Sample records for 18th century ad

  1. Mingantu, 18th-Century Mongol Astronomer and Radioheliograph Namesake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasachoff, Jay M.

    2013-01-01

    The 18th-century Mongol astronomer Mingantu (1692-1765) has been honored with a city named after him and a nearby solar telescope array. During the IAU/Beijing, my wife and I went to the new Chinese solar radioheliograph, the Mingantu Observing Station, in Inner Mongolia, ~400 km northwest of Beijing, a project of the National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences. It currently contains 40 dishes each 4.5 m across, with a correlator from Beijing. Within a year, 60 2-m dishes will be added. We passed by the 12-century ruins of Xanadu (about 20 km north of Zhangbei) about halfway. The radioheliograph is in a plane about 1 km across, forming a three-armed spiral for interferometric solar mapping, something colleagues and I had carried out with the Jansky Very Large Array, taking advantage of the lunar occultation before annularity at the 20 May 2012 solar eclipse. In the central square of Mingantu city, a statue ~10-m high of the Mongol astronomer Mingantu appears. Its base bears a plaque ~1-m high of IAU Minor Planet Circular MPC 45750 announcing the naming in 2002 of asteroid 28242 Mingantu, discovered at a Chinese observatory in 1999. Mingantu carried out orbital calculations, mapping, mathematical work on infinite series, and other scientific research. He is honored by a modern museum behind the statue. The museum's first 40% describes Mingantu and his work, and is followed by some artifacts of the region from thousands of years ago. The final, large room contains a two-meter-square scale model of the radioheliograph, flat-screen televisions running Solar Dynamics Observatory and other contemporary visualizations, orreries and other objects, and large transparencies of NASA and other astronomical imagery. See my post at http://www.skyandtelescope.com/community/skyblog/newsblog/ specfically Astro-Sightseeing_in_Inner_Mongolia-167712965.html. We thank Yihua Yan for arranging the visit and Wang Wei (both NAOC) for accompanying us. My solar research is supported by grant 1047726 from the Solar Research Program/Atmospheric and Geospace Sciences Division/NSF. I am also grateful for a NSF travel grant through AAS.

  2. Austrian Pharmacy in the 18th and 19th Century

    PubMed Central

    Kletter, Christa

    2010-01-01

    This overview reflects the extensive changes in the health care system which had significant effects on the apothecary’s profession and education. In the 18th century Maria Theresia assigned Gerard van Swieten to modernize the medical curriculum and to work out reforms for health care. The resulting sanitary bill released in 1770 and amended in 1773 became effective for the whole empire and influenced greatly the apothecary’s profession. The Viennese Medical Faculty continued to be the supervisory body for the apothecaries, a situation which prolonged the conflicts between the faculty and the apothecaries. The financial and social distress prevalent in the 19th century also affected the apothecary business and led to a crisis of the profession. Furthermore, the apothecaries’ missing influence over the sanitary authorities delayed the release of a badly needed new apothecary bill until 1906. The introduction of a specific pharmaceutical curriculum at the university in 1853 was a great step forward to improve the pharmaceutical education. Nevertheless, the secondary school exam was not compulsory for the studies until 1920 and, therefore, the graduates were not on a par with other university graduates before that date. Women, except nuns, were not allowed to work as pharmacists until 1900. PMID:21179353

  3. The Human Side of 18th-Century French History: Unique Readings for Secondary Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roselle, Daniel, Ed.

    1976-01-01

    Nine short stories and excerpts are presented relating to 18th-Century French History. The purpose of the readings are to: 1) increase student sensitivity to conditions in 18th-Century France; 2) add to their appreciation of the variety of human experiences; and 3) strengthen student insight into the nature of human beings. (Author/JR)

  4. Classics and Charity: The English Grammar School in the 18th Century. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tompson, Richard S.

    The aim of this study was to examine English secondary education and its emergence in modern form in the 18th century. Three hundred thirty-four grammar schools (more than 50% of those in the 18th century) in 15 counties comprised the sample. County records, educational essays, and other sources were consulted for a general survey of, among other…

  5. Harvard in the 17th and 18th Centuries

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-03-02

    Several hundred years ago, Harvard University was a much smaller place, and higher education was only necessary to (or desired by) those hoping to enter a few select professions. Referring to this early period in Harvard's history, Josiah Quincy remarked in 1836 that "[Harvard] was, from the first, intimately connected with political and religious opinions and events." Supported by the Arcadia and the Sidney Verba Fund, this remarkable collection from the Harvard University Archives brings together thousands of items (such as diaries, maps, drawings, and legal documents) to tell the story of the institution during the 17th and 18th centuries. On the left side of the page, visitors will find topical headings that include College Life, Religion, and Personalities. It's a fine idea to start by looking through the College Life area. Here visitors will find droll commentaries on the cost and standard of living, along with notes on student discipline and humorous writings. Equally interesting is the Local and Regional History section. Here visitors can learn about Harvard's relationship with Cambridge, Native Americans, and the Commonwealth of Massachusetts.

  6. An Original Case of Tin Dental Fillings from 18th Century Northern France

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Bertrand; T. Colard; C. Lacoche; J. F. Salomé; S. Vatteoni

    2009-01-01

    During the 18th century, France was the leader in the field of dentistry, exemplified by Pierre Fauchard (1678-1761), who was given the title “the father of modern dentistry” for his comprehensive work, Le Chirurgien Dentiste. This paper examines an 18th century dental treatment in a barely 50-year-old male whose body was excavated from Saint Amé's Collegiate Church, Douai, France. This

  7. John Stirling and the Classical Approach to Style in 18th Century England.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moran, Michael G.

    Most 18th-century rhetoricians viewed style as the expression of a writer's individual character and thought, placing little emphasis on the lists of figures common in many 17th-century rhetorics. John Stirling and others, however, continued the 17th-century tradition that reduced rhetoric largely to style and emphasized classical figures of…

  8. Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi: 18th Century Swiss Educator and Correctional Reformer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowers, Fredalene B.; Gehring, Thom

    2004-01-01

    This is the second in a series of articles on famous correctional educators. The first article introduced Mary Carpenter: 19th Century English Correctional Education Hero. (Editor's Note: See the September 2003 Issue for the first article) This article focuses on Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi, 18th century Swiss educator. It begins with a summary of…

  9. Adaptation to Climate Change: Evidence from 18th and 19th Century Iceland

    E-print Network

    Rosenthal, Jeffrey S.

    : We investigate the effect of climate change on population growth in 18th and 19th century Iceland. We find that annual tem- perature changes help determine the population growth rate in pre- industrial decreases the steady state population by 10% to 26%. We argue that our results may provide some information

  10. Isotopic tracing (Sr, Nd, U and Hf) of continental and marine aerosols in an 18th century section of the Dye-3 ice core (Greenland)

    E-print Network

    Stocker, Thomas

    Isotopic tracing (Sr, Nd, U and Hf) of continental and marine aerosols in an 18th century section sea salts strontium neodymium hafnium uranium Determining the sources and pathways of atmospheric of the Dye-3 (1988) ice core from Greenland in the age range of 1786­1793 A.D. Hf isotopic composition

  11. An original case of tin dental fillings from 18th century northern France.

    PubMed

    Bertrand, B; Colard, T; Lacoche, C; Salomé, J F; Vatteoni, S

    2009-03-01

    During the 18th century, France was the leader in the field of dentistry, exemplified by Pierre Fauchard (1678-1761), who was given the title "the father of modern dentistry" for his comprehensive work, Le Chirurgien Dentiste. This paper examines an 18th century dental treatment in a barely 50-year-old male whose body was excavated from Saint Amé's Collegiate Church, Douai, France. This individual had 6 dental restorations, exceptional for that period. All fillings were on the occlusal surfaces of molars and extended at least to the superficial dentin. Panoramic and retro-alveolar radiography confirmed the presence of a radio-opaque filling material, and x-ray fluorescence (XRF) and x-ray diffraction analyses demonstrated the exclusive presence of tin in these restorations. PMID:19329450

  12. [Urological diseases in a "general practice" in the 17th and early 18th centuries].

    PubMed

    Holweger, C; Winckelmann, H J

    2014-02-01

    Of national medicohistorical importance was the town physician Johannes Franc (1649-1725). His diary written in Latin gives - among other diseases - an overview of urological diseases affecting citizens in Ulm around 1700. It also allows a look into the "workshop" of a scholar who studied contemporary medicine in comprehensive manner. Franc's case reports illustrate a fundamental change in the perception of the patient at the end of the 17th/beginning of the 18th century. PMID:24449357

  13. Auroras Observed in Portugal in Late 18th Century Obtained from Printed and Manuscript Meteorological Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaquero, José M.; Trigo, Ricardo M.

    2005-09-01

    We present a new catalogue of observations of the aurora borealis at Lisbon, i.e., at low-latitudes, in the late 18th century by Jacob Prć torius and Henrique Schulze, two German artillery officers. Dates of 18 auroras compiled by Prć torius and Schulze are compared with those published in other catalogues for that period. The number of annual auroras observed by the two Germans is then compared with two indices of solar activity showing a very good level of consistency between all time series. Finally, we have assessed the number of auroras observed taking into consideration the phase of the lunar cycle and the geomagnetic latitude of Lisbon.

  14. Did some 18th and 19th century treatments for mental disorders act on the brain?

    PubMed

    Leonard, Edward C

    2004-01-01

    Review of 18th and 19th century psychiatric therapies raises the possibility that several may have altered the activity of vasopressin or Na-K-ATPase. Bleeding, whirling, nausea created by medicines, and vagus nerve stimulation by application of electricity through the skin all perturb the hypothalamic hormone, arginine vasopressin, while helleborus and digitalis inhibit the sodium pump enzyme, Na-K-ATPase. These approaches were used with reported benefit many years ago, acting on the brain in ways ongoing research suggests may play a role in affective disorders. Study of long-abandoned treatments may clarify their mechanisms of action and the characteristics of responsive patients. PMID:14962630

  15. An analytical Raman spectroscopic study of an important english oil painting of the 18th Century.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Howell G M; Vandenabeele, Peter; Jehlicka, Jan; Benoy, Timothy J

    2014-01-24

    An opportunity was afforded to analyse pigment specimens from an unrestored oil painting in the style of the English School of the mid-18th Century prior to conservation being undertaken. Raman spectroscopy was adopted to characterise the pigments and indicated the presence of a novel red pigment which was assigned to the complex chromium mineral, hemihedrite, in addition to other interesting materials found in combination. This is the first recorded identification of hemihedrite spectral signals in an art context in a range of mineral pigments that are otherwise typical of this period and some hypotheses are presented to explain its presence based on its occurrence with associated mineral pigments. It is suggested that the presence of powdered glass identified in certain areas of the painting enhanced the reflectivity of the pigment matrix. PMID:24095770

  16. Comets and meteors in 18th and 19th century British art and science.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasachoff, J. M.; Olson, R. J. M.

    1995-05-01

    Comparing paintings, drawings and prints of comets and meteors in British works of art and scientific records of the 18th and 19th centuries brings us to a study of the relationship between science and art. Representations were sometimes naturalistic, sometimes symbolic and sometimes satirical. The British interest in images of comets and meteors, which were not clearly distinguished from each other during much of the period, coincided with the era that celebrated the progress in science exemplified by the discoveries of Newton and Halley. At the end of the period in question, the invention of photography, and its subsequent improvement to the point where faint objects like comets could be recorded, altered the dynamics. The changes in both intellectual climate and technology resulted in an increasing separation between the arts and the sciences.

  17. To feel what others feel: two episodes from 18th century medicine.

    PubMed

    Justman, Stewart

    2011-06-01

    In the late 18th century two medical fashions--Mesmerism in France and the Perkins 'tractor' in the USA and England--appealed to the principle that a single universal force acts on all of us and is responsible for health and illness. This principle served both fashions well, as it made it all the easier for those who came within their force fields to experience the sort of sensations that other subscribers to the fashion also seemed to feel. The first research on what is now known as the placebo effect was in connection with these two movements. The propensity to feel what we suppose or imagine that others like us feel remains even now one of the channels of the placebo effect. PMID:21515551

  18. Six calendar systems in the European history from 18^{th} to 20^{th} Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theodossiou, Efstratios; Manimanis, Vassilios N.; Dimitrijevi?, Milan S.

    The following calendar systems, introduced in Europe from 18^{th} to 20^{th} century, which were in use for a shorter or longer period by a larger or smaller community, were reviewed and discussed: The French Revolutionary Calendar, the Theosebic calendar invented by Theophilos Kairis, the Revolutionary Calendar of the Soviet Union (or 'Bolshevik calendar'), the Fascist calendar in Italy and the calendar of the Metaxas dictatorship in Greece before World War II. Also the unique of them, which is still in use, the New Rectified Julian calendar of the Orthodox Church, adopted according to proposition of Milutin Milankovi? on the Congress of Orthodox Churches in 1923 in Constantinople, is presented and discussed. At the end, difficulties to introduce a new calendar are discussed as well.

  19. Northern European storm surge climate since the mid-18th century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dangendorf, Sönke; Woodworth, Philip; Wöppelmann, Guy; Pinto, Joaquim G.; Niehüser, Sebastian; Jensen, Jürgen

    2015-04-01

    Storm surges represent a serious hazard affecting coastal communities. Their intensity and frequency may change in a warming climate, either due to rising mean sea levels or possible changes in regional wind fields. While there is a scientific consensus that sea levels are significantly rising since the late 19th century, possible changes in extreme winds or storminess depend on the region and time period assessed. A major issue is the limited availability of wind observations, hampering reliable estimates of long-term changes in storminess. Here we assess the characteristics of regional wind storm fingerprints in storm surges as measured by selective tide gauges over the Northern European Shelf. While the availability of reliable atmospheric reanalyses or direct wind observations is mostly limited to the second half of the 20th century, high quality tide gauge measurements extend as far back as the 18th century. Therefore, tide gauges provide a unique insight into the occurrence of land-falling or near-coastal storms, and their variability on decadal and longer time scales. Their use is thus attractive not only regarding the impact on coastal communities, but also for the investigation of long-term climate variability and change. In this study, we investigate the suitability of the six following long Northern European tide gauges as proxies for possible changes and variability in storminess over Northwestern Europe: Brest (1711-2012), Newlyn (1915-2012), Liverpool (1768-2012), Aberdeen (1930-2012), Cuxhaven (1843-2012), Rorvik (1969-2012), and Lerwick (1959-2012). Major extreme surge events are identified and compared to changes in winds in atmospheric pressure data. This is done by (i) an objective composite and correlation analysis using state of the art atmospheric reanalysis fields (NCEP, 20CR, ERA-20C), and (ii) a direct comparison of storm tracks and their respective storm surge fingerprints at each tide gauge. We discuss the spatial and temporal representativity of each tide gauge record with respect to the variability of storminess over the 2nd half of the 20th century. Hereafter, we assess their long-term changes back into the 18th century and compare them to conventional storminess proxies such as geostrophic winds.

  20. Climate and history in the late 18th and early 19th centuries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feldman, Theodore S.

    As in many areas of human knowledge, the notion of climate acquired a deeper historical content around the turn of the 19th century. Natural philosophers, geographers, and others became increasingly aware of climate's own history and its relation to human, plant and animal, and Earth history. This article examines several aspects of this “historicization” of climate.The lively 18th century discussion of the influence of climate on society is well known. Montesquieu is its most famous representative, but Voltaire, Hume, Kant, and others also participated. Their debate was literary more than scientific, their goal the understanding of man, not climate. Partly for this reason and partly because of the lack of good information on climates, they made no attempt to gather substantial climatic data. In fact, the importance of systematically collecting reliable data was scarcely understood in any area of natural philosophy before the last decades of the century [Cf. Frängsmyr et al., 1990; Feldman, 1990]. Instead, participants in the debate repeated commonplaces dating from Aristotle and Hippocrates and based their conclusions on unreliable reports from travelers. As Glacken wrote of Montesquieu, “his dishes are from old and well-tested recipes” [Glacken, 1967, chapter 12]. This is not to say that the debate over climatic influence was not significant—only that its significance lay more in the history of man than in the atmospheric sciences.

  1. [Physicians and philosophers tackling Cupid's disease: combating syphilis in the 18th century].

    PubMed

    Sabbatani, Sergio

    2008-06-01

    After the great fear caused by the rapid spread of syphilis in the 16th century (and the progressive contraction in the following century), the European political authorities had to tackle a disease that had become endemic. There was no solution in terms of treatment since the cause was unknown: the only precaution seemed to be the repression of such behaviour as prostitution, which seemed connected to the spread of Cupid's disease, as syphilis was called euphemistically in cultured circles. Medicine was powerless, and thinkers and philosophers helped the rulers with their ideas to develop laws to repress and reduce the incidence of the disease. In the 18th century, philosophers such as Ludovico Antonio Muratori and Peter Frank (founder of the Health Police), the priest Maria Gennaro Sarnelli, the libertine Bernard De Mandeville, the Neapolitan thinker Gaetano Filangeri, the founder of Congregazione della Carita Don Giulio Canali and the Abbot Antonio Genovesi contributed with their studies and sometimes works to focus attention on health problems in relation to syphilis prevention, even if repression remained the most widely adopted solution. PMID:18622153

  2. [Periodical outbreaks of smallpox presented in two communities in the Westerwald in the 18th-century].

    PubMed

    Priewer, Helmut; Priewer, Mathias

    2011-01-01

    The paper traces 18th-century outbreaks of smallpox in two communities in the Westerwald. The distances between the outbreaks are analyzed and comparisons to other outbreaks of smallpox are drawn. Furthermore the use of variolation and vaccination against smallpox is described. PMID:22400196

  3. The Struggle To Survive: Work for Racial Ethnic Women in the 18th- and 19th-Century United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higginbotham, Elizabeth

    The work situations of Black, Mexican American, and Chinese immigrant women in 18th- and 19th-century United States are explored. Generally, when engaged in agricultural work, all ethnic people were considered units of labor. However, because the slave owner needed to perpetuate his property, Black women were allowed lower rates of production when…

  4. Two positive tuberculosis cases in the late Nigrovits family, 18th century, Vác, Hungary.

    PubMed

    Szikossy, Ildikó; Pálfi, György; Molnár, Erika; Karlinger, Kinga; Kovács, Balázs K; Korom, Csaba; Schultz, Michael; Schmidt-Schultz, Tyede H; Spigelman, Mark; Donoghue, Helen D; Kustár, Ágnes; Pap, Ildikó

    2015-06-01

    Two mummies of the Hungarian mummy collection from Vác were the subjects of anthropological, paleopathological, radiological, paleomicrobiological, paleohistological and paleoproteomic studies. Both individuals belonged to the same family. The father, József Nigrovits (No 29), died at the age of 55 on the 11th of November 1793; his son, Antal Nigrovits (No 54), died on the 16th of July 1803, at the age of 22. They lived in the 18th century in Vác, a small town in northern Hungary. The macroscopic examination of the son showed a severely deformed neck and back region; the father has no visible mark of any illnesses. As earlier researches showed that tuberculosis was widespread in the community, the etiology of these deformities was examined. The paleomicrobiological results found that both individuals were infected with tuberculosis. Although they suffered from TB, the CT scan data of the bodies and their 3D reconstructions showed no skeletal evidence of tuberculosis. The deformity of the son turned to be a developmental abnormality of unknown origin, but no Pott's gibbus was present. PMID:25814300

  5. A comparison of large 18th-century floods on Danube: Vienna - Bratislava - Budapest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiss, Andrea; Parajka, Juraj

    2013-04-01

    The documentation of historic floods can help in better understanding of factors that might cause and contribute to large and extreme flood events. In particular, the analysis of historic floods provides information about flood seasonality, its changes and anthropogenic impacts on river flood regime which in some cases strongly influenced flood behaviour. The main objective of the present contribution is to document large and medium size flood events on Danube in Vienna, Bratislava and Budapest in the 18th century. In the present study, based on contemporary documentary evidence, for each of the three towns a five-scaled flood index series is developed to describe the magnitude and intensity of flood events. According to this classification, the 100-year flood event was characterised by the index value 5, while great destructive floods - depending on their extension, destructivity and further impacts - received the values 4 and 3, respectively. Less significant but still harmful flood events were classified as No. 2, and floods without further specification remained in the lowest category (No. 1). Beside classification issues, seasonality and flood frequency differences between the three towns are as well discussed. The results indicate that a greater number of flood events took place in the last decades of the century, but only a few flood events of the same magnitude are documented simultaneously in all three towns. And whereas in 1775 no winter flood event was reported in Vienna, an important ice jam flood was documented in Bratislava, and a catastrophic ice jam flood event, greatest of the century, occurred in Budapest. In 1787 autumn the greatest flood event of the century occurred in Vienna, while hardly any flood waves were observed at Budapest. While in Vienna, summer (and partly autumn) floods had great importance, in Budapest a large number of ice jam floods were documented. In some cases the differences are likely caused by different hydrometeorological and morphological conditions, but the importance of human impact (e.g. different types and levels of flood protection in the towns, large-scale changes of land use in the catchment area) have to be as well emphasised.

  6. To cool or not to cool: evolution of the treatment of burns in the 18th century.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Amer; Choukairi, Fouzia

    2013-01-01

    The 18th century represents a transitional period in evolution of surgery and burn treatment, a time just before major advances such as asepsis, burn excision and skin grafting, were to revolutionise surgical practice. The medical minds of this era first began to question the centuries of dogma and speculation that were at the heart of medicine. The evolution of the treatment of burns in this crucial time is reviewed from the perspective of two of the exceptional medical minds of that era John Hunter and James Earle. Many of their observations are still valid today and their influence would prove inspirational in ushering in modern era of burn management. PMID:23648626

  7. Being well or survive? Heirs in North-Western Spain, 18th-19th centuries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ofelia Rey Castelao

    Summary This study looks at the different situations of inheritors of both sexes of rural families in the territory of Galicia, Spain, characterized by a traditional agrarian economy, the demographics of overpopulation, the intense emigration, and a homogenous social system in which the key is the survival of the families, not an improvement in living conditions. During the 18th and

  8. The historical archaeology of the 17th- and 18th-century Jewish community of Nevis, British West Indies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terrell, Michelle M.

    2000-11-01

    This is an historical archaeological examination of a 17th- and 18th-century Jewish community on the island of Nevis in the British West Indies. Unlike earlier archaeological studies of the Jewish Caribbean Diaspora that focused on single sites, this investigation used a community-wide approach to elucidate the daily experience of Sephardic Jews within the colonial Caribbean. This project included an archaeological excavation at the purported location of the community's synagogue, an electrical resistivity survey of the surviving cemetery, the construction of a map of property ownership in 18th-century Charlestown, and archival research. This study was carded out within a multiscalar and contextual framework that emphasized the importance of understanding the diaspora that brought the Jews to the West Indies, the development of the colonial Caribbean, and the surrounding environs of the port city of Charlestown, Nevis. The archaeological analysis of the supposed site of the synagogue proved that it was in fact that of a late 18th-century townhouse, but the associated land record research revealed the actual location of the community's former synagogue. Furthermore, the reconstruction of the physical layout of colonial-period Charlestown from the land records indicated the presence of a distinct Jewish quarter in the undesirable southern portion of the town. Evidence from the public records of Nevis and the social history of the members of the Jewish population unveiled external social and political pressures placed upon the Sephardim as well as internal religious and ethnic ties dig bound the community together. It is argued in closing that the archival evidence, in conjunction with the continued presence of a clustered settlement pattern like that of European Jewish communities during the medieval period, indicates that the Jews of the Caribbean were not fully integrated socially or politically into British colonial society. This examination of the Nevis community bears testimony to a period of transition from the closed communities of the medieval period to the more open and widespread communities begun after Jewish emancipation in the late 18th century.

  9. [Development of animal husbandry in Groningen in the 18th and 19th century; a broad outline].

    PubMed

    Paping, R F

    2001-01-01

    This overview is mainly focussed on the clay area forming the northern half of the province. It is the wealthiest and most characteristic part, being cultured since the Middle Ages as testified by the many churches that even small villages were able to construct. About 1700 the province of Groningen enjoyed already a modern economy, fitting in with that of the other coastal areas of Friesland, Zeeland and Holland (the last mentioned was the richest region of the world in the 17th and 18th century). As aspects of modernity at that time can be considered: 1) the use of modern agricultural methods with higher yields per hectare and higher milk yields per cow than produced in the land provinces on the sandy soils; 2) Agriculture was aimed at earning money by selling of hte products. In opposition to the farmers in the land provinces, who mainly produced for subsistence farming, the farmers in the coastal areas produced for the trade; 3) A high degree of specialization was found in the rural areas. 30-40% of the families had own farms, 25% of the population were labourers, owing only small pieces of land and the rest of the working population had occupations outside agriculture (craftmen, shopkeepers, shipmasters, merchants etc.). Whereas on the sandy soils practically every family owned a farm, be it mostly a very small one. After reviewing the changes in the distribution of land in use of the production of fieldcrops or for meadows-always in function of the market value of the products-and after a discussion of type of cattle husbandry (breeding, fattening, dairying) it is concluded that a relative decrease of the importance of cattle husbandry in the clay region during the 18th - 19th century can be observed. Intensification of land use had a positive effect on crop-production. The much-heard opinion that the cattle plague epizootic of 1768-1786 caused a transition in land use through a switch from animal husbandry to arable farming, is not held by the author. Economic factors were of prime importance here. The introduction of fertilizer in the 19th century took away the necessity to keep cattle for manure. And mechanization did the same for the horse in the 20th century. In some parts of the clay region, however, cattle husbandry returned in the second half of the 20th century, due to the low prices of the fieldcrops. The arable land is then transformed again in meadows. Attention is given to the role of veterinary care given by the farmers themselves and in a later phase by veterinary professionals. PMID:15156851

  10. Food on foot: long-distance trade in slaughter oxen between Denmark and the Netherlands (14th-18th century).

    PubMed

    Gijsbers, W; Koolmees, P

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a short review of the long-distance trade in slaughter oxen in Northwest Europe. The long-term development of the trade is described against the social-economic background of the production and consumption areas. In the 14th century, the Danes obtained the right to sell cattle in certain Dutch cities. From 1500 onwards, the export of oxen from Denmark and the adjacent duchy of Schleswig-Holstein increased considerably. The export reached its peak in the first quarter of the 17th century; registered export in 1612 amounted to more than 52.000 oxen over land and, in 1624, about 10.000 oxen over sea. Part of that export was destined for the Dutch market. Protectionist tax measures taken by the Dutch government and the outbreaks of rinderpest put an end to the regular ox trade in the first half of the 18th century. By decree, local authorities tried to prevent the spread of contagious animal diseases. The history of international cattle trade and hauling, however, indicates that economic motives largely outweighed animal welfare issues. Thus, in addition to addressing the logistics of the trade, this paper also addresses veterinary aspects and animal welfare issues related to the transport of cattle. PMID:11762404

  11. Spectres of Multiplicity. 18th -Century Literature Revisited from the Outside in , in Christie

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    DISCONTENTS From the age of Louis XIV to the Jacobin Revolution, the French eighteenth century is often-demonstrations of the Revolution. So while many French Enlighteners saw themselves living in (or on the verge of) an age of global McDonald & Susan Rubin Suleiman (ed.), French Global: A New Approach to French Literary History, New

  12. Malthus, the 18(th) century European explorers and the principle of population in Africa.

    PubMed

    Reniers, Georges

    2011-01-01

    In the second edition of his Essay on the Principle of Population, Malthus included twelve chapters that offer a remarkable description of population dynamics from all corners of the world. His discussion of (sub-Saharan) Africa was almost entirely based on the travel accounts of James Bruce and Mungo Park, two late eighteenth century British explorers. In this essay, I introduce these sources and discuss the insights that Malthus did, or perhaps should have, derived from both. PMID:24259758

  13. [The origins of the Pavilion Lazaretto: quarantine architecture between the 18th and 19th centuries].

    PubMed

    Bonastra, Quim

    2008-01-01

    The model of pavilion lazaretto was built above the scientific basis established during the hospital reform process held in France on the lasts decades of the eighteenth century. The morphological solutions adopted for the new quarantine taxonomy has not been given by the example borrowed by the new typology of hospital as resulted in this discussion, but by existing quarantine and detention facilities in general. In this paper we will analyse all factors that have influenced in the configuration of this model of lazarettos. PMID:19856531

  14. Loss of genetic diversity in sea otters ( Enhydra lutris ) associated with the fur trade of the 18th and 19th centuries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    SHAWN L ARSON; R ONALD J AMESON; M ICHAEL E TNIER; M ELISSA F LEMING; PAUL B ENTZEN

    Sea otter ( Enhydra lutris ) populations experienced widespread reduction and extirpation due to the fur trade of the 18th and 19th centuries. We examined genetic variation within four microsatellite markers and the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) D -loop in one prefur trade population and compared it to five modern populations to determine potential losses in genetic variation. While mtDNA sequence

  15. THE IMPACT OF SHORT-TERM CLIMATE CHANGE ON BRITISH AND FRENCH AGRICULTURE AND POPULATION IN THE FIRST HALF OF THE 18 TH CENTURY

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Axel Michaelowa

    Climate change is an additional explanatory variable for the course of British and French agricultural and economic history in the 18th century. As external shocks such as war, famine and epidemic diseases did not play a major role in Britain, the impact of climate change can be clearly distinguished. In France, low agricultural diversification, political ineptitude and disease enhanced the

  16. [Midwives in 18th century Hungary: between tradition and scientific methodology].

    PubMed

    Krász, L

    2000-01-01

    This study concerns midwifery in Hungary in the period 1783-1790, during the reign of Joseph II. It is based on annual health reports forwarded to the Council of Physicians (Ungarische Statthalterei) and "conduitlists" in table format. These narratives and lists illustrate the controversial process of modernization in obstetrics and within the community of midwives. Inspired by the Enlightenment, Joseph II introduced a series of obstetric reforms. By investigating specific cases, this study shows that successful implementation af these reforms depended largely on the physicians themselves: their dedication, efficacy, and ability to communicate with the midwives they supervised. While interpreting the conflicts triggered by the reforms, this study also considers the economic and social conditions at large, such as the centuries-old coexistence of several religions and nationalities that characterized Hungary during this period. PMID:14674411

  17. [Relations between equilibrium and dynamics at the turn of the 17th and 18th centuries].

    PubMed

    Schmit, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    This article investigates the reception of Galileo and Descartes' principles of statics in the works of some French scientists in the second half of seventeenth century, tracing their importance for the genesis of a concept of force. Through an examination of the link between statics and dynamics--especially concerning the phenomena of collision and the motion of falling bodies--it will be shown, first, that these principles of statics actually contributed to the genesis of dynamics; secondly, that the authors examined in this article managed to unify the various fields of mechanics by building a common axiomatic basis, and, thirdly, that there exists a conceptual identity between actions in engines and actions in dynamic phenomena. The evidence brought fourth in this articles challenges the view according to which statics, and more particularly the law of the lever, was an obstacle for the development of dynamics, and particularly for the conceptualization of force. PMID:25577927

  18. Venusians: the Planet Venus in the 18th-Century Extraterrestrial Life Debate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duner, David

    2013-05-01

    In the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries it became possible to believe in the existence of life on other planets on scientific grounds. Once the Earth was no longer the center of the universe according to Copernicus, once Galileo had aimed his telescope at the Moon and found it a rough globe with mountains and seas, the assumption of life on other planets became much less far-fetched. In general there were no actual differences between Earth and Venus, since both planets orbited the Sun, were of similar size, and possessed mountains and an atmosphere. If there is life on Earth, one may ponder why it could not also exist on Venus. In the extraterrestrial life debate of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, the Moon, our closest celestial body, was the prime candidate for life on other worlds, although a number of scientists and scholars also speculated about life on Venus and on other planets, both within our solar system and beyond its frontiers. This chapter discusses the arguments for life on Venus and those scientific findings that were used to support them, which were based in particular on assumptions and claims that both mountains and an atmosphere had been found on Venus. The transits of Venus in the 1760s became especially important for the notion that life could thrive on Venus. Here, I detect two significant cognitive processes that were at work in the search for life on Venus, i.e., analogical reasoning and epistemic perception, while analogies and interpretations of sensory impressions based on prior knowledge played an important role in astrobiological theories.

  19. The construction of the country landscape in Veneto plains (North of Italy) during 18th-21st centuries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borin, Maurizio; Novello, Elisabetta

    2013-04-01

    This paper focuses on the transformation that has taken place in the last four centuries in Veneto's plain in northern Italy. The analysis of statistical data over a long period of time has made it possible to chronologically reconstruct the gradual transformation of wetlands into arable land, suitable for human settlement and for the development of industrial activities. Particularly relevant are the policies adopted by the Republic of Venice (14th-18th centuries) with regard to the management of waters, policies which were continued by the Italian State after its unification in 1861. The evolution of the concept of land reclamation gradually came to include draining, hygienic, agrarian and environmental factors, paying attention to the specific character of both mountain and lagoon areas. Over many centuries new country areas were created, 2/5 of them located below sea level, which can be cultivated due to complex systems of canalization and water pumping. Both the State and landowners invested capital in a project that was not only meant to sustain private interest but that also met public needs. Since 1882 (when the Baccarini law was passed) the subject of the 'sanitary reclamation' began to be discussed in Italy. This concerned 1/16 of the total surface of the country, 400,000 hectares of which in Veneto, where malaria was directly or indirectly responsible for the death of thousands of people. New livelihoods substituted those of the past: some economies based, for instance, on the harvesting of the marshes' products or on the common use of marginal lands disappeared. The recent process of industrialization in Veneto, often carried out with little consideration for the environment, has eventually opened up a new chapter in the history of the countryside of this region, that of environmental and landscape enhancement.

  20. Biomechanical beam analysis of long bones from a late 18th century slave cemetery in Cape Town, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Ledger, M; Holtzhausen, L M; Constant, D; Morris, A G

    2000-06-01

    This study aims to quantify the physical demands of a sample of late 18th century skeletons from an unmarked burial site on Cobern Street, Cape Town, South Africa. Historical studies suggest that these individuals were either slaves or "free black" people of low socioeconomic standing. Cortical cross-sectional areas of paired humeri and tibiae from the Cobern Street collection (N = 29), a modern cadaver collection (N = 31), and a hunter-gatherer collection (N = 30) were compared by means of biomechanical beam analysis on computerized tomography scans. Results showed that the Cobern Street sample, both males and females, were closer to the modern group in total tibial cortical area and in the second moments and polar moments of cortical area, than to the hunter-gatherer group. It is assumed that these results can be explained by differences in lower limb activity. Tibial strength properties showed the hunter-gatherer peoples to be highly mobile and active walkers in comparison to the Cobern Street and modern samples. The males from the Cobern Street sample showed significantly higher values for humeral strength properties than either the hunter-gatherer or modern individuals, attesting to their status as manual laborers. The humeral cross-sectional strength properties for females were very similar between the Cobern Street and modern groups but again significantly different from the hunter-gatherer sample. The domestic chores performed by females of the recent cadaver sample may be very similar to those performed by the Cobern Street sample. PMID:10813703

  1. Evidence for tuberculosis in 18th/19th century slaves in Anse Sainte-Marguerite (Guadeloupe - French Western Indies).

    PubMed

    Lösch, Sandra; Kim, Mi-Ra; Dutour, Olivier; Courtaud, Patrice; Maixner, Frank; Romon, Thomas; Sola, Christophe; Zink, Albert

    2015-06-01

    During the American colonization in the 18th and 19th century, Africans were captured and shipped to America. Harsh living and working conditions often led to chronic diseases and high mortality rates. Slaves in the Caribbean were forced to work mainly on sugar plantations. They were buried in cemeteries like Anse Sainte-Marguerite on the isle of Grande-Terre (Guadeloupe) which was examined by archaeologists and physical anthropologists. Morphological studies on osseous remains of 148 individuals revealed 15 cases with signs for bone tuberculosis and a high frequency of periosteal reactions which indicates early stages of the disease. 11 bone samples from these cemeteries were analysed for ancient DNA. The samples were extracted with established procedures and examined for the cytoplasmic multicopy ?-actin gene and Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex DNA (IS 6110) by PCR. An amplification product for M. tuberculosis with the size of 123 bp was obtained. Sequencing confirmed the result. This study shows evidence of M. tuberculosis complex DNA in a Caribbean slave population. PMID:25754341

  2. The ŤNew Map of Romeť by Giambattista Nolli: a precise representation of the urban space in the 18th century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lelo, Keti; Travaglini, Carlo Maria

    2010-05-01

    The paper refers to the on going experience of the project "The Historic Atlas of Modern Rome" implemented by CROMA (Centro di ateneo per lo studio di Roma) - University Roma Tre. The project combines research in urban history with geographical information systems, and has as main objective to study the "historic environment" of Rome and its transformations. In 1748, Giovanni Battista Nolli (1692-1756) published his ŤNew Map of Romeť (Nuova Pianta di Roma). This work represents the first geometrically correct representation of Rome within the city walls, and the only map deriving from a topographical survey of which the procedures are known. The map represents a precious source of information and a valid cartographic basis for the study of the successive phases of the city development. The presentation will illustrate the characteristics of this cartographic source, the results obtained from the georeferencing process and the construction of a GIS system for the city of Rome in the 18th century. The described methodology stands at the basis of the first volume of the Atlas, that will be shortly published in printable as well as in digital version, in a CD Rom containing a graphical interface that permits the interactive interrogation of map and databases.

  3. Evolution of Interannual and Decadal/Interdecadal variability of the SPCZ since the late 18th century using a network of Fiji coral ?18O time-series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dassie, E. P.; Linsley, B. K.; Correge, T.; Wu, H. C.; Lemley, G. M.; Cabioch, G.

    2012-12-01

    The South Pacific Convergence Zone (SPCZ) region is of high interest due to its impact on tropical rainfall and the export of moisture from the tropics. Documenting the amplitude and periodicity of SPCZ displacements on interannual (mainly influenced by El Nińo Southern Oscillation (ENSO)) and decadal/interdecadal (D/I) time-scales is of high importance not only for risk management but also for understanding the dynamics of the SPCZ and for improving General Circulation Model climate predictions. We have generated a unique regional coral ?18O network from the Fiji Islands, which are located just south of the main SPCZ rainfall axis. This network consists of five monthly-resolved coral ?18O time-series from different regions of Fiji. Evaluation of interseries correlation coefficients indicates that ENSO-band (2 to 9 years) and D/I-band (10 to 50 years) ?18O variability is highly reproducible. Correlation to instrumental surface salinity (SSS) data indicates that interannual coral ?18O variability in Fiji is the result of interannual changes in SSS that are coupled to ENSO. The composite reconstruction (arithmetic average of the five Fiji ?18O records), extending from 1790 to 2004 AD, was compared to known climatic indices such as the Southern Oscillation and Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation indices over the 20th century. Pearson Product-Moment correlations between the coral ?18O composite and these target indices of the Pacific basin are r= 0.71 and 0.41 for ENSO and D/I timescales respectively, with p-values better than 0.001. These high values indicate that our Fiji composite ?18O record is suitable for reconstructing past ENSO and D/I variability prior to the instrumental record. Our Fiji ENSO-band and D/I-band reconstructions from the Southwest Pacific also share important similarities with other Pacific coral ?18O records such as the ?18O record from Malo-Channel (Vanuatu). The Fiji composite ?18O reconstruction also correlates negatively with interannual and D/I coral ?18O variability from equatorial sites in the Pacific (e.g. Maiana). Collectively, our results from the SPCZ region reflect the validity of the coral ?18O composite to track regional climatic variability at both interannual and decadal/interdecadal timescales. From the late 18th century to the late 19th century the D/I band dominates the Fiji composite while the ENSO-band amplitude is relatively small. Starting around 1885, this tendency reverses and we observed a drastic decrease in the D/I signal amplitude, with its variance reduced by more than 50%, while the ENSO-band signal increases progressively in amplitude toward the present, reaching unprecedented values during the mid-20th century. This switch around 1885 A.D. is unique over the last 250 years and may correspond to a reorganization of Pacific-wide climate.

  4. Plant phenological records in northern Finland since the 18th century as retrieved from databases, archives and diaries for biometeorological research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holopainen, Jari; Helama, Samuli; Lappalainen, Hanna; Gregow, Hilppa

    2013-05-01

    Plant phenological data from northern Finland, compiled from several sources, were examined as potential biometeorological indicators of climate change since the 18th century. A common feature of individual series was their sporadic nature. In addition to waning enthusiasm, wartime hardships and crop failures had caused gaps in recording observations during the 18th and 19th centuries. The present study's challenge was to combine separate records, as retrieved from several historical archives and personal diaries, into a single continuous series. To avoid possible biases due to the variability of data availability each year, each phenomenon-specific mean series was transformed into normalized site-specific index series. These series were compared to each other and to a regional instrumental temperature series (years 1802-2011). The inter-phenomena correlations were high. Moreover, a strong biometeorological response of the phenological series, most especially to monthly mean temperature in May, and seasonally to the April through June temperatures, was identified. This response focused on slightly later spring months compared to the responses in an earlier study conducted for southern Finland. The findings encouraged us to compute a total phenological index series as an average of all available phenomenon-specific index series for northern Finland. The earliest phenological springs were found as a cluster in the recent end of the record, whereas the anomalously-late phenological spring could be found through the centuries. This finding could indicate that potential future warming could result in an earlier onset of phenological springs (i.e. as experienced by the plants), with a remaining possibility of late phenological springs. To conclude, it was shown that the indices are reliable biometeorological indicators of the April through June temperature variations and thus of the climate variability in the region.

  5. Finnish wallpaper pigments in the 18th-19th century: presence of KFe3(CrO4)2(OH)6 and odd pigment mixtures.

    PubMed

    Castro, Kepa; Knuutinen, Ulla; de Vallejuelo, Silvia Fdez-Ortiz; Irazola, Mireia; Madariaga, Juan Manuel

    2013-04-01

    Several Finish wallpapers from the 18th and 19th century were analysed by using Raman spectroscopy assisted with EDXRF instrumentation, in an attempt of determine the pigments used in their manufacture process as well as of trying to date some of the samples through pigment composition. All pigments present in samples were determined and surprisingly the unusual and strange iron (III) chromate yellow pigment was found. Besides, unusual mixtures were found to obtain fashionable colours, especially in blue and green areas, where more than one blue pigments were mixed with green and yellow pigments. Blue verditer, ultramarine blue, Prussian blue, chrome yellow, calcite, lead white, red and yellow iron oxide, gypsum and carbon black were identified. The presence of the risky and poisonous emerald green must be highlighted. The results were compared with those found in other wallpapers from Spain and France. PMID:23376265

  6. The Early America Review: A Journal of Fact and Opinion On the People, Issues and Events Of 18th Century America

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    A site of interest to students of 18th Century America is the Early America Review. Early America Review is a new quarterly e-journal produced by DEV Communications, Inc., that is aimed toward both scholarly and lay readers. In that spirit, the first edition contains a long scholarly article on Benjamin Franklin and the Presbyterians by a Creighton University history professor, an introduction to the novel The Quintumviri by Circian, a letter from Jefferson to Madison ("...a little rebellion now and then is a good thing"), a poem, and a crossword puzzle (available only with Macromedia Shockwave). Early America Review is also enhanced with RealAudio clips. Both Shockwave and RealAudio are available from the site.

  7. 21H.433 The Age of Reason: Europe in the 18th and 19th Centuries, Spring 2002

    E-print Network

    Ravel, Jeffrey S.

    A study of the evolution of European society from the end of the seventeenth century to the outbreak of World War I. Its politics, the nature of its social system, the workings of its economy, and its intellectual ...

  8. Personal Loyalties and Work Relationships: On the Approaches to the Study of the Russian 18th-century Bureaucratic Apparatus`

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    a 'patrimonial bureaucracy' of an early modern Western European type, and finally arrives at a bureaucracy had any choice but to conform to bureaucracy's rhythm, be that person a serf, Duma member, or tsar`.2`, and that the Muscovite chancelleries of the 17th century were staffed by a professional bureaucracy which did not depend

  9. Captain Cook's beer: the antiscorbutic use of malt and beer in late 18th century sea voyages.

    PubMed

    Stubbs, Brett J

    2003-01-01

    The custom of allowing British seamen the regular use of fermented liquor is an old one. Ale was a standard article of the sea ration as early as the fourteenth century. By the late eighteenth century, beer was considered to be at once a food (a staple beverage and essential part of the sea diet), a luxury (helping to ameliorate the hardship and irregularity of sea life) and a medicine (conducive to health at sea). In particular, beer and its precursors, wort and malt, were administered with the aim of preventing and curing scurvy. This paper examines the use of malt and beer during late eighteenth century British sea voyages, particularly their use as antiscorbutic agents, focusing on James Cook's three voyages during the period 1768-1780. Cook administered sweet wort (an infusion of malt), beer (prepared from an experimental, concentrated malt extract), and spruce beer (prepared mainly from molasses), among many other items, in his attempts to prevent and to cure scurvy. Despite the inconclusive nature of his own experiments, he reported favourably after his second voyage (1772-1775) on the use of wort as an antiscorbutic sea medicine (for which purpose it is now known to be useless). Cook thereby lent credibility to erroneous medical theories about scurvy, helping to perpetuate the use of ineffective treatments and to delay the discovery of a cure for the disorder. PMID:12810402

  10. Acoustics of early music spaces from the 11th to 18th century: Rediscovery of the acoustical excellence of medium-sized rooms and new perspectives for modern concert hall design

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alban Bassuet

    2001-01-01

    The acoustical characteristics of 50 rooms that played a prominent role in the history of music between the 11th and 18th centuries were studied. The rooms include basilicas, oratorios, organ churches, and the great halls and courts of the European palaces. The research provides an understanding of the acoustical features that suit the early music repertoire, and how these rooms

  11. The use of historical catch data to trace the influence of climate on fish populations: examples from the White and Barents Sea fisheries in the 17th and 18th centuries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dmitry L. Lajus; Julia A. Lajus; Zoya V. Dmitrieva; Alexei V. Kraikovski; Daniel A. Alexandrov

    2005-01-01

    We analysed catch records of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), cod (Gadus morhua), and halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus and Reinhardtius hippoglossoides) from the 17th and 18th centuries from several locations of the Barents and White Seas areas. Historical records, found in Russian archives, allow analysis of long-term series of catches, and sometimes of the average weight of the fish. In total, we

  12. The men of Nelson's navy: a comparative stable isotope dietary study of late 18th century and early 19th century servicemen from Royal Naval Hospital burial grounds at Plymouth and Gosport, England.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Patrick; Weston, Sam; Wild, Bastien; Boston, Ceridwen; Ditchfield, Peter; Shortland, Andrew J; Pollard, A Mark

    2012-05-01

    We present stable isotopic analyses of collagen from 80 servicemen excavated from the late 18th/early 19th century naval hospitals at Plymouth (50) and Haslar, Gosport (30) in southern England. Historical records suggest that, the diets of these two populations should be essentially identical. While ?(15) N of the rib collagen confirmed that naval servicemen were relatively well-catered for in terms of meat allowance (Plymouth average ?(15) N = 11.1‰, Gosport = 11.9‰), stable carbon isotope analysis produced average values for the two assemblages, which were significantly different (Plymouth average ?(13) C = -18.8‰, Gosport = -20.0‰). We postulate that these differences stem from divergent naval postings, with a greater proportion of Plymouth individuals serving in areas that entailed a greater input of C(4) foodstuffs. By comparison with published data from approximately contemporary burials at Snake Hill, Ontario, Canada and Chesapeake Bay, Virginia, we suggest that this area is the east coast of North America. For 15 of the 30 individuals from Gosport, we have data on ribs, femur, and dentine from the same skeleton, which appear to show that they came from a variety of locations in their preadolescence, but converged in dietary terms onto a "naval average," which is consistent with historical evidence for recruitment patterns into the Navy at the time. By comparison with published data from skeletons recovered from the wreck of the Mary Rose (sank 1545), we conclude that this naval diet was virtually unchanged from the 16th century to the end of the 18th century. PMID:22407735

  13. Paleoclimate Reconstruction during the 17th to 18th Century Using Fossil Coral Tsunami Boulders from Ishigaki Island, the Ryukyus, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuzuki, K.; Yokoyama, Y.; Seki, A.; Kawakubo, Y.; Araoka, D.; Suzuki, A.

