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1

[Astrologic and medical manuscript of the 18th Century].  

PubMed

We present a manuscript from the 18th century, an extract taken from the "Great and the Little Albert" attributed to Albertus Magnus. The linguistic variety in the paper is typical for a text composed in Luxembourg. Added to this text are two incantations and a short cartomancy paper. PMID:20882751

Kugener, Henri

2010-01-01

2

Early Portuguese meteorological measurements (18th century)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Natural proxies, documentary evidence and instrumental data are the only sources used to reconstruct past climates. In this paper, we present the 18th century meteorologists (either Portuguese or foreigners) who made the first observations at several sites in Continental Portugal, Madeira Island and Rio de Janeiro (Brazil), from 1749 until 1802. Information is given concerning observation site, variables observed, measurement period, methods of measurements and sources (both manuscript and printed). Some examples from the data usefulness are given: rainfall variability in Madeira (1749-1753) and in continental Portugal (1781-1793) was reconstructed, allowing to extend towards the late 18th century the well known negative correlation between the NAO index and seasonal rainfall. Furthermore, previously unpublished data for 1783-1784 have allowed analysing the consequences of the Lakagígar eruption in Portugal: foggy and haze days are referred to in summer 1783, but unlike the hot summer observed in northern and central Europe, temperatures in Portugal were lower than average. Additionally, observations from Rio de Janeiro in Brazil show that the Lakagígar consequences may well have spread to sectors of the Southern Hemisphere. Although the series are short, the data have been used for climate reconstruction studies and may also be useful to improve the quality of large scale reconstruction datasets.

Alcoforado, M. J.; Vaquero, J. M.; Trigo, R. M.; Taborda, J. P.

2012-02-01

3

Early Portuguese meteorological records (18th century)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Natural proxies, documentary evidence and instrumental data are the main sources used to reconstruct past climates. In this paper, we present the 18th century meteorologists (either Portuguese or foreigners), who made the first observations at several sites in Continental Portugal, Madeira Island and Rio de Janeiro (Brazil), from 1749 until 1802. Information is given concerning observation site, variables observed, measurement period, methodologies and sources (both manuscript and printed). Some examples from the data usefulness are given: rainfall variability in Madeira (1749-1753) and in Continental Portugal (1781-1793) was reconstructed, allowing to extend towards the late 18th century the well known negative correlation between the NAO index and seasonal rainfall. Furthermore, previously unpublished data for 1783-1784 has allowed analysing the consequences of the Laki eruption in Portugal: foggy and haze days are referred to in summer 1783, but unlike the hot summer observed in Northern and Central Europe, temperatures in Portugal were lower than average. Additionally, observations from Rio de Janeiro in Brazil show that the Laki consequences may well have spread to sectors of the Southern Hemisphere. Although the series are short, the data will be used for climate reconstruction studies focused in Southern Portugal and are also useful to improve the quality of large scale reconstruction datasets.

Alcoforado, M. J.; Vaquero, J. M.; Trigo, R. M.; Taborda, J. P.

2011-10-01

4

[Counteraction against alcoholism in religious letters of 18th century].  

PubMed

The Polish historiography talks at length about the problem of alcoholism in Poland in the 18th century. Estimates were made about the scale and consumption of alcoholic beverages. Many records are available today, mainly in the form of diaries, which describe the extent of drunkenness at that time. Much information on drinking bouts comes from satires (this article quotes after an anonymous satire found in the Polish manuscripts of the 18th century). Apart from the literature, also preachers contributed to the present knowledge of alcohol consumption within that period. Drunkenness was often mentioned in sermons and varied types of religious guides. The 18th century priests deemed drunkenness as a heavy sin and fiercely counteracted the abuse of alcoholic beverages, by condemning people in a state of intoxication. PMID:14631978

Rok, B

1999-01-01

5

Anne Fisher and 18th-Century Literacy Training.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Anne Fisher, a pioneer in British education, was one of the few females in the 18th century to publish a significant grammatical work, one that was used widely in classrooms. This paper highlights Anne Fisher's historic achievement and argues from the discipline of the history of rhetoric that the two verbal disciplines of rhetoric and grammar are…

Mitchell, Linda C.

6

Mingantu, 18th-Century Mongol Astronomer and Radioheliograph Namesake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 18th-century Mongol astronomer Mingantu (1692-1765) has been honored with a city named after him and a nearby solar telescope array. During the IAU/Beijing, my wife and I went to the new Chinese solar radioheliograph, the Mingantu Observing Station, in Inner Mongolia, ~400 km northwest of Beijing, a project of the National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences. It currently contains 40 dishes each 4.5 m across, with a correlator from Beijing. Within a year, 60 2-m dishes will be added. We passed by the 12-century ruins of Xanadu (about 20 km north of Zhangbei) about halfway. The radioheliograph is in a plane about 1 km across, forming a three-armed spiral for interferometric solar mapping, something colleagues and I had carried out with the Jansky Very Large Array, taking advantage of the lunar occultation before annularity at the 20 May 2012 solar eclipse. In the central square of Mingantu city, a statue ~10-m high of the Mongol astronomer Mingantu appears. Its base bears a plaque ~1-m high of IAU Minor Planet Circular MPC 45750 announcing the naming in 2002 of asteroid 28242 Mingantu, discovered at a Chinese observatory in 1999. Mingantu carried out orbital calculations, mapping, mathematical work on infinite series, and other scientific research. He is honored by a modern museum behind the statue. The museum's first 40% describes Mingantu and his work, and is followed by some artifacts of the region from thousands of years ago. The final, large room contains a two-meter-square scale model of the radioheliograph, flat-screen televisions running Solar Dynamics Observatory and other contemporary visualizations, orreries and other objects, and large transparencies of NASA and other astronomical imagery. See my post at http://www.skyandtelescope.com/community/skyblog/newsblog/ specfically Astro-Sightseeing_in_Inner_Mongolia-167712965.html. We thank Yihua Yan for arranging the visit and Wang Wei (both NAOC) for accompanying us. My solar research is supported by grant 1047726 from the Solar Research Program/Atmospheric and Geospace Sciences Division/NSF. I am also grateful for a NSF travel grant through AAS.

Pasachoff, Jay M.

2013-01-01

7

Austrian Pharmacy in the 18th and 19th Century  

PubMed Central

This overview reflects the extensive changes in the health care system which had significant effects on the apothecary’s profession and education. In the 18th century Maria Theresia assigned Gerard van Swieten to modernize the medical curriculum and to work out reforms for health care. The resulting sanitary bill released in 1770 and amended in 1773 became effective for the whole empire and influenced greatly the apothecary’s profession. The Viennese Medical Faculty continued to be the supervisory body for the apothecaries, a situation which prolonged the conflicts between the faculty and the apothecaries. The financial and social distress prevalent in the 19th century also affected the apothecary business and led to a crisis of the profession. Furthermore, the apothecaries’ missing influence over the sanitary authorities delayed the release of a badly needed new apothecary bill until 1906. The introduction of a specific pharmaceutical curriculum at the university in 1853 was a great step forward to improve the pharmaceutical education. Nevertheless, the secondary school exam was not compulsory for the studies until 1920 and, therefore, the graduates were not on a par with other university graduates before that date. Women, except nuns, were not allowed to work as pharmacists until 1900. PMID:21179353

Kletter, Christa

2010-01-01

8

Harvard in the 17th and 18th Centuries  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Several hundred years ago, Harvard University was a much smaller place, and higher education was only necessary to (or desired by) those hoping to enter a few select professions. Referring to this early period in Harvard's history, Josiah Quincy remarked in 1836 that "[Harvard] was, from the first, intimately connected with political and religious opinions and events." Supported by the Arcadia and the Sidney Verba Fund, this remarkable collection from the Harvard University Archives brings together thousands of items (such as diaries, maps, drawings, and legal documents) to tell the story of the institution during the 17th and 18th centuries. On the left side of the page, visitors will find topical headings that include College Life, Religion, and Personalities. It's a fine idea to start by looking through the College Life area. Here visitors will find droll commentaries on the cost and standard of living, along with notes on student discipline and humorous writings. Equally interesting is the Local and Regional History section. Here visitors can learn about Harvard's relationship with Cambridge, Native Americans, and the Commonwealth of Massachusetts.

2012-03-02

9

Illustrative Data Graphics in 18th Century Style: A Case Study  

E-print Network

created in the 18th and 19th centuries by artists such as Charles Joseph Minard, William Playfair, Joseph Priestley, and Florence Nightingale have long been a great source of inspiration for contemporary

Isenberg, Petra

10

John Stirling and the Classical Approach to Style in 18th Century England.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Most 18th-century rhetoricians viewed style as the expression of a writer's individual character and thought, placing little emphasis on the lists of figures common in many 17th-century rhetorics. John Stirling and others, however, continued the 17th-century tradition that reduced rhetoric largely to style and emphasized classical figures of…

Moran, Michael G.

11

Language revitalization discourses as metaculture: Gaelic in Scotland from the 18th to 20th centuries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Discourses of Gaelic language revitalization in Scotland are analyzed as examples of Greg Urban’s ‘metaculture’ in order to gain a better understanding of how people attempt sociolinguistic change through minority language revitalization efforts. After describing the 18th-century emergence of ‘discourses of revitalization and redemption’ about Gaelic, this paper analyzes seven different themes or predications about Gaelic made in the 18th

Emily McEwan-Fujita

2011-01-01

12

Four candles. Original perspectives and insights into 18th century hospital child healthcare  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has only recently been recognised that for more than a century before the opening of Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children (1852) children were treated and even admitted in English Voluntary Hospitals. Among the earliest English 18th century records, that contain the patient‘s age, are those found at the Northampton General Hospital within an archive dating from its foundation

A N Williams

2007-01-01

13

Vast Electronic Catalog Transforms Research on the 18th Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A new electronic bibliography, the Eighteenth Century Short Title Catalog, currently contains title and location information for 315,000 English-language books, monographs, and ephemera printed during the eighteenth century. The database is available to scholars on the Research Libraries Information Network and the British Library Automated…

Watkins, Beverly T.

1992-01-01

14

[Medical libraries in Quebec of the 18th and 19th centuries: the example of tuberculosis].  

PubMed

Phthisis (tuberculosis) became so prevalent in Europe in the 18th century that, in 1792, Antoine Portal wrote: "there is no disease more common or dangerous than pulmonary phthisis." Obviously, the doctors were concerned about this problem and made efforts to explain it. Numerous hypotheses were advanced on this subject (Richard Morton, for instance, suggested 12 possible causes in his Phthisiologia), and varied by author and region, but they can be grouped into four main categories: a contagious disease; a hereditary condition; a physiological disorder; and a problem resulting from lifestyle. This research concerns the books on this disease procured by medical practitioners in and around Quebec City in the 18th and 19th centuries, dating from 1700-1868, and contained in 27 medical libraries. Following a brief presentation of methodology and the libraries, this article analyzes the books. There were books on phthisis in Quebec City very early in the 18th century, although the majority appeared in the next century. The 18th-century works associated this disease with physiological disorders--particularly "mechanical problems." After 1815, there was a broader diversity of opinions. The books on phthisis most widely consulted from 1700 to 1868 are almost completely unknown today. PMID:17214121

Bernier, Jacques

2006-01-01

15

Conjugal Disputes at the Jewish Court of 18th Century Altona  

Microsoft Academic Search

Disputes between married couples in 18th century were sometimes brought before the Jewish court ( the Beit-Din). Analysis of protocols of session which dealt with such disputes reveals facts about tensions caused by contemporary family structure and marriage customs as well as about the means which the court applied to enforce policy. The texts presented here are excerpts from one

Noa Shashar

2010-01-01

16

The clocks and the perception of time in the 18th century society  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ownership of clocks and watches became widespread in 18th century society, particularly amongst the wealthy classes. They liked the decorative appearance, practical advantages, and social prestige which those objects conferred. The use of 'mechanized' time in the towns supplanted the age old reliance on time as dictated by nature and the Church. New temporal reference points gave the day

Catherine Cardinal

1992-01-01

17

Negative Numbers in the 18th and 19th Centuries: Phenomenology and Representations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents a categorization of the phenomena and representations used to introduce negative numbers in mathematics books published in Spain during the 18th and 19th centuries. Through a content analysis of fourteen texts which were selected for the study, we distinguished four phenomena typologies: physical, accounting, temporal and…

Maz-Machado, Alexander; Rico-Romero, Luis

2009-01-01

18

Solutions To the Problem of Impact in the 17th and 18th Centuries and Teaching Newton's Third Law Today.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compares the ideas of young people about Newton's third law, focusing on youth of today and youth of the 17th and 18th centuries. Examines the use of Newton's third law in understanding impact phenomena in the 17th and 18th centuries. Contains 46 references. (DDR)

Gauld, Colin

1998-01-01

19

The Treatment of the Motion of a Simple Pendulum in Some Early 18th Century Newtonian Textbooks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The treatment of pendulum motion in early 18th century Newtonian textbooks is quite different to what we find in today's physics textbooks and is based on presuppositions and mathematical techniques which are not widely used today. In spite of a desire to present Newton's new philosophy of nature as found in his "Principia" 18th century textbook…

Gauld, Colin

2004-01-01

20

PCR diagnostics of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in historic human long bone remains from 18th century burials in Kaiserebersdorf, Austria  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: In the present pilot study we applied recently published protocols for detecting Mycobacterium tuberculosis in human remains. We screened long bones from an 18th century cemetery and skulls from the anatomical \\

Lutz Bachmann; Barbara Däubl; Charlotte Lindqvist; Luise Kruckenhauser; Maria Teschler-Nicola; Elisabeth Haring

2008-01-01

21

Four candles. Original perspectives and insights into 18th century hospital child healthcare.  

PubMed

It has only recently been recognised that for more than a century before the opening of Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children (1852) children were treated and even admitted in English Voluntary Hospitals. Among the earliest English 18th century records, that contain the patient's age, are those found at the Northampton General Hospital within an archive dating from its foundation as the Northampton Infirmary in 1744. They afford a fascinating glimpse into both inpatient and outpatient child health. Although there are no medical notes as such, the hospital archive has recently rediscovered 1743 statutes, contemporary patient literature entitled Some Friendly Advice to a Patient (written by the Northampton Infirmary's founding physician Dr (later Sir) James Stonhouse), minute books, contemporary engravings of the outside and inside of the hospital and inpatient menus. Thus we can speculate with a high degree of certainty as to what would be the then current infirmary environment and treatments for illustrative examples of the children seen in the period 1744-45 (two inpatients and two outpatients). Interestingly one of the inpatient cases, Elizabeth Ager, a child with fever, was admitted against the infirmary regulations, suggesting already a stretching of boundaries in favour of paediatric admissions. This paper gives a flavour of 18th century hospital child healthcare in an era before the formal recognition of paediatrics as a medical specialty and preceding by more than a century the construction of specialist provision through the foundation of the first children's hospitals. PMID:17185447

Williams, A N

2007-01-01

22

Did some 18th and 19th century treatments for mental disorders act on the brain?  

PubMed

Review of 18th and 19th century psychiatric therapies raises the possibility that several may have altered the activity of vasopressin or Na-K-ATPase. Bleeding, whirling, nausea created by medicines, and vagus nerve stimulation by application of electricity through the skin all perturb the hypothalamic hormone, arginine vasopressin, while helleborus and digitalis inhibit the sodium pump enzyme, Na-K-ATPase. These approaches were used with reported benefit many years ago, acting on the brain in ways ongoing research suggests may play a role in affective disorders. Study of long-abandoned treatments may clarify their mechanisms of action and the characteristics of responsive patients. PMID:14962630

Leonard, Edward C

2004-01-01

23

An analytical Raman spectroscopic study of an important english oil painting of the 18th Century.  

PubMed

An opportunity was afforded to analyse pigment specimens from an unrestored oil painting in the style of the English School of the mid-18th Century prior to conservation being undertaken. Raman spectroscopy was adopted to characterise the pigments and indicated the presence of a novel red pigment which was assigned to the complex chromium mineral, hemihedrite, in addition to other interesting materials found in combination. This is the first recorded identification of hemihedrite spectral signals in an art context in a range of mineral pigments that are otherwise typical of this period and some hypotheses are presented to explain its presence based on its occurrence with associated mineral pigments. It is suggested that the presence of powdered glass identified in certain areas of the painting enhanced the reflectivity of the pigment matrix. PMID:24095770

Edwards, Howell G M; Vandenabeele, Peter; Jehlicka, Jan; Benoy, Timothy J

2014-01-24

24

An analytical Raman spectroscopic study of an important english oil painting of the 18th Century  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An opportunity was afforded to analyse pigment specimens from an unrestored oil painting in the style of the English School of the mid-18th Century prior to conservation being undertaken. Raman spectroscopy was adopted to characterise the pigments and indicated the presence of a novel red pigment which was assigned to the complex chromium mineral, hemihedrite, in addition to other interesting materials found in combination. This is the first recorded identification of hemihedrite spectral signals in an art context in a range of mineral pigments that are otherwise typical of this period and some hypotheses are presented to explain its presence based on its occurrence with associated mineral pigments. It is suggested that the presence of powdered glass identified in certain areas of the painting enhanced the reflectivity of the pigment matrix.

Edwards, Howell G. M.; Vandenabeele, Peter; Jehlicka, Jan; Benoy, Timothy J.

2014-01-01

25

[The Leroy de la Faudignére, a family of dentists of the 18th century].  

PubMed

François Leroy de la Faudignére was the founder of the family. Although he was not an expert in dentistry, he acquired a good reputation of dentist in the second half of the 18th century. He published some books between 1766 and 1780. He lived in Paris and set up in 1780 at the Pavillon Royal, Plave Royale no1 (Place des Vosges nowadays). He was mainly busy with selling an approved analgesic elixir of his own. Out of his 5 children, 2 have been experts in dentistry and one of his daughters, Marie Marianne Françoise, married Jacques René Duval, Maître en Chirurgie. François died six weeks after his daughter's marriage but her brothers sued her about the elixir their father had bequeathed to her. She won her case and carried on selling the elixir with Duval. Her daughter married Jean Nicolas Marjolin, a famous surgeon. Their son René Nicolas became a surgeon too. PMID:12094816

Baron, Pierre

2002-01-01

26

The clocks and the perception of time in the 18th century society  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ownership of clocks and watches became widespread in 18th century society, particularly amongst the wealthy classes. They liked the decorative appearance, practical advantages, and social prestige which those objects conferred. The use of 'mechanized' time in the towns supplanted the age old reliance on time as dictated by nature and the Church. New temporal reference points gave the day its rhythm. Data from that era (correspondence, memoirs, newspapers, engravings, and paintings) make it possible to catch a glimpse of the influence of clocks on the perception of time. From the beginning of the 'mechanized time' era, efforts to improve the accuracy and the technical performance of mechanisms were made. The importance of such a precise time measurement in every day life is considered.

Cardinal, Catherine

27

Six calendar systems in the European history from 18^{th} to 20^{th} Century  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The following calendar systems, introduced in Europe from 18^{th} to 20^{th} century, which were in use for a shorter or longer period by a larger or smaller community, were reviewed and discussed: The French Revolutionary Calendar, the Theosebic calendar invented by Theophilos Kairis, the Revolutionary Calendar of the Soviet Union (or 'Bolshevik calendar'), the Fascist calendar in Italy and the calendar of the Metaxas dictatorship in Greece before World War II. Also the unique of them, which is still in use, the New Rectified Julian calendar of the Orthodox Church, adopted according to proposition of Milutin Milankovi? on the Congress of Orthodox Churches in 1923 in Constantinople, is presented and discussed. At the end, difficulties to introduce a new calendar are discussed as well.

Theodossiou, Efstratios; Manimanis, Vassilios N.; Dimitrijevi?, Milan S.

28

Isotopic Ag–Cu–Pb record of silver circulation through 16th–18th century Spain  

PubMed Central

Estimating global fluxes of precious metals is key to understanding early monetary systems. This work adds silver (Ag) to the metals (Pb and Cu) used so far to trace the provenance of coinage through variations in isotopic abundances. Silver, copper, and lead isotopes were measured in 91 coins from the East Mediterranean Antiquity and Roman world, medieval western Europe, 16th–18th century Spain, Mexico, and the Andes and show a great potential for provenance studies. Pre-1492 European silver can be distinguished from Mexican and Andean metal. European silver dominated Spanish coinage until Philip III, but had, 80 y later after the reign of Philip V, been flushed from the monetary mass and replaced by Mexican silver. PMID:21606351

Desaulty, Anne-Marie; Telouk, Philippe; Albalat, Emmanuelle; Albarède, Francis

2011-01-01

29

[Experiences and knowledge exchanged in medical consultations by post (16th-18th centuries)].  

PubMed

Consultations by post make up together a significant part of the medical literature, especially between the 16(th) and 18(th) centuries and bring irreplaceable testimonies on how physicians could follow up their patients from far away, in relation with local practitioners who were at their patients' bedside or who could visit them on a regular basis. These testimonies are of a scientific nature since they show how illustrious physicians diagnosed, predicted and prescribed, such as Fernel, Chirac and later on Barthez and Tissot, or less famous practitioners such as Le Thieullier, for instance. They are of a literary nature since every physician has his own writing style, and the lay out of their letters often respects codes. They are of an anthropological nature in the sense that a conception of man, ill, with his character, his own life, is rendered under the form of narratives. PMID:24685223

Barroux, Gilles

2014-03-01

30

Head injuries in the 18th century: the management of the damaged brain.  

PubMed

The 18th century was the time when trauma neurosurgery began to develop into the modern discipline. Before this, the management had, for the most part, changed little from the days of Hippocrates, Celsus, and Galen. Attention was directed to skull injuries, and the brain was treated as the seat of the rational soul but without other function. Symptoms after trauma were attributed to injuries to the bone and meninges. Following the lead of the Royal Academy of Surgery in Paris, it was accepted from the 1730s that the brain was the seat of symptoms after cranial trauma. During the 18th century, at least 12 surgeons published articles on cranial injury, 6 describing significant clinical series on this topic. They were Henri-François Le Dran (1685-1770) of Paris, Percival Pott (1714-1788) of London, James Hill (1703-1776) from Dumfries, Sylvester O'Halloran (1728-1807) of Limerick (Ireland), William Dease (1750-1798) of Dublin, and John Abernethy (1764-1831) of London. This article analyzes these series. Each individual made a different contribution. It is suggested that the relatively lesser-known James Hill in Scotland demonstrated the greatest understanding of the management of brain trauma and achieved the best results. A product of the Scottish Enlightenment, he adapted his management to his own experience and was not tied to the accepted authorities of his day, but he improved the management of each case following his experience with previous patients. He deserves to be remembered. PMID:23615105

Ganz, Jeremy C

2013-07-01

31

Climate and history in the late 18th and early 19th centuries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As in many areas of human knowledge, the notion of climate acquired a deeper historical content around the turn of the 19th century. Natural philosophers, geographers, and others became increasingly aware of climate's own history and its relation to human, plant and animal, and Earth history. This article examines several aspects of this “historicization” of climate.The lively 18th century discussion of the influence of climate on society is well known. Montesquieu is its most famous representative, but Voltaire, Hume, Kant, and others also participated. Their debate was literary more than scientific, their goal the understanding of man, not climate. Partly for this reason and partly because of the lack of good information on climates, they made no attempt to gather substantial climatic data. In fact, the importance of systematically collecting reliable data was scarcely understood in any area of natural philosophy before the last decades of the century [Cf. Frängsmyr et al., 1990; Feldman, 1990]. Instead, participants in the debate repeated commonplaces dating from Aristotle and Hippocrates and based their conclusions on unreliable reports from travelers. As Glacken wrote of Montesquieu, “his dishes are from old and well-tested recipes” [Glacken, 1967, chapter 12]. This is not to say that the debate over climatic influence was not significant—only that its significance lay more in the history of man than in the atmospheric sciences.

Feldman, Theodore S.

32

Known since 18th century as fuzzy, distended objects => "spiral Recognized only recently (1923) as independent stellar systems  

E-print Network

I) Leo I, an E3 dE in the Local Group of galaxies. #12;S0 Galaxies Intermediate between ellipticals. (D) X-ray: Discrete sources. Hot gas around compact objects. #12;Masses of Galaxies Spiral galaxiesGalaxies · Known since 18th century as fuzzy, distended objects => "spiral nebulae" · Recognized

Basu, Shantanu

33

The Struggle To Survive: Work for Racial Ethnic Women in the 18th- and 19th-Century United States.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The work situations of Black, Mexican American, and Chinese immigrant women in 18th- and 19th-century United States are explored. Generally, when engaged in agricultural work, all ethnic people were considered units of labor. However, because the slave owner needed to perpetuate his property, Black women were allowed lower rates of production when…

Higginbotham, Elizabeth

34

Personal Loyalties and Work Relationships: On the Approaches to the Study of the Russian 18th-century Bureaucratic Apparatus`  

E-print Network

Personal Loyalties and Work Relationships: On the Approaches to the Study of the Russian 18th a 'patrimonial bureaucracy' of an early modern Western European type, and finally arrives at a bureaucracy [...] a ubiquitous cultural phenomenon, much like computerization in late twentieth-century life. [...] Almost no one

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

35

Hydro-meteorological extreme events in the 18th century in Portugal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present work is carried out in the frame of the KLIMHIST PROJECT ("Reconstruction and model simulations of past climate in Portugal using documentary and early instrumental sources, 17th-19th century)", and is devoted to the study of hydro-meteorological extreme events during the last 350 years, in order to understand how they have changed in time and compare them with current analogues. More specifically, the results selected to this presentation will focus on some hydro-meteorological extreme events of the 18th century, like severe droughts, heavy precipitation episodes and windstorms. One of the most noteworthy events was the winterstorm Bárbara (3rd to 6th December 1739), already studied in prior investigations (Taborda et al, 2004; Pfister et al, 2010), a devastating storm with strong impacts in Portugal caused by violent winds and heavy rainfall. Several other extreme events were detected by searching different documentary archives, including individual, administrative and ecclesiastic sources. Moreover, a more detailed insight to the 1783-1787 period will be made with regard the Lisbon region, taking into consideration the availability of information for daily meteorological observations as well as documentary evidences, like descriptions from Gazeta de Lisboa, the periodic with more continuous publication in the 18thcentury. Key-words: Instrumental data, Documentary data, Extreme events, Klimhist Project, Portugal References Pfister, C., Garnier, E., Alcoforado, M.J., Wheeler, D. Luterbacher, J. Nunes, M.F., Taborda, J.P. (2010) The meteorological framework and the cultural memory of three severe winter-storms in early eighteenth-century Europe, Climatic Change, 101, 1-2, 281-310 Taborda, JP; Alcoforado, MJ and Garcia, JC (2004) O Clima do Sul de Portugal no Séc.XVIII, Centro de Estudos Geográficos, Área de de Investigação de Geo-Ecologia, relatório no 2

Fragoso, Marcelo; João Alcoforado, Maria; Taborda, João Paulo

2013-04-01

36

Analysis of Time Data in Chinese Astronomical Almanacs of the Late 18th Century  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigated the time data in Chinese astronomical almanacs of the late 18th century in order to estimate the accuracy of the Shixian calendar. It is known that the calendar was enforced during the period of the Ching dynasty (1664--1912), and several astronomical almanacs using the calendar are preserved in the Kyujanggak Institute for Korean Studies of Korea; these almanacs cover the years 1772, 1773, 1774, 1780, 1781, 1783, 1785, and 1787. We compiled the times of the new moon, sunrise/sunset, and twenty-four seasonal subdivisions from the almanacs and compared them with the results of modern calculations. As a result, we found that the times of the new moon and twenty-four seasonal subdivisions show average differences of ˜ 3.35 ± 4.43 and ˜ 9.67± 13.24 min, respectively. Regarding he sunrise/sunset time, however, we found that the difference was less than 1 min when we defined the time as the moment that the zenith distance (z) of the Sun is 90°, unlike the modern definition, z=90° 50'. We expect that this study to contribute to the understanding of the accuracy obtained by Shixian calendar in calculations of the movements of celestial bodies.

Lee, K.-W.; Mihn, B.-H.; Ahn, Y. S.; Choi, G.-E.

2012-09-01

37

Illustrative Data Graphics in 18th19th Century Style: A Case Study Benjamin Bach, Pierre Dragicevic, Samuel Huron, Petra Isenberg, Yvonne Jansen, Charles Perin,  

E-print Network

, William Playfair, Joseph Priestley, and Florence Nightingale have long been a great source of inspiration-made visualizations that were created in the 18th and 19th centuries by artists such as Charles Joseph Mi- nard

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

38

The historical archaeology of the 17th- and 18th-century Jewish community of Nevis, British West Indies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This is an historical archaeological examination of a 17th- and 18th-century Jewish community on the island of Nevis in the British West Indies. Unlike earlier archaeological studies of the Jewish Caribbean Diaspora that focused on single sites, this investigation used a community-wide approach to elucidate the daily experience of Sephardic Jews within the colonial Caribbean. This project included an archaeological excavation at the purported location of the community's synagogue, an electrical resistivity survey of the surviving cemetery, the construction of a map of property ownership in 18th-century Charlestown, and archival research. This study was carded out within a multiscalar and contextual framework that emphasized the importance of understanding the diaspora that brought the Jews to the West Indies, the development of the colonial Caribbean, and the surrounding environs of the port city of Charlestown, Nevis. The archaeological analysis of the supposed site of the synagogue proved that it was in fact that of a late 18th-century townhouse, but the associated land record research revealed the actual location of the community's former synagogue. Furthermore, the reconstruction of the physical layout of colonial-period Charlestown from the land records indicated the presence of a distinct Jewish quarter in the undesirable southern portion of the town. Evidence from the public records of Nevis and the social history of the members of the Jewish population unveiled external social and political pressures placed upon the Sephardim as well as internal religious and ethnic ties dig bound the community together. It is argued in closing that the archival evidence, in conjunction with the continued presence of a clustered settlement pattern like that of European Jewish communities during the medieval period, indicates that the Jews of the Caribbean were not fully integrated socially or politically into British colonial society. This examination of the Nevis community bears testimony to a period of transition from the closed communities of the medieval period to the more open and widespread communities begun after Jewish emancipation in the late 18th century.

Terrell, Michelle M.

2000-11-01

39

Long-term variability of storm surge frequency in the Venice Lagoon: an update thanks to 18th century sea level observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sea level observations made in the Venice Lagoon between 1751 and 1792 have been recovered, consisting of two time series of daily data on high and low waters in Venice and Chioggia. From comparisons with modern observations, the quality of the 18th century data appears to be good enough to allow a useful analysis. A composite time series of daily mean sea level is obtained by merging the 18th century data and 1872-2004 observations in Venice Punta della Salute. The absence of reliable information on vertical references prevents the connection of the two 18th century time series with each other and with modern observations. However, daily sea level anomalies relative to the mean sea level enable us to recognize storm surge events that appear to occur more frequently in the second half of the 18th century than in the late 19th and 20th centuries, particularly during the 1751-1769 period. The record-breaking storm surge of 4 November 1966 turns out to be a remarkable event even in comparison to the events extracted from the 18th century time series. Further work is required to fill the gap between the old and modern observations.

Raicich, F.

2015-03-01

40

[History of leprosy in Reunion Island from the beginning of the 18th century until today].  

PubMed

This article traces the history of leprosy in Reunion from the early eighteenth century, which long paralleled the slave trace. Lepers were confined to a lazaretto and treated with herbs. Father Raimbault, "doctor" and chaplain of the lepers in the middle of the twentieth century, is still honored today. The improvement in living standards and the use of sulfones finally resulted in the control of leprosy. Nonetheless, from 2005 to 2011, an average of three new cases per year were detected among a population of 800,000 inhabitants. PMID:24113552

Gaüzere, B A; Aubry, P

2013-01-01

41

Spectres of Multiplicity. 18th -Century Literature Revisited from the Outside in , in Christie  

E-print Network

portrayed as dreaming an enduring dream of unity. A great deal of administrative and intellectual energy on the verge of a lasting triumph. Scratch under the surface of such dreams of global unity, and you'll find the French eighteenth century full of countless nightmares of division. Bitter religious conflicts opposed

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

42

Marked post-18th century environmental change in high-arctic ecosystems  

SciTech Connect

Paleolimnological data from three high-arctic ponds on Cape Herschel, Ellesmere Island, Canada, show that diatom assemblages were relatively stable over the last few millenia but then experienced unparalleled changes beginning in the 19th century. The environmental factors causing these assemblage shifts may be related to recent climatic warming. Regardless of the cause, the biota of these isolated and seemingly pristine ponds have changed dramatically in the recent past and any hopes of cataloging natural assemblages may already be fruitless.

Douglas, M.S.V.; Smol, J.P. [Queen`s Univ., Ontario (Canada); Blake, W. Jr. [Geological Survey of Canada, Ontario (Canada)

1994-10-21

43

[The historian's competence tested by authority: on an academic debate of the 18th century].  

PubMed

The debate which took place in the 1720s at the Royal Academy of Inscriptions and Letters on the possibility or impossibility of understanding the history of the first centuries of Rome is generally interpreted to be less of a debate than an important epistemological clarification. A contextualization which takes into account the political stakes of the debate allows one to understand that the debate was the beginning of a larger process of the autonomisation of the field of historical studies, not only from the perspective of disciplinary divides, but also in relation to monarchal power. PMID:24871882

Schandeler, Jean-Pierre

2014-01-01

44

Marked post-18th century environmental change in high-arctic ecosystems.  

PubMed

Paleolimnological data from three high-arctic ponds on Cape Herschel, Ellesmere Island, Canada, show that diatom assemblages were relatively stable over the last few millennia but then experienced unparalleled changes beginning in the 19th century. The environmental factors causing these assemblage shifts may be related to recent climatic warming. Regardless of the cause, the biota of these isolated and seemingly pristine ponds have changed dramatically in the recent past and any hopes of cataloging natural assemblages may already be fruitless. PMID:17816685

Douglas, M S; Smol, J P; Blake, W

1994-10-21

45

[Flemish psychiatry from the middle ages to the 18th century].  

PubMed

Psychiatric care or the care of the mentally ill is very ancient. However, psychiatry is only getting a part of medicine from the end of the XVIIIth Century on. Flemish psychiatric care means care for mental disturbed people in our Flemish countries; also we attend to the influences between opinions from stranger and Flemish physicians, philosophers and humanists. In the Middle Ages popular medicine, "healers" and priests interfere with the practice of the rare contemporary physicians and surgeons. Pilgrimage was the meeting-place for popular medicine, medical and religious acting. In Antwerp, Brugge, Ghent, the first hospices, hospitals and asylums arose. Geel got very well known as a unique centre of family care for crazy people. Mental disease was known as phrenesis (madness), melancholia, mania, epilepsy, rabies. In this period the possibilities of healing remained extremely limited. The Renaissance period was one of Humanism and Reform. The humanists developed a new image of humans. More, Erasmus and Vives were most critical against medieval philosophy and charged the medieval irrational thinking. Vives influenced medical, psychological and psychiatric thinking of his Flemish contemporaries. Also we can talk about the rise of Flemish humanistic medicine. For the Renaissance doctor the concept of passions of the soul as constituting disease states, treatable by opposite passions, set the stage for the consideration of affective disorders themselves as species of madness, whereas previously, madness was seen as a disorder of reason. Halfway the XVIIth Century arose what can be seen as the first biological revolution. The discovery by Harvey of the circulation in a closed system meant a sudden revolution of the Galenic scheme and introduced new ways for the physiology. The Flemish doctor J. B. van Helmont spent a long time to the reform of the medical art. His system was a prefiguration of actual functional affections, symptomatic drug therapy and talk therapy. The XVIIIth Century or "siècle des lumières", is characterised by the rapid development of the human sciences. Well-known are the medical school of Halle (Germany) and that of Leiden (Netherlands). The German Stahl was inspired by the van Helmont's system and first he plead for a healthy mental hygiene. The Dutchman Boerhaave studied on the nervous system and analysed the psychic affections in a psychosomatic perspective. With his publication of "Man a machine" the Frenchman La Mettrie was at the base of a new experimental and scientific medical research.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:8036936

Van Renynghe de Voxvrie, G

1993-01-01

46

[Relations between equilibrium and dynamics at the turn of the 17th and 18th centuries].  

PubMed

This article investigates the reception of Galileo and Descartes' principles of statics in the works of some French scientists in the second half of seventeenth century, tracing their importance for the genesis of a concept of force. Through an examination of the link between statics and dynamics--especially concerning the phenomena of collision and the motion of falling bodies--it will be shown, first, that these principles of statics actually contributed to the genesis of dynamics; secondly, that the authors examined in this article managed to unify the various fields of mechanics by building a common axiomatic basis, and, thirdly, that there exists a conceptual identity between actions in engines and actions in dynamic phenomena. The evidence brought fourth in this articles challenges the view according to which statics, and more particularly the law of the lever, was an obstacle for the development of dynamics, and particularly for the conceptualization of force. PMID:25577927

Schmit, Christophe

2014-01-01

47

Venusians: the Planet Venus in the 18th-Century Extraterrestrial Life Debate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries it became possible to believe in the existence of life on other planets on scientific grounds. Once the Earth was no longer the center of the universe according to Copernicus, once Galileo had aimed his telescope at the Moon and found it a rough globe with mountains and seas, the assumption of life on other planets became much less far-fetched. In general there were no actual differences between Earth and Venus, since both planets orbited the Sun, were of similar size, and possessed mountains and an atmosphere. If there is life on Earth, one may ponder why it could not also exist on Venus. In the extraterrestrial life debate of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, the Moon, our closest celestial body, was the prime candidate for life on other worlds, although a number of scientists and scholars also speculated about life on Venus and on other planets, both within our solar system and beyond its frontiers. This chapter discusses the arguments for life on Venus and those scientific findings that were used to support them, which were based in particular on assumptions and claims that both mountains and an atmosphere had been found on Venus. The transits of Venus in the 1760s became especially important for the notion that life could thrive on Venus. Here, I detect two significant cognitive processes that were at work in the search for life on Venus, i.e., analogical reasoning and epistemic perception, while analogies and interpretations of sensory impressions based on prior knowledge played an important role in astrobiological theories.

Duner, David

2013-05-01

48

(Re)Constructions of Etymology of the Term "Electricity" in French German and Modern Greek Textbooks of Physics of 18th-19th Centuries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The different and contrasting versions of the etymology of the term "electricity" in Modern Greek textbooks of Physics of the 18th and 19th century, which are influenced by French and German textbooks, are not mere (re)constructions that serve the didactic purposes and objectives of their authors. They are (in)directly related to the social and…

Patsopoulos, Dimitrios

2005-01-01

49

PROPAGATION OF TREES OF COMMON LIME (TILIA X EUROPAEA L.) PLANTED IN SWEDISH GARDENS IN THE 17TH AND 18TH CENTURIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trees of common lime (Tilia x europaea L.) were very common in parks and gardens of the 17th and 18th centuries in Sweden and in other countries in central and northern Europe. Due to the longevity of lime trees and their ability to endure pruning, many of those trees still remain although they are often in need of restoration or

Rune Bengtsson

2005-01-01

50

Music, Liturgy, and Devotional Piety in New Spain: Baroque Religious Culture and the Reevaluation of Religious Reform during the 18th Century  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies of religious culture in New Spain have considered the excess and financial ostentation of ritual and ceremony as initial catalysts of the Bourbon social and economic reforms of the 18th century. In this regard, scholars observe that the overwhelming proliferation of lay endowments was indicative of a fascination with excess and ostentation in ritual, which the crown aimed to

Jesus A. Ramos-Kittrell

2010-01-01

51

Music, Liturgy, and Devotional Piety in New Spain: Baroque Religious Culture and the Reevaluation of Religious Reform during the 18th Century  

Microsoft Academic Search

: Studies of religious culture in New Spain have considered the excess and financial ostentation of ritual and ceremony as initial catalysts of the Bourbon social and economic reforms of the 18th century. In this regard, scholars observe that the overwhelming proliferation of lay endowments was indicative of a fascination with excess and ostentation in ritual, which the crown aimed

Jesus A. Ramos-Kittrell

2010-01-01

52

Loss of genetic diversity in sea otters ( Enhydra lutris ) associated with the fur trade of the 18th and 19th centuries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sea otter ( Enhydra lutris ) populations experienced widespread reduction and extirpation due to the fur trade of the 18th and 19th centuries. We examined genetic variation within four microsatellite markers and the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) D -loop in one prefur trade population and compared it to five modern populations to determine potential losses in genetic variation. While mtDNA sequence

SHAWN L ARSON; R ONALD J AMESON; M ICHAEL E TNIER; M ELISSA F LEMING; PAUL B ENTZEN

53

The construction of the country landscape in Veneto plains (North of Italy) during 18th-21st centuries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper focuses on the transformation that has taken place in the last four centuries in Veneto's plain in northern Italy. The analysis of statistical data over a long period of time has made it possible to chronologically reconstruct the gradual transformation of wetlands into arable land, suitable for human settlement and for the development of industrial activities. Particularly relevant are the policies adopted by the Republic of Venice (14th-18th centuries) with regard to the management of waters, policies which were continued by the Italian State after its unification in 1861. The evolution of the concept of land reclamation gradually came to include draining, hygienic, agrarian and environmental factors, paying attention to the specific character of both mountain and lagoon areas. Over many centuries new country areas were created, 2/5 of them located below sea level, which can be cultivated due to complex systems of canalization and water pumping. Both the State and landowners invested capital in a project that was not only meant to sustain private interest but that also met public needs. Since 1882 (when the Baccarini law was passed) the subject of the 'sanitary reclamation' began to be discussed in Italy. This concerned 1/16 of the total surface of the country, 400,000 hectares of which in Veneto, where malaria was directly or indirectly responsible for the death of thousands of people. New livelihoods substituted those of the past: some economies based, for instance, on the harvesting of the marshes' products or on the common use of marginal lands disappeared. The recent process of industrialization in Veneto, often carried out with little consideration for the environment, has eventually opened up a new chapter in the history of the countryside of this region, that of environmental and landscape enhancement.

Borin, Maurizio; Novello, Elisabetta

2013-04-01

54

Limited urban growth: London's street network dynamics since the 18th century.  

PubMed

We investigate the growth dynamics of Greater London defined by the administrative boundary of the Greater London Authority, based on the evolution of its street network during the last two centuries. This is done by employing a unique dataset, consisting of the planar graph representation of nine time slices of Greater London's road network spanning 224 years, from 1786 to 2010. Within this time-frame, we address the concept of the metropolitan area or city in physical terms, in that urban evolution reveals observable transitions in the distribution of relevant geometrical properties. Given that London has a hard boundary enforced by its long standing green belt, we show that its street network dynamics can be described as a fractal space-filling phenomena up to a capacitated limit, whence its growth can be predicted with a striking level of accuracy. This observation is confirmed by the analytical calculation of key topological properties of the planar graph, such as the topological growth of the network and its average connectivity. This study thus represents an example of a strong violation of Gibrat's law. In particular, we are able to show analytically how London evolves from a more loop-like structure, typical of planned cities, toward a more tree-like structure, typical of self-organized cities. These observations are relevant to the discourse on sustainable urban planning with respect to the control of urban sprawl in many large cities which have developed under the conditions of spatial constraints imposed by green belts and hard urban boundaries. PMID:23950895

Masucci, A Paolo; Stanilov, Kiril; Batty, Michael

2013-01-01

55

Interpersonal violence between 18th century Native Americans and Europeans in Ohio.  

PubMed

During the winter of 1778-1779, a garrison of 176 individuals lived within the walls of a Revolutionary era stronghold named Ft. Laurens on the banks of the Tuscarawas River, near the present-day town of Bolivar, Ohio. At least 21 individuals were buried in the fort's cemetery during its occupation, 13 of whom were supposedly killed and scalped by Native Americans while gathering firewood and foraging horses. The purpose of this study is to build on previous work by Sciulli and Gramly ([1989] Am J. Phys. Anthropol. 80:11-24) by adding a more detailed analysis of the traumatic lesions, in order to better understand what happened to the victims. Lesions were analyzed based on type, location, and dimensions, as well as their overall pattern on the skeleton. Results indicate that multiple blows to the cranium were common. Out of 12 observable crania, the order of blows could be determined in only one case. Eleven of 12 of the observable crania from ambush victims and four of the seven nonambush victims exhibited lesions consistent with scalping. Evidence of postcranial trauma was noted on four individuals: one was an ambush victim, and the other three were killed at other times. No evidence of gunshot wounds was found. PMID:12949831

Williamson, Matthew A; Johnston, Cheryl A; Symes, Steven A; Schultz, John J

2003-10-01

56

The «New Map of Rome» by Giambattista Nolli: a precise representation of the urban space in the 18th century  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper refers to the on going experience of the project "The Historic Atlas of Modern Rome" implemented by CROMA (Centro di ateneo per lo studio di Roma) - University Roma Tre. The project combines research in urban history with geographical information systems, and has as main objective to study the "historic environment" of Rome and its transformations. In 1748, Giovanni Battista Nolli (1692-1756) published his «New Map of Rome» (Nuova Pianta di Roma). This work represents the first geometrically correct representation of Rome within the city walls, and the only map deriving from a topographical survey of which the procedures are known. The map represents a precious source of information and a valid cartographic basis for the study of the successive phases of the city development. The presentation will illustrate the characteristics of this cartographic source, the results obtained from the georeferencing process and the construction of a GIS system for the city of Rome in the 18th century. The described methodology stands at the basis of the first volume of the Atlas, that will be shortly published in printable as well as in digital version, in a CD Rom containing a graphical interface that permits the interactive interrogation of map and databases.

