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1

Percivall Pott: an 18th century neurosurgeon.  

PubMed

This paper examines neurosurgery in the 18th century and suggests that the origins of the specialty can be recognized at the time when surgeons began to use the neurological status of the patient as a guide for surgical intervention. Percivall Pott (1714-1788) was one of the leading surgeons in London in the 18th century. He is remembered through eponyms of Pott's puffy tumor, Pott's fracture, and Pott's disease. A review of his writings and those of his contemporaries indicates that these surgeons were aware of the importance of changes in level of consciousness after head injury. The recognition and significance of the lucid interval was described and understood as a neurosurgical sign in the 18th century. Because of Pott's pre-eminence in the surgery of his time through his writings and lectures, he should be considered one of the founders of neurosurgery as a separate surgical discipline. PMID:1730964

Flamm, E S

1992-02-01

2

[Astrologic and medical manuscript of the 18th Century].  

PubMed

We present a manuscript from the 18th century, an extract taken from the "Great and the Little Albert" attributed to Albertus Magnus. The linguistic variety in the paper is typical for a text composed in Luxembourg. Added to this text are two incantations and a short cartomancy paper. PMID:20882751

Kugener, Henri

2010-01-01

3

Early Portuguese meteorological measurements (18th century)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Natural proxies, documentary evidence and instrumental data are the only sources used to reconstruct past climates. In this paper, we present the 18th century meteorologists (either Portuguese or foreigners) who made the first observations at several sites in Continental Portugal, Madeira Island and Rio de Janeiro (Brazil), from 1749 until 1802. Information is given concerning observation site, variables observed, measurement period, methods of measurements and sources (both manuscript and printed). Some examples from the data usefulness are given: rainfall variability in Madeira (1749-1753) and in continental Portugal (1781-1793) was reconstructed, allowing to extend towards the late 18th century the well known negative correlation between the NAO index and seasonal rainfall. Furthermore, previously unpublished data for 1783-1784 have allowed analysing the consequences of the Lakagígar eruption in Portugal: foggy and haze days are referred to in summer 1783, but unlike the hot summer observed in northern and central Europe, temperatures in Portugal were lower than average. Additionally, observations from Rio de Janeiro in Brazil show that the Lakagígar consequences may well have spread to sectors of the Southern Hemisphere. Although the series are short, the data have been used for climate reconstruction studies and may also be useful to improve the quality of large scale reconstruction datasets.

Alcoforado, M. J.; Vaquero, J. M.; Trigo, R. M.; Taborda, J. P.

2012-02-01

4

Early Portuguese meteorological records (18th century)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Natural proxies, documentary evidence and instrumental data are the main sources used to reconstruct past climates. In this paper, we present the 18th century meteorologists (either Portuguese or foreigners), who made the first observations at several sites in Continental Portugal, Madeira Island and Rio de Janeiro (Brazil), from 1749 until 1802. Information is given concerning observation site, variables observed, measurement period, methodologies and sources (both manuscript and printed). Some examples from the data usefulness are given: rainfall variability in Madeira (1749-1753) and in Continental Portugal (1781-1793) was reconstructed, allowing to extend towards the late 18th century the well known negative correlation between the NAO index and seasonal rainfall. Furthermore, previously unpublished data for 1783-1784 has allowed analysing the consequences of the Laki eruption in Portugal: foggy and haze days are referred to in summer 1783, but unlike the hot summer observed in Northern and Central Europe, temperatures in Portugal were lower than average. Additionally, observations from Rio de Janeiro in Brazil show that the Laki consequences may well have spread to sectors of the Southern Hemisphere. Although the series are short, the data will be used for climate reconstruction studies focused in Southern Portugal and are also useful to improve the quality of large scale reconstruction datasets.

Alcoforado, M. J.; Vaquero, J. M.; Trigo, R. M.; Taborda, J. P.

2011-10-01

5

Austrian Pharmacy in the 18th and 19th Century  

PubMed Central

This overview reflects the extensive changes in the health care system which had significant effects on the apothecary’s profession and education. In the 18th century Maria Theresia assigned Gerard van Swieten to modernize the medical curriculum and to work out reforms for health care. The resulting sanitary bill released in 1770 and amended in 1773 became effective for the whole empire and influenced greatly the apothecary’s profession. The Viennese Medical Faculty continued to be the supervisory body for the apothecaries, a situation which prolonged the conflicts between the faculty and the apothecaries. The financial and social distress prevalent in the 19th century also affected the apothecary business and led to a crisis of the profession. Furthermore, the apothecaries’ missing influence over the sanitary authorities delayed the release of a badly needed new apothecary bill until 1906. The introduction of a specific pharmaceutical curriculum at the university in 1853 was a great step forward to improve the pharmaceutical education. Nevertheless, the secondary school exam was not compulsory for the studies until 1920 and, therefore, the graduates were not on a par with other university graduates before that date. Women, except nuns, were not allowed to work as pharmacists until 1900.

Kletter, Christa

2010-01-01

6

Comets and meteors in 18th and 19th century British art and science  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comparing paintings, drawings and prints of comets and meteors in British works of art and scientific records of the 18th and 19th centuries brings us to a study of the relationship between science and art. Representations were sometimes naturalistic, sometimes symbolic and sometimes satirical. The British interest in images of comets and meteors, which were not clearly distinguished from each

J. M. Pasachoff; R. J. M. Olson

1995-01-01

7

Negative Numbers in the 18th and 19th Centuries: Phenomenology and Representations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents a categorization of the phenomena and representations used to introduce negative numbers in mathematics books published in Spain during the 18th and 19th centuries. Through a content analysis of fourteen texts which were selected for the study, we distinguished four phenomena typologies: physical, accounting, temporal and…

Maz-Machado, Alexander; Rico-Romero, Luis

2009-01-01

8

[Illegal practice in Brittany at the end of the 18th century].  

PubMed

As many other people during 18th century last decades, Mr. Massay practiced illegal medicine. That proceeding provided him a lot of complaints and, then, the Parliament of Britanny brought a lawsuit against him. Our purpose is to state specifically how he was a quack though his therapy looks in a way like an accurate one. PMID:11637018

Deltombe, X

1998-01-01

9

Fluctuations of hydrometeorological extremes around the River Morava in the 18th-19th centuries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Information about the hydrometeorological extremes before the period of systematic instrumental observations can be significantly completed from documentary evidence of institutional documentary sources. It concerns reports on weather damage related to claims for tax or similar alleviations appearing when meadows, field crops and vineyards were heavily damaged as a result of inclement weather such as hail, flood, torrential rain and windstorm. In Moravia (eastern Czech Republic) it was possible to ask for tax reduction since A.D. 1655. The article works with evidence from the 18th-19th centuries preserved in archival documents of the following estates located around the River Morava: Strážnice, Uherský Ostroh, Veselí nad Moravou, Uherské Hradišt?, Buchlov, Velehrad, Napajedla and Kvasice. Excerption of these documents produces information about the type of extreme, date of the occurrence, its course and corresponding impacts. Created series of individual extremes are used for the study of their fluctuations and presentation in the context of past and present climate variability.

Brázdil, R.; Chromá, K.; Valášek, H.; Dolák, L.

2010-09-01

10

Hallmarks in 18th- and 19th-century epilepsy research.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to reveal the major views of the early scientific period (18th and 19th centuries) on epilepsy as both a disease and a symptom. The shaping of thought about illness and medicine as a science, which began in the Renaissance and progressed into the Enlightenment, intensified during the 18th and 19th centuries. During this period of increasingly methodical investigation, researchers undertook a thorough study of epilepsy. Renowned doctors of this period from the Dutch and German medical schools, the "golden era" of French medicine, and British medicine, including, of course, John Hughlings Jackson, all left their mark in this era of epilepsy research. Epidemiological studies using large patient data sets were conducted for the first time, as was systematic research on the pathophysiological, pathological, neurological, and psychiatric aspects of the disease. PMID:20493781

Sidiropoulou, K; Diamantis, A; Magiorkinis, E

2010-07-01

11

Flax-growing in Orkney from the Norse period to the 18th century  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT Evidence for Norse flax-growing is becoming more,apparent,in the archaeological record of Orkney. This paper, stimulated by new material from the excavations at Pool, island of Sunday, Orkney, examines the botany, cultivation and processing of flax and considers its value in early subsistence economies. Flax is traditionallyheld to have been introduced into the Northern Isles in the 18th century, but

J M Bond

2000-01-01

12

Four candles. Original perspectives and insights into 18th century hospital child healthcare  

PubMed Central

It has only recently been recognised that for more than a century before the opening of Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children (1852) children were treated and even admitted in English Voluntary Hospitals. Among the earliest English 18th century records, that contain the patient‘s age, are those found at the Northampton General Hospital within an archive dating from its foundation as the Northampton Infirmary in 1744. They afford a fascinating glimpse into both inpatient and outpatient child health. Although there are no medical notes as such, the hospital archive has recently rediscovered 1743 statutes, contemporary patient literature entitled Some Friendly Advice to a Patient (written by the Northampton Infirmary‘s founding physician Dr (later Sir) James Stonhouse), minute books, contemporary engravings of the outside and inside of the hospital and inpatient menus. Thus we can speculate with a high degree of certainty as to what would be the then current infirmary environment and treatments for illustrative examples of the children seen in the period 1744–45 (two inpatients and two outpatients). Interestingly one of the inpatient cases, Elizabeth Ager, a child with fever, was admitted against the infirmary regulations, suggesting already a stretching of boundaries in favour of paediatric admissions. This paper gives a flavour of 18th century hospital child healthcare in an era before the formal recognition of paediatrics as a medical specialty and preceding by more than a century the construction of specialist provision through the foundation of the first children‘s hospitals.

Williams, A N

2007-01-01

13

Long-term variability of cloudiness over NE Iberia from late 18th century: preliminary results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work presents preliminary results regarding cloudiness variability over the northeastern Iberian Peninsula from late 18th century until the present. Analyzed data are in situ visual observations from different surface meteorological stations, and the studied variables are overcast and cloud-free sky frequencies covering the 1865-2007 period. Using total cloud cover (TCC) estimations in oktas (1961-2004 period, Sanchez-Lorenzo et al., 2009) and their relationship with overcast/cloud-free sky frequencies, we estimated TCC changes from mid-19th century up to the present. We completed the analysis by using partially digitalized sky observations that were taken during the Early Instrumental Period in Barcelona and Valencia cities since the late 18th century. For the first time, this work tries to use this data in order to reconstruct cloudiness variability records using the available visual observations recorded previously to the establishment of official meteorological services. Sanchez-Lorenzo, A., J. Calbó, M. Brunetti, and C. Deser (2009), Dimming/brightening over the Iberian Peninsula: Trends in sunshine duration and cloud cover and their relations with atmospheric circulation, J. Geophys. Res., 114, D00D09, doi:10.1029/2008JD011394.

Sanchez-Lorenzo, Arturo; Guinaldo, Elena; Via, Jordi; Calbó, Josep; Barriendos, Mariano; Prohom, Marc

2010-05-01

14

From Flamsteed to Piazzi and Lalande: new standards in 18th century astrometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aims: The present high accuracy of stellar positions and proper motions allows us to determine the positional accuracy of old stellar catalogues. This has already been done for the most important catalogues from before the 18th century. Our aim is to extend this study to several 18th century catalogues. Methods: To do this, I studied ten catalogues: those of Flamsteed and Rřmer, four catalogues of La Caille, and catalogues of Tobias Mayer, Bradley, Piazzi, and Lalande. A comparison with modern data, mostly from Hipparcos, compiled in the Simbad database of the CDS allowed me to determine the position errors of these catalogues. I also compared the stellar visual magnitudes given in eight of these catalogues with photometric V magnitudes. Results: Thanks to novel instruments, the rms positional accuracy improved from thousands to hundreds of arcsec in older catalogues to less than one minute in that of Flamsteed, and to 2-6 arcsec in the other catalogues I examined. These improvements allowed for the first time relatively accurate proper motions to be determined by 19th century astronomers. The catalogues with some corrections are available in digital form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/567/A26

Lequeux, James

2014-07-01

15

[Inventing the audience in the 18(th) century. Art and its use].  

PubMed

18(th) century philosophers analyzed art through the aesthetic experience of the audience. By contrast, Adam Smith was interested in the moral judgment that an impartial audience may formulate. How can art and morality, the beautiful and the good, be combined into one analytical framework? Art and morality convey non-transcendental values that are intrinsic to human experience. With the aesthetic experience of the audience, art is used, and ultimately depends on the ways that humans relate to works or art and to the beautiful. PMID:23264138

Brugčre, Fabienne

2012-01-01

16

Auroras Observed in Portugal in Late 18th Century Obtained from Printed and Manuscript Meteorological Observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a new catalogue of observations of the aurora borealis at Lisbon, i.e., at low-latitudes, in the late 18th century by Jacob Prć torius and Henrique Schulze, two German artillery officers. Dates of 18 auroras compiled by Prć torius and Schulze are compared with those published in other catalogues for that period. The number of annual auroras observed by the two Germans is then compared with two indices of solar activity showing a very good level of consistency between all time series. Finally, we have assessed the number of auroras observed taking into consideration the phase of the lunar cycle and the geomagnetic latitude of Lisbon.

Vaquero, José M.; Trigo, Ricardo M.

2005-09-01

17

Six calendar systems in the European history from 18^{th} to 20^{th} Century  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The following calendar systems, introduced in Europe from 18^{th} to 20^{th} century, which were in use for a shorter or longer period by a larger or smaller community, were reviewed and discussed: The French Revolutionary Calendar, the Theosebic calendar invented by Theophilos Kairis, the Revolutionary Calendar of the Soviet Union (or 'Bolshevik calendar'), the Fascist calendar in Italy and the calendar of the Metaxas dictatorship in Greece before World War II. Also the unique of them, which is still in use, the New Rectified Julian calendar of the Orthodox Church, adopted according to proposition of Milutin Milankovi? on the Congress of Orthodox Churches in 1923 in Constantinople, is presented and discussed. At the end, difficulties to introduce a new calendar are discussed as well.

Theodossiou, Efstratios; Manimanis, Vassilios N.; Dimitrijevi?, Milan S.

18

Head injuries in the 18th century: the management of the damaged brain.  

PubMed

The 18th century was the time when trauma neurosurgery began to develop into the modern discipline. Before this, the management had, for the most part, changed little from the days of Hippocrates, Celsus, and Galen. Attention was directed to skull injuries, and the brain was treated as the seat of the rational soul but without other function. Symptoms after trauma were attributed to injuries to the bone and meninges. Following the lead of the Royal Academy of Surgery in Paris, it was accepted from the 1730s that the brain was the seat of symptoms after cranial trauma. During the 18th century, at least 12 surgeons published articles on cranial injury, 6 describing significant clinical series on this topic. They were Henri-François Le Dran (1685-1770) of Paris, Percival Pott (1714-1788) of London, James Hill (1703-1776) from Dumfries, Sylvester O'Halloran (1728-1807) of Limerick (Ireland), William Dease (1750-1798) of Dublin, and John Abernethy (1764-1831) of London. This article analyzes these series. Each individual made a different contribution. It is suggested that the relatively lesser-known James Hill in Scotland demonstrated the greatest understanding of the management of brain trauma and achieved the best results. A product of the Scottish Enlightenment, he adapted his management to his own experience and was not tied to the accepted authorities of his day, but he improved the management of each case following his experience with previous patients. He deserves to be remembered. PMID:23615105

Ganz, Jeremy C

2013-07-01

19

Climate and history in the late 18th and early 19th centuries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As in many areas of human knowledge, the notion of climate acquired a deeper historical content around the turn of the 19th century. Natural philosophers, geographers, and others became increasingly aware of climate's own history and its relation to human, plant and animal, and Earth history. This article examines several aspects of this “historicization” of climate.The lively 18th century discussion of the influence of climate on society is well known. Montesquieu is its most famous representative, but Voltaire, Hume, Kant, and others also participated. Their debate was literary more than scientific, their goal the understanding of man, not climate. Partly for this reason and partly because of the lack of good information on climates, they made no attempt to gather substantial climatic data. In fact, the importance of systematically collecting reliable data was scarcely understood in any area of natural philosophy before the last decades of the century [Cf. Frängsmyr et al., 1990; Feldman, 1990]. Instead, participants in the debate repeated commonplaces dating from Aristotle and Hippocrates and based their conclusions on unreliable reports from travelers. As Glacken wrote of Montesquieu, “his dishes are from old and well-tested recipes” [Glacken, 1967, chapter 12]. This is not to say that the debate over climatic influence was not significant—only that its significance lay more in the history of man than in the atmospheric sciences.

Feldman, Theodore S.

20

Impotence in the 18th and 19th century: concepts of etiology and approaches to therapy.  

PubMed

The old word impotence is derived from the Latin word impotencia, which literally translated means "lack of power." Impotence, in the course of the history, has been attributed to mental pathology, anxiety, or demons or witches. Historically, the pharmacological treatments for impotence started in Greek times, when a myriad of herbal medications were applied locally to the genitals to enhance "sexual strength." In the 18th century, theories about the main factors inducing impotence saw it as an abnormal state of the fibers, a defect in the solid or liquid substances or a bad structure (tumor, inflammation, abscess, ulcer or foreign body). According to these mechanisms, when impotence depended on the state of the muscular fibers, treatment included a tepid bath and a clyster. In very fat or very weak people, who get particularly tired, it was important to use the remedies able to give energy to the fibers, such as ferrous mineral waters, for a month. Moreover, other suggestions were to ride a horse, to sleep few hours, to breathe good country air, to take a purge every 2 weeks, to drink half a glass of wine from Borgogne or to distract the mind continuously. In the 19th century, therapies regarding impotence included slight electric stimulation through the application of stimulators on the scrotum in the testis or epididymis areas, until pain was induced. In the same period, another method for treating impotence was flagellation. This method consisted of little flagellations with leather strips. PMID:20013735

Santoro, Domenico; Savica, Vincenzo; Satta, Ersilia; Scaffidi, Mariella; Mallamace, Agostino; Li Vecchi, Maurizio; Bellinghieri, Guido

2009-01-01

21

Greatest Volcanic Eruptions in World during 17TH-18TH Centuries and Weather Anomalies in Eurasian Middle Latitudes (Abstract Only).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In order to broaden the base for a model of climatic effects of volcanic activity, materials from the 17th and 18th centuries based on paleogeographic, geological and historical sources were used. A grouping by five-year periods made it possible to assess...

S. I. Varushchenko

1987-01-01

22

Comparing ground-penetrating radar (GPR) techniques in 18th-century yard spaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Yards surrounding historical homesteads are the liminal space between private houses and public space, and contain artifactural and structural remains that help us understand how the residents interfaced with the world. Comparing different yards means collecting reliable evidence, and what is missing is just as important as what is found. Excavations can rely on randomly placed 50-cm shovel test pits to locate features, but this can miss important features. Shallow geophysics, in particular ground-penetrating radar (GPR), can be used to identify features and reliably and efficiently collect evidence. GPR is becoming more integrated into archaeological investigations due to the potential to quickly and nondestructively identify archaeological features and to recent advancements in processing software that make these methods more user-friendly. The most efficacious GPR surveys must take into consideration what is expected to be below the surface, what features look like in GPR outputs, the best methods for detecting features, and the limitations of GPR surveys. Man-made landscape features are expected to have existed within yard spaces, and the alteration of these features shows how the domestic economy of the residence changed through time. This study creates an inventory of these features. By producing a standardized sampling method for GPR in yard spaces, archaeologists can quickly map subsurface features and carry out broad comparisons between yards. To determine the most effective sampling method, several GPR surveys were conducted at the 18th-century Durant-Kenrick House in Newton, Massachusetts, using varied line spacing, line direction, and bin size. Examples of the GPR signatures of features, obtained using GPR-Slice software, from the Durant-Kenrick House and similar sites were analyzed. The efficacy of each method was determined based on the number of features distinguished, clarity of the results, and the time involved. The survey at Newton showed that ground surface conditions are extremely important when using GPR. Furthermore, GPR and archaeological excavations together provide the most complete interpretation because GPR has the ability to detect large-scale features that might be missed with test units, while excavation provides more detailed information, finds small-scale objects, and can be used to test false negatives seen in GPR surveys.

Carducci, Christiane M.

23

[The « techno-aesthetics » of smithian economy the value and function of objects in 18(th) Century England].  

PubMed

From The Theory of Moral Sentiments to his essay on The Nature of that Imitation Which Takes Place in What Are Called the Imitative Arts, Adam Smith offered a vision of aesthetics combining beauty and utility. An echo of exchange value as the "ability to buy other goods" - the "power" to organize and achieve one's goals - his definition of beauty was premised on the "aptness" of things, that is, the fact that they were also useful. Sustained by the commodification of products, a kind of "techno-aesthetics" thus emerged in England in the 18(th) century, one that implied designing, adapting, reducing and showcasing the means of production. PMID:23264137

Hilaire-Pérez, Liliane

2012-01-01

24

The historical archaeology of the 17th- and 18th-century Jewish community of Nevis, British West Indies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This is an historical archaeological examination of a 17th- and 18th-century Jewish community on the island of Nevis in the British West Indies. Unlike earlier archaeological studies of the Jewish Caribbean Diaspora that focused on single sites, this investigation used a community-wide approach to elucidate the daily experience of Sephardic Jews within the colonial Caribbean. This project included an archaeological excavation at the purported location of the community's synagogue, an electrical resistivity survey of the surviving cemetery, the construction of a map of property ownership in 18th-century Charlestown, and archival research. This study was carded out within a multiscalar and contextual framework that emphasized the importance of understanding the diaspora that brought the Jews to the West Indies, the development of the colonial Caribbean, and the surrounding environs of the port city of Charlestown, Nevis. The archaeological analysis of the supposed site of the synagogue proved that it was in fact that of a late 18th-century townhouse, but the associated land record research revealed the actual location of the community's former synagogue. Furthermore, the reconstruction of the physical layout of colonial-period Charlestown from the land records indicated the presence of a distinct Jewish quarter in the undesirable southern portion of the town. Evidence from the public records of Nevis and the social history of the members of the Jewish population unveiled external social and political pressures placed upon the Sephardim as well as internal religious and ethnic ties dig bound the community together. It is argued in closing that the archival evidence, in conjunction with the continued presence of a clustered settlement pattern like that of European Jewish communities during the medieval period, indicates that the Jews of the Caribbean were not fully integrated socially or politically into British colonial society. This examination of the Nevis community bears testimony to a period of transition from the closed communities of the medieval period to the more open and widespread communities begun after Jewish emancipation in the late 18th century.

Terrell, Michelle M.

2000-11-01

25

Non Destructive Investigation on the 17th/18th Century Sicilian Jewellery Collection at the Messina Regional Museum Using Mobile Raman Equipment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A handheld Raman spectrometer operating at 785 nm was used for the in situ analysis of the gems present in the 17th/18th century Sicilian jewelry collection preserved in the Messina Regional Museum (Italy).

Barone, G.; Bersani, D.; Jehlicka, J.; Lottici, P. P.; Mazzoleni, P.; Raneri, S.; Vandenabeele, P.; Di Giacomo, C.; Larinŕ, G.

2014-06-01

26

[Healed war injuries of the cranium in the osteologic collection from the Broumov Ossuary (13th-18th century)].  

PubMed

Traumatic bone lesions form an important part of the study of human paleopathology. Injuries of the skull are frequent in the history of the human race. 647 adult dry skulls of both sexes from the "Broumov Ossuary" (13th-18th century) were examined for the incidence of cranium injuries. In this paper, an extensive collection (n=122) of healed dry skull injuries is presented. In the neuro- and splanchnocranium of skulls (n=78), linear and depressed fractures, slash and stab wounds have been seen but no gunshot wound. In part of the skulls (n=29), multiple injuries have been observed. Many detected traumatic lesions seem to have been caused by traditional weapons of the last centuries: war swords, axes, or pole-arms with metal spikes. All the skull injuries show clear signs of well-healing with bone remodelling that indicates the survival of victims for a long period after the cranial trauma. PMID:16669485

Pospisilová, Blanka; Procházková, Olga; Hottmar, Petr

2005-01-01

27

C-18L: Resources for 18th-Century Studies Across the Disciplines  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site is the homepage for C-18L, a long-running mailing list for scholars in eighteenth-century studies. In addition to information about the list and eighteenth-century studies in general, this site hosts two valuable scholarly resources. The first is Selected Readings, an online interdisciplinary bibliography of eighteenth-century studies that has been published monthly or bimonthly since 1992. These bibliographies are fully searchable via a keyword search engine or may be browsed by issue. The second resource of note is a collection of seven bibliographies of recent studies in several fields, most of them related to print and print culture.

1998-01-01

28

[History of leprosy in Reunion Island from the beginning of the 18th century until today].  

PubMed

This article traces the history of leprosy in Reunion from the early eighteenth century, which long paralleled the slave trace. Lepers were confined to a lazaretto and treated with herbs. Father Raimbault, "doctor" and chaplain of the lepers in the middle of the twentieth century, is still honored today. The improvement in living standards and the use of sulfones finally resulted in the control of leprosy. Nonetheless, from 2005 to 2011, an average of three new cases per year were detected among a population of 800,000 inhabitants. PMID:24113552

Gaüzere, B A; Aubry, P

2013-01-01

29

Raja Sawai Jai Singh II: An 18th Century Medieval Astronomer  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Offers a description of the instrumentation and methods utilized in this attempt at naked eye astronomy one century after the invention of the telescope. Also examines the motives which resulted in the implementation of an antiquated mode of observation. (Author/CP)

Blanpied, William A.

1975-01-01

30

Marked post-18th century environmental change in high-arctic ecosystems  

SciTech Connect

Paleolimnological data from three high-arctic ponds on Cape Herschel, Ellesmere Island, Canada, show that diatom assemblages were relatively stable over the last few millenia but then experienced unparalleled changes beginning in the 19th century. The environmental factors causing these assemblage shifts may be related to recent climatic warming. Regardless of the cause, the biota of these isolated and seemingly pristine ponds have changed dramatically in the recent past and any hopes of cataloging natural assemblages may already be fruitless.

Douglas, M.S.V.; Smol, J.P. [Queen`s Univ., Ontario (Canada); Blake, W. Jr. [Geological Survey of Canada, Ontario (Canada)

1994-10-21

31

Malthus, the 18th century European explorers and the principle of population in Africa  

PubMed Central

In the second edition of his Essay on the Principle of Population, Malthus included twelve chapters that offer a remarkable description of population dynamics from all corners of the world. His discussion of (sub-Saharan) Africa was almost entirely based on the travel accounts of James Bruce and Mungo Park, two late eighteenth century British explorers. In this essay, I introduce these sources and discuss the insights that Malthus did, or perhaps should have, derived from both.

Reniers, Georges

2012-01-01

32

Venetian Rule and Control of Plague Epidemics on the Ionian Islands during 17th and 18th Centuries  

PubMed Central

During the 17th and 18th centuries, measures were taken by the Venetian administration to combat plague on the Ionian Islands. At that time, although the scientific basis of plague was unknown, the Venetians recognized its infectious nature and successfully decreased its spread by implementing an information network. Additionally, by activating a system of inspection that involved establishing garrisons along the coasts, the Venetians were able to control all local movements in plague-infested areas, which were immediately isolated. In contrast, the neighboring coast of mainland Greece, which was under Ottoman rule, was a plague-endemic area during the same period. We conclude that even in the absence of scientific knowledge, close observation and social and political measures can effectively restrain infectious outbreaks to the point of disappearance.

Konstantinidou, Katerina; Mantadakis, Elpis; Sardi, Thalia; Samonis, George

2009-01-01

33

Marked post-18th century environmental change in high-arctic ecosystems.  

PubMed

Paleolimnological data from three high-arctic ponds on Cape Herschel, Ellesmere Island, Canada, show that diatom assemblages were relatively stable over the last few millennia but then experienced unparalleled changes beginning in the 19th century. The environmental factors causing these assemblage shifts may be related to recent climatic warming. Regardless of the cause, the biota of these isolated and seemingly pristine ponds have changed dramatically in the recent past and any hopes of cataloging natural assemblages may already be fruitless. PMID:17816685

Douglas, M S; Smol, J P; Blake, W

1994-10-21

34

[The origins of the Pavilion Lazaretto: quarantine architecture between the 18th and 19th centuries].  

PubMed

The model of pavilion lazaretto was built above the scientific basis established during the hospital reform process held in France on the lasts decades of the eighteenth century. The morphological solutions adopted for the new quarantine taxonomy has not been given by the example borrowed by the new typology of hospital as resulted in this discussion, but by existing quarantine and detention facilities in general. In this paper we will analyse all factors that have influenced in the configuration of this model of lazarettos. PMID:19856531

Bonastra, Quim

2008-01-01

35

Venusians: the Planet Venus in the 18th-Century Extraterrestrial Life Debate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries it became possible to believe in the existence of life on other planets on scientific grounds. Once the Earth was no longer the center of the universe according to Copernicus, once Galileo had aimed his telescope at the Moon and found it a rough globe with mountains and seas, the assumption of life on other planets became much less far-fetched. In general there were no actual differences between Earth and Venus, since both planets orbited the Sun, were of similar size, and possessed mountains and an atmosphere. If there is life on Earth, one may ponder why it could not also exist on Venus. In the extraterrestrial life debate of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, the Moon, our closest celestial body, was the prime candidate for life on other worlds, although a number of scientists and scholars also speculated about life on Venus and on other planets, both within our solar system and beyond its frontiers. This chapter discusses the arguments for life on Venus and those scientific findings that were used to support them, which were based in particular on assumptions and claims that both mountains and an atmosphere had been found on Venus. The transits of Venus in the 1760s became especially important for the notion that life could thrive on Venus. Here, I detect two significant cognitive processes that were at work in the search for life on Venus, i.e., analogical reasoning and epistemic perception, while analogies and interpretations of sensory impressions based on prior knowledge played an important role in astrobiological theories.

Duner, David

2013-05-01

36

Loss of genetic diversity in sea otters ( Enhydra lutris ) associated with the fur trade of the 18th and 19th centuries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sea otter ( Enhydra lutris ) populations experienced widespread reduction and extirpation due to the fur trade of the 18th and 19th centuries. We examined genetic variation within four microsatellite markers and the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) D -loop in one prefur trade population and compared it to five modern populations to determine potential losses in genetic variation. While mtDNA sequence

SHAWN L ARSON; R ONALD J AMESON; M ICHAEL E TNIER; M ELISSA F LEMING; PAUL B ENTZEN

37

Atlantic salmon fisheries in the White and Barents Sea basins: Dynamic of catches in the 17–18th Century and comparison with 19–20th Century data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Catches of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, recorded in historical documents from the 17–18th Centuries have been analysed in four locations in the basins of the White and Barents Seas. Atlantic salmon was one of the most valuable products of the local economy in the 17–18th Centuries in the northern Russia. Therefore, catches were well recorded in the account books of

Dmitry L. Lajus; Zoya V. Dmitrieva; Alexei V. Kraikovski; Julia A. Lajus; Daniel A. Alexandrov

2007-01-01

38

The ``System of Chymists'' and the ``Newtonian dream'' in Greek-speaking Communities in the 17th-18th Centuries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The acceptance of new chemical ideas, before the Chemical Revolution of Lavoisier, in Greek-speaking communities in the 17th and 18th centuries did not create a discourse of chemical philosophy, as it did in Europe, but rather a “philosophy” of chemistry as it was formed through the evolution of didactic traditions of Chemistry. This “philosophical” chemistry was not based on the existence of any academic institutions, it was focused on the ontology of principles and forces governing the analysis/synthesis of matter and formulated two didactic traditions. The one, named “the system of chymists”, close to the Boylean/Cartesian tradition, accepted, contrary to Aristotelianism, the five “chymical” principles and also the analytical ideal, but the “chymical” principles were not under a conceptual and experimental investigation, as they were in Europe. Also, a crucial issue for this tradition remained the “mechanical” principles which were under the influence of the metaphysical nature of the Aristotelian principles. The other, close to the Boylean/Newtonian tradition, was the integrated presentation of the Newtonian “dream”, which maintained a discursive attitude with reference to the “chemical attractions”-“chemical affinities” and actualised the mathematical atomism of Boscovich, according to which the elementary texture of matter could be causally explained within this complex architecture of mathematical “ punkta”. In this tradition also coexisted, in a discursive synthesis, the “chemical element” of Lavoisier and the arguments of the new theory and its opposition to the phlogiston theory, but the “chemical affinities” were under the realm of the “physical element” as “metaphysical point”.

Bokaris, Efthymios P.; Koutalis, Vangelis

2008-06-01

39

A brief conceptual history of Einfühlung: 18th-century Germany to post-World War II U.S. psychology.  

PubMed

This brief conceptual history, modeled on Koselleck's Begriffsgeschichte, adds to earlier histories of empathy. It showed that Johann Gottfried Herder, not Robert Vischer, invented Einfühlung as an objective scholarly method during 18th-century absolutist-relativist disputes. Original 18th-, 19th-, and 20th-century scholarly texts demonstrated that continued attempts to redress these disputes drove many of Einfühlung's conceptual transformations. Empathy first appeared in U.S. scientific psychology as a personal characteristic when relativists sought to redress the absolutist-relativist methodological dispute that began between John Watson and Edward Titchener. The conclusion notes limitations to this Begriffsgeschichte. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:24001303

Edwards, Laura Hyatt

2013-11-01

40

The effect of parity status on ? 15N: looking for the “pregnancy effect” in 18th and 19th century London  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the effect of parity status on ?15N using the well-characterised 18th and 19th century skeletal collection from the crypt of Christ Church, Spitalfields, London. We tested whether the cumulative effect of multiple pregnancies and breastfeeding could significantly reduce female ?15N values compared to males. The results from stable isotope analysis of 92 adult ribs show that the

E. K. Nitsch; L. T. Humphrey; R. E. M. Hedges

2010-01-01

41

Flood hazard and a rapidly growing capital in the floodplain: Social response on major 18th-century Danube floods in Pest (East-Budapest)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to its floodplain location, Pest was especially prone to damages caused by great flood events. Before water regulation works, the greatest flood events, and the highest rate of destruction occurred during ice jam floods. Whereas in the first half of the 18th century Pest is restricted to the medieval downtown located on a higher terrain (Danube terrace), from the mid 18th century onwards the rapidly growing population established suburbs around the downtown in the lower-lying flood plain. Thus, while in the first half of the century floods were more dangerous for the harvest in the agricultural lands, in the second half of the century at the same place suburbs, urban areas with thousands of inhabitants were prone to the same danger. In the first half of the century at least three particularly large flood events, in 1712, 1732 and 1744, caused increasing problems in the close vicinity of the town (and its lands), the second half of the century - as part of a climatic anomaly (Maldá) famous of its weather extremes - was characterised by two extreme (in 1775 and 1799), at least two larger (1789 and 1795) and some more, medium-sized ice jam floods. While in terms of damaged houses the loss was only some dozens in the early part of the century, several hundreds of houses - actually, complete suburbs were erased by floods in 1775 and 1799. In the poster presentation a series of known damaging 18th-century floods, occurred at Pest, is presented, the short-term impacts (e.g. damages), and medium-, long-term administrative responses as well as related long-term landscape changes influenced by floods and flood protection are discussed. Another important aim of the poster is to present the main reasons why in the 18th century these great ice jam floods caused much greater damages (e.g. percentage of collapsed houses in suburbs) in Pest protected by dams than, for example, in the Buda suburbs with no dams, partly also located in high flood-risk areas, in the immediate vicinity of the Danube.

Kiss, Andrea

2014-05-01

42

Evolution of Interannual and Decadal/Interdecadal variability of the SPCZ since the late 18th century using a network of Fiji coral ?18O time-series  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The South Pacific Convergence Zone (SPCZ) region is of high interest due to its impact on tropical rainfall and the export of moisture from the tropics. Documenting the amplitude and periodicity of SPCZ displacements on interannual (mainly influenced by El Nińo Southern Oscillation (ENSO)) and decadal/interdecadal (D/I) time-scales is of high importance not only for risk management but also for understanding the dynamics of the SPCZ and for improving General Circulation Model climate predictions. We have generated a unique regional coral ?18O network from the Fiji Islands, which are located just south of the main SPCZ rainfall axis. This network consists of five monthly-resolved coral ?18O time-series from different regions of Fiji. Evaluation of interseries correlation coefficients indicates that ENSO-band (2 to 9 years) and D/I-band (10 to 50 years) ?18O variability is highly reproducible. Correlation to instrumental surface salinity (SSS) data indicates that interannual coral ?18O variability in Fiji is the result of interannual changes in SSS that are coupled to ENSO. The composite reconstruction (arithmetic average of the five Fiji ?18O records), extending from 1790 to 2004 AD, was compared to known climatic indices such as the Southern Oscillation and Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation indices over the 20th century. Pearson Product-Moment correlations between the coral ?18O composite and these target indices of the Pacific basin are r= 0.71 and 0.41 for ENSO and D/I timescales respectively, with p-values better than 0.001. These high values indicate that our Fiji composite ?18O record is suitable for reconstructing past ENSO and D/I variability prior to the instrumental record. Our Fiji ENSO-band and D/I-band reconstructions from the Southwest Pacific also share important similarities with other Pacific coral ?18O records such as the ?18O record from Malo-Channel (Vanuatu). The Fiji composite ?18O reconstruction also correlates negatively with interannual and D/I coral ?18O variability from equatorial sites in the Pacific (e.g. Maiana). Collectively, our results from the SPCZ region reflect the validity of the coral ?18O composite to track regional climatic variability at both interannual and decadal/interdecadal timescales. From the late 18th century to the late 19th century the D/I band dominates the Fiji composite while the ENSO-band amplitude is relatively small. Starting around 1885, this tendency reverses and we observed a drastic decrease in the D/I signal amplitude, with its variance reduced by more than 50%, while the ENSO-band signal increases progressively in amplitude toward the present, reaching unprecedented values during the mid-20th century. This switch around 1885 A.D. is unique over the last 250 years and may correspond to a reorganization of Pacific-wide climate.

Dassie, E. P.; Linsley, B. K.; Correge, T.; Wu, H. C.; Lemley, G. M.; Cabioch, G.

2012-12-01

43

A brief history of the changing occupations and demographics of coleopterists from the 18th through the 20th century.  

PubMed

Systematic entomology flourished as a branch of Natural History from the 1750s to the end of the nineteenth century. During this interval, the "era of Heroic Entomology," the majority of workers in the field were dedicated amateurs. This article traces the demographic and occupational shifts in entomology through this 150-year interval and into the early twentieth century. The survey is based on entomologists who studied beetles (Coleoptera), and who named sufficient numbers of species to have their own names abbreviated by subsequent taxonomists. In the eighteenth century, 27 entomologists achieved this level of prominence, of whom 37% were academics, 19% were doctors, 11% had private incomes, 19% were clergymen, and 8% were government officials. Many of those with private incomes were members of the European aristocracy, and all but one were European men. The nineteenth century list included 192 entomologists, of whom 17% were academics, 16% were museum curators, 2% were school teachers, 15% were doctors, 6% were military men, 7% were merchants, 2% were government entomologists, 6% had private incomes, 5% were clergymen, 5% were government officials, and 4% were lawyers. The demographics of entomology shifted dramatically in the nineteenth century. Whereas many of the noteworthy entomologists of the eighteenth century were German, Swedish, or French, in the nineteenth century, many more European countries are represented, and almost one-fifth of the noteworthy entomologists were from the United States. The nineteenth century list, like the eighteenth century list, contains no women. By the twentieth century, 63% of 178 noteworthy systematic entomologists were paid professionals, teaching entomology courses in universities, or studying insect taxonomy in museums and government-sponsored laboratories. Only one person on the twentieth century list had a private income, but women (ten individuals) were included on the list for the first time. PMID:23928824

Elias, Scott A

2014-01-01

44

Plant phenological records in northern Finland since the 18th century as retrieved from databases, archives and diaries for biometeorological research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plant phenological data from northern Finland, compiled from several sources, were examined as potential biometeorological indicators of climate change since the 18th century. A common feature of individual series was their sporadic nature. In addition to waning enthusiasm, wartime hardships and crop failures had caused gaps in recording observations during the 18th and 19th centuries. The present study's challenge was to combine separate records, as retrieved from several historical archives and personal diaries, into a single continuous series. To avoid possible biases due to the variability of data availability each year, each phenomenon-specific mean series was transformed into normalized site-specific index series. These series were compared to each other and to a regional instrumental temperature series (years 1802-2011). The inter-phenomena correlations were high. Moreover, a strong biometeorological response of the phenological series, most especially to monthly mean temperature in May, and seasonally to the April through June temperatures, was identified. This response focused on slightly later spring months compared to the responses in an earlier study conducted for southern Finland. The findings encouraged us to compute a total phenological index series as an average of all available phenomenon-specific index series for northern Finland. The earliest phenological springs were found as a cluster in the recent end of the record, whereas the anomalously-late phenological spring could be found through the centuries. This finding could indicate that potential future warming could result in an earlier onset of phenological springs (i.e. as experienced by the plants), with a remaining possibility of late phenological springs. To conclude, it was shown that the indices are reliable biometeorological indicators of the April through June temperature variations and thus of the climate variability in the region.

Holopainen, Jari; Helama, Samuli; Lappalainen, Hanna; Gregow, Hilppa

2013-05-01

45

Finnish wallpaper pigments in the 18th-19th century: Presence of KFe3(CrO4)2(OH)6 and odd pigment mixtures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several Finish wallpapers from the 18th and 19th century were analysed by using Raman spectroscopy assisted with EDXRF instrumentation, in an attempt of determine the pigments used in their manufacture process as well as of trying to date some of the samples through pigment composition. All pigments present in samples were determined and surprisingly the unusual and strange iron (III) chromate yellow pigment was found. Besides, unusual mixtures were found to obtain fashionable colours, especially in blue and green areas, where more than one blue pigments were mixed with green and yellow pigments. Blue verditer, ultramarine blue, Prussian blue, chrome yellow, calcite, lead white, red and yellow iron oxide, gypsum and carbon black were identified. The presence of the risky and poisonous emerald green must be highlighted. The results were compared with those found in other wallpapers from Spain and France.

Castro, Kepa; Knuutinen, Ulla; Vallejuelo, Silvia Fdez-Ortiz de; Irazola, Mireia; Madariaga, Juan Manuel

2013-04-01

46

Finnish wallpaper pigments in the 18th-19th century: presence of KFe3(CrO4)2(OH)6 and odd pigment mixtures.  

PubMed

Several Finish wallpapers from the 18th and 19th century were analysed by using Raman spectroscopy assisted with EDXRF instrumentation, in an attempt of determine the pigments used in their manufacture process as well as of trying to date some of the samples through pigment composition. All pigments present in samples were determined and surprisingly the unusual and strange iron (III) chromate yellow pigment was found. Besides, unusual mixtures were found to obtain fashionable colours, especially in blue and green areas, where more than one blue pigments were mixed with green and yellow pigments. Blue verditer, ultramarine blue, Prussian blue, chrome yellow, calcite, lead white, red and yellow iron oxide, gypsum and carbon black were identified. The presence of the risky and poisonous emerald green must be highlighted. The results were compared with those found in other wallpapers from Spain and France. PMID:23376265

Castro, Kepa; Knuutinen, Ulla; de Vallejuelo, Silvia Fdez-Ortiz; Irazola, Mireia; Madariaga, Juan Manuel

2013-04-01

47

The Early America Review: A Journal of Fact and Opinion On the People, Issues and Events Of 18th Century America  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A site of interest to students of 18th Century America is the Early America Review. Early America Review is a new quarterly e-journal produced by DEV Communications, Inc., that is aimed toward both scholarly and lay readers. In that spirit, the first edition contains a long scholarly article on Benjamin Franklin and the Presbyterians by a Creighton University history professor, an introduction to the novel The Quintumviri by Circian, a letter from Jefferson to Madison ("...a little rebellion now and then is a good thing"), a poem, and a crossword puzzle (available only with Macromedia Shockwave). Early America Review is also enhanced with RealAudio clips. Both Shockwave and RealAudio are available from the site.

1996-01-01

48

Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy analysis of house paint and wallpaper samples from an 18th century historic property.  

PubMed

Conservation efforts for heritage buildings require a substantial knowledge of the chemical makeup of materials that were used throughout the lifetime of the property. In particular, conservators are often concerned with the identification of colorants used in both interior and exterior wall treatments (paint, wallpaper, etc.) in order to gain perspective into how the building may have appeared during a certain time period in its existence. Ideally, such an analysis requires a technique that provides molecular level information as to the identity of the colorant as well as other sample components (binders, fillers, etc.), which is useful for dating purposes. In addition, the technique should be easily applied to paint layer samples which can be extremely thin and fragile. Herein we report the surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) analysis of paint and wallpaper samples taken from exterior and interior surfaces of a historic building. Several pigments were identified in the samples, which ranged from early inorganic pigments (lead white, barium sulfate, calcium carbonate, anhydrous chromium(III) oxide) which have been used in house paints for centuries, to a more modern pigment (phthalocyanine blue), developed in the middle of the 20th century. This analysis highlights the usefulness of SERS in such a conservation effort, and demonstrates for the first time pigment identification in house paints and wallpaper using SERS, which has far-reaching implications not only in the field of conservation, but also in forensics, industrial process control, and environmental health and safety. PMID:21267481

Harroun, S G; Bergman, J; Jablonski, E; Brosseau, C L

2011-09-01

49

Australian Literature Database: A Collection of 18th, 19th and early 20th century Australian texts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Part of the metasite of the Scholarly Electronic Text and Image Service (SETIS) at the University of Sydney Library, this site allows users to access hundreds of complete texts of literary and historical works written by Australians in the last three centuries. Included here are poems, short stories, novels, reference works, memoirs, historical narratives and documents, and much more. The texts can be browsed or searched with options allowing users to search or limit searches by date, publisher, author, title, genre, gender of author, or opening lines. A limited number of historically valuable texts are displayed in page image format; the rest are offered in standard .html. Since many of these texts can be difficult for students and researchers not on the southern continent to find, the database is all the more valuable to those doing work in this field.