    2014-12-01

    Little Ice Age (LIA) which lasted during approximately 1450 to 1850 (e.g. Grove, 1988) is known as naturally occurring climate fluctuation, so knowing LIA in detail is necessary to improve climate models. Instrumental records can only extend back to about 100 years in many areas, thus paleoclimate records are reconstructed using proxies in tree rings, sediments and so force. However there are differences in reconstructed timings and magnitudes of LIA occurred in each area (Overpack et al., 1997), and most of the records are based mainly on terrestrial proxies such as tree ring records, whereas only limited numbers of marine records are available (Mann et al., 2008). Coral skeletal climatology is a useful tool to reconstruct marine paleoclimate records in tropics and subtropics. Hermatypic corals, Porites spp. have aragonite skeletons and they have annual bands, which are suitable to reconstruct high-resolution paleoclimate in seasonal scale by measuring chemical compositions. Skeletal Sr/Ca ratio in Porites spp. has been widely used as a reliable proxy of SST (Sea Surface Temperature). However, corals grow for approximately several decades to 200 years, hence it is difficult to reconstruct LIA paleoclimate using living corals. Cobb et al. (2003) used fossil corals casted on shore by storms to reconstruct millennial scale paleoclimate. There are fossil coral boulders in the eastern coast of Ishigaki Island, Ryukyus, Japan. These fossil coral boulders were casted on shore by paleo Tsunami events, thus they are called "Tsunami boulders" (Araoka et al., 2010). Fossil corals used by Cobb et al. have 30-90-year records while some large Tsunami boulders have multi-centennial continuous records. In this study, we reconstruct paleo SST using the Tsunami boulder from Ishigaki Island. The boulder has 185 years of annual banding. U-series dating shows the boulder was moved on shore at Meiwa earthquake in 1771. We measure Sr/Ca ratio using LA-HR-ICPMS (Laser Ablation High Resolution Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry) to reconstruct paleo SST during LIA (Kawakubo et al., 2014). LA-HR-ICPMS enables us to measure the long coral core rapidly. Our result shows SST variation in 17th-18th century in this area and SST declined in around 1700. This result reveals the response of Little Ice Age in the northwestern Pacific.

  14. Austrian-Hungarian Astronomical Observatories Run by the Society of Jesus at the Time of the 18th Century Venus Transits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Posch, Thomas; Aspaas, Per Pippin; Bazso, Akos; Mueller, Isolde

    2013-05-01

    The Venus transit in June 1761 was the first one to be observed on a truly international scale: almost 250 astronomers followed this rare celestial event (e.g. Wulff 2012, p. 115), and at least 130 published successful observations of it (Aspaas 2012, p. 423). The present paper deals with the astronomical observatories built by the Society of Jesus in its eighteenth century "Provincia Austriae", at which the 1761 transit could be observed. Five Jesuit observatories are being presented in this context: three in today's Austria, namely, two in Vienna and one in Graz; one in Trnava in today's Slovakia and one in Cluj in today's Romania. Thereafter, we briefly examine which of these observatories submitted any Venus transit observations for publication in the appendix to Maximilian Hell's "Ephemerides astronomicae ad meridianum Vindobonensem" for the year 1762.

  15. Evolution of progradation\\/erosion along the French Guiana mangrove coast: a comparison of mapped shorelines since the 18th century with Holocene data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean-Claude Plaziat; Pieter G. E. F Augustinus

    2004-01-01

    The problems in mapping the mangrove shoreline of French Guiana are reviewed. The present variability of the coastline due to the shifting mudbanks with Avicennia mangroves on their shoreface-attached upper fringe is extended to the historical period two and a half centuries ago, by means of ancient maps and nautical charts. In selected sites (around the Sinnamary River and the

  16. [The beginnings of the nursing profession : the complementary relationship between secular caregivers and hospital nuns in France in the 17th and 18th centuries].

    PubMed

    Diebolt, Evelyne

    2013-06-01

    The words used for designating the caregivers are ambiguous. Little by little, the word "nurse" becomes widely used, mainly in the feminine form due to the need of specialized staff. Health care structures are developing in the 17th and 18 centuries, the remains of which you can find in today hospitals (Salpętričre hospital, Hôtel-Dieu hospital in Paris). The government of Louis XIV cares for the poor sick people, the vagabonds and the beggars. It opens new general hospitals as it will be the case later in all Europe. In the 17th century, the staff of the general hospital in Paris is entirely secular. The Paris general hospital is headed by the magistrates of Paris Parliament. The healthcare institutions employ both secular and religious staff for example the Hotel Dieu in Paris and the one in Marseilles. In the 17th century, there are 2000 secular caregivers in France. The order of the "Filles de la Charité" (grey sisters) is not submitted to the rule of enclosure. They renew their vows every year. For their founders Vincent de Paul and Louise de Marcillac, their monastery should be the cells of the sick, their cloister should be the rooms of the hospitals or the streets of the town. The secular or religious caregivers are excellent in the apothecary and they open a network of small dispensaries. It improves the health of the French population and allows fighting against the epidemics. This activity allowed some women to have a rewarding activity and a social status of which they were apparently satisfied. PMID:23923734

  17. Seven peasant communities in pre-industrial Europe. A comparative study of French, Italian and Swedish rural parishes (18th and early 19th century)

    E-print Network

    Todd, Emmanuel

    1976-07-29

    le:ft no diaries and thei r :feelings and opinions cannot there:fore be sJ tudied directly. The documents I am using , reg iste rs o:f births, marriages and deaths, and listings o:f inhabi tant s make i t pos sible to s tudy p easants :f... , no rivalries between different communities were apparent . Of' course , we cannot obtain direc t evidenc e on the feel i n g s of eighteenth century peasants . What we can do is to compare the proportion of kinsmen among godparents ( as a substitute...

  18. The garden as a laboratory: the role of domestic gardens as places of scientific exploration in the long 18th century

    PubMed Central

    HICKMAN, CLARE

    2014-01-01

    Eighteenth-century gardens have traditionally been viewed as spaces designed for leisure, and as representations of political status, power and taste. In contrast, this paper will explore the concept that gardens in this period could be seen as dynamic spaces where scientific experiment and medical practice could occur. Two examples have been explored in the pilot study which has led to this paper — the designed landscapes associated with John Hunter’s Earl’s Court residence, in London, and the garden at Edward Jenner’s house in Berkeley, Gloucestershire. Garden history methodologies have been implemented in order to consider the extent to which these domestic gardens can be viewed as experimental spaces. PMID:26052165

  19. Acoustics of early music spaces from the 11th to 18th century: Rediscovery of the acoustical excellence of medium-sized rooms and new perspectives for modern concert hall design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bassuet, Alban

    2001-05-01

    The acoustical characteristics of 50 rooms that played a prominent role in the history of music between the 11th and 18th centuries were studied. The rooms include basilicas, oratorios, organ churches, and the great halls and courts of the European palaces. The research provides an understanding of the acoustical features that suit the early music repertoire, and how these rooms achieved an enhanced emotional engagement through their unique acoustical characteristics. This paper provides a summary of the acoustic measurements, which include binaural and B-format recordings in each of the rooms, and presents a unique new approach to understanding their subjective characteristics through detailed analysis and auralization of their 3-D impulse response. The study shows that the timing and direction of reflections in three dimensions is critically important to defining the subjective characteristic of a room. The results emphasize the importance of developing techniques to understand the 3-D impulse response and using auralization techniques for interpreting results and making subjective judgments. The enhanced musical experience that is achieved in these early rooms offers an invitation to rethink modern acoustics and to develop a new design approach that focuses more strongly on the subjective response and emotional engagement of the music.

  20. Longitude errors in ships' observations during the 18th

    E-print Network

    Koek, Frits

    Longitude errors in ships' observations during the 18th century, and their corrections Frits Koek at digitation of ship data over the world's oceans 1750-1854. Among the 4,816 CLIWOC voyages, 646 different zero, bearings and distances. Then, using GIS software - ESRI ArcMap 8.2 (ArcView) - the daily ship positions

  1. PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF EAST (FRONT) ELEVATION DURING EXCAVATION OF 18TH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF EAST (FRONT) ELEVATION DURING EXCAVATION OF 18TH CENTURY BASEMENT ENTRY WELL AND DRAINAGE SYSTEM, LOOKING NORTHWEST - Belair, Tulip Grove Drive, Belair-at-Bowie, Bowie, Prince George's County, MD

  2. An investigation of age-related changes at the acetabulum in 18th-19th century AD adult skeletons from Christ Church Spitalfields, London.

    PubMed

    Mays, S

    2012-12-01

    The age-markers described at the adult acetabulum by Rissech et al. (J Forensic Sci 51 (2006) 213-229) were scored in the Spitalfields collection of skeletons of documented age and sex (N = 161). The purpose of the work was as a contribution to the evaluation of the general utility of these markers for estimating age at death. To this end, their relationship both with age, and with some other factors, was investigated. The latter comprised sex, general tendency toward bone formation in periarticular soft tissue (as measured by the occurrence of diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis), and occupation (as documented for some of the males). Of the seven Rissech et al. variables, only four were found to show a statistically significant relationship with age. The correlation between a composite score derived from a linear combination of these four variables, and age was similar to or greater than correlations between age and composite scores based on other age indicators reported in the literature for Spitalfields. Male acetabula aged at a greater rate than those of females. There was no relationship with the occurrence of DISH, but for occupation, those in nonmanual professions showed greater acetabular scores-for-age than those in manual trades. PMID:23076982

  3. Smarter Planet Comes to February 18th

    E-print Network

    Hofheinz, Dennis

    1 Smarter Planet Comes to You 2nd February ­ 18th March, 2011 #12;2 Contents Tour Objectives Tour Collateral #12;3 Tour Objectives The objectives of the Smarter Planet Comes to You Tour are to: Raise student awareness around the Smarter Planet initiative and `make it real' in the community Evangelize the Smarter

  4. Problema vizual'noj registratsii nablyudenij v opticheskoj astronomii XVII-XVIII vekov %t Problem of visual registration of observations in optical astronomy in the 17th-18th centuries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, Kostantin V.

    This paper attempts to explain the growth of optical astronomy as a result of more general social and cultural change in European life during the two post-Renaissance centuries. It shows how the introduction of optical instruments into astronomical work was accompanied (and partly conditioned) by a few nonastronomical practices, such as collecting unusual things and their images, producing illusionary effects by means of optical devices, manufacturing pictures that could disturb the common visual perception, etc. The paper draws particular attention to the practices of manipulation with visual images that could help to introduce "illusionary" optical knowledge into making "true" drawings from natural objects, including celestial ones. In this way, the formation of new astronomical language can be understood as closely connected to the explicit formulation of technological instructions and legal rules for making copies from natural objects, as well as the general development of printing production and broadening of the market of printed illustrations. These often not enough co-ordinated practices stipulated the shift of optical astronomy into a significant part of seigniorial culture, where it obtained recognition as an essentially new and elite knowledge, associated with particular technological vigilance. During the transition of European monarchies into the absolutist social order, astronomy, on a level with other court services, assumed a shape of professional occupation supplied with certain monetary salaries, a stable position in official hierarchy, and supreme privileges. This was the way by which astronomy merged with the other natural studies and became one of the publicly recognised scientific disciplines.

  5. NAUTICAL WEATHER VOCABULARIES IN THE 18TH & 19TH CENTURIES

    E-print Network

    Koek, Frits

    all wind strengths between calm and storm, the distinction being provided by a range of adjectival such as `hurricane', `typhoon', `monsoon' and `breeze' all came into the English weather vocabulary from foreign

  6. Foxing on 18th century paper: A Lithograph Print

    E-print Network

    Petta, Jason

    the print is created by using a press to transfer an image initially created on stone or metal plate at the surface of paper Metal (Copper) Metal (Iron) Foxing Microorganism #12;Causes of Paper Degradation ˇBleaching converting a conjugated double bond to carbon- carbon single bond which removes discoloration from

  7. The butterfly diagram in the 18th century

    E-print Network

    Rainer Arlt

    2008-12-11

    Digitized images of the drawings by J.C. Staudacher were used to determine sunspot positions for the period of 1749-1796. From the entire set of drawings, 6285 sunspot positions were obtained for a total of 999 days. Various methods have been applied to find the orientation of the solar disk which is not given for the vast majority of the drawings by Staudacher. Heliographic latitudes and longitudes in the Carrington rotation frame were determined. The resulting butterfly diagram shows a highly populated equator during the first two cycles (Cycles 0 and 1 in the usual counting since 1749). An intermediate period is Cycle 2, whereas Cycles 3 and 4 show a typical butterfly shape. A tentative explanation may be the transient dominance of a quadrupolar magnetic field during the first two cycles.

  8. William Hogarth and 18th Century Print Culture

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    1997-01-01

    This site is an online version of an exhibition to commemorate the 300th anniversary of Hogarth's birth. Held at Northwestern University in April-June 1997, the exhibition reassessed Hogarth's satirical graphical work in thematic sections demonstrating his concern for the ills of the modern city, the lives of professional women, and issues of theatricality, race, class, and taste. In addition to seven sections of prints exploring these themes, the site also offers an overview of the technical process used by Hogarth and his contemporaries to etch and engrave their prints.

  9. Knowledge in Practice Paper given at the 18th

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Knowledge in Practice Paper given at the 18th International Human Science Research Conference...........................................................................................................................2 1. Examples of `knowledge in practice'.............................................................................2 2. `Knowledge in practice

  10. MiCrOSOFt: aN 18th-CeNtUrY tYPeFaCe

    E-print Network

    Paxton, Anthony T.

    to academic life came in 1995 when he was appointed to a post at Queen's where he is a Reader in Spanish, what their function was, how they were received and understood. The 18th-century was the golden age

  11. The 2nd century AD earthquake in central Italy: archaeoseismological data and seismotectonic implications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emanuela Ceccaroni; Gabriele Ameri; Antonio Augusto Gómez Capera; Fabrizio Galadini

    2009-01-01

    The 2nd century AD earthquake in central Italy is only known by an epigraph that mentions restorations to a damaged weighing-house\\u000a at the ancient locality of Pagus Interpromium. The available seismic catalogues report this event with the conventional date of 101 AD, a magnitude M\\u000a aw of 6.3, and an epicentral location at the village of San Valentino in Abruzzo

  12. Metastatic carcinoma of presumed prostatic origin in cremated bones from the first century A.D.

    PubMed

    Grévin, G; Lagier, R; Baud, C A

    1997-09-01

    A cremated pelvis dating from the first century A.D. showed evidence of osteosclerotic metastasis, presumably secondary to prostate carcinoma. The case demonstrates the importance of microradiography in palaeopathology as well as some of the structural changes seen in cremated bone. PMID:9334843

  13. Pagan-Christian change in northeastern Hungary in the 10th-13th centuries AD--a palaeodemographic aspect.

    PubMed

    János, István; Szathmiry, László; Hüse, Lajos

    2014-03-01

    In the present paper the authors compared skeletal populations (2421 individuals) excavated from four cemeteries, namely Hajdúdorog-Gyúlás (10th century AD), Hajdidorog-Temetöhegy (11th century AD), Hajdúdorog-Katidülö (12th-13th century AD) and Hajdúdorog-Szálldáföld (12th-13th century AD) from a micro-region of Northern Hajdúság (located in the northern part of the Great Hungarian Plain in Hungary in the Carpathian Basin) based on demographic data. The cemeteries were dated to the age of the Hungarian conquest and the Arpadian age and provided representative data for anthropological research. Previous studies based on craniological and archaeological investigations have already suggested that there was discontinuity in the population history between the 10th and the 11th centuries AD and continuity between the 11th and 12th centuries AD in this region. This hypothesis could be partially supported by demographic investigations because conclusive evidence was found that there must have been a change in the population at the turn of the 10th and 11th centuries AD, and there was certain continuity between the 11th and 12-13th centuries AD. The authors suppose that there were two crises in the examined period: the first crisis set in at the transition from the pagan era (10th century AD) to the Christian era (from the beginning of the 11th century AD, with population resettlements within the Carpathian Basin), the second might have been more moderate and meant burying the dead of the populations lacking a church in the churchyards of villages which had a church. At that time one graveyard around a church may have been used by several village populations. PMID:24851634

  14. Technological Characterization of Wall Paintings from the A Mithraic Tomb Dated to 4th-5th Century AD, Gargaresc, Libya

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Abd El Salam; Y. Maniatis

    2009-01-01

    The excavations of Gargaresc started in 1965 and were one of the most important archaeological sites in Tripoli because it includes a period of about 500 years starting from the 1stc. AD was and continuing until the 5th century AD. The Mithraic tomb is one of the most important outlying monuments of Oea, 200 yards south of the western end

  15. EDITORIAL: The 18th Central European Workshop on Quantum Optics The 18th Central European Workshop on Quantum Optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez-Soto, Luis L.; Man'ko, Margarita A.

    2012-02-01

    Much of our present understanding of the microscopic world is based on quantum mechanics. The field owes much of its existence to the venerable science of optics, since the fundamental ideas on the nature of the interaction between light and matter lie at the roots of its origin. We have now reached one century of quantum mechanics. In contrast, the splendid blossoming of quantum optics began only after the comparatively recent invention of the laser. Since then, it has become an exciting and always expanding area at the cutting-edge of research, in part because theory and experiment are more closely connected in this field than any other. Moreover, the technological distance between fundamental studies and practical applications has always been very short in quantum optics. As a result, modern engineering is increasingly based on quantum rather than classical physics; we are facing a transition similar to the one society confronted 200 years ago, at the start of the Industrial Revolution. In parallel with this, the physics community is witnessing the recent and vigorous emergence of quantum information. It aims at exploring the physical foundations of information and at developing efficient methods for processing quantum information. The questions driving this field reveal a profound change in attitude towards fundamental aspects of quantum theory. The photon turns out to be a tool extremely well suited to exploring theoretical quantum information schemes and their experimental implementations. Mirroring this continued progress has been the growth and development of the series of annual Central European Workshops on Quantum Optics (CEWQO). The series started at the beginning of the 1990s, as rather small meetings of physicists from a few countries in central-eastern Europe. In two decades, the workshops have transformed into important events that reach well beyond the original rather restricted geographical limits. The history of CEWQOs can be found in the preface to the proceedings of the 15th CEWQO (Physica Scripta 2009 T135 011005). The 18th edition of CEWQO (CEWQO11) was held in Madrid in 2011. There were about 250 participants, from practically every European country. Many colleagues from other continents also joined the event, including well-established researchers in the field. This is a clear demonstration that these meetings provide an excellent chance to hear about the latest results and new directions of research. The organization of CEWQO11 was carried out by a committee consisting of members active in this topic in Madrid. From Universidad Complutense, Alberto Galindo and Luis L Sánchez-Soto from Universidad Autónoma, Jose Calleja and Carlos Tejedor; from Universidad Politécnica, Enrique Calleja; from Universidad Carlos III, Alberto Ibort; and from the National Research Council (CSIC), Juan León and Juan J García-Ripoll. Special thanks go to the Spanish Ministry for Science and Innovation, Universidad Complutense and the Quitemad Consortium for financial support. The proceedings of the 16th CEWQO held at the University of Turku, Finland and the 17th CEWQO held at the University of St Andrews, Scotland, UK are also available (Physica Scripta 2010 T140 and Physica Scripta 2011 T143). The present Topical Issue is a collection of papers presented in Madrid; they represent an illustrative sample of the major achievements and trends in this area. In turn, they reflect the wide range of interests in this rapidly evolving field. Some collaborators from different scientific centres who could not, due to different reasons, come to Madrid, but participated in previous CEWQOs and plan to participate in future CEWQOs, also contributed to this issue. The papers are arranged alphabetically by the name of the first author. Special thanks goes to Roger Wäppling, the Managing Editor of Physica Scripta, and Graeme Watt, the Publisher, for the opportunity to publish CEWQO11. From a Physica Scripta Editorial Board meeting it was decided that Physica Scripta could offer a poster prize (200 euros + certificate) for young sc

  16. 18th Space Photovoltaic Research and Technology Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morton, Thomas L. (Compiler)

    2005-01-01

    The 18th Space Photovoltaic Research and Technology (SPRAT XVIII) Conference was held September 16 to 18, 2003, at the Ohio Aerospace Institute (OAI) in Brook Park, Ohio. The SPRAT conference, hosted by the Photovoltaic and Space Environments Branch of the NASA Glenn Research Center, brought together representatives of the space photovoltaic community from around the world to share the latest advances in space solar cell technology. This year s conference continued to build on many of the trends shown in SPRAT XVII-the continued advances of thin-film and multijunction solar cell technologies and the new issues required to qualify those types of cells for space applications.

  17. JANNAF 18th Propulsion Systems Hazards Subcommittee Meeting. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cocchiaro, James E. (Editor); Gannaway, Mary T. (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    This volume, the first of two volumes is a compilation of 18 unclassified/unlimited-distribution technical papers presented at the Joint Army-Navy-NASA-Air Force (JANNAF) 18th Propulsion Systems Hazards Subcommittee (PSHS) meeting held jointly with the 36th Combustion Subcommittee (CS) and 24th Airbreathing Propulsion Subcommittee (APS) meetings. The meeting was held 18-21 October 1999 at NASA Kennedy Space Center and The DoubleTree Oceanfront Hotel, Cocoa Beach, Florida. Topics covered at the PSHS meeting include: shaped charge jet and kinetic energy penetrator impact vulnerability of gun propellants; thermal decomposition and cookoff behavior of energetic materials; violent reaction; detonation phenomena of solid energetic materials subjected to shock and impact stimuli; and hazard classification, insensitive munitions, and propulsion systems safety.

  18. The AD 365 Crete earthquake and possible seismic clustering during the fourth to sixth centuries AD in the Eastern Mediterranean: a review of historical and archaeological data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stiros, Stathis C.

    2001-02-01

    Historical and archaeological data are used to test geological claims that, in the fourth to sixth centuries AD, the Eastern Mediterranean experienced an unusual clustering of destructive earthquakes (the 'Early Byzantine Tectonic Paroxsym'). A review of historical accounts of a notable earthquake at this time, that of 21 July AD 365, indicates that this event destroyed nearly all the towns in Crete and was followed by a tsunami which devastated the Nile Delta. The AD 365 event was also probably responsible for reported or observed destruction in ancient towns of west Cyprus and Libya. This earthquake is most likely to be identified with a Hellenic Arc subduction-zone event of 'great' (M>8) magnitude, as testified by up to 9 m of uplift in western Crete dated by previous geological studies to around this time. Historical and archaeological data also support the hypothesis that the fourth to sixth centuries AD was a period of abnormally high seismicity in the Eastern Mediterranean. The high seismicity rates of this period may reflect a reactivation of all plate boundaries in the region (Dead Sea Transform, East Anatolian Fault, North Anatolian Fault, Hellenic Arc, Cyprus Arc Fault).

  19. Low-speed jet dynamics and sound radiation Journal: 18th AIAA/CEAS Aeroacoustics Conference

    E-print Network

    Colonius, Tim

    Low-speed jet dynamics and sound radiation Journal: 18th AIAA/CEAS Aeroacoustics Conference://mc.manuscriptcentral.com/aiaa-maa12 18th AIAA/CEAS Aeroacoustics Conference #12;Low-speed jet dynamics and sound radiation Andr´e V. G Experimental velocity measurements of a low-speed jet, performed using time-resolved tomographic PIV, are used

  20. Patterns of Irregular Burials in Western Europe (1st-5th Century A.D.)

    PubMed Central

    Milella, Marco; Mariotti, Valentina; Belcastro, Maria Giovanna; Knüsel, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Irregular burials (IB—burials showing features that contrast with the majority of others in their geographic and chronological context) have been the focus of archaeological study because of their relative rarity and enigmatic appearance. Interpretations of IB often refer to supposed fear of the dead or to social processes taking place in time-specific contexts. However, a comprehensive and quantitative analysis of IB for various geographical contexts is still lacking, a fact that hampers any discussion of these burials on a larger scale. Methods Here, we collected a bibliographic dataset of 375 IB from both Britain and Continental Europe, altogether spanning a time period from the 1st to the 5th century AD. Each burial has been coded according to ten dichotomous variables, further analyzed by means of chi-squared tests on absolute frequencies, non-metric multidimensional scaling, and cluster analysis. Results Even acknowledging the limits of this study, and in particular the bias represented by the available literature, our results point to interesting patterns. Geographically, IB show a contrast between Britain and Continental Europe, possibly related to historical processes specific to these regions. Different types of IB (especially prone depositions and depositions with the cephalic extremity displaced) present a series of characteristics and associations between features that permit a more detailed conceptualization of these occurrences from a socio-cultural perspective that aids to elucidate their funerary meaning. Conclusions and Significance Altogether, the present work stresses the variability of IB, and the need to contextualize them in a proper archaeological and historical context. It contributes to the discussion of IB by providing a specific geographic and chronological frame of reference that supports a series of hypotheses about the cultural processes possibly underlying their occurrence. PMID:26115408

  1. Merchants' organizations and accounting regulation in eighteenth-century Spain: the ordinances of the Tribunal of Commerce of Bilbao

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Esteban Hernández-Esteve

    1996-01-01

    After a century of clear decadence, the enthronement of the French House of Bourbon in the first years of the 18th century marked the beginning of a new period of relative economic prosperity. In the field of trade, the 18th century was characterized by the confirmation and foundation of merchants' organizations in numerous Spanish towns whose governmental license was accompanied

  2. The 18th Central European Workshop on Quantum Optics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luis L Sánchez-Soto; Margarita A Man'ko

    2012-01-01

    Much of our present understanding of the microscopic world is based on quantum mechanics. The field owes much of its existence to the venerable science of optics, since the fundamental ideas on the nature of the interaction between light and matter lie at the roots of its origin.We have now reached one century of quantum mechanics. In contrast, the splendid

  3. Historical Astronomical Catalogs The first star catalog was published by Ptolemy in the second century AD. This catalog appeared in the book that later

    E-print Network

    Lowenthal, James D.

    in the second century AD. This catalog appeared in the book that later became known as the Almagest. It had 1025 by Ptolemy. Most of the stars in the Almagest are given proper names, deriving from Babylonian or Arabic

  4. Fortified Settlements of the 9th and 10th Centuries ad in Central Europe: Structure, Function and Symbolism

    PubMed Central

    Herold, Hajnalka

    2012-01-01

    THE STRUCTURE, FUNCTION(S) and symbolism of early medieval (9th–10th centuries ad) fortified settlements from central Europe, in particular today’s Austria, Hungary, Czech Republic and Slovakia, are examined in this paper. It offers an overview of the current state of research together with new insights based on analysis of the site of Gars-Thunau in Lower Austria. Special emphasis is given to the position of the fortified sites in the landscape, to the elements of the built environment and their spatial organisation, as well as to graves within the fortified area. The region under study was situated on the SE border of the Carolingian (and later the Ottonian) Empire, with some of the discussed sites lying in the territory of the ‘Great Moravian Empire’ in the 9th and 10th centuries. These sites can therefore provide important comparative data for researchers working in other parts of the Carolingian Empire and neighbouring regions. PMID:23564981

  5. February 18th -19th 2013 Technische Universitt Berlin, Campus El Gouna, Egypt

    E-print Network

    Berlin,Technische Universität

    1 February 18th -19th 2013 Technische Universität Berlin, Campus El Gouna, Egypt Meteorological of the Art in Egypt Dust transportation and statistical analysis Dr. A.S.A. Khalil, General Manager Envi

  6. Preface: 18th Aps-Sccm and 24th Airapt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, Gilbert; Moore, David S.; Yoo, Choong-Shik; Buttler, William; Furlanetto, Michael; Evans, William

    2014-05-01

    The 18th Biennial International Conference of the APS Topical Group on Shock Compression of Condensed Matter in conjunction with the 24th Biennial International Conference of the International Association for the Advancement of High Pressure Science & Technology (AIRAPT) was held at the Westin Hotel in Seattle, Washington from 7-12 July, 2013. This is only the second time that these two organizations have held a Joint Conference — the first was 20 years previous (1993) in Colorado Springs, Colorado. Seattle was chosen for this joint conference because of its central location for the world-wide attendees as well as its metropolitan vibrancy. The scientific program consisted of 858 scheduled presentations organized into 23 topical areas and included contributed (537), invited (95), and plenary (6) lectures, as well as two poster sessions with 110 posters each. The scientific focus of the Joint Conference was on fundamental and applied research topics related to the static or dynamic compression of condensed matter. This multidisciplinary field of research encompasses areas of physics, chemistry, materials science, mechanics, geophysics and planetary physics, and applied mathematics. Experimental, computational and theoretical studies all play important roles. The organizers endeavored to intertwine static and dynamic experimental alongside computational and theoretical studies of similar materials in the organization of the sessions. This goal was aided by the addition of three special focus sessions on deep carbon budget, high energy density materials, and dynamic response of materials. 722 scientists and engineers from 25 countries registered at the conference, including 132 students from 12 countries. The attendee countries represented included: Argentina (2), Australia (2), Brazil (3), Canada (25), China (22), Czech Republic (2), France (35), Germany (19), India (6), Israel (21), Italy (10), Japan (49), Netherlands (1), Poland (1), Portugal (2), Russia (26), Singapore (1), Slovakia (1), South Korea (5), Spain (7), Sweden (4), Switzerland (1), United Kingdom (69), United States of America (402). 79 of the students were supported by travel awards, funded in part by the APS Topical Group, the AIRAPT, and other sources. New for this conference was an expanded Student Program, including an all-day Student, Post-Doc, and Early Career Symposium held on Sunday 7 July . During the Conference, Gennady Kanel of the Institute for High Temperatures, Russian Academy of Sciences, was presented the 2013 George E Duval Shock Compression Science Award, and gave a plenary lecture ''Unusual behavior of usual materials in shock waves.'' Similarly, Karl Syassen of the Max Planck Institute Stuttgart received the 2013 Percy Bridgman Award at the conference, and presented a plenary lecture ''Stressed solids probed by diffraction and spectroscopy.'' In addition, there were two young investigator awards presented. First was the AIRAPT Jamieson Award, presented to Duck Young Kim of the Geophysical Laboratory, Carnegie Institution of Washington, DC. The other was a new APS SCCM Topical Group Student Award, presented to Rick Kraus of Harvard University. The two awardees shared a plenary talk slot on 8 July, with Duck Young Kim presenting ''Novel materials prediction and experimental synthesis under pressure'' and Rick Kraus ''Thermodynamic paths in planetary collisions: Shock vaporization of SiO2, MgO, and Fe.'' Details of the committees are available in the PDF

  7. Gestural Enthymemes: Delivering Movement in 18th- and 19th-Century Medical Images

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Sara

    2009-01-01

    This article contributes to recent efforts to add life and movement to rhetorical studies by focusing on the representation of movement in medical texts. More specifically, this study examines medical texts, illustrations, and photographs involving movement by Johann Casper Lavater, G. B. Duchenne de Bologne, Charles Darwin, and Etienne-Jules…

  8. The birth of the most important 18th century dental text: Pierre Fauchard's Le Chirurgien Dentiste.

    PubMed

    Spielman, Andrew I

    2007-10-01

    Pierre Fauchard (1678-1761) is considered the father of modern dentistry. His seminal book, Le Chirurgien Dentiste, ou Traité des Dents (1728), is the discipline's first complete work. During the five years preceding its publication (1723-1728), Pierre Fauchard sought the opinions, contributions, and "approbation" (approval) of 19 of his colleagues: six physicians, 12 surgeons, and one dentist. The first and most important contributor to the manuscript was Jean Devaux, surgeon and mentor to Fauchard. The next six reviewers were illustrious physicians and scientists of the time: Philippe Hecquet, Jean-Claude Adrien Helvetius, Jean Baptiste Silva, Antoine DeJussieu, Raymond Jacob Finot, and Antoine Benignus Winslow. The subsequent 12 reviewers were all sworn-surgeons (certified by St. Côme), including a lone dentist, Laudumiey, surgeon-dentist to His Majesty, Philip V, King of Spain. Fauchard knew that for dentistry to be regarded as a learned profession, and perhaps for Fauchard to be recognized as its leader, he needed the support and approval of the establishment before publishing his book. This is an account of how he attained this endorsement. PMID:17890667

  9. Molecular analysis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis DNA from a family of 18th century Hungarians

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Helen A. Fletcher; Helen D. Donoghue; G. Michael Taylor; Mark Spigelman

    2003-01-01

    Thenaturallymummified remainsofamotherandtwo daughtersfoundinan18thcenturyHungarian crypt were analysed, using multiple molecular genetic techniques to examine the epidemiology and evolution of tuberculosis. DNA was amplified from a number of targets on the Mycobacterium tuberculosis genome, including DNA from IS6110, gyrA, katG codon 463, oxyR, dnaA-dnaN, mtp40, plcD and the direct repeat (DR) region. The strains present in the mummified remains were identified as

  10. Dynamic and Fatigue Analysis of an 18th Century Steel Arch Bridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boumechra, Nadir; Hamdaoui, Karim

    2008-07-01

    Within the "Oran-Tlemcen" railway line realization project (159 km), several bridges were built by the Railroads Algerian West Company. 7 km from the east of Tlemcen city, this railway line must cross a very broken mountainous collar, that's why the French engineer "Gustave Eiffel" was solicited to construct a 68 m length bridge. In 1890, an arch steel truss bridge was realized. The bridge presents 300 m of apron curvature radius and, currently, is considered as one of the most important monuments of the Algerian historical heritage. Considering the age of the bridge and the evolution of the railway loads in time, it was essential to check the good behavior of the studied structure. For that, analyses to verify the physical and mechanical properties of the growth iron members are made. A finite element model of the bridge was built and numerical simulations were drawn. The structural vibration conducted analysis permit to understand the behavior of this particular structure, then to evaluate (in detail) the rate of the structure fatigue.

  11. Analysis and reconstruction of impermanent structures of the 17th and 18th centuries 

    E-print Network

    Darrington, Glenn Paul

    1994-01-01

    of information, such as carpentry handbooks of the period and historical accounts that describe the form and function of these dwellings. The use of Computer Aided Design (CAD) technology, combined with a knowledge of impermanent building techniques assists...

  12. H.M.S. Pallas: historical reconstruction of an 18th-century Royal Navy frigate 

    E-print Network

    Flynn, Peter Erik

    2006-08-16

    A 1998 joint survey undertaken by the Institute of Nautical Archaeology and Portuguese authorities located and identified the sunken remains of the Royal Navy frigate HMS Pallas (1757-1783) off of the Azorean island of ...

  13. Statistical Accounts of Scotland: Accounts of Scottish Life from the 18th and 19th Centuries.

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Provided by the Edinburgh Data and Information Access (EDINA) on behalf of the Scottish Confederation of University and Research Libraries, this new site is an excellent resource for anyone researching Scotland, Britain, or the social impact of the industrial revolution. The site hosts the two Statistical Accounts of Scotland, which cover 1791-99 and 1834-1845. The information contained in the Accounts was largely provided by each parish church minister and covers topics such as "wealth, class and poverty; climate, agriculture, fishing and wildlife; population, schools, and the moral health of the people." Visitors can browse the Accounts via a table of contents, a general index, or by county or parish lists, or conduct a keyword search. The site provides digitized copies of the original texts which, unlike many similar projects, are easy to read and navigate. Further information about the Accounts and the project is available from the main page.

  14. Introduction. In the 17th and 18th century, mathematics and physics were not the sepa-

    E-print Network

    decided that this term is also unsatisfactory and we settled on "Principle of Material Frame- Indifference in the past 10 years or so. In my doctoral thesis in 1954, I discussed a general principle which I called "The Principle of Isotropy of Space". My thesis advisor, Clifford Truesdell, teased me by putting up his son

  15. Can legislation prevent debauchery? Mother gin and public health in 18th-century England.

    PubMed Central

    Warner, J; Her, M; Gmel, G; Rehm, J

    2001-01-01

    The "gin epidemic" of 1720 to 1751 in England was the first time that government intervened in a systematic fashion to regulate and control sales of alcohol. The epidemic therefore provides an opportunity to gauge the effects of multiple legislative interventions over time. Toward that end, we employed time series analysis in conjunction with qualitative methodologies to test the interplay of multiple independent variables, including real wages and taxes, on the consumption of distilled spirits from 1700 through 1771. The results showed that each of the 3 major gin acts was successful in the short term only, consistent with the state's limited resources for enforcement at the local level, and that in each instance consumption actually increased shortly thereafter. This was true even of the Gin Act of 1751, which, contrary to the assumptions of contemporaries and many historians, succeeded by accident rather than by design. The results also suggest that the epidemic followed the inverse U-shaped trajectory of more recent drug scares and that consumption declined only after the more deleterious effects of distilled spirits had been experienced by large numbers of people. PMID:11236401

  16. Yersinia pestis DNA from Skeletal Remains from the 6th Century AD Reveals Insights into Justinianic Plague

    PubMed Central

    Harbeck, Michaela; Seifert, Lisa; Hänsch, Stephanie; Wagner, David M.; Birdsell, Dawn; Parise, Katy L.; Wiechmann, Ingrid; Grupe, Gisela; Thomas, Astrid; Keim, Paul; Zöller, Lothar; Bramanti, Barbara; Riehm, Julia M.; Scholz, Holger C.

    2013-01-01

    Yersinia pestis, the etiologic agent of the disease plague, has been implicated in three historical pandemics. These include the third pandemic of the 19th and 20th centuries, during which plague was spread around the world, and the second pandemic of the 14th–17th centuries, which included the infamous epidemic known as the Black Death. Previous studies have confirmed that Y. pestis caused these two more recent pandemics. However, a highly spirited debate still continues as to whether Y. pestis caused the so-called Justinianic Plague of the 6th–8th centuries AD. By analyzing ancient DNA in two independent ancient DNA laboratories, we confirmed unambiguously the presence of Y. pestis DNA in human skeletal remains from an Early Medieval cemetery. In addition, we narrowed the phylogenetic position of the responsible strain down to major branch 0 on the Y. pestis phylogeny, specifically between nodes N03 and N05. Our findings confirm that Y. pestis was responsible for the Justinianic Plague, which should end the controversy regarding the etiology of this pandemic. The first genotype of a Y. pestis strain that caused the Late Antique plague provides important information about the history of the plague bacillus and suggests that the first pandemic also originated in Asia, similar to the other two plague pandemics. PMID:23658525

  17. Seismic and sedimentological evidence of an early 6th century AD earthquake at Lake Ohrid (Macedonia/Albania)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, B.; Francke, A.; Sulpizio, R.; Zanchetta, G.; Lindhorst, K.; Krastel, S.; Vogel, H.; Daut, G.; Grazhdani, A.; Lushaj, B.; Trajanovski, S.

    2012-09-01

    Lake Ohrid shared by the Republics of Albania and Macedonia is formed by a tectonically active graben within the South Balkan and suggested to be the oldest lake in Europe. Several studies have shown that the lake provides a valuable record of climatic and environmental changes and a distal tephrostratigraphic record of volcanic eruptions from Italy. Fault structures identified in seismic data demonstrate that sediments have also the potential to record tectonic activity in the region. Here, we provide an example of linking tephrostratigraphic information and environmental changes with tectonic activity and anthropogenic impact. Historical documents indicate that a major earthquake destroyed the city of Ohrid in the early 6th century AD. This earthquake is documented in multichannel seismic profiles, in parametric sediment echosounder profiles, and in a ca. 10 m long sediment record from the western part of the lake. The sediment record exhibits a ca. 2 m thick mass wasting deposit, which is chronologically well constrained by the underlying 472 AD/512 AD tephra and cross correlation with other sediment sequences with similar geochemical characteristics of the Holocene.

  18. The Search for Astronomical Alignments in the Seventh Century A.D. Silla Capital at Kyongju, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, S. M.; Stencel, R. E.

    1999-05-01

    In the center of the modern Korean city of Kyongju stands a modest structure dating from the 7th century AD, known as Chomsongdae, or the Star Observatory. Known locally as the oldest observatory in Asia, details of its precise use are lost, but its construction coincided with the height of Silla culture and its dominance over the Korean peninsula. Radially from the structure are located the so-called Moon Fortress, numerous large tombsites for elite of the culture, plus hillside fortresses and elaborate Buddhist temples. During 1999, we've conducted a course at Denver as part of our Core Curriculum program for The Women's College, that has examined the astronomical and cultural aspects of the Kyongju site, to attempt to determine whether the architects may have included astronomical alignments into the ``Feng Shui" of their city planning, spanning centuries. The preliminary result of our studies suggests that east and west of Star Observatory lay fortress and wall features that may have been useful for equinox determination. A discussion of ethnographic supporting evidence will be provided, but additional on-site observations will be needed to confirm the idea.

  19. Bone Lose of the Ancient Mediterranean lumbar vertebrae : Iasos, 6th century ad.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaya, Serdar; Solmaz, Ilker; Il?ca, A. Turan; Karaçal?o?lu, Özgür; Damla Y?lmaz, Nalan; Ba?o?lu, Ok?an; K?l?c, Selim; Izci, Yusuf

    Evaluation of bone mineral density (BMD) of the ancient peoples has received great interest by anthropologists. The aims of this study are to investigate the lumbar vertebrae of the Iasos people during the Byzantine period, in order to determine the prevalence of bone loss and to interpret dietary conditions of ancient Mediterranean populations. Lumbar vertebrae belonging to twenty eight skeletons of the 6th c AD were analyzed by radiographs and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. The BMD values for each biologic sex and age group were compared. The correlation between the BMD and radiological features was also analyzed. The mean BMD was 0.940 g/cm2. BMD was decreased by aging in both sexes, but it was not significant. Osteopenia was found in 11 (39%) and osteoporosis in 4 (14.3%) out 28 vertebrae. The BMD was normal in 13 (46%) out of 28 vertebrae. Osteopenia was present in 7 (38%) of 18 male vertebrae and 4 (40%) of 10 female vertebrae. The spine score was high in the male group and there was a strong positive correlation between the BMD and spine score for both sexes. This study revealed that the BMD decreased by aging and that osteopenia was a problem in both sexes of the Iasos people during the 6th c AD. There was no correlation between the BMD and radiological features for age groups and biological sexes.

  20. Late-twentieth-century warming in Lake Tanganyika unprecedented since AD 500

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tierney, Jessica E.; Mayes, Marc T.; Meyer, Natacha; Johnson, Christopher; Swarzenski, Peter W.; Cohen, Andrew S.; Russell, James M.

    2010-06-01

    Instrumental observations suggest that Lake Tanganyika, the largest rift lake in East Africa, has become warmer, increasingly stratified and less productive over the past 90years (refs 1,2). These trends have been attributed to anthropogenic climate change. However, it remains unclear whether the decrease in productivity is linked to the temperature rise, and whether the twentieth-century trends are anomalous within the context of longer-term variability. Here, we use the TEX86 temperature proxy, the weight per cent of biogenic silica and charcoal abundance from Lake Tanganyika sediment cores to reconstruct lake-surface temperature, productivity and regional wildfire frequency, respectively, for the past 1,500years. We detect a negative correlation between lake-surface temperature and primary productivity, and our estimates of fire frequency, and hence humidity, preclude decreased nutrient input through runoff as a cause for observed periods of low productivity. We suggest that, throughout the past 1,500years, rising lake-surface temperatures increased the stratification of the lake water column, preventing nutrient recharge from below and limiting primary productivity. Our records indicate that changes in the temperature of Lake Tanganyika in the past few decades exceed previous natural variability. We conclude that these unprecedented temperatures and a corresponding decrease in productivity can be attributed to anthropogenic global warming, with potentially important implications for the Lake Tanganyika fishery.

  1. Hydraulics for Royal Gardens: Water Art as a Challenge for 18th Century Science and 21st Century Physics Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckert, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Hydraulics is an engineering specialty and largely neglected as a topic in physics teaching. But the history of hydraulics from the Renaissance to the Baroque, merits our attention because hydraulics was then more broadly conceived as a practical "and" theoretical science; it served as a constant bone of contention for mechanics and…

  2. National Security Issues at Department of Homeland Security and Department of Wednesday, November 18th

    E-print Network

    Farritor, Shane

    Wednesday, November 18th 3:00 pm Ferguson 217 Presenter: Richard J. Vojtech, Ph.D. Program Manager Office Dr. Richard J. Vojtech serves as Program Manager for the Transformational & Applied Research the Department of Homeland Security in 2008, Dr. Vojtech served as the Program Director for Threat Response

  3. Bayesian modelling of an absolute chronology for Egypt's 18th Dynasty by astrophysical and radiocarbon methods

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Bayesian modelling of an absolute chronology for Egypt's 18th Dynasty by astrophysical Egyptology, the establishment of an absolute chronology for Ancient Egypt has been an ambition which has contained lists of the kings who reigned in Egypt. The Palermo Stone, the Abydos reliefs and the Turin Canon

  4. 18TH EUROPEAN WHITE DWARF WORKSHOP ASP Conference Series, Vol. **Volume Number**

    E-print Network

    Barnstedt, Jürgen

    18TH EUROPEAN WHITE DWARF WORKSHOP ASP Conference Series, Vol. **Volume Number** Jurek Krzesinski, Greg Stachowski, and Pawel Moskalik, eds. c 2012 Astronomical Society of the Pacific Theoretical White Dwarf Spectra via the Internet: Quality Control Ellen Ringat & Nicole Reindl Institute for Astronomy

  5. Pacific Telecommunications Council Annual Conference Proceedings (18th, Honolulu, Hawaii, January 14-18, 1996).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wedemeyer, Dan J. Ed.; Nickelson, Richard, Ed.

    The Pacific Telecommunications Council's 18th annual conference is presented in two volumes. The PTC'96 gathering focused on seven streams: socio-economic issues; regulatory, legal and political issues; business and finance solutions; country studies; education, training, and human resources; convergence and networks; and technologies and…

  6. 4th May 2005 Modified: 18th November 2005 TERMINATION ORDERS FOR 3-POLYGRAPHS

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    4th May 2005 ­ Modified: 18th November 2005 TERMINATION ORDERS FOR 3-POLYGRAPHS Yves Guiraud1 Résumé : Cette note présente la premičre classe connue d'ordres de terminaison adaptés aux 3-polygraphes-polygraphs, together with an application. Polygraphs are cellular presentations of higher

  7. 18th AIAA Aerospace Ground Testing Survey of Short Duration, Hypersonic and Hypervelocity Facilities

    E-print Network

    Texas at Arlington, University of

    18th AIAA Aerospace Ground Testing Conference #12;94-2491 Survey of Short Duration, Hypersonic 76019-0018 Hypersonic and hypervelocity testing relies to a large extent on short duration facilities activity con- fined mostly to hypersonic and hypervelocity regimes. Early development of such facilities

  8. 76 FR 25710 - Comment Request for Information Collection for Employment and Training (ET) Handbook 336, 18th...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-05

    ...Collection for Employment and Training (ET) Handbook 336, 18th Edition: ``Unemployment...of data about the proposed extension to ET Handbook 336, 18th Edition: ``Unemployment...the extension of and modification to the ET Handbook No. 336. States will...