Lelo, Keti; Travaglini, Carlo Maria

2010-05-01

57

The ``System of Chymists'' and the ``Newtonian dream'' in Greek-speaking Communities in the 17th-18th Centuries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The acceptance of new chemical ideas, before the Chemical Revolution of Lavoisier, in Greek-speaking communities in the 17th and 18th centuries did not create a discourse of chemical philosophy, as it did in Europe, but rather a “philosophy” of chemistry as it was formed through the evolution of didactic traditions of Chemistry. This “philosophical” chemistry was not based on the existence of any academic institutions, it was focused on the ontology of principles and forces governing the analysis/synthesis of matter and formulated two didactic traditions. The one, named “the system of chymists”, close to the Boylean/Cartesian tradition, accepted, contrary to Aristotelianism, the five “chymical” principles and also the analytical ideal, but the “chymical” principles were not under a conceptual and experimental investigation, as they were in Europe. Also, a crucial issue for this tradition remained the “mechanical” principles which were under the influence of the metaphysical nature of the Aristotelian principles. The other, close to the Boylean/Newtonian tradition, was the integrated presentation of the Newtonian “dream”, which maintained a discursive attitude with reference to the “chemical attractions”-“chemical affinities” and actualised the mathematical atomism of Boscovich, according to which the elementary texture of matter could be causally explained within this complex architecture of mathematical “ punkta”. In this tradition also coexisted, in a discursive synthesis, the “chemical element” of Lavoisier and the arguments of the new theory and its opposition to the phlogiston theory, but the “chemical affinities” were under the realm of the “physical element” as “metaphysical point”.

Bokaris, Efthymios P.; Koutalis, Vangelis

2008-06-01

58

The first Finnish malariologist, Johan Haartman, and the discussion about malaria in 18th century Turku, Finland  

PubMed Central

After the Great Northern War in 1721, Sweden ceased to be an important military power. Instead, the kingdom concentrated on developing science. Swedish research got international fame with names as Carolus Linnaeus, Pehr Wargentin and Anders Celsius. Medical research remained limited and malaria was common especially in the coastal area and along the shores of the big lakes. Already in the beginning of the 18th century Swedish physicians recommended Peruvian bark as medication and they also emphasized that bleeding or blood-letting a malaria patient was harmful. Although malaria was a common disease in the kingdom, the situation was worst in the SW-part of Finland which consisted of the town of Turku and a large archipelago in the Baltic. The farmers had no opportunity to get modern healthcare until Johan Haartman was appointed district physician in 1754. To improve the situation he wrote a medical handbook intended for both the farmers and for persons of rank. Haartman's work was first published 1759 and he discussed all the different cures and medications. His aim was to recommend the best ones and warn against the harmful. His first choice was Peruvian bark, but he knew that the farmers could not afford it. Haartman was appointed professor in medicine at the Royal Academy of Turku in 1765. The malaria situation in Finland grew worse in the 1770's and Haartman analysed the situation. He found the connection between the warm summers and the spring epidemics next year. In a later thesis, Haartman analysed the late summer/early autumn malaria epidemics in the archipelago. Althouh Haartman did not know the connection between malaria and the vector, he gave astute advice and encouraged the farmers to build their cottages in windy places away from the shallow bays in which the Anopheles females hatched. Haartman died in 1788. After his death malaria research in Turku declined. His medical handbook would not be replaced until 1844. PMID:21324104

2011-01-01

59

Flood hazard and a rapidly growing capital in the floodplain: Social response on major 18th-century Danube floods in Pest (East-Budapest)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to its floodplain location, Pest was especially prone to damages caused by great flood events. Before water regulation works, the greatest flood events, and the highest rate of destruction occurred during ice jam floods. Whereas in the first half of the 18th century Pest is restricted to the medieval downtown located on a higher terrain (Danube terrace), from the mid 18th century onwards the rapidly growing population established suburbs around the downtown in the lower-lying flood plain. Thus, while in the first half of the century floods were more dangerous for the harvest in the agricultural lands, in the second half of the century at the same place suburbs, urban areas with thousands of inhabitants were prone to the same danger. In the first half of the century at least three particularly large flood events, in 1712, 1732 and 1744, caused increasing problems in the close vicinity of the town (and its lands), the second half of the century - as part of a climatic anomaly (Maldá) famous of its weather extremes - was characterised by two extreme (in 1775 and 1799), at least two larger (1789 and 1795) and some more, medium-sized ice jam floods. While in terms of damaged houses the loss was only some dozens in the early part of the century, several hundreds of houses - actually, complete suburbs were erased by floods in 1775 and 1799. In the poster presentation a series of known damaging 18th-century floods, occurred at Pest, is presented, the short-term impacts (e.g. damages), and medium-, long-term administrative responses as well as related long-term landscape changes influenced by floods and flood protection are discussed. Another important aim of the poster is to present the main reasons why in the 18th century these great ice jam floods caused much greater damages (e.g. percentage of collapsed houses in suburbs) in Pest protected by dams than, for example, in the Buda suburbs with no dams, partly also located in high flood-risk areas, in the immediate vicinity of the Danube.

Kiss, Andrea

2014-05-01

60

Evolution of Interannual and Decadal/Interdecadal variability of the SPCZ since the late 18th century using a network of Fiji coral ?18O time-series  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The South Pacific Convergence Zone (SPCZ) region is of high interest due to its impact on tropical rainfall and the export of moisture from the tropics. Documenting the amplitude and periodicity of SPCZ displacements on interannual (mainly influenced by El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO)) and decadal/interdecadal (D/I) time-scales is of high importance not only for risk management but also for understanding the dynamics of the SPCZ and for improving General Circulation Model climate predictions. We have generated a unique regional coral ?18O network from the Fiji Islands, which are located just south of the main SPCZ rainfall axis. This network consists of five monthly-resolved coral ?18O time-series from different regions of Fiji. Evaluation of interseries correlation coefficients indicates that ENSO-band (2 to 9 years) and D/I-band (10 to 50 years) ?18O variability is highly reproducible. Correlation to instrumental surface salinity (SSS) data indicates that interannual coral ?18O variability in Fiji is the result of interannual changes in SSS that are coupled to ENSO. The composite reconstruction (arithmetic average of the five Fiji ?18O records), extending from 1790 to 2004 AD, was compared to known climatic indices such as the Southern Oscillation and Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation indices over the 20th century. Pearson Product-Moment correlations between the coral ?18O composite and these target indices of the Pacific basin are r= 0.71 and 0.41 for ENSO and D/I timescales respectively, with p-values better than 0.001. These high values indicate that our Fiji composite ?18O record is suitable for reconstructing past ENSO and D/I variability prior to the instrumental record. Our Fiji ENSO-band and D/I-band reconstructions from the Southwest Pacific also share important similarities with other Pacific coral ?18O records such as the ?18O record from Malo-Channel (Vanuatu). The Fiji composite ?18O reconstruction also correlates negatively with interannual and D/I coral ?18O variability from equatorial sites in the Pacific (e.g. Maiana). Collectively, our results from the SPCZ region reflect the validity of the coral ?18O composite to track regional climatic variability at both interannual and decadal/interdecadal timescales. From the late 18th century to the late 19th century the D/I band dominates the Fiji composite while the ENSO-band amplitude is relatively small. Starting around 1885, this tendency reverses and we observed a drastic decrease in the D/I signal amplitude, with its variance reduced by more than 50%, while the ENSO-band signal increases progressively in amplitude toward the present, reaching unprecedented values during the mid-20th century. This switch around 1885 A.D. is unique over the last 250 years and may correspond to a reorganization of Pacific-wide climate.

Dassie, E. P.; Linsley, B. K.; Correge, T.; Wu, H. C.; Lemley, G. M.; Cabioch, G.

2012-12-01

61

Plant phenological records in northern Finland since the 18th century as retrieved from databases, archives and diaries for biometeorological research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plant phenological data from northern Finland, compiled from several sources, were examined as potential biometeorological indicators of climate change since the 18th century. A common feature of individual series was their sporadic nature. In addition to waning enthusiasm, wartime hardships and crop failures had caused gaps in recording observations during the 18th and 19th centuries. The present study's challenge was to combine separate records, as retrieved from several historical archives and personal diaries, into a single continuous series. To avoid possible biases due to the variability of data availability each year, each phenomenon-specific mean series was transformed into normalized site-specific index series. These series were compared to each other and to a regional instrumental temperature series (years 1802-2011). The inter-phenomena correlations were high. Moreover, a strong biometeorological response of the phenological series, most especially to monthly mean temperature in May, and seasonally to the April through June temperatures, was identified. This response focused on slightly later spring months compared to the responses in an earlier study conducted for southern Finland. The findings encouraged us to compute a total phenological index series as an average of all available phenomenon-specific index series for northern Finland. The earliest phenological springs were found as a cluster in the recent end of the record, whereas the anomalously-late phenological spring could be found through the centuries. This finding could indicate that potential future warming could result in an earlier onset of phenological springs (i.e. as experienced by the plants), with a remaining possibility of late phenological springs. To conclude, it was shown that the indices are reliable biometeorological indicators of the April through June temperature variations and thus of the climate variability in the region.

Holopainen, Jari; Helama, Samuli; Lappalainen, Hanna; Gregow, Hilppa

2013-05-01

62

A brief history of the changing occupations and demographics of coleopterists from the 18th through the 20th century.  

PubMed

Systematic entomology flourished as a branch of Natural History from the 1750s to the end of the nineteenth century. During this interval, the "era of Heroic Entomology," the majority of workers in the field were dedicated amateurs. This article traces the demographic and occupational shifts in entomology through this 150-year interval and into the early twentieth century. The survey is based on entomologists who studied beetles (Coleoptera), and who named sufficient numbers of species to have their own names abbreviated by subsequent taxonomists. In the eighteenth century, 27 entomologists achieved this level of prominence, of whom 37% were academics, 19% were doctors, 11% had private incomes, 19% were clergymen, and 8% were government officials. Many of those with private incomes were members of the European aristocracy, and all but one were European men. The nineteenth century list included 192 entomologists, of whom 17% were academics, 16% were museum curators, 2% were school teachers, 15% were doctors, 6% were military men, 7% were merchants, 2% were government entomologists, 6% had private incomes, 5% were clergymen, 5% were government officials, and 4% were lawyers. The demographics of entomology shifted dramatically in the nineteenth century. Whereas many of the noteworthy entomologists of the eighteenth century were German, Swedish, or French, in the nineteenth century, many more European countries are represented, and almost one-fifth of the noteworthy entomologists were from the United States. The nineteenth century list, like the eighteenth century list, contains no women. By the twentieth century, 63% of 178 noteworthy systematic entomologists were paid professionals, teaching entomology courses in universities, or studying insect taxonomy in museums and government-sponsored laboratories. Only one person on the twentieth century list had a private income, but women (ten individuals) were included on the list for the first time. PMID:23928824

Elias, Scott A

2014-01-01

63

Industrial energy from water-mills in the European economy, 5th to 18th Centuries: the limitations of power  

Microsoft Academic Search

The water-mill, though known in the Roman Empire from the second century BCE, did not come to enjoy any widespread use until the 4th or 5th centuries CE, and then chiefly in the West, which was then experiencing not only a rapid decline in the supply of slaves, but also widespread depopulation, and thus a severe scarcity of labour. For

John H. Munro

2002-01-01

64

21H.433 The Age of Reason: Europe in the 18th and 19th Centuries, Spring 2002  

E-print Network

A study of the evolution of European society from the end of the seventeenth century to the outbreak of World War I. Its politics, the nature of its social system, the workings of its economy, and its intellectual ...

Ravel, Jeffrey S.

65

Finnish wallpaper pigments in the 18th-19th century: presence of KFe3(CrO4)2(OH)6 and odd pigment mixtures.  

PubMed

Several Finish wallpapers from the 18th and 19th century were analysed by using Raman spectroscopy assisted with EDXRF instrumentation, in an attempt of determine the pigments used in their manufacture process as well as of trying to date some of the samples through pigment composition. All pigments present in samples were determined and surprisingly the unusual and strange iron (III) chromate yellow pigment was found. Besides, unusual mixtures were found to obtain fashionable colours, especially in blue and green areas, where more than one blue pigments were mixed with green and yellow pigments. Blue verditer, ultramarine blue, Prussian blue, chrome yellow, calcite, lead white, red and yellow iron oxide, gypsum and carbon black were identified. The presence of the risky and poisonous emerald green must be highlighted. The results were compared with those found in other wallpapers from Spain and France. PMID:23376265

Castro, Kepa; Knuutinen, Ulla; de Vallejuelo, Silvia Fdez-Ortiz; Irazola, Mireia; Madariaga, Juan Manuel

2013-04-01

66

The Early America Review: A Journal of Fact and Opinion On the People, Issues and Events Of 18th Century America  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A site of interest to students of 18th Century America is the Early America Review. Early America Review is a new quarterly e-journal produced by DEV Communications, Inc., that is aimed toward both scholarly and lay readers. In that spirit, the first edition contains a long scholarly article on Benjamin Franklin and the Presbyterians by a Creighton University history professor, an introduction to the novel The Quintumviri by Circian, a letter from Jefferson to Madison ("...a little rebellion now and then is a good thing"), a poem, and a crossword puzzle (available only with Macromedia Shockwave). Early America Review is also enhanced with RealAudio clips. Both Shockwave and RealAudio are available from the site.

67

[Inadequate burials as an important factor in plague epidemic amongst Serbs in the Habsburg monarchy by the end of the 18th century: a historical analysis].  

PubMed

Analysis of the archaic customs of burying the deceased in Srem, primarily amongst Serbs, in the second half of the 18th century is the essential part of the paper that aims at clarifying the consequences of this negative habit onto the spreading of plague epidemic. The Austrian Empire tried to stop and prevent the epidemic with an array of legal norms, but in practice, these orders were often not upheld. Serbian Metropolitans Pavle Nenadovi? and Stefan Stratimirovi? insisted on eradicating superstition and retrograde, often uncivilized actions in burial rituals, and they partially succeeded. The example of plague in Irig and the surroundings in 1795-1796 explicitly shows the hazardous effects of the inadequate attitude towards the deceased as one of the factors in spreading the epidemic. Using primary archives, and published sources, with adequate literature, authors depict this complex historical process. PMID:25731012

Vasin, Goran; Božani?, Snežana; Boži?, Milica Kisi?

2014-01-01

68

Finnish wallpaper pigments in the 18th-19th century: Presence of KFe3(CrO4)2(OH)6 and odd pigment mixtures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several Finish wallpapers from the 18th and 19th century were analysed by using Raman spectroscopy assisted with EDXRF instrumentation, in an attempt of determine the pigments used in their manufacture process as well as of trying to date some of the samples through pigment composition. All pigments present in samples were determined and surprisingly the unusual and strange iron (III) chromate yellow pigment was found. Besides, unusual mixtures were found to obtain fashionable colours, especially in blue and green areas, where more than one blue pigments were mixed with green and yellow pigments. Blue verditer, ultramarine blue, Prussian blue, chrome yellow, calcite, lead white, red and yellow iron oxide, gypsum and carbon black were identified. The presence of the risky and poisonous emerald green must be highlighted. The results were compared with those found in other wallpapers from Spain and France.

Castro, Kepa; Knuutinen, Ulla; Vallejuelo, Silvia Fdez-Ortiz de; Irazola, Mireia; Madariaga, Juan Manuel

2013-04-01

69

ADULT MORTALITY AND INVESTMENT: A NEW EXPLANATION OF THE ENGLISH AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTIVITY IN THE 18TH CENTURY  

Microsoft Academic Search

We claim that the exogenous decline of adult mortality at the end of the seventeenth century can be one of the causes driving both the decline of interest rate and the increase in agricultural production per acre in preindustrial England. Following the intuition of the life-cycle hypothesis, we show that the increase in adult life expectancy must have implied less

Esteban A. Nicolini

2001-01-01

70

Adult mortality and investment: a new explanation of the English agricultural productivity in the 18th century  

Microsoft Academic Search

We claim that the exogenous decline of adult mortality at the end of the seventeenth century can be one of the causes driving both the decline of interest rate and the increase in agricultural production per acre in preindustrial England. Following the intuition of the life-cycle hypothesis, we show that the increase in adult life expectancy must have implied less

Esteban A. Nicolini

71

A Role for Historical Experiments: Capturing the?Spirit of the Itinerant Lecturers of the 18th Century  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gerald Rutherford (1964), one of the original authors of the Harvard Project Physics course which emphasized the history of science, expressed a view of inquiry which advocated the historical re-constructions of significant experiments. To implement this view we examine two modes of historical re-constructions; Heering?9s (Paper presented at the Itinerant Physicists of the 17th century Conference, Pognana, Italy, June 1–6,

Don Metz; Art Stinner

2006-01-01

72

The inquisitorial trial of a cross-dressing lesbian: reactions and responses to female homosexuality in 18th-century portugal.  

PubMed

This article analyzes the inquisitorial trial of Maria Duran, a Catalan novice in the Dominican convent of Nossa Senhora do Paraíso in Portugal. Maria Duran was arrested by the Inquisition in 1741 and, after a lengthy trial, condemned in 1744 to a public lashing and exile. She was suspected of having made a pact with the Devil and was accused by many female witnesses of possessing a "secret penis" that she had allegedly used in her amorous relations with fellow nuns and novices. Her voluminous trial dossier offers a rare and fascinating documentary insight into the often extreme reactions that female homosexuality provoked from both men and women in early modern Portugal. Using the evidence offered by the 18th-century trial of Maria Duran, this article highlights female bewilderment when faced with female-on-female sexual violence and the difficulty that men (in this case, churchmen) had coming to terms with the existence of female homosexuality. It also discusses the case in light of the acts/identity debate among historians of the history of sexuality. PMID:25022623

Soyer, François

2014-01-01

73

[Tamil medicine and the perception of pietist missionaries of the Danish-Halle Tranquebar Mission in the 1st half of the 18th century].  

PubMed

The cooperation between medical systems of different cultures is a widely discussed problem. In an historical example, the perception of Tamil medicine by the Pietist missionaries of the Danish-Halle Mission in the first half of the 18th century illustrated the different meaning assigned to diseases and cures as well as differences in medical treatments compared to European medicine. Published for over 60 years starting in 1708, the Halle Reports enable us to understand the changes and developments in the relationship between the European and Tamil cultures that met in Southern India. The entrance of the first-generation Pietist missionaries (until 1720) was clearly silhouetted against a behavior that was directed at suppressing the traditional and asserting the European forms of cultural practice. They developed forms of a partnership-like association which is still discernable in the edited reports. The encounter between the Pietist missionaries and Tamil culture can be characterized as both empirical and critically reflective thanks to excellent language skills and an open-minded perspective. PMID:21560514

Neumann, Josef N

2010-01-01

74

Human impacts of hydrometeorological extremes in the Bohemian-Moravian Highlands derived from documentary sources in the 18th-19th centuries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The extent of damage caused by hydrometeorological events or extremes (HME) has risen up in the entire world in the last few years. Especially the floods, flash floods, torrential rains and hailstorms are the most typical and one of the most frequent kind of natural disasters in the central Europe. Catastrophes are a part of human history and people were forced to cope with their consequences (e. g. material damage, economical losses, impacts on agriculture and society or losses of human lives). This paper analyses the human impacts of HME in the Bohemian-Moravian Highlands (central part of the Czech Republic) on the basis of documentary sources from the 18th-19th centuries. The paper presents various negative impacts of natural disasters on lives and property and subsequent inconveniences of Czech peasants. The preserved archival documents of estates or domains became the primary sources of data (e. g. taxation reliefs, damaged records, reports of afflicted farmers, administrative correspondence etc.). Particularly taxation reliefs relate to taxation system in the Czech lands during the 17th-19th centuries allowing to farmers to ask for tax alleviation when their crops were significantly damaged by any HME. These archival documents are a highly valuable source for the study of human impacts of natural disasters. Devastating consequences of these extremes affected individual farmers much more than the aristocracy. Floods caused inundations of farmer's fields, meadows, houses and farm buildings, washed away the arable land with crops, caused losses of cattle, clogged the land with gravel and mud and destroyed roads, bridges or agricultural equipment. Afflicted fields became worthless and it took them many years to become became fertile again. Crop was also damaged by hailstorms, droughts or late/early frosts. All these events led to lack of food and seeds in the following year and it meant the decrease of living standard, misery and poverty of farmers. Acquired results could give better insight of human impacts of HME in history and help to compare the negative consequences in the past and present.

Dolák, Lukáš; Brázdil, Rudolf; Valášek, Hubert

2014-05-01

75

Austrian-Hungarian Astronomical Observatories Run by the Society of Jesus at the Time of the 18th Century Venus Transits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Venus transit in June 1761 was the first one to be observed on a truly international scale: almost 250 astronomers followed this rare celestial event (e.g. Wulff 2012, p. 115), and at least 130 published successful observations of it (Aspaas 2012, p. 423). The present paper deals with the astronomical observatories built by the Society of Jesus in its eighteenth century "Provincia Austriae", at which the 1761 transit could be observed. Five Jesuit observatories are being presented in this context: three in today's Austria, namely, two in Vienna and one in Graz; one in Trnava in today's Slovakia and one in Cluj in today's Romania. Thereafter, we briefly examine which of these observatories submitted any Venus transit observations for publication in the appendix to Maximilian Hell's "Ephemerides astronomicae ad meridianum Vindobonensem" for the year 1762.

Posch, Thomas; Aspaas, Per Pippin; Bazso, Akos; Mueller, Isolde

2013-05-01

76

Girls' Secondary Education in the Western World: From the 18th to the 20th Century. Secondary Education in a Changing World  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This long-awaited synthesis approaches the past three centuries with an eye to highlighting the importance of significant schools, as well as important women educators in the emergence of secondary education for girls. At the same time, each contributor pays careful attention to the specific political, cultural, and socio-economic factors that…

Albisetti, James C.; Goodman, Joyce; Rogers, Rebecca

2010-01-01

77

The Role of Education Redefined: 18th Century British and French Educational Thought and the Rise of the Baconian Conception of the Study of Nature  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The idea that science teaching in schools should prepare the ground for society's future technical and scientific progress has played an important role in shaping modern education. This idea, however, was not always present. In this article, I examine how this idea first emerged in educational thought. Early in the 17th century, Francis Bacon…

Gilead, Tal

2011-01-01

78

Changes in the occurrence of silver, gold, platinum, palladium and rhodium in Mont Blanc ice and snow since the 18th century  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ag, Au, Pt, Pd and Rh have been measured at various depth intervals of a 140m snow\\/ice core electromechanically drilled at an altitude of 4250m in the French–Italian Alps. The measurements were made by double focusing ICP-MS with micro concentric nebulisation. It provides the first time series for these metals for the last two centuries. Observed concentrations range from 0.2

Katja Van de Velde; Carlo Barbante; Giulio Cozzi; Ivo Moret; Tania Bellomi; Christophe Ferrari; Claude Boutron

2000-01-01

79

A Study of Some of the 17th and 18th Century Dramatic Versions of the Oedipus Legend in French and English with some Reference to Spanish  

E-print Network

) "se donna dfun poignard dans le sein, et mourut." 1. Argument D'Antigone, Vollmoeller, Robert Gamier, "Les Tragedies." 2. Warton, "History of English Poetry." 9 Antigone, who performed the same duties in this play as in Sophoclesfs "Antigone... in the ramifications of the OEdipus theme in the next century. Rotrou wrote an "Antigone" in 1638 and Racine produced "^a Thebalde ou Le» Frferes Ennemis" in 1664. Both of these plays differ from Sophocles and follow Garnier in having Jocaste play a role...

Malott, Anne C.

1914-01-01

80

Smarter Planet Comes to February 18th  

E-print Network

1 Smarter Planet Comes to You 2nd February ­ 18th March, 2011 #12;2 Contents Tour Objectives Tour Collateral #12;3 Tour Objectives The objectives of the Smarter Planet Comes to You Tour are to: Raise student awareness around the Smarter Planet initiative and `make it real' in the community Evangelize the Smarter

Hofheinz, Dennis

81

Seminar Series Monday, June 18th  

E-print Network

Seminar Series Monday, June 18th , 2012, 13:00 ­ 15:00 Hard to refuse Large-scale Agro 2012, Jumanne returns to Tanzania and continues to work with the project "Large scale agro investments.slu.se/sol #12;Hard to refuse Large-scale Agro-investments in Tanzania: The Structure, Practices and dynamics

82

Life history of the individuals buried in the St. Benedict Cemetery (Prague, 15th-18th centuries): insights from (14)C dating and stable isotope (?(13)C, ?(15)N, ?(18)O) analysis.  

PubMed

Funerary practices and bioarchaeological (sex and age) data suggest that a mortality crisis linked to an epidemic episode occurred during the fifth phase of the St. Benedict cemetery in Prague (Czech Republic). To identify this mass mortality episode, we reconstructed individual life histories (dietary and mobility factors), assessed the population's biological homogeneity, and proposed a new chronology through stable isotope analysis (?(13)C, ?(18)O and ?(15)N) and direct radiocarbon dating. Stable isotope analysis was conducted on the bone and tooth enamel (collagen and carbonate) of 19 individuals from three multiple graves (MG) and 12 individuals from individual graves (IG). The ?(15)N values of collagen and the difference between the ?(13)C values of collagen and bone carbonate could indicate that the IG individuals had a richer protein diet than the MG individuals or different food resources. The human bone and enamel carbonate and ?(18)O values suggest that the majority of individuals from MG and all individuals from IG spent most of their lives outside of the Bohemian region. Variations in ?(18)O values also indicate that all individuals experienced residential mobility during their lives. The stable isotope results, biological (age and sex) data and eight (14)C dates clearly differentiate the MG and IG groups. The present work provides evidence for the reuse of the St. Benedict cemetery to bury soldiers despite the funeral protest ban (1635 AD). The Siege of Prague (1742 AD) by French-Bavarian-Saxon armies is identified as the cause of the St. Benedict mass mortality event. PMID:23588853

Salesse, Kevin; Dufour, Élise; Castex, Dominique; Velemínský, Petr; Santos, Frédéric; Kucha?ová, Hedvika; Jun, Libor; Br?žek, Jaroslav

2013-06-01

83

Peterburgskaya akademiya nauk v XVIII v. i ee pol' v rasprostranenii N'yutonianstva na kontinente Evropy %t Petersburg Academy of Sciences of 18th century and its role in the dissemination of Newtonianism in teh continental Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

"Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica" by I. Newton were published and immediately recognized in England in 1687. However in countries of the continental Europe up to 1744 dominated the Cartesianism. Few newtonians were exposed to persecutions. Under such circumstances in 1724 Peter The Great decided to found an Academy of sciences in Russia. Since in this country there were no scientists, it was decided to invite them from the continental Europe. Two scientists arrived to Russia were newtonians. Other just were graduated from universities and had no hope for scientific work in their native lands. This situation turned out to be rather happy. The newtonians - J. N. Delisle and J. Hermann - trained the youth (D. Bernoulli, L. Euler, F. Ch. Mayer, G. W. Krafft, A. D. Kantemir, G. W. Richmann, M. V. Lomonosov, N. I. Popov, V. K. Trediakovskij, A. D. Krasilnikov etc.). They created the science of Russia and enhanced the doctrine of Newton. Their scientific works were printed in "Commentarii" in Latin. The newspaper "St.-Petersburg sheets" and its appendix, the magazine "Notes on the Sheet" (issued in Russian and German) - published the works of Petersburg Academy of sciences and promoted the Newtonianism. Everyone, who could read in German, used these materials. One of the readers was I. Kant. He relied upon these publications in preparing his lectures at Königsberg University, and then later, in working out the cosmogony theory. The works of J. N. Delisle, L. Euler and A. C. Clairaut on the theory of comets' and planets' movement justified Newtons doctrine. They also forced J. Cassini to accept the doctrine as well. Delisle's papers on the history of astronomy published there are helpful for understanding of the history of development the astronomy. The books of J. F. Weidler "A history of astronomy" (1741) and "Astronomical bibliography" (1755) formed the basis for all histories of astronomy in the XVIII-XIX centuries.

Nevskaya, N. I.

84

18th International Conference on Antiviral Research.  

PubMed

The 18th International Conference on Antiviral Research (ICAR) was held at the Princess Sofia Hotel in Barcelona, Spain, from 11th-14th April, 2005. This is a yearly international meeting sponsored by the International Society for Antiviral Research (ISAR). The current president of ISAR is John A Secrest 3rd of the Southern Research Institute. The scientific programme committee was chaired by John C Drach from the University of Michigan. ISAR was founded in 1987 to exchange prepublication basic, applied and clinical information on the development of antiviral, chemical and biological agents as well as to promote collaborative research. The ISAR has had a major role in the significant advances of the past decade in the reduction of the societal burdens of viral diseases by the focus of ICAR on the discovery and clinical application of antiviral agents. The 18th ICAR was organised as a series of focus presentations on specific viral groups consisting of oral and poster presentations of original research findings. In addition, the conference included plenary speakers, award presentations, a minisymposium on bioterrorism, and a satellite symposium on clinical antiviral drug developments. The size of the conference (> 50 oral and 250 poster presentations) necessitates limitation to the most noteworthy in the judgment of this reviewer. The current membership of the ISAR is approximately 700 with approximately 50% the membership in attendance. PMID:16086663

Mitchell, William M

2005-08-01

85

Lightning and Gunpowder in the 18th Century  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On or before June, 1751, Benjamin Franklin and co-workers showed that gunpowder could be ignited by a small electric spark, and subsequently people used gunpowder to enhance the explosions of "thunder houses" to demonstrate that grounded metallic rods would protect model structures against lightning damage. Even before the sentry box and kite experiments proved that thunderclouds are electrified and that lightning is an electrical discharge in 1752, Franklin had hypothesized that a tall, well-grounded conductor might reduce or prevent lightning damage by silently discharging the cloud, and if a discharge did occur, then the tall rod would offer a preferred place for the lightning to strike, and the grounding conductors would guide the current into the ground in a harmless fashion. Over the next 10 years, experience gained through practice showed that grounded rods did indeed protect ordinary structures from lightning damage, but a question remained about the best way to protect gunpowder magazines. In 1762, Franklin recommended a tall "mast not far from it, which may reach 15 or 20 feet above the top of it, with a thick iron rod in one piece fastened to it, pointed at the highest end, and reaching down through the earth till it comes to water," and in 1772 he made a similar recommendation for protecting the British powder magazine at Purfleet. In 1780, Jan Ingenhousz asked Franklin to "communicate to me some short hints, which may occur to you about the most convenient manner of constructing gun powder magazines, the manner of preserving the powder from moisture and securing the building in the best manner from the effects of lightning." In his reply, Franklin detailed a method of protection that is almost perfect, "they should be constructed in the Ground; that the Walls should be lin'd with Lead, the Floor Lead, all 1/4 Inch thick & the Joints well solder'd; the Cover Copper; with a little Scuttle to enter, the whole in the Form of a Canister for Tea. If the Edges of the Cover scuttle fall into a Copper Channel containing Mercury, not the smallest Particle of Air or Moisture can enter to the Powder, even tho' the Walls stood in Water, or the whole was under Water." In 1876, the Scottish physicist, James Clerk Maxwell, made almost exactly the same recommendation for protecting against lightning, a method known today as a "Faraday cage."

Krider, E. P.

2006-12-01

86

Malaria in Batavia in the 18th century.  

PubMed

In 1733 an unknown deadly disease broke out in Batavia (now Jakarta), then the main seat of the Dutch East India Company (VOC) in Asia. Mortality among its personnel rose alarmingly and caused serious shortages of sailors, soldiers and craftsmen. Ever-growing numbers of people had to be sent from the Netherlands to Batavia to make up for the high losses. In the end, military posts could no longer be filled, homeward-bound vessels no longer be manned and precious cargo had to remain in Batavia. The unhealthiness of the town, 'so deadly for the growth and prosperity of the colony [and] ruinous for the interests and finances of the Company' (Nederburgh 1794), claimed more than 85,000 victims among VOC personnel. The 'unhealthiness of Batavia' remained unexplained through the ages. In this paper reasons for its origin and aftermath are proposed. PMID:9315048

van der Brug, P H

1997-09-01

87

Adam Smith, Stoicism and religion in the 18th century  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores the influence of Stoicism and religion on Adam Smith. While other commentators have argued either that the main influence on Smith was Stoicism or that it was religion, the two influences have not been explicitly linked. In this article I attempt to make such a link, arguing that Smith can be seen as belonging to the strand

P. H. Clarke

2000-01-01

88

[About an herbarium of the 18th century with Oberlin].  

PubMed

John Frederick Oberlin (1740-1826) minister and philantropist for sixty years in a Vosges valley, not far from Schirmeck-Rothau, studied sciences at Strasbourg University. He brought to his parish phythoterapy, Linne's classifying of plants and some start of scientific medicine. Two of his sons took their Doctor's degree at Strasbourg and one of them worked part of his life as a General Practioner in the valley. The present paper makes mention of a few plants in the herbarium preserved at the parsonage Museum of Waldersbach with their copies in slides. The interest they offer lies in their excellent preservation and the medical properties written out in French, German, Latin and Vosges provincial dialect. It is called to attention there may be an uncertainty about the present name of one plant. PMID:11625613

Goursolas, F

1999-01-01

89

The butterfly diagram in the 18th century  

E-print Network

Digitized images of the drawings by J.C. Staudacher were used to determine sunspot positions for the period of 1749-1796. From the entire set of drawings, 6285 sunspot positions were obtained for a total of 999 days. Various methods have been applied to find the orientation of the solar disk which is not given for the vast majority of the drawings by Staudacher. Heliographic latitudes and longitudes in the Carrington rotation frame were determined. The resulting butterfly diagram shows a highly populated equator during the first two cycles (Cycles 0 and 1 in the usual counting since 1749). An intermediate period is Cycle 2, whereas Cycles 3 and 4 show a typical butterfly shape. A tentative explanation may be the transient dominance of a quadrupolar magnetic field during the first two cycles.

Rainer Arlt

2008-12-11

90

Restoration of an 18th century English clock  

Microsoft Academic Search

The background knowledge and the steps required to repair ancient clocks and watches are described. The restoration of old clocks and watches involves the problem of making them work. The wear that results from years of use and the fact that parts are lost or broken leads the restorer to replace certain component parts of the watch or clock. The

Daniel Curtit; Jean-Michel Piguet

1992-01-01

91

Restoration of an 18th century English clock  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The background knowledge and the steps required to repair ancient clocks and watches are described. The restoration of old clocks and watches involves the problem of making them work. The wear that results from years of use and the fact that parts are lost or broken leads the restorer to replace certain component parts of the watch or clock. The parts are made in such a way that they fit in with the appearance of the object. This work requires the watchmaker/restorer to have a thorough knowledge of all the mechanisms used in watchmaking and knowhow which covers the whole field, from watches to monumental clocks. An example of a restoration carried out on a Bracket clock is given.

Curtit, Daniel; Piguet, Jean-Michel

92

Dynamics of the properties of steppe paleosols of the Sarmatian time (2nd century BC-4th century AD) in relation to secular variations in climatic humidity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Paleosols buried under kurgans of the Early (2nd-1st centuries BC), Middle (1st-2nd centuries AD) and Late (2nd-IV centuries AD) Sarmatian epochs were studied in dry steppes and desert steppes of the Lower Volga region (the Privolzhskaya and Ergeni Uplands and the Caspian Lowland). It was found that temporal variations in the morphological, chemical, microbiological, and magnetic properties of the paleosols in the interval of 2200-1600 BP were characterized by the cyclic pattern related to secular dynamics of climatic humidity with changes in the mean annual precipitation of ±30-50 mm. These climate changes did not transform chestnut paleosols and paleosolonetzes at the type or subtype taxonomic levels. However, they led to certain changes in the humus, carbonate, and salt profiles of the soils; in the character of solonetzic horizon B1; and in the state of microbial communities. According to these data, the Sarmatian time was characterized by alternation of micropluvial and microarid stages lasting fro about 100-200 years. In particular, the stages of humidization were observed in the 1st century BC-1st century AD and in the 4th century AD; the most arid conditions were observed in the second half of the 2nd and the first half of the 3rd century AD.

Demkin, V. A.; Zolotareva, B. N.; Demkina, T. S.; Khomutova, T. E.; Kashirskaya, N. N.; El'Tsov, M. V.; Udal'Tsov, S. N.

2012-02-01

93

Characteristics of microbial communities in steppe paleosols buried under kurgans of the Sarmatian time (I-IV centuries AD)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microbiological studies of paleosols buried under steppe kurgans of different ages of the Middle (I-II centuries AD) and Late Sarmatian (II-IV centuries AD) time in different regions of the Lower Volga steppes were carried out. The regularities of the soil microbial communities’ development were determined in the I-IV centuries AD by the climate dynamics and the replacement of the relatively humid conditions (the I century to the first half of the II century) by dry (the second half of the II century to the first half of the III century) and then again by humid (the end of the III century to the IV century) conditions. In the humid climatic periods, the active biomass of the microorganisms and its portion in the total microbial biomass and the Corg of the soil increased, the portion of microorganisms consuming plant residues increased in the ecological-trophic structure of the microbial community, and the index of oligotrophy decreased. These changes had an opposite direction in the arid climatic periods. The variations of the microbiological parameters relative to the century-long dynamics of the climate over the historical time were synchronous and unidirectional, though the studied soils were found in different soil-geographical zones (dry and desert steppe), natural regions (the Privolzhskaya and Ergeni uplands and the Caspian Lowland), and landforms (watersheds, river terraces, marine plains).

Demkina, T. S.; Khomutova, T. E.; Kashirskaya, N. N.; Stretovich, I. V.; Demkin, V. A.

2009-07-01

94

CDRC Regional Service Center 901 E. 18th St  

E-print Network

Eugene, OR 97403 Early Identification and Treatment are important Do You Have a Child with AutismCDRC Regional Service Center 901 E. 18th St Eugene, OR 97403 Early Identification and Treatment are important Do You Have a Child with Autism? with a younger sibling 6 months to 18 months old? Call

95

NVIDIA GPU Computing IDRIS -December 18th 2008  

E-print Network

NVIDIA GPU marketing names GT200 Consumer GeForce GT200GL Professional QuNVIDIA GPU Computing IDRIS - December 18th 2008 Jean-Christophe Baratault jbaratault@nvidia.com #12 graphics boards No HPC compatible products #12;NVIDIA invested in GPU Computing back in 2004 Strategic move

Richer, Jean-Michel

96

Marathon of Majors Tuesday, March 18th, 2014  

E-print Network

& Humanities College of Social Science Undergraduate University Division (No-Preference/Exploratory Students Majors Major/College Requirements Specializations Internship/Career Information Transfer CreditMarathon of Majors Tuesday, March 18th, 2014 Union Building 2nd Floor Ballroom 5:00 pm - 7:00 pm

97

EDITORIAL: The 18th Central European Workshop on Quantum Optics The 18th Central European Workshop on Quantum Optics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Much of our present understanding of the microscopic world is based on quantum mechanics. The field owes much of its existence to the venerable science of optics, since the fundamental ideas on the nature of the interaction between light and matter lie at the roots of its origin. We have now reached one century of quantum mechanics. In contrast, the splendid blossoming of quantum optics began only after the comparatively recent invention of the laser. Since then, it has become an exciting and always expanding area at the cutting-edge of research, in part because theory and experiment are more closely connected in this field than any other. Moreover, the technological distance between fundamental studies and practical applications has always been very short in quantum optics. As a result, modern engineering is increasingly based on quantum rather than classical physics; we are facing a transition similar to the one society confronted 200 years ago, at the start of the Industrial Revolution. In parallel with this, the physics community is witnessing the recent and vigorous emergence of quantum information. It aims at exploring the physical foundations of information and at developing efficient methods for processing quantum information. The questions driving this field reveal a profound change in attitude towards fundamental aspects of quantum theory. The photon turns out to be a tool extremely well suited to exploring theoretical quantum information schemes and their experimental implementations. Mirroring this continued progress has been the growth and development of the series of annual Central European Workshops on Quantum Optics (CEWQO). The series started at the beginning of the 1990s, as rather small meetings of physicists from a few countries in central-eastern Europe. In two decades, the workshops have transformed into important events that reach well beyond the original rather restricted geographical limits. The history of CEWQOs can be found in the preface to the proceedings of the 15th CEWQO (Physica Scripta 2009 T135 011005). The 18th edition of CEWQO (CEWQO11) was held in Madrid in 2011. There were about 250 participants, from practically every European country. Many colleagues from other continents also joined the event, including well-established researchers in the field. This is a clear demonstration that these meetings provide an excellent chance to hear about the latest results and new directions of research. The organization of CEWQO11 was carried out by a committee consisting of members active in this topic in Madrid. From Universidad Complutense, Alberto Galindo and Luis L Sánchez-Soto from Universidad Autónoma, Jose Calleja and Carlos Tejedor; from Universidad Politécnica, Enrique Calleja; from Universidad Carlos III, Alberto Ibort; and from the National Research Council (CSIC), Juan León and Juan J García-Ripoll. Special thanks go to the Spanish Ministry for Science and Innovation, Universidad Complutense and the Quitemad Consortium for financial support. The proceedings of the 16th CEWQO held at the University of Turku, Finland and the 17th CEWQO held at the University of St Andrews, Scotland, UK are also available (Physica Scripta 2010 T140 and Physica Scripta 2011 T143). The present Topical Issue is a collection of papers presented in Madrid; they represent an illustrative sample of the major achievements and trends in this area. In turn, they reflect the wide range of interests in this rapidly evolving field. Some collaborators from different scientific centres who could not, due to different reasons, come to Madrid, but participated in previous CEWQOs and plan to participate in future CEWQOs, also contributed to this issue. The papers are arranged alphabetically by the name of the first author. Special thanks goes to Roger Wäppling, the Managing Editor of Physica Scripta, and Graeme Watt, the Publisher, for the opportunity to publish CEWQO11. From a Physica Scripta Editorial Board meeting it was decided that Physica Scripta could offer a poster prize (200 euros + certificate) for young sc

Sánchez-Soto, Luis L.; Man'ko, Margarita A.

2012-02-01

98

Optimizing Strategies for Telescoping LanguagesICS, June 18th , 2001, Sorrento, Italy  

E-print Network

Optimizing Strategies for Telescoping LanguagesICS, June 18th , 2001, Sorrento, Italy Optimizing 18th , 2001, Sorrento, Italy Motivation Shortage of programmers increasing application demands for Telescoping LanguagesICS, June 18th , 2001, Sorrento, Italy Motivation Shortage of programmers increasing

Chauhan, Arun

99

18th Space Photovoltaic Research and Technology Conference  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The 18th Space Photovoltaic Research and Technology (SPRAT XVIII) Conference was held September 16 to 18, 2003, at the Ohio Aerospace Institute (OAI) in Brook Park, Ohio. The SPRAT conference, hosted by the Photovoltaic and Space Environments Branch of the NASA Glenn Research Center, brought together representatives of the space photovoltaic community from around the world to share the latest advances in space solar cell technology. This year s conference continued to build on many of the trends shown in SPRAT XVII-the continued advances of thin-film and multijunction solar cell technologies and the new issues required to qualify those types of cells for space applications.

Morton, Thomas L. (Compiler)

2005-01-01

100

The holy light: a study of natural light in Hindu temples in the southern region of Tamilnadu, India (7th century AD to 17th century AD)  

E-print Network

in three Hindu temples built in the southern state of Tamilnadu in India. These three temple are the Shore temple built at Mahabalipuram by the Pallava dynasty (700 AD); the Brihadeshvara temple built at Tanjore by the Chola dynasty (1010 AD...

Mukherji, Anuradha

2001-01-01

101

JANNAF 18th Propulsion Systems Hazards Subcommittee Meeting. Volume 1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This volume, the first of two volumes is a compilation of 18 unclassified/unlimited-distribution technical papers presented at the Joint Army-Navy-NASA-Air Force (JANNAF) 18th Propulsion Systems Hazards Subcommittee (PSHS) meeting held jointly with the 36th Combustion Subcommittee (CS) and 24th Airbreathing Propulsion Subcommittee (APS) meetings. The meeting was held 18-21 October 1999 at NASA Kennedy Space Center and The DoubleTree Oceanfront Hotel, Cocoa Beach, Florida. Topics covered at the PSHS meeting include: shaped charge jet and kinetic energy penetrator impact vulnerability of gun propellants; thermal decomposition and cookoff behavior of energetic materials; violent reaction; detonation phenomena of solid energetic materials subjected to shock and impact stimuli; and hazard classification, insensitive munitions, and propulsion systems safety.

