and quantification of the errors and, mostly important, allows a correct (unbiased) communication between forecasters and decision makers.

  1. The management century.

    PubMed

    Kiechel, Walter

    2012-11-01

    In 1886, addressing the nascent American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Henry R. Towne proposed that "the management of works" be considered a modern art--thereby heralding the Management Century, when management as we know it came into being and shaped the world in which we work. Kiechel, a past editorial director of Harvard Business Publishing, elucidates the three eras that punctuate this period: the years leading up to World War II, during which scientific exactitude gave wings to a new managerial elite; the early postwar decades, managerialism's apogee of self-confidence and a time when wartime principles of strategy were adapted, sometimes ruthlessly, to the running of companies; and the 1980s to the present, years that saw fast-moving changes, disequilibrium, and a servitude to market forces but also ushered in globalism, unprecedented innovation, and heightened expectations about how workers are to be treated. Along the way he examines the contributions of thinkers such as Frederick Taylor, Elton Mayo, Peter Drucker, and Michael Porter. What lies ahead? Perhaps the biggest challenge facing the 21st-century company, Kiechel posits, is to truly free the spark of human imagination from the organization's tidal pull toward the status quo. There's almost always a better way, he concludes--and management will continue to seek it. PMID:23155998

  2. Mystery cloud of AD 536

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stothers, R. B.

    1984-01-01

    The possible cause of the densest and most persistent dry fog on record, which was observed in Europe and the Middle East during AD 536 and 537, is discussed. The fog's long duration toward the south and the high sulfuric acid signal detected in Greenland in ice cores dated around AD 540 support the theory that the fog was due to the explosion of the Rabaul volcano, the occurrence of which has been dated at about AD 540 by the radiocarbon method.

  3. Supersymmetric AdS5 solutions of massive IIA supergravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apruzzi, Fabio; Fazzi, Marco; Passias, Achilleas; Tomasiello, Alessandro

    2015-06-01

    Motivated by a recently found class of AdS7 solutions, we classify AdS5 solutions in massive IIA, finding infinitely many new analytical examples. We reduce the general problem to a set of PDEs, determining the local internal metric, which is a fibration over a surface. Under a certain simplifying assumption, we are then able to analytically solve the PDEs and give a complete list of all solutions. Among these, one class is new and regular. These spaces can be related to the AdS7 solutions via a simple universal map for the metric, dilaton and fluxes. The natural interpretation of this map is that the dual CFT6 and CFT4 are related by twisted compactification on a Riemann surface Σ g . The ratio of their free energy coefficients is proportional to the Euler characteristic of Σ g . As a byproduct, we also find the analytic expression for the AdS7 solutions, which were previously known only numerically. We determine the free energy for simple examples: it is a simple cubic function of the flux integers.

  4. The Universal Phase Space of AdS3 Gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scarinci, Carlos; Krasnov, Kirill

    2013-08-01

    We describe what can be called the "universal" phase space of AdS3 gravity, in which the moduli spaces of globally hyperbolic AdS spacetimes with compact spatial sections, as well as the moduli spaces of multi-black-hole spacetimes are realized as submanifolds. The universal phase space is parametrized by two copies of the universal Teichmller space {{T}(1)} and is obtained from the correspondence between maximal surfaces in AdS3 and quasisymmetric homeomorphisms of the unit circle. We also relate our parametrization to the Chern-Simons formulation of 2+1 gravity and, infinitesimally, to the holographic (Fefferman-Graham) description. In particular, we obtain a relation between the generators of quasiconformal deformations in each {{T}(1)} sector and the chiral Brown-Henneaux vector fields. We also relate the charges arising in the holographic description (such as the mass and angular momentum of an AdS3 spacetime) to the periods of the quadratic differentials arising via the Bers embedding of {{T}(1){T}(1)} . Our construction also yields a symplectic map {T^ ast {T}(1) ? {T}(1) {T}(1)} generalizing the well-known Mess map in the compact spatial surface setting.

  5. Wilson lines for AdS5 black strings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hristov, Kiril; Katmadas, Stefanos

    2015-02-01

    We describe a simple method of extending AdS5 black string solutions of 5d gauged supergravity in a supersymmetric way by addition of Wilson lines along a circular direction in space. When this direction is chosen along the string, and due to the specific form of 5d supergravity that features Chern-Simons terms, the existence of magnetic charges automatically generates conserved electric charges in a 5d analogue of the Witten effect. Therefore we find a rather generic, model-independent way of adding electric charges to already existing solutions with no backreaction from the geometry or breaking of any symmetry. We use this method to explicitly write down more general versions of the Benini-Bobev black strings [1, 2] and comment on the implications for the dual field theory and the similarities with generalizations of the Cacciatori-Klemm black holes [3] in AdS4.

  6. Foreword: 18th Aps-Sccm and 24th Airapt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, Gilbert; Moore, David S.; Yoo, Choong-Shik

    2014-05-01

    This second joint conference between the APS Topical Group on Shock Compression of Condensed Matter and the International Association for the Advancement of High Pressure Science and Technology (AIRAPT) demonstrates that static and dynamic compression of condensed matter continues to be a vibrant field of science and engineering. It is also by its nature an interdisciplinary field, incorporating chemistry, materials science, solid mechanics, plasma physics, and condensed matter physics, and utilizes theoretical, computational, and experimental tools. Recent years have brought about many advances in loading platforms, diagnostics, and computations that are leading to the emergence of many new avenues of research. These advances are also breathing new life into traditional topics such as equations of state, phase transformations, and chemistry at extreme conditions. The plenary lectures by Gennady Kanel, Karl Syassen, David Ceperley, Jon Eggert, Duck Young Kim, and Richard Kraus spanned the disciplines of static and dynamic high pressure physics and illustrated the breadth of the field. They also showed that interesting and important problems remain for researchers of the future to solve. The main guiding principal in the organization of this conference was to intertwine static and dynamical experimental alongside computational and theoretical studies of similar materials. To achieve this goal, we arranged the conference to include static, dynamic, and computational components in the same sessions, quite often taking presenters out of their comfort zone. The three special sessions on Deep Carbon Budget (organized by Giulia Galli and Rus Hemley), High Energy Density Materials (organized by Raymond Jeanloz and Jon Eggert), and Dynamic Response of Materials (organized by Yogendra Gupta and John Sarrao) furthered this guiding principal. We also endeavored to represent the breadth of static and dynamic high pressure science and technology, notably beyond that done at national laboratories. To this end, a significant fraction of the plenary, invited and contributed presentations showcased work done in academia, defense laboratories and industry, as well as internationally. Although travel distance and visa issues always present difficulties, the conference had strong representation from a record number of international participants, including sizable groups from Russia and China (thanks to Tony Zocher and Frank Cherne), as well as Japan, the United Kingdom, France, Canada, Germany, Israel, and Italy. It is our sincere hope that international interactions that occurred at the conference will lead to further collaborations in the future. Finally, we strived to increase student participation at the conference. Through the leadership of Scott Alexander and his committee, a new all-day student symposium was held the day before the main conference, with only student attendees and presenters, in order to acclimate the students to conference participation and help them network with their peers. In cooperation with the APS Topical Group and the AIRAPT and with additional support from DTRA and the AWE, the conference was able to provide financial assistance to a large number of students to attend the conference and present their research. This aid helped increase the number of student attendees significantly over previous conferences. Finally, the conference sponsored a networking lunch for students and representatives from a number of laboratories and other institutions, which was well attended. Seattle proved itself to be an excellent venue for the conference. The international flavor of the city provided ample dining options and numerous activity choices outside of the conference sessions. The major international airport made travel as easy as possible, as Seattle is a convenient central location for attendees from Europe and Asia. The conference was truly a team effort with critical contributions from many individuals. We deeply appreciate their contributions to the success of the conference and the publication of these proceedings. Gilbert (RIP) Collins David S Moore Choong-Shik Yoo

  7. Beware the "Argumentum ad Hominem."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grau, Phyllis Nelson

    1986-01-01

    Differences between arguing "ad hominem" and "ad rem" are explored in two case studies of fifth-grade gifted boys, demonstrating the need for gifted children to be helped to approach problems by considering issues rather than personalities. (Author/DB)

  8. Ultraviolet asymptotics for quasiperiodic AdS4 perturbations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craps, Ben; Evnin, Oleg; Jai-akson, Puttarak; Vanhoof, Joris

    2015-10-01

    Spherically symmetric perturbations in AdS-scalar field systems of small amplitude ? approximately periodic on time scales of order 1/ ? 2 (in the sense that no significant transfer of energy between the AdS normal modes occurs) have played an important role in considerations of AdS stability. They are seen as anchors of stability islands where collapse of small perturbations to black holes does not occur. (This collapse, if it happens, typically develops on time scales of the order 1/ ? 2.) We construct an analytic treatment of the frequency spectra of such quasiperiodic perturbations, paying special attention to the large frequency asymptotics. For the case of a self-interacting ? 4 scalar field in a non-dynamical AdS background, we arrive at a fairly complete analytic picture involving quasiperiodic spectra with an exponential suppression modulated by a power law at large mode numbers. For the case of dynamical gravity, the structure of the large frequency asymptotics is more complicated. We give analytic explanations for the general qualitative features of quasiperiodic solutions localized around a single mode, in close parallel to our discussion of the probe scalar field, and find numerical evidence for logarithmic modulations in the gravitational quasiperiodic spectra existing on top of the formulas previously reported in the literature.

  9. Lorentzian AdS geometries, wormholes, and holography

    SciTech Connect

    Arias, Raul E.; Silva, Guillermo A.; Botta Cantcheff, Marcelo

    2011-03-15

    We investigate the structure of two-point functions for the quantum field theory dual to an asymptotically Lorentzian Anti de Sitter (AdS) wormhole. The bulk geometry is a solution of five-dimensional second-order Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet gravity and causally connects two asymptotically AdS spacetimes. We revisit the Gubser-Klebanov-Polyakov-Witten prescription for computing two-point correlation functions for dual quantum field theories operators O in Lorentzian signature and we propose to express the bulk fields in terms of the independent boundary values {phi}{sub 0}{sup {+-}} at each of the two asymptotic AdS regions; along the way we exhibit how the ambiguity of normalizable modes in the bulk, related to initial and final states, show up in the computations. The independent boundary values are interpreted as sources for dual operators O{sup {+-}} and we argue that, apart from the possibility of entanglement, there exists a coupling between the degrees of freedom living at each boundary. The AdS{sub 1+1} geometry is also discussed in view of its similar boundary structure. Based on the analysis, we propose a very simple geometric criterion to distinguish coupling from entanglement effects among two sets of degrees of freedom associated with each of the disconnected parts of the boundary.

  10. Moduli spaces in AdS 4 supergravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Alwis, Senarath; Louis, Jan; McAllister, Liam; Triendl, Hagen; Westphal, Alexander

    2014-05-01

    We study the structure of the supersymmetric moduli spaces of = 1 and = 2 supergravity theories in AdS 4 backgrounds. In the = 1 case, the moduli space cannot be a complex submanifold of the Khler field space, but is instead real with respect to the inherited complex structure. In = 2 supergravity the same result holds for the vector multiplet moduli space, while the hypermultiplet moduli space is a Khler submanifold of the quaternionic-Khler field space. These findings are in agreement with AdS/CFT considerations.

  11. Historic Building Information Modelling - Adding Intelligence to Laser and Image Based Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, M.; McGovern, E.; Pavia, S.

    2011-09-01

    Historic Building Information Modelling (HBIM) is a novel prototype library of parametric objects based on historic data and a system of cross platform programmes for mapping parametric objects onto a point cloud and image survey data. The HBIM process begins with remote collection of survey data using a terrestrial laser scanner combined with digital photo modelling. The next stage involves the design and construction of a parametric library of objects, which are based on the manuscripts ranging from Vitruvius to 18th century architectural pattern books. In building parametric objects, the problem of file format and exchange of data has been overcome within the BIM ArchiCAD software platform by using geometric descriptive language (GDL). The plotting of parametric objects onto the laser scan surveys as building components to create or form the entire building is the final stage in the reverse engin- eering process. The final HBIM product is the creation of full 3D models including detail behind the object's surface concerning its methods of construction and material make-up. The resultant HBIM can automatically create cut sections, details and schedules in addition to the orthographic projections and 3D models (wire frame or textured).

  12. Historic Building Information Modelling - Adding intelligence to laser and image based surveys of European classical architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, Maurice; McGovern, Eugene; Pavia, Sara

    2013-02-01

    Historic Building Information Modelling (HBIM) is a novel prototype library of parametric objects, based on historic architectural data and a system of cross platform programmes for mapping parametric objects onto point cloud and image survey data. The HBIM process begins with remote collection of survey data using a terrestrial laser scanner combined with digital photo modelling. The next stage involves the design and construction of a parametric library of objects, which are based on the manuscripts ranging from Vitruvius to 18th century architectural pattern books. In building parametric objects, the problem of file format and exchange of data has been overcome within the BIM ArchiCAD software platform by using geometric descriptive language (GDL). The plotting of parametric objects onto the laser scan surveys as building components to create or form the entire building is the final stage in the reverse engineering process. The final HBIM product is the creation of full 3D models including detail behind the object's surface concerning its methods of construction and material make-up. The resultant HBIM can automatically create cut sections, details and schedules in addition to the orthographic projections and 3D models (wire frame or textured) for both the analysis and conservation of historic objects, structures and environments.

  13. Supersymmetric AdS_6 solutions of type IIB supergravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyojoong; Kim, Nakwoo; Suh, Minwoo

    2015-10-01

    We study the general requirement for supersymmetric AdS_6 solutions in type IIB supergravity. We employ the Killing spinor technique and study the differential and algebraic relations among various Killing spinor bilinears to find the canonical form of the solutions. Our result agrees precisely with the work of Apruzzi et al. (JHEP 1411:099, 2014), which used the pure spinor technique. Hoping to identify the geometry of the problem, we also computed four-dimensional theory through the dimensional reduction of type IIB supergravity on AdS_6. This effective action is essentially a non-linear sigma model with five scalar fields parametrizing {SL}(3,{R})/{SO}(2,1), modified by a scalar potential and coupled to Einstein gravity in Euclidean signature. We argue that the scalar potential can be explained by a subgroup CSO(1,1,1) subset {SL}(3,{R}) in a way analogous to gauged supergravity.

  14. Observing quantum gravity in asymptotically AdS space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emelyanov, Slava

    2015-12-01

    The question is studied of whether an observer can discover quantum gravity in the semiclassical regime. It is shown that it is indeed possible to probe a certain quantum gravity effect by employing an appropriately designed detector. The effect is related to the possibility of having topologically inequivalent geometries in the path-integral approach at the same time. A conformal field theory (CFT) state which is expected to describe the eternal anti-de Sitter (AdS) black hole in the large-N limit is discussed. It is argued under certain assumptions that the black hole boundary should be merely a patch of the entire AdS boundary. This leads then to a conclusion that that CFT state is the ordinary CFT vacuum restricted to that patch. If existent, the bulk CFT operators can behave as the ordinary semiclassical quantum field theory in the large-N limit in the weak sense.

  15. Semiclassical Virasoro blocks from AdS3 gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hijano, Eliot; Kraus, Per; Perlmutter, Eric; Snively, River

    2015-12-01

    We present a unified framework for the holographic computation of Virasoro conformal blocks at large central charge. In particular, we provide bulk constructions that correctly reproduce all semiclassical Virasoro blocks that are known explicitly from conformal field theory computations. The results revolve around the use of geodesic Witten diagrams, recently introduced in [1], evaluated in locally AdS3 geometries generated by backreaction of heavy operators. We also provide an alternative computation of the heavy-light semiclassical block in which two external operators become parametrically heavy as a certain scattering process involving higher spin gauge fields in AdS3; this approach highlights the chiral nature of Virasoro blocks. These techniques may be systematically extended to compute corrections to these blocks and to interpolate amongst the different semiclassical regimes.

  16. Reading in the Twentieth Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearson, P. David

    This paper discusses reading instruction in the 20th century. The paper begins with a tour of the historical pathways that have led people, at the century's end, to the "rocky and highly contested terrain educators currently occupy in reading pedagogy." After the author/educator unfolds his version of a map of that terrain in the paper, he

  17. 21st Century Skills Map

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Partnership for 21st Century Skills, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The Partnership for 21st Century Skills (P21) has forged alliances with key national organizations representing the core academic subjects, including Social Studies, English, Math, Science, Geography, World Languages and the Arts. These collaborations have resulted in the development of 21st Century Skills Maps that illustrate the essential

  18. A Century of Skills Movements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ravitch, Diane

    2010-01-01

    The author is a historian of education and has written often about the educational enthusiasms and fads of the past century. One of her books, titled "Left Back," tells the story of the rise and fall of one fad after another across the 20th century. In brief, what she has found is that in the land of American pedagogy, innovation is frequently…

  19. Conserved higher-spin charges in AdS4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gelfond, O. A.; Vasiliev, M. A.

    2016-03-01

    Gauge invariant conserved conformal currents built from massless fields of all spins in 4d Minkowski space-time and AdS4 are described in the unfolded dynamics approach. The current cohomology associated with non-zero conserved charges is found. The resulting list of charges is shown to match the space of parameters of the conformal higher-spin symmetry algebra in four dimensions.

  20. Seventeenth-century uplift in eastern Hokkaido, Japan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Atwater, B.F.; Furakawa, R.; Hemphill-Haley, E.; Ikeda, Y.; Kashima, K.; Kawase, K.; Kelsey, H.M.; Moore, A.L.; Nanayama, F.; Nishimura, Y.; Odagiri, S.; Ota, Y.; Park, S.-C.; Satake, K.; Sawai, Y.; Shimokawa, K.

    2004-01-01

    Shores of eastern Hokkaido rose by perhaps 1 m a few centuries ago. The uplifted area extended at least 50 km along the southern Kuril Trench. It included the estuaries Akkeshi-ko and Hichirippu, on the Pacific coast, and Fu??ren-ko and Onneto??, which open to the Okhotsk Sea. At each estuary, intertidal and subtidal flats rose with respect to tide level; wetland plants colonized the emerging land; and peaty wetland deposits thereby covered mud and sand of the former flats. Previous work at Akkeshi-ko and Onneto?? showed that such emergence occurred at least three times in the past 3000 years. Volcanic-ash layers date the youngest emergence to the seventeenth century AD. New evidence from Akkeshi-ko, Hichirippu and Fu??ren-ko clarifies the age and amount of this youngest emergence. Much of it probably dates from the century's middle decades. Some of the newly emerged land remained above high tides into the middle of the eighteenth century or later. The emergence in the last half of the seventeenth century probably exceeded 0.5 m (inferred from stratigraphy and diatom palaeoecology) without far exceeding 1 m (estimated by comparing seventeenth- and eighteenth-century descriptions of Akkeshi-ko). The stratigraphy and palaeoecology of the emergence are better explained by tectonic uplift than by bay-mouth blockage, tidal-flat accretion or sea-level fall. Eastern Hokkaido needs occasional uplift, moreover, to help reconcile its raised marine terraces with its chronic twentieth-century subsidence. Because it took place above forearc mantle, eastern Hokkaido's seventeenth-century uplift probably lacks analogy with coseismic uplift that occurs above typical plate-boundary ruptures at subduction zones.

  1. Indian Astronomy: History of

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mercier, R.; Murdin, P.

    2002-01-01

    From the time of A macronryabhat under dota (ca AD 500) there appeared in India a series of Sanskrit treatises on astronomy. Written always in verse, and normally accompanied by prose commentaries, these served to create an Indian tradition of mathematical astronomy which continued into the 18th century. There are as well texts from earlier centuries, grouped under the name Jyotishaveda macronn d...

  2. The Cosmic Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longair, Malcolm S.

    2006-06-01

    Part I. Stars and Stellar Evolution up to the Second World War: 1. The legacy of the nineteenth century; 2. The classification of stellar spectra; 3. Stellar structure and evolution; 4. The end points of stellar evolution; Part II. The Large-Scale Structure of the Universe, 1900-1939: 5. The Galaxy and the nature of spiral nebulae; 6. The origins of astrophysical cosmology; Part III. The Opening up of the Electromagnetic Spectrum: 7. The opening up of the electromagnetic spectrum and the new astronomies; Part IV. The Astrophysics of Stars and Galaxies since 1945: 8. Stars and stellar evolution; 9. The physics of the interstellar medium; 10. The physics of galaxies and clusters of galaxies; 11. High-energy astrophysics; Part V. Astrophysical Cosmology since 1945: 12. Astrophysical cosmology; 13. The determination of cosmological parameters; 14. The evolution of galaxies and active galaxies with cosmic epoch; 15. The origin of galaxies and the large-scale structure of the Universe; 16. The very early Universe; References; Name index; Object index; Subject index.