50

BACCHUS temperature reconstruction for the period 16th to 18th centuries from Viennese and Klosterneuburg grape harvest dates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the scientific project "Klosterneuburg Wine and Climate Change in Lower Austria" (BACCHUS), we focused on developing a grape harvest date (GHD) time series for the period 1523-2007 in the area of and around Vienna, one of the northeasternmost regions in Europe where vines are grown professionally. Since grape harvest dates are strongly influenced by spring to (early) summer temperatures, especially in a vine-growing region at a climatic border, we found highly significant correlation coefficients between homogenized multiple monthly mean temperatures at Vienna, Hohe Warte, and GHD. For example, correlation values reach -0.76 (p = 0.01) between GHD and April to July mean temperature or -0.79 (p = 0.01) between GHD and May to July mean temperature. This made it possible to reconstruct May to July mean temperatures, starting in 1523. The years from 1775 to 1850 were used as calibration period for determining the temperature sensitivity of GHD, as the running correlation coefficients (10 year moving window) were most pronounced in this period, varying between almost -1 and -0.7 (p = 0.05). We found warm decades in the 16th century, at the beginning of our series, which were as warm as the 1990s. Afterwards the mean May to July temperatures started to drop; the coldest decade of the record was from 1771 to 1780. A constant temperature increase for more than 30 years, as from the 1970s to the present, seems to be unprecedented during the last 470 years.

Maurer, C.; Koch, E.; Hammerl, C.; Hammerl, T.; Pokorny, E.

2009-11-01

51

"Diarium patris ministri", a Jesuit view of social structures at the break of 18th century in south-west Bohemian town of Klatovy.  

PubMed

The Jesuit college in the Czech town of Klatovy was founded in 1636 and canceled in 1773. It had its own grammar school and numerous contacts with local nobility and church dignitaries. The college was the most important house of a catholic order in the area and baroque festivities organised by the jesuits were visited (or it would be better to say taken part in) by a wide spectrum of members of the local society. The Jesuits concerned not only on careful arrangement of their ecclesiastical celebrations, but also on presence of the important guests. They recorded numbers of the guests who visited the college and their social status in the college manuscripts. The records were then used for an internal need of the order. Till the present day three manuscripts related to the college in Klatovy have been preserved. The most interesting records of the guests are in the diary of father "minister" of the college. The article focuses on a reconstruction of a not very conventional view of social structure in an average Czech town in the beginnig of 18th century. I'm trying to describe the social situation from the jesuit point of view using internal records of the order. PMID:20063670

Cerný, Karel

2009-01-01

52

The use of historical catch data to trace the influence of climate on fish populations: examples from the White and Barents Sea fisheries in the 17th and 18th centuries  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analysed catch records of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), cod (Gadus morhua), and halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus and Reinhardtius hippoglossoides) from the 17th and 18th centuries from several locations of the Barents and White Seas areas. Historical records, found in Russian archives, allow analysis of long-term series of catches, and sometimes of the average weight of the fish. In total, we

Dmitry L. Lajus; Julia A. Lajus; Zoya V. Dmitrieva; Alexei V. Kraikovski; Daniel A. Alexandrov

2005-01-01

53

Human impacts of hydrometeorological extremes in the Bohemian-Moravian Highlands derived from documentary sources in the 18th-19th centuries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The extent of damage caused by hydrometeorological events or extremes (HME) has risen up in the entire world in the last few years. Especially the floods, flash floods, torrential rains and hailstorms are the most typical and one of the most frequent kind of natural disasters in the central Europe. Catastrophes are a part of human history and people were forced to cope with their consequences (e. g. material damage, economical losses, impacts on agriculture and society or losses of human lives). This paper analyses the human impacts of HME in the Bohemian-Moravian Highlands (central part of the Czech Republic) on the basis of documentary sources from the 18th-19th centuries. The paper presents various negative impacts of natural disasters on lives and property and subsequent inconveniences of Czech peasants. The preserved archival documents of estates or domains became the primary sources of data (e. g. taxation reliefs, damaged records, reports of afflicted farmers, administrative correspondence etc.). Particularly taxation reliefs relate to taxation system in the Czech lands during the 17th-19th centuries allowing to farmers to ask for tax alleviation when their crops were significantly damaged by any HME. These archival documents are a highly valuable source for the study of human impacts of natural disasters. Devastating consequences of these extremes affected individual farmers much more than the aristocracy. Floods caused inundations of farmer's fields, meadows, houses and farm buildings, washed away the arable land with crops, caused losses of cattle, clogged the land with gravel and mud and destroyed roads, bridges or agricultural equipment. Afflicted fields became worthless and it took them many years to become became fertile again. Crop was also damaged by hailstorms, droughts or late/early frosts. All these events led to lack of food and seeds in the following year and it meant the decrease of living standard, misery and poverty of farmers. Acquired results could give better insight of human impacts of HME in history and help to compare the negative consequences in the past and present.

Dolák, Lukáš; Brázdil, Rudolf; Valášek, Hubert

2014-05-01

54

Age of linear enamel hypoplasia formation based on Massler and colleagues' and Reid and Dean's standards in a Polish sample dated to 13th-18th century CE.  

PubMed

In the study of enamel hypoplasia formation ages basically two standards of dental development are being applied. According to some authors, different methods produce different results, thus it is critical to decide which method to use. This study focuses on the comparison of three methods for estimating ages of linear enamel hypoplasia (LEH) formation. The skeletal material derives from three burial grounds localized on the territory of Poland, dated to 13th-18th c. CE. In total 642 teeth of 77 individuals were qualified for the study. The position of LEHs on the crown surface was measured and then converted to age at formation using the regression equations proposed by Goodman and Rose, Goodman and Song, and the data provided by Reid and Dean. There were 51.9% of individuals and 17.9% of teeth affected by LEH. The lowest age estimates were provided by the Goodman and Rose's method then higher by the Goodman and Song's method and the highest using the Reid and Dean's data. The age ranges and peaks of LEH provided by the three methods differed more for the maxillary than for the mandibular teeth. Crown formation ages supplied by Reid and Dean account for intra- and inter-tooth as well as inter-population variation in the timing of tooth development and also for variation in crown heights. This approach undoubtedly increases reliability of the results. Thus, it seems advisable to use the Reid and Dean's standard when calculating ages of enamel hypoplasia formation. PMID:24767821

Lukasik, S; Krenz-Niedba?a, M

2014-08-01

55

The Role of Education Redefined: 18th Century British and French Educational Thought and the Rise of the Baconian Conception of the Study of Nature  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The idea that science teaching in schools should prepare the ground for society's future technical and scientific progress has played an important role in shaping modern education. This idea, however, was not always present. In this article, I examine how this idea first emerged in educational thought. Early in the 17th century, Francis Bacon…

Gilead, Tal

2011-01-01

56

Girls' Secondary Education in the Western World: From the 18th to the 20th Century. Secondary Education in a Changing World  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This long-awaited synthesis approaches the past three centuries with an eye to highlighting the importance of significant schools, as well as important women educators in the emergence of secondary education for girls. At the same time, each contributor pays careful attention to the specific political, cultural, and socio-economic factors that…

Albisetti, James C.; Goodman, Joyce; Rogers, Rebecca

2010-01-01

57

18th International Conference on Antiviral Research.  

PubMed

The 18th International Conference on Antiviral Research (ICAR) was held at the Princess Sofia Hotel in Barcelona, Spain, from 11th-14th April, 2005. This is a yearly international meeting sponsored by the International Society for Antiviral Research (ISAR). The current president of ISAR is John A Secrest 3rd of the Southern Research Institute. The scientific programme committee was chaired by John C Drach from the University of Michigan. ISAR was founded in 1987 to exchange prepublication basic, applied and clinical information on the development of antiviral, chemical and biological agents as well as to promote collaborative research. The ISAR has had a major role in the significant advances of the past decade in the reduction of the societal burdens of viral diseases by the focus of ICAR on the discovery and clinical application of antiviral agents. The 18th ICAR was organised as a series of focus presentations on specific viral groups consisting of oral and poster presentations of original research findings. In addition, the conference included plenary speakers, award presentations, a minisymposium on bioterrorism, and a satellite symposium on clinical antiviral drug developments. The size of the conference (> 50 oral and 250 poster presentations) necessitates limitation to the most noteworthy in the judgment of this reviewer. The current membership of the ISAR is approximately 700 with approximately 50% the membership in attendance. PMID:16086663

Mitchell, William M

2005-08-01

58

Peterburgskaya akademiya nauk v XVIII v. i ee pol' v rasprostranenii N'yutonianstva na kontinente Evropy %t Petersburg Academy of Sciences of 18th century and its role in the dissemination of Newtonianism in teh continental Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

"Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica" by I. Newton were published and immediately recognized in England in 1687. However in countries of the continental Europe up to 1744 dominated the Cartesianism. Few newtonians were exposed to persecutions. Under such circumstances in 1724 Peter The Great decided to found an Academy of sciences in Russia. Since in this country there were no scientists, it was decided to invite them from the continental Europe. Two scientists arrived to Russia were newtonians. Other just were graduated from universities and had no hope for scientific work in their native lands. This situation turned out to be rather happy. The newtonians - J. N. Delisle and J. Hermann - trained the youth (D. Bernoulli, L. Euler, F. Ch. Mayer, G. W. Krafft, A. D. Kantemir, G. W. Richmann, M. V. Lomonosov, N. I. Popov, V. K. Trediakovskij, A. D. Krasilnikov etc.). They created the science of Russia and enhanced the doctrine of Newton. Their scientific works were printed in "Commentarii" in Latin. The newspaper "St.-Petersburg sheets" and its appendix, the magazine "Notes on the Sheet" (issued in Russian and German) - published the works of Petersburg Academy of sciences and promoted the Newtonianism. Everyone, who could read in German, used these materials. One of the readers was I. Kant. He relied upon these publications in preparing his lectures at Königsberg University, and then later, in working out the cosmogony theory. The works of J. N. Delisle, L. Euler and A. C. Clairaut on the theory of comets' and planets' movement justified Newtons doctrine. They also forced J. Cassini to accept the doctrine as well. Delisle's papers on the history of astronomy published there are helpful for understanding of the history of development the astronomy. The books of J. F. Weidler "A history of astronomy" (1741) and "Astronomical bibliography" (1755) formed the basis for all histories of astronomy in the XVIII-XIX centuries.

Nevskaya, N. I.

59

Life history of the individuals buried in the St. Benedict Cemetery (Prague, 15th-18th centuries): insights from (14)C dating and stable isotope (?(13)C, ?(15)N, ?(18)O) analysis.  

PubMed

Funerary practices and bioarchaeological (sex and age) data suggest that a mortality crisis linked to an epidemic episode occurred during the fifth phase of the St. Benedict cemetery in Prague (Czech Republic). To identify this mass mortality episode, we reconstructed individual life histories (dietary and mobility factors), assessed the population's biological homogeneity, and proposed a new chronology through stable isotope analysis (?(13)C, ?(18)O and ?(15)N) and direct radiocarbon dating. Stable isotope analysis was conducted on the bone and tooth enamel (collagen and carbonate) of 19 individuals from three multiple graves (MG) and 12 individuals from individual graves (IG). The ?(15)N values of collagen and the difference between the ?(13)C values of collagen and bone carbonate could indicate that the IG individuals had a richer protein diet than the MG individuals or different food resources. The human bone and enamel carbonate and ?(18)O values suggest that the majority of individuals from MG and all individuals from IG spent most of their lives outside of the Bohemian region. Variations in ?(18)O values also indicate that all individuals experienced residential mobility during their lives. The stable isotope results, biological (age and sex) data and eight (14)C dates clearly differentiate the MG and IG groups. The present work provides evidence for the reuse of the St. Benedict cemetery to bury soldiers despite the funeral protest ban (1635 AD). The Siege of Prague (1742 AD) by French-Bavarian-Saxon armies is identified as the cause of the St. Benedict mass mortality event. PMID:23588853

Salesse, Kevin; Dufour, Élise; Castex, Dominique; Velemínský, Petr; Santos, Frédéric; Kucha?ová, Hedvika; Jun, Libor; Br?žek, Jaroslav

2013-06-01

60

Lightning and Gunpowder in the 18th Century  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On or before June, 1751, Benjamin Franklin and co-workers showed that gunpowder could be ignited by a small electric spark, and subsequently people used gunpowder to enhance the explosions of "thunder houses" to demonstrate that grounded metallic rods would protect model structures against lightning damage. Even before the sentry box and kite experiments proved that thunderclouds are electrified and that lightning is an electrical discharge in 1752, Franklin had hypothesized that a tall, well-grounded conductor might reduce or prevent lightning damage by silently discharging the cloud, and if a discharge did occur, then the tall rod would offer a preferred place for the lightning to strike, and the grounding conductors would guide the current into the ground in a harmless fashion. Over the next 10 years, experience gained through practice showed that grounded rods did indeed protect ordinary structures from lightning damage, but a question remained about the best way to protect gunpowder magazines. In 1762, Franklin recommended a tall "mast not far from it, which may reach 15 or 20 feet above the top of it, with a thick iron rod in one piece fastened to it, pointed at the highest end, and reaching down through the earth till it comes to water," and in 1772 he made a similar recommendation for protecting the British powder magazine at Purfleet. In 1780, Jan Ingenhousz asked Franklin to "communicate to me some short hints, which may occur to you about the most convenient manner of constructing gun powder magazines, the manner of preserving the powder from moisture and securing the building in the best manner from the effects of lightning." In his reply, Franklin detailed a method of protection that is almost perfect, "they should be constructed in the Ground; that the Walls should be lin'd with Lead, the Floor Lead, all 1/4 Inch thick & the Joints well solder'd; the Cover Copper; with a little Scuttle to enter, the whole in the Form of a Canister for Tea. If the Edges of the Cover scuttle fall into a Copper Channel containing Mercury, not the smallest Particle of Air or Moisture can enter to the Powder, even tho' the Walls stood in Water, or the whole was under Water." In 1876, the Scottish physicist, James Clerk Maxwell, made almost exactly the same recommendation for protecting against lightning, a method known today as a "Faraday cage."

Krider, E. P.

2006-12-01

61

18th Engineer Brigade Validated for Afghanistan Deployment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The 18th Engineer Brigade headquarters in Schwetzingen, Germany, completed its validation exercise in February 2011 for deployment to Afghanistan later in the year. The headquarters would deploy off-cycle from its subordinate units, requiring additional c...

K. A. Werback

2011-01-01

62

EDITORIAL: The 18th European Workshop on Micromechanics (MME 07)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This special issue of Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering is devoted to the 18th European Workshop on Micromechanics (MME 07), which took place at the University of Minho, Guimarăes, Portugal from 16-18 September 2007. Since the first workshop at the University of Twente in 1989 the field of micromechanics has grown substantially and new fields have been added: optics, RF, biomedical, chemistry, and in recent years the emergence of nanotechnology. This year an extensive programme was scheduled with contributions from new materials research to new manufacturing techniques. In addition, the invited speakers presented a review of the state-of-the-art in several main trends in current research, with the focus on micro/nanosystems in the ICT Work Programme in EC FP7. As ever, the two day workshop was attended by delegates from all over Europe, the USA, Brazil, Egypt, Japan and Canada. A total of 96 papers were accepted for presentation and there were a further five keynote presentations. The workshop provides a forum for young researchers to learn about new experimental methods and to enhance their knowledge of the field. This special issue presents a selection of 17 of the best papers from the workshop. The papers highlight fluidic and optical devices, energy scavenging microsystems, neural probe arrays and microtechnology fabrication techniques. All the papers went through the regular reviewing procedure of IOP Publishing, and I am grateful to all the referees for their excellent work. I would also like to extend my thanks to Professor Robert Puers for advice on the final selection of papers and to Ian Forbes of IOP Publishing for managing the entire process. My thanks also go to the editorial staff of Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering. I believe that this special issue will provide a good overview of the topics presented at the workshop and I hope you enjoy reading it.

Correia, J. H.

2008-06-01

63

'Diabetes' as described by Byzantine writers from the fourth to the ninth century AD: the Graeco-Roman influence.  

PubMed

Diabetes was first extensively described by Aretaeus of Cappadocia, and his contemporary, Galen of Pergamum, in the second century AD. Aretaeus is said to have introduced the term diabetes, though there are some indications of previous references to the term. When referring to the disease, Galen accepts that the term belongs to 'other writers'. There are, in fact, many other Graeco-Roman accounts of diabetes, and in this paper we also examine the texts of Pliny the Elder (first century AD), Rufus of Ephesos (early second century AD), Oribasius (fourth century AD), Stephanus Alexandrinus (fifth century AD), Aetius (sixth century AD), Alexander of Tralles (sixth century AD), and Theophilus Protospatharius (seventh century AD ), together with his contemporaries Paulus of Aegina, Stephanus of Athens and Leon of Pella (ninth century AD). All these writers use almost the same terminology when referring to the disease, and consider that symptoms of excessive thirst and urination are due to disease of the kidneys and the bladder. Similar treatments are also advocated, and relate to nutritional advice, herbal medications, poultices, bloodletting and abstinence from diuretic substances. Although there are no notable differences between the writings of Byzantine physicians and the earlier descriptions attributed to Aretaeus and Galen, this literature testifies to the fact that these physicians were well aware of a disease that Galen considered rare. PMID:18365167

Christopoulou-Aletra, H; Papavramidou, N

2008-05-01

64

The Families of Roman Soldiers (First and Second Centuries A.D.): Culture, Law, and Practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the first two centuries A.D., Roman soldiers were prohibited from contracting legal marriage; the masculine nature of Roman military discipline was the likely motivation for the ban. Nevertheless, many Roman soldiers formed de facto unions with women and fathered children. This marriage ban is directly attested to in papyri from Roman Egypt that show that soldiers' marriages were illegal

Sara Elise Phang

2002-01-01

65

EDITORIAL: The 18th Central European Workshop on Quantum Optics The 18th Central European Workshop on Quantum Optics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Much of our present understanding of the microscopic world is based on quantum mechanics. The field owes much of its existence to the venerable science of optics, since the fundamental ideas on the nature of the interaction between light and matter lie at the roots of its origin. We have now reached one century of quantum mechanics. In contrast, the splendid blossoming of quantum optics began only after the comparatively recent invention of the laser. Since then, it has become an exciting and always expanding area at the cutting-edge of research, in part because theory and experiment are more closely connected in this field than any other. Moreover, the technological distance between fundamental studies and practical applications has always been very short in quantum optics. As a result, modern engineering is increasingly based on quantum rather than classical physics; we are facing a transition similar to the one society confronted 200 years ago, at the start of the Industrial Revolution. In parallel with this, the physics community is witnessing the recent and vigorous emergence of quantum information. It aims at exploring the physical foundations of information and at developing efficient methods for processing quantum information. The questions driving this field reveal a profound change in attitude towards fundamental aspects of quantum theory. The photon turns out to be a tool extremely well suited to exploring theoretical quantum information schemes and their experimental implementations. Mirroring this continued progress has been the growth and development of the series of annual Central European Workshops on Quantum Optics (CEWQO). The series started at the beginning of the 1990s, as rather small meetings of physicists from a few countries in central-eastern Europe. In two decades, the workshops have transformed into important events that reach well beyond the original rather restricted geographical limits. The history of CEWQOs can be found in the preface to the proceedings of the 15th CEWQO (Physica Scripta 2009 T135 011005). The 18th edition of CEWQO (CEWQO11) was held in Madrid in 2011. There were about 250 participants, from practically every European country. Many colleagues from other continents also joined the event, including well-established researchers in the field. This is a clear demonstration that these meetings provide an excellent chance to hear about the latest results and new directions of research. The organization of CEWQO11 was carried out by a committee consisting of members active in this topic in Madrid. From Universidad Complutense, Alberto Galindo and Luis L Sánchez-Soto from Universidad Autónoma, Jose Calleja and Carlos Tejedor; from Universidad Politécnica, Enrique Calleja; from Universidad Carlos III, Alberto Ibort; and from the National Research Council (CSIC), Juan León and Juan J García-Ripoll. Special thanks go to the Spanish Ministry for Science and Innovation, Universidad Complutense and the Quitemad Consortium for financial support. The proceedings of the 16th CEWQO held at the University of Turku, Finland and the 17th CEWQO held at the University of St Andrews, Scotland, UK are also available (Physica Scripta 2010 T140 and Physica Scripta 2011 T143). The present Topical Issue is a collection of papers presented in Madrid; they represent an illustrative sample of the major achievements and trends in this area. In turn, they reflect the wide range of interests in this rapidly evolving field. Some collaborators from different scientific centres who could not, due to different reasons, come to Madrid, but participated in previous CEWQOs and plan to participate in future CEWQOs, also contributed to this issue. The papers are arranged alphabetically by the name of the first author. Special thanks goes to Roger Wäppling, the Managing Editor of Physica Scripta, and Graeme Watt, the Publisher, for the opportunity to publish CEWQO11. From a Physica Scripta Editorial Board meeting it was decided that Physica Scripta could offer a poster prize (200 euros + certificate) for young sc

Sánchez-Soto, Luis L.; Man'ko, Margarita A.

2012-02-01

66

Pagan-Christian change in northeastern Hungary in the 10th-13th centuries AD--a palaeodemographic aspect.  

PubMed

In the present paper the authors compared skeletal populations (2421 individuals) excavated from four cemeteries, namely Hajdúdorog-Gyúlás (10th century AD), Hajdidorog-Temetöhegy (11th century AD), Hajdúdorog-Katidülö (12th-13th century AD) and Hajdúdorog-Szálldáföld (12th-13th century AD) from a micro-region of Northern Hajdúság (located in the northern part of the Great Hungarian Plain in Hungary in the Carpathian Basin) based on demographic data. The cemeteries were dated to the age of the Hungarian conquest and the Arpadian age and provided representative data for anthropological research. Previous studies based on craniological and archaeological investigations have already suggested that there was discontinuity in the population history between the 10th and the 11th centuries AD and continuity between the 11th and 12th centuries AD in this region. This hypothesis could be partially supported by demographic investigations because conclusive evidence was found that there must have been a change in the population at the turn of the 10th and 11th centuries AD, and there was certain continuity between the 11th and 12-13th centuries AD. The authors suppose that there were two crises in the examined period: the first crisis set in at the transition from the pagan era (10th century AD) to the Christian era (from the beginning of the 11th century AD, with population resettlements within the Carpathian Basin), the second might have been more moderate and meant burying the dead of the populations lacking a church in the churchyards of villages which had a church. At that time one graveyard around a church may have been used by several village populations. PMID:24851634

János, István; Szathmiry, László; Hüse, Lajos

2014-03-01

67

Student awards given at 18th Annual Hydrology Days  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Four students received awards for best student presentations at the 18th annual Hydrology Days (HD) held earlier this year at Colorado State University. The event is sponsored by AGU's Hydrology Section.Mohamed Bennani Lakhim, Colorado State University, received the award in the Ph.D. oral presentation category for developing a stochastic risk-assessment methodology, based on numerical modeling of contaminant fate and transport in a heterogeneous aquifer, to better estimate the potential magnitude of exposure of an individual. His study analyzed the effects of the uncertainty of different groundwater parameters on the uncertainty of contaminant concentration in the aquifer. The Ph.D. poster category award went to Tarek A. Saba from the University of Colorado, Boulder, for his studies of the effect of groundwater flow dimensionality on mass transfer from entrapped nonaqueous phase liquid contaminants.

Morel-Seytoux, Hubert

68

Akhenaten and the strange physiques of Egypt's 18th dynasty.  

PubMed

Akhenaten was one of Egypt's most controversial pharaohs, in part because of his strange appearance in images produced after he had declared Aten, the Sun-disc, his one-and-only god. Whether these were symbolic representations or realistic ones that indicate a deforming genetic disorder is the subject of continuing debate. The authors present evidence that the bizarre physical features portrayed in these images are not only realistic but were shared by many members of Egypt's 18th Dynasty. The features are best explained by either 2 different familial disorders-the aromatase excess syndrome and the sagittal craniosynostosis syndrome-or a variant of the Antley-Bixler syndrome caused by a novel mutation in one of the genes controlling the P450 enzymes, which regulate steroidogenesis and cranial bone formation. PMID:19380856

Braverman, Irwin M; Redford, Donald B; Mackowiak, Philip A

2009-04-21

69

JANNAF 18th Propulsion Systems Hazards Subcommittee Meeting. Volume 1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This volume, the first of two volumes is a compilation of 18 unclassified/unlimited-distribution technical papers presented at the Joint Army-Navy-NASA-Air Force (JANNAF) 18th Propulsion Systems Hazards Subcommittee (PSHS) meeting held jointly with the 36th Combustion Subcommittee (CS) and 24th Airbreathing Propulsion Subcommittee (APS) meetings. The meeting was held 18-21 October 1999 at NASA Kennedy Space Center and The DoubleTree Oceanfront Hotel, Cocoa Beach, Florida. Topics covered at the PSHS meeting include: shaped charge jet and kinetic energy penetrator impact vulnerability of gun propellants; thermal decomposition and cookoff behavior of energetic materials; violent reaction; detonation phenomena of solid energetic materials subjected to shock and impact stimuli; and hazard classification, insensitive munitions, and propulsion systems safety.

Cocchiaro, James E. (Editor); Gannaway, Mary T. (Editor)

1999-01-01

70

The AD 365 Crete earthquake and possible seismic clustering during the fourth to sixth centuries AD in the Eastern Mediterranean: a review of historical and archaeological data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Historical and archaeological data are used to test geological claims that, in the fourth to sixth centuries AD, the Eastern Mediterranean experienced an unusual clustering of destructive earthquakes (the ‘Early Byzantine Tectonic Paroxsym’). A review of historical accounts of a notable earthquake at this time, that of 21 July AD 365, indicates that this event destroyed nearly all the towns

Stathis C Stiros

2001-01-01

71

Synthesis of the 18th ArgoSpine Symposium.  

PubMed

The subject of this 18th Symposium of ArgoSpine Association was the space of the intervertebral discs. Space of the intervertebral discs must be initially defined anatomically and histologically. A geometrical rebuilding in 3D is possible and must allow a modeling of the intervertebral discs. The physiology of the disc, its nutrition, must be known, in particular that of the center of the disc. The disc constitutes the base of the balance of the rachis, balances which can be only dynamic. The degenerative cascade by the loss of the proteoglycans involves the loss of the biomechanical properties of the disc. The consequences of this degenerative cascade are the base of all the vertebral pathology of origin of the intervertebral discs and even of the posterior articular facets. The origin of the pains and the diagnosis, especially at the lumbar level, are studied by the speakers. Traumatology of the intervertebral discs is the object of a particular chapter. Finally, the average therapeutic ones, that is, decompression of the intervertebral discs, fusion of the intervertebral discs, the recovery of mobility of the intervertebral discs, and the capacity of restoration of space of the intervertebral discs, are studied in detail. The infection of the disc is studied in detail. PMID:24816825

Kehr, P; Graftiaux, A; Mazel, C; Richard, N

2014-07-01

72

PREFACE: 18th Microscopy of Semiconducting Materials Conference (MSM XVIII)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

YRM logo This volume contains invited and contributed papers from the 18th international conference on 'Microscopy of Semiconducting Materials' held at St Catherine's College, University of Oxford, on 7-11 April 2013. The meeting was organised under the auspices of the Royal Microscopical Society and supported by the Institute of Physics as well as the Materials Research Society of the USA. This conference series deals with recent advances in semiconductor studies carried out by all forms of microscopy, with an emphasis on electron microscopy and scanning probe microscopy with high spatial resolution. This time the meeting was attended by 109 delegates from 17 countries world-wide. We were welcomed by Professor Sir Peter Hirsch, who noted that this was the first of these conferences where Professor Tony Cullis was unable to attend, owing to ill-health. During the meeting a card containing greetings from many of Tony's friends and colleagues was signed, and duly sent to Tony afterwards. As semiconductor devices shrink further new routes for device processing and characterisation need to be developed, and, for the latter, methods that offer sub-nanometre spatial resolution are particularly valuable. The various forms of imaging, diffraction and spectroscopy available in modern microscopes are powerful tools for studying the microstructure, electronic structure, chemistry and also electric fields in semiconducting materials. Recent advances in instrumentation, from lens aberration correction in both TEM and STEM instruments, to the development of a wide range of scanning probe techniques, as well as new methods of signal quantification have been presented at this conference. Two topics that have at this meeting again highlighted the interesting contributions of aberration corrected transmission electron microscopy were: contrast quantification of annular dark-field STEM images in terms of chemical composition (Z-contrast), sample thickness and strain, and the study of dislocation core structures at atomic resolution. Conference photograph Figure 1. Conference photo taken by JLH inside St Catherine's College Each of the 49 manuscripts submitted for publication in this proceedings volume has been independently reviewed, most by two reviewers, and revised where necessary before being accepted for publication. The Editors are grateful to the following colleagues for their rapid and careful reviewing of manuscripts: R Beanland, C B Boothroyd, P D Brown, D Cherns, A J Craven, K Durose, C J Humphreys, U Kaiser, L Lari, G A Moebus, A G Norman, P Pecz, I M Ross, D J Smith and K Tillmann. Poster prizes were awarded to the following students: joint first prizes to Robert Schewski, Leibniz-Institut für Kristallzüchtung, Berlin and Xiaowei Wu, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy; and joint second prizes to Tyche Perkisas, University of Antwerp and Adi Pantzer, Ben Gurion University of the Negev. These presentations indicated both a broad range of microscopy techniques and materials issues covered as well as the excellent standard of microscopy now being achieved by younger scientists. They also reflected the internationality of the attending scientists. On the evening of 9 April 2013, the RMS Annual Materials Lecture was delivered by Professor Sir Colin J Humphreys from the University of Cambridge. Colin's highly entertaining talk on 'How microscopy and semiconductors can help to solve some major world problems' spanned a very broad range, from detailed atomistic investigation of lattice defects in gallium nitride layers by transmission electron microscopy, to the production of new light emitting diodes and its impact on reducing both our electricity bills and the effect of global warming. Entertainment during the conference dinner was provided by the Ariella String Trio, and during the meal we held a friendly competition in which teams had to recognise invited speakers and organisers from photos of them as babies or young children. The organisers are very grateful to the following companies who contributed to the success of the me

Walther, T.; Hutchison, John L.

2013-11-01

73

Preface: 18th Aps-Sccm and 24th Airapt  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 18th Biennial International Conference of the APS Topical Group on Shock Compression of Condensed Matter in conjunction with the 24th Biennial International Conference of the International Association for the Advancement of High Pressure Science & Technology (AIRAPT) was held at the Westin Hotel in Seattle, Washington from 7–12 July, 2013. This is only the second time that these two organizations have held a Joint Conference — the first was 20 years previous (1993) in Colorado Springs, Colorado. Seattle was chosen for this joint conference because of its central location for the world-wide attendees as well as its metropolitan vibrancy. The scientific program consisted of 858 scheduled presentations organized into 23 topical areas and included contributed (537), invited (95), and plenary (6) lectures, as well as two poster sessions with 110 posters each. The scientific focus of the Joint Conference was on fundamental and applied research topics related to the static or dynamic compression of condensed matter. This multidisciplinary field of research encompasses areas of physics, chemistry, materials science, mechanics, geophysics and planetary physics, and applied mathematics. Experimental, computational and theoretical studies all play important roles. The organizers endeavored to intertwine static and dynamic experimental alongside computational and theoretical studies of similar materials in the organization of the sessions. This goal was aided by the addition of three special focus sessions on deep carbon budget, high energy density materials, and dynamic response of materials. 722 scientists and engineers from 25 countries registered at the conference, including 132 students from 12 countries. The attendee countries represented included: Argentina (2), Australia (2), Brazil (3), Canada (25), China (22), Czech Republic (2), France (35), Germany (19), India (6), Israel (21), Italy (10), Japan (49), Netherlands (1), Poland (1), Portugal (2), Russia (26), Singapore (1), Slovakia (1), South Korea (5), Spain (7), Sweden (4), Switzerland (1), United Kingdom (69), United States of America (402). 79 of the students were supported by travel awards, funded in part by the APS Topical Group, the AIRAPT, and other sources. New for this conference was an expanded Student Program, including an all-day Student, Post-Doc, and Early Career Symposium held on Sunday 7 July . During the Conference, Gennady Kanel of the Institute for High Temperatures, Russian Academy of Sciences, was presented the 2013 George E Duval Shock Compression Science Award, and gave a plenary lecture ''Unusual behavior of usual materials in shock waves.'' Similarly, Karl Syassen of the Max Planck Institute Stuttgart received the 2013 Percy Bridgman Award at the conference, and presented a plenary lecture ''Stressed solids probed by diffraction and spectroscopy.'' In addition, there were two young investigator awards presented. First was the AIRAPT Jamieson Award, presented to Duck Young Kim of the Geophysical Laboratory, Carnegie Institution of Washington, DC. The other was a new APS SCCM Topical Group Student Award, presented to Rick Kraus of Harvard University. The two awardees shared a plenary talk slot on 8 July, with Duck Young Kim presenting ''Novel materials prediction and experimental synthesis under pressure'' and Rick Kraus ''Thermodynamic paths in planetary collisions: Shock vaporization of SiO2, MgO, and Fe.'' Details of the committees are available in the PDF

Collins, Gilbert; Moore, David S.; Yoo, Choong-Shik; Buttler, William; Furlanetto, Michael; Evans, William

2014-05-01

74

EDITORIAL: 18th European Conference on Dynamics of Molecular Systems 18th European Conference on Dynamics of Molecular Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This special section of Comments on Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics (CAMOP) in Physica Scripta collects some of the papers that have been presented at the 18th European Conference on Dynamics of Molecular Systems MOLEC 2010 held in September 2010 in Curia, Portugal, as part of a series of biennial MOLEC conferences. This started in 1976 in Trento, Italy, and has continued, visiting 17 cities in 11 countries, namely Denmark, The Netherlands, Israel, France, Italy, Germany, Czech Republic, Spain, United Kingdom, Turkey and Russia. Following the MOLEC tradition, the scientific programme of the Curia meeting focused on experimental and theoretical studies of molecular interactions, collision dynamics, spectroscopy, and related fields. It included invited speakers from 22 countries, who were asked to summarize the problems reported in their presentations with the objective of revealing the current thinking of leading researchers in atomic, molecular and optical physics. It is hoped that their authoritative contributions presented in this CAMOP special section will also appeal to non-specialists through their clear and broad introductions to the field as well as references to the accessible literature. This CAMOP special section comprises ten contributions, which cover theoretical studies on the electronic structure of molecules and clusters as well as dynamics of elastic, inelastic and reactive encounters between atoms, molecules, ions, clusters and surfaces. Specifically, it includes electronic structure calculations using the traditional coupled-cluster method (Barreto et al 028111), the electron-attached equation-of-motion coupled cluster method (Hansen et al 028110), the diffusion Monte Carlo method (López-Durán et al 028107) and the path-integral Monte Carlo method (Barragán et al 028109). The contributions on molecular dynamics include on-the-fly quasi-classical trajectories on a five-atom molecule (Yu 028104), quantum reaction dynamics on triatomics (Bovino et al 028103, and Hankel et al 028102) and statistical reaction dynamics using a model based on the long-range interaction potential (McCarroll 028106). A contribution on gas-surface interactions is also included (Sahoo et al 028105) as well as first-principles ab initio calculations to explore the hydrogen-graphene interaction (Irving et al 028108). These articles reflect the recent progress made in this field and constructively build on work described in the previous three MOLEC special sections of CAMOP published in Physica Scripta. I thank, on behalf of the scientific organizing committee of MOLEC, all the authors who contributed and Physica Scripta for providing a platform for the publication of this special section dedicated to MOLEC 2010. A special thanks goes to the CAMOP Editor, Harold Linarz, for the excellent guidance in handling the editorial work. I hope that the articles catalyze the attention of the readers towards the topics covered and contribute in attracting them to attend MOLEC 2012 in Oxford, UK.

Varandas, A. J. C.

2011-08-01

75

Atmospheric CO2 during the 13th century AD: reconciliation of data from ice core measurements and stomatal frequency analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Atmospheric CO2 reconstructions are currently available from direct measurements of air enclosures in Antarctic ice and, alternatively, from stomatal frequency analysis performed on fossil leaves. A period where both methods consistently provide evidence for natural CO2 changes is during the 13th century ad. The results of the two independent methods differ significantly in the amplitude of the estimated CO2 changes

Thomas B. van Hoof; Karsten A. Kaspers; Friederike Wagner; Wolfram M. Kürschner; Henk Visscher

2005-01-01

76

A magnificent circumcision carnival in the early 18th century Ottoman period.  

PubMed

Circumcision has always been regarded as both an important social event and a milestone of a young man's life in Turkish culture, especially in the Ottoman period. Herein we study an exceptional circumcision festivity which lasted 15 days in the early autumn of the year 1720, for the 4 princes of Sultan III Ahmed, some sons of two high-ranking Ottoman officials and thousands of male children of poor citizens of Istanbul as representing the beneficent of the Sultan. All the organizations of the Empire participated in this huge event, including many shows and a feast, and the preparations were initiated months before. Traditionally, this kind of important social event of Ottoman culture had been described in a literary manner, and Surname-i Vehbi was the special name for the book of this circumcision festivity with 137 colored paintings and a total of 175 pages. The original of this work, which is in the library of Topkapi Palace Museum in Istanbul, was written by Vehbi and illustrated by Levni. The importance of this antique book is that it is the last important example of the illustrated festivity books of Ottoman literature. PMID:16327294

Verit, Ayhan; Cengiz, Mustafa; Yeni, Ercan; Unal, Dogan

2005-01-01

77

Gestural Enthymemes: Delivering Movement in 18th- and 19th-Century Medical Images  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article contributes to recent efforts to add life and movement to rhetorical studies by focusing on the representation of movement in medical texts. More specifically, this study examines medical texts, illustrations, and photographs involving movement by Johann Casper Lavater, G. B. Duchenne de Bologne, Charles Darwin, and Etienne-Jules…

Newman, Sara

2009-01-01

78

Healing with animals in the Levant from the 10th to the 18th century  

Microsoft Academic Search

Animals and products derived from different organs of their bodies have constituted part of the inventory of medicinal substances used in various cultures since ancient times. The article reviews the history of healing with animals in the Levant (The Land of Israel and parts of present-day Syria, Lebanon, and Jordan, defined by the Muslims in the Middle Ages as Bilad

Efraim Lev

2006-01-01

79

Atmospheric circulation and surface temperature in Europe from the 18th century to 1995  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The relationship between surface atmospheric circulation and temperature in Europe from the 1770s to 1995 is examined using correlation analysis. The atmospheric circulation is represented by six indices: the three leading principal components (PCs) of an empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis of 20 European pressure series from 1822 to 1995, which represent the central tendency of European pressure (EOF 1), a zonal circulation pattern (EOF 2) and a meridional pattern (EOF 3), a North Atlantic zonal index constructed from Gibraltar and Reykjavik pressure series for 1821-1995; a Western European zonal index constructed from Madrid, Barcelona, Lund and Trondheim for 1786-1995; and an index constructed from Paris and London, 1774-1995. Eight long temperature series from northwestern and central Europe were correlated with these circulation indices. European temperatures in general had the highest correlations with the zonal circulation indices in winter, with almost 70% of the variability in the temperature records explained by variations in the zonal index. The correlation coefficients between PC 3 (representing meridional circulation) and temperatures were highest in spring and autumn, particularly for Scandinavia. Running correlation series calculated over 25-year windows reveal significant non-stationarities in the relationship between surface temperature and atmospheric circulation on decadal time scales, suggesting caution must be used in extrapolating current relationships between circulation and temperature for future climate predictions based on downscaling or past palaeoclimatic reconstructions.

Slonosky, V. C.; Jones, P. D.; Davies, T. D.

2001-01-01

80

Pitch production during the 18th century in the Calabrian Sila (Italy)  

Microsoft Academic Search

From ancient times to the present day, certain coniferous trees of the forests of Calabria have provided resinous substances which, when suitably treated, have been used for a variety of purposes, from food and medicine to shipbuilding. One of the results of the growing human pressure which is leading to the progressive contraction of wooded areas, is the impoverishment of

Maurizio Gangemi

2007-01-01

81

Tumors in the 18th and 19th centuries at Brno, Czech Republic.  

PubMed

Symptoms signs of benign and malignant tumors were observed during paleopathological analysis of skeletal remains from the city of Brno in the Czech Republic. Approximately 1,200 skeletons were examined from two Modern era archaeology sites: the Malá Nová ulice (Little New Street) cemetery and the cemetery of the Nemocnice Milosrdných bratrí (Merciful Brothers' Hospital). Osteomas, usually located on the flat bones of the cranial vault, were the most frequent skeletal pathology. Symptoms signs of malignant tumors were observed in three cases. In one case lytic foci caused by the metastases of a malignant tumor in the soft tissue was observed. Traces of myeloma multiplex were found in two individuals. Living conditions in that period, and possible carcinogenic environmental influences were assessed for the general population of Brno. This report contributes to a better understanding of the historical development of cancers and the clarification of possible causes for their modern increase of incidence. PMID:24620566

Vargová, Lenka; Horácková, Ladislava; Nemecková, Alena; Krupa, Petr; Mensíková, Miroslava

2013-01-01

82

Healing with animals in the Levant from the 10th to the 18th century  

PubMed Central

Animals and products derived from different organs of their bodies have constituted part of the inventory of medicinal substances used in various cultures since ancient times. The article reviews the history of healing with animals in the Levant (The Land of Israel and parts of present-day Syria, Lebanon, and Jordan, defined by the Muslims in the Middle Ages as Bilad al-Sham) in the medieval and early Ottoman periods. Intensive research into the phenomenon of zootherapy in the medieval and early Ottoman Levant has yielded forty-eight substances of animal origin that were used medicinally. The vast majority of these substances were local and relatively easy to obtain. Most of the substances were domestic (honey, wax, silkworm, etc.), others were part of the local wildlife (adder, cuttle fish, flycatcher, firefly, frog, triton, scorpion, etc.), part of the usual medieval household (milk, egg, cheese, lamb, etc.), or parasites (louse, mouse, stinkbug, etc.). Fewer substances were not local but exotic, and therefore rare and expensive (beaver testicles, musk oil, coral, ambergris, etc.). The range of symptoms that the substances of animal origin were used to treat was extensive and included most of the known diseases and maladies of that era: mainly hemorrhoids, burns, impotence, wounds, and skin, eye, and stomach diseases. Changes in the moral outlook of modern societies caused the use of several substances of animal origin to cease in the course of history. These include mummy, silkworm, stinkbug, scarabees, snail, scorpion, and triton.

Lev, Efraim

2006-01-01

83

Frederica: An 18th-Century Planned Community. Teaching with Historic Places.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The excavated foundations of various structures in Frederica, Saint Simons Island, Georgia, remind visitors that from 1736 until 1758, this planned community served the military garrison quartered there and housed a population of 1000. This lesson is based on the Fort Frederica National Monument listed in the National Register of Historic Places.…

Robinson, Marion

84

John Hyacinth de Magellan (1722-90): 18th century physicist with views on medical matters.  

PubMed

John Hyacinth de Magellan, whose Portuguese name was Joăo Hyacintho de Magalhaens, though not a doctor nevertheless had many contacts with doctors and showed a genuine interest in disseminating medical news to his many friends and correspondents in Europe. The abundant and less formal correspondence with his friend Ribeiro Sanches forms the greater part of the work but in letters to other correspondents, including Trudaine de Montigny, Condorcet, Volta, J A Euler, Fabroni and Johann III Bernoulli, we find comments on medical subjects. The Sanches letters are particularly interesting because they are private, friend-to-friend letters that convey spontaneous and sincere thoughts and feelings. PMID:19190199

Fernandes-Thomaz, Manuel

2009-02-01

85

Communicating the New Chemistry in 18th-Century Portugal: Seabra's "Elementos de Chimica"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper, we analyse the aims, contents and impact of Seabra's two-volume textbook--"Elementos de Chimica" ("Elements of Chemistry")--published in 1788 and 1790. Seabra's "Elements of Chemistry" does not conform to the characteristics usually ascribed to textbooks by traditional historiography, and in particular to textbooks published in the…

Carneiro, Ana; Diogo, Maria Paula; Simoes, Ana

2006-01-01

86

Roman glass: Art and technology in a 4th century A.D. opus sectile in Ostia (Rome)  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the most important Roman opus sectile (inlaid of stones and other materials to make a picture or pattern) is the both figurative and geometric decorated panel ensemble dating to the end of the 4th century A.D., discovered in 1959 near Porta Marina (Ostia, Rome) and now exposed in the National Museum of Early Middle Ages in Rome.A recent

Marco Veritŕ; Maria Stella Arena; Anna Maria Carruba; Paola Santopadre

2008-01-01

87

‘Diabetes’ as described by Byzantine writers from the fourth to the ninth century ad : the Graeco-Roman influence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diabetes was first extensively described by Aretaeus of Cappadocia, and his contemporary, Galen of Pergamum, in the second\\u000a century ad. Aretaeus is said to have introduced the term diabetes, though there are some indications of previous references to the term.\\u000a When referring to the disease, Galen accepts that the term belongs to ‘other writers’. There are, in fact, many other

H. Christopoulou-Aletra; N. Papavramidou

2008-01-01

88

Hydraulics for Royal Gardens: Water Art as a Challenge for 18th Century Science and 21st Century Physics Teaching  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydraulics is an engineering specialty and largely neglected as a topic in physics teaching. But the history of hydraulics from the Renaissance to the Baroque, merits our attention because hydraulics was then more broadly conceived as a practical and theoretical science; it served as a constant bone of contention for mechanics and mathematics; its obvious practical importance from raising water in mines to the playful fountains in royal gardens illustrates the social role of science like few others do. The playful character of historic hydraulics problems makes it also an appealing topic for modern science education.