Cocchiaro, James E. (Editor); Gannaway, Mary T. (Editor)

1999-01-01

102

A System of Weighted Partial Ballots For use at the 18th  

E-print Network

A System of Weighted Partial Ballots For use at the 18th Annual Yale Mock Trial Invitational practical implementation at the 18th Annual Yale Mock Trial Invitational. 1 What do ballots represent? Mock is an adviser to the Yale Mock Trial Association and a former competitor at Washington University in St. Louis

103

FOREWORD: 18th International School on Condensed Matter Physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are delighted to present the Proceedings of the 18th International School on Condensed Matter Physics: Challenges of Nanoscale Science: Theory, Materials, Applications, organized by the Institute of Solid State Physics of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences and chaired by Professor Alexander G Petrov. On this occasion the School was held in memory of Professor Nikolay Kirov (1943-2013), former Director of the Institute and Chairman between 1991 and 1998. The 18ISCMP was one of several events dedicated to the 145th anniversary of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences in 2014, and was held in the welcoming Black Sea resort of St. Constantine and Helena near Varna, at the Hotel and Congress Centre Frederic Joliot-Curie. Participants from 16 countries delivered 32 invited lectures, and 71 contributed posters were presented over three lively and well-attended evening sessions. Manuscripts submitted to the Proceedings were refereed in accordance with the guidelines of the Journal of Physics: Conference Series, and we believe the papers published herein testify to the high technical quality and diversity of contributions. A satellite meeting, Transition Metal Oxide Thin Films - Functional Layers in Smart Windows and Water Splitting Devices: Technology and Optoelectronic Properties was held in parallel with the School (http://www.inera.org, 3-6 Sept 2014). This activity, which took place under the FP7-funded project INERA, offered opportunities for crossdisciplinary discussions and exchange of ideas between both sets of participants. As always, a major factor in the success of the 18ISCMP was the social programme, headed by the organized events (Welcome and Farewell Parties) and enhanced in no small measure by a variety of pleasant local restaurants, bars and beaches. We are most grateful to staff of the Journal of Physics: Conference Series for their continued support for the School, this being the third occasion on which the Proceedings have been published under its auspices.

Dimova-Malinovska, Doriana; Genova, Julia; Nesheva, Diana; Petrov, Alexander G.; Primatarowa, Marina T.

2014-12-01

104

Anthropometric Decline of the Roman Empire? Regional differences and temporal development of the quality of nutrition in the Roman provinces of Germania and Raetia from the first century to the fourth century AD  

Microsoft Academic Search

This interdisciplinary study examines nutritional status during the antiquity namely from the first century to the fourth century AD in the North Western Roman provinces in comparison with anthropological and demographic measures. In recent research, the variation in average height is often employed as an indicator of the quality of nutrition, because biological research has shown that quantitative und qualitative

Nikola Koepke

105

76 FR 25710 - Comment Request for Information Collection for Employment and Training (ET) Handbook 336, 18th...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Collection for Employment and Training (ET) Handbook 336, 18th Edition: ``Unemployment Insurance (UI) State Quality Service Plan...data about the proposed extension to ET Handbook 336, 18th Edition: ``Unemployment Insurance (UI) State Quality Service...

2011-05-05

106

Evidence of active tectonics on a Roman aqueduct system (II-III century A.D.) near Rome, Italy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we describe evidence of strong tectonic deformation affecting two aqueducts of Roman age (II-III century A.D.). The channels are located approximately 20 km northeast of Rome along the ancient Via Tiburtina. Brittle and ductile deformation affects these two structures, including extensional joint systems, NE-oriented faults, and horizontal distortion. This deformation is consistent with right-lateral movement on major N-striking faults, and represents the first evidence that tectonic deformation took place in historical times in the vicinity of Rome, with local strike-slip movement superimposed on a regional extensional fault system.

Marra, Fabrizio; Montone, Paola; Pirro, Mario; Boschi, Enzo

2004-04-01

107

Preface: 18th Aps-Sccm and 24th Airapt  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 18th Biennial International Conference of the APS Topical Group on Shock Compression of Condensed Matter in conjunction with the 24th Biennial International Conference of the International Association for the Advancement of High Pressure Science & Technology (AIRAPT) was held at the Westin Hotel in Seattle, Washington from 7-12 July, 2013. This is only the second time that these two organizations have held a Joint Conference — the first was 20 years previous (1993) in Colorado Springs, Colorado. Seattle was chosen for this joint conference because of its central location for the world-wide attendees as well as its metropolitan vibrancy. The scientific program consisted of 858 scheduled presentations organized into 23 topical areas and included contributed (537), invited (95), and plenary (6) lectures, as well as two poster sessions with 110 posters each. The scientific focus of the Joint Conference was on fundamental and applied research topics related to the static or dynamic compression of condensed matter. This multidisciplinary field of research encompasses areas of physics, chemistry, materials science, mechanics, geophysics and planetary physics, and applied mathematics. Experimental, computational and theoretical studies all play important roles. The organizers endeavored to intertwine static and dynamic experimental alongside computational and theoretical studies of similar materials in the organization of the sessions. This goal was aided by the addition of three special focus sessions on deep carbon budget, high energy density materials, and dynamic response of materials. 722 scientists and engineers from 25 countries registered at the conference, including 132 students from 12 countries. The attendee countries represented included: Argentina (2), Australia (2), Brazil (3), Canada (25), China (22), Czech Republic (2), France (35), Germany (19), India (6), Israel (21), Italy (10), Japan (49), Netherlands (1), Poland (1), Portugal (2), Russia (26), Singapore (1), Slovakia (1), South Korea (5), Spain (7), Sweden (4), Switzerland (1), United Kingdom (69), United States of America (402). 79 of the students were supported by travel awards, funded in part by the APS Topical Group, the AIRAPT, and other sources. New for this conference was an expanded Student Program, including an all-day Student, Post-Doc, and Early Career Symposium held on Sunday 7 July . During the Conference, Gennady Kanel of the Institute for High Temperatures, Russian Academy of Sciences, was presented the 2013 George E Duval Shock Compression Science Award, and gave a plenary lecture ''Unusual behavior of usual materials in shock waves.'' Similarly, Karl Syassen of the Max Planck Institute Stuttgart received the 2013 Percy Bridgman Award at the conference, and presented a plenary lecture ''Stressed solids probed by diffraction and spectroscopy.'' In addition, there were two young investigator awards presented. First was the AIRAPT Jamieson Award, presented to Duck Young Kim of the Geophysical Laboratory, Carnegie Institution of Washington, DC. The other was a new APS SCCM Topical Group Student Award, presented to Rick Kraus of Harvard University. The two awardees shared a plenary talk slot on 8 July, with Duck Young Kim presenting ''Novel materials prediction and experimental synthesis under pressure'' and Rick Kraus ''Thermodynamic paths in planetary collisions: Shock vaporization of SiO2, MgO, and Fe.'' Details of the committees are available in the PDF

Collins, Gilbert; Moore, David S.; Yoo, Choong-Shik; Buttler, William; Furlanetto, Michael; Evans, William

2014-05-01

108

PREFACE: 18th Microscopy of Semiconducting Materials Conference (MSM XVIII)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

YRM logo This volume contains invited and contributed papers from the 18th international conference on 'Microscopy of Semiconducting Materials' held at St Catherine's College, University of Oxford, on 7-11 April 2013. The meeting was organised under the auspices of the Royal Microscopical Society and supported by the Institute of Physics as well as the Materials Research Society of the USA. This conference series deals with recent advances in semiconductor studies carried out by all forms of microscopy, with an emphasis on electron microscopy and scanning probe microscopy with high spatial resolution. This time the meeting was attended by 109 delegates from 17 countries world-wide. We were welcomed by Professor Sir Peter Hirsch, who noted that this was the first of these conferences where Professor Tony Cullis was unable to attend, owing to ill-health. During the meeting a card containing greetings from many of Tony's friends and colleagues was signed, and duly sent to Tony afterwards. As semiconductor devices shrink further new routes for device processing and characterisation need to be developed, and, for the latter, methods that offer sub-nanometre spatial resolution are particularly valuable. The various forms of imaging, diffraction and spectroscopy available in modern microscopes are powerful tools for studying the microstructure, electronic structure, chemistry and also electric fields in semiconducting materials. Recent advances in instrumentation, from lens aberration correction in both TEM and STEM instruments, to the development of a wide range of scanning probe techniques, as well as new methods of signal quantification have been presented at this conference. Two topics that have at this meeting again highlighted the interesting contributions of aberration corrected transmission electron microscopy were: contrast quantification of annular dark-field STEM images in terms of chemical composition (Z-contrast), sample thickness and strain, and the study of dislocation core structures at atomic resolution. Conference photograph Figure 1. Conference photo taken by JLH inside St Catherine's College Each of the 49 manuscripts submitted for publication in this proceedings volume has been independently reviewed, most by two reviewers, and revised where necessary before being accepted for publication. The Editors are grateful to the following colleagues for their rapid and careful reviewing of manuscripts: R Beanland, C B Boothroyd, P D Brown, D Cherns, A J Craven, K Durose, C J Humphreys, U Kaiser, L Lari, G A Moebus, A G Norman, P Pecz, I M Ross, D J Smith and K Tillmann. Poster prizes were awarded to the following students: joint first prizes to Robert Schewski, Leibniz-Institut für Kristallzüchtung, Berlin and Xiaowei Wu, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy; and joint second prizes to Tyche Perkisas, University of Antwerp and Adi Pantzer, Ben Gurion University of the Negev. These presentations indicated both a broad range of microscopy techniques and materials issues covered as well as the excellent standard of microscopy now being achieved by younger scientists. They also reflected the internationality of the attending scientists. On the evening of 9 April 2013, the RMS Annual Materials Lecture was delivered by Professor Sir Colin J Humphreys from the University of Cambridge. Colin's highly entertaining talk on 'How microscopy and semiconductors can help to solve some major world problems' spanned a very broad range, from detailed atomistic investigation of lattice defects in gallium nitride layers by transmission electron microscopy, to the production of new light emitting diodes and its impact on reducing both our electricity bills and the effect of global warming. Entertainment during the conference dinner was provided by the Ariella String Trio, and during the meal we held a friendly competition in which teams had to recognise invited speakers and organisers from photos of them as babies or young children. The organisers are very grateful to the following companies who contributed to the success of the me

Walther, T.; Hutchison, John L.

2013-11-01

109

How Galen's "sixteen books" came to China in the tenth century AD.  

PubMed

Ibn an-Nadim, the famous 10th century bookseller and bibliographer of Baghdad and author of the "Fihrist" (Catalogue), tells the story of an unnamed Chinese student who found in the library of the famous physician and philosopher ar-Razi the so-called "Sixteen Books," i.e. the Arabic summary of the most influential books written by Galen, and translated them into Chinese. We do not know if this Chinese translation was safely transported to China. PMID:15974492

Klein-Franke, Felix; Ming, Zhu

2005-01-01

110

Yersinia pestis DNA from Skeletal Remains from the 6th Century AD Reveals Insights into Justinianic Plague  

PubMed Central

Yersinia pestis, the etiologic agent of the disease plague, has been implicated in three historical pandemics. These include the third pandemic of the 19th and 20th centuries, during which plague was spread around the world, and the second pandemic of the 14th–17th centuries, which included the infamous epidemic known as the Black Death. Previous studies have confirmed that Y. pestis caused these two more recent pandemics. However, a highly spirited debate still continues as to whether Y. pestis caused the so-called Justinianic Plague of the 6th–8th centuries AD. By analyzing ancient DNA in two independent ancient DNA laboratories, we confirmed unambiguously the presence of Y. pestis DNA in human skeletal remains from an Early Medieval cemetery. In addition, we narrowed the phylogenetic position of the responsible strain down to major branch 0 on the Y. pestis phylogeny, specifically between nodes N03 and N05. Our findings confirm that Y. pestis was responsible for the Justinianic Plague, which should end the controversy regarding the etiology of this pandemic. The first genotype of a Y. pestis strain that caused the Late Antique plague provides important information about the history of the plague bacillus and suggests that the first pandemic also originated in Asia, similar to the other two plague pandemics. PMID:23658525

Harbeck, Michaela; Seifert, Lisa; Hänsch, Stephanie; Wagner, David M.; Birdsell, Dawn; Parise, Katy L.; Wiechmann, Ingrid; Grupe, Gisela; Thomas, Astrid; Keim, Paul; Zöller, Lothar; Bramanti, Barbara; Riehm, Julia M.; Scholz, Holger C.

2013-01-01

111

Bradley's Nutation, 18th-Century Analytic Argument, and the Contemporary Technical Communication Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of the more difficult elements to teach well in the introductory technical writing classroom is rhetorical form. Although textbooks have gotten much better than in the past at teaching this element, some still imply that structure is a matter of filling up a set form with content. One way to help students avoid this difficulty is to introduce…

Moran, Michael G.

112

Comparing Ground-Penetrating Radar (GPR) Techniques in 18th-Century Yard Spaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yards surrounding historical homesteads are the liminal space between private houses and public space, and contain artifactural and structural remains that help us understand how the residents interfaced with the world. Comparing different yards means collecting reliable evidence, and what is missing is just as important as what is found. Excavations can rely on randomly placed 50-cm shovel test pits

Christiane Marie Carducci

2012-01-01

113

Adaptation to Climate Change: Evidence from 18th and 19th Century Iceland  

E-print Network

, if they continue, will in turn affect human populations ­ especially poorer populations having limited access to resources and technology. The effect of climate change on human populations can be explored from many angles are likely to be significant, and also in its pre-industrial era it had a stable population with limited

Rosenthal, Jeffrey S.

114

Healing with animals in the Levant from the 10th to the 18th century  

Microsoft Academic Search

Animals and products derived from different organs of their bodies have constituted part of the inventory of medicinal substances used in various cultures since ancient times. The article reviews the history of healing with animals in the Levant (The Land of Israel and parts of present-day Syria, Lebanon, and Jordan, defined by the Muslims in the Middle Ages as Bilad

Efraim Lev

2006-01-01

115

Analysis and reconstruction of impermanent structures of the 17th and 18th centuries  

E-print Network

~ Moderately Sized, Finished limbers ~ Extensive IMck Elements ~ Eiaborahly Designed Chimneys ~ Prefabricated Elements ~ Exhnsive Use of Imparted Rsw Materials ~ High Use of Nails ~ Finished Morfise and Tenon Joints ~ High Amount of Window Glass... ~ Some Brick Elements ~ large Plain Chimneys ~ Prefebrhated Elements ~ Local and Imported Rsw Material Used ~ Moderate Use of Nails ~ Finished Marfise and Tenon Joirns ~ Moderate Amount af Itfindaw Glass ~ Some Decorakive Elements ~ fiikxhrate...

Darrington, Glenn Paul

1994-01-01

116

[Exploration of salt in Poland in the second half of the 18th century].  

PubMed

Following the First Partition in 1772, Poland lost the salt mines in Wieliczka, Bochnia and in the territory of Ruthenia to Austria. This was a serious blow to the economy, because since then, it became necessary to import salt, which was primarily taken advantage of by the Royal Prussian Maritime Trading Company (Pruska Kompania Morska) importing it from Austria. King Stanislaw August Poniatowski tried to initiate the exploration and exploitation of salt in the areas where it could be profitable. To this end, he ordered the exploration to Filip Carosi and Stanislaw Okraszewski, among other. The salt-works of the Castellan of Leukow, Jacek Jezierski in the town of Solca, in the Lqczyckie Region, active since 1780, was a private investment. Leopold von Beust's Kompania akcyjna obtained salt from a brine near the town of Busko, and Kompania z Osob Krajowych--from a brine in the town of Raczki nad Pilica. In 1782, the King appointed The Ore Commission (Komisja Kruszcowa), consisted of twelve commissioners, in order to conduct the exploration for minerals, including salt, their extraction and further administration. The Crown Treasury Commission (Komisja Skarbu Koronnego), a magistracy dealing with, among others, the economy of the country in a broad sense, was also involved in the exploration and exploatation of salt. At its command, in the summer of 1788, Tadeusz Czacki made a tour of the Kielce region in search of traces of salt. In view of the important events of the Four-Year Sejm (Sejm Czteroletni) and the subsequent loss of independence, the subject of salt exploration had to be abandoned. PMID:25675732

Danowska, Ewa

2014-01-01

117

Gestural Enthymemes: Delivering Movement in 18th- and 19th-Century Medical Images  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article contributes to recent efforts to add life and movement to rhetorical studies by focusing on the representation of movement in medical texts. More specifically, this study examines medical texts, illustrations, and photographs involving movement by Johann Casper Lavater, G. B. Duchenne de Bologne, Charles Darwin, and Etienne-Jules…

Newman, Sara

2009-01-01

118

The Teaching of Astronomy in Jesuit Colleges in the 18th century  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On the occasion of the 250th anniversary of the foundation of the astronomical observatory at the college and seminary of Nagyszombat in 1755, it may be of interest to say something about the colleges of the Society of Jesus. The presence of the Jesuits there was brief, only two decades, as under the pressure of various external forces, the Jesuit Order was suppressed by Pope Clement XIV with the bull Dominus ac Redemptor on 23 July 1773. All the colleges that the Society had been running successfully all over the world either were closed, taken over by the governments, or given to the local bishops. Shortly after the Jesuits left the college of Nagyszombat, the king transferred it to Buda, where it gave rise to modern institutions of higher education derived. When Pope Pius VII returned to Rome after the Napoleonic wars, one of the first things he did was to reestablish the Society of Jesus in 1814. Old Jesuits, survivors of so many disgraces, joined younger Jesuits from Russia and Poland where in fact the order had never been suppressed. The most important of the Jesuit colleges, the Collegium Romanum in Rome, was given back to the Society of Jesus in 1823. Many other colleges were lost forever, but new ones were founded to continue the Society's previous successful activity.

Casanovas, J.

119

The Inheritance of Longevity in a Flemish Village (18th–20th Century)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The transmission of longevityor post-reproductive survival from parents tooffspring is investigated using data ondemographic and socio-economic characteristicsof the inhabitants of a small Flemish village(Moerzeke) over a period of three hundredyears. This research confirms the possibleexistence of biological mechanisms intransmitting longevity from parent tooffspring. However, this finding can only beobserved for men and women belonging tospecific birth cohorts (mainly those men

Koen Matthijs; Bart Van de Putte; Robert Vlietinck

2002-01-01

120

H.M.S. Pallas: historical reconstruction of an 18th-century Royal Navy frigate  

E-print Network

influence upon continental Europe.1 It was during this period that England first embraced naval supremacy both for defense and as a tool of foreign policy. The period from 1650-1815 was one of intense imperial rivalry between the western European...

Flynn, Peter Erik

2006-08-16

121

Atmospheric circulation and surface temperature in Europe from the 18th century to 1995  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The relationship between surface atmospheric circulation and temperature in Europe from the 1770s to 1995 is examined using correlation analysis. The atmospheric circulation is represented by six indices: the three leading principal components (PCs) of an empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis of 20 European pressure series from 1822 to 1995, which represent the central tendency of European pressure (EOF 1), a zonal circulation pattern (EOF 2) and a meridional pattern (EOF 3), a North Atlantic zonal index constructed from Gibraltar and Reykjavik pressure series for 1821-1995; a Western European zonal index constructed from Madrid, Barcelona, Lund and Trondheim for 1786-1995; and an index constructed from Paris and London, 1774-1995. Eight long temperature series from northwestern and central Europe were correlated with these circulation indices. European temperatures in general had the highest correlations with the zonal circulation indices in winter, with almost 70% of the variability in the temperature records explained by variations in the zonal index. The correlation coefficients between PC 3 (representing meridional circulation) and temperatures were highest in spring and autumn, particularly for Scandinavia. Running correlation series calculated over 25-year windows reveal significant non-stationarities in the relationship between surface temperature and atmospheric circulation on decadal time scales, suggesting caution must be used in extrapolating current relationships between circulation and temperature for future climate predictions based on downscaling or past palaeoclimatic reconstructions.

Slonosky, V. C.; Jones, P. D.; Davies, T. D.

2001-01-01

122

VizieR Online Data Catalog: New standards in 18th century astrometry (Lequeux, 2014)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Catalogue of Flamsteed (flamstee.dat): John Flamsteed (1646-1719) was the first astronomer in charge of Greenwich Observatory. His stellar catalogue (Flamsteed 1725) was built on observations from 1675 to 1683 with a 6-feet radius sextant mounted on an axis parallel to the polar axis of the Earth, then from 1683 to 1719 with a mural circle with a radius of 79.5 inches (2m). 220 stars over 3925. Catalogue of Romer (romer.dat): Ole (or Olaus) Romer (1644-1710) is principally known for his 1676 discovery of the finite velocity of light, a discovery that he shared with Jean-Dominique Cassini. After a long stay in Paris, he returned to Copenhagen in 1681 and was appointed professor of astronomy at the University. The observatory and all the observations were destroyed in the great Copenhagen fire of 1728, with the exception of observations of 88 stars obtained during three observing nights, from 20 to 23 October 1706. La Caille's catalogue of fundamental stars (lacaifun.dat): Nicolas-Louis La Caille (or Lacaille, or de la Caille, 1713-1762) was a French astronomer who is remembered principally for his survey of the southern sky, where he introduced 14 new constellations that are still in use today. Before leaving for the Cape of Good Hope in 1750, he started a catalogue of the 400 brightest stars of both hemispheres, which he completed during his stays in Cape Town and in the Mauritius island, then after his return to Paris in 1754. He reduced the observations himself, including for the first time corrections for aberration and nutation, and published them with details of the observations and reductions (La Caille 1757). Bailly's adaptation of La Caille's catalogue of fundamental stars (bailly.dat): After the death of La Caille, Jean-Sylvain Bailly published a catalogue of the brighest stars of both hemispheres for the equinox B1750.0 in Ephemerides for 10 year from 1765 to 1775 (Anonymous (Bailly) 1763, p. lvii-lxiv). This catalogue obviously derives from the catalogue named lacaillefund.dat. La Caille's complete survey of the southern sky (lacaisur.dat): During his stay in Cape Town in 1751-1752, La Caille made the first systematic survey of the sky ever, in the modern sense. 244 stars over 9766. La Caille's catalogue of zodiacal stars (lacaizod.dat): When La Caille returned from his southern expedition in 1754, he undertook the construction of a catalogue of zodiacal stars. Mayer's zodiacal catalogue (mayer.dat): At exactly the same time as La Caille, Tobias Mayer (1723-1762) in Gottingen undertook a similar catalogue of zodiacal stars, using a 6-feet radius mural quadrant made by John Bird (1709-1776). 200 stars over 998. Bradley's stellar catalogue (bradley.dat): James Bradley (1693-1762) is famous for his discovery of aberration and nutation. From 1750 to his death in 1762, he built a large stellar catalogue, from observations first with an old mural sector and after 1753 with the Bird 8-ft mural sector located in Greenwich, where it 215 stars over 3220. Piazzi's stellar catalogue (piazzi.dat): Giuseppe Piazzi (1746-1846) built a large catalogue containing 7646 stars from 1792 to 1813, observed in Palermo with an altazimuthal circle of Jesse Ramsden (1735-1800) can still be seen. 202 stars over 7646. Lalande's stellar catalogue (lalande.dat): L'Histoire celeste francaise de Lalande (Lalande 1801), which contains the unreduced observations of approximately 40,000 stars, is the first very large stellar catalogue. 198 stars over ~45000. (10 data files).

Lequeux, J.

2014-05-01

123

Healing with animals in the Levant from the 10th to the 18th century.  

PubMed

Animals and products derived from different organs of their bodies have constituted part of the inventory of medicinal substances used in various cultures since ancient times. The article reviews the history of healing with animals in the Levant (The Land of Israel and parts of present-day Syria, Lebanon, and Jordan, defined by the Muslims in the Middle Ages as Bilad al-Sham) in the medieval and early Ottoman periods. Intensive research into the phenomenon of zootherapy in the medieval and early Ottoman Levant has yielded forty-eight substances of animal origin that were used medicinally. The vast majority of these substances were local and relatively easy to obtain. Most of the substances were domestic (honey, wax, silkworm, etc.), others were part of the local wildlife (adder, cuttle fish, flycatcher, firefly, frog, triton, scorpion, etc.), part of the usual medieval household (milk, egg, cheese, lamb, etc.), or parasites (louse, mouse, stinkbug, etc.). Fewer substances were not local but exotic, and therefore rare and expensive (beaver testicles, musk oil, coral, ambergris, etc.). The range of symptoms that the substances of animal origin were used to treat was extensive and included most of the known diseases and maladies of that era: mainly hemorrhoids, burns, impotence, wounds, and skin, eye, and stomach diseases. Changes in the moral outlook of modern societies caused the use of several substances of animal origin to cease in the course of history. These include mummy, silkworm, stinkbug, scarabees, snail, scorpion, and triton. PMID:16504024

Lev, Efraim

2006-01-01

124

Seismic and sedimentological evidence of an early 6th century AD earthquake at Lake Ohrid (Macedonia/Albania)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lake Ohrid shared by the Republics of Albania and Macedonia is formed by a tectonically active graben within the South Balkan and suggested to be the oldest lake in Europe. Several studies have shown that the lake provides a valuable record of climatic and environmental changes and a distal tephrostratigraphic record of volcanic eruptions from Italy. Fault structures identified in seismic data demonstrate that sediments have also the potential to record tectonic activity in the region. Here, we provide an example of linking tephrostratigraphic information and environmental changes with tectonic activity and anthropogenic impact. Historical documents indicate that a major earthquake destroyed the city of Ohrid in the early 6th century AD. This earthquake is documented in multichannel seismic profiles, in parametric sediment echosounder profiles, and in a ca. 10 m long sediment record from the western part of the lake. The sediment record exhibits a ca. 2 m thick mass wasting deposit, which is chronologically well constrained by the underlying 472 AD/512 AD tephra and cross correlation with other sediment sequences with similar geochemical characteristics of the Holocene.

Wagner, B.; Francke, A.; Sulpizio, R.; Zanchetta, G.; Lindhorst, K.; Krastel, S.; Vogel, H.; Daut, G.; Grazhdani, A.; Lushaj, B.; Trajanovski, S.

2012-09-01

125

Campus Activism in the 21st Century: A Historical Framing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This chapter frames campus activism by introducing the historical movements that have been important for higher education since the 18th century to the present and exploring the connections and shared characteristics among these various movements.

Broadhurst, Christopher J.

2014-01-01

126

Age-Associated Reduction in Cortical Bone in Males, Trends from the Third Century AD to the Present Day.  

PubMed

Osteoporosis is increasingly recognised as a health threat in the ageing male. Risk factors for osteoporosis appear to have increased through time. This study investigates the hypothesis that lifestyle changes (e.g. increasing sedentism, tobacco use) over the past 1,800 years have resulted in greater age-related reduction in cortical bone in males in more recent compared with earlier times in England. Skeletons (N = 215) from three English archaeological sites dating from the third to nineteenth century AD, together with comparison with a modern reference population, are used to investigate this hypothesis. Metacarpal cortical thickness is used as a measure of cortical bone status. Results of this cross-sectional study do not support the above hypothesis but instead suggest that patterns of age-related reduction in cortical bone in males have remained stable over an 1,800 year period. PMID:25673504

Mays, Simon

2015-04-01

127

Synthesis of calcium antimonate nano-crystals by the 18th dynasty Egyptian glassmakers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the 18th Egyptian dynasty (1570-1292 B.C.), opaque white, blue and turquoise glasses were opacified by calcium antimonate crystals dispersed in a vitreous matrix. The technological processes as well as the antimony sources used to manufacture these crystals remain unknown. Our results shed a new light on glassmaking history: contrary to what was thought, we demonstrate that Egyptian glassmakers did not use in situ crystallization but first synthesized calcium antimonate opacifiers, which do not exist in nature, and then added them to a glass. Furthermore, using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) for the first time in the study of Egyptian opaque glasses, we show that these opacifiers were nano-crystals. Prior to this research, such a process for glassmaking has not been suggested for any kind of ancient opaque glass production. Studying various preparation methods for calcium antimonate, we propose that Egyptian craftsmen could have produced Ca2Sb2O7 by using mixtures of Sb2O3 or Sb2O5 with calcium carbonates (atomic ratio Sb/Ca=1) heat treated between 1000 and 1100°C. We developed an original strategy focused on the investigation of the crystals and the vitreous matrices using an appropriate suite of high-sensitivity and high-resolution micro- and nano-analytical techniques (scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), TEM). Synchrotron-based micro X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (?-XANES) proved to be very well suited to the selective measure of the antimony oxidation state in the vitreous matrix. This work is the starting point for a complete reassessment not only of ancient Egyptian glass studies but more generally of high-temperature technologies used throughout antiquity.

Lahlil, S.; Biron, I.; Cotte, M.; Susini, J.; Menguy, N.

2010-01-01

128

Bone Lose of the Ancient Mediterranean lumbar vertebrae : Iasos, 6th century ad.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Evaluation of bone mineral density (BMD) of the ancient peoples has received great interest by anthropologists. The aims of this study are to investigate the lumbar vertebrae of the Iasos people during the Byzantine period, in order to determine the prevalence of bone loss and to interpret dietary conditions of ancient Mediterranean populations. Lumbar vertebrae belonging to twenty eight skeletons of the 6th c AD were analyzed by radiographs and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. The BMD values for each biologic sex and age group were compared. The correlation between the BMD and radiological features was also analyzed. The mean BMD was 0.940 g/cm2. BMD was decreased by aging in both sexes, but it was not significant. Osteopenia was found in 11 (39%) and osteoporosis in 4 (14.3%) out 28 vertebrae. The BMD was normal in 13 (46%) out of 28 vertebrae. Osteopenia was present in 7 (38%) of 18 male vertebrae and 4 (40%) of 10 female vertebrae. The spine score was high in the male group and there was a strong positive correlation between the BMD and spine score for both sexes. This study revealed that the BMD decreased by aging and that osteopenia was a problem in both sexes of the Iasos people during the 6th c AD. There was no correlation between the BMD and radiological features for age groups and biological sexes.

Kaya, Serdar; Solmaz, Ilker; Il?ca, A. Turan; Karaçal?o?lu, Özgür; Damla Y?lmaz, Nalan; Ba?o?lu, Ok?an; K?l?c, Selim; Izci, Yusuf

129

Late-twentieth-century warming in Lake Tanganyika unprecedented since AD 500  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Instrumental observations suggest that Lake Tanganyika, the largest rift lake in East Africa, has become warmer, increasingly stratified and less productive over the past 90years (refs 1,2). These trends have been attributed to anthropogenic climate change. However, it remains unclear whether the decrease in productivity is linked to the temperature rise, and whether the twentieth-century trends are anomalous within the context of longer-term variability. Here, we use the TEX86 temperature proxy, the weight per cent of biogenic silica and charcoal abundance from Lake Tanganyika sediment cores to reconstruct lake-surface temperature, productivity and regional wildfire frequency, respectively, for the past 1,500years. We detect a negative correlation between lake-surface temperature and primary productivity, and our estimates of fire frequency, and hence humidity, preclude decreased nutrient input through runoff as a cause for observed periods of low productivity. We suggest that, throughout the past 1,500years, rising lake-surface temperatures increased the stratification of the lake water column, preventing nutrient recharge from below and limiting primary productivity. Our records indicate that changes in the temperature of Lake Tanganyika in the past few decades exceed previous natural variability. We conclude that these unprecedented temperatures and a corresponding decrease in productivity can be attributed to anthropogenic global warming, with potentially important implications for the Lake Tanganyika fishery.

Tierney, Jessica E.; Mayes, Marc T.; Meyer, Natacha; Johnson, Christopher; Swarzenski, Peter W.; Cohen, Andrew S.; Russell, James M.

2010-06-01

130

Hydraulics for Royal Gardens: Water Art as a Challenge for 18th Century Science and 21st Century Physics Teaching  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Hydraulics is an engineering specialty and largely neglected as a topic in physics teaching. But the history of hydraulics from the Renaissance to the Baroque, merits our attention because hydraulics was then more broadly conceived as a practical "and" theoretical science; it served as a constant bone of contention for mechanics and…

Eckert, Michael

2007-01-01

131

Multiple sclerosis or neuromyelitis optica? Re-evaluating an 18th-century illness using 21st-century software.  

PubMed

In this paper we report the application of an extensive database of symptoms, signs, laboratory findings and illnesses, to the diagnosis of an historical figure. The medical diagnosis of Augustus d'Este (1794-1848) - widely held to be the first documented case of multiple sclerosis - is reviewed, using the detailed symptom diary, which he kept over many years, as clinical data. Some of the reported features prompted the competing claim that d'Este suffered from acute porphyria, which in turn was used in support of the hypothesis that his grandfather, King George III, also suffered from the disease. We find that multiple sclerosis is statistically the most likely diagnosis, with neuromyelitis optica a strong alternative possibility. The database did not support a diagnosis of any of the acute porphyrias. PMID:22299068

Garrard, Peter; Peters, Timothy J

2012-01-01

132

SFWR ENG 3GB3: Basic Game Physics Due on Thursday Sept. 18th  

E-print Network

SFWR ENG 3GB3: Basic Game Physics Due on Thursday Sept. 18th Dr. Jacques Carette Idea You started with is provided. Physics · Object is a non-rotating object of a particular 'simple' shape of a brick; if it resembles a baseball, use the mass of a baseball; etc. Submission Requirements · README

Carette, Jacques

133

Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, Paris 2013  

E-print Network

743 Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, considering soil hydraulic conductivity. The models deal with erosion of levees, dams and embankments due centrifuge have been used to calibrate the models. Previous models did not consider soil hydraulic

Franklin, W. Randolph

134

MOSQUITO VECTOR CONTROL AND BIOLOGY IN LATIN AMERICA- An 18TH SYMPOSIUM  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The 18th Annual Latin American symposium presented by the American Mosquito Control Association (AMCA) was held as part of the 74th Annual Meeting in Sparks, NV, in March 2008. The principal objective, as for the previous 17 symposia, was to promote participation in the AMCA by vector control speci...

135

Pacific Telecommunications Council Annual Conference Proceedings (18th, Honolulu, Hawaii, January 14-18, 1996).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Pacific Telecommunications Council's 18th annual conference is presented in two volumes. The PTC'96 gathering focused on seven streams: socio-economic issues; regulatory, legal and political issues; business and finance solutions; country studies; education, training, and human resources; convergence and networks; and technologies and…

Wedemeyer, Dan J. Ed.; Nickelson, Richard, Ed.

136

18th International Lightning Detection Conference 7 to 9 June 2004 Helsinki, Finland  

E-print Network

ILDC 2004 18th International Lightning Detection Conference 7 to 9 June 2004 Helsinki, Finland www.vaisala.com/ILDC2004 REF. NO. 4 UPGRADE AND EVALUATION OF A LIGHTNING DETECTION SYSTEM Hans Beekhuis Iwan Holleman ..................................................................................................................... 5 2.3 The KNMI HDF5 Lightning format

Stoffelen, Ad

137

Bayesian modelling of an absolute chronology for Egypt's 18th Dynasty by astrophysical and radiocarbon methods  

E-print Network

1 Bayesian modelling of an absolute chronology for Egypt's 18th Dynasty by astrophysical Egyptology, the establishment of an absolute chronology for Ancient Egypt has been an ambition which has contained lists of the kings who reigned in Egypt. The Palermo Stone, the Abydos reliefs and the Turin Canon

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

138

Vaccines: the Fourth Century?  

PubMed Central

Vaccine development, which began with Edward Jenner's observations in the late 18th century, has entered its 4th century. From its beginnings, with the use of whole organisms that had been weakened or inactivated, to the modern-day use of genetic engineering, it has taken advantage of the tools discovered in other branches of microbiology. Numerous successful vaccines are in use, but the list of diseases for which vaccines do not exist is long. However, the multiplicity of strategies now available, discussed in this article, portends even more successful development of vaccines. PMID:19793898

Plotkin, Stanley A.

2009-01-01

139

Technological Characterization of Wall Paintings from the A Mithraic Tomb Dated to 4th-5th Century AD, Gargaresc, Libya  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The excavations of Gargaresc started in 1965 and were one of the most important archaeological sites in Tripoli because it includes a period of about 500 years starting from the 1stc. AD was and continuing until the 5th century AD. The Mithraic tomb is one of the most important outlying monuments of Oea, 200 yards south of the western end of Gargaresc oasis, on the left of the Tripoli-Zuara road between kilometers 5 & 6. The tomb is cut in an outcrop of soft sandstone. The wall paintings found were symbolic to the religion of that period; which contained a mixture of older religions and Christian, and presented the interaction between the artistic and religious elements of that time. Several optical, chemical and mineralogical methods were applied to identify the materials, composition and technology of the plasters and mortars, as well as, the pigments used in the tomb. These are: -OP: Optical microscopy was used as the initial examination of polished cross-sections to identify the structure and microstratigraphy of the plasters and mortars as well as the painted layers. -MCT: Micro-chemical tests were used to identify the type of the plasters and mortars- calcium aluminium silicate and water-soluble salt to identify sulphates, chlorides, carbonates, nitrites and nitrates. -SM: Standard methods for chemical analysis to identify the quantitative and qualitative nature of the plasters and mortars and their mixture. -SEM & EDS: Analytical Scanning electron microscope with energy dispersive x-ray analysis system to examine the micrmorphology and determine the chemical composition of the plasters, pigments and the inclusions. -XRD: X-ray powder diffraction to identify the mineralogical composition of the plasters, mortars and pigments. On the bases of all the data obtained, it was possible to establish the nature of the plasters, mortars and their binder. The examination and analysis gave a full picture about the materials and the approximate ratio of amount of additives to lime used for making the mortars and plasters. In addition the results showed the stratigraphy of the various layers applied. The lime plasters and mortars contained apart from lime as binder quartz grains, charcoal, ironstone, brick and some other inclusions. Furthermore the mineralogical analysis provided information on the main mineralogical phases present in the plasters and pigments. The use of gypsum was detected in some cases but it was identified as a result of conservation. The analytical results provided also information on the deterioration factors and alterations that have affected the materials of the wall paintings and present quite interesting challenges for conservation science.

Abd El Salam, S.; Maniatis, Y.

2009-04-01

140

MATERIALS EDUCATION FOR THE CENTURY WORKFORCE  

E-print Network

, III, Lehigh University 9:40AM "Developments in Graduate Education in Materials Science and Engineering;12:30PM Luncheon John Hopps, Deputy Under Secretary of Defense INFORMAL EDUCATION 2:00PM "IncreasingMATERIALS EDUCATION FOR THE 21ST CENTURY WORKFORCE The 18th Biennial Conference on National

Rubloff, Gary W.

141

Forming, transfer and globalization of medical-pharmaceutical knowledge in south east Asian missions (17th to 18th c.) - historical dimensions and modern perspectives.  

PubMed

From the 17th to the 18th centuries, missionaries in Southeast Asia dedicated themselves to providing and establishing a professional medical-pharmaceutical supply for the local population and therefore explored the genuine Materia medica for easily available and affordable remedies, especially medicinal plants. In characteristic medical-pharmaceutical compendia, which can be classified as missionary pharmacopoeias, they laid down their knowledge to advise others and to guarantee a professional health care. As their knowledge often resulted from an exchange with indigenous communities, these compendia provide essential information about traditional plant uses of Southeast Asian people. Individual missionaries such as the Jesuit Georg Joseph Kamel (1661-1706) not only strove to explore medicinal plants but performed botanical studies and even composed comprehensive herbals. The Jesuit missionaries in particular played roles in both the order's own global network of transfer of medicinal drugs and knowledge about the application, and within the contemporary local and European scientific networks which included, for example, the famous Royal Society of London. The results of their studies were distributed all over the world, were introduced into the practical Materia medica of other regions, and contributed significantly to the academization of knowledge. In our article we will explain the different intentions and methods of exploring, the resulting works and the consequences for the forming of the pharmaceutical and scientific knowledge. Finally, we will show the options which the works of the missionaries can offer for the saving of traditional ethnopharmacological knowledge and for the development of modern phytotherapeutics and pharmaceutical supply. The publication is based on a comprehensive study on the phenomenon of missionary pharmacy which has been published as a book in 2011 (Anagnostou, 2011a) and shows now the potential of historical medical-pharmaceutical works written in the Asian missions of the 17th to 18th century and influenced by ethnopharmaceutical knowledge and the relevance of historical studies for modern investigation in phytotherapy. PMID:25446634

Anagnostou, Sabine

2014-10-29

142

Treatment of the mentally ill in the Chola Empire in 11th -12th centuries AD: A study of epigraphs  

PubMed Central

The paper deals with the epigraphs of the Chola emperors Veera Rajendra Deva (1063-1069 AD) and Raja Raja III (1216-1256 AD), found at the temples of Thirumukkudal and Vedaranyam, with emphasis on the treatment given to the residents of the attached hospitals with special reference to treatment of mental disorders. PMID:24891715

Raghavan, D. Vijaya; Tejus Murthy, A. G.; Somasundaram, O.

2014-01-01

143

Finding Scotland - An Android application to analyse historical change from 19th century until today for Scotland   

E-print Network

Historical Maps are the sources of geographical information of a place at a given period of time. They are highly useful documents which pictorially displays the topography of a place. Beyond 18th century maps are highly ...

Devra, Astha

2011-01-01

144

Proceedings of the 18th Annual Conference on Fossil Energy Materials.  

SciTech Connect

The 18th Annual conference on Fossil Energy Materials was held in Knoxville, Tennessee, on June 2 through June 4, 2004. The meeting was sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy through the Advanced Research Materials Program (ARM). The objective of the ARM Program is to conduct research and development on materials for longer-term fossil energy applications, as well as for generic needs of various fossil fuel technologies. The management of the program has been decentralized to the DOE Oak Ridge Operations Office and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The research is performed by staff members at ORNL and by researchers at other national laboratories, universities, and in private industry. The work is divided into the following categories: (1) structural, ceramics, (2) new alloys and coatings, (3) functional materials, and (4) technology development and transfer.

Judkins, RR

2004-11-02

145

The 18th Congress of the International Society for Aerosols in Medicine.  

PubMed

The 18th biennial Congress of ISAM was held for 4 days at the De Doelen Congress Centre, Rotterdam, Netherlands, at which approximately 350 delegates, including 60 session chairs and speakers, attended. The abstracts of the 49 podium talks and the 126 posters that were presented have been published in the society's technical journal (journal of Aerosol Medicine and Pulmonary Delivery), and the detailed program can be found on the ISAM website (www.isam.org). Postgraduate courses on the topics: 'Inhalation Therapy at the Intensive Care Unit'; 'Walking the Standards Maze: Standards for Device Development, Device Performance and Regulatory Approval'; and 'Nuts and Bolts of Aerosol Delivery: Theory, Guidelines and Practice', were offered to participants prior to the Congress itself. PMID:22833908

Mitchell, Jolyon P; Nichols, Steven C

2011-09-01

146

Preliminary Report of the AMS analysis of tsunami deposits in Tohoku -- Japan -- 18th to the 21st Century  

E-print Network

Sedimentary records of tsunamis are a precious tool to assess the occurrence of past events, as attested by an abundant literature, which has seen a particular 'boom' in the aftermath of the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami and the 2011 Tohoku tsunami. Despite an extensive literature, there is very little to no understanding of the role that the changing coastal environment is playing on the record of a tsunami, and for a given location, it is still unclear whether the largest tsunamis leave the largest amount of deposits. To research this question, the present study took place in Japan, in the Tohoku Region at Agawa-pond, because the pond act as a sediment trap. Using a sediment-slicer, a 1 m thick deposit was retrieved, from which 4 tsunami sequences were identified, including the latest 2011 tsunami. Using a series of sedimentary proxies: the AMS (Anisotropy of Magnetic Susceptibility), grain size analysis, quartz morphoscopy (morphology and surface characteristics) and the analysis of microfossils, disparities b...

Wassmer, P; Hart, D E; Hiraishi, T; Azuma, R; Koenig, B; Trautmann, M

2015-01-01

147

Towards a daily weather type classification for the alpine region back to the late 18th century  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synoptic weather type classifications for the alpine region go back to the 1950s. The aim of such a combination of various meteorological elements over a certain area is to better understand atmospheric circulation and weather events and to provide a basis for long-term weather forecasts. For the analyses of climate change an investigation of a change in the atmospheric circulation

R. Kocen; S. Brönnimann; L. Breda; R. Spadin

2010-01-01

148

21H.433 The Age of Reason: Europe in the 18th and 19th Centuries, Spring 2005  

E-print Network

Has there ever been an "Age of Reason?" In the western tradition, one might make claims for various moments during Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and the Renaissance. In this class, however, we will focus on the two and a ...