  3. The Cosmic Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longair, Malcolm S.

    2013-04-01

    Part I. Stars and Stellar Evolution up to the Second World War: 1. The legacy of the nineteenth century; 2. The classification of stellar spectra; 3. Stellar structure and evolution; 4. The end points of stellar evolution; Part II. The Large-Scale Structure of the Universe, 1900-1939: 5. The Galaxy and the nature of spiral nebulae; 6. The origins of astrophysical cosmology; Part III. The Opening up of the Electromagnetic Spectrum: 7. The opening up of the electromagnetic spectrum and the new astronomies; Part IV. The Astrophysics of Stars and Galaxies since 1945: 8. Stars and stellar evolution; 9. The physics of the interstellar medium; 10. The physics of galaxies and clusters of galaxies; 11. High-energy astrophysics; Part V. Astrophysical Cosmology since 1945: 12. Astrophysical cosmology; 13. The determination of cosmological parameters; 14. The evolution of galaxies and active galaxies with cosmic epoch; 15. The origin of galaxies and the large-scale structure of the Universe; 16. The very early Universe; References; Name index; Object index; Subject index.

  4. ADS/CFT and QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; de Teramond, Guy F.; /Costa Rica U. /SLAC

    2007-02-21

    The AdS/CFT correspondence between string theory in AdS space and conformal .eld theories in physical spacetime leads to an analytic, semi-classical model for strongly-coupled QCD which has scale invariance and dimensional counting at short distances and color confinement at large distances. Although QCD is not conformally invariant, one can nevertheless use the mathematical representation of the conformal group in five-dimensional anti-de Sitter space to construct a first approximation to the theory. The AdS/CFT correspondence also provides insights into the inherently non-perturbative aspects of QCD, such as the orbital and radial spectra of hadrons and the form of hadronic wavefunctions. In particular, we show that there is an exact correspondence between the fifth-dimensional coordinate of AdS space z and a specific impact variable {zeta} which measures the separation of the quark and gluonic constituents within the hadron in ordinary space-time. This connection allows one to compute the analytic form of the frame-independent light-front wavefunctions, the fundamental entities which encode hadron properties and allow the computation of decay constants, form factors, and other exclusive scattering amplitudes. New relativistic lightfront equations in ordinary space-time are found which reproduce the results obtained using the 5-dimensional theory. The effective light-front equations possess remarkable algebraic structures and integrability properties. Since they are complete and orthonormal, the AdS/CFT model wavefunctions can also be used as a basis for the diagonalization of the full light-front QCD Hamiltonian, thus systematically improving the AdS/CFT approximation.

  5. Japanese Astronomy in the Seventh Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sma, Mitsuru; Tanikawa, Kiyotaka

    There are astronomical records in both the ? and ? volumes of the Nihongi, and we have already shown that the reliability of these records depends on which particular volumes they appeared in. In order to strengthen and extend our previous conclusion, we study more thoroughly the astronomical data in the Nihongi and analyze the reliability more precisely with reference to Chinese and Korean history books. There are only three astronomical records in the volumes of the ? group, and none of these can be said to be observational. In the volumes of the ? group, there is, in each of the three volumes, one record, which was surely based on actual observations. Five records of comets are common to Chinese records, but wording and the form of the records are different in Japanese and in the continental records, so the records are judged not to have been transported from China or Korea. Most of the remaining records represent local phenomena, which we believe are all based on observation. In the case of eclipse records, we not only analyze the reliability of each event but also apply elementary statistics to weather records in order to examine the completeness of the records. We conclude that there were major changes in observational astronomy in Japan during the seventh century. Specifically, observations were made during AD 620-641 and AD 672-686 (in the ? group of the Nihongi), but no observations were made between AD 642 and 671 (in the ? group). After AD 686 (during the Jit era), no observations were made except for one appulse observation of Mars and Jupiter.

  6. Sixteenth Century Astronomical Telescopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usher, P. D.

    2001-12-01

    Ophelia in Shakespeare's Hamlet is named for the ``moist star" which in mythology is the partner of Hamlet's royal Sun. Together the couple seem destined to rule on earth just as their celestial counterparts rule the heavens, but the tragedy is that they are afflicted, just as the Sun and Moon are blemished. In 1.3 Laertes lectures Ophelia on love and chastity, describing first Cytherean phases (crescent to gibbous) and then Lunar craters. Spots mar the Sun (1.1, 3.1). Also reported are Jupiter's Red Spot (3.4) and the resolution of the Milky Way into stars (2.2). These interpretations are well-founded and support the cosmic allegory. Observations must have been made with optical aid, probably the perspective glass of Leonard Digges, father of Thomas Digges. Notably absent from Hamlet is mention of the Galilean moons, owing perhaps to the narrow field-of-view of the telescope. That discovery is later celebrated in Cymbeline, published soon after Galileo's Siderius Nuncius in 1610. In 5.4 of Cymbeline the four ghosts dance ``in imitation of planetary motions" and at Jupiter's behest place a book on the chest of Posthumus Leonatus. His name identifies the Digges father and son as the source of data in Hamlet since Jupiter's moons were discovered after the deaths of Leonard (``leon+hart") and Thomas (the ``lion's whelp"). Lines in 5.4 urge us not to read more into the book than is contained between its covers; this is understandable because Hamlet had already reported the other data in support of heliocentricism and the cosmic model discussed and depicted by Thomas Digges in 1576. I conclude therefore that astronomical telescopy began in England before the last quarter of the sixteenth century.

  7. Euclidean and Noetherian entropies in AdS space

    SciTech Connect

    Dutta, Suvankar; Gopakumar, Rajesh

    2006-08-15

    We examine the Euclidean action approach, as well as that of Wald, to the entropy of black holes in asymptotically AdS spaces. From the point of view of holography these two approaches are somewhat complementary in spirit and it is not obvious why they should give the same answer in the presence of arbitrary higher derivative gravity corrections. For the case of the AdS{sub 5} Schwarzschild black hole, we explicitly study the leading correction to the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy in the presence of a variety of higher derivative corrections studied in the literature, including the Type IIB R{sup 4} term. We find a nontrivial agreement between the two approaches in every case. Finally, we give a general way of understanding the equivalence of these two approaches.

  8. New Features in ADS Labs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Accomazzi, Alberto; Kurtz, M. J.; Henneken, E. A.; Grant, C. S.; Thompson, D.; Di Milia, G.; Luker, J.; Murray, S. S.

    2013-01-01

    The NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) has been working hard on updating its services and interfaces to better support our community's research needs. ADS Labs is a new interface built on the old tried-and-true ADS Abstract Databases, so all of ADS's content is available through it. In this presentation we highlight the new features that have been developed in ADS Labs over the last year: new recommendations, metrics, a citation tool and enhanced fulltext search. ADS Labs has long been providing article-level recommendations based on keyword similarity, co-readership and co-citation analysis of its corpus. We have now introduced personal recommendations, which provide a list of articles to be considered based on a individual user's readership history. A new metrics interface provides a summary of the basic impact indicators for a list of records. These include the total and normalized number of papers, citations, reads, and downloads. Also included are some of the popular indices such as the h, g and i10 index. The citation helper tool allows one to submit a set of records and obtain a list of top 10 papers which cite and/or are cited by papers in the original list (but which are not in it). The process closely resembles the network approach of establishing "friends of friends" via an analysis of the citation network. The full-text search service now covers more than 2.5 million documents, including all the major astronomy journals, as well as physics journals published by Springer, Elsevier, the American Physical Society, the American Geophysical Union, and all of the arXiv eprints. The full-text search interface interface allows users and librarians to dig deep and find words or phrases in the body of the indexed articles. ADS Labs is available at http://adslabs.org

  9. Entanglement entropy and duality in AdS4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakas, Ioannis; Pastras, Georgios

    2015-07-01

    Small variations of the entanglement entropy δS and the expectation value of the modular Hamiltonian δE are computed holographically for circular entangling curves in the boundary of AdS4, using gravitational perturbations with general boundary conditions in spherical coordinates. Agreement with the first law of thermodynamics, δS = δE, requires that the line element of the entangling curve remains constant. In this context, we also find a manifestation of electric-magnetic duality for the entanglement entropy and the corresponding modular Hamiltonian, following from the holographic energy-momentum/Cotton tensor duality.

  10. The AdS central charge in string theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troost, Jan

    2011-11-01

    We evaluate the vacuum expectation value of the central charge operator in string theory in an AdS3 vacuum. Our calculation provides a rare non-zero one-point function on a spherical worldsheet. The evaluation involves the regularization both of a worldsheet ultraviolet divergence (associated to the infinite volume of the conformal Killing group), and a space-time infrared divergence (corresponding to the infinite volume of space-time). The two divergences conspire to give a finite result, which is the classical general relativity value for the central charge, corrected in bosonic string theory by an infinite series of tree level higher derivative terms.

  11. Diffractive Higgs production by AdS Pomeron fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brower, Richard C.; Djurić, Marko; Tan, Chung-I.

    2012-09-01

    The double diffractive Higgs production at central rapidity is formulated in terms of the fusion of two AdS gravitons/Pomerons first introduced by Brower, Polchinski, Strassler and Tan in elastic scattering. Here we propose a simple self-consistent holographic framework intended to provide new phenomenologically compelling estimates of diffractive cross sections at the LHC. As a first step, we evaluate the lowest order two Pomeron fusion diagram, fixing the overall normalization. The important suppression factor due to multiple Pomeron exchange (the "survival probability") is presented in the eikonal approximation but its evaluation is left to future phenomenological analysis.

  12. Fake gaps in AdS3/CFT2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belin, Alexandre; Castro, Alejandra; Hung, Ling-Yan

    2015-11-01

    We discuss properties of interpolating geometries in three dimensional gravity in the presence of a chiral anomaly. This anomaly, which introduces an unbalance between left and right central charges, is protected under RG flows. For this simple reason it is impossible to gap a system with such an anomaly. Our goal is to discuss how holography captures this basic and robust feature. We demonstrate the absence of a mass gap by analysing the linearized spectrum and holographic entanglement entropy of these backgrounds in the context of AdS3/CFT2.

  13. Rnyi entropy in AdS3/CFT2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Bin; Wu, Jie-Qiang

    2015-10-01

    The recent study of Rnyi entropy opens a new window to study the AdS3/CFT2 correspondence. Here we review the latest developments in this area. In particular, we focus on the computations of the Rnyi entropy in the cases of two short disjoint intervals on a complex plane and one single interval on a torus. We also discuss the large interval limit of the latter case and propose a new expansion framework in the CFT computation and a new set of monodromy conditions in the holographic computation.

  14. Thermal fluctuations in a charged AdS black hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pourhassan, Behnam; Faizal, Mir

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, we will analyze the effects of thermal fluctuations on a charged anti-de Sitter (AdS) black hole. This will be done by analyzing the corrections to black-hole thermodynamics due to these thermal fluctuations. We will demonstrate that the entropy of this black hole gets corrected by a logarithmic term. We will also calculate other corrections to other important thermodynamic quantities for this black hole. Finally, we will use the corrected value of the specific heat to analyze the phase transition in this system.

  15. Eastern Pacific sea surface temperature since 1600 A.D.: The δ18O record of climate variability in Galápagos Corals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunbar, Robert B.; Wellington, Gerard M.; Colgan, Mitchell W.; Glynn, Peter W.

    1994-04-01

    We measured stable oxygen isotope ratios and skeletal growth rates in the massive corals Pavona clavus and P. gigantea from the west coast of Isabela Island, Galápagos, to assess interannual to decadal climate variability in the eastern Pacific. Comparisons of instrumental data sets show that sea surface temperatures (SST) in the Galápagos region are representative of a broad portion of the eastern equatorial Pacific. The site is especially well-suited for long-term studies of the El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phenomenon, as it lies within the eastern Pacific "center of action" for thermal anomalies associated with ENSO. The P. gigantea isotope record is nearly monthly in resolution, spans the period 1961-1982, and shows strong correlation with a Galápagos instrumental SST record (r = -0.90 for annual averages). Cross-spectral analysis shows that SST can explain greater than 80% of the variance in δ18O at both the annual cycle and within the high-frequency portion of the ENSO band (3-5 years). The P. clavus record is annual in resolution, extends from 1587 to 1953 A.D., and was obtained from a 10-m diameter colony preserved within the Urvina Bay uplift. Because seawater δ18O variations in the region are very small, we interpret the Urvina Bay coral δ18O record in terms of annual average SST. The isotopic record appears to be a very good, but not perfect, indicator of ENSO events and shows good correspondence with the historical ENSO reconstruction of Quinn et al. (1987). A number of low δ18O excursions that we observe during the 17th and 18th centuries very likely represent ENSO events that are missing from the historical tabulations. Most interannual δ18O variations between 1607 and 1953 A.D. represent annual average temperature excursions of 1° to 2.5°C. During the Little Ice Age, the annual δ18O series correlates well with many North American tree ring records and shows low temperatures during the early 1600s and early 1800s, and relatively warmer conditions during the 1700s. Unlike most northern hemisphere tree ring and instrumental records, we see no evidence at this site for warming between 1880 and 1940 but rather observe a slight cooling (<1°C). Oscillatory modes within the ENSO frequency band dominate the 347-year δ18O time series, accounting for >28% of the total variance. The main ENSO mode is centered at 4.6 years and accounts for 12% of the total variance. Additional significant oscillations occur at periods of 3.3, 6, 8, 11, 17, 22, and 34 years. Both annual growth rate and δ18O show variance at periods equivalent to the solar and solar magnetic periods (e.g., 11 and 22 years, respectively). In addition, the amplitude of the 11-year δ18O cycle generally varies with the amplitude of the solar cycle, supporting previous suggestions that the solar cycle may modulate interannual to decadal climate variability in the tropics. The dominant oscillatory modes, both within the ENSO and interdecadal frequency bands, shift to shorter periods from the early to middle 1700s and again from the middle to late 1800s. This may reflect major reorganizations within the tropical ocean-atmosphere system and suggests that tropical Pacific climate variability is linked across timescales ranging from years to decades.

  16. Introducing ADS 2.0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Accomazzi, Alberto; Kurtz, M. J.; Henneken, E. A.; Grant, C. S.; Thompson, D.; Luker, J.; Chyla, R.; Murray, S. S.

    2014-01-01

    In the spring of 1993, the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) first launched its bibliographic search system. It was known then as the ADS Abstract Service, a component of the larger Astrophysics Data System effort which had developed an interoperable data system now seen as a precursor of the Virtual Observatory. As a result of the massive technological and sociological changes in the field of scholarly communication, the ADS is now completing the most ambitious technological upgrade in its twenty-year history. Code-named ADS 2.0, the new system features: an IT platform built on web and digital library standards; a new, extensible, industrial strength search engine; a public API with various access control capabilities; a set of applications supporting search, export, visualization, analysis; a collaborative, open source development model; and enhanced indexing of content which includes the full-text of astronomy and physics publications. The changes in the ADS platform affect all aspects of the system and its operations, including: the process through which data and metadata are harvested, curated and indexed; the interface and paradigm used for searching the database; and the follow-up analysis capabilities available to the users. This poster describes the choices behind the technical overhaul of the system, the technology stack used, and the opportunities which the upgrade is providing us with, namely gains in productivity and enhancements in our system capabilities.

  17. Primordial fluctuations from complex AdS saddle points

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hertog, Thomas; van der Woerd, Ellen

    2016-02-01

    One proposal for dS/CFT is that the Hartle-Hawking (HH) wave function in the large volume limit is equal to the partition function of a Euclidean CFT deformed by various operators. All saddle points defining the semiclassical HH wave function in cosmology have a representation in which their interior geometry is part of a Euclidean AdS domain wall with complex matter fields. We compute the wave functions of scalar and tensor perturbations around homogeneous isotropic complex saddle points, turning on single scalar field matter only. We compare their predictions for the spectra of CMB perturbations with those of a different dS/CFT proposal based on the analytic continuation of inflationary universes to real asymptotically AdS domain walls. We find the predictions of both bulk calculations agree to first order in the slow roll parameters, but there is a difference at higher order which, we argue, is a signature of the HH state of the fluctuations.

  18. Landscape of nonsupersymmetric AdS vacua on coset manifolds

    SciTech Connect

    Koerber, Paul; Koers, Simon

    2010-05-15

    We construct new families of nonsupersymmetric sourceless type IIA AdS{sub 4} vacua on those coset manifolds that also admit supersymmetric solutions. We investigate the spectrum of left-invariant modes and find that most, but not all, of the vacua are stable under these fluctuations. Generically, there are also no massless moduli.

  19. Conserved charges in timelike warped AdS3 spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donnay, L.; Fernndez-Melgarejo, J. J.; Giribet, G.; Goya, A.; Lavia, E.

    2015-06-01

    We consider the timelike version of warped anti-de Sitter space (WAdS), which corresponds to the three-dimensional section of the Gdel solution of four-dimensional cosmological Einstein equations. This geometry presents closed timelike curves (CTCs), which are inherited from its four-dimensional embedding. In three dimensions, this type of solution can be supported without matter provided the graviton acquires mass. Here, among the different ways to consistently give mass to the graviton in three dimensions, we consider the parity-even model known as new massive gravity (NMG). In the bulk of timelike WAdS3 space, we introduce defects that, from the three-dimensional point of view, represent spinning massive particlelike objects. For this type of source, we investigate the definition of quasilocal gravitational energy as seen from infinity, far beyond the region where the CTCs appear. We also consider the covariant formalism applied to NMG to compute the mass and the angular momentum of spinning particlelike defects and compare the result with the one obtained by means of the quasilocal stress tensor. We apply these methods to special limits in which the WAdS3 solutions coincide with locally AdS3 and locally AdS2R spaces. Finally, we make some comments about the asymptotic symmetry algebra of asymptotically WAdS3 spaces in NMG.

  20. Influence of coagulation factor x on in vitro and in vivo gene delivery by adenovirus (Ad) 5, Ad35, and chimeric Ad5/Ad35 vectors.

    PubMed

    Greig, Jenny A; Buckley, Suzanne Mk; Waddington, Simon N; Parker, Alan L; Bhella, David; Pink, Rebecca; Rahim, Ahad A; Morita, Takashi; Nicklin, Stuart A; McVey, John H; Baker, Andrew H

    2009-10-01

    The binding of coagulation factor X (FX) to the hexon of adenovirus (Ad) 5 is pivotal for hepatocyte transduction. However, vectors based on Ad35, a subspecies B Ad, are in development for cancer gene therapy, as Ad35 utilizes CD46 (which is upregulated in many cancers) for transduction. We investigated whether interaction of Ad35 with FX influenced vector tropism using Ad5, Ad35, and Ad5/Ad35 chimeras: Ad5/fiber(f)35, Ad5/penton(p)35/f35, and Ad35/f5. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) revealed that Ad35 and Ad35/f5 bound FX with approximately tenfold lower affinities than Ad5 hexon-containing viruses, and electron cryomicroscopy (cryo-EM) demonstrated a direct Ad35 hexon:FX interaction. The presence of physiological levels of FX significantly inhibited transduction of vectors containing Ad35 fibers (Ad5/f35, Ad5/p35/f35, and Ad35) in CD46-positive cells. Vectors were intravenously administered to CD46 transgenic mice in the presence and absence of FX-binding protein (X-bp), resulting in reduced liver accumulation for all vectors. Moreover, Ad5/f35 and Ad5/p35/f35 efficiently accumulated in the lung, whereas Ad5 demonstrated poor lung targeting. Additionally, X-bp significantly reduced lung genome accumulation for Ad5/f35 and Ad5/p35/f35, whereas Ad35 was significantly enhanced. In summary, vectors based on the full Ad35 serotype will be useful vectors for selective gene transfer via CD46 due to a weaker FX interaction compared to Ad5. PMID:19603000

  1. Strings on AdS wormholes and nonsingular black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lü, H.; Vázquez-Poritz, Justin F.; Zhang, Zhibai

    2015-01-01

    Certain AdS black holes in the STU model can be conformally scaled to wormhole and black hole backgrounds which have two asymptotically AdS regions and are completely free of curvature singularities. While there is a delta-function source for the dilaton, classical string probes are not sensitive to this singularity. According to the AdS/CFT correspondence, the dual field theory lives on the union of the disjoint boundaries. For the wormhole background, causal contact exists between the two boundaries and the structure of certain correlation functions is indicative of an interacting phase for which there is a coupling between the degrees of freedom living at each boundary. The nonsingular black hole describes an entangled state in two non-interacting identical conformal field theories. By studying the behavior of open strings on these backgrounds, we extract a number of features of the ‘quarks’ and ‘anti-quarks’ that live in the field theories. In the interacting phase, we find that there is a maximum speed with which the quarks can move without losing energy, beyond which energy is transferred from a quark in one field theory to a quark in the other. We also compute the rate at which moving quarks within entangled states lose energy to the two surrounding plasmas. While a quark-antiquark pair within a single field theory exhibits Coulomb interaction for small separation, a quark in one field theory exhibits spring-like confinement with an anti-quark in the other field theory. For the entangled states, we study how the quark-antiquark screening length depends on temperature and chemical potential.

  2. Adding momentum to supersymmetric geometries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lunin, Oleg; Mathur, Samir D.; Turton, David

    2013-03-01

    We consider general supersymmetric solutions to minimal supergravity in six dimensions, trivially lifted to IIB supergravity. To any such solution we add a traveling wave deformation involving the additional directions. The deformed solution is given in terms of a function which is harmonic in the background geometry. We also present a family of explicit examples describing microstates of the D1-D5 system on T4. In the case where the background contains a large AdS region, the deformation is identified as corresponding to an action of a U(1) current of the D1-D5 orbifold CFT on a given state.