  9. Reconstructing the diets of Greek Byzantine populations (6th-15th centuries AD) using carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios.

    PubMed

    Bourbou, Chryssi; Fuller, Benjamin T; Garvie-Lok, Sandra J; Richards, Michael P

    2011-12-01

    Documentary evidence and artistic representations have traditionally served as the primary sources of information about Byzantine diet. According to these sources, Byzantine diet was based on grain (primarily wheat and barley), oil, and wine, supplemented with legumes, dairy products, meat, and marine resources. Here, we synthesize and compare the results of stable isotope ratio analyses of eight Greek Byzantine populations (6th-15th centuries AD) from throughout Greece. The ?(13) C and ?(15) N values are tightly clustered, suggesting that all of these populations likely consumed a broadly similar diet. Both inland and coastal Byzantine populations consumed an essentially land-based C(3) diet, significant amounts of animal protein, and possibly some C(4) plants, while no evidence of a general dependence on low-?(15) N legumes was observed. One interesting result observed in the isotopic data is the evidence for the consumption of marine protein at both coastal sites (a reasonable expectation given their location) and for some individuals from inland sites. This pattern contrasts with previous isotopic studies mainly on prehistoric Greek populations, which have suggested that marine species contributed little, or not at all, to the diet. The possibility that fasting practices contributed to marine protein consumption in the period is discussed, as are possible parallels with published isotope data from western European medieval sites. PMID:21952735

  10. The 18th European Sectional Conference on Atomic and Molecular Physics of Ionized Gases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mario Cacciatore; Santolo De Benedictis

    2007-01-01

    The 18th European Sectional Conference on Atomic and Molecular Physics of Ionized Gases (ESCAMPIG XVIII) was organised in Lecce (Italy) from 12 to 16 July 2006 by the Institute of Inorganic Methodologies and Plasmas (Bari, Rome, Potenza) of the Italian National Research Council (CNR–IMIP) and the Chemistry Department of Bari University.The ESCAMPIG conference is a regular biennial Europhysics Conference of

  11. Synthesis of calcium antimonate nano-crystals by the 18th dynasty Egyptian glassmakers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Lahlil; I. Biron; M. Cotte; J. Susini; N. Menguy

    2010-01-01

    During the 18th Egyptian dynasty (1570–1292 B.C.), opaque white, blue and turquoise glasses were opacified by calcium antimonate\\u000a crystals dispersed in a vitreous matrix. The technological processes as well as the antimony sources used to manufacture these\\u000a crystals remain unknown. Our results shed a new light on glassmaking history: contrary to what was thought, we demonstrate\\u000a that Egyptian glassmakers did

  12. 18th World Conference on Nondestructive Testing, 16-20 April 2012, Durban, South Africa Multidomain modelling of the magneto-mechanical behaviour of dual-

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    18th World Conference on Nondestructive Testing, 16-20 April 2012, Durban, South Africa Multidomain2012 Author manuscript, published in "18th World Conference on Nondestructive Testing, Durban : South

  13. Geography in Eighteenth-Century British Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayhew, Robert J.

    1998-01-01

    Analyzes the texts and sites that articulated the twofold vision of geography education in 18th-century Britain. Focuses on children's books, moving onto the geographical training provided by schools of various kinds (grammar, commercial, and naval), and ending with the ways in which geography was incorporated into university education. (CMK)

  14. Forming, transfer and globalization of medical-pharmaceutical knowledge in South East Asian missions (17th to 18th c.) - historical dimensions and modern perspectives.

    PubMed

    Anagnostou, Sabine

    2015-06-01

    From the 17th to the 18th centuries, missionaries in Southeast Asia dedicated themselves to providing and establishing a professional medical-pharmaceutical supply for the local population and therefore explored the genuine Materia medica for easily available and affordable remedies, especially medicinal plants. In characteristic medical-pharmaceutical compendia, which can be classified as missionary pharmacopoeias, they laid down their knowledge to advise others and to guarantee a professional health care. As their knowledge often resulted from an exchange with indigenous communities, these compendia provide essential information about traditional plant uses of Southeast Asian people. Individual missionaries such as the Jesuit Georg Joseph Kamel (1661-1706) not only strove to explore medicinal plants but performed botanical studies and even composed comprehensive herbals. The Jesuit missionaries in particular played roles in both the order's own global network of transfer of medicinal drugs and knowledge about the application, and within the contemporary local and European scientific networks which included, for example, the famous Royal Society of London. The results of their studies were distributed all over the world, were introduced into the practical Materia medica of other regions, and contributed significantly to the academization of knowledge. In our article we will explain the different intentions and methods of exploring, the resulting works and the consequences for the forming of the pharmaceutical and scientific knowledge. Finally, we will show the options which the works of the missionaries can offer for the saving of traditional ethnopharmacological knowledge and for the development of modern phytotherapeutics and pharmaceutical supply. The publication is based on a comprehensive study on the phenomenon of missionary pharmacy which has been published as a book in 2011 (Anagnostou, 2011a) and shows now the potential of historical medical-pharmaceutical works written in the Asian missions of the 17th to 18th century and influenced by ethnopharmaceutical knowledge and the relevance of historical studies for modern investigation in phytotherapy. PMID:25446634

  15. Treatment of the mentally ill in the Chola Empire in 11(th) -12(th) centuries AD: A study of epigraphs.

    PubMed

    Raghavan, D Vijaya; Tejus Murthy, A G; Somasundaram, O

    2014-04-01

    The paper deals with the epigraphs of the Chola emperors Veera Rajendra Deva (1063-1069 AD) and Raja Raja III (1216-1256 AD), found at the temples of Thirumukkudal and Vedaranyam, with emphasis on the treatment given to the residents of the attached hospitals with special reference to treatment of mental disorders. PMID:24891715

  16. Treatment of the mentally ill in the Chola Empire in 11th -12th centuries AD: A study of epigraphs

    PubMed Central

    Raghavan, D. Vijaya; Tejus Murthy, A. G.; Somasundaram, O.

    2014-01-01

    The paper deals with the epigraphs of the Chola emperors Veera Rajendra Deva (1063-1069 AD) and Raja Raja III (1216-1256 AD), found at the temples of Thirumukkudal and Vedaranyam, with emphasis on the treatment given to the residents of the attached hospitals with special reference to treatment of mental disorders. PMID:24891715

  17. Preliminary Report of the AMS analysis of tsunami deposits in Tohoku -- Japan -- 18th to the 21st Century

    E-print Network

    Wassmer, P; Hart, D E; Hiraishi, T; Azuma, R; Koenig, B; Trautmann, M

    2015-01-01

    Sedimentary records of tsunamis are a precious tool to assess the occurrence of past events, as attested by an abundant literature, which has seen a particular 'boom' in the aftermath of the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami and the 2011 Tohoku tsunami. Despite an extensive literature, there is very little to no understanding of the role that the changing coastal environment is playing on the record of a tsunami, and for a given location, it is still unclear whether the largest tsunamis leave the largest amount of deposits. To research this question, the present study took place in Japan, in the Tohoku Region at Agawa-pond, because the pond act as a sediment trap. Using a sediment-slicer, a 1 m thick deposit was retrieved, from which 4 tsunami sequences were identified, including the latest 2011 tsunami. Using a series of sedimentary proxies: the AMS (Anisotropy of Magnetic Susceptibility), grain size analysis, quartz morphoscopy (morphology and surface characteristics) and the analysis of microfossils, disparities b...

  18. Differing patterns of marriage between a city and villages in 18th century Korea: The case of Taegu Area

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kuen-tae Kim

    2009-01-01

    While the urban area was increasingly filled with middle- and low-status residents, the rural area was dominated by high-status settlers whose number increased because of migration from the city and natural growth. Remarkable differences existed between urban and rural marriage features such as marriage age and rate of remarriage. The more sincere adoption of the high-status marriage culture in the

  19. Becoming private property: custom, law, and the geographies of ‘ownership’ in 18th- and 19th-century England

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carl J Griffin

    2010-01-01

    The making private of hitherto public goods is a central tenet of neoliberalism. From land in Africa, Asia, and South America to the assertion of property rights over genes and cells by corporations, the process(es) of making private property matters more than ever. And yet, despite this importance, we know remarkably little about the spatial plays through which things become

  20. EELS IN MATERIALS SCIENCES The workshop on EELS in materials sciences will be held in June 18th

    E-print Network

    EELS IN MATERIALS SCIENCES The workshop on EELS in materials sciences will be held in June 18th -20 as applications of EELS and EFTEM to materials science. In special sessions topics of EELS Magnetic Circular you unravel the inner working mechanisms of materials. The registration fee is 800 SEK for students

  1. Proc. 18th Int'l Workshop on Qualitative Reasoning, 2004. Gaussian Processes for Active Data Mining of Spatial Aggregates

    E-print Network

    Bailey-Kellogg, Chris

    Proc. 18th Int'l Workshop on Qualitative Reasoning, 2004. Gaussian Processes for Active Data Mining an active data mining mechanism for quali- tative analysis of spatial datasets, integrating identifica- tion and analysis of structures in spatial data with tar- geted collection of additional samples. The mechanism

  2. The construction of fertility in al-Andalus. Geoarchaeology in Ricote (Murcia, Spain, 8th century AD)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puy, Arnald

    2013-04-01

    Traditional irrigated terraces of Spain (known as 'huertas') are among the most emblematic and productive agricultural fields of the Mediterranean. Several of these huertas were first built by Arab and Berber tribes and clans that entered the Iberian Peninsula (al-Andalus) after 711 AD, coinciding with the spread of Islam during Middle Ages (>632 AD). One thousand and three hundred years after their construction they are still operative, presenting a topic case of sustainable and resilient agricultural areas. However, up until recently no data was available regarding the pre-existing features of the terrains where they were built, the timing of their construction nor their construction process. In this communication I will present the results of the study of a palaeosoil buried under an Andalusi irrigated terrace in the huerta of Ricote (Murcia, Spain). Soil micromorphology, physico-chemical analysis (Loss On Ignition, Magnetic Susceptibility, Particle Size Distribution, pH/Electrical Conductivity) and AMS dating allowed to determine that 1) Andalusi peasants selected a highly saline Hypercalcic Calcisol to build up the first irrigated terraces; 2) They clear the slope of bushes by fire; 3) They used the slope soil to build the terrace fill, possibly by inverting the original soil horizonation, and 4) According to the date obtained from the organic matter embedded in the topmost horizon of the palaeosoil (647-778 AD), the original Andalusi irrigated fields of Ricote were possibly built shortly after 711 AD. The communication, in sum, will show through a case study how past peasant societies transformed semi-arid environments to create highly productive agrarian areas.

  3. Cancer and its Treatment in Main Ancient Books of Islamic Iranian Traditional Medicine (7th to 14th Century AD)

    PubMed Central

    Emami, Seyed Ahmad; Sahebkar, Amirhossein; Tayarani-Najaran, Nilufar; Tayarani-Najaran, Zahra

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Islamic medicine is regarded as a comprehensive medical school with a long, glorious and worldwide reputation. Some of the physicians of this school are famous worldwide and have contributed valuable services to the scientific world. Given the dramatically increasing prevalence of cancer and the relative inefficacy of current medications, there is a great demand for the introduction of effective therapeutic approaches. To this end, integration of traditional medicine with modern medical treatments represents a promising option. In this essay, methods of diagnosis and treatment of cancer have been mentioned from the viewpoint of five famous physicians before the Mongolian attack who used Islamic medicine, namely Rhazes, Akhaveyni, Ahwazi, Avicenna and Jorjani. The ideas discussed dates back to a period between the eighth and fourteenth centuries. PMID:23482830

  4. Pakistan's health system: performance and prospects after the 18th Constitutional Amendment.

    PubMed

    Nishtar, Sania; Boerma, Ties; Amjad, Sohail; Alam, Ali Yawar; Khalid, Faraz; ul Haq, Ihsan; Mirza, Yasir A

    2013-06-22

    Pakistan has undergone massive changes in its federal structure under the 18th Constitutional Amendment. To gain insights that will inform reform plans, we assessed several aspects of health-systems performance in Pakistan. Some improvements were noted in health-systems performance during the past 65 years but key health indicators lag behind those in peer countries. 78ˇ08% of the population pay out of pocket at the point of health care. The private sector provides three-quarters of the health services, and physicians outnumber nurses and midwives by a ratio of about 2:1. Complex governance challenges and underinvestment in health have hampered progress. With devolution of the health mandate, an opportunity has arisen to reform health. The federal government has constitutional responsibility of health information, interprovincial coordination, global health, and health regulation. All other health responsibilities are a provincial mandate. With appropriate policy, institutional, and legislative action within and outside the health system, the existing challenges could be overcome. PMID:23684254

  5. Philosophy and Science in the Arts Curriculum of the Scottish Universities in the 17th Century 

    E-print Network

    Shepherd, Christine M

    to have achieved as much as they did in the 18th century. It is the purpose of this study to investigate the contant of the courses in philosophy and science given at the Scottish Universities in the 17th century with a view to answering the following...

  6. Some Radical Educational Networks of the Late Eighteenth Century and Their Influence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watts, Ruth

    1998-01-01

    Examines the work of 18th-century educational reformer Anna Barbauld. Traces her links to other radical reform circles including the dissenting academy of Warrington, radical circles in East Anglia, Stoke Newington, the publisher Joseph Johnson, and Joseph and Mary Priestly. Discusses the impact of these groups on early 19th-century education.…

  7. Strangers, the Russian Side: The Aleuts of the Eighteenth Century, Social Studies Unit, Book Ib.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Partnow, Patricia H.

    This story is to be used as part of the social studies unit, The Aleuts of the Eighteenth Century, to show the Russian perspective on their first interaction with the Aleuts. A Russian trapper tells of his experiences on one of the first Russian ships to explore the Aleutian Islands in the 18th century. Written as a diary, the story describes…

  8. Seismotectonics and seismic quietness of the Oranie region (Western Algeria): The Mascara earthquake of August 18th 1994, Mw = 5.7, Ms = 6.0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayadi, A.; Ousadou-Ayadi, F.; Bourouis, S.; et al.

    The plate dynamics in the central western Mediterranean region is characterised by a collision between the Eurasian and African plates. In response to this dynamics, many systems of faults and folds having a NE-SW and E-W trending have been generated along the Tellian Atlas of Algeria. The Oranie region (north western Algeria) has experienced some significant earthquakes in the last centuries, the most important one is that of Oran city on February 9th 1790, Io = XI which destroyed the town completely and caused the loss of many lives. Since 1790 no other event was so disastrous except that of August 18th 1994, Mw = 5.7, which struck Mascara province (Algeria) at 01 h 13 mn GMT. Since the beginning of this century the region has been dominated by a seismic quietness. Thus, no event with magnitude larger than 5.5 have occurred in this area. In relation with this recent event, a seismotectonic framework summarising the tectonic, seismicity and focal solution results is presented. The Maximum Observed Intensities Map (MOI) made for Algeria (Bezzeghoud et al., 1996) is also used to show that the Mascara region is located in an VIII-X intensity zone, which explain partially the casualties caused by the 18/08/1994 (Mw = 5.7) earthquake. This earthquake is not anomalous compared to historical records but is unusual compared to recorded seismicity of this century. The seismotectonic map made in this study and also the review of the focal solutions given by the EMSC, Harvard, and other authors shows that our event is probably associated with a source belonging to a system of faults located in the vicinity of the village of Hacine where the maximum damage was observed.

  9. Northern Hemisphere temperature patterns in the last 12 centuries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ljungqvist, F. C.; Krusic, P. J.; Brattström, G.; Sundqvist, H. S.

    2011-10-01

    We analyze the spatio-temporal patterns of temperature variability over Northern Hemisphere land areas, on centennial time-scales, for the last 12 centuries using an unprecedentedly large network of temperature-sensitive proxy records. Geographically widespread positive temperature anomalies are observed from the 9th to 11th centuries, similar in extent and magnitude to the 20th century mean. A dominance of widespread negative anomalies is observed from the 16th to 18th centuries. Though we find the amplitude and spatial extent of the 20th century warming is within the range of natural variability over the last 12 centuries, we also find that the rate of warming from the 19th to the 20th century is unprecedented. The positive Northern Hemisphere temperature change from the 19th to the 20th century is clearly the largest between any two consecutive centuries in the past 12 centuries.

  10. The sub- and quasi-centurial cycles in solar and geomagnetic activity data series

    E-print Network

    Komitov, Boris; Duchlev, Peter; Dechev, Momchil; Penev, Kaloyan; Koleva, Kostadinka

    2010-01-01

    The subject of this paper is the existence and stability of solar cycles with durations in the range of 20-250 years. Five types of data series are used: 1) The Zurich series (1749-2009 AD), the mean annual International sunspot number Ri, 2) The Group sunspot number series Rh (1610-1995 AD), 3) The simulated extended sunspot Rsi number from Extended time series of Solar Activity Indices (ESAI) (1090-2002 AD), 4) The simulated extended geomagnetic aa-index from ESAI (1099-2002 AD), 5) The Meudon filament series (1919-1991 AD) (it is used only particularly). Data series are smoothed over 11 years and supercenturial trends are removed. Two principally independent methods of time series analysis are used: the T-R periodogram analysis (both in the standard and "scanning window" regimes) and the wavelet-analysis. The obtained results are very similar. It is found that in all series a strong cycle with mean duration of 55-60 years exists. It is very well expressed in the 18th and the 19th centuries. It is less pron...

  11. Artificially deformed crania from the Hun-Germanic Period (5th-6th century ad) in northeastern Hungary: historical and morphological analysis.

    PubMed

    Molnár, Mónika; János, István; Sz?cs, László; Szathmáry, László

    2014-04-01

    From an anthropological point of view, artificial deformation of the cranial shape in newborns is one of the most interesting human customs, which has been recorded in all continents and in different cultures. However, the main goals of this procedure were basically the same everywhere; that is, to distinguish certain groups of people from others and to indicate the social status of individuals. In the Carpathian Basin all artificially deformed skulls are dated to the late Iron Age, especially to the early Migration Period. The authors examined 9 artificially deformed skulls from the Hun-Germanic Period (5th-6th century ad) excavated from two cemeteries in the northeastern part of the Great Hungarian Plain (Hungary). The extent and the type of the deformation as well as the technique were determined in each case. The authors also attempt to shed light on the probable origin and the historical context of the custom practiced in the Carpathian Basin (Hungary), relying on the anthropological and historical literature on the Hun-Germanic and preceding periods. It seems possible that this custom, which is associated with the finds in the Carpathian Basin, first appeared in the Kalmykia steppe, later in the Crimea, from where it spread to Central and Western Europe by way of the Hun migration. Neither the cranial find described presently nor the special literature on the subject furnish convincing evidence that the cranial deformation resulted in any chronic neurological disorder. PMID:24684322

  12. Evaluation of elemental status of ancient human bone samples from Northeastern Hungary dated to the 10th century AD by XRF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    János, I.; Szathmáry, L.; Nádas, E.; Béni, A.; Dinya, Z.; Máthé, E.

    2011-11-01

    The present study is a multielemental analysis of bone samples belonging to skeletal individuals originating from two contemporaneous (10th century AD) cemeteries (Tiszavasvári Nagy-Gyepáros and Nagycserkesz-Nádasibokor sites) in Northeastern Hungary, using the XRF analytical technique. Emitted X-rays were detected in order to determine the elemental composition of bones and to appreciate the possible influence of the burial environment on the elemental content of the human skeletal remains. Lumbar vertebral bodies were used for analysis. Applying the ED(P)XRF technique concentration of the following elements were determined: P, Ca, K, Na, Mg, Al, Cl, Mn, Fe, Zn, Br and Sr. The results indicated post mortem mineral exchange between the burial environment (soil) and bones (e.g. the enhanced levels of Fe and Mn) and referred to diagenetic alteration processes during burials. However, other elements such as Zn, Sr and Br seemed to be accumulated during the past life. On the basis of statistical analysis, clear separation could not be observed between the two excavation sites in their bone elemental concentrations which denoted similar diagenetic influences, environmental conditions. The enhanced levels of Sr might be connected with the past dietary habits, especially consumption of plant food.

  13. Stable isotopic evidence for diet at the Imperial Roman coastal site of Velia (1st and 2nd centuries AD) in Southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Craig, Oliver E; Biazzo, Marco; O'Connell, Tamsin C; Garnsey, Peter; Martinez-Labarga, Cristina; Lelli, Roberta; Salvadei, Loretana; Tartaglia, Gianna; Nava, Alessia; Renň, Lorena; Fiammenghi, Antonella; Rickards, Olga; Bondioli, Luca

    2009-08-01

    Here we report on a stable isotope palaeodietary study of a Imperial Roman population interred near the port of Velia in Southern Italy during the 1st and 2nd centuries AD. Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope analyses were performed on collagen extracted from 117 adult humans as well as a range of fauna to reconstruct individual dietary histories. For the majority of individuals, we found that stable isotope data were consistent with a diet high in cereals, with relatively modest contributions of meat and only minor contributions of marine fish. However, substantial isotopic variation was found within the population, indicating that diets were not uniform. We suggest that a number of individuals, mainly but not exclusively males, had greater access to marine resources, especially high trophic level fish. However, the observed dietary variation did not correlate with burial type, number of grave goods, nor age at death. Also, individuals buried at the necropolis at Velia ate much less fish overall compared with the contemporaneous population from the necropolis of Portus at Isola Sacra, located on the coast close to Rome. Marine and riverine transport and commerce dominated the economy of Portus, and its people were in a position to supplement their own stocks of fish with imported goods in transit to Rome, whereas at Velia marine exploitation existed side-by-side with land-based economic activities. PMID:19280672

  14. The 18th Annual IEEE International Symposium on Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications (PIMRC'07) IMPLEMENTING BACKSCATTER RADIO FOR WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS

    E-print Network

    The 18th Annual IEEE International Symposium on Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications Electric Research Laboratories, Cambridge USA Aggelos Bletsas RadioCommunications Lab (RCL) Aristotle backscatter is commonly used in RFID (Radio Frequency IDentification) systems. Radio backscatter communication

  15. The 18th Annual IEEE International Symposium on Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications (PIMRC'07) SUPPORTING FIRST PERSON SHOOTER GAMES IN WIRELESS LOCAL AREA

    E-print Network

    The 18th Annual IEEE International Symposium on Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications an affect on WLANs. As with most Internet application traffic, FPS games exhibit uplink/downlink asymmetry

  16. On the Importance of Halle in the Eighteenth Century for the History of Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitt, Hanno

    1996-01-01

    Investigates the very beginnings of pedagogy as it separated from theology at the University of Halle in the 18th century. Discusses the role of the charitable organization, the Francke Foundation, in the establishment of this new discipline. Considers the entrenched opposition pedagogy faced from the University establishment. (MJP)

  17. New Information Technologies--New Opportunities. Papers Presented at the Clinic on Library Applications of Data Processing (18th, Urbana-Champaign, Illinois, April 26-29, 1981).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Linda C., Ed.

    The papers presented at the 18th Clinic on Library Applications of Data Processing discuss current developments and applications of new technologies for processing, transmitting, and storing information, as well as some issues raised by these new technologies. Ten papers are included: (1) a keynote speech on the changing roles of the information…

  18. Teaching of Psychology: Ideas and Innovations. Proceedings of the Annual Conference on Undergraduate Teaching of Psychology (18th, Monticello, New York, March 24-26, 2004)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oswald, Patricia A., Ed.; Zaromatidis, Katherine, Ed.; Levine, Judith R., Ed.; Indenbaum, Gene, Ed.

    2004-01-01

    This document includes the proceedings and papers of the 18th Annual Conference on Undergraduate Teaching of Psychology, which was held on March 24-26, 2004 in Monticello, NY. The conference, which dealt with ideas and innovations in the teaching of psychology, was sponsored by the Psychology Department of the Farmingdale State University. The…

  19. The 18th Annual IEEE International Symposium on Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications (PIMRC'07) 1-4244-1144-0/07/$25.00 2007 IEEE.

    E-print Network

    Vouyioukas, Demosthenes

    or simply SITs. The DVB-RCS Hub is vital for the operation of the DVB-RCS satellite communications network the new developments in satellite networks such as DVB-RCS. In fact, satellite communication systemsThe 18th Annual IEEE International Symposium on Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications

  20. 18th International Conference on Microwave, Radar and Wireless Communications MIKON-2010, June 14-16 Numerical Modeling in Wave Scattering Problem for

    E-print Network

    #12;#12;#12;18th International Conference on Microwave, Radar and Wireless Communications MIKON simulation show good agreement with the theory. They open a way to numerical simulation of the method for S -matrix for acoustic and electromagnetic wave scattering by small bodies are derived. The proposed

  1. The 18th Annual IEEE International Symposium on Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications (PIMRC 07) PROBABILISTIC MITIGATION OF CONTROL CHANNEL JAMMING VIA

    E-print Network

    Hochberg, Michael

    The 18th Annual IEEE International Symposium on Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications (PIMRC 07) PROBABILISTIC MITIGATION OF CONTROL CHANNEL JAMMING VIA RANDOM KEY DISTRIBUTION Patrick Tague may be able to jam control channel traffic and prevent relevant data traffic. Hence, it is of interest

  2. Examination Regulations for the Master's program 2010-2011, adopted on March 18th Education and Examination Regulations for the Master's degree

    E-print Network

    Eindhoven, Technische Universiteit

    Examination Regulations for the Master's program 2010-2011, adopted on March 18th 2010 Education and Examination Regulations for the Master's degree program1 The Board of the of the degree program committee of hereby adopts the Education and Examination Regulations

  3. Examination Regulations for the Bachelor's program 2010-2011, adopted on March 18th, 2010 Education and Examination Regulations for the Bachelor's degree

    E-print Network

    Eindhoven, Technische Universiteit

    Examination Regulations for the Bachelor's program 2010-2011, adopted on March 18th, 2010 Education and Examination Regulations for the Bachelor's degree program1 The Board of the and Examination Regulations of the degree program which read as follows: CHAPTER 1 GENERAL PROVISIONS

  4. New early instrumental series since the beginning of the 19th century in eastern Iberia (Valencia, Spain)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arturo Sanchez-Lorenzo; Mariano Barriendos; Elena Guinaldo; Joan A. Lopez-Bustins

    2010-01-01

    Early instrumental series are the main source for climate information in the 18th and the first part of the 19th century, which is when systematic meteorological observations started in most national meteorological services. The first continuous series in Spain starts in 1780 in Barcelona due to meteorological observations made by the medical doctor Francisco Salvá Campillo. Moreover, only two other

  5. Early 20th Century Education in the United States: The Role of the Brothers of Holy Cross

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Philip C.

    2007-01-01

    The French Revolution bears an ironic responsibility for generating works of charity. To counteract the devastating social effects of that late 18th century uprising, numerous religious communities were founded in France, among them the Congregation of Holy Cross. The Congregation of Holy Cross, the founding religious community behind the…

  6. Shedding New Light on the 18th Dynasty Mummies of the Royal Architect Kha and His Spouse Merit

    PubMed Central

    Bianucci, Raffaella; Habicht, Michael E.; Buckley, Stephen; Fletcher, Joann; Seiler, Roger; Öhrström, Lena M.; Vassilika, Eleni; Böni, Thomas; Rühli, Frank J.

    2015-01-01

    The mummies of Kha and his wife Merit were found intact in an undisturbed tomb in western Thebes near the ancient workers’ village of Deir el-Medina. Previous MDCT (this abbreviation needs spelling out) investigations showed that the bodies of Kha and Merit did not undergo classical royal 18th Dynasty artificial mummification, which included removal of the internal organs. It was, therefore, concluded that the retention of the viscera in the body, combined with an absence of canopic jars in the burial chamber, meant the couple underwent a short and shoddy funerary procedure, despite their relative wealth at death. Nevertheless, all internal organs - brain, ocular bulbs/ocular nerves, thoracic and abdominal organs - showed a very good state of preservation, which contradicts the previous interpretation above. In order to better understand the type of mummification used to embalm these bodies, both wrapped mummies were reinvestigated using new generation X-ray imaging and chemical microanalyses Here we provide evidence that both individuals underwent a relatively high quality of mummification, fundamentally contradicting previous understanding. Elucidated “recipes”, whose components had anti-bacterial and anti-insecticidal properties, were used to treat their bodies. The time and effort undoubtedly employed to embalm both Kha and Merit and the use of imported costly resins, notably Pistacia, do not support the previously held view that the two individuals were poorly mummified. Despite a lack of evisceration, the approach clearly allowed their in situ preservation as well as affording a fairly successful mummification. PMID:26200778

  7. The initial giant umbrella cloud of the May 18th, 1980, explosive eruption of Mount St. Helens

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sparks, R.S.J.; Moore, J.G.; Rice, C.J.

    1986-01-01

    The initial eruption column of May 18th, 1980 reached nearly 30 km altitude and released 1017 joules of thermal energy into the atmosphere in only a few minutes. Ascent of the cloud resulted in forced intrusion of a giant umbrella-shaped cloud between altitudes of 10 and 20 km at radial horizontal velocities initially in excess of 50 m/s. The mushroom cloud expanded 15 km upwind, forming a stagnation point where the radial expansion velocity and wind velocity were equal. The cloud was initiated when the pyroclastic blast flow became buoyant. The flow reduced its density as it moved away from the volcano by decompression, by sedimentation, and by mixing with and heating the surrounding air. Observations indicate that much of the flow, covering an area of 600 km2, became buoyant within 1.5 minutes and abruptly ascended to form the giant cloud. Calculations are presented for the amount of air that must have been entrained into the flow to make it buoyant. Assuming an initial temperature of 450??C and a magmatic origin for the explosion, these calculations indicate that the flow became buoyant when its temperature was approximately 150??C and the flow consisted of a mixture of 3.25 ?? 1011 kg of pyroclasts and 5.0 ?? 1011 kg of air. If sedimentation is considered, these figures reduce to 1.1 ?? 1011 kg of pyroclasts and 1.0 ?? 1011 kg of air. ?? 1986.

  8. Report on the 18th International Conference on X-ray and Inner-Shell Processes (X99).

    SciTech Connect

    Gemmell, D. S.; Physics

    2000-01-01

    The 18th conference of the series served as a forum for discussing fundamental issues in the field of x-ray and inner-shell processes and their application in various disciplines of science and technology. Special emphasis was given to the opportunities offered by modern synchrotron x-ray sources. The program included plenary talks, progress reports and poster presentations relating to new developments in the field of x-ray and inner-shell processes. The range of topics included: X-ray interactions with atoms, molecules, clusters, surfaces and solids; Decay processes for inner-shell vacancies; X-ray absorption and emission spectroscopy - Photoionization processes; Phenomena associated with highly charged ions and collisions with energetic particles; Electron-spin and -momentum spectroscopy; X-ray scattering and spectroscopy in the study of magnetic systems; Applications in materials science, biology, geosciences, and other disciplines; Elastic and inelastic x-ray scattering processes in atoms and molecules; Threshold phenomena (post-collision interaction, resonant Raman processes, etc.); Nuclear absorption and scattering of x-rays; 'Fourth-generation' x-ray sources; Processes exploiting the polarization and coherence properties of x-ray beams; Developments in experimental techniques (x-ray optics, temporal techniques, detectors); Microscopy, spectromicroscopy, and various imaging techniques; Non-linear processes and x-ray lasers; Ionization and excitation induced by charged particles and by x-rays; and Exotic atoms (including 'hollow' atoms and atoms that contain 'exotic' particles).

  9. Regional tree growth and inferred summer climate in the Winnipeg River basin, Canada, since AD 1783

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    St. George, Scott; Meko, David M.; Evans, Michael N.

    2008-09-01

    A network of 54 ring-width chronologies is used to estimate changes in summer climate within the Winnipeg River basin, Canada, since AD 1783. The basin drains parts of northwestern Ontario, northern Minnesota and southeastern Manitoba, and is a key area for hydroelectric power production. Most chronologies were developed from Pinus resinosa and P. strobus, with a limited number of Thuja occidentalis, Picea glauca and Pinus banksiana. The dominant pattern of regional tree growth can be recovered using only the nine longest chronologies, and is not affected by the method used to remove variability related to age or stand dynamics from individual trees. Tree growth is significantly, but weakly, correlated with both temperature (negatively) and precipitation (positively) during summer. Simulated ring-width chronologies produced by a process model of tree-ring growth exhibit similar relationships with summer climate. High and low growth across the region is associated with cool/wet and warm/dry summers, respectively; this relationship is supported by comparisons with archival records from early 19th century fur-trading posts. The tree-ring record indicates that summer droughts were more persistent in the 19th and late 18th century, but there is no evidence that drought was more extreme prior to the onset of direct monitoring.

  10. The added value of biomarker analysis to the genesis of Plaggic Anthrosols.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Mourik, Jan; Jansen, Boris

    2015-04-01

    Coversands (chemical poor Late-glacial aeolian sand deposits) dominate the surface geology of an extensive area in northwestern Europe. Plaggic Anthrosols occur in cultural landscapes, developed on coversands. They are the characteristic soils that developed on ancient fertilized arable fields. Plaggic Anthrosols have a complex genesis. They are records of aspects environmental and agricultural history. In previous studies information of the soil records was unlocked by application of pollen analysis, 14C and OSL dating. In this study we applied biomarker analysis to unlock additional information about the applied organic sources in the production of plaggic manure. Radiocarbon dating suggested the start of sedentary agriculture (after a period, characterized by shifting cultivation and Celtic fields) between 3000 and 2000 BP. In previous studies is assumed that farmers applied organic sods, dug on forest soils and heath to produce organic stable manure to fertilize the fields. The mineral fraction of the sods was supposed to be responsible for the development of the plaggic horizon and the raise of the land surface. Optically stimulated Luminescence dating however suggested that plaggic deposition on the fields started relatively late, in the 18th century. The use of ectorganic matter from the forest soils must have been ended in the 10th-12th century, due to commercial forest clear cuttings as recorded in archived documents. These deforestations resulted in the first extension of sand drifting and famers had to protect the valuable heath against this ' environmental catastrophe' . The use of heath for sheep grazing and other purposes as honey production could continue till the 18th century, as recorded in archived documents. In the course of the 18th century, the population growth resulted in increasing demand for food. The deep stable economy was introduced and the booming demand for manure resulted in intensive sod digging on the heath. This caused heath degradation, resulting in the second extension of sand drifting. To improve our knowledge about the evolution of plaggen soils we can combine data of pollen and biomarker spectra of samples of plaggic deposits. Species, present in pollen spectra of plaggic deposits, can have three sources: 1. Pollen, already present in sods, used in the stable to produce manure. 2. Pollen, originating from flowering crop species. 3. Pollen, originating from flowering species in the surroundings. Species, present in biomarker spectra, can have three sources: 1. Biomarkers from tissues, present in sods, used for manure production. 2. Biomarkers from decomposed roots of crop species. 3. Biomarkers from straw of crop species, used in the stable for manure production. Comparison pollen and biomarker spectra of samples of a regular Anthrosol (Posteles, NE-Netherlands) and a Buried (Nabbegat, SE-Netherlands, buried around 1800 AD) Plaggic Anthrosol yielded some interesting features: a. The biomarker spectra of the 2Ap horizons (agricultural layer below the plaggic deposits) are dominated by biomarkers of deciduous trees (dominated by Quercus), indicating the use of organic litter from the forests. These trees are also present in the pollen spectra. b. The biomarker spectra of the plaggic deposits are dominated by crop species (Avena, Secale, Fagpyrum), Calluna is absent in most of the spectra. This is different from pollen spectra where Calluna is present, together with crop species and transported pollen of other species. Only the biomarker spectra of the upper 10 cm of the plaggic horizons are dominated by Calluna. c. Comparison of the spectra of the buried and regular Plaggic Anthrosols show the contribution of biomarkers of roots of Zea mais (introduced around 1950 AD), suppressing the other species. The negligible percentages of Calluna in biomarker spectra of plaggic deposits suggest an overestimating of the use of heath sods in the traditional interpretation of the genesis of plaggic horizons, the dominance of crop species in biomarker spectra of plaggic deposits suggests underestima

  11. Optical devices which incorporate liquids as a fundamental part of the structure can be traced as far back as the 18th century where

    E-print Network

    Walter, M.Todd

    of fluidics and optics which has come to be known as Optofluidics. The focus of this conference) microfluidic lasers, fluid-fluid waveguides, microfluidically tuned optical fiber and inter- ferometers, fluid fiber and interferometers Fluid paper High resolution in-chip lensless microscopy Optical and photonic

  12. Population and Governance in mid-18th Century Bhutan, as Revealed in the Enthronement Record of Thugs-sprul ’Jigs med grags pa I (1725-1761)

    E-print Network

    Ura, John Ardussi; Ura, Karma

    2000-01-01

    Enthronements, Institutional Gift Giving and Census Records The enthronement ceremony of Jigme Dragpa was concluded by a mass public gift giving to each official and tax-paying family in Bhutan. Such mass gift-giving ceremonies (mang ’gyed) b y monastic... to reinforce the bond between the state (or monastic) authority and its tax-paying subjects, it explains why our document closely resembles a true population census and takes care in enumerating the titles, ranks, and number of officials and servants...

  13. [Commemoration days 1980 from the history of the Witenberg Medical School (I): Chemistry in the medical education program of the 17th and 18th centuries].

    PubMed

    Kaiser, W; Völker, A

    1981-02-15

    Actual anniversaries with the 350th return of the birthday of Johann Kunckel and the 300th birthday of Johann Theodor Neukrantz give rise to recall the early history of the Wittenberg Collegium chymicum and to analyse its value in the medical education. At the university of Wittenberg this tutorial which is significant for the progress of medicine and which has been quickly acknowledged as highly important by other universities has been neglected by the state in most cases. But the more remarkable are the individual achievements of a number of specialists engaged in chemistry, whose practices in teaching and research are described in this paper. PMID:7013302

  14. The Patterns of Portuguese Politics in the 18th Century or the Shadow of Pombal. A Reply to António Manuel Hespanha

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nuno Gonçalo Monteiro

    The practice of book reviews unfortunately has very few roots as yet in Portuguese academic circles. There have been many important works that have had no critical reviews at all. The realization that my recent book on Dom José was afforded a critical analysis less than a year after its publication, and what is more in a review written by

  15. Northern Hemisphere temperature patterns in the last 12 centuries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ljungqvist, F. C.; Krusic, P. J.; Brattström, G.; Sundqvist, H. S.

    2012-02-01

    We analyse the spatio-temporal patterns of temperature variability over Northern Hemisphere land areas, on centennial time-scales, for the last 12 centuries using an unprecedentedly large network of temperature-sensitive proxy records. Geographically widespread positive temperature anomalies are observed from the 9th to 11th centuries, similar in extent and magnitude to the 20th century mean. A dominance of widespread negative anomalies is observed from the 16th to 18th centuries. Though we find the amplitude and spatial extent of the 20th century warming is within the range of natural variability over the last 12 centuries, we also find that the rate of warming from the 19th to the 20th century is unprecedented in the context of the last 1200 yr. The positive Northern Hemisphere temperature change from the 19th to the 20th century is clearly the largest between any two consecutive centuries in the past 12 centuries. These results remain robust even after removing a significant number of proxies in various tests of robustness showing that the choice of proxies has no particular influence on the overall conclusions of this study.

  16. Dendroclimatic Reconstruction of Summer Temperatures in Northwestern Canada since A.D. 1638 Based on Age-Dependent Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szeicz, Julian M.; MacDonald, Glen M.

    1995-09-01

    Ring widths from five Picea glauca stands at the alpine treeline in northwestern Canada are used to investigate climate-growth responses and to develop a long reconstruction of summer temperatures. Response function and linear regression analyses indicate that the radial growth response of these trees to climate varies with age and site. At most sites, the period of significant positive response to growing season temperatures declines with tree age. Age-dependent and standard (age independent) models are then used to develop two reconstructions of June-July temperatures for northwestern Canada extending back to A.D. 1638. Calibration statistics were similar for both models, but the standard model performed poorly during verification. The reconstruction produced using age-dependent modeling suggests June-July temperatures were cooler than present throughout most of the past 350 years, with the exception of the late 18th century. Particularly cool periods occurred at ˜1700 and in the mid-19th century. In constast, the standard model suggests that temperatures were similar to or warmer than present during the last 350 years. The age-dependent reconstruction compares favorably with other proxy climate records from northern North America. Age-dependent dendroclimatic modeling can provide a sensitive record of recent climatic change that allows the inclusion of previously rejected sites into dendroclimatic analyses.

  17. Urine therapy through the centuries.

    PubMed

    Savica, Vincenzo; Calň, Lorenzo A; Santoro, Domenico; Monardo, Paolo; Mallamace, Agostino; Bellinghieri, Guido

    2011-01-01

    Urine has always interested and attracted the attention of people. It was in fact never considered a waste product of the body but rather as a distilled product selected from the blood and containing useful substances for the care of the body. It was referred to as the "gold of the blood" and "elixir of long life," indicating its therapeutic potential. This paper reports on the practice of urine therapy since its origin attributed to the Indian culture, and briefly reviews its use through the centuries and different cultures and traditions. Records from the Egyptians to Jews, Greeks, Romans and from the Middle Ages and the Renaissance testify to the practice of urine therapy--a practice that continues to be found in more recent times, from the 18th century to the present. Experiences with the practice of urine therapy have even been discussed and shared recently in 2 different conferences: in 1996 in India and in 1999 in Germany, where people from different countries shared and presented their own research on urine therapy. PMID:21614793

  18. Caulking techniques in Northern and Central European ships and boats, 1500 B.C. - A.D. 1940 

    E-print Network

    Franklin, Carol Ann

    1985-01-01

    in this area to the advent of the Second World War. The study includes an examination of caulking techniques employed in all types of ships and boats, from the smallest riverine craft to the massive oceangoing vessels of the 18th century. The examination... vessels and the subsequent regularisation of caulking techniques. The final section concerns the caulking techniques of smaller native craft confined to riverine, estuarine and coastal areas until their virtual obsolescence in the early 20th century...

  19. An eighteenth century view of the placebo effect (Rétif de la Bretonne).

    PubMed

    Schiller, F

    1984-01-01

    Placebo - the promise to please the Lord of medieval prayer became the "pious fraud" (Thomas Jefferson) of late 18th century medical practice. Quoted here is Rétif de la Bretonne (1734-1806), one of the most prolific novelists and popular encyclopedists ever, also highly regarded by some illustrious critics, as he is giving his cynical views about the "prejudices", (rather then "placebos") in religion, politics, and the art of healing. PMID:6085995

  20. Oceanic evidence of climate change in southern Australia over the last three centuries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ronald Thresher; Stephen R. Rintoul; J. Anthony Koslow; Chris Weidman; Jess Adkins; Craig Proctor

    2004-01-01

    Chemical analysis of deepwater octocorals collected at 1000 m depth off southern Australia indicates long-term cooling, beginning in the mid-18th century. This cooling appears to reflect shoaling of isotherms along the continental shelf, that can be related statistically, observationally and by modeling to increasing coastal sea-surface temperatures, that in turn reflect a poleward extension of the SW Pacific boundary current

  1. Records of climatic changes and volcanic events in an ice core from Central Dronning Maud Land (East Antarctica) during the past century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nijampurkar, V. N.; Rao, D. K.; Clausen, H. B.; Kaul, M. K.; Chaturvedi, A.

    2002-03-01

    The depth profiles of electrical conductance, ?18O,210Pb and cosmogenic radio isotopes10Be and36Cl have been measured in a 30 m ice core from east Antarctica near the Indian station, Dakshin Gangotri. Using210Pb and ?18O, the mean annual accumulation rates have been calculated to be 20 and 21 cm of ice equivalent per year during the past ˜ 150 years. Using these acumulation rates, the volcanic event that occurred in 1815 AD, has been identified based on electrical conductance measurements. Based on ?18O measurements, the mean annual surface air temperatures (MASAT) data observed during the last 150 years indicates that the beginning of the 19th century was cooler by about 2‡ C than the recent past and the middle of 18th century. The fallout of cosmogenic radio isotope10Be compares reasonably well with those obtained on other stations (73‡ S to 90‡ S) from Antarctica and higher latitudes beyond 77‡N. The fallout of36Cl calculated based on the present work agrees well with the mean global production rate estimated earlier by Lal and Peters (1967). The bomb pulse of36Cl observed in Greenland is not observed in the present studies - a result which is puzzling and needs to be studied on neighbouring ice cores from the same region.

  2. [The methodology of clinical research in late 18th and early 19th Geneva: the case of group].

    PubMed

    Ruffieux, Christiane

    2013-01-01

    In the history of the clinic, the introduction of quantitative methods in mid-19th century medicine was obviously of great epistemological importance. The controversy about Louis's "numerical method" in the 1830's was an essential step in medical statistics. This paper deals with three Genevan dissertations from 1809 submitted to the prize essay contest on croup announced by Napoleon. It shows that collecting and comparing medical cases was practised well before 1830. An analysis of the numerical methods used by the Geneva physicians reveals international cultural influences. The awareness of the potential of numbers in medicine was increasing but marked by difficulties. PMID:24527559

  3. 21st CENTURY ADS In CONTEXT

    E-print Network

    McDonald, Kirk

    metal target (solid - tungsten, tantalum, U-238?; liquid ­ lead, mercury, LBE) ˇ Spallation neutrons: En Fission Products, Recycling Residuals SMART Uranium Light Water Reactor Geologic Disposal Minimal

  4. The American College of nuclear physicians 18th annual meeting and scientific sessions DOE day: Substance abuse and nuclear medicine abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-02-01

    Despite the enormous personal and social cost Of substance abuse, there is very little knowledge with respect to the mechanisms by which these drugs produce addiction as well as to the mechanisms of toxicity. Similarly, there is a lack of effective therapeutic intervention to treat the drug abusers. In this respect, nuclear medicine could contribute significantly by helping to gather information using brain imaging techniques about mechanisms of drug addiction which, in turn, could help design better therapeutic interventions, and by helping in the evaluation and diagnosis of organ toxicity from the use of drugs of abuse. This volume contains six short descriptions of presentations made at the 18th Meeting of the American College of Nuclear Physicians -- DOE Day: Substance Abuse and Nuclear Medicine.