Ravel, Jeffrey S.

149

Ballistic blocks around K?lauea Caldera: Their vent locations and number of eruptions in the late 18th century  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Thousands of ballistic blocks occur around K?lauea Caldera and record part of the latest major period of explosive activity on the volcano, in late 1790 or within a few years thereafter. The sizes of the blocks – the largest of which is more than 2 m in nominal diameter – and differences in rock types allow the definition of at least 6 dispersal lobes of mostly undetermined relative age. The orientations of the lobes help approximate the locations of vents or explosion sources on the floor of the caldera, now deeply buried by younger lava flows. The vents may have been distributed northward for about 2 km from near the site of the modern Halema'uma'u Crater and were apparently confined to the western half of the caldera. The blocks are entirely lithic except for those in one dispersal lobe, which contains cored bombs and blocks as well as juvenile lapilli. Eruption parameters calculated from EJECT! suggest that the phreatic and phreatomagmatic explosions could have been generated at the water table, about 600 m below the high point on the caldera rim.

Swanson, Donald A.; Zolkos, Scott P.; Haravitch, Ben

2012-01-01

150

Chemistry Everywhere. The 18th Biennial Conference on Chemical Education, Iowa State University, July 18-22, 2004  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article provides an overview of the upcoming 18th Biennial Conference on Chemical Education (BCCE) to be held on the campus of Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa, July 18-22, 2004. The report includes details of conference registration, campus housing, campus dining, off-campus housing, tours, social activities, plenary speakers, the conference banquet, travel, and Sci-Mix. The 18th BCCE is using an online abstract submission system, registration and campus housing, and campus dining system. Everything about the conference can be found at the conference Web site (accessed Mar 2004).

Burke, K. A.; Freilich, Mark; Greenbowe, Thomas J.; Harwood, William S.

2004-04-01

151

The construction of fertility in al-Andalus. Geoarchaeology in Ricote (Murcia, Spain, 8th century AD)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Traditional irrigated terraces of Spain (known as 'huertas') are among the most emblematic and productive agricultural fields of the Mediterranean. Several of these huertas were first built by Arab and Berber tribes and clans that entered the Iberian Peninsula (al-Andalus) after 711 AD, coinciding with the spread of Islam during Middle Ages (>632 AD). One thousand and three hundred years after their construction they are still operative, presenting a topic case of sustainable and resilient agricultural areas. However, up until recently no data was available regarding the pre-existing features of the terrains where they were built, the timing of their construction nor their construction process. In this communication I will present the results of the study of a palaeosoil buried under an Andalusi irrigated terrace in the huerta of Ricote (Murcia, Spain). Soil micromorphology, physico-chemical analysis (Loss On Ignition, Magnetic Susceptibility, Particle Size Distribution, pH/Electrical Conductivity) and AMS dating allowed to determine that 1) Andalusi peasants selected a highly saline Hypercalcic Calcisol to build up the first irrigated terraces; 2) They clear the slope of bushes by fire; 3) They used the slope soil to build the terrace fill, possibly by inverting the original soil horizonation, and 4) According to the date obtained from the organic matter embedded in the topmost horizon of the palaeosoil (647-778 AD), the original Andalusi irrigated fields of Ricote were possibly built shortly after 711 AD. The communication, in sum, will show through a case study how past peasant societies transformed semi-arid environments to create highly productive agrarian areas.

Puy, Arnald

2013-04-01

152

Unprecedented low twentieth century winter sea ice extent in the Western Nordic Seas since A.D. 1200  

Microsoft Academic Search

We reconstructed decadal to centennial variability of maximum sea ice extent in the Western Nordic Seas for A.D. 1200–1997\\u000a using a combination of a regional tree-ring chronology from the timberline area in Fennoscandia and ?18O from the Lomonosovfonna ice core in Svalbard. The reconstruction successfully explained 59% of the variance in sea ice extent\\u000a based on the calibration period 1864–1997.

M. Macias Fauria; A. Grinsted; S. Helama; J. Moore; M. Timonen; T. Martma; E. Isaksson; M. Eronen

2010-01-01

153

Cancer and its Treatment in Main Ancient Books of Islamic Iranian Traditional Medicine (7th to 14th Century AD)  

PubMed Central

Abstract Islamic medicine is regarded as a comprehensive medical school with a long, glorious and worldwide reputation. Some of the physicians of this school are famous worldwide and have contributed valuable services to the scientific world. Given the dramatically increasing prevalence of cancer and the relative inefficacy of current medications, there is a great demand for the introduction of effective therapeutic approaches. To this end, integration of traditional medicine with modern medical treatments represents a promising option. In this essay, methods of diagnosis and treatment of cancer have been mentioned from the viewpoint of five famous physicians before the Mongolian attack who used Islamic medicine, namely Rhazes, Akhaveyni, Ahwazi, Avicenna and Jorjani. The ideas discussed dates back to a period between the eighth and fourteenth centuries. PMID:23482830

Emami, Seyed Ahmad; Sahebkar, Amirhossein; Tayarani-Najaran, Nilufar; Tayarani-Najaran, Zahra

2012-01-01

154

Obsessions from the past: a study of the chapter on "blasphemous thoughts" in "The Ladder of Divine Ascent" (7th century AD).  

PubMed

In this study, we examine the similarities and the differences between obsessions and the phenomena described in religious language as "blasphemous thoughts". The basis of our study is an ascetic text of the 7th century AD, entitled "The Ladder of Divine Ascent", written by Saint John Climacus (ca. 579-649), abbot of St. Catherine Monastery, Sinai. The book is considered to be one of the fundamental sources of monastic literature, which has influenced Christian anthropology. Research on the "Ladder" gives an insight in where the religious and the psychiatric pathogenic, diagnostic and therapeutic approaches converge or diverge. In addition to the scientific value, the data derived from the research could be useful to the therapist, especially when he/she copes with religious patients, in order to acquire a better empathy and thus lesser the patient's resistance toward therapy. PMID:24309880

Avgoustidis, Adamantios G

2013-12-01

155

WYGIWYS! ! Antony Unwin! Oxford, 18th/25th February 2010 What You Get Is What You See  

E-print Network

! Oxford, 18th/25th February 2010 Examples from R · Aspirin · Anorexia · Divorce · Lanza · Sexual Fun Plusth February 2010 Aspirin (HSAUR2) Efficacy of Aspirin in preventing death after a myocardial infarct number subjects treated with placebo da number of deaths after Aspirin ta total number of subjects

Goldschmidt, Christina

156

Pakistan's health system: performance and prospects after the 18th Constitutional Amendment.  

PubMed

Pakistan has undergone massive changes in its federal structure under the 18th Constitutional Amendment. To gain insights that will inform reform plans, we assessed several aspects of health-systems performance in Pakistan. Some improvements were noted in health-systems performance during the past 65 years but key health indicators lag behind those in peer countries. 78·08% of the population pay out of pocket at the point of health care. The private sector provides three-quarters of the health services, and physicians outnumber nurses and midwives by a ratio of about 2:1. Complex governance challenges and underinvestment in health have hampered progress. With devolution of the health mandate, an opportunity has arisen to reform health. The federal government has constitutional responsibility of health information, interprovincial coordination, global health, and health regulation. All other health responsibilities are a provincial mandate. With appropriate policy, institutional, and legislative action within and outside the health system, the existing challenges could be overcome. PMID:23684254

Nishtar, Sania; Boerma, Ties; Amjad, Sohail; Alam, Ali Yawar; Khalid, Faraz; ul Haq, Ihsan; Mirza, Yasir A

2013-06-22

157

Pre-Columbian treponemal disease from 14th century AD Safed, Israel, and implications for the medieval eastern Mediterranean.  

PubMed

In 1912, 68 medieval crania were excavated from a cave at Safed in the eastern Mediterranean and brought to the United Kingdom. It is only recently that these skulls have been studied for evidence of disease. One adult individual demonstrates multiple lesions of the cranial vault, compatible with treponematosis. Radiocarbon dating suggests the year of death to be between 1290-1420 AD. This range equates to the mamluk period, just after the crusades. This is the oldest dated case of treponematosis in the Middle East, and the first to confirm its presence there before the epidemiologically important transatlantic voyage of Christopher Columbus. The finding has significant implications for our understanding of the introduction of the disease to the Middle East and of the medieval diagnosis of ulcerating skin conditions by medical practitioners in the Mediterranean world. PMID:12740955

Mitchell, Piers D

2003-06-01

158

A ring-width-based reconstruction of June-July minimum temperatures since AD 1245 from white spruce stands in the Mackenzie Delta region, northwestern Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a reconstruction of June-July minimum temperatures since AD 1245 for the Mackenzie Delta region based on a 29-site network of white spruce (Picea glauca) ring-width series. Most but not all trees experienced a divergent temperature-growth response, similar to the divergence that has affected other white spruce trees across Yukon and Alaska. However, divergence in the study region began as early as AD 1900 and we have documented our methods to avoid including divergent signals in the reconstruction. Calibration/verification testing based on local temperature data, and multi-century coherence with nearby and large-scale temperature proxy records, confirm that our reconstruction is robust. The reconstruction shows cool conditions in the late 13th, early 18th and early 19th centuries, corresponding with solar minima and increased volcanism. These cool periods are interrupted by warm periods consistent with early to mid-20th century warmth. The late 20th century is the warmest interval, and the last decade is estimated to be 1.4°C warmer than any decade before the mid-20th century. The reconstructed climate history corroborates other proxy-based inferences and supports the notion that high-latitude regions such as the Mackenzie Delta have experienced rapid warming in recent decades that is exceptional in the last eight centuries.

Porter, Trevor J.; Pisaric, Michael F. J.; Kokelj, Steven V.; deMontigny, Peter

2013-09-01

159

Satirizing Women's Speech in Eighteenth-Century England.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the 18th-century rhetorical convention of misogynist satire and how it shaped attitudes toward women speakers. Focuses not so much on the formal properties of the satire but on its convention and content as modes of insinuation. Surveys prominent journals, newspapers, magazines, and reviews of the period. (TB)

Browne, Stephen H.

1992-01-01

160

Political Life in Eighteenth-Century Virginia. Essays from Colonial Williamsburg. The Foundations of America.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book explores the history of the Virginia colony from the early 18th century to the time of the signing of the Declaration of Independence. Virginia, the oldest and most prosperous of Great Britain's North American colonies, assumed a leading role in the political life of the colonies. Some in 17th century Virginia had seen political…

Greene, Jack P.

161

Strangers, the Aleut Side: The Aleuts of the Eighteenth Century, Social Studies Unit, Book Ia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this story, a young Aleutian man relates his impressions about the arrival of the first Russian explorers on the Aleutian Islands in the 18th century. The story is to be used as part of the social studies unit, The Aleuts of the Eighteenth Century, to show the Aleutian perspective on the event. The narrator tells of the arrival of a strange…

Partnow, Patricia H.

162

As the Europeans Saw Them: The Aleuts of the Eighteenth Century, Social Studies Unit, Book II.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet is intended for use as reading material for the social studies unit, The Aleuts of the Eighteenth Century. Excerpts from journals of seven 18th-century explorers or travelers describe the inhabitants of the Aleutian Islands. The accounts have been translated from original notes kept by members of the Russian navy, ship commanders, a…

Partnow, Patricia H., Comp.

163

18th World Conference on Nondestructive Testing, 16-20 April 2012, Durban, South Africa Multidomain modelling of the magneto-mechanical behaviour of dual-  

E-print Network

18th World Conference on Nondestructive Testing, 16-20 April 2012, Durban, South Africa Multidomain2012 Author manuscript, published in "18th World Conference on Nondestructive Testing, Durban : South.g. temperature of ovens). ArcelorMittal plans to set up a non-destructive monitoring technique to evaluate

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

164

Evaluation of elemental status of ancient human bone samples from Northeastern Hungary dated to the 10th century AD by XRF  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present study is a multielemental analysis of bone samples belonging to skeletal individuals originating from two contemporaneous (10th century AD) cemeteries (Tiszavasvári Nagy-Gyepáros and Nagycserkesz-Nádasibokor sites) in Northeastern Hungary, using the XRF analytical technique. Emitted X-rays were detected in order to determine the elemental composition of bones and to appreciate the possible influence of the burial environment on the elemental content of the human skeletal remains. Lumbar vertebral bodies were used for analysis. Applying the ED(P)XRF technique concentration of the following elements were determined: P, Ca, K, Na, Mg, Al, Cl, Mn, Fe, Zn, Br and Sr. The results indicated post mortem mineral exchange between the burial environment (soil) and bones (e.g. the enhanced levels of Fe and Mn) and referred to diagenetic alteration processes during burials. However, other elements such as Zn, Sr and Br seemed to be accumulated during the past life. On the basis of statistical analysis, clear separation could not be observed between the two excavation sites in their bone elemental concentrations which denoted similar diagenetic influences, environmental conditions. The enhanced levels of Sr might be connected with the past dietary habits, especially consumption of plant food.

János, I.; Szathmáry, L.; Nádas, E.; Béni, A.; Dinya, Z.; Máthé, E.

2011-11-01

165

Artificially deformed crania from the Hun-Germanic Period (5th-6th century ad) in northeastern Hungary: historical and morphological analysis.  

PubMed

From an anthropological point of view, artificial deformation of the cranial shape in newborns is one of the most interesting human customs, which has been recorded in all continents and in different cultures. However, the main goals of this procedure were basically the same everywhere; that is, to distinguish certain groups of people from others and to indicate the social status of individuals. In the Carpathian Basin all artificially deformed skulls are dated to the late Iron Age, especially to the early Migration Period. The authors examined 9 artificially deformed skulls from the Hun-Germanic Period (5th-6th century ad) excavated from two cemeteries in the northeastern part of the Great Hungarian Plain (Hungary). The extent and the type of the deformation as well as the technique were determined in each case. The authors also attempt to shed light on the probable origin and the historical context of the custom practiced in the Carpathian Basin (Hungary), relying on the anthropological and historical literature on the Hun-Germanic and preceding periods. It seems possible that this custom, which is associated with the finds in the Carpathian Basin, first appeared in the Kalmykia steppe, later in the Crimea, from where it spread to Central and Western Europe by way of the Hun migration. Neither the cranial find described presently nor the special literature on the subject furnish convincing evidence that the cranial deformation resulted in any chronic neurological disorder. PMID:24684322

Molnár, Mónika; János, István; Sz?cs, László; Szathmáry, László

2014-04-01

166

Integrating Women into U.S. History: A Sourcebook. Part I: Women in the 18th and 19th Centuries. Part II: Women in the 20th Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This sourcebook, in two parts, aims at supplementing the limited material dealing with women's history normally found in junior and senior high school U.S. history textbooks. The lessons were developed by teachers at an intensive summer institute dealing with women's issues. The teachers and their colleagues field-tested the lessons and revised…

Campbell, D'Ann; And Others

167

History of the Balkans: Twentieth Century. Volume 2. The Joint Committee on Eastern Europe Publication Series. No. 12.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Principal issues in the 20th century development of the Balkan Peninsula are discussed in this introductory history text. Three themes--national rivalries, great power interference, and the economic, social, and political problems of modernization--are given special emphasis. An overview of 18th and 19th century history precedes the two major…

Jelavich, Barbara

168

Long-term variability of storm surge frequency in the Venice Lagoon: an update thanks to eighteenth century sea level observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sea level observations made in the Venice Lagoon between 1751 and 1792 have been recovered, consisting of two time series of daily data on high and low waters at Venice and Chioggia. From comparisons with modern observations the quality of the 18th century data appears to be good enough to allow a useful analysis. A composite time series of daily mean sea level is obtained by merging the 18th century data and 1872-2004 observations at Venice Punta della Salute. The absence of reliable information on vertical references prevents the connection of the two 18th century time series with each other and with modern observations. However, daily sea level anomalies relative to the mean sea level enable to recognize storm surge events, that appear to occur more frequently in the second half of the 18th century than in the late 19th and 20th centuries, particularly during the 1751-1769 period. The record-breaking storm surge of 4 November 1966 turns out to be a remarkable event also in comparison with the events extracted from the 18th century time series. Further work is required to fill the gap between the old and modern observations.

Raicich, F.

2014-12-01

169

The Aleuts of the Eighteenth Century. Social Studies Unit for Junior High School. Teacher's Manual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This teaching guide presents lessons for a social studies unit dealing with 18th century culture of the inhabitants of the Aleutian Islands. The unit is designed for intermediate and junior-high school students. Rather than providing a predigested picture of Aleut culture, the unit presents remaining evidence of that culture. Students reconstruct…

Partnow, Patricia H.

170

Settlement history and sustainability in the Carpathians in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of a historical study of the Carpathian ecoregion, to identify salient features of the changing human geography, this paper deals with the 18th and 19th centuries when there was a large measure political unity arising from the expansion of the Habsburg Empire. In addition to a growth of population, economic expansion - particularly in the railway age -

David Turnock

2005-01-01

171

Luigi Galvani and animal electricity: two centuries after the foundation of electrophysiology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Luigi Galvani and his famous experiments on frogs carried out in the second half of the 18th century belong more to legend than to the history of science. Galvani not only laid the foundations of a new science, electrophysiology, but also opened the way for the invention of the electric battery, and thus for the development of the physical investigations

Marco Piccolino

1997-01-01

172

On-site Raman analysis of Ktahya potteries (17-centuries) at The Muse national de  

E-print Network

fritwares hal-00120410,version1-14Dec2006 Author manuscript, published in "Journal of Raman Spectroscopy 36 have previously demonstrated the potential of Raman spectroscopy as a non-destructive on-site technique- 1 - On-site Raman analysis of Kütahya potteries (17- 18th centuries) at The Musée national de

173

Authenticity and adulteration: What materials were 19th century artists really using?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Documentary sources from the 18th and 19th century indicate that the practice of adulterating consumer goods was widespread. Ample evidence in artists’ manuals, treatises and handbooks as well as contemporary encyclopedias exists to suggest that artists’ materials were not exempt from such fraudulent practices. Pigments, oil, and resins were all reported to have been subject to significant adulteration as well

Leslie Carlyle

1993-01-01

174

18th International Conference on Microwave, Radar and Wireless Communications MIKON-2010, June 14-16 Numerical Modeling in Wave Scattering Problem for  

E-print Network

#12;#12;#12;18th International Conference on Microwave, Radar and Wireless Communications MIKON simulation show good agreement with the theory. They open a way to numerical simulation of the method for S -matrix for acoustic and electromagnetic wave scattering by small bodies are derived. The proposed

175

The initial giant umbrella cloud of the May 18th, 1980, explosive eruption of Mount St. Helens  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The initial eruption column of May 18th, 1980 reached nearly 30 km altitude and released 1017 joules of thermal energy into the atmosphere in only a few minutes. Ascent of the cloud resulted in forced intrusion of a giant umbrella-shaped cloud between altitudes of 10 and 20 km at radial horizontal velocities initially in excess of 50 m/s. The mushroom cloud expanded 15 km upwind, forming a stagnation point where the radial expansion velocity and wind velocity were equal. The cloud was initiated when the pyroclastic blast flow became buoyant. The flow reduced its density as it moved away from the volcano by decompression, by sedimentation, and by mixing with and heating the surrounding air. Observations indicate that much of the flow, covering an area of 600 km2, became buoyant within 1.5 minutes and abruptly ascended to form the giant cloud. Calculations are presented for the amount of air that must have been entrained into the flow to make it buoyant. Assuming an initial temperature of 450??C and a magmatic origin for the explosion, these calculations indicate that the flow became buoyant when its temperature was approximately 150??C and the flow consisted of a mixture of 3.25 ?? 1011 kg of pyroclasts and 5.0 ?? 1011 kg of air. If sedimentation is considered, these figures reduce to 1.1 ?? 1011 kg of pyroclasts and 1.0 ?? 1011 kg of air. ?? 1986.

Sparks, R.S.J.; Moore, J.G.; Rice, C.J.

1986-01-01

176

The Campi Flegrei caldera: historical revision and new data on seismic crises, bradyseisms, the Monte Nuovo eruption and ensuing earthquakes (twelfth century 1582 uc(ad))  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the results of a systematic historical study of the seismic, bradyseismic and eruptive activity of the Campi Flegrei caldera. The aim is to make a revised historical data available for accurate volcanological interpretation, supplying additional data and highlighting spurious previous data. The analysis begins with the supposed 1198 eruption, which did not actually take place. No information is available for the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. As far as the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries are concerned, only direct sources were examined for this paper, and they include many different types of evidence. The chronological breadth of the analysis has also provided information about the seismic crises and bradyseisms prior to the eruption of 1538. The exceptional nature of this 1538 eruption attracted the attention of intellectuals, diplomats and natural philosophers, who left valuable accounts, which we have analysed, and which include many that are still available in their original manuscript form. The previous studies concerning the 1538 eruption were based on 23 (variously used) sources. We have examined 35 additional sources bringing the overall corpus of sources analysed to 58. The results provide a more precise scenario of events preceding the 1538 eruption, including bradyseismic activity starting from the end of the fifteenth century. The chronology of the phenomena described comprises the core result of this study, and has been constructed so as to clarify the time, location and impact of each event. For the 1538 eruption, a countdown is included which may also have a predictive value. For the last 36 hours before eruption began, the countdown is hour-by-hour. The effects of the eruption and earthquakes on people, structures and society are also described for Pozzuoli, Agnano and Naples. The areas where heavy materials and ash fell are likewise indicated, as well are the earth tremors felt by the population from the eruptive crisis up to 1582.

Guidoboni, Emanuela; Ciuccarelli, Cecilia

2010-12-01

177

The Campi Flegrei caldera: historical revision and new data on seismic crises, bradyseisms, the Monte Nuovo eruption and ensuing earthquakes (twelfth century 1582 AD)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the results of a systematic historical study of the seismic, bradyseismic and eruptive activity of the Campi Flegrei caldera. The aim is to make a revised historical data available for accurate volcanological interpretation, supplying additional data and highlighting spurious previous data. The analysis begins with the supposed 1198 eruption, which did not actually take place. No information is available for the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. As far as the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries are concerned, only direct sources were examined for this paper, and they include many different types of evidence. The chronological breadth of the analysis has also provided information about the seismic crises and bradyseisms prior to the eruption of 1538. The exceptional nature of this 1538 eruption attracted the attention of intellectuals, diplomats and natural philosophers, who left valuable accounts, which we have analysed, and which include many that are still available in their original manuscript form. The previous studies concerning the 1538 eruption were based on 23 (variously used) sources. We have examined 35 additional sources bringing the overall corpus of sources analysed to 58. The results provide a more precise scenario of events preceding the 1538 eruption, including bradyseismic activity starting from the end of the fifteenth century. The chronology of the phenomena described comprises the core result of this study, and has been constructed so as to clarify the time, location and impact of each event. For the 1538 eruption, a countdown is included which may also have a predictive value. For the last 36?| hours before eruption began, the countdown is hour-by-hour. The effects of the eruption and earthquakes on people, structures and society are also described for Pozzuoli, Agnano and Naples. The areas where heavy materials and ash fell are likewise indicated, as well are the earth tremors felt by the population from the eruptive crisis up to 1582.

Guidoboni, Emanuela; Ciuccarelli, Cecilia

2011-08-01

178

Regional tree growth and inferred summer climate in the Winnipeg River basin, Canada, since AD 1783  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A network of 54 ring-width chronologies is used to estimate changes in summer climate within the Winnipeg River basin, Canada, since AD 1783. The basin drains parts of northwestern Ontario, northern Minnesota and southeastern Manitoba, and is a key area for hydroelectric power production. Most chronologies were developed from Pinus resinosa and P. strobus, with a limited number of Thuja occidentalis, Picea glauca and Pinus banksiana. The dominant pattern of regional tree growth can be recovered using only the nine longest chronologies, and is not affected by the method used to remove variability related to age or stand dynamics from individual trees. Tree growth is significantly, but weakly, correlated with both temperature (negatively) and precipitation (positively) during summer. Simulated ring-width chronologies produced by a process model of tree-ring growth exhibit similar relationships with summer climate. High and low growth across the region is associated with cool/wet and warm/dry summers, respectively; this relationship is supported by comparisons with archival records from early 19th century fur-trading posts. The tree-ring record indicates that summer droughts were more persistent in the 19th and late 18th century, but there is no evidence that drought was more extreme prior to the onset of direct monitoring.

St. George, Scott; Meko, David M.; Evans, Michael N.

2008-09-01

179

Early 20th Century Education in the United States: The Role of the Brothers of Holy Cross  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The French Revolution bears an ironic responsibility for generating works of charity. To counteract the devastating social effects of that late 18th century uprising, numerous religious communities were founded in France, among them the Congregation of Holy Cross. The Congregation of Holy Cross, the founding religious community behind the…

Armstrong, Philip C.

2007-01-01

180

The 18th and Rhode Island Garden in San Francisco's Potrero Hill neighborhood and other urban farms could benefit from the new law. Urban Farming Law Breaks New Ground  

E-print Network

--both commercially and as a noncommercial enterprise such as a community garden. "This law is targeted to do twoThe 18th and Rhode Island Garden in San Francisco's Potrero Hill neighborhood and other urban farms to the lot that is home to the 18th and Rhode Island Garden. At 0.11 acres, its value is about $570

Handy, Susan L.

181

Insights into the “isolation” of the Basques: mtDNA lineages from the historical site of Aldaieta (6th–7th centuries AD)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analyzed the hypervariable region I (HVR-I) sequence variability of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of individuals buried at Aldaieta (6th-7th cen- turies AD) in order to find out more about the biosocial implications of this cemetery. The results, fully authenti- cated by means of diverse criteria (analysis of duplicates, replication in an independent laboratory, quantification of target DNA, and sequencing

Ainhoa Alzualde; Neskuts Izagirre; Santos Alonso; Antonio Alonso; Cristina Albarrán; Agustin Azkarate; Concepción de la Rúa

2006-01-01

182

Richard Bradley: a unified, living agent theory of the cause of infectious diseases of plants, animals, and humans in the first decades of the 18th century.  

PubMed

During the years 1714 to 1721, Richard Bradley, who was later to become the first Professor of Botany at Cambridge University, proposed a unified, unique, living agent theory of the cause of infectious diseases of plants and animals and the plague of humans. Bradley's agents included microscopic organisms, revealed by the studies of Robert Hooke and Antony van Leeuwenhoek. His theory derived from his experimental studies of plants and their diseases and from microscopic observation of animalcules in different naturally occurring and artificial environments. He concluded that there was a microscopic world of "insects" that lived and reproduced under the appropriate conditions, and that infectious diseases of plants were caused by such "insects." Since there are structural and functional similarities between plants and animals, Bradley concluded that microscopic organisms caused human and animal infectious diseases as well. However, his living agent cause of infectious diseases was not accepted by the contemporary scientific society. PMID:19855125

Santer, Melvin

2009-01-01

183

[Historical studies of the Protomedicato Tribunal and health professions and occupations during the Spanish Monarchy in the 16th to 18th centuries].  

PubMed

We present a bibliography comprising 253 references available to the present time on works dealing directly or indirectly with the Royal Protomedicato. A wide range of criteria were used to search the most commonly used bibliographic sources and to apply indirect methods, in view of the dispersion of relevant studies, and the lack of bibliographies for Spanish historical-medical works from certain decades. We offer a general analysis of the literature, and sketch out the major historiographical problems faced in studies of this institution, ie, the scarcity of sources, the predominance of legislative sources, the changes in geographical areas under the authority of the Castilian Protomedicato and differences between protophysicians and the Protomedicato. PMID:11624999

López Terrada, M L

1996-01-01

184

A reconstruction of Madras (Chennai) mean sea-level pressure using instrumental records from the late 18th and early 19th centuries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In and around the Indian Ocean basin, historical records documenting observations of climatic variables such as rainfall, surface-air and sea-surface temperature, and atmospheric pressure can be found in various publications by the European colonial powers of the time. However, it is only the most accessible of these records from the mid-to-late 1800s that have been transferred into electronic form and used in any contemporary climatic studies. A longer-term set of observations from the observatory at Madras (now Chennai), set up by the English East India Company, was found to have the potential to provide useful climatic data back to 1796.In this study, atmospheric pressure data recorded at the Madras Observatory, and at other climate stations in or near Madras, and in India, were recovered and examined for their quality and veracity. From the old observatory publications, pre-1841 records (that is prior to those documented in standard data compilations) were quality controlled, and the full record from 1796 was then reduced to mean sea level, standard gravity and 24 h means to produce a 205 year set of monthly observations. This monthly mean sea-level pressure (MSLP) record was correlated with monthly or seasonally stratified instrumental indices of the El Niño southern oscillation (ENSO) phenomenon and all-India rainfall, and a seasonally stratified palaeoclimatic reconstruction of the southern oscillation index. In general, the Madras MSLP record is shown to be robust over time, and thus a useful long-term measure of fluctuations in the ENSO phenomenon across the Indian Ocean basin and of the Indian summer monsoon.

Allan, Rob J.; Reason, Chris J. C.; Carroll, Penny; Jones, Phil D.

2002-07-01

185

Wood Densitometry in 17th and 18th Century Dutch, German, Austrian and French Violins, Compared to Classical Cremonese and Modern Violins  

PubMed Central

Classical violins produced by makers such as Antonio Stradivari and Guarneri del Gesu have long been considered the epitome of the luthier's art and the expressive tool of choice for the most celebrated violinists. It has been speculated these makers had access to wood that was unique in some way and that this was responsible for their acclaimed tonal characteristics. In an attempt to discern whether the above conjecture is true, we analyzed 17 modern and classical Dutch, German, Austrian and French violins by wood densitometry using computed tomography and correlated these results with our previous study of modern and Cremonese violins; in all studying 30 instruments of the violin family. In order to make this comparison possible we developed methods to cross calibrate results from different CT manufacturers using calibration wood pieces. We found no significant differences in median densities between modern and classical violins, or between classical violins from different origins. These results suggest that it is unlikely classical Cremonese makers had access to wood with significantly different wood density characteristics than that available to contemporaneous or modern makers. PMID:23071602

Stoel, Berend C.; Borman, Terry M.; de Jongh, Ronald

2012-01-01

186

Mortality in the Family of Origin and Its Effect on Marriage Partner Selection in a Flemish Village 18th–20th Centuries  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter addresses the role of health-related characteristics as a basis of marriage partner selection in a preindustrial\\u000a population with a low level of social differentiation and a high level of mortality. We measured health characteristics by\\u000a the level of infant and child mortality in the family of origin of the marriage partners. We observed a homogamous marriage\\u000a pattern according

Bart Van de Putte; Koen Matthijs; Robert Vlietinck

187

Was the formation of a 15 mile wide meteorite crater on the Moon observed in June 1178 AD?  

E-print Network

Was the formation of a 15 mile wide meteorite crater on the Moon observed in June 1178 AD to the night of 18th June, 1178 AD: " ... after sunset when the moon had first become visible a marvellous is an eyewitness account of a large meteorite or other body hitting the Moon and forming the young lunar crater

Withers, Paul

188

18th Workshop on Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells and Modules: Materials and Processes; Workshop Proceedings, 3-6 August 2008, Vail, Colorado  

SciTech Connect

The National Center for Photovoltaics sponsored the 18th Workshop on Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells & Modules: Materials and Processes, held in Vail, CO, August 3-6, 2008. This meeting provided a forum for an informal exchange of technical and scientific information between international researchers in the photovoltaic and relevant non-photovoltaic fields. The theme of this year's meeting was 'New Directions for Rapidly Growing Silicon Technologies.'

Sopori, B. L.

2008-09-01

189

Effects of slope on the dynamics of dilute pyroclastic density currents from May 18th, 1980 Mt. St. Helens eruption  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The infamous, May 18th, 1980 eruption of Mt St Helens in the state of Washington produced several episodes of pyroclastic density currents (PDCs) including the initial lateral blast, which traveled nearly 30 km, and later PDCs, which filled in the area up to 8 km north of the volcano. The focus of this research is on the later PDCs, which differed from the lateral blast in that they have a higher particle concentration and filled in the topography up to 40 m. While the concentrated portions of the afternoon PDCs followed deep topographic drainages down the steep flanks of the volcano, the dilute overriding cloud partially decoupled to develop fully dilute, turbulent PDCs on the flanks of the volcano (Beeson, D.L. 1988. Proximal Flank Facies of the May 18, 1980 Ignimbrite: Mt. St. Helens, Washington.). The dilute PDCs deposited thin, cross-stratified and stratified pyroclastic deposits, known as the proximal bedded deposits, which differ greatly in depositional characteristics from the thick, massive, poorly-sorted, block-rich deposits associated with the more concentrated portions of the flow. We explore the influence of topography on the formation of these dilute currents and influence of slope on the currents transport and depositional mechanisms. The deposits on steeper slopes (>15°) are fines depleted relative to the proximal bedded deposits on shallower slopes (<15°). Bedform amplitude and wavelength increase with increasing slope, as does the occurrence of regressive dunes. Increasing slope causes an increase in flow velocity and thus an increase in flow turbulence. The fines depleted deposits suggest that fine ash elutriation is more efficient in flows with stronger turbulence. The longer wavelength and amplitudes suggest that bedform morphology is directly related to flow velocity, an important finding since the controls on bedform wavelength and amplitude in density stratified flows remains poorly constrained. The occurrence of regressive dunes, often interpreted as high flow-regime bedforms, on steeper slopes relative to progressive dunes on shallower slopes further attests to the control of velocity and flow regime on bedform morphology. Samples collected from recently exposed deposits and analyzed by grain size measurements, density analyses, and crystal morphoscopy studies further assess modes of origin and transport of dilute PDCs. The collected data will be used to validate numerical models that attempt to quantify the hazards of decoupled, dilute PDCs.

Bendana, S.; Self, S.; Dufek, J.

2012-12-01

190

Spatial trends in S and Cl in ash leachates of the May 18th, 1980 eruption of Mt. St Helens  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has long been known that surficial deposits of salts and acids on volcanic ash particles derive from interactions of ash with sulphur and halide species within the eruption plume and volcanic cloud. These compounds are mobilised as ash particles are wetted, and beneficial or detrimental environmental and health impacts may be induced where the most concentrated solutions are produced. However, limited mechanistic understanding of gas-ash interactions currently precludes prediction of the spatial distribution or variation in leachate chemistry and concentration following an eruption. Sampling and leachate analysis of freshly-fallen ash therefore offers the sole method by which such variations can be observed. Previous ash leachate studies often involve a limited number of ash samples, and utilise a 'one-dimensional' analysis that considers variation in terms of absolute distance from the source volcano. Here, we demonstrate that extensive sampling and a 'two-dimensional' analysis can uncover more complex spatial trends. We compiled over 358 leachate compositions from the May 18th 1980 eruption of Mt. St. Helens. Of the water-extracted leachates, only 95 compositions from ash sampled at 45 localities between 35 and 1129 km from the volcano are sufficiently documented to be retrospectively comparable. To consider the effects of intra-deposit variability, we calculated average concentrations of leachate data within 11×22 km grid cells across the region, and defined a data quality parameter to reflect confidence in the derived values. To investigate any dependence of leachate composition on the grain size distribution, we generated an interpolated map of geometric specific surface area variation across the deposit, normalising ash leachate data to the calculated specific surface area at the corresponding sampling location. The data treatment identifies S and Cl enrichments in proximal blast deposits; relatively constant Cl concentrations across the ashfall deposits; and a core region of depleted S concentrations in ashfall deposits between 240 and 400 km from the volcano, coinciding with the distal thickening of the deposit attributed to particle aggregation and enhanced fallout. Blast deposit enrichments can be attributed to pre-eruptive uptake of SO2 and HCl gases within the cryptodome, while ashfall deposit trends could reflect differences in the rates of HCl and SO2 uptake by ash, modified by in-plume aggregation processes. However, to validate and interpret such trends with greater confidence would have required a greater spatial density and temporal resolution of sampling, with comprehensive characterisation of the recovered ash and the surrounding deposit. In the future, rigorous study and sampling of equivalent extent to that in the aftermath of the historic Mt. St. Helens eruption is likely required to extend insight into processes affecting the spatial distribution of leachate chemistry.

Ayris, Paul M.; Delmelle, Pierre; Durant, Adam J.; Damby, David E.; Maters, Elena C.

2014-05-01

191

Dendroclimatic Reconstruction of Summer Temperatures in Northwestern Canada since A.D. 1638 Based on Age-Dependent Modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ring widths from five Picea glauca stands at the alpine treeline in northwestern Canada are used to investigate climate-growth responses and to develop a long reconstruction of summer temperatures. Response function and linear regression analyses indicate that the radial growth response of these trees to climate varies with age and site. At most sites, the period of significant positive response to growing season temperatures declines with tree age. Age-dependent and standard (age independent) models are then used to develop two reconstructions of June-July temperatures for northwestern Canada extending back to A.D. 1638. Calibration statistics were similar for both models, but the standard model performed poorly during verification. The reconstruction produced using age-dependent modeling suggests June-July temperatures were cooler than present throughout most of the past 350 years, with the exception of the late 18th century. Particularly cool periods occurred at ˜1700 and in the mid-19th century. In constast, the standard model suggests that temperatures were similar to or warmer than present during the last 350 years. The age-dependent reconstruction compares favorably with other proxy climate records from northern North America. Age-dependent dendroclimatic modeling can provide a sensitive record of recent climatic change that allows the inclusion of previously rejected sites into dendroclimatic analyses.

Szeicz, Julian M.; MacDonald, Glen M.

1995-09-01

192

Tree-ring based reconstructions of interannual to decadal scale precipitation variability for northeastern Utah since 1226 A.D.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Samples from 107 pin??on pines (Pinus edulis) at four sites were used to develop a proxy record of annual (June to June) precipitation spanning the 1226 to 2001 AD interval for the Uinta Basin Watershed of northeastern Utah. The reconstruction reveals significant precipitation variability at interannual to decadal scales. Single-year dry events before the instrumental period tended to be more severe than those after 1900. In general, decadal scale dry events were longer and more severe prior to 1900. In particular, dry events in the late 13th, 16th, and 18th Centuries surpass the magnitude and duration of droughts seen in the Uinta Basin after 1900. The last four decades of the 20th Century also represent one of the wettest periods in the reconstruction. The proxy record indicates that the instrumental record (approximately 1900 to the Present) underestimates the potential frequency and severity of severe, sustained droughts in this area, while over representing the prominence of wet episodes. In the longer record, the empirical probability of any decadal scale drought exceeding the duration of the 1954 through 1964 drought is 94 percent, while the probability for any wet event exceeding the duration of the 1965 through 1999 wet spell is only 1 percent. Hence, estimates of future water availability in the Uinta Basin and forecasts for exports to the Colorado River, based on the 1961 to 1990 and 1971 to 2000 "normal" periods, may be overly optimistic.

Gray, S.T.; Jackson, S.T.; Betancourt, J.L.

2004-01-01

193

Views of Chemistry and Chemical Theories: A Comparison between Two University Textbooks in the Bolognese Context at the Beginning of the 19th Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

After surveying some 18th century chemistry textbooks in Italy, this case study compares two Bolognese university textbooks related to the subject. Although the works in question represented two different ways of conceiving and using chemistry, both were within the Lavoisian framework. In other words, when a revolutionary theory passes from one…

Seligardi, Raffaella

2006-01-01

194

The poetry of the unenlightened: politics and literary enthusiasm in the early eighteenth century  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper will explore the notion of ‘poetic enthusiasm’ in early 18th-century verse. The representation of poetic enthusiasm—the claim to false inspiration, and the fanaticism that was perceived to accompany it—was frequently politicized in this period. Through a conflation of religious and literary discourses, poetic enthusiasm was seen to represent the sae kind of anarchy in the realm of literature

Abigail Williams

2005-01-01

195

The treatment of compound fractures in the eighteenth century.  

PubMed

In the 18th century, the first international dispute of any dimension arose in the history of surgery. It concerned the question whether or not compound fractures, those sustained on the battlefield in particular, should be treated by immediate amputation. The Prussian army surgeon Bilguer showed himself a protagonist of conservative treatment, whereas many French authors as well as the Dutchman Van Gesscher, favoured prompt operation. Also forced by defective medical provisions on the field, primary amputation remained the treatment of choice for some time to come. PMID:3889719

de Moulin, D

1985-04-01

196

Ankylosing spondylitis or diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis in royal Egyptian mummies of 18th -20th Dynasties? CT and archaeology studies.  

PubMed

Objective. To study the computed tomography(CT) images of royal Ancient Egyptian mummies dated to the 18th to early 20th Dynasties for the claimed diagnoses of ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH) and to correlate the findings with the archaeology literature.Methods. We studied the CT images of 13 royal Ancient Egyptian mummies (1492–1153 BC) for evidence of AS and DISH and correlated our findings with the archaeology literature.Results. The findings of the CT scans excluded the diagnosis of AS, based on the absence of sacroiliac joint erosions or fusion of the facet joints. Four mummies fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for DISH:Amenhotep III (18th Dynasty), Ramesses II, his son Merenptah, and Ramesses III (19th to early 20th Dynasties).The diagnosis of DISH, a commonly a symptomatic disease of old age, in the 4 pharaohs is in concordance with their longevity and active lifestyles.Conclusion. CT findings excluded the diagnosis of AS in the studied royal Ancient Egyptian mummies and brought into question the antiquity of the disease. The CT features of DISH during this ancient period were similar to those commonly seen in modern populations,and it is likely that they will also be similar in the future.The affection of Ramesses II and his son Merenptah supports familial clustering of DISH. The process of mummification may induce changes in the spine that should be considered during investigations of disease in ancient mummies. PMID:25329920

Saleem, Sahar N; Hawass, Zahi

2014-12-01

197

21st CENTURY ADS In CONTEXT  

E-print Network

accelerator-driven systems technology for nuclear waste transmutation and power generation (e.g., MYRRAH fuels which are difficult to incorporate in critical systems, for example fuel without 238U or 232Th Fission Products, Recycling Residuals SMART Uranium Light Water Reactor Geologic Disposal Minimal

McDonald, Kirk

198

Three centuries of heavy metal pollution in Paris (France) recorded by urban speleothems.  

PubMed

The first record of urban speleothems used to reconstruct the history of heavy metal pollution of shallow groundwaters is presented. Two speleothems grew during the last 300years in an underground aqueduct in the north-eastern part of Paris. They display high Pb, Mn V, Cu, Cd and Al concentrations since 1900 due to the urbanization of the site which triggered anthropogenic contamination of the water feeding the speleothems. Surprisingly, these heavy metal concentrations are also high in the oldest part. This early pollution could come from the use of Parisian waste as fertilizers in the orchards and vineyards cultivated above the aqueduct before urbanization. Lead isotopes were measured in these carbonates as well as in lead artifacts from the 17th-18th centuries ((206)Pb/(207)Pb=1.180+/-0.003). The mean (206)Pb/(207)Pb ratio, for one of the speleothems is 1.181+/-0.003 unvarying with time. These lead signatures are close to those of coal and old lead from northern European mines, lower than the natural background signature. It confirms that the high metal concentrations found come from anthropogenic pollution. Conversely, the lead isotopic composition of the second speleothem presents two temporal trends: for the oldest levels, the mean value (1.183+/-0.003) is similar to the first speleothem. For the youngest part, a lower value (1.172+/-0.005) is recorded, evidencing the contribution of a new lead source at the beginning of the industrial revolution. Pb isotopes were also measured in recent samples from a nearby superficial site. The first sample is a recent (AD 1975+/-15years) deposit ((206)Pb/(207)Pb=1.148+/-0.003), and the second, a thin subactual layer ((206)Pb/(207)Pb=1.181+/-0.002). These data are compatible with the adding of anthropogenic sources (leaded gasoline and industrial lead from Rio Tinto ore). PMID:25747368

Pons-Branchu, Edwige; Ayrault, Sophie; Roy-Barman, Matthieu; Bordier, Louise; Borst, Wolfgang; Branchu, Philippe; Douville, Eric; Dumont, Emmanuel

2015-06-15

199

The American College of nuclear physicians 18th annual meeting and scientific sessions DOE day: Substance abuse and nuclear medicine abstracts  

SciTech Connect

Despite the enormous personal and social cost Of substance abuse, there is very little knowledge with respect to the mechanisms by which these drugs produce addiction as well as to the mechanisms of toxicity. Similarly, there is a lack of effective therapeutic intervention to treat the drug abusers. In this respect, nuclear medicine could contribute significantly by helping to gather information using brain imaging techniques about mechanisms of drug addiction which, in turn, could help design better therapeutic interventions, and by helping in the evaluation and diagnosis of organ toxicity from the use of drugs of abuse. This volume contains six short descriptions of presentations made at the 18th Meeting of the American College of Nuclear Physicians -- DOE Day: Substance Abuse and Nuclear Medicine.