Eckert, Michael

2006-06-01

89

[Iconography of embryos and fetuses in the treaties of delivery and anatomy from 16th century till 18th century].  

PubMed

Leonardo', Eurakius' and Jacob Rueff's carved woods focus attention as they are sketches of foetuses in breech presentation. From the very beginning foetus is a little man made in the image of God in the works of Guillemeau, Mauriceau and Viardel. Later the liking for Baroque made the Putti, embryos with kindly faces created in Padua and Venice. Hunter's treatise finishes this picturesque review. PMID:19852242

Morel, Marie-France

2009-01-01

90

Fortified Settlements of the 9th and 10th Centuries ad in Central Europe: Structure, Function and Symbolism.  

PubMed

THE STRUCTURE, FUNCTION(S) and symbolism of early medieval (9th-10th centuries ad) fortified settlements from central Europe, in particular today's Austria, Hungary, Czech Republic and Slovakia, are examined in this paper. It offers an overview of the current state of research together with new insights based on analysis of the site of Gars-Thunau in Lower Austria. Special emphasis is given to the position of the fortified sites in the landscape, to the elements of the built environment and their spatial organisation, as well as to graves within the fortified area. The region under study was situated on the SE border of the Carolingian (and later the Ottonian) Empire, with some of the discussed sites lying in the territory of the 'Great Moravian Empire' in the 9th and 10th centuries. These sites can therefore provide important comparative data for researchers working in other parts of the Carolingian Empire and neighbouring regions. PMID:23564981

Herold, Hajnalka

2012-11-01

91

Fortified Settlements of the 9th and 10th Centuries ad in Central Europe: Structure, Function and Symbolism  

PubMed Central

THE STRUCTURE, FUNCTION(S) and symbolism of early medieval (9th–10th centuries ad) fortified settlements from central Europe, in particular today’s Austria, Hungary, Czech Republic and Slovakia, are examined in this paper. It offers an overview of the current state of research together with new insights based on analysis of the site of Gars-Thunau in Lower Austria. Special emphasis is given to the position of the fortified sites in the landscape, to the elements of the built environment and their spatial organisation, as well as to graves within the fortified area. The region under study was situated on the SE border of the Carolingian (and later the Ottonian) Empire, with some of the discussed sites lying in the territory of the ‘Great Moravian Empire’ in the 9th and 10th centuries. These sites can therefore provide important comparative data for researchers working in other parts of the Carolingian Empire and neighbouring regions.

Herold, Hajnalka

2012-01-01

92

Pacific Telecommunications Council Annual Conference Proceedings (18th, Honolulu, Hawaii, January 14-18, 1996).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Pacific Telecommunications Council's 18th annual conference is presented in two volumes. The PTC'96 gathering focused on seven streams: socio-economic issues; regulatory, legal and political issues; business and finance solutions; country studies; education, training, and human resources; convergence and networks; and technologies and…

Wedemeyer, Dan J. Ed.; Nickelson, Richard, Ed.

93

Preservation of Fossil Seeds From a 10th Century AD Cess Pit at Coppergate, York  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fossilization processes were investigated in terrestrial archaeological deposits, focusing on the preservation of sub-fossil seeds from a 10th century cess pit at Coppergate in York. Flash pyrolysis-gas chromatography\\/mass spectrometry (Py-GC\\/MS) revealed that the bulk of the assemblage comprises well-preserved organic remains, exemplified by blackberry (Rubus fruticosus) endocarps which retain a near-pristine ligno-cellulose composition. Crab apple (Malus sylvestris) pips are unique

Lucy M. E. Mccobb; Derek E. G. Briggs; Richard P. Evershed; Allan R. Hall; Richard A. Hall

2001-01-01

94

18th meeting of the European Neurological Society, Nice, France, 7 to 11 June 2008.  

PubMed

Over 3200 neurologists attended the 18th Meeting of the European Neurological Society to participate in the exciting and highly scientific programe. There was a 19% rejection of the submitted abstracts which covered all the aspects of neurology. One major symposium, 27 oral presentations and 107 posters on multiple sclerosis (MS) were presented. Additionally, there were three teaching courses and one workshop on MS. PMID:18812057

Milonas, I

2008-09-01

95

76 FR 25710 - Comment Request for Information Collection for Employment and Training (ET) Handbook 336, 18th...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Collection for Employment and Training (ET) Handbook 336, 18th Edition: ``Unemployment...of data about the proposed extension to ET Handbook 336, 18th Edition: ``Unemployment...the extension of and modification to the ET Handbook No. 336. States will...

2011-05-05

96

Seismic and sedimentological evidence of an early 6th century AD earthquake at Lake Ohrid (Macedonia/Albania)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lake Ohrid shared by the Republics of Albania and Macedonia is formed by a tectonically active graben within the South Balkan and suggested to be the oldest lake in Europe. Several studies have shown that the lake provides a valuable record of climatic and environmental changes and a distal tephrostratigraphic record of volcanic eruptions from Italy. Fault structures identified in seismic data demonstrate that sediments have also the potential to record tectonic activity in the region. Here, we provide an example of linking tephrostratigraphic information and environmental changes with tectonic activity and anthropogenic impact. Historical documents indicate that a major earthquake destroyed the city of Ohrid in the early 6th century AD. This earthquake is documented in multichannel seismic profiles, in parametric sediment echosounder profiles, and in a ca. 10 m long sediment record from the western part of the lake. The sediment record exhibits a ca. 2 m thick mass wasting deposit, which is chronologically well constrained by the underlying 472 AD/512 AD tephra and cross correlation with other sediment sequences with similar geochemical characteristics of the Holocene.

Wagner, B.; Francke, A.; Sulpizio, R.; Zanchetta, G.; Lindhorst, K.; Krastel, S.; Vogel, H.; Daut, G.; Grazhdani, A.; Lushaj, B.; Trajanovski, S.

2012-09-01

97

Late-twentieth-century warming in Lake Tanganyika unprecedented since AD 500  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Instrumental observations suggest that Lake Tanganyika, the largest rift lake in East Africa, has become warmer, increasingly stratified and less productive over the past 90years (refs 1,2). These trends have been attributed to anthropogenic climate change. However, it remains unclear whether the decrease in productivity is linked to the temperature rise, and whether the twentieth-century trends are anomalous within the context of longer-term variability. Here, we use the TEX86 temperature proxy, the weight per cent of biogenic silica and charcoal abundance from Lake Tanganyika sediment cores to reconstruct lake-surface temperature, productivity and regional wildfire frequency, respectively, for the past 1,500years. We detect a negative correlation between lake-surface temperature and primary productivity, and our estimates of fire frequency, and hence humidity, preclude decreased nutrient input through runoff as a cause for observed periods of low productivity. We suggest that, throughout the past 1,500years, rising lake-surface temperatures increased the stratification of the lake water column, preventing nutrient recharge from below and limiting primary productivity. Our records indicate that changes in the temperature of Lake Tanganyika in the past few decades exceed previous natural variability. We conclude that these unprecedented temperatures and a corresponding decrease in productivity can be attributed to anthropogenic global warming, with potentially important implications for the Lake Tanganyika fishery.

Tierney, Jessica E.; Mayes, Marc T.; Meyer, Natacha; Johnson, Christopher; Swarzenski, Peter W.; Cohen, Andrew S.; Russell, James M.

2010-06-01

98

Bone Lose of the Ancient Mediterranean lumbar vertebrae : Iasos, 6th century ad.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Evaluation of bone mineral density (BMD) of the ancient peoples has received great interest by anthropologists. The aims of this study are to investigate the lumbar vertebrae of the Iasos people during the Byzantine period, in order to determine the prevalence of bone loss and to interpret dietary conditions of ancient Mediterranean populations. Lumbar vertebrae belonging to twenty eight skeletons of the 6th c AD were analyzed by radiographs and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. The BMD values for each biologic sex and age group were compared. The correlation between the BMD and radiological features was also analyzed. The mean BMD was 0.940 g/cm2. BMD was decreased by aging in both sexes, but it was not significant. Osteopenia was found in 11 (39%) and osteoporosis in 4 (14.3%) out 28 vertebrae. The BMD was normal in 13 (46%) out of 28 vertebrae. Osteopenia was present in 7 (38%) of 18 male vertebrae and 4 (40%) of 10 female vertebrae. The spine score was high in the male group and there was a strong positive correlation between the BMD and spine score for both sexes. This study revealed that the BMD decreased by aging and that osteopenia was a problem in both sexes of the Iasos people during the 6th c AD. There was no correlation between the BMD and radiological features for age groups and biological sexes.

Kaya, Serdar; Solmaz, Ilker; Il?ca, A. Turan; Karaçal?o?lu, Özgür; Damla Y?lmaz, Nalan; Ba?o?lu, Ok?an; K?l?c, Selim; Izci, Yusuf

99

A 18^th century thermometer recipe: The begin of experimental physics courses in Guadalajara, M'exico?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As a part of the Special Funds Collection of the Jalisco's State Public Library ``Juan Jos'e Arreola'' is a physics course manuscript attributed to Francisco Javier Clavigero s.j. (1731-1787), teacher at the Jesuit Colegio de Santo Tom'as (a college-level institution in Guadalajara before the university opening), inside of the vellum bounded volume is a unbounded folio containing instructions on how to build a thermometer. In this work are discussed some evidences of the belonging of such folio to the manuscript in spite of their differences (it is written in Spanish not in Latin as the whole), we also describe the process to construct the thermometer and how could be the experimental part of the physics course. Also is briefly exposed the importance of the educational role of Clavigero as a builder of the concept of mexicanity.

de Alba Martinez, Durruty Jesus

2007-03-01

100

Medical electricity and madness in the 18th century: the legacies of Benjamin Franklin and Jan Ingenhousz.  

PubMed

Benjamin Franklin had at least two accidents that resulted in electricity passing through his brain. In addition, he witnessed a patient's similar accident and performed an experiment that showed how humans could endure shocks to the head without serious ill effects, other than amnesia. Jan Ingenhousz, Franklin's Dutch-born medical correspondent better known for his discovery of photosynthesis, also had a serious accident that sent electricity though his head and, in a letter to Franklin, he described how he felt unusually elated the next day. During the 1780s, Franklin and Ingenhousz encouraged leading French and English electrical "operators" to try shocking the heads of melancholic and other deranged patients in their wards. Although they did not state that they were responding to Ingenhousz's and Franklin's suggestions, Birch, Aldini, and Gale soon did precisely what Ingenhousz and Franklin had suggested. These practitioners did not appear to induce convulsions in their mentally ill patients, but they still reported notable successes. PMID:16960304

Beaudreau, Sherry Ann; Finger, Stanley

2006-01-01

101

Ballistic blocks around K?lauea Caldera: Their vent locations and number of eruptions in the late 18th century  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Thousands of ballistic blocks occur around K?lauea Caldera and record part of the latest major period of explosive activity on the volcano, in late 1790 or within a few years thereafter. The sizes of the blocks – the largest of which is more than 2 m in nominal diameter – and differences in rock types allow the definition of at least 6 dispersal lobes of mostly undetermined relative age. The orientations of the lobes help approximate the locations of vents or explosion sources on the floor of the caldera, now deeply buried by younger lava flows. The vents may have been distributed northward for about 2 km from near the site of the modern Halema'uma'u Crater and were apparently confined to the western half of the caldera. The blocks are entirely lithic except for those in one dispersal lobe, which contains cored bombs and blocks as well as juvenile lapilli. Eruption parameters calculated from EJECT! suggest that the phreatic and phreatomagmatic explosions could have been generated at the water table, about 600 m below the high point on the caldera rim.

Swanson, Donald A.; Zolkos, Scott P.; Haravitch, Ben

2012-01-01

102

Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry characterization of the varnish and glue of an ancient 18th century double bass  

Microsoft Academic Search

A GC–MS investigation is conducted on the double bass “Panormus”, property of Conservatorio di Musica “Vincenzo Bellini” in Palermo. The most important components of the varnish (fatty acids) and of the glue (proteinaceous amino acids), with which the musical instrument was treated in the past, are determined. The analyses are carried out by prior derivatization of fatty acids by acidic

Francesco Caruso; Santino Orecchio; Maria Grazia Cicero; Cosimo Di Stefano

2007-01-01

103

DNA extraction: an anthropologic aspect of bone remains from sixth- to seventh-century ad bone remains.  

PubMed

In the archeological site of the early Christian Episcopal complex of Saint Peter, in Canosa di Puglia (Bari, Italy), during the operations of archaeological excavations, tombs were discovered. They were dated between the sixth and seventh centuries ad with carbon 14 methodology. Five skeletons were found in the 5 tombs: 28A: male individual, 43 years old. The height was 170 cm; the biomass was 65.7 kg. The analysis of the bones indicated several noteworthy pathologies, such as a number of hypoplasia lines of the enamel, the presence of Schmorl hernias on the first 2 lumbar vertebrae, and the outcome of subacromial impingement syndrome. 28E was a male individual, with a biologic age of death of between 44 and 60 years. The height was 177 cm. He had a posttraumatic fracture callus of the medial third of the clavicle, with an oblique fracture rima. 29B was a female individual, 44-49 years old. The height was 158.8 cm; the biomass was 64.8 kg. There was Wells bursitis on the ischial tuberosity on both sides. 29E was a male individual, 45-50 years old. The height was 169.47 cm; the biomass was 70.8 kg. The third and the fourth vertebrae showed Baastrup syndrome (compression of the vertebral spine). There were radiologic signs of deformity on the higher edge of the acetabula and results of frequent sprains of the ankles. 31A was a male individual, 47-54 years old. The height was 178.65 cm; the biomass was 81 kg. The vertebral index showed a heavy overloading in the thoracic lumbar region. There were bony formations under the periosteum on both on the higher and medium facets of the first metatarsus and on the higher and lateral facets of the fifth metatarsus on both sides. As the topography indicates, these small ossifications coincided with the contact points between the back of the foot and parts of the upper shoe. From the osseous remains, in particular from the teeth (central incisors), the DNA was extracted and typed to identify potential family ties among all the subjects. The extraction technique used came from the DNA Promega technique, partially modified by the authors. Stay times of the sample in the extraction buffer were increased and were increased the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) cycles. PMID:18043022

Di Nunno, Nunzio; Saponetti, Sandro Sublimi; Scattarella, Vito; Emanuel, Patrizia; Baldassarra, Stefania Lonero; Volpe, Giuliano; Di Nunno, Cosimo

2007-12-01

104

Parameterization of 18th January 2011 earthquake in Dalbadin Region, Southwest Pakistan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An earthquake of magnitude 7.3 Mw occurred on 18th January 2011 in Southwestern Pakistan, Baluchistan province (Dalbadin Region). The area has complex tectonics due to interaction of Indian, Eurasian and Arabian plates. Both thrust and strike slip earthquakes are dominant in this region with minor, localized normal faulting events. This earthquake under consideration (Dalbadin Earthquake) posed constraints in depth and focal parameters due to lack of data for evaluation of parameters from Pakistan, Iran or Afghanistan region. Normal faulting mechanism has been proposed by many researchers for this earthquake. In the present study the earthquake was relocated using the technique of travel time residuals. Relocated coordinates and depth were utilized to calculate the focal mechanism solution with outcome of a dominant strike slip mechanism, which is contrary to normal faulting. Relocated coordinates and resulting mechanism are more reliable than many reporting agencies as evaluation in this study is augmented by data from local seismic monitoring network of Pakistan. The tectonics in the area is governed by active subduction along the Makran Subduction Zone. This particular earthquake has strike slip mechanism due to breaking of subducting oceanic plate. This earthquake is located where oceanic lithosphere is subducting along with relative movements between Lut and Helmand blocks. Magnitude of this event i.e. Mw = 7.3, re evaluated depth and a previous study of mechanism of earthquake in same region (Shafiq et al., 2011) also supports the strike slip movement.

Shafiq-Ur-Rehman; Azeem, Tahir; Abd el-aal, Abd el-aziz Khairy; Nasir, Asma

2013-12-01

105

Solar PV energy conversion and the 21st century’s civilization  

Microsoft Academic Search

A review is given on some important roles of the solar PV technology to contribute to the sustainable developments of the 21st century civilization. Firstly, motivations of the industrial developments by energy revolutions since James Watt on steam engine in the 18th century are discussed. The transitions of natural resources from solid (coal) and liquid (oil) to gas (Liquified Natural

Yoshihiro Hamakawa

2002-01-01

106

Treatment of the mentally ill in the Chola Empire in 11th -12th centuries AD: A study of epigraphs  

PubMed Central

The paper deals with the epigraphs of the Chola emperors Veera Rajendra Deva (1063-1069 AD) and Raja Raja III (1216-1256 AD), found at the temples of Thirumukkudal and Vedaranyam, with emphasis on the treatment given to the residents of the attached hospitals with special reference to treatment of mental disorders.

Raghavan, D. Vijaya; Tejus Murthy, A. G.; Somasundaram, O.

2014-01-01

107

British and Continental Rhetorical and Elocution: The Eighteenth-Century Collection.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Catalogues all of the 18th-century works on rhetoric from a microfilm bibliography published by the Speech Association of America Committee on Microfilm. Includes notations concerning each item's location on the microfilm reels. (TB)

Irvine, James R.

1995-01-01

108

Tomotley: An Eighteenth Century Cherokee Village.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The 1976 excavations at the site of the 18th century Overhill Cherokee town of Tomotley suggests an occupation span from Early Archaic through the Historic periods with the principal occupation being Cherokee. The recovery of over 25,000 artifacts and abu...

W. W. Baden

1983-01-01

109

Proposed re-dating of the European ice core chronology by seven years prior to the 7th century AD  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Progress in the study of past climate change requires integration of historical documentation, tree-ring data and ice-core chemistry. Larsen et al. (2008) re-evaluate volcanic acid signals in the Dye-3, GRIP and NGRIP ice cores and identify large eruptions at 529 +/- 2 and 533-534 +/- 2; the latter claimed to cause the `dry fog' of 536-537 and environmental consequences to 550; this conflicts with previous suggestions of a two stage environmental event; one in 536, the second c.540. Understanding the full range of natural hazards requires critical evaluation of the happenings in the mid-6th century. This paper will show that 4 spaced tree-ring responses to extreme environmental conditions in the 6th century can be used to re-locate 4 key ice-acid dates. Moving the ice-core chronology forward 7 years places two large volcanoes in 536 and 541 explaining the extended duration of the 536-550 effects and anchoring the ice chronology.

Baillie, M. G. L.

2008-08-01

110

Integrating Women into U.S. History: A Sourcebook. Part I: Women in the 18th and 19th Centuries. Part II: Women in the 20th Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This sourcebook, in two parts, aims at supplementing the limited material dealing with women's history normally found in junior and senior high school U.S. history textbooks. The lessons were developed by teachers at an intensive summer institute dealing with women's issues. The teachers and their colleagues field-tested the lessons and revised…

Campbell, D'Ann; And Others

111

Cancer and its Treatment in Main Ancient Books of Islamic Iranian Traditional Medicine (7th to 14th Century AD)  

PubMed Central

Abstract Islamic medicine is regarded as a comprehensive medical school with a long, glorious and worldwide reputation. Some of the physicians of this school are famous worldwide and have contributed valuable services to the scientific world. Given the dramatically increasing prevalence of cancer and the relative inefficacy of current medications, there is a great demand for the introduction of effective therapeutic approaches. To this end, integration of traditional medicine with modern medical treatments represents a promising option. In this essay, methods of diagnosis and treatment of cancer have been mentioned from the viewpoint of five famous physicians before the Mongolian attack who used Islamic medicine, namely Rhazes, Akhaveyni, Ahwazi, Avicenna and Jorjani. The ideas discussed dates back to a period between the eighth and fourteenth centuries.

Emami, Seyed Ahmad; Sahebkar, Amirhossein; Tayarani-Najaran, Nilufar; Tayarani-Najaran, Zahra

2012-01-01

112

Evaluation of elemental status of ancient human bone samples from Northeastern Hungary dated to the 10th century AD by XRF  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present study is a multielemental analysis of bone samples belonging to skeletal individuals originating from two contemporaneous (10th century AD) cemeteries (Tiszavasvári Nagy-Gyepáros and Nagycserkesz-Nádasibokor sites) in Northeastern Hungary, using the XRF analytical technique. Emitted X-rays were detected in order to determine the elemental composition of bones and to appreciate the possible influence of the burial environment on the elemental content of the human skeletal remains. Lumbar vertebral bodies were used for analysis. Applying the ED(P)XRF technique concentration of the following elements were determined: P, Ca, K, Na, Mg, Al, Cl, Mn, Fe, Zn, Br and Sr. The results indicated post mortem mineral exchange between the burial environment (soil) and bones (e.g. the enhanced levels of Fe and Mn) and referred to diagenetic alteration processes during burials. However, other elements such as Zn, Sr and Br seemed to be accumulated during the past life. On the basis of statistical analysis, clear separation could not be observed between the two excavation sites in their bone elemental concentrations which denoted similar diagenetic influences, environmental conditions. The enhanced levels of Sr might be connected with the past dietary habits, especially consumption of plant food.

János, I.; Szathmáry, L.; Nádas, E.; Béni, A.; Dinya, Z.; Máthé, E.

2011-11-01

113

Stable isotopic evidence for diet at the Imperial Roman coastal site of Velia (1st and 2nd centuries AD) in Southern Italy.  

PubMed

Here we report on a stable isotope palaeodietary study of a Imperial Roman population interred near the port of Velia in Southern Italy during the 1st and 2nd centuries AD. Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope analyses were performed on collagen extracted from 117 adult humans as well as a range of fauna to reconstruct individual dietary histories. For the majority of individuals, we found that stable isotope data were consistent with a diet high in cereals, with relatively modest contributions of meat and only minor contributions of marine fish. However, substantial isotopic variation was found within the population, indicating that diets were not uniform. We suggest that a number of individuals, mainly but not exclusively males, had greater access to marine resources, especially high trophic level fish. However, the observed dietary variation did not correlate with burial type, number of grave goods, nor age at death. Also, individuals buried at the necropolis at Velia ate much less fish overall compared with the contemporaneous population from the necropolis of Portus at Isola Sacra, located on the coast close to Rome. Marine and riverine transport and commerce dominated the economy of Portus, and its people were in a position to supplement their own stocks of fish with imported goods in transit to Rome, whereas at Velia marine exploitation existed side-by-side with land-based economic activities. PMID:19280672

Craig, Oliver E; Biazzo, Marco; O'Connell, Tamsin C; Garnsey, Peter; Martinez-Labarga, Cristina; Lelli, Roberta; Salvadei, Loretana; Tartaglia, Gianna; Nava, Alessia; Renň, Lorena; Fiammenghi, Antonella; Rickards, Olga; Bondioli, Luca

2009-08-01

114

Satirizing Women's Speech in Eighteenth-Century England.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the 18th-century rhetorical convention of misogynist satire and how it shaped attitudes toward women speakers. Focuses not so much on the formal properties of the satire but on its convention and content as modes of insinuation. Surveys prominent journals, newspapers, magazines, and reviews of the period. (TB)

Browne, Stephen H.

1992-01-01

115

Political Life in Eighteenth-Century Virginia. Essays from Colonial Williamsburg. The Foundations of America.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book explores the history of the Virginia colony from the early 18th century to the time of the signing of the Declaration of Independence. Virginia, the oldest and most prosperous of Great Britain's North American colonies, assumed a leading role in the political life of the colonies. Some in 17th century Virginia had seen political…

Greene, Jack P.

116

Strangers, the Russian Side: The Aleuts of the Eighteenth Century, Social Studies Unit, Book Ib.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This story is to be used as part of the social studies unit, The Aleuts of the Eighteenth Century, to show the Russian perspective on their first interaction with the Aleuts. A Russian trapper tells of his experiences on one of the first Russian ships to explore the Aleutian Islands in the 18th century. Written as a diary, the story describes…

Partnow, Patricia H.

117

Strangers, the Aleut Side: The Aleuts of the Eighteenth Century, Social Studies Unit, Book Ia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this story, a young Aleutian man relates his impressions about the arrival of the first Russian explorers on the Aleutian Islands in the 18th century. The story is to be used as part of the social studies unit, The Aleuts of the Eighteenth Century, to show the Aleutian perspective on the event. The narrator tells of the arrival of a strange…

Partnow, Patricia H.

118

Source Parameters of the 18th September 2011 Nepal-Sikkim Earthquake of Mw 6.9 and its aftershocks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We compute earthquake source parameters of the 18th September 2011 Nepal-Sikkim earthquake and the subsequent four Sikkim earthquakes (Mw > 3.5) using waveform data from broadband seismic stations in Sikkim and its neighborhood. The relocated hypocenters of these earthquakes and the computed fault radius of the Nepal-Sikkim (~12 km) and Sikkim earthquakes (<1 km) reveal that they are spatially distinct and must have occurred on different fault(s). Considering the USGS focal mechanism and the relocated epicenter, we identify the Nepal-Sikkim earthquake to have occurred on the NE-SW striking transverse KanchenDzonga fault with left-lateral strike slip motion. A study of aftershock frequency of the Nepal-Sikkim earthquake show that the readjustment of stress through aftershock occurrences has a normal decay following Omori's Law. The hypocentral depths of the four Sikkim earthquakes lie within mid-to-lower crust, revealing that the lower crust beneath Sikkim Himalaya is seismically active.

Mitra, S.; Paul, H.; Bhattacharya, S. N.

2012-12-01

119

Short- and long-term consequences of early parental loss in the historical population of the Krummhörn (18th and 19th century).  

PubMed

The impact of the early loss of one's father or one's mother on the survival and age at death of children was investigated on the basis of a historical reconstitution of families from the Krummhörn (East Frisia/Ostfriesland; Germany) with the aid of Kaplan-Meier plots and the Cox regression. In our analyses, we took into account the changed situation of the family after the death of a parent by incorporating the surviving spouse's remarriage or relationships with stepparents. We find that the impact on survival of the children was sex-specific and also depended on whether and at what point in time during childhood their father or mother had died. As expected, children's immediate survival was strongly affected by maternal loss. A few results can be construed as survival diminishing long-term consequences of the early loss of a parent. Daughters who lost their fathers before their first birthday proved to have increased mortality over a longer period of their youth. The age at death of daughters was also lowered if they had to live with a step-mother during early childhood. To interpret these results, three hypotheses, including an (intrinsic) trade-off, compensation and a selection scenario, were tested. Other approaches, which are based, for example, on the extrinsic trade-off between mating effort and parental investment of the surviving parent, also appear to be suitable as an explanation for the long-term consequences, which eventually draws the conclusion that the compensation scenario is the most likely explanation for the consequences of early parental loss. PMID:19309684

Willführ, Kai P

2009-01-01

120

Wood Densitometry in 17th and 18th Century Dutch, German, Austrian and French Violins, Compared to Classical Cremonese and Modern Violins  

PubMed Central

Classical violins produced by makers such as Antonio Stradivari and Guarneri del Gesu have long been considered the epitome of the luthier's art and the expressive tool of choice for the most celebrated violinists. It has been speculated these makers had access to wood that was unique in some way and that this was responsible for their acclaimed tonal characteristics. In an attempt to discern whether the above conjecture is true, we analyzed 17 modern and classical Dutch, German, Austrian and French violins by wood densitometry using computed tomography and correlated these results with our previous study of modern and Cremonese violins; in all studying 30 instruments of the violin family. In order to make this comparison possible we developed methods to cross calibrate results from different CT manufacturers using calibration wood pieces. We found no significant differences in median densities between modern and classical violins, or between classical violins from different origins. These results suggest that it is unlikely classical Cremonese makers had access to wood with significantly different wood density characteristics than that available to contemporaneous or modern makers.

Stoel, Berend C.; Borman, Terry M.; de Jongh, Ronald

2012-01-01

121

[The relationship between physician and patient in the early 18th century based on research into Johann Storch's case studies on mole pregnancies].  

PubMed

This paper describes the physician-patient relationship in early modern Thuringia. Its main historical source are a hundred patient records concerning 'mole pregnancies'. The physician Johann Storch (1681-1751) published these records in 1749. Firstly, the quantitative exploration shows that among his patients were not only wealthy people but also wives of craftsmen and day labourers. The paper explores the conceptual history of mole pregnancies since Hippocrates' times. It also describes the social role of healers and patients and addresses the issue of god's role. Although theoretical works of the time emphasize the important role of god, he does not feature strongly in the patient records investigated. The body image of Storch's patients is also thematised in the paper. Storch and his patients had the same perception of body and illness. Unlike today, physicians and patients shared similar notions about illness and healing. PMID:20506727

Blanarsch, Matthias

2009-01-01

122

Fragmentation of the Québec population genetic pool (Canada): evidence from the genetic contribution of founders per region in the 17th and 18th centuries.  

PubMed

The 6 million French-Canadians of Québec derive from a relatively small number of founders. Consequently, some hereditary diseases, which may or may not present a worldwide distribution, have been detected in high frequency in this population. Several studies, however, indicate a nonuniform distribution of these diseases through the population, suggesting that the French-Canadian founder effect has been geographically stratified. Here we explore this stratification by using a demographic database, the Population Register of Early Québec, that contains almost all birth, marriage, and death certificates (>712,000) recorded in parish registers between 1608-1800. In this database, every genealogical link has been traced back to the founders of the population, so that we can compute the genetic contribution of founder per region, and then account for the early events that have shaped the distribution of diseases. Ten regions, comprising varying numbers of parishes, have been selected. We first describe each region in terms of homogeneity and concentration of its gene pool. For this purpose, a new concept is introduced, the founders' uniform contribution number (FUN), i.e., the number of founders a population would have if all its founders had an equal contribution. Second, we estimate genetic similarity between regions on the basis of differential genetic contribution. To classify the regions, we use principal component and cluster analysis. Our results show a tripartite clustering of the population, and invite us to reconsider the results obtained from biomolecular and clinical studies, which show a bipartite clustering. PMID:11150050

Gagnon, A; Heyer, E

2001-01-01

123

[Medicinal preparations in this country at the end of the 18th century part II--semisolid and solid dosage forms].  

PubMed

This paper links up with Part I and deals with the other medicinal preparations, which were originally included in the Austrian book of prescriptions Dispensatorium pharmaceuticum Viennense and then taken over to the Austrian provincial pharmacopoeia Pharmacopoea austriaco-provincialis, repeatedly published between 1774 and 1794. This part discusses semisolid dosage forms, e.g. Electuaria, Mella, Pulpae, Unguenta, and solid dosage forms, e.g. Emplastra, Extracta, Morsulae, Pilulae, Pulveres, Rotulae, Tabulae, Trochisci. The final part of the paper also lists chemical substances (Chymica et consimilia) prepared in pharmacies and presents general evaluation of the provincial Pharmacopoeia. PMID:22312853

Drábek, Pavel

2011-12-01

124

A reconstruction of Madras (Chennai) mean sea-level pressure using instrumental records from the late 18th and early 19th centuries  

Microsoft Academic Search

In and around the Indian Ocean basin, historical records documenting observations of climatic variables such as rainfall, surface-air and sea-surface temperature, and atmospheric pressure can be found in various publications by the European colonial powers of the time. However, it is only the most accessible of these records from the mid-to-late 1800s that have been transferred into electronic form and

Rob J. Allan; Chris J. C. Reason; Penny Carroll; Phil D. Jones

2002-01-01

125

A reconstruction of Madras (Chennai) mean sea-level pressure using instrumental records from the late 18th and early 19th centuries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In and around the Indian Ocean basin, historical records documenting observations of climatic variables such as rainfall, surface-air and sea-surface temperature, and atmospheric pressure can be found in various publications by the European colonial powers of the time. However, it is only the most accessible of these records from the mid-to-late 1800s that have been transferred into electronic form and used in any contemporary climatic studies. A longer-term set of observations from the observatory at Madras (now Chennai), set up by the English East India Company, was found to have the potential to provide useful climatic data back to 1796.In this study, atmospheric pressure data recorded at the Madras Observatory, and at other climate stations in or near Madras, and in India, were recovered and examined for their quality and veracity. From the old observatory publications, pre-1841 records (that is prior to those documented in standard data compilations) were quality controlled, and the full record from 1796 was then reduced to mean sea level, standard gravity and 24 h means to produce a 205 year set of monthly observations. This monthly mean sea-level pressure (MSLP) record was correlated with monthly or seasonally stratified instrumental indices of the El Nińo southern oscillation (ENSO) phenomenon and all-India rainfall, and a seasonally stratified palaeoclimatic reconstruction of the southern oscillation index. In general, the Madras MSLP record is shown to be robust over time, and thus a useful long-term measure of fluctuations in the ENSO phenomenon across the Indian Ocean basin and of the Indian summer monsoon.

Allan, Rob J.; Reason, Chris J. C.; Carroll, Penny; Jones, Phil D.

2002-07-01

126

Pietro Verri’s Contribution to the Economic Theory of the 18th Century: Commercial Society, Civil Society and Governance of the Economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

'Count Pietro Verri (1728-97) - Schumpeter writes (History, p. 178) - - would have to be included in any list of the greatest economists'. Within the Milanese school, he certainly stands out, alongside with Cesare Beccaria, during one of the most interesting periods from a history of analysis point of view. Luigi Cossa's famous introduction to the study of political

Pier Luigi Porta; Roberto Scazzieri

1998-01-01

127

[Vampires in the village Žrnovo on the island of Kor?ula: following an archival document from the 18th century].  

PubMed

The main interest of this essay is the analysis of the document from the State Archive in Venice (file: Capi del Consiglio de' Dieci: Lettere di Rettori e di altre cariche) which is connected with the episode from 1748 when the inhabitants of the village žrnove on the island of Kor?ula in Croatia opened tombs on the local cemetery in the fear of the vampires treating. This essay try to show some social circumstances connected with this event as well as a local vernacular tradition concerning superstitions. PMID:22047480

Coralic, Lovorka; Dugac, Zeljko; Sardelic, Sani

2011-01-01

128

Effects of slope on the dynamics of dilute pyroclastic density currents from May 18th, 1980 Mt. St. Helens eruption  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The infamous, May 18th, 1980 eruption of Mt St Helens in the state of Washington produced several episodes of pyroclastic density currents (PDCs) including the initial lateral blast, which traveled nearly 30 km, and later PDCs, which filled in the area up to 8 km north of the volcano. The focus of this research is on the later PDCs, which differed from the lateral blast in that they have a higher particle concentration and filled in the topography up to 40 m. While the concentrated portions of the afternoon PDCs followed deep topographic drainages down the steep flanks of the volcano, the dilute overriding cloud partially decoupled to develop fully dilute, turbulent PDCs on the flanks of the volcano (Beeson, D.L. 1988. Proximal Flank Facies of the May 18, 1980 Ignimbrite: Mt. St. Helens, Washington.). The dilute PDCs deposited thin, cross-stratified and stratified pyroclastic deposits, known as the proximal bedded deposits, which differ greatly in depositional characteristics from the thick, massive, poorly-sorted, block-rich deposits associated with the more concentrated portions of the flow. We explore the influence of topography on the formation of these dilute currents and influence of slope on the currents transport and depositional mechanisms. The deposits on steeper slopes (>15°) are fines depleted relative to the proximal bedded deposits on shallower slopes (<15°). Bedform amplitude and wavelength increase with increasing slope, as does the occurrence of regressive dunes. Increasing slope causes an increase in flow velocity and thus an increase in flow turbulence. The fines depleted deposits suggest that fine ash elutriation is more efficient in flows with stronger turbulence. The longer wavelength and amplitudes suggest that bedform morphology is directly related to flow velocity, an important finding since the controls on bedform wavelength and amplitude in density stratified flows remains poorly constrained. The occurrence of regressive dunes, often interpreted as high flow-regime bedforms, on steeper slopes relative to progressive dunes on shallower slopes further attests to the control of velocity and flow regime on bedform morphology. Samples collected from recently exposed deposits and analyzed by grain size measurements, density analyses, and crystal morphoscopy studies further assess modes of origin and transport of dilute PDCs. The collected data will be used to validate numerical models that attempt to quantify the hazards of decoupled, dilute PDCs.

Bendana, S.; Self, S.; Dufek, J.

2012-12-01

129

Spatial trends in S and Cl in ash leachates of the May 18th, 1980 eruption of Mt. St Helens  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has long been known that surficial deposits of salts and acids on volcanic ash particles derive from interactions of ash with sulphur and halide species within the eruption plume and volcanic cloud. These compounds are mobilised as ash particles are wetted, and beneficial or detrimental environmental and health impacts may be induced where the most concentrated solutions are produced. However, limited mechanistic understanding of gas-ash interactions currently precludes prediction of the spatial distribution or variation in leachate chemistry and concentration following an eruption. Sampling and leachate analysis of freshly-fallen ash therefore offers the sole method by which such variations can be observed. Previous ash leachate studies often involve a limited number of ash samples, and utilise a 'one-dimensional' analysis that considers variation in terms of absolute distance from the source volcano. Here, we demonstrate that extensive sampling and a 'two-dimensional' analysis can uncover more complex spatial trends. We compiled over 358 leachate compositions from the May 18th 1980 eruption of Mt. St. Helens. Of the water-extracted leachates, only 95 compositions from ash sampled at 45 localities between 35 and 1129 km from the volcano are sufficiently documented to be retrospectively comparable. To consider the effects of intra-deposit variability, we calculated average concentrations of leachate data within 11×22 km grid cells across the region, and defined a data quality parameter to reflect confidence in the derived values. To investigate any dependence of leachate composition on the grain size distribution, we generated an interpolated map of geometric specific surface area variation across the deposit, normalising ash leachate data to the calculated specific surface area at the corresponding sampling location. The data treatment identifies S and Cl enrichments in proximal blast deposits; relatively constant Cl concentrations across the ashfall deposits; and a core region of depleted S concentrations in ashfall deposits between 240 and 400 km from the volcano, coinciding with the distal thickening of the deposit attributed to particle aggregation and enhanced fallout. Blast deposit enrichments can be attributed to pre-eruptive uptake of SO2 and HCl gases within the cryptodome, while ashfall deposit trends could reflect differences in the rates of HCl and SO2 uptake by ash, modified by in-plume aggregation processes. However, to validate and interpret such trends with greater confidence would have required a greater spatial density and temporal resolution of sampling, with comprehensive characterisation of the recovered ash and the surrounding deposit. In the future, rigorous study and sampling of equivalent extent to that in the aftermath of the historic Mt. St. Helens eruption is likely required to extend insight into processes affecting the spatial distribution of leachate chemistry.

Ayris, Paul M.; Delmelle, Pierre; Durant, Adam J.; Damby, David E.; Maters, Elena C.

2014-05-01

130

The Campi Flegrei caldera: historical revision and new data on seismic crises, bradyseisms, the Monte Nuovo eruption and ensuing earthquakes (twelfth century 1582 uc(ad))  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the results of a systematic historical study of the seismic, bradyseismic and eruptive activity of the Campi Flegrei caldera. The aim is to make a revised historical data available for accurate volcanological interpretation, supplying additional data and highlighting spurious previous data. The analysis begins with the supposed 1198 eruption, which did not actually take place. No information is available for the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. As far as the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries are concerned, only direct sources were examined for this paper, and they include many different types of evidence. The chronological breadth of the analysis has also provided information about the seismic crises and bradyseisms prior to the eruption of 1538. The exceptional nature of this 1538 eruption attracted the attention of intellectuals, diplomats and natural philosophers, who left valuable accounts, which we have analysed, and which include many that are still available in their original manuscript form. The previous studies concerning the 1538 eruption were based on 23 (variously used) sources. We have examined 35 additional sources bringing the overall corpus of sources analysed to 58. The results provide a more precise scenario of events preceding the 1538 eruption, including bradyseismic activity starting from the end of the fifteenth century. The chronology of the phenomena described comprises the core result of this study, and has been constructed so as to clarify the time, location and impact of each event. For the 1538 eruption, a countdown is included which may also have a predictive value. For the last 36 hours before eruption began, the countdown is hour-by-hour. The effects of the eruption and earthquakes on people, structures and society are also described for Pozzuoli, Agnano and Naples. The areas where heavy materials and ash fell are likewise indicated, as well are the earth tremors felt by the population from the eruptive crisis up to 1582.

Guidoboni, Emanuela; Ciuccarelli, Cecilia

2010-12-01

131

Floral Resources in Makushin Bay: The Aleuts of the Eighteenth Century, Social Studies Unit, Book III.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet illustrates the major plant resources in Makushin Bay and explains how each plant was used by the 18th-century Aleuts in their daily lives. Seventeen plants are illustrated and identified by their common names and, for many, the Latin names are mentioned, also. The plants represent a variety of habitats that include sandy areas;…

Partnow, Patricia H.

132

Contributions to Botany, the Female Science, by Two Eighteenth-Century Women Technical Communicators.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Focuses on the botanical publications of two 18th-century English women writers, Elizabeth Blackwell and Priscilla Bell Wakefield. Analyzes their books. Indicates that they contribute new perspectives and techniques to the historical tradition of botanical writing and illustrating and exhibit modern techniques for effective technical…

Shirk, Henrietta Nickels

1997-01-01

133

The Lady Hastings' Charity Schools: Accounting for Eighteenth-Century Rural Philanthropy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the philanthropic activities of Lady Elizabeth Hastings and the local provision of rural charity schools in 18th-century England. Covers Hastings' background, her establishment of girls' charity schools, charity-school curricula, the Society for the Promotion of Christian Knowledge, and charity-school teachers. Evaluates Hastings'…

Baker, Mae

1997-01-01

134

Luigi Galvani and animal electricity: two centuries after the foundation of electrophysiology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Luigi Galvani and his famous experiments on frogs carried out in the second half of the 18th century belong more to legend than to the history of science. Galvani not only laid the foundations of a new science, electrophysiology, but also opened the way for the invention of the electric battery, and thus for the development of the physical investigations

Marco Piccolino

1997-01-01

135

Theoretical astrophysics in the 19th century (Homage to Radó von Kövesligethy)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nature of astronomical information is determined mostly by the incoming light. Theoretical astrophysics means basically the theory of light emission and its relation to the physical constitution of the emitting celestial bodies. The necessary physical disciplines include theory of gravitation, theory of radiation, thermodynamics, matter--radiation interaction. The most significant theoretical achievement in the 17th - 18th century was the

Lajos G. Balázs

2004-01-01

136

The Aleuts of the Eighteenth Century. Social Studies Unit for Junior High School. Teacher's Manual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This teaching guide presents lessons for a social studies unit dealing with 18th century culture of the inhabitants of the Aleutian Islands. The unit is designed for intermediate and junior-high school students. Rather than providing a predigested picture of Aleut culture, the unit presents remaining evidence of that culture. Students reconstruct…

Partnow, Patricia H.

137

5.9 Mw, 18th June 2010 earthquake and fault segment linkage at Andaman - A study based on macroseismic survey, GPS geodesy and Coulomb stress changes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

18th June, 2010 5.9 Mw earthquake at North Andaman triggered along NW-SE pre-existing fault with reverse fault mechanism. Macroseismic survey and GPS geodesy reveal maximum damages following NE-SW trend due to normal fault mechanism. Coulomb stress modeling for post- and inter-seismic earthquakes after the 2004 mega-earthquake show different stages of fault segment linkage at North Andaman. The present earthquake has been explained as co-shock due to asiesmic soft linkage of fault propagation.

Som, S. K.; Jana, Prasun; Mohapatra, S. R.; Nayak, S. K.; Saha, Ashim Kumar

2013-05-01

138

Dendroseismology on the central North Anatolian fault; Turkey: Documenting three centuries of surface rupture history using tree rings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tree rings provide a precise dating source for characterizing natural hazards. Specifically, seismogenic disturbances on trees have been successfully documented on major faults such as San Andres fault in California or Denali fault in Alaska. Dendroseismology was employed along a 15-km-long stretch of the central North Anatolian fault (NAF) between Ilgaz and Tosya, Turkey where most recent surface rupturing event was the M7.6 1943 A.D. earthquake. Morphologic documentation and dendrochronologic analyses on 28 Pinus sylvestris trees demonstrated the effects of surface rupture and secondary earthquake deformation. Fourteen trees show similar abrupt growth suppression and accelerated recovery trends following the 1943 A.D. Tosya earthquake. Number of trees yielding positive results, linear spatial distribution of the traumatized trees along the NAF, similarity in the trend of annual ring growth response, and synchronity of these anomalies with the 1943 A.D. earthquake provide robust evidence for the attribution of the observed anomalies and the earthquake. In addition, four trees going back to early 18th century provide evidence for the lack of another surface rupturing large magnitude earthquake through this stretch of the fault. This finding corroborates that the historical 1668 A.D. earthquake is most likely the penultimate event for the Ilgaz-Tosya segment of the NAF.