  3. Luigi Galvani and animal electricity: two centuries after the foundation of electrophysiology.

    PubMed

    Piccolino, M

    1997-10-01

    Luigi Galvani and his famous experiments on frogs carried out in the second half of the 18th century belong more to legend than to the history of science. Galvani not only laid the foundations of a new science, electrophysiology, but also opened the way for the invention of the electric battery, and thus for the development of the physical investigations of electricity. However, in spite of the widespread celebration of his work, Galvani's scientific endeavours have been largely misrepresented in the history of science. The scholar of Bologna has a stereotyped image as an 'occasional' scientist, who started his studies by chance, largely ignored the scientific theories of his time and wandered aimlessly in mental elaborations until the physicist of Pavia, Alessandro Volta, entered the field, correctly interpreted Galvani's results and eventually developed the electric battery. With the present understanding of electrical phenomena in excitable membranes, it is now time to reconsider the real matter raised by Galvani's discoveries and by his hypothesis of an intrinsic 'animal electricity', and to make a clearer evaluation of a revolutionary phase of scientific progress. PMID:9347609

  4. Charged dilatonic ads black holes and magnetic AdS D-2 R 2 vacua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    L, H.

    2013-09-01

    We consider D-dimensional Einstein gravity coupled to two U(1) fields and a dilaton with a scalar potential. We derive the condition that the analytical AdS black holes with two independent charges can be constructed. Turning off the cosmological constant, the extremal Reissner-Nordstrm black hole emerges as the harmonic superposition of the two U(1) building blocks. With the non-vanishing cosmological constant, our extremal solutions contain the near-horizon geometry of AdS2 R D-2 with or without a hyperscaling. We also obtain the magnetic vacua where can be R 2, S 2 or hyperbolic 2-space. These vacua arise as the fix points of some super potentials and recover the known supersymmetric vacua when the theory can be embedded in gauged supergravities. The AdSD-2 R 2 vacua are of particular interest since they are dual to some quantum field theories at the lowest Landau level. By studying the embedding of some of these solutions in the string and M-theory, we find that the M2/M5-system with the equal M2 and M5 charges can intersect with another such M2/M5 on to a dyonic black hole. Analogous intersection rule applies also to the D1/D5-system. The intersections are non-supersymmetric but in the manner of harmonic superpositions.

  5. Large ground surface temperature changes of the last three centuries inferred from borehole temperatures in the Southern Canadian Prairies, Saskatchewan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majorowicz, Jacek A.; Safanda, Jan; Harris, Robert N.; Skinner, Walter R.

    1999-05-01

    New temperature logs in wells located in the grassland ecozone in the Southern Canadian Prairies in Saskatchewan, where surface disturbance is considered minor, show a large curvature in the upper 100 m. The character of this curvature is consistent with ground surface temperature (GST) warming in the 20th century. Repetition of precise temperature logs in southern Saskatchewan (years 1986 and 1997) shows the conductive nature of warming of the subsurface sediments. The magnitude of surface temperature change during that time (11 years) is high (0.3-0.4C). To assess the conductive nature of temperature variations at the grassland surface interface, several precise air and soil temperature time series in the southern Canadian Prairies (1965-1995) were analyzed. The combined anomalies correlated at 0.85. Application of the functional space inversion (FSI) technique with the borehole temperature logs and site-specific lithology indicates a warming to date of approximately 2.5C since a minimum in the late 18th century to mid 19th century. This warming represents an approximate increase from 4C around 1850 to 6.5C today. The significance of this record is that it suggests almost half of the warming occurred prior to 1900, before dramatic build up of atmospheric green house gases. This result correlates well with the proxy record of climatic change further to the north, beyond the Arctic Circle [Overpeck, J., Hughen, K., Hardy, D., Bradley, R., Case, R., Douglas, M., Finney, B., Gajewski, K., Jacoby, G., Jennings, A., Lamourex, S., Lasca, A., MacDonald, G., Moore, J., Retelle, M., Smith, S., Wolfe, A., Zielinski, G., 1997. Arctic environmental change of the last four centuries, Science 278, 1251-1256.].

  6. Adding Value to Indiana's Commodities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welch, Mary A., Ed.

    1995-01-01

    Food processing plants are adding value to bulk and intermediate products to sell overseas. The Asian Pacific Rim economies constituted the largest market for consumer food products in 1993. This shift toward consumer food imports in this area is due to more women working outside the home, the internationalization of populations, and dramatic

  7. Added Value in Electronic Publications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bothma, Theo J. D.

    Electronic publications are flooding the market. Some of these publications are created specifically for the electronic environment, but many are conversions of existing material to electronic format. It is not worth the time and effort merely to publish existing material in electronic format if no value is added in the conversion process. The

  8. Higher-derivative superparticle in AdS3 space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozyrev, Nikolay; Krivonos, Sergey; Lechtenfeld, Olaf

    2016-03-01

    Employing the coset approach we construct component actions for a superparticle moving in AdS3 with N =(2 ,0 ), D =3 supersymmetry partially broken to N =2 , d =1 . These actions may contain higher time-derivative terms, which are chosen to possess the same (super)symmetries as the free superparticle. In terms of the nonlinear-realization superfields, the component actions always take a simpler form when written in terms of covariant Cartan forms. We also consider in detail the reduction to the nonrelativistic case and construct the corresponding action of a Newton-Hooke superparticle and its higher-derivative generalizations. The structure of these higher time-derivative generalizations is completely fixed by invariance under the supersymmetric Newton-Hooke algebra extended by two central charges.

  9. AdS black holes with arbitrary scalar coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caldarelli, Marco M.; Charmousis, Christos; Hassane, Mokhtar

    2013-10-01

    A general class of axionic and electrically charged black holes for a self-interacting scalar field nonminimally coupled to Einstein gravity with a negative cosmological constant is presented. These solutions are the first examples of black holes with an arbitrary nonminimal coupling ? in four dimensions. Moreover, due to the presence of two three-forms fields, the topology of the horizon of these black holes is planar. We discuss some properties of these solutions electing particular values of the nonminimal coupling parameter. A special case arises when ? = 1/4, for which the gravitational field is confined in a region close to the event horizon. We also show that these black holes emerge from stealth AdS configurations as the axionic fields are switched on, and that they can be generated through a Kerr-Schild transformation. Finally, in the appendix, we extend these results to arbitrary dimension.

  10. Higher spin AdS3 holography with extended supersymmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Creutzig, Thomas; Hikida, Yasuaki; Rnne, Peter B.

    2014-10-01

    We propose a holographic duality between a higher spin AdS3 gravity with so( p) extended supersymmetry and a large N limit of a 2-dimensional Grassmannian-like model with a specific critical level k = N and a non-diagonal modular invariant. As evidence, we show the match of one-loop partition functions. Moreover, we construct symmetry generators of the coset model for low spins which are dual to gauge fields in the supergravity. Further, we discuss a possible relation to superstring theory by noticing an supersymmetry of critical level model at finite k, N. In particular, we examine BPS states and marginal deformations. Inspired by the supergravity side, we also propose and test another large N CFT dual obtained as a automorphism truncation of a similar coset model, but at a non-critical level.

  11. Systematics of Coupling Flows in AdS Backgrounds

    SciTech Connect

    Goldberger, Walter D.; Rothstein, Ira Z.

    2003-03-18

    We give an effective field theory derivation, based on the running of Planck brane gauge correlators, of the large logarithms that arise in the predictions for low energy gauge couplings in compactified AdS}_5 backgrounds, including the one-loop effects of bulk scalars, fermions, and gauge bosons. In contrast to the case of charged scalars coupled to Abelian gauge fields that has been considered previously in the literature, the one-loop corrections are not dominated by a single 4D Kaluza-Klein mode. Nevertheless, in the case of gauge field loops, the amplitudes can be reorganized into a leading logarithmic contribution that is identical to the running in 4D non-Abelian gauge theory, and a term which is not logarithmically enhanced and is analogous to a two-loop effect in 4D. In a warped GUT model broken by the Higgs mechanism in the bulk,we show that the matching scale that appears in the large logarithms induced by the non-Abelian gauge fields is m_{XY}^2/k where m_{XY} is the bulk mass of the XY bosons and k is the AdS curvature. This is in contrast to the UV scale in the logarithmic contributions of scalars, which is simply the bulk mass m. Our results are summarized in a set of simple rules that can be applied to compute the leading logarithmic predictions for coupling constant relations within a given warped GUT model. We present results for both bulk Higgs and boundary breaking of the GUT gauge

  12. White Macael marble: a key element in the architectonic heritage of Andalusia for over 25 centuries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navarro, Rafael; Sol Cruz, Ana; Arriaga, Lourdes; Baltuille, José Manuel

    2013-04-01

    Marble from Macael (Andalusia) is one of the most important natural stones in the architectonic heritage of Andalusia; in particular the variety commercially known as "White Macael". This natural stone has been used outdoors as well as indoors for decorative, ornamental or structural purposes. During the 7th century (B.C.) the Phoenicians began to systematically extract these quarries to be used in their more social important elements such as sarcophagus. During the Roman period this rock had a greater importance in construction; we find columns, pavements, tombstones… in many historical buildings such as the Roman amphitheatre in Mérida (1st century B.C.) and the city of Itálica in Seville (3rd century B.C.). But it is during the Muslim period when marble from Macael is more widely used: the Mosque of Córdoba (8th century), the Lions Court in the Alhambra palace, the Alcazaba in Almería, the Medina-Azahara palace in Córdoba (10th century). Other important buildings using the white marble are: Carlos V palace or the Royal Chapel in Granada (15th century), the Almería cathedral or El Escorial monastery in Madrid (16th century), San Telmo palace in Seville (17th century) or The Royal Palace in Madrid (18th century). Uncountable number of buildings, both historical and contemporary, show different elements made of this marble. From a geological point of view, the quarries are located in the upper part of the Nevado-Filábride Complex, the lowest nappe of the Internal Zones of the Betic Chains. Under the "White Macael" name is also possible to include another commercial denominations such "White Macael Río" or "White Macael Río Veteado". It is a clear white coloured, calcitic marble (up than 97% calcite), with average grain size between 0,16 y 3,2 mm in a mosaic texture with a very homogenous aspect. Regarding the main physical and mechanical properties, this rock has an open porosity value between 0,1-0,6%, bulk density 2,50-2,75 g/cm3, water absorption at atmospheric pressure between 0,1-0,2%, compressive strength (dry) between 81,1-87,4 MPa, flexural resistance (dry) between 12,1-14,2 MPa and salt crystallization loss of mass of 1,25-2,20%. We suggest to consider this natural stone as Global Heritage Stone Resource because of its aesthetic characteristics, its optimal behaviour when emplaced in construction as can be evident throughout the more than 25 centuries of use of this rock all over the country, and because the volume of international trade and exploitation. Macael white marble can be considered the main ornamental rock in Andalusia. This is a contribution of the Spanish network CONSTRUROCK.

  13. Aging in Pliny's Letters: A View from the Second Century A.D.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kebric, Robert B.

    1983-01-01

    Reviews the writings of a Roman aristocrat named Pliny the Younger to look at aging and the aged during the Roman Empire. Attitudes about the aged, the aging process, multigenerational upbringing, and retirement, among other topics, are discussed and illustrated. (Author/JAC)

  14. Scattering States in AdS/CFT

    SciTech Connect

    Fitzpatrick, A.Liam; Kaplan, Jared; /SLAC

    2012-02-14

    We show that suitably regulated multi-trace primary states in large N CFTs behave like 'in' and 'out' scattering states in the flat-space limit of AdS. Their transition matrix elements approach the exact scattering amplitudes for the bulk theory, providing a natural CFT definition of the flat space S-Matrix. We study corrections resulting from the AdS curvature and particle propagation far from the center of AdS, and show that AdS simply provides an IR regulator that disappears in the flat space limit.

  15. [Madhouse, asylum, retreat, specialist hospital - on the genesis and history of names for psychiatric institutions in Germany until the beginning of the 20th century].

    PubMed

    Carius, Dirk; Angermeyer, Matthias C; Steinberg, Holger

    2003-11-01

    This paper analyses the history of names for psychiatric institutions in the German language. When scientific, medical psychiatry came into being in the late 18 (th) century, names with negative connotations such as "Narrenhaus" or "Tollhaus" (approximating to the English word "madhouse") were substituted by the then neutral "Irrenhaus" and later in the 19 (th) century by "Irrenanstalt". Soon, however, this new term became associated with negative connotations, making it unsuitable as a reflection of the many improvements made both in the treatment and the public image of psychiatric service users. Changes in word form such as "Heilanstalt", "Pflegeanstalt" and "Heil- und Pflegeanstalt" better reflect the character of the institutions. Objections to the word "Anstalt" (institution) were not acknowledged until the 20 (th) century when the term "Fachkrankenhaus" ("specialist hospital") was introduced. Before then the German word "Klinik" was reserved for university hospitals, the first of which was founded in 1878. The history of names for psychiatric institutions reflects both changes in the treatment of the mentally ill and the attempts made above all by psychiatrists to face and overcome stigmatisation of their clients. PMID:14658093

  16. Missing top of the AdS resonance structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, I.-Sheng

    2015-03-01

    We study a massless scalar field in AdSd +1 with a nonlinear coupling ϕN and not limited to spherical symmetry. The free-field-eigenstate spectrum is strongly resonant, and it is commonly believed that the nonlinear coupling leads to energy transfer between eigenstates. We prove that when N d is even, the most efficient resonant channels to transfer energy are always absent. In particular, for N =3 this means no energy transfer at all. For N =4 , this effectively kills half of the channels, leading to the same set of extra conservation laws recently derived for gravitational interactions within spherical symmetry.

  17. Puzzles of ?-deformed AdS5 S5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arutyunov, Gleb; Borsato, Riccardo; Frolov, Sergey

    2015-12-01

    We derive the part of the Lagrangian for the sigma model on the ?-deformed AdS5 S5 space which is quadratic in fermions and has the full dependence on bosons. We then show that there exists a field redefinition which brings the corresponding La-grangian to the standard form of type IIB Green-Schwarz superstring. Reading off the corresponding RR couplings, we observe that they fail to satisfy the supergravity equations of motion, despite the presence of ?-symmetry. However, in a special scaling limit our solution reproduces the supergravity background found by Maldacena and Russo. Further, using the fermionic Lagrangian, we compute a number of new matrix elements of the tree level world-sheet scattering matrix. We then show that after a unitary transformation on the basis of two-particle states which is not one-particle factorisable, the corresponding T-matrix factorises into two equivalent parts. Each part satisfies the classical Yang-Baxter equation and coincides with the large tension limit of the q-deformed S-matrix.

  18. Lifshitz-like systems and AdS null deformations

    SciTech Connect

    Narayan, K.

    2011-10-15

    Following K. Balasubramanian and K. Narayan [J. High Energy Phys. 08 (2010) 014], we discuss certain lightlike deformations of AdS{sub 5}xX{sup 5} in type IIB string theory sourced by a lightlike dilaton {Phi}(x{sup +}) dual to the N=4 super Yang-Mills theory with a lightlike varying gauge coupling. We argue that, in the case where the x{sup +} direction is noncompact, these solutions describe anisotropic 3+1-dim Lifshitz-like systems with a potential in the x{sup +} direction generated by the lightlike dilaton. We then describe solutions of this sort with a linear dilaton. This enables a detailed calculation of two-point correlation functions of operators dual to bulk scalars and helps illustrate the spatial structure of these theories. Following this, we discuss a nongeometric string construction involving a compactification along the x{sup +} direction of this linear dilaton system. We also point out similar IIB axionic solutions. Similar bulk arguments for x{sup +}-noncompact can be carried out for deformations of AdS{sub 4}xX{sup 7} in M theory.

  19. The ADS All Sky Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodman, Alyssa

    We will create the first interactive sky map of astronomers' understanding of the Universe over time. We will accomplish this goal by turning the NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS), widely known for its unrivaled value as a literature resource, into a data resource. GIS and GPS systems have made it commonplace to see and explore information about goings-on on Earth in the context of maps and timelines. Our proposal shows an example of a program that lets a user explore which countries have been mentioned in the New York Times, on what dates, and in what kinds of articles. By analogy, the goal of our project is to enable this kind of exploration-on the sky-for the full corpus of astrophysical literature available through ADS. Our group's expertise and collaborations uniquely position us to create this interactive sky map of the literature, which we call the "ADS All-Sky Survey." To create this survey, here are the principal steps we need to follow. First, by analogy to "geotagging," we will "astrotag," the ADS literature. Many "astrotags" effectively already exist, thanks to curation efforts at both CDS and NED. These efforts have created links to "source" positions on the sky associated with each of the millions of articles in the ADS. Our collaboration with ADS and CDS will let us automatically extract astrotags for all existing and future ADS holdings. The new ADS Labs, which our group helps to develop, includes the ability for researchers to filter article search results using a variety of "facets" (e.g. sources, keywords, authors, observatories, etc.). Using only extracted astrotags and facets, we can create functionality like what is described in the Times example above: we can offer a map of the density of positions' "mentions" on the sky, filterable by the properties of those mentions. Using this map, researchers will be able to interactively, visually, discover what regions have been studied for what reasons, at what times, and by whom. Second, where images can be extracted from articles, we will attempt to "astroreference" those images in order allow for their overlay on the sky. "Astroreferencing" is the analog of "georeferencing," where coordinate information is used to overlay information on maps. Our first pass at astroreferencing will be made using the astrometry.net program, in collaboration with one of its creators. If enough optically-visible stars are present in an image, astrometry.net can place it where it goes on the sky. Only a small fraction of ADS holdings contain images solvable by astrometry.net, but for the articles which do, reviving the data in this way holds tremendous value-especially in the case of historically important observations. Lastly, we will also astroreference images by text-mining to extract "metadata" buried in the figure captions and text. As it is built, the ADSASS will effectively create dynamic data layers of astrotags and astroreferenced images. Users will be able to explore these layers using a wide variety of free all-sky data viewers. Our group and our collaborators have been involved in the development of the WorldWide Telescope and Aladin programs, so we will use those to develop examples of how we intend for the ADSASS to be used. But, we plan to ensure that the data feed represented by the ADSASS will be ingestible by any program capable of understanding sky coordinates and all-sky views. Our proposal can only give a glimpse into the wealth of science it will enable, which includes everything from observation-planning to data discovery to studying the sky distributions of classes of objects. Just as it would have been hard to predict the full and amazing impact of GIS and GPS on society, it is similarly hard to gauge the full impact of the NASA ADSASS. The ADS on its own is already the envy of other sciences as a unified research tool, with the advent of the ADSASS, NASA will have led the way to the future once again.

  20. Toward 21st Century Supports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Umphrey, Jan

    2010-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Linda Darling-Hammond, Charles Ducommun Professor of Education at Stanford University, director of the Stanford Center for Opportunity Policy and Education, and codirector of the school redesign network at Stanford. In this interview, Darling-Hammond describes the term "21st century skills" and shares her

  1. Twenty-first-century science.

    PubMed Central

    Greenwood, M R

    1995-01-01

    Scientific life is changing in fundamental ways as the twenty-first century approaches. Advances in technology are changing methods of scientific communications and dissemination of information, while diminishing resources lead to stabilization, politicization, increased public oversight, and the potential for significant downsizing. Libraries can foster the crucial interdisciplinary connections necessary to forge a new vision of scholarship. PMID:7703945

  2. Physics in the Twentieth Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weisskopf, Victor F.

    1970-01-01

    Provides a review of the great discoveries, theoretical concepts and development of physics in the 20th century. The growth and significance of diverse fields such as quantum theory, relativity theory, atomic physics, molecular physics, the physics of the solid state, nuclear physics, astrophysics, plasma physics, and particle physics are

  3. Physics in the Twentieth Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weisskopf, Victor F.

    1970-01-01

    Provides a review of the great discoveries, theoretical concepts and development of physics in the 20th century. The growth and significance of diverse fields such as quantum theory, relativity theory, atomic physics, molecular physics, the physics of the solid state, nuclear physics, astrophysics, plasma physics, and particle physics are…

  4. Two Centuries of Soil Conservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helms, Douglas

    1991-01-01

    Narrates U.S. soil conservation history since the late eighteenth century. Discusses early practices such as contour plowing. Profiles individuals who promoted soil conservation and were largely responsible for the creation of the Soil Conservation Service. Explains the causes of erosion and how soil conservation districts help farmers prevent

  5. Talladega College: The First Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Maxine D.; Richardson, Joe M.

    The book presents the history of the growth, development, and significance of Alabama's Talladega College, a black liberal arts college, from its inception in the 1860s through the student protest movement more than a century later. The historical account emphasizes such college issues as finance, enrollment, students, educational policy, and the

  6. ADS History in the USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheffield, Richard L.; Pitcher, Eric J.

    2010-06-01

    Nearly all risks to future generations arising from long-term disposal of used nuclear fuel are attributable to the transuranic elements and long-lived fission products, about 2% of its content. The transuranic elements of concern are plutonium, neptunium, americium, and curium. Long-lived (>100,000-year half-life) isotopes of iodine and technetium are also created by nuclear fission of uranium. We can reduce the problem transuranics through accelerator-based transmutation. Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS) have been proposed for over two decades as one technique to transmute used nuclear fuel. This paper covers the history and some new possible applications of accelerator driven systems.