Not Available

1992-02-01

200

Credentialing Kepler: Transits in the Seventeenth Century  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Kepler's successful prediction of the 1631 transit of Mercury spurred an interest in his decidedly user-unfriendly Rudolfine Tables. Because his Ephemerides went only to 1636, he did not draw attention to the 1639 transit of Venus, although the tables actually predicted the phenomenon, and the observation by Horrocks again proved the superiority of Kepler's work. By mid-century alternative user-friendly versions of the Rudolfine Tables were published by V. Renieri in Italy, J.B. Morin in France, Maria Cunitia in Germany, and (in a more modified form) by J. Shakerley in England. Transits of Mercury were observed in 1651 (by Shakerley in Surat, India), 1661, 1667, 1690, and 1697, giving astronomers opportunities to compare the predictions from these tables as well as those of Lansbergen (which were a variant of the Copernican Prutenic Tables). Because of the subsequent interest in transits for determining the length of the astronomical unit, the 18th-century French astronomer J-N. Delisle compiled for these early transits extensive systematic records, which are now preserved at the Paris Observatory. By his day, however, the as-yet-unpublished tables of Edmond Halley gave the most successful predictions, and Delisle showed little interest in further credentialing the Rudolfine Tables, a process that had already taken place in the previous century.

Gingerich, O.

2005-08-01

201

High frequency variations of water flux and sediment discharge during the Little Ice Age (1586–1725 AD) in the Rhône Delta (Mediterranean France). Relationship to the catchment basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the 17th and 18th centuries, the Rhône delta recorded high frequency fluctuations in water and sediment influx. These variations resulted from the drastic climatic changes that took place during the Little Ice Age, which were intensified by dense land settlement in the catchment basin. The use of complementary types of information (iconographic and textual archives, photo-interpretation of traces of

G. Arnaud-Fassetta; M. Provansal

1999-01-01

202

Clear cutting (10-13th century) and deep stable economy (18-19th century) as responsible interventions for sand drifting and plaggic deposition in cultural landscapes on aeolian sands (SE-Netherlands).  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The landscape in extensive areas in SE-Netherlands is underlain by coversand, deposited during the Late Glacial of the Weichselian. In the Preboreal, aeolian processes reduced soil formation. From the Preboreal to the Atlantic a deciduous climax forest developed. The geomorphology was a coversand landscape, composed of ridges (umbric podzols), coversand plains (gleyic podzols), coversand depressions (histic podzols) and small valleys (gleysols). The area was used by hunting people during the Late Paleolithic and Mesolithic. During the Bronze and Iron Ages the area was populated by people, living from forest grazing, shifting cultivation and trade. The natural deciduous forest gradually degraded into Calluna heath. The deforestation accelerated the soil acidification and affected the hydrology, which is reflected in drying out of ridges and wetting of depressions, promoting the development of histic podzols and even histosols. Aeolian erosion was during this period restricted to local, small scale sand drifting, related to natural hazards as forest fires and hurricanes and shifting cultivation. Sustainable crop productivity on chemically poor sandy substrates required application of organic fertilizers, composed of a mixture of organic litter and animal manure with a very low mineral compound, produced in shallow stables. At least since 1000 AD, heath management was regulated by a series of rules that aimed to protect the valuable heat lands against degradation. During the 11th, 12th and 13th centuries there was an increasing demand for wood and clear cutting transformed the majority of the forests in driftsand landscapes. The most important market was formed by the very wealthy Flemish cities. The exposed soil surface was subjected to wind erosion and sand drifting which endangered the Calluna heath, arable land and even farmhouses. As a consequence, umbric podzols, the natural climax soil under deciduous forests on coversand, degraded into larger scale driftsand landscapes, characterized by deflation plains (gleyic arenosols) and complexes of inland dunes (haplic arenosols). Clear cutting was responsible for the mediaeval first large scale expansion of drift sand landscapes. In such driftsand landscapes, the majority of the podzolic soils in coversand has been truncated by aeolian erosion. Only on scattered sheltered sites in the landscape, palaeopodzols were buried under mono or polycyclic driftsand deposits. They are now the valuable soil archives for palaeoecological research. During the 18th century, the population growth and regional economic activity stimulated the agricultural productivity. Farmers introduced the innovative 'deep stable' technique to increase the production of fertilizers. Farmers started sod digging, including the top of the Ah horizon of the humus forms. This consequently promoted heath degradation and sand drifting, resulting in the extension of driftsand landscapes. Deep stable economy and sod digging was responsible for the 18th century second large scale expansion of drift sand landscapes. During the 19th century, farmers tried to find alternative fertilizers and authorities initiated reforestation projects. The invention of chemical fertilizers at the end of the 19th century marked the end of the period of heath management and plaggic agriculture. The heath was no longer used for the harvesting of plaggic matter and new land management practices were introduced. Heath was reclaimed to new arable land or reforested with Scotch pine. Geomorphological features as inland dunes and plaggic covers survived in the landscape and are now included in the geological inheritance.

van Mourik, Jan; Vera, Hein; Wallinga, Jakob

2013-04-01

203

The Environmental History of Cetaceans in Portugal: Ten Centuries of Whale and Dolphin Records  

PubMed Central

The history between cetaceans and humans is documented throughout time not only in reports, descriptions, and tales but also in legal documents, laws and regulations, and tithes. This wealth of information comes from the easy spotting and identification of individuals due to their large size, surface breathing, and conspicuous above water behaviour. This work is based on historical sources and accounts accounting for cetacean presence for the period between the 12th and 17th centuries, as well as scientific articles, newspapers, illustrations, maps, non-published scientific reports, and other grey literature from the 18th century onwards. Information on whale use in Portugal's mainland has been found since as early as the 12th century and has continued to be created throughout time. No certainty can be given for medieval and earlier events, but both scavenging of stranded whales or use of captured ones may have happened. There is an increasing number of accounts of sighted, stranded, used, or captured cetaceans throughout centuries which is clearly associated with a growing effort towards the study of these animals. Scientific Latin species denominations only started to be registered from the 18th century onwards, as a consequence of the evolution of natural sciences in Portugal and increasing interest from zoologists. After the 19th century, a larger number of observations were recorded, and from the 20th century to the present day, regular scientific records have been collected. Research on the environmental history of cetaceans in Portugal shows a several-centuries-old exploitation of whales and dolphins, as resources mainly for human consumption, followed in later centuries by descriptions of natural history documenting strandings and at sea encounters. Most cetaceans species currently thought to be present in Portuguese mainland waters were at some point historically recorded. PMID:21931627

Brito, Cristina; Sousa, Andreia

2011-01-01

204

Rf. : Munoz, M.I., Bouldi, N., Barcellini F. & Nascimento, A. (2012). Designing the safety of healthcare. Participation of ergonomics to the design of cooperative systems in radiotherapy. 18th  

E-print Network

of healthcare. Participation of ergonomics to the design of cooperative systems in radiotherapy. 18th World Congress on Ergonomics (International Ergonomics Association), February 11-16, Recife, Bra- zil. In: Work producing treatment in radiotherapy. The general framework of our ap- proach is the ergonomics management

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

205

Making a stand: five centuries of population growth in colonizing populations of Pinus ponderosa.  

PubMed

The processes underlying the development of new populations are important for understanding how species colonize new territory and form viable long-term populations. Life-history-mediated processes such as Allee effects and dispersal capability may interact with climate variability and site-specific factors to govern population success and failure over extended time frames. We studied four disjunct populations of ponderosa pine in the Bighorn Basin of north-central Wyoming to examine population growth spanning more than five centuries. The study populations are separated from continuous ponderosa pine forest by distances ranging from 15 to >100 km. Strong evidence indicates that the initial colonizing individuals are still present, yielding a nearly complete record of population history. All trees in each population were aged using dendroecological techniques. The populations were all founded between 1530 and 1655 cal yr CE. All show logistic growth patterns, with initial exponential growth followed by a slowing during the mid to late 20th century. Initial population growth was slower than expectations from a logistic regression model at all four populations, but increased during the mid-18th century. Initial lags in population growth may have been due to strong Allee effects. A combination of overcoming Allee effects and a transition to favorable climate conditions may have facilitated a mid-18th century pulse in population growth rate. PMID:22764493

Lesser, Mark R; Jackson, Stephen T

2012-05-01

206

Ad Critic  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Ad Critic strives to enter every television advertisement into its database of online commercials, which can be downloaded for free and viewed with QuickTime. A complete list of advertisements is indexed by company and by ad title. There are, however, also indexes of newly added ads, most-downloaded ads, movie trailers, and music found in ads, making it easier for users to search for a new or favorite advertisement. Ad Critic includes a section on advertising news and commentary and provides services for advertising agencies including online market research and detailed viewer statistics.

207

18th Annual Traffic and  

E-print Network

This workshop will address the legal authority for making a collateral attack in OWI cases. Attorney John J to change? Ms. Paula Perrin Mr. Jim Cole · Is There An App for That? Your smart phone may be able to tell

Sheridan, Jennifer

208

18th Conference on Hydrology  

E-print Network

resolution soil type data from the Mekong River Commission: to be used in our future ("next level") VIC network is also shown (Mekong River Commission, 2003) The VIC macroscale hydrologic model (Liang et al-scale Hydrologic Model (water and heat transfer) River Network Radar-based Relations of Stage- flow

Washington at Seattle, University of

209

18TH ANNUAL Sponsored by  

E-print Network

successfully completed high school geometry but have not taken calculus. The All Girls/All Math Program is one by contacting us: Mail: ALL GIRLS/ALL MATH Summer Camp UNL Center for Science, Mathematics & Computer Education SUMMER MATHEMATICS CAMP FOR HIGH SCHOOL GIRLS July 13-19, 2014 July 20-26, 2014 #12;One Week of Summer

Logan, David

210

century drying  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global warming is expected to increase the frequency and intensity of droughts in the twenty-first century, but the relative contributions from changes in moisture supply (precipitation) versus evaporative demand (potential evapotranspiration; PET) have not been comprehensively assessed. Using output from a suite of general circulation model (GCM) simulations from phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, projected twenty-first century drying and wetting trends are investigated using two offline indices of surface moisture balance: the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) and the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI). PDSI and SPEI projections using precipitation and Penman-Monteith based PET changes from the GCMs generally agree, showing robust cross-model drying in western North America, Central America, the Mediterranean, southern Africa, and the Amazon and robust wetting occurring in the Northern Hemisphere high latitudes and east Africa (PDSI only). The SPEI is more sensitive to PET changes than the PDSI, especially in arid regions such as the Sahara and Middle East. Regional drying and wetting patterns largely mirror the spatially heterogeneous response of precipitation in the models, although drying in the PDSI and SPEI calculations extends beyond the regions of reduced precipitation. This expansion of drying areas is attributed to globally widespread increases in PET, caused by increases in surface net radiation and the vapor pressure deficit. Increased PET not only intensifies drying in areas where precipitation is already reduced, it also drives areas into drought that would otherwise experience little drying or even wetting from precipitation trends alone. This PET amplification effect is largest in the Northern Hemisphere mid-latitudes, and is especially pronounced in western North America, Europe, and southeast China. Compared to PDSI projections using precipitation changes only, the projections incorporating both precipitation and PET changes increase the percentage of global land area projected to experience at least moderate drying (PDSI standard deviation of ?-1) by the end of the twenty-first century from 12 to 30 %. PET induced moderate drying is even more severe in the SPEI projections (SPEI standard deviation of ?-1; 11 to 44 %), although this is likely less meaningful because much of the PET induced drying in the SPEI occurs in the aforementioned arid regions. Integrated accounting of both the supply and demand sides of the surface moisture balance is therefore critical for characterizing the full range of projected drought risks tied to increasing greenhouse gases and associated warming of the climate system.

Cook, Benjamin I.; Smerdon, Jason E.; Seager, Richard; Coats, Sloan

2014-11-01

211

Climatic information of Western Sahel (1535-1793 AD) in original documentary sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Sahel is the semi-arid transition zone between arid Sahara and humid tropical Africa, extending approximately 10-20° N from Mauritania in the West to Sudan in the East. The African continent, one of the most vulnerable regions to climate change, is subject to frequent droughts and famine. One climate challenge research is to isolate those aspects of climate variability that are natural from those that are related to human influences. Therefore, the study of climatic conditions before mid-19th century, when anthropogenic influence was of minor importance, is very interesting. In this work the frequency of extreme events, such as droughts and floods, in Western Sahel from the 16th to 18th centuries is investigated using documentary data. Original manuscripts with historical chronicles from Walata and Nema (Mauritania), Timbuktu and Arawan (Mali), and Agadez (Niger) have been analyzed. Information on droughts, intense rainfall, storms and floods, as well as socioeconomic aspects (famines, pests, scarcity, prosperity) has been codified in an ordinal scale ranging from -2 (drought and famines) to +2 (floods) to obtain a numerical index of the annual rainfall in the region. Results show wet conditions in the 17th century, as well as dry conditions in the 18th century (interrupted by a short wet period in the 1730s decade).

Millán, V.; Rodrigo, F. S.

2014-09-01

212

Rev. of Masterpieces of Twentieth Century Canadian Painting, by E. Robert Hunter  

E-print Network

insisted that I have a copy of the catalogue by E. Robert Hunte r (West Palm Beach, 1984)—illustrates what this smaller museum can do by itself: from March 18th to April 29th of '84, the Norton showed "Masterpieces of Twentieth-Century Canadian Pa... in t ing ," a show its staff put to­ gether entirely on their own hook, at the cost of a tremendous expenditure of their time and re­ sources. Apparently nothing comparable had been done in Canada; they had to define their scope, grant-write themselves...

Levine, Stuart

1984-01-01

213

Effects of slope on the formation of dunes in dilute, turbulent pyroclastic currents: May 18th, 1980 Mt. St. Helens eruption  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The flanks of Mt St Helens volcano (MSH) are draped with thin, cross-stratified and stratified pyroclastic density current (PDC) deposits. These are known as the proximal bedded deposits produced during the May 18th, 1980 eruption of MSH. While the concentrated portions of the afternoon PDCs followed deep topographic drainages down the steep flanks of the volcano, the dilute overriding cloud partially decoupled to develop fully dilute, turbulent PDCs on the flanks of the volcano (Beeson, D.L. 1988. Proximal Flank Facies of the May 18, 1980 Ignimbrite: Mt. St. Helens, Washington.). The deposits along the flank thus vary greatly from those found in the pumice plain, which are generally thick, massive, poorly-sorted, block-rich deposits associated with the more concentrated portions of the flow (Brand et al, accepted. Dynamics of pyroclastic density currents: Conditions that promote substrate erosion and self-channelization - Mount St Helens, Washington (USA). JVGR). We explore the influence of topography on the formation of these dilute currents and influence of slope on the currents transport and depositional mechanisms. The deposits on steeper slopes (>15°) are fines depleted relative to the proximal bedded deposits on shallower slopes (<15°). Bedform amplitude and wavelength increase with increasing slope, as does the occurrence of regressive dunes. Increasing slope causes an increase in flow velocity and thus an increase in flow turbulence. The fines depleted deposits suggest that fine ash elutriation is more efficient in flows with stronger turbulence. The longer wavelength and amplitudes suggest that bedform morphology is directly related to flow velocity, an important finding since the controls on bedform wavelength and amplitude in density stratified flows remains poorly constrained. The occurrence of regressive dunes, often interpreted as high flow-regime bedforms, on steeper slopes relative to progressive dunes on shallower slopes further attests to the control of velocity and flow regime on bedform morphology. Samples collected from recently exposed deposits and analyzed by grain size measurements, density analyses, and crystal morphoscopy studies further assess modes of origin and transport of dilute PDCs.

Bendana, Sylvana; Brand, Brittany D.; Self, Stephen

2014-05-01

214

Adding Fractions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This tutorial helps students understand the basic concept of adding fractions. Each problem is illustrated with pizza slices and the steps for finding the least common denominator are clear. There is also a video in which students can watch a problem being solved on paper. There are also links to further information about finding the common denominator using two methods (either by multiplying the denominators or finding the least common denominator) and adding mixed fractions.

2010-08-09

215

Preliminary estimation of the peak discharge at the Su Gologone spring (Central-East Sardinia) during the flood event of November 18th, 2013  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Last November 2013, an exceptional rainfall has occurred in Sardinia causing 18 casualties at Olbia and Bitti and severe economic damage to infrastructures and land in many areas (e.g. Torpè and Cedrino plains). From a meteorological point of view, this rainfall event was caused by south-western warm and humid air currents moving from Africa coming in contact with cold air masses located above the higher parts of the island, creating convective phenomena of a certain intensity. Estimating the peak discharge of the rivers related to these high intensity rainfall events is of fundamental importance to improve flood-risk management and to prevent and/or reduce the damages. In carbonate areas, quantifying the karst aquifer recharge is an even more difficult task due to the fact that the precipitation and resulting surface flow is rapidly transferred to the underground cave systems, and then suddenly released at karst outflows. We report the case of the Su Gologone spring, in Supramonte area (Central-East Sardinia, Italy), a karst resurgence located only twenty metres from the Cedrino river and one of the main water supplies to this river. The freshwater of this karst spring feeds the Preda 'e Othoni dam, located a few kilometres downstream of the resurgence, and originally built to regulate the flooding of Cedrino river but currently used for all sorts of purposes, as electricity supply, irrigation of farmlands, industrial uses and especially for drinking water, an important source that has to be quantified and preserved. With the purpose of evaluating the contribution of this karst spring to the river discharge, at the beginning of the hydrological year 2013-14, Su Gologone has been equipped with a multi-parametric probe for in-continuous monitoring, at regular intervals, of the values of pressure (and therefore the level of water), electrical conductivity and water temperature. During the entire monitoring period flow rate measurements have been performed three times at the spring, based on the speed of the water taken with a hydraulic reel specially dedicated for this type of survey. These data show that an increase in water level of just 60 cm, produces a flow rate ten times higher than that during low discharge. During the peak discharge at the spring the probe has recorded a rise in the water level of over 11 metres, between 18:00 and 21:00 on November 18th, 2013. Part of this increase, however, was due to the barrier function of the nearby Cedrino river, whose high water level has blocked the drainage of the water from the karst system. The water spring level curve shows a temporary lowering around noon, before the flood peak, probably due to the opening of the dam. On the basis of the comparison between the measured speed of water flow in the stages immediately preceding and succeeding the flood event and of the values of water level recorded by the multi-parametric probe, it has been possible to estimate the contribution of the karst spring to the peak discharge of the river in around 40 cubic metres per second, a value of two orders of magnitude greater than the average flow of the spring (around 200 L/s).

Cossu, Antonello; De Waele, Jo; Sanna, Francesco; Sanna, Laura

2014-05-01

216

[The emergence of the Québec asylum in the 19th century.].  

PubMed

This team of five philosophers analyses the 18th and 19th century Quebec discourse on the subject of insanity. The 18th century saw the insane excluded from social contact with the state recognizing only their indigence. They were relegated either to the "Loges", designed to expiate their sins since insanity was linked to an abuse of mind and body, or to prison for appropriate punishment, since madness was considered to lead to crime. But economic pressures produced by the growing number in indigents, including the mentally ill, led to the creation of the Beauport asylum in 1845. The authors then describe how the urban insane, marginal to both the French Canadian and English Canadian communities* were placed in private institutions and subjected to a system of profit maximization controlled by bourgeois physicians. This situation increased the distance between proprietors and occupants, and accounts for the lack of original discourse on the subject of insanity. In addition, the reasoning of the alienist physicians was without scientific foundation, taking root rather in the dominant industrial capitalist ideology. As for the content of the discourse, the Beauport physicians borrowed from moral treatment and restraint system notions, giving them a certain Quebec character. PMID:17093651

Paradis, A

1977-01-01

217

An Odyssey into the New Millennium: Rediscover 21st Century Business & Marketing Education. Proceedings of the Annual Atlantic Coast Business & Marketing Education Conference (18th, Raleigh, North Carolina, February 15-17, 2001).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The following 13 papers on business and marketing education are included in this document: "Internet Marketing" (Herb Brown, Jerry Kandies); "Disk This . . . Paper Flow on the Go!" (Mary Evans, Wilbur Whitley); "Production and Evaluation of On-Line Tutorials" (Margie Gallagher, Evelyn Farrior, Jane Geissler); "Basic Skills Needed for Entry-Level…

Tucker, Sheila, Ed.

218

News and Views: Gemini hits 1000 papers; Comet Elenin? Forget it! Sellers launches course; Merry Christmas from 18th-century Lapland; ET: where are they all hiding? SETI in the city; Complex organic molecules may not mean life  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

No-one has yet found artefacts from an alien civilization, but have we looked hard enough? Astronomers seeking signs of extraterrestrial intelligence have suggested a novel approach: look for alien cities. The search for signs of life in the universe has included the detection of complex organic molecules, seen as a step on the way to living things. But now analysis of spectral signatures known as Unidentified Infrared Emission features found in stars, interstellar space and galaxies suggest that complex organic molecules can be made in stars in a matter of weeks without the presence of life.

2011-12-01

219

RECENT CASE STUDIES IN THE RAMAN ANALYSIS OF ANCIENT CERAMICS : Glaze Opacification in Abbasid Pottery, Medici and 18th century French Porcelains, Iznik and Kûtayha Ottoman Fritwares and an Unexpected Lapis Lazuli Pigment in Lajvardina Wares  

Microsoft Academic Search

We demonstrate the potential of Raman spectroscopy as an on-site technique for the characterization of ancient ceramics. This non-destructive analysis offers a way to get information on the process and even sometimes on the date of ancient artifacts. Much information remains written in the microstructure of ceramics bodies and in the nanostructure of glasses, glaze and enamels. Raman signatures are

Ph. Colomban

220

Trends of the Geomagnetic Dipole from Observations Over the Last Three Centuries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A review is made of published geomagnetic models utilizing data from the 18th century when absolute measurements were first introduced and those created with angular data back to the 15th century, through those using spacecraft surveys such as POGO, Magsat, \\O rsted and CHAMP. The more detailed variations since 1900 of the strength of the centered dipole are viewed to evaluate whether the apparent ˜ 60 year periodicity in the average 5% decay per century is a valid feature of the observed poloidal field or a result of the irregular distribution of data used prior to full global coverage by spacecraft. Simulated data using distributions for past epochs computed with recent global models were analyzed. The results indicate that whereas the higher components are suspect for early and mid 20th century, the variations seen in the dipole itself are likely valid. No acceleration of dipole decay over the average century--long rate is indicated from these studies provided this periodicity is taken into account. The energy being lost by the dipole continues to be fed into that of the n=2 and n=3 terms as originally noted by Verosub and Cox, though there is excess loss presumably being converted to heat. The direction of the dipole axis has continued to slowly drift on a clockwise path (westward) as represented by G-H(1,1) dialgrams since 1690, with the absolute value of that non--axial contribution decreasing at least since the middle of the 19th century.

Mozzoni, D. T.; Cain, J. C.

2003-12-01

221

The Rise of Commercial Telescope Making in 19th Century America  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Very few telescopes were made in America in the 18th century; astronomers needed to rely on distant European makers. While there is evidence of a few American craftsman-made telescopes that were shown at early to mid-19th century Mechanics' Fairs, Massachusetts native Amasa Holcomb appears to have been the first to offer them for sale commercially. Most of Holcomb's instruments were Herschelian reflectors with speculum metal mirrors. Henry Fitz started his optical career by making mirrors used for the first Daguerreotype portrait cameras, and by the mid 1840's he was offering refractors of ever-increasing size. Not long after Fitz started, Alvan Clark began selling telescopes, and the premature death of Fitz in 1863 may have aided Alvan Clark and Sons' rise to prominence. The later decades of the 1800s saw a dramatic increase in the number of college observatories, and with that came more manufacturers to supply the demand.

Launie, Kenneth J.

2009-01-01

222

19th Century Advertising History  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

During the 19th century, one of the most consistently popular American periodicals was Harper's Weekly, an illustrated paper whose circulation was well in excess of over 100,000 on a regular basis. This fine site highlights some of the many creative and inventive advertisements that were prominently displayed in the periodical during the 19th and early 20th centuries. The project was the brainchild of John Adler, a longtime history buff, who came across a complete set of the periodical for the period from 1857 to 1916. On the site visitors can browse through advertisements for appliances, insurance, foreign travel, farm land, and various medicinal potions. The selection of ads includes one for "pain paint," which begins with a brief doggerel that includes a mention of the impeachment of President Andrew Johnson in 1868.

223

[Les Mains de Michel-Ange : How eighteenth-century connoisseurs made sense of the artist's hand].  

PubMed

This article focuses on a drawing, regarded by 18(th)-century amateurs as a masterpiece by Michelangelo, and serves as a point of departure to illuminate the amateur's fascination with the artist's hand. This self-referential representation of the artistic process attracted much comment among connoisseurs. As virtually all amateurs had their say on the meaning of « les mains de Michel-Ange » the drawing sheds further light on the objects of desire which informed the amateur's discourse and the mediality such discourse needed in order to join word and image. PMID:21424354

Rees, Joachim

2011-01-01

224

Added Sugars  

MedlinePLUS

... Learn more about reading food labels . Limit your consumption of foods with high amounts of added sugars, such as sugar-sweetened beverages. Just one 12-ounce can of regular soda contains eight teaspoons of sugar, or 130 calories and zero nutrition. How much is just right?

225

Effects of Syn-Pandemic Reforestation on Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide From 1500 to 1700 A.D.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent analysis of paleoclimate proxies suggests that biomass burning by humans during the past eight millennia produced quantities of CO2 sufficient to counteract the effects of decreasing insolation driven by orbital variations and thus prevented ice sheet expansion. Correlation between periods of declining population and biomass burning, such as implied by the synchroneity of the American pandemics and decreasing atmospheric CO2 concentration during the 16th-18th centuries, provides an important test of the extent to which pre-industrial anthropogenic activity affected the atmospheric greenhouse gas budget. Numerous studies have attributed the ~5 ppm decline of atmospheric CO2 concentration, as well as the synchronous ~0.1 per mil increase of the ?13C of atmospheric CO2 between 1500 and 1700 A.D., to the effects of Little Ice Age cooling. However, this interpretation is not supported by recent multiproxy-based surface temperature reconstructions, which demonstrate a diminutive global temperature anomaly of ~0.1 C that was unlikely to have independently produced the distinct effect observed in atmospheric CO2 concentration. Alternatively, it is possible that a decline in CO2 concentration driven by massive reforestation produced cooling as a by-product. The timing and magnitude of changes in both the concentration and carbon-isotope composition of atmospheric CO2 recorded by globally distributed climate proxies from the tropics (sponges), temperate latitudes (tree rings), and polar regions (ice cores) are compatible with fixation of >10 Gt C due to reforestation. Reforestation, which explains pre-industrial atmospheric CO2 variations between 1500 and 1700 A.D. in a manner more consistent with the global surface temperature record than explanations requiring substantial cooling, presumably occurred on lands that were cultivated and seasonally burned, then subsequently abandoned, by indigenous Americans who perished in pandemics during European conquest. The present proxy data point to reforestation in the wake of the American pandemic, with its consequent affects on atmospheric CO2, as unique in human history. These findings redefine the duration and extent of human activities affecting composition of the atmosphere during the past millennium. The anthropogenic influence on the partial pressure of atmospheric CO2 since ~1800 A.D. is well documented by the exponential rise in concentration and simultaneous decline in ?13C of atmospheric CO2, but these recent trends represent dramatic reversals in the behavior of atmospheric CO2 concentration and ?13C prior to the Industrial Revolution between 1500 and 1700. During this time the concentration of atmospheric CO2 decreased and its ?13C increased due to land use changes resulting from pandemics that killed ~90% of the indigenous American population (~50 million people).

Nevle, R. J.; Bird, D. K.

2005-12-01

226

???History of Cholera Outbreaks in Iran during the 19th and 20th Centuries  

PubMed Central

Cholera is an acute infectious disease with high mortality if left untreated. Historically, between the 19th and 20th centuries seven great pandemics of cholera occurred and worldwide, thousands of people died. Based on an old theory, cholera was considered an air-born disease and the emergence of its outbreaks were attributed to bad weather or miasma. However later in the 18th century, British physician John Snow (1813-1858) explained the association of a terrible cholera outbreak in London in 1849 to contamination of the drinking water supply with human excreta. Despite his finding, the causative agent of this dreaded illness was unidentified until later in the 19th century. In 1854, Filippo Pacini (1812-1883) an anatomist from Italy and then in 1883, Robert Koch (1843-1910) the German bacteriologist, discovered ‘vibrio cholerae’ as the etiologic agent. During the major pandemics of cholera in 19th and 20th centuries this illness reached Iran and led to vast depopulation and a crucial impact on the country’s socioeconomic status. Poor public health conditions, lack of a well-organized public health authority for implementing preventive and quarantine measures as well as Iran’s specific geographic location were the main facilitating factors of the emergence of various epidemics, including cholera in Iran. The present paper briefly reviews the cholera outbreaks in Iran during the 19th and 20th centuries. PMID:25197514

Azizi, MH; Azizi, F

2010-01-01

227

Spinning AdS propagators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We develop the embedding formalism to describe symmetric traceless tensors in Anti-de Sitter space. We use this formalism to construct the bulk-to-bulk propagator of massive spin J fields and check that it has the expected short distance and massless limits. We also find a split representation for the bulk-to-bulk propagator, by writing it as an integral over the boundary of the product of two bulk-to-boundary propagators. We exemplify the use of this representation with the computation of the conformal partial wave decomposition of Witten diagrams. In particular, we determine the Mellin amplitude associated to AdS graviton exchange between minimally coupled scalars of general dimension, including the regular part of the amplitude.

Costa, Miguel S.; Gonçalves, Vasco; Penedones, João

2014-09-01

228

DIS in AdS  

SciTech Connect

We calculate the total cross section for the scattering of a quark-anti-quark dipole on a large nucleus at high energy for a strongly coupled N = 4 super Yang-Mills theory using AdS/CFT correspondence. We model the nucleus by a metric of a shock wave in AdS{sub 5}. We then calculate the expectation value of the Wilson loop (the dipole) by finding the extrema of the Nambu-Goto action for an open string attached to the quark and antiquark lines of the loop in the background of an AdS{sub 5} shock wave. We find two physically meaningful extremal string configurations. For both solutions we obtain the forward scattering amplitude N for the quark dipole-nucleus scattering. We study the onset of unitarity with increasing center-of-mass energy and transverse size of the dipole: we observe that for both solutions the saturation scale Q{sub s} is independent of energy/Bjorken-x and depends on the atomic number of the nucleus as Q{sub s}{approx}A{sup 1/3}. Finally we observe that while one of the solutions we found corresponds to the pomeron intercept of {alpha}{sub P} = 2 found earlier in the literature, when extended to higher energy or larger dipole sizes it violates the black disk limit. The other solution we found respects the black disk limit and yields the pomeron intercept of {alpha}{sub P} = 1.5. We thus conjecture that the right pomeron intercept in gauge theories at strong coupling may be {alpha}{sub P} = 1.5.

Albacete, Javier L. [ECT, Strada delle Tabarelle 286, I-38050, Villazzano (Tunisia) (Italy); Kovchegov, Yuri V.; Taliotis, Anastasios [Department of Physics, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States)

2009-03-23

229

Consequences of land use and climate changes on sediment deposition in estuaries during the last centuries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Estuaries are the downstream end-member of fluvial systems. They are experiencing high sedimentation rates, thus providing good opportunities for high resolution studies of Holocene environmental changes at the land/ocean interface. From a thorough literature survey, it appears that a rapid siltation and/or an increase in sedimentation rate were recorded in many estuarine environments, concomitantly to major migrations of human population throughout the world, both in time and space. It has been clearly related to an increase in sediment supply to estuaries in Minor Asia (Bronze Age, e.g. Spezzaferri et al, 2000) and in North America and Southwest Pacific (18th and 19th centuries, e.g. Goff, 1997), in response to deforestation on catchment areas. However, this relationship is less obvious in Europe (Sorrel et al., 2009), because deforestation occurred concomitantly to climate changes of the last millennium (climate instability at the end of Medieval Warm Period, Little Ice Age) that can also explain an increase in soil erosion. Indeed, these hypotheses have been proposed to explain a similar change in Marennes-Oléron Bay (Atlantic coast of France), which consists in the sudden deposition of a few meters-thick mud drape on basal mixed mud and sand bodies (Billeaud et al., 2005). The methods used to investigate this estuarine bay so far (very high resolution seismic stratigraphy, grain size analysis and radiocarbon dating) provided relevant information about recent environmental changes, but new data are now needed for further investigation. In the present study, we provide a multi-proxy analysis of the Marennes-Oléron Bay mud drape. A new 8 m-long core (M7UC01) was sampled on an intertidal flat, its location being determined on the basis of seismic stratigraphy. Core processing included visual description, physical measurements, grain size analysis every 2.5 to 5 cm, AMS radiocarbon dating, XRF core scanning, clay mineralogy and Rock Eval analysis. Fossil molluscs and foraminifers were also recovered to provide paleoenvironmental reconstructions. Clay mineralogy of the mud drape is similar to that of the turbid plume of the Charente River, which is an important source of terrestrial sediment in the bay, and to surrounding marsh soils. Examination of sediment smear slides shows that the sediment contains abundant plant debris. The very low values of Hydrogen Index determined by Rock-Eval analysis (mean HI: 150 ± 25 mg HC.g-1 TOC) are typical of organic matter derived from land higher plants. These three results strongly suggest that the Marennes-Oléron Bay mud drape is composed of soil relicts derived from the watershed. The mud drape started to deposit at 1400 AD, which coincides with the start of the Spörer minimum. Fossil mollusc and foraminifer assemblages provide evidences of another environmental change dated to 1670 AD, which corresponds to the Maunder minimum. These data suggest a strong impact of Little Ice Age climate changes, superimposed to land reclamation and deforestation, on the increase of sediment supply in the study area. These results, compared with the detailed literature survey performed meanwhile, would provide new insights into the impact of simultaneous land use and climate changes on the sediment deposition in estuaries during the last centuries. References: Billeaud I. et al., 2005. Geo-Marine Letters 25, 1-10. Goff J.R., 1997. Marine Geology 138, 105-117. Sorrel P. et al., 2009. Quaternary Science Reviews 28, 499-516. Spezzaferri S. et al., 2000. Mediterranean Marine Science 1(1), 19-43.

Poirier, Clément; Chaumillon, Eric; Arnaud, Fabien; Goubert, Evelyne; Sauriau, Pierre-Guy; Caurant, Florence

2010-05-01

230

Rev. of All Seasons and Every Light: Nineteenth Century American Landscapes from the Collection of Elias Lyman Magoon, by Ella M. Foshay and Sally Mills  

E-print Network

insisted that I have a copy of the catalogue by E. Robert Hunte r (West Palm Beach, 1984)—illustrates what this smaller museum can do by itself: from March 18th to April 29th of '84, the Norton showed "Masterpieces of Twentieth-Century Canadian Pa... in t ing ," a show its staff put to­ gether entirely on their own hook, at the cost of a tremendous expenditure of their time and re­ sources. Apparently nothing comparable had been done in Canada; they had to define their scope, grant-write themselves...

Levine, Stuart

1984-01-01

231

The study of anatomy in England from 1700 to the early 20th century  

PubMed Central

The study of anatomy in England during the 18th and 19th century has become infamous for bodysnatching from graveyards to provide a sufficient supply of cadavers. However, recent discoveries have improved our understanding of how and why anatomy was studied during the enlightenment, and allow us to see the context in which dissection of the human body took place. Excavations of infirmary burial grounds and medical school cemeteries, study of hospital archives, and analysis of the content of surviving anatomical collections in medical museums enables us to re-evaluate the field from a fresh perspective. The pathway from a death in poverty, sale of the corpse to body dealer, dissection by anatomist or medical student, and either the disposal and burial of the remains or preservation of teaching specimens that survive today in medical museums is a complex and fascinating one. PMID:21496014

Mitchell, Piers D; Boston, Ceridwen; Chamberlain, Andrew T; Chaplin, Simon; Chauhan, Vin; Evans, Jonathan; Fowler, Louise; Powers, Natasha; Walker, Don; Webb, Helen; Witkin, Annsofie

2011-01-01

232

Tree ring and glacial records of Holocene climate change, northern Gulf of Alaska region  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tree-ring cross-dates of glacially overrun trees at eight sites around western Prince William Sound show ice margins advanced in the early (late 12th through 13th centuries AD) and middle (17th to early 18th centuries) Little Ice Age. Tree-ring dates of 22 moraines at 13 glaciers in the same region indicate an early period of moraine stabilization in the early 18th

David J. Barclay

1998-01-01

234

Deaths in childbed from the eighteenth century to 1935.  

PubMed

The history of maternal deaths in England from the earliest records in the 1700s to 1935, concentrating on the influence of medical practice, is recounted. The rate lay between 4 and 5 per 1000 until 1935, with the advent of sulfa antibiotics to prevent puerperal infections. The practice of midwifery by men began in the early 17th century in Britain, but attendance at normal labors by medical practitioners, that is, surgeon-apothecaries, did not become common, and then only in urban areas, until 1730. The use of forceps became widely known about that time, and lying-in hospitals were begun. Obstetrics was held in contempt by professionally educated and registered physicians and apothecaries, however, because of the immodesty and messiness of the work and the long hours involved. Estimates of maternal mortality, from the 1st recorded unselected series, in the late 18th century range from 5-29/1000. Some of the high figures are from specialists in obstetrics, who treated complicated cases. From these data the maternal death rate was estimated at about 25/1000 among unassisted women. Some institutions achieved results better than the national average in the 1920s, suggesting that by the end of the 18th century, a fairly good understanding of childbirth had been reached. At that time the overall forceps rate was conservative, less than 1% compared to 15% now. Use of the perforator, hook and crochet, and manual dilatation of the cervix had been abandoned. In the 19th century, lying-in hospitals became more common and their death rates were higher, probably due to less conservative methods, up to as high as 85/1000, until the advent of antisepsis in 1880. Nevertheless, hospital births were the minority, amounting to 15% in 1927, 54% in 1946, 87% in 1970, 98.8% in 1980. Sepsis, due to casual use of sterile technique, remained the cause of half the total deaths until 1937. It is difficult to assess the contribution of toxemia or obstructed labor in maternal deaths. Rickets was a common cause of obstructed labor, and there are recorded epidemics of both. Similarly, abortion-related deaths are even more difficult to estimate, because of poor reporting. In evaluating the undiminished maternal death rate before 1935, the author believes that maternal survival is remarkably resistant to the ill effects of socioeconomic deprivation, but is very sensitive to the good and bad effects of medical intervention. Hence, there is evidence that the rural and poor in some cases had better results that those given the best medical assistance, especially with regard to puerperal sepsis. The midwifery laws of 1902 provided for training of midwives, and slowly corrected quality of care, as well as hostility between midwives and physicians. The current maternal death rate is about 0.1/1000. PMID:3511335

Loudon, I

1986-01-01

235

Ancient Coins of Orissa (6th Century B.C. - 6th Century A.D.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numismatic, the study of coins is regarded as a great source of ancient history. Numismatics like epigraphy is an important source of ancient history. In other words it helps us to construct history and does not merely corroborate it. The history of Kushana would be incomplete if the numismatic testimony to their power and strength would be removed. Out of

Bharati Pal

2004-01-01

236

[Purgatory, mercy and charity: structural conditions of care in Portugal (15th to 19th centuries)].  

PubMed

The aim of this article is to show how the Portuguese welfare system was organized and how it survived for several centuries. It was rebuilt by the monarchy in the late 15th century, a process that coincided with the birth of the Misericordias under the protection of the King. After the Council of Trent, these fraternities ran the health system, which was financed by people who believed in the power of perpetual Masses to evade Purgatory. These institutions were run by the political elite, who exploited them for their own benefit. The article also analyses the main measures taken by the state in the 18th century to change the old and weak system of public care. These laws were ineffectual and unable to change the real situation: the Misericordias were alone--the elite had run away when money was short--and they received no support from the public purse or from the faithful, who at that time had less faith in the perpetual Mass. PMID:11640188

Abreu, L

2000-01-01

237

Preprint, AMS 18th Conference on Hydrology  

E-print Network

the surface soil moisture con- tent because it contains the mechanism by which a deeper soil layer can influence the thin surface layer. This gives the flexibility and advantages in superfi- cial soil moisture processes. Without proper consideration of the shielding effects and the transpiration of the root zone soil

Xue, Ming

238

Installing Roundup 18th December 2002  

E-print Network

Testing your Python Installation Basic Installation Steps Choosing Your Template Classic Template Minimal Template Choosing Your Backend Configure a Web Interface Web Server cgi-bin Stand-alone Web Server Zope of the provided templates are given in choosing your template. Roundup support code: Installed into your Python

Allen, Jont

239

Speaker Bios Friday, October 18th  

E-print Network

in 2013. Eisgruber, who grew up in Indiana and Oregon, received his A.B. in physics from Princeton in 1983 University, where he also played baseball, he received a Ph.D. from Stanford in chemical engineering. After a year as a NATO Postdoctoral Fellow in the Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics

Rowley, Clarence W.

240

University of Strathclyde Minutes: 18th  

E-print Network

Smith (Dean of Education) Attending: The Secretary to the University, Mr D Coyle (Director of Finance, Finance), Mrs G McArthur (Court Secretary) Apologies: Chancellor, Vice-Principal Professor J Love, Mr P Islamic Extremism had caused real alarm amongst our students and discussion between the Muslim Student

Mottram, Nigel

241

GEOBULLETIN NOvEmBEr 18Th  

E-print Network

Waite, Michigan Tech (Host: DeMets) Friday, Feb 17, 2012: Margaret Fraiser, UW-Milwaukee (Host: Peters, Mar 25, 2012: Marin Clark, Univ of Michigan (Host: Goodwin) 25BFriday, Apr 13, 2012: BOV #12 in the Permian Basin, with excellent opportunities for future growth. Please visit www

Sheridan, Jennifer

242

18th Annual Residence Hall Construction Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is said that "home is where the heart is." Many colleges and universities are keeping that in mind as they continue to invest in building residential facilities to attract students to on-campus living. Residence hall construction at the nation's higher-education institutions remains strong, as the benefits to students, parents, and the college…

Agron, Joe

2007-01-01

243

Researcher Discovers 18th Moon Orbiting Uranus  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Scientist Erich Karkoschka, at the Lunar and Planetary Lab at the University of Arizona, has discovered another moon, the eighteenth, orbiting Uranus. The unusual aspect of this discovery is that while most moons are discovered within days of an image being taken, in this case, the image is more than thirteen years-old. The spacecraft Voyager 2 captured the original image when it flew by Uranus in January 1986. However, no one was able to recognize this satellite until Karkoschka investigated these images. A summary of this discovery can be found at the site, a news release from Astronomy Now Online.

244

The 18th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Topics concerning aerospace mechanisms, their functional performance, and design specifications are presented. Discussed subjects include the design and development of release mechanisms, actuators, linear driver/rate controllers, antenna and appendage deployment systems, position control systems, and tracking mechanisms for antennas and solar arrays. Engine design, spaceborne experiments, and large space structure technology are also examined.

1984-01-01

245

A Century of Cosmology  

E-print Network

In the century since Einstein's anno mirabilis of 1905, our concept of the Universe has expanded from Kapteyn's flattened disk of stars only 10 kpc across to an observed horizon about 30 Gpc across that is only a tiny fraction of an immensely large inflated bubble. The expansion of our knowledge about the Universe, both in the types of data and the sheer quantity of data, has been just as dramatic. This talk will summarize this century of progress and our current understanding of the cosmos.

E. L. Wright

2006-03-28

246

Two Centuries of Progress in Technical Communication  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A common aphorism in the halls of education is that the writing skills of Americans decline over time. Compared to the "golden age of letters," so the argument goes, each subsequent generation of writers is worse than the last. Although contemporary readers and educators commiserate over encounters with bad writing, a fair comparison of 18th…

Connatser, Bradford R.

2007-01-01

247

Book of the century  

Microsoft Academic Search

Each of the competitors nominates their choice of the book of the century and discusses the reasons for their choice. The books discussed are: The Diary of Anne Frank; Earthways, Earthwise, edited by Judith Nicholls; and Time’s Arrow, by Martin Amis

Tommy Walker; Katie Baynham; Karen Livingston

1999-01-01

248

Twentieth-century Authors  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

College and Research Library News has posted this new annotated directory to aid students and researchers working with English literature of the twentieth century. This site focuses on major English-language writers, offering mainly "biographical and bibliographic information, with some information on literary criticism."

249

Evaluation of the 2012 18th Maternal and Child Health (MCH) Epidemiology and 22nd CityMatCH MCH Urban Leadership Conference: six month impact on science, program, and policy.  