Kozaci, O.

2011-12-01

139

American Catholic Schools for the 21st Century: Reflections on the Future of American Catholic Elementary Schools. Volume 1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Catholic schools in the United States today are very different from the Catholic schools that first opened in the 18th and 19th centuries. This handbook is a call to action for all Catholic elementary schools, inviting and challenging all Catholic educators to plan for the future. The volume is the first in a series of handbooks containing essays…

Kealey, Robert J., Ed.

140

Early 20th Century Education in the United States: The Role of the Brothers of Holy Cross  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The French Revolution bears an ironic responsibility for generating works of charity. To counteract the devastating social effects of that late 18th century uprising, numerous religious communities were founded in France, among them the Congregation of Holy Cross. The Congregation of Holy Cross, the founding religious community behind the…

Armstrong, Philip C.

2007-01-01

141

Agricultural Production in the Northern Province of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy (Galicia) in the 19 th Century  

Microsoft Academic Search

agriculture at the whole territory of Poland, divided towards the end of the 18 th century among Russia, Austria and Prussia. Even a superficial analysis of current developmental level of Polish agriculture, the structure of agricultural products, mechanisation ratio, demographic structure of rural community, and even rural scenery indicates the presence of substantial differences between the Polish and West-European country.

Piotr Franaszek

142

Tree-Ring Based Reconstructions of Interannual to Decadal Scale Precipitation Variability for Northeastern Utah Since 1226 A.D.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Samples from 107 pińon pines (Pinus edulis) at four sites were used to develop a proxy record of annual (June to June) precipitation spanning the 1226 to 2001 AD interval for the Uinta Basin Watershed of northeastern Utah. The reconstruction reveals significant precipitation variability at interannual to decadal scales. Single-year dry events before the instrumental period tended to be more severe than those after 1900. In general, decadal scale dry events were longer and more severe prior to 1900. In particular, dry events in the late 13th, 16th, and 18th Centuries surpass the magnitude and duration of droughts seen in the Uinta Basin after 1900. The last four decades of the 20th Century also represent one of the wettest periods in the reconstruction. The proxy record indicates that the instrumental record (approximately 1900 to the Present) underestimates the potential frequency and severity of severe, sustained droughts in this area, while over representing the prominence of wet episodes. In the longer record, the empirical probability of any decadal scale drought exceeding the duration of the 1954 through 1964 drought is 94 percent, while the probability for any wet event exceeding the duration of the 1965 through 1999 wet spell is only 1 percent. Hence, estimates of future water availability in the Uinta Basin and forecasts for exports to the Colorado River, based on the 1961 to 1990 and 1971 to 2000 "normal" periods, may be overly optimistic.

Gray, Stephen T.; Jackson, Stephen T.; Betancourt, Julio L.

2004-08-01

143

The new installation at Moscow State University for the study of extensive air showers with energies up to 10 to the 18th eV  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recently modernized and expanded Moscow State University facility for the study of extensive air showers with particle numbers between 100,000 and 10 to the 8th and primary particle energies up to 10 to the 18th eV is presented. The installation consists of a total of 8160 Geiger-Meuller counters of various areas and scintillation counters distributed within an area radius of 550 m for the detection of the electron component of the shower and determining particle number, shower axis position and the s parameter. Four muon detectors are also included for the detection of muons of energies greater than 10 GeV, along with a magnetic spectrometer allowing the measurement of muon momentum up to at least 600 GeV/sec and detectors for the measurement of advance and delayed particles. Among the intended applications for the facility are the comparison of the characteristics of individual showers recorded by hodoscopes and scintillation counters, the investigation of transient effects on the shower periphery and the precise measurement of muon energy spectra in connection with the break-down of scaling at superhigh energies.

Vernov, S. N.; Khristiansen, G. B.; Atrashkevich, V. B.; Bogoslovskii, G. V.; Boitsov, V. I.; Vedeneev, O. V.; Kulikov, G. V.; Lebedev, A. P.; Matsenov, S. I.; Melnikov, V. I.

1980-03-01

144

An eighteenth-century meteorological society in the Netherlands: An investigation on early organization, instrumentation and quantification of the science of weather  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to a number of elements that concurred in the third quarter of the 18th century organized meteorology received new chances: first the rise of experimental physics had led to a better instrumentation, standardization and a more advanced understanding of accuracy. Meteorological instruments benefited also from these developments. Secondly the chemical discovery that air is composed of different gases gave

Huib J. Zuidervaart

145

Effects of slope on the formation of dunes in dilute, turbulent pyroclastic currents: May 18th, 1980 Mt. St. Helens eruption  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The flanks of Mt St Helens volcano (MSH) are draped with thin, cross-stratified and stratified pyroclastic density current (PDC) deposits. These are known as the proximal bedded deposits produced during the May 18th, 1980 eruption of MSH. While the concentrated portions of the afternoon PDCs followed deep topographic drainages down the steep flanks of the volcano, the dilute overriding cloud partially decoupled to develop fully dilute, turbulent PDCs on the flanks of the volcano (Beeson, D.L. 1988. Proximal Flank Facies of the May 18, 1980 Ignimbrite: Mt. St. Helens, Washington.). The deposits along the flank thus vary greatly from those found in the pumice plain, which are generally thick, massive, poorly-sorted, block-rich deposits associated with the more concentrated portions of the flow (Brand et al, accepted. Dynamics of pyroclastic density currents: Conditions that promote substrate erosion and self-channelization - Mount St Helens, Washington (USA). JVGR). We explore the influence of topography on the formation of these dilute currents and influence of slope on the currents transport and depositional mechanisms. The deposits on steeper slopes (>15°) are fines depleted relative to the proximal bedded deposits on shallower slopes (<15°). Bedform amplitude and wavelength increase with increasing slope, as does the occurrence of regressive dunes. Increasing slope causes an increase in flow velocity and thus an increase in flow turbulence. The fines depleted deposits suggest that fine ash elutriation is more efficient in flows with stronger turbulence. The longer wavelength and amplitudes suggest that bedform morphology is directly related to flow velocity, an important finding since the controls on bedform wavelength and amplitude in density stratified flows remains poorly constrained. The occurrence of regressive dunes, often interpreted as high flow-regime bedforms, on steeper slopes relative to progressive dunes on shallower slopes further attests to the control of velocity and flow regime on bedform morphology. Samples collected from recently exposed deposits and analyzed by grain size measurements, density analyses, and crystal morphoscopy studies further assess modes of origin and transport of dilute PDCs.

Bendana, Sylvana; Brand, Brittany D.; Self, Stephen

2014-05-01

146

Ad Critic  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Ad Critic strives to enter every television advertisement into its database of online commercials, which can be downloaded for free and viewed with QuickTime. A complete list of advertisements is indexed by company and by ad title. There are, however, also indexes of newly added ads, most-downloaded ads, movie trailers, and music found in ads, making it easier for users to search for a new or favorite advertisement. Ad Critic includes a section on advertising news and commentary and provides services for advertising agencies including online market research and detailed viewer statistics.

147

Preliminary estimation of the peak discharge at the Su Gologone spring (Central-East Sardinia) during the flood event of November 18th, 2013  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Last November 2013, an exceptional rainfall has occurred in Sardinia causing 18 casualties at Olbia and Bitti and severe economic damage to infrastructures and land in many areas (e.g. Torpč and Cedrino plains). From a meteorological point of view, this rainfall event was caused by south-western warm and humid air currents moving from Africa coming in contact with cold air masses located above the higher parts of the island, creating convective phenomena of a certain intensity. Estimating the peak discharge of the rivers related to these high intensity rainfall events is of fundamental importance to improve flood-risk management and to prevent and/or reduce the damages. In carbonate areas, quantifying the karst aquifer recharge is an even more difficult task due to the fact that the precipitation and resulting surface flow is rapidly transferred to the underground cave systems, and then suddenly released at karst outflows. We report the case of the Su Gologone spring, in Supramonte area (Central-East Sardinia, Italy), a karst resurgence located only twenty metres from the Cedrino river and one of the main water supplies to this river. The freshwater of this karst spring feeds the Preda 'e Othoni dam, located a few kilometres downstream of the resurgence, and originally built to regulate the flooding of Cedrino river but currently used for all sorts of purposes, as electricity supply, irrigation of farmlands, industrial uses and especially for drinking water, an important source that has to be quantified and preserved. With the purpose of evaluating the contribution of this karst spring to the river discharge, at the beginning of the hydrological year 2013-14, Su Gologone has been equipped with a multi-parametric probe for in-continuous monitoring, at regular intervals, of the values of pressure (and therefore the level of water), electrical conductivity and water temperature. During the entire monitoring period flow rate measurements have been performed three times at the spring, based on the speed of the water taken with a hydraulic reel specially dedicated for this type of survey. These data show that an increase in water level of just 60 cm, produces a flow rate ten times higher than that during low discharge. During the peak discharge at the spring the probe has recorded a rise in the water level of over 11 metres, between 18:00 and 21:00 on November 18th, 2013. Part of this increase, however, was due to the barrier function of the nearby Cedrino river, whose high water level has blocked the drainage of the water from the karst system. The water spring level curve shows a temporary lowering around noon, before the flood peak, probably due to the opening of the dam. On the basis of the comparison between the measured speed of water flow in the stages immediately preceding and succeeding the flood event and of the values of water level recorded by the multi-parametric probe, it has been possible to estimate the contribution of the karst spring to the peak discharge of the river in around 40 cubic metres per second, a value of two orders of magnitude greater than the average flow of the spring (around 200 L/s).

Cossu, Antonello; De Waele, Jo; Sanna, Francesco; Sanna, Laura

2014-05-01

148

Credentialing Kepler: Transits in the Seventeenth Century  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Kepler's successful prediction of the 1631 transit of Mercury spurred an interest in his decidedly user-unfriendly Rudolfine Tables. Because his Ephemerides went only to 1636, he did not draw attention to the 1639 transit of Venus, although the tables actually predicted the phenomenon, and the observation by Horrocks again proved the superiority of Kepler's work. By mid-century alternative user-friendly versions of the Rudolfine Tables were published by V. Renieri in Italy, J.B. Morin in France, Maria Cunitia in Germany, and (in a more modified form) by J. Shakerley in England. Transits of Mercury were observed in 1651 (by Shakerley in Surat, India), 1661, 1667, 1690, and 1697, giving astronomers opportunities to compare the predictions from these tables as well as those of Lansbergen (which were a variant of the Copernican Prutenic Tables). Because of the subsequent interest in transits for determining the length of the astronomical unit, the 18th-century French astronomer J-N. Delisle compiled for these early transits extensive systematic records, which are now preserved at the Paris Observatory. By his day, however, the as-yet-unpublished tables of Edmond Halley gave the most successful predictions, and Delisle showed little interest in further credentialing the Rudolfine Tables, a process that had already taken place in the previous century.

Gingerich, O.

2005-08-01

149

An Odyssey into the New Millennium: Rediscover 21st Century Business & Marketing Education. Proceedings of the Annual Atlantic Coast Business & Marketing Education Conference (18th, Raleigh, North Carolina, February 15-17, 2001).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The following 13 papers on business and marketing education are included in this document: "Internet Marketing" (Herb Brown, Jerry Kandies); "Disk This . . . Paper Flow on the Go!" (Mary Evans, Wilbur Whitley); "Production and Evaluation of On-Line Tutorials" (Margie Gallagher, Evelyn Farrior, Jane Geissler); "Basic Skills Needed for Entry-Level…

Tucker, Sheila, Ed.

150

News and Views: Gemini hits 1000 papers; Comet Elenin? Forget it! Sellers launches course; Merry Christmas from 18th-century Lapland; ET: where are they all hiding? SETI in the city; Complex organic molecules may not mean life  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

No-one has yet found artefacts from an alien civilization, but have we looked hard enough? Astronomers seeking signs of extraterrestrial intelligence have suggested a novel approach: look for alien cities. The search for signs of life in the universe has included the detection of complex organic molecules, seen as a step on the way to living things. But now analysis of spectral signatures known as Unidentified Infrared Emission features found in stars, interstellar space and galaxies suggest that complex organic molecules can be made in stars in a matter of weeks without the presence of life.

2011-12-01

151

The environmental history of cetaceans in Portugal: ten centuries of whale and dolphin records.  

PubMed

The history between cetaceans and humans is documented throughout time not only in reports, descriptions, and tales but also in legal documents, laws and regulations, and tithes. This wealth of information comes from the easy spotting and identification of individuals due to their large size, surface breathing, and conspicuous above water behaviour. This work is based on historical sources and accounts accounting for cetacean presence for the period between the 12th and 17th centuries, as well as scientific articles, newspapers, illustrations, maps, non-published scientific reports, and other grey literature from the 18th century onwards. Information on whale use in Portugal's mainland has been found since as early as the 12th century and has continued to be created throughout time. No certainty can be given for medieval and earlier events, but both scavenging of stranded whales or use of captured ones may have happened. There is an increasing number of accounts of sighted, stranded, used, or captured cetaceans throughout centuries which is clearly associated with a growing effort towards the study of these animals. Scientific Latin species denominations only started to be registered from the 18th century onwards, as a consequence of the evolution of natural sciences in Portugal and increasing interest from zoologists. After the 19th century, a larger number of observations were recorded, and from the 20th century to the present day, regular scientific records have been collected. Research on the environmental history of cetaceans in Portugal shows a several-centuries-old exploitation of whales and dolphins, as resources mainly for human consumption, followed in later centuries by descriptions of natural history documenting strandings and at sea encounters. Most cetaceans species currently thought to be present in Portuguese mainland waters were at some point historically recorded. PMID:21931627

Brito, Cristina; Sousa, Andreia

2011-01-01

152

The Environmental History of Cetaceans in Portugal: Ten Centuries of Whale and Dolphin Records  

PubMed Central

The history between cetaceans and humans is documented throughout time not only in reports, descriptions, and tales but also in legal documents, laws and regulations, and tithes. This wealth of information comes from the easy spotting and identification of individuals due to their large size, surface breathing, and conspicuous above water behaviour. This work is based on historical sources and accounts accounting for cetacean presence for the period between the 12th and 17th centuries, as well as scientific articles, newspapers, illustrations, maps, non-published scientific reports, and other grey literature from the 18th century onwards. Information on whale use in Portugal's mainland has been found since as early as the 12th century and has continued to be created throughout time. No certainty can be given for medieval and earlier events, but both scavenging of stranded whales or use of captured ones may have happened. There is an increasing number of accounts of sighted, stranded, used, or captured cetaceans throughout centuries which is clearly associated with a growing effort towards the study of these animals. Scientific Latin species denominations only started to be registered from the 18th century onwards, as a consequence of the evolution of natural sciences in Portugal and increasing interest from zoologists. After the 19th century, a larger number of observations were recorded, and from the 20th century to the present day, regular scientific records have been collected. Research on the environmental history of cetaceans in Portugal shows a several-centuries-old exploitation of whales and dolphins, as resources mainly for human consumption, followed in later centuries by descriptions of natural history documenting strandings and at sea encounters. Most cetaceans species currently thought to be present in Portuguese mainland waters were at some point historically recorded.

Brito, Cristina; Sousa, Andreia

2011-01-01

153

Clear cutting (10-13th century) and deep stable economy (18-19th century) as responsible interventions for sand drifting and plaggic deposition in cultural landscapes on aeolian sands (SE-Netherlands).  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The landscape in extensive areas in SE-Netherlands is underlain by coversand, deposited during the Late Glacial of the Weichselian. In the Preboreal, aeolian processes reduced soil formation. From the Preboreal to the Atlantic a deciduous climax forest developed. The geomorphology was a coversand landscape, composed of ridges (umbric podzols), coversand plains (gleyic podzols), coversand depressions (histic podzols) and small valleys (gleysols). The area was used by hunting people during the Late Paleolithic and Mesolithic. During the Bronze and Iron Ages the area was populated by people, living from forest grazing, shifting cultivation and trade. The natural deciduous forest gradually degraded into Calluna heath. The deforestation accelerated the soil acidification and affected the hydrology, which is reflected in drying out of ridges and wetting of depressions, promoting the development of histic podzols and even histosols. Aeolian erosion was during this period restricted to local, small scale sand drifting, related to natural hazards as forest fires and hurricanes and shifting cultivation. Sustainable crop productivity on chemically poor sandy substrates required application of organic fertilizers, composed of a mixture of organic litter and animal manure with a very low mineral compound, produced in shallow stables. At least since 1000 AD, heath management was regulated by a series of rules that aimed to protect the valuable heat lands against degradation. During the 11th, 12th and 13th centuries there was an increasing demand for wood and clear cutting transformed the majority of the forests in driftsand landscapes. The most important market was formed by the very wealthy Flemish cities. The exposed soil surface was subjected to wind erosion and sand drifting which endangered the Calluna heath, arable land and even farmhouses. As a consequence, umbric podzols, the natural climax soil under deciduous forests on coversand, degraded into larger scale driftsand landscapes, characterized by deflation plains (gleyic arenosols) and complexes of inland dunes (haplic arenosols). Clear cutting was responsible for the mediaeval first large scale expansion of drift sand landscapes. In such driftsand landscapes, the majority of the podzolic soils in coversand has been truncated by aeolian erosion. Only on scattered sheltered sites in the landscape, palaeopodzols were buried under mono or polycyclic driftsand deposits. They are now the valuable soil archives for palaeoecological research. During the 18th century, the population growth and regional economic activity stimulated the agricultural productivity. Farmers introduced the innovative 'deep stable' technique to increase the production of fertilizers. Farmers started sod digging, including the top of the Ah horizon of the humus forms. This consequently promoted heath degradation and sand drifting, resulting in the extension of driftsand landscapes. Deep stable economy and sod digging was responsible for the 18th century second large scale expansion of drift sand landscapes. During the 19th century, farmers tried to find alternative fertilizers and authorities initiated reforestation projects. The invention of chemical fertilizers at the end of the 19th century marked the end of the period of heath management and plaggic agriculture. The heath was no longer used for the harvesting of plaggic matter and new land management practices were introduced. Heath was reclaimed to new arable land or reforested with Scotch pine. Geomorphological features as inland dunes and plaggic covers survived in the landscape and are now included in the geological inheritance.

van Mourik, Jan; Vera, Hein; Wallinga, Jakob

2013-04-01

154

How stable are twentieth-century calibration models? A high-resolution summer temperature reconstruction for the eastern Swiss Alps back to AD 1580 derived from proglacial varved sediments  

Microsoft Academic Search

We found a significant positive correlation between local summer air temperature (May-September) and the annual sediment mass accumulation rate (MAR) in Lake Silvaplana (46°N, 9°E, 1800 m a.s.l.) during the twentieth century (r = 0.69, p < 0.001 for decadal smoothed series). Sediment trap data (2001-2005) confirm this relation with exceptionally high particle yields during the hottest summer of the

Alex Blass; Martin Grosjean; Andrea Troxler; Michael Sturm

2007-01-01

155

Wormholes in AdS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A few different examples of Euclidean wormholes with AdS asymptotics are constructed. These are geometries which are completely regular, and are solutions of ten- or eleven-dimensional supergravity. We point out that such geometries are puzzling from the AdS\\/CFT point of view, and try to speculate on possible resolutions of this puzzle. A better understanding of the physics of these geometries

Liat Maoz

2005-01-01

156

Adding Fractions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this web-based tutorial, students learn procedures for adding fractions with like and unlike denominators. The tutorial includes visual representations of the problems using pizzas, animations of the algorithm, and links to related lessons, worksheets, and practice problems.

Website, Math I.

2011-09-23

157

Solar cycle length and 20th Century northern hemisphere warming: Revisited  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has been suggested that the length of the solar cycle (SCL) is related to solar forcing of global climate change [Friis-Christensen and Lassen, 1991]. Although no physical mechanism had been proposed, the relation seemed to be supported by interesting correlations with several paleoclimate records and, separately, with the 20th century Northern Hemisphere instrumental record. Actually, what has been correlated is the quasi-sinusoidal Gleissberg cycle which is slightly greater in the 18th century than in the 20th century. Using the pre-industrial record as a boundary condition, the SCL-temperature correlation corresponds to an estimated 25% of global warming to 1980 and 15% to 1997.

Damon, Paul E.; Peristykh, Alexei N.

158

Island Universes, Novae and Supernovae. A Great Debate of the XX Century  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The concept of island universes as very great stellar structures, was conceived in the 18th century. This fascinating idea started to be taken into consideration as soon as great telescopes permitted to observe and classify numerous and different--shape nebulae, especially spirals, in which novae were discovered. In 1920, a public debate concerning the scale of the universe, took place in Washington: Heber D. Curtis and Harlow Shapley presented their different opinion on this subject. Since that time, a new view of the universe and its dimension started to be considered.

Pigatto, L.

2005-12-01

159

The 18th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Topics concerning aerospace mechanisms, their functional performance, and design specifications are presented. Discussed subjects include the design and development of release mechanisms, actuators, linear driver/rate controllers, antenna and appendage deployment systems, position control systems, and tracking mechanisms for antennas and solar arrays. Engine design, spaceborne experiments, and large space structure technology are also examined.

1984-01-01

160

Researcher Discovers 18th Moon Orbiting Uranus  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Scientist Erich Karkoschka, at the Lunar and Planetary Lab at the University of Arizona, has discovered another moon, the eighteenth, orbiting Uranus. The unusual aspect of this discovery is that while most moons are discovered within days of an image being taken, in this case, the image is more than thirteen years-old. The spacecraft Voyager 2 captured the original image when it flew by Uranus in January 1986. However, no one was able to recognize this satellite until Karkoschka investigated these images. A summary of this discovery can be found at the site, a news release from Astronomy Now Online.

161

19th Century Advertising History  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

During the 19th century, one of the most consistently popular American periodicals was Harper's Weekly, an illustrated paper whose circulation was well in excess of over 100,000 on a regular basis. This fine site highlights some of the many creative and inventive advertisements that were prominently displayed in the periodical during the 19th and early 20th centuries. The project was the brainchild of John Adler, a longtime history buff, who came across a complete set of the periodical for the period from 1857 to 1916. On the site visitors can browse through advertisements for appliances, insurance, foreign travel, farm land, and various medicinal potions. The selection of ads includes one for "pain paint," which begins with a brief doggerel that includes a mention of the impeachment of President Andrew Johnson in 1868.

163

What Is a University in the 21st Century?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The term "university" has a longstanding history, yet its definition remains highly contentious at the turn of the century. According to conventional scholarship, the first university initially appeared as far back as the 12th century with the formation of the University of Paris and the University of Bologna (circa 1150 AD). Other scholars,…

Denman, Brian D.

2005-01-01

164

The Rise of Commercial Telescope Making in 19th Century America  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Very few telescopes were made in America in the 18th century; astronomers needed to rely on distant European makers. While there is evidence of a few American craftsman-made telescopes that were shown at early to mid-19th century Mechanics' Fairs, Massachusetts native Amasa Holcomb appears to have been the first to offer them for sale commercially. Most of Holcomb's instruments were Herschelian reflectors with speculum metal mirrors. Henry Fitz started his optical career by making mirrors used for the first Daguerreotype portrait cameras, and by the mid 1840's he was offering refractors of ever-increasing size. Not long after Fitz started, Alvan Clark began selling telescopes, and the premature death of Fitz in 1863 may have aided Alvan Clark and Sons' rise to prominence. The later decades of the 1800s saw a dramatic increase in the number of college observatories, and with that came more manufacturers to supply the demand.

Launie, Kenneth J.

2009-01-01

165

[Origins of the coat, appearance of physicians of the Russian fleet in the first third of XVIII century].  

PubMed

The article is devoted to the reconstruction of medical uniforms Russian navy first third of the 18th century. It can be assumed that doctors were in varying degrees, the senior officer's dress, but of course without the braid, although there are exceptions, which related to doctors willing to go to a more senior hypostasis. A number of documents of different structures gives rise to speak with a high probability that the doctors of different ranks, serving in the Marine units that had shaped dress that is largely consistent with their position in the hierarchy of ranks and received in the near future, its development. PMID:21874889

Danchenko, V G

2011-05-01

166

Warped AdS3 black holes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three dimensional topologically massive gravity (TMG) with a negative cosmological constant -l-2 and positive Newton constant G admits an AdS3 vacuum solution for any value of the graviton mass ?. These are all known to be perturbatively unstable except at the recently explored chiral point ?l = 1. However we show herein that for every value of ?l ? 3 there are two other (potentially stable) vacuum solutions given by SL(2,Bbb R) × U(1)-invariant warped AdS3 geometries, with a timelike or spacelike U(1) isometry. Critical behavior occurs at ?l = 3, where the warping transitions from a stretching to a squashing, and there are a pair of warped solutions with a null U(1) isometry. For ?l > 3, there are known warped black hole solutions which are asymptotic to warped AdS3. We show that these black holes are discrete quotients of warped AdS3 just as BTZ black holes are discrete quotients of ordinary AdS3. Moreover new solutions of this type, relevant to any theory with warped AdS3 solutions, are exhibited. Finally we note that the black hole thermodynamics is consistent with the hypothesis that, for ?l > 3, the warped AdS3 ground state of TMG is holographically dual to a 2D boundary CFT with central charges c_R-formula and c_L-formula.

Anninos, Dionysios; Li, Wei; Padi, Megha; Song, Wei; Strominger, Andrew

2009-03-01

167

Warped AdS3 black holes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three dimensional topologically massive gravity (TMG) with a negative cosmological constant -ell-2 and positive Newton constant G admits an AdS3 vacuum solution for any value of the graviton mass ?. These are all known to be perturbatively unstable except at the recently explored chiral point ?ell = 1. However we show herein that for every value of ?ell ? 3 there are two other (potentially stable) vacuum solutions given by SL(2,Bbb R) × U(1)-invariant warped AdS3 geometries, with a timelike or spacelike U(1) isometry. Critical behavior occurs at ?ell = 3, where the warping transitions from a stretching to a squashing, and there are a pair of warped solutions with a null U(1) isometry. For ?ell > 3, there are known warped black hole solutions which are asymptotic to warped AdS3. We show that these black holes are discrete quotients of warped AdS3 just as BTZ black holes are discrete quotients of ordinary AdS3. Moreover new solutions of this type, relevant to any theory with warped AdS3 solutions, are exhibited. Finally we note that the black hole thermodynamics is consistent with the hypothesis that, for ?ell > 3, the warped AdS3 ground state of TMG is holographically dual to a 2D boundary CFT with central charges c_R-formula and c_L-formula.

Song, Wei; Anninos, Dionysios; Li, Wei; Padi, Megha; Strominger, Andrew

2009-03-01

168

A soliton menagerie in AdS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We explore the behaviour of charged scalar solitons in asymptotically global AdS4 spacetimes. This is motivated in part by attempting to identify under what circumstances such objects can become large relative to the AdS length scale. We demonstrate that such solitons generically do get large and in fact in the planar limit smoothly connect up with the zero temperature limit of planar scalar hair black holes. In particular, for given Lagrangian parameters we encounter multiple branches of solitons: some which are perturbatively connected to the AdS vacuum and surprisingly, some which are not. We explore the phase space of solutions by tuning the charge of the scalar field and changing scalar boundary conditions at AdS asymptopia, finding intriguing critical behaviour as a function of these parameters. We demonstrate these features not only for phenomenologically motivated gravitational Abelian-Higgs models, but also for models that can be consistently embedded into eleven dimensional supergravity.

Gentle, Simon A.; Rangamani, Mukund; Withers, Benjamin

2012-05-01

169

What drives AdS spacetime unstable?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We calculate the spectrum of linear perturbations of standing wave solutions discussed in [Phys. Rev. D 87, 123006 (2013)] as the first step of investigating the stability of the globally regular, asymptotically anti-de Sitter (AdS), time-periodic solutions discovered in [Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 051102 (2013)]. We show that while this spectrum is only asymptotically nondispersive (as contrasted with the pure AdS case), putting a small standing wave solution on top of an AdS solution indeed prevents the turbulent instability. Thus we support the idea advocated in previous works that the nondispersive character of the spectrum of linear perturbations of AdS space is crucial for the conjectured turbulent instability.

Maliborski, Maciej; Rostworowski, Andrzej

2014-06-01

170

21st Century Scholars  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Bethpage Union Free School District in New York is a high-performing district by almost any current accountability measure. Yet administrators and teachers worried that they were not doing enough to prepare their students as critical thinkers for the 21st century. Inspired by the curriculum framework of the Partnership for 21st Century Skills, the…

Clark, Terrence

2009-01-01

171

New high-precision, high-resolution records of atmospheric methane from Greenland and Antarctic ice cores: 0-1800 A.D  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atmospheric methane has caused the second largest increase in radiative forcing from greenhouse gases since the start of the industrial revolution, and methane sources and sinks are sensitive to climate variations. Here we present high-precision, high-resolution records of atmospheric methane from the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) Divide 05A ice core (WDC05A, 1000-1800 A.D., [Mitchell et al., in prep.]) and preliminary results from the WAIS Divide deep ice core (WDC06A, 0-1270 A.D.) and the Greenland ice core (GISP2D, 0-1800 A.D.). These records have decadal scale temporal resolution and an analytical precision of <3 ppb, and when complete will provide a high resolution interpolar gradient (IPG) record allowing investigation of geographical changes in atmospheric methane sources on multi-decadal timescales. The WDC05A methane record is highly correlated with the only previous high resolution record which comes from Law Dome (r2 = 0.73). The high degree of correlation increases confidence in both records and shows that the multidecadal variability present in both records is real. An offset between the gas age timescales is apparent and the maximum correlation (r2 = 0.81) is attained when one of the timescales is shifted by 9 years which is within the published uncertainty of ±10 years for WAIS Divide [Mischler et al., accepted]. Large changes in methane concentration during large, rapid climate changes (i.e. Dansgaard-Oeschger events) have been used to synchronize gas age timescales from a variety of ice cores. Our results demonstrate that high-precision records of methane with decadal scale sample resolution from ice cores that experience moderate smoothing from the firn can be used to synchronize gas age timescales between different ice cores on fine time scales. Finally we compare these atmospheric methane records with numerous paleoclimate archives that could have played a dominant role in regulating past emissions, namely records of temperature, hydrologic, and anthropogenic changes. We find no correlation with hemispheric scale temperature reconstructions, but it is possible that specific events occurring in methane source regions such as the large temperature drop from 1550-1600 A.D. in the high latitude northern hemisphere were significant enough to cause a reduction in global methane concentration. We have also identified a possible correlation with a proxy for East Asian monsoon strength. Comparison with records of anthropogenic activities does not provide compelling evidence for humans having a significant impact on methane emissions prior to the start of the Industrial Revolution in the 18th century.

Mitchell, L. E.; Brook, E.

2009-12-01

172

Consequences of land use and climate changes on sediment deposition in estuaries during the last centuries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Estuaries are the downstream end-member of fluvial systems. They are experiencing high sedimentation rates, thus providing good opportunities for high resolution studies of Holocene environmental changes at the land/ocean interface. From a thorough literature survey, it appears that a rapid siltation and/or an increase in sedimentation rate were recorded in many estuarine environments, concomitantly to major migrations of human population throughout the world, both in time and space. It has been clearly related to an increase in sediment supply to estuaries in Minor Asia (Bronze Age, e.g. Spezzaferri et al, 2000) and in North America and Southwest Pacific (18th and 19th centuries, e.g. Goff, 1997), in response to deforestation on catchment areas. However, this relationship is less obvious in Europe (Sorrel et al., 2009), because deforestation occurred concomitantly to climate changes of the last millennium (climate instability at the end of Medieval Warm Period, Little Ice Age) that can also explain an increase in soil erosion. Indeed, these hypotheses have been proposed to explain a similar change in Marennes-Oléron Bay (Atlantic coast of France), which consists in the sudden deposition of a few meters-thick mud drape on basal mixed mud and sand bodies (Billeaud et al., 2005). The methods used to investigate this estuarine bay so far (very high resolution seismic stratigraphy, grain size analysis and radiocarbon dating) provided relevant information about recent environmental changes, but new data are now needed for further investigation. In the present study, we provide a multi-proxy analysis of the Marennes-Oléron Bay mud drape. A new 8 m-long core (M7UC01) was sampled on an intertidal flat, its location being determined on the basis of seismic stratigraphy. Core processing included visual description, physical measurements, grain size analysis every 2.5 to 5 cm, AMS radiocarbon dating, XRF core scanning, clay mineralogy and Rock Eval analysis. Fossil molluscs and foraminifers were also recovered to provide paleoenvironmental reconstructions. Clay mineralogy of the mud drape is similar to that of the turbid plume of the Charente River, which is an important source of terrestrial sediment in the bay, and to surrounding marsh soils. Examination of sediment smear slides shows that the sediment contains abundant plant debris. The very low values of Hydrogen Index determined by Rock-Eval analysis (mean HI: 150 ± 25 mg HC.g-1 TOC) are typical of organic matter derived from land higher plants. These three results strongly suggest that the Marennes-Oléron Bay mud drape is composed of soil relicts derived from the watershed. The mud drape started to deposit at 1400 AD, which coincides with the start of the Spörer minimum. Fossil mollusc and foraminifer assemblages provide evidences of another environmental change dated to 1670 AD, which corresponds to the Maunder minimum. These data suggest a strong impact of Little Ice Age climate changes, superimposed to land reclamation and deforestation, on the increase of sediment supply in the study area. These results, compared with the detailed literature survey performed meanwhile, would provide new insights into the impact of simultaneous land use and climate changes on the sediment deposition in estuaries during the last centuries. References: Billeaud I. et al., 2005. Geo-Marine Letters 25, 1-10. Goff J.R., 1997. Marine Geology 138, 105-117. Sorrel P. et al., 2009. Quaternary Science Reviews 28, 499-516. Spezzaferri S. et al., 2000. Mediterranean Marine Science 1(1), 19-43.

Poirier, Clément; Chaumillon, Eric; Arnaud, Fabien; Goubert, Evelyne; Sauriau, Pierre-Guy; Caurant, Florence

2010-05-01

173

AdS in Warped Spacetimes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We obtain a large class of AdS spacetimes warped with certain internal spaces\\u000ain eleven-dimensional and type IIA\\/IIB supergravities. The warp factors depend\\u000aonly on the internal coordinates. These solutions arise as the near-horizon\\u000ageometries of more general semi-localised multi-intersections of $p$-branes. We\\u000aachieve this by noting that any sphere (or AdS spacetime) of dimension greater\\u000athan 3 can be

M. Cveti˙c; H. Lu; C. N. Pope; J. F. Vazquez-Poritz

2000-01-01

174

AdBlockVideo  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Video ads can be quite a nuisance. AdBlockVideo can help users out by effectively blocking such ads. Visitors will need to download the program and they can toggle AdBlockVideo on and off as they see fit. This application is compatible with computers running Windows 98 and newer, Max OS 10.3 and newer, and Linux.

2011-01-01

175

AdS Backgrounds from Asymmetric Orientifolds.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

I present asymmetric orientifold models that, with the addition of RR fluxes, fix all the NS NS moduli including the dilaton. In critical string theory, this gives new AdS backgrounds with (discretely tunably) weak string coupling. Extrapolating to super-...

E. M. Silverstein

2001-01-01

176

Scalar collapse in AdS spacetimes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, studies of the gravitational collapse of a scalar field within spherically symmetric anti-de Sitter (AdS) spacetimes presented by Bizon and Rostroworoski [Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 031102 (2011)], Jalmuzna et al. [Phys. Rev. D 84, 085021 (2011).] showed an instability of pure AdS to black hole formation. In particular, the work showed that arbitrarily small initial configurations of a scalar field evolved through some number of reflections off the AdS boundary until a black hole forms. We consider this same system, extended to include a complex scalar field, and reproduce this phenomena. We present tests of our numerical code that demonstrate convergence and consistency. We study the properties of the evolution as the scalar pulse becomes more compact by examining the asymptotic behavior of the scalar field, an observable in the corresponding boundary conformal field theory. We demonstrate that such black hole formation occurs even when one places a reflecting boundary at finite radius, indicating that the sharpening is a property of gravity in a bounded domain and not of AdS itself. We examine how the initial energy is transferred to higher frequencies—which leads to black hole formation—and uncover interesting features of this transfer.

Buchel, Alex; Lehner, Luis; Liebling, Steven L.

2012-12-01

177

AdS braneworld with backreaction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We review the tachyon model derived from the dynamics of a 3-brane moving in the AdS5 bulk. The bulk geometry is based on the Randall-Sundrum II model extended to include the radion. The effective tachyon Lagrangian is modified due to the back-reaction of the brane on the bulk geometry.

Bili?, Neven; Tupper, Gary B.

2014-03-01

178

AdS spacetime in warped spacetimes  

SciTech Connect

We obtain a large class of AdS spacetimes warped with certain internal spaces in 11-dimensional and type IIA or IIB supergravities. The warp factors depend only on the internal coordinates. These solutions arise as the near-horizon geometries of more general semilocalized multi-intersections of p-branes. We achieve this by noting that any sphere (or AdS spacetime) of dimension greater than 3 can be viewed as a foliation involving S{sup 3} (or AdS{sub 3}). Then the S{sup 3} (or AdS{sub 3}) can be replaced by a three-dimensional lens space (or a BTZ black hole), which arises naturally from the introduction of a NUT (or a pp wave) to the M-branes or the D3-brane. We then obtain multi-intersections by performing a Kaluza-Klein reduction or Hopf T-duality transformation on the fiber coordinate of the lens space (or the BTZ black hole). These geometries provide further possible examples of the AdS/CFT correspondence and of consistent embeddings of lower-dimensional gauged supergravities in D=11 or D=10.

Cvetic, M.; Lu'', H.; Pope, C. N.; Vazquez-Poritz, J. F.

2000-12-15

179

Interpolating from AdS D-2 × S2 to AdS D  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate a large class of supersymmetric magnetic brane solutions supported by U(1) gauge fields in AdS gauged supergravities. We obtain first-order equations in terms of a superpotential. In particular, we find systems which interpolate between AdS D-2×? 2 (where ? 2=S 2 or H2) at the horizon and AdS D-type geometry in the asymptotic region, for 4? D?7. The boundary geometry of the AdS D-type metric is Minkowski D-3×? 2. This provides smooth supergravity solutions for which the boundary of the AdS spacetime compactifies spontaneously. These solutions indicate the existence of a large class of superconformal field theories in diverse dimensions whose renormalization group flow runs from the UV to the IR fixed-point. We show that the same set of first-order equations also admits solutions which are asymptotically AdS D-2×? 2 but singular at small distance. This implies that the stationary AdS D-2×? 2 solutions typically lie on the inflection points of the modulus space.

Cucu, S.; Lü, H.; Vázquez-Poritz, J. F.

2004-01-01

180

On the AdS stability problem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We discuss the notion of stability and the choice of boundary conditions for AdS-type space-times and point out difficulties in the construction of Cauchy data which arise if reflective boundary conditions are imposed.

Friedrich, Helmut

2014-05-01

181

Eternal Black Holes in AdS  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a dual non-perturbative description for maximally extended\\u000aSchwarzschild Anti-de-Sitter spacetimes. The description involves two copies of\\u000athe conformal field theory associated to the AdS spacetime and an initial\\u000aentangled state. In this context we also discuss a version of the information\\u000aloss paradox and its resolution.

Juan M. Maldacena

2001-01-01

182

Securing Ad Hoc Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ad hoc networks are a new wireless networking paradigm for mobile hosts. Unlike traditional mobile wireless networks, ad hoc networks do not rely on any fixed infrastructure. Instead, hosts rely on each other to keep the network connected. The military tactical and other security-sensitive operations are still the main applications of ad hoc networks, although there is a trend to

Lidong Zhou; Zygmunt J. Haas

1999-01-01

183

The Chemical Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses present and future problems of producing clean energy. Graphically presents the changing patterns of fuel use in the United States over the past century, and predicts population growth and energy sources and consumption up to the year 2100 for the United States and the world. (JR)

Lapp, Ralph E.

1973-01-01

184

AdFlip.com  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Here's a site that's both fun and useful to students of American pop culture. Billing itself "the world's largest searchable database of classic print ads," AdFlip may be keyword searched or browsed by several methods. The ads are indexed by category (automotive, electronic, fashion, etc.), decade (1940s to current), and several specialty categories (ad as art, famous, advocacy, provocative [a few nudes here], today's top ten). Each collection of ads (presented as thumbnails) can be displayed by date, name, or ID number. Each of the decade collections can be further refined by a number of categories, such as automotive manufacturers, women's fashion, alcohol, and furniture and appliances, among others.

185

BadAds  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The creators of BadAds believe that advertising has become far too intrusive in American lives. Along with TV, magazine, radio ads, and billboards, advertisements and commercials are popping up in movie theatres, schools, public bathrooms, and even on stickers on fruit. Four criteria determine whether advertising is intrusive: an inability to turn the ad off; its entrance into your home without your consent; your lack of choice whether or not to watch it; and ads that don't support anything in particular and may actually cost you money. Rather than just venting about intrusive advertising, BadAds urges visitors to become active in the fight against bad ads by writing complaint letters to a host of venues that support intrusive advertising including movie theaters, sporting venues, television networks, and the heads of educational institutions. BadAds offers instructions on writing complaint letters as well as many suggestions as to who should receive these letters.

186

Two Centuries of Progress in Technical Communication  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A common aphorism in the halls of education is that the writing skills of Americans decline over time. Compared to the "golden age of letters," so the argument goes, each subsequent generation of writers is worse than the last. Although contemporary readers and educators commiserate over encounters with bad writing, a fair comparison of 18th

Connatser, Bradford R.

2007-01-01

187

AdS null deformations with inhomogeneities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study AdS×X null deformations arising as near horizon limits of D3-brane analogs of inhomogeneous plane waves. Restricting to normalizable deformations for the AdS5 case, these generically correspond in the dual field theory to super Yang-Mills states with light cone momentum density T++ varying spatially, the homogeneous case studied in [K. Narayan, arXiv:1202.5935] corresponding to uniform T++. All of these preserve some supersymmetry. Generically these inhomogeneous solutions exhibit analogs of horizons in the interior where a timelike Killing vector becomes null. From the point of view of x+-dimensional reduction, the circle pinches off on these horizon loci in the interior. We discuss similar inhomogeneous solutions with asymptotically Lifshitz boundary conditions, as well as aspects of Lifshitz singularities in string constructions involving anti-de Sitter null deformations. We also briefly discuss holographic entanglement entropy for some of these.

Narayan, K.

2012-12-01

188

Warped AdS_3 Black Holes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three dimensional topologically massive gravity (TMG) with a negative\\u000acosmological constant -\\\\ell^{-2} and positive Newton constant G admits an AdS_3\\u000avacuum solution for any value of the graviton mass \\\\mu. These are all known to\\u000abe perturbatively unstable except at the recently explored chiral point\\u000a\\\\mu\\\\ell=1. However we show herein that for every value of \\\\mu\\\\ell< 3 there are\\u000atwo

Dionysios Anninos; Wei Li; Megha Padi; Wei Song; Andrew Strominger

2008-01-01

189

Southeast Asian Mega-Droughts of the Past 5 Centuries from Tree Rings and Historical Records  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The need for understanding the natural range of climate variability in the monsoon regions of Asia - among the worldęs most heavily populated and most dependent on agriculture - is critical for making sound planning decisions in the face of expected hydrological changes associated with global climate change. As part of a US National Science Foundation-funded project (Tree Ring Reconstructions of Asian Monsoon Climate Variability) we have produced climate-responsive tree-ring records from tropical Asia that span the past five centuries. We find compelling evidence for 18th century decadal-scale summer monsoon droughts that span from India to Vietnam. Historical records corroborate that periods of severe drought occurred across much of the region during this time, while speleothem and coral records suggest multiple decadal-scale droughts for much of the Little Ice Age period in India, and elevated Sea Surface Temperature (SST) during the 18th century for much of the tropical Pacific, respectively. Tropical Pacific SST anomalies are seen as one key component to monsoon variability over the study region, with El Ni?o and La Ni?a like conditions resulting in rainfall reductions and increases, respectively, with corresponding opposite-sign anomalies across much of western North America. Persistent anomaly trends in the SST fields can result in the kinds of decadal-scale variability our studies suggest, although this is not the entire story. We explore the role of the Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation (IPO), first defined in 1999 as a Pacific-wide measure of variability that is physically distinct from both the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) and the El Ni?o Southern Oscillation (ENSO), in contributing to protracted -mega-droughts" in the region related to weakening monsoon strength, as suggested by recent research. Interestingly, near-millennium-aged conifers from Vietnam and Laos have been located and much longer records are now being constructed. Of great interest is the period of the late 14th and early 15th centuries when a very week monsoon is thought to have occurred, possibly contributing to the demise of the Angkor Wat civilization in Cambodia.

Buckley, B. M.