  5. The environmental history of cetaceans in Portugal: ten centuries of whale and dolphin records.

    PubMed

    Brito, Cristina; Sousa, Andreia

    2011-01-01

    The history between cetaceans and humans is documented throughout time not only in reports, descriptions, and tales but also in legal documents, laws and regulations, and tithes. This wealth of information comes from the easy spotting and identification of individuals due to their large size, surface breathing, and conspicuous above water behaviour. This work is based on historical sources and accounts accounting for cetacean presence for the period between the 12th and 17th centuries, as well as scientific articles, newspapers, illustrations, maps, non-published scientific reports, and other grey literature from the 18th century onwards. Information on whale use in Portugal's mainland has been found since as early as the 12th century and has continued to be created throughout time. No certainty can be given for medieval and earlier events, but both scavenging of stranded whales or use of captured ones may have happened. There is an increasing number of accounts of sighted, stranded, used, or captured cetaceans throughout centuries which is clearly associated with a growing effort towards the study of these animals. Scientific Latin species denominations only started to be registered from the 18th century onwards, as a consequence of the evolution of natural sciences in Portugal and increasing interest from zoologists. After the 19th century, a larger number of observations were recorded, and from the 20th century to the present day, regular scientific records have been collected. Research on the environmental history of cetaceans in Portugal shows a several-centuries-old exploitation of whales and dolphins, as resources mainly for human consumption, followed in later centuries by descriptions of natural history documenting strandings and at sea encounters. Most cetaceans species currently thought to be present in Portuguese mainland waters were at some point historically recorded. PMID:21931627

  6. The Environmental History of Cetaceans in Portugal: Ten Centuries of Whale and Dolphin Records

    PubMed Central

    Brito, Cristina; Sousa, Andreia

    2011-01-01

    The history between cetaceans and humans is documented throughout time not only in reports, descriptions, and tales but also in legal documents, laws and regulations, and tithes. This wealth of information comes from the easy spotting and identification of individuals due to their large size, surface breathing, and conspicuous above water behaviour. This work is based on historical sources and accounts accounting for cetacean presence for the period between the 12th and 17th centuries, as well as scientific articles, newspapers, illustrations, maps, non-published scientific reports, and other grey literature from the 18th century onwards. Information on whale use in Portugal's mainland has been found since as early as the 12th century and has continued to be created throughout time. No certainty can be given for medieval and earlier events, but both scavenging of stranded whales or use of captured ones may have happened. There is an increasing number of accounts of sighted, stranded, used, or captured cetaceans throughout centuries which is clearly associated with a growing effort towards the study of these animals. Scientific Latin species denominations only started to be registered from the 18th century onwards, as a consequence of the evolution of natural sciences in Portugal and increasing interest from zoologists. After the 19th century, a larger number of observations were recorded, and from the 20th century to the present day, regular scientific records have been collected. Research on the environmental history of cetaceans in Portugal shows a several-centuries-old exploitation of whales and dolphins, as resources mainly for human consumption, followed in later centuries by descriptions of natural history documenting strandings and at sea encounters. Most cetaceans species currently thought to be present in Portuguese mainland waters were at some point historically recorded. PMID:21931627

  7. Rf. : Munoz, M.I., Bouldi, N., Barcellini F. & Nascimento, A. (2012). Designing the safety of healthcare. Participation of ergonomics to the design of cooperative systems in radiotherapy. 18th

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    2012-01-01

    of healthcare. Participation of ergonomics to the design of cooperative systems in radiotherapy. 18th World Congress on Ergonomics (International Ergonomics Association), February 11-16, Recife, Bra- zil. In: Work producing treatment in radiotherapy. The general framework of our ap- proach is the ergonomics management

  8. 18th Conference on Hydrology

    E-print Network

    Washington at Seattle, University of

    simulations. d%e d f $ d g g h d%e d f $ d g g h d%e d f $ d g g h d%e d f $ d g g h monthly average., 1994) solves the water and energy balance equations at the land surface. Land cover variability is represented by partitioning each grid cell into multiple vegetation types, and the soil column is divided

  9. Ad Critic

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ad Critic strives to enter every television advertisement into its database of online commercials, which can be downloaded for free and viewed with QuickTime. A complete list of advertisements is indexed by company and by ad title. There are, however, also indexes of newly added ads, most-downloaded ads, movie trailers, and music found in ads, making it easier for users to search for a new or favorite advertisement. Ad Critic includes a section on advertising news and commentary and provides services for advertising agencies including online market research and detailed viewer statistics.

  10. 'Lazy, slothful and indolent': medical and social perceptions of obesity in Europe to the eighteenth century.

    PubMed

    Sawbridge, D T; Fitzgerald, R

    2009-12-01

    There is a considerable stigma associated with obesity, among healthcare professionals as well as the general population, which often leads to discrimination and weight bias. But why is there a stigma attached to obesity? The origin of this stigma has been identified in the 18th century but its roots lie much further back in history. There is some debate about how this negative perception of obesity arose and the role of medical professionals in its creation. This paper examines both positive and negative conceptions by following three major aspects of the modern stigma through from Palaeolithic statues to the medical texts of ancient Greece and Rome, finishing with the medical and literary sources of the 18th century 'Enlightenment'. The modern perception of obesity originated in the social and scientific climate of the Enlightenment through the combination of three key themes; obesity as conspicuous consumption, associations with suspect morals and excess, and as an outward representation of the soul. The evolution of each of these themes can be clearly identfied in pre-Enlightenment sources. By the eighteenth century, these perceptions became amplified by, and disseminated through, the literary and media boom to create a recognisably modern stigma against the obese. PMID:20527324

  11. Effects of slope on the formation of dunes in dilute, turbulent pyroclastic currents: May 18th, 1980 Mt. St. Helens eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bendana, Sylvana; Brand, Brittany D.; Self, Stephen

    2014-05-01

    The flanks of Mt St Helens volcano (MSH) are draped with thin, cross-stratified and stratified pyroclastic density current (PDC) deposits. These are known as the proximal bedded deposits produced during the May 18th, 1980 eruption of MSH. While the concentrated portions of the afternoon PDCs followed deep topographic drainages down the steep flanks of the volcano, the dilute overriding cloud partially decoupled to develop fully dilute, turbulent PDCs on the flanks of the volcano (Beeson, D.L. 1988. Proximal Flank Facies of the May 18, 1980 Ignimbrite: Mt. St. Helens, Washington.). The deposits along the flank thus vary greatly from those found in the pumice plain, which are generally thick, massive, poorly-sorted, block-rich deposits associated with the more concentrated portions of the flow (Brand et al, accepted. Dynamics of pyroclastic density currents: Conditions that promote substrate erosion and self-channelization - Mount St Helens, Washington (USA). JVGR). We explore the influence of topography on the formation of these dilute currents and influence of slope on the currents transport and depositional mechanisms. The deposits on steeper slopes (>15°) are fines depleted relative to the proximal bedded deposits on shallower slopes (<15°). Bedform amplitude and wavelength increase with increasing slope, as does the occurrence of regressive dunes. Increasing slope causes an increase in flow velocity and thus an increase in flow turbulence. The fines depleted deposits suggest that fine ash elutriation is more efficient in flows with stronger turbulence. The longer wavelength and amplitudes suggest that bedform morphology is directly related to flow velocity, an important finding since the controls on bedform wavelength and amplitude in density stratified flows remains poorly constrained. The occurrence of regressive dunes, often interpreted as high flow-regime bedforms, on steeper slopes relative to progressive dunes on shallower slopes further attests to the control of velocity and flow regime on bedform morphology. Samples collected from recently exposed deposits and analyzed by grain size measurements, density analyses, and crystal morphoscopy studies further assess modes of origin and transport of dilute PDCs.

  12. Developmental biology in Geneva: a three century-long tradition.

    PubMed

    Buscaglia, Marino; Duboule, Denis

    2002-01-01

    It was in the first half of the 18th century when life sciences started to flourish in the independent republic of Geneva. However, it is difficult to identify a genuine school of developmental biologists during that era. Nevertheless, several prominent scientists over the past two and a half centuries have established and maintained a strong tradition of studies in embryological development and reproduction. In this short historical account, we briefly pay tribute to these famous forerunners, by emphasizing both the originality and quality of their work, as well as the many accompanying conceptual and methodological advances. We start with Abraham Trembley (1710-1784) and the discovery of Hydra and of regeneration, and with Charles Bonnet (1720-1793) who, amongst other contributions, first observed parthenogenetic development. In the 19th century, Carl Vogt (1817-1895) and Edouard Claparčde (1832-1871) were well-known scientists in this field of research, whereas Hermann Fol (1845-1892) can be considered as one of the pioneers, if not the founder, of causal embryology, through his experiments on lateral asymmetry in manipulated chicken. More recently, Emile Guyénot (1885-1963) and Kitty Ponse (1897-1982) perpetuated this tradition, which is well alive nowadays in the city of Calvin. PMID:11902688

  13. Was Cheselden's One-Century-Long Otological Writings Concordant With His Time?

    PubMed

    Corrales, C Eduardo; Mudry, Albert

    2015-08-01

    William Cheselden's famous anatomical treatise spanned the entire 18th century period with its 15 editions. The aim of this study is to analyze the otological knowledge described in all these editions, to identify key 18th century otological advancements, and to study their concordance.In the first edition (1713), Cheselden notably mentioned four middle ear ossicles: malleus, incus, fourth ossicle, and stapes; four auditory muscles: "external tympani," "external oblique," tensor tympani, and stapedial; and a small opening in the tympanic membrane. In subsequent editions, minimal changes appeared, except for nomenclature changes and the proposal of an artificial opening of the tympanic membrane. Virtually no changes were performed up to the last edition (1806). All Cheselden's Editions confirm the uncertain presence of a fourth ossicle, the disputable presence of a tympanic membrane opening and the "usual" accepted presence of three muscles to the malleus. Key otologic advancements, not found in any of Cheselden's writings, were catherization of the Eustachian tube, presence of fluid in the inner ear, and the surgical opening of the mastoid.This study demonstrates that Cheselden, and his subsequent editors, were unaware of some important otologic developments that revolutionized the field of otology. Description of key advancements lacking in his treatise includes catherization of the Eustachian tube, the presence of fluid in the inner ear, and the surgical opening of the mastoid. Nevertheless, Cheselden is first in proposing to artificially open the tympanic membrane in humans. PMID:25522200

  14. Value Added?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    UCLA IDEA, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Value added measures (VAM) uses changes in student test scores to determine how much "value" an individual teacher has "added" to student growth during the school year. Some policymakers, school districts, and educational advocates have applauded VAM as a straightforward measure of teacher effectiveness: the better a teacher, the better students…

  15. [Origins of the coat, appearance of physicians of the Russian fleet in the first third of XVIII century].

    PubMed

    Danchenko, V G

    2011-05-01

    The article is devoted to the reconstruction of medical uniforms Russian navy first third of the 18th century. It can be assumed that doctors were in varying degrees, the senior officer's dress, but of course without the braid, although there are exceptions, which related to doctors willing to go to a more senior hypostasis. A number of documents of different structures gives rise to speak with a high probability that the doctors of different ranks, serving in the Marine units that had shaped dress that is largely consistent with their position in the hierarchy of ranks and received in the near future, its development. PMID:21874889

  16. Extraterrestrial Life as the Great Analogy, Two Centuries Ago and in Modern Astrobiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sullivan, Woodruff T.

    Mainstream ideas on the existence of extraterrestrial life in the late 18th and early 19th centuries are examined, with a focus on William Herschel, one of the greatest astronomers of all time. Herschel viewed all of the planets and moons of our solar system as inhabited, and gave logical arguments that even the Sun, and by extension all of the stars, was a giant planet fit for habitation by intelligent beings. The importance for astrobiology both two centuries ago and now of the type of inductive reasoning called "analogy" is emphasized. Analogy is an imperfect tool, but given that we have only one known case of life and of a life-bearing planet, it is very difficult to make progress in astrobiology without resorting to analogy, in particular between known life and possible other life. We cannot overcome the "N = 1 Problem" without resorting to this "Great Analogy" to guide our research.

  17. The Rise of Commercial Telescope Making in 19th Century America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Launie, Kenneth J.

    2009-01-01

    Very few telescopes were made in America in the 18th century; astronomers needed to rely on distant European makers. While there is evidence of a few American craftsman-made telescopes that were shown at early to mid-19th century Mechanics' Fairs, Massachusetts native Amasa Holcomb appears to have been the first to offer them for sale commercially. Most of Holcomb's instruments were Herschelian reflectors with speculum metal mirrors. Henry Fitz started his optical career by making mirrors used for the first Daguerreotype portrait cameras, and by the mid 1840's he was offering refractors of ever-increasing size. Not long after Fitz started, Alvan Clark began selling telescopes, and the premature death of Fitz in 1863 may have aided Alvan Clark and Sons' rise to prominence. The later decades of the 1800s saw a dramatic increase in the number of college observatories, and with that came more manufacturers to supply the demand.

  18. News and Views: Gemini hits 1000 papers; Comet Elenin? Forget it! Sellers launches course; Merry Christmas from 18th-century Lapland; ET: where are they all hiding? SETI in the city; Complex organic molecules may not mean life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2011-12-01

    No-one has yet found artefacts from an alien civilization, but have we looked hard enough? Astronomers seeking signs of extraterrestrial intelligence have suggested a novel approach: look for alien cities. The search for signs of life in the universe has included the detection of complex organic molecules, seen as a step on the way to living things. But now analysis of spectral signatures known as Unidentified Infrared Emission features found in stars, interstellar space and galaxies suggest that complex organic molecules can be made in stars in a matter of weeks without the presence of life.

  19. 19th Century Advertising History

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    During the 19th century, one of the most consistently popular American periodicals was Harper's Weekly, an illustrated paper whose circulation was well in excess of over 100,000 on a regular basis. This fine site highlights some of the many creative and inventive advertisements that were prominently displayed in the periodical during the 19th and early 20th centuries. The project was the brainchild of John Adler, a longtime history buff, who came across a complete set of the periodical for the period from 1857 to 1916. On the site visitors can browse through advertisements for appliances, insurance, foreign travel, farm land, and various medicinal potions. The selection of ads includes one for "pain paint," which begins with a brief doggerel that includes a mention of the impeachment of President Andrew Johnson in 1868.

  20. Adding Value.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orsini, Larry L.; Hudack, Lawrence R.; Zekan, Donald L.

    1999-01-01

    The value-added statement (VAS), relatively unknown in the United States, is used in financial reports by many European companies. Saint Bonaventure University (New York) has adapted a VAS to make it appropriate for not-for-profit universities by identifying stakeholder groups (students, faculty, administrators/support personnel, creditors, the…

  1. Global Century IMPORTANT NOTICE

    E-print Network

    Chu, Xi

    Building a University for the Global Century 2012-2013 catalog 1 #12;IMPORTANT NOTICE This document . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199 Global Public Health . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209 History

  2. Improvement 21st Century

    E-print Network

    Judge, Harris County C. Richard Everett Century Development Robert D. Miller Metropolitan Transit Houston Partnership Wesley Friese Harris County Toll Road Authority Carol Lewis Texas Southern University

  3. Changing climatic and anthropogenic influences on the Bermejo wetland, through archival documents - Mendoza, Argentina, 16th-20th centuries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prieto, M. R.; Rojas, F.

    2011-11-01

    The wrong management of watering in the highest zones of the Mendoza northern oasis, the topography of the terrain and the deficient drainage, together with neotectonics phenomena, but mostly a dramatic and progressive increase of the Rio Mendoza flow volume originated the expansion of the wetlands area at the NE of the city of Mendoza at the turn of the 18th century, while in previous centuries it had retracted to a minimum. The area grew until reaching the dimension of large wetlands in the lowest oasis zones, resulting from a larger runoff and soil saturation by the rise of the phreatic layers. This situation remained throughout the 19th century, affecting the extension and use of the available land for human activity. The purpose of this study was to research this process that culminated in 1930 with the partial desiccation of the area. We have given particular importance to the influence of the climatic fluctuations in the Cordillera de los Andes and to the consequent variations of the Rio Mendoza flow volume in this process. For the analysis we used snowfall series at the cordillera and flow volume of the Rio Mendoza, built by Prieto (2009) with documental data. We analyzed which were the mediate and immediate consequences of the growth and later desiccation of the wetlands over the environment and its present repercussion on the ecosystem (salinization, poor soil drainage, soil alkalinization, sedimentation). In addition, we have also worked over georeferenced historic charts that partially reflect the behavior of the Cienaga del Bermejo during the 18th, 19th and 20th centuries. This behavior characterized by "growth pulses" and retraction moments is reflected in the analyzed charts, where those moments of major growth coincide with cycles of bigger snowstorms and larger flow volume in the Rio Mendoza.

  4. Ageing in the United States at the end of the century.

    PubMed

    Bengtson, V L; Mills, T L; Parrott, T M

    1995-12-01

    "The belief that America is a żyoung' nation is widely held by many individuals in the United States. Historically, individualism, self-reliance, and an orientation towards youth have been cherished values reflecting...our national heritage and tradition dating from the 18th through the mid-20th century. However, America is no longer a żyoung' nation. Rather, we are an żaging' population, as we show in our analysis of demographic transitions reviewed in this paper. The phenomenon of żcultural (or structural) lag' is discussed in two different contexts: first--the context of the aging family; and second--the context of ethnic/racial minority groups. Finally, some of the relevant public policy responses to aging are described. We look at government programs in four major categories, namely, (1) income; (2) health care; (3) social services; and (4) housing." PMID:12320062

  5. Polynesia and polygenism: the scientific use of travel literature in the early 19th century.

    PubMed

    Carhart, Michael C

    2009-04-01

    Christoph Meiners (1747-1810) was one of 18th-century Europe's most important readers of global travel literature, and he has been credited as a founder of the disciplines of ethnology and anthropology. This article examines a part of his final work, "Untersuchungen über die Verschiedenheiten der Menschennaturen" [Inquiries on the differences of human natures], published posthumously in the 1810s. Here Meiners developed an elaborate argument, based on empirical evidence, that the different races of men emerged indigenously at different times and in different places in natural history. Specifically this article shows how a sedentary scholar who never left Europe constructed a narrative of human origins and migrations on the basis of (1) French theory from the 1750s (Charles de Brosses and Simon Pelloutier) and (2) data gathered by explorers as reported in travel literature (J.R. Forster, Pérouse, Cook, Marsden). PMID:19999832

  6. Y. Xie, S.-S. Li, Y.-W. Lin, Z. Ren, and C. T.-C. Nguyen, "Spurious mode suppression in UHF micromechanical extensional wine-glass ring resonators," Proceedings, 18th Int. IEEE Micro Electro Mechanical Systems Conf., Miami, Florida, Jan. 30 -Feb. 3, 2005,

    E-print Network

    Nguyen, Clark T.-C.

    micromechanical extensional wine-glass ring resonators," Proceedings, 18th Int. IEEE Micro Electro Mechanical MICROMECHANICAL EXTENSIONAL WINE-GLASS RING RESONATORS Yuan Xie, Sheng-Shian Li, Yu-Wei Lin, Zeying Ren, and Clark of stand-alone micromechanical extensional wine-glass ring ("ext. WGR") resonators, previously dem

  7. The 18th ICOC Proceedings in Athens, Greece: New breakthrough in thalassemia leading to the complete treatment of iron overload and to hundreds of patients achieving and maintaining normal body iron stores. Ethical questions on chelation therapy.

    PubMed

    Kontoghiorghes, George J

    2010-06-01

    A new era in thalassemia and other transfusional iron loading conditions was highlighted during the 18th International Conference on Chelation (ICOC) with reports that all excess iron accumulated from transfusions could be removed using the ICOC combination protocol of deferiprone (L1) (80-100 mg/kg/day) and subcutaneous deferoxamine (DFO) (40-60 mg/kg/day, at least 3 days per week), and that normal range body iron store levels (NRBISL) could be maintained using L1 monotherapy. Hundreds of patients in Cyprus, Greece, Italy, UK and elsewhere, maintain NRBISL, some for more than 9 years, and without complications. This gold standard of complete iron overload treatment is likely to change current practices, aims and protocols because it could prevent and also reverse cardiac, liver, endocrine and other organ complications as well as the incidence of infections and hepatocellular carcinomas. The overall morbidity and mortality in thalassemia and other transfusional iron loading conditions is expected to be substantially reduced. New applications of chelating drugs include renal, neurodegenerative, infectious diseases and ischemia reperfusion injury patients. Ethical questions have been raised on the role of pharmaceutical companies, the clinicians and the Hippocratic oath in relation to chelation therapy. PMID:20524809

  8. Per aspirin ad astra...

    PubMed

    Hartung, Thomas

    2009-12-01

    Taking the 110th anniversary of marketing of aspirin as starting point, the almost scary toxicological profile of aspirin is contrasted with its actual use experience. The author concludes that we are lucky that, in 1899, there was no regulatory toxicology. Adding, for the purpose of this article, a fourth R to the Three Rs, i.e. Realism, three reality-checks are carried out. The first one comes to the conclusion that the tools of toxicology are hardly adequate for the challenges ahead. The second one concludes that, specifically, the implementation of the EU REACH system is not feasible with these tools, mainly with regard to throughput. The third one challenges the belief that classical alternative methods, i.e. replacing animal test-based tools one by one, is actually leading to a new toxicology - it appears to change only patches of the patchwork, but not to overcome any inherent limitations other than ethical ones. The perspective lies in the Toxicology for the 21st Century initiatives, which aim to create a new approach from the scratch, by an evidence-based toxicology and a global "Human Toxicology Programme". PMID:20105011

  9. Earth's magnetic field in the seventheenth century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutcheson, Kenneth A.; Gubbins, David

    1990-07-01

    Catalogs of old magnetic measurements, contemporary publications, and ship's logs have been researched to compile a data set of geomagnetic observations of declination and inclination in the interval 1601 A.D. to 1694 A.D. This search produced 2766 measurements of declination, with quite good global coverage, and 37 of inclination. All inclinations were in the northern hemisphere and most in Europe. A literature search revealed many archeomagnetic and paleomagnetic measurements of field components for the seventeenth century: 40 of these were selected and used in the modeling procedure (intensity measurements were not found sufficiently reliable to allow any conclusions to be made about the overall strength of the geomagnetic field and declinations were too few to be of use). This data set was analyzed to produce a field model for the seventheenth century; the model was denoted epoch 1647 A.D. although no corrections were made for secular variation. The model exhibits many of the stationary features of the recent geomagnetic field and indicates absence of secular variation from the Pacific and a westward drift rate of about 0.25° per year in areas of the core-mantle boundary beneath the south Atlantic and Indian oceans between 1647 A.D. and 1715 A. D., the date of Bloxham's (1986) earliest field model. This is likely to remain the earliest field model because only three inclination measurements have been found in the sixteenth century; the data set will be used in the future to form a time-dependent model for the historical period.

  10. Preprint, AMS 18th Conference on Hydrology

    E-print Network

    Xue, Ming

    by the leaf area index through a linear proportionality. Land surface models inspired by Deardorff processes. Without proper consideration of the shielding effects and the transpiration of the root zone soil and the portion covered by vegetation. En- ergy balance for vegetation was derived that includes the diagnosis

  11. A Century of Cosmology

    E-print Network

    E. L. Wright

    2006-03-28

    In the century since Einstein's anno mirabilis of 1905, our concept of the Universe has expanded from Kapteyn's flattened disk of stars only 10 kpc across to an observed horizon about 30 Gpc across that is only a tiny fraction of an immensely large inflated bubble. The expansion of our knowledge about the Universe, both in the types of data and the sheer quantity of data, has been just as dramatic. This talk will summarize this century of progress and our current understanding of the cosmos.

  12. Magnetic Monopoles in AdS

    SciTech Connect

    Sutcliffe, Paul [Department of Mathematical Sciences, Durham University, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom)

    2011-09-22

    Applications to holographic theories have led to some recent interest in magnetic monopoles in four-dimensional Anti-de Sitter (AdS) spacetime. Some analytic and numerical results are discussed for monopoles in AdS, including the symmetries of minimal energy monopoles (which are often Platonic), a connection to Skyrmions, and the emergence of a hexagonal lattice in the large charge limit.

  13. Bubbling AdS black holes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James T. Liu; Hong Lü; Christopher N. Pope; Justin F. Vázquez-Poritz

    2007-01-01

    We explore the non-BPS analog of `AdS bubbles', which are regular spherically symmetric 1\\/2 BPS geometries in type IIB supergravity. They have regular horizons and can be thought of as bubbling generalizations of non-extremal AdS black hole solutions in five-dimensional gauged supergravity. Due to the appearance of the Heun equation even at the linearized level, various approximation and numerical methods

  14. Warped AdS_3 Black Holes

    E-print Network

    Anninos, Dionysios; Padi, Megha; Song, Wei; Strominger, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Three dimensional topologically massive gravity (TMG) with a negative cosmological constant -\\ell^{-2} and positive Newton constant G admits an AdS_3 vacuum solution for any value of the graviton mass \\mu. These are all known to be perturbatively unstable except at the recently explored chiral point \\mu\\ell=1. However we show herein that for every value of \\mu\\ell3, there are known warped black hole solutions which are asymptotic to warped AdS_3. We show that these black holes are discrete quotients of warped AdS_3 just as BTZ black holes are discrete quotients of ordinary AdS_3. Moreover new solutions of this type, relevant to any theory with warped AdS_3 solutions, are exhibited. Finally we note that the black hole thermodynamics is consistent with the hypothesis that, for \\mu\\ell>3, the warped AdS_3 ground state of TMG is holographically dual to a 2D boundary CFT with central charges c_R={15(\\mu\\ell)^2+81\\over G\\mu((\\mu\\ell)^2+27)} and c_L={12 \\mu\\ell^2\\over G((\\mu\\ell)^2+27)}.

  15. Evaluation of the 2012 18th Maternal and Child Health (MCH) Epidemiology and 22nd CityMatCH MCH Urban Leadership Conference: six month impact on science, program, and policy.

    PubMed

    Arellano, Danielle E; Goodman, David A; Howlette, Travis; Kroelinger, Charlan D; Law, Mark; Phillips, Donna; Jones, Jessica; Brantley, Mary D; Fitzgerald, Maureen

    2014-09-01

    The 18th Maternal and Child Health (MCH) Epidemiology and 22nd CityMatCH MCH Urban Leadership Conference took place in December 2012, covering MCH science, program, and policy issues. Assessing the impact of the Conference on attendees' work 6 months post-Conference provides information critical to understanding the impact and the use of new partnerships, knowledge, and skills gained during the Conference. Evaluation assessments, which included collection of quantitative and qualitative data, were administered at two time points: at Conference registration and 6 months post-Conference. The evaluation files were merged using computer IP address, linking responses from each assessment. Percentages of attendees reporting Conference impacts were calculated from quantitative data, and common themes and supporting examples were identified from qualitative data. Online registration was completed by 650 individuals. Of registrants, 30 % responded to the 6 month post-Conference assessment. Between registration and 6 month post-Conference evaluation, the distribution of respondents did not significantly differ by organizational affiliation. In the 6 months following the Conference, 65 % of respondents reported pursuing a networking interaction; 96 % shared knowledge from the Conference with co-workers and others in their agency; and 74 % utilized knowledge from the Conference to translate data into public health action. The Conference produced far-reaching impacts among Conference attendees. The Conference served as a platform for networking, knowledge sharing, and attaining skills that advance the work of attendees, with the potential of impacting organizational and workforce capacity. Increasing capacity could improve MCH programs, policies, and services, ultimately impacting the health of women, infants, and children. PMID:25107597

  16. The Chemical Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapp, Ralph E.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses present and future problems of producing clean energy. Graphically presents the changing patterns of fuel use in the United States over the past century, and predicts population growth and energy sources and consumption up to the year 2100 for the United States and the world. (JR)

  17. Identifying 21st Century Capabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Robert

    2012-01-01

    What are the capabilities necessary to meet 21st century challenges? Much of the literature on 21st century skills focuses on skills necessary to meet those challenges associated with future work in a globalised world. The result is a limited characterisation of those capabilities necessary to address 21st century social, health and particularly…

  18. Team of the Century?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    de Nie, Michael Willem.

    On Wednesday, the New York Yankees completed their second consecutive four-game sweep of the World Series, winning the title for the third time in four years and for the 25th time this century. The game, incidentally, was also the team's twelfth Series win in a row (tying the record set by the "Murderers' Row" Yankees of the late 1920s) and future Hall of Famer Roger Clemens's 250th career win. Sports writers have, of course, commented extensively on this impressive performance, many stating that it is only fitting that a century of baseball should draw to a close "in pinstripes." Love them or hate them, no team has been so successful and so dominating as the New York Yankees. In New York, at least, they certainly do love their Bronx Bombers, and a ticket tape parade will be held today in their honor.

  19. Nineteenth Century Children's Literature

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This database, maintained by the publishing house of Chadwyck-Healey, Ltd., provides searchable records of the British Library's Children's Literature collection, which contains 2,369 titles on 5,527 fiches. Search parameters include title and complete record keyword, author, subject, publisher, year(s) of publication, microfiche number, and number of records retrieved. (Users may also browse possible search terms for each parameter.) Each entry gives a full bibliographic record for the individual text, including author, uniform title, imprint, place and date of publication, pagination, copy-specific notes, British Library shelfmark, and Fiche quantity and number. The site is part of The Nineteenth Century, a larger collection from Chadwyck-Healey and the British Library that catalogs an impressive array of nineteenth-century texts useful for historical and cultural studies.

  20. Winter temperature variations over the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River since 1736 AD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Z.-X.; Zheng, J.-Y.; Ge, Q.-S.; Wang, W.-C.

    2012-06-01

    We present statistically reconstructed mean annual winter (December-February) temperatures from the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River (24° N-34° N, 108° E-123° E within mainland China) extending back to 1736. The reconstructions are based on information regarding snowfall days from historical documents of the Yu-Xue-Fen-Cun archive recorded during the Qing Dynasty (1644-1911). This information is calibrated with regional winter temperature series spanning the period from 1951 to 2007. The gap from 1912 to 1950 is filled using early instrumental observations. With the reference period of 1951-2007, the 18th century was 0.76 °C colder, and the 19th century was 1.18 °C colder. However, since the 20th century, the climate has been in a warming phase, particularly in the last 30 yr, and the mean temperature from 1981 to 2007 was 0.25 °C higher than that of the reference period of 1951-2007, representing the highest temperatures of the past 300 yr. Uncertainty existed for the period prior to 1900, and possible causes of this uncertainty, such as physical processes involved in the interaction between temperature and snowfall days and changing of observers, are discussed herein.

  1. Comments on AdS_2 Gravity

    E-print Network

    Alejandra Castro; Wei Song

    2014-11-07

    We revisit some properties of AdS$_2$ Einstein-Maxwell gravity with the aim of reconciling apparently conflicting results in prior literature. We show that the two dimensional theory can be obtained as a dimensional reduction of the three dimensional Einstein gravity with the CSS boundary condition. In general, this theory on AdS$_2$ can be viewed as an effective theory of the near horizon geometry of a (near-)extremal black hole. We provide an interpretation of our results in terms of the microscopic description of an extremal black hole.

  2. Supersymmetric holography on AdS3

    E-print Network

    Candu, Constantin

    2012-01-01

    The proposed duality between Vasiliev's supersymmetric higher spin theory on AdS3 and the 't Hooft limit of the 2d superconformal Kazama-Suzuki models is analysed in detail. In particular, we show that the partition functions of the two theories agree in the large N limit.

  3. Supersymmetric holography on AdS3

    E-print Network

    Constantin Candu; Matthias R. Gaberdiel

    2013-06-04

    The proposed duality between Vasiliev's supersymmetric higher spin theory on AdS3 and the 't Hooft limit of the 2d superconformal Kazama-Suzuki models is analysed in detail. In particular, we show that the partition functions of the two theories agree in the large N limit.

  4. Spiky strings in ?-deformed AdS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Aritra; Bhattacharya, Soumya; Panigrahi, Kamal L.

    2015-06-01

    We study rigidly rotating strings in ?-deformed AdS background. We probe this classically integrable background with `spiky' strings and analyze the string profiles in the large charge limit systematically. We also discuss the dispersion relation among the conserved charges for these solutions in long string limit.

  5. a GIS of SARDINIA'S Coastal Defense System (xvi - XVIII Century)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deidda, M.; Musa, C.; Vacca, G.

    2015-06-01

    The use of GIS as a tool for archival, analysis and representation of geographic information has become significantly popular in many scientific fields that are directly concerned with the "territory" as their object of study. The field of application of GIS, however, has expanded also in other areas, such as those related to humanities and architecture, in which the territory is studied in an "indirect" mode because it constitutes a kind of substrate on which to develop a specific spatial analysis for particular purposes. Among these areas are to be included certainly archeology and restoration, fields in which the GIS has become a useful tool for historical studies. In this work we present a GIS developed for the study of the historical and territorial coastal defense system of Sardinia (16th - 18th century), in order to respond to the need to store, analyze and efficiently manage the information regarding cultural heritage and landscape heritage such as that consisting of the coastal defensive towers of Sardinia. This defensive system, in fact, was composed by over 100 towers positioned around the entire coastal perimeter of Sardinia, of which more than 90 still exist today. Their position was planned on the basis of the following criteria: - Warning the neighboring towers about the sighting of enemy ships - Protecting coasts located near the towns - Monitoring the water sources near the coast - Allowing for the full visibility of the coasts of any morphology With this study we also verified, through the use of high resolution and high accuracy DTM (LiDAR) and the topographic databases, whether the positioning criteria specified in the design of the system were respected and effective.

  6. Winter temperature variations over middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River during the past three centuries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Z.-X.; Zheng, J.-Y.; Ge, Q.-S.; Wang, W.-C.

    2012-01-01

    We present statistically reconstructed annual winter (December-February) mean temperature in the Middle and Lower Reaches of the Yangtze River (24-34° N, east of 108° E) back to 1736. The reconstructions are based on information from snowfall days from Yu-Xue-Fen-Cun archive (one of historical documents proxies) in Qing Dynasty (1644-1911). Those information are calibrated with regional winter temperature series spanning the period 1951 to 2007 period. The gap from 1912 to 1950 is filled using early instrumental observation. With respect to the 1951-2007 climatology, the 18th century was 0.6 °C colder, and the 19th century was 1.0 °C colder. But since the 20th century, climate entered into the warming phase, particular in the last 30 yr, the mean temperature from 1981 to 2007 is 0.25 °C higher than that of climatology, a highest level of the past 300 yr. The uncertainty is existed for the period prior of 1900, and possible causes have been discussed here.

  7. Solar activity and climate change during the 1750 A.D. solar minimum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bard, Edouard; Baroni, Mélanie; Aster Team

    2015-04-01

    The number of sunspots and other characteristics have been widely used to reconstruct the solar activity beyond the last three decades of accurate satellite measurements. It has also been possible to reconstruct the long-term solar behavior by measuring the abundance on Earth of cosmogenic nuclides such as carbon 14 and beryllium 10. These isotopes are formed by the interaction of galactic cosmic rays with atmospheric molecules. Accelerator mass spectrometry is used to measure the abundance of these isotopes in natural archives such as polar ice (for 10Be), tree rings and corals (for 14C). Over the last millennium, the solar activity has been dominated by alternating active and quiet periods, such as the Maunder Minimum, which occurred between 1645 and 1715 A.D. The climate forcing of this solar variability is the subject of intense research, both because the exact scaling in terms of irradiance is still a matter of debate and because other solar variations may have played a role in amplifying the climatic response. Indeed, the past few decades of accurate solar measurements do not include conditions equivalent to an extended solar minimum. A further difficulty of the analysis lies in the presence of other climate forcings during the last millennium, which are superimposed on the solar variations. Finally, the inherent precision of paleotemperature proxies are close to the signal amplitude retrieved from various paleoclimate archives covering the last millennium. Recent model-data comparisons for the last millennium have led to the conclusion that the solar forcing during this period was minor in comparison to volcanic eruptions and greenhouse gas concentrations (e.g. Schurer et al. 2013 J. Clim., 2014 Nat. Geo.). In order to separate the different forcings, it is useful to focus on a temperature change in phase with a well-documented solar minimum so as to maximize the response to this astronomical forcing. This is the approach followed by Wagner et al. (2005 Clim. Dyn.), who focused their data-model comparison on the Dalton Minimum, which occurred between 1790 and 1830 A.D. and which, fortuitously, included several major volcanic eruptions such as the Tambora eruption in 1815. Their conclusion was that the global imprint of the volcanic forcing was significantly larger than that of contemporaneous solar forcing and the increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations. A different approach is to consider another recent solar minimum over a period characterized by a low volcanicity and minimal changes of greenhouse gases. Such a minimum does exist between the Maunder and the Dalton Minima and lasted for a mere two decades between 1745 and 1765 A.D. The sunspot number exhibits a clear 11-year cycle, but it only reaches a maximal value lower than 100, i.e. less than observed for the past seven 11-year cycles. Incidentally, the maximal values observed between 1745 and 1765 are similar to those observed during the maximum of the present solar cycle. The 1750 A.D. solar minimum can also be studied in other records such as counts of auroras at mid-latitudes and cosmogenic isotopes such as 14C and 10Be. In addition to reviewing published time series, we will report a new 10Be record from a well-dated ice core from Dome C in Antarctica. Sulfate concentration, a proxy for volcanic eruptions, has also been measured in the very same samples, allowing a precise comparison of both 10Be and sulfate profiles. The full record covers the last millennium and will be presented separately by Baroni, Bard and the ASTER Team. Zooming in on the century between 1700 and 1800 A.D. allows to identify an extended period of low volcanicity and to observe a clear 10Be increase corresponding to the solar minimum. We will present the new data over the 18th century as well as their first interpretation in the context of other useful records based on greenhouse gas concentrations, paleotemperature proxies and climate modeling available in the literature.

  8. Indian Astronomy: History of

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mercier, R.; Murdin, P.

    2002-01-01

    From the time of A macronryabhat under dota (ca AD 500) there appeared in India a series of Sanskrit treatises on astronomy. Written always in verse, and normally accompanied by prose commentaries, these served to create an Indian tradition of mathematical astronomy which continued into the 18th century. There are as well texts from earlier centuries, grouped under the name Jyotishaveda macronn d...

  9. Avicenna (AD 980 to 1037) and the care of the newborn infant and breastfeeding

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H D Modanlou

    2008-01-01

    A brief historical review of medicine during the fourth century Islamic civilization or eleventh century AD in Persia or Iran was undertaken with its focus on Avicenna. A physician–philosopher, named Ibn Sina or Avicenna (980 to 1037), followed and further expanded the tradition of western philosophy and medicine by Aristotle, Hippocrates and Galen. Avicenna, a physician, philosopher, astrologist, anatomist, pharmacologist,

  10. Asymptotically AdS brane black holes

    SciTech Connect

    Galfard, Christophe [D.A.M.T.P., Centre for Mathematical Sciences, University of Cambridge, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge CB3 0WA (United Kingdom); Germani, Cristiano [D.A.M.T.P., Centre for Mathematical Sciences, University of Cambridge, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge CB3 0WA (United Kingdom); Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto UniversityOiwake-cho Kitashirakawa Sakyo, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Ishibashi, Akihiro [Enrico Fermi Institute, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States)

    2006-03-15

    We study the possibility of having a static, asymptotically AdS black hole localized on a braneworld with matter fields, within the framework of the Randall and Sundrum scenario. We attempt to look for such a brane black hole configuration by slicing a given bulk spacetime and taking Z{sub 2} symmetry about the slices. We find that such configurations are possible, and as an explicit example, we provide a family of asymptotically AdS brane black hole solutions for which both the bulk and brane metrics are regular on and outside the black hole horizon and brane matter fields are realistic in the sense that the dominant energy condition is satisfied. We also find that our braneworld models exhibit signature change inside the black hole horizon.

  11. Seventeenth-century uplift in eastern Hokkaido, Japan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Atwater, B.F.; Furakawa, R.; Hemphill-Haley, E.; Ikeda, Y.; Kashima, K.; Kawase, K.; Kelsey, H.M.; Moore, A.L.; Nanayama, F.; Nishimura, Y.; Odagiri, S.; Ota, Y.; Park, S.-C.; Satake, K.; Sawai, Y.; Shimokawa, K.

    2004-01-01

    Shores of eastern Hokkaido rose by perhaps 1 m a few centuries ago. The uplifted area extended at least 50 km along the southern Kuril Trench. It included the estuaries Akkeshi-ko and Hichirippu, on the Pacific coast, and Fu??ren-ko and Onneto??, which open to the Okhotsk Sea. At each estuary, intertidal and subtidal flats rose with respect to tide level; wetland plants colonized the emerging land; and peaty wetland deposits thereby covered mud and sand of the former flats. Previous work at Akkeshi-ko and Onneto?? showed that such emergence occurred at least three times in the past 3000 years. Volcanic-ash layers date the youngest emergence to the seventeenth century AD. New evidence from Akkeshi-ko, Hichirippu and Fu??ren-ko clarifies the age and amount of this youngest emergence. Much of it probably dates from the century's middle decades. Some of the newly emerged land remained above high tides into the middle of the eighteenth century or later. The emergence in the last half of the seventeenth century probably exceeded 0.5 m (inferred from stratigraphy and diatom palaeoecology) without far exceeding 1 m (estimated by comparing seventeenth- and eighteenth-century descriptions of Akkeshi-ko). The stratigraphy and palaeoecology of the emergence are better explained by tectonic uplift than by bay-mouth blockage, tidal-flat accretion or sea-level fall. Eastern Hokkaido needs occasional uplift, moreover, to help reconcile its raised marine terraces with its chronic twentieth-century subsidence. Because it took place above forearc mantle, eastern Hokkaido's seventeenth-century uplift probably lacks analogy with coseismic uplift that occurs above typical plate-boundary ruptures at subduction zones.

  12. News Conference: Take a hold of Hands-on Science Meeting: Prize-winning physics-education talks are a highlight of the DPG spring meeting in Jena Event: Abstracts flow in for ICPE-EPEC 2013 Schools: A new Schools Physics Partnership in Oxfordshire Conference: 18th MPTL is forum for multimedia in education Meeting: Pursuing playful science with Science on Stage Forthcoming events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2013-03-01

    Conference: Take a hold of Hands-on Science Meeting: Prize-winning physics-education talks are a highlight of the DPG spring meeting in Jena Event: Abstracts flow in for ICPE-EPEC 2013 Schools: A new Schools Physics Partnership in Oxfordshire Conference: 18th MPTL is forum for multimedia in education Meeting: Pursuing playful science with Science on Stage Forthcoming events

  13. BadAds

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The creators of BadAds believe that advertising has become far too intrusive in American lives. Along with TV, magazine, radio ads, and billboards, advertisements and commercials are popping up in movie theatres, schools, public bathrooms, and even on stickers on fruit. Four criteria determine whether advertising is intrusive: an inability to turn the ad off; its entrance into your home without your consent; your lack of choice whether or not to watch it; and ads that don't support anything in particular and may actually cost you money. Rather than just venting about intrusive advertising, BadAds urges visitors to become active in the fight against bad ads by writing complaint letters to a host of venues that support intrusive advertising including movie theaters, sporting venues, television networks, and the heads of educational institutions. BadAds offers instructions on writing complaint letters as well as many suggestions as to who should receive these letters.

  14. A Century of Skills Movements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ravitch, Diane

    2010-01-01

    The author is a historian of education and has written often about the educational enthusiasms and fads of the past century. One of her books, titled "Left Back," tells the story of the rise and fall of one fad after another across the 20th century. In brief, what she has found is that in the land of American pedagogy, innovation is frequently…

  15. 21st Century Skills Map

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Partnership for 21st Century Skills, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The Partnership for 21st Century Skills (P21) has forged alliances with key national organizations representing the core academic subjects, including Social Studies, English, Math, Science, Geography, World Languages and the Arts. These collaborations have resulted in the development of 21st Century Skills Maps that illustrate the essential…

  16. Reading in the Twentieth Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearson, P. David

    This paper discusses reading instruction in the 20th century. The paper begins with a tour of the historical pathways that have led people, at the century's end, to the "rocky and highly contested terrain educators currently occupy in reading pedagogy." After the author/educator unfolds his version of a map of that terrain in the paper, he…

  17. Century Learning through Apple Technology

    E-print Network

    21st Century Learning through Apple Technology July 4 ­ 5, 2013 This exciting institute will appeal to educators who wish to enhance their teaching in support of 21st century learning using Apple technology. This sets the stage for the remaining two days where educators can learn how to leverage Apple technology

  18. Winding Strings in AdS_3

    E-print Network

    Estanislao Herscovich; Pablo Minces; Carmen Nunez

    2006-03-15

    Correlation functions of one unit spectral flowed states in string theory on AdS_3 are considered. We present the modified Knizhnik-Zamolodchikov and null vector equations to be satisfied by amplitudes containing states in winding sector one and study their solution corresponding to the four point function including one w=1 field. We compute the three point function involving two one unit spectral flowed operators and find expressions for amplitudes of three w=1 states satisfying certain particular relations among the spins of the fields. Several consistency checks are performed.

  19. Warped AdS_3 Black Holes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dionysios Anninos; Wei Li; Megha Padi; Wei Song; Andrew Strominger

    2008-01-01

    Three dimensional topologically massive gravity (TMG) with a negative\\u000acosmological constant -\\\\ell^{-2} and positive Newton constant G admits an AdS_3\\u000avacuum solution for any value of the graviton mass \\\\mu. These are all known to\\u000abe perturbatively unstable except at the recently explored chiral point\\u000a\\\\mu\\\\ell=1. However we show herein that for every value of \\\\mu\\\\ell< 3 there are\\u000atwo

  20. Banner Ad Placement Study

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Doyle, Kim.

    Webreference.com (discussed in the April 19, 1996 Scout Report) has recently added this interesting and thought-provoking resource to its site. The resource presents the results of a study of banner ad placement at webreference.com, conducted between March 25 and April 15, 1997 by three University of Michigan School of Business Administration students. The study concludes that changes in placement of banner ads affects "click-through" rates.

  1. Download Ad ttp://www.ad

    E-print Network

    Chapman, Michael S.

    p Presenter... ask you to re nter is software reate Flash m nt that can b ter software roducts Technology Phone: (503) 494-7074 sakai@ohsu.edu Adding Narration, cont. Note: If slides have animations to start recording on the first level ˇ Click the "Next Animation" button to advance to the next level

  2. Nineteenth Century Documents Project

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Benson, Lloyd.

    Produced by the History department at Furman University in South Carolina, this site features full texts of primary documents in nineteenth-century American history "with special emphasis on those sources that shed light on sectional conflict and transformations in regional identity." The site has thus far posted documents ranging from newspaper editorials and abolitionist tracts to political speeches and legislative resolutions. These materials will aid researchers examining issues of Slavery and Sectionalism, the Kansas-Nebraska Bill of 1854, the Dred Scott Case, the election of 1860, the secession of the Southern states, and the immediate aftermath of the Civil War in the South. The site also features a statistical almanac of the 1850s, which includes but is not limited to data on slave mortality and survival; the ratio of slaveholders to families in 1860 (by state); presidential elections, 1844-1860; and Growth in Railroad Mileage, 1850-1860. Some documents may have some minor errors, but fully proofed documents are clearly marked.

  3. Aeronautical ad hoc networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ehssan Sakhaee; Abbas Jamalipour; Nei Kato

    2006-01-01

    There has been an enormous growth in mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) in land based small to medium size networks with relatively strict power and resources. In this paper the concept of ad hoc networking between aircraft is introduced, which can be considered as a novel approach in increasing the data rate and practicality of future in-flight broadband Internet access.

  4. The sub- and quasi- centurial cycles in solar and geomagnetical data series /(s2)

    E-print Network

    Komitov, B; Duchlev, P; Dechev, M; Penev, K; Koleva, K

    2010-01-01

    The subject of this paper is the existence and stability of solar cycles with duration in the range of 20-250 years. Five type of data series are used: 1) The Zurich series (1749-2009), the mean annual International sunspot number Ri; 2) The Group sunspot number series Rh (1610-1995); 3) The simulated extended sunspot Rsi number from Extended time series of Solar Activity Indices (ESAI) (1090- 2002); 4) The simulated extended geomagnetic aa-index from ESAI (1099-2002); 5) The Meudon filament series (1919-1991) (it is used only particularly). Data series are smoothed over 11 years and supercenturial trends are removed. Two principally independent methods of time series analysis are used: the T-R periodogram analysis (both in the standard and "scanning window" regimes) and the wavelet-analysis. The obtained results are very similar. It is found that in all series a strong cycle with mean duration of 55-60 years exists. It is very well expressed in the 18th and the 19th centuries. It is less pronounced during th...