  7. [Mercury (and...) through the centuries].

    PubMed

    K?ys, Ma?gorzata

    2010-01-01

    Mercury has a long history, fascinating in its many aspects. Through the centuries--from ancient times to the present day--the metal in its various forms, also known under the name "quicksilver", accompanied the man and was used for diversified purposes. Today, mercury is employed in manufacturing thermometers, barometers, vacuum pumps and explosives. It is also used in silver and gold mining processes. Mercury compounds play a significant role in dentistry, pharmaceutical industry and crop protection. The contemporary use of mercury markedly decreases, but historically speaking, the archives abound in materials that document facts and events occurring over generations and the immense intellectual effort aiming at discovering the true properties and mechanisms of mercury activity. Mercury toxicity, manifested in destruction of biological membranes and binding of the element with proteins, what disturbs biochemical processes occurring in the body, was discovered only after many centuries of the metal exerting its effect on the lives of individuals and communities. For centuries, mercury was present in the work of alchemists, who searched for the universal essence or quintessence and the so-called philosopher's stone. In the early modern era, between the 16th and 19th centuries, mercury was used to manufacture mirrors. Mercury compounds were employed as a medication against syphilis, which plagued mankind for more than four hundred years--from the Middle Ages till mid 20th century, when the discovery of penicillin became the turning point. This extremely toxic therapy resulted in much suffering, individual tragedies, chronic poisonings leading to fatalities and dramatic sudden deaths. In the last fifty years, there even occurred attempts of mentally imbalanced individuals at injecting themselves with metallic mercury, also as a performance-enhancing drug. Instances of mass mercury poisoning occurred many times in the past in consequence of eating food products poisoned with organic mercury compounds originating from the natural environment. PMID:21863739

  8. Viruses in a 14th-Century Coprolite

    PubMed Central

    Appelt, Sandra; Fancello, Laura; Le Bailly, Matthieu; Raoult, Didier; Drancourt, Michel

    2014-01-01

    Coprolites are fossilized fecal material that can reveal information about ancient intestinal and environmental microbiota. Viral metagenomics has allowed systematic characterization of viral diversity in environmental and human-associated specimens, but little is known about the viral diversity in fossil remains. Here, we analyzed the viral community of a 14th-century coprolite from a closed barrel in a Middle Ages site in Belgium using electron microscopy and metagenomics. Viruses that infect eukaryotes, bacteria, and archaea were detected, and we confirmed the presence of some of them by ad hoc suicide PCR. The coprolite DNA viral metagenome was dominated by sequences showing homologies to phages commonly found in modern stools and soil. Although their phylogenetic compositions differed, the metabolic functions of the viral communities have remained conserved across centuries. Antibiotic resistance was one of the reconstructed metabolic functions detected. PMID:24509925

  9. Teberda valley runoff variability (AD 1797-2003) based on tree-ring reconstruction (Northern Caucasus, Russia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matskovskiy, V. V.; Dolgova, E. A.; Solomina, O. N.

    2009-04-01

    In this paper we provide a new tree-ring based runoff reconstruction for Teberda river for 1797-2003. Teberda river is a tributary of Kuban' (Azov Sea basin), 60 km long with the watershed surface equal to 1080 km2. 60% of runoff occurs in summer, 17% - in the fall, 5% - in winter, 18% - in spring. 55,8% of runoff (at Teberda hydrological station) is provided by snow and ice melt (Lurye 2000). No statistically significant trend is identified in the Teberda runoff records in 1930-2000 despite of some important climatic and environmental changes occurred in this period in the Northern Caucasus, namely a general warming in winter, increase in solid precipitation and recession of glaciers. Tree-ring properties were successfully used previously to reconstruct streamflow (Stockton and Jacoby, 1976, Woodhouse et al., 2006) in the regions where drought influence both tree growth and river runoff regime. In the Northern Caucasus, even at the upper tree limit pine and spruce growth is largely limited by the availability of water (Dologva et al., 2007). The correlation between Pinus silvestris ring width and June-July Teberda river runoff is 0.4, while it increases up to 0.69 for 11-years running mean. We used linear regression of instrumental records of Teberda runoff (1927-2000) and first principal component of the pine ring width chronologies from the same valley to reconstruct the June-July runoff for the period 1797-2003. Our chronology is two centuries longer, but its reliable portion (EPS > 0.8) begin in the late 18th century. We used cross-validation to verify the reconstruction, so the correlation coefficient is 0.72 and mean difference is 23.13 (52% of interquartile range) between reconstruction and instrumental record for the verification period. The reconstruction reproduces well the general trends in runoff variability, but slightly underestimates the amplitude of the runoff positive anomalies in 1940s. The positive peaks of reconstructed runoff are centered around 1825, 1848, 1876, 1898, and 1915; the negative anomalies occurred around 1815, 1835, 1859, 1891, and 1907. The reconstructed anomalies exceeding two standard deviations are more numerous in 19th century, especially in its first half, in comparison with the 20th century. However in general the amplitude of variability of reconstructed runoff in 19th and 20th centuries is similar. Supported by RFBR research grant 07-05-00410.

  10. Adding CP to flavour symmetries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Medeiros Varzielas, I.

    2015-07-01

    I propose the use of CP-odd invariants, which are independent of basis and valid for any choice of CP transformation, as a powerful approach to study CP in the presence of flavour symmetries. As examples of the approach I focus on Lagrangians invariant under ?(27). I comment on the consequences of adding a specific CP symmetry to a Lagrangian and distinguish cases where several ?(27) singlets are present depending on how they couple to the triplets. One of the examples included is a very simple toy model with explicit CP violation with calculable phases, which is referred to as explicit geometrical CP violation by comparison with previously known cases of (spontaneous) geometrical CP violation.

  11. Ad spending: maintaining market share.

    PubMed

    Jones, J P

    1990-01-01

    Accuracy in manufacturers' advertising budgeting is hampered by reliance on the case rate system, which ties budgets to sales. A better measure is a brand's market share compared with its share of voice (the brand's share of the total value of the main media exposure in that product category). New brands are often "investing" in the market: speaking in a louder voice than their market shares would justify. Popular brands are often "profit taking"--keeping their voices low but enjoying a disproportionately large market share. The interrelationship between market share and share of voice, with either "investing" or "profit taking" the desired result, is not usually considered when determining ad budgets. But as advertisers realize how market share can respond to advertising pressure through switches in the share of voice, this method of market testing should gain in importance. PMID:10106403

  12. The quadruple system ADS 1652

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokovinin, A.; Gorynya, N. A.; Morrell, N. I.

    2014-10-01

    A detailed study of the rare nearby quadruple system with a three-tier hierarchy is presented, contributing to the still scarce data on such multiples. We compute the first combined spectroscopic and interferometric orbit of HD 12889 with a period of 2.58 yr and eccentricity 0.77. This refers to the inner pair Aa, Ab in the quadruple system ADS 1652 which also contains the visual binary A, B with a known orbit of 200 yr period and another companion, C (HD 12873), at a projected distance of 2500 au from A. Photometry of all components is provided. The multiple system is located at a distance of 44 pc and it is composed of main-sequence dwarfs with estimated masses of 0.74, 0.72, 0.57, and 0.78 solar masses for Aa, Ab, B and C, respectively. The orbits of Aa, Ab and A, B are likely coplanar.

  13. The 21st century propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haloulakos, V. E.; Boehmer, C.

    1990-01-01

    The prediction of future space travel in the next millennium starts by examining the past and extrapolating into the far future. Goals for the 21st century include expanded space travel and establishment of permanent manned outposts, and representation of Lunar and Mars outposts as the most immediate future in space. Nuclear stage design/program considerations; launch considerations for manned Mars missions; and far future propulsion schemes are outlined.

  14. The 21st Century Skills Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Paige

    2009-01-01

    Since 2002, the Partnership for 21st Century Skills has been the leading advocacy organization in the United States focused on infusing 21st century skills into education. Its "Framework for 21st Century Learning," the result of a consensus among hundreds of stakeholders, describes the skills, knowledge, and expertise students need to succeed in

  15. Light-cone AdS/CFT-adapted approach to AdS fields/currents, shadows, and conformal fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metsaev, R. R.

    2015-10-01

    Light-cone gauge formulation of fields in AdS space and conformal field theory in flat space adapted for the study of AdS/CFT correspondence is developed. Arbitrary spin mixed-symmetry fields in AdS space and arbitrary spin mixed-symmetry currents, shadows, and conformal fields in flat space are considered on an equal footing. For the massless and massive fields in AdS and the conformal fields in flat space, simple light-cone gauge actions leading to decoupled equations of motion are found. For the currents and shadows, simple expressions for all 2-point functions are also found. We demonstrate that representation of conformal algebra generators on space of currents, shadows, and conformal fields can be built in terms of spin operators entering the light-cone gauge formulation of AdS fields. This considerably simplifies the study of AdS/CFT correspondence. Light-cone gauge actions for totally symmetric arbitrary spin long conformal fields in flat space are presented. We apply our approach to the study of totally antisymmetric (one-column) and mixed-symmetry (two-column) fields in AdS space and currents, shadows, and conformal fields in flat space.

  16. The New York Times ad.

    PubMed

    Hunt, M E; Kissling, F

    1993-01-01

    Feminization of patriarchal institutions is necessary in order to eliminate the exclusivity and mutuality of hierarchical, gender, class, and race stratification. The aim of this paper is to explain the history and activities surrounding the New York Times ad on Sunday, October 7, 1984 (the Catholic Statement on Pluralism and Abortion signed by Barbara Ferraro and Patricia Hussey of the Sisters of Note Dame de Namur, Rose Dominic Trapasso of the Maryknoll Sisters, and 67 other signers). The significance of this ad for Roman Catholic feminists and suggestions for new models of relationships between feminists is given. The Statement was written by Daniel Maguire and Frances Kissling and reviewed by 20 Roman Catholic ethicists. A sponsoring committee of early signers sought other support. Catholics for a Free Choice sponsored the funding for circulation of the Statement among professional societies, but not necessarily canonical communities. Publication of the entire statement in the Times was at the height of the presidential campaign. Conservative Bishops Bernard Law of Boston and John O'Connor of Boston publicly denounced Ferraro's position. The first institutional church response came on November 14, 1984, and stated that the Statement was personal opinion and contradictory to clear and constant church teachings about abortion. On November 30, 1984, Cardinal Jean Jerome Hamer of the Congregation for Religious and Secular Institutes responded to most presidents of canonical communities to request a public retraction from signers under threat of dismissal. The issue was obedience to the church. Several members of the canonical community and priests published retractions; negotiations with the Vatican began. Freedom of conscience and empowerment of canonical communities, as agents of their own lives, were given as reasons for the challenge to paternalism. The response was that women were subject to obedience within their communities and had taken public vows and were public members of the church. The superiors groups (Committee of Concerned Leadership) did not have a united public stand. A compromise was reached on "clarification" rather than retraction. On March 2, 1986, another Times letter declared that reprisals have a chilling effect on dissent. PMID:12178920

  17. A two century record of strontium isotopes from an ice core drilled at Mt Blanc, France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burton, G. R.; Rosman, K. J. R.; Van de Velde, K. P.; Boutron, C. F.

    2006-08-01

    New techniques which allow small amounts of Sr to be reliably analysed [G.R. Burton, V.I. Morgan, C.F. Boutron, K.J.R. Rosman, High-sensitivity measurements of strontium isotopes in polar ice, Anal. Chim. Acta 469 (2002) 225-233] by TIMS (Thermal Ionisation Mass Spectrometry) have been used to measure the isotopic composition of Sr and the concentration of Rb and Sr at sub-nanogram per gram levels in a Mt Blanc snow and ice core. This two century time series of Sr isotopes is the first to be reported in an Alpine glacier. The Sr and Rb concentrations range from 3 ng/g to 20 pg/g and 1 ng/g to 10 pg/g, respectively, with higher concentrations evident in more recent times. This trend is consistent with that reported previously for other metals such as Cd, Cu and Zn [K. Van de Velde, C. Barbante, G. Cozzi, I. Moret, T. Bellomi, C. Ferrari, C. Boutron, Changes in the occurrence of silver, gold, platinum, palladium and rhodium in Mont Blanc ice and snow since the 18th century, Atmos. Environ. 34 (2000) 3117-3127; K. Van de Velde, C. Boutron, C. Ferrari, T. Bellomi, C. Barbante, S. Rudnev, M. Bolshov, Seasonal variations of heavy metals in the 1960s Alpine ice: sources versus meteorological factors, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 164 (1998) 521-533; K.J.R. Rosman, C. Ly, K. Van de Velde, C.F. Boutron, A two century record of lead isotopes in high altitude Alpine snow and ice, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 176 (2000) 413-424]. The 87Sr/ 86Sr ratios vary between 0.7020 and 0.7176 and display relatively larger variations in recent times which have been attributed to seasonal variations made evident by the increased sampling resolution available at shallower depths. No change with time is evident in this ratio which has a mean value of 0.712 and is similar to Glacial ice at Summit Greenland, suggesting that aerosols reaching Mt Blanc represent the same mixture of sources. Also, anthropogenic sources would appear to have the same isotopic ratio. The presence of Saharan dust in some samples is confirmed here by their strontium isotopic ratios.

  18. Myths & Facts about Value-Added Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    TNTP, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents myths as well as facts about value-added analysis. These myths include: (1) "Value-added isn't fair to teachers who work in high-need schools, where students tend to lag far behind academically"; (2) "Value-added scores are too volatile from year-to-year to be trusted"; (3) "There's no research behind value-added"; (4) "Using…

  19. 16 CFR 460.18 - Insulation ads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Insulation ads. 460.18 Section 460.18... INSULATION 460.18 Insulation ads. (a) If your ad gives an R-value, you must give the type of insulation and... your ad gives a price, you must give the type of insulation, the R-value at a specific thickness,...

  20. 16 CFR 460.18 - Insulation ads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Insulation ads. 460.18 Section 460.18... INSULATION 460.18 Insulation ads. (a) If your ad gives an R-value, you must give the type of insulation and... your ad gives a price, you must give the type of insulation, the R-value at a specific thickness,...

  1. 16 CFR 460.18 - Insulation ads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Insulation ads. 460.18 Section 460.18... INSULATION 460.18 Insulation ads. (a) If your ad gives an R-value, you must give the type of insulation and... your ad gives a price, you must give the type of insulation, the R-value at a specific thickness,...

  2. 16 CFR 460.18 - Insulation ads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Insulation ads. 460.18 Section 460.18... INSULATION 460.18 Insulation ads. (a) If your ad gives an R-value, you must give the type of insulation and... your ad gives a price, you must give the type of insulation, the R-value at a specific thickness,...

  3. 16 CFR 460.18 - Insulation ads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Insulation ads. 460.18 Section 460.18... INSULATION 460.18 Insulation ads. (a) If your ad gives an R-value, you must give the type of insulation and... your ad gives a price, you must give the type of insulation, the R-value at a specific thickness,...

  4. What's the Value in Value-Added?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffrin, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    A growing number of school districts are adopting "value-added" measures of teaching quality to award bonuses or even tenure. And two competitive federal grants are spurring them on. Districts using value-added data are encouraged by the results. But researchers who support value-added measures advise caution. The ratings, which use a statistical

  5. 27 CFR 19.456 - Adding denaturants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adding denaturants. 19.456... Denaturation § 19.456 Adding denaturants. Denaturants and spirits shall be mixed in packages, tanks, or bulk... proprietor shall submit a flow diagram of the intended process or method of adding denaturants. (Sec....

  6. Response of a benthic suspension feeder ( Crassostrea virginica Gmelin) to three centuries of anthropogenic eutrophication in Chesapeake Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirby, Michael X.; Miller, Henry M.

    2005-03-01

    Biogenic reefs built by oysters and other suspension feeders are vital components of estuarine ecosystems. By consuming phytoplankton, suspension feeders act to suppress accumulation of organic matter in the water column. Nutrient loading increases the rate of primary production, thereby causing eutrophication. As suspension feeders consume more organic matter from increasing abundance of phytoplankton, their rate of growth should also increase if they are food limited. We show here that the eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica (Gmelin), from St. Mary's and Patuxent rivers, Chesapeake Bay, grew faster during anthropogenic eutrophication relative to C. virginica before eutrophication. Growth of shell height, shell thickness and adductor muscle increased after eutrophication began in the late 18th century. After 1860, growth decreased, perhaps reflecting the negative effects of hypoxia, harmful algal blooms, disease and fishing on oyster growth. These results are consistent with the view that an increasing supply of phytoplankton resulting from eutrophication enhanced growth of C. virginica between 1760 and 1860, before oyster reefs were degraded by destructive fishing practices between 1870 and 1930. Alternative factors, such as changes in water temperature, salinity, and fishing are less likely to be responsible for this pattern. These results have implications for restoration of oyster reefs in order to mitigate the effects of eutrophication in estuaries, as well as the paleoecological relationship between suspension feeders and paleoproductivity.

  7. A XANES study of the structural role of lead in glazes from decorated tiles, XVI to XVIII century manufacture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figueiredo, M. O.; Silva, T. P.; Veiga, J. P.

    2006-05-01

    Aged lead-rich, tin-opacified glazes from polychrome tiles manufactured in the 16th 18th century were studied to ascertain the structural role of lead. Glaze fragments with white, blue, yellow, brown and green colouring were analysed using non-destructive X-ray techniques, both laboratorial X-ray diffraction to identify crystalline components and synchrotron-based. Elemental analyses by synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence were performed at the former LURE photon microprobe (line D15A at DCI, in Orsay). The instrumental set-up of beamline BM29 at the ESRF, in Grenoble, was applied to collect X-ray absorption spectra at the Pb L3-edge. Natural minerals and synthetics with known crystal structure were used as model oxy-compounds to configure different formal valences and coordinations of lead ions by oxygen anions, and to interpret the effects upon details of X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES) spectra. Experimental evidence supports the general conclusion that lead is hosted by the glassy matrix, irrespective of the glaze colour. Furthermore, it was concluded that lead ions assume coordinations higher than usual for silica glasses, acting as network modifiers in the silica-lime-alkali glasses of ancient tile glazes.

  8. Mapping the Llano Estacado

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Early maps of North America, prepared in the 18th and early 19th centuries, often depicted the Llano Estacado as a conspicuous blank spot - a terra incognita. A good example is a map of the southwest sketched by Alexander von Humboldt in 1804. In 1830, Stephen F. Austin added little detail to the ...

  9. [The influence of anatomical treaties on the works of Wendel Dietterlin and his successors in the second half of the 16th century].

    PubMed

    Gampp, Axel

    2011-01-01

    In 1543 in Basel, Johannes Oporinus published one of the most famous treatises in the history of anatomy, De humani corporis fabrica by Andreas Vesalius. The book was an immediate success all over Europe, especially in the Upper Rhine region. In Strasbourg, Walter Ryff (Gualterius Rivius) was responsible for an early copy; others followed, as for example Felix Platter in Basel in 1581. One of the novelties of all these books consisted in the fact that for the first time the human body was dissected into its smallest units. Anatomical elements such as the opened thorax, the vertebral column, the kidney sectionned, or the laryngeal cartilages apparently stimulated an artist of the late 16th century in the same geographical region: Wendel Dietterlin (c.1550-1599) who principally worked in Strasbourg and introduced these elements into his treatise on architecture as architectural ornaments. This seems to be the first instance of a transfer of motifs from human anatomy to architecture. From this time on, the transfer reappeared in some works until William Hogarth's era in the 18th century. PMID:22400472

  10. Two Centuries of Solar Polarimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvey, J. W.

    2015-10-01

    In 1811, Franois Arago observed the disk of the Sun with his "lunette polariscopique". From the absence of detectable polarization compared with his laboratory observations of glowing solids, liquids, and flames he concluded that the Sun's visible surface is an incandescent gas. From this beginning, thanks to orders of magnitude technology improvements, a remarkable amount of what we know about the physics of the Sun has continued to flow from solar polarimetry. This short review compares some selected polarimetric discoveries with subsequent recent observations to illustrate the tremendous progress of solar polarimetry during the last two centuries.