2007-12-01

190

Google The ADS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ADS provides a search system for over 4.8 million records in Astronomy, Planetary Sciences, and Physics and 3.3 million scanned pages of the scholarly literature. In order to improve access to the ADS and to make searching easier, we allow Google to index the information in the ADS. Since many scientists use Google as their general search system, it makes it easier to also search the scientific literature that the ADS covers. HOWEVER, please be aware that Google does not index all the abstracts in the ADS. Their system crawls the ADS, but may miss some abstracts on a random basis. We therefore recommend for detailed searches to continue using the ADS search system directly. Since a one-field search system like Google seems to be popular, the ADS has developed such an interface to the ADS as well. The new interface allows you to specify word and author searches in one input field. Author names are detected automatically in the input. Years and year ranges are detected as well. This new interface is available on the ADS homepage or at: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/quick_service.html

Eichhorn, Guenther; Accomazzi, A.; Grant, C. S.; Henneken, E.; Kurtz, M. J.; Thompson, D. M.; Murray, S. S.

2006-09-01

191

Identifying 21st Century Capabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

What are the capabilities necessary to meet 21st century challenges? Much of the literature on 21st century skills focuses on skills necessary to meet those challenges associated with future work in a globalised world. The result is a limited characterisation of those capabilities necessary to address 21st century social, health and particularly…

Stevens, Robert

2012-01-01

192

Managing Reliability in the 21st Century  

SciTech Connect

The rapid pace of change at Ike end of the 20th Century should continue unabated well into the 21st Century. The driver will be the marketplace imperative of "faster, better, cheaper." This imperative has already stimulated a revolution-in-engineering in design and manufacturing. In contrast, to date, reliability engineering has not undergone a similar level of change. It is critical that we implement a corresponding revolution-in-reliability-engineering as we enter the new millennium. If we are still using 20th Century reliability approaches in the 21st Century, then reliability issues will be the limiting factor in faster, better, and cheaper. At the heart of this reliability revolution will be a science-based approach to reliability engineering. Science-based reliability will enable building-in reliability, application-specific products, virtual qualification, and predictive maintenance. The purpose of this paper is to stimulate a dialogue on the future of reliability engineering. We will try to gaze into the crystal ball and predict some key issues that will drive reliability programs in the new millennium. In the 21st Century, we will demand more of our reliability programs. We will need the ability to make accurate reliability predictions that will enable optimizing cost, performance and time-to-market to meet the needs of every market segment. We will require that all of these new capabilities be in place prior to the stint of a product development cycle. The management of reliability programs will be driven by quantifiable metrics of value added to the organization business objectives.

Dellin, T.A.

1998-11-23

193

Nineteenth Century Children's Literature  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This database, maintained by the publishing house of Chadwyck-Healey, Ltd., provides searchable records of the British Library's Children's Literature collection, which contains 2,369 titles on 5,527 fiches. Search parameters include title and complete record keyword, author, subject, publisher, year(s) of publication, microfiche number, and number of records retrieved. (Users may also browse possible search terms for each parameter.) Each entry gives a full bibliographic record for the individual text, including author, uniform title, imprint, place and date of publication, pagination, copy-specific notes, British Library shelfmark, and Fiche quantity and number. The site is part of The Nineteenth Century, a larger collection from Chadwyck-Healey and the British Library that catalogs an impressive array of nineteenth-century texts useful for historical and cultural studies.

194

Century 21 Digital Collection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From April 21 to October 21, 1962, Seattle played host to millions of people who sought out a glimpse into the future through the Century 21 Exposition. This world's fair presented an optimistic vision of "a future improved through science and technology" and this online collection from the Seattle Public Library presents over 1,200 photographs of the fair, along with books, brochures, reports, and more. The photos were taken by Werner Lenggenhager, a Swiss immigrant who donated his works to the Seattle Public Library after his death. Visitors can browse the suggested topics, which include Aerial Views, Space Needle, and Seattle Center Before Century 21. Visitors should also be sure to catch the six photos of Elvis Presley as he sang and danced his way across the grounds while filming, "It Happened at the World's Fair."

195

Genetically Engineered Food AD  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How has biotechnology been used to improve the quality of food available today? Students are placed in groups of 2 to create an advertisement for a genetically engineered food and are then asked to present their ad. The ads are created with small poster board or paper, markers, and construction paper. Students also use the computer for lettering and clip art. If enough computers and suitable software was available, the ads could be completely done on the computer.

Lana Hays (Saint Henry District High School REV)

2005-04-11

196

Banner Ad Placement Study  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Webreference.com (discussed in the April 19, 1996 Scout Report) has recently added this interesting and thought-provoking resource to its site. The resource presents the results of a study of banner ad placement at webreference.com, conducted between March 25 and April 15, 1997 by three University of Michigan School of Business Administration students. The study concludes that changes in placement of banner ads affects "click-through" rates.

Doyle, Kim.; Minor, Anastasia.; Weyrich, Carolyn.

1997-01-01

197

Strings on AdS wormholes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider the behavior of open strings on AdS wormholes in Gauss-Bonnet theory, which are the Gauss-Bonnet gravity duals of a pair of field theories. A string with both endpoints on the same side of the wormhole describes two charges within the same field theory, which exhibit Coulomb interaction for small separation. On the other hand, a string extending through the wormhole describes two charges which live in different field theories, and they exhibit a spring-like confining potential. A transition occurs when there is a pair of charges present within each field theory: for small separation each pair of charges exhibits Coulomb interaction, while for large separation the charges in the different field theories pair up and exhibit confinement. If two charges move faster than a critical speed, then they exhibit a separation gap and energy is transferred from the leading charge to the lagging one.

Ali, Mir; Ruiz, Frenny; Saint-Victor, Carlos; Vázquez-Poritz, Justin F.

2013-12-01

198

Gottfried Kirch (1639-1710) and astronomy in Berlin in the 18th century. Contributions of the colloquium held in Berlin-Treptow on March 6, 2010 (German Title: Gottfried Kirch (1639-1710) und die Berliner Astronomie im 18. Jahrhundert.) Beiträge des Kolloquiums am 6. März 2010 in Berlin-Treptow  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The contributions of this volume are dedicated to Gottfried Kirch (1639-1710), the first Berlin astronomer, on the occasion of the 300th anniversary of his death. They deal with the astronomy of his times and developments in later times, which are connected to his work. The papers deal with the following topics: The instrumental equipment of Berlin Observatory at the time of G. Kirch and its modernisation up to around 1780; the instruments of Johann Makob Marioni's Viennese observatory around 1730; the heraldic celestial globe by Kirch's teacher Erhard Weigel. In addition, they deal with Kirch's share in the propagation of ideas of the Enlightenment, and with the Berlin meteorological record and its consequences for the investigation of anthropogenous climatic changes. They also deal with astronomical topics in the exchange of letters between Leonhard Euler and Daniel Bernoulli, and with the Berlin "Astronomisches Jahrbuch", which is based on Kirch's activities, as a biographical source.

Hamel, Jürgen

2010-12-01

199

Palaeoclimatic conditions during the last tree centuries in the tropical Andes inferred from two glaciological models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tropical glaciers are considered to be especially sensitive to climate change and thus offer an attractive proxy for palaeoclimatic conditions. Here we present temperature and precipitation changes during the last three centuries inferred from two different glaciological models applied on three glaciers selected in Bolivia and in Ecuador. Both models used glaciological parameters such as Equilibrium line Altitude, length, surface- area, and volume variations that were estimated from paleo glaciers documented with moraine records. Moraines were mapped with a GPS field survey and dated by lichenometry using the already published generalized extreme value approach. Climate changes were analyzed for different dates such as 1730, 1800, 1880 and 1956. Climatic reconstructions were firstly based on the modelling of past glacier extensions using a coupling of an ice melt model (to calculate the glacier mass balance) with an ice flow model. The second alternative approach was based on Area-Altitude balance ratio model. Once the models are adequately calibrated, starting from the present conditions, temperature and precipitation have just to be simultaneously changed in order to make the glaciers grow and advance until their past positions are documented by the successive old moraines. Both models revealed cool (about 0.8-1°C colder than today) and wet conditions during the 18th century (about 30% higher accumulation than today) followed by a short drier but colder period at the beginning of the 19th century. The observed reduction of Andean glaciers from the middle of the 19th century is due to a combination of increasingly warmer and drier conditions than before.

Jomelli, V.; Blard, P.; Favier, V.; Pavlova, I.; Brunstein, D.; Soruco, A.; Grancher, D.

2008-12-01

200

Recently Added Antibodies  

Cancer.gov

Reagents Data Portal AntibodiesNCI announces the release of monoclonal antipeptide antibodies from rabbit for distribution on the antibody portal. There are 60 recently added monoclonal antibodies, with 56 generated from mouse and 4 generated from rabbit. Print

201

Avionics Diagnostic System (ADS).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The presentation will provide system design including a description of the commands, outputs and diagnostic capabilities provided by the ADS we created. Issues and decisions will also be described as will thoughts on potential new features that could be a...

T. Risko

1999-01-01

202

Ad Hoc Advisors  

Cancer.gov

The Long Island Breast Cancer Study Project (LIBCSP) had an Ad Hoc Advisory Committee of expert scientists and community breast cancer advocates. This committee was chaired by Dr. Mimi C. Yu. The committee met annually or as needed.

203

ADS pilot program Plan  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Applications Data Service (ADS) is a system based on an electronic data communications network which will permit scientists to share the data stored in data bases at universities and at government and private installations. It is designed to allow users to readily locate and access high quality, timely data from multiple sources. The ADS Pilot program objectives and the current plans for accomplishing those objectives are described.

Clauson, J.; Heuser, J.

1981-01-01

204

Trade in Value Added and the Valued Added in Trade  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discussed two measures of value added flows between countries ‘Trade in value added’ accounts for value added of one country directly and indirectly embodied in final consumption of another country. ‘Value added in trade’ measures the value added embodied in gross trade flows. The paper shows that both measures result in the same overall net trade of a

Robert Stehrer

2012-01-01

205

Ads.com  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A site devoted to offering streaming video commercials, ads.com offers online access to a large assortment of television advertisements. Through an attractive interface, users can search for commericials either by brand name or by television show episode. So, for those watching their favorite television program and want to see a commercial that aired during it, ads.com should be the perfect way to access the commercial. Currently, access by TV program is limited to a few shows on ABC and FOX, but the site offers an extensive list of brand/product names to browse. Also of interest is the Inside Ads link, which takes users to a page that gives in-depth commentary on select commercials; an archive of previous comments is also available. Two versions of each commercial are available: low bandwidth and broadband. Media studies researchers, as well as teachers who use media analysis in their lesson plans, should appreciate the easy access to commercials that ads.com provides. And of course, for those who appreciate popular culture, ads.com be great for viewing the latest "you've gotta see that one" commercial.

206

Standard in the Nineteenth Century  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the book Battles for the Standard: Bimetallism and the Spread of the Gold Standard in the Nineteenth Century , Ted Wilson aims to explain why the gold standard moved from an exclusively British institution at the beginning of the nineteenth century to the most widely used monetary arrangement in the world by 1910. The author offers a number of

Christopher M. Meissner

207

A Century of Skills Movements  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author is a historian of education and has written often about the educational enthusiasms and fads of the past century. One of her books, titled "Left Back," tells the story of the rise and fall of one fad after another across the 20th century. In brief, what she has found is that in the land of American pedagogy, innovation is frequently…

Ravitch, Diane

2010-01-01

208

21st Century Skills Map  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Partnership for 21st Century Skills (P21) has forged alliances with key national organizations representing the core academic subjects, including Social Studies, English, Math, Science, Geography, World Languages and the Arts. These collaborations have resulted in the development of 21st Century Skills Maps that illustrate the essential…

Partnership for 21st Century Skills, 2011

2011-01-01

209

Reading in the Twentieth Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper discusses reading instruction in the 20th century. The paper begins with a tour of the historical pathways that have led people, at the century's end, to the "rocky and highly contested terrain educators currently occupy in reading pedagogy." After the author/educator unfolds his version of a map of that terrain in the paper, he…

Pearson, P. David

210

Ad hoc category restructuring.  

PubMed

Participants learned to classify seemingly arbitrary words into categories that also corresponded to ad hoc categories (see, e.g., Barsalou, 1983). By adapting experimental mechanisms previously used to study knowledge restructuring in perceptual categorization, we provide a novel account of how experimental and preexperimental knowledge interact. Participants were told of the existence of the ad hoc categories either at the beginning or the end of training. When the ad hoc labels were revealed at the end of training, participants switched from categorization based on experimental learning to categorization based on preexperimental knowledge in some, but not all, circumstances. Important mediators of the extent of that switch were the amount of performance error experienced during prior learning and whether or not prior knowledge was in conflict with experimental learning. We present a computational model of the trade-off between preexperimental knowledge and experimental learning that accounts for the main results. PMID:17263065

Little, Daniel R; Lewandowsky, Stephan; Heit, Evan

2006-10-01

211

Wireless Ad Hoc Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mobile ad hoc network is a relatively new term for an old technology - a network that does not rely on p re-existing infrastructure. Roots of this technology could be traced back to the early 1970s with the DARPA PRNet and the SURAN projects. The new twitch is the application of this technology in the non-military communication environments. Additionally,

Zygmunt J. Haas; Jing Deng; Ben Liang; Panagiotis Papadimitratos; S. Sajama

2002-01-01

212

Ad Astra Magazine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Ad Astra ("To the Stars") is the award-winning magazine of the National Space Society. It features space exploration news and full-color photography. It is published quarterly and mailed to all National Space Society members as part of their membership benefits, as well as to subscriber libraries, schools, and businesses.

2005-04-25

213

Regional gross value added  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARYThis article presents estimates for regional gross value added (GVA) published in December 2009, using the European Union Nomenclature of Units for Territorial Statistics (NUTS) regions (please see Box 1 for a detailed explanation of the NUTS regional classification). Data are published at the NUTS1 level for the period 1989 to 2008 and at the NUTS2 and NUTS3 level for

Bethan West

2010-01-01

214

The Cosmic Century  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Part I. Stars and Stellar Evolution up to the Second World War: 1. The legacy of the nineteenth century; 2. The classification of stellar spectra; 3. Stellar structure and evolution; 4. The end points of stellar evolution; Part II. The Large-Scale Structure of the Universe, 1900-1939: 5. The Galaxy and the nature of spiral nebulae; 6. The origins of astrophysical cosmology; Part III. The Opening up of the Electromagnetic Spectrum: 7. The opening up of the electromagnetic spectrum and the new astronomies; Part IV. The Astrophysics of Stars and Galaxies since 1945: 8. Stars and stellar evolution; 9. The physics of the interstellar medium; 10. The physics of galaxies and clusters of galaxies; 11. High-energy astrophysics; Part V. Astrophysical Cosmology since 1945: 12. Astrophysical cosmology; 13. The determination of cosmological parameters; 14. The evolution of galaxies and active galaxies with cosmic epoch; 15. The origin of galaxies and the large-scale structure of the Universe; 16. The very early Universe; References; Name index; Object index; Subject index.

Longair, Malcolm S.

2013-04-01

215

Nineteenth Century Documents Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Produced by the History department at Furman University in South Carolina, this site features full texts of primary documents in nineteenth-century American history "with special emphasis on those sources that shed light on sectional conflict and transformations in regional identity." The site has thus far posted documents ranging from newspaper editorials and abolitionist tracts to political speeches and legislative resolutions. These materials will aid researchers examining issues of Slavery and Sectionalism, the Kansas-Nebraska Bill of 1854, the Dred Scott Case, the election of 1860, the secession of the Southern states, and the immediate aftermath of the Civil War in the South. The site also features a statistical almanac of the 1850s, which includes but is not limited to data on slave mortality and survival; the ratio of slaveholders to families in 1860 (by state); presidential elections, 1844-1860; and Growth in Railroad Mileage, 1850-1860. Some documents may have some minor errors, but fully proofed documents are clearly marked.

Benson, Lloyd.

216

Foreword: 18th Aps-Sccm and 24th Airapt  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This second joint conference between the APS Topical Group on Shock Compression of Condensed Matter and the International Association for the Advancement of High Pressure Science and Technology (AIRAPT) demonstrates that static and dynamic compression of condensed matter continues to be a vibrant field of science and engineering. It is also by its nature an interdisciplinary field, incorporating chemistry, materials science, solid mechanics, plasma physics, and condensed matter physics, and utilizes theoretical, computational, and experimental tools. Recent years have brought about many advances in loading platforms, diagnostics, and computations that are leading to the emergence of many new avenues of research. These advances are also breathing new life into traditional topics such as equations of state, phase transformations, and chemistry at extreme conditions. The plenary lectures by Gennady Kanel, Karl Syassen, David Ceperley, Jon Eggert, Duck Young Kim, and Richard Kraus spanned the disciplines of static and dynamic high pressure physics and illustrated the breadth of the field. They also showed that interesting and important problems remain for researchers of the future to solve. The main guiding principal in the organization of this conference was to intertwine static and dynamical experimental alongside computational and theoretical studies of similar materials. To achieve this goal, we arranged the conference to include static, dynamic, and computational components in the same sessions, quite often taking presenters out of their comfort zone. The three special sessions on Deep Carbon Budget (organized by Giulia Galli and Rus Hemley), High Energy Density Materials (organized by Raymond Jeanloz and Jon Eggert), and Dynamic Response of Materials (organized by Yogendra Gupta and John Sarrao) furthered this guiding principal. We also endeavored to represent the breadth of static and dynamic high pressure science and technology, notably beyond that done at national laboratories. To this end, a significant fraction of the plenary, invited and contributed presentations showcased work done in academia, defense laboratories and industry, as well as internationally. Although travel distance and visa issues always present difficulties, the conference had strong representation from a record number of international participants, including sizable groups from Russia and China (thanks to Tony Zocher and Frank Cherne), as well as Japan, the United Kingdom, France, Canada, Germany, Israel, and Italy. It is our sincere hope that international interactions that occurred at the conference will lead to further collaborations in the future. Finally, we strived to increase student participation at the conference. Through the leadership of Scott Alexander and his committee, a new all-day student symposium was held the day before the main conference, with only student attendees and presenters, in order to acclimate the students to conference participation and help them network with their peers. In cooperation with the APS Topical Group and the AIRAPT and with additional support from DTRA and the AWE, the conference was able to provide financial assistance to a large number of students to attend the conference and present their research. This aid helped increase the number of student attendees significantly over previous conferences. Finally, the conference sponsored a networking lunch for students and representatives from a number of laboratories and other institutions, which was well attended. Seattle proved itself to be an excellent venue for the conference. The international flavor of the city provided ample dining options and numerous activity choices outside of the conference sessions. The major international airport made travel as easy as possible, as Seattle is a convenient central location for attendees from Europe and Asia. The conference was truly a team effort with critical contributions from many individuals. We deeply appreciate their contributions to the success of the conference and the publication of these proceedings. G

Collins, Gilbert; Moore, David S.; Yoo, Choong-Shik

2014-05-01

217

Introducing ADS Labs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ADS Labs is a platform that ADS is introducing in order to test and receive feedback from the community on new technologies and prototype services. Currently, ADS Labs features a new interface for abstract searches, faceted filtering of results, visualization of co-authorship networks, article-level recommendations, and a full-text search service. The streamlined abstract search interface provides a simple, one-box search with options for ranking results based on a paper relevancy, freshness, number of citations, and downloads. In addition, it provides advanced rankings based on collaborative filtering techniques. The faceted filtering interface allows users to narrow search results based on a particular property or set of properties ("facets"), allowing users to manage large lists and explore the relationship between them. For any set or sub-set of records, the co-authorship network can be visualized in an interactive way, offering a view of the distribution of contributors and their inter-relationships. This provides an immediate way to detect groups and collaborations involved in a particular research field. For a majority of papers in Astronomy, our new interface will provide a list of related articles of potential interest. The recommendations are based on a number of factors, including text similarity, citations, and co-readership information. The new full-text search interface allows users to find all instances of particular words or phrases in the body of the articles in our full-text archive. This includes all of the scanned literature in ADS as well as a select portion of the current astronomical literature, including ApJ, ApJS, AJ, MNRAS, PASP, A&A, and soon additional content from Springer journals. Fulltext search results include a list of the matching papers as well as a list of "snippets" of text highlighting the context in which the search terms were found. ADS Labs is available at http://adslabs.org

Accomazzi, Alberto; Henneken, E.; Grant, C. S.; Kurtz, M. J.; Di Milia, G.; Luker, J.; Thompson, D. M.; Bohlen, E.; Murray, S. S.

2011-05-01

218

ADS in a Nutshell  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The bibliographic databases maintained by the NASA Astrophysics Data System are updated approximately biweekly with records gathered from over 125 sources all over the world. Data are either sent to us electronically, retrieved by our staff via semi-automated procedures, or entered in our databases through supervised OCR procedures. PERL scripts are run on the data to convert them from their incoming format to our standard format so that they can be added to the master database at SAO. Once new data has been added, separate index files are created for authors, objects, title words, and text word, allowing these fields to be searched for individually or in combination with each other. During the indexing procedure, discipline-specific knowledge is taken into account through the use of rule-based procedures performing string normalization, context-sensitive word translation, and synonym and stop word replacement. Once the master text and index files have been updated at SAO, an automated procedure mirrors the changes in the database to the ADS mirror site via a secure network connection. The use of a public domain software tool called rsync allows incremental updating of the database files, with significant savings in the amount of data being transferred. In the past year, the ADS Abstract Service databases have grown by approximately 30%, including 50% growth in Physics, 25% growth in Astronomy and 10% growth in the Instrumentation datasets. The ADS Abstract Service now contains over 1.4 million abstracts (475K in Astronomy, 430K in Physics, 510K in Instrumentation, and 3K in Preprints), 175,000 journal abstracts, and 115,000 full text articles. In addition, we provide links to over 40,000 electronic HTML articles at other sites, 20,000 PDF articles, and 10,000 postscript articles, as well as many links to other external data sources.

Demleitner, M.; Eichhorn, G.; Grant, C. S.; Accomazzi, A.; Murray, S. S.; Kurtz, M. J.

1999-05-01

219

Megadrought and Megadeath in 16th Century Mexico  

PubMed Central

The native population collapse in 16th century Mexico was a demographic catastrophe with one of the highest death rates in history. Recently developed tree-ring evidence has allowed the levels of precipitation to be reconstructed for north central Mexico, adding to the growing body of epidemiologic evidence and indicating that the 1545 and 1576 epidemics of cocoliztli (Nahuatl for "pest”) were indigenous hemorrhagic fevers transmitted by rodent hosts and aggravated by extreme drought conditions.

Acuna-Soto, Rodolfo; Cleaveland, Malcolm K.; Therrell, Matthew D.

2002-01-01

220

Ad*Access  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Duke University Libraries has an extensive physical and online collection of advertisements that appeared in magazines and newspapers in the U.S. and Canada from 1911-1955. The Ad*Access collection focuses on advertisements in five main subject areas: Radio, Television, Transportation, Beauty and Hygiene, and World War II. Visitors should read the "About Us" section to learn about why the collection was created and its importance for research. Visitors can "browse" the collection by the aforementioned categories, product, year, and company. For example, "War Bonds" are listed under "Product", and visitors will find that the messages in war bond advertisements are quite frank, and insistent, that people should help the war effort. Visitors should check out the following ads found when browsing war bonds: "I'm Saving to go to Ag College...And Buying Bullets for Pete!", "Avenge Pearl Harbor! Buy Bonds! Give Bonds!", and "Your Bond Purchase Makes These Nazis Shiver".

221

Political Ad Critic  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Brought to you by the folks at Adcritic.com, this Website features sixteen 30-second spots from the Presidential primary and general elections campaign. Political Ad Critic lists a "top ten," with Ralph Nader's hip parody ("The Truth: Priceless") of the popular MasterCard commercials awarded number one, and posts new ads from the campaign each week. Currently, there are four commercials from the Gore campaign posted here -- one of which has Gore speaking Spanish -- and six from Bush's camp, including the now-infamous "bureaucRATS" spot. (The QuickTime control bar allows users to advance frame by frame so they can judge for themselves the commercial's disputed subliminal content.) Commercials from the Libertarian party candidate Harry Browne, and primary contenders John McCain and Bill Bradley round out the Website. May the best commercial win.

222

ADS Abstract Service Enhancements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Astrophysics Data System is enhancing functionality and access to the Abstract Service in several areas. A new WAIS server running the freeWAIS search engine has been added to the existing HTTP and ANSA-based servers. Abstract coverage will be expanded to include more of the NASA ``RECON'' categories as well as abstracts obtained directly from astronomical journals. In addition, we are enhancing the service to include full journal articles in a suitable electronic format.

Accomazzi, A.; Grant, C. S.; Eichhorn, G.; Kurtz, M. J.; Murray, S. S.

223

On deformations of AdS n × S n supercosets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the deformed AdS 5 × S 5 supercoset model of arXiv:1309.5850 which depends on one parameter ? and has classical quantum group symmetry. We confirm the conjecture that in the "maximal" deformation limit, ? ? ?, this model is T-dual to "flipped" double Wick rotation of the target space AdS 5 × S 5, i.e. dS 5 × H 5 space supported by an imaginary 5-form flux. In the imaginary deformation limit, ? ? i, the corresponding target space metric is of a pp-wave type and thus the resulting light-cone gauge S-matrix becomes relativistically invariant. Omitting non-unitary contributions of imaginary WZ terms, we find that this tree-level S-matrix is equivalent to that of the generalized sine-Gordon model representing the Pohlmeyer reduction of the undeformed AdS 5 × S 5 superstring model. We also study in some detail similar deformations of the AdS 3 × S 3 and AdS 2 × S 2 supercosets. The bosonic part of the deformed AdS 3 × S 3 model happens to be equivalent to the symmetric case of the sum of the Fateev integrable deformation of the SL(2) and SU(2) principal chiral models, while in the AdS 2 × S 2 case the role of the Fateev model is played by the 2d "sausage" model. The ? = i limits are again directly related to the Pohlmeyer reductions of the corresponding AdS n × S n supercosets: (2,2) super sine-Gordon model and its complex sine-Gordon analog. We also discuss possible deformations of AdS 3 × S 3 with more than one parameter.

Hoare, B.; Roiban, R.; Tseytlin, A. A.

2014-06-01

224

ADS Article Service  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Astrophysics Data System, a database funded by the US National Aeronautics and Space Administration, provides access to scanned astronomical journal articles. The database currently contains sixteen journals, including Astronomy & Astrophysics and Meteoritics & Planetary Sciences, from which articles may be viewed. To find articles, specify volume number and page or plate number. The database is restricted to archived journals; most journals are available through 1996, with a few available through 1997. In addition, the articles can be accessed through separate table of contents and abstract services also provided by ADS.

225

Adding Slide Rule  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students construct adding slide rules, scaled with linear calibrations like ordinary rulers. Students learn to move these scales relative to each other in ways that add and subtract distances, thus calculating sums and differences. This is Activity A1 in the "Far Out Math" educator's guide. Lessons within the guide include activities in which students measure, compare quantities as orders of magnitude, use scientific notation, and develop an understanding of exponents and logarithms using examples from NASA's GLAST mission. These are skills needed to understand the very large and very small quantities characteristic of astronomical observations. Note: In 2008, the GLAST mission was renamed Fermi, for the physicist Enrico Fermi.

226

An xp model on AdS2 spacetime  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we formulate the xp model on the AdS2 spacetime. We find that the spectrum of the Hamiltonian has positive and negative eigenvalues, whose absolute values are given by a harmonic oscillator spectrum, which in turn coincides with that of a massive Dirac fermion in AdS2. We extend this result to generic xp models which are shown to be equivalent to a massive Dirac fermion on spacetimes whose metric depend of the xp Hamiltonian. Finally, we construct the generators of the isometry group SO(2,1) of the AdS2 spacetime, and discuss the relation with conformal quantum mechanics.

Molina-Vilaplana, Javier; Sierra, Germán

2013-12-01

227

Temperature changes in Poland from the 16th to the 20th centuries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A standardized tree-ring width chronology of the Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) along with different types of documentary evidence (e.g. annals, chronicles, diaries, private correspondence, records of public administration, early newspapers) have been used to reconstruct air temperature in Poland. The ground surface temperature (GST) history has been reconstructed based on the continuous temperature logs from 13 wells, using a new method developed recently by Harris and Chapman (1998; Journal of Geophysical Research 103: 7371-7383) which is compared with the functional space inversion (FSI) method applied to all available Polish temperature-depth profiles analysed before.Response function calculations conducted for trees growing in Poland (except in mountainous regions) reveal a statistically significant correlation between the annual ring widths of the Scots pine and the monthly mean air temperatures, particularly from February and March, but also from January and April. Therefore, it was only possible to reconstruct the mean January-April air temperature.The following periods featured a warm late winter/early spring: 1530-90, 1656-70 (the warmest period), 1820-50, 1910-40, and after 1985. On the other hand, a cold January-April occurred in the following periods: 1600-50, 1760-75, 1800-15, 1880-1900, and 1950-80.Reconstructions of thermal conditions using documentary evidence were carried out for winter (December-February) and summer (June-August) from 1501 to 1840 and, therefore, their results cannot be directly compared with reconstructions based on tree-ring widths. Winter temperatures in this period were colder than air temperature in the 20th century. On the other hand, historical summers were generally warmer than those occurring in the 20th century. Such situations dominated in the 16th and 17th centuries, as well as at the turn of the 18th and 19th centuries. Throughout almost the entire period from 1501 to 1840, the thermal continentality of the climate in Poland was greater than in the 20th century.GST reconstructions show that its average pre-instrumental level (1500-1778) is about 0.9-1.5 °C lower than the mean air temperature for the period 1951-81. Lower amplitude of GST warming (0.9 +/- 0.1 °C) results from the individual and simultaneous inversions of well temperature data using the FSI method. A very good correspondence of the results has been found between series of annual mean GSTs from the FSI method and mean seasonal air temperatures reconstructed using documentary evidence.

Przybylak, Rajmund; Majorowicz, Jacek; Wójcik, Gabriel; Zielski, Andrzej; Choryczewski, Waldemar; Marciniak, Kazimierz; Nowosad, Wiesaw; Oliski, Piotr; Syta, Krzysztof

2005-05-01

228

Supersymmetric warped AdS in extended topologically massive supergravity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We determine the most general form of off-shell N=(1,1) supergravity field configurations in three dimensions by requiring that at least one off-shell Killing spinor exists. We then impose the field equations of the topologically massive off-shell supergravity and find a class of solutions whose properties crucially depend on the norm of the auxiliary vector field. These are spacelike-squashed and timelike-stretched AdS3 for the spacelike and timelike norms, respectively. At the transition point where the norm vanishes, the solution is null warped AdS3. This occurs when the coefficient of the Lorentz-Chern-Simons term is related to the AdS radius by ??=2. We find that the spacelike-squashed AdS3 can be modded out by a suitable discrete subgroup of the isometry group, yielding an extremal black hole solution which avoids closed timelike curves.

Deger, N. S.; Kaya, A.; Samtleben, H.; Sezgin, E.

2014-07-01

229

Luigi Galvani and animal electricity: two centuries after the foundation of electrophysiology.  

PubMed

Luigi Galvani and his famous experiments on frogs carried out in the second half of the 18th century belong more to legend than to the history of science. Galvani not only laid the foundations of a new science, electrophysiology, but also opened the way for the invention of the electric battery, and thus for the development of the physical investigations of electricity. However, in spite of the widespread celebration of his work, Galvani's scientific endeavours have been largely misrepresented in the history of science. The scholar of Bologna has a stereotyped image as an 'occasional' scientist, who started his studies by chance, largely ignored the scientific theories of his time and wandered aimlessly in mental elaborations until the physicist of Pavia, Alessandro Volta, entered the field, correctly interpreted Galvani's results and eventually developed the electric battery. With the present understanding of electrical phenomena in excitable membranes, it is now time to reconsider the real matter raised by Galvani's discoveries and by his hypothesis of an intrinsic 'animal electricity', and to make a clearer evaluation of a revolutionary phase of scientific progress. PMID:9347609

Piccolino, M

1997-10-01

230

The Shorts of Bury St Edmunds: medicine, Catholicism and politics in the 17th century.  

PubMed

The Short family of Bury St Edmunds produced at least eight doctors between the first half of the 17th century and the first half of the 18th. Some of these practised locally and others went on to achieve fame in London or abroad. They included Richard Short (d. 1668), a medical polemicist, and Thomas Short (1635-85) who treated Charles II in his last illness and became the subject of poetry and other literature. The Shorts generated controversy through their adherence to the Roman Catholic faith at a time of persecution and suspicion. Richard Short used medical polemic as a vehicle for advancing his religious views, and his son and nephew became involved in James II's political programme to introduce religious toleration in 1688. After the Revolution the Shorts withdrew from political life but continued in their medical practice and their recusancy. This paper is the first to unravel the family relationships of the Shorts, which previously have eluded most historians. PMID:18952986

Young, Francis

2008-11-01

231

Vertex Operators for AdS3 with Ramond Background  

Microsoft Academic Search

The computation of exact vertex operators for the Type IIB superstring in an AdS3 × S3 background with Ramond-Ramond flux is described. The components of these vertex operators are shown to satisfy the supergravity linearized equations of motion for the six-dimensional (2,0) theory of a supergravity and tensor multiplet expanded around AdS3 × S3 spacetime.

Louise Dolan

2001-01-01

232

Vertex Operators for AdS3 with Ramond Background  

Microsoft Academic Search

The computation of exact vertex operators for the Type IIB superstring in an AdS3×S3 background with Ramond-Ramond flux is described. The components of these vertex operators are shown to satisfy the supergravity linearized equations of motion for the six-dimensional (2,0) theory of a supergravity and tensor multiplet expanded around AdS3×S3 spacetime.

Louise Dolan

2001-01-01

233

Minisuperspace limit of the AdS 3 WZNW model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We derive the three-point function of the AdS 3 WZNW model in the minisuperspace limit by Wick rotation from the H {3/+} model. The result is expressed in terms of Clebsch-Gordan coefficients of the Lie algebra sell left( {2,mathbb{R}} right) . We also introduce a covariant basis of functions on AdS 3, which can be interpreted as bulk-boundary propagators.

Ribault, Sylvain

2010-04-01

234

Adding and Subtracting Integers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Now that you have mastered the common math operations of adding, subtracting, multiplying and dividing, you are ready to tackle some more challenging, yet practical problems. For example: How much money do you have if your Mom paid you $20 for every time you mowed the lawn, but you had to pay your little brother $5 for every time he helped you, and together you accomplished the job 7 times? Or how about this one: if you picked 5 apples but 2 were rotten and you had to divide them equally between you and your five friends, how much would each person get? Current Knowledge You will need a piece of paper to record information and to write down examples, so grab one now. Number the paper from 1 to 10. Get with a partner and write down how you think the equations to solve the above problems will be written. Write these ...

Richins, Mrs.

2008-09-10

235

Historic Building Information Modelling - Adding intelligence to laser and image based surveys of European classical architecture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Historic Building Information Modelling (HBIM) is a novel prototype library of parametric objects, based on historic architectural data and a system of cross platform programmes for mapping parametric objects onto point cloud and image survey data. The HBIM process begins with remote collection of survey data using a terrestrial laser scanner combined with digital photo modelling. The next stage involves the design and construction of a parametric library of objects, which are based on the manuscripts ranging from Vitruvius to 18th century architectural pattern books. In building parametric objects, the problem of file format and exchange of data has been overcome within the BIM ArchiCAD software platform by using geometric descriptive language (GDL). The plotting of parametric objects onto the laser scan surveys as building components to create or form the entire building is the final stage in the reverse engineering process. The final HBIM product is the creation of full 3D models including detail behind the object's surface concerning its methods of construction and material make-up. The resultant HBIM can automatically create cut sections, details and schedules in addition to the orthographic projections and 3D models (wire frame or textured) for both the analysis and conservation of historic objects, structures and environments.

Murphy, Maurice; McGovern, Eugene; Pavia, Sara

2013-02-01

236

Historic Building Information Modelling - Adding Intelligence to Laser and Image Based Surveys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Historic Building Information Modelling (HBIM) is a novel prototype library of parametric objects based on historic data and a system of cross platform programmes for mapping parametric objects onto a point cloud and image survey data. The HBIM process begins with remote collection of survey data using a terrestrial laser scanner combined with digital photo modelling. The next stage involves the design and construction of a parametric library of objects, which are based on the manuscripts ranging from Vitruvius to 18th century architectural pattern books. In building parametric objects, the problem of file format and exchange of data has been overcome within the BIM ArchiCAD software platform by using geometric descriptive language (GDL). The plotting of parametric objects onto the laser scan surveys as building components to create or form the entire building is the final stage in the reverse engin- eering process. The final HBIM product is the creation of full 3D models including detail behind the object's surface concerning its methods of construction and material make-up. The resultant HBIM can automatically create cut sections, details and schedules in addition to the orthographic projections and 3D models (wire frame or textured).

Murphy, M.; McGovern, E.; Pavia, S.

2011-09-01

237

Physics in the Twentieth Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides a review of the great discoveries, theoretical concepts and development of physics in the 20th century. The growth and significance of diverse fields such as quantum theory, relativity theory, atomic physics, molecular physics, the physics of the solid state, nuclear physics, astrophysics, plasma physics, and particle physics are…

Weisskopf, Victor F.

1970-01-01

238

The 21st Century Learner.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The profound changes of the 21st century are transforming America into what must become a learning society. Never before have museums, libraries and the whole of the non-formal sector of educational institutions faced such challenges and opportunities. The demand is great for fresh and innovative thinking to construct a bold, new learning network…

Sheppard, Beverly

239

Classification of boundary gravitons in AdS3 gravity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We revisit the description of the space of asymptotically AdS3 solutions of pure gravity in three dimensions with a negative cosmological constant as a collection of coadjoint orbits of the Virasoro group. Each orbit corresponds to a set of metrics related by diffeomorphisms which do not approach the identity fast enough at the boundary. Orbits contain more than a single element and this fact manifests the global degrees of freedom of AdS3 gravity, being each element of an orbit what we call boundary graviton. We show how this setup allows to learn features about the classical phase space that otherwise would be quite difficult. Most important are the proof of energy bounds and the characterization of boundary gravitons unrelated to BTZs and AdS3. In addition, it makes manifest the underlying mathematical structure of the space of solutions close to infinity. Notably, because of the existence of a symplectic form in each orbit, being this related with the usual Dirac bracket of the asymptotic charges, this approach is a natural starting point for the quantization of different sectors of AdS3 gravity. We finally discuss previous attempts to quantize coadjoint orbits of the Virasoro group and how this is relevant for the formulation of AdS3 quantum gravity.

Garbarz, Alan; Leston, Mauricio

2014-05-01

240

Logarithmic AdS waves and Zwei-Dreibein gravity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We show that the parameter space of Zwei-Dreibein Gravity (ZDG) in AdS3 exhibits critical points, where massive graviton modes coincide with pure gauge modes and new `logarithmic' modes appear, similar to what happens in New Massive Gravity. The existence of critical points is shown both at the linearized level, as well as by finding AdS wave solutions of the full non-linear theory, that behave as logarithmic modes towards the AdS boundary. In order to find these solutions explicitly, we give a reformulation of ZDG in terms of a single Dreibein, that involves an infinite number of derivatives. At the critical points, ZDG can be conjectured to be dual to a logarithmic conformal field theory with zero central charges, characterized by new anomalies whose conjectured values are calculated.

Bergshoeff, Eric A.; Goya, Andrés F.; Merbis, Wout; Rosseel, Jan

2014-04-01

241

All AdS7 solutions of type II supergravity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In M-theory, the only AdS7 supersymmetric solutions are AdS7 × S 4 and its orbifolds. In this paper, we find and classify new supersymmetric solutions of the type AdS7 × M 3 in type II supergravity. While in IIB none exist, in IIA with Romans mass (which does not lift to M-theory) there are many new ones. We use a pure spinor approach reminiscent of generalized complex geometry. Without the need for any Ansatz, the system determines uniquely the form of the metric and fluxes, up to solving a system of ODEs. Namely, the metric on M 3 is that of an S 2 fibered over an interval; this is consistent with the Sp(1) R-symmetry of the holographically dual (1,0) theory. By including D8 brane sources, one can numerically obtain regular solutions, where topologically M 3 ? S 3.

Apruzzi, Fabio; Fazzi, Marco; Rosa, Dario; Tomasiello, Alessandro

2014-04-01

242

Gauged Kaluza-Klein AdS pseudo-supergravity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We obtain the pseudo-supergravity extension of the D-dimensional Kaluza-Klein theory, which is the circle reduction of pure gravity in D+1 dimensions. The fermionic partners are pseudo-gravitino and pseudo-dilatino. The full Lagrangian is invariant under the pseudo-supersymmetric transformation, up to quadratic order in fermion fields. We find that the theory possesses a U(1) global symmetry that can be gauged so that all the fermions are charged under the Kaluza-Klein vector. The gauging process generates a scalar potential that has a maximum, leading to the AdS vacuum. Whist the highest dimension for gauged AdS supergravity is seven, our gauged AdS pseudo-supergravities can exist in arbitrary dimensions.

Liu, Haishan; Lü, H.; Wang, Zhao-Long

2011-09-01

243

Worldsheet scattering in AdS3/CFT2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We confront the recently proposed exact S-matrices for AdS 3/ CFT 2 with direct worldsheet calculations. Utilizing the BMN and Near Flat Space (NFS) expansions for strings on AdS 3 × S 3 × S 3 × S 1 and AdS 3 × S 3 × T 4 we compute both tree-level and one-loop scattering amplitudes. Up to some minor issues we find nice agreement in the tree-level sector. At the one-loop level however we find that certain non-zero tree-level processes, which are not visible in the exact solution, contribute, via the optical theorem, and give an apparent mismatch for certain amplitudes. Furthermore we find that a proposed one-loop modification of the dressing phase correctly reproduces the worldsheet calculation while the standard Hernandez-Lopez phase does not. We also compute several massless to massless processes.

Sundin, Per; Wulff, Linus

2013-07-01

244

Comments on String Theory on $AdS_3$  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study string propagation on $AdS_3$ times a compact space from an ``old fashioned'' worldsheet point of view of perturbative string theory. We derive the spacetime CFT and its Virasoro and current algebras, thus establishing the conjectured $AdS$\\/CFT correspondence for this case in the full string theory. Our results have implications for the extreme IR limit of the $D1-D5$ system,

Amit Giveon; David Kutasov; Nathan Seiberg

1998-01-01

245

The 21st Century Skills Movement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since 2002, the Partnership for 21st Century Skills has been the leading advocacy organization in the United States focused on infusing 21st century skills into education. Its "Framework for 21st Century Learning," the result of a consensus among hundreds of stakeholders, describes the skills, knowledge, and expertise students need to succeed in…

Johnson, Paige

2009-01-01

246

PETER MAURIN: PROPHET IN THE TWENTIETH CENTURY  

Microsoft Academic Search

The twentieth century has seen the death rate due to improper nutrition and medical ignorance of past centuries equalled by avoidable human-induced violence. The past eighty years have seen the world move through the terrible terrain of holocaust: in the Soviet Union, in Nazi Germany, in Southeast Asia. Gil Elliot has appropriately labelled our time the century of the dead.

MARC HIRSCH ELLIS

1980-01-01

247

The 21st century propulsion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The prediction of future space travel in the next millennium starts by examining the past and extrapolating into the far future. Goals for the 21st century include expanded space travel and establishment of permanent manned outposts, and representation of Lunar and Mars outposts as the most immediate future in space. Nuclear stage design/program considerations; launch considerations for manned Mars missions; and far future propulsion schemes are outlined.

Haloulakos, V. E.; Boehmer, C.

1990-01-01

248

Immigration and the American century  

Microsoft Academic Search

The full impact of immigration on American society is obscured in policy and academic analyses that focus on the short-term\\u000a problems of immigrant adjustment. With a longer-term perspective, which includes the socioeconomic roles of the children of\\u000a immigrants, immigration appears as one of the defining characteristics of twentieth-century America. Major waves of immigration\\u000a create population diversity with new languages and

Charles Hirschman

2005-01-01

249

Manumission in Nineteenth Century Virginia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A long-standing debate concerns the rationality of slave owners and this paper addresses that debate within the context of manumission. Using a new sample of 19th-century Virginia manumissions, I show that manumission was associated with the productive characteristics of slaves. More productive slaves were manumitted at younger ages than less productive slaves. Although more productive slaves were more valuable to

Howard Bodenhorn

2010-01-01

250

Contesting the Norm: Women and Professional Sports in Late Nineteenth-Century America  

Microsoft Academic Search

Athletic opportunities for females have reached an extent that few women living in the nineteenth century might ever have imagined. For more than two decades the women's 10,000-metre run has been part of the Olympics. Women's wrestling was added at Athens in 2004 and women's boxing competitions will begin at the 2012 London Games. Changing cultural norms, especially those brought

Roberta J. Park

2012-01-01

251

AdS pure spinor superstring in constant backgrounds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we study the pure spinor formulation of the superstring in AdS 5 × S 5 around point particle solutions of the classical equations of motion. As a particular example we quantize the pure spinor string in the BMN background.

Chandia, Osvaldo; Bevilaqua, L. Ibiapina; Vallilo, Brenno Carlini

2014-06-01

252

The Universal Phase Space of AdS3 Gravity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe what can be called the "universal" phase space of AdS3 gravity, in which the moduli spaces of globally hyperbolic AdS spacetimes with compact spatial sections, as well as the moduli spaces of multi-black-hole spacetimes are realized as submanifolds. The universal phase space is parametrized by two copies of the universal Teichmüller space {{T}(1)} and is obtained from the correspondence between maximal surfaces in AdS3 and quasisymmetric homeomorphisms of the unit circle. We also relate our parametrization to the Chern-Simons formulation of 2+1 gravity and, infinitesimally, to the holographic (Fefferman-Graham) description. In particular, we obtain a relation between the generators of quasiconformal deformations in each {{T}(1)} sector and the chiral Brown-Henneaux vector fields. We also relate the charges arising in the holographic description (such as the mass and angular momentum of an AdS3 spacetime) to the periods of the quadratic differentials arising via the Bers embedding of {{T}(1)×{T}(1)} . Our construction also yields a symplectic map {T^ ast {T}(1) ? {T}(1) × {T}(1)} generalizing the well-known Mess map in the compact spatial surface setting.