  5. The social bases of declining infant mortality: lessons from a nineteenth-century Italian town.

    PubMed

    Hogan, D P; Kertzer, D I

    1987-05-01

    A detailed study of the factors associated with the decline of infant mortality in the town of Casalecchio di Reno, near Bologna, Italy, from 1865-1921 was generated from household tax records, birth and death registers, census data, and a variety of scholarly sources. Infant mortality had been 400/1000 in 17th century, fell to about 250 in the mid 18th, to 186 from 1865-1880, to 100 in 1900, and 75 in 1910. Infant mortality was lower among merchant and sharecropper families who had decent housing, food and water, higher among daily wage workers who lived in filthy crowded apartments on marginal incomes, and much higher among women who worked in emerging textile factories who could not breastfeed and used animal milk (682/1000 in 1903). Results are expressed in terms of probability of an infant death for specific demographic or maternal characteristics. Infant deaths among wage working women began to fall after 1902 when the government regulated child and female labor, requiring post-partum leave and time to breastfeed. The fact that factory workers were literate and urbanized did not help their children survive until they received better water, sewage systems, free medical care, and better housing. Thus, infant mortality varied in subgroups, was not necessarily lower in "modern" urban classes, and its fall depended on direct government intervention. PMID:12158944

  6. Large ground surface temperature changes of the last three centuries inferred from borehole temperatures in the Southern Canadian Prairies, Saskatchewan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majorowicz, Jacek A.; Safanda, Jan; Harris, Robert N.; Skinner, Walter R.

    1999-05-01

    New temperature logs in wells located in the grassland ecozone in the Southern Canadian Prairies in Saskatchewan, where surface disturbance is considered minor, show a large curvature in the upper 100 m. The character of this curvature is consistent with ground surface temperature (GST) warming in the 20th century. Repetition of precise temperature logs in southern Saskatchewan (years 1986 and 1997) shows the conductive nature of warming of the subsurface sediments. The magnitude of surface temperature change during that time (11 years) is high (0.3-0.4°C). To assess the conductive nature of temperature variations at the grassland surface interface, several precise air and soil temperature time series in the southern Canadian Prairies (1965-1995) were analyzed. The combined anomalies correlated at 0.85. Application of the functional space inversion (FSI) technique with the borehole temperature logs and site-specific lithology indicates a warming to date of approximately 2.5°C since a minimum in the late 18th century to mid 19th century. This warming represents an approximate increase from 4°C around 1850 to 6.5°C today. The significance of this record is that it suggests almost half of the warming occurred prior to 1900, before dramatic build up of atmospheric green house gases. This result correlates well with the proxy record of climatic change further to the north, beyond the Arctic Circle [Overpeck, J., Hughen, K., Hardy, D., Bradley, R., Case, R., Douglas, M., Finney, B., Gajewski, K., Jacoby, G., Jennings, A., Lamourex, S., Lasca, A., MacDonald, G., Moore, J., Retelle, M., Smith, S., Wolfe, A., Zielinski, G., 1997. Arctic environmental change of the last four centuries, Science 278, 1251-1256.].

  7. Shadows, currents and AdS fields

    E-print Network

    R. R. Metsaev

    2008-12-24

    Conformal totally symmetric arbitrary spin currents and shadow fields in flat space-time of dimension greater than or equal to four are studied. Gauge invariant formulation for such currents and shadow fields is developed. Gauge symmetries are realized by involving the Stueckelberg fields. Realization of global conformal boost symmetries is obtained. Gauge invariant differential constraints for currents and shadow fields are obtained. AdS/CFT correspondence for currents and shadow fields and the respective normalizable and non-normalizable solutions of massless totally symmetric arbitrary spin AdS fields is studied. The bulk fields are considered in modified de Donder gauge that leads to decoupled equations of motion. We demonstrate that leftover on-shell gauge symmetries of bulk fields correspond to gauge symmetries of boundary currents and shadow fields, while the modified de Donder gauge conditions for bulk fields correspond to differential constraints for boundary conformal currents and shadow fields. Breaking conformal symmetries, we find interrelations between the gauge invariant formulation of the currents and shadow fields and the gauge invariant formulation of massive fields.

  8. The 19th Century World

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Harpweek, "a privately funded project begun in 1992 to digitize the entire contents of the nineteenth-century, illustrated periodical Harper's Weekly" (see the March 31, 2000 Scout Report) offers a number of free Websites archiving materials from Harper's Weekly on specific historical topics of the nineteenth century. In addition to the materials on Black America, reviewed in the Scout Report issue cited above, there are collections on the impeachment of Andrew Johnson, Civil War literature, education, immigrant and ethnic America, the editorial cartoons of Thomas Nast, the American West, and 19th Century advertising. These free sites offer a wealth of primary documentation on their respective subjects, including, for example, over 200 article excerpts dealing with the Andrew Johnson and his impeachment drawn from 1865-1869 issues; examples of 19th-century advertisements for appliances, packaged goods, pest killers, insurance policies, and memorabilia; political cartoons of the famous editorial illustrator Thomas Nast; and much more. The sections are well organized and are introduced by contemporary scholarship. This is a superb source for both researchers and those planning to teach primary historical and cultural research to secondary and post-secondary students. Note: those who purchase a subscription to Harpweek will have access to numerous other 19th Century Harper's Weekly materials in addition to these.

  9. Twenty-first century vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Rappuoli, Rino

    2011-01-01

    In the twentieth century, vaccination has been possibly the greatest revolution in health. Together with hygiene and antibiotics, vaccination led to the elimination of many childhood infectious diseases and contributed to the increase in disability-free life expectancy that in Western societies rose from 50 to 78–85 years (Crimmins, E. M. & Finch, C. E. 2006 Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 103, 498–503; Kirkwood, T. B. 2008 Nat. Med 10, 1177–1185). In the twenty-first century, vaccination will be expected to eliminate the remaining childhood infectious diseases, such as meningococcal meningitis, respiratory syncytial virus, group A streptococcus, and will address the health challenges of this century such as those associated with ageing, antibiotic resistance, emerging infectious diseases and poverty. However, for this to happen, we need to increase the public trust in vaccination so that vaccines can be perceived as the best insurance against most diseases across all ages. PMID:21893537

  10. Hadronization at the AdS wall

    E-print Network

    Nick Evans; James French; Kristan Jensen; Ed Threlfall

    2009-08-21

    We describe hadronization events, using the AdS/CFT Correspondence, which display many of the qualitative features expected in QCD. In particular we study the motion of strings with separating end points in a back-reacted hard wall geometry. The solutions show the development of a linear QCD-like string. The end points oscillate in the absence of string breaking. We introduce string breaking by hand and evolve the new state forward in time to observe the separation of two string segments. A kink associated with this breaking evolves to the end points of the string inducing rho meson production. We explicitly compute the rho meson production at the end point.

  11. Hadronization at the AdS wall

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, Nick; French, James; Threlfall, Ed [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, Southampton, SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Jensen, Kristan [Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States)

    2010-03-15

    We describe hadronization events, using the AdS/CFT Correspondence, which display many of the qualitative features expected in QCD. In particular we study the motion of strings with separating end points in a back-reacted hard wall geometry. The solutions show the development of a linear QCD-like string. The end points oscillate in the absence of string breaking. We introduce string breaking by hand and evolve the new state forward in time to observe the separation of two string segments. A kink associated with this breaking evolves to the end points of the string inducing rho meson production. We explicitly compute the rho meson production at the end point.

  12. Viruses in a 14th-Century Coprolite

    PubMed Central

    Appelt, Sandra; Fancello, Laura; Le Bailly, Matthieu; Raoult, Didier; Drancourt, Michel

    2014-01-01

    Coprolites are fossilized fecal material that can reveal information about ancient intestinal and environmental microbiota. Viral metagenomics has allowed systematic characterization of viral diversity in environmental and human-associated specimens, but little is known about the viral diversity in fossil remains. Here, we analyzed the viral community of a 14th-century coprolite from a closed barrel in a Middle Ages site in Belgium using electron microscopy and metagenomics. Viruses that infect eukaryotes, bacteria, and archaea were detected, and we confirmed the presence of some of them by ad hoc suicide PCR. The coprolite DNA viral metagenome was dominated by sequences showing homologies to phages commonly found in modern stools and soil. Although their phylogenetic compositions differed, the metabolic functions of the viral communities have remained conserved across centuries. Antibiotic resistance was one of the reconstructed metabolic functions detected. PMID:24509925

  13. La Administración de la Armada espańola en el siglo XVIII: El caso de la expedición a Argel de 1768 para el canje de cautivos. (The administration of the Spanish Navy in 18th century: the case of the expedition to Algiers for the rescue of prisoners)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    José Enrique Blasco Leante; Isidoro Guzmán Raja; José Luis Montoya Chinchilla

    2011-01-01

    El siglo XVIII supone un periodo de cambios y transformaciones basadas en la ciencia y la filosofía conocidas como “La Ilustración”, iniciándose en Espańa dicho movimiento con la llegada al trono del primer Rey Borbón, Felipe V. La Armada Espańola no fue ajena a tales procesos evolutivos e innovadores, y así, el 1 de enero de 1725 se publican las

  14. M. Tillier, Qs and the political use of the malim jurisdiction under the Abbsids , dans Maribel Fierro et Christian Lange (d.), Public Violence in Islamic Societies: Power, Discipline, and the Construction of the Public Sphere, 7th-18th Centuries CE, Edi

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Justice in an Islamic State: Malim under the Bar Mamlks, 662/1264-789/1387 (Leiden: Nederlands Historisch-Faq, Beirut: Dr al-fikr, 1986), 73-90. Voir J. Nielsen, Secular Justice in an Islamic State, 17ff. 3 L Fierro et Christian Lange (éd.), Public Violence in Islamic Societies: Power, Discipline

  15. Pulsating strings on (AdS3 × S3) ?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panigrahi, Kamal L.; Pradhan, Pabitra M.; Samal, Manoranjan

    2015-03-01

    We derive the energy of pulsating strings as a function of adiabatic invariant oscillation number, which oscillates in S {/? 2}. We find similar solutions for the strings oscillating in deformed AdS 3. Furthermore, we generalize the result of the oscillating strings in anti-de Sitter space in the presence of extra angular momentum in ( AdS 3 × S 1) ? .

  16. A Century of Juvenile Justice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Philip W.; Welsh, Wayne N.; Butler, Frank

    The millennium marks the beginning of a second century for the formal system of juvenile justice in the United States. From its inception, the central focus of the system has been delinquency, an amorphous construct that includes not only "criminal" behavior but also an array of youthful actions that offend prevailing social norms. Thus, the…

  17. Twenty-first-century science.

    PubMed Central

    Greenwood, M R

    1995-01-01

    Scientific life is changing in fundamental ways as the twenty-first century approaches. Advances in technology are changing methods of scientific communications and dissemination of information, while diminishing resources lead to stabilization, politicization, increased public oversight, and the potential for significant downsizing. Libraries can foster the crucial interdisciplinary connections necessary to forge a new vision of scholarship. PMID:7703945

  18. Two Virasoro symmetries in stringy warped AdS3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Compčre, Geoffrey; Guica, Monica; Rodriguez, Maria J.

    2014-12-01

    We study three-dimensional consistent truncations of type IIB supergravity which admit warped AdS3 solutions. These theories contain subsectors that have no bulk dynamics. We show that the symplectic form for these theories, when restricted to the non-dynamical subsectors, equals the symplectic form for pure Einstein gravity in AdS3. Consequently, for each consistent choice of boundary conditions in AdS3, we can define a consistent phase space in warped AdS3 with identical conserved charges. This way, we easily obtain a Virasoro × Virasoro asymptotic symmetry algebra in warped AdS3; two different types of Virasoro × Ka?-Moody symmetries are also consistent alternatives.

  19. Mobile Ad hoc Networking

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carlos de Morais Cordeiro; Dharma P. Agrawal

    2002-01-01

    Recent advances in portable computing and wireless technologies are opening up exciting possibilities for the future of wireless mobile networking. A Mobile Ad hoc NETwork (MANET) consists of mobile platforms which are free to move arbitrarily. This is in contrast with the topology of the existing Internet, where the router topology is essentially static (barring network configuration or router failures).

  20. Introducing ADS Labs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Accomazzi, Alberto; Henneken, E.; Grant, C. S.; Kurtz, M. J.; Di Milia, G.; Luker, J.; Thompson, D. M.; Bohlen, E.; Murray, S. S.

    2011-05-01

    ADS Labs is a platform that ADS is introducing in order to test and receive feedback from the community on new technologies and prototype services. Currently, ADS Labs features a new interface for abstract searches, faceted filtering of results, visualization of co-authorship networks, article-level recommendations, and a full-text search service. The streamlined abstract search interface provides a simple, one-box search with options for ranking results based on a paper relevancy, freshness, number of citations, and downloads. In addition, it provides advanced rankings based on collaborative filtering techniques. The faceted filtering interface allows users to narrow search results based on a particular property or set of properties ("facets"), allowing users to manage large lists and explore the relationship between them. For any set or sub-set of records, the co-authorship network can be visualized in an interactive way, offering a view of the distribution of contributors and their inter-relationships. This provides an immediate way to detect groups and collaborations involved in a particular research field. For a majority of papers in Astronomy, our new interface will provide a list of related articles of potential interest. The recommendations are based on a number of factors, including text similarity, citations, and co-readership information. The new full-text search interface allows users to find all instances of particular words or phrases in the body of the articles in our full-text archive. This includes all of the scanned literature in ADS as well as a select portion of the current astronomical literature, including ApJ, ApJS, AJ, MNRAS, PASP, A&A, and soon additional content from Springer journals. Fulltext search results include a list of the matching papers as well as a list of "snippets" of text highlighting the context in which the search terms were found. ADS Labs is available at http://adslabs.org

  1. The holy light: a study of natural light in Hindu temples in the southern region of Tamilnadu, India (7th century AD to 17th century AD

    E-print Network

    Mukherji, Anuradha

    2001-01-01

    This thesis discusses the phenomenon of natural light that becomes the holy light in sacred architecture. In pursuing this investigation the study addressed three major objectives. First, to understand the significance of ...

  2. The holy light: a study of natural light in Hindu temples in the southern region of Tamilnadu, India (7th century AD to 17th century AD)

    E-print Network

    Mukherji, Anuradha

    2001-01-01

    1996; Hart 1999; Russell 1999) and my observations. Since this research focuses on south Indian sacred architecture, which had a very formal monumental structure, the following discussion v. ould limit itself to the form of sacred monuments that v ere... churches. In the prehistoric time the sacred aspect of temporal' change is expressed in special places such as Stonehenge, a unique megalithic monument on Salisbury plain in Wiltshire, England and the Mnajdra solar temple complex in Malta (Kostof 1995...

  3. ECONOMIC IMPACT OF CENTURY ALUMINUM OF

    E-print Network

    Mohaghegh, Shahab

    ECONOMIC IMPACT OF CENTURY ALUMINUM OF WEST VIRGINIA, INC. By Randall A represent those of the West Virginia University Board of Trustees. #12;2 OVERVIEW Century Aluminum of West Virginia, Inc. (Century) is located in Ravenswood, West Virginia and produces aluminum products

  4. The 21st Century Skills Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Paige

    2009-01-01

    Since 2002, the Partnership for 21st Century Skills has been the leading advocacy organization in the United States focused on infusing 21st century skills into education. Its "Framework for 21st Century Learning," the result of a consensus among hundreds of stakeholders, describes the skills, knowledge, and expertise students need to succeed in…

  5. 21st Century Skills Literacy in

    E-print Network

    Al-Qahtani, Mohammad

    enGaugeŽ 21st Century Skills Literacy in the Digital Age www.ncrel.org/engauge FOR 21ST CENTURY Skills: Literacy in the Digital Age Gina Burkhardt CEO/Executive Director, NCREL Margaret Monsour Deputy Dawson Program Associate, Center for Technology, NCREL enGaugeŽ 21st Century Skills: Literacy

  6. What is a Twentieth-Century Constitution?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter E. Quint

    2007-01-01

    At present, almost all of the constitutions in the world are twentieth-century constitutions; indeed, most of them were not adopted until the second half of the twentieth century. Accordingly, the eighteenth-century Constitution of the United States -- which includes the original constitution of 1787-89; the first ten amendments, adopted in 1791; and the Eleventh Amendment, adopted in 1798 -- antedates

  7. Political Ad Critic

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Brought to you by the folks at Adcritic.com, this Website features sixteen 30-second spots from the Presidential primary and general elections campaign. Political Ad Critic lists a "top ten," with Ralph Nader's hip parody ("The Truth: Priceless") of the popular MasterCard commercials awarded number one, and posts new ads from the campaign each week. Currently, there are four commercials from the Gore campaign posted here -- one of which has Gore speaking Spanish -- and six from Bush's camp, including the now-infamous "bureaucRATS" spot. (The QuickTime control bar allows users to advance frame by frame so they can judge for themselves the commercial's disputed subliminal content.) Commercials from the Libertarian party candidate Harry Browne, and primary contenders John McCain and Bill Bradley round out the Website. May the best commercial win.

  8. AdS cycles in eternally inflating background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhi-Guo; Piao, Yun-Song

    2014-09-01

    In the eternally inflating background, the bubbles with AdS vacua will crunch. However, this crunch might be followed by a bounce. It is generally thought that the bubble universe may be cyclic, which will go through a sequence of AdS crunches, until the field inside the bubble finally lands at a dS minimum. However, we show that due to the amplification of field fluctuation, the bubble universe going through AdS cycles will inevitably fragment within two or three cycles. We discuss its implication to the eternal inflation scenario.

  9. A two century record of strontium isotopes from an ice core drilled at Mt Blanc, France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burton, G. R.; Rosman, K. J. R.; Van de Velde, K. P.; Boutron, C. F.

    2006-08-01

    New techniques which allow small amounts of Sr to be reliably analysed [G.R. Burton, V.I. Morgan, C.F. Boutron, K.J.R. Rosman, High-sensitivity measurements of strontium isotopes in polar ice, Anal. Chim. Acta 469 (2002) 225-233] by TIMS (Thermal Ionisation Mass Spectrometry) have been used to measure the isotopic composition of Sr and the concentration of Rb and Sr at sub-nanogram per gram levels in a Mt Blanc snow and ice core. This two century time series of Sr isotopes is the first to be reported in an Alpine glacier. The Sr and Rb concentrations range from 3 ng/g to 20 pg/g and 1 ng/g to 10 pg/g, respectively, with higher concentrations evident in more recent times. This trend is consistent with that reported previously for other metals such as Cd, Cu and Zn [K. Van de Velde, C. Barbante, G. Cozzi, I. Moret, T. Bellomi, C. Ferrari, C. Boutron, Changes in the occurrence of silver, gold, platinum, palladium and rhodium in Mont Blanc ice and snow since the 18th century, Atmos. Environ. 34 (2000) 3117-3127; K. Van de Velde, C. Boutron, C. Ferrari, T. Bellomi, C. Barbante, S. Rudnev, M. Bolshov, Seasonal variations of heavy metals in the 1960s Alpine ice: sources versus meteorological factors, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 164 (1998) 521-533; K.J.R. Rosman, C. Ly, K. Van de Velde, C.F. Boutron, A two century record of lead isotopes in high altitude Alpine snow and ice, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 176 (2000) 413-424]. The 87Sr/ 86Sr ratios vary between 0.7020 and 0.7176 and display relatively larger variations in recent times which have been attributed to seasonal variations made evident by the increased sampling resolution available at shallower depths. No change with time is evident in this ratio which has a mean value of ˜ 0.712 and is similar to Glacial ice at Summit Greenland, suggesting that aerosols reaching Mt Blanc represent the same mixture of sources. Also, anthropogenic sources would appear to have the same isotopic ratio. The presence of Saharan dust in some samples is confirmed here by their strontium isotopic ratios.

  10. The 21st century propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haloulakos, V. E.; Boehmer, C.

    1990-01-01

    The prediction of future space travel in the next millennium starts by examining the past and extrapolating into the far future. Goals for the 21st century include expanded space travel and establishment of permanent manned outposts, and representation of Lunar and Mars outposts as the most immediate future in space. Nuclear stage design/program considerations; launch considerations for manned Mars missions; and far future propulsion schemes are outlined.

  11. Three Dimensional Origin of AdS_2 Quantum Gravity

    E-print Network

    Alejandra Castro; Cynthia Keeler; Finn Larsen

    2010-04-05

    We study AdS_2 quantum gravity with emphasis on consistency with results from AdS_3. We lift AdS_2 black holes to three dimensions and map fluctuations around the solutions. Comparison with near extremal BTZ are discussed, with due emphasis on global aspects. The results confirm that parameters like central charges and conformal weights computed directly in 2D are consistent with standard results in 3D. Applying our results to the thermodynamics of near extreme Kerr black holes, we show that AdS_2 quantum gravity gives the correct central charge c=12J, and the entropy of excitations above the extremal limit is captured correctly.

  12. Dyonic AdS black holes from magnetohydrodynamics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marco M. Caldarelli; Óscar J. C. Dias; Dietmar Klemm

    2009-01-01

    We use the AdS\\/CFT correspondence to argue that large dyonic black holes in anti-de Sitter spacetime are dual to stationary solutions of the equations of relativistic magnetohydrodynamics on the conformal boundary of AdS. The dyonic Kerr-Newman-AdS4 solution corresponds to a charged diamagnetic fluid not subject to any net Lorentz force, due to orthogonal magnetic and electric fields compensating each other.

  13. Plague: the dreadful visitation occupying the human mind for centuries.

    PubMed

    Khan, Iqbal Akhtar

    2004-05-01

    Plague is one of mankind's greatest scourges, which has swept away millions of people over the centuries. The first available record of the occurrence of this calamity, in humans, is from the Bible, in 1000 bc, in the city of Ashdod. The first definitely identified pandemic originated in Egypt in ad 542 (the Justinian Plague) and is estimated to have caused 100 million deaths. The second one, lasting for three centuries and claiming over 25 million lives appeared in 1334 in China spreading to many spots on the globe. The third pandemic occurred in Europe from the fifteenth to eighteenth century. The current pandemic began around 1860, in the Chinese province Yunnan; it reached Hong Kong in 1894 killing 100 000 individuals. Within 20 years the disease spread from southern Chinese ports throughout the world resulting in more than 10 million deaths. Since the discovery of the causative agent in 1894, there have been remarkable advancements in immunoprophylaxis and chemoprophylaxis. However, the disease is still active in Africa, in Asia and in Americas and has been classified as a currently re-emerging disease. A 'Plague-free World' will probably remain a dream for an indefinite period. PMID:15109549

  14. [Value-Added--Adding Economic Value in the Food Industry].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welch, Mary A., Ed.

    1989-01-01

    This booklet focuses on the economic concept of "value added" to goods and services. A student activity worksheet illustrates how the steps involved in processing food are examples of the concept of value added. The booklet further links food processing to the idea of value added to the Gross National Product (GNP). Discussion questions, a student…

  15. Adding Value to Agricultural Products 

    E-print Network

    Anderson, David P.; Hanselka, Daniel

    2009-06-01

    You can significantly increase farm income by adding value to agricultural products and marketing those products effectively. This publication explains how to design a value-added product based on consumer preferences and how to build a business...

  16. Value Added in English Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ray, Andrew; McCormack, Tanya; Evans, Helen

    2009-01-01

    Value-added indicators are now a central part of school accountability in England, and value-added information is routinely used in school improvement at both the national and the local levels. This article describes the value-added models that are being used in the academic year 2007-8 by schools, parents, school inspectors, and other…

  17. Nineteenth Century Exploration of Australia

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Rakestraw, Jennifer.

    2002-01-01

    Created by Dr. Charles H. Smith and Jennifer Rakestraw, this well-crafted site is built around an Australian map that details the routes taken by nineteenth century Australian explorers. The map has been reproduced into three online sections -- western, central, and eastern -- and each section contains a list of explorers who navigated that region of the continent. Also included are Internet links to all of the explorers, which can be accessed from the left-side panel on the home page or at the bottom of each map section.

  18. Annual precipitation in the Yellowstone National Park region since AD 1173

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen T. Gray; Lisa J. Graumlich; Julio L. Betancourt

    2007-01-01

    Cores and cross sections from 133 limber pine (Pinus flexilis James) and Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirbel) Franco) at four sites were used to estimate annual (July to June) precipitation in the Yellowstone National Park region for the period from AD 1173 to 1998. Examination of the long-term record shows that the early 20th century was markedly wet compared to

  19. Black Hole Astrophysics in AdS Braneworlds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emparan, Roberto; García-Bellido, Juan; Kaloper, Nemanja

    2003-01-01

    We consider astrophysics of large black holes localized on the brane in the infinite Randall-Sundrum model. Using their description in terms of a conformal field theory (CFT) coupled to gravity, deduced in ref. [1], we show that they undergo a period of rapid decay via Hawking radiation of CFT modes. For example, a black hole of mass few × Modot would shed most of its mass in ~ 104-105 years if the AdS radius is L ~ 10-1 mm, currently the upper bound from table-top experiments. Since this is within the mass range of X-ray binary systems containing a black hole, the evaporation enhanced by the hidden sector CFT modes could cause the disappearance of X-ray sources on the sky. This would be a striking signature of RS2 with a large AdS radius. Alternatively, for shorter AdS radii, the evaporation would be slower. In such cases, the persistence of X-ray binaries with black holes already implies an upper bound on the AdS radius of Llesssim10-2 mm, an order of magnitude better than the bounds from table-top experiments. The observation of primordial black holes with a mass in the MACHO range M ~ 0.1-0.5 Modot and an age comparable to the age of the universe would further strengthen the bound on the AdS radius to Llesssimfew × 10-6 mm.

  20. ADS Development in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikuchi, Kenji

    2010-06-01

    Accelerator driven nuclear transmutation system has been pursued to have a clue to the solution of high-level radioactive waste management. The concept consists of super conducting linac, sub-critical reactor and the beam window. Reference model is set up to 800MW thermal power by using 1.5GeV proton beams with considerations multi-factors such as core criticality. Materials damage is simulated by high-energy particle transport codes and so on. Recent achievement on irradiation materials experiment is stated and the differences are pointed out if core burn-up is considered or not. Heat balance in tank-type ADS indicates the temperature conditions of steam generator, the beam widow and cladding materials. Lead-bismuth eutectics demonstration has been conducted. Corrosion depth rate was shown by experiments.

  1. Adding and Subtracting Integers

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mrs. Richins

    2008-09-10

    Now that you have mastered the common math operations of adding, subtracting, multiplying and dividing, you are ready to tackle some more challenging, yet practical problems. For example: How much money do you have if your Mom paid you $20 for every time you mowed the lawn, but you had to pay your little brother $5 for every time he helped you, and together you accomplished the job 7 times? Or how about this one: if you picked 5 apples but 2 were rotten and you had to divide them equally between you and your five friends, how much would each person get? Current Knowledge You will need a piece of paper to record information and to write down examples, so grab one now. Number the paper from 1 to 10. Get with a partner and write down how you think the equations to solve the above problems will be written. Write these ...

  2. Teaching health in the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Halbert, Lee-Ann

    2015-01-01

    School nurses have a broad scope of practice, including direct clinical care, as well as teaching health lessons. Students in the 21st century require educators who understand the current global needs of these learners. Effective health teaching meets these 21st-century needs. This article presents a background of 21st-century learning, with specific recommendations for teaching this generation of students. PMID:25626242

  3. Milestones in the 20th century.

    PubMed

    Bergmann, Karl-Christian

    2014-01-01

    From its very beginning, the 20th century represented the period of the main breakthrough for allergology as a clinical and scientific entity. The first years of this period were extraordinarily exciting because of the discovery of the anaphylactic reaction in 1902 and its clinical diagnosis as 'local anaphylaxis', 'serum sickness' (1903) or even as 'anaphylactic shock' (1907). The term 'allergy' was coined in 1906 and led to the recognition of allergic diseases as a pathogenetic entity. The first patient organization of hay fever sufferers was founded in Germany in 1900, the same year in which the very first report on immunotherapy was published in New York. In 1911 the era of actual immunotherapy started in London, becoming scientific with the first double-blind study in 1956, and still today being regarded as the backbone of allergology. In 1919 it was shown that allergy could be transferred by blood, in 1921 by serum (Prausnitz-Küstner test) and in 1966 the mystic 'reagins' were recognized as immunoglobulin (Ig) E. The development of the radioallergosorbent test for quantifying specific IgE antibody was a diagnostic landmark for allergists all over the world. The history of allergy diagnosis started with the introduction of a 'functional skin test', named the patch test in 1894. The scratch test was described in 1912 and the patch test in 1931. From 1908 the skin was tested by intracutaneous injections, and from 1930 by a 'puncture test' (a precursor of the prick test) which has been in worldwide use in modified variations since 1959. The rub test ('friction test') was added in 1961. Systematically applied provocation tests started with conjunctival provocation (1907), followed by nasal and bronchial provocation with allergens (1914 and 1925). PMID:24925382

  4. Worldsheet scattering in AdS3/CFT2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundin, Per; Wulff, Linus

    2013-07-01

    We confront the recently proposed exact S-matrices for AdS 3/ CFT 2 with direct worldsheet calculations. Utilizing the BMN and Near Flat Space (NFS) expansions for strings on AdS 3 × S 3 × S 3 × S 1 and AdS 3 × S 3 × T 4 we compute both tree-level and one-loop scattering amplitudes. Up to some minor issues we find nice agreement in the tree-level sector. At the one-loop level however we find that certain non-zero tree-level processes, which are not visible in the exact solution, contribute, via the optical theorem, and give an apparent mismatch for certain amplitudes. Furthermore we find that a proposed one-loop modification of the dressing phase correctly reproduces the worldsheet calculation while the standard Hernandez-Lopez phase does not. We also compute several massless to massless processes.

  5. [Effects of physics on development of optometry in the United States from the late 19th to the mid 20th century].

    PubMed

    Kim, Dal-Young

    2014-08-01

    In this paper, it was studied how physics affected development of optometry in the United States, from aspects of formation and academization of optometry. It was also revealed that history of optometry was analogous to history of engineering. Optics in the 19th century was divided into electromagnetic study of light and visual optics. Development of the visual optics promoted professionalization of ophthalmology that had already started in the 18th century. The visual optics also stimulated formation of optometry and optometrists body in the late 19th century of the United States. The American optometrists body were originated from opticians who had studied visual optics. Publication of several English academic textbooks on visual optics induced appearance of educated opticians (and jewelers). They acquired a right to do the eye examination in the early 20th century after C. F. Prentice's trial in 1897, evolving into optometrists. The opticians could be considered as craftsmen, and they were divided into (dispensing) opticians and optometrists. Such history of American optometrists body is analogous to that of engineers body in the viewpoints of craftsmen origin and separation from craftsmen. Engineers were also originated from educated craftsmen, but were separated from craftsmen when engineering was built up. Education system and academization of optometry was strongly influenced by physics, too. When college education of optometry started at American universities, it was not belonged to medical school but to physics department. Physics and optics were of great importance in curriculum, and early faculty members were mostly physicists. Optometry was academized in the 1920s by the college education, standardization of curriculum, and formation of the American Academy of Optometry. This is also analogous to history of engineering, which was academized by natural sciences, especially by mathematics and physics. The reason why optometry was academized not by medicine but by physics is because ophthalmologists did not have conciliatory attitudes to optometry education. Optometry became independent of physics from the 1930s to the 1940s. Optometric researches concentrated on binocular vision that is not included to discipline of physics, and faculty members who majored in optometry increased, so that optometry departments and graduate schools were established around 1940. Such independence from natural sciences after academization also resembles history of engineering. On the contrary, history of optometry was different from history of ophthalmology in several aspects. Ophthalmology had already been formed in the 18th century before development of visual optics, and was not academized by visual optics. Ophthalmologists body were not originated from craftsmen, and were not separated from craftsmen. History of optometry in the United States from the late 19th to the mid 20th century is analogous to history of engineering rather than history of medicine, though optometry is a medical discipline. PMID:25223224

  6. Comments on String Theory on $AdS_3$

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amit Giveon; David Kutasov; Nathan Seiberg

    1998-01-01

    We study string propagation on $AdS_3$ times a compact space from an ``old fashioned'' worldsheet point of view of perturbative string theory. We derive the spacetime CFT and its Virasoro and current algebras, thus establishing the conjectured $AdS$\\/CFT correspondence for this case in the full string theory. Our results have implications for the extreme IR limit of the $D1-D5$ system,

  7. Mixed-symmetry fields in AdS(5), conformal fields, and AdS/CFT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metsaev, R. R.

    2015-01-01

    Mixed-symmetry arbitrary spin massive, massless, and self-dual massive fields in AdS(5) are studied. Light-cone gauge actions for such fields leading to decoupled equations of motion are constructed. Light-cone gauge formulation of mixed-symmetry anomalous conformal currents and shadows in 4d flat space is also developed. AdS/CFT correspondence for normalizable and non-normalizable modes of mixed-symmetry AdS fields and the respective boundary mixed-symmetry anomalous conformal currents and shadows is studied. We demonstrate that the light-cone gauge action for massive mixed-symmetry AdS field evaluated on solution of the Dirichlet problem amounts to the light-cone gauge 2-point vertex of mixed-symmetry anomalous shadow. Also we show that UV divergence of the action for mixed-symmetry massive AdS field with some particular value of mass parameter evaluated on the Dirichlet problem amounts to the action of long mixed-symmetry conformal field, while UV divergence of the action for mixed-symmetry massless AdS field evaluated on the Dirichlet problem amounts to the action of short mixed-symmetry conformal field. We speculate on string theory interpretation of a model which involves short low-spin conformal fields and long higher-spin conformal fields.

  8. Mixed-symmetry fields in AdS(5), conformal fields, and AdS/CFT

    E-print Network

    R. R. Metsaev

    2014-10-27

    Mixed-symmetry arbitrary spin massive, massless, and self-dual massive fields in AdS(5) are studied. Light-cone gauge actions for such fields leading to decoupled equations of motion are constructed. Light-cone gauge formulation of mixed-symmetry anomalous conformal currents and shadows in 4d flat space is also developed. AdS/CFT correspondence for normalizable and non-normalizable modes of mixed-symmetry AdS fields and the respective boundary mixed-symmetry anomalous conformal currents and shadows is studied. We demonstrate that the light-cone gauge action for massive mixed-symmetry AdS field evaluated on solution of the Dirichlet problem amounts to the light-cone gauge 2-point vertex of mixed-symmetry anomalous shadow. Also we show that UV divergence of the action for mixed-symmetry massive AdS field with some particular value of mass parameter evaluated on the Dirichlet problem amounts to the action of long mixed-symmetry conformal field, while UV divergence of the action for mixed-symmetry massless AdS field evaluated on the Dirichlet problem amounts to the action of short mixed-symmetry conformal field. We speculate on string theory interpretation of a model which involves short low-spin conformal fields and long higher-spin conformal fields.

  9. Phase transitions in warped AdS3 gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Detournay, Stéphane; Zwikel, Céline

    2015-05-01

    We consider asymptotically Warped AdS3 black holes in Topologically Massive Gravity. We study their thermodynamic stability and show the existence of a Hawking-Page phase transition between the black hole and thermal background phases. At zero angular potential, the latter is shown to occur at the self-dual point of the dual Warped Conformal Field Theory partition function, in analogy with the phase transition for BTZ black holes in AdS3/CFT2. We also discuss how the central and vacuum charges can be obtained from inner horizon mechanics in the presence of a gravitational anomaly.

  10. AUTUMN PROGRAMME 2011 3RD OCT -18TH DECREINVENTYOUR FREETIME

    E-print Network

    Oakley, Jeremy

    entrance to Bar One at 13:00. The ice hockey will finish at 16:00. Tickets Ł7. JUDO Judo improves your, falls and techniques that make Judo the exciting and fast paced sport it is. Everybody is welcome

  11. 18th Australasian Fluid Mechanics Conference Launceston, Australia

    E-print Network

    Marusic, Ivan

    of a numerical/experimental database covering two decades of Reynolds numbers, a series of a priori tests] estimated that the number of grid points necessary to accurately resolve a channel flow with LES scales energy spectrogram of streamwise velocity fluctuation in a turbulent boundary layer. effect [3, 9

  12. Milner Symposium Edinburgh, 16th 18th April 2012

    E-print Network

    Priestley, Hilary

    ˇ Gérard Berry, INRIA, France ˇ Georges Gonthier, Microsoft, France ˇ Robert Harper, Carnegie Melon of Edinburgh ˇ John Power, University of Bath ˇ Jan Rutten, CWI, Amsterdam ˇ Davide Sangiorgi, University

  13. Published in IET Communications Received on 18th June 2009

    E-print Network

    Zummo, Salam Adel

    .1049/iet-com.2009.0381 ISSN 1751-8628 Optimal power allocation and power control for VBLAST systems with M to determine the optimal power allocation pattern for the VBLAST systems with M-ary modulations. Simulations) to achieve good system performance at moderate complexity. In this paper, we consider the power allocation

  14. CDRC Regional Service Center 901 E. 18th St

    E-print Network

    of young children who may be at risk for developing Autism Spectrum Disorder Who: Infants / toddlers 6 and Rehabilitation Center of Oregon Health Science University The Eugene CDRC Infant Toddler Assessment Clinic for developing Autism Spectrum Disorder Who: Infants / toddlers 6 months to 18 months old When: Please call

  15. INTERNATIONAL ATOMIC ENERGY AGENCY 18th IAEA Fusion Energy Conference

    E-print Network

    Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332, USA 6) General Atomics, San Diego, CA 92186, USA 7) Lawrence Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332, USA 6) General Atomics, San Diego, CA 92186, USA 7) Lawrence 08543, USA 2) Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA 3) Oak Ridge National

  16. Franklin College Faculty Senate Meeting Thursday, October 18th

    E-print Network

    Arnold, Jonathan

    (Geography), Pamela Voekel (proxy for John Short [History]), Eric Stabb (Microbiology), Bram Tucker Fusillo (Dance), Michael Hahn (Plant Biology), Benjamin Ehlers (proxy for Shane Hamilton [History]), Linda & Film), Hilda Kurtz (Geography), Roy Legette (Music), Robert Rumely (proxy for Gordana Matic

  17. Slides for Research Awayday Sept 18th 2008 Some interdisciplinary

    E-print Network

    Sloman, Aaron

    of learning missed by most developmental psychologists, roboticists, educators, .... with potentially profound of virtual machines 4: The new CogX project ­ just starting Potential links with many areas of the university://www.cs.bham.ac.uk/research/projects/xanibot/ Next week: BCS Visions of Computer Science conference November: RAE conference on Engineering

  18. Oct 18th, 2005 Speech Analysis and Interpretation

    E-print Network

    Busso, Carlos

    ˇ Engaging human-computer interfaces and application such as animated features films have motivated realistic and Processing ˇ Database ˇ An actress read 633 utterances expressing different emotions (angry, happy, sad and neutral) ˇ Video: - Sample rate: 120 fps - VICON capture system - Head Motion features (,,) extracted

  19. The 18th Annual Condensed Matter Physics Meeting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Don Chaplin; Wayne Hutchinson; Nick Yazidjoglou; Glen Stewart

    1994-01-01

    The Handbook contains abstracts of oral and poster presentations covering various aspects of condensed matter physics such as magnetism, superconductivity, semiconductor materials and their properties, as well as the use of nuclear techniques in studies of these materials. 162 contributions have been considered to be in the INIS subject scope and were indexed separately.

  20. 18th Australasian Fluid Mechanics Conference Launceston, Australia

    E-print Network

    Marusic, Ivan

    The experiments are performed at the High Reynolds Number Boundary Layer Wind Tunnel (HRNBLWT) at the University turbu- lent boundary layer. Measurements are performed over a FOV of 0.8m × 0.5m (2.25 × 1.4, where denotes the boundary layer thickness) in the streamwise and wall-normal directions respectively

  1. 18th Australasian Fluid Mechanics Conference Launceston, Australia

    E-print Network

    Marusic, Ivan

    are conducted in the High Reynolds Number Boundary Layer Wind Tunnel (HRNBLWT), located at the Uni- versity of Melbourne. This is an open-return blower tunnel with a working section of 27 × 2 × 1m with a boundary layer of streamwise and spanwise fluctuating velocity components in a high Reynolds number turbulent boundary layer R

  2. CSE 509 System Security Lecture 6 18th

    E-print Network

    Sekar, R.

    on Oct3. Sign up online. Return Oriented Programing find gadgets in original binary code Gadget: consists of instn and ends with ret insn insn . . insn ret String together the gadgets to accomplish work. FACT: There are enough gadgets in the libc to do any computation LOAD inst %eax address pop %eax ret

  3. Turn of the Century Posters

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This digital exhibit begins with an illustration of a group of urbanites all in a state of advanced concentration as they consider the latest issue of Harperâ??s magazine. Created sometime in the 1890s, this particular poster by Edward Penfield was one of the first art posters published in America. This online collection from the New York Public Library is full of such images, and visitors will enjoy looking over the hundreds of art posters from the turn of the century offered here. Visitors can view posters created by dozens of artists, and they can also search the entire collection, if they so desire. There are a number of gems here, including the poster advertising the novel â??The Involuntary Chaperonâ? by H.R. Boehm and Edmund Henry Garrettâ??s poster for â??Romance and Reality of the Puritan Coastâ?.

  4. Teberda valley runoff variability (AD 1797-2003) based on tree-ring reconstruction (Northern Caucasus, Russia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matskovskiy, V. V.; Dolgova, E. A.; Solomina, O. N.

    2009-04-01

    In this paper we provide a new tree-ring based runoff reconstruction for Teberda river for 1797-2003. Teberda river is a tributary of Kuban' (Azov Sea basin), 60 km long with the watershed surface equal to 1080 km2. 60% of runoff occurs in summer, 17% - in the fall, 5% - in winter, 18% - in spring. 55,8% of runoff (at Teberda hydrological station) is provided by snow and ice melt (Lurye 2000). No statistically significant trend is identified in the Teberda runoff records in 1930-2000 despite of some important climatic and environmental changes occurred in this period in the Northern Caucasus, namely a general warming in winter, increase in solid precipitation and recession of glaciers. Tree-ring properties were successfully used previously to reconstruct streamflow (Stockton and Jacoby, 1976, Woodhouse et al., 2006) in the regions where drought influence both tree growth and river runoff regime. In the Northern Caucasus, even at the upper tree limit pine and spruce growth is largely limited by the availability of water (Dologva et al., 2007). The correlation between Pinus silvestris ring width and June-July Teberda river runoff is 0.4, while it increases up to 0.69 for 11-years running mean. We used linear regression of instrumental records of Teberda runoff (1927-2000) and first principal component of the pine ring width chronologies from the same valley to reconstruct the June-July runoff for the period 1797-2003. Our chronology is two centuries longer, but its reliable portion (EPS > 0.8) begin in the late 18th century. We used cross-validation to verify the reconstruction, so the correlation coefficient is 0.72 and mean difference is 23.13 (52% of interquartile range) between reconstruction and instrumental record for the verification period. The reconstruction reproduces well the general trends in runoff variability, but slightly underestimates the amplitude of the runoff positive anomalies in 1940s. The positive peaks of reconstructed runoff are centered around 1825, 1848, 1876, 1898, and 1915; the negative anomalies occurred around 1815, 1835, 1859, 1891, and 1907. The reconstructed anomalies exceeding two standard deviations are more numerous in 19th century, especially in its first half, in comparison with the 20th century. However in general the amplitude of variability of reconstructed runoff in 19th and 20th centuries is similar. Supported by RFBR research grant 07-05-00410.

  5. Morphing into a 21st Century Trainer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mager, R. F.

    1996-01-01

    Forces that will affect trainers into the next century include rapid change, information overload, globalization, downsizing, empowerment, and remote worksites. Key characteristics of a 21st-century trainer include performance orientation, technical skills, social skills, self-employability, bilingualism, and international competence. (JOW)

  6. A CENTURY OF UNRIVALLED PROSPERITY Rudi Dornbusch

    E-print Network

    Bilbao Arrese, JesĂşs Mario

    of Technology On the verge of world deflation, Japan bankrupt and Europe moving at near-stalling speed only century of prosperity? And yet, this has been the best century ever, never mind the great depression anything it is surely this: even daunting setbacks like depression and war are only momentary tragedies

  7. 21st Century Skills Map: English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Partnership for 21st Century Skills, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This 21st Century Skills Map is the result of hundreds of hours of research, development and feedback from educators and business leaders across the nation. The Partnership for 21st Century Skills has issued this map for the core subject of English.

  8. 21st Century Skills Map: Geography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Partnership for 21st Century Skills, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This 21st Century Skills Map is the result of hundreds of hours of research, development and feedback from educators and business leaders across the nation. The Partnership for 21st Century Skills has issued this map for the core subject of Geography.

  9. 21st Century Skills Map: Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Partnership for 21st Century Skills, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This 21st Century Skills Map is the result of hundreds of hours of research, development and feedback from educators and business leaders across the nation. The Partnership for 21st Century Skills has issued this map for the core subject of Science.

  10. 21st Century Skills Map: World Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Partnership for 21st Century Skills, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This 21st Century Skills Map is the result of hundreds of hours of research, development and feedback from educators and business leaders across the nation. The Partnership for 21st Century Skills has issued this map for the core subject of World Languages. [Funding for this paper was provided by EF Education.

  11. 21st Century Skills Map: The Arts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dean, Colleen; Ebert, Christie M. Lynch; McGreevy-Nichols, Susan; Quinn, Betsy; Sabol, F. Robert; Schmid, Dale; Shauck, R. Barry; Shuler, Scott C.

    2010-01-01

    This 21st Century Skills Map is the result of hundreds of hours of research, development and feedback from educators and business leaders across the nation. The Partnership for 21st Century Skills has issued this map for the core subject of the Arts.

  12. The 21st-Century Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2011-01-01

    Step into a classroom in the 21st century, and the odds are it won't look all that different from one in the 20th century. One decade into the 2000s, many schools and universities have been frustrated in their efforts to upgrade their facilities and resources because of shrinking budgets. But even with the ailing economy, some education…

  13. An Unfashionable Rhetoric in the Fifteenth Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, Marjorie Curry

    1989-01-01

    Reveals the continued importance of medieval rhetorical pedagogy throughout the high Middle Ages and early Renaissance by exploring the fifteenth-century popularity, uses of, and references to Geoffrey of Vinsauf's "Poetria nova" (a thirteenth-century verse treatise on the composition of poetry according to rhetorical principles). (SR)

  14. The Century of Education. CEE DP 109

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrisson, Christian; Murtin, Fabrice

    2009-01-01

    Global economic transformations have never been as dramatic as in the twentieth century. Most countries have experienced radical changes in the standards of income per capita, technology, fertility, mortality, income inequality and the extent of democracy in the course of the past century. It is the goal of many disciplines--economics, history,…

  15. Penrose Inequality for Asymptotically AdS Spaces

    E-print Network

    Igor Itkin; Yaron Oz

    2011-07-07

    In general relativity, the Penrose inequality relates the mass and the entropy associated with a gravitational background. If the inequality is violated by an initial Cauchy data, it suggests a creation of a naked singularity, thus providing means to consider the cosmic censorship hypothesis. We propose a general form of Penrose inequality for asymptotically locally AdS spaces.