PubMed

The 18th Maternal and Child Health (MCH) Epidemiology and 22nd CityMatCH MCH Urban Leadership Conference took place in December 2012, covering MCH science, program, and policy issues. Assessing the impact of the Conference on attendees' work 6 months post-Conference provides information critical to understanding the impact and the use of new partnerships, knowledge, and skills gained during the Conference. Evaluation assessments, which included collection of quantitative and qualitative data, were administered at two time points: at Conference registration and 6 months post-Conference. The evaluation files were merged using computer IP address, linking responses from each assessment. Percentages of attendees reporting Conference impacts were calculated from quantitative data, and common themes and supporting examples were identified from qualitative data. Online registration was completed by 650 individuals. Of registrants, 30 % responded to the 6 month post-Conference assessment. Between registration and 6 month post-Conference evaluation, the distribution of respondents did not significantly differ by organizational affiliation. In the 6 months following the Conference, 65 % of respondents reported pursuing a networking interaction; 96 % shared knowledge from the Conference with co-workers and others in their agency; and 74 % utilized knowledge from the Conference to translate data into public health action. The Conference produced far-reaching impacts among Conference attendees. The Conference served as a platform for networking, knowledge sharing, and attaining skills that advance the work of attendees, with the potential of impacting organizational and workforce capacity. Increasing capacity could improve MCH programs, policies, and services, ultimately impacting the health of women, infants, and children. PMID:25107597

Arellano, Danielle E; Goodman, David A; Howlette, Travis; Kroelinger, Charlan D; Law, Mark; Phillips, Donna; Jones, Jessica; Brantley, Mary D; Fitzgerald, Maureen

2014-09-01

250

Managing Reliability in the 21st Century  

SciTech Connect

The rapid pace of change at Ike end of the 20th Century should continue unabated well into the 21st Century. The driver will be the marketplace imperative of "faster, better, cheaper." This imperative has already stimulated a revolution-in-engineering in design and manufacturing. In contrast, to date, reliability engineering has not undergone a similar level of change. It is critical that we implement a corresponding revolution-in-reliability-engineering as we enter the new millennium. If we are still using 20th Century reliability approaches in the 21st Century, then reliability issues will be the limiting factor in faster, better, and cheaper. At the heart of this reliability revolution will be a science-based approach to reliability engineering. Science-based reliability will enable building-in reliability, application-specific products, virtual qualification, and predictive maintenance. The purpose of this paper is to stimulate a dialogue on the future of reliability engineering. We will try to gaze into the crystal ball and predict some key issues that will drive reliability programs in the new millennium. In the 21st Century, we will demand more of our reliability programs. We will need the ability to make accurate reliability predictions that will enable optimizing cost, performance and time-to-market to meet the needs of every market segment. We will require that all of these new capabilities be in place prior to the stint of a product development cycle. The management of reliability programs will be driven by quantifiable metrics of value added to the organization business objectives.

Dellin, T.A.

1998-11-23

251

Century Learning through Apple Technology  

E-print Network

21st Century Learning through Apple Technology July 4 ­ 5, 2013 This exciting institute will appeal to educators who wish to enhance their teaching in support of 21st century learning using Apple technology. This institute begins with a keynote address that looks at how new technologies can enhance 21st century learning

252

Century 21 Digital Collection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From April 21 to October 21, 1962, Seattle played host to millions of people who sought out a glimpse into the future through the Century 21 Exposition. This world's fair presented an optimistic vision of "a future improved through science and technology" and this online collection from the Seattle Public Library presents over 1,200 photographs of the fair, along with books, brochures, reports, and more. The photos were taken by Werner Lenggenhager, a Swiss immigrant who donated his works to the Seattle Public Library after his death. Visitors can browse the suggested topics, which include Aerial Views, Space Needle, and Seattle Center Before Century 21. Visitors should also be sure to catch the six photos of Elvis Presley as he sang and danced his way across the grounds while filming, "It Happened at the World's Fair."

253

Securing Ad Hoc Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ad hoc networks are a new wireless networking paradigm for mobile hosts. Unlike traditional mobile wireless networks, ad hoc networks do not rely on any fixed infrastructure. Instead, hosts rely on each other to keep the network connected. The military tactical and other security-sensitive operations are still the main applications of ad hoc networks, although there is a trend to

Lidong Zhou; Zygmunt J. Haas

1999-01-01

254

The twentieth-century migration of parabolic dunes and wetland formation at Cape Cod National Sea Shore, Massachusetts, USA: landscape response to a legacy of environmental disturbance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cape Cod, an early North American colony, was covered by mature forest prior to European contact but, with settlement in the late seventeenth century, aeolian processes dominated into the twenty-first century. An aerial photographic time series from AD 1938 to 2003 quantifies dune movement that reflects processes over centuries and documents accelerated parabolic dune movement at ~4 m\\/yr from 1938

Steven L. Forman; Zhanay Sagintayev; Mohamed Sultan; Stephen Smith; Richard Becker; Margaret Kendall; Liliana Marìn

2008-01-01

255

French Studies: Seventeenth Century  

E-print Network

THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY By PAUL SCOTT, University of Kansas 1 . G E N E R A L Alain Viala, La France galante: essai historique sur une categorie culturelle, deses origines jusqu a la Revolution, PUF, 540 pp., is interested in the fact... cardinal de Retz: passions et factions, Rennes U.P., 216 pp, offers a precis of the cardinal's political ideology. S. opines that the word rencontre in R.'s memoirs exemplifies his life. Archaic and interchangeable with conjecture, this word designates...

Scott, Paul A.

2008-01-01

256

French Studies: Seventeenth Century  

E-print Network

that G. posits a gender-neutral model of esprit and vigueur that combines masculinity and femininity. K. E. Tirabassi, 'Montaignian Webs of Scholarship: Recovering the Life and Work of Marie de Gournay, Borrowman, Rhetoric, 172-91, urges G...THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY PAUL SCOTT, University of Kansas 1. G E N E R A L Orientalism and discussions of identity and alterity form part of an identifiable trend in our field during the coverage of the two calendar years. Another strong current...

Scott, Paul A.

2010-01-01

257

AdFlip.com  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Here's a site that's both fun and useful to students of American pop culture. Billing itself "the world's largest searchable database of classic print ads," AdFlip may be keyword searched or browsed by several methods. The ads are indexed by category (automotive, electronic, fashion, etc.), decade (1940s to current), and several specialty categories (ad as art, famous, advocacy, provocative [a few nudes here], today's top ten). Each collection of ads (presented as thumbnails) can be displayed by date, name, or ID number. Each of the decade collections can be further refined by a number of categories, such as automotive manufacturers, women's fashion, alcohol, and furniture and appliances, among others.

258

BadAds  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The creators of BadAds believe that advertising has become far too intrusive in American lives. Along with TV, magazine, radio ads, and billboards, advertisements and commercials are popping up in movie theatres, schools, public bathrooms, and even on stickers on fruit. Four criteria determine whether advertising is intrusive: an inability to turn the ad off; its entrance into your home without your consent; your lack of choice whether or not to watch it; and ads that don't support anything in particular and may actually cost you money. Rather than just venting about intrusive advertising, BadAds urges visitors to become active in the fight against bad ads by writing complaint letters to a host of venues that support intrusive advertising including movie theaters, sporting venues, television networks, and the heads of educational institutions. BadAds offers instructions on writing complaint letters as well as many suggestions as to who should receive these letters.

259

Extreme Nile floods and famines in Medieval Egypt (AD 930–1500) and their climatic implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nile gauge records of variations in Nile floods from the 9th century to the 15th century AD reveal pronounced episodes of low Nile and high Nile flood discharge. Historical data reveal that this period was also characterized by the worst known famines on record. Exploratory comparisons of variations in Nile flood discharge with high-resolution data on sea surface temperature of

Fekri A. Hassan

2007-01-01

260

AdS Phase Transitions at finite ?  

E-print Network

We investigate the effect of adding a Chern-Simons term coupled to an axion field to SU(2) Einstein-Yang-Mills in a fixed $AdS_4$/Schwarzschild background. We show that, when the axion has no potential, there is a phase transition between a Reissner-Nordstrom black-hole and one with a non-abelian condensate as per the vanishing Chern-Simons case. Furthermore, by giving the axion field a mass, one observes a phase transition between a Reissner-Nordstrom black-hole with axion hair to a "superconducting" phase which also has a non-trivial axion profile. We are able to perform a preliminary analysis for this interesting case and observe that we can shift the critical temperature at which the phase transition occurs and observe interesting features of the order parameter scaling form.

Gianni Tallarita

2011-08-17

261

Seed remains of common millet from the 4th (Mongolia) and 15th (Hungary) centuries: AFLP, SSR and mtDNA sequence recoveries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seed remains of common millet (Panicum miliaceum L.) were excavated from sites of AD 4th-century Darhan (Mongolia), and AD 15th-century Budapest (Hungary). Because the 15th-century medieval grains looked so intact, a germination test was carried out under aseptic conditions, which resulted in swelling of the grains but no cell proliferation or germination. Ancient DNA (aDNA) was extracted from the aseptic

G. Gyulai; M. Humphreys; R. Lagler; Z. Szabo; Z. Toth; A. Bittsanszky; F. Gyulai; L. Heszky

2006-01-01

262

Winding Strings in AdS_3  

E-print Network

Correlation functions of one unit spectral flowed states in string theory on AdS_3 are considered. We present the modified Knizhnik-Zamolodchikov and null vector equations to be satisfied by amplitudes containing states in winding sector one and study their solution corresponding to the four point function including one w=1 field. We compute the three point function involving two one unit spectral flowed operators and find expressions for amplitudes of three w=1 states satisfying certain particular relations among the spins of the fields. Several consistency checks are performed.

Estanislao Herscovich; Pablo Minces; Carmen Nunez

2006-03-15

263

Magnetic Catalysis in AdS4  

E-print Network

We study the formation of fermion condensates in Anti de Sitter space. In particular, we describe a novel version of magnetic catalysis that arises for fermions in asymptotically AdS4 geometries which cap off in the infra-red with a hard wall. We show that the presence of a magnetic field induces a fermion condensate in the bulk that spontaneously breaks CP symmetry. From the perspective of the dual boundary theory, this corresponds to a strongly coupled version of magnetic catalysis in d=2+1.

Stefano Bolognesi; David Tong

2012-04-26

264

Indian Astronomy: History of  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

From the time of A macronryabhat under dota (ca AD 500) there appeared in India a series of Sanskrit treatises on astronomy. Written always in verse, and normally accompanied by prose commentaries, these served to create an Indian tradition of mathematical astronomy which continued into the 18th century. There are as well texts from earlier centuries, grouped under the name Jyotishaveda macronn d...

Mercier, R.; Murdin, P.

2002-01-01

265

Banner Ad Placement Study  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Webreference.com (discussed in the April 19, 1996 Scout Report) has recently added this interesting and thought-provoking resource to its site. The resource presents the results of a study of banner ad placement at webreference.com, conducted between March 25 and April 15, 1997 by three University of Michigan School of Business Administration students. The study concludes that changes in placement of banner ads affects "click-through" rates.

Doyle, Kim.

266

Genetically Engineered Food AD  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How has biotechnology been used to improve the quality of food available today? Students are placed in groups of 2 to create an advertisement for a genetically engineered food and are then asked to present their ad. The ads are created with small poster board or paper, markers, and construction paper. Students also use the computer for lettering and clip art. If enough computers and suitable software was available, the ads could be completely done on the computer.

BEGIN:VCARD VERSION:2.1 FN:Lana Hays N:Hays; Lana ORG:Saint Henry District High School REV:2005-04-11 END:VCARD

2005-04-11

267

News Conference: Take a hold of Hands-on Science Meeting: Prize-winning physics-education talks are a highlight of the DPG spring meeting in Jena Event: Abstracts flow in for ICPE-EPEC 2013 Schools: A new Schools Physics Partnership in Oxfordshire Conference: 18th MPTL is forum for multimedia in education Meeting: Pursuing playful science with Science on Stage Forthcoming events  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Conference: Take a hold of Hands-on Science Meeting: Prize-winning physics-education talks are a highlight of the DPG spring meeting in Jena Event: Abstracts flow in for ICPE-EPEC 2013 Schools: A new Schools Physics Partnership in Oxfordshire Conference: 18th MPTL is forum for multimedia in education Meeting: Pursuing playful science with Science on Stage Forthcoming events

2013-03-01

268

A Century of Skills Movements  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author is a historian of education and has written often about the educational enthusiasms and fads of the past century. One of her books, titled "Left Back," tells the story of the rise and fall of one fad after another across the 20th century. In brief, what she has found is that in the land of American pedagogy, innovation is frequently…

Ravitch, Diane

2010-01-01

269

Aeronautical ad hoc networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been an enormous growth in mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) in land based small to medium size networks with relatively strict power and resources. In this paper the concept of ad hoc networking between aircraft is introduced, which can be considered as a novel approach in increasing the data rate and practicality of future in-flight broadband Internet access.

Ehssan Sakhaee; Abbas Jamalipour; Nei Kato

2006-01-01

270

Flowing from AdS5 to AdS3 with T 1 ,1  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We construct supersymmetric domain wall solutions of type IIB supergravity that interpolate between AdS5 × T 1,1 in the UV and AdS3 × 2 × S 2 × S 3 solutions in the IR. The 2 factor can be replaced with a two-torus and then the solution describes a supersymmetric flow across dimensions, similar to wrapped brane solutions. While the domain wall solutions preserve (0 , 2) supersymmetry, the AdS3 solutions in the IR have an enhanced (4 , 2) superconformal supersymmetry and are related by two T-dualities to the AdS3 × S 3 × S 3 × S 1 type IIB solutions which preserve a large (4 , 4) superconformal super-symmetry. The domain wall solutions exist within the N = 4 D = 5 gauged supergravity theory that is obtained from a consistent Kaluza-Klein truncation of type IIB supergravity on T 1,1; a feature driving the flows is that two D = 5 axion like fields, residing in the N = 4 Betti multiplet, depend linearly on the two legs of the 2 factor.

Donos, Aristomenis; Gauntlett, Jerome P.

2014-08-01

271

A century of smoke.  

PubMed

Tobacco kills 5 million people annually. By the mid 2020s, that figure will increase to about 10 million a year, with most of the deaths occurring in developing countries. This review explains how early technological and regulatory developments contributed to the epidemic, reveals the efforts of the tobacco industry to conceal its products' harmfulness, and stresses the role of the globalization of trade and marketing as a means of increasing consumption world-wide. The results of tens of thousands of studies published globally over the past 50 years point to an association between smoking and lung cancer and other adverse health effects, and the non-smoker's rights movement has exposed the wide-spread perils of 'secondhand' smoke. Yet, the tobacco industry continues its global expansion, and consumers in low- and middle-income countries are especially susceptible to its marketing tactics. This review ends by emphasising the need for a global public-health response, and identifies the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control as a significant effort. It stresses the need for accelerated action and innovative tobacco-control efforts, if the projected death toll is to be reduced in this century. PMID:16899149

Yach, D; Wipfli, H

2006-01-01

272

Nineteenth Century Documents Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Produced by the History department at Furman University in South Carolina, this site features full texts of primary documents in nineteenth-century American history "with special emphasis on those sources that shed light on sectional conflict and transformations in regional identity." The site has thus far posted documents ranging from newspaper editorials and abolitionist tracts to political speeches and legislative resolutions. These materials will aid researchers examining issues of Slavery and Sectionalism, the Kansas-Nebraska Bill of 1854, the Dred Scott Case, the election of 1860, the secession of the Southern states, and the immediate aftermath of the Civil War in the South. The site also features a statistical almanac of the 1850s, which includes but is not limited to data on slave mortality and survival; the ratio of slaveholders to families in 1860 (by state); presidential elections, 1844-1860; and Growth in Railroad Mileage, 1850-1860. Some documents may have some minor errors, but fully proofed documents are clearly marked.

Benson, Lloyd.

273

Recently Added Antibodies  

Cancer.gov

Reagents Data Portal AntibodiesNCI announces the release of monoclonal antipeptide antibodies from rabbit for distribution on the antibody portal. There are 60 recently added monoclonal antibodies, with 56 generated from mouse and 4 generated from rabbit. Print

274

Ad Hoc Advisors  

Cancer.gov

The Long Island Breast Cancer Study Project (LIBCSP) had an Ad Hoc Advisory Committee of expert scientists and community breast cancer advocates. This committee was chaired by Dr. Mimi C. Yu. The committee met annually or as needed.

275

Adding and Subtracting  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Test your brain at some addition and subtraction! Practice adding and subtracting on a number line using Line Jumper. When playing Alien Munchtime (addition) and Alien Munchtime (subtraction) select levels 1-9 and press play. ...

Miss Sullivan

2011-10-21

276

ADS pilot program Plan  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Applications Data Service (ADS) is a system based on an electronic data communications network which will permit scientists to share the data stored in data bases at universities and at government and private installations. It is designed to allow users to readily locate and access high quality, timely data from multiple sources. The ADS Pilot program objectives and the current plans for accomplishing those objectives are described.

Clauson, J.; Heuser, J.

1981-01-01

277

Paleoparasitological results from XVIII century human remains from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.  

PubMed

Paleoparasitological studies of the Brazilian colonial period are scarce. A paleoparasitological analysis was performed on human remains from the archeological site Praça XV Cemetery in Rio de Janeiro, dating from the early 18th to 19th Centuries. The samples were obtained from the Institute of the Brazilian Archaeology collection, and showed evidence of washing and brushing. Sediments were extracted from sacral foramina by scraping. Sediments from skulls were used as negative paleoparasitological controls. Spontaneous sedimentation method was performed prior to microscopic analysis. The results revealed that 8 of 10 individuals were infected with intestinal helminths and/or protozoa. Eggs of the nematodes Trichuris sp. and Ascaris sp. as well as a single taeniid egg were found. Protozoa cysts suggestive of Entamoeba sp. were also observed. Trichuris sp. was the most frequent and abundant parasite, found in 70% of individuals (26 eggs). The study showed the importance of analysis of sediment from human remains preserved in museum or scientific collections, even those subjected to a curating procedure. The levels of infection revealed here should be considered underestimations. This is the first paleoparasitological study from Rio de Janeiro city for the Brazilian colonial period and the first report of human Taenia sp. in the New World. PMID:23200641

Jaeger, Lauren Hubert; Taglioretti, Veronica; Fugassa, Martín Horacio; Dias, Ondemar; Neto, Jandira; Iñiguez, Alena Mayo

2013-03-01

278

The Shorts of Bury St Edmunds: medicine, Catholicism and politics in the 17th century.  

PubMed

The Short family of Bury St Edmunds produced at least eight doctors between the first half of the 17th century and the first half of the 18th. Some of these practised locally and others went on to achieve fame in London or abroad. They included Richard Short (d. 1668), a medical polemicist, and Thomas Short (1635-85) who treated Charles II in his last illness and became the subject of poetry and other literature. The Shorts generated controversy through their adherence to the Roman Catholic faith at a time of persecution and suspicion. Richard Short used medical polemic as a vehicle for advancing his religious views, and his son and nephew became involved in James II's political programme to introduce religious toleration in 1688. After the Revolution the Shorts withdrew from political life but continued in their medical practice and their recusancy. This paper is the first to unravel the family relationships of the Shorts, which previously have eluded most historians. PMID:18952986

Young, Francis

2008-11-01

279

Luigi Galvani and animal electricity: two centuries after the foundation of electrophysiology.  

PubMed

Luigi Galvani and his famous experiments on frogs carried out in the second half of the 18th century belong more to legend than to the history of science. Galvani not only laid the foundations of a new science, electrophysiology, but also opened the way for the invention of the electric battery, and thus for the development of the physical investigations of electricity. However, in spite of the widespread celebration of his work, Galvani's scientific endeavours have been largely misrepresented in the history of science. The scholar of Bologna has a stereotyped image as an 'occasional' scientist, who started his studies by chance, largely ignored the scientific theories of his time and wandered aimlessly in mental elaborations until the physicist of Pavia, Alessandro Volta, entered the field, correctly interpreted Galvani's results and eventually developed the electric battery. With the present understanding of electrical phenomena in excitable membranes, it is now time to reconsider the real matter raised by Galvani's discoveries and by his hypothesis of an intrinsic 'animal electricity', and to make a clearer evaluation of a revolutionary phase of scientific progress. PMID:9347609

Piccolino, M

1997-10-01

280

Temperature changes in Poland from the 16th to the 20th centuries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A standardized tree-ring width chronology of the Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) along with different types of documentary evidence (e.g. annals, chronicles, diaries, private correspondence, records of public administration, early newspapers) have been used to reconstruct air temperature in Poland. The ground surface temperature (GST) history has been reconstructed based on the continuous temperature logs from 13 wells, using a new method developed recently by Harris and Chapman (1998; Journal of Geophysical Research 103: 7371-7383) which is compared with the functional space inversion (FSI) method applied to all available Polish temperature-depth profiles analysed before.Response function calculations conducted for trees growing in Poland (except in mountainous regions) reveal a statistically significant correlation between the annual ring widths of the Scots pine and the monthly mean air temperatures, particularly from February and March, but also from January and April. Therefore, it was only possible to reconstruct the mean January-April air temperature.The following periods featured a warm late winter/early spring: 1530-90, 1656-70 (the warmest period), 1820-50, 1910-40, and after 1985. On the other hand, a cold January-April occurred in the following periods: 1600-50, 1760-75, 1800-15, 1880-1900, and 1950-80.Reconstructions of thermal conditions using documentary evidence were carried out for winter (December-February) and summer (June-August) from 1501 to 1840 and, therefore, their results cannot be directly compared with reconstructions based on tree-ring widths. Winter temperatures in this period were colder than air temperature in the 20th century. On the other hand, historical summers were generally warmer than those occurring in the 20th century. Such situations dominated in the 16th and 17th centuries, as well as at the turn of the 18th and 19th centuries. Throughout almost the entire period from 1501 to 1840, the thermal continentality of the climate in Poland was greater than in the 20th century.GST reconstructions show that its average pre-instrumental level (1500-1778) is about 0.9-1.5 °C lower than the mean air temperature for the period 1951-81. Lower amplitude of GST warming (0.9 +/- 0.1 °C) results from the individual and simultaneous inversions of well temperature data using the FSI method. A very good correspondence of the results has been found between series of annual mean GSTs from the FSI method and mean seasonal air temperatures reconstructed using documentary evidence.

Przybylak, Rajmund; Majorowicz, Jacek; Wójcik, Gabriel; Zielski, Andrzej; Choryczewski, Waldemar; Marciniak, Kazimierz; Nowosad, Wiesaw; Oliski, Piotr; Syta, Krzysztof

2005-05-01

281

Hadronization at the AdS wall  

SciTech Connect

We describe hadronization events, using the AdS/CFT Correspondence, which display many of the qualitative features expected in QCD. In particular we study the motion of strings with separating end points in a back-reacted hard wall geometry. The solutions show the development of a linear QCD-like string. The end points oscillate in the absence of string breaking. We introduce string breaking by hand and evolve the new state forward in time to observe the separation of two string segments. A kink associated with this breaking evolves to the end points of the string inducing rho meson production. We explicitly compute the rho meson production at the end point.

Evans, Nick; French, James; Threlfall, Ed [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, Southampton, SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Jensen, Kristan [Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States)

2010-03-15

282

The 19th Century World  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Harpweek, "a privately funded project begun in 1992 to digitize the entire contents of the nineteenth-century, illustrated periodical Harper's Weekly" (see the March 31, 2000 Scout Report) offers a number of free Websites archiving materials from Harper's Weekly on specific historical topics of the nineteenth century. In addition to the materials on Black America, reviewed in the Scout Report issue cited above, there are collections on the impeachment of Andrew Johnson, Civil War literature, education, immigrant and ethnic America, the editorial cartoons of Thomas Nast, the American West, and 19th Century advertising. These free sites offer a wealth of primary documentation on their respective subjects, including, for example, over 200 article excerpts dealing with the Andrew Johnson and his impeachment drawn from 1865-1869 issues; examples of 19th-century advertisements for appliances, packaged goods, pest killers, insurance policies, and memorabilia; political cartoons of the famous editorial illustrator Thomas Nast; and much more. The sections are well organized and are introduced by contemporary scholarship. This is a superb source for both researchers and those planning to teach primary historical and cultural research to secondary and post-secondary students. Note: those who purchase a subscription to Harpweek will have access to numerous other 19th Century Harper's Weekly materials in addition to these.

283

The 8th Century Megadrought Across North America  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tree-ring data suggest that the 8th and 16th century megadroughts may have been the most severe and sustained droughts to impact North America in the past 1500 years. The 16th century megadrought may have persisted for up to 40 years, and extended from the tropics to the boreal forest and from the Pacific to Atlantic coasts. Evidence for the 8th century drought is sparse, but tree-ring and lake sediment data indicate that this drought extended from the northern Great Plains, across the southwestern United States, and into central Mexico and the Yucatan peninsula. Tree-ring data from Colorado and New Mexico document severe drought from A.D. 735-765, and may provide accurate and precise dating for the onset of the epic droughts reconstructed during the late first millennium A.D. with sedimentary data from Elk Lake, Minnesota; Moon Lake, South Dakota; La Piscina de Yuriria, Guanajuato; and Lake Chichancanab, Yucatan. If these chronological refinements are correct, then the sedimentary records suggest much greater persistence to the 8th century megadrought than indicated by the very high resolution tree-ring data, and a strong second pulse of prolonged drought late in the first millennium. Analyses of instrumental precipitation and drought indices during the 20th century, along with tree-ring reconstructions of climate in Mexico and the Southwest, indicate that annual and decadal droughts can both simultaneously impact the entire region from New Mexico and Texas down into central Mexico. The intensity and large-scale impact of drought across this region seem to be greatest when La Nina conditions and the low phase of the North Pacific oscillation prevail. The tree-ring dated 8th century megadrought occurred near the decline of the Classic Period civilizations at Teotihuacan in central Mexico and in the Mayan region of the Yucatan. The 8th century megadrought may have interacted with anthropogenic environmental degradation, epidemic disease, and social upheaval to contribute to the collapse of the Classic Period in Mesoamerica.

Stahle, D. W.; Therrell, M. D.; Cleaveland, M. K.; Fye, F. K.; Cook, E. R.; Grissino-Mayer, H. D.; Acuna-Soto, R.

2002-12-01

284

Rhazes (865-925 AD), the icon of Persian cardiology.  

PubMed

For many long centuries, the function of the human cardiovascular system was an important issue among scholars of different eras and areas. Abubakr Muhammad ibn Zakariyya al-Razi (865-925 AD), known by the Latin name Rhazes, was one of the scholars concerned with this issue. This physician is recognized as the first great scientist of the Golden Age of Islamic Medicine (9th-12th centuries AD). He authored Kitab al-Mansuri (Liber Al-Mansuri), a ten-volume medical encyclopedia that covers a large number of medical subjects. The first chapter of this book is allocated to human anatomy and functions. In this article, we review the chapter from Al-Mansuri that deals with Rhazes' views on the cardiovascular system. PMID:25465822

Nezhad, Golnoush Sadat Mahmoudi; Dalfardi, Behnam

2014-12-20

285

Update on Cosmic Censorship Violation in AdS  

Microsoft Academic Search

We reexamine our proposed counterexample (gr-qc\\/0307102) to cosmic censorship in anti de Sitter (AdS) space, and find a gap in the construction. We mention some possible ways to close the gap, but at present the question of whether cosmic censorship is violated in AdS remains open.

Thomas Hertog; Gary T. Horowitz; Kengo Maeda

2004-01-01

286

Two Virasoro symmetries in stringy warped AdS3  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study three-dimensional consistent truncations of type IIB supergravity which admit warped AdS3 solutions. These theories contain subsectors that have no bulk dynamics. We show that the symplectic form for these theories, when restricted to the non-dynamical subsectors, equals the symplectic form for pure Einstein gravity in AdS3. Consequently, for each consistent choice of boundary conditions in AdS3, we can define a consistent phase space in warped AdS3 with identical conserved charges. This way, we easily obtain a Virasoro × Virasoro asymptotic symmetry algebra in warped AdS3; two different types of Virasoro × Ka?-Moody symmetries are also consistent alternatives.

Compère, Geoffrey; Guica, Monica; Rodriguez, Maria J.

2014-12-01

287

Gottfried Kirch (1639-1710) and astronomy in Berlin in the 18th century. Contributions of the colloquium held in Berlin-Treptow on March 6, 2010 (German Title: Gottfried Kirch (1639-1710) und die Berliner Astronomie im 18. Jahrhundert.) Beiträge des Kolloquiums am 6. März 2010 in Berlin-Treptow  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The contributions of this volume are dedicated to Gottfried Kirch (1639-1710), the first Berlin astronomer, on the occasion of the 300th anniversary of his death. They deal with the astronomy of his times and developments in later times, which are connected to his work. The papers deal with the following topics: The instrumental equipment of Berlin Observatory at the time of G. Kirch and its modernisation up to around 1780; the instruments of Johann Makob Marioni's Viennese observatory around 1730; the heraldic celestial globe by Kirch's teacher Erhard Weigel. In addition, they deal with Kirch's share in the propagation of ideas of the Enlightenment, and with the Berlin meteorological record and its consequences for the investigation of anthropogenous climatic changes. They also deal with astronomical topics in the exchange of letters between Leonhard Euler and Daniel Bernoulli, and with the Berlin "Astronomisches Jahrbuch", which is based on Kirch's activities, as a biographical source.

Hamel, Jürgen

2010-12-01

288

[Odontologic History. The XVIIth Century].  

PubMed

Scientific progress lines go on developping in that century and at the same time it begins to be drawn the trajectory of the futur dentist, with its usual and popular denomination, since the times of Guy de Chauliac (1363), when he outlined the separation of odontologic knowledges from those of Medicine. PMID:11625375

Bagur, D B

1994-06-01

289

Selenography in the seventeenth century.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Contents: 1. Pre-telescopic observations. 2. The first telescopic observations. 3. Galileo's lunar observations. 4. Two new selenographical programmes. 5. A flurry of activity. 6. Hevelius and his Selenographia. 7. Riccioli, Grimaldi, and nomenclature. 8. Robert Hooke and selenology. 9. Cassini and La Hire. 10. Other seventeenth-century selenography. 11. Conclusion.

Whitaker, E. A.

290

A Century of Chinese Cinema  

E-print Network

A Century of Chinese Cinema This retrospective will begin with what is often regarded as one screenings focusing on new waves and new directions in Chinese cinema. Kindly supported by the Confucius Institute. On Monday 30 June (13.00 ­ 18.00), we will be running a one-day starter course on Chinese cinema

Guo, Zaoyang

291

A Century of Juvenile Justice.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The millennium marks the beginning of a second century for the formal system of juvenile justice in the United States. From its inception, the central focus of the system has been delinquency, an amorphous construct that includes not only "criminal" behavior but also an array of youthful actions that offend prevailing social norms. Thus, the…

Harris, Philip W.; Welsh, Wayne N.; Butler, Frank

292

Twenty-first-century science.  

PubMed Central

Scientific life is changing in fundamental ways as the twenty-first century approaches. Advances in technology are changing methods of scientific communications and dissemination of information, while diminishing resources lead to stabilization, politicization, increased public oversight, and the potential for significant downsizing. Libraries can foster the crucial interdisciplinary connections necessary to forge a new vision of scholarship. PMID:7703945

Greenwood, M R

1995-01-01

293

Three Centuries of American Inequality.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Income inequality in the United States displays considerable variance since the seventeenth century. There is no eternal constancy to the degree of inequality in total income, in labor earnings, or in income from conventional nonhuman wealth either before or after the effects of government taxes and spending. When all the necessary adjustments to…

Lindert, Peter H.; Williamson, Jeffrey G.

294

Physics in the Twentieth Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides a review of the great discoveries, theoretical concepts and development of physics in the 20th century. The growth and significance of diverse fields such as quantum theory, relativity theory, atomic physics, molecular physics, the physics of the solid state, nuclear physics, astrophysics, plasma physics, and particle physics are…

Weisskopf, Victor F.

1970-01-01

295

Immigration and the American century.  

PubMed

The full impact of immigration on American society is obscured in policy and academic analyses that focus on the short-term problems of immigrant adjustment. With a longer-term perspective, which includes the socioeconomic roles of the children of immigrants, immigration appears as one of the defining characteristics of twentieth-century America. Major waves of immigration create population diversity with new languages and cultures, but over time, while immigrants and their descendants become more "American," the character of American society and culture is transformed. In the early decades of the twentieth century, immigrants and their children were the majority of the workforce in many of the largest industrial cities; in recent decades, the arrival of immigrants and their families has slowed the demographic and economic decline of some American cities. The presence of immigrants probably creates as many jobs for native-born workers as are lost through displacement. Immigrants and their children played an important role in twentieth-century American politics and were influential in the development of American popular culture during the middle decades of the twentieth century. Intermarriage between the descendants of immigrants and old-stock Americans fosters a national identity based on civic participation rather than ancestry. PMID:16463913

Hirschman, Charles

2005-11-01

296

The ethics of psychoactive ads  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many of today's ads work by arousing the viewer's emotions. Although emotion-arousing ads are widely used and are commonly thought to be effective, their careless use produces a side-effect: the psychoactive ad. A psychoactive ad is any emotion-arousing ad that can cause a meaningful, well-defined group of viewers to feel extremely anxious, to feel hostile toward others, or to feel

Michael R. Hyman; Richard Tansey

1990-01-01

297

Political Ad Critic  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Brought to you by the folks at Adcritic.com, this Website features sixteen 30-second spots from the Presidential primary and general elections campaign. Political Ad Critic lists a "top ten," with Ralph Nader's hip parody ("The Truth: Priceless") of the popular MasterCard commercials awarded number one, and posts new ads from the campaign each week. Currently, there are four commercials from the Gore campaign posted here -- one of which has Gore speaking Spanish -- and six from Bush's camp, including the now-infamous "bureaucRATS" spot. (The QuickTime control bar allows users to advance frame by frame so they can judge for themselves the commercial's disputed subliminal content.) Commercials from the Libertarian party candidate Harry Browne, and primary contenders John McCain and Bill Bradley round out the Website. May the best commercial win.

298

Hagedorn Strings and Correspondence Principle in AdS(3)  

E-print Network

Motivated by the possibility of formulating a strings/black hole correspondence in AdS space, we extract the Hagedorn behavior of thermal AdS_3 bosonic string from 1-loop partition function of SL(2,R) WZW model. We find that the Hagedorn temperature is monotonically increasing as the AdS radius shrinks, reaches a maximum of order of string scale set by the unitarity bound of the CFT for internal space. The resulting density of states near the Hagedorn temperature resembles the form as for strings in flat space and is dominated by the space-like long string configurations. We then argue a conjectured strings/black hole correspondence in AdS space by applying the Hagedorn thermodynamics. We find the size of the corresponding black hole is a function of the AdS radius. For large AdS radius a black hole far bigger than the string scale will form. On the contrary, when the AdS and string scales are comparable a string size black hole will form. We also examine strings on BTZ background obtained through SL(2,Z) transformation. We find a tachyonic divergence for a BTZ black hole of string scale size.

Feng-Li Lin; Toshihiro Matsuo; Dan Tomino

2007-09-10

299

Historic Building Information Modelling - Adding Intelligence to Laser and Image Based Surveys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Historic Building Information Modelling (HBIM) is a novel prototype library of parametric objects based on historic data and a system of cross platform programmes for mapping parametric objects onto a point cloud and image survey data. The HBIM process begins with remote collection of survey data using a terrestrial laser scanner combined with digital photo modelling. The next stage involves the design and construction of a parametric library of objects, which are based on the manuscripts ranging from Vitruvius to 18th century architectural pattern books. In building parametric objects, the problem of file format and exchange of data has been overcome within the BIM ArchiCAD software platform by using geometric descriptive language (GDL). The plotting of parametric objects onto the laser scan surveys as building components to create or form the entire building is the final stage in the reverse engin- eering process. The final HBIM product is the creation of full 3D models including detail behind the object's surface concerning its methods of construction and material make-up. The resultant HBIM can automatically create cut sections, details and schedules in addition to the orthographic projections and 3D models (wire frame or textured).

Murphy, M.; McGovern, E.; Pavia, S.

2011-09-01

300

Historic Building Information Modelling - Adding intelligence to laser and image based surveys of European classical architecture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Historic Building Information Modelling (HBIM) is a novel prototype library of parametric objects, based on historic architectural data and a system of cross platform programmes for mapping parametric objects onto point cloud and image survey data. The HBIM process begins with remote collection of survey data using a terrestrial laser scanner combined with digital photo modelling. The next stage involves the design and construction of a parametric library of objects, which are based on the manuscripts ranging from Vitruvius to 18th century architectural pattern books. In building parametric objects, the problem of file format and exchange of data has been overcome within the BIM ArchiCAD software platform by using geometric descriptive language (GDL). The plotting of parametric objects onto the laser scan surveys as building components to create or form the entire building is the final stage in the reverse engineering process. The final HBIM product is the creation of full 3D models including detail behind the object's surface concerning its methods of construction and material make-up. The resultant HBIM can automatically create cut sections, details and schedules in addition to the orthographic projections and 3D models (wire frame or textured) for both the analysis and conservation of historic objects, structures and environments.

Murphy, Maurice; McGovern, Eugene; Pavia, Sara

2013-02-01

301

[Mercury (and...) through the centuries].  

PubMed

Mercury has a long history, fascinating in its many aspects. Through the centuries--from ancient times to the present day--the metal in its various forms, also known under the name "quicksilver", accompanied the man and was used for diversified purposes. Today, mercury is employed in manufacturing thermometers, barometers, vacuum pumps and explosives. It is also used in silver and gold mining processes. Mercury compounds play a significant role in dentistry, pharmaceutical industry and crop protection. The contemporary use of mercury markedly decreases, but historically speaking, the archives abound in materials that document facts and events occurring over generations and the immense intellectual effort aiming at discovering the true properties and mechanisms of mercury activity. Mercury toxicity, manifested in destruction of biological membranes and binding of the element with proteins, what disturbs biochemical processes occurring in the body, was discovered only after many centuries of the metal exerting its effect on the lives of individuals and communities. For centuries, mercury was present in the work of alchemists, who searched for the universal essence or quintessence and the so-called philosopher's stone. In the early modern era, between the 16th and 19th centuries, mercury was used to manufacture mirrors. Mercury compounds were employed as a medication against syphilis, which plagued mankind for more than four hundred years--from the Middle Ages till mid 20th century, when the discovery of penicillin became the turning point. This extremely toxic therapy resulted in much suffering, individual tragedies, chronic poisonings leading to fatalities and dramatic sudden deaths. In the last fifty years, there even occurred attempts of mentally imbalanced individuals at injecting themselves with metallic mercury, also as a performance-enhancing drug. Instances of mass mercury poisoning occurred many times in the past in consequence of eating food products poisoned with organic mercury compounds originating from the natural environment. PMID:21863739

K?ys, Ma?gorzata

2010-01-01

302

On deformations of AdS n × S n supercosets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the deformed AdS 5 × S 5 supercoset model of arXiv:1309.5850 which depends on one parameter ? and has classical quantum group symmetry. We confirm the conjecture that in the "maximal" deformation limit, ? ? ?, this model is T-dual to "flipped" double Wick rotation of the target space AdS 5 × S 5, i.e. dS 5 × H 5 space supported by an imaginary 5-form flux. In the imaginary deformation limit, ? ? i, the corresponding target space metric is of a pp-wave type and thus the resulting light-cone gauge S-matrix becomes relativistically invariant. Omitting non-unitary contributions of imaginary WZ terms, we find that this tree-level S-matrix is equivalent to that of the generalized sine-Gordon model representing the Pohlmeyer reduction of the undeformed AdS 5 × S 5 superstring model. We also study in some detail similar deformations of the AdS 3 × S 3 and AdS 2 × S 2 supercosets. The bosonic part of the deformed AdS 3 × S 3 model happens to be equivalent to the symmetric case of the sum of the Fateev integrable deformation of the SL(2) and SU(2) principal chiral models, while in the AdS 2 × S 2 case the role of the Fateev model is played by the 2d "sausage" model. The ? = i limits are again directly related to the Pohlmeyer reductions of the corresponding AdS n × S n supercosets: (2,2) super sine-Gordon model and its complex sine-Gordon analog. We also discuss possible deformations of AdS 3 × S 3 with more than one parameter.

Hoare, B.; Roiban, R.; Tseytlin, A. A.

2014-06-01

303

Ad*Access  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A collaboration of the John W. Hartman Center for Sales, Advertising & Marketing History and the Rare Book, Manuscript, and Special Collections Library at Duke University, this database contains images of more than 7,000 advertisements printed mainly in US newspapers and magazines between 1911 and 1955. The images are divided into five major categories: Beauty and Hygiene; Radio; Television; Transportation; and World War II. Each category can be browsed by a number of subtopics, listed by year. Users also have several search options, including keyword, complex, and Boolean searching. In addition, brief histories of the industries and timelines of world and national events are provided. While the site has obvious potential for cultural and business historians, general users may also enjoy browsing the images, which offer an interesting glimpse into how Americans conceived of themselves and consumer culture in the first half of this century.

304

AdS plane waves and entanglement entropy  

E-print Network

AdS plane waves describe simple backgrounds which are dual to anisotropically excited systems with energy fluxes. Upon dimensional reduction, they reduce to hyperscaling violating spacetimes: in particular, the $AdS_5$ plane wave is known to exhibit logarithmic behavior of the entanglement entropy. In this paper, we carry out an extensive study of the holographic entanglement entropy for strip-shaped subsystems in AdS plane wave backgrounds. We find that the results depend crucially on whether the strip is parallel or orthogonal to the energy current. In the latter case, we show that there is a phenomenon analogous to a phase transition.

K. Narayan; Tadashi Takayanagi; Sandip P. Trivedi

2013-02-22

305

Russia and Latin America at the dawn of the twenty-first century  

Microsoft Academic Search

Russia's relations with Latin America can be traced back to the nineteenth century. Today, in the post-Cold War era, the Russian Federation has pushed for a renewed presence in the region, as US influence diminishes, adding to an increasing multilateralism in the Americas. The rise of leftist governments has prompted Latin American governments to look for allies outside the Western

W. Alejandro Sanchez

2010-01-01

306

Second century megadrought in the Rio Grande headwaters, Colorado: How unusual was medieval drought?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new tree-ring record from living and remnant bristlecone pine (Pinus aristata) wood from the headwaters region of the Rio Grande River, Colorado is used in conjunction with other regional records to evaluate periods of unusually severe drought over the past two millennia (B.C. 268 to A.D. 2009). Our new record contains a multi-century period of unusual dryness between 1 and 400 A.D., including an extreme drought during the 2nd century. Characterized by almost five decades of drought (below average ring width), we hypothesize this megadrought is equally, if not more severe than medieval period megadroughts in this region. Published paleoclimate time series help define the spatial extent, severity, and potential causes of the 2nd century megadrought. Furthermore, this early period of unusual dryness has intriguing similarities to later medieval period aridity. Our findings suggest we should anticipate similar severe drought conditions in an even warmer and drier future.

Routson, Cody C.; Woodhouse, Connie A.; Overpeck, Jonathan T.

2011-11-01

307

Three Dimensional Origin of AdS_2 Quantum Gravity  

E-print Network

We study AdS_2 quantum gravity with emphasis on consistency with results from AdS_3. We lift AdS_2 black holes to three dimensions and map fluctuations around the solutions. Comparison with near extremal BTZ are discussed, with due emphasis on global aspects. The results confirm that parameters like central charges and conformal weights computed directly in 2D are consistent with standard results in 3D. Applying our results to the thermodynamics of near extreme Kerr black holes, we show that AdS_2 quantum gravity gives the correct central charge c=12J, and the entropy of excitations above the extremal limit is captured correctly.

Alejandra Castro; Cynthia Keeler; Finn Larsen

2010-04-05

308

What is a Twentieth-Century Constitution?  

Microsoft Academic Search

At present, almost all of the constitutions in the world are twentieth-century constitutions; indeed, most of them were not adopted until the second half of the twentieth century. Accordingly, the eighteenth-century Constitution of the United States -- which includes the original constitution of 1787-89; the first ten amendments, adopted in 1791; and the Eleventh Amendment, adopted in 1798 -- antedates

Peter E. Quint

2007-01-01

309

ECONOMIC IMPACT OF CENTURY ALUMINUM OF  

E-print Network

ECONOMIC IMPACT OF CENTURY ALUMINUM OF WEST VIRGINIA, INC. By Randall A represent those of the West Virginia University Board of Trustees. #12;2 OVERVIEW Century Aluminum of West Virginia, Inc. (Century) is located in Ravenswood, West Virginia and produces aluminum products

Mohaghegh, Shahab

310

An unfashionable rhetoric in the fifteenth century  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Poetria nova of Geoffrey of Vinsauf, a medieval verse treatise on the composition of poetry according to rhetorical principles, was very popular as a school and university text during the fifteenth century, although it was not printed until the early eighteenth century. The intensified copying of and commenting on this text during the fifteenth century, the other contents of

Marjorie Curry Woods

1989-01-01

311

[Value-Added--Adding Economic Value in the Food Industry].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet focuses on the economic concept of "value added" to goods and services. A student activity worksheet illustrates how the steps involved in processing food are examples of the concept of value added. The booklet further links food processing to the idea of value added to the Gross National Product (GNP). Discussion questions, a student…

Welch, Mary A., Ed.