Scarinci, Carlos; Krasnov, Kirill

2013-08-01

253

Supersymmetric AdS vacua and separation of scales  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The moduli space of the supersymmetric massive IIA AdS4 × S 2(B4) vacua, where S 2(B4) is a two-sphere bundle over a four-dimensional Kähler-Einstein base B4, includes three independent parameters which can be thought of as corresponding to the sizes of AdS4, B4 and the S 2 fiber. It might therefore be expected that these vacua do not suffer from the absence of scale separation. We show that the independence of the geometric moduli survives flux quantization. However, we uncover an attractor behavior whereby all sizes flow to equality in some neighborhood of spacetime independently of the initial conditions set by the parameters of the solution. This is further confirmed by the study of the ratio of internal to external scalar curvatures. We also show that the asymptotic Kaluza-Klein spectrum of a ten-dimensional massive scalar is governed by a scale of the order of the AdS4 radius. Furthermore we point out that the curvature ratio in supersymmetric IIA AdS4 vacua with rigid SU(3) structure is of order one, indicating the absence of scale separation in this large class of vacua.

Tsimpis, Dimitrios

2012-08-01

254

Gauge boson exchange in AdS d+1  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the amplitude for exchange of massless gauge bosons between pairs of massive scalar fields in anti-de Sitter space. In the AdS/CFT correspondence this amplitude describes the contribution of conserved flavor symmetry currents to 4-point functions of scalar operators in the boundary conformal theory. A concise, covariant, Y2K compatible derivation of the gauge boson propagator in AdS d + 1 is given. Techniques are developed to calculate the two bulk integrals over AdS space leading to explicit expressions or convenient, simple integral representations for the amplitude. The amplitude contains leading power and sub-leading logarithmic singularities in the gauge boson channel and leading logarithms in the crossed channel. The new methods of this paper are expected to have other applications in the study of the Maldacena conjecture.

D'Hoker, Eric; Freedman, Daniel Z.

1999-04-01

255

Ad hoc positioning system (APS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many ad hoc network protocols and applications assume the knowledge of geographic location of nodes. The absolute location of each networked node is an assumed fact by most sensor networks which can then present the sensed information on a geographical map. Finding location without the aid of GPS in each node of an ad hoc network is important in cases

Dragos Niculescu; Badri Nath

2001-01-01

256

Usual Intake of Added sugars  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Added sugars Table A40. Added sugars: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 teaspoons3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 9.4 (0.31) 3.1 (0.17) 4.1

257

Beware the "Argumentum ad Hominem."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Differences between arguing "ad hominem" and "ad rem" are explored in two case studies of fifth-grade gifted boys, demonstrating the need for gifted children to be helped to approach problems by considering issues rather than personalities. (Author/DB)

Grau, Phyllis Nelson

1986-01-01

258

Thermalization with a chemical potential from AdS spaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The time-scale of thermalization in holographic dual models with a chemical potential in diverse number of dimensions is systematically investigated using the gauge/gravity duality. We consider a model with a thin-shell of charged dust collapsing from the boundary toward the bulk interior of asymptotically anti-de Sitter (AdS) spaces. In the outer region there is a Reissner-Nordström-AdS black hole (RNAdS-BH), while in the inner region there is an anti-de Sitter space. We consider renormalized geodesic lengths and minimal area surfaces as probes of thermalization, which in the dual quantum field theory (QFT) correspond to two-point functions and expectation values of Wilson loops, respectively. We show how the behavior of these extensive probes changes for charged black holes in comparison with Schwarzschild-AdS black holes (AdS-BH), for different values of the black hole mass and charge. The full range of values of the chemical potential over temperature ratio in the dual QFT is investigated. In all cases, the structure of the thermalization curves shares similar features with those obtained from the AdS-BH. On the other hand, there is an important difference in comparison with the AdS-BH: the thermalization times obtained from the renormalized geodesic lengths and the minimal area surfaces are larger for the RNAdS-BH, and they increase as the black hole charge increases.

Galante, Damián; Schvellinger, Martin

2012-07-01

259

Kolmogorov-Zakharov spectrum in AdS gravitational collapse.  

PubMed

We study black hole formation during the gravitational collapse of a massless scalar field in asymptotically D-dimensional anti-de Sitter AdS(D) spacetimes for D = 4, 5. We conclude that spherically symmetric gravitational collapse in asymptotically AdS spaces is turbulent and characterized by a Kolmogorov-Zakharov spectrum. Namely, we find that after an initial period of weakly nonlinear evolution, there is a regime where the power spectrum of the Ricci scalar evolves as ?(-s) with the frequency, ?, and s ? 1.7 ± 0.1. PMID:23952380

de Oliveira, H P; Pando Zayas, Leopoldo A; Rodrigues, E L

2013-08-01

260

Reconstruction of spatial patterns of climatic anomalies during the medieval warm period (AD 900-1300).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The workshop will focus on climatic variations during the Medieval Warm Period or Little Climatic Optimum. The nominal time interval assigned to this period is AD 900--1300, but climate information available during the century or two preceding and followi...

H. F. Diaz M. K. Hughes

1992-01-01

261

Annual precipitation in the Yellowstone National Park region since AD 1173  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cores and cross sections from 133 limber pine (Pinus flexilis James) and Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirbel) Franco) at four sites were used to estimate annual (July to June) precipitation in the Yellowstone National Park region for the period from AD 1173 to 1998. Examination of the long-term record shows that the early 20th century was markedly wet compared to

Stephen T. Gray; Lisa J. Graumlich; Julio L. Betancourt

2007-01-01

262

Vertex operators for AdS3 with Ramond background  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review gives results on vertex operators for the Type IIB superstring in an AdS3×S3 background with Ramond-Ramond flux, which were presented at Strings 2000. Constraint equations for these vertex operators are derived, and their components are shown to satisfy the supergravity linearized equations of motion for the six-dimensional (2, 0) theory of a supergravity and tensor multiplet expanded around

L. Dolan

2001-01-01

263

General Kerr NUT AdS metrics in all dimensions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Kerr AdS metric in dimension D has cohomogeneity [D\\/2]; the metric components depend on the radial coordinate r and [D\\/2] latitude variables mui that are subject to the constraint ?imu2i = 1. We find a coordinate reparametrization in which the mui variables are replaced by [D\\/2] - 1 unconstrained coordinates yalpha, and having the remarkable property that the Kerr

W. Chen; H. Lü; C. N. Pope

2006-01-01

264

Logarithmic operators fold D branes into AdS3  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use logarithmic conformal field theory techniques to describe recoil effects in the scattering of two Dirichlet branes in D dimensions. In the particular case that a /D1 brane strikes a /D3 brane perpendicularly, thereby folding it, we find that the recoil space-time is maximally symmetric, with AdS3?ED-3 geometry. We comment on the possible applications of this result to the study of transitions between different background metrics.

Ellis, J.; Mavromatos, N. E.; Winstanley, E.

2000-03-01

265

Colouration mechanism of underglaze copper-red decoration porcelain (AD 13th-14th century), China.  

PubMed

Underglaze copper-red decoration, i.e. the copper colourant used to paint diversified patterns on the surface of a body and then covered by transparent glaze and fired at high temperature in a reductive firing environment, is famous all over the world. However, the red colouration mechanism generated by underglaze copper remains unclear. In particular, the fact that the edges of the red patterns are orange has been ignored in previous research. Here, non-destructive analysis has been carried out on a precious fragment of early underglaze red porcelain using synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence, X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES) and reflection spectrometry techniques. The results suggest that the copper content in the red region is higher than that in the orange region, and other colour generation elements do not have obvious content difference, indicating that the colour generation effect of the underglaze red product is related to the copper content. XANES analysis shows that the valence states of copper in the red and orange regions are similar and metal copper contributes to their hues. The results of reflection spectrometry demonstrate that tiny orange hues could be attributed to the Mie scatting effect. Therefore, light-scattering effects should be considered when researching the colouration mechanism of underglaze red. PMID:24971970

Zhu, Jian; Duan, Huiping; Yang, Yimin; Guan, Li; Xu, Wei; Chen, Dongliang; Zhang, Jing; Wang, Lihua; Huang, Yuying; Wang, Changsui

2014-07-01

266

Recent evidence of animal exploitation in the Axumite epoch, 1st-5th centuries AD.  

PubMed

This study reports evidence of animal exploitation during the Axumite era based on a survey of architectural features, rock art and artefacts recovered from the archaeological site at Axum, northern Ethiopia. Animals and agricultural tools were identified from materials not previously examined. Pottery, rock art and animal remains revealed a range of zoological species. Agricultural implements and sacrificial vessels also provided indirect evidence of animal exploitation. It is concluded that, in addition to plough-based agriculture, the hunting of large wild animals, such as elephants and lions, and the exploitation of domestic cattle, small ruminants and poultry were part of the Axumite subsistence regime. Although it is difficult to reconstruct an overall subsistence pattern based on this study alone, the physical and biological evidence suggests that the Axumites practised combined cultivation and animal herding. Further investigation is required to study the types and breeds of animals and their distribution in time and space. PMID:14998309

Tefera, M

2004-02-01

267

Higher derivative effects for 4d AdS gravity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Motivated by holography we explore higher derivative corrections to four-dimensional Anti-de Sitter (AdS) gravity. We point out that in such a theory the variational problem is generically not well-posed given only a boundary condition for the metric. However, when one evaluates the higher derivative terms perturbatively on a leading order Einstein solution, the equations of motion are always second order and therefore the variational problem indeed requires only a boundary condition for the metric. The equations of motion required to compute the spectrum around the corrected background are still generically higher order, with the additional boundary conditions being associated with new operators in the dual conformal field theory. We discuss which higher derivative curvature invariants are expected to arise in the four-dimensional action from a top-down perspective and compute the corrections to planar AdS black holes and to the spectrum around AdS in various cases. Requiring that the dual theory is unitary strongly constrains the higher derivative terms in the action, as the operators associated with the extra boundary conditions generically have complex conformal dimensions and non-positive norms.

Smolic, Jelena; Taylor, Marika

2013-06-01

268

SUSY properties of warped AdS3  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We examine supersymmetric properties of null-warped AdS3, or alternatively Schrödinger geometries, dual to putative warped CFTs in two dimensions. We classify super Schrödinger subalgebras of the superalgebra psu(1, 1|2) ? psu(1, 1|2), corresponding to the superconformal algebra of the AdS3 × S3 geometry. We comment on geometric realisations and provide a string theory description with enhanced supersymmetry in terms of intersecting D3-branes. For type IIB supergravity solutions based on T 1,1, we consider the relationship between five-dimensional Schrödinger solutions and their three-dimensional null-warped counterparts, corresponding to R symmetry twists. Finally, we study a family of null-warped AdS3 solutions in a setting where there is an ambiguity over the R symmetry and confirm that, for examples admitting a Kaluza-Klein (KK) reduction to three dimensions, the minimisation of a real superpotential of the three-dimensional gauged supergravity captures the central charge and R symmetry.

Jeong, Jaehoon; Colgáin, Eoin Ó.; Yoshida, Kentaroh

2014-06-01

269

Ad Hoc Logistics in Bosnia.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Operations conceived and planned with little attention to functional logistics place extraordinary demands on the ad hoc headquarters created for that purpose. Such was the challenge to the commander for support (C-S PT) of a small organization establishe...

W. N. Farmen

2000-01-01

270

ADS Europe Flight Trials Programme.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The world's largest trial of satellite based Automatic Dependent Surveillance (ADS) in the ICAO Aeronautical Telecommunications Network standard environment is being executed in Europe. A Consortium, led by the United Kingdom's National Air Traffic Servic...

S. S. van Leeuwen

1996-01-01

271

ADS/CFT and QCD  

SciTech Connect

The AdS/CFT correspondence between string theory in AdS space and conformal .eld theories in physical spacetime leads to an analytic, semi-classical model for strongly-coupled QCD which has scale invariance and dimensional counting at short distances and color confinement at large distances. Although QCD is not conformally invariant, one can nevertheless use the mathematical representation of the conformal group in five-dimensional anti-de Sitter space to construct a first approximation to the theory. The AdS/CFT correspondence also provides insights into the inherently non-perturbative aspects of QCD, such as the orbital and radial spectra of hadrons and the form of hadronic wavefunctions. In particular, we show that there is an exact correspondence between the fifth-dimensional coordinate of AdS space z and a specific impact variable {zeta} which measures the separation of the quark and gluonic constituents within the hadron in ordinary space-time. This connection allows one to compute the analytic form of the frame-independent light-front wavefunctions, the fundamental entities which encode hadron properties and allow the computation of decay constants, form factors, and other exclusive scattering amplitudes. New relativistic lightfront equations in ordinary space-time are found which reproduce the results obtained using the 5-dimensional theory. The effective light-front equations possess remarkable algebraic structures and integrability properties. Since they are complete and orthonormal, the AdS/CFT model wavefunctions can also be used as a basis for the diagonalization of the full light-front QCD Hamiltonian, thus systematically improving the AdS/CFT approximation.

Brodsky, Stanley J.; /SLAC; de Teramond, Guy F.; /Costa Rica U. /SLAC

2007-02-21

272

The Diary of Frances Jacobs: Astronomical Observations by a 19th-century Oregon Woman  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This abstract summarizes my research, transcription and editing of Francis Jacob's 170-page handwritten astronomical diary. This diary is a unique example of a time in early Portland history, illustrating the mind of a young woman who was interested in science and astronomy. Reflected in her diary are the discoveries and mention of leading astronomers of the day like Emerson Bernard and Edward Pickering. Francis Jacobs lived in an era of the great refractors For example, ``The Leviathan," built by Lord Rosse in Ireland was completed in 1847. In this 72-inch telescope, stars of 18th magnitude could be seen. The first spiral nebulae to be revealed was M51 - known today as the Whirlpool Galaxy. The Earl was the first to suggest that these spirals could actually be rotating masses of stars. At the turn of the century, study of observational astronomy was rooted in naked eye observing, study of binary stars and nebula. This was a time when women were becoming interested in the sciences and had begun to play an important role in science and astronomy. It was an incredible inspiration for other women across the country to hear what was happening on the astronomical frontiers at Harvard. Some constellation asterisms used in Francis Jacob's diary were different than they are today. One asterism in particular, the Egyptian Cross, is relatively unknown now. The summer triangle and winter circle asterisms were used in her notes and obviously popular in her era, as today. Her written comments included some Messier catalogue numbers and in some case written on her sketches and diagrams nicknames, such as the 'Dumbbell' nebula. She also referred to M99 as `St. Katherine's Wheel', a nickname that is not in common use today.

McGown, R. D.

2002-12-01

273

New Features in ADS Labs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) has been working hard on updating its services and interfaces to better support our community's research needs. ADS Labs is a new interface built on the old tried-and-true ADS Abstract Databases, so all of ADS's content is available through it. In this presentation we highlight the new features that have been developed in ADS Labs over the last year: new recommendations, metrics, a citation tool and enhanced fulltext search. ADS Labs has long been providing article-level recommendations based on keyword similarity, co-readership and co-citation analysis of its corpus. We have now introduced personal recommendations, which provide a list of articles to be considered based on a individual user's readership history. A new metrics interface provides a summary of the basic impact indicators for a list of records. These include the total and normalized number of papers, citations, reads, and downloads. Also included are some of the popular indices such as the h, g and i10 index. The citation helper tool allows one to submit a set of records and obtain a list of top 10 papers which cite and/or are cited by papers in the original list (but which are not in it). The process closely resembles the network approach of establishing "friends of friends" via an analysis of the citation network. The full-text search service now covers more than 2.5 million documents, including all the major astronomy journals, as well as physics journals published by Springer, Elsevier, the American Physical Society, the American Geophysical Union, and all of the arXiv eprints. The full-text search interface interface allows users and librarians to dig deep and find words or phrases in the body of the indexed articles. ADS Labs is available at http://adslabs.org

Accomazzi, Alberto; Kurtz, M. J.; Henneken, E. A.; Grant, C. S.; Thompson, D.; Di Milia, G.; Luker, J.; Murray, S. S.

2013-01-01

274

Exploring 20th Century London  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From the expansion of the Underground to the waves of new arrivals from the British colonies, London was greatly transformed through the 20th century. Recently, several London institutions, including the Museum of London, combed through their respective resources to create this interactive exhibit and archive that would tell visitors a bit about the city's evolution during those 100 years. The materials can be viewed through three sections: "Timeline", "Themes", and "Places". In the "Timeline" section, visitors can browse through featured objects and also learn about major events during the period. Moving on, the "Themes" area organizes the city's recent past into topical areas that focus on art and design, the built environment, ethnic communities, and leisure activities. The "Places" section features a clickable map of London's boroughs which reveals artifacts from each of these respective areas.

275

Pure Spinors in AdS and Lie Algebra Cohomology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We show that the BRST cohomology of the massless sector of the Type IIB superstring on AdS5 × S 5 can be described as the relative cohomology of an infinite-dimensional Lie superalgebra. We explain how the vertex operators of ghost number 1, which correspond to conserved currents, are described in this language. We also give some algebraic description of the ghost number 2 vertices, which appears to be new. We use this algebraic description to clarify the structure of the zero mode sector of the ghost number two states in flat space, and initiate the study of the vertices of the higher ghost number.

Mikhailov, Andrei

2014-06-01

276

The AdS central charge in string theory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We evaluate the vacuum expectation value of the central charge operator in string theory in an AdS vacuum. Our calculation provides a rare non-zero one-point function on a spherical worldsheet. The evaluation involves the regularization both of a worldsheet ultraviolet divergence (associated to the infinite volume of the conformal Killing group), and a space-time infrared divergence (corresponding to the infinite volume of space-time). The two divergences conspire to give a finite result, which is the classical general relativity value for the central charge, corrected in bosonic string theory by an infinite series of tree level higher derivative terms.

Troost, Jan

2011-11-01

277

Introducing ADS 2.0  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the spring of 1993, the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) first launched its bibliographic search system. It was known then as the ADS Abstract Service, a component of the larger Astrophysics Data System effort which had developed an interoperable data system now seen as a precursor of the Virtual Observatory. As a result of the massive technological and sociological changes in the field of scholarly communication, the ADS is now completing the most ambitious technological upgrade in its twenty-year history. Code-named ADS 2.0, the new system features: an IT platform built on web and digital library standards; a new, extensible, industrial strength search engine; a public API with various access control capabilities; a set of applications supporting search, export, visualization, analysis; a collaborative, open source development model; and enhanced indexing of content which includes the full-text of astronomy and physics publications. The changes in the ADS platform affect all aspects of the system and its operations, including: the process through which data and metadata are harvested, curated and indexed; the interface and paradigm used for searching the database; and the follow-up analysis capabilities available to the users. This poster describes the choices behind the technical overhaul of the system, the technology stack used, and the opportunities which the upgrade is providing us with, namely gains in productivity and enhancements in our system capabilities.

Accomazzi, Alberto; Kurtz, M. J.; Henneken, E. A.; Grant, C. S.; Thompson, D.; Luker, J.; Chyla, R.; Murray, S. S.

2014-01-01

278

Landscape of nonsupersymmetric AdS vacua on coset manifolds  

SciTech Connect

We construct new families of nonsupersymmetric sourceless type IIA AdS{sub 4} vacua on those coset manifolds that also admit supersymmetric solutions. We investigate the spectrum of left-invariant modes and find that most, but not all, of the vacua are stable under these fluctuations. Generically, there are also no massless moduli.

Koerber, Paul; Koers, Simon [Instituut voor Theoretische Fysica, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Heidelberg, Philosophenweg 16-19, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany)

2010-05-15

279

Sasaki Einstein twist of Kerr AdS black holes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider Kerr-AdS black holes with equal angular momenta in arbitrary odd spacetime dimensions ?5. Twisting the Killing vector fields of the black holes, we reproduce the compact Sasaki-Einstein manifolds constructed by Gauntlett, Martelli, Sparks and Waldram. We also discuss an implication of the twist in string theory and M-theory.

Hashimoto, Yoshitake; Sakaguchi, Makoto; Yasui, Yukinori

2004-10-01

280

YI Suki's Y?ksimanpil and the Professional Identity of a Chung'in Medical Official in Eighteenth Century Chos?n Korea.  

PubMed

About one hundred years after the publication of Tong?ibogam (1613), a physician at the court YI Suki (1664-?) wrote a medical manuscript titled Y?ksimanpil (Miscellaneous Jottings on Medical Experiences and Tests, 1734). As indicated in its title, Y?ksimanpil was a medical essay composed of 130 medical case histories, drawing on what YI Suki himself had experienced in his medical practices. This paper examines the messages YI Suki in Y?ksimanpil tried to address to his fellow Korean doctors, and by doing so illuminates an aspect of the medicine in the late Chos?n period. The argument goes that YI Suki wrote Y?ksimanpil as a vehicle for promulgating his professional identity as a bureaucratic physician who belonged to the network of the chung'in technical officials-a group of government technical functionaries in late Chos?n Korea. Throughout the late Chos?n period, the chung'in technical officials had been discriminated, institutionally and socioculturally, against the yangban literati, while their promotion to honored higher positions was blocked. It was in the late 17th and early 18th century that a group of chung'in officials tried to secure their sociocultural places for their professional activity, thus bringing to light their social and professional identity in Chos?n society. A member of the network of the chung'in technical officials in the early 18th century, YI Suki was in an effort to position himself as a doctor somewhere between the medical tradition and the Confucian literary tradition. In these sociocultural contexts, we can see more clearly what YI Suki tried to speak of in his book and the historical meaning of the medical writing Y?ksimanpil. First, the way he practiced medicine was testing and confirming what the received medical textbooks had asserted (Ch?ngh?mkobang). This style of practicing medicine could be viewed as a reflection of the comprehensivity trait of bureaucratic court physicians network YI Suki belonged to. Also this type of practice has the implication that YI Suki himself was a well-versed practitioner following the medical textual tradition, which was closely associated with the medical officials network. The emergence of the practice Ch?ngh?mkobang could be better understood in the backdrop of over 100 years of maturation process of Tong?ibogam in the clinical practices. Second, he formulated the professional identity of physicians only in terms of medical proficiency without recourse to the Confucian literary tradition. In other words, in promoting the social status of medicine, he did not resort to Confucian morality. He instead emphasized his dexterity or resourcefulness in dealing with millions of ever-changing diseases (Imsikw?nby?n ). Conceivably, this way of characterizing his own medical practice-by way of strongly combining the textual tradition and the experiential tradition while keeping distance with the Confucian literary tradition-reflected the complexity of the ambivalent identity of the technical chung'in officials, especially in regard to Confucianism, between Confucian physicians and hereditary doctors. All in all, YI Suki presented himself as an ideal image of the physician, which arguably reflected the sociocultural and academic context of the network of the chung'in technical officials in early 18th century Chos?n Korea. PMID:24005648

Yi, Kiebok

2013-08-01

281

Noninvasive imaging for the new century  

Microsoft Academic Search

Noninvasive imaging technologies are expected to play a significant role in the area of medical diagnosis and industrial imaging. The engineers of the 21st century will need the appropriate skill to master the power of new technologies. To face the challenges of the new century, a strong impulse toward a multidisciplinary and diversified engineering knowledge will be essential. Some examples

G. C. Giakos; M. Pastorino; F. Russo; S. Chowdhury; N. Shah; W. Davros

1999-01-01

282

21st Century Skills Map: English  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This 21st Century Skills Map is the result of hundreds of hours of research, development and feedback from educators and business leaders across the nation. The Partnership for 21st Century Skills has issued this map for the core subject of English.

Partnership for 21st Century Skills, 2008

2008-01-01

283

21st Century Skills Map: Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This 21st Century Skills Map is the result of hundreds of hours of research, development and feedback from educators and business leaders across the nation. The Partnership for 21st Century Skills has issued this map for the core subject of Science.

Partnership for 21st Century Skills, 2008

2008-01-01

284

21st Century Skills Map: Social Studies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This 21st Century Skills Map is the result of hundreds of hours of research, development and feedback from educators and business leaders across the nation. The Partnership for 21st Century Skills has issued this map for the core subject of Social Studies.

Partnership for 21st Century Skills, 2007

2007-01-01

285

21st Century Skills Map: The Arts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This 21st Century Skills Map is the result of hundreds of hours of research, development and feedback from educators and business leaders across the nation. The Partnership for 21st Century Skills has issued this map for the core subject of the Arts.

Dean, Colleen; Ebert, Christie M. Lynch; McGreevy-Nichols, Susan; Quinn, Betsy; Sabol, F. Robert; Schmid, Dale; Shauck, R. Barry; Shuler, Scott C.

2010-01-01

286

21st Century Skills Map: World Languages  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This 21st Century Skills Map is the result of hundreds of hours of research, development and feedback from educators and business leaders across the nation. The Partnership for 21st Century Skills has issued this map for the core subject of World Languages. [Funding for this paper was provided by EF Education.

Partnership for 21st Century Skills, 2011

2011-01-01

287

21st Century Skills Map: Geography  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This 21st Century Skills Map is the result of hundreds of hours of research, development and feedback from educators and business leaders across the nation. The Partnership for 21st Century Skills has issued this map for the core subject of Geography.

Partnership for 21st Century Skills, 2009

2009-01-01

288

The 21st-Century Learning Environment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Step into a classroom in the 21st century, and the odds are it won't look all that different from one in the 20th century. One decade into the 2000s, many schools and universities have been frustrated in their efforts to upgrade their facilities and resources because of shrinking budgets. But even with the ailing economy, some education…

Kennedy, Mike

2011-01-01

289

Adding momentum to supersymmetric geometries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider general supersymmetric solutions to minimal supergravity in six dimensions, trivially lifted to IIB supergravity. To any such solution we add a traveling wave deformation involving the additional directions. The deformed solution is given in terms of a function which is harmonic in the background geometry. We also present a family of explicit examples describing microstates of the D1-D5 system on T4. In the case where the background contains a large AdS region, the deformation is identified as corresponding to an action of a U(1) current of the D1-D5 orbifold CFT on a given state.

Lunin, Oleg; Mathur, Samir D.; Turton, David

2013-03-01

290

Securing Mobile Ad Hoc Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The vision of nomadic computing with its ubiquitous access has stimulated much interest in the Mobile Ad Hoc Networking (MANET) technology. Those infrastructure- less, self-organized networks that either operate autonomously or as an extension to the wired networking infrastructure, are expected to support new MANET-based applications. However, the proliferation of this networking paradigm is strongly dependent on the availability of

Panagiotis Papadimitratos; Zygmunt J. Haas

2003-01-01

291

Value Added: An Uncertain Measure.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In Scotland, one "value added" (VA) indicator of secondary school effectiveness measures students' relative "progress" between Standard and Higher grade in particular subjects. When random nonschool factors affecting students' geography performance were computer-simulated to determine VA fluctuation over 25 years, the confidence intervals for most…

Sparkes, R. A.

1999-01-01

292

Impure AdS\\/CFT  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study momentum relaxation due to dilute, weak impurities in a strongly coupled CFT, a truncation of the M2 brane theory. Using the AdS\\/CFT correspondence, we compute the relaxation timescale as a function of the background magnetic eld

Sean A. Hartnoll; Christopher P. Herzog

293

Added Value in Electronic Publications.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Electronic publications are flooding the market. Some of these publications are created specifically for the electronic environment, but many are conversions of existing material to electronic format. It is not worth the time and effort merely to publish existing material in electronic format if no value is added in the conversion process. The…

Bothma, Theo J. D.

294

Value Added Tax on Energy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report discusses the probable effects of replacing the Swedish excises on energy with a value added tax, the grounds for such a tax reform and certain efficiency aspects. In general, the effects seem to be positive, although some incentives to stimul...

1988-01-01

295

Theoretical astrophysics in the 19th century (Homage to Radó von Kövesligethy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The nature of astronomical information is determined mostly by the incoming light. Theoretical astrophysics means basically the theory of light emission and its relation to the physical constitution of the emitting celestial bodies. The necessary physical disciplines include theory of gravitation, theory of radiation, thermodynamics, matter--radiation interaction. The most significant theoretical achievement in the 17th - 18th century was the axiomatic foundation of mechanics and the law of gravitation. In the context of the nature of light, there were two conceptions: Newton contra Huygens, i.e. particle versus wave phenomenon. Using the theory of gravitation, first speculations appeared on black holes (Michell, Laplace), cosmogony (Kant-Laplace theory), the structure of the Milky Way (Kant), and the explanation of motion of the celestial bodies. The Olbers Paradox, formulated in the 19th century, is still one of the most significant constraints on observational cosmology. The development of thermodynamics, matter-radiation interaction, development of the theory of electromagnetism became important milestones. Maxwell's theory was the classical framework of the interaction between matter and radiation. Kirchhoff and Bunsen's revolutionary discovery of spectral analysis (1859) showed that observation of spectra makes it possible to study the chemical composition of emitting bodies. Thermodynamics predicted the existence of the black body radiation. It did not succeed, however, to determine the functional form of the wavelength dependence. A combination of the thermodynamic equation of state with the equation of hydrostatics resulted in the first stellar models (Lane, Ritter, Schuster). The first successful spectral equation of black body radiation was the theory of continuous spectra of celestial bodies by Radó von Kövesligethy (published 1885 in Hungarian, 1890 in German). Kövesligethy made several assumptions on the matter-radiation interaction: radiating matter consists of interacting particles, the form of interaction is an inverse power law, the radiation field is represented by the aether, aether is made also from interacting particles, light is the propagation of the oscillation of the aether particles, there is an equipartition between the oscillations energy of material and aetheric particles. Based on these assumptions, he derived a spectral equation with the following properties: the spectral distribution of radiation depends only on the temperature, the total irradiated energy is finite (15 years before Planck!), the wavelength of the intensity maximum is inversely proportional to the temperature (eight years before Wien!). Using his spectral equation, he estimated the temperature of several celestial bodies, including the Sun.

Balázs, Lajos G.

296

AdS strings with torsion: Noncomplex heterotic compactifications  

SciTech Connect

Combining the effects of fluxes and gaugino condensation in heterotic supergravity, we use a ten-dimensional approach to find a new class of four-dimensional supersymmetric AdS{sub 4} compactifications on almost-Hermitian manifolds of SU(3) structure. Computation of the torsion allows a classification of the internal geometry, which for a particular combination of fluxes and condensate, is nearly Kaehler. We argue that all moduli are fixed, and we show that the Kaehler potential and superpotential proposed in the literature yield the correct AdS{sub 4} radius. In the nearly Kaehler case, we are able to solve the H Bianchi identity using a nonstandard embedding. Finally, we point out subtleties in deriving the effective superpotential and understanding the heterotic supergravity in the presence of a gaugino condensate.

Frey, Andrew R.; Lippert, Matthew [California Institute of Technology, Mail Code 452-48, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States); University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky 40506, USA and University of Louisville, Louisville, Kentucky 40292 (United States)

2005-12-15

297

The analytic bootstrap and AdS superhorizon locality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We take an analytic approach to the CFT bootstrap, studying the 4-pt correlators of d > 2 dimensional CFTs in an Eikonal-type limit, where the conformal cross ratios satisfy | u| ? | ?| < 1. We prove that every CFT with a scalar operator ? must contain infinite sequences of operators with twist approaching ? ? 2? ? + 2 n for each integer n as ? ? ?. We show how the rate of approach is controlled by the twist and OPE coefficient of the leading twist operator in the ? × ? OPE, and we discuss SCFTs and the 3d Ising Model as examples. Additionally, we show that the OPE coefficients of other large spin operators appearing in the OPE are bounded as ? ? ?. We interpret these results as a statement about superhorizon locality in AdS for general CFTs.

Fitzpatrick, A. Liam; Kaplan, Jared; Poland, David; Simmons-Duffin, David

2013-12-01

298

Quantization of AdS × S particle in static gauge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We quantize the particle dynamics in AdSN + 1 × SM spacetime in static gauge, which leads to the coordinate representation with wavefunctions depending only on spatial coordinates. The energy square operator is quadratic in canonical momenta and contains a scalar curvature term. We analyze the self-adjointness of this operator and calculate its spectrum. We then construct unitary representations of the isometry group SO(2, N)?× SO(M + 1) and calculate the quantum relation between the Casimir numbers.

Jorjadze, George; Kalousios, Chrysostomos; Kepuladze, Zurab

2013-01-01

299

How to make ad-hoc polymorphism less ad hoc  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents type classes, a new approach to ad-hoc polymorphism. Type classes permit overloading of arithmetic operators such as multiplication, and generalise the “eqtype variables” of Standard ML. Type classes extend the Hindley\\/Milner polymorphic type system, and provide a new approach to issues that arise in object-oriented programming, bounded type quantification, and abstract data types. This paper provides an

Philip Wadler; Stephen Blott

1989-01-01

300

Systematics of Coupling Flows in AdS Backgrounds  

SciTech Connect

We give an effective field theory derivation, based on the running of Planck brane gauge correlators, of the large logarithms that arise in the predictions for low energy gauge couplings in compactified AdS}_5 backgrounds, including the one-loop effects of bulk scalars, fermions, and gauge bosons. In contrast to the case of charged scalars coupled to Abelian gauge fields that has been considered previously in the literature, the one-loop corrections are not dominated by a single 4D Kaluza-Klein mode. Nevertheless, in the case of gauge field loops, the amplitudes can be reorganized into a leading logarithmic contribution that is identical to the running in 4D non-Abelian gauge theory, and a term which is not logarithmically enhanced and is analogous to a two-loop effect in 4D. In a warped GUT model broken by the Higgs mechanism in the bulk,we show that the matching scale that appears in the large logarithms induced by the non-Abelian gauge fields is m_{XY}^2/k where m_{XY} is the bulk mass of the XY bosons and k is the AdS curvature. This is in contrast to the UV scale in the logarithmic contributions of scalars, which is simply the bulk mass m. Our results are summarized in a set of simple rules that can be applied to compute the leading logarithmic predictions for coupling constant relations within a given warped GUT model. We present results for both bulk Higgs and boundary breaking of the GUT gauge

Goldberger, Walter D.; Rothstein, Ira Z.

2003-03-18

301

AdS/Ricci-flat correspondence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a comprehensive analysis of the AdS/Ricci-flat correspondence, a map between a class of asymptotically locally AdS spacetimes and a class of Ricci-flat spacetimes. We provide a detailed derivation of the map, discuss a number of extensions and apply it to a number of important examples, such as AdS on a torus, AdS black branes and fluids/gravity metrics. In particular, the correspondence links the hydrodynamic regime of asymptotically flat black p-branes or the Rindler fluid with that of AdS. It implies that this class of Ricci-flat spacetimes inherits from AdS a generalized conformal symmetry and has a holographic structure. We initiate the discussion of holography by analyzing how the map acts on boundary conditions and holographic 2-point functions.

Caldarelli, Marco M.; Camps, Joan; Goutéraux, Blaise; Skenderis, Kostas

2014-04-01

302

The timing solar eclipses recorded in China and the secular changes in the Earth's rotation before the 8th century  

Microsoft Academic Search

34 timing solar eclipse observations recorded in The Twenty-Four Histories during the period from BC 2nd to AD 8th century are analysed. Among them two solar eclipses were recorded twice respectively, and the date of another one is incorrect. Out of all the 32 solar eclipse observations 14 magnitudes of eclipse and 45 times of phase of eclipse are examined.

Peiyu Zhang; Yanben Han

1995-01-01

303

Twentieth Century Increase of Atmospheric Ammonia Recorded in Mt. Everest Ice Core  

Microsoft Academic Search

An NH4+ record covering the period AD1846-1997 was reconstructed using an 80.4 m ice core from East Rongbuk Glacier on Mt. Everest. Variations in NH4+ are characterized by a dramatic increase since the 1950s. The highest NH4+ concentrations occur in the 1980s. They are about two-fold more than those in the first half of 20th century. EOF analysis on the

S. Kang; P. A. Mayewski; Y. Yan; D. Qin

2001-01-01

304

New Features in the ADS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ADS now provides a search system for close to 4 million records. We have recently extracted a large number of references from article reference lists. We now have over 16 million citing/cited reference pairs. During the last year we implemented a full text search system. This allows you to search the full text of all journals that we have scanned. This provides a unique way to find information, especially from the older literature. We recently imlemented a customized notification service, called myADS. This service lets you specify several queries that are executed against new entries in the database whenever the database is updated. It also informs about new citations to your articles and new preprints.

Eichhorn, G.; Accomazzi, Alberto; Grant, C. S.; Henneken, Edwin; Kurtz, M. J.; Murray, S. S.

2004-12-01

305

Anomalous solar rotation in the early 17th century  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The character of solar rotation has been examined for two periods in the early 17th century for which detailed sunspot drawings are available: A.D. 1625 through 1626 and 1642 through 1644. The first period occurred 20 years before the start of the Maunder sunspot minimum, 1645 through 1715; the second occurred just at its commencement. Solar rotation in the earlier period was much like that of today. In the later period, the equatorial velocity of the sun was faster by 3 to 5 percent and the differential rotation was enhanced by a factor of 3. The equatorial acceleration with declining solar activity is in the same sense as that found in recent Doppler data. It seems likely that the change in rotation of the solar surface between 1625 and 1645 was associated with the onset of the Maunder Minimum.

Eddy, J. A.; Gilman, P. A.; Trotter, D. E.

1977-01-01

306

Multiwavelength Flares on AD Leo  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on a multiwavelength flare campaign conducted during March, 2000 on the dM3e flare star AD Leo. Participating observatories included HST, EUVE, McDonald, DAO, Stephanion, CrAO, and Jodrell Bank. We present a preliminary analysis of the optical and ultraviolet photometry and spectrosocpy obtained during several flares observed with multiple instruments. The CIV light curves and velocity evolution are consistent with models of chromospheric evaporation and condensation which are commonly applied to solar flares.

Allred, J. C.; Hawley, S. L.; Johns-Krull, C. M.; Fisher, G. H.

2002-05-01

307

Realizing value-added metrology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The conventional premise that metrology is a "non-value-added necessary evil" is a misleading and dangerous assertion, which must be viewed as obsolete thinking. Many metrology applications are key enablers to traditionally labeled "value-added" processing steps in lithography and etch, such that they can be considered integral parts of the processes. Various key trends in modern, state-of-the-art processing such as optical proximity correction (OPC), design for manufacturability (DFM), and advanced process control (APC) are based, at their hearts, on the assumption of fine-tuned metrology, in terms of uncertainty and accuracy. These trends are vehicles where metrology thus has large opportunities to create value through the engineering of tight and targetable process distributions. Such distributions make possible predictability in speed-sorts and in other parameters, which results in high-end product. Additionally, significant reliance has also been placed on defect metrology to predict, improve, and reduce yield variability. The necessary quality metrology is strongly influenced by not only the choice of equipment, but also the quality application of these tools in a production environment. The ultimate value added by metrology is a result of quality tools run by a quality metrology team using quality practices. This paper will explore the relationships among present and future trends and challenges in metrology, including equipment, key applications, and metrology deployment in the manufacturing flow. Of key importance are metrology personnel, with their expertise, practices, and metrics in achieving and maintaining the required level of metrology performance, including where precision, matching, and accuracy fit into these considerations. The value of metrology will be demonstrated to have shifted to "key enabler of large revenues," debunking the out-of-date premise that metrology is "non-value-added." Examples used will be from critical dimension (CD) metrology, overlay, films, and defect metrology.

Bunday, Benjamin; Lipscomb, Pete; Allgair, John; Patel, Dilip; Caldwell, Mark; Solecky, Eric; Archie, Chas; Morningstar, Jennifer; Rice, Bryan J.; Singh, Bhanwar; Cain, Jason; Emami, Iraj; Banke, Bill, Jr.; Herrera, Alfredo; Ukraintsev, Vladamir; Schlessinger, Jerry; Ritchison, Jeff

2007-03-01

308

Everglades Plant Community Response to 20th Century Hydrologic Changes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pollen records in sediment cores from sites in the historic Everglades allowed us to document the natural variability of the ecosystem over the past 2,000 years and contrast it to 20th century changes in wetland plant communities. The natural system included extensive water-lily sloughs, sawgrass ridges, and scattered tree islands extending from Lake Okeechobee southward through Shark River Slough. Between ~1000 AD and 1200 AD, weedy species such as Amaranthus (water hemp) became more abundant, indicating decreased annual rainfall, shorter hydroperiods, and shallower water depths during this time. After ~1200 AD, vegetation returned to its pre-1000 AD composition. During the 20th century, two phases of hydrologic alteration occurred. Completed by 1930, the first phase included construction of the Hoover Dike, canals linking Lake Okeechobee to the Atlantic Ocean, and the Tamiami Trail. Reconstructions of plant communities indicate that these changes shortened hydroperiods and lowered water depths throughout the Everglades. The extent of water-lily slough communities decreased, and tree islands became larger in Shark River Slough. The second phase resulted from construction of canals and levees in the 1950s, creating three Water Conservation Areas. The response of plant communities to these changes varied widely depending on location in the Everglades. In Loxahatchee NWR, weedy and short-hydroperiod plant species became more abundant in marshes, and species composition of tree islands changed. In Water Conservation Area 2A, cattail replaced sawgrass in marshes with high nutrient influx; the ridge and slough structure of the marshes was replaced by more homogeneous sawgrass marshes; sustained high water levels for more than a decade resulted in loss of tree islands that had existed for more than 1,000 years. In Everglades National Park, the extent of slough vegetation decreased further. Near Florida Bay, the rate of mangrove intrusion into fresh-water marshes accelerated due to increased diversion of fresh water from the southernmost Everglades. Our reconstruction of pre-1930s vegetational distribution provides a scenario that may be a harbinger of Everglades vegetational response to decompartmentalization of the system as levees and canals are removed and restoration of a more natural (deeper water, rain-driven seasonality) hydrologic regime. Drowned tree islands provide the one exception; they were destroyed by a hydrologic regime that does not occur naturally, and it is unclear whether their recovery is possible.

Willard, D. A.; Bernhardt, C. E.; Holmes, C. W.; Weimer, L. M.

2002-05-01

309

The Enigma of 20th century sea level change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sea level has been constant at near-present levels from ~5500 calendar years BP to the end of the Little Ice Age at ~1860 AD. Since ~1900, tide gauge measurements indicate that it has risen steadily at ~2 mm/yr by about 18 cm. The comparative stability of sealevel from 5500 cal yr BP to 1860 AD is robust, being suggested by near-shore Mediterranean archeological sites, the few sea level records that extend back to 1700 AD, and the impossibility of projecting the current sea level rise of ~2 mm/y back 5000 years (it would produce a global 10 m inundation, which is not observed) (Douglas et al., 2001, Academic Press). The post 1870 sea level rise is not due to heating of the upper ocean (Liviticus et al., 2000, Science). Munk (2002, PNAS) characterized it as an "enigma", dismissing an upper ocean steric sea level explanation as "too little" (~3 cm), "too late" (the rise started in 1860), and "too linear" (not accelerating with the accelerating CO2 increase). GRACE gravity measurements show a near zero change in ocean mass. Cazenave et al. (2009, Global and Planetary Change) indicate a slight decrease in ocean mass between 2003 and 2008. The rate of meltwater mass being added to the oceans essentially equals the GIA correction (Chambers et al., 2010, JGR). Different GIA models give ocean mass increase ranging from 0.5 to 2 mm/y of equivalent sea level rise. Our GIA model suggests no ocean mass increases (~0 mm/y of equivalent sea level rise). In this talk I show that the heating of a two layer ocean model driven by the temperature changes that have occurred over the last 1000 years since the peak of the Medieval Warm Period produces a ~2mm/yr linear sea level rise over the last 100 years with much smaller preceding sea level changes. Ocean mass could be unchanging over the last century as well as the last ~5000 years. This result is compatible with GRACE measurements and eclipse data constraints, predictions of our GIA model, and it resolves the enigma the 20th Century sea level change noted by Munk.

Cathles, Larry

2014-05-01

310

Arms Control in the 21st Century.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The tropical Areas covered in 'Arms Control of the 21st Century' were: Strategic Offensive Arms Control, Strategic Defensive Arms Control, Conventional Arms Control and, Regional Arms Control. In addressing these issue areas, the working groups focused on...

1996-01-01

311

The Ninth-Century Renaissance in Astronomy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the events in the ninth century that moved astronomy away from the pursuit of mystical hermetic sciences and astrology back toward observation and measurement. Describes the achievements of astronomers and the instruments and calculations used during that period. (JRH)

Farrell, Charlotte

1996-01-01

312

Museums, Libraries, and 21st Century Skills  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Institute of Museum and Library Services (IMLS) has an aggressive research program dedicated to providing cutting-edge information about the trends in library services and other matters. This timely 40-page report is intended to "support museums and public libraries in envisioning and defining their roles as institutions of learning in the 21st century." To achieve this goal, this report brings together case studies of successful 21st century projects at different institutions, along outlining a "vision for the role of libraries and museums in the national dialogue around learning and 21st century skills." Along with the main report and the case studies, the report also includes a self-assessment tool, which allows museums and libraries to determine where they fit on the continuum of 21st century skills operations and programming.