  11. Plague: the dreadful visitation occupying the human mind for centuries.

    PubMed

    Khan, Iqbal Akhtar

    2004-05-01

    Plague is one of mankind's greatest scourges, which has swept away millions of people over the centuries. The first available record of the occurrence of this calamity, in humans, is from the Bible, in 1000 bc, in the city of Ashdod. The first definitely identified pandemic originated in Egypt in ad 542 (the Justinian Plague) and is estimated to have caused 100 million deaths. The second one, lasting for three centuries and claiming over 25 million lives appeared in 1334 in China spreading to many spots on the globe. The third pandemic occurred in Europe from the fifteenth to eighteenth century. The current pandemic began around 1860, in the Chinese province Yunnan; it reached Hong Kong in 1894 killing 100 000 individuals. Within 20 years the disease spread from southern Chinese ports throughout the world resulting in more than 10 million deaths. Since the discovery of the causative agent in 1894, there have been remarkable advancements in immunoprophylaxis and chemoprophylaxis. However, the disease is still active in Africa, in Asia and in Americas and has been classified as a currently re-emerging disease. A 'Plague-free World' will probably remain a dream for an indefinite period. PMID:15109549

  12. The metal alloys from the XIX century and weathering action in the Mercado do Ver-o-Peso building, northern Brazil: Identification with the usage of laboratory analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Palácios, Flávia Olegário; Angélica, Rômulo Simões; Sanjad, Thais Alessandra Bastos Caminha

    2014-10-15

    The fabrication of metallic buildings started in Europe after the Industrial Revolution in the 18th century. Metallic constructions became very popular, and started being imported by several countries, due to the facility of constructing or assembling. Belém, a northern Brazilian city, holds a great number of buildings entirely made of iron, including the Ver-o-Peso, a fish market which structures were imported from England by the end of the 19th century. This building represents a unique type of architecture and it's an important part of the city's heritage. However, research so far did not focus on its construction materials. Ver-o-Peso building's metal alloys haven't been thoroughly studied concerning physical, chemical and mineralogical characterizations. This paper aims to identify the types of metal alloys used in the building, and also corrosion products' result from weathering actions. The methods used to characterize the materials were scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Through this research it was possible to identify four types of iron alloys used in the different parts of the building, characterize the paint coats, and determine types of corrosion. The characterization of the materials in the building allows enrolling basis for restoration processes, documenting the types of metal alloy used in architectural heritage from the 19th century, as well as understanding the advances of corrosion. - Highlights: • Ver-o-peso is a heritage building from the 19th century with unidentified alloys. • Alloy and weathering product characterization was done using SEM/EDS and XRD. • Four metal alloy types were described, indicating different types of foundries. • Weathering products showed distinct mineral phases and physical characteristics. • Original paint coats were found among corrosion products.

  13. The Diary of Frances Jacobs: Astronomical Observations by a 19th-century Oregon Woman

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGown, R. D.

    2002-12-01

    This abstract summarizes my research, transcription and editing of Francis Jacob's 170-page handwritten astronomical diary. This diary is a unique example of a time in early Portland history, illustrating the mind of a young woman who was interested in science and astronomy. Reflected in her diary are the discoveries and mention of leading astronomers of the day like Emerson Bernard and Edward Pickering. Francis Jacobs lived in an era of the great refractors For example, ``The Leviathan," built by Lord Rosse in Ireland was completed in 1847. In this 72-inch telescope, stars of 18th magnitude could be seen. The first spiral nebulae to be revealed was M51 - known today as the Whirlpool Galaxy. The Earl was the first to suggest that these spirals could actually be rotating masses of stars. At the turn of the century, study of observational astronomy was rooted in naked eye observing, study of binary stars and nebula. This was a time when women were becoming interested in the sciences and had begun to play an important role in science and astronomy. It was an incredible inspiration for other women across the country to hear what was happening on the astronomical frontiers at Harvard. Some constellation asterisms used in Francis Jacob's diary were different than they are today. One asterism in particular, the Egyptian Cross, is relatively unknown now. The summer triangle and winter circle asterisms were used in her notes and obviously popular in her era, as today. Her written comments included some Messier catalogue numbers and in some case written on her sketches and diagrams nicknames, such as the 'Dumbbell' nebula. She also referred to M99 as `St. Katherine's Wheel', a nickname that is not in common use today.

  14. 75 FR 30159 - Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) Out Performance Requirements To Support Air...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-28

    ..., published in the Federal Register on October 5, 2007 (72 FR 56947), Congress enacted the ``Century of... for ADS-B Out in the Federal Register on October 5, 2007 (72 FR 56947). The comment period for the... extended the comment period to March 3, 2008 (72 FR 64966, Nov. 19, 2007). The FAA received...

  15. Scaling symmetry and scalar hairy rotating AdS3 black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Byoungjoon; Hyun, Seungjoon; Park, Sang-A.; Yi, Sang-Heon

    2016-01-01

    By using the scaling symmetry in the reduced action formalism, we derive the novel Smarr relation which holds even for the hairy rotating AdS3 black holes. Then, by using the Smarr relation we argue that the hairy rotating AdS3 black holes are stable thermodynamically, compared to the nonhairy ones.

  16. [On some demographic characteristics of the members of the Russian Academy of Sciences in the 20th century].

    PubMed

    Berezkin, V G; Bulianitsa, A L

    2007-01-01

    The demographic life characteristics of the Russian science elite (full and corresponding members of the Academy of Sciences in 20th century) and the relationship between their birth and death dates are given in the paper. The following demographic characteristics of the RAS members have been estimated: a) the mean life span of full RAS members is 75 years, and of corresponding members--72.1 years; b) the mean life span of full RAS members after their election is 16.6 years, and that of corresponding members is 17 years; c) the mean age of the election to the Academy is 58.4 years for full members and 55 years for the corresponding members. These characteristics were used to analyze the social status of the group representing potential academic elite and to evaluate changes in that status caused by the fact of their election to the Academy. It has been found that the mean, maximum and minimum ages of their election to the Academy actually coincide with respective characteristics of Nobel Prize winners. However the life span of the latter after awarding is significantly, over 3 years, greater than that of full RAS members after their election. There is a small proportion of women among the members of the Academy (2%). This is also true for Nobel Prize winners (3.2%). It is shown that a week period of +/-3 days of the birth date for the members of the Academy is characterized by a much higher mortality rate exceeding the average one by about 60%. A similar tendency was shown earlier for the eminent persons of the world community in literature, science, business, and politics in 18th-20th centuries. PMID:17969583

  17. Effects of ad placement and type on consumer responses to podcast ads.

    PubMed

    Ritter, Eric A; Cho, Chang-Hoan

    2009-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand the effects of podcast ad placement and podcast ad type on consumers' perceived intrusiveness, perceived irritation, attitude toward the ad, and ad avoidance. Our 2 x 2 (traditional ad vs. sponsorship by beginning vs. middle) experimental study found that sponsorships generated better consumer responses than did traditional ads and that podcast ads placed at the beginning of audio podcasts yielded better consumer responses than those placed in the middle. Implications for marketers and advertisers are discussed. PMID:19817565

  18. Boundary conditions for conformally coupled scalar in AdS4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Jae-Hyuk

    2015-06-01

    We consider conformally coupled scalar with ?4 coupling in AdS4 and study its various boundary conditions on AdS boundary. We have obtained perturbative solutions of equation of motion of the conformally coupled scalar with power expansion order by order in ?4 coupling ? up to ?2 order. In its dual CFT, we get 2, 4 and 6 point functions by using this solution with Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions via AdS/CFT dictionary. We also consider marginal deformation on AdS boundary and get its on-shell and boundary effective actions.

  19. YI Suki's Y?ksimanpil and the Professional Identity of a Chung'in Medical Official in Eighteenth Century Chos?n Korea.

    PubMed

    Yi, Kiebok

    2013-08-01

    About one hundred years after the publication of Tong?ibogam (1613), a physician at the court YI Suki (1664-?) wrote a medical manuscript titled Y?ksimanpil (Miscellaneous Jottings on Medical Experiences and Tests, 1734). As indicated in its title, Y?ksimanpil was a medical essay composed of 130 medical case histories, drawing on what YI Suki himself had experienced in his medical practices. This paper examines the messages YI Suki in Y?ksimanpil tried to address to his fellow Korean doctors, and by doing so illuminates an aspect of the medicine in the late Chos?n period. The argument goes that YI Suki wrote Y?ksimanpil as a vehicle for promulgating his professional identity as a bureaucratic physician who belonged to the network of the chung'in technical officials-a group of government technical functionaries in late Chos?n Korea. Throughout the late Chos?n period, the chung'in technical officials had been discriminated, institutionally and socioculturally, against the yangban literati, while their promotion to honored higher positions was blocked. It was in the late 17th and early 18th century that a group of chung'in officials tried to secure their sociocultural places for their professional activity, thus bringing to light their social and professional identity in Chos?n society. A member of the network of the chung'in technical officials in the early 18th century, YI Suki was in an effort to position himself as a doctor somewhere between the medical tradition and the Confucian literary tradition. In these sociocultural contexts, we can see more clearly what YI Suki tried to speak of in his book and the historical meaning of the medical writing Y?ksimanpil. First, the way he practiced medicine was testing and confirming what the received medical textbooks had asserted (Ch?ngh?mkobang). This style of practicing medicine could be viewed as a reflection of the comprehensivity trait of bureaucratic court physicians network YI Suki belonged to. Also this type of practice has the implication that YI Suki himself was a well-versed practitioner following the medical textual tradition, which was closely associated with the medical officials network. The emergence of the practice Ch?ngh?mkobang could be better understood in the backdrop of over 100 years of maturation process of Tong?ibogam in the clinical practices. Second, he formulated the professional identity of physicians only in terms of medical proficiency without recourse to the Confucian literary tradition. In other words, in promoting the social status of medicine, he did not resort to Confucian morality. He instead emphasized his dexterity or resourcefulness in dealing with millions of ever-changing diseases (Imsikw?nby?n ). Conceivably, this way of characterizing his own medical practice-by way of strongly combining the textual tradition and the experiential tradition while keeping distance with the Confucian literary tradition-reflected the complexity of the ambivalent identity of the technical chung'in officials, especially in regard to Confucianism, between Confucian physicians and hereditary doctors. All in all, YI Suki presented himself as an ideal image of the physician, which arguably reflected the sociocultural and academic context of the network of the chung'in technical officials in early 18th century Chos?n Korea. PMID:24005648

  20. LWR (Light Water Reactor) power plant simulations using the AD10 and AD100 systems

    SciTech Connect

    Wulff, W.; Cheng, H.S.; Chien, C.J.; Jang, J.Y.; Lin, H.C.; Mallen, A.N.; Wang, S.J.; Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Lung-Tan; Tawian Power Co., Taipei; Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY; Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Lung-Tan )

    1989-01-01

    Boiling (BWR) and Pressurized (PWR) Water Reactor Power Plants are being simulated at BNL with the AD10 and AD100 Peripheral Processor Systems. The AD10 system has been used for BWR simulations since 1984 for safety analyses, emergency training and optimization studies. BWR simulation capabilities have been implemented recently on the AD100 system and PWR simulation capabilities are currently being developed under the auspices of international cooperation. Modeling and simulation methods are presented with emphasis on the simulation of the Nuclear Steam Supply System. Results are presented for BWR simulation and performance characteristics are compared of the AD10 and AD100 systems. It will be shown that the AD100 simulates two times faster than two AD10 processors operating in parallel and that the computing capacity of one AD100 (with FMU processor) is twice as large as that of two AD10 processors. 9 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  1. AdS perturbations, isometries, selection rules and the Higgs oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evnin, Oleg; Nivesvivat, Rongvoram

    2016-01-01

    Dynamics of small-amplitude perturbations in the global anti-de Sitter (AdS) spacetime is restricted by selection rules that forbid effective energy transfer between certain sets of normal modes. The selection rules arise algebraically because some integrals of products of AdS mode functions vanish. Here, we reveal the relation of these selection rules to AdS isometries. The formulation we discover through this systematic approach is both simpler and stronger than what has been reported previously. In addition to the selection rule considerations, we develop a number of useful representations for the global AdS mode functions, with connections to algebraic structures of the Higgs oscillator, a superintegrable system describing a particle on a sphere in an inverse cosine-squared potential, where the AdS isometries play the role of a spectrum-generating algebra.

  2. Teaching health in the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Halbert, Lee-Ann

    2015-01-01

    School nurses have a broad scope of practice, including direct clinical care, as well as teaching health lessons. Students in the 21st century require educators who understand the current global needs of these learners. Effective health teaching meets these 21st-century needs. This article presents a background of 21st-century learning, with specific recommendations for teaching this generation of students. PMID:25626242

  3. Inseparability of photon-added Gaussian states

    SciTech Connect

    Li Hongrong; Li Fuli; Zhu Shiyao

    2007-06-15

    The inseparability of photon-added Gaussian states which are generated from two-mode Gaussian states by adding photons is investigated. According to the established inseparability conditions [New J. Phys. 7, 211 (2005); Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 050503 (2006)], we find that even if a two-mode Gaussian state is separable, the photon-added Gaussian state becomes entangled when the purity of the Gaussian state is larger than a certain value. The lower bound of entanglement of symmetric photon-added Gaussian states is derived. The result shows that entanglement of the photon-added Gaussian states is involved with high-order moment correlations. We find that fidelity of teleporting coherent states cannot be raised by employing the photon-added Gaussian states as a quantum channel of teleportation.

  4. Secret symmetries of type IIB superstring theory on Ad{{S}_{3}} {{S}^{3}} {{M}^{4}}

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pittelli, Antonio; Torrielli, Alessandro; Wolf, Martin

    2014-11-01

    We establish features of so-called Yangian secret symmetries for AdS3 type IIB superstring backgrounds, thus verifying the persistence of such symmetries to this new instance of the AdS/CFT correspondence. Specifically, we find two a priori different classes of secret symmetry generators. One class of generators, anticipated from the previous literature, is more naturally embedded in the algebra governing the integrable scattering problem. The other class of generators is more elusive and somewhat closer in its form to its higher-dimensional AdS5 counterpart. All of these symmetries respect left-right crossing. In addition, by considering the interplay between left and right representations, we gain a new perspective on the AdS5 case. We also study the RTT-realisation of the Yangian in AdS3 backgrounds, thus establishing a new incarnation of the Beisert-de Leeuw construction.

  5. On shape dependence of holographic entanglement entropy in AdS4/CFT3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fonda, Piermarco; Seminara, Domenico; Tonni, Erik

    2015-12-01

    We study the finite term of the holographic entanglement entropy of finite domains with smooth shapes and for four dimensional gravitational backgrounds. Analytic expressions depending on the unit vectors normal to the minimal area surface are obtained for both stationary and time dependent spacetimes. The special cases of AdS4, asymptotically AdS4 black holes, domain wall geometries and Vaidya-AdS backgrounds have been analysed explicitly. When the bulk spacetime is AdS4, the finite term is the Willmore energy of the minimal area surface viewed as a submanifold of the three dimensional flat Euclidean space. For the static spacetimes, some numerical checks involving spatial regions delimited by ellipses and non convex domains have been performed. In the case of AdS4, the infinite wedge has been also considered, recovering the known analytic formula for the coefficient of the logarithmic divergence.

  6. Theoretical astrophysics in the 19th century (Homage to Radó von Kövesligethy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balázs, Lajos G.

    The nature of astronomical information is determined mostly by the incoming light. Theoretical astrophysics means basically the theory of light emission and its relation to the physical constitution of the emitting celestial bodies. The necessary physical disciplines include theory of gravitation, theory of radiation, thermodynamics, matter--radiation interaction. The most significant theoretical achievement in the 17th - 18th century was the axiomatic foundation of mechanics and the law of gravitation. In the context of the nature of light, there were two conceptions: Newton contra Huygens, i.e. particle versus wave phenomenon. Using the theory of gravitation, first speculations appeared on black holes (Michell, Laplace), cosmogony (Kant-Laplace theory), the structure of the Milky Way (Kant), and the explanation of motion of the celestial bodies. The Olbers Paradox, formulated in the 19th century, is still one of the most significant constraints on observational cosmology. The development of thermodynamics, matter-radiation interaction, development of the theory of electromagnetism became important milestones. Maxwell's theory was the classical framework of the interaction between matter and radiation. Kirchhoff and Bunsen's revolutionary discovery of spectral analysis (1859) showed that observation of spectra makes it possible to study the chemical composition of emitting bodies. Thermodynamics predicted the existence of the black body radiation. It did not succeed, however, to determine the functional form of the wavelength dependence. A combination of the thermodynamic equation of state with the equation of hydrostatics resulted in the first stellar models (Lane, Ritter, Schuster). The first successful spectral equation of black body radiation was the theory of continuous spectra of celestial bodies by Radó von Kövesligethy (published 1885 in Hungarian, 1890 in German). Kövesligethy made several assumptions on the matter-radiation interaction: radiating matter consists of interacting particles, the form of interaction is an inverse power law, the radiation field is represented by the aether, aether is made also from interacting particles, light is the propagation of the oscillation of the aether particles, there is an equipartition between the oscillations energy of material and aetheric particles. Based on these assumptions, he derived a spectral equation with the following properties: the spectral distribution of radiation depends only on the temperature, the total irradiated energy is finite (15 years before Planck!), the wavelength of the intensity maximum is inversely proportional to the temperature (eight years before Wien!). Using his spectral equation, he estimated the temperature of several celestial bodies, including the Sun.

  7. On deformations of AdS n × S n supercosets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoare, B.; Roiban, R.; Tseytlin, A. A.

    2014-06-01

    We study the deformed AdS 5 × S 5 supercoset model of arXiv:1309.5850 which depends on one parameter κ and has classical quantum group symmetry. We confirm the conjecture that in the "maximal" deformation limit, κ → ∞, this model is T-dual to "flipped" double Wick rotation of the target space AdS 5 × S 5, i.e. dS 5 × H 5 space supported by an imaginary 5-form flux. In the imaginary deformation limit, κ → i, the corresponding target space metric is of a pp-wave type and thus the resulting light-cone gauge S-matrix becomes relativistically invariant. Omitting non-unitary contributions of imaginary WZ terms, we find that this tree-level S-matrix is equivalent to that of the generalized sine-Gordon model representing the Pohlmeyer reduction of the undeformed AdS 5 × S 5 superstring model. We also study in some detail similar deformations of the AdS 3 × S 3 and AdS 2 × S 2 supercosets. The bosonic part of the deformed AdS 3 × S 3 model happens to be equivalent to the symmetric case of the sum of the Fateev integrable deformation of the SL(2) and SU(2) principal chiral models, while in the AdS 2 × S 2 case the role of the Fateev model is played by the 2d "sausage" model. The κ = i limits are again directly related to the Pohlmeyer reductions of the corresponding AdS n × S n supercosets: (2,2) super sine-Gordon model and its complex sine-Gordon analog. We also discuss possible deformations of AdS 3 × S 3 with more than one parameter.

  8. Want Ads and the Job Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, John; Johnson, Miriam

    1974-01-01

    The Olympus Research Corporation (ORC) made an in-depth study of want ads. It was found the ads did not offer adequate, accurate, or easily obtained information that would make it possible for job seekers to decide whether they are suited to a job, or want it. (Author/BP)

  9. Usual Intake of Energy from added sugars

    Cancer.gov

    Usual Intake of Energy from added sugars Table A41. Energy from added sugars: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 kilocalories Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 150.2

  10. 21st Century Skills Map: Social Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Partnership for 21st Century Skills, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This 21st Century Skills Map is the result of hundreds of hours of research, development and feedback from educators and business leaders across the nation. The Partnership for 21st Century Skills has issued this map for the core subject of Social Studies.

  11. 21st Century Skills Map: Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Partnership for 21st Century Skills, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This 21st Century Skills Map is the result of hundreds of hours of research, development and feedback from educators and business leaders across the nation. The Partnership for 21st Century Skills has issued this map for the core subject of Science.

  12. 21st Century Skills Map: English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Partnership for 21st Century Skills, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This 21st Century Skills Map is the result of hundreds of hours of research, development and feedback from educators and business leaders across the nation. The Partnership for 21st Century Skills has issued this map for the core subject of English.

  13. 21st Century Skills Map: Geography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Partnership for 21st Century Skills, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This 21st Century Skills Map is the result of hundreds of hours of research, development and feedback from educators and business leaders across the nation. The Partnership for 21st Century Skills has issued this map for the core subject of Geography.

  14. The Century of Education. CEE DP 109

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrisson, Christian; Murtin, Fabrice

    2009-01-01

    Global economic transformations have never been as dramatic as in the twentieth century. Most countries have experienced radical changes in the standards of income per capita, technology, fertility, mortality, income inequality and the extent of democracy in the course of the past century. It is the goal of many disciplines--economics, history,

  15. Preparing Students for the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uchida, Donna; And Others

    As the 21st century approaches, many educators are debating the role of education in meeting students' and the economy's needs. This booklet describes the results of a modified Delphi study that asked a panel of 55 experts from education, business, and government how to best prepare students for the 21st century. During the course of three survey

  16. 21st Century Skills Map: The Arts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dean, Colleen; Ebert, Christie M. Lynch; McGreevy-Nichols, Susan; Quinn, Betsy; Sabol, F. Robert; Schmid, Dale; Shauck, R. Barry; Shuler, Scott C.

    2010-01-01

    This 21st Century Skills Map is the result of hundreds of hours of research, development and feedback from educators and business leaders across the nation. The Partnership for 21st Century Skills has issued this map for the core subject of the Arts.

  17. The 21st-Century Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2011-01-01

    Step into a classroom in the 21st century, and the odds are it won't look all that different from one in the 20th century. One decade into the 2000s, many schools and universities have been frustrated in their efforts to upgrade their facilities and resources because of shrinking budgets. But even with the ailing economy, some education…

  18. 21st Century Skills Map: World Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Partnership for 21st Century Skills, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This 21st Century Skills Map is the result of hundreds of hours of research, development and feedback from educators and business leaders across the nation. The Partnership for 21st Century Skills has issued this map for the core subject of World Languages. [Funding for this paper was provided by EF Education.