1989-01-01

312

The 21st century propulsion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The prediction of future space travel in the next millennium starts by examining the past and extrapolating into the far future. Goals for the 21st century include expanded space travel and establishment of permanent manned outposts, and representation of Lunar and Mars outposts as the most immediate future in space. Nuclear stage design/program considerations; launch considerations for manned Mars missions; and far future propulsion schemes are outlined.

Haloulakos, V. E.; Boehmer, C.

1990-01-01

313

Hilbert and the Twentieth Century  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Along with Henri Poincar’e (1854–1912) of France, David Hilbert (1862–1943) of Germany was the spokesman for early twentieth\\u000a century mathematics. Hilbert is said to have been one of the last mathematicians to be conversant with the entire subject—from\\u000a differential equations to analysis to geometry to logic to algebra. He exerted considerable influence over all parts of mathematics,\\u000a and he wrote

Steven G. Krantz

314

Hysteria in the Eighteenth Century  

Microsoft Academic Search

In her study “Hysteria: The history of a disease” (1965) Ilza Veith referred to the eighteenth century as “controversial.”\\u000a It was indeed controversial in that there were competing and changing theories of the nature of hysteria. These depended upon\\u000a the scientific discoveries and changing theories that influenced medical thought. However, the term “hysteria,” while convenient\\u000a for the historian, did not

Diana Faber

315

21st Century Retirement Calculator  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Available from US News Online and Watson Wyatt Worldwide, the 21st Century Retirement Calculator creates a "financial picture" of retirement for planning purposes. A variety of "dig deeper" links educate users as they calculate, and links to related articles supply "fund picks" for types from "Ally McBeal" (single, mid-20s) to "George Costanza" (no savings) and "the cigarette smoker" (a prospective retiree).

316

Value added data archiving  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Researchers in the Molecular Sciences Research Center (MSRC) of Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) currently generate massive amounts of scientific data. The amount of data that will need to be managed by the turn of the century is expected to increase significantly. Automated tools that support the management, maintenance, and sharing of this data are minimal. Researchers typically manage their own data by physically moving datasets to and from long term storage devices and recording a dataset's historical information in a laboratory notebook. Even though it is not the most efficient use of resources, researchers have tolerated the process. The solution to this problem will evolve over the next three years in three phases. PNL plans to add sophistication to existing multilevel file system (MLFS) software by integrating it with an object database management system (ODBMS). The first phase in the evolution is currently underway. A prototype system of limited scale is being used to gather information that will feed into the next two phases. This paper describes the prototype system, identifies the successes and problems/complications experienced to date, and outlines PNL's long term goals and objectives in providing a permanent solution.

Berard, Peter R.

1993-01-01

317

Industrial Revolutions and Consumption: A Common Model to the Various Periods of Industrialization  

Microsoft Academic Search

What was the role of consumption structure evolution in the industrialization phases of the Western world since the 18th century? To answer this question, we …rst ask the économical ad histoical literature. We idetify the main phases of consumption structure evolution and establish a plausible link between consumption structure evolutions and industrial revolutions. In particular, we show that an industrial

David Flacher

2007-01-01

318

Industrial Revolutions and Consumption: A Common Model to the Various Periods of Industrialization  

Microsoft Academic Search

What was the role of consumption structure evolution in the industrialization phases of the Western world since the 18th century? To answer this question, we first ask the économical ad historical literature. We detify the main phases of consumption structure evolution and establish a plausible link between consumption structure evolutions and industrial revolutions. In particular, we show that an industrial

David Flacher

2005-01-01

319

Mapping the Llano Estacado  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Early maps of North America, prepared in the 18th and early 19th centuries, often depicted the Llano Estacado as a conspicuous blank spot - a terra incognita. A good example is a map of the southwest sketched by Alexander von Humboldt in 1804. In 1830, Stephen F. Austin added little detail to the ...

320

Mortuary practices, gender ideology, and the Cherokee town at the Coweeta Creek site  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the 18th century A.D., leadership roles within Cherokee towns in the southern Appalachians were closely tied to gender distinctions between women and men. This paper examines mortuary patterns from the Coweeta Creek site, located in the upper Little Tennessee Valley in southwestern North Carolina, with an interest in gender ideology and leadership roles within the local Cherokee community from

Christopher B. Rodning

2011-01-01

321

AdS Field Theory from Conformal Field Theory  

E-print Network

We provide necessary and sufficient conditions for a Conformal Field Theory to have a description in terms of a perturbative Effective Field Theory in AdS. The first two conditions are well-known: the existence of a perturbative `1/N' expansion and an approximate Fock space of states generated by a finite number of low-dimension operators. We add a third condition, that the Mellin amplitudes of the CFT correlators must be well-approximated by functions that are bounded by a polynomial at infinity in Mellin space, or in other words, that the Mellin amplitudes have an effective theory-type expansion. We explain the relationship between our conditions and unitarity, and provide an analogy with scattering amplitudes that becomes exact in the flat space limit of AdS. The analysis also yields a simple connection between conformal blocks and AdS diagrams, providing a new calculational tool very much in the spirit of the S-Matrix program. We also begin to explore the potential pathologies associated with higher spin fields in AdS by generalizing Weinberg's soft theorems to AdS/CFT. The AdS analog of Weinberg's argument constrains the interactions of conserved currents in CFTs, but there are potential loopholes that are unavailable to theories of massless higher spin particles in flat spacetime.

A. Liam Fitzpatrick; Jared Kaplan

2012-08-01

322

AdS field theory from conformal field theory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We provide necessary and sufficient conditions for a Conformal Field Theory to have a description in terms of a perturbative Effective Field Theory in AdS. The first two conditions are well-known: the existence of a perturbative `1/ N ' expansion and an approximate Fock space of states generated by a finite number of low-dimension operators. We add a third condition, that the Mellin amplitudes of the CFT correlators must be well- approximated by functions that are bounded by a polynomial at infinity in Mellin space, or in other words, that the Mellin amplitudes have an effective theory-type expansion. We explain the relationship between our conditions and unitarity, and provide an analogy with scattering amplitudes that becomes exact in the flat space limit of AdS. The analysis also yields a simple connection between conformal blocks and AdS diagrams, providing a new calculational tool very much in the spirit of the S-Matrix program. We also begin to explore the potential pathologies associated with higher spin fields in AdS by generalizing Weinberg's soft theorems to AdS/CFT. The AdS analog of Weinberg's argument constrains the interactions of conserved currents in CFTs, but there are potential loopholes that are unavailable to theories of massless higher spin particles in flat spacetime.

Fitzpatrick, A. Liam; Kaplan, Jared

2013-02-01

323

Response of a benthic suspension feeder ( Crassostrea virginica Gmelin) to three centuries of anthropogenic eutrophication in Chesapeake Bay  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biogenic reefs built by oysters and other suspension feeders are vital components of estuarine ecosystems. By consuming phytoplankton, suspension feeders act to suppress accumulation of organic matter in the water column. Nutrient loading increases the rate of primary production, thereby causing eutrophication. As suspension feeders consume more organic matter from increasing abundance of phytoplankton, their rate of growth should also increase if they are food limited. We show here that the eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica (Gmelin), from St. Mary's and Patuxent rivers, Chesapeake Bay, grew faster during anthropogenic eutrophication relative to C. virginica before eutrophication. Growth of shell height, shell thickness and adductor muscle increased after eutrophication began in the late 18th century. After 1860, growth decreased, perhaps reflecting the negative effects of hypoxia, harmful algal blooms, disease and fishing on oyster growth. These results are consistent with the view that an increasing supply of phytoplankton resulting from eutrophication enhanced growth of C. virginica between 1760 and 1860, before oyster reefs were degraded by destructive fishing practices between 1870 and 1930. Alternative factors, such as changes in water temperature, salinity, and fishing are less likely to be responsible for this pattern. These results have implications for restoration of oyster reefs in order to mitigate the effects of eutrophication in estuaries, as well as the paleoecological relationship between suspension feeders and paleoproductivity.

Kirby, Michael X.; Miller, Henry M.

2005-03-01

324

Advanced Doubling Adding Method for Radiative Transfer in Planetary Atmospheres  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The doubling adding method (DA) is one of the most accurate tools for detailed multiple-scattering calculations. The principle of the method goes back to the nineteenth century in a problem dealing with reflection and transmission by glass plates. Since then the doubling adding method has been widely used as a reference tool for other radiative transfer models. The method has never been used in operational applications owing to tremendous demand on computational resources from the model. This study derives an analytical expression replacing the most complicated thermal source terms in the doubling adding method. The new development is called the advanced doubling adding (ADA) method. Thanks also to the efficiency of matrix and vector manipulations in FORTRAN 90/95, the advanced doubling adding method is about 60 times faster than the doubling adding method. The radiance (i.e., forward) computation code of ADA is easily translated into tangent linear and adjoint codes for radiance gradient calculations. The simplicity in forward and Jacobian computation codes is very useful for operational applications and for the consistency between the forward and adjoint calculations in satellite data assimilation.

Liu, Quanhua; Weng, Fuzhong

2006-12-01

325

Sources of the AD 551, 1202 and 1759 earthquakes (Lebanon and Syria)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sources of three large (M ˜7.5) Near East earthquakes - in July, AD 551, May 1202 and Nov. 1759 - remain controversial, because their mesoseismal areas overlap, straddling the three sub-parallel active faults of the Lebanese restraining bend. Paleoseismic trenching in the Yammoûneh basin yields unambiguous evidence both for slip on the Yammoûneh fault in the 12th-13th centuries AD,

M. Daëron; A. Elias; Y. Klinger; P. Tapponnier; E. Jacques; A. Sursock

2004-01-01

326

Adding and Subtracting Integers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Now that you have mastered the common math operations of adding, subtracting, multiplying and dividing, you are ready to tackle some more challenging, yet practical problems. For example: How much money do you have if your Mom paid you $20 for every time you mowed the lawn, but you had to pay your little brother $5 for every time he helped you, and together you accomplished the job 7 times? Or how about this one: if you picked 5 apples but 2 were rotten and you had to divide them equally between you and your five friends, how much would each person get? Current Knowledge You will need a piece of paper to record information and to write down examples, so grab one now. Number the paper from 1 to 10. Get with a partner and write down how you think the equations to solve the above problems will be written. Write these ...

Mrs. Richins

2008-09-10

327

ADS Development in Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accelerator driven nuclear transmutation system has been pursued to have a clue to the solution of high-level radioactive waste management. The concept consists of super conducting linac, sub-critical reactor and the beam window. Reference model is set up to 800MW thermal power by using 1.5GeV proton beams with considerations multi-factors such as core criticality. Materials damage is simulated by high-energy particle transport codes and so on. Recent achievement on irradiation materials experiment is stated and the differences are pointed out if core burn-up is considered or not. Heat balance in tank-type ADS indicates the temperature conditions of steam generator, the beam widow and cladding materials. Lead-bismuth eutectics demonstration has been conducted. Corrosion depth rate was shown by experiments.

Kikuchi, Kenji

2010-06-01

328

Plague: the dreadful visitation occupying the human mind for centuries.  

PubMed

Plague is one of mankind's greatest scourges, which has swept away millions of people over the centuries. The first available record of the occurrence of this calamity, in humans, is from the Bible, in 1000 bc, in the city of Ashdod. The first definitely identified pandemic originated in Egypt in ad 542 (the Justinian Plague) and is estimated to have caused 100 million deaths. The second one, lasting for three centuries and claiming over 25 million lives appeared in 1334 in China spreading to many spots on the globe. The third pandemic occurred in Europe from the fifteenth to eighteenth century. The current pandemic began around 1860, in the Chinese province Yunnan; it reached Hong Kong in 1894 killing 100 000 individuals. Within 20 years the disease spread from southern Chinese ports throughout the world resulting in more than 10 million deaths. Since the discovery of the causative agent in 1894, there have been remarkable advancements in immunoprophylaxis and chemoprophylaxis. However, the disease is still active in Africa, in Asia and in Americas and has been classified as a currently re-emerging disease. A 'Plague-free World' will probably remain a dream for an indefinite period. PMID:15109549

Khan, Iqbal Akhtar

2004-05-01

329

Supergravity at the boundary of AdS supergravity  

SciTech Connect

We give a general analysis of AdS boundary conditions for spin-3/2 Rarita-Schwinger fields and investigate boundary conditions preserving supersymmetry for a graviton multiplet in AdS{sub 4}. Linear Rarita-Schwinger fields in AdS{sub d} are shown to admit mixed Dirichlet-Neumann boundary conditions when their mass is in the range 0{<=}|m|<1/2l{sub AdS}. We also demonstrate that mixed boundary conditions are allowed for larger masses when the inner product is 'renormalized' accordingly with the action. We then use the results obtained for |m|=1/l{sub AdS} to explore supersymmetric boundary conditions for N=1 AdS{sub 4} supergravity in which the metric and Rarita-Schwinger fields are fluctuating at the boundary. We classify boundary conditions that preserve boundary supersymmetry or superconformal symmetry. Under the AdS/CFT dictionary, Neumann boundary conditions in d=4 supergravity correspond to gauging the superconformal group of the three-dimensional CFT describing M2-branes, while N=1 supersymmetric mixed boundary conditions couple the CFT to N=1 superconformal topologically massive gravity.

Amsel, Aaron J.; Compere, Geoffrey [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States)

2009-04-15

330

Classification of boundary gravitons in AdS3 gravity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We revisit the description of the space of asymptotically AdS3 solutions of pure gravity in three dimensions with a negative cosmological constant as a collection of coadjoint orbits of the Virasoro group. Each orbit corresponds to a set of metrics related by diffeomorphisms which do not approach the identity fast enough at the boundary. Orbits contain more than a single element and this fact manifests the global degrees of freedom of AdS3 gravity, being each element of an orbit what we call boundary graviton. We show how this setup allows to learn features about the classical phase space that otherwise would be quite difficult. Most important are the proof of energy bounds and the characterization of boundary gravitons unrelated to BTZs and AdS3. In addition, it makes manifest the underlying mathematical structure of the space of solutions close to infinity. Notably, because of the existence of a symplectic form in each orbit, being this related with the usual Dirac bracket of the asymptotic charges, this approach is a natural starting point for the quantization of different sectors of AdS3 gravity. We finally discuss previous attempts to quantize coadjoint orbits of the Virasoro group and how this is relevant for the formulation of AdS3 quantum gravity.

Garbarz, Alan; Leston, Mauricio

2014-05-01

331

Classification of Boundary Gravitons in AdS$_3$ Gravity  

E-print Network

We revisit the description of the space of asymptotically AdS3 solutions of pure gravity in three dimensions with a negative cosmological constant as a collection of coadjoint orbits of the Virasoro group. Each orbit corresponds to a set of metrics related by diffeomorphisms which do not approach the identity fast enough at the boundary. Orbits contain more than a single element and this fact manifests the global degrees of freedom of AdS3 gravity, being each element of an orbit what we call boundary graviton. We show how this setup allows to learn features about the classical phase space that otherwise would be quite difficult. Most important are the proof of energy bounds and the characterization of boundary gravitons unrelated to BTZs and AdS3. In addition, it makes manifest the underlying mathematical structure of the space of solutions close to infinity. Notably, because of the existence of a symplectic form in each orbit, being this related with the usual Dirac bracket of the asymptotic charges, this approach is a natural starting point for the quantization of different sectors of AdS3 gravity. We finally discuss previous attempts to quantize coadjoint orbits of the Virasoro group and how this is relevant for the formulation of AdS3 quantum gravity.

Alan Garbarz; Mauricio Leston

2014-07-22

332

Large rotating AdS black holes from fluid mechanics  

E-print Network

We use the AdS/CFT correspondence to argue that large rotating black holes in global AdS(D) spaces are dual to stationary solutions of the relativistic Navier-Stokes equations on S**(D-2). Reading off the equation of state of this fluid from the thermodynamics of non-rotating black holes, we proceed to construct the nonlinear spinning solutions of fluid mechanics that are dual to rotating black holes. In all known examples, the thermodynamics and the local stress tensor of our solutions are in precise agreement with the thermodynamics and boundary stress tensor of the spinning black holes. Our fluid dynamical description applies to large non-extremal black holes as well as a class of large non-supersymmetric extremal black holes, but is never valid for supersymmetric black holes. Our results yield predictions for the thermodynamics of all large black holes in all theories of gravity on AdS spaces, for example, string theory on AdS(5) x S**5 and M theory on AdS(4) x S**7 and AdS(7) x S**4.

Sayantani Bhattacharyya; Subhaneil Lahiri; R. Loganayagam; Shiraz Minwalla

2008-07-25

333

EMOTIONS & LAUGHTER FOR ROBOTS AND ANDROIDS  

E-print Network

) 1961: "Unimate" first industrial robot, Unimation company (America) 2000: "ASIMO" humanoid robot, Honda 18th century) "Unimate" (1961)"ASIMO" (2000) Tea-serving karakuri (18th century) #12;II. ROBOTS

Becker-Asano, Christian

334

76 FR 5236 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Pastel Portraits: Images...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Pastel Portraits: Images of 18th-Century Europe'' SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given...objects to be included in the exhibition ``Pastel Portraits: Images of 18th-Century Europe,'' imported from abroad for...

2011-01-28

335

Nineteenth Century Exploration of Australia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by Dr. Charles H. Smith and Jennifer Rakestraw, this well-crafted site is built around an Australian map that details the routes taken by nineteenth century Australian explorers. The map has been reproduced into three online sections -- western, central, and eastern -- and each section contains a list of explorers who navigated that region of the continent. Also included are Internet links to all of the explorers, which can be accessed from the left-side panel on the home page or at the bottom of each map section.

Rakestraw, Jennifer.

2002-01-01

336

Hippocratic oath, 21st century.  

PubMed

Hippocratic Oath was first promulgated in 400 BC. Since then it became mandatory to take this oath for any medical profesional who practices medicine. The Oath envisaged all the important guidelines required to be possessed before the medicine is practiced. Recently there had been debates over the traditional oath and various revisionist versions were recommended. The enormous available literature compells us to think and revisit the status of orignal oath vis a vis the practice of medicine in 21st Century.This theme is a part of Dr. KL Wig Oration of National Academy of Medical Sciences, delivered at Ahmedabad in December 2005. PMID:23133241

Kumar, Anand

2010-04-01

337

New massive gravity and AdS(4) counterterms.  

PubMed

We show that the recently proposed Dirac-Born-Infeld extension of new massive gravity emerges naturally as a counterterm in four-dimensional anti-de Sitter space (AdS(4)). The resulting on-shell Euclidean action is independent of the cutoff at zero temperature. We also find that the same choice of counterterm gives the usual area law for the AdS(4) Schwarzschild black hole entropy in a cutoff-independent manner. The parameter values of the resulting counterterm action correspond to a c=0 theory in the context of the duality between AdS(3) gravity and two-dimensional conformal field theory. We rewrite this theory in terms of the gauge field that is used to recast 3D gravity as a Chern-Simons theory. PMID:21635026

Jatkar, Dileep P; Sinha, Aninda

2011-04-29

338

All AdS7 solutions of type II supergravity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In M-theory, the only AdS7 supersymmetric solutions are AdS7 × S 4 and its orbifolds. In this paper, we find and classify new supersymmetric solutions of the type AdS7 × M 3 in type II supergravity. While in IIB none exist, in IIA with Romans mass (which does not lift to M-theory) there are many new ones. We use a pure spinor approach reminiscent of generalized complex geometry. Without the need for any Ansatz, the system determines uniquely the form of the metric and fluxes, up to solving a system of ODEs. Namely, the metric on M 3 is that of an S 2 fibered over an interval; this is consistent with the Sp(1) R-symmetry of the holographically dual (1,0) theory. By including D8 brane sources, one can numerically obtain regular solutions, where topologically M 3 ? S 3.

Apruzzi, Fabio; Fazzi, Marco; Rosa, Dario; Tomasiello, Alessandro

2014-04-01

339

Towards integrability for AdS3/CFT2  

E-print Network

We review the recent progress towards applying worldsheet integrability techniques to the $AdS_3/CFT_2$ correspondence to find its all-loop S matrix and Bethe-Yang equations. We study in full detail the massive sector of $AdS_3\\times S^3\\times T^4$ superstrings supported by pure Ramond-Ramond (RR) fluxes. The extension of this machinery to accommodate massless modes, to the $AdS_3\\times S^3\\times S^3\\times S^1$ pure-RR background and to backgrounds supported by mixed background fluxes is also reviewed. While the results discussed here were found elsewhere, our presentation sometimes deviates from the one found in the original literature in an effort to be pedagogical and self-contained.

Alessandro Sfondrini

2014-12-17

340

Comments on String Theory on $AdS_3$  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study string propagation on $AdS_3$ times a compact space from an ``old fashioned'' worldsheet point of view of perturbative string theory. We derive the spacetime CFT and its Virasoro and current algebras, thus establishing the conjectured $AdS$\\/CFT correspondence for this case in the full string theory. Our results have implications for the extreme IR limit of the $D1-D5$ system,

Amit Giveon; David Kutasov; Nathan Seiberg

1998-01-01

341

Mixed-symmetry fields in AdS(5), conformal fields, and AdS/CFT  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mixed-symmetry arbitrary spin massive, massless, and self-dual massive fields in AdS(5) are studied. Light-cone gauge actions for such fields leading to decoupled equations of motion are constructed. Light-cone gauge formulation of mixed-symmetry anomalous conformal currents and shadows in 4d flat space is also developed. AdS/CFT correspondence for normalizable and non-normalizable modes of mixed-symmetry AdS fields and the respective boundary mixed-symmetry anomalous conformal currents and shadows is studied. We demonstrate that the light-cone gauge action for massive mixed-symmetry AdS field evaluated on solution of the Dirichlet problem amounts to the light-cone gauge 2-point vertex of mixed-symmetry anomalous shadow. Also we show that UV divergence of the action for mixed-symmetry massive AdS field with some particular value of mass parameter evaluated on the Dirichlet problem amounts to the action of long mixed-symmetry conformal field, while UV divergence of the action for mixed-symmetry massless AdS field evaluated on the Dirichlet problem amounts to the action of short mixed-symmetry conformal field. We speculate on string theory interpretation of a model which involves short low-spin conformal fields and long higher-spin conformal fields.

Metsaev, R. R.

2015-01-01

342

All Static Black Holes in AdS$_3$  

E-print Network

In this work we find the general static vacuum solution of three dimensional gravity with negative cosmological constant. Even though all solutions are locally diffeomorphic to pure $AdS_{3}$, solutions that differ globally from the latter space exist. New solutions with black holes on the $AdS_3$ boundary are found in both global and Poincare coordinates. In the Poincare coordinates such solutions are known as black funnels and black droplets. The black funnel provided by our general static metric is dual to the Hartle-Hawking state in the $1+1$ boundary theory.

Nidal Haddad

2015-03-29

343

All Static Black Holes in AdS$_3$  

E-print Network

In this work we find the general static vacuum solution of three dimensional gravity with negative cosmological constant. Even though all solutions are locally diffeomorphic to pure $AdS_{3}$, solutions that differ globally from the latter space exist. New solutions with black holes on the $AdS_3$ boundary are found in both global and Poincare coordinates. In the Poincare coordinates such solutions are known as black funnels and black droplets. The black funnel provided by our general static metric is dual to the Hartle-Hawking state in the $1+1$ boundary theory.

Haddad, Nidal

2015-01-01

344

Phase Transitions in Warped AdS$_3$ Gravity  

E-print Network

We consider asymptotically Warped AdS$_3$ black holes in Topologically Massive Gravity. We study their thermodynamic stability and show the existence of a Hawking-Page phase transition between the black hole and thermal background phases. At zero angular potential, the latter is shown to occur at the self-dual point of the dual Warped Conformal Field Theory partition function, in analogy with the phase transition for BTZ black holes in AdS$_3$/CFT$_2$. We also discuss how the central and vacuum charges can be obtained from inner horizon mechanics in the presence of a gravitational anomaly.

Detournay, Stéphane

2015-01-01

345

YI Suki's Y?ksimanpil and the Professional Identity of a Chung'in Medical Official in Eighteenth Century Chos?n Korea.  

PubMed

About one hundred years after the publication of Tong?ibogam (1613), a physician at the court YI Suki (1664-?) wrote a medical manuscript titled Y?ksimanpil (Miscellaneous Jottings on Medical Experiences and Tests, 1734). As indicated in its title, Y?ksimanpil was a medical essay composed of 130 medical case histories, drawing on what YI Suki himself had experienced in his medical practices. This paper examines the messages YI Suki in Y?ksimanpil tried to address to his fellow Korean doctors, and by doing so illuminates an aspect of the medicine in the late Chos?n period. The argument goes that YI Suki wrote Y?ksimanpil as a vehicle for promulgating his professional identity as a bureaucratic physician who belonged to the network of the chung'in technical officials-a group of government technical functionaries in late Chos?n Korea. Throughout the late Chos?n period, the chung'in technical officials had been discriminated, institutionally and socioculturally, against the yangban literati, while their promotion to honored higher positions was blocked. It was in the late 17th and early 18th century that a group of chung'in officials tried to secure their sociocultural places for their professional activity, thus bringing to light their social and professional identity in Chos?n society. A member of the network of the chung'in technical officials in the early 18th century, YI Suki was in an effort to position himself as a doctor somewhere between the medical tradition and the Confucian literary tradition. In these sociocultural contexts, we can see more clearly what YI Suki tried to speak of in his book and the historical meaning of the medical writing Y?ksimanpil. First, the way he practiced medicine was testing and confirming what the received medical textbooks had asserted (Ch?ngh?mkobang). This style of practicing medicine could be viewed as a reflection of the comprehensivity trait of bureaucratic court physicians network YI Suki belonged to. Also this type of practice has the implication that YI Suki himself was a well-versed practitioner following the medical textual tradition, which was closely associated with the medical officials network. The emergence of the practice Ch?ngh?mkobang could be better understood in the backdrop of over 100 years of maturation process of Tong?ibogam in the clinical practices. Second, he formulated the professional identity of physicians only in terms of medical proficiency without recourse to the Confucian literary tradition. In other words, in promoting the social status of medicine, he did not resort to Confucian morality. He instead emphasized his dexterity or resourcefulness in dealing with millions of ever-changing diseases (Imsikw?nby?n ). Conceivably, this way of characterizing his own medical practice-by way of strongly combining the textual tradition and the experiential tradition while keeping distance with the Confucian literary tradition-reflected the complexity of the ambivalent identity of the technical chung'in officials, especially in regard to Confucianism, between Confucian physicians and hereditary doctors. All in all, YI Suki presented himself as an ideal image of the physician, which arguably reflected the sociocultural and academic context of the network of the chung'in technical officials in early 18th century Chos?n Korea. PMID:24005648

Yi, Kiebok

2013-08-01

346

Teaching health in the 21st century.  

PubMed

School nurses have a broad scope of practice, including direct clinical care, as well as teaching health lessons. Students in the 21st century require educators who understand the current global needs of these learners. Effective health teaching meets these 21st-century needs. This article presents a background of 21st-century learning, with specific recommendations for teaching this generation of students. PMID:25626242

Halbert, Lee-Ann

2015-01-01

347

Milestones in the 20th century.  

PubMed

From its very beginning, the 20th century represented the period of the main breakthrough for allergology as a clinical and scientific entity. The first years of this period were extraordinarily exciting because of the discovery of the anaphylactic reaction in 1902 and its clinical diagnosis as 'local anaphylaxis', 'serum sickness' (1903) or even as 'anaphylactic shock' (1907). The term 'allergy' was coined in 1906 and led to the recognition of allergic diseases as a pathogenetic entity. The first patient organization of hay fever sufferers was founded in Germany in 1900, the same year in which the very first report on immunotherapy was published in New York. In 1911 the era of actual immunotherapy started in London, becoming scientific with the first double-blind study in 1956, and still today being regarded as the backbone of allergology. In 1919 it was shown that allergy could be transferred by blood, in 1921 by serum (Prausnitz-Küstner test) and in 1966 the mystic 'reagins' were recognized as immunoglobulin (Ig) E. The development of the radioallergosorbent test for quantifying specific IgE antibody was a diagnostic landmark for allergists all over the world. The history of allergy diagnosis started with the introduction of a 'functional skin test', named the patch test in 1894. The scratch test was described in 1912 and the patch test in 1931. From 1908 the skin was tested by intracutaneous injections, and from 1930 by a 'puncture test' (a precursor of the prick test) which has been in worldwide use in modified variations since 1959. The rub test ('friction test') was added in 1961. Systematically applied provocation tests started with conjunctival provocation (1907), followed by nasal and bronchial provocation with allergens (1914 and 1925). PMID:24925382

Bergmann, Karl-Christian

2014-01-01

348

Mystery cloud of AD 536  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The possible cause of the densest and most persistent dry fog on record, which was observed in Europe and the Middle East during AD 536 and 537, is discussed. The fog's long duration toward the south and the high sulfuric acid signal detected in Greenland in ice cores dated around AD 540 support the theory that the fog was due to the explosion of the Rabaul volcano, the occurrence of which has been dated at about AD 540 by the radiocarbon method.

Stothers, R. B.

1984-01-01

349

Girls with AD\\/HD  

Microsoft Academic Search

Girls experience a significant number of problems related to AD\\/HD, which are severe enough to affect their academic and social functioning across the lifespan. Unfortunately, our current diagnostic procedures identify few girls with AD\\/HD, suggesting they are not receiving adequate services. This study used a new rating scale (Girls with AD\\/HD are Different, GAAD) and an established one (ACTeRS) to

Janice Ann Grskovic

2000-01-01

350

Predicting AD Conversion: Comparison between Prodromal AD Guidelines and Computer Assisted PredictAD Tool  

PubMed Central

Purpose To compare the accuracies of predicting AD conversion by using a decision support system (PredictAD tool) and current research criteria of prodromal AD as identified by combinations of episodic memory impairment of hippocampal type and visual assessment of medial temporal lobe atrophy (MTA) on MRI and CSF biomarkers. Methods Altogether 391 MCI cases (158 AD converters) were selected from the ADNI cohort. All the cases had baseline cognitive tests, MRI and/or CSF levels of A?1–42 and Tau. Using baseline data, the status of MCI patients (AD or MCI) three years later was predicted using current diagnostic research guidelines and the PredictAD software tool designed for supporting clinical diagnostics. The data used were 1) clinical criteria for episodic memory loss of the hippocampal type, 2) visual MTA, 3) positive CSF markers, 4) their combinations, and 5) when the PredictAD tool was applied, automatically computed MRI measures were used instead of the visual MTA results. The accuracies of diagnosis were evaluated with the diagnosis made 3 years later. Results The PredictAD tool achieved the overall accuracy of 72% (sensitivity 73%, specificity 71%) in predicting the AD diagnosis. The corresponding number for a clinician’s prediction with the assistance of the PredictAD tool was 71% (sensitivity 75%, specificity 68%). Diagnosis with the PredictAD tool was significantly better than diagnosis by biomarkers alone or the combinations of clinical diagnosis of hippocampal pattern for the memory loss and biomarkers (p?0.037). Conclusion With the assistance of PredictAD tool, the clinician can predict AD conversion more accurately than the current diagnostic criteria. PMID:23424625

Liu, Yawu; Mattila, Jussi; Ruiz, Miguel Ángel Muñoz; Paajanen, Teemu; Koikkalainen, Juha; van Gils, Mark; Herukka, Sanna-Kaisa; Waldemar, Gunhild; Lötjönen, Jyrki; Soininen, Hilkka

2013-01-01

351

Tachyonic perturbations in AdS5 orbifolds Cyril Cartier  

E-print Network

Tachyonic perturbations in AdS5 orbifolds Cyril Cartier and Ruth Durrer D´epartement de Physique Th allow normalizable tachyonic modes, i.e., instabilities. These instabilities require non vanishing II model, even though the tachyonic modes are excited, no instability develops. We argue, however

Durrer, Ruth

352

Spiky strings in $\\varkappa$-deformed $AdS$  

E-print Network

We study rigidly rotating strings in $\\varkappa$-deformed $AdS$ background. We probe this classically integrable background with `spiky' strings and analyze the string profiles in the large charge limit systematically. We also discuss the dispersion relation among the conserved charges for these solutions in long string limit.

Aritra Banerjee; Soumya Bhattacharya; Kamal L. Panigrahi

2015-03-25

353

BRST quantization of string theory in AdS3  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the BRST quantization of bosonic and NSR strings propagating in AdS(3) × N backgrounds. The no-ghost theorem is proved using the Frenkel-Garland-Zuckerman method. Regular and spectrally-flowed representations of affine SL(2,R) appear on an equal footing. Possible generalizations to related curved backgrounds are discussed.

Pakman, Ari

2003-06-01

354

BRST Quantization of String Theory in AdS(3)  

E-print Network

We study the BRST quantization of bosonic and NSR strings propagating in AdS(3) x N backgrounds. The no-ghost theorem is proved using the Frenkel-Garland-Zuckerman method. Regular and spectrally-flowed representations of affine SL(2,R) appear on an equal footing. Possible generalizations to related curved backgrounds are discussed.

Pakman, A

2003-01-01

355

Penrose Inequality for Asymptotically AdS Spaces  

E-print Network

In general relativity, the Penrose inequality relates the mass and the entropy associated with a gravitational background. If the inequality is violated by an initial Cauchy data, it suggests a creation of a naked singularity, thus providing means to consider the cosmic censorship hypothesis. We propose a general form of Penrose inequality for asymptotically locally AdS spaces.

Igor Itkin; Yaron Oz

2011-07-07

356

Wilson lines for AdS5 black strings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe a simple method of extending AdS5 black string solutions of 5d gauged supergravity in a supersymmetric way by addition of Wilson lines along a circular direction in space. When this direction is chosen along the string, and due to the specific form of 5d supergravity that features Chern-Simons terms, the existence of magnetic charges automatically generates conserved electric charges in a 5d analogue of the Witten effect. Therefore we find a rather generic, model-independent way of adding electric charges to already existing solutions with no backreaction from the geometry or breaking of any symmetry. We use this method to explicitly write down more general versions of the Benini-Bobev black strings [1, 2] and comment on the implications for the dual field theory and the similarities with generalizations of the Cacciatori-Klemm black holes [3] in AdS4.

Hristov, Kiril; Katmadas, Stefanos

2015-02-01

357

Wilson lines for AdS_5 black strings  

E-print Network

We describe a simple method of extending AdS_5 black string solutions of 5d gauged supergravity in a supersymmetric way by addition of Wilson lines along a circular direction in space. When this direction is chosen along the string, and due to the specific form of 5d supergravity that features Chern-Simons terms, the existence of magnetic charges automatically generates conserved electric charges in a 5d analogue of the Witten effect. Therefore we find a rather generic, model-independent way of adding electric charges to already existing solutions with no backreaction from the geometry or breaking of any symmetry. We use this method to explicitly write down more general versions of the Benini-Bobev black strings and comment on the implications for the dual field theory and the similarities with generalizations of the Cacciatori-Klemm black holes in AdS_4.

Kiril Hristov; Stefanos Katmadas

2014-12-03

358

A Hidden Symmetry of AdS Resonances  

E-print Network

Recent investigations have revealed powerful selection rules for resonant energy transfer between modes of non-linear perturbations in global anti-de Sitter (AdS) space-time. It is likely that these selection rules are due to the highly symmetric nature of the underlying AdS background, though the precise relation has remained unclear. In this article, we demonstrate that the equation satisfied by the scalar field mode functions in AdS(d+1) has a hidden SU(d) symmetry, and explicitly specify the multiplets of this SU(d) symmetry furnished by the mode functions. We also comment on the role this structure might play in explaining the selection rules.

Evnin, Oleg

2015-01-01

359

A Hidden Symmetry of AdS Resonances  

E-print Network

Recent investigations have revealed powerful selection rules for resonant energy transfer between modes of non-linear perturbations in global anti-de Sitter (AdS) space-time. It is likely that these selection rules are due to the highly symmetric nature of the underlying AdS background, though the precise relation has remained unclear. In this article, we demonstrate that the equation satisfied by the scalar field mode functions in AdS(d+1) has a hidden SU(d) symmetry, and explicitly specify the multiplets of this SU(d) symmetry furnished by the mode functions. We also comment on the role this structure might play in explaining the selection rules.

Oleg Evnin; Chethan Krishnan

2015-02-12

360

Foreword: 18th Aps-Sccm and 24th Airapt  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This second joint conference between the APS Topical Group on Shock Compression of Condensed Matter and the International Association for the Advancement of High Pressure Science and Technology (AIRAPT) demonstrates that static and dynamic compression of condensed matter continues to be a vibrant field of science and engineering. It is also by its nature an interdisciplinary field, incorporating chemistry, materials science, solid mechanics, plasma physics, and condensed matter physics, and utilizes theoretical, computational, and experimental tools. Recent years have brought about many advances in loading platforms, diagnostics, and computations that are leading to the emergence of many new avenues of research. These advances are also breathing new life into traditional topics such as equations of state, phase transformations, and chemistry at extreme conditions. The plenary lectures by Gennady Kanel, Karl Syassen, David Ceperley, Jon Eggert, Duck Young Kim, and Richard Kraus spanned the disciplines of static and dynamic high pressure physics and illustrated the breadth of the field. They also showed that interesting and important problems remain for researchers of the future to solve. The main guiding principal in the organization of this conference was to intertwine static and dynamical experimental alongside computational and theoretical studies of similar materials. To achieve this goal, we arranged the conference to include static, dynamic, and computational components in the same sessions, quite often taking presenters out of their comfort zone. The three special sessions on Deep Carbon Budget (organized by Giulia Galli and Rus Hemley), High Energy Density Materials (organized by Raymond Jeanloz and Jon Eggert), and Dynamic Response of Materials (organized by Yogendra Gupta and John Sarrao) furthered this guiding principal. We also endeavored to represent the breadth of static and dynamic high pressure science and technology, notably beyond that done at national laboratories. To this end, a significant fraction of the plenary, invited and contributed presentations showcased work done in academia, defense laboratories and industry, as well as internationally. Although travel distance and visa issues always present difficulties, the conference had strong representation from a record number of international participants, including sizable groups from Russia and China (thanks to Tony Zocher and Frank Cherne), as well as Japan, the United Kingdom, France, Canada, Germany, Israel, and Italy. It is our sincere hope that international interactions that occurred at the conference will lead to further collaborations in the future. Finally, we strived to increase student participation at the conference. Through the leadership of Scott Alexander and his committee, a new all-day student symposium was held the day before the main conference, with only student attendees and presenters, in order to acclimate the students to conference participation and help them network with their peers. In cooperation with the APS Topical Group and the AIRAPT and with additional support from DTRA and the AWE, the conference was able to provide financial assistance to a large number of students to attend the conference and present their research. This aid helped increase the number of student attendees significantly over previous conferences. Finally, the conference sponsored a networking lunch for students and representatives from a number of laboratories and other institutions, which was well attended. Seattle proved itself to be an excellent venue for the conference. The international flavor of the city provided ample dining options and numerous activity choices outside of the conference sessions. The major international airport made travel as easy as possible, as Seattle is a convenient central location for attendees from Europe and Asia. The conference was truly a team effort with critical contributions from many individuals. We deeply appreciate their contributions to the success of the conference and the publication of these proceedings. G

Collins, Gilbert; Moore, David S.; Yoo, Choong-Shik

2014-05-01

361

1 Copyright 1999 by ASME Proceedings of 18th  

E-print Network

-BASED COMBINATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL PARAMETERS FOR THE DESIGN OF NOVEL FLOATING STRUCTURES Baidurya Bhattacharya of explicit safety targets. The design of a novel floating structure may be complicated by the fact design of a very large floating structure is presented. INTRODUCTION The design of conventional marine

Bhattacharya, Baidurya

362

UNIVERSITY OF MANCHESTER Friday 18th January, 2008  

E-print Network

the governing equation and from the stress boundary conditions on the faces I and III. (iv) Are the boundary's upper (horizontal) face (face I) is loaded by a constant pressure q and the faces II and III boundary conditions along the three faces I, II and III. (ii) Determine the stresses 11, 12 and 22

Heil, Matthias

363

Slides for Research Awayday Sept 18th 2008 Some interdisciplinary  

E-print Network

, Robotics 1: Orangutans viewed as robots? 2: Baby robot mathematicians? 3: Unraveling the mysteries: Sumatran orangutans make what appears to be hghly intelligent use of complience of supports in travelling are implemented. Awayday Sept 2008 Slide 3 Last revised: September 18, 2008 #12;2: Baby robot mathematicians

Sloman, Aaron

364

Franklin College Faculty Senate Meeting Thursday, October 18th  

E-print Network

Sciences), J. P. Caillault (Physics), Keith Campbell (Psychology), Stacey Casado (Romance Lang.), Jim de Fusillo (Dance), Michael Hahn (Plant Biology), Benjamin Ehlers (proxy for Shane Hamilton [History]), Linda Grant (proxy for Joe Hermanowicz [Sociology]), Kenneth Honerkamp (Religion), Thomas Houser (Art), Sarah

Arnold, Jonathan

365

18th Australasian Fluid Mechanics Conference Launceston, Australia  

E-print Network

of Mechanical Engineering University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010, Australia Abstract The logarithmic region, with particular emphasis on their role in modulating and altering the fluctuating wall-shear stress. Introduction pressure gra- dient, and fully developed pipe and channel flows, are tradi- tionally described in terms

Marusic, Ivan

366

AUTUMN PROGRAMME 2011 3RD OCT -18TH DECREINVENTYOUR FREETIME  

E-print Network

! TICKETS MUST BE PURCHASED IN ADVANCE TAEKWONDO Taekwondo is the national sport of Korea, and the world's most commonly-practised martial art. Incorporating fitness, flexibility and self defence, Taekwondo

Oakley, Jeremy

367

Milner Symposium Edinburgh, 16th 18th April 2012  

E-print Network

· Gérard Berry, INRIA, France · Georges Gonthier, Microsoft, France · Robert Harper, Carnegie Melon (Bologna) · Colin Stirling (Edinburgh) · Mads Tofte (ITU, Copenhagen) Local organising committee · Julian

Priestley, Hilary

368

May 18th, 2010 -Assessment of current water conditions  

E-print Network

/17/2010 5/10/2010 5/3/2010 SNAKE RIVER 71 71 62 UPPER YELLOWSTONE 71 73 65 WIND RIVER 139 105 92 BIGHORN PLATTE 117 104 96 LOWER N PLATTE,SWT 140 113 105 LITTLE SNAKE RIVER 122 107 98 UPPER GREEN RIVER 73 62 53 - Recommendations for Drought Monitor #12;#12;#12;#12;#12;Upper Colorado River Basin #12;Green River Basin above

369

18th Annual February 21-22, 2012  

E-print Network

, who is Director of the Center for Science and Mathematics Education Accessible: Expanding the Scope of Science Research and Communication", reflects by disseminating scientific information to diverse audiences. Students at Colorado State

370

Proc. 18th Winter Workshop on Nuclear Dynamics (2002)  

E-print Network

BRAHMS D1,D2,D3,D4,D5 : dipole magnets T1,T2,T3,T4,T5, TPM1 TPM2: tracking detectors H1,H2,TOFW : Time Multiplicity Beam magnets TOFW TPM2 TPM1 T1 Fig. 1. Birds eye view of the BRAHMS detector. The MRS can

371

SUPPORT VECTOR MACHINE CLASSIFICATION 18th July, 2006  

E-print Network

, for classifying future points as either `blue' or `orange'. Suppose that we restrict the classifier to the family of these appeared on the post code of an addressed envelope. How might we get computers to help us `read' the post code? Figure 1: Three sets of handwritten digits. Support vector machines are an effective means

Wand, Matt

372

CSE 509 System Security 18th Nov 2013  

E-print Network

modules in separate process is okay when communicating messages are not large. Otherwise it's a waste. So of privileges. Read and write apps are kept separate and they can communicate in some way. Chrome and its. The downside being overhead like context switching, replication of data etc. In general running two different

Sekar, R.

373

"Astronomers Anticipate Meteor "Storm" on November 18th"  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The annual Leonid meteor shower, named for its emanation from the constellation Leo, will blow past Earth on November 18, 2001. Astronomers predict that North America will get the most spectacular Leonid shower it has seen in 35 years. "Earth is about to plow through a cloud of space dust that could light up our skies with celestial fireworks," notes Alan MacRobert, senior editor for Sky and Telescope (S&T) magazine. For more about the Leonids, refer to Sky and Telescope online. From the press release above, users can access a special report, peak activity prediction tables, images and QuickTime animations (intended for the press), and a .pdf of the S&T print article on the Leonid showers.