  16. Adding patents v4 1 myPublications: Adding patents

    E-print Network

    Oakley, Jeremy

    Adding patents v4 1 myPublications: Adding patents You can use myPublications to record details of all your different research outputs, including patents. The system does not automatically search any patent databases so it is necessary for you to enter them manually. 1. On your Home screen click

  17. The Universal Phase Space of AdS3 Gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scarinci, Carlos; Krasnov, Kirill

    2013-08-01

    We describe what can be called the "universal" phase space of AdS3 gravity, in which the moduli spaces of globally hyperbolic AdS spacetimes with compact spatial sections, as well as the moduli spaces of multi-black-hole spacetimes are realized as submanifolds. The universal phase space is parametrized by two copies of the universal Teichmüller space {{T}(1)} and is obtained from the correspondence between maximal surfaces in AdS3 and quasisymmetric homeomorphisms of the unit circle. We also relate our parametrization to the Chern-Simons formulation of 2+1 gravity and, infinitesimally, to the holographic (Fefferman-Graham) description. In particular, we obtain a relation between the generators of quasiconformal deformations in each {{T}(1)} sector and the chiral Brown-Henneaux vector fields. We also relate the charges arising in the holographic description (such as the mass and angular momentum of an AdS3 spacetime) to the periods of the quadratic differentials arising via the Bers embedding of {{T}(1)×{T}(1)} . Our construction also yields a symplectic map {T^ ast {T}(1) ? {T}(1) × {T}(1)} generalizing the well-known Mess map in the compact spatial surface setting.

  18. Dyonic AdS black holes from magnetohydrodynamics

    E-print Network

    Marco M. Caldarelli; Oscar J. C. Dias; Dietmar Klemm

    2009-01-15

    We use the AdS/CFT correspondence to argue that large dyonic black holes in anti-de Sitter spacetime are dual to stationary solutions of the equations of relativistic magnetohydrodynamics on the conformal boundary of AdS. The dyonic Kerr-Newman-AdS_4 solution corresponds to a charged diamagnetic fluid not subject to any net Lorentz force, due to orthogonal magnetic and electric fields compensating each other. The conserved charges, stress tensor and R-current of the fluid are shown to be in exact agreement with the corresponding quantities of the black hole. Furthermore, we obtain stationary solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations in four dimensions, which yield predictions for (yet to be constructed) charged rotating black strings in AdS_5 carrying nonvanishing momentum along the string. Finally, we consider Scherk-Schwarz reduced AdS gravity on a circle. In this theory, large black holes and black strings are dual to lumps of deconfined plasma of the associated CFT. We analyze the effects that a magnetic field introduces in the Rayleigh-Plateau instability of a plasma tube, which is holographically dual to the Gregory-Laflamme instability of a magnetically charged black string.

  19. Personalized Ad Delivery When Ads Fatigue: An Approximation Algorithm

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zoë Abrams; Erik Vee

    2007-01-01

    We consider a crucial aspect of displaying advertisements on the internet: the individual user. In particular, we consider ad fatigue, where a user tires of an advertisement as it is seen more often. We would like to show advertisements such that, given the impact of ad fatigue, the overall eciency of the system is optimized. We design an approximation algorithm,

  20. 18th Conference on Postal and Delivery Economics Revised August 24, 2010 18th Conference on Postal and Delivery Economics

    E-print Network

    Lin, Xiaodong

    Vergano-European Lawyers Howery LLP K&L Gates LLP London Economics Luis Jimenez Consulting LLC New Zealand Post Limited #12 Rutgers Business School ­ Newark and New Brunswick Sponsored by Royal Mail Deutsche Post World Net Itella Consulting TNT Post Frontier Economics Oxera SLS Consulting, LLC Venable LLP Bird & Bird LLP Canadian Union

  1. A hidden symmetry of AdS resonances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evnin, Oleg; Krishnan, Chethan

    2015-06-01

    Recent investigations have revealed powerful selection rules for resonant energy transfer between modes of nonlinear perturbations in global anti-de Sitter (AdS) space-time. It is likely that these selection rules are due to the highly symmetric nature of the underlying AdS background, though the precise relation has remained unclear. In this article, we demonstrate that the equation satisfied by the scalar field mode functions in AdSd +1 has a hidden S U (d ) symmetry, and explicitly specify the multiplets of this S U (d ) symmetry furnished by the mode functions. We also comment on the role this structure might play in explaining the selection rules.

  2. Gauge boson exchange in AdS d+1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Hoker, Eric; Freedman, Daniel Z.

    1999-04-01

    We study the amplitude for exchange of massless gauge bosons between pairs of massive scalar fields in anti-de Sitter space. In the AdS/CFT correspondence this amplitude describes the contribution of conserved flavor symmetry currents to 4-point functions of scalar operators in the boundary conformal theory. A concise, covariant, Y2K compatible derivation of the gauge boson propagator in AdS d + 1 is given. Techniques are developed to calculate the two bulk integrals over AdS space leading to explicit expressions or convenient, simple integral representations for the amplitude. The amplitude contains leading power and sub-leading logarithmic singularities in the gauge boson channel and leading logarithms in the crossed channel. The new methods of this paper are expected to have other applications in the study of the Maldacena conjecture.

  3. Wilson lines for AdS5 black strings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hristov, Kiril; Katmadas, Stefanos

    2015-02-01

    We describe a simple method of extending AdS5 black string solutions of 5d gauged supergravity in a supersymmetric way by addition of Wilson lines along a circular direction in space. When this direction is chosen along the string, and due to the specific form of 5d supergravity that features Chern-Simons terms, the existence of magnetic charges automatically generates conserved electric charges in a 5d analogue of the Witten effect. Therefore we find a rather generic, model-independent way of adding electric charges to already existing solutions with no backreaction from the geometry or breaking of any symmetry. We use this method to explicitly write down more general versions of the Benini-Bobev black strings [1, 2] and comment on the implications for the dual field theory and the similarities with generalizations of the Cacciatori-Klemm black holes [3] in AdS4.

  4. Wilson lines for AdS_5 black strings

    E-print Network

    Kiril Hristov; Stefanos Katmadas

    2014-12-03

    We describe a simple method of extending AdS_5 black string solutions of 5d gauged supergravity in a supersymmetric way by addition of Wilson lines along a circular direction in space. When this direction is chosen along the string, and due to the specific form of 5d supergravity that features Chern-Simons terms, the existence of magnetic charges automatically generates conserved electric charges in a 5d analogue of the Witten effect. Therefore we find a rather generic, model-independent way of adding electric charges to already existing solutions with no backreaction from the geometry or breaking of any symmetry. We use this method to explicitly write down more general versions of the Benini-Bobev black strings and comment on the implications for the dual field theory and the similarities with generalizations of the Cacciatori-Klemm black holes in AdS_4.

  5. AdS Holography in the Penrose Limit

    E-print Network

    Nelia Mann; Joseph Polchinski

    2003-05-27

    We study the holographic description of string theory in a plane wave spacetime by taking the Penrose limit of the usual AdS/CFT correspondence. We consider three-point functions with two BMN operators and one non-BMN operator; the latter should go over to a perturbation of the dual CFT. On the string side we take the Penrose limit of the metric perturbation produced by the non-BMN operator, and the BMN state propagates in this perturbed background. The work of Lee, Minwalla, Rangamani, and Seiberg shows that for chiral operators the AdS three-point functions agree with those calculated in the free gauge theory. However, when this is reduced to an effective plane wave amplitude by truncating the amplitude to propagate from the AdS boundary to the Penrose geodesic, we find a puzzling mismatch. We discuss possible resolutions, and future directions.

  6. A Hidden Symmetry of AdS Resonances

    E-print Network

    Oleg Evnin; Chethan Krishnan

    2015-06-19

    Recent investigations have revealed powerful selection rules for resonant energy transfer between modes of non-linear perturbations in global anti-de Sitter (AdS) space-time. It is likely that these selection rules are due to the highly symmetric nature of the underlying AdS background, though the precise relation has remained unclear. In this article, we demonstrate that the equation satisfied by the scalar field mode functions in AdS(d+1) has a hidden SU(d) symmetry, and explicitly specify the multiplets of this SU(d) symmetry furnished by the mode functions. We also comment on the role this structure might play in explaining the selection rules.

  7. The ADS Bibliographic Reference Resolver

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alberto Accomazzi; Guenther Eichhorn; M. J. Kurtz; C. S. Grant; Stephen S. Murray

    1999-01-01

    An increasingly larger number of publishers and institutions are using the NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) to verify the existence and availability of references published in the astronomical literature. In this paper we discuss the tools and utilities that the ADS is developing to provide the capability to automatically parse, identify, and verify the existence and correctness of citations appearing

  8. ADS's Dexter Data Extraction Applet

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Demleitner; A. Accomazzi; G. Eichhorn; C. S. Grant; M. J. Kurtz; S. S. Murray

    2001-01-01

    The NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) now holds 1.3 million scanned pages, containing numerous plots and figures for which the original data sets are lost or inaccessible. The availability of scans of the figures can significantly ease the regeneration of the data sets. For this purpose, the ADS has developed Dexter, a Java applet that supports the user in this

  9. Usual Intake of Added sugars

    Cancer.gov

    Usual Intake of Added sugars Table A40. Added sugars: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 teaspoons3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 9.4 (0.31) 3.1 (0.17) 4.1

  10. Supersymmetric AdS_6 Solutions of Type IIB Supergravity

    E-print Network

    Kim, Hyojoong; Suh, Minwoo

    2015-01-01

    We study the general requirement for supersymmetric AdS$_6$ solutions in type IIB supergravity. We employ the Killing spinor technique and study the differential and algebraic relations among various Killing spinor bilinears to find the canonical form of the solutions. Our result agrees precisely with the work of Apruzzi et. al. \\cite{Apruzzi:2014qva} which used the pure spinor technique. We also obtained the four-dimensional theory through the dimensional reduction of type IIB supergravity on AdS$_6$. This effective action is essentially a nonlinear sigma model with five scalar fields parametrizing $\\textrm{SL}(3,\\mathbb{R})/\\textrm{SO}(2,1)$, modified by a scalar potential and coupled to Einstein gravity in Euclidean signature. We argue that the scalar potential can be explained by a subgroup CSO(1,1,1) $\\subset\\textrm{SL}(3,\\mathbb{R})$ in a way analogous to gauged supergravity.

  11. Supersymmetric Charged Clouds in AdS_5

    E-print Network

    Nikolay Bobev; Arnab Kundu; Krzysztof Pilch; Nicholas P. Warner

    2010-07-10

    We consider supersymmetric holographic flows that involve background gauge fields dual to chemical potentials in the boundary field theory. We use a consistent truncation of gauged N=8 supergravity in five dimensions and we give a complete analysis of the supersymmetry conditions for a large family of flows. We examine how the well-known supersymmetric flow between two fixed points is modified by the presence of the chemical potentials and this yields a new, completely smooth, solution that interpolates between two global AdS spaces of different radii and with different values of the chemical potential. We also examine some black-hole-like singular flows and a new non-supersymmetric black hole solution. We comment on the interpretation of our new solutions in terms of giant gravitons and discuss the implications of our work for finding black-hole solutions in AdS geometries.

  12. New boundary conditions for AdS3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Compčre, Geoffrey; Song, Wei; Strominger, Andrew

    2013-05-01

    New chiral boundary conditions are found for quantum gravity with matter on AdS3. The associated asymptotic symmetry group is generated by a single right-moving U(1) Kac-Moody-Virasoro algebra with {c_R}={3?}/2G . The Kac-Moody zero mode generates global left-moving translations and equals, for a BTZ black hole, the sum of the total mass and spin. The level is positive about the global vacuum and negative in the black hole sector, corresponding to ergosphere formation. Realizations arising in Chern-Simons gravity and string theory are analyzed. The new boundary conditions are shown to naturally arise for warped AdS3 in the limit that the warp parameter is taken to zero.

  13. General Kerr NUT AdS metrics in all dimensions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Chen; H. Lü; C. N. Pope

    2006-01-01

    The Kerr AdS metric in dimension D has cohomogeneity [D\\/2]; the metric components depend on the radial coordinate r and [D\\/2] latitude variables mui that are subject to the constraint ?imu2i = 1. We find a coordinate reparametrization in which the mui variables are replaced by [D\\/2] - 1 unconstrained coordinates yalpha, and having the remarkable property that the Kerr

  14. Spiky Strings on AdS(4) X CP**3

    E-print Network

    Bum-Hoon Lee; Kamal L. Panigrahi; Chanyong Park

    2008-11-07

    We study a giant magnon and a spike solution for the string rotating on AdS(4) X CP**3 geometry. We consider rigid rotating fundamental string in the SU(2) X SU(2) sector inside the CP**3 and find out the general form of all the conserved charges. We find out the dispersion relation corresponding to both the known giant magnon and the new spike solutions. We further study the finite size correction in both cases.

  15. Shock Wave Collisions and Thermalization in AdS_5

    E-print Network

    Yuri V. Kovchegov

    2010-11-02

    We study heavy ion collisions at strong 't Hooft coupling using AdS/CFT correspondence. According to the AdS/CFT dictionary heavy ion collisions correspond to gravitational shock wave collisions in AdS_5. We construct the metric in the forward light cone after the collision perturbatively through expansion of Einstein equations in graviton exchanges. We obtain an analytic expression for the metric including all-order graviton exchanges with one shock wave, while keeping the exchanges with another shock wave at the lowest order. We read off the corresponding energy-momentum tensor of the produced medium. Unfortunately this energy-momentum tensor does not correspond to ideal hydrodynamics, indicating that higher order graviton exchanges are needed to construct the full solution of the problem. We also show that shock waves must completely stop almost immediately after the collision in AdS_5, which, on the field theory side, corresponds to complete nuclear stopping due to strong coupling effects, likely leading to Landau hydrodynamics. Finally, we perform trapped surface analysis of the shock wave collisions demonstrating that a bulk black hole, corresponding to ideal hydrodynamics on the boundary, has to be created in such collisions, thus constructing a proof of thermalization in heavy ion collisions at strong coupling.

  16. SUSY properties of warped AdS$_3$

    E-print Network

    Jeong, Jaehoon; Yoshida, Kentaroh

    2014-01-01

    We examine supersymmetric properties of null-warped AdS$_3$, or alternatively Schrodinger geometries, dual to putative warped CFTs in two dimensions. We classify super Schrodinger subalgebras of the superalgebra psu(1, 1$|$2) $\\oplus$ psu(1, 1$|$2) , corresponding to the superconformal algebra of the AdS$_3 \\times$ S$^3$ geometry. We comment on geometric realisations and provide a string theory description with enhanced supersymmetry in terms of intersecting D3-branes. For type IIB supergravity solutions based on T$^{1,1}$, we consider the relationship between five-dimensional Schrodinger solutions and their three-dimensional null-warped counterparts, corresponding to R symmetry twists. Finally, we study a family of null-warped AdS$_3$ solutions in a setting where there is an ambiguity over the R symmetry and confirm that, for examples admitting a KK reduction to three dimensions, the minimisation of a real superpotential of the three-dimensional gauged supergravity captures the central charge and R symmetry.

  17. Influence of coagulation factor x on in vitro and in vivo gene delivery by adenovirus (Ad) 5, Ad35, and chimeric Ad5/Ad35 vectors.

    PubMed

    Greig, Jenny A; Buckley, Suzanne Mk; Waddington, Simon N; Parker, Alan L; Bhella, David; Pink, Rebecca; Rahim, Ahad A; Morita, Takashi; Nicklin, Stuart A; McVey, John H; Baker, Andrew H

    2009-10-01

    The binding of coagulation factor X (FX) to the hexon of adenovirus (Ad) 5 is pivotal for hepatocyte transduction. However, vectors based on Ad35, a subspecies B Ad, are in development for cancer gene therapy, as Ad35 utilizes CD46 (which is upregulated in many cancers) for transduction. We investigated whether interaction of Ad35 with FX influenced vector tropism using Ad5, Ad35, and Ad5/Ad35 chimeras: Ad5/fiber(f)35, Ad5/penton(p)35/f35, and Ad35/f5. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) revealed that Ad35 and Ad35/f5 bound FX with approximately tenfold lower affinities than Ad5 hexon-containing viruses, and electron cryomicroscopy (cryo-EM) demonstrated a direct Ad35 hexon:FX interaction. The presence of physiological levels of FX significantly inhibited transduction of vectors containing Ad35 fibers (Ad5/f35, Ad5/p35/f35, and Ad35) in CD46-positive cells. Vectors were intravenously administered to CD46 transgenic mice in the presence and absence of FX-binding protein (X-bp), resulting in reduced liver accumulation for all vectors. Moreover, Ad5/f35 and Ad5/p35/f35 efficiently accumulated in the lung, whereas Ad5 demonstrated poor lung targeting. Additionally, X-bp significantly reduced lung genome accumulation for Ad5/f35 and Ad5/p35/f35, whereas Ad35 was significantly enhanced. In summary, vectors based on the full Ad35 serotype will be useful vectors for selective gene transfer via CD46 due to a weaker FX interaction compared to Ad5. PMID:19603000

  18. Museums, Libraries, and 21st Century Skills

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Institute of Museum and Library Services (IMLS) has an aggressive research program dedicated to providing cutting-edge information about the trends in library services and other matters. This timely 40-page report is intended to "support museums and public libraries in envisioning and defining their roles as institutions of learning in the 21st century." To achieve this goal, this report brings together case studies of successful 21st century projects at different institutions, along outlining a "vision for the role of libraries and museums in the national dialogue around learning and 21st century skills." Along with the main report and the case studies, the report also includes a self-assessment tool, which allows museums and libraries to determine where they fit on the continuum of 21st century skills operations and programming.

  19. China's March on the 21st Century

    E-print Network

    Deutch, John

    #12;China's March on the 21st Century A Report of the Aspen Strategy Group Kurt M. Campbell, Editor at the Crossroads: The Future of China's Economy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 Lael Brainard Adjusting to China's Rise

  20. Maglev: Transportation for the 21st century

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. M. Andrus; G. T. Gillies

    1987-01-01

    The noise, gaseous and particulate pollution inherent in 19th and 20th century transportation must be eliminated from the city of the 21st century. If cities are to achieve their full potential as economic and cultural centers they must possess superior transportation systems. Ultra-silent, energy stingy, non-polluting maglevs can furnish the passenger and freight transportation system that the coming millennium will

  1. Nineteenth and Twentieth Century Clouds Over the Twenty-First Century Virtual Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peebles, P. J. E.

    Physical science has changed in the century since Lord Kelvin's celebrated essay on Nineteenth Century Clouds over the Dynamical Theory of Heat and Light, but some things are the same. Analogs in what was happening in physics then and what is happening in astronomy today serve to remind us why we can be confident the Virtual Observatory of the twenty-first century will have a rich list of challenges to explore.

  2. Possible earthquake trigger for 6th century mass wasting deposit at Lake Ohrid (Macedonia/Albania)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, B.; Francke, A.; Sulpizio, R.; Zanchetta, G.; Lindhorst, K.; Krastel, S.; Vogel, H.; Rethemeyer, J.; Daut, G.; Grazhdani, A.; Lushaj, B.; Trajanovski, S.

    2012-12-01

    Lake Ohrid shared by the Republics of Albania and Macedonia is formed by a tectonically active graben within the south Balkans and suggested to be the oldest lake in Europe. Several studies have shown that the lake provides a valuable record of climatic and environmental changes and a distal tephrostratigraphic record of volcanic eruptions from Italy. Fault structures identified in seismic data demonstrate that sediments have also the potential to record tectonic activity in the region. Here, we provide an example of linking seismic and sedimentological information with tectonic activity and historical documents. Historical documents indicate that a major earthquake destroyed the city of Lychnidus (today: city of Ohrid) in the early 6th century AD. Multichannel seismic profiles, parametric sediment echosounder profiles, and a 10.08 m long sediment record from the western part of the lake indicate a 2 m thick mass wasting deposit, which is tentatively correlated with this earthquake. The mass wasting deposit is chronologically well constrained, as it directly overlays the AD 472/AD 512 tephra. Moreover, radiocarbon dates and cross correlation with other sediment sequences with similar geochemical characteristics of the Holocene indicate that the mass wasting event took place prior to the onset of the Medieval Warm Period, and is attributed it to one of the known earthquakes in the region in the early 6th century AD.

  3. Adding Value to Agricultural Products

    E-print Network

    Anderson, David P.; Hanselka, Daniel

    2009-06-01

    to their expectations of quality, service, convenience and selection. David P. Anderson and Daniel Hanselka* 2 What Creates Added Value? ?Value? is usually created by focusing on the benefits associated with the agribusiness prod- uct or service that arise from...

  4. Broadcast in Ad Hoc Networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Justin Lipman; Hai Liu; Ivan Stojmenovic

    \\u000a Broadcast is the process of sending a message from one node to all other nodes in an ad hoc network. It is a fundamental operation\\u000a for communication in ad hoc networks as it allows for the update of network information and route discovery as well as other\\u000a operations. The chapter presents a comprehensive review and analysis of existing localized solutions

  5. ADS/CFT and QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; /SLAC; de Teramond, Guy F.; /Costa Rica U. /SLAC

    2007-02-21

    The AdS/CFT correspondence between string theory in AdS space and conformal .eld theories in physical spacetime leads to an analytic, semi-classical model for strongly-coupled QCD which has scale invariance and dimensional counting at short distances and color confinement at large distances. Although QCD is not conformally invariant, one can nevertheless use the mathematical representation of the conformal group in five-dimensional anti-de Sitter space to construct a first approximation to the theory. The AdS/CFT correspondence also provides insights into the inherently non-perturbative aspects of QCD, such as the orbital and radial spectra of hadrons and the form of hadronic wavefunctions. In particular, we show that there is an exact correspondence between the fifth-dimensional coordinate of AdS space z and a specific impact variable {zeta} which measures the separation of the quark and gluonic constituents within the hadron in ordinary space-time. This connection allows one to compute the analytic form of the frame-independent light-front wavefunctions, the fundamental entities which encode hadron properties and allow the computation of decay constants, form factors, and other exclusive scattering amplitudes. New relativistic lightfront equations in ordinary space-time are found which reproduce the results obtained using the 5-dimensional theory. The effective light-front equations possess remarkable algebraic structures and integrability properties. Since they are complete and orthonormal, the AdS/CFT model wavefunctions can also be used as a basis for the diagonalization of the full light-front QCD Hamiltonian, thus systematically improving the AdS/CFT approximation.

  6. AdS_2 and quantum stability in the CGHS model

    E-print Network

    Won Tae Kim

    1999-04-22

    The two-dimensional anti-de Sitter space(AdS_2) is constructed in terms of the CGHS model. The geometric solutions are composed of the AdS vacuum and the AdS black hole which are locally equivalent but distinguishable by their mass. The infalling classical fields do not play any role but the quantum back reaction is crucial in the formation of the AdS vacuum and AdS black hole. In the presence of the AdS black hole, there does not exist any radiation, which is consistent with the constraint equations. Therefore the transition from the AdS black hole to the AdS vacuum is impossible, and they are quantum mechanically stable . We discuss the reason why the vanishing Hawking radiation appears in the AdS_2 black hole in contrast to asymptotically flat black holes.

  7. CH 650 The Book of Common Prayer across The Centuries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William P. Haugaard

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the course is to survey the Book of Common Prayer from the sixteenth century, through succeeding three centuries, through the ecumenical liturgical movement of the twentieth century, to the present-day book authorized by the Episcopal Church in 1979. The British churches will provide the major focus up to the latter years of the eighteenth century when, in

  8. Physiological responses of herbaceous plants to climate change: a century long assessment based on the stable isotope analysis of herbaria specimens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno-Gutierrez, Cristina; Siegwolf, Rolf; Kahmen, Ansgar

    2015-04-01

    It is important to understand plant physiological responses to climate change, as these responses could influence global carbon and water cycles and could ultimately drive changes in plant communities' distribution and biodiversity. Some studies have already related drifts in species' distribution to climate change and manipulative experiments found short-term plant physiological responses to variations in climate. However, plant physiological responses may be species specific and their magnitude was found to decrease with time in these experimental studies. This indicates possible long-term processes of acclimation and adaptation in plants and urges the need to assess the long-term responses of plants to climate change. The isotopic analysis of archived plant material offers the exceptional opportunity to reconstruct the physiological activity of plants over long time periods. The carbon isotopic composition of plants is a good proxy of leaf-level intrinsic water use efficiency and leaf oxygen isotopic composition can provide a time-integrated indication of leaf stomatal conductance during the growing season. Previous studies analysing the physiological activity of plants over long time periods have largely focused on the stable isotope analyses of tree ring chronosequences. Trees represent, however, less than 2% of plant species found in Switzerland. The stable isotope analysis of herbarium samples offers the opportunity to reconstruct the physiological processes of a large range of different plant species from different environments. The objective of this study is to assess the long-term physiological responses of herbaceous plant species from diverse environments and functional groups to changes in climate occurred during the past centuries in Switzerland. In order to do so, leaf herbarium samples from a large number of herbaceous plants species are analysed for their stable oxygen and carbon isotope ratios. Samples are collected from the unique herbaria hold at the University of Basel which cover 600'000 specimens collected mostly in Switzerland since the 18th century for a wide range of species and environments in Switzerland.

  9. Euclidean and Noetherian entropies in AdS space

    SciTech Connect

    Dutta, Suvankar; Gopakumar, Rajesh [Harish-Chandra Research Institute, Chhatnag Road, Jhusi, Allahabad 211019 (India)

    2006-08-15

    We examine the Euclidean action approach, as well as that of Wald, to the entropy of black holes in asymptotically AdS spaces. From the point of view of holography these two approaches are somewhat complementary in spirit and it is not obvious why they should give the same answer in the presence of arbitrary higher derivative gravity corrections. For the case of the AdS{sub 5} Schwarzschild black hole, we explicitly study the leading correction to the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy in the presence of a variety of higher derivative corrections studied in the literature, including the Type IIB R{sup 4} term. We find a nontrivial agreement between the two approaches in every case. Finally, we give a general way of understanding the equivalence of these two approaches.

  10. Small black holes in AdS5 × S5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchel, Alex; Lehner, Luis

    2015-07-01

    We consider small black holes in {{AdS}}5× {S}5, smeared on S5. We compute the spectrum of {\\ell } \\in [1, 10] S5-quasinormal modes corresponding to fluctuations leading to localization of these black holes on S5. We recover the zero mode found by Hubeny and Rangamani previously (Hubeny and Rangamani 2002 J. High Energy Phys. JHEP05(2002)027), and explicitly demonstrate that a Gregory–Laflamme type instability is at play in this system. The instability is associated with the expectation value of a dimension-5 operator.

  11. Gravitational charges of transverse asymptotically AdS spacetimes

    SciTech Connect

    Cebeci, Hakan; Sarioglu, Oezguer; Tekin, Bayram [Department of Physics, Anadolu University, Yunus Emre Campus, 26470, Eskisehir (Turkey); Department of Physics, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Middle East Technical University, 06531, Ankara (Turkey)

    2006-12-15

    Using Killing-Yano symmetries, we construct conserved charges of spacetimes that asymptotically approach to the flat or anti-de Sitter spaces only in certain directions. In D dimensions, this allows one to define gravitational charges (such as mass and angular momenta densities) of p-dimensional branes/solitons or any other extended objects that curve the transverse space into an asymptotically flat or AdS one. Our construction answers the question of what kind of charges the antisymmetric Killing-Yano tensors lead to.

  12. Thermal Fluctuations in a Charged AdS Black Hole

    E-print Network

    Pourhassan, B

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we will analyze the effects of thermal fluctuations on a charged AdS black hole. This will be done by analyzing the corrections to black hole thermodynamics due to these thermal fluctuations. We will demonstrate that the entropy of this black hole get corrected by logarithmic term. We will also calculate other corrections to other important thermodynamic quantities for this black hole. Finally, we will use the corrected value of the specific heat to analyze the phase transition in this system.

  13. Thermal Fluctuations in a Charged AdS Black Hole

    E-print Network

    B. Pourhassan; Mir Faizal

    2015-03-26

    In this paper, we will analyze the effects of thermal fluctuations on a charged AdS black hole. This will be done by analyzing the corrections to black hole thermodynamics due to these thermal fluctuations. We will demonstrate that the entropy of this black hole get corrected by logarithmic term. We will also calculate other corrections to other important thermodynamic quantities for this black hole. Finally, we will use the corrected value of the specific heat to analyze the phase transition in this system.

  14. Influence of Coagulation Factor X on In Vitro and In Vivo Gene Delivery by Adenovirus (Ad) 5, Ad35, and Chimeric Ad5\\/Ad35 Vectors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jenny A Greig; Suzanne MK Buckley; Simon N Waddington; Alan L Parker; David Bhella; Rebecca Pink; Ahad A Rahim; Takashi Morita; Stuart A Nicklin; John H McVey; Andrew H Baker

    2009-01-01

    The binding of coagulation factor X (FX) to the hexon of adenovirus (Ad) 5 is pivotal for hepatocyte transduction. However, vectors based on Ad35, a subspecies B Ad, are in development for cancer gene therapy, as Ad35 utilizes CD46 (which is upregulated in many cancers) for transduction. We investigated whether interaction of Ad35 with FX influenced vector tropism using Ad5,

  15. Rapid landscape change in 6th century Jordan: driven by climate or man-made?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucke, Bernhard

    2014-05-01

    Compared to the rich cities of antiquity, many areas in the Levant appear today degraded. European travel reports of the 19th century and excavations in Jordan created the impression that population numbers were strongly reduced during the Islamic periods, leading to 'empty' lands which were only resettled during the early 20th century. However, our case study near the ancient site Abila of the Decapolis in northern Jordan found that the land was probably never 'empty' and always fertile - but valley fills provide evidence for a rapid and intense landscape change during the Late Byzantine period. This was probably caused by a significant shift to aridity which also triggered socio-economic changes of subsistence strategies from agriculture to pastoralism. The dates of sediments which are available so far indicate that the climatic change seemingly occurred rapidly within approximately 100 years during the late 6th and early 7th century AD, and rubble layers let it seem probable that it was associated with frequent heavy rainfall events. It might have been caused or triggered by a global climate event creating the "year without sun" or 'Mystery Veil' which the Byzantine historian Procopius described in the year 536 AD. If similar events repeat under the current climate change, it will be difficult to mitigate them.

  16. Causality and the AdS Dirichlet problem

    E-print Network

    Donald Marolf; Mukund Rangamani

    2012-04-22

    The (planar) AdS Dirichlet problem has previously been shown to exhibit superluminal hydrodynamic sound modes. This problem is defined by bulk gravitational dynamics with Dirichlet boundary conditions imposed on a rigid timelike cut-off surface. We undertake a careful examination of this set-up and argue that, in most cases, the propagation of information between points on the Dirichlet hypersurface is nevertheless causal with respect to the induced light cones. In particular, the high-frequency dynamics is causal in this sense. There are however two exceptions and both involve boundary gravitons whose propagation is not constrained by the Einstein equations. These occur in i) AdS$_3$, where the boundary gravitons generally do not respect the induced light cones on the boundary, and ii) Rindler space, where they are related to the infinite speed of sound in incompressible fluids. We discuss implications for the fluid/gravity correspondence with rigid Dirichlet boundaries and for the black hole membrane paradigm.

  17. Causality and the AdS Dirichlet problem

    E-print Network

    Marolf, Donald

    2012-01-01

    The (planar) AdS Dirichlet problem has previously been shown to exhibit superluminal hydrodynamic sound modes. This problem is defined by bulk gravitational dynamics with Dirichlet boundary conditions imposed on a rigid timelike cut-off surface. We undertake a careful examination of this set-up and argue that, in most cases, the propagation of information between points on the Dirichlet hypersurface is nevertheless causal with respect to the induced light cones. In particular, the high-frequency dynamics is causal in this sense. There are however two exceptions and both involve boundary gravitons whose propagation is not constrained by the Einstein equations. These occur in i) AdS$_3$, where the boundary gravitons generally do not respect the induced light cones on the boundary, and ii) Rindler space, where they are related to the infinite speed of sound in incompressible fluids. We discuss implications for the fluid/gravity correspondence with rigid Dirichlet boundaries and for the black hole membrane paradi...

  18. UV-IR relations in AdS dynamics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amanda W. Peet; Joseph Polchinski

    1999-01-01

    We point out that two distinct distance-energy relations have been discussed in the AdS-CFT correspondence. In conformal backgrounds they differ only in normalization, but in nonconformal backgrounds they differ in functional form. We discuss the relation to probe processes, the holographic principle, and black hole entropies.

  19. Conserved charges in timelike warped AdS3 spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donnay, L.; Fernández-Melgarejo, J. J.; Giribet, G.; Goya, A.; Lavia, E.

    2015-06-01

    We consider the timelike version of warped anti-de Sitter space (WAdS), which corresponds to the three-dimensional section of the Gödel solution of four-dimensional cosmological Einstein equations. This geometry presents closed timelike curves (CTCs), which are inherited from its four-dimensional embedding. In three dimensions, this type of solution can be supported without matter provided the graviton acquires mass. Here, among the different ways to consistently give mass to the graviton in three dimensions, we consider the parity-even model known as new massive gravity (NMG). In the bulk of timelike WAdS3 space, we introduce defects that, from the three-dimensional point of view, represent spinning massive particlelike objects. For this type of source, we investigate the definition of quasilocal gravitational energy as seen from infinity, far beyond the region where the CTCs appear. We also consider the covariant formalism applied to NMG to compute the mass and the angular momentum of spinning particlelike defects and compare the result with the one obtained by means of the quasilocal stress tensor. We apply these methods to special limits in which the WAdS3 solutions coincide with locally AdS3 and locally AdS2×R spaces. Finally, we make some comments about the asymptotic symmetry algebra of asymptotically WAdS3 spaces in NMG.

  20. A special road to AdS vacua

    E-print Network

    Davide Cassani; Sergio Ferrara; Alessio Marrani; Jose F. Morales; Henning Samtleben

    2010-02-06

    We apply the techniques of special Kaehler geometry to investigate AdS_4 vacua of general N=2 gauged supergravities underlying flux compactifications of type II theories. We formulate the scalar potential and its extremization conditions in terms of a triplet of prepotentials P_x and their special Kaehler covariant derivatives only, in a form that recalls the potential and the attractor equations of N=2 black holes. We propose a system of first order equations for the P_x which generalize the supersymmetry conditions and yield non-supersymmetric vacua. Special geometry allows us to recast these equations in algebraic form, and we find an infinite class of new N=0 and N=1 AdS_4 solutions, displaying a rich pattern of non-trivial charges associated with NSNS and RR fluxes. Finally, by explicit evaluation of the entropy function on the solutions, we derive a U-duality invariant expression for the cosmological constant and the central charges of the dual CFT's.

  1. A critical appraisal of Byzantine military strategy, 400 - 1000 A.D.

    E-print Network

    Bacon, Peter Kirk

    1998-01-01

    . Milner followed that in 1993 with an expanded version entitled Vegetius: Epitome of Military Science. In 1984 the Jesuit scholar George Dennis translated and edited the Strategikon of Emperor Maurice (582- 602) in both English and German, and followed...-65 of the Taktika of Nichephorus Uranus (based on Dain's edition of the text) and added historical commentary in Sowing the Dragon's Teeth: Byzantine Warfare in the Tenth Century. " George Osttogorsky, History of the Byzantine State, 80. Dennis originally...

  2. Adding

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mrs. Schick

    2005-11-30

    This activity will help you learn how to add numbers from 0-9. Objectives: After completing the learning activities you will be understand how to add numbers from 0-9. You will take a quiz to show what you know. Materials: You will need: a paper, 9 unifix cubes, and a computer with an Internet connection. Learning Activities: 1 Use your unifix cubes to count ...

  3. 21st Century Skills Map: Math

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Susan Saltrick, et al.

    This 34-page document (pdf) identifies student learning outcomes for each of eleven 21st Century Skills and provides examples of tasks for grade 4, 8, and 12. It strives to fuse mathematical content and mathematical practices with the 4Cs (communication, collaboration, critical thinking and creativity) and integrate them with interdisciplinary themes. Each skill is aligned with CCSS mathematical practices. This map was designed by the Partnership for 21st Century Skills (P21) in cooperation with the Mathematical Association of America (MAA), the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM), and dozens of math educators across the country.

  4. A written consent five centuries ago.

    PubMed

    Selek, Salih

    2010-10-01

    The term informed consent does not have long historical roots. Until recent centuries, healthcare professionals were not held responsible for providing information to patients. The author reports a written consent from Anatolia dated almost five centuries ago. The contract was signed in 1539 in Gaziantep, Turkey (formerly known as Aintab, Ottoman Empire). The document, of course, differs from modern counterparts. It lacks details of interventions. The author believes this to be the first written consent in medical history. Further investigations of court registers should be made to ascertain the earliest date of their appearance. PMID:20817814

  5. Adding Value to Indiana's Commodities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welch, Mary A., Ed.

    1995-01-01

    Food processing plants are adding value to bulk and intermediate products to sell overseas. The Asian Pacific Rim economies constituted the largest market for consumer food products in 1993. This shift toward consumer food imports in this area is due to more women working outside the home, the internationalization of populations, and dramatic…

  6. Separating Growth from Value Added

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeagley, Raymond

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses Rochester's two academic models that offer different tools for different purposes--measuring individual learning and measuring what affects learning. The main focus of currently available growth measures is formative assessment--providing data to inform instructional planning. Value-added assessment is not a student…

  7. Value Added: An Uncertain Measure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparkes, R. A.

    1999-01-01

    In Scotland, one "value added" (VA) indicator of secondary school effectiveness measures students' relative "progress" between Standard and Higher grade in particular subjects. When random nonschool factors affecting students' geography performance were computer-simulated to determine VA fluctuation over 25 years, the confidence intervals for most…

  8. Phase transition and thermodynamical geometry for Schwarzschild AdS black hole in AdS5 × S5 spacetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jia-Lin; Cai, Rong-Gen; Yu, Hongwei

    2015-02-01

    We study the thermodynamics and thermodynamic geometry of a five-dimensional Schwarzschild AdS black hole in AdS 5 × S 5 spacetime by treating the cosmological constant as the number of colors in the boundary gauge theory and its conjugate quantity as the associated chemical potential. It is found that the chemical potential is always negative in the stable branch of black hole thermodynamics and it has a chance to be positive, but appears in the unstable branch. We calculate the scalar curvatures of the thermodynamical Weinhold metric, Ruppeiner metric and Quevedo metric, respectively and we find that the scalar curvature in the Weinhold metric is always vanishing, while in the Ruppeiner metric the divergence of the scalar curvature is related to the divergence of the heat capacity with fixed chemical potential, and in the Quevedo metric the divergence of the scalar curvature is related to the divergence of the heat capacity with fixed number of colors and to the vanishing of the heat capacity with fixed chemical potential.

  9. Rural Policy in a New Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Ray

    Past rural policies are reviewed, noting the effects of globalization and information technology. Rural business profits can be maximized by direct cost or value-added competition, but cost competition limits the development of productive capacity and leads to unequal income distribution. In contrast, value-added competition could create steep…

  10. 16 CFR 460.18 - Insulation ads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...18 Insulation ads. (a) If your ad gives an R-value, you must give the...sheet on R-values.” (b) If your ad gives a price, you must give the...give the coverage area. (c) If your ad gives the thickness of your...

  11. Ads\\/CFT correspondence and symmetry breaking

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Igor R. Klebanov; Edward Witten

    1999-01-01

    We study, using the dual AdS description, the vacua of field theories where some of the gauge symmetry is broken by expectation values of scalar fields. In such vacua, operators built out of the scalar fields acquire expectation values, and we show how to calculate them from the behavior of perturbations to the AdS background near the boundary. Specific examples

  12. Testing AdS/CFT at LHC

    E-print Network

    W. A. Horowitz

    2009-05-05

    After an introduction to jet phenomenology and tests of AdS/CFT at LHC we derive the heavy quark drag of a string dangling in a shock metric of AdS space, thus generalizing the AdS/CFT drag calculations in strongly coupled thermal media to momentum loss in both hot and cold nuclear matter.

  13. AdS black holes with arbitrary scalar coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caldarelli, Marco M.; Charmousis, Christos; Hassaďne, Mokhtar

    2013-10-01

    A general class of axionic and electrically charged black holes for a self-interacting scalar field nonminimally coupled to Einstein gravity with a negative cosmological constant is presented. These solutions are the first examples of black holes with an arbitrary nonminimal coupling ? in four dimensions. Moreover, due to the presence of two three-forms fields, the topology of the horizon of these black holes is planar. We discuss some properties of these solutions electing particular values of the nonminimal coupling parameter. A special case arises when ? = 1/4, for which the gravitational field is confined in a region close to the event horizon. We also show that these black holes emerge from stealth AdS configurations as the axionic fields are switched on, and that they can be generated through a Kerr-Schild transformation. Finally, in the appendix, we extend these results to arbitrary dimension.

  14. Stability of AdS in Einstein Gauss Bonnet Gravity

    E-print Network

    Nils Deppe; Allison Kolly; Andrew Frey; Gabor Kunstatter

    2015-01-30

    Recently it has been argued that in Einstein gravity Anti-de Sitter spacetime is unstable against the formation of black holes for a large class of arbitrarily small perturbations. We examine the effects of including a Gauss-Bonnet term. In five dimensions, spherically symmetric Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet gravity has two key features: Choptuik scaling exhibits a radius gap, and the mass function goes to a finite value as the horizon radius vanishes. These suggest that black holes will not form dynamically if the total mass/energy content of the spacetime is too small, thereby restoring the stability of AdS spacetime in this context. We support this claim with numerical simulations and uncover a rich structure in horizon radii and formation times as a function of perturbation amplitude.

  15. Extended supersymmetry in AdS_3 higher spin theories

    E-print Network

    Candu, Constantin; Vollenweider, Carl

    2014-01-01

    We determine the asymptotic symmetry algebra (for fields of low spin) of the $M\\times M$ matrix extended Vasiliev theories on AdS$_3$ and find that it agrees with the $\\mathcal{W}$-algebra of their proposed coset duals. Previously it was noticed that for $M=2$ the supersymmetry increases from $\\mathcal{N}=2$ to $\\mathcal{N}=4$. We study more systematically this type of supersymmetry enhancements and find that, although the higher spin algebra has extended supersymmetry for all $M\\geq 2$, the corresponding asymptotic symmetry algebra fails to be superconformal except for $M=2$, when it has large $\\mathcal{N}=4$ superconformal symmetry. Moreover, we find that the Vasiliev theories based on $shs^E\\! \\left( \\mathcal{N} \\vert 2, \\mathbb{R} \\right)$ are special cases of the matrix extended higher spin theories, and hence have the same supersymmetry properties.

  16. Extended supersymmetry in AdS_3 higher spin theories

    E-print Network

    Constantin Candu; Cheng Peng; Carl Vollenweider

    2014-08-21

    We determine the asymptotic symmetry algebra (for fields of low spin) of the $M\\times M$ matrix extended Vasiliev theories on AdS$_3$ and find that it agrees with the $\\mathcal{W}$-algebra of their proposed coset duals. Previously it was noticed that for $M=2$ the supersymmetry increases from $\\mathcal{N}=2$ to $\\mathcal{N}=4$. We study more systematically this type of supersymmetry enhancements and find that, although the higher spin algebra has extended supersymmetry for all $M\\geq 2$, the corresponding asymptotic symmetry algebra fails to be superconformal except for $M=2$, when it has large $\\mathcal{N}=4$ superconformal symmetry. Moreover, we find that the Vasiliev theories based on $shs^E\\! \\left( \\mathcal{N} \\vert 2, \\mathbb{R} \\right)$ are special cases of the matrix extended higher spin theories, and hence have the same supersymmetry properties.

  17. Chiral gauge theory on AdS domain wall

    SciTech Connect

    Shirman, Yuri [T-8, Theoretical Division, MS B285, LANL, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2005-12-02

    We describe a realization of chiral gauge theories based on the domaim wall fermion construction implemented on an interval in five dimensional AdS spacetime. At semi-classical level deconstructed description of the theory is given in terms of 4-dimensional Minkowski slices supporting chiral zero modes at the ends. Energy scales warp down along the fifth dimension. When the theory is augmented by 4-dimensional neutral Majorana spinors together with the Higgs mechanism at the low energy end, we can arrange for a theory where the lightest gauge boson mode as well as chiral zero mode at the high energy end are parametrically lighter than other states. Triangle anomalies and instanton effects are expected to make gauge bosons heavy if the resulting effective theory is anomalous. Due to the strong coupling effects at the quantum level, full non-perturbative calculation will be necessary to validate this construction.

  18. From Free Fields to AdS -- Thermal Case

    E-print Network

    Kazuyuki Furuuchi

    2005-10-06

    We analyze the reorganization of free field theory correlators to closed string amplitudes investigated in hep-th/0308184 hep-th/0402063 hep-th/0409233 hep-th/0504229 in the case of Euclidean thermal field theory and study how the dual bulk geometry is encoded on them. The expectation value of Polyakov loop, which is an order parameter for confinement-deconfinement transition, is directly reflected on the dual bulk geometry. The dual geometry of confined phase is found to be AdS space periodically identified in Euclidean time direction. The gluing of Schwinger parameters, which is a key step for the reorganization of field theory correlators, works in the same way as in the non-thermal case. In deconfined phase the gluing is made possible only by taking the dual geometry correctly. The dual geometry for deconfined phase does not have a non-contractible circle in the Euclidean time direction.

  19. Orbit method quantization of the AdS$_2$ superparticle

    E-print Network

    Martin Heinze; Ben Hoare; George Jorjadze; Luka Megrelidze

    2015-04-16

    We consider the Hamiltonian reduction and canonical quantization of a massive AdS$_2$ superparticle realized on the coset OSP(1|2)/SO(1,1). The phase space of the massive superparticle is represented as a coadjoint orbit of a timelike element of $\\mathfrak{osp}$(1|2). This orbit has a well defined symplectic structure and the OSP(1|2) symmetry is realized as the Poisson bracket algebra of the Noether charges. We then construct canonical coordinates given by one bosonic and one fermionic oscillator, whose quantization leads to the Holstein-Primakoff type realization of $\\mathfrak{osp}$(1|2). We also perform a similar analysis and discuss new features and inconsistencies in the massless case.

  20. Vortex hair on AdS black holes

    E-print Network

    Ruth Gregory; Peter C. Gustainis; David Kubiznak; Robert B. Mann; Danielle Wills

    2014-07-16

    We analyse vortex hair for charged rotating asymptotically AdS black holes in the abelian Higgs model. We give analytical and numerical arguments to show how the vortex interacts with the horizon of the black hole, and how the solution extends to the boundary. The solution is very close to the corresponding asymptotically flat vortex, once one transforms to a frame that is non-rotating at the boundary. We show that there is a Meissner effect for extremal black holes, with the vortex flux being expelled from sufficiently small black holes. The phase transition is shown to be first order in the presence of rotation, but second order without rotation. We comment on applications to holography.