  19. The 21st-Century Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2011-01-01

    Step into a classroom in the 21st century, and the odds are it won't look all that different from one in the 20th century. One decade into the 2000s, many schools and universities have been frustrated in their efforts to upgrade their facilities and resources because of shrinking budgets. But even with the ailing economy, some education

  20. [Effects of physics on development of optometry in the United States from the late 19th to the mid 20th century].

    PubMed

    Kim, Dal-Young

    2014-08-01

    In this paper, it was studied how physics affected development of optometry in the United States, from aspects of formation and academization of optometry. It was also revealed that history of optometry was analogous to history of engineering. Optics in the 19th century was divided into electromagnetic study of light and visual optics. Development of the visual optics promoted professionalization of ophthalmology that had already started in the 18th century. The visual optics also stimulated formation of optometry and optometrists body in the late 19th century of the United States. The American optometrists body were originated from opticians who had studied visual optics. Publication of several English academic textbooks on visual optics induced appearance of educated opticians (and jewelers). They acquired a right to do the eye examination in the early 20th century after C. F. Prentice's trial in 1897, evolving into optometrists. The opticians could be considered as craftsmen, and they were divided into (dispensing) opticians and optometrists. Such history of American optometrists body is analogous to that of engineers body in the viewpoints of craftsmen origin and separation from craftsmen. Engineers were also originated from educated craftsmen, but were separated from craftsmen when engineering was built up. Education system and academization of optometry was strongly influenced by physics, too. When college education of optometry started at American universities, it was not belonged to medical school but to physics department. Physics and optics were of great importance in curriculum, and early faculty members were mostly physicists. Optometry was academized in the 1920s by the college education, standardization of curriculum, and formation of the American Academy of Optometry. This is also analogous to history of engineering, which was academized by natural sciences, especially by mathematics and physics. The reason why optometry was academized not by medicine but by physics is because ophthalmologists did not have conciliatory attitudes to optometry education. Optometry became independent of physics from the 1930s to the 1940s. Optometric researches concentrated on binocular vision that is not included to discipline of physics, and faculty members who majored in optometry increased, so that optometry departments and graduate schools were established around 1940. Such independence from natural sciences after academization also resembles history of engineering. On the contrary, history of optometry was different from history of ophthalmology in several aspects. Ophthalmology had already been formed in the 18th century before development of visual optics, and was not academized by visual optics. Ophthalmologists body were not originated from craftsmen, and were not separated from craftsmen. History of optometry in the United States from the late 19th to the mid 20th century is analogous to history of engineering rather than history of medicine, though optometry is a medical discipline. PMID:25223224

  1. The eleven observations of comets between 687 AD and 1114 AD recorded in the Anglo Saxon Chronicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mardon, E. G.; Williams, J.; Mardon, A. A.

    1992-01-01

    This research paper is an examination of the eleven cometary references (679AD, 729AD, 892AD, 950AD, 975AD, 995AD, 1066AD, 1097AD, 1106AD, 1110AD and 1114AD) found in the various manuscripts of The Anglo Saxon Chronicle between 678 AD and 1114 AD. The manuscripts contain more than 35 celestial observations. This is an examination of astronomical phenomena and other climatic or natural events, that are described in The Anglo Saxon Chronicle, which is also referred to as The Old English Annals.

  2. The eleven observations of comets between 687 AD and 1114 AD recorded in the Anglo Saxon Chronicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mardon, E. G.; Williams, J.; Mardon, A. A.

    1992-12-01

    This research paper is an examination of the eleven cometary references (679AD, 729AD, 892AD, 950AD, 975AD, 995AD, 1066AD, 1097AD, 1106AD, 1110AD and 1114AD) found in the various manuscripts of The Anglo Saxon Chronicle between 678 AD and 1114 AD. The manuscripts contain more than 35 celestial observations. This is an examination of astronomical phenomena and other climatic or natural events, that are described in The Anglo Saxon Chronicle, which is also referred to as The Old English Annals.

  3. Inflation in AdS/CFT

    SciTech Connect

    Freivogel, Ben; Hubeny, Veronika E.; Maloney, Alexander; Myers, Rob; Rangamani, Mukund; Shenker, Stephen; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.

    2005-10-07

    We study the realization of inflation within the AdS/CFT correspondence. We assume the existence of a string landscape containing at least one stable AdS vacuum and a (nearby) metastable de Sitter state. Standard arguments imply that the bulk physics in the vicinity of the AdS minimum is described by a boundary CFT. We argue that large enough bubbles of the dS phase, including those able to inflate, are described by mixed states in the CFT. Inflating degrees of freedom are traced over and do not appear explicitly in the boundary description. They nevertheless leave a distinct imprint on the mixed state. Analytic continuation allows us, in principle, to recover a large amount of nonperturbatively defined information about the inflating regime. Our work also shows that no scattering process can create an inflating region, even by quantum tunneling, since a pure state can never evolve into a mixed state under unitary evolution.We study the realization of inflation within the AdS/CFT correspondence. We assume the existence of a string landscape containing at least one stable AdS vacuum and a (nearby) metastable de Sitter state. Standard arguments imply that the bulk physics in the vicinity of the AdS minimum is described by a boundary CFT. We argue that large enough bubbles of the dS phase, including those able to inflate, are described by mixed states in the CFT. Inflating degrees of freedom are traced over and do not appear explicitly in the boundary description. They nevertheless leave a distinct imprint on the mixed state. Analytic continuation allows us, in principle, to recover a large amount of nonperturbatively defined information about the inflating regime. Our work also shows that no scattering process can create an inflating region, even by quantum tunneling, since a pure state can never evolve into a mixed state under unitary evolution.

  4. Non-vacuum AdS cosmologies and the approach to equilibrium of entanglement entropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischetti, Sebastian; Kastor, David; Traschen, Jennie

    2014-12-01

    We extend the standard results for vacuum asymptotically locally anti-de Sitter (AlAdS) spacetimes, showing that such spacetimes can be constructed as foliations where the induced metric on each hypersurface satisfies Einstein's equation with stress-energy. By an appropriate choice of stress-energy on the hypersurfaces, the resulting AlAdS spacetime satisfies Einstein's equation with a negative cosmological constant and physical stress tensor. We use this construction to obtain AlAdS solutions whose boundaries are FRW cosmologies sourced by a massless scalar field or by a perfect fluid obeying the strong energy condition. We focus on FRW universes that approach Minkowski spacetime at late times, yielding AlAdS spacetimes that approach either the Poincaré patch of pure AdS or the AdS soliton, which we view as late time equilibrium states. As an application of these solutions, we use the AdS/CFT correspondence to study the approach to equilibrium of the entanglement entropy and of the boundary stress tensor of the boundary CFT. We find that the energy of the asymptotically AdS solitonic solution is consistent with the conjecture that the AdS soliton is the lowest-energy solution to Einstein's equation with negative cosmological constant. The time dependent correction to the entanglement entropy is found to decay like a power law, with the rate set by the Hubble parameter and the power determined by the equation of state of the cosmic fluid.

  5. Classical Klein-Gordon solutions, symplectic structures, and isometry actions on AdS spacetimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dohse, Max

    2013-08-01

    We study classical, real Klein-Gordon theory on Lorentzian Anti-de Sitter (AdS) spacetimes with spatial dimension d. We give a complete list of well defined and bounded Klein-Gordon solutions for three types of regions on AdS: slice (time interval times all of space), rod hypercylinder (all of time times solid ball in space), and tube hypercylinder (all of time times solid shell in space). Hypercylinder regions are of natural interest for AdS since the neighborhood of the AdS-boundary is a tube. For the solution spaces of our regions we find the actions induced by the AdS isometry group SO(2,d). For all three regions we find one-to-one correspondences between initial data and solutions on the regions. For rod and tube regions this initial data can also be given on the AdS boundary. We calculate symplectic structures associated to the solution spaces, and show their invariance under the isometry actions. We compare our results to the corresponding expressions for (3+1)-dimensional Minkowski spacetime, arising from AdS in the limit of large curvature radius.

  6. Superradiance instability of small rotating AdS black holes in arbitrary dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delice, .-zgr; Dur?ut, Trkler

    2015-07-01

    We investigate the stability of D dimensional singly rotating Myers-Perry-AdS black holes under superradiance against scalar field perturbations. It is well known that small four dimensional rotating or charged Anti-de Sitter (AdS) black holes are unstable against superradiance instability of a scalar field. Recent works extended the existence of this instability to five dimensional rotating charged AdS black holes or static charged AdS black holes in arbitrary dimensions. In this paper we analytically prove that rotating small AdS black holes in arbitrary dimensions also shows superradiance instability irrespective of the value of the (positive) angular momentum quantum number. To do this we solve the Klein-Gordon equation in the slow rotation, low frequency limit. By using the asymptotic matching technique, we are able to calculate the real and imaginary parts of the correction terms to the frequency of the scalar field due to the presence of the black hole, confirming the presence of superradiance instability. We see that, unlike in the case of static AdS black holes, the analytical method is valid for rotating AdS black holes for any value of angular momentum number and spacetime dimensions. For comparison we derive the corresponding correction terms for Myers-Perry black holes in the black hole bomb formalism in the Appendix and see that the results are in agreement.

  7. Can we conquer cancer in the twenty-first century?

    PubMed

    Freireich, E J

    2001-08-01

    The twentieth century recorded the greatest advance in the control of human disease. From the beginning of recorded time, the human life-span changed little until the twentieth century. In the USA, it increased from 47.3 years in 1900 to 76.4 years in 2000. The answer to the question of "Can we cure cancer in the twenty-first century?" requires an appreciation of the contemporary nature of our knowledge. At the beginning of the twentieth century, major problems were nutrition and infection. By 1950, the major causes of mortality and morbidity were still infectious diseases, such as syphilis, tuberculosis, poliomyelitis, and influenza. The 1950s and 1960s were the golden age of control of infectious diseases, while cancer, because of the aging of the population and the strong association between cancer and age, has become the major healthcare problem of the twenty-first century. Until 1960, no one had proposed or demonstrated that a systemic or metastatic form of cancer could be cured. In only 35-40 years not only have techniques for the early detection, prevention, and surgical and radiation therapy treatments improved, but at least 15-20% of patients with systemic/metastatic cancers can be cured with our current primitive systemic treatments. Prior to 1943, there was no chemotherapy. Prior to 1948, no one had described complete regression of a systemic cancer. There were no multi-institution, randomized clinical trials prior to 1949. Additionally, combination chemotherapy, new drugs, bone marrow transplantation, broad-spectrum antibiotics to control infections, and platelets to control hemorrhage have been added in the past 50 years. The pace of progress extrapolates to a prediction of cancer control in the twenty-first century. The human genome has been sequenced, and it will be possible to identify expression profiles not only for malignant cells but for their normal counterparts. It is certain that interventions specific for control of the malignant transformation will be identified. An example of gene-directed therapy is in acute promyelocytic leukemia where trans-retinoic acid is effective and contributes to cure. The signal transduction inhibitors, small molecules bioavailable orally and specific for interfering with signals resulting from ligand-receptor interactions, are a dramatic advance. Because cancer is a genetic disorder, the expanding field of genomics will certainly accelerate our progress toward the control of cancer. Finally, the twenty-first century will be an era of enhanced communication. The computer has given us the internet. Our communication in cyberspace is not only universal but instantaneous. Increases in the speed at which knowledge can be exchanged and the enormous capacity for storing new knowledge in cyberspace ensure that the pace of progress that we saw in the twentieth century will accelerate in the twenty-first. To address the question in the title of this paper, I believe that it is not a question of whether, but only of when. PMID:11587365

  8. Hashimoto thyroiditis: a century later.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Rania; Al-Shaikh, Safa; Akhtar, Mohammed

    2012-05-01

    More than a century has passed since the first description of Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT) as a clinicopathologic entity. HT is an autoimmune disease in which a breakdown of immune tolerance is caused by interplay of a variety of immunologic, genetic, and environmental factors. Thyrocyte injury resulting from environmental factors results in expression of new or hidden epitopes that leads to proliferation of autoreactive T and B cells. Infiltration of thyroid by these cells results in HT. In addition to the usual type of HT, several variants such as the fibrous type and Riedal thyroiditis are also recognized. The most recently recognized variant is immunoglobulin G4(+) HT, which may occur as isolated thyroid limited disease or as part of a generalized Ig4-related sclerosing disease. The relationship between HT and Riedel thyroiditis remains unclear; however, recent evidence seems to suggest that it may also be part of the spectrum of Ig4-related sclerosing disease. HT is frequently associated with papillary thyroid carcinoma and may indeed be a risk factor for developing this type of cancer. The relationship between thyroid lymphoma and HT on the other hand appears well established. PMID:22498583

  9. Spontaneous and induced nontransgenic animal models of AD: modeling AD using combinatorial approach.

    PubMed

    Kaushal, Alka; Wani, Willayat Yousuf; Anand, R; Gill, Kiran Dip

    2013-06-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most common neurodegenerative and dementing disorder, is characterized by extracellular amyloid deposition, intracellular neurofibrillary tangle formation, and neuronal loss. We are still behind in AD research in terms of knowledge regarding understanding its pathophysiology and designing therapeutics because of the lack of an accurate animal model for AD. A complete animal model of AD should imitate all the cognitive, behavioral, and neuropathological features of the disease. Partial models are currently in use, which only mimic specific and not all of the components of AD pathology. Currently the transgenic animals are the popular models for AD research, but different genetic backgrounds of these transgenic animals remain a major confounding factor. This review attempts to summarize the current literature on nontransgenic animal models of AD and to highlight the potential of exploiting spontaneous and induced animal models for neuropathological, neurochemical, neurobehavioral, and neuroprotective studies of AD. PMID:23687185

  10. Boundary three-point function on AdS2 D-branes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribault, Sylvain

    2008-01-01

    Using the H3+-Liouville relation, I explicitly compute the boundary three-point function on AdS2 D-branes in H3+, and check that it exhibits the expected symmetry properties and has the correct geometrical limit. I then find a simple relation between this boundary three-point function and certain fusing matrix elements, which suggests a formal correspondence between the AdS2 D-branes and discrete representations of the symmetry group. Concluding speculations deal with the fuzzy geometry of AdS2 D-branes, strings in the Minkowskian AdS3, and the hypothetical existence of new D-branes in H3+.

  11. Statistical entropies of extremal Kaluza-Klein AdS black holes in arbitrary dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Jun-Jin; Wu, Shuang-Qing

    2012-04-01

    We have investigated the microscopic interpretations of the entropies for the four-dimensional extremal Kaluza-Klein AdS black hole and its higher-dimensional generalizations by using the Kerr/CFT correspondence. These newly-found Kaluza-Klein AdS black holes are charged rotating asymptotically AdS black hole solutions of gauged supergravity in four and higher dimensions. With suitable boundary conditions on the perturbations of the near-horizon geometry, it is shown that the asymptotic symmetry generators form a two-dimensional Virasoro algebra with a central term. By utilizing the central charge and the temperature of the dual conformal field theory, Cardy formula reproduces the expected Bekenstein-Hawking entropy. Directly working on the ordinary metrics of the extremal Kaluza-klein AdS black holes without taking the near-horizon limit, we also re-derive their microscopic entropies.

  12. "Classroom" of the Future: 2058 AD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cervantes, Robert A.; Castaneda, Celia Z.

    What the classroom of the next century will be like can only be speculated upon, but, almost certainly, any changes will require self-examination of the human essence in relation to technology. One outcome of technological change may be increased freedom for humans to relate to each other on a more human basis. Also, it appears that education will…

  13. "Classroom" of the Future: 2058 AD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cervantes, Robert A.; Castaneda, Celia Z.

    What the classroom of the next century will be like can only be speculated upon, but, almost certainly, any changes will require self-examination of the human essence in relation to technology. One outcome of technological change may be increased freedom for humans to relate to each other on a more human basis. Also, it appears that education will

  14. The production of copper in 6th century Chile's chuquicamata mine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuller, David R.

    2004-11-01

    In 1899, an extremely well-preserved mummy from the sixth century A.D. was found at the well-known Chilean mining site, Chuquicamata. The mummy was determined to be a young indigenous miner who died in 550 A.D. 40 years. In the sixth century, the known technology used to produce copper metal from minerals must have been the reduction of copper oxides using charcoal with blown air. Minerals were abundantly available at Chuquicamata in 1899, and native copper could also be found. Their reduction using charcoal combustion must have required temperatures greater than those necessary for the copper oxides, copper carbonates, and native copper. This study shows that the miner could have melted copper metal by using sodium nitrate, which is abundant in local soil, to create an exothermic reaction in which combustion reached a temperature of more than 1,200C.

  15. Maximally supersymmetric AdS 4 vacua in N = 4 supergravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Louis, Jan; Triendl, Hagen

    2014-10-01

    We study AdS backgrounds of N=4 supergravity in four space-time dimensions which preserve all sixteen supercharges. We show that the graviphotons have to form a subgroup of the gauge group that consists of an electric and a magnetic SO(3)_+ x SO(3)_-. Moreover, these N=4 AdS backgrounds are necessarily isolated points in field space which have no moduli.

  16. {N}=4 supersymmetric AdS5 vacua and their moduli spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Louis, Jan; Triendl, Hagen; Zagermann, Marco

    2015-10-01

    We classify the N=4 supersymmetric AdS5 backgrounds that arise as solutions of five-dimensional N=4 gauged supergravity. We express our results in terms of the allowed embedding tensor components and identify the structure of the associated gauge groups. We show that the moduli space of these AdS vacua is of the form SU(1 , m) /U(1) SU( m) and discuss our results regarding holographically dual N=2 SCFTs and their conformal manifolds.

  17. The myADS Update Service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurtz, M. J.; Eichhorn, G.; Accomazzi, A.; Grant, C. S.; Henneken, E. A.; Thompson, D. M.; Bohlen, E. H.; Murray, S. S.

    2003-12-01

    The NASA Astrophysics Data System announces the release of the myADS Update Service, a custom notification service promoting current awareness of the recent technical literature in astronomy and physics. It will be delivered weekly to subscribers in html format via e-mail. The service is free. Each week the myADS Update Service will scan the literature input into the ADS in the past seven days, and will create ten custom lists of recent papers for each subscriber, formatted to allow quick reading and access. In the initial release the literature lists offered will be: 1. A list of the most recent papers which cite a paper where the subscriber is an author. 2. A list of newly published papers written by an author from a list of favorite authors, supplied by the subscriber. 3. Two sets of four lists, each set based on a custom query supplied by the subscriber. Each of the four lists represents a different aspect of the detailled subject matter represented by the query: newly published papers, newly released preprints, the currently most popular papers, and the currently most cited papers. In addition we will provide links to the tables of contents of the current issues of the subscribers favorite journals and other useful links. Subscribers may sign up for the myADS Update Service by following links on the ADS pages or directly at: http://myADS.harvard.edu/myads_signup.html The ADS is funded by NASA Grant NCC5-189

  18. Studies on the ADS/CFT correspondence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muck, Wolfgang

    1999-11-01

    This thesis summarizes original research on the topic of the ``AdS/CFT correspondence.'' This correspondence, which was first conjectured by Maldacena [ Adv. Theor. Math. Phys. 2, 231 (1998)] and subsequently formulated by Gubser, Klebanov and Polyakov [Phys. Lett. B 428, 105 (1998) and by Witten [Adv. Theor. Math. Phys. 2, 253 (1998)], relates field theories on (d + 1)-dimensional anti-de Sitter (AdS) spaces and conformal field theories (CFTs) in d dimensions with each other. Its main prediction is that the correlation functions of certain quantum CFTs are determined by the dynamics of classical field theories on AdS spaces. Starting from a correspondence formula provided by the authors above, several CFT correlation functions are calculated and agreement with the forms dictated by conformal invariance is found. The necessary renormalization is carried out in the ``?- prescription.'' Details of renormalization and the breaking of conformal symmetries in special cases are investigated by means of the example of the scalar field. The ``asymptotic prescription'' is used to prove a suggestion by Klebanov and Witten [hep- th/9905104] about the treatment of irregular boundary conditions valid to all orders of perturbation theory. The treatment of AdS gravity, which enables the calculation of correlation functions of CFT energy momentum tensors, is carried out in the time slicing formalism. The calculated two-point functions and Weyl anomalies agree with results known from pure CFT considerations. The Wess Zumino model on AdS4 is discussed as an example containing supersymmetry. It is shown that the model yields the correlation functions of conformal fields belonging to a d = 3, N = 1 superconformal multiplet.

  19. Annually-resolved lake record of extreme hydro-meteorological events since AD 1347 in NE Iberian Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corella, J. P.; Benito, G.; Rodriguez-Lloveras, X.; Brauer, A.; Valero-Garcs, B. L.