313

[Modern medicine environment and adaptation of Korean trader for medicinal herbs from the late 19th century to the early 20th century].  

PubMed

Since the late 18th century, the Korean traditional medicine trade witnessed a steady growth. There were lots of stores which sold Korean medicinal herbs in Seoul and every major towns had at least one or more stores in Korea, which led to a subsequent growth of people involved in the trade. However, Korean medicine merchants encountered a new environment with the influx of western medicines after the Opening of Ports and the execution of modern medicine policies. Such change of atmosphere led the merchants to seek new breakthroughs. Some of the merchants found the answer in producing and selling patent medicine. The people in the industry had little knowledge of western medicine, so that they had little choice but to combine their experience of Korean medicine with whatever information they had about western counterpart. Such resolution generated a new kind of medicine known as patent medicine. Patent medicine businessmen observed the new medicine policies of the Korean Empire. Some visionary ones even sought to eagerly utilize the trademark system to secure the selling route. The Japanese colonial government strengthened the medicine policies. It revised the legislature and mobilized administrative powers to manage and control the industry. However, such colonial policies in the 1910s implicated certain limits due to its lack of understanding of Korean medicine industry. Also, the colonial government showed poor efforts in introducing modern medicine facilities and systems, so that the ground was set for the patent medicine business to flourish. Patent medicine enjoyed a high turnover. So, the entrepreneurs endeavored to promote the sales in whatever means necessary. The most basic form of advertisement was through the newspaper. Indirect promotion through newspaper articles, issuing medicine flyers, free gift draw, reputation of an influential expert were widely used for its sales. Consequently, patent medicine industry in the 1910s saw a healthy prosperity. One example of such golden days was the case of Hwuapyungdangyakbabg (one of the biggest patent medicine companies), which won a third place along with Kyungsungbangjik, which was the top Korean company at that time, in the advertisement design contest hosted by the classified department of Dong-a Daily in 1926. But actually, a few Japanese medicine merchants led the industry. So prosperity of Korean medicine merchant had its limits. PMID:17575704

Yang, Jeongpil

2006-12-01

314

16 CFR 460.18 - Insulation ads.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Insulation ads. 460.18 Section 460.18 Commercial...HOME INSULATION § 460.18 Insulation ads. (a) If your ad gives an R-value...requirements in § 460.18 do not apply to ads on television or radio. [44 FR...

2010-01-01

315

16 CFR 460.18 - Insulation ads.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 2009-01-01 false Insulation ads. 460.18 Section 460.18 Commercial...HOME INSULATION § 460.18 Insulation ads. (a) If your ad gives an R-value...requirements in § 460.18 do not apply to ads on television or radio. [44 FR...

2009-01-01

316

Twentieth century sea level: an enigma.  

PubMed

Changes in sea level (relative to the moving crust) are associated with changes in ocean volume (mostly thermal expansion) and in ocean mass (melting and continental storage): zeta(t) = zeta(steric)(t) + zeta(eustatic)(t). Recent compilations of global ocean temperatures by Levitus and coworkers are in accord with coupled ocean/atmosphere modeling of greenhouse warming; they yield an increase in 20th century ocean heat content by 2 x 10(23) J (compared to 0.1 x 10(23) J of atmospheric storage), which corresponds to zeta(greenhouse)(2000) = 3 cm. The greenhouse-related rate is accelerating, with a present value zeta(greenhouse)(2000) approximately 6 cm/century. Tide records going back to the 19th century show no measurable acceleration throughout the late 19th and first half of the 20th century; we take zeta(historic) = 18 cm/century. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change attributes about 6 cm/century to melting and other eustatic processes, leaving a residual of 12 cm of 20th century rise to be accounted for. The Levitus compilation has virtually foreclosed the attribution of the residual rise to ocean warming (notwithstanding our ignorance of the abyssal and Southern Oceans): the historic rise started too early, has too linear a trend, and is too large. Melting of polar ice sheets at the upper limit of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change estimates could close the gap, but severe limits are imposed by the observed perturbations in Earth rotation. Among possible resolutions of the enigma are: a substantial reduction from traditional estimates (including ours) of 1.5-2 mm/y global sea level rise; a substantial increase in the estimates of 20th century ocean heat storage; and a substantial change in the interpretation of the astronomic record. PMID:12011419

Munk, Walter

2002-05-14

317

Twentieth century sea level: An enigma  

PubMed Central

Changes in sea level (relative to the moving crust) are associated with changes in ocean volume (mostly thermal expansion) and in ocean mass (melting and continental storage): ?(t) = ?steric(t) + ?eustatic(t). Recent compilations of global ocean temperatures by Levitus and coworkers are in accord with coupled ocean/atmosphere modeling of greenhouse warming; they yield an increase in 20th century ocean heat content by 2 × 1023 J (compared to 0.1 × 1023 J of atmospheric storage), which corresponds to ?greenhouse(2000) = 3 cm. The greenhouse-related rate is accelerating, with a present value ??greenhouse(2000) ? 6 cm/century. Tide records going back to the 19th century show no measurable acceleration throughout the late 19th and first half of the 20th century; we take ??historic = 18 cm/century. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change attributes about 6 cm/century to melting and other eustatic processes, leaving a residual of 12 cm of 20th century rise to be accounted for. The Levitus compilation has virtually foreclosed the attribution of the residual rise to ocean warming (notwithstanding our ignorance of the abyssal and Southern Oceans): the historic rise started too early, has too linear a trend, and is too large. Melting of polar ice sheets at the upper limit of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change estimates could close the gap, but severe limits are imposed by the observed perturbations in Earth rotation. Among possible resolutions of the enigma are: a substantial reduction from traditional estimates (including ours) of 1.5–2 mm/y global sea level rise; a substantial increase in the estimates of 20th century ocean heat storage; and a substantial change in the interpretation of the astronomic record.

Munk, Walter

2002-01-01

318

Nineteenth and Twentieth Century Clouds Over the Twenty-First Century Virtual Observatory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Physical science has changed in the century since Lord Kelvin's celebrated essay on Nineteenth Century Clouds over the Dynamical Theory of Heat and Light, but some things are the same. Analogs in what was happening in physics then and what is happening in astronomy today serve to remind us why we can be confident the Virtual Observatory of the twenty-first century will have a rich list of challenges to explore.

Peebles, P. J. E.

319

Lifshitz-like systems and AdS null deformations  

SciTech Connect

Following K. Balasubramanian and K. Narayan [J. High Energy Phys. 08 (2010) 014], we discuss certain lightlike deformations of AdS{sub 5}xX{sup 5} in type IIB string theory sourced by a lightlike dilaton {Phi}(x{sup +}) dual to the N=4 super Yang-Mills theory with a lightlike varying gauge coupling. We argue that, in the case where the x{sup +} direction is noncompact, these solutions describe anisotropic 3+1-dim Lifshitz-like systems with a potential in the x{sup +} direction generated by the lightlike dilaton. We then describe solutions of this sort with a linear dilaton. This enables a detailed calculation of two-point correlation functions of operators dual to bulk scalars and helps illustrate the spatial structure of these theories. Following this, we discuss a nongeometric string construction involving a compactification along the x{sup +} direction of this linear dilaton system. We also point out similar IIB axionic solutions. Similar bulk arguments for x{sup +}-noncompact can be carried out for deformations of AdS{sub 4}xX{sup 7} in M theory.

Narayan, K. [Chennai Mathematical Institute, SIPCOT IT Park, Padur PO, Siruseri 603103 (India)

2011-10-15

320

AdS black holes from duality in gauged supergravity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study and utilize duality transformations in a particular STU-model of four dimensional gauged supergravity. This model is a truncation of the de Wit-Nicolai =8 theory and as such has a lift to eleven-dimensional supergravity on the seven-sphere. Our duality group is U(1)3 and while it can be applied to any solution of this theory, we consider known asymptotically AdS4, supersymmetric black holes and focus on duality transformations which preserve supersymmetry. For static black holes we generalize the supersymmetric solutions of Cacciatori and Klemm from three magnetic charges to include two additional electric charges and argue that this is co-dimension one in the full space of supersymmetric static black holes in the STU-model. These new static black holes have nontrivial profiles for axions. For rotating black holes, we generalize the known two-parameter supersymmetric solution to include an additional parameter. When lifted to M-theory, these black holes correspond to the near horizon geometry of a stack of BPS rotating M2-branes, spinning on an S 7 which is fibered non-trivially over a Riemann surface.

Halmagyi, Nick; Vanel, Thomas

2014-04-01

321

On modular properties of the AdS3 CFT  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study modular properties of the AdS3 Wess-Zumino-Novikov-Witten model. Although the Euclidean partition function is modular invariant, the characters on the Euclidean torus diverge and the regularization proposed in the literature removes information on the spectrum and the usual one to one map between characters and representations of rational models is lost. Reconsidering the characters defined on the Lorentzian torus and focusing on their structure as distributions, we obtain expressions that recover those properties. We study their modular transformations and find a generalized S matrix, depending on the sign of the real modular parameters, which has two diagonal blocks and one off-diagonal block, mixing discrete and continuous representations, that we fully determine. We then explore the relations among the modular transformations, the fusion algebra and the boundary states. We explicitly construct Ishibashi states for the maximally symmetric D-branes and show that the generalized S matrix defines the one-point functions associated to pointlike and H2-branes as well as the fusion rules of the degenerate representations of sl(2,R) appearing in the open string spectrum of the pointlike D-branes, through a generalized Verlinde theorem.

Baron, Walter H.; Núńez, Carmen A.

2011-05-01

322

Decadal periodicities of Nile River historical discharge (A.D. 622-1470) and climatic implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Roda Nilometer (Cairo, Egypt) has recorded more than 2,000 gauge readings, i.e. annual low-water and flood levels, from A.D. 622 to the beginning of this century. Spectral analysis of the A.D. 622-1470 data set yields several statistically significant periodicities, for both low-water (256; 75.9; 52.6; 38; 28.9; 20.9; 18.5 and 13.4 yr) and flood levels (75.9; 33.6; 21.4; 14.7;

Thierry De Putter; Marie-France Loutre; Guy Wansard

1998-01-01

323

Coral Evidence Indicating More Spatially Coherent South Pacific Interdecadal Climate Variability Since ~1880 A.D  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have generated multi-century long, subannually resolved time-series of Sr\\/Ca and oxygen isotopes (delta18O) from corals growing at the islands of Rarotonga (21°S, 160°W) and Fiji (17°S, 179°E). The longest record from Rarotonga extends from 1997 back to 1726 A.D. and the delta18O signal since 1874 has been replicated using other corals from the island. At Fiji we have analyzed

B. K. Linsley; G. M. Wellington; D. P. Schrag; L. Ren; M. J. Salinger; A. W. Tudhope

2002-01-01

324

Adding Fractions with Unlike Denominators  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource from the National Library of Virtual Manipulatives shows students how to rename fractions to have a common denominator and then add them. It is appealing because it visually engages the students by showing them what happens to a unit (a rectangle is used here) as the denominator increases or decreases. As the denominator increases or decreases, the partitions are shown accordingly, and the effect on the numerator is shown as well. This is a convenient, visual way to show students how to manipulate fractions for adding.

Manipulatives, National L.

2012-03-20

325

Minimal area submanifolds in AdS × compact  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe the asymptotic behavior of minimal area submanifolds in product spacetimes of an asymptotically hyperbolic space times a compact internal manifold. In particular, we find that unlike the case of a minimal area submanifold just in an asymptotically hyperbolic space, the internal part of the boundary submanifold is constrained to be itself a minimal area submanifold. For applications to holography, this tells us what are the allowed "flavor branes" that can be added to a holographic field theory. We also give a compact geometric expression for the spectrum of operator dimensions associated with the slipping modes of the submanifold in the internal space. We illustrate our results with several examples, including some that haven't appeared in the literature before.

Graham, C. Robin; Karch, Andreas

2014-04-01

326

Thermodynamic and classical instability of AdS black holes in fourth-order gravity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study thermodynamic and classical instability of AdS black holes in fourth-order gravity. These include the BTZ black hole in new massive gravity, Schwarzschild-AdS black hole, and higher-dimensional AdS black holes in fourth-order gravity. All thermo-dynamic quantities which are computed using the Abbot-Deser-Tekin method are used to study thermodynamic instability of AdS black holes. On the other hand, we investigate the s-mode Gregory-Laflamme instability of the massive graviton propagating around the AdS black holes. We establish the connection between the thermodynamic instability and the GL instability of AdS black holes in fourth-order gravity. This shows that the Gubser-Mitra conjecture holds for AdS black holes found from fourth-order gravity.

Myung, Yun Soo; Moon, Taeyoon

2014-04-01

327

Possible earthquake trigger for 6th century mass wasting deposit at Lake Ohrid (Macedonia/Albania)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lake Ohrid shared by the Republics of Albania and Macedonia is formed by a tectonically active graben within the south Balkans and suggested to be the oldest lake in Europe. Several studies have shown that the lake provides a valuable record of climatic and environmental changes and a distal tephrostratigraphic record of volcanic eruptions from Italy. Fault structures identified in seismic data demonstrate that sediments have also the potential to record tectonic activity in the region. Here, we provide an example of linking seismic and sedimentological information with tectonic activity and historical documents. Historical documents indicate that a major earthquake destroyed the city of Lychnidus (today: city of Ohrid) in the early 6th century AD. Multichannel seismic profiles, parametric sediment echosounder profiles, and a 10.08 m long sediment record from the western part of the lake indicate a 2 m thick mass wasting deposit, which is tentatively correlated with this earthquake. The mass wasting deposit is chronologically well constrained, as it directly overlays the AD 472/AD 512 tephra. Moreover, radiocarbon dates and cross correlation with other sediment sequences with similar geochemical characteristics of the Holocene indicate that the mass wasting event took place prior to the onset of the Medieval Warm Period, and is attributed it to one of the known earthquakes in the region in the early 6th century AD.

Wagner, B.; Francke, A.; Sulpizio, R.; Zanchetta, G.; Lindhorst, K.; Krastel, S.; Vogel, H.; Rethemeyer, J.; Daut, G.; Grazhdani, A.; Lushaj, B.; Trajanovski, S.

2012-12-01

328

Nineteenth-Century American and British Poets on Columbus: A Twentieth-Century View.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the 19th century alone, Christopher Columbus was the subject of hundreds of poems that rarely questioned his voyage, his methods, or his place in human history. However, the scholarly work and political realities of the 20th century have undermined the noble, heroic visions conveyed by the poets. Modern readers/students have a dual duty to…

Gorman, Anita G.

329

Math / Adding and Subtracting Integers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Now that you have mastered the common math operations of adding, subtracting, multiplying and dividing, you are ready to tackle some more challenging, yet practical problems. For example: How much money do you have if your Mom paid you $20 for every time you mowed the lawn, but you had to pay your little brother $5 for every time he helped you, and together you accomplished the job 7 times? Or how about this one: if you picked 5 apples but 2 were rotten and you had to divide them equally between you and your five friends, how much would each person get? Current Knowledge You will need a piece of paper to record information and to write down examples, so grab one now. Number the paper from 1 to 10. Get with a partner and write down how you think the equations to solve the above problems will be written. Write these ...

Petersen, Mr. L.

2008-10-01

330

Complex inheritance: the 21st century.  

PubMed

At least for the early years of the twenty-first century we can anticipate some of the advances to be made in mapping, positional cloning, pooling of evidence over samples for linkage and allelic association, and fully parametric methods that combine the latter with segregation analysis. This preoccupation with problems the twentieth century failed to solve is not grounds for pessimism if the new century provides solutions and applies them to problems of biological interest. We may hope that genetic epidemiology will be part of a community that addresses the needs of geneticists for international communication, a stable nomenclature, genome databases, and a consensus on ethical, legal, and social issues transcending regional prejudices. PMID:11037340

Morton, N E

2001-01-01

331

Journal of Seventeenth-Century Music  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From the tones of the viola da gamba to the mellifluence of the lute, seventeenth-century music (and its instruments) is considered a premier subject of inquiry by musicologists and others around the world. Published by the Society for Seventeenth-Century Music, the Journal of Seventeenth-Century Music is dedicated to studying all aspects of music from this era, including performance practice and theater. The Journal was started in 1995, and visitors with a penchant for such topics can utilize this website to look over past and current issues of the Journal as they see fit. Along with looking over the past articles, book reviews, and commentaries, visitors can also learn about the guidelines for submitting items for review.

Gustafson, Bruce, 1945-

332

The Value Added Tax and Small Business.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This research brings together information on the impact of the value added tax by (1) researching the catalog of literature; (2) analyzing the implications of a value added tax on small business; (3) investigating empirically and indepth the hypothesis th...

C. F. Palmer

1982-01-01

333

Weighing the Claims in Diet Ads  

MedlinePLUS

... control Information Network . ? The Truth Behind Weight Loss Ads Claims to watch out for include: Lose weight ... diet patch or cream! You’ve seen the ads for diet patches or creams that claim to ...

334

pp waves in AdS gauged supergravities and supernumerary supersymmetry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purely gravitational pp waves in AdS backgrounds are described by the generalized Kaigorodov metrics, and they generically preserve 1\\/4 of the maximum supersymmetry allowed by the AdS spacetimes. We obtain 1\\/2 supersymmetric purely gravitational pp-wave solutions, in which the Kaigorodov component is set to zero. We construct pp waves in AdS gauged supergravities supported by a vector field. We find

J. Kerimo; H. Lue

2005-01-01

335

21st Century Skills Map: Math  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This 34-page document (pdf) identifies student learning outcomes for each of eleven 21st Century Skills and provides examples of tasks for grade 4, 8, and 12. It strives to fuse mathematical content and mathematical practices with the 4Cs (communication, collaboration, critical thinking and creativity) and integrate them with interdisciplinary themes. Each skill is aligned with CCSS mathematical practices. This map was designed by the Partnership for 21st Century Skills (P21) in cooperation with the Mathematical Association of America (MAA), the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM), and dozens of math educators across the country.

Susan Saltrick, Et A.

2012-04-01

336

Maglev: Transportation for the 21st century  

SciTech Connect

The noise, gaseous and particulate pollution inherent in 19th and 20th century transportation must be eliminated from the city of the 21st century. If cities are to achieve their full potential as economic and cultural centers they must possess superior transportation systems. Ultra-silent, energy stingy, non-polluting maglevs can furnish the passenger and freight transportation system that the coming millennium will demand. Maglev floats railroad-like cars on a magnetic field a few inches above an elevated guideway. The cars can move at any convenient speed up to 300 mph. Yet, maglev produces less noise than a well muffled automobile, no vibration and no pollution.

Andrus, G.M.; Gillies, G.T.

1987-04-01

337

Gifted Children with AD/HD.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This brief paper on gifted children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD) focuses on the special educational needs of this population. Emphasis is on four major conclusions: (1) gifted children with AD/HD differ from average children with AD/HD in cognitive, social, and emotional variables (e.g., the gifted child is likely to show…

Lovecky, Deirdre V.

338

Wormhole Detection in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

As mobile ad hoc network applications are deployed, security emerges as a central requirement. In this paper, we introduce the wormhole attack, a severe attack against ad hoc routing protocols that is par ticularly challenging to defend against. We show how an attacker can use the wormhole attack to cripple a range of ad hoc network routing protocols. In the

Yih-Chun Hu; Adrian Perrig; David B. Johnson

2002-01-01

339

Multimedia Ad Hoc Networks: Performance Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wireless ad hoc networks are characterized by frequent topology changes, unreliable wireless channel, network congestion and resource contention. Multimedia applications usually are bandwidth hungry with stringent delay, jitter and loss requirements. Designing ad hoc networks which support multimedia applications, hence, is considered a hard task. In this paper, we report our work on supporting video streaming over ad hoc networks

Raad Alturki; Rashid Mehmood

2008-01-01

340

The Added Mass of Berthing Ships.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Model tests have been performed for a selection of ship types, to find the values of added mass and added moment of inertia, and the effects of water depth, berth type and fender stiffness. The effect of shallow water is very strong, increasing the added ...

M. J. Barratt

1981-01-01

341

New Features in the ADS Abstract Service  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA-ADS Abstract Service provides a sophisticated search capability for the literature in Astronomy, Planetary Sciences, Physics/Geophysics, and Space Instrumentation. The ADS is funded by NASA and access to the ADS services is free to anybody world-wide without restrictions. It allows the user to search the literature by author, title, and abstract text.

Eichhorn, Guenther; Accomazzi, Alberto; Grant, Carolyn S.; Kurtz, Michael J.; Henneken, Edwin A.; Thompson, Donna M.; Murray, Stephen S.

2005-01-01

342

Rapid landscape change in 6th century Jordan: driven by climate or man-made?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Compared to the rich cities of antiquity, many areas in the Levant appear today degraded. European travel reports of the 19th century and excavations in Jordan created the impression that population numbers were strongly reduced during the Islamic periods, leading to 'empty' lands which were only resettled during the early 20th century. However, our case study near the ancient site Abila of the Decapolis in northern Jordan found that the land was probably never 'empty' and always fertile - but valley fills provide evidence for a rapid and intense landscape change during the Late Byzantine period. This was probably caused by a significant shift to aridity which also triggered socio-economic changes of subsistence strategies from agriculture to pastoralism. The dates of sediments which are available so far indicate that the climatic change seemingly occurred rapidly within approximately 100 years during the late 6th and early 7th century AD, and rubble layers let it seem probable that it was associated with frequent heavy rainfall events. It might have been caused or triggered by a global climate event creating the "year without sun" or 'Mystery Veil' which the Byzantine historian Procopius described in the year 536 AD. If similar events repeat under the current climate change, it will be difficult to mitigate them.

Lucke, Bernhard

2014-05-01

343

Annually-resolved lake record of extreme hydro-meteorological events since AD 1347 in NE Iberian Peninsula  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an annual reconstruction of extreme rainfall events interpreted from detrital layers and turbidites interbedded within a varved sediment record since the 14th century in Montcortés Lake (NE Spain, 1027 m a.s.l.). Clastic microfacies intercalated within the biochemical calcite varves were characterized and their depositional dynamics interpreted using high-resolution geochemical and sedimentological analyses. Annual number of detrital layers was compared against instrumental records of extreme daily rainfalls providing minimum rainfall thresholds and return periods associated to the identified types of clastic microfacies. Non-continuous detrital layers were deposited during rainfall events higher than 80 mm (>2-year return period) while graded detrital layers and turbidites were associated with higher magnitude rainfall events (>90 mm and >4-year return period). The frequency distribution of extreme hydro-meteorological events is not stationary and its pattern coincides with historical floods from the nearby Segre River. High frequency of heavy rainfalls occurred during the periods AD 1347-1400 and AD 1844-1894. A lower frequency of heavy rainfall was found during the periods AD 1441-1508, 1547-1592, 1656-1712, 1765-1822 and 1917-2012. The 20th century stands out as the longest interval within the studied period of very low number of extreme rainfall events. Variability in extreme rainfall events prior to the 20th century is in phase with solar activity, suggesting a mechanistic link in mid-latitude atmospheric circulation patterns that ceased during the 20th century.

Corella, J. P.; Benito, G.; Rodriguez-Lloveras, X.; Brauer, A.; Valero-Garcés, B. L.

2014-06-01

344

Transportation fuels for the 21st century  

EPA Science Inventory

As we enter the 21st century, policymakers face complex decisions regarding options for meeting the demand for transportation fuels. There is now a broad scientific consensus that the burning of fossil fuels has been contributing to climate change, and the transportation sector i...

345

Curriculum for the 21st Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The question explored here is this: Is curriculum for the 21st century best organized around the traditional disciplines, or is there a more promising alternative? The answered offered is that our best option is to stretch the disciplines from within, push back the boundaries now separating them, and ask how each of the expanded subjects can be…

Noddings, Nel

2007-01-01

346

Teaching in the 21st Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Among the issues facing teachers as the 21st century approaches are: the prevalence of violence, growing racial and socioeconomic divisions in society, and lack of parental involvement. Activities gathered from articles in educational journals are suggested to help children voice their experiences, thoughts, and concerns about violence. Some of…

Pauley, Joanne

347

One View of the 21st Century  

Microsoft Academic Search

As we enter the 21st Century, we will be faced with many challenges brought on by technology. Let’s look at the possible future and the environment where computer and technology crimes and frauds of the future will breed along the Internet, as well as its challenges to security and law enforcement professionals.

Gerald Kovacich

2000-01-01

348

A Century of Scientific and Technical Information.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides an outline account of the development and context of scientific and technical communication during the 20th century. Reviews the main channels and forms of communication, their contributions to the overall pattern of information flow, the increasing volume and diversity of scientific information, and the changes computers have made.…

Vickery, Brian

1999-01-01

349

21st Century Learning Environment Models  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report provides short descriptions of systemic approaches for American Recovery and Reinvestment Act funding including: (1) 21st Century Classroom; (2) Comprehensive Professional Development; (3) Statewide Longitudinal Data Systems; (4) Formative Assessment; (5) Digital Content; (6) Virtual Learning; and (7) Learning Management Systems.

State Educational Technology Directors Association, 2011

2011-01-01

350

21ST CENTURY MOLD ANALYSIS IN FOOD  

EPA Science Inventory

Traditionally, the indoor air community has relied on mold analysis performed by either microscopic observations or the culturing of molds on various media to assess indoor air quality. These techniques were developed in the 19th century and are very laborious and time consumin...

351

Wackernagel's Law in Fifth-Century Greek  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This dissertation investigates the distribution of the pronominal clitics and the modal particle [Special characters omitted.] in fifth-century Greek (more specifically in Herodotus, the tragedians, and Aristophanes), which is typically assumed to be governed by Wackernagel's Law. It argues for a prosody-dominant model of clitic distribution,…

Goldstein, David Michael

2010-01-01

352

21st Century Skills: The Challenges Ahead  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The skills that students need for the 21st century are not really new, assert Rotherham and Willingham. Critical thinking, problem solving, information literacy, and global awareness have been important to human progress throughout history, at least among the elites in different societies. What is new is the extent to which individual and…

Rotherham, Andrew J.; Willingham, Daniel

2009-01-01

353

Twentieth-Century Art: Issues of Representation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents lesson plans designed for secondary students that assess the role of naturalistic representation in twentieth-century art by examining the artwork of four artists: Pablo Picasso, Rene Magritte, David Smith, and Jackson Pollock. Provides background information on each illustration, and outlines discussion and art production activities for…

Springer, Julie

1990-01-01

354

Education for the 21st Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ways that higher education can best contribute to the quality of life in the twenty-first century are discussed. While higher education is coping with an anticipated lowered demand for traditional services, new educational functions are being assumed by corporations, professional associations, and other noncollegiate providers. Industries provide…

Cross, K. Patricia

355

Greatest Engineering Achievements of the Twentieth Century  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

To celebrate the many life-changing technological achievements of the Twentieth Century, this site from the National Academy of Engineering was created in a collaboration with the American Association of Engineering Societies, National Engineers Week (Feb. 20-26, 2000), and others. The list contains the top 20 achievements with a history and a timeline of important landmarks for each accomplishment.

356

Family Foster Care in the Next Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduces special theme issue on concerns facing family foster care in the 21st century. Discusses the challenges of serving increased numbers of children in the out-of-home care system and areas of concern in responding to the need for change, including meeting the needs of special populations and responding to mandates for expedited permanency.…

Barbell, Kathy; Wright, Lois

1999-01-01

357

Edkins and a Century of Acid Suppression  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1905, John Edkins (1863–1940) undertook the studies of gastrin that have subsequently formed the basis for a century of investigation into the physiological basis of acid secretion and led to the elucidation of a variety of acid-suppressive pharmacological agents that have revolutionized the management of acid peptic disease. Although his name is known to few, his contributions to the

I. M. Modlin; G. Sachs; N. Wright; M. Kidd

2005-01-01

358

Museums, Libraries, and 21st Century Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes a project that underscores the critical role of this nation's museums and libraries in helping citizens build such 21st century skills as information, communications and technology literacy, critical thinking, problem solving, creativity, civic literacy, and global awareness. Recognizing that every individual requires these…

Institute of Museum and Library Services, 2009

2009-01-01

359

Creating 21st Century Learning Environments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

What is involved in creating learning environments for the 21st century? How can school facilities serve as tools for teaching and meet the needs of students in the future? What components are required to design effective schools, and how does architecture relate to the purposes of schooling? These are some of the questions addressed at the…

Li, Phan P.; Locke, John; Nair, Prakash; Bunting, Andrew

2005-01-01

360

Business Education for the 21st Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Each year, the Policies Commission for Business and Economic Education develops statements regarding business education. The following are among the commission's guidelines regarding planning the business education curriculum for the new century: (1) making business education an integral and equal partner within schools' educational communities…

Missouri State Dept. of Elementary and Secondary Education, Jefferson City. Div. of Vocational and Adult Education.

361

Benjamin in the 23rd Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To understand the dangers of interpreting literary works primarily through the history, social customs, and values of the period portrayed in the work, students should imagine themselves 3 centuries in the future considering a modern work of art. For example, they should try to interpret the movie, "The Graduate," as a reflection of the social and…

Lewis, Stuart

1969-01-01

362

Looking back at the century of population.  

PubMed

This article reports experts' views on the important population trends and events observed in the 20th century. One expert mentioned that demographically the 20th century was the most remarkable century ever. Among its major features were the following: highest rate of growth; highest annual increment; shortest period in history to add 1 billion people; unprecedented decline in fertility; unparalleled increases in life expectancy, with dramatic declines in mortality; and rapid urbanization and the emergence of megacities. An expert from Paris cited changes in ethnic composition in the US and changes in the religious composition of Europe. Among the events considered as important population trends for the 20th century are the following: fertility decline; increase in proportion of older persons; development of hormonal contraceptives; stagnation of population growth in economically rich and industrialized countries; literacy rate of the population; promotion of gender equality and equity; women's empowerment; adoption of broad reproductive health/rights policies; and prevention and treatment of sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV/AIDS. PMID:12295707

2000-01-01

363

A Vision of the 21st Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The new vision for the 21st century is reflected in ACTE's recent position paper on strengthening the American high school through career and technical education. Teachers and administrators are encouraged to continue raising students' academic achievements and their high school completion rates. However, the way the American high school is…

Bottoms, Gene

2006-01-01

364

Psychological Science in the 21st Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Science is constantly changing. If one hopes to keep pace with advances in science, one cannot simply repeat what one has done in the past, whether deciding how to invest limited research funds, searching to replace a retiring colleague, or teaching introductory psychology. Psychological science in the 21st century is more central and integrated…

Cacioppo, John T.

2013-01-01

365

Curriculum for the 21st Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Urges reconsideration of educational ends. Suggests eight curriculum principles that can help Canadian schools move into the next century. Explains six educational needs roughly based on Maslow's hierarchy (aesthetic needs, need for meaning, self-actualization, self-concept, social needs, need for survival) and relates them to curriculum…

Pratt, David

1983-01-01

366

Poetry at Buffalo: The Twentieth Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the Special Collections at the State University of New York at Buffalo and the role of Charles Abbott in their development. His interest and a serendipitous lack of funds have created an unusual collection containing a Twentieth Century Poetry Collection, James Joyce holographs, and rare book collections. (CHC)

Knoer, Wanda

1981-01-01

367

Information Ethics in the Twenty First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The first decade of the twenty first century has seen a growing interest and intellectual debate within the information professions, focusing on issues where an ethical dimension predominates. This paper provides an overview of codes of practice, published literature, conference proceedings and educational programs that focus on information…

Sturges, Paul

2009-01-01

368

"Stakes is High": Educating New Century Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

My apologies to iconic hip-hop artists, De La Soul for I have shamelessly appropriated the title, "Stakes is high" to underscore the importance of the work ahead for educators, students, parents, community members, and researchers as we attempt to develop a generation of what I call "new century" students for a world we can hardly imagine. Through…

Ladson-Billings, Gloria

2013-01-01

369

Faculty Development for the 21st Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the 21st century, colleges and universities need to consider faculty development programs in the same way that they view academic programs for their Net Gen and Millennial students. In other words, successful faculty development programs should include mentoring, delivery in a variety of on-campus and off-campus formats (face-to-face, blended,…

Diaz, Veronica; Garrett, P. B.; Kinley, Edward R.; Moore, John F.; Schwartz, Celeste M.; Kohrman, Pat

2009-01-01

370

CFT adapted gauge invariant formulation of massive arbitrary spin fields in AdS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using Poincaré parametrization of AdS space, we study massive totally symmetric arbitrary spin fields in AdS space of dimension greater than or equal to four. CFT adapted gauge invariant formulation for such fields is developed. Gauge symmetries are realized by using Stueckelberg formulation of massive fields. We demonstrate that the mass parameter, curvature and radial coordinate contributions to the gauge

R. R. Metsaev

2010-01-01

371

Effects of ad placement and type on consumer responses to podcast ads.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to understand the effects of podcast ad placement and podcast ad type on consumers' perceived intrusiveness, perceived irritation, attitude toward the ad, and ad avoidance. Our 2 x 2 (traditional ad vs. sponsorship by beginning vs. middle) experimental study found that sponsorships generated better consumer responses than did traditional ads and that podcast ads placed at the beginning of audio podcasts yielded better consumer responses than those placed in the middle. Implications for marketers and advertisers are discussed. PMID:19817565

Ritter, Eric A; Cho, Chang-Hoan

2009-10-01

372

LWR (Light Water Reactor) power plant simulations using the AD10 and AD100 systems  

SciTech Connect

Boiling (BWR) and Pressurized (PWR) Water Reactor Power Plants are being simulated at BNL with the AD10 and AD100 Peripheral Processor Systems. The AD10 system has been used for BWR simulations since 1984 for safety analyses, emergency training and optimization studies. BWR simulation capabilities have been implemented recently on the AD100 system and PWR simulation capabilities are currently being developed under the auspices of international cooperation. Modeling and simulation methods are presented with emphasis on the simulation of the Nuclear Steam Supply System. Results are presented for BWR simulation and performance characteristics are compared of the AD10 and AD100 systems. It will be shown that the AD100 simulates two times faster than two AD10 processors operating in parallel and that the computing capacity of one AD100 (with FMU processor) is twice as large as that of two AD10 processors. 9 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

Wulff, W.; Cheng, H.S.; Chien, C.J.; Jang, J.Y.; Lin, H.C.; Mallen, A.N.; Wang, S.J. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (USA); Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Lung-Tan (Taiwan); Tawian Power Co., Taipei (Taiwan); Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (USA); Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Lung-Tan (Taiwan))

1989-01-01

373

AdS black hole solutions in the extended new massive gravity  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have obtained (warped) AdS black hole solutions in the three dimensional extended new massive gravity. We investigate some\\u000a properties of black holes and obtain central charges of the two dimensional dual CFT. To obtain the central charges, we use\\u000a the relation between entropy and temperature according to the AdS\\/CFT dictionary. For AdS black holes, one can also use the

Soonkeon Nam; Jong-Dae Park; Sang-Heon Yi

2010-01-01

374

The moderating influence of ad framing for ad-self-congruency effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prior research indicates that ad-self-congruency effects are signifi- cant only when participants are not motivated to process ad messages, as when they are in a positive rather than negative affective state (Chang, 2002a). In line with this reasoning, it was expected that ad tac- tics such as ad framing that can evoke emotional responses would determine reliance on ad-self-congruency for

Chingching Chang

2005-01-01

375

Preemptive routing in Ad Hoc networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Existing on-demand ad-hoc routing algorithms initiate route discovery only after a path breaks, incurring a significant cost in detecting the disconnection and establishing a new route. In this work, we investigate adding proactive route selection and maintenance to on-demand ad-hoc routing algorithms. More specifically, when a path is likely to be broken, a warning is sent to the source indicating

Tom Goff; Nael B. Abu-Ghazaleh; Dhananjay S. Phatak; Ridvan Kahvecioglu

2001-01-01

376

Mobile ad hoc networking: imperatives and challenges  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) represent complex distributed systems that comprise wireless mobile nodes that can freely and dynamically self-organize into arbitrary and temporary, ''ad-hoc'' network topologies, allowing people and devices to seamlessly internetwork in areas with no pre-existing communication infrastructure, e.g., disaster re- covery environments. Ad hoc networking concept is not a new one, having been around in various

Imrich Chlamtac; Marco Conti; Jennifer J.-N. Liu

2003-01-01

377

Semiclassical Strings and AdS\\/CFT  

Microsoft Academic Search

We discuss AdS\\/CFT duality in the sector of “semiclassical” string states with large quantum numbers. We review the coherent-state\\u000a effective action approach, in which similar 2d sigma model actions appear from the AdS5 × S5 string action and from the integrable spin chain Hamiltonian representing the N=4 super Yang-Mills dilatation operator. We\\u000a consider mostly the leading-order terms in the energies\\/anomalous

Arkady A. Tseytlin

2006-01-01

378

Assessment: A 21st Century Skills Implementation Guide  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To succeed in college, career and life in the 21st century, students must be supported in mastering both content and skills. This Implementation Guide presents state leaders, policymakers and/or district and school leaders with assessment tactics and examples to assist in statewide 21st century skills initiatives. The Partnership for 21st Century

Partnership for 21st Century Skills, 2009

2009-01-01

379

Standards: A 21st Century Skills Implementation Guide  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To succeed in college, career and life in the 21st century, students must be supported in mastering both content and skills. This Implementation Guide presents state leaders, policymakers and/or district and school leaders with assessment tactics and examples to assist in statewide 21st century skills initiatives. The Partnership for 21st Century

Partnership for 21st Century Skills, 2009

2009-01-01

380

Learning Environments: A 21st Century Skills Implementation Guide  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To succeed in college, career and life in the 21st century, students must be supported in mastering both content and skills. This Implementation Guide presents state leaders, policymakers and/or district and school leaders with assessment tactics and examples to assist in statewide 21st century skills initiatives. The Partnership for 21st Century

Partnership for 21st Century Skills, 2009

2009-01-01

381

Professional Development: A 21st Century Skills Implementation Guide  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To succeed in college, career and life in the 21st century, students must be supported in mastering both content and skills. This Implementation Guide presents state leaders, policymakers and/or district and school leaders with assessment tactics and examples to assist in statewide 21st century skills initiatives. The Partnership for 21st Century

Partnership for 21st Century Skills, 2009

2009-01-01

382

Curriculum and Instruction: A 21st Century Skills Implementation Guide  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To succeed in college, career and life in the 21st century, students must be supported in mastering both content and skills. This Implementation Guide presents state leaders, policymakers and/or district and school leaders with assessment tactics and examples to assist in statewide 21st century skills initiatives. The Partnership for 21st Century

Partnership for 21st Century Skills, 2009

2009-01-01

383

Astronomical Telescopes at the Turn of the Century  

Microsoft Academic Search

The final years of the XXth Century and the initial years of the XXIst Century are witnessing a revolution in the construction of large telescopes. This has been possible thanks to the availability of both thin mirror technologies and large computing power. Astronomy is thus benefiting from this. Indeed the turn of century has been rich with new discoveries, from

J. M. Rodríguez Espinosa

2004-01-01

384

Twenty-First Century Learning: Communities, Interaction and Ubiquitous Computing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Advanced technology makes 21st century learning, communities and interactions unique and leads people to an era of ubiquitous computing. The purpose of this article is to contribute to the discussion of learning in the 21st century. The paper will review literature on learning community, community learning, interaction, 21st century learning and…

Leh, Amy S.C.; Kouba, Barbara; Davis, Dirk

2005-01-01

385

Reinventing Jewish Education for the 21st Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A century ago a group of educators led an effort to transform American Jewish education to enable it to operate successfully in the 20th century. Today, with American Jews living under very different conditions, a similar effort is needed to reinvent Jewish education for the 21st century. Changes and new initiatives already taking place on the…

Woocher, Jonathan

2012-01-01

386

Twentieth Century Thinkers in Adult & Continuing Education. Second Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book contains 19 papers on 20th century thinkers in adult and continuing education. The book is arranged in four parts as follows: early 20th century English thinkers; early 20th century American thinkers; theorists of adult and continuing education; and theorists of adult education and social change. The following papers are included:…

Jarvis, Peter, Ed.

387

Dance Education in the 21st Century: A Global Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Margaret H'Doubler brought the magic of dance to the 20th century, yet the 21st century has yet to find a person to rekindle the same public desire for dance education. Consequently, the future of dance education in the next century is hard to predict. Based on an informal survey of fellow advisory board members of Dance and the Child…

Gilbert, Anne Green

2005-01-01

388

Theme: Is FFA Needed in the 21st Century?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Includes "Will FFA [Future Farmers of America] Be a Part of Agricultural Education in Twenty Years?" (Stagg, Staller); "The FFA Organization" (Vaughn, Keith, Lockaby); "FFA in Y2K=Success" (Leib); "Drivers Wanted for the 21st Century" (Morgan, Vincent); "FFA in the 21st Century" (Trivette, Trivette); "Should There Be FFA in the Next Century?"…

Stagg, Bill, Ed.; And Others

1999-01-01

389

A 1,200-year perspective of 21st century drought in southwestern North America  

PubMed Central

A key feature of anticipated 21st century droughts in Southwest North America is the concurrence of elevated temperatures and increased aridity. Instrumental records and paleoclimatic evidence for past prolonged drought in the Southwest that coincide with elevated temperatures can be assessed to provide insights on temperature-drought relations and to develop worst-case scenarios for the future. In particular, during the medieval period, ?AD 900–1300, the Northern Hemisphere experienced temperatures warmer than all but the most recent decades. Paleoclimatic and model data indicate increased temperatures in western North America of approximately 1?°C over the long-term mean. This was a period of extensive and persistent aridity over western North America. Paleoclimatic evidence suggests drought in the mid-12th century far exceeded the severity, duration, and extent of subsequent droughts. The driest decade of this drought was anomalously warm, though not as warm as the late 20th and early 21st centuries. The convergence of prolonged warming and arid conditions suggests the mid-12th century may serve as a conservative analogue for severe droughts that might occur in the future. The severity, extent, and persistence of the 12th century drought that occurred under natural climate variability, have important implications for water resource management. The causes of past and future drought will not be identical but warm droughts, inferred from paleoclimatic records, demonstrate the plausibility of extensive, severe droughts, provide a long-term perspective on the ongoing drought conditions in the Southwest, and suggest the need for regional sustainability planning for the future.

Woodhouse, Connie A.; Meko, David M.; MacDonald, Glen M.; Stahle, Dave W.; Cook, Edward R.

2010-01-01

390

21st century advanced hydropower turbine system  

SciTech Connect

While hydropower turbine manufacturers have incrementally improved turbine technology to increase efficiency, the basic design concepts haven`t changed for decades. These late 19th and early 20th century designs did not consider environmental effects, since little was known about environmental effects of hydropower at the time. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the hydropower industry recognize that hydropower plants have an effect on the environment and there is a great need to bring turbine designs into the 21st century. DOE has issued a request for proposals (RFP) that requested proposers to discard conventional thinking, search out innovative solutions, and to visualize innovative turbines designed from a new perspective. This perspective would look at the {open_quotes}turbine system{close_quotes} (intake to tailrace) which will balance environmental, technical, and economic considerations. This paper describes the DOE Advanced Hydropower Turbine System Program.

Brookshier, P.A.; Flynn, J.V.; Loose, R.R.

1995-11-01

391

Astronomy in nineteenth-century Lancaster  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lancashire's county town produced several eminent scientists in the last century, one of them, the philosopher of science William Whewell, even coining the word 'scientist' itself. Some of the others also proved good at devising names: the palaeontologist Sir Richard Owen invented the word 'dinosaur' and the chemist Sir Edward Frankland named helium following its detection in the solar spectrum by Norman Lockyer. While Lancaster's nineteenth-century scientific pantheon contained no well-known astronomers, a healthy appetite for the subject had grown along with the town itself,1 culminating in the opening of the Greg Observatory in 1892.2 This growth can be traced through the activities of Lancaster's learned societies, popular expositions of the subject by visiting speakers and reports of astronomical topics in the local press.

Wade, Peter

1997-04-01

392

A new biology for a new century.  

PubMed

Biology today is at a crossroads. The molecular paradigm, which so successfully guided the discipline throughout most of the 20th century, is no longer a reliable guide. Its vision of biology now realized, the molecular paradigm has run its course. Biology, therefore, has a choice to make, between the comfortable path of continuing to follow molecular biology's lead or the more invigorating one of seeking a new and inspiring vision of the living world, one that addresses the major problems in biology that 20th century biology, molecular biology, could not handle and, so, avoided. The former course, though highly productive, is certain to turn biology into an engineering discipline. The latter holds the promise of making biology an even more fundamental science, one that, along with physics, probes and defines the nature of reality. This is a choice between a biology that solely does society's bidding and a biology that is society's teacher. PMID:15187180

Woese, Carl R

2004-06-01

393

A new neuropsychology for the XXI century.  