  1. Impact of reservoirs on river discharge and irrigation water supply during the 20th century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biemans, H.; Haddeland, I.; Kabat, P.; Ludwig, F.; Hutjes, R. W. A.; Heinke, J.; von Bloh, W.; Gerten, D.

    2011-03-01

    This paper presents a quantitative estimation of the impact of reservoirs on discharge and irrigation water supply during the 20th century at global, continental, and river basin scale. Compared to a natural situation the combined effect of reservoir operation and irrigation extractions decreased mean annual discharge to oceans and significantly changed the timing of this discharge. For example, in Europe, May discharge decreased by 10%, while in February it increased by 8%. At the end of the 20th century, reservoir operations and irrigation extractions decreased annual global discharge by about 2.1% (930 km3 yr-1). Simulation results show that reservoirs contribute significantly to irrigation water supply in many regions. Basins that rely heavily on reservoir water are the Colorado and Columbia River basins in the United States and several large basins in India, China, and central Asia (e.g., in the Krishna and Huang He basins, reservoirs more than doubled surface water supply). Continents gaining the most are North America, Africa, and Asia, where reservoirs supplied 57, 22, and 360 km3 yr-1 respectively between 1981-2000, which is in all cases 40% more than the availability in the situation without reservoirs. Globally, the irrigation water supply from reservoirs increased from around 18 km3 yr-1 (adding 5% to surface water supply) at the beginning of the 20th century to 460 km3 yr-1 (adding almost 40% to surface water supply) at the end of the 20th century. The analysis is performed using a newly developed and validated reservoir operation scheme within a global-scale hydrology and vegetation model (LPJmL).

  2. Coastal zone management for the new century

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John R. Clark

    1997-01-01

    This essay surveys the field of Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) in terms of its readiness to handle coastal resources conservation problems of the Twenty First Century. It discusses each of the main components of ICZM including, inter alia, boundaries, objectives, coordination mechanisms, issues, techniques, institutional and legal arrangements, permits, environmental assessments (EA), protected areas, constraints, and success factors. It

  3. Half a Century of Physical Review Letters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Garisto

    2008-01-01

    Fifty years ago, Sam Goudsmit started an experiment: the journal Physical Review Letters. Since 1958, the experiment has thrived. PRL has gone through many changes, published many important papers, and become a leader in international scientific publication. I will trace the rise of PRL from its early 20th century roots as 'Letters to the Editor,' through changes in editorial process

  4. Computerized Farm of the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGrann, James M.

    Advancement in computer technology comes at a time when agriculture is in transition from a production-oriented to a business-oriented activity and will require new skills and knowledge if farmers are to be prepared for the future. Electronic technology applications on 21st century commercial farms and ranches will include farm decision support…

  5. Henri Poincare and XXth Century Topology.

    E-print Network

    Novikov, Sergei Petrovich

    Henri Poincare and XXth Century Topology. dedicated to the 150th birthday of Henri Poincare and 100th birthday of Henri Cartan S.P.Novikov University of Maryland, College Park and Landau Institute, Moscow #12;110 years passed since Henri Poincare' pub- lished his memoir ,,Analysis Situs" (AS, 1895

  6. Advanced Propulsion for the XXIst Century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frisbee, Robert H.

    2003-01-01

    This document represents a poster presentation offered at the AIAA/CAS International Air & Space Symposium and Exposition from July 14-17, 2003 in Dayton Ohio. This presentation outlines advanced space propulsion concepts as well as associated research and industry activities during the 21st century.

  7. Canadian Society for Eighteenth Century Studies fonds

    E-print Network

    Handy, Todd C.

    and Related Records o Financial Records o Newsletters and Related Records o Conferences and Annual General Meetings o Publications o Membership Records o Related Societies o Academic Exchange Programmes for Eighteenth Century Studies fonds. 19701989. 1.02 m of textual records. Administrative History

  8. Curriculum for the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratt, David

    1983-01-01

    Urges reconsideration of educational ends. Suggests eight curriculum principles that can help Canadian schools move into the next century. Explains six educational needs roughly based on Maslow's hierarchy (aesthetic needs, need for meaning, self-actualization, self-concept, social needs, need for survival) and relates them to curriculum…

  9. The "Casa dei Bambini": A Century Concept.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Elizabeth

    2000-01-01

    Reviews the early history of Montessori education from the Italian State Orthophrenic School to the opening of the original Casa dei Bambini in San Lorenzo, Italy on January 6, 1907. Includes a synopsis of Maria Montessori's progressive revelations of the child's developing self over the past century. (JPB)

  10. Recommendations for the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Child Abuse and Neglect: The International Journal, 1991

    1991-01-01

    Group discussions on physical, sexual, and emotional child abuse and neglect, which took place at the "Child Protection for the 21st Century Conference," are summarized. The discussions noted practices that should be preserved and those requiring change in law/law enforcement, mental health, medicine/nursing, social work, and prevention and…

  11. Late Twentieth-Century Racial Uplift Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logan, Shirley Wilson

    This paper presents a description and brief history of the concept of "racial uplift" and describes its implications for a contemporary, Black college professor. The phrase "racial uplift," for 19th-century Black women, describes almost any type of political activity designed to improve conditions for Black people during the critical…

  12. Plotting Early Nineteenth-Century Hurricane Information

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brain H. Bossak; James B. Elsner

    2004-01-01

    Hurricane climate research is based largely on records from the past 100 years or so. The official Atlantic hurricane record extends back to 1851, but data prior to the middle 20th century need to be treated with particular caution. To better understand climate mechanisms responsible for variations in hurricane activity, it is important to have long-term records. Tropical cyclone impacts

  13. The Constitution in the Twentieth Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Paul L.

    1987-01-01

    Investigates the development of the United States Constitution in the twentieth century up to and including the Burger Court. Contends that interpreting the Constitution is an important issue of our times. Consequently argues that we should teach students about the development of this document. (RKM)

  14. Developing Leaders for the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, John L.

    2005-01-01

    This article describes the Leadership Development for the 21st Century: Linking Research, Academics and Extension program that began in June 2005. This 12-month program, designed to explore different models of leadership, develop peer networks, and enhance skills and knowledge in leadership competencies, is specifically for land grand educators…

  15. Transcendent Schools for the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monberg, Greg; Kacan, George; Bannourah, Riyad

    2011-01-01

    Amidst the debate over funding cuts, an increased focus on teacher effectiveness, and the move toward e-learning, many question the importance of quality educational facilities. But an examination of developmental and psychological theory suggests that exceptional schools have an exciting and crucial role to play in 21st century education. So,…

  16. Faculty Development for the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diaz, Veronica; Garrett, P. B.; Kinley, Edward R.; Moore, John F.; Schwartz, Celeste M.; Kohrman, Pat

    2009-01-01

    In the 21st century, colleges and universities need to consider faculty development programs in the same way that they view academic programs for their Net Gen and Millennial students. In other words, successful faculty development programs should include mentoring, delivery in a variety of on-campus and off-campus formats (face-to-face, blended,…

  17. Century High School: Better Than Accessible.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Century High School, Rochester, MN.

    A 6-minute videotape shows ways that one newly-built high school (Century High School, Rochester, MN) accommodates the needs of people with disabilities. Various building and room designs are detailed showing both poor and good design provisions. The accessibility and usefulness of the auditorium control room, emergency exits, elevators, science…

  18. Creating 21st Century Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Phan P.; Locke, John; Nair, Prakash; Bunting, Andrew

    2005-01-01

    What is involved in creating learning environments for the 21st century? How can school facilities serve as tools for teaching and meet the needs of students in the future? What components are required to design effective schools, and how does architecture relate to the purposes of schooling? These are some of the questions addressed at the…

  19. The 19th Century Native American Poets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogan, Linda

    1980-01-01

    The works of four Native American poets, E. Pauline Johnson, Alexander Posey, John Rollin Ridge, and Gertrude Bonnin, are discussed with reference to the late 19th-century federal assimilation policies which were designed to absorb Native Americans into the mainstream of American life. (AN)

  20. Making a Comeback in the New Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sturgeon, Julie

    2001-01-01

    Reveals how Ohio's Central State University avoided state closure with a bold mission to rebuild both the academic programs and the facilities. What the new century holds for maintenance, software, card systems, contract services, and security and online purchasing are discussed. (GR)

  1. 21st Century Learning Environment Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    State Educational Technology Directors Association, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This report provides short descriptions of systemic approaches for American Recovery and Reinvestment Act funding including: (1) 21st Century Classroom; (2) Comprehensive Professional Development; (3) Statewide Longitudinal Data Systems; (4) Formative Assessment; (5) Digital Content; (6) Virtual Learning; and (7) Learning Management Systems.

  2. A Century of Plays by American Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    France, Rachel, Ed.

    Chosen for their literary quality and because they reflect the historical periods in which they were written, the 23 one-act dramas in this anthology represent the work of American female playwrights. The plays range from the realistic dramas produced in the "Little Theatres" of New York City at the turn of the century to current off-Broadway…

  3. Workforce Education: Issues for the New Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pautler, Albert J., Jr.

    This paper is intended to guide small groups of vocational educators in discussions regarding work force education issues for the next century. The following work force issues are suggested: the aging work force; vocational education's role in reforming K-12 education; distance education for technical education programs; the labor shortages…

  4. Malthus for the Twenty-First Century

    Microsoft Academic Search

    GEOFFREY MCNICOLL

    WITH BIRTH RATES FALLING, the last gasp of the population explosion may add as few as 2 billion more people to the world's population. Eight billion is the UN's peak population figure, attained by 2050, in the low\\/medium scenario of its 1996 projection series. (The medium trajectory plateaus at around 10.5 billion later in the century.) If 2 billion is

  5. 21ST CENTURY MOLD ANALYSIS IN FOOD

    EPA Science Inventory

    Traditionally, the indoor air community has relied on mold analysis performed by either microscopic observations or the culturing of molds on various media to assess indoor air quality. These techniques were developed in the 19th century and are very laborious and time consumin...

  6. "Stakes is High": Educating New Century Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ladson-Billings, Gloria

    2013-01-01

    My apologies to iconic hip-hop artists, De La Soul for I have shamelessly appropriated the title, "Stakes is high" to underscore the importance of the work ahead for educators, students, parents, community members, and researchers as we attempt to develop a generation of what I call "new century" students for a world we can hardly imagine. Through…

  7. Education for Librarianship in the Next Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckland, Michael K.

    1986-01-01

    Divides librarianship into three categories with respect to change--library values, library technology, and library science--and discusses each in the context of changes in the last century to provide a basis for forecasting future changes. The broadening scope of librarianship and the library school curriculum of the future are also considered.…

  8. Teaching in the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pauley, Joanne

    Among the issues facing teachers as the 21st century approaches are: the prevalence of violence, growing racial and socioeconomic divisions in society, and lack of parental involvement. Activities gathered from articles in educational journals are suggested to help children voice their experiences, thoughts, and concerns about violence. Some of…

  9. CHARLES DARWIN UNIVERSITY Our Asian centuries: provenance

    E-print Network

    CHARLES DARWIN UNIVERSITY Our Asian centuries: provenance and proximity Professor Sharon Bell Deputy Vice-Chancellor, Charles Darwin University 5:30pm ­ 7:00pm 30 July 2013 Nitmiluk Lounge, Level 4 Bell Deputy Vice-Chancellor, Charles Darwin University; Professorial Fellow, LH Martin Institute

  10. 20th-Century Gold Rush.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wargo, Joseph G.

    1992-01-01

    Presents Nevada's gold rush activities spurred by technological advancements in search methods. Describes the events that led to the twentieth-century gold rush, the techniques for finding deposits and the geological formation process of disseminated gold deposits. Vignettes present the gold extraction process, cross-section, and profile of a…

  11. Information Ethics in the Twenty First Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sturges, Paul

    2009-01-01

    The first decade of the twenty first century has seen a growing interest and intellectual debate within the information professions, focusing on issues where an ethical dimension predominates. This paper provides an overview of codes of practice, published literature, conference proceedings and educational programs that focus on information…

  12. A century of scientific and technical information

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brian Vickery

    1999-01-01

    The paper attempts to provide an outline account of the development and context of scientific and technical communication during the twentieth century. The main channels and forms of communication are reviewed, and their changing contributions to the overall pattern of information flow. The ever-increasing volume and diversity of scientific and technical information are emphasised. The paper concludes with some reflections

  13. Reality Therapy for the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wubbolding, Robert E.

    This book serves as a comprehensive and practical guide to reality therapy, and extends its principles and practices beyond the initial descriptions. A central theme of this edition is that reality therapy is a method inherently designed for the exigencies of the 21st century. It contains 22 types of self-evaluations counselors can use to shorten…

  14. Holography beyond conformal invariance and AdS isometry?

    E-print Network

    A. O. Barvinsky

    2014-10-23

    We suggest that the principle of holographic duality can be extended beyond conformal invariance and AdS isometry. Such an extension is based on a special relation between functional determinants of the operators acting in the bulk and on its boundary, provided that the boundary operator represents the inverse propagators of the theory induced on the boundary by the Dirichlet boundary value problem from the bulk spacetime. This relation holds for operators of general spin-tensor structure on generic manifolds with boundaries irrespective of their background geometry and conformal invariance, and it apparently underlies numerous $O(N^0)$ tests of AdS/CFT correspondence, based on direct calculation of the bulk and boundary partition functions, Casimir energies and conformal anomalies. The generalized holographic duality is discussed within the concept of the "double-trace" deformation of the boundary theory, which is responsible in the case of large $N$ CFT coupled to the tower of higher spin gauge fields for the renormalization group flow between infrared and ultraviolet fixed points. Potential extension of this method beyond one-loop order is also briefly discussed.

  15. Holography beyond conformal invariance and AdS isometry?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barvinsky, A. O.

    2015-03-01

    We suggest that the principle of holographic duality be extended beyond conformal invariance and AdS isometry. Such an extension is based on a special relation between functional determinants of the operators acting in the bulk and on its boundary, provided that the boundary operator represents the inverse propagators of the theory induced on the boundary by the Dirichlet boundary value problem in the bulk spacetime. This relation holds for operators of a general spin-tensor structure on generic manifolds with boundaries irrespective of their background geometry and conformal invariance, and it apparently underlies numerous O( N 0) tests of the AdS/CFT correspondence, based on direct calculation of the bulk and boundary partition functions, Casimir energies, and conformal anomalies. The generalized holographic duality is discussed within the concept of the "double-trace" deformation of the boundary theory, which is responsible in the case of large- N CFT coupled to the tower of higher-spin gauge fields for the renormalization group flow between infrared and ultraviolet fixed points. Potential extension of this method beyond the one-loop order is also briefly discussed.

  16. State of the Earth's Cryosphere at the Beginning of the 21st Century: Glaciers, Global Snow Cover, Floating Ice, and Permafrost and Periglacial

    E-print Network

    Fleskes, Joe

    State of the Earth's Cryosphere at the Beginning of the 21st Century: Glaciers, Global Snow Cover, Floating Ice, and Permafrost and Periglacial Environments-- INTRODUCTION--CHANGES IN THE EARTH'S CRYOSPHERE of the more than 7.0 billion human beings on Earth today [in 2012], almost 2 billion more people added since

  17. Projected distributions of novel and disappearing climates by 2100 AD

    PubMed Central

    Williams, John W.; Jackson, Stephen T.; Kutzbach, John E.

    2007-01-01

    Key risks associated with projected climate trends for the 21st century include the prospects of future climate states with no current analog and the disappearance of some extant climates. Because climate is a primary control on species distributions and ecosystem processes, novel 21st-century climates may promote formation of novel species associations and other ecological surprises, whereas the disappearance of some extant climates increases risk of extinction for species with narrow geographic or climatic distributions and disruption of existing communities. Here we analyze multimodel ensembles for the A2 and B1 emission scenarios produced for the fourth assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, with the goal of identifying regions projected to experience (i) high magnitudes of local climate change, (ii) development of novel 21st-century climates, and/or (iii) the disappearance of extant climates. Novel climates are projected to develop primarily in the tropics and subtropics, whereas disappearing climates are concentrated in tropical montane regions and the poleward portions of continents. Under the high-end A2 scenario, 12–39% and 10–48% of the Earth's terrestrial surface may respectively experience novel and disappearing climates by 2100 AD. Corresponding projections for the low-end B1 scenario are 4–20% and 4–20%. Dispersal limitations increase the risk that species will experience the loss of extant climates or the occurrence of novel climates. There is a close correspondence between regions with globally disappearing climates and previously identified biodiversity hotspots; for these regions, standard conservation solutions (e.g., assisted migration and networked reserves) may be insufficient to preserve biodiversity. PMID:17389402

  18. Archaeology Data Service (ADS) Library

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Archaeology Data Service yesterday announced the opening of its digital library, "a virtual library of on-line publications concerned with the historic environment." The library is currently divided into Books, Bibliographies, Journals, and Other resources. The book section includes the Council for British Archaeology's Research Report series and ADS's own Guides to Good Practice, among other texts, and the journal section links to a large number of scholarly journals. The other sections are still a bit thin, but no doubt will fill out soon. Resources are conveniently labelled "archived," for those available on-site or for download as .pdf files, and "linked," to alert users they are accessing off-site resources. This brand new library is sure to grow and will be a great source for archaeological researchers. Note: To access the library, users must first accept the terms of use on ADS's front page, then click on the Library link in the sidebar.

  19. Realizing "value-added" metrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bunday, Benjamin; Lipscomb, Pete; Allgair, John; Patel, Dilip; Caldwell, Mark; Solecky, Eric; Archie, Chas; Morningstar, Jennifer; Rice, Bryan J.; Singh, Bhanwar; Cain, Jason; Emami, Iraj; Banke, Bill, Jr.; Herrera, Alfredo; Ukraintsev, Vladamir; Schlessinger, Jerry; Ritchison, Jeff

    2007-03-01

    The conventional premise that metrology is a "non-value-added necessary evil" is a misleading and dangerous assertion, which must be viewed as obsolete thinking. Many metrology applications are key enablers to traditionally labeled "value-added" processing steps in lithography and etch, such that they can be considered integral parts of the processes. Various key trends in modern, state-of-the-art processing such as optical proximity correction (OPC), design for manufacturability (DFM), and advanced process control (APC) are based, at their hearts, on the assumption of fine-tuned metrology, in terms of uncertainty and accuracy. These trends are vehicles where metrology thus has large opportunities to create value through the engineering of tight and targetable process distributions. Such distributions make possible predictability in speed-sorts and in other parameters, which results in high-end product. Additionally, significant reliance has also been placed on defect metrology to predict, improve, and reduce yield variability. The necessary quality metrology is strongly influenced by not only the choice of equipment, but also the quality application of these tools in a production environment. The ultimate value added by metrology is a result of quality tools run by a quality metrology team using quality practices. This paper will explore the relationships among present and future trends and challenges in metrology, including equipment, key applications, and metrology deployment in the manufacturing flow. Of key importance are metrology personnel, with their expertise, practices, and metrics in achieving and maintaining the required level of metrology performance, including where precision, matching, and accuracy fit into these considerations. The value of metrology will be demonstrated to have shifted to "key enabler of large revenues," debunking the out-of-date premise that metrology is "non-value-added." Examples used will be from critical dimension (CD) metrology, overlay, films, and defect metrology.

  20. Enhanced ADS-B research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Samuelson; E. Valovage; D. Hall

    2006-01-01

    Automatic dependent surveillance-broadcast (ADS-B) is emerging as an advanced aviation technology that provides situational awareness within the aircraft that was previously available only on the ground. Pilots and ground personnel have begun to benefit from this technology but further benefits from technological improvements can still be realized. These improvements include security, increased data capacity, and advanced applications (4D trajectory and

  1. Enhanced ADS-B Research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edward Valovage

    2007-01-01

    Automatic dependent surveillance-broadcast (ADS-B) is gaining acceptance around the world as the next-generation surveillance technology. It can provide surveillance to air traffic controllers to support today's procedures as well as surveillance in the cockpit to support air-to-air applications. Pilots and ground personnel have begun to benefit from this technology but further benefits from technological improvements can still be realized. These

  2. Enhanced ADS-B Research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edward Valovage

    2006-01-01

    Automatic dependent surveillance-broadcast (ADS-B) is gaining acceptance around the world as the next-generation surveillance technology. It can provide surveillance to air traffic controllers to support today's procedures as well as surveillance in the cockpit to support air-to-air applications. Pilots and ground personnel have begun to benefit from this technology but further benefits from technological improvements can still be realized. These

  3. Thermodynamic and classical instability of AdS black holes in fourth-order gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myung, Yun Soo; Moon, Taeyoon

    2014-04-01

    We study thermodynamic and classical instability of AdS black holes in fourth-order gravity. These include the BTZ black hole in new massive gravity, Schwarzschild-AdS black hole, and higher-dimensional AdS black holes in fourth-order gravity. All thermo-dynamic quantities which are computed using the Abbot-Deser-Tekin method are used to study thermodynamic instability of AdS black holes. On the other hand, we investigate the s-mode Gregory-Laflamme instability of the massive graviton propagating around the AdS black holes. We establish the connection between the thermodynamic instability and the GL instability of AdS black holes in fourth-order gravity. This shows that the Gubser-Mitra conjecture holds for AdS black holes found from fourth-order gravity.

  4. Variations of Antarctic Oscillation during the past millennium and the twenty first century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, S.; Long, Z.; Kim, S. J.; Zhang, Y.

    2014-12-01

    The Antarctic Oscillation (AAO) profoundly affects the frequency and intensity of the synoptic weather events and precipitation/temperature in the mid- and high-latitudes Sothern Hemisphere. This study investigated the simulated changes in AAO during 850AD to 2100AD using fully coupled climate models participating in the fifth Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5). The output from 11 models with specific historical anthropocentric and natural forcing during 850-1850AD (last millennium run) and 43 models during 1850-2005 (historical runs), as well as 40 models with 21st century changes in greenhouse gases and anthropogenic aerosols following the Representative Concentration Pathway 4.5 (RCP4.5) and 8.5 (RCP8.5) for 2006-2100 are analyzed. Those models were classified into 'good' and 'poor' models based on their performance in simulating the observed AAO spatial pattern, interannual variability and trend. The AAO during 850-1850AD show considerable interannual variations. However, there are no noticeable decadal and centennial variations during this periods regardless of the models are good or poor. These results are inconsistent with the proxy-based AAO reconstructions and suggested that the models may underestimate the natural forcing during the Medieval Warm Period and the Little Ice Age. The multiple-model ensemble (MME) shows similar AAO variations as the reanalysis data during 1850-2005. The seasonal AAO has being steadily increasing before 1960s followed by abrupt increasing during 1970-2005. The increasing of AAO is projected to continue during the 21st century. Under RCP4.5 scenario, the AAO will be weakly but steadily increasing until 2050s and then leveled off or slightly decreasing in the second half of this century. Under RCP8.5 scenario, the AAO will continue to increase in the 21st century. Though the MME of the poor and good models show similar seasonal AAO variations during 1850-2005, the poor models projected much stronger AAO in the future under both scenarios compared to good models.

  5. Atomic interactions at the (100) diamond surface and the impact of surface and interface changes on the electronic transport properties

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wim Deferme

    2009-01-01

    Centuries and centuries already, diamond is a material that speaks to ones imagination. Till the 18th century it was only mined in India, after it was also found in Brazil and South-Africa. But along the fascinating properties of diamond, it is also a very interesting material for industry. After the discovery at the end of the 18th century that diamond

  6. Holography in 3D AdS gravity with torsion

    E-print Network

    Milutin Blagojevi?; Branislav Cvetkovi?; Olivera Miskovic; Rodrigo Olea

    2013-05-06

    Basic aspects of the AdS/CFT correspondence are studied in the framework of 3-dimensional gravity with torsion. After choosing a consistent holographic ansatz, we formulate an improved approach to the Noether--Ward identities for the boundary theory. The method is applied first to the topological Mielke--Baekler model, and then to the more interesting (parity-preserving) 3-dimensional gravity with propagating torsion. In both cases, we find the finite holographic energy-momentum and spin currents and obtain the associated (anomalous) Noether--Ward identities.

  7. Who Will the 21st-Century Learners Be?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dweck, Carol

    2009-01-01

    In the "Standards for the 21st-Century Learner," the American Association of School Librarians (AASL) describes the skills, dispositions, responsibilities, and self-assessment strategies that are necessary for a 21st-century learner. However, as wonderful as AASL's 21st-century goals sound, they will fall on deaf ears because students who have a…

  8. Theme: Is FFA Needed in the 21st Century?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stagg, Bill, Ed.; And Others

    1999-01-01

    Includes "Will FFA [Future Farmers of America] Be a Part of Agricultural Education in Twenty Years?" (Stagg, Staller); "The FFA Organization" (Vaughn, Keith, Lockaby); "FFA in Y2K=Success" (Leib); "Drivers Wanted for the 21st Century" (Morgan, Vincent); "FFA in the 21st Century" (Trivette, Trivette); "Should There Be FFA in the Next Century?"…

  9. Twenty-First Century Learning: Communities, Interaction and Ubiquitous Computing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leh, Amy S.C.; Kouba, Barbara; Davis, Dirk

    2005-01-01

    Advanced technology makes 21st century learning, communities and interactions unique and leads people to an era of ubiquitous computing. The purpose of this article is to contribute to the discussion of learning in the 21st century. The paper will review literature on learning community, community learning, interaction, 21st century learning and…

  10. Physical Stature and its Interpretation in Nineteenth Century New Zealand

    E-print Network

    Hickman, Mark

    1 Physical Stature and its Interpretation in Nineteenth Century New Zealand by Kris Inwood, Les interpretation in nineteenth century New Zealand 24 December 2008 Kris Inwood1 Les Oxley2 Evan Roberts3 Abstract: During the late nineteenth century the physical stature of New Zealand- born men stagnated, despite

  11. 3 CFR - Building a 21st Century Digital Government

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...false Building a 21st Century Digital Government Presidential Documents...2012 Building a 21st Century Digital Government Memorandum for...networks, and the growing mobile revolution have put the Internet at our...strategy to build a 21st century digital Government that delivers...

  12. Judicial Review of Citizenship Education in Nineteenth Century American Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michel, George J.

    This paper traces the Supreme Court's powers of judicial review in the 19th century and considers its relation to citizenship education. The 19th century was selected as the major focus because it was during this century that the Court attempted to establish its powers of review and generally to reaffirm judicial powers. Also, the controversy over…

  13. 21st century advanced hydropower turbine system

    SciTech Connect

    Brookshier, P.A.; Flynn, J.V.; Loose, R.R.

    1995-11-01

    While hydropower turbine manufacturers have incrementally improved turbine technology to increase efficiency, the basic design concepts haven`t changed for decades. These late 19th and early 20th century designs did not consider environmental effects, since little was known about environmental effects of hydropower at the time. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the hydropower industry recognize that hydropower plants have an effect on the environment and there is a great need to bring turbine designs into the 21st century. DOE has issued a request for proposals (RFP) that requested proposers to discard conventional thinking, search out innovative solutions, and to visualize innovative turbines designed from a new perspective. This perspective would look at the {open_quotes}turbine system{close_quotes} (intake to tailrace) which will balance environmental, technical, and economic considerations. This paper describes the DOE Advanced Hydropower Turbine System Program.

  14. Education for the 21st Century: UNESCO

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) was founded in 1945 on the premise that, in addition to political and economic agreements, â??peace must be established on the basis of humanityâ??s moral and intellectual solidarity.â? UNESCOâ??s goals include advocating for quality education for every child on the planet, building intercultural understanding, pursuing scientific cooperation, and protecting freedom of expression. This site, which provides an overview of Education in the 21st Century, bursts with informative articles. Start with Latest News, where you can read up on initiatives, conferences, and progress reports. Take a look at the Publications list for access to full academic articles on the topic of 21st Century Education, including â??BRICS: building education for the future; priorities for national development and international communicationâ? and â??Harnessing the potential of ICTs for literacy teaching and learning.â?

  15. Astronomy in nineteenth-century Lancaster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wade, Peter

    1997-04-01

    Lancashire's county town produced several eminent scientists in the last century, one of them, the philosopher of science William Whewell, even coining the word 'scientist' itself. Some of the others also proved good at devising names: the palaeontologist Sir Richard Owen invented the word 'dinosaur' and the chemist Sir Edward Frankland named helium following its detection in the solar spectrum by Norman Lockyer. While Lancaster's nineteenth-century scientific pantheon contained no well-known astronomers, a healthy appetite for the subject had grown along with the town itself,1 culminating in the opening of the Greg Observatory in 1892.2 This growth can be traced through the activities of Lancaster's learned societies, popular expositions of the subject by visiting speakers and reports of astronomical topics in the local press.

  16. A new biology for a new century.

    PubMed

    Woese, Carl R

    2004-06-01

    Biology today is at a crossroads. The molecular paradigm, which so successfully guided the discipline throughout most of the 20th century, is no longer a reliable guide. Its vision of biology now realized, the molecular paradigm has run its course. Biology, therefore, has a choice to make, between the comfortable path of continuing to follow molecular biology's lead or the more invigorating one of seeking a new and inspiring vision of the living world, one that addresses the major problems in biology that 20th century biology, molecular biology, could not handle and, so, avoided. The former course, though highly productive, is certain to turn biology into an engineering discipline. The latter holds the promise of making biology an even more fundamental science, one that, along with physics, probes and defines the nature of reality. This is a choice between a biology that solely does society's bidding and a biology that is society's teacher. PMID:15187180

  17. The 19th Century Trade Card

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    During the 19th century, the ever-popular trade card was a way for American businesses to effectively promote their goods and services. Some examples include a colorful business card depicting freshly caught mackerel in a net (appropriately enough for "Deep Sea Mackerel") and the Charter Oak Lawn Mower, which feature two Victorian women enjoying a leisurely mowing session in a pastoral setting. This online collection was created by Harvard Business School's Baker Library, which happens to have over 8000 of these cards. The online archive contains around 1000 cards which date from the 1870s to the 1890s. Visitors can search this archive via Harvard's Visual Information Access (VIA) union catalog which will allow them to focus in on subjects of particular interest. Finally, visitors can also avail themselves of the site's digital exhibition entitled "A New and Wonderful Invention: The Nineteenth-Century American Trade Card".

  18. On modular properties of the AdS3 CFT

    E-print Network

    Walter Baron; Carmen Nunez

    2010-12-10

    We study modular properties of the AdS3 WZNW model. Although the Euclidean partition function is modular invariant, the characters on the Euclidean torus are ill-defined and their modular transformations are unknown. We reconsider the characters defined on the Lorentzian torus, focusing on their structure as distributions. We find a generalized S matrix, depending on the sign of the real modular parameters, which has two diagonal blocks and one off-diagonal block, mixing discrete and continuous representations, that we fully determine. We then explore the relations among the modular transformations, the fusion algebra and the boundary states. We explicitly construct Ishibashi states for the maximally symmetric D-branes and show that the generalized S matrix defines the one-point functions associated to point-like and H2 branes as well as the fusion rules of the degenerate representations of SL(2,R) appearing in the open string spectrum of the point-like D-branes, through a generalized Verlinde theorem.

  19. Lifshitz-like systems and AdS null deformations

    SciTech Connect

    Narayan, K. [Chennai Mathematical Institute, SIPCOT IT Park, Padur PO, Siruseri 603103 (India)

    2011-10-15

    Following K. Balasubramanian and K. Narayan [J. High Energy Phys. 08 (2010) 014], we discuss certain lightlike deformations of AdS{sub 5}xX{sup 5} in type IIB string theory sourced by a lightlike dilaton {Phi}(x{sup +}) dual to the N=4 super Yang-Mills theory with a lightlike varying gauge coupling. We argue that, in the case where the x{sup +} direction is noncompact, these solutions describe anisotropic 3+1-dim Lifshitz-like systems with a potential in the x{sup +} direction generated by the lightlike dilaton. We then describe solutions of this sort with a linear dilaton. This enables a detailed calculation of two-point correlation functions of operators dual to bulk scalars and helps illustrate the spatial structure of these theories. Following this, we discuss a nongeometric string construction involving a compactification along the x{sup +} direction of this linear dilaton system. We also point out similar IIB axionic solutions. Similar bulk arguments for x{sup +}-noncompact can be carried out for deformations of AdS{sub 4}xX{sup 7} in M theory.

  20. A Quarter Century of Court Psychiatry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emanuel Messinger; Benjamin Apfelberg

    1961-01-01

    This study surveys a quarter of a century of continuous opera tion of the Psychiatric Clinic of the Court of General Sessions of New York County.The statistical findings are based on some 71,000 examinations of approximately 57,000 persons involved in felonies.Most of these persons are not significantly psychotic, neurotic, or even intellectually deficient in the ordinary clinical sense. Approximately 1.5

  1. Twenty-first century learning in afterschool.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, Eric; Stolow, David

    2006-01-01

    Twenty-first century skills increasingly represent the ticket to the middle class. Yet, the authors argue, in-school learning is simply not enough to help students develop these skills. The authors make the case that after-school (or out-of-school) learning programs are emerging as one of the nation's most promising strategies for preparing young people for the workforce and civic life. Most school systems have significant limitations for teaching twenty-first century skills. They have the limits of time: with only six hours per day there is barely enough time to teach even the basic skills, especially for those students starting already behind. They have the limits of structure: typical school buildings and classrooms are not physically set up for innovative learning. They have the limits of inertia and bureaucracy: school systems are notoriously resistant to change. And perhaps most important, they have the limits of priorities: especially with the onset of the No Child Left Behind Act, schools are laserlike in their focus on teaching the basics and therefore have less incentive to incorporate twenty-first century skills. Meanwhile, the authors argue that after-school programs are an untapped resource with three competitive advantages. First, they enable students to work collaboratively in small groups, a setup on which the modern economy will increasingly rely. Second, they are well suited to project-based learning and the development of mastery. Third, they allow students to learn in the real-world contexts that make sense. Yet the after-school sector is fraught with challenges. It lacks focus-Is it child care, public safety, homework tutoring? And it lacks rigorous results. The authors argue that the teaching of twenty-first century skills should become the new organizing principle for afterschool that will propel the field forward and more effectively bridge in-school and out-of-school learning. PMID:17017259

  2. Childbed Fever A Nineteenth-Century Mystery

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Christa Colyer

    1999-01-01

    This case describes the pioneering work of Ignaz Semmelweis and his efforts to remedy the problem of childbed fever in mid-19th century Europe.  Its purpose is to teach students about the scientific method by “dissecting” the various steps involved in this important, historical medical breakthrough. The case is an interrupted case, that is, students receive only one piece of information at a time, followed by discussion, before moving on to the next piece of information to solve the mystery.

  3. Power from space for the next century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erb, R. B.

    1991-10-01

    Problems associated with current practices of supplying power for the world in the face of a projected increase in demand and the need to reduce the use of fossil fuels are discussed. The probable shortfall by midcentury is estimated and options for earth-based and space-based sources of energy are examined. It is concluded that energy obtained from space is a viable and necessary manner of meeting a significant portion of the world's requirements in the next century.

  4. High energy QCD from Planckian scattering in AdS space and the Froissart bound

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Kyungsik; Nastase, Horatiu [Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island, 02912 (United States)

    2005-11-15

    We reanalyze high-energy QCD scattering regimes from scattering in cutoff AdS space via gravity-gauge dualities (a la Polchinski-Strassler). We look at 't Hooft scattering, Regge behavior, and black hole creation in AdS space. Black hole creation in the gravity dual is analyzed via gravitational shockwave collisions. We prove the saturation of the QCD Froissart unitarity bound, corresponding to the creation of black holes of AdS size, as suggested by Giddings.

  5. Ocean Acoustic Tomography: 197021st CenturyOcean Acoustic Tomography: 197021st Century Brian Dushaw, Bruce Howe

    E-print Network

    Dushaw, Brian

    Ocean Acoustic Tomography: 1970­21st CenturyOcean Acoustic Tomography: 1970­21st Century Brian for the Role of Acoustic Tomography in Ocean Climate Observation. In: Observing the Ocean in the 21st Century ATOC--Acoustic Thermometry of Ocean Climate ACOUS--Arctic Climate Observations Using Underwater Sound

  6. Science for the 21st Century

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2004-07-01

    The Federal government plays a key role in supporting the country's science infrastructure, a national treasure, and scientific research, an investment in our future. Scientific discoveries transform the way we think about our universe and ourselves, from the vastness of space to molecular-level biology. In innovations such as drugs derived through biotechnology and new communications technologies we see constant evidence of the power of science to improve lives and address national challenges. We had not yet learned to fly at the dawn of the 20th century, and could not have imagined the amazing 20th century inventions that we now take for granted. As we move into the 21st century, we eagerly anticipate new insights, discoveries, and technologies that will inspire and enrich us for many decades to come. This report presents the critical responsibilities of our Federal science enterprise and the actions taken by the Federal research agencies, through the National Science and Technology Council, to align our programs with scientific opportunity and with national needs. The many examples show how our science enterprise has responded to the President's priorities for homeland and national security, economic growth, health research, and the environment. In addition, we show how the science agencies work together to set priorities; coordinate related research programs; leverage investments to promote discovery, translate science into national benefits, and sustain the national research enterprise; and promote excellence in math and science education and work force development.

  7. Myths & Facts about Value-Added Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    TNTP, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents myths as well as facts about value-added analysis. These myths include: (1) "Value-added isn't fair to teachers who work in high-need schools, where students tend to lag far behind academically"; (2) "Value-added scores are too volatile from year-to-year to be trusted"; (3) "There's no research behind value-added"; (4) "Using…

  8. IP Address Autoconfiguration for Ad Hoc Networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles E. Perkins; Elizabeth M. Royer; Samir R. Das

    2000-01-01

    If a node lacks an IP address, it cannot yet participate in ad hocnetworks as currently designed, because the connectivity in an ad hocnetwork is typically determined by mechanisms that depend upon usingPerkins Expires 10 January 2001 [Page i]Internet Draft Ad Hoc Address Autoconfiguration 10 July 2000the IP address as the identifier for the nodes in the ad hoc network.In

  9. What's the Value in Value-Added?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffrin, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    A growing number of school districts are adopting "value-added" measures of teaching quality to award bonuses or even tenure. And two competitive federal grants are spurring them on. Districts using value-added data are encouraged by the results. But researchers who support value-added measures advise caution. The ratings, which use a statistical…

  10. Online Ad Slotting With Cancellations Florin Constantin

    E-print Network

    Chen, Yiling

    Online Ad Slotting With Cancellations Florin Constantin Jon Feldman S. Muthukrishnan Martin PĂĄl or on traditional me- dia such as radio, TV and newsprint. They seek a simple, online mechanism to reserve ad slots, we present and study a simple model for auctioning such ad slots in advance. A monopolist seller owns

  11. Representation of XX century midlatitude atmospheric variability in ERA-CLIM simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dell'Aquila, Alessandro; Corti, Susanna; Palmer, Tim; Calmanti, Sandro; Weisheimer, Antje; Hersbach, Hans; Peubey, Carole; Simmons, Adrian

    2015-04-01

    We analyse the representation of midlatitude winter atmospheric variability as depicted in XX century-long simulations. We analyse the recent atmospheric integrations produced in the framework of ERA-CLIM project in terms of their capability in reproducing midlatitude planetary waves variability as well as baroclinic activity compared against several reanalysis products. The simulations of ERA-CLIM project (the ERA-20C reanalysis product together with ERA-20CM atmospheric model integrations) could be a quite appealing source of information to catch signals of long term changes. We apply process oriented metrics and ad hoc indexes to validate the ERA-CLIM simulations and, on the same time, to evaluate signals of multi-decadal variability for planetary and baroclinic waves. When observational fields are assimilated (even if only the surface ones, as in the case of ERA-20C reanalysis), the representation of atmospheric variability for the last decades of XX century is in a fair close agreement with other reanalysis products (i.e. NCEP , ERA-Interim reanalysis). However, in the first part of the century (up to 40s' ) the planetary and baroclinic waves exhibit a quite low activity in the reanalysis. This behaviour cannot be found in the ERA-20CM atmospheric integrations that show, on the other hand, a huge variability, in term of representation of large scale atmospheric waves, between different ensemble members.

  12. Twentieth century dust lows and the weakening of the westerly winds over the Tibetan Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigholm, B.; Mayewski, P. A.; Kang, S.; Zhang, Y.; Morgenstern, U.; Schwikowski, M.; Kaspari, S.; Aizen, V.; Aizen, E.; Takeuchi, N.; Maasch, K. A.; Birkel, S.; Handley, M.; Sneed, S.

    2015-04-01

    Understanding past atmospheric dust variability is necessary to put modern atmospheric dust into historical context and assess the impacts of dust on the climate. In Asia, meteorological data of atmospheric dust is temporally limited, beginning only in the 1950s. High-resolution ice cores provide the ideal archive for reconstructing preinstrumental atmospheric dust concentrations. Using a ~500 year (1477-1982 A.D.) annually resolved calcium (Ca) dust proxy from a Tibetan Plateau (TP) ice core, we demonstrate the lowest atmospheric dust concentrations in the past ~500 years during the latter twentieth century. Declines in late nineteenth to twentieth century Ca concentrations significantly correspond with regional zonal wind trends from two reanalysis models, suggesting that the Ca record provides a proxy for the westerlies. Twentieth century warming and attendant atmospheric pressure reductions over northern Asia have potentially reduced temperature/pressure gradients resulting in lower zonal wind velocities and associated dust entrainment/transport in the past ~500 years over the TP.

  13. Medieval Warm Period, Little Ice Age and 20th century temperature variability from Chesapeake Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cronin, T. M.; Dwyer, G.S.; Kamiya, T.; Schwede, S.; Willard, D.A.

    2003-01-01

    We present paleoclimate evidence for rapid (< 100 years) shifts of ??? 2-4??C in Chesapeake Bay (CB) temperature ???2100, 1600, 950, 650, 400 and 150 years before present (years BP) reconstructed from magnesium/calcium (Mg/Ca) paleothermometry. These include large temperature excursions during the Little Ice Age (???1400-1900 AD) and the Medieval Warm Period (???800-1300 AD) possibly related to changes in the strength of North Atlantic thermohaline circulation (THC). Evidence is presented for a long period of sustained regional and North Atlantic-wide warmth with low-amplitude temperature variability between ???450 and 1000 AD. In addition to centennial-scale temperature shifts, the existence of numerous temperature maxima between 2200 and 250 years BP (average ???70 years) suggests that multi-decadal processes typical of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) are an inherent feature of late Holocene climate. However, late 19th and 20th century temperature extremes in Chesapeake Bay associated with NAO climate variability exceeded those of the prior 2000 years, including the interval 450-1000 AD, by 2-3??C, suggesting anomalous recent behavior of the climate system. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Breast cancer: from the earliest times through to the end of the 20th century.

    PubMed

    Ekmektzoglou, Konstantinos A; Xanthos, Theodoros; German, Vasilios; Zografos, Georgios C

    2009-07-01

    Breast cancer is a daunting disease and constitutes a continuing medical health problem through the ages for millions of women worldwide. Physicians, from the early periods of recorded history have tried to heal breast cancer patients, with results that were fairly promising at times and disappointing at others. The science of medicine evolved through the ages under the careful scrutiny and critical thought of the many prominent scholars and researchers of their times who constantly added to the therapeutic armamentarium. Surgeons described new therapeutic approaches, and anatomists, through their elaborate descriptions, added useful insights on the art of healing. Theories about the origin of cancer change as new scientific data are presented and validated. Although the Middle Ages hindered temporarily any progress in the field of medicine, the Renaissance became the vaulting horse for science in its broadest sense. However, it was not until the 19th century, with the discovery of anesthesia, the introduction of antisepsis, and the establishment of microscopy that giant scientific leaps in the field of breast cancer treatment occurred. The 20th century with the development of chemotherapy and radiation and the undertaking of numerous clinical trials offered new insights regarding breast cancer management. This article attempts a historical journey through the ages unfolding the problem of breast cancer through the different eras. PMID:19394749

  15. The quadruple system ADS 1652

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokovinin, A.; Gorynya, N. A.; Morrell, N. I.

    2014-10-01

    A detailed study of the rare nearby quadruple system with a three-tier hierarchy is presented, contributing to the still scarce data on such multiples. We compute the first combined spectroscopic and interferometric orbit of HD 12889 with a period of 2.58 yr and eccentricity 0.77. This refers to the inner pair Aa, Ab in the quadruple system ADS 1652 which also contains the visual binary A, B with a known orbit of ˜200 yr period and another companion, C (HD 12873), at a projected distance of 2500 au from A. Photometry of all components is provided. The multiple system is located at a distance of 44 pc and it is composed of main-sequence dwarfs with estimated masses of 0.74, 0.72, 0.57, and 0.78 solar masses for Aa, Ab, B and C, respectively. The orbits of Aa, Ab and A, B are likely coplanar.

  16. Math / Adding and Subtracting Integers

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mr. Larry Petersen

    2008-10-01

    Now that you have mastered the common math operations of adding, subtracting, multiplying and dividing, you are ready to tackle some more challenging, yet practical problems. For example: How much money do you have if your Mom paid you $20 for every time you mowed the lawn, but you had to pay your little brother $5 for every time he helped you, and together you accomplished the job 7 times? Or how about this one: if you picked 5 apples but 2 were rotten and you had to divide them equally between you and your five friends, how much would each person get? Current Knowledge You will need a piece of paper to record information and to write down examples, so grab one now. Number the paper from 1 to 10. Get with a partner and write down how you think the equations to solve the above problems will be written. Write these ...

  17. Health Physics in the 21st Century

    E-print Network

    Bevelacqua, Joseph John

    2008-01-01

    Adopting a proactive approach and focusing on emerging radiation-generating technologies, Health Physics in the 21st Century meets the growing need for a presentation of the relevant radiological characteristics and hazards. As such, this monograph discusses those technologies that will affect the health physics and radiation protection profession over the decades to come. After an introductory overview, the second part of this book looks at fission and fusion energy, followed by a section devoted to accelerators, while the final main section deals with radiation on manned space missions.

  18. Half a Century of Physical Review Letters

    ScienceCinema

    Robert Garisto

    2010-01-08

    Fifty years ago, Sam Goudsmit started an experiment: the journal Physical Review Letters.  Since 1958, the experiment has thrived. PRL has gone through many changes, published many important papers, and become a leader in international scientific publication.  I will trace the rise of PRL from its early 20th century roots as "Letters to the Editor," through changes in editorial process and advents of new technology. Along the way I'll show what has gone on behind the scenes, and give a glimpse of our plans for the future.  I'll also give some advice to would-be authors and referees, illustrated with interesting correspondence we've received.

  19. The eleven observations of comets between 687 AD and 1114 AD recorded in the Anglo Saxon Chronicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mardon, E. G.; Williams, J.; Mardon, A. A.

    1992-01-01

    This research paper is an examination of the eleven cometary references (679AD, 729AD, 892AD, 950AD, 975AD, 995AD, 1066AD, 1097AD, 1106AD, 1110AD and 1114AD) found in the various manuscripts of The Anglo Saxon Chronicle between 678 AD and 1114 AD. The manuscripts contain more than 35 celestial observations. This is an examination of astronomical phenomena and other climatic or natural events, that are described in The Anglo Saxon Chronicle, which is also referred to as The Old English Annals.