    2014-06-01

    We present an annual reconstruction of extreme rainfall events interpreted from detrital layers and turbidites interbedded within a varved sediment record since the 14th century in Montcorts Lake (NE Spain, 1027 m a.s.l.). Clastic microfacies intercalated within the biochemical calcite varves were characterized and their depositional dynamics interpreted using high-resolution geochemical and sedimentological analyses. Annual number of detrital layers was compared against instrumental records of extreme daily rainfalls providing minimum rainfall thresholds and return periods associated to the identified types of clastic microfacies. Non-continuous detrital layers were deposited during rainfall events higher than 80 mm (>2-year return period) while graded detrital layers and turbidites were associated with higher magnitude rainfall events (>90 mm and >4-year return period). The frequency distribution of extreme hydro-meteorological events is not stationary and its pattern coincides with historical floods from the nearby Segre River. High frequency of heavy rainfalls occurred during the periods AD 1347-1400 and AD 1844-1894. A lower frequency of heavy rainfall was found during the periods AD 1441-1508, 1547-1592, 1656-1712, 1765-1822 and 1917-2012. The 20th century stands out as the longest interval within the studied period of very low number of extreme rainfall events. Variability in extreme rainfall events prior to the 20th century is in phase with solar activity, suggesting a mechanistic link in mid-latitude atmospheric circulation patterns that ceased during the 20th century.

  20. AdS black hole solutions in dilatonic Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Maeda, Kei-ichi; Ohta, Nobuyoshi; Sasagawa, Yukinori

    2011-02-15

    We find that anti-de Sitter (AdS) spacetime with a nontrivial linear dilaton field is an exact solution in the effective action of the string theory, which is described by gravity with the Gauss-Bonnet curvature terms coupled to a dilaton field in the string frame without a cosmological constant. The AdS radius is determined by the spacetime dimensions and the coupling constants of curvature corrections. We also construct the asymptotically AdS black hole solutions with a linear dilaton field numerically. We find these AdS black holes for hyperbolic topology and in dimensions higher than four. We discuss the thermodynamical properties of those solutions. Extending the model to the case with the even-order higher Lovelock curvature terms, we also find the exact AdS spacetime with a nontrivial dilaton. We further find a cosmological solution with a bounce of three-dimensional space and a solitonic solution with a nontrivial dilaton field, which is regular everywhere and approaches an asymptotically AdS spacetime.

  1. Vacuum densities for a brane intersecting the AdS boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bezerra de Mello, E. R.; Saharian, A. A.; Setare, M. R.

    2015-11-01

    We investigate the Wightman function, the bulk-to-boundary propagator, the mean field squared, and the vacuum expectation values of energy-momentum tensor for a scalar field in anti-de Sitter (AdS) spacetime, in the presence of a brane perpendicular to the AdS boundary. On the brane the field operator obeys the Robin boundary condition. The vacuum expectation values are decomposed into the boundary-free AdS and brane-induced contributions. In this way, for points away from the brane, the renormalization is reduced to the one in pure AdS spacetime. It is shown that at proper distances from the brane larger than the AdS curvature radius the brane-induced expectation values decay as power law for both massless and massive scalars. This behavior is in contrast to that for a plane boundary in Minkowski spacetime, with an exponential decay for massive fields. For Robin boundary conditions different from Dirichlet and Neumann ones, the brane-induced part in the energy density is positive near the brane and negative at large distances. For the Dirichlet/Neumann boundary condition the corresponding energy density is negative/positive everywhere. We show that, for a fixed value of the proper distance from the brane, near the AdS boundary, the Neumann boundary condition is an "attractor" in the general class of Robin boundary conditions, whereas the Dirichlet boundary condition is an attractor near the horizon.

  2. Mapping AdS to dS spaces and back

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Dato, Adriana; Frb, Markus B.

    2015-03-01

    We derive a map between Einstein spaces of positive and negative curvature, including scalar matter. Starting from a space of positive curvature with some dimensions compactified on a sphere and analytically continuing the number of compact dimensions, we obtain a space of negative curvature with a compact hyperbolic subspace, and vice versa. Prime examples of such spaces are de Sitter (dS) and anti-de Sitter (AdS) space, as well as black hole spacetimes with (A)dS asymptotics and perturbed versions thereof, which play an important role in holography. This map extends work done by Caldarelli et al., who map asymptotically AdS spaces to Ricci-flat ones. A remarkable result is that the boundary of asymptotically AdS spaces is mapped to a brane in the bulk of de Sitter, and perturbations near the AdS boundary are sourced by a stress tensor confined to this brane. We also calculate the Brown-York stress tensor for the perturbed AdS metric, which turns out to be the negative of the stress tensor on the de Sitter brane. The map can also be used as a solution generator, and we obtain a Kerr/AdS solution with hyperbolic horizon from a known Kerr/dS one.

  3. [Modern medicine environment and adaptation of Korean trader for medicinal herbs from the late 19th century to the early 20th century].

    PubMed

    Yang, Jeongpil

    2006-12-01

    Since the late 18th century, the Korean traditional medicine trade witnessed a steady growth. There were lots of stores which sold Korean medicinal herbs in Seoul and every major towns had at least one or more stores in Korea, which led to a subsequent growth of people involved in the trade. However, Korean medicine merchants encountered a new environment with the influx of western medicines after the Opening of Ports and the execution of modern medicine policies. Such change of atmosphere led the merchants to seek new breakthroughs. Some of the merchants found the answer in producing and selling patent medicine. The people in the industry had little knowledge of western medicine, so that they had little choice but to combine their experience of Korean medicine with whatever information they had about western counterpart. Such resolution generated a new kind of medicine known as patent medicine. Patent medicine businessmen observed the new medicine policies of the Korean Empire. Some visionary ones even sought to eagerly utilize the trademark system to secure the selling route. The Japanese colonial government strengthened the medicine policies. It revised the legislature and mobilized administrative powers to manage and control the industry. However, such colonial policies in the 1910s implicated certain limits due to its lack of understanding of Korean medicine industry. Also, the colonial government showed poor efforts in introducing modern medicine facilities and systems, so that the ground was set for the patent medicine business to flourish. Patent medicine enjoyed a high turnover. So, the entrepreneurs endeavored to promote the sales in whatever means necessary. The most basic form of advertisement was through the newspaper. Indirect promotion through newspaper articles, issuing medicine flyers, free gift draw, reputation of an influential expert were widely used for its sales. Consequently, patent medicine industry in the 1910s saw a healthy prosperity. One example of such golden days was the case of Hwuapyungdangyakbabg (one of the biggest patent medicine companies), which won a third place along with Kyungsungbangjik, which was the top Korean company at that time, in the advertisement design contest hosted by the classified department of Dong-a Daily in 1926. But actually, a few Japanese medicine merchants led the industry. So prosperity of Korean medicine merchant had its limits. PMID:17575704

  4. The Enigma of 20th century sea level change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cathles, Larry

    2014-05-01

    Sea level has been constant at near-present levels from ~5500 calendar years BP to the end of the Little Ice Age at ~1860 AD. Since ~1900, tide gauge measurements indicate that it has risen steadily at ~2 mm/yr by about 18 cm. The comparative stability of sealevel from 5500 cal yr BP to 1860 AD is robust, being suggested by near-shore Mediterranean archeological sites, the few sea level records that extend back to 1700 AD, and the impossibility of projecting the current sea level rise of ~2 mm/y back 5000 years (it would produce a global 10 m inundation, which is not observed) (Douglas et al., 2001, Academic Press). The post 1870 sea level rise is not due to heating of the upper ocean (Liviticus et al., 2000, Science). Munk (2002, PNAS) characterized it as an "enigma", dismissing an upper ocean steric sea level explanation as "too little" (~3 cm), "too late" (the rise started in 1860), and "too linear" (not accelerating with the accelerating CO2 increase). GRACE gravity measurements show a near zero change in ocean mass. Cazenave et al. (2009, Global and Planetary Change) indicate a slight decrease in ocean mass between 2003 and 2008. The rate of meltwater mass being added to the oceans essentially equals the GIA correction (Chambers et al., 2010, JGR). Different GIA models give ocean mass increase ranging from 0.5 to 2 mm/y of equivalent sea level rise. Our GIA model suggests no ocean mass increases (~0 mm/y of equivalent sea level rise). In this talk I show that the heating of a two layer ocean model driven by the temperature changes that have occurred over the last 1000 years since the peak of the Medieval Warm Period produces a ~2mm/yr linear sea level rise over the last 100 years with much smaller preceding sea level changes. Ocean mass could be unchanging over the last century as well as the last ~5000 years. This result is compatible with GRACE measurements and eclipse data constraints, predictions of our GIA model, and it resolves the enigma the 20th Century sea level change noted by Munk.

  5. Everglades Plant Community Response to 20th Century Hydrologic Changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willard, D. A.; Bernhardt, C. E.; Holmes, C. W.; Weimer, L. M.

    2002-05-01

    Pollen records in sediment cores from sites in the historic Everglades allowed us to document the natural variability of the ecosystem over the past 2,000 years and contrast it to 20th century changes in wetland plant communities. The natural system included extensive water-lily sloughs, sawgrass ridges, and scattered tree islands extending from Lake Okeechobee southward through Shark River Slough. Between ~1000 AD and 1200 AD, weedy species such as Amaranthus (water hemp) became more abundant, indicating decreased annual rainfall, shorter hydroperiods, and shallower water depths during this time. After ~1200 AD, vegetation returned to its pre-1000 AD composition. During the 20th century, two phases of hydrologic alteration occurred. Completed by 1930, the first phase included construction of the Hoover Dike, canals linking Lake Okeechobee to the Atlantic Ocean, and the Tamiami Trail. Reconstructions of plant communities indicate that these changes shortened hydroperiods and lowered water depths throughout the Everglades. The extent of water-lily slough communities decreased, and tree islands became larger in Shark River Slough. The second phase resulted from construction of canals and levees in the 1950s, creating three Water Conservation Areas. The response of plant communities to these changes varied widely depending on location in the Everglades. In Loxahatchee NWR, weedy and short-hydroperiod plant species became more abundant in marshes, and species composition of tree islands changed. In Water Conservation Area 2A, cattail replaced sawgrass in marshes with high nutrient influx; the ridge and slough structure of the marshes was replaced by more homogeneous sawgrass marshes; sustained high water levels for more than a decade resulted in loss of tree islands that had existed for more than 1,000 years. In Everglades National Park, the extent of slough vegetation decreased further. Near Florida Bay, the rate of mangrove intrusion into fresh-water marshes accelerated due to increased diversion of fresh water from the southernmost Everglades. Our reconstruction of pre-1930s vegetational distribution provides a scenario that may be a harbinger of Everglades vegetational response to decompartmentalization of the system as levees and canals are removed and restoration of a more natural (deeper water, rain-driven seasonality) hydrologic regime. Drowned tree islands provide the one exception; they were destroyed by a hydrologic regime that does not occur naturally, and it is unclear whether their recovery is possible.

  6. Taking refuge from modernity: 21st century hermits

    PubMed Central

    Boyd, I; Rubin, GJ; Wessely, S

    2012-01-01

    Idiopathic environmental intolerances, such as multiple chemical sensitivity and electrosensitivity, can drastically affect the quality of life of those affected. A proportion of severely affected patients remove themselves from modern society, to live in isolation away from the purported causal agent of their ill health. This is not a new phenomenon; reports of hermits extend back to the 3rd century AD. We conducted a literature review of case reports relating to ancient hermits and modern day reclusion resulting from idiopathic environmental intolerance, in order to explore whether there are similarities between these two groups and whether the symptoms of these illnesses of modernity are simply a present-day way of reaching the end-point of reclusion. Whilst there were some differences between the cases, recurring themes in ancient and modern cases included: dissatisfaction with society, a compulsion to flee, reports of a constant struggle and a feeling of fighting against the establishment. The similarities which exist between the modern-day cases and the historical hermits may provide some insight into the extreme behaviours exhibited by this population. The desire to retreat from society in order to escape from harm has existed for many centuries, but in different guises. PMID:23288087

  7. Digital pathology: a tool for 21st century neuropathology.

    PubMed

    Guzman, Miguel; Judkins, Alexander R

    2009-04-01

    Digital pathology represents an electronic environment for performing pathologic analysis and managing the information associated with this activity. The technology to create and support digital pathology has largely developed over the last decade. The use of digital pathology tools is essential to adapt and lead in the rapidly changing environment of 21st century neuropathology. The utility of digital pathology has already been demonstrated by pathologists in several areas including consensus reviews, quality assurance (Q/A), tissue microarrays (TMAs), education and proficiency testing. These utilities notwithstanding, interface issues, storage and image formatting all present challenges to the integration of digital pathology into the neuropathology work environment. With continued technologic improvements, as well as the introduction of fluorescent side scanning and multispectral detection, future developments in digital pathology offer the promise of adding powerful analytic tools to the pathology work environment. The integration of digital pathology with biorepositories offers particular promise for neuropathologists engaged in tissue banking. The utilization of these tools will be essential for neuropathologists to continue as leaders in diagnostics, translational research and basic science in the 21st century. PMID:19290997

  8. Infectious diseases: considerations for the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Fauci, A S

    2001-03-01

    The discipline of infectious diseases will assume added prominence in the 21st century in both developed and developing nations. To an unprecedented extent, issues related to infectious diseases in the context of global health are on the agendas of world leaders, health policymakers, and philanthropies. This attention has focused both on scientific challenges such as vaccine development and on the deleterious effects of infectious diseases on economic development and political stability. Interest in global health has led to increasing levels of financial support, which, combined with recent technological advances, provide extraordinary opportunities for infectious disease research in the 21st century. The sequencing of human and microbial genomes and advances in functional genomics will underpin significant progress in many areas, including understanding human predisposition and susceptibility to disease, microbial pathogenesis, and the development new diagnostics, vaccines, and therapies. Increasingly, infectious disease research will be linked to the development of the medical infrastructure and training needed in developing countries to translate scientific advances into operational reality. PMID:11229834

  9. Classical worldsheets for string scattering on flat and AdS spacetime

    SciTech Connect

    Sommerfield, Charles M.; Thorn, Charles B.

    2008-08-15

    We present a study of the worldsheets that describe the classical limit of various string scattering processes. Our main focus is on string scattering in AdS spacetime because of its relation via the AdS/CFT (anti-de Sitter/conformal field theory) correspondence to gluon scattering in N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory. But we also consider analogous processes in flat Minkowski spacetime which we compare to the AdS case. In addition to scattering of string by string we also find and study worldsheets describing the scattering of a string by external sources.

  10. Research of Ad Hoc Networks Access Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Ma

    With the continuous development of mobile communication technology, Ad Hoc access network has become a hot research, Ad Hoc access network nodes can be used to expand capacity of multi-hop communication range of mobile communication system, even business adjacent to the community, improve edge data rates. When the ad hoc network is the access network of the internet, the gateway discovery protocol is very important to choose the most appropriate gateway to guarantee the connectivity between ad hoc network and IP based fixed networks. The paper proposes a QoS gateway discovery protocol which uses the time delay and stable route to the gateway selection conditions. And according to the gateway discovery protocol, it also proposes a fast handover scheme which can decrease the handover time and improve the handover efficiency.

  11. Testing the AdS/CFT Correspondence

    SciTech Connect

    Klebanov, Igor R.

    2008-07-28

    This lecture begins with some history and basic facts about string theory and its connections with strong interactions. Comparisons of stacks of Dirichlet branes with curved backgrounds produced by them are used to motivate the AdS/CFT correspondence between superconformal gauge theory and string theory on a product of Anti-de Sitter space and a compact manifold. The ensuing duality between semi-classical spinning strings and long gauge theory operators is briefly reviewed. We go on to describe a recent test of the AdS/CFT correspondence using the Wilson loop cusp anomaly as a function of the coupling, which also enters dimensions of high-spin operators. Finally, strongly coupled thermal SYM theory is explored via a black hole in 5-dimensional AdS space, which leads to explicit results for its entropy and shear viscosity.

  12. Microbial production of value-added nutraceuticals.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian; Guleria, Sanjay; Koffas, Mattheos Ag; Yan, Yajun

    2016-02-01

    Nutraceuticals are important natural bioactive compounds that confer health-promoting and medical benefits to humans. Globally growing demands for value-added nutraceuticals for prevention and treatment of human diseases have rendered nutraceuticals a multi-billion dollar market. However, supply limitations and extraction difficulties from natural sources such as plants, animals or fungi, restrict the large-scale use of nutraceuticals. Metabolic engineering via microbial production platforms has been advanced as an eco-friendly alternative approach for production of value-added nutraceuticals from simple carbon sources. Microbial platforms like the most widely used Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae have been engineered as versatile cell factories for production of diverse and complex value-added chemicals such as phytochemicals, prebiotics, polysaccaharides and poly amino acids. This review highlights the recent progresses in biological production of value-added nutraceuticals via metabolic engineering approaches. PMID:26716360

  13. Heat kernels on cone of AdS2 and k-wound circular Wilson loop in AdS5 × S5 superstring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergamin, R.; Tseytlin, A. A.

    2016-04-01

    We compute the one-loop world-sheet correction to partition function of {{AdS}}5× {{{S}}}5 superstring that should be representing k-fundamental circular Wilson loop in planar limit. The 2d metric of the minimal surface ending on k-wound circle at the boundary is that of a cone of AdS2 with deficit 2π (1-k). We compute the determinants of 2d fluctuation operators by first constructing heat kernels of scalar and spinor Laplacians on the cone using the Sommerfeld formula. The final expression for the k-dependent part of the one-loop correction has simple integral representation but is different from earlier results.

  14. Is Hyperhomocysteinemia an Alzheimer’s disease (AD) risk factor, an AD marker or neither?

    PubMed Central

    Zhuo, Jia-Min; Wang, Hong; Praticò, Domenico

    2011-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common form of neurodegenerative disease. The vast majority cases of AD are sporadic, without clear cause, and a combination of environmental and genetic factors have been implicated. The hypothesis that homocysteine (Hcy) is a risk factor for AD was initially prompted by the observation that patients with histologically confirmed AD had higher plasma levels of Hcy, also called hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy), than age-matched controls. Most evidence accumulated so far implicates HHcy as a risk factor for AD onset, but conflicting results also exist. In this review, we summarize reports on the relationship between HHCy and AD from epidemiological investigations, including observational studies and randomized controlled clinical trials. We also examine recent in vivo and in vitro studies of potential mechanisms whereby HHcy may influence AD development. Finally, we discuss possible reasons for the existing conflicting data, and provide suggestions for future studies. PMID:21684021

  15. AdS5×S(5) mirror model as a string sigma model.

    PubMed

    Arutyunov, Gleb; van Tongeren, Stijn J

    2014-12-31

    Doing a double Wick rotation in the world sheet theory of the light cone AdS5×S(5) superstring results in an inequivalent, so-called mirror theory that plays a central role in the field of integrability in the AdS-CFT correspondence. We show that this mirror theory can be interpreted as the light cone theory of a free string on a different background. This background is related to dS5×H(5) by a double T-duality, and has hidden supersymmetry. The geometry can also be extracted from an integrable deformation of the AdS5×S(5) sigma model, and we prove the observed mirror duality of these deformed models at the bosonic level as a byproduct. While we focus on AdS5×S(5), our results apply more generally. PMID:25615306

  16. The Ninth-Century Renaissance in Astronomy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrell, Charlotte

    1996-01-01

    Discusses the events in the ninth century that moved astronomy away from the pursuit of mystical hermetic sciences and astrology back toward observation and measurement. Describes the achievements of astronomers and the instruments and calculations used during that period. (JRH)

  17. Fire Disasters in the Twentieth Century

    PubMed Central

    Cavallini, M.; Papagni, M.F.; Baruffaldi Preis, F.W.

    2007-01-01

    Summary In the field of natural and man-made disasters, fire has played a predominant role. A report is presented of fire disasters in the twentieth century, with a chronological analysis of different worldwide typologies. PMID:21991077

  18. The Nineteenth-Century Revolution in Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batten, Alan Henry

    2015-08-01

    The term "revolution" in scientific contexts usually refers either to the beginnings of modern western science in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, or to the two great revolutions of early twentieth century physics. Comparison of what was known at the beginning of the nineteenth century with what was known at the end, however, shows that century to have been one of transformation in astronomy, and in the other sciences, that amounts to "revolution". Astronomers in 1800 knew neither the nature of the Sun nor the distances of the stars. Developments in instrumentation enabled the first determinations of stellar parallax in the 1830s, and later enabled the solar prominences to be studied outside the brief momemnts of total eclipses. The development of photography and of spectroscopy led to the birth of observational astrophysics, while the greater understanding of the nature of heat and the rise of thermodynamics made possible the first attempts to investigate the theory of stellar structure. Nothing was known in 1800 of extra-galactic objects apart from some tentative identifcations by William Herschel but, by the end of the century, the discovery of the spiral structure of some nebulae had led some to believe that these were the "island universes" about which Kant had speculated. Of course, astrophysics and cosmology would be much further developed in the twentieth century and those of us whose careers spanned the second half of that century look back on it as a "golden age" for astronomy; but the nineteenth century was undoubtedly a time of rapid transformation and can be reasonably described as as one of the periods of revolution in astronomy.