PubMed

Regardless of the significant interest in comparing neuropsychological syndromes across cultures, little interest is observed in comparing these syndromes across time. Most of the neuropsychological syndromes were described during the late nineteenth and early twentieth century (e.g., aphasia, alexia, agraphia, acalculia, etc.). However, living conditions have so dramatically changed during the last 100 years that those classical neuropsychological syndromes have to be re-stated and reconsidered; eventually, new syndromes could be proposed. In this paper, an analysis of the impact of the new living conditions in spoken language, written language, numerical abilities, memory, spatial orientation, people recognition, and executive functions is presented. It is concluded that it is time to re-analyze and re-interpret the classical neuropsychological syndromes; and develop new assessment procedures, more in accordance with the twenty-first century living conditions. PMID:23702677

Ardila, Alfredo

2013-12-01

394

Paris: Capital of the 19th Century  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The world of Paris in the 19th century was one that might be called a gaudy yet rich mixture of cultural, social, and other such delights. From the poems of Baudelaire to the architectural fancies of the Second Empire, the City of Lights became an icon of all that was (and is) urban, for good and for ill. Much of this world can be explored through a variety of visual documents offered by this ongoing project that is being developed as part of the digital projects initiative at Brown University. Visitors to the site can browse the materials here by subject, title, or by historical period. The site also contains a number of historical essays that provide additional background to this subject. The essays deal with the emerging condition of modernity, panoramic literature, and alienation in the city. The site is rounded out by a nice listing of additional online resources dealing with 19th century France.

395

A New Biology for a New Century  

PubMed Central

Biology today is at a crossroads. The molecular paradigm, which so successfully guided the discipline throughout most of the 20th century, is no longer a reliable guide. Its vision of biology now realized, the molecular paradigm has run its course. Biology, therefore, has a choice to make, between the comfortable path of continuing to follow molecular biology's lead or the more invigorating one of seeking a new and inspiring vision of the living world, one that addresses the major problems in biology that 20th century biology, molecular biology, could not handle and, so, avoided. The former course, though highly productive, is certain to turn biology into an engineering discipline. The latter holds the promise of making biology an even more fundamental science, one that, along with physics, probes and defines the nature of reality. This is a choice between a biology that solely does society's bidding and a biology that is society's teacher.

Woese, Carl R.

2004-01-01

396

NASA's Vision for 21st Century Aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents NASA's Vision for the 21st Century Aircraft. The contents include: 1) NASA Vision; 2) NASA Installations; 3) Research and Technology Products; 4) Future Plans; 5) Revolutionary Vehicles; 6) Aeropropulsion-NASA's Future Direction; 7) Gas Turbine Revolution; 8) Variable Capability, Ultra High Bypass Ratio Intelligent Engines: Fundamental Technologies; 9) Distributed Vectored Propulsion; and 10) Alternative Energy Propulsion. This paper is in viewgraph form.

Whitlow, Woodrow, Jr.

2002-01-01

397

World Politics in the 21st Century  

Microsoft Academic Search

By W. Raymond Duncan, Barbara Jancar-Webster, Bob Switky.This exciting introduction to world politics features a unique active-learning approach that helps students better understand international relations and includes current, 21st Century topics often neglected in other texts. Lauded for its strong scholarship and excellent attention to theory, this second edition, like the first, includes comprehensive coverage of current topics often neglected

W. Raymond Duncan; Barbara Jancar-Webster; Bob Switky

2004-01-01

398

Great Universalist of the 20TH Century  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the most prominent physicists of the 20th century, Lev Davidovich Landau, was at the same time a great universalist who made fundamental contributions in diverse areas of physics: quantum mechanics, solid state physics, theory of magnetism, phase transition theory, nuclear and particle physics, quantum electrodynamics (QED), low-temperature physics, fluid dynamics, atomic collision theory, theory of chemical reactions, and other disciplines.

Gershtein, S. S.

2013-06-01

399

New Books in Nineteenth-Century Studies  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Provided by the University of University of Southern California's Department of English, this site offers complete publication information for scholarly works on the British Romantic and Victorian periods. Users will find authors, titles, publishers, prices, ISBN numbers and publishers' descriptions for new and forthcoming critical works, anthologies, and critical editions of nineteenth-century British materials. In the near future original reviews will be available for selected works. The site also features an internal search engine.

400

Russian Corpus of the 19th Century  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The paper deals with a corpus of the Russian language of the 19th century. The corpus offers the opportunity to accomplish\\u000a some essential tasks of modern Russian linguistics like getting various linguistic and statistical information, investigating\\u000a dynamic processes in the vocabulary, analyzing grammatical changes in the lexicon. To make the corpus representative, some\\u000a special criteria should be determined. The corpus

Victor Zakharov

2003-01-01

401

Climate Change Inevitable in 21st Century  

NSF Publications Database

... Version March 17, 2005 Even if all greenhouse gases had somehow been stabilized back in the year ... by the year 2100, even if no more greenhouse gases were added to the atmosphere. And the resulting ...

402

Surgical Diseases of the Womb According to Aetius of Amida (6th Century a . d .)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  In the interest of presenting historical background for modern-day medicine and surgery, the authors comment on the concepts\\u000a of the eminent Byzantine physician Aetius of Amida (sixth century a.d.) in surgical treatment of diseases of the womb.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Study design  The 16th book of Aetius’ work Tetrabiblus, in the original Greek language, a treatise on gynecology and obstetrics of his era, was

Dimitrios P. Lazaris; Faidon J. Laskaratos; Gerassimos J. Lascaratos

2009-01-01

403

= 4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theories in AdS3  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For all types of = 4 anti-de Sitter (AdS) supersymmetry in three dimensions, we construct manifestly supersymmetric actions for Abelian vector multiplets and explain how to extend the construction to the non-Abelian case. Manifestly = 4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills (SYM) actions are explicitly given in the cases of (2,2) and critical (4,0) AdS supersymmetries. The = 4 vector multiplets and the corresponding actions are then reduced to (2,0) AdS superspace, in which only = 2 supersymmetry is manifest. Using the off-shell structure of the = 4 vector multiplets, we provide complete = 4 SYM actions in (2,0) AdS superspace for all types of = 4 AdS supersymmetry. In the case of (4,0) AdS supersymmetry, which admits a Euclidean counterpart, the resulting = 2 action contains a Chern-Simons term proportional to q/r, where r is the radius of AdS 3 and q is the R-charge of a chiral scalar superfield. The R-charge is a linear inhomogeneous function of X, an expectation value of the = 4 Cotton superfield. Thus our results explain the mysterious structure of = 4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theories on S 3 discovered in arXiv:1401.7952. In the case of (3,1) AdS supersymmetry, which has no Euclidean counterpart, the SYM action contains both a Chern-Simons term and a chiral mass-like term. In the case of (2,2) AdS supersymmetry, which admits a Euclidean counterpart, the SYM action has no Chern-Simons and chiral mass-like terms.

Kuzenko, Sergei M.; Tartaglino-Mazzucchelli, Gabriele

2014-05-01

404

[Sexuality and medicine: the 20th-century sexual revolution].  

PubMed

This paper discusses the role of medicine, ranging from the normative and technological control of women's sexuality ad reproductive process (childbirth, breastfeeding, contraception, and treatment of infertility) through the construction of a new (biological and social) reproductive model, based on a radical change of identities, relations, and forms of union between the sexes (a break with the traditional concept of marriage, growth of open unions, serial monogamy, etc.). This model is sustained by a radical distinction between sexuality and reproduction, related to a unique and horizontal model of sexuality (in opposition to the hierarchical 19th-century two-sexes model); the new model focuses mainly on pleasure and moves progressively away from social ties and affection. In addition to the contribution of medicine (notably through assisted reproduction) and sexology (universalization of the orgasm imperative), the paper also discusses the contribution of epidemiology (through AIDS-related research) to the transformation of a moral sexual norm into an abstract and merely statistical standard PMID:12973545

Loyola, Maria Andréa

2003-01-01

405

Algorithms for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the fourth century b.c., the Greek writer Aeschylus wrote the play Agamemnon, which provides a detailed description of how fire signals were supposedly used to communicate the fall of Troy to Athens over a distance of more than 450 km. This very same idea is present in the third movie of the trilogy \\

AZZEDINE BOUKERCHE; DANIEL C; ANTONIO A. F. LOUREIRO

406

Super D-string action on AdS 5× S 5  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a supersymmetric and ?-symmetric D-string action on AdS5×S5 in supercoset construction. As in the previous work of the super D-string action in the flat background, the super D-string action on AdS5×S5 can be transformed to a form of the IIB Green-Schwarz superstring action with the SL(2,Z) covariant tension on AdS5×S5 through a duality transformation. In order to understand

Ichiro Oda

1998-01-01

407

Super D-string Action on $AdS_5 \\\\times S^5$  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a supersymmetric and $\\\\kappa$-symmetric D-string action on $AdS_5\\u000a\\\\times S^5$ in supercoset construction. As in the previous work of the super\\u000aD-string action in the flat background, the super D-string action on $AdS_5\\u000a\\\\times S^5$ can be transformed to a form of the IIB Green-Schwarz superstring\\u000aaction with the $SL(2,Z)$ covariant tension on $AdS_5 \\\\times S^5$ through a

Ichiro Oda

1998-01-01

408

Geometric finiteness, holography and quasinormal modes for the warped AdS3 black hole  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We show that there exists a precise kinematical notion of holography for the Euclidean warped AdS3 black hole. This follows from the fact that the Euclidean warped AdS3 black hole spacetime is a geometrically finite hyperbolic manifold. For such manifolds a theorem of Sullivan provides a one-to-one correspondence between the hyperbolic structure in the bulk and the conformal structure of its boundary. Using this theorem we obtain the holographic quasinormal modes for the warped AdS3 black hole.

Gupta, Kumar S.; Harikumar, E.; Sen, Siddhartha; Sivakumar, M.

2010-08-01

409

Annual precipitation in the Yellowstone National Park region since AD 1173  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Cores and cross sections from 133 limber pine (Pinus flexilis James) and Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirbel) Franco) at four sites were used to estimate annual (July to June) precipitation in the Yellowstone National Park region for the period from AD 1173 to 1998. Examination of the long-term record shows that the early 20th century was markedly wet compared to the previous 700 yr. Extreme wet and dry years within the instrumental period fall within the range of past variability, and the magnitude of the worst-case droughts of the 20th century (AD 1930s and 1950s) was likely equaled or exceeded on numerous occasions before AD 1900. Spectral analysis showed significant decadal to multidecadal precipitation variability. At times this lower frequency variability produces strong regime-like behavior in regional precipitation, with the potential for rapid, high-amplitude switching between predominately wet and predominately dry conditions. Over multiple time scales, strong Yellowstone region precipitation anomalies were almost always associated with spatially extensive events spanning various combinations of the central and southern U.S. Rockies, the northern U.S.-Southern Canadian Rockies and the Pacific Northwest.

Gray, Stephen T.; Graumlich, Lisa J.; Betancourt, Julio L.

2007-01-01

410

Want Ads and the Job Market  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Olympus Research Corporation (ORC) made an in-depth study of want ads. It was found the ads did not offer adequate, accurate, or easily obtained information that would make it possible for job seekers to decide whether they are suited to a job, or want it. (Author/BP)

Walsh, John; Johnson, Miriam

1974-01-01

411

Ad Hoc UAV Ground Network (AUGNet)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes an implementation of a wireless mobile ad hoc network with radio nodes mounted at fixed sites, on ground vehicles, and in small (10kg) UAVs. The ad hoc networking allows any two nodes to communicate either directly or through an arbitrary number of other nodes which act as relays. We envision two scenarios for this type of network.

Timothy X Brown; Brian Argrow; Cory Dixon; Sheetalkumar Doshi; Roshan-George Thekkekunnel; Daniel Henkel

2004-01-01

412

Usual Intake of Energy from added sugars  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Energy from added sugars Table A41. Energy from added sugars: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 kilocalories Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 150.2

413

Falling flavors in AdS/CFT  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider the behavior of D7 probes of supersymmetric warped geometries that are perturbed by the presence of overline{D}3 -branes. Such constructions are the gravitational duals of non-supersymmetric states in supersymmetric flavored gauge theories. Although the D7s we consider do not feel a force from either D3s or overline{D}3s alone, when both types of 3-branes are present the D7s deform and fall a small distance toward the 3-branes. We perform our analysis in AdS 5 × S 5 and AdS 5 × T 1,1 and find qualitatively similar behavior in each case. We then extend our consideration to the approximately conical region of the Klebanov-Strassler solution and find that the effect is parametrically larger than in the AdS 5 × X 5 examples. Additionally, we discuss how these behaviors are modified by the presence of other flavors by considering the smeared backreaction of such flavor branes in AdS 5 × X 5. Finally, we touch upon some of the implications that our results may have for model building and argue that the deformation of the worldvolume results in {O} (1) corrections to soft terms in the low-energy description.

McGuirk, Paul

2013-07-01

414

Flooding in wireless ad hoc networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an ad hoc network, each host assumes the role of a router and relays packets toward final destinations. This paper studies efficient routing mechanisms for packet flooding in ad hoc wireless networks. Because a packet is broadcast to all neighboring nodes, the optimality criteria of wireless network routing are different from that of the wired network routing. We show

H. Lim; C. Kim

2001-01-01

415

Performance evaluation of multihop ad hoc WLANs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ongoing technological advances in portable devices, coupled with the need for continuous connectivity while mobile, have made ad hoc networks a compelling research and development topic, particularly in a challenging multimedia multihop scenario. The ability of IEEE 802.11's ad hoc mode of operation, as a dominating wireless local area network (WLAN) protocol, to serve multihop networks requires thorough investigation. In

Farshad Eshghi; Ahmed K. Elhakeem; Yousef R. Shayan

2005-01-01

416

Visible signs of illness from the 14th to the 20th century: systematic review of portraits  

PubMed Central

Objectives To see whether a collection of portraits depicting inhabitants of a defined geographical region and covering several centuries is a useful source for studying the sociocultural significance and epidemiology of particular visible diseases, such as goitre, which is known to have been common in this region. Design Systematic review of portraits and description of visible signs of illness. Setting The Burgerbibliothek (archives of the burghers' community) in Berne, Switzerland. Data sources 3615 portraits; 2989 of individuals whose identity is known and 626 of individuals whose identity is unknown. Main outcome measures Visible signs of illness evaluated by means of a standardised visual assessment. Results Visible signs of illness in portraits were common and appeared in up to 82% (451/553) of paintings from the 17th and 18th centuries. The most common findings were signs of goitre in women and overweight in men. In only the portraits where the neck region could be evaluated, 41% of women with known identities (139/343) had goitre compared with 24% of men with known identities (21/86). The prevalence of goitre was even higher in sitters whose identities were unknown: 63% in men (5/8) and 68% in women (82/121). Overweight in people with known identities was more common in men than in women (30%, 346/1145 v 44%, 811/1844). Overweight was most common in sitters aged >40 than in those aged 40 or younger. Other conditions, such as missing teeth, amputated limbs, or osteoarthritic deformations were surprisingly rare in the portraits under evaluation. Conclusions Goitre and other diseases are under-represented in the people depicted in these portraits. Artistic idealisation is a likely explanation for this observation: what was reproduced depended on what was considered pathological or shameful at the time, and therefore depended on age and sex. Stigmatising details may have been omitted. Further, artistic skills and contemporary fashion may have influenced the way in which people were reproduced. People depicted are possibly not representative of the general Bernese population as they constituted a socioeconomically advantaged group. What is already know on this topicReviews of individual portraits from the past have found clinical signs of illness that have led to discussions of underlying diseasesGoitre probably affected in excess of 80% of the population of the canton of Berne up to the beginning of the 20th centuryWhat this study addsIn a large series of portraits from the Bernese region, goitre and other diseases are under-representedFindings of age dependent overweight (a survival advantage in times of potential famine) were probably more realisticLikely explanations for this include idealisation depending on sex and age, artistic skills, fashion, and sociocultural significance of illnessA decline in depicted signs of illness from the 19th century may indicate progress of preventive medicine and hygiene

Als, C; Stussi, Y; Boschung, U; Trohler, U; Waber, J H

2002-01-01

417

Hydrodynamics of RN AdS4 black hole and holographic optics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider the AdS4 RN black hole and work out the momentum dependent hydrodynamic analysis for the vector modes. We also perform the spectral function calculation of the dual field theory. As an application, we consider the permittivity and permeability and find that for low frequency regime, the index of refraction is found to be negative, supporting the claim made in ref. [20] for AdS5.

Ge, Xian-Hui; Jo, Kwanghyun; Sin, Sang-Jin

2011-03-01

418

Vertex operators for AdS3 background with Ramond Ramond flux  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to study vertex operators for the Type IIB superstring on AdS space, we derive supersymmetric constraint equations for the vertex operators in AdS3 × S3 backgrounds with Ramond-Ramond flux, using Berkovits-Vafa-Witten variables. These constraints are solved to compute the vertex operators and show that they satisfy the linearized D = 6, N = (2,0) equations of motion for

Louise Dolan; Edward Witten

1999-01-01

419

Finite temperature effective action, AdS5 black holes, and 1\\/N expansion  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a phenomenological matrix model to study string theory in AdS5×S5 in the canonical ensemble. The model reproduces all the known qualitative features of the theory. In particular, it gives a simple effective potential description of Euclidean black hole nucleation and the tunneling between thermal anti-de Sitter (AdS) and the big black hole. It also has some interesting predictions.

Luis Alvarez-Gaume; Cesar Gomez; Hong Liu; Spenta R. Wadia

2005-01-01

420

Moduli Space of IIB Superstring and SUYM in AdS5×S5  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper consists of two parts. In part I, we interpret the hidden symmetry of the moduli space of IIB superstring on AdS5×S5 in terms of the chiral embedding in AdS5, which turns out to be the ??3 conformal affine Toda model. We review how the position ? of poles in the Riemann–Hilbert formulation of dressing transformation and the value

Hou Bo-Yu; Hou Bo-Yuan; Wang Xiao-Hui; Xiong Chuan-Hua; Yue Rui-Hong

2006-01-01

421

Bihamiltonian structure of the classical superstring in AdS5 ×S5  

Microsoft Academic Search

We discuss the bihamiltonian structure of the Metsaev-Tseytlin super- string in AdS5 ×S5. We explicitly write down the boost-invariant symplec- tic structure for the superstring in AdS5 × S5 and explain its relation to the standard (canonical) symplectic structure. We discuss the geometrical meaning of the boost-invariant symplectic structure for the bosonic string.

Andrei Mikhailov

422

Jordanian deformations of the AdS5 × S5 superstring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider Jordanian deformations of the AdS5 × S5 superstring action. These deformations correspond to non-standard q-deformations. In particular, it is possible to perform a partial deformation, for example, of the AdS5 part only, or of the S5 part only. Then the classical action and the Lax pair are constructed with a linear, twisted and extended R operator. It is shown that the action preserves the ?-symmetry.

Kawaguchi, Io; Matsumoto, Takuya; Yoshida, Kentaroh

2014-04-01

423

AdImage: video advertising by image matching and ad scheduling optimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the prevalence of recording devices and the ease of media sharing, consumers are embracing huge amounts of Internet videos. There arise the needs for effective video advertisement systems following their phenomenal success in text. We propose a novel advertising system, AdImage, which automatically associates relevant ads by matching characteristic images, referred to as adImages (analogous to adWords) here. The

Wei-shing Liao; Kuan-ting Chen; Winston H. Hsu

2008-01-01

424

AdS black hole solutions in dilatonic Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet gravity  

SciTech Connect

We find that anti-de Sitter (AdS) spacetime with a nontrivial linear dilaton field is an exact solution in the effective action of the string theory, which is described by gravity with the Gauss-Bonnet curvature terms coupled to a dilaton field in the string frame without a cosmological constant. The AdS radius is determined by the spacetime dimensions and the coupling constants of curvature corrections. We also construct the asymptotically AdS black hole solutions with a linear dilaton field numerically. We find these AdS black holes for hyperbolic topology and in dimensions higher than four. We discuss the thermodynamical properties of those solutions. Extending the model to the case with the even-order higher Lovelock curvature terms, we also find the exact AdS spacetime with a nontrivial dilaton. We further find a cosmological solution with a bounce of three-dimensional space and a solitonic solution with a nontrivial dilaton field, which is regular everywhere and approaches an asymptotically AdS spacetime.

Maeda, Kei-ichi [Department of Physics, Waseda University, Shinjuku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Advanced Research Institute for Science and Engineering, Waseda University, Shinjuku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Ohta, Nobuyoshi [Department of Physics, Kinki University, Higashi-Osaka, Osaka 577-8502 (Japan); Sasagawa, Yukinori [Department of Physics, Waseda University, Shinjuku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan)

2011-02-15

425

B-field in AdS 3/ CF T 2 correspondence and integrability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We construct topological Wess-Zumino term for supercoset sigma-models on various AdS 3 backgrounds. For appropriately chosen set of parameters, the sigma-model remains integrable when the Wess-Zumino term is added to the action. Moreover, the conditions for integrability, kappa-symmetry and conformal invariance are equivalent to each other.

Cagnazzo, A.; Zarembo, K.

2012-11-01

426

Low frequency quasi-normal modes of AdS black holes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We calculate analytically low frequency quasi-normal modes of gravitational perturbations of AdS Schwarzschild black holes in d dimensions. We arrive at analytic expressions which are in agreement with their counterparts from linearized hydrodynamics in Sd-2 × Bbb R, in accordance with the AdS/CFT correspondence. Our results are also in good agreement with results of numerical calculations.

Siopsis, George

2007-05-01

427

Readers’ Attitudes Toward Press Advertising : Are They Ad-Lovers or Ad-Averse ?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article raises the question of whether press readers are ad- lovers or ad-averse. If readers are ad-lovers, a positive circulation spiral should be expected, through mutual reinforcement between circulation and advertising. On the contrary, advertising aversion may eventually lead to a decrease in circulation when newspapers' advertising space increases. The empirical section of the article concludes that attitudes toward

Nathalie Sonnac

2000-01-01

428

Reconstruction of spatial patterns of climatic anomalies during the medieval warm period (AD 900-1300)  

SciTech Connect

The workshop will focus on climatic variations during the Medieval Warm Period or Little Climatic Optimum. The nominal time interval assigned to this period is AD 900--1300, but climate information available during the century or two preceding and following this episode is welcome. The aims of the workshop will be to: examine the available evidence for the existence of this episode; assess the spatial and temporal synchronicity of the climatic signals; discuss possible forcing mechanisms; and identify areas and paleoenvironmental records where additional research efforts are needed to improve our knowledge of this period. This document consists of abstracts of eighteen papers presented at the meeting.

Diaz, H.F. [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Boulder, CO (United States). Environmental Research Labs.; Hughes, M.K. [Arizona Univ., Tucson, AZ (United States). Lab. of Tree-Ring Research

1992-12-31

429

Wireless power transmission via ad hoc network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wireless power transmission (WPT) has been proposed for many years and is expected to be one of the most promising power transmission style in the near future, especially in space power supply and emergency power recovery. The long distance WPT often enrolls the relay procedures and forms a power transmission network. In this paper, we talk about the wireless power transmission based on Ad Hoc networks. Meanwhile, the adaptive architecture and flexible deployment of WPT Ad Hoc networks have been given a special further discussion. We also bring along a novel multi-trace power routing concept and analyze the major challenges of WPT Ad Hoc networks.

Zhang, Chao; Jiang, Hongqi; Lin, Xiaokang

2002-08-01

430

Video Ads Blocker 1.0b  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These days all types of advertisements can intrude on the web-browsing experience, and some of them can be quite noxious in their character and appearance. One particularly annoying type of ad is the short video clip that may sometimes appear in various guises. The Video Ads Blocker 1.0 is a good way to block out these types of ads, along with animated .gif files, Macromedia Flash movies, and other background sounds as well. The application is compatible with all systems running Windows 98 and above.

431

The ADS All-Sky Survey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ADS All-Sky Survey (ADSASS) is an ongoing effort aimed at turning the NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS), widely known for its unrivaled value as a literature resource for astronomers, into a data resource. The ADS is not a data repository per se, but it implicitly contains valuable holdings of astronomical data, in the form of images, tables and object references contained within articles. The objective of the ADSASS effort is to extract these data and make them discoverable and available through existing data viewers. The resulting ADSASS data layer promises to greatly enhance workflows and enable new research by tying astronomical literature and data assets into one resource.

Pepe, A.; Goodman, A.; Muench, A.

2012-09-01

432

Image Ads and Issue Ads in U.S. Presidential Advertising: Using Videostyle To Explore Stylistic Differences in Televised Political Ads From 1952 to 2000.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores the differences in techniques, strategies, narratives, and symbols used in 1,213 television issue ads and image ads from 13 U.S. presidential campaigns. Concludes that although the majority of both types of ads were positive, negative appeals dominated a higher percentage of issue ads as compared with image ads. (SG)

Johnston, Anne; Kaid, Lynda Lee

2002-01-01

433

Mobility histories of 7th-9th century AD people buried at early medieval Bamburgh, Northumberland, England.  

PubMed

Early Medieval England is described historically as a time when people migrated from the Continent to English shores. This study tests the hypothesis that those buried in the Bowl Hole cemetery, Bamburgh, Northumberland were nonlocally born, because of its royal status. Ninety-one male and female adult, and nonadult, skeletons were studied. Isotope ratios of strontium ((87) Sr/(86) Sr) and oxygen (?(18) O) were generated for 78 individuals (28 females, 27 males, five "adults," 18 nonadults). The mean Sr value for human enamel was 0.71044, standard deviation (sd) 0.001, and the mean O (?w) value is -5.9‰, sd 1.6‰. Additionally, animal tooth enamel (mean Sr value 0.710587, sd 0.001; mean O value -6.5‰, sd 1.5‰), local soil (mean Sr value 0.709184, sd 0.0006), snail shells (mean Sr value 0.708888, sd 0.0001), and soil samples from a 5 km transect heading inland (mean Sr value 0.709121, sd 0.0003), were analyzed for an indication of the isotopic composition of bioavailable Sr in the modern environment and to assess the impact of sea-spray; water samples from a well, local rivers, and standing water were analyzed for local ?(18) O values (mean O value -6.4‰, relative to VSMOW, sd 2.8‰). Over 50% of those buried at Bamburgh were nonlocal. All ages and both sexes produced "nonlocal" signatures; some suggested childhood origins in Scandinavia, the southern Mediterranean or North Africa. Stature and other indicators of health status indicated differences in quality of life between local and migrant groups. These differences did not extend to burial practices. PMID:23737109

Groves, S E; Roberts, C A; Lucy, S; Pearson, G; Gröcke, D R; Nowell, G; Macpherson, C G; Young, G

2013-07-01

434

Newer Antibacterial Drugs for a New Century  

PubMed Central

Antibacterial drug discovery and development has slowed considerably in recent years with novel classes discovered decades ago and regulatory approvals tougher to get. This article describes newer classes of antibacterial drugs introduced or approved after year 2000, their mechanisms of action/ resistance, improved analogs, spectrum of activity and clinical trials. It also discusses new compounds in development with novel mechanisms of action as well as novel unexploited bacterial targets and strategies which may pave the way for combating drug resistance and emerging pathogens in the 21st century.

Devasahayam, Gina; Scheld, W. Michael; Hoffman, Paul S.

2010-01-01

435

Half a Century of Physical Review Letters  

ScienceCinema

Fifty years ago, Sam Goudsmit started an experiment: the journal Physical Review Letters.  Since 1958, the experiment has thrived. PRL has gone through many changes, published many important papers, and become a leader in international scientific publication.  I will trace the rise of PRL from its early 20th century roots as "Letters to the Editor," through changes in editorial process and advents of new technology. Along the way I'll show what has gone on behind the scenes, and give a glimpse of our plans for the future.  I'll also give some advice to would-be authors and referees, illustrated with interesting correspondence we've received.

436

Half a Century of Physical Review Letters  

ScienceCinema

Fifty years ago, Sam Goudsmit started an experiment: the journal Physical Review Letters.  Since 1958, the experiment has thrived. PRL has gone through many changes, published many important papers, and become a leader in international scientific publication.  I will trace the rise of PRL from its early 20th century roots as "Letters to the Editor," through changes in editorial process and advents of new technology. Along the way I'll show what has gone on behind the scenes, and give a glimpse of our plans for the future.  I'll also give some advice to would-be authors and referees, illustrated with interesting correspondence we've received.

Robert Garisto

2010-01-08

437

Mammalian Developmental Genetics in the Twentieth Century  

PubMed Central

This Perspectives is a review of the breathtaking history of mammalian genetics in the past century and, in particular, of the ways in which genetic thinking has illuminated aspects of mouse development. To illustrate the power of that thinking, selected hypothesis-driven experiments and technical advances are discussed. Also included in this account are the beginnings of mouse genetics at the Bussey Institute, Columbia University, and The Jackson Laboratory and a retrospective discussion of one of the classic problems in developmental genetics, the T/t complex and its genetic enigmas.

Artzt, Karen

2012-01-01

438

Nursing heroism in the 21 st Century'  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  The Vivian Bullwinkel Oration honours the life and work of an extraordinary nurse. Given her story and that of her World War\\u000a II colleagues, the topic of nursing heroism in the 21st century could not be more germane.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Discussion  Is heroism a legitimate part of nursing, or are nurses simply 'just doing their job' even when facing extreme personal danger?\\u000a In

Philip Darbyshire

2011-01-01

439

Childbed Fever A Nineteenth-Century Mystery  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This case describes the pioneering work of Ignaz Semmelweis and his efforts to remedy the problem of childbed fever in mid-19th century Europe.  Its purpose is to teach students about the scientific method by “dissecting” the various steps involved in this important, historical medical breakthrough. The case is an interrupted case, that is, students receive only one piece of information at a time, followed by discussion, before moving on to the next piece of information to solve the mystery.

Colyer, Christa

1999-01-01

440

Inspiring facility fuses a century of change.  

PubMed

Creating a 21st Century mental healthcare facility which would soon be world-renowned both for its quality of care, and for the high standard of its buildings, was the overriding goal of the project team behind the new pound 75 million, 312-bed Roseberry Park mental healthcare facility in Middlesbrough. HEJ editor Jonathan Baillie visited the new PFI facility to discover more about the sizeable new mental healthcare "village", which was highly commended at the 2010 Building Better Healthcare Awards, from MAAP Architects lead designer and director Raechal Ferguson, and project director at the Tees, Esk and Wear Valleys (TEWV) NHS Foundation Trust John Ord. PMID:21585144

Baillie, Jonathan

2011-04-01

441

A conical deficit in the AdS4/CFT3 correspondence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Inspired by the AdS/CFT correspondence, we propose a new duality that allows the study of strongly coupled field theories living in a (2 + 1) conical spacetime. Solving the 4D Einstein equations in the presence of an infinite static string and negative cosmological constant, we obtain a conical AdS4 spacetime whose boundary is identified with the (2 + 1) cone found by Deser, Jackiw and 't Hooft. Using the AdS4/CFT3 correspondence, we calculate the retarded Green's functions of scalar operators living in the cone.

Ballon Bayona, C. A.; Ferreira, Cristine N.; Vasquez Otoya, V. J.

2011-01-01

442

Precision calculation of blackbody radiation shifts for metrology at the 18^th decimal place  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We developed a theoretical method within the framework of relativistic many-body theory to accurately treat correlation corrections in atoms with a few valence electrons. This method combines the all-order approach currently used in precision calculations of properties of monovalent atoms with the configuration-interaction approach that is applicable for many-electron systems. We have applied this method to accurately calculate the ground and excited state polarizabilities of divalent ions. The resulting polarizabilities are used to evaluate the blackbody radiation (BBR) shifts at 300K in the ns^2 - nsnp ^3P0 clock transitions in Al^+, B^+, and In^+. Frequency-dependent corrections are also evaluated. We estimate that our calculation reduces the relative uncertainty due to BBR shift at 300K in Al^+ to 4x10-19. We find the while the relative BBR shifts in B^+ and In^+ are larger than in Al^+, they are still anomalously small in comparison with BBR shifts in all other frequency standards. We estimate relative uncertainties due to BBR shifts in B^+ and In^+ to be at the 1x10-18 level.

Safronova, Marianna; Kozlov, Mikhail; Clark, Charles W.

2011-06-01

443

The diabetic foot: from art to science. The 18th Camillo Golgi lecture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diabetic foot ulceration represents a major medical, social and economic problem all over the world. While more than 5% of diabetic patients have a history of foot ulceration, the cumulative lifetime incidence may be as high as 15%. Ethnic differences exist in both ulcer and amputation incidences, with both being less common in patients of Indian subcontinent origin living in

A. J. M. Boulton

2004-01-01

444

Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, 18th, Houston, TX, Mar. 16-20, 1987, Proceedings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Papers on lunar and planetary science are presented, including petrogenesis and chemistry of lunar samples, geology and petrogenesis of the Apollo 15 landing site, lunar geology and applications, cratering records and cratering effects, differentiated meteorites, chondritic meteorites and asteroids, extraterrestrial grains, Venus, Mars, and icy satellites. The importance of lunar granite and KREEP in very high potassium basalt petrogenesis, indentifying parent plutonic rocks from lunar breccia and soil fragments, glasses in ancient and young Apollo 16 regolith breccias, the formation of the Imbrium basin, the chemistry and petrology of the Apennine Front, lunar mare ridges, studies of Rima Mozart, electromagnetic energy applications in lunar resource mining and construction, detecting a periodic signal in the terrestrial cratering record, and a search for water on the moon, are among the topics discussed. Other topics include the bidirectional reflectance properties of Fe-Ni meteorites, the nature and origin of C-rich ordinary chondrites and chondritic clasts, the dehydration kinetics of shocked serpentine, characteristics of Greenland Fe/Ni cosmic grains, electron microscopy of a hydrated interplanetary dust particle, trapping Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe in Si2O3 smokes, gossans on Mars, and a model of the porous structure of icy satellites.

Ryder, Graham (editor)

1988-01-01

445

Proceedings of the 18th International Workshop on Condensed Matter Theories  

Microsoft Academic Search

This workshop covered various techniques in nuclear many-body problems as well as various theoretical techniques, ranging through the coupled cluster method, variational Jastrow-like approaches, parquet theory etc. Particular emphasis was placed on the technique of density functional theory (plus a little on density matrices), a wide range of applications including atomic cluster theory, inhomogeneous liquids and especially He-4, simple metals

R. F. Bishop

1994-01-01

446

Proceedings of the 18th International Workshop on Condensed Matter Theories  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This workshop covered various techniques in nuclear many-body problems as well as various theoretical techniques, ranging through the coupled cluster method, variational Jastrow-like approaches, parquet theory etc. Particular emphasis was placed on the technique of density functional theory (plus a little on density matrices), a wide range of applications including atomic cluster theory, inhomogeneous liquids and especially He-4, simple metals and metal surfaces. In this context, there was a special session, with two papers related to the density-functional technique; one on time-dependent theory and the other on the many-body construction of density functionals with illustrative applications. Other especially notable contributions applied information turning from (mainly) techniques to physical areas in condensed matter, there was considerable emphasis on the quantal liquid He-4, with discussion not only of bulk properties but of wetting, surface tension and H-3 and He-4 mixtures. Contact with new neutron scattering experiments was highlighted in connection with bulk He-4. Some papers on high Tc materials, plus a discussion of recent progress, both experiment and theory, on electron solids, reflected important growth areas in condensed matter. In the latter area, the equilibrium between Laughlin electron liquid and electron solid was considered, the electron liquid being treated in a number of papers, including a study by quantal hypernetted chain methods.

Bishop, R. F.

1994-06-01

447

PASCOS 2012 – 18th International Symposium on Particles Strings and Cosmology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The XVII International Conference on Strings, Particles and Cosmology, PASCOS 2012, was held in the City of Mérida, Mexico, from June 3–8, 2012. The conference series is aimed at exploring the interface and interplay between particle physics, string theory and cosmology. With the advent of new data, the emphasis of the XVIII edition of PASCOS was on phenomenology and the interpretation of recent observational and experimental results. The conference followed the format of previous conferences in this series, with plenary reviews and contributed presentations in parallel sessions. The lectures covered a wide range of subjects which included: Dark matter and dark energy, flavor physics and CP violation, neutrino physics, supersymmetry, Higgs physics, baryogenesis and EDMs, supergravity, high energy cosmic rays, string and F–theory GUTs, and string phenomenology. This is the first time that PASCOS was held in Latin America. The aim to do it in Mexico was to engage the Latin American community and thus to bring the conference to a wider and different audience, a goal which was thoroughly achieved. The venue was held at the Hotel Fiesta Americana in the beautiful city of Mérida. The social events included a reception with typical local food at the Katun restaurant, conference dinner at the historical Quinta Montes Molina, and an excursion to the archeological site of Dzibilchaltún including a swim at the famous cenote. PASCOS 2012 was possible thanks to the generous support of the following sponsors: CONACyT (Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología), UNAM (Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México: Consejo Técnico de la Investigación Científica, Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Instituto de Física), Cinvestav, (Centro de Estudios Avanzados del IPN: U. Zacatanco, U. Mérida and Secretaría General), ICyTDF (Instituto Científico y Tecnológico del D.F.), PIFI (Programa Integral de Fortalecimiento Institucional, Universidad de Guanajuato, Campus León), SMF (Sociedad Mexicana de Física), ICTP (International Centre for Theoretical Physics), BUAP (Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla), the Government of the State of Yucatán, the University of Hamburg, and Telmex. We also want to acknowledge the invaluable help of the staff of the Mexican Physical Society, in particular Lic. Santos Zúńniga Sánchez and Ms. Claudia Velasco Marín, and of the conference secretaries, Ms. Lizette Ramírez Bermúdez (UNAM) and Ms. Mariana del Castillo Sánchez (Cinvestav), for their support before, during and after the organization of PASCOS 2012. Last but not least, we would like to thank all the PASCOS 2012 participants for their attendance and for contributing to make the conference an engaging and stimulating event. The organizers, Myriam Mondragón, Adnan Bashir, David Delepine, Francisco Larios, Oscar Loaiza, Axel de la Macorra, Lukas Nellen, Sarira Sahu, Humberto Salazar and Liliana Velasco–Sevilla.

2014-03-01

448

18th U.S. Department of Energy Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Conference. Program  

SciTech Connect

This conference explored the latest developments in low-level radioactive waste management through presentations from professionals in both the public and the private sectors and special guests. The conference included two continuing education seminars, a workshop, exhibits, and a tour of Envirocare of Utah, Inc., one of America's three commercial low-level radioactive waste depositories.

None

1997-05-20

449

Copper and Copper Alloy Powders. Seminar Held on 18th December 1976.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report contains the following papers: Types, Properties and Uses of Copper Powder; Production of Copper & Copper Alloy Powders for General Engineering Applications; Bronze Powders; Atomized Copper and Copper Based Powders; Process and Equipment for t...

1976-01-01

450

Informal Meeting on Reactor Noise (18th) Held at Prague, Czechoslovakia on April 10, 1985.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The proceedings contain the texts of 24 papers all of which fall under the INIS Subject Scope. The main purpose of the meeting of more than 90 scientists and specialists from 18 countries was for them to get acquainted with the current state and prospecti...

K. Dach

1986-01-01

451

The 18th Annual Gallup Poll of the Public's Attitudes toward the Public Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews public responses to 18 questions about significant school issues, such as (1) the most important problems facing schools today, (2) support for antidrug measures in local schools, (3) rating the schools on success characteristics, (4) the goals of education, and (5) attitudes about AIDS. (IW)

Gallup, Alec M.

1986-01-01

452

Cloned fragment of human alphoid DNA: molecular marker of pericentromeric region of 18th chromosome  

SciTech Connect

Two recombinant plasmids were isolated from the collection of cloned human DNA fragments which contain sequences of alphoid DNA. It was shown using in situ hybridization on metaphase chromosomes that both cloned sequences hybridize preferentially with the region of pericentromeric heterochromatin of chromosome 18, less intensively with pericentric regions of chromosomes 2, 9, and 20, and are characterized by polymorphism according to number of copies in homologous chromosomes. These sequences may prove useful for cytogenetic analysis of chromosome reorganizations and study of polymorphism of regions of pericentromeric heterochromatin in human chromosomes.

Aleksandrov, I.A.; Yurov, Yu.B.; Mitkevich, S.P.; Gindilis, V.M.

1986-11-01

453

Electric and Hybrid Vehicles Program 18th annual report to Congress for Fiscal Year 1994  

SciTech Connect

The Department remains focused on the technologies that are critical to making electric and hybrid vehicles commercially viable and competitive with current production gasoline-fueled vehicles in performance, reliability, and affordability. During Fiscal Year 1994, significant progress was made toward fulfilling the intent of Congress. The Department and the United States Advanced Battery Consortium (a partnership of the three major domestic automobile manufacturers) continued to work together and to focus the efforts of battery developers on the battery technologies that are most likely to be commercialized in the near term. Progress was made in industry cost-shared contracts toward demonstrating the technical feasibility of fuel cells for passenger bus and light duty vehicle applications. Two industry teams which will develop hybrid vehicle propulsion technologies have been selected through competitive procurement and have initiated work, in Fiscal Year 1994. In addition, technical studies and program planning continue, as required by the Energy Policy Act of 1992, to achieve the goals of reducing the transportation sector dependence on imported oil, reducing the level of environmentally harmful emissions, and enhancing industrial productivity and competitiveness.

NONE

1995-04-01

454

Supersymmetric black holes in AdS4 from very special geometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Supersymmetric black holes in AdS spacetime are inherently interesting for the AdS/CFT correspondence. Within a four dimensional gauged supergravity theory coupled to vector multiplets, the only analytic solutions for regular, supersymmetric, static black holes in AdS4 are those in the STU-model due to Cacciatori and Klemm. We study a class of U (1)-gauged supergravity theories coupled to vector multiplets which have a cubic prepotential, the scalar manifold is then a very special Kähler manifold. When the resulting very special Kähler manifold is a homogeneous space, we find analytic solutions for static, supersymmetric AdS4 black holes with vanishing axions. The horizon geometries of our solutions are constant curvature Riemann surfaces of arbitrary genus.

Gnecchi, Alessandra; Halmagyi, Nick

2014-04-01

455

On quasi-normal modes and the AdS 5/CFT 4 correspondence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We discuss the quasi-normal modes of massive scalar perturbations of black holes in AdS 5 in conjunction with the AdS/CFT correspondence. On the gravity side, we solve the wave equation and obtain an expression for the asymptotic form of quasi-normal frequencies. We then show that these expressions agree with those obtained from a CFT defined on R×S in a certain scaling limit, by identifying Euclidean time with one of the periodic coordinates. This generalizes known exact results in three dimensions (BTZ black hole). As a by-product, we derive the standard energy quantization condition in AdS by a simple monodromy argument in complexified AdS space. This argument relies on an unphysical singularity.

Siopsis, George

2005-05-01

456

Value Added Analysis for Army Equipment Modernization.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper describes the Value Added Analysis methodology which was used as part of the US Army's Planning, Programming, Budgeting, and Execution System to assist the Army leadership in evaluating and prioritizing competing weapon system alternatives duri...

A. G. Loerch R. R. Koury D. T. Maxwell

1995-01-01

457

Testing the AdS/CFT Correspondence  

SciTech Connect

This lecture begins with some history and basic facts about string theory and its connections with strong interactions. Comparisons of stacks of Dirichlet branes with curved backgrounds produced by them are used to motivate the AdS/CFT correspondence between superconformal gauge theory and string theory on a product of Anti-de Sitter space and a compact manifold. The ensuing duality between semi-classical spinning strings and long gauge theory operators is briefly reviewed. We go on to describe a recent test of the AdS/CFT correspondence using the Wilson loop cusp anomaly as a function of the coupling, which also enters dimensions of high-spin operators. Finally, strongly coupled thermal SYM theory is explored via a black hole in 5-dimensional AdS space, which leads to explicit results for its entropy and shear viscosity.

Klebanov, Igor R. [Joseph Henry Laboratories and Princeton Center for Theoretical Science, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)

2008-07-28

458

Distributed Clustering for Ad Hoc Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Distributed Clustering Algorithm (DCA) and a Distributed Mobility-Adaptive Clustering (DMAC) algorithm are presented that partition the nodes of a fully mobilenetwork (ad hoc network) into clusters, thus giving the network a hierarchical organization.

Stefano Basagni

1999-01-01

459

Research of Ad Hoc Networks Access Algorithm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the continuous development of mobile communication technology, Ad Hoc access network has become a hot research, Ad Hoc access network nodes can be used to expand capacity of multi-hop communication range of mobile communication system, even business adjacent to the community, improve edge data rates. When the ad hoc network is the access network of the internet, the gateway discovery protocol is very important to choose the most appropriate gateway to guarantee the connectivity between ad hoc network and IP based fixed networks. The paper proposes a QoS gateway discovery protocol which uses the time delay and stable route to the gateway selection conditions. And according to the gateway discovery protocol, it also proposes a fast handover scheme which can decrease the handover time and improve the handover efficiency.

Xiang, Ma

460

E-cigarette Ads on TV  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... Neilson advertising data that tracked more than 100 network and cable channels in 210 markets. The team ... on a small cluster of youth-oriented cable networks. The bottom-line: e-cigarette ads are now ...

461

Learning 21st-Century Skills Requires, 21st-Century Teaching  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For students to learn 21st-century skills, we will have to teach them differently than we have in the past. The outdated, transmission model, through which teachers transmit factual knowledge to students via lectures and textbooks, remains the dominant approach to compulsory education in much of the world, yet it is not the most effective way to…

Saavedra, Anna Rosefsky; Opfer, V. Darleen

2012-01-01

462

Rural School Consolidation in Early Twentieth Century Iowa: Lessons for the Early Twenty-First Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rural school consolidation in Iowa in the early 20th century was not simply an attempt at educational reform, but was also an attempt to transform the rural social geography of the region. Since consolidation of corporate power had resulted in economic progress in the cities, it was thought that re-centering rural life around country towns could…

Reynolds, David R.

463

A 21st Century Library in a 20th Century Space  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The library at George C. Marshall High School in Fairfax Cou