  20. LWR (Light Water Reactor) power plant simulations using the AD10 and AD100 systems

    SciTech Connect

    Wulff, W.; Cheng, H.S.; Chien, C.J.; Jang, J.Y.; Lin, H.C.; Mallen, A.N.; Wang, S.J. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (USA); Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Lung-Tan (Taiwan); Tawian Power Co., Taipei (Taiwan); Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (USA); Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Lung-Tan (Taiwan))

    1989-01-01

    Boiling (BWR) and Pressurized (PWR) Water Reactor Power Plants are being simulated at BNL with the AD10 and AD100 Peripheral Processor Systems. The AD10 system has been used for BWR simulations since 1984 for safety analyses, emergency training and optimization studies. BWR simulation capabilities have been implemented recently on the AD100 system and PWR simulation capabilities are currently being developed under the auspices of international cooperation. Modeling and simulation methods are presented with emphasis on the simulation of the Nuclear Steam Supply System. Results are presented for BWR simulation and performance characteristics are compared of the AD10 and AD100 systems. It will be shown that the AD100 simulates two times faster than two AD10 processors operating in parallel and that the computing capacity of one AD100 (with FMU processor) is twice as large as that of two AD10 processors. 9 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Nonpropagation of massive mode on AdS2 in topologically massive gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yong-Wan; Myung, Yun Soo; Park, Young-Jai

    2010-06-01

    Making use of Achucarro-Ortiz (AO) type of dimensional reduction, we study the topologically massive gravity with a negative cosmological constant on AdS2 spacetimes. For a constant dilaton, this two-dimensional model also admits three AdS2 vacuum solutions, which are related to two AdS3 and warped AdS3 backgrounds with an identification upon uplifting three dimensions. We carry out the perturbation analysis around these backgrounds to find what is a physically propagating field. However, it turns out that there is no propagating massive mode on AdS2 background, in contrast to the Kaluza-Klein (KK) type of dimensional reduction. We note that two dimensionally reduced actions are different and thus, the non-equivalence of their on-shell amplitudes is obtained.

  2. Aeolian responses to climate variability during the past century on Mesquite Lake Playa, Mojave Desert

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitney, J. W.; Breit, G. N.; Buckingham, S. E.; Reynolds, R. L.; Bogle, R. C.; Luo, L.; Goldstein, H. L.; Vogel, J. M.

    2015-02-01

    The erosion and deposition of sediments by wind from 1901 to 2013 have created large changes in surface features of Mesquite Lake playa in the Mojave Desert. The decadal scale recurrence of sand-sheet development, migration, and merging with older dunes appears related to decadal climatic changes of drought and wetness as recorded in the precipitation history of the Mojave Desert, complemented by modeled soil-moisture index values. Historical aerial photographs, repeat land photographs, and satellite images document the presence and northward migration of a mid-20th century sand sheet that formed during a severe regional drought that coincided with a multi-decadal cool phase of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO). The sand sheet slowly eroded during the wetter conditions of the subsequent PDO warm phase (1977-1998) due to a lack of added sediment. Sand cohesion gradually increased in the sand sheet by seasonal additions of salt and clay and by re-precipitation of gypsum, which resulted in the wind-carving of yardangs in the receding sand sheet. Smaller yardangs were aerodynamically shaped from coppice dunes with salt-clay crusts, and larger yardangs were carved along the walls and floor of trough blowouts. Evidence of a 19th century cycle of sand-sheet formation and erosion is indicated by remnants of yardangs, photographed in 1901 and 1916, that were found buried in the mid-20th century sand sheet. Three years of erosion measurements on the playa, yardangs, and sand sheets document relatively rapid wind erosion. The playa has lowered 20 to 40 cm since the mid-20th century and a shallow deflation basin has developed since 1999. Annually, 5-10 cm of surface sediment was removed from yardang flanks by a combination of wind abrasion, deflation, and mass movement. The most effective erosional processes are wind stripping of thin crusts that form on the yardang surfaces after rain events and the slumping of sediment blocks from yardang flanks. These wind-eroded landforms persist several decades to a century before eroding away or being buried by younger sands. On Mesquite Lake playa the climatic history of alternating PDO phases of multi-decadal drought and wetness is recorded twice by the presence of yardangs formed nearly a century apart.

  3. Black hole formation in AdS and thermalization on the boundary

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ulf H. Danielsson; Esko Keski-Vakkuri; Martín Kruczenski

    2000-01-01

    We investigate black hole formation by a spherically collapsing thin shell of matter in AdS space. This process has been suggested to have a holographic interpretation as thermalization of the CFT on the boundary of the AdS space. The AdS\\/CFT duality relates the shell in the bulk to an off-equilibrium state of the boundary theory which evolves towards a thermal

  4. Non-Vacuum AdS Cosmologies and the Approach to Equilibrium of Entanglement Entropy

    E-print Network

    Sebastian Fischetti; David Kastor; Jennie Traschen

    2014-07-28

    We extend standard results for vacuum asymptotically locally AdS (AlAdS) spacetimes, showing that such spacetimes can be constructed as foliations where the induced metric on each hypersurface satisfies Einstein's equation with stress-energy. By an appropriate choice of stress-energy on the hypersurfaces, the resulting AlAdS spacetime satisfies Einstein's equation with a negative cosmological constant and physical stress tensor. We use this construction to obtain AlAdS solutions whose boundaries are FRW cosmologies sourced by a massless scalar field or by a perfect fluid obeying the strong energy condition. We focus on FRW universes that approach Minkowski spacetime at late times, yielding AlAdS spacetimes that approach either the Poincar\\'e patch of pure AdS or the AdS soliton, which we view as late time equilibrium states. As an application of these solutions, we use the AdS/CFT correspondence to study the approach to equilibrium of the entanglement entropy and of the boundary stress tensor of the boundary CFT. We find that the energy of the asymptotically AdS solitonic solution is consistent with the conjecture that the AdS soliton is the lowest-energy solution to Einstein's equation with negative cosmological constant. The time dependent correction to the entanglement entropy is found to decay like a power law, with rate set by the Hubble parameter and the power determined by the equation of state of the cosmic fluid.

  5. Learning 21st-Century Skills Requires, 21st-Century Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saavedra, Anna Rosefsky; Opfer, V. Darleen

    2012-01-01

    For students to learn 21st-century skills, we will have to teach them differently than we have in the past. The outdated, transmission model, through which teachers transmit factual knowledge to students via lectures and textbooks, remains the dominant approach to compulsory education in much of the world, yet it is not the most effective way to…

  6. A Well-Verified, Multiproxy Reconstruction of the Winter North Atlantic Oscillation Index since a.d. 1400

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edward R. Cook; Michael E. Mann

    2002-01-01

    A new, well-verified, multiproxy reconstruction of the winter North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index is described that can be used to examine the variability of the NAO prior to twentieth century greenhouse forcing. It covers the period A.D. 1400-1979 and successfully verifies against independent estimates of the winter NAO index from European instrumental and noninstrumental data as far back as 1500.

  7. Preliminary analysis of acceleration of sea level rise through the twentieth century using extended tide gauge data sets (August 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hogarth, Peter

    2014-11-01

    This work explores the potential for extending tide gauge time series from the Permanent Service for Mean Sea Level (PSMSL) using historical documents, PSMSL ancillary data, and by developing additional composite time series using near neighbor tide gauges. The aim was to increase the number, completeness, and geographical extent of records covering most or all of the twentieth century. The number of at least 75% complete century-scale time series have been approximately doubled over the original PSMSL data set. In total, over 4800 station years have been added, with 294 of these added to 10 long Southern Hemisphere records. Individual century-scale acceleration values derived from this new extended data set tend to converge on a value of 0.01 ą 0.008 mm/yr2. This result agrees closely with recent work and is statistically significant at the 1 sigma level. Possible causes of acceleration and errors are briefly discussed. Results confirm the importance of current data archeology projects involving digitization of the remaining archives of hard copy tide gauge data for sea level and climate studies.

  8. Challenges in 21st Century Physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Thomas L.

    2007-01-01

    We are truly fortunate to live in one of the great epochs of human discovery, a time when science is providing new visions and understanding about ourselves and the world in which we live. At last, we are beginning to explore the Universe itself. One particularly exciting area of advancement is high-energy physics where several existing concepts will be put to the test. A brief survey will be given of accomplishments in 20th Century physics. These include relativity and quantum physics which have produced breakthroughs in cosmology, astrophysics, and high-energy particle physics. The current situation is then assessed, combining the last 100 years of progress with new 21st Century challenges about unification and where to go next. Finally, the future is upon us. The next frontier in experimental high-energy physics, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN in Geneva, is scheduled to begin coming online this year (2007). The potential for the LHC to address several of the significant problems in physics today will be discussed, as this great accelerator examines the predictions of the Standard Model of particle physics and even cosmology. New physics and new science will surely emerge and a better vision of the world will unfold.

  9. Nursing heroism in the 21st Century'

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The Vivian Bullwinkel Oration honours the life and work of an extraordinary nurse. Given her story and that of her World War II colleagues, the topic of nursing heroism in the 21st century could not be more germane. Discussion Is heroism a legitimate part of nursing, or are nurses simply 'just doing their job' even when facing extreme personal danger? In this paper I explore the place and relevance of heroism in contemporary nursing. I propose that nursing heroism deserves a broader appreciation and that within the term lie many hidden, 'unsung' or 'unrecorded' heroisms. I also challenge the critiques of heroism that would condemn it as part of a 'militarisation' of nursing. Finally, I argue that nursing needs to be more open in celebrating our heroes and the transformative power of nursing achievements. Summary The language of heroism may sound quaint by 21st Century standards but nursing heroism is alive and well in the best of our contemporary nursing ethos and practice. PMID:21324152

  10. Historical Atlas of the Twentieth Century

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Designed by librarian Matthew White, this sprawling and somewhat idiosyncratic Website offers hundreds of political, economic, demographic, religious, and historical cartographies of the countries and continents of the last century. Visitors to this site can trace the global rise and fall of various political systems through the century, examine the mapped battle histories of the Mexican Revolution and the two world wars, compare the size and rate of growth of the world's largest cities, compare living conditions across time and countries, and much more. Some of the mappings seem questionable, such as placing the US in the category of "limited democracy" in the 1910s and "multi-party democracy" in the 1920s, but the author asserts that all cartographies are interpretive and that the maps here are drawn from scholarly sources of statistics or historical events, which he lists. Quite simply, there's too much fascinating information here graphically represented to quibble too much, though individuals using it for research or instruction will certainly want to double-check the authority of some of the claims.

  11. DIMMING OF THE 17TH CENTURY SUN

    SciTech Connect

    Foukal, Peter [Heliophysics, Inc., Nahant, MA 01908 (United States); Ortiz, Ada [Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1029, Blindern, N 0315 Oslo (Norway); Schnerr, Roald [Institute for Solar Physics, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Alba Nova University Center, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2011-06-01

    Reconstructions of total solar irradiance (TSI) rely mainly on linear relations between TSI variation and indices of facular area. When these are extrapolated to the prolonged 15th-17th century Spoerer and Maunder solar activity minima, the estimated solar dimming is insufficient to explain the mid-millennial climate cooling of the Little Ice Age. We draw attention here to evidence that the relation departs from linearity at the lowest activity levels. Imaging photometry and radiometry indicate an increased TSI contribution per unit area from small network faculae by a factor of 2-4 compared with larger faculae in and around active regions. Even partial removal of this more TSI-effective network at prolonged minima could enable climatically significant solar dimming, yet be consistent with the weakened but persistent 11 yr cycle observed in Be 10 during the Maunder Minimum. The mechanism we suggest would not alter previous findings that increased solar radiative forcing is insufficient to account for 20th century global warming.

  12. Federal laboratories for the 21st century

    SciTech Connect

    Gover, J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Huray, P.G. [Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States)

    1998-04-01

    Federal laboratories have successfully filled many roles for the public; however, as the 21st Century nears it is time to rethink and reevaluate how Federal laboratories can better support the public and identify new roles for this class of publicly-owned institutions. The productivity of the Federal laboratory system can be increased by making use of public outcome metrics, by benchmarking laboratories, by deploying innovative new governance models, by partnerships of Federal laboratories with universities and companies, and by accelerating the transition of federal laboratories and the agencies that own them into learning organizations. The authors must learn how government-owned laboratories in other countries serve their public. Taiwan`s government laboratory, Industrial Technology Research Institute, has been particularly successful in promoting economic growth. It is time to stop operating Federal laboratories as monopoly institutions; therefore, competition between Federal laboratories must be promoted. Additionally, Federal laboratories capable of addressing emerging 21st century public problems must be identified and given the challenge of serving the public in innovative new ways. Increased investment in case studies of particular programs at Federal laboratories and research on the public utility of a system of Federal laboratories could lead to increased productivity of laboratories. Elimination of risk-averse Federal laboratory and agency bureaucracies would also have dramatic impact on the productivity of the Federal laboratory system. Appropriately used, the US Federal laboratory system offers the US an innovative advantage over other nations.

  13. ["Pharmaco-theology"].

    PubMed

    Krafft, F

    1996-06-01

    Physico-theology is a way of thinking and argumentation, especially of the protestantism during enlightenment, which, facing the new, namely causal-mechanical natural science, emphasizes the anthropocentrical expediency of creation (of the "liber naturae'), traces it in nature and therefrom derives God's omnipotence, grace and wisdom. Although physico-theological writings of the 18th century are treating all kinds of natural objects under this aspect, the herbs and natural remedies never have been mentioned in the historical research of physico-theology until now. Here, this gap is closed. The relevant writings by Friedrich Hoffmann, Johann Julius Hecker und Julius Bernhard von Rohr are briefly presented and thereby attention is drawn to an important zeitströmung which added substantially to a broad acceptance of medicaments which then formed the practical basis as one of the preconditions for the developing of pharmacy into science in the late 18th century. PMID:8767853

  14. [Historical and biological approaches to the study of Modern Age French plague mass burials].

    PubMed

    Bianuccii, Raffaella; Tzortzis, Stéfan; Fornaciari, Gino; Signoli, Michel

    2010-01-01

    The "Black Death" and subsequent epidemics from 1346 to the early 18th century spread from the Caspian Sea all over Europe six hundred years after the outbreak of the Justinian plague (541-767 AD). Plague has been one of the most devastating infectious diseases that affected the humankind and has caused approximately 200 million human deaths historically. Here we describe the different approaches adopted in the study of several French putative plague mass burials dating to the Modern Age (16th-18th centuries). Through complementation of historical, archaeological and paleobiological data, ample knowledge of both the causes that favoured the spread of the Medieval plague in cities, towns and small villages and of the modification of the customary funerary practices in urban and rural areas due to plague are gained. PMID:21563477

  15. Cascading climate effects and related ecological consequences during past centuries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naef-Daenzer, B.; Luterbacher, J.; Nuber, M.; Rutishauser, T.; Winkel, W.

    2012-06-01

    The interface between climate and ecosystem structure and function is incompletely understood, partly because few ecological records start before the recent warming phase. Here, we analyse an exceptional 100-yr long record of the great tit (Parus major) population in Switzerland in relation to climate and habitat phenology. Using path analysis, we demonstrate an uninterrupted cascade of significant influences of the large-scale atmospheric circulation (North-Atlantic Oscillation, NAO, and North-sea - Caspian Pattern, NCP) on habitat and breeding phenology, and further on fitness-relevant life history traits within animal populations. We then apply the relationships of this analysis to reconstruct the circulation-driven component of fluctuations in great tit breeding phenology and population dynamics on the basis of new seasonal NAO and NCP indices back to 1500 AD. According to the path model, the multi-decadal oscillation of the atmospheric circulation likely led to substantial variation in habitat phenology, and consequently, tit population minima during the "Maunder Minimum" (1650-1720) and the Little Ice Age Type Event I (1810-1850). The warming since 1975 was not only related with a quick shift towards earlier breeding, but also with the highest productivity since 1500, and thus, an unprecedented increase of the population. A verification of the structural equation model against two independent data series corroborates that the retrospective model reliably depicts the major long-term NAO/NCP impact on ecosystem parameters. The results suggest a complex cascade of climate effects beginning at a global scale and ending at the level of individual life histories. This sheds light on how large scale climate conditions substantially affect major life-history parameters within a population, and thus influence key ecosystem parameters at the scale of centuries.

  16. Discourse Classifications in Nineteenth-Century Rhetorical Pedagogy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Carolyn R.; Jolliffe, David A.

    1986-01-01

    Examines the rhetorical situation of the modern freshman composition student in America, in light of nineteenth-century developments in rhetoric pedagogy and discourse classification conventions. (MS)

  17. Environmental Reconstruction of Tuyoq in the Fifth Century and Its Bearing on Buddhism in Turpan, Xinjiang, China

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Ye-Na; Li, Xiao; Yao, Yi-Feng; Ferguson, David Kay; Li, Cheng-Sen

    2014-01-01

    The Thousand Buddha Grottoes of Tuyoq, Turpan, Xinjiang, China were once a famous Buddhist temple along the ancient Silk Road which was first constructed in the Fifth Century (A.D.). Although archaeological researches about the Grottoes have been undertaken for over a century, the ancient environment has remained enigmatic. Based on seven clay samples from the Grottoes’ adobes, pollen and leaf epidermis were analyzed to decipher the vegetation and climate of Fifth Century Turpan, and the environmental landscape was reconstructed in three dimensions. The results suggest that temperate steppe vegetation dominated the Tuyoq region under a warmer and wetter environment with more moderate seasonality than today, as the ancient mean annual temperature was 15.3°C, the mean annual precipitation was approximately 1000 mm and the temperature difference between coldest and warmest months was 24°C using Co-existence Approach. Taken in the context of wheat and grape cultivation as shown by pollen of Vitis and leaf epidermis of Triticum, we infer that the Tuyoq region was an oasis with booming Buddhism in the Fifth Century, which was probably encouraged by a 1°C warmer temperature with an abundant water supply compared to the coeval world that experienced the 1.4 k BP cooling event. PMID:24475109

  18. Environmental reconstruction of Tuyoq in the Fifth Century and its bearing on Buddhism in Turpan, Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Tang, Ye-Na; Li, Xiao; Yao, Yi-Feng; Ferguson, David Kay; Li, Cheng-Sen

    2014-01-01

    The Thousand Buddha Grottoes of Tuyoq, Turpan, Xinjiang, China were once a famous Buddhist temple along the ancient Silk Road which was first constructed in the Fifth Century (A.D.). Although archaeological researches about the Grottoes have been undertaken for over a century, the ancient environment has remained enigmatic. Based on seven clay samples from the Grottoes' adobes, pollen and leaf epidermis were analyzed to decipher the vegetation and climate of Fifth Century Turpan, and the environmental landscape was reconstructed in three dimensions. The results suggest that temperate steppe vegetation dominated the Tuyoq region under a warmer and wetter environment with more moderate seasonality than today, as the ancient mean annual temperature was 15.3°C, the mean annual precipitation was approximately 1000 mm and the temperature difference between coldest and warmest months was 24°C using Co-existence Approach. Taken in the context of wheat and grape cultivation as shown by pollen of Vitis and leaf epidermis of Triticum, we infer that the Tuyoq region was an oasis with booming Buddhism in the Fifth Century, which was probably encouraged by a 1°C warmer temperature with an abundant water supply compared to the coeval world that experienced the 1.4 k BP cooling event. PMID:24475109

  19. Chronology Protection in AdS/CFT

    E-print Network

    Marco M. Caldarelli

    2006-02-28

    We review the issue of chronology protection and show how string theory can solve it in the half BPS sector of AdS/CFT. According to the LLM prescription, half BPS excitations of AdS_5 x S^5 geometries in type IIB string theory can be mapped into free fermion configurations. We show that unitarity of the theory describing these fermions is intimately related to the protection of the chronology in the dual geometries.

  20. SIAM REVIEW c 2012 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics Vol. 54, No. 1, pp. 157178

    E-print Network

    Embree, Mark

    confirm its efficacy through physical experiment. We encourage readers to conduct their own explorations. Introduction. The 18th century witnessed revolutionary progress in the math- ematical description

  1. Ibn al-Quff (1233-1286 AD), a medieval Arab surgeon and physician.

    PubMed

    Dalfardi, Behnam; Yarmohammadi, Hassan

    2014-02-20

    Ab?'l-Faraj ibn Ya'q?b ibn Is?q Ibn al-Quff al-Karak? (1233-1286 AD), best known as Ibn al-Quff in the West, was a 13(th) century Arab physician-surgeon. During his lifetime, Ibn al-Quff made some important contributions to the art of healing. He authored several books and commentaries in the field of medicine, in particular surgery. This paper aims to review Ibn al-Quff's life, career, and contributions to medical science. PMID:24585631

  2. Tropical mathematics and the financial catastrophe of the 17th century. Thermoeconomics of Russia in the early 20th century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maslov, V. P.

    2010-03-01

    In the paper, an example is presented concerning relationships (which cannot be neglected) between mathematics and other sciences. In particular, the relationship between the tropical mathematics and the humanitarian-economic catastrophe of 17th century (related to slavery of Africans) is considered. The notion of critical state of economy of the 19th century is introduced by using the refined Fisher equation. A correspondence principle for thermodynamics of fluids and economics of the 19th century is presented.

  3. Global Warming and 21st Century Drying

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Benjamin I.; Smerdun, Jason E.; Seager, Richard; Coats, Sloan

    2014-01-01

    Global warming is expected to increase the frequency and intensity of droughts in the twenty-first century, but the relative contributions from changes in moisture supply (precipitation) versus evaporative demand (potential evapotranspiration; PET) have not been comprehensively assessed. Using output from a suite of general circulation model (GCM) simulations from phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, projected twentyfirst century drying and wetting trends are investigated using two offline indices of surface moisture balance: the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) and the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI). PDSI and SPEI projections using precipitation and Penman- Monteith based PET changes from the GCMs generally agree, showing robust cross-model drying in western North America, Central America, the Mediterranean, southern Africa, and the Amazon and robust wetting occurring in the Northern Hemisphere high latitudes and east Africa (PDSI only). The SPEI is more sensitive to PET changes than the PDSI, especially in arid regions such as the Sahara and Middle East. Regional drying and wetting patterns largely mirror the spatially heterogeneous response of precipitation in the models, although drying in the PDSI and SPEI calculations extends beyond the regions of reduced precipitation. This expansion of drying areas is attributed to globally widespread increases in PET, caused by increases in surface net radiation and the vapor pressure deficit. Increased PET not only intensifies drying in areas where precipitation is already reduced, it also drives areas into drought that would otherwise experience little drying or even wetting from precipitation trends alone. This PET amplification effect is largest in the Northern Hemisphere mid-latitudes, and is especially pronounced in western North America, Europe, and southeast China. Compared to PDSI projections using precipitation changes only, the projections incorporating both precipitation and PET changes increase the percentage of global land area projected to experience at least moderate drying (PDSI standard deviation of < or = -1) by the end of the twenty-first century from 12 to 30 %. PET induced moderate drying is even more severe in the SPEI projections (SPEI standard deviation of > or = -1; 11 to 44 %), although this is likely less meaningful because much of the PET induced drying in the SPEI occurs in the aforementioned arid regions. Integrated accounting of both the supply and demand sides of the surface moisture balance is therefore critical for characterizing the full range of projected drought risks tied to increasing greenhouse gases and associated warming of the climate system.

  4. Factorized Tree-level Scattering in AdS_4 x CP^3

    E-print Network

    Chrysostomos Kalousios; C. Vergu; Anastasia Volovich

    2009-08-29

    AdS_4/CFT_3 duality relating IIA string theory on AdS_4 x CP^3 to N=6 superconformal Chern-Simons theory provides an arena for studying aspects of integrability in a new potentially exactly solvable system. In this paper we explore the tree-level worldsheet scattering for strings on AdS_4 x CP^3. We compute all bosonic four-, five- and six-point amplitudes in the gauge-fixed action and demonstrate the absence of particle production.

  5. N =1 SUSY backgrounds with an AdS factor from non-Abelian T duality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araujo, Thiago R.; Nastase, Horatiu

    2015-06-01

    We consider the action of a non-Abelian T duality on backgrounds with an AdS5 factor in type IIA supergravity, finding a new type IIB background, as well as the non-Abelian T -dual of a domain wall solution which has as limits the non-Abelian T -dual of AdS5×T1 ,1 and the non-Abelian T -dual of AdS3×R2×S2×S3 . We explore some consequences of non-Abelian T duality for the dual conformal field theories.

  6. A Study on New Pochonka Published in A.D. 1792

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Sang-Hyeon

    2009-12-01

    New Pochonka published in the eighteenth century of the Choson dynasty was composed of star-charts based on the new observations made by Jesuits in China and songs corrected a little bit from previous version of Pochonka. The asterisms in the previous Pochonka are listed in the same order to that in the Song dynasty's literature; while the asterisms in the new Pochonka are listed in accordance with Pu-tien-ko published in China after the Ming dynasty. The Chinese-style twelve-equatorial-section system is adopted in the new Pochonka, while in its song is adopted the zodiac system, which can be seen in the star-charts of previous version of Pochonka. The asterisms belonging to three or four neighboring lunar-mansions are drawn in one chart. Each chart covers asterisms not belonging to a certain range of right ascension, but to a certain lunar mansion. We estimate the forming era of the new Pochonka from the following facts; that the Ling-Tai-I-Hsiang-Chih was used to make charts and footnotes whose archetype can be found in the Chinese literature around A.D. 1700, that these Chinese books were imported into Choson in A.D. 1709, that the naming taboo to the emperor Khang-Hsi was used, that the order of Shen-Hsiu (??) was transposed with Tshui-Hsiu (??), and that the new Pochonka was substituted for the old version when the rules of Royal Astronomical Bureau was reformed in A.D. 1791. In conclusion, the parent sources of the charts and footnotes of the new Pochonka might be imported from the Ching dynasty around 1709 A.D. to form the new Pochonka between A.D. 1709 and A.D. 1791, and finally to be published in A.D. 1792. We discuss the possible future works to make a firm conclusion.

  7. Interventional radiology: a half century of innovation.

    PubMed

    Baum, Richard A; Baum, Stanley

    2014-11-01

    The evolution of modern interventional radiology began over half century ago with a simple question. Was it possible to use the same diagnostic imaging tools that had revolutionized the practice of medicine to guide the real-time treatment of disease? This disruptive concept led to rapid treatment advances in every organ system of the body. It became clear that by utilizing imaging some patients could undergo targeted procedures, eliminating the need for major surgery, while others could undergo procedures for previously unsolvable problems. The breadth of these changes now encompasses all of medicine and has forever changed the way we think about disease. In this brief review article, major advances in the field, as chronicled in the pages of Radiology, will be described. PMID:25340439

  8. Space Biology in the 21st century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halstead, Thora W.; Krauss, Robert W.

    1990-01-01

    Space Biology is poised to make significant contributions to science in the next century. A carefully crafted, but largely ground-based, program in the United States has evolved major questions that require answers through experiments in space. Science, scientists, and the new long-term spacecrafts designed by NASA will be available for the first time to mount a serious Space Biology effort. The scientific challenge is of such importance that success will provide countless benefits to biologically dependent areas such as medicine, food, and commerce in the decades ahead. The international community is rapidly expanding its role in this field. The United States should generate the resources that will allow progress in Space Biology to match the recognized progress made in aeronautics and the other space sciences.

  9. A Half-century of SETI Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shuch, H. Paul

    We begin our journey with a brief review of half a century of SETI science. The material in this introductory chapter is offered for the benefit of those educated laypersons whose enthusiasm for the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence exceeds their detailed knowledge of the relevant technologies. It is my hope that readers of this volume will better appreciate the material which follows if they first have a basic understanding of SETI concepts. Hence, I offer an overview, which is intended not to be exhaustive, but rather representative. Together, we will explore the nature of radio telescopes, experimental design strategies, SETI instrumentation, signal analysis, and the hallmarks of artificiality that allow us to differentiate between natural astrophysical emissions and intelligent interstellar transmissions. If you are already a technical specialist in these areas, feel free to bypass this introduction, and proceed directly to the subsequent chapters.

  10. [Twentieth-century Penelopes: popular culture revisited].

    PubMed

    Favaro, Cleci Eulalia

    2010-01-01

    During their settlement of the so-called Old Italian Colonies of Rio Grande do Sul, immigrants constructed a set of positive values that were to serve as an emotional support and a means of outside communication. When women immigrants embroidered images and sayings on wall hangings or kitchen towels made of rustic fabric, they helped nourish the dream of a better life, sought by all and achieved by some. The objects crafted by these twentieth-century Penelopes bear witness to a way of doing, thinking, and acting. Local museums and exhibits have fostered the recovery of old-time embroidery techniques and themes; sold at open-air markets and regional festivals, these products represent income for women whose age excludes them from the formal labor market. PMID:21461540

  11. Digital Bridges: Bridges of the Nineteenth Century

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2002-01-01

    The collection consists of thirty representative 19th-century American bridge engineering monographs, manuals, and documents from the Lehigh University Libraries' Special Collections. The source documents have been scanned, converted to text, and partially corrected to make all significant terms and personal and proper names retrievable through the site's search engine. Topics include specific bridges (the Brooklyn Bridge, the East River Bridge), bridge types (suspension bridges, wrought iron bridges), bridge components (cabling, foundations), bridge design, bridge disasters, and others. The collection is browseable by title and searchable by keyword. Printable versions of the documents are also available. A glossary is also provided with definitions of terms, short biographies of authors, and descriptions of some of the bridges

  12. Local Anesthetics: A Century of Progress

    PubMed Central

    Yagiela, John A.

    1985-01-01

    One century after the clinical introduction of cocaine, local anesthesia remains the most important method of pain control in dentistry. Many local anesthetics have been marketed since 1884, and it is likely that attempts to produce drugs that enhance anesthetic efficacy, reduce systemic and local toxicity, and increase nociceptive selectivity, will continue. In addition, new methods of drug administration have been and will be developed to achieve these goals. Of fundamental importance to such improvements are investigations into the pharmacology of drugs with local anesthetic activity and anatomical and physiologic studies pertaining to the reasons why local anesthetics sometimes fail to achieve desired results. This paper reviews recent advances in our understanding of these drugs and their clinical use. ImagesFig. 1 PMID:2408504

  13. Restructuring terminals for the 21st Century

    SciTech Connect

    Chlebowski, J.F. Jr. [GATX Terminals Corp., Chicago, IL (United States)

    1997-06-01

    Integrated logistics are becoming critical to the efficient movement of customer`s products. Effective April 1, GATX began partnering with Colonial Pipeline and a barging company to allow Gulf Coast refiners a bundled service as they move product to the Northeast. This one-stop shopping offers the customer the transportation services (via pipeline and barging), the storage tankage, and all the quality inspection services required by such a move. The customer enjoys one transaction, one bill. GATX continues to look for opportunities to make integrated logistics a reality for its customers. The facts told GATX that it had to transform itself back into the kind of customer oriented company Hugo Epstein created. Today, we know our business is about partnerships, expanded distribution services, not just leasing tankage. The restructured terminals of the 21st Century will focus on the customer, achieve operational excellence in all aspects our business, and rely upon a high performance workforce.

  14. Pediatrics in an eighteenth century remedy book.

    PubMed Central

    Brodman, E

    1978-01-01

    A manuscript home remedy book of several hundred pages in German, with entries from 1631 to 1861, was found in the Washington University School of Medicine Library some years ago. Two sections on diseases of children, from the early seventeenth to the mid-eighteenth centuries, have been translated and compared with both printed and manuscript pediatric works. People cited and geographicl places mentioned are discussed. The final conclusion reached is that the text is closer in tone and philosophy to the stream of manuscripts going back to classical times than it is to the printed book of its time. An appendix lists treatment of the wet-nurse in place of the child, and treatments for debility or wasting and pain in the abdomen, and traces these through classical and later manuscript sources. PMID:342013

  15. Working in the 21st Century

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2002-01-01

    Published by the US Bureau of Labor Statistics, Working in the 21st Century is a thorough portrait of the US workforce that begins with the new millennium. Covers topics ranging from education levels to retirement plans, the report can be viewed through an online slide show or accessed by clicking on a topic that appears in the Web site's table of contents. Some of the subject headings include: The labor force is growing more slowly; More women are working today than in the past; Immigrants are found at the high and low ends of the education scale; Education pays; Workers with computer skills are in demand; The ten occupations that will generate the most jobs range widely in their skill requirements; and The workplace is becoming safer. In short, for anyone looking for a job, interested in changing occupations, or just curious about the job market, this site is an excellent place to start.

  16. Tree ring evidence of a 20th century precipitation surge in the monsoon shadow zone of the western Himalaya, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadav, Ram R.

    2011-01-01

    The present study is the first attempt to develop an annual (August-July) precipitation series back to AD 1330 using a tree ring data network of Himalayan cedar (Cedrus deodara (Roxb.) G. Don) from the Lahaul-Spiti region in the western Himalaya, India. The rainfall reconstruction reveals high magnitude multidecadal droughts during the 14th and 15th centuries and thenceforth a gradual increase in precipitation. Increasingly wet conditions during the 20th century are consistent with other long-term precipitation reconstructions from high Asia and reflect a large-scale intensification of the hydrological cycle, coincident with what is anticipated due to global warming. Significant relationships between reconstructed precipitation and precipitation records from central southwest Asia, east of the Caspian Sea, ENSO (NINO4-SST) variability and summer monsoon rainfall over central northeast India underscore the utility of our data in synoptic climatology.

  17. Non-vacuum AdS cosmologies and the approach to equilibrium of entanglement entropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischetti, Sebastian; Kastor, David; Traschen, Jennie

    2014-12-01

    We extend the standard results for vacuum asymptotically locally anti-de Sitter (AlAdS) spacetimes, showing that such spacetimes can be constructed as foliations where the induced metric on each hypersurface satisfies Einstein's equation with stress-energy. By an appropriate choice of stress-energy on the hypersurfaces, the resulting AlAdS spacetime satisfies Einstein's equation with a negative cosmological constant and physical stress tensor. We use this construction to obtain AlAdS solutions whose boundaries are FRW cosmologies sourced by a massless scalar field or by a perfect fluid obeying the strong energy condition. We focus on FRW universes that approach Minkowski spacetime at late times, yielding AlAdS spacetimes that approach either the Poincaré patch of pure AdS or the AdS soliton, which we view as late time equilibrium states. As an application of these solutions, we use the AdS/CFT correspondence to study the approach to equilibrium of the entanglement entropy and of the boundary stress tensor of the boundary CFT. We find that the energy of the asymptotically AdS solitonic solution is consistent with the conjecture that the AdS soliton is the lowest-energy solution to Einstein's equation with negative cosmological constant. The time dependent correction to the entanglement entropy is found to decay like a power law, with the rate set by the Hubble parameter and the power determined by the equation of state of the cosmic fluid.

  18. Food safety in the 21st century.

    PubMed Central

    Käferstein, F.; Abdussalam, M.

    1999-01-01

    The global importance of food safety is not fully appreciated by many public health authorities despite a constant increase in the prevalence of foodborne illness. Numerous devastating outbreaks of salmonellosis, cholera, enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli infections, hepatitis A and other diseases have occurred in both industrialized and developing countries. In addition, many of the re-emerging or newly recognized pathogens are foodborne or have the potential of being transmitted by food and/or drinking water. More foodborne pathogens can be expected because of changing production methods, processes, practices and habits. During the early 21st century, foodborne diseases can be expected to increase, especially in developing countries, in part because of environmental and demographic changes. These vary from climatic changes, changes in microbial and other ecological systems, to decreasing freshwater supplies. However, an even greater challenge to food safety will come from changes resulting directly in degradation of sanitation and the immediate human environment. These include the increased age of human populations, unplanned urbanization and migration and mass production of food due to population growth and changed food habits. Mass tourism and the huge international trade in food and feed is causing food and feedborne pathogens to spread transnationally. As new toxic agents are identified and new toxic effects recognized, the health and trade consequences of toxic chemicals in food will also have global implications. Meeting the huge challenge of food safety in the 21st century will require the application of new methods to identify, monitor and assess foodborne hazards. Both traditional and new technologies for assuring food safety should be improved and fully exploited. This needs to be done through legislative measures where suitable, but with much greater reliance on voluntary compliance and education of consumers and professional food handlers. This will be an important task for the primary health care system aiming at "health for all". PMID:10327714

  19. Acoustic emission: The first half century

    SciTech Connect

    Drouillard, T.F.

    1994-08-01

    The technology of acoustic emission (AE) is approaching the half century mark, having had its beginning in 1950 with the work of Joseph Kaiser. During the 1950s and 1960s researchers delved into the fundamentals of acoustic emission, developed instrumentation specifically for AE, and characterized the AE behavior of many materials. AE was starting to be recognized for its unique capabilities as an NDT method for monitoring dynamic processes. In the decade of the 1970s research activities became more coordinated and directed with the formation of the working groups, and its use as an NDT method continued to increase for industrial applications. In the 1980s the computer became a basic component for both instrumentation and data analysis, and today it has sparked a resurgence of opportunities for research and development. Today we are seeing a transition to waveform-based AE analysis and a shift in AE activities with more emphasis on applications than on research. From the beginning, we have been fortunate to have had so many dedicated savants with different fields of expertise contribute in a collective way to bring AE to a mature, fully developed technology and leave a legacy of knowledge recorded in its literature. AE literature has been a key indicator of the amount of activity, the proportion of research to application, the emphasis on what was of current interest, and the direction AE has taken. The following is a brief survey of the history of acoustic emission with emphasis on development of the infrastructure over the past half century.

  20. The Alexandrian Millenium (A.D. 2009) and the Astronomical Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umlenski, V. I.

    2009-09-01

    The outset of the contemporary system of chronology (A.D.; common era; our era; new era) is connected with the year of Christ's Birth as a God-man. Dionysius Exiguus, a Roman monk calculated this year in VI century. Nowadays, it is more and more believed that Dionysius made a miscount in his computation. In the present work we make an attempt to determine this miscount through astronomical and calendar computations. For that purpose, we use data from Church tradition and St. John's Gospel. It was found that the miscount of Dionysius regarding the year of Christ's Birth is 9 years i.e. the Alexandrian chroniclers were right (according to them Jesus was born in A.D. 9). If it is so, we must celebrate 2000 years from Christ's Birth and the end of the second Alexandrian Millenium in 2009, on December 25th.

  1. Holographic Double Diffraction of Higgs and the AdS Graviton/Pomeron

    E-print Network

    Richard Brower; Marko Djuri?; Chung-I Tan

    2014-12-09

    The holographic approach to double diffractive Higgs production is presented in terms of exchanging the AdS graviton/Pomeron. The goal is to provide a simple framework for central exclusive production from a dual strong coupling perspective.

  2. Renormalization group, secular term resummation and AdS (in)stability

    E-print Network

    Ben Craps; Oleg Evnin; Joris Vanhoof

    2014-08-08

    We revisit the issues of non-linear AdS stability, its relation to growing (secular) terms in naive perturbation theory around the AdS background, and the need and possible strategies for resumming such terms. To this end, we review a powerful and elegant resummation method, which is mathematically identical to the standard renormalization group treatment of ultraviolet divergences in perturbative quantum field theory. We apply this method to non-linear gravitational perturbation theory in the AdS background at first non-trivial order and display the detailed structure of the emerging renormalization flow equations. We prove, in particular, that a majority of secular terms (and the corresponding terms in the renormalization flow equations) that could be present on general grounds given the spectrum of frequencies of linear AdS perturbations, do not in fact arise.

  3. AdS (in)stability: Lessons from the scalar field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basu, Pallab; Krishnan, Chethan; Bala Subramanian, P. N.

    2015-06-01

    We argued in arxiv:arXiv:1408.0624 that the quartic scalar field in AdS has features that could be instructive for answering the gravitational stability question of AdS. Indeed, the conserved charges identified there have recently been observed in the full gravity theory as well. In this paper, we continue our investigation of the scalar field in AdS and provide evidence that in the Two-Time Formalism (TTF), even for initial conditions that are far from quasi-periodicity, the energy in the higher modes at late times is exponentially suppressed in the mode number. Based on this and some related observations, we argue that there is no thermalization in the scalar TTF model within time-scales that go as ? 1 /?2, where ? measures the initial amplitude (with only low-lying modes excited). It is tempting to speculate that the result holds also for AdS collapse.

  4. Boundary conditions, effective action, and Virasoro algebra for AdS?

    E-print Network

    Porfyriadis, Achilleas P

    2010-01-01

    We construct an effective action of General Relativity for small excitations from asymptotic transformations and use it to study conformal symmetry in the boundary of AdS3. By requiring finiteness of the boundary effective ...

  5. Black hole solutions in Chern-Simons AdS supergravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giribet, Gaston; Merino, Nelson; Miskovic, Olivera; Zanelli, Jorge

    2014-08-01

    We study charged AdS black hole solutions in five-dimensional Chern-Simons supergravity. The minimal supergroup containing such AdS5 × U(1) configurations is the superunitary group SU(2, 2|). For this model, we find analytic black hole solutions that asymptote to locally AdS5 spacetime at the boundary. A solution can carry U(1) charge provided the spacetime torsion is non-vanishing. Thus, we analyze the most general configuration consistent with the local AdS5 isometries in Riemann-Cartan space. The coupling of torsion in the action resembles that of the universal axion of string theory, and it is ultimately due to this field that the theory acquires propagating degrees of freedom. Through a careful analysis of the canonical structure the local degrees of freedom of the theory are identified in the static symmetric sector of phase space.

  6. Near Flat Space limit of strings on AdS_4 x CP^3

    E-print Network

    M. Kreuzer; R. C. Rashkov; M. Schimpf

    2008-11-03

    The non-linear nature of string theory on non-trivial backgrounds related to the AdS/CFT correspondence suggests to look for simplifications. Two such simplifications proved to be useful in studying string theory. These are the pp-wave limit which describes point-like strings and the so called "near flat space" limit which connects two different sectors of string theory -- pp-waves and "giant magnons". Recently another example of AdS/CFT duality emerged - $AdS_4/CFT_3$, which suggests duality between $\\mathcal N=6$ CS theory and superstring theory on $AdS_4\\times \\cp$. In this paper we study the "near flat space" limit of strings on the $AdS_4\\times \\cp$ background and discuss possible applications of the reduced theory.

  7. Splitting of Folded Strings in AdS_4*CP^3

    E-print Network

    Jun-Bao Wu

    2012-08-04

    We study classically splitting of two kinds of folded string solutions in AdS_4*CP^3. Conserved charges of the produced fragments are computed for each case. We find interesting patterns among these conserved charges.

  8. Quantum corrections to supergravity on AdS2×S2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, Finn; Lisbăo, Pedro

    2015-04-01

    We compute the off-shell spectrum of supergravity on AdS2×S2 by explicit diagonalization of the equations of motion for an effective AdS2 theory where all fields are dualized to scalars and spin-1/2 fermions. We classify all bulk modes as physical, gauge violating, and pure gauge then compute the physical spectrum by explicit cancellation of unphysical modes. We identify boundary modes as physical fields on S2 that are formally pure gauge but with gauge function that is non-normalizable on AdS2. As an application we compute the leading quantum correction to AdS2×S2 as a sum over physical fields including boundary states. The result agrees with a previous computation by Sen [1] where unphysical modes were canceled by ghosts.

  9. Charged Boson Stars in AdS and a Zero Temperature Phase Transition

    E-print Network

    Sanle Hu; James T. Liu; Leopoldo A. Pando Zayas

    2012-09-11

    We numerically construct charged boson stars in asymptotically AdS spacetime. We find an intricate phase diagram dominated by solutions whose main matter contribution are alternately provided by the scalar field or by the gauge field.

  10. Help Wanted: Case Studies of Classified Ads.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, John; And Others

    The document presents the findings of a study that tested the feasibility of determining whether classified help wanted ads in daily newspapers were an accurate reflection of local labor markets and of significant use to employers and job seekers. San Francisco and Salt Lake City Sunday paper want ads were coded and analyzed from 1968 to 1972 and…

  11. Experimental Evaluation of Ad Hoc Routing Protocols

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eleonora Borgia; G. Moruzzi

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we report an experimental comparison between two ad hoc routing protocols on real networks. Specifically, we evaluate performance of OLSR and AODV either in indoor and. outdoor environments on networks of 2-4 hops size with up to 8 nodes, representing realistic scenarios of few people exploiting the ad hoc network to share documents. In fact, as pointed

  12. Google's Auction for TV Ads Preliminary version

    E-print Network

    Nisan, Noam

    Google's Auction for TV Ads Preliminary version Noam Nisan Jason Bayer Deepak Chandra Tal Franji Robert Gardner Yossi Matias Neil Rhodes Misha Seltzer Danny Tom Hal Varian Dan Zigmond Google Inc. Abstract This document describes the auction system used by Google for allocation and pricing of TV ads

  13. Intrusion detection in wireless ad hoc networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    AMITABH MISHRA; KETAN NADKARNI; ANIMESH PATCHA

    2004-01-01

    Intrusion detection has, over the last few years, assumed paramount importance within the broad realm of network security, more so in the case of wireless ad hoc networks. These are networks that do not have an underlying infrastructure; the network topology is constantly changing. The inherently vulnerable characteristics of wireless ad hoc networks make them susceptible to attacks, and it

  14. Usual Intake of Energy from added sugars

    Cancer.gov

    Usual Intake of Energy from added sugars Table A41. Energy from added sugars: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 kilocalories Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 150.2

  15. Easily adding animations to interfaces using constraints

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brad A. Myers; Robert C. Miller; Richard G. McDaniel; Alan S. Ferrency

    1996-01-01

    Adding animation to interfaces is a very difficult task w ith today's toolkits, even though there are many situations in which it would be useful and effective. The Amulet toolki t contains a new form of animation constraint that allows animations to be added to interfaces extremely easily w ith- out changing the logic of the application or the graphical

  16. Flooding in wireless ad hoc networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Lim; C. Kim

    2001-01-01

    In an ad hoc network, each host assumes the role of a router and relays packets toward final destinations. This paper studies efficient routing mechanisms for packet flooding in ad hoc wireless networks. Because a packet is broadcast to all neighboring nodes, the optimality criteria of wireless network routing are different from that of the wired network routing. We show

  17. Offline Ad Slot Scheduling Jon Feldman

    E-print Network

    Offline Ad Slot Scheduling Jon Feldman Google, Inc. S. Muthukrishnan Google, Inc. Evdokia Nikolova1 Ad Slot Scheduling problem, where advertisers must be scheduled to spon- sored search slots during, and may not be assigned to more than one slot for a particular search. We give a truthful mechanism under

  18. Ad Hoc UAV Ground Network (AUGNet)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Timothy X Brown; Brian Argrow; Cory Dixon; Sheetalkumar Doshi; Roshan-George Thekkekunnel; Daniel Henkel

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes an implementation of a wireless mobile ad hoc network with radio nodes mounted at fixed sites, on ground vehicles, and in small (10kg) UAVs. The ad hoc networking allows any two nodes to communicate either directly or through an arbitrary number of other nodes which act as relays. We envision two scenarios for this type of network.

  19. Distributed services for mobile ad hoc networks 

    E-print Network

    Cao, Guangtong

    2005-11-01

    A mobile ad hoc network consists of certain nodes that communicate only through wireless medium and can move arbitrarily. The key feature of a mobile ad hoc network is the mobility of the nodes. Because of the mobility, communication links form...

  20. Sensor and Ad Hoc Wireless Networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin Drozda

    Sensor and ad hoc wireless networks lack a fixed infras- tructure in the form of wireline, or base stations to support the communication. Instead, any participating wireless de - vice can act as a router, when a direct communication is not possible. Sensor and ad hoc wireless networks is an area of very active research. In this tutorial we discuss