  19. Twentieth century sea level: an enigma.

    PubMed

    Munk, Walter

    2002-05-14

    Changes in sea level (relative to the moving crust) are associated with changes in ocean volume (mostly thermal expansion) and in ocean mass (melting and continental storage): zeta(t) = zeta(steric)(t) + zeta(eustatic)(t). Recent compilations of global ocean temperatures by Levitus and coworkers are in accord with coupled ocean/atmosphere modeling of greenhouse warming; they yield an increase in 20th century ocean heat content by 2 x 10(23) J (compared to 0.1 x 10(23) J of atmospheric storage), which corresponds to zeta(greenhouse)(2000) = 3 cm. The greenhouse-related rate is accelerating, with a present value zeta(greenhouse)(2000) approximately 6 cm/century. Tide records going back to the 19th century show no measurable acceleration throughout the late 19th and first half of the 20th century; we take zeta(historic) = 18 cm/century. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change attributes about 6 cm/century to melting and other eustatic processes, leaving a residual of 12 cm of 20th century rise to be accounted for. The Levitus compilation has virtually foreclosed the attribution of the residual rise to ocean warming (notwithstanding our ignorance of the abyssal and Southern Oceans): the historic rise started too early, has too linear a trend, and is too large. Melting of polar ice sheets at the upper limit of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change estimates could close the gap, but severe limits are imposed by the observed perturbations in Earth rotation. Among possible resolutions of the enigma are: a substantial reduction from traditional estimates (including ours) of 1.5-2 mm/y global sea level rise; a substantial increase in the estimates of 20th century ocean heat storage; and a substantial change in the interpretation of the astronomic record. PMID:12011419

  20. Twentieth century sea level: An enigma

    PubMed Central

    Munk, Walter

    2002-01-01

    Changes in sea level (relative to the moving crust) are associated with changes in ocean volume (mostly thermal expansion) and in ocean mass (melting and continental storage): ζ(t) = ζsteric(t) + ζeustatic(t). Recent compilations of global ocean temperatures by Levitus and coworkers are in accord with coupled ocean/atmosphere modeling of greenhouse warming; they yield an increase in 20th century ocean heat content by 2 × 1023 J (compared to 0.1 × 1023 J of atmospheric storage), which corresponds to ζgreenhouse(2000) = 3 cm. The greenhouse-related rate is accelerating, with a present value ζ̇greenhouse(2000) ≈ 6 cm/century. Tide records going back to the 19th century show no measurable acceleration throughout the late 19th and first half of the 20th century; we take ζ̇historic = 18 cm/century. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change attributes about 6 cm/century to melting and other eustatic processes, leaving a residual of 12 cm of 20th century rise to be accounted for. The Levitus compilation has virtually foreclosed the attribution of the residual rise to ocean warming (notwithstanding our ignorance of the abyssal and Southern Oceans): the historic rise started too early, has too linear a trend, and is too large. Melting of polar ice sheets at the upper limit of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change estimates could close the gap, but severe limits are imposed by the observed perturbations in Earth rotation. Among possible resolutions of the enigma are: a substantial reduction from traditional estimates (including ours) of 1.5–2 mm/y global sea level rise; a substantial increase in the estimates of 20th century ocean heat storage; and a substantial change in the interpretation of the astronomic record. PMID:12011419

  1. Fossil fuels in the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Lincoln, Stephen F

    2005-12-01

    An overview of the importance of fossil fuels in supplying the energy requirements of the 21st century, their future supply, and the impact of their use on global climate is presented. Current and potential alternative energy sources are considered. It is concluded that even with substantial increases in energy derived from other sources, fossil fuels will remain a major energy source for much of the 21st century and the sequestration of CO2 will be an increasingly important requirement. PMID:16521838

  2. [A clinician in the 21st century].

    PubMed

    Lifshitz, Alberto

    2007-01-01

    At the beginning of the 21st century, clinical practice faces new challenges associated with very fast scientific and technological advances. Societies have also changed and current conditions demand modernization of clinical practice. Now we acknowledge the need for a patient-centered medical practice. Novel technologies will also participate in this new social fabric. This is the new clinical practice of the 21st century. PMID:17722460

  3. A cluster of stratospheric volcanic eruptions in the AD 530s recorded in Siberian tree rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Churakova (Sidorova), Olga V.; Bryukhanova, Marina V.; Saurer, Matthias; Boettger, Tatjana; Naurzbaev, Mukhtar M.; Myglan, Vladimir S.; Vaganov, Eugene A.; Hughes, Malcolm K.; Siegwolf, Rolf T. W.

    2014-11-01

    Recently published, improved chronologies for volcanic sulfate in Greenland and Antarctic ice permit a comparison of the growth responses of absolutely annually dated tree rings at three locations in Siberia with annual ice-core records of volcanic eruptions centered on AD 536. For the first time for this region and period, we present unique data sets for tree-ring width, cell-wall thickness, ?13C and ?18O in cellulose. These were based on multiple samples from relict wood of larch obtained from two sites close to the northern limit of tree growth on the Taimyr Peninsula and in northeastern Yakutia, and at a high-elevation, location 20 further South in the Altai Mts. An event in AD 536 was associated with different, but marked, changes in tree-ring parameters at the high-latitude sites compared with the high elevation site. An AD 541 event was associated with its own distinctive tree-ring responses across the three sites and multiple variables. The years after AD 532 were marked by a strong and sustained decrease in growth at the high-elevation, more southerly, site. The combination of improved ice-core chronology for the climatically effective volcanic eruptions of this part of the 6th century AD, and an array of tree-ring sites with different climates and multiple tree-ring variables permits a richer description of tree responses to this cluster of events. The pattern of tree-ring parameter responses at the three locations in AD 536, AD 541, and perhaps AD 532 is consistent with responses to climatically effective volcanic eruptions influencing tree response in those and subsequent years.

  4. Supersymmetric wrapped membranes, AdS2 spaces, and bubbling geometries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacConamhna, Oisín A. P.; Colgáin, Eoin Ó.

    2007-03-01

    We perform a systematic study, in eleven dimensional supergravity, of the geometry of wrapped brane configurations admitting AdS2 limits. Membranes wrapping holomorphic curves in Calabi-Yau manifolds are found to exhibit some novel features; in particular, for fourfolds or threefolds, the gravitational effect of the branes on the overall transverse space is only weakly restricted by the kinematics of the Killing spinor equation. We also study the AdS2 limits of the wrapped brane supergravity descriptions. For membranes wrapped in a two-fold, we derive a set of AdS2 supersymmetry conditions which upon analytic continuation coincide precisely with those for the half-BPS bubbling geometries of LLM. From membranes wrapped in a three-fold, we obtain a set of AdS2 supersymmetry conditions which upon analytic continuation describe a class of spacetimes which we identify as quarter-BPS bubbling geometries in M-theory, with SO(4) × SO(3) × U(1) isometry in Riemannian signature. We also study fivebranes wrapping a special lagrangian five-cycle in a fivefold, in the presence of membranes wrapping holomorphic curves, and employ the wrapped brane supersymmetry conditions to derive a classification of the general minimally supersymmetric AdS2 geometry in M-theory.

  5. Holography of non-relativistic string on AdS5 S5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakaguchi, Makoto; Yoshida, Kentaroh

    2008-02-01

    We discuss a holographic dual of a non-relativistic (NR) string on AdS5 S5 . The NR string can be regarded as a semiclassical string around an AdS2 classical solution corresponding to a straight Wilson line in the gauge-theory side. The quadratic action with respect to the fluctuations is composed of free massive and massless scalars, and free massive fermions on the AdS2 world-sheet. We show that the complete agreement of the spectra between the NR string and a conformal quantum mechanics (CQM). Then we show a holographic relation between normalizable modes of the NR string and wave functions in the CQM. Then it may be argued from this result that an AdS2/CFT1 would be realized in AdS5/CFT4. We can really discuss a GKPW-type relation by considering non-normalizable modes of the NR string in Euclidean signature. Those modes give a source term insertion to the Wilson line, which can also be regarded as a small deformation of it.

  6. Annual precipitation in the Yellowstone National Park region since AD 1173

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gray, S.T.; Graumlich, L.J.; Betancourt, J.L.

    2007-01-01

    Cores and cross sections from 133 limber pine (Pinus flexilis James) and Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirbel) Franco) at four sites were used to estimate annual (July to June) precipitation in the Yellowstone National Park region for the period from AD 1173 to 1998. Examination of the long-term record shows that the early 20th century was markedly wet compared to the previous 700??yr. Extreme wet and dry years within the instrumental period fall within the range of past variability, and the magnitude of the worst-case droughts of the 20th century (AD 1930s and 1950s) was likely equaled or exceeded on numerous occasions before AD 1900. Spectral analysis showed significant decadal to multidecadal precipitation variability. At times this lower frequency variability produces strong regime-like behavior in regional precipitation, with the potential for rapid, high-amplitude switching between predominately wet and predominately dry conditions. Over multiple time scales, strong Yellowstone region precipitation anomalies were almost always associated with spatially extensive events spanning various combinations of the central and southern U.S. Rockies, the northern U.S.-Southern Canadian Rockies and the Pacific Northwest. ?? 2007 University of Washington.

  7. Annual precipitation in the Yellowstone National Park region since AD 1173

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gray, Stephen T.; Graumlich, Lisa J.; Betancourt, Julio L.

    2007-01-01

    Cores and cross sections from 133 limber pine (Pinus flexilis James) and Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirbel) Franco) at four sites were used to estimate annual (July to June) precipitation in the Yellowstone National Park region for the period from AD 1173 to 1998. Examination of the long-term record shows that the early 20th century was markedly wet compared to the previous 700 yr. Extreme wet and dry years within the instrumental period fall within the range of past variability, and the magnitude of the worst-case droughts of the 20th century (AD 1930s and 1950s) was likely equaled or exceeded on numerous occasions before AD 1900. Spectral analysis showed significant decadal to multidecadal precipitation variability. At times this lower frequency variability produces strong regime-like behavior in regional precipitation, with the potential for rapid, high-amplitude switching between predominately wet and predominately dry conditions. Over multiple time scales, strong Yellowstone region precipitation anomalies were almost always associated with spatially extensive events spanning various combinations of the central and southern U.S. Rockies, the northern U.S.-Southern Canadian Rockies and the Pacific Northwest.

  8. Brick walls and AdS/CFT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kay, Bernard S.; Ortz, L.

    2014-05-01

    We discuss the relationship between the bulk-boundary correspondence in Rehren's algebraic holography (and in other `fixed-background', QFT-based, approaches to holography) and in mainstream string-theoretic `Maldacena AdS/CFT'. Especially, we contrast the understanding of black-hole entropy from the point of view of QFT in curved spacetimein the framework of 't Hooft's `brick wall' modelwith the understanding based on Maldacena AdS/CFT. We show that the brick-wall modification of a Klein-Gordon field in the Hartle-Hawking-Israel state on dimensional Schwarzschild AdS has a well-defined boundary limit with the same temperature and entropy as the brick-wall-modified bulk theory. One of our main purposes is to point out a close connection, for general AdS/CFT situations, between the puzzle raised by Arnsdorf and Smolin regarding the relationship between Rehren's algebraic holography and mainstream AdS/CFT and the puzzle embodied in the `complementarity principle' proposed by Mukohyama and Israel in their work on the brick-wall approach to black hole entropy. Working on the assumption that similar results will hold for bulk QFT other than the Klein-Gordon field and for Schwarzschild AdS in other dimensions, and recalling the first author's proposed resolution to the Mukohyama-Israel puzzle based on his `matter-gravity entanglement hypothesis', we argue that, in Maldacena AdS/CFT, the algebra of the boundary CFT is isomorphic only to a proper subalgebra of the bulk algebra, albeit (at non-zero temperature) the (GNS) Hilbert spaces of bulk and boundary theories are still the `same'the total bulk state being pure, while the boundary state is mixed (thermal). We also argue from the finiteness of its boundary (and hence, on our assumptions, also bulk) entropy at finite temperature, that the Rehren dual of the Maldacena boundary CFT cannot itself be a QFT and must, instead, presumably be something like a string theory.

  9. Ad Hoc Access Gateway Selection Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jie, Liu

    With the continuous development of mobile communication technology, Ad Hoc access network has become a hot research, Ad Hoc access network nodes can be used to expand capacity of multi-hop communication range of mobile communication system, even business adjacent to the community, improve edge data rates. For mobile nodes in Ad Hoc network to internet, internet communications in the peer nodes must be achieved through the gateway. Therefore, the key Ad Hoc Access Networks will focus on the discovery gateway, as well as gateway selection in the case of multi-gateway and handover problems between different gateways. This paper considers the mobile node and the gateway, based on the average number of hops from an average access time and the stability of routes, improved gateway selection algorithm were proposed. An improved gateway selection algorithm, which mainly considers the algorithm can improve the access time of Ad Hoc nodes and the continuity of communication between the gateways, were proposed. This can improve the quality of communication across the network.

  10. Solutions in bosonic string field theory and higher spin algebras in AdS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polyakov, Dimitri

    2015-11-01

    We find a class of analytic solutions in open bosonic string field theory, parametrized by the chiral copy of higher spin algebra in AdS3. The solutions are expressed in terms of the generating function for the products of Bell polynomials in derivatives of bosonic space-time coordinates Xm(z ) of the open string, the form of which is determined in this work. The products of these polynomials form a natural operator algebra realizations of w? (area-preserving diffeomorphisms), enveloping algebra of SU(2) and higher spin algebra in AdS3. The class of string field theory solutions found can, in turn, be interpreted as the "enveloping of enveloping," or the enveloping of AdS3 higher spin algebra. We also discuss the extensions of this class of solutions to superstring theory and their relations to higher spin algebras in higher space-time dimensions.

  11. Stability of warped AdS3 vacua of topologically massive gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anninos, Dionysios; Esole, Mboyo; Guica, Monica

    2009-10-01

    AdS3 vacua of topologically massive gravity (TMG) have been shown to be perturbatively unstable for all values of the coupling constant except the chiral point ?l = 1. We study the possibility that the warped vacua of TMG, which exist for all values of ?, are stable under linearized perturbations. In this paper, we show that spacelike warped AdS3 vacua with Compre-Detournay boundary conditions are indeed stable in the range ?l>3. This is precisely the range in which black hole solutions arise as discrete identifications of the warped AdS3 vacuum. The situation somewhat resembles chiral gravity: although negative energy modes do exist, they are all excluded by the boundary conditions, and the perturbative spectrum solely consists of boundary (pure large gauge) gravitons.

  12. Extended Hamiltonian action for arbitrary spin fields in flat and AdS space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metsaev, R. R.

    2013-05-01

    Totally symmetric, arbitrary spin massless and massive free fields in flat and AdS space and conformal fields in flat space are studied. An extended gauge-invariant Hamiltonian action for such fields is obtained. The action is constructed out of phase space fields and Lagrangian multipliers which are free of algebraic constraints. Gauge transformations of the phase space fields and Lagrangian multipliers are derived. Use of the Poincar parametrization of AdS space allows us to treat fields in flat space and AdS space on an equal footing. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to Higher spin theories and holography.

  13. QCD Condensates and Holographic Wilson Loops for Asymptotically AdS Spaces

    SciTech Connect

    Quevedo, R. Carcasses; Goity, Jose L.; Trinchero, Roberto C.

    2014-02-01

    The minimization of the Nambu-Goto (NG) action for a surface whose contour defines a circular Wilson loop of radius a placed at a finite value of the coordinate orthogonal to the border is considered. This is done for asymptotically AdS spaces. The condensates of dimension n = 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 are calculated in terms of the coefficients in the expansion in powers of the radius a of the on-shell subtracted NG action for small a->0. The subtraction employed is such that it presents no conflict with conformal invariance in the AdS case and need not introduce an additional infrared scale for the case of confining geometries. It is shown that the UV value of the gluon condensates is universal in the sense that it only depends on the first coefficients of the difference with the AdS case.

  14. Response of Earth's surface temperature to radiative forcing over A.D. 1-2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friend, A. D.

    2011-07-01

    An energy balance model (EBM) of the annual global mean surface temperature is described and calibrated to the sensitivity and temporal dynamics of the Goddard Institute for Space Studies modelE global climate model (GCM). The effective radiative forcings of 10 agents are estimated over the past 2009 years and used as inputs to the model. Temperatures are relatively stable from around A.D. 300 until a "Medieval Climate Anomaly" starting around A.D. 1050. This is ended by a massive volcanic eruption in A.D. 1258, which initiates a multicentury era of low and relatively variable global mean temperatures, including a "Little Ice Age" A.D. 1588-1720. This era only ends at the beginning of the 20th century. The model estimate of forced centennial variability is smaller than the observed variability in reconstructions over the past two millennia. Also, the default parameterization results in less warming than observed over A.D. 1910-1944. Prediction uncertainty in the pre-industrial era is dominated by solar forcing, with the climate feedback factor and volcanic aerosols also playing important roles. In contrast, prediction uncertainty post-A.D. 1750 is much higher and dominated by uncertainties in direct and indirect aerosol and land use forcings. Improving estimates of these will greatly increase our ability to attribute observed temperature variability to contemporary forcings.

  15. The puzzle of Alzheimer's disease (AD).

    PubMed

    Lehmann, H D

    1992-05-01

    A compromised defensive system of brain cells against aluminium, together with local defects in glucose metabolism, causes AD. Lack of citrate is a driving force and free cis-aconitate or glutamate are potential carriers, which enable the exotoxin to cross lipid membranes. Only a few aluminium ions replace magnesium in key positions. They block the reversibility of phosphorylation reactions, which are important for short term memory: sensitization of the insulin receptor and protein phosphorylations. Due to disturbed phosphorylation of the cytoskeleton, protein synthesis runs out of balance. Efforts to restore the disturbed reactions result in AD specific deposits. Aluminium ions are the common cause for the induction of AD pathogenesis in patients with genetic defects, with mechanical brain lesions or with minor infarcts, as well as with changes in the relation between numbers of neurons and neuron nursing glia cells due to age. PMID:1614358

  16. Computing and Using Metrics in the ADS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henneken, E. A.; Accomazzi, A.; Kurtz, M. J.; Grant, C. S.; Thompson, D.; Luker, J.; Chyla, R.; Holachek, A.; Murray, S. S.

    2015-04-01

    Finding measures for research impact, be it for individuals, institutions, instruments, or projects, has gained a lot of popularity. There are more papers written than ever on new impact measures, and problems with existing measures are being pointed out on a regular basis. Funding agencies require impact statistics in their reports, job candidates incorporate them in their resumes, and publication metrics have even been used in at least one recent court case. To support this need for research impact indicators, the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) has developed a service that provides a broad overview of various impact measures. In this paper we discuss how the ADS can be used to quench the thirst for impact measures. We will also discuss a couple of the lesser-known indicators in the metrics overview and the main issues to be aware of when compiling publication-based metrics in the ADS, namely author name ambiguity and citation incompleteness.

  17. Rotating Rindler-AdS space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parikh, Maulik; Samantray, Prasant; Verlinde, Erik

    2012-07-01

    If the Hamiltonian of a quantum field theory is taken to be a timelike isometry, the vacuum state remains empty for all time. We search for such stationary vacua in anti-de Sitter space. By considering conjugacy classes of the Lorentz group, we find interesting one-parameter families of stationary vacua in three-dimensional anti-de Sitter space. In particular, there exists a family of rotating Rindler vacua, labeled by the rotation parameter ?, which are related to the usual Rindler vacuum by nontrivial Bogolubov transformations. Rotating Rindler-AdS space possesses not only an observer-dependent event horizon but even an observer-dependent ergosphere. We also find rotating vacua in global AdS provided a certain region of spacetime is excluded.

  18. Linac for ADS Application - Accelerator Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garnett, Robert W.; Sheffield, Richard L.

    2010-06-01

    Significant high-current, high-intensity accelerator research and development have been done in the recent past in the US, centered primarily at Los Alamos National Laboratory. These efforts have included designs for the Accelerator Production of Tritium Project (APT), Accelerator Transmutation of Waste (ATW), and Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS), as well as many others. A 6.7-MeV, 100-mA, CW proton demonstration accelerator was operated successfully as a proof-of-principle for the APT Project that also showed promise as the front-end of a GWth-class ADS driver. This past work and some specific design principles that were developed to optimize linac designs for ADS and other high-intensity applications will be discussed briefly.

  19. Chaos rules out integrability of strings on AdS5 ×T 1 , 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basu, Pallab; Pando Zayas, Leopoldo A.

    2011-06-01

    We show that certain classical string configurations in AdS5 ×T 1 , 1 are chaotic. This answers the question of integrability of string on such backgrounds in the negative. We consider a string localized in the center of AdS5 that winds around two circles of T 1 , 1. The corresponding dynamical system is equivalent to two coupled gravitational pendula and allows a very intuitive understanding. We find conclusive evidence of chaotic behavior by systematically analyzing the workings of the KAM theorem. We also show that the largest Lyapunov exponent is positive.

  20. On ? symmetry fixing of the D3 brane in AdS5S5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Hyeonjoon

    2015-08-01

    In the static gauge, we investigate the supersymmetry realized on a D3 brane in the AdS5S5 background. For the ? symmetry fixing condition, the covariant and the Killing spinor gauges are taken. The worldvolume supersymmetry transformation rule for each gauge is then obtained. We show that neither of the two fixing conditions is not suitable for the correct description of the `vacuum' configuration of the worldvolume theory because both make the `vacuum' non-supersymmetric as opposed to the usual expectation. Thus, we manifest what the problem of ? symmetry fixing is in the study of the D3 brane in the AdS5S5 background.