374

UWM Urban Studies Programs 18th Annual Student Forum  

E-print Network

Danielle Dahl Lynn Gransee Jamie Harris, Ph.D. Neal Johnson David Kennedy Scott Letteney Michael Martin, Ph & Dining Hall Roundtable Discussions ­ Dining Room Foreclosure Crisis - Michael Martin Challenges

Saldin, Dilano

375

National Taiwan University 2011 Summer+ Dates: July 18th  

E-print Network

) Housing: Provided by BOT Shui-Yuan Dormitory, offering single rooms within an on-campus student College of Life Science College of Public Health Michelle Yun michelleyun@ntu.edu.tw Manager, Study Abroad

Wu, Yih-Min

376

Four Centuries of Massachusetts Furniture  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The history of furniture making provides an unusual glimpse into the early history of American material culture and folkways. This remarkable site unites eleven institutions with a shared interest in celebrating furniture-making in the Bay State, including the Colonial Society of Massachusetts, Historic Deerfield, and the Massachusetts Historical Society. Through a multitude of exhibitions and events, the site allows visitors to explore a detailed visual timeline of furniture making history, view great short videos profiling artisans and their techniques, and much more. Visitors will find the Explore & Learn area particularly engaging with the aforementioned timeline and notable furniture including a remarkable joined chest crafted in the late 17th century. Additionally, the Resources area contains links to museums and institutions with significant furniture holdings, along with a bibliography, and a list of prominent furniture makers.

377

Turn of the Century Posters  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This digital exhibit begins with an illustration of a group of urbanites all in a state of advanced concentration as they consider the latest issue of Harperâ??s magazine. Created sometime in the 1890s, this particular poster by Edward Penfield was one of the first art posters published in America. This online collection from the New York Public Library is full of such images, and visitors will enjoy looking over the hundreds of art posters from the turn of the century offered here. Visitors can view posters created by dozens of artists, and they can also search the entire collection, if they so desire. There are a number of gems here, including the poster advertising the novel â??The Involuntary Chaperonâ? by H.R. Boehm and Edmund Henry Garrettâ??s poster for â??Romance and Reality of the Puritan Coastâ?.

378

Exploring 20th Century London  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From the expansion of the Underground to the waves of new arrivals from the British colonies, London was greatly transformed through the 20th century. Recently, several London institutions, including the Museum of London, combed through their respective resources to create this interactive exhibit and archive that would tell visitors a bit about the city's evolution during those 100 years. The materials can be viewed through three sections: "Timeline", "Themes", and "Places". In the "Timeline" section, visitors can browse through featured objects and also learn about major events during the period. Moving on, the "Themes" area organizes the city's recent past into topical areas that focus on art and design, the built environment, ethnic communities, and leisure activities. The "Places" section features a clickable map of London's boroughs which reveals artifacts from each of these respective areas.

379

A century of oceanographic and fisheries exploration on the continental shelf off Argentina  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A detailed analysis is presented of the main contributions, both local and international, to the fields of oceanography and fishery sciences resulting from exploratory cruises carried out on the continental shelf off Argentina over the last 100 years. The end of the 19th century is chosen as a starting point for this analysis as it marks the beginning of active marine research by Argentinian scientists and an accumulation of information on Antarctic and Subantarctic organisms in foreign journals. Mention is also made of previous contributions derived from the classic expeditions and global circumnavigational voyages during the 18th and 19th centuries. Although the aims of those were not always strictly oceanographic, they rendered significant information to this field of knowledge. In the early years, references arose mainly from the particular geographic situation of the Argentinian shelf, a necessary passage in the navigation routes to the Pacific Ocean, and later on the way to Antarctica. Sources of information are divided into four categories: (a) foreign scientific projects in the area; (b) investigation by Argentinian scientists and research vessels; (c) joint projects between Argentinian and foreign institutions; and (d) contributions from sources other than oceanographic cruises (commercial navigation, maritime weather reports, satellite images, etc.). The analysis includes an updated and classified bibliographical list of the main contributions to the fields of oceanography and fishery sciences derived from those sources, published either in international or local journals or appearing as technical and internal reports. The motivations, objectives and main achievements of foreign surveys and programmes in the area and their impact on local scientific progress are discussed. The early sixties mark a turning point in the evolution of international research in the area. The creation of biological stations along the Argentinian coast, and the support given to the pooling of human resources set the basis for the development of bilateral programmes. Similar progress in Brazil and Uruguay led to the outgrowth of regional activities. Joint scientific efforts described in this analysis include the programmes carried out by the research vessels of Germany (“Walther Herwig”, “Meteor”), Japan (“Kaiyo Maru”, “Orient Maru”, “Shinkai Maru”), Poland (“Professor Siedlecki”), Russia (“Evrika”, “Dimitry Stefanov”) and the USA (“Vema”, “Atlantis II”), the achievements of which are a landmark in the evolution of marine science in the aea.

Angelescu, V.; Sánchez, R. P.

1995-03-01

380

Usual Intake of Added sugars  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Added sugars Table A40. Added sugars: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 teaspoons3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 9.4 (0.31) 3.1 (0.17) 4.1

381

Ad hoc positioning system (APS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many ad hoc network protocols and applications assume the knowledge of geographic location of nodes. The absolute location of each networked node is an assumed fact by most sensor networks which can then present the sensed information on a geographical map. Finding location without the aid of GPS in each node of an ad hoc network is important in cases

Dragos Niculescu; Badri Nath

2001-01-01

382

One-loop diagrams in AdS space  

SciTech Connect

We study the complex scalar loop corrections to the boundary-boundary gauge two-point function in pure AdS space in Poincare coordinates, in the presence of boundary quadratic perturbations to the scalar. These perturbations correspond to double-trace perturbations in the dual CFT and modify the boundary conditions of the bulk scalars in AdS. We find that, in addition to the usual UV divergences, the one-loop calculation suffers from a divergence originating in the limit as the loop vertices approach the AdS horizon. We show that this type of divergence is independent of the boundary coupling; making use of this we extract the finite relative variation of the imaginary part of the loop via Cutkosky rules as the boundary perturbation varies. Applying our methods to compute the effects of a time-dependent impurity to the conductivities using the replica trick in AdS/CFT, we find that generally an IR-relevant disorder reduces the conductivity and that in the extreme low frequency limit the correction due to the impurities overwhelms the planar CFT result even though it is supposedly 1/N{sup 2} suppressed. We also comment on the more physical scenario of a time-independent impurity.

Hung Lingyan; Shang Yanwen [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 2Y5 (Canada)

2011-01-15

383

21st Century Skills Map: World Languages  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This 21st Century Skills Map is the result of hundreds of hours of research, development and feedback from educators and business leaders across the nation. The Partnership for 21st Century Skills has issued this map for the core subject of World Languages. [Funding for this paper was provided by EF Education.

Partnership for 21st Century Skills, 2011

2011-01-01

384

21st Century Skills Map: The Arts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This 21st Century Skills Map is the result of hundreds of hours of research, development and feedback from educators and business leaders across the nation. The Partnership for 21st Century Skills has issued this map for the core subject of the Arts.

Dean, Colleen; Ebert, Christie M. Lynch; McGreevy-Nichols, Susan; Quinn, Betsy; Sabol, F. Robert; Schmid, Dale; Shauck, R. Barry; Shuler, Scott C.

2010-01-01

385

Physics of the Twentieth Century, and Beyond  

SciTech Connect

This talk is intended for a general audience. A brief history of the two primary physical theories of the twentieth century is presented, and the similarity between the late nineteenth and the early twenty-first centuries is highlighted. In particular, the past and possible future of exact solutions in general relativity are briefly described, and reasons why time is growing short are cited.

Ernst, Frederick J. [FJE Enterprises, 511 CR 59, Potsdam, NY 13676 (Germany)

2009-05-01

386

The forecaster's added value  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To the authors' knowledge there are relatively few studies that try to answer this topic: "Are humans able to add value to computer-generated forecasts and warnings ?". Moreover, the answers are not always positive. In particular some postprocessing method is competitive or superior to human forecast (see for instance Baars et al., 2005, Charba et al., 2002, Doswell C., 2003, Roebber et al., 1996, Sanders F., 1986). Within the alert system of ARPA Piemonte it is possible to study in an objective manner if the human forecaster is able to add value with respect to computer-generated forecasts. Every day the meteorology group of the Centro Funzionale of Regione Piemonte produces the HQPF (Human QPF) in terms of an areal average for each of the 13 regional warning areas, which have been created according to meteo-hydrological criteria. This allows the decision makers to produce an evaluation of the expected effects by comparing these HQPFs with predefined rainfall thresholds. Another important ingredient in this study is the very dense non-GTS network of rain gauges available that makes possible a high resolution verification. In this context the most useful verification approach is the measure of the QPF and HQPF skills by first converting precipitation expressed as continuous amounts into ‘‘exceedance'' categories (yes-no statements indicating whether precipitation equals or exceeds selected thresholds) and then computing the performances for each threshold. In particular in this work we compare the performances of the latest three years of QPF derived from two meteorological models COSMO-I7 (the Italian version of the COSMO Model, a mesoscale model developed in the framework of the COSMO Consortium) and IFS (the ECMWF global model) with the HQPF. In this analysis it is possible to introduce the hypothesis test developed by Hamill (1999), in which a confidence interval is calculated with the bootstrap method in order to establish the real difference between the skill scores of two competitive forecast. It is important to underline that the conclusions refer to the analysis of the Piemonte operational alert system, so they cannot be directly taken as universally true. But we think that some of the main lessons that can be derived from this study could be useful for the meteorological community. In details, the main conclusions are the following: - despite the overall improvement in global scale and the fact that the resolution of the limited area models has increased considerably over recent years, the QPF produced by the meteorological models involved in this study has not improved enough to allow its direct use, that is, the subjective HQPF continues to offer the best performance; - in the forecast process, the step where humans have the largest added value with respect to mathematical models, is the communication. In fact the human characterisation and communication of the forecast uncertainty to end users cannot be replaced by any computer code; - eventually, although there is no novelty in this study, we would like to show that the correct application of appropriated statistical techniques permits a better definition and quantification of the errors and, mostly important, allows a correct (unbiased) communication between forecasters and decision makers.

Turco, M.; Milelli, M.

2009-09-01

387

Glass technology in Spain in XVIIIth century according to printed sources: the Spanish annotated translation of L'Arte Vetraria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The French book The art of glass of Neri, Merret and Kunckel, was translated to Spanish and published by Miguel Jerónimo Suarez Núñez in the XVIIIth century as a part of the collection of works entitled Instructive and curious reports on Agriculture, Trade, Industry, Economy, Chemistry, Botany, Natural History etc (1778–1791). The original text was modified by Suárez Núñez adding

Joaquín Pérez-Pariente; Ana Belén Martín Rojo

2008-01-01

388

Observing quantum gravity in asymptotically AdS space  

E-print Network

A question is studied whether an observer can discover quantum gravity being in the semi-classical regime. It is shown that it is indeed possible to probe a certain quantum gravity effect by employing an appropriately designed detector. The effect is related to the possibility of having topologically inequivalent geometries at once in the path integral approach. A CFT state which is expected to describe the eternal AdS black hole in the large N limit is discussed. It is argued that the black hole boundary should be merely a patch of the entire AdS boundary. This leads then to a conclusion that that CFT state is the ordinary CFT vacuum restricted to that patch. If existent, the bulk CFT operators can behave as the ordinary semi- classical quantum field theory in the large N limit.

Emelyanov, Slava

2015-01-01

389

AdS_6 solutions of type II supergravity  

E-print Network

Very few AdS_6 x M_4 supersymmetric solutions are known: one in massive IIA, and two IIB solutions dual to it. The IIA solution is known to be unique; in this paper, we use the pure spinor approach to give a classification for IIB supergravity. We reduce the problem to two PDEs on a two-dimensional space Sigma. M_4 is then a fibration of S^2 over Sigma; the metric and fluxes are completely determined in terms of the solution to the PDEs. The results seem likely to accommodate near-horizon limits of (p,q)-fivebrane webs studied in the literature as a source of CFT_5's. We also show that there are no AdS_6 solutions in eleven-dimensional supergravity.

Fabio Apruzzi; Marco Fazzi; Achilleas Passias; Dario Rosa; Alessandro Tomasiello

2015-02-28

390

AdS_6 solutions of type II supergravity  

E-print Network

Very few AdS_6 x M_4 supersymmetric solutions are known: one in massive IIA, and two IIB solutions dual to it. The IIA solution is known to be unique; in this paper, we use the pure spinor approach to give a classification for IIB supergravity. We reduce the problem to two PDEs on a two-dimensional space Sigma. M_4 is then a fibration of S^2 over Sigma; the metric and fluxes are completely determined in terms of the solution to the PDEs. The results seem likely to accommodate near-horizon limits of (p,q)-fivebrane webs studied in the literature as a source of CFT_5's. We also show that there are no AdS_6 solutions in eleven-dimensional supergravity.

Fabio Apruzzi; Marco Fazzi; Achilleas Passias; Dario Rosa; Alessandro Tomasiello

2015-04-03

391

AdS6 solutions of type II supergravity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Very few AdS6 × M 4 supersymmetric solutions are known: one in massive IIA, and two IIB solutions dual to it. The IIA solution is known to be unique; in this paper, we use the pure spinor approach to give a classification for IIB supergravity. We reduce the problem to two PDEs on a two-dimensional space ?. M 4 is then a fibration of S 2 over ?; the metric and fluxes are completely determined in terms of the solution to the PDEs. The results seem likely to accommodate near-horizon limits of ( p, q)-fivebrane webs studied in the literature as a source of CFT5's. We also show that there are no AdS6 solutions in eleven-dimensional supergravity.

Apruzzi, Fabio; Fazzi, Marco; Passias, Achilleas; Rosa, Dario; Tomasiello, Alessandro

2014-11-01

392

AdS plane waves, entanglement and mutual information  

E-print Network

$AdS$ plane wave backgrounds are dual to CFT excited states with energy momentum density $T_{++}=Q$. Building on previous work on entanglement entropy in these and nonconformal brane plane wave backgrounds, we first describe a phenomenological scaling picture for entanglement in terms of "entangling partons". We then study aspects of holographic mutual information in these backgrounds for two strip shaped subsystems, aligned parallel or orthogonal to the flux. We focus on the wide ($Ql^d\\gg 1$) and narrow ($Ql^d\\ll 1$) strip regimes. In the wide strip regime, mutual information exhibits growth with the individual strip sizes and a disentangling transition as the separation between the strips increases, whose behaviour is distinct from the ground and thermal states. In the narrow strip case, our calculations have parallels with "entanglement thermodynamics" for these $AdS$ plane wave deformations. We also discuss some numerical analysis.

Debangshu Mukherjee; K. Narayan

2014-05-26

393

N = 2 supersymmetric sigma-models in AdS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We construct the most general N=2 supersymmetric nonlinear sigma-model in four-dimensional anti-de Sitter (AdS) space in terms of N=1 chiral superfields. The target space is shown to be a non-compact hyper-Kähler manifold restricted to possess a special Killing vector field. A remarkable property of the sigma-model constructed is that the algebra of OSp(2|4) transformations is closed off the mass shell.

Butter, Daniel; Kuzenko, Sergei M.

2011-09-01

394

Spiky Strings on AdS(4) X CP**3  

E-print Network

We study a giant magnon and a spike solution for the string rotating on AdS(4) X CP**3 geometry. We consider rigid rotating fundamental string in the SU(2) X SU(2) sector inside the CP**3 and find out the general form of all the conserved charges. We find out the dispersion relation corresponding to both the known giant magnon and the new spike solutions. We further study the finite size correction in both cases.

Bum-Hoon Lee; Kamal L. Panigrahi; Chanyong Park

2008-11-07

395

Crystal manyfold universes in AdS space  

Microsoft Academic Search

We derive crystal braneworld solutions, comprising of intersecting families of parallel n+2-branes in a 4+n-dimensional AdS space. Each family consists of alternating positive and negative tension branes. In the simplest case of exactly orthogonal families, there arise different crystals with unbroken 4D Poincaré invariance on the intersections, where our world can reside. A crystal can be finite along some direction,

Nemanja Kaloper

2000-01-01

396

Regularization of odd-dimensional AdS gravity: Kounterterms  

E-print Network

As an alternative to the Dirichlet counterterms prescription, I introduce the concept of Kounterterms as the boundary terms with explicit dependence on the extrinsic curvature K_{ij} that regularize the AdS gravity action. Instead of a Dirichlet boundary condition on the metric, a suitable choice of the boundary conditions --compatible with any asymptotically AdS (AAdS) spacetime-- ensures a finite action principle for all odd dimensions. Background-independent conserved quantities are obtained as Noether charges associated to asymptotic symmetries and their general expression appears naturally split in two parts. The first one gives the correct mass and angular momentum for AAdS black holes and vanishes identically for globally AdS spacetimes. Thus, the second part is a covariant formula for the vacuum energy in AAdS spacetimes and reproduces the results obtained by the Dirichlet counterterms method in a number of cases. It is also shown that this Kounterterms series regularizes the Euclidean action and recovers the correct black hole thermodynamics in odd dimensions.

Rodrigo Olea

2007-04-18

397

SUSY properties of warped AdS3  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We examine supersymmetric properties of null-warped AdS3, or alternatively Schrödinger geometries, dual to putative warped CFTs in two dimensions. We classify super Schrödinger subalgebras of the superalgebra psu(1, 1|2) ? psu(1, 1|2), corresponding to the superconformal algebra of the AdS3 × S3 geometry. We comment on geometric realisations and provide a string theory description with enhanced supersymmetry in terms of intersecting D3-branes. For type IIB supergravity solutions based on T 1,1, we consider the relationship between five-dimensional Schrödinger solutions and their three-dimensional null-warped counterparts, corresponding to R symmetry twists. Finally, we study a family of null-warped AdS3 solutions in a setting where there is an ambiguity over the R symmetry and confirm that, for examples admitting a Kaluza-Klein (KK) reduction to three dimensions, the minimisation of a real superpotential of the three-dimensional gauged supergravity captures the central charge and R symmetry.

Jeong, Jaehoon; Colgáin, Eoin Ó.; Yoshida, Kentaroh

2014-06-01

398

Anomalous solar rotation in the early 17th century  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The character of solar rotation has been examined for two periods in the early 17th century for which detailed sunspot drawings are available: A.D. 1625 through 1626 and 1642 through 1644. The first period occurred 20 years before the start of the Maunder sunspot minimum, 1645 through 1715; the second occurred just at its commencement. Solar rotation in the earlier period was much like that of today. In the later period, the equatorial velocity of the sun was faster by 3 to 5 percent and the differential rotation was enhanced by a factor of 3. The equatorial acceleration with declining solar activity is in the same sense as that found in recent Doppler data. It seems likely that the change in rotation of the solar surface between 1625 and 1645 was associated with the onset of the Maunder Minimum.

Eddy, J. A.; Gilman, P. A.; Trotter, D. E.

1977-01-01

399

The Enigma of 20th century sea level change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sea level has been constant at near-present levels from ~5500 calendar years BP to the end of the Little Ice Age at ~1860 AD. Since ~1900, tide gauge measurements indicate that it has risen steadily at ~2 mm/yr by about 18 cm. The comparative stability of sealevel from 5500 cal yr BP to 1860 AD is robust, being suggested by near-shore Mediterranean archeological sites, the few sea level records that extend back to 1700 AD, and the impossibility of projecting the current sea level rise of ~2 mm/y back 5000 years (it would produce a global 10 m inundation, which is not observed) (Douglas et al., 2001, Academic Press). The post 1870 sea level rise is not due to heating of the upper ocean (Liviticus et al., 2000, Science). Munk (2002, PNAS) characterized it as an "enigma", dismissing an upper ocean steric sea level explanation as "too little" (~3 cm), "too late" (the rise started in 1860), and "too linear" (not accelerating with the accelerating CO2 increase). GRACE gravity measurements show a near zero change in ocean mass. Cazenave et al. (2009, Global and Planetary Change) indicate a slight decrease in ocean mass between 2003 and 2008. The rate of meltwater mass being added to the oceans essentially equals the GIA correction (Chambers et al., 2010, JGR). Different GIA models give ocean mass increase ranging from 0.5 to 2 mm/y of equivalent sea level rise. Our GIA model suggests no ocean mass increases (~0 mm/y of equivalent sea level rise). In this talk I show that the heating of a two layer ocean model driven by the temperature changes that have occurred over the last 1000 years since the peak of the Medieval Warm Period produces a ~2mm/yr linear sea level rise over the last 100 years with much smaller preceding sea level changes. Ocean mass could be unchanging over the last century as well as the last ~5000 years. This result is compatible with GRACE measurements and eclipse data constraints, predictions of our GIA model, and it resolves the enigma the 20th Century sea level change noted by Munk.

Cathles, Larry

2014-05-01

400

PRIVATE PRACTITIONERS Value Added Features  

E-print Network

PROMOTING VISION WELLNESS PRIVATE PRACTITIONERS Value Added Features: In addition to the health. Choose from private practitioners and leading optical retailers offered through the EyeMed ACCESS panel

Mountziaris, T. J.

401

Taking refuge from modernity: 21st century hermits.  

PubMed

Idiopathic environmental intolerances, such as 'multiple chemical sensitivity' and 'electrosensitivity,' can drastically affect the quality of life of those affected. A proportion of severely affected patients remove themselves from modern society, to live in isolation away from the purported causal agent of their ill health. This is not a new phenomenon; reports of hermits extend back to the 3(rd) century AD. We conducted a literature review of case reports relating to ancient hermits and modern day reclusion resulting from idiopathic environmental intolerance, in order to explore whether there are similarities between these two groups and whether the symptoms of these 'illnesses of modernity' are simply a present-day way of reaching the end-point of reclusion. Whilst there were some differences between the cases, recurring themes in ancient and modern cases included: dissatisfaction with society, a compulsion to flee, reports of a constant struggle and a feeling of fighting against the establishment. The similarities which exist between the modern-day cases and the historical hermits may provide some insight into the extreme behaviours exhibited by this population. The desire to retreat from society in order to escape from harm has existed for many centuries, but in different guises. PMID:23288087

Boyd, I; Rubin, Gj; Wessely, S

2012-12-01

402

AD-1 aircraft in flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Ames-Dryden (AD)-1 was a research aircraft designed to investigate the concept of an oblique (or pivoting) wing. The movie clip runs about 17 seconds and has two air-to-air views of the AD-1. The first shot is from slightly above as the wing pivots to 60 degrees. The other angle is almost directly below the aircraft when the wing is fully pivoted.

1980-01-01

403

ADS/CFT and QCD  

SciTech Connect

The AdS/CFT correspondence between string theory in AdS space and conformal .eld theories in physical spacetime leads to an analytic, semi-classical model for strongly-coupled QCD which has scale invariance and dimensional counting at short distances and color confinement at large distances. Although QCD is not conformally invariant, one can nevertheless use the mathematical representation of the conformal group in five-dimensional anti-de Sitter space to construct a first approximation to the theory. The AdS/CFT correspondence also provides insights into the inherently non-perturbative aspects of QCD, such as the orbital and radial spectra of hadrons and the form of hadronic wavefunctions. In particular, we show that there is an exact correspondence between the fifth-dimensional coordinate of AdS space z and a specific impact variable {zeta} which measures the separation of the quark and gluonic constituents within the hadron in ordinary space-time. This connection allows one to compute the analytic form of the frame-independent light-front wavefunctions, the fundamental entities which encode hadron properties and allow the computation of decay constants, form factors, and other exclusive scattering amplitudes. New relativistic lightfront equations in ordinary space-time are found which reproduce the results obtained using the 5-dimensional theory. The effective light-front equations possess remarkable algebraic structures and integrability properties. Since they are complete and orthonormal, the AdS/CFT model wavefunctions can also be used as a basis for the diagonalization of the full light-front QCD Hamiltonian, thus systematically improving the AdS/CFT approximation.

Brodsky, Stanley J.; /SLAC; de Teramond, Guy F.; /Costa Rica U. /SLAC

2007-02-21

404

Historical mathematics in the French eighteenth century.  

PubMed

At least since the seventeenth century, the strange combination of epistemological certainty and ontological power that characterizes mathematics has made it a major focus of philosophical, social, and cultural negotiation. In the eighteenth century, all of these factors were at play as mathematical thinkers struggled to assimilate and extend the analysis they had inherited from the seventeenth century. A combination of educational convictions and historical assumptions supported a humanistic mathematics essentially defined by its flexibility and breadth. This mathematics was an expression of l'esprit humain, which was unfolding in a progressive historical narrative. The French Revolution dramatically altered the historical and educational landscapes that had supported this eighteenth-century approach, and within thirty years Augustin Louis Cauchy had radically reconceptualized and restructured mathematics to be rigorous rather than narrative. PMID:17367006

Richards, Joan L

2006-12-01

405

Science diplomacy in the 21st century.  

PubMed

Science diplomacy is the use of scientific collaborations among nations to address the common problems facing 21(st) century humanity and to build constructive international partnerships. There are many ways that scientists can contribute to this process. PMID:19135879

Fedoroff, Nina V

2009-01-01

406

Museums, Libraries, and 21st Century Skills  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Institute of Museum and Library Services (IMLS) has an aggressive research program dedicated to providing cutting-edge information about the trends in library services and other matters. This timely 40-page report is intended to "support museums and public libraries in envisioning and defining their roles as institutions of learning in the 21st century." To achieve this goal, this report brings together case studies of successful 21st century projects at different institutions, along outlining a "vision for the role of libraries and museums in the national dialogue around learning and 21st century skills." Along with the main report and the case studies, the report also includes a self-assessment tool, which allows museums and libraries to determine where they fit on the continuum of 21st century skills operations and programming.

407

The Ninth-Century Renaissance in Astronomy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the events in the ninth century that moved astronomy away from the pursuit of mystical hermetic sciences and astrology back toward observation and measurement. Describes the achievements of astronomers and the instruments and calculations used during that period. (JRH)

Farrell, Charlotte

1996-01-01

408

Interdisciplinarity for the Twenty-First Century  

E-print Network

, Bettina Dahl Søndergaard, and Lenni Haapasalo Interdisciplinarity for the Twenty-First Century and at Work: Prolegomena for Rethinking the Concept of Interdisciplinarity Wolff-Michael Roth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Gideon, Rudy A.

409

China's March on the 21st Century  

E-print Network

#12;China's March on the 21st Century A Report of the Aspen Strategy Group Kurt M. Campbell, Editor at the Crossroads: The Future of China's Economy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 Lael Brainard Adjusting to China's Rise

Deutch, John

410

Thermal Fluctuations in a Charged AdS Black Hole  

E-print Network

In this paper, we will analyze the effects of thermal fluctuations on a charged AdS black hole. This will be done by analyzing the corrections to black hole thermodynamics due to these thermal fluctuations. We will demonstrate that the entropy of this black hole get corrected by logarithmic term. We will also calculate other corrections to other important thermodynamic quantities for this black hole. Finally, we will use the corrected value of the specific heat to analyze the phase transition in this system.

Pourhassan, B

2015-01-01

411

Entanglement Entropy and Duality in AdS(4)  

E-print Network

Small variations of the entanglement entropy \\delta S and the expectation value of the modular Hamiltonian \\delta E are computed holographically for circular entangling curves in the boundary of AdS(4), using gravitational perturbations with general boundary conditions in spherical coordinates. Agreement with the first law of thermodynamics, \\delta S = \\delta E, requires that the line element of the entangling curve remains constant. In this context, we also find a manifestation of electric-magnetic duality for the entanglement entropy and the corresponding modular Hamiltonian, following from the holographic energy-momentum/Cotton tensor duality.

Bakas, Ioannis

2015-01-01

412

M-theory compactification, fluxes and AdS_4  

E-print Network

We analyze supersymmetric solutions of M-theory based an a seven-dimensional internal space with SU(3) structure and a four-dimensional maximally symmetric space. The most general supersymmetry conditions are derived and we show that a non-vanishing cosmological constant requires the norms of the two internal spinors to differ. We find explicit local solutions with singlet flux and the space being a warped product of a circle, a nearly-Kahler manifold and AdS_4. The embedding of solutions into heterotic M-theory is also discussed.

Andre Lukas; P. M. Saffin

2004-05-14

413

Gravitational charges of transverse asymptotically AdS spacetimes  

SciTech Connect

Using Killing-Yano symmetries, we construct conserved charges of spacetimes that asymptotically approach to the flat or anti-de Sitter spaces only in certain directions. In D dimensions, this allows one to define gravitational charges (such as mass and angular momenta densities) of p-dimensional branes/solitons or any other extended objects that curve the transverse space into an asymptotically flat or AdS one. Our construction answers the question of what kind of charges the antisymmetric Killing-Yano tensors lead to.

Cebeci, Hakan; Sarioglu, Oezguer; Tekin, Bayram [Department of Physics, Anadolu University, Yunus Emre Campus, 26470, Eskisehir (Turkey); Department of Physics, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Middle East Technical University, 06531, Ankara (Turkey)

2006-12-15

414

Static nonextremal AdS4 black hole solutions  

E-print Network

We find new static nonextremal black hole solutions that asymptote to AdS_4 in D=4 gauged N=2 supergravity. Solutions include electric and magnetic black holes with constant scalars that in the BPS limit reduce to naked singularities, but also magnetic black holes with running scalars that at extremality reduce to BPS black holes with finite horizon area. For all these solutions we compute area product formulae and show they are independent of the mass. Finally, we also find new examples of nonextremal magnetic black branes.

Chiara Toldo; Stefan Vandoren

2014-09-16

415

Pure Spinors in AdS and Lie Algebra Cohomology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We show that the BRST cohomology of the massless sector of the Type IIB superstring on AdS5 × S 5 can be described as the relative cohomology of an infinite-dimensional Lie superalgebra. We explain how the vertex operators of ghost number 1, which correspond to conserved currents, are described in this language. We also give some algebraic description of the ghost number 2 vertices, which appears to be new. We use this algebraic description to clarify the structure of the zero mode sector of the ghost number two states in flat space, and initiate the study of the vertices of the higher ghost number.

Mikhailov, Andrei

2014-10-01

416

Introducing ADS 2.0  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the spring of 1993, the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) first launched its bibliographic search system. It was known then as the ADS Abstract Service, a component of the larger Astrophysics Data System effort which had developed an interoperable data system now seen as a precursor of the Virtual Observatory. As a result of the massive technological and sociological changes in the field of scholarly communication, the ADS is now completing the most ambitious technological upgrade in its twenty-year history. Code-named ADS 2.0, the new system features: an IT platform built on web and digital library standards; a new, extensible, industrial strength search engine; a public API with various access control capabilities; a set of applications supporting search, export, visualization, analysis; a collaborative, open source development model; and enhanced indexing of content which includes the full-text of astronomy and physics publications. The changes in the ADS platform affect all aspects of the system and its operations, including: the process through which data and metadata are harvested, curated and indexed; the interface and paradigm used for searching the database; and the follow-up analysis capabilities available to the users. This poster describes the choices behind the technical overhaul of the system, the technology stack used, and the opportunities which the upgrade is providing us with, namely gains in productivity and enhancements in our system capabilities.

Accomazzi, Alberto; Kurtz, M. J.; Henneken, E. A.; Grant, C. S.; Thompson, D.; Luker, J.; Chyla, R.; Murray, S. S.

2014-01-01

417

AdS/CFT Duality User Guide  

E-print Network

This is the draft version of a textbook on "real-world" applications of the AdS/CFT duality for beginning graduate students in particle physics and for researchers in the other fields. The aim of this book is to provide background materials such as string theory, general relativity, nuclear physics, nonequilibrium physics, and condensed-matter physics as well as some key applications of the AdS/CFT duality in a single textbook. Contents: (1) Introduction, (2) General relativity and black holes, (3) Black holes and thermodynamics, (4) Strong interaction and gauge theories, (5) The road to AdS/CFT, (6) The AdS spacetime, (7) AdS/CFT - equilibrium, (8) AdS/CFT - adding probes, (9) Basics of nonequilibrium physics, (10) AdS/CFT - nonequilibrium, (11) Other AdS spacetimes, (12) Applications to quark-gluon plasma, (13) Basics of phase transition, (14) AdS/CFT - phase transition.

Makoto Natsuume

2015-01-16

418

Possible earthquake trigger for 6th century mass wasting deposit at Lake Ohrid (Macedonia/Albania)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lake Ohrid shared by the Republics of Albania and Macedonia is formed by a tectonically active graben within the south Balkans and suggested to be the oldest lake in Europe. Several studies have shown that the lake provides a valuable record of climatic and environmental changes and a distal tephrostratigraphic record of volcanic eruptions from Italy. Fault structures identified in seismic data demonstrate that sediments have also the potential to record tectonic activity in the region. Here, we provide an example of linking seismic and sedimentological information with tectonic activity and historical documents. Historical documents indicate that a major earthquake destroyed the city of Lychnidus (today: city of Ohrid) in the early 6th century AD. Multichannel seismic profiles, parametric sediment echosounder profiles, and a 10.08 m long sediment record from the western part of the lake indicate a 2 m thick mass wasting deposit, which is tentatively correlated with this earthquake. The mass wasting deposit is chronologically well constrained, as it directly overlays the AD 472/AD 512 tephra. Moreover, radiocarbon dates and cross correlation with other sediment sequences with similar geochemical characteristics of the Holocene indicate that the mass wasting event took place prior to the onset of the Medieval Warm Period, and is attributed it to one of the known earthquakes in the region in the early 6th century AD.

Wagner, B.; Francke, A.; Sulpizio, R.; Zanchetta, G.; Lindhorst, K.; Krastel, S.; Vogel, H.; Rethemeyer, J.; Daut, G.; Grazhdani, A.; Lushaj, B.; Trajanovski, S.

2012-12-01

419

AdCell: Ad Allocation in Cellular Networks  

E-print Network

With more than four billion usage of cellular phones worldwide, mobile advertising has become an attractive alternative to online advertisements. In this paper, we propose a new targeted advertising policy for Wireless Service Providers (WSPs) via SMS or MMS- namely {\\em AdCell}. In our model, a WSP charges the advertisers for showing their ads. Each advertiser has a valuation for specific types of customers in various times and locations and has a limit on the maximum available budget. Each query is in the form of time and location and is associated with one individual customer. In order to achieve a non-intrusive delivery, only a limited number of ads can be sent to each customer. Recently, new services have been introduced that offer location-based advertising over cellular network that fit in our model (e.g., ShopAlerts by AT&T) . We consider both online and offline version of the AdCell problem and develop approximation algorithms with constant competitive ratio. For the online version, we assume tha...

Alaei, Saeed; Liaghat, Vahid; Pei, Dan; Saha, Barna

2011-01-01

420

Servitization of business: Adding value by adding services  

Microsoft Academic Search

More and more corporations throughout the world are adding value to their core corporate offerings through services. The trend is pervading almost all industries, is customer demand-driven, and perceived by corporations as sharpening their competitive edges. Modern corporations are increasingly offering fuller market packages or \\

Sandra Vandermerwe; Juan Rada

1988-01-01

421

UV-IR relations in AdS dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

We point out that two distinct distance-energy relations have been discussed in the AdS-CFT correspondence. In conformal backgrounds they differ only in normalization, but in nonconformal backgrounds they differ in functional form. We discuss the relation to probe processes, the holographic principle, and black hole entropies.

Amanda W. Peet; Joseph Polchinski

1999-01-01

422

Scattering States in AdS/CFT  

SciTech Connect

We show that suitably regulated multi-trace primary states in large N CFTs behave like 'in' and 'out' scattering states in the flat-space limit of AdS. Their transition matrix elements approach the exact scattering amplitudes for the bulk theory, providing a natural CFT definition of the flat space S-Matrix. We study corrections resulting from the AdS curvature and particle propagation far from the center of AdS, and show that AdS simply provides an IR regulator that disappears in the flat space limit.

Fitzpatrick, A.Liam; /Boston U.; Kaplan, Jared; /SLAC

2012-02-14

423

Strings on AdS wormholes and nonsingular black holes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Certain AdS black holes in the STU model can be conformally scaled to wormhole and black hole backgrounds which have two asymptotically AdS regions and are completely free of curvature singularities. While there is a delta-function source for the dilaton, classical string probes are not sensitive to this singularity. According to the AdS/CFT correspondence, the dual field theory lives on the union of the disjoint boundaries. For the wormhole background, causal contact exists between the two boundaries and the structure of certain correlation functions is indicative of an interacting phase for which there is a coupling between the degrees of freedom living at each boundary. The nonsingular black hole describes an entangled state in two non-interacting identical conformal field theories. By studying the behavior of open strings on these backgrounds, we extract a number of features of the ‘quarks’ and ‘anti-quarks’ that live in the field theories. In the interacting phase, we find that there is a maximum speed with which the quarks can move without losing energy, beyond which energy is transferred from a quark in one field theory to a quark in the other. We also compute the rate at which moving quarks within entangled states lose energy to the two surrounding plasmas. While a quark-antiquark pair within a single field theory exhibits Coulomb interaction for small separation, a quark in one field theory exhibits spring-like confinement with an anti-quark in the other field theory. For the entangled states, we study how the quark-antiquark screening length depends on temperature and chemical potential.

Lü, H.; Vázquez-Poritz, Justin F.; Zhang, Zhibai

2015-01-01

424

Universality of long-distance AdS physics from the CFT bootstrap  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We begin by explicating a recent proof of the cluster decomposition principle in AdS?4 from the CFT?3 bootstrap. The CFT argument also computes the leading interactions between distant objects in AdS?4, and we confirm the universal agreement between the CFT bootstrap and AdS gravity in the semi-classical limit.

Fitzpatrick, A. Liam; Kaplan, Jared; Walters, Matthew T.

2014-08-01

425

Social Media Ad Metrics Definitions  

E-print Network

Social Media Ad Metrics Definitions Released May 2009 #12;Social Media Metrics Definitions © 2008 & Social Media Committee. About the IAB's User-Generated Content & Social Media Committee: The User-Generated Content & Social Media Committee of the IAB is comprised of over 150 member companies dedicated to helping

Collins, Gary S.

426

Phase transition and thermodynamical geometry for Schwarzschild AdS black hole in AdS5 × S5 spacetime  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the thermodynamics and thermodynamic geometry of a five-dimensional Schwarzschild AdS black hole in AdS 5 × S 5 spacetime by treating the cosmological constant as the number of colors in the boundary gauge theory and its conjugate quantity as the associated chemical potential. It is found that the chemical potential is always negative in the stable branch of black hole thermodynamics and it has a chance to be positive, but appears in the unstable branch. We calculate the scalar curvatures of the thermodynamical Weinhold metric, Ruppeiner metric and Quevedo metric, respectively and we find that the scalar curvature in the Weinhold metric is always vanishing, while in the Ruppeiner metric the divergence of the scalar curvature is related to the divergence of the heat capacity with fixed chemical potential, and in the Quevedo metric the divergence of the scalar curvature is related to the divergence of the heat capacity with fixed number of colors and to the vanishing of the heat capacity with fixed chemical potential.

Zhang, Jia-Lin; Cai, Rong-Gen; Yu, Hongwei

2015-02-01

427

Nineteenth-Century American and British Poets on Columbus: A Twentieth-Century View.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the 19th century alone, Christopher Columbus was the subject of hundreds of poems that rarely questioned his voyage, his methods, or his place in human history. However, the scholarly work and political realities of the 20th century have undermined the noble, heroic visions conveyed by the poets. Modern readers/students have a dual duty to…

Gorman, Anita G.

428

Higher spin AdS3 holography with extended supersymmetry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a holographic duality between a higher spin AdS3 gravity with so( p) extended supersymmetry and a large N limit of a 2-dimensional Grassmannian-like model with a specific critical level k = N and a non-diagonal modular invariant. As evidence, we show the match of one-loop partition functions. Moreover, we construct symmetry generators of the coset model for low spins which are dual to gauge fields in the supergravity. Further, we discuss a possible relation to superstring theory by noticing an supersymmetry of critical level model at finite k, N. In particular, we examine BPS states and marginal deformations. Inspired by the supergravity side, we also propose and test another large N CFT dual obtained as a automorphism truncation of a similar coset model, but at a non-critical level.

Creutzig, Thomas; Hikida, Yasuaki; Rønne, Peter B.

2014-10-01

429

From free fields to AdS space: Thermal case  

SciTech Connect

We analyze the reorganization of free field theory correlators to closed string amplitudes investigated in previous papers in the case of Euclidean thermal field theory and study how the dual bulk geometry is encoded on them. The expectation value of Polyakov loop, which is an order parameter for confinement-deconfinement transition, is directly reflected on the dual bulk geometry. The dual geometry of the confined phase is found to be AdS space periodically identified in Euclidean time direction. The gluing of Schwinger parameters, which is a key step for the reorganization of field theory correlators, works in the same way as in the nonthermal case. In the deconfined phase the gluing is made possible only by taking the dual geometry correctly. The dual geometry for the deconfined phase does not have a noncontractable circle in the Euclidean time direction.

Furuuchi, Kazuyuki [Harish-Chandra Research Institute, Chhatnag Road, Jhusi, Allahabad 211 019 (India)

2005-09-15

430

From Free Fields to AdS -- Thermal Case  

E-print Network

We analyze the reorganization of free field theory correlators to closed string amplitudes investigated in hep-th/0308184 hep-th/0402063 hep-th/0409233 hep-th/0504229 in the case of Euclidean thermal field theory and study how the dual bulk geometry is encoded on them. The expectation value of Polyakov loop, which is an order parameter for confinement-deconfinement transition, is directly reflected on the dual bulk geometry. The dual geometry of confined phase is found to be AdS space periodically identified in Euclidean time direction. The gluing of Schwinger parameters, which is a key step for the reorganization of field theory correlators, works in the same way as in the non-thermal case. In deconfined phase the gluing is made possible only by taking the dual geometry correctly. The dual geometry for deconfined phase does not have a non-contractible circle in the Euclidean time direction.

Kazuyuki Furuuchi

2005-10-06

431

Seminar: Ad Hoc Networks Konrad Meier Seminar Ad Hoc Networks  

E-print Network

the aircraft e.g. delay, connecting flights, fuel consumption ­ passengers want to have access to the Internet;6 Scenario B Seminar: Ad Hoc Networks Konrad Meier #12;7 Network Topology realistic flight Networks Konrad Meier Scenario A SP 5,92 hops 3,91 hops 3,37 hops GF 6,00 hops 3,93 hops 3,38 hops Scenario

Schindelhauer, Christian

432

Rapid landscape change in 6th century Jordan: driven by climate or man-made?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Compared to the rich cities of antiquity, many areas in the Levant appear today degraded. European travel reports of the 19th century and excavations in Jordan created the impression that population numbers were strongly reduced during the Islamic periods, leading to 'empty' lands which were only resettled during the early 20th century. However, our case study near the ancient site Abila of the Decapolis in northern Jordan found that the land was probably never 'empty' and always fertile - but valley fills provide evidence for a rapid and intense landscape change during the Late Byzantine period. This was probably caused by a significant shift to aridity which also triggered socio-economic changes of subsistence strategies from agriculture to pastoralism. The dates of sediments which are available so far indicate that the climatic change seemingly occurred rapidly within approximately 100 years during the late 6th and early 7th century AD, and rubble layers let it seem probable that it was associated with frequent heavy rainfall events. It might have been caused or triggered by a global climate event creating the "year without sun" or 'Mystery Veil' which the Byzantine historian Procopius described in the year 536 AD. If similar events repeat under the current climate change, it will be difficult to mitigate them.

Lucke, Bernhard

2014-05-01

433

Production Requirements Full-Page Ads  

E-print Network

must be submitted in JPG, EPS, TIFF, or PSD format. Contact Us: Advertising Coordinator Jeanne Coates.5". · There is no bleed on ads less than a full page. Hokie Business Showcase Ads · The dimensions for an ad in the Class Notes section is 1.925" x 3.5875" horizontal. · The ad should display the business logo, website URL

Buehrer, R. Michael

434

16 CFR 460.18 - Insulation ads.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...18 Insulation ads. (a) If your ad gives an R-value, you must give the...sheet on R-values.” (b) If your ad gives a price, you must give the...give the coverage area. (c) If your ad gives the thickness of your...

2010-01-01

435

Testing AdS/CFT at LHC  

E-print Network

After an introduction to jet phenomenology and tests of AdS/CFT at LHC we derive the heavy quark drag of a string dangling in a shock metric of AdS space, thus generalizing the AdS/CFT drag calculations in strongly coupled thermal media to momentum loss in both hot and cold nuclear matter.

W. A. Horowitz

2009-05-05

436

Journal of Seventeenth-Century Music  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From the tones of the viola da gamba to the mellifluence of the lute, seventeenth-century music (and its instruments) is considered a premier subject of inquiry by musicologists and others around the world. Published by the Society for Seventeenth-Century Music, the Journal of Seventeenth-Century Music is dedicated to studying all aspects of music from this era, including performance practice and theater. The Journal was started in 1995, and visitors with a penchant for such topics can utilize this website to look over past and current issues of the Journal as they see fit. Along with looking over the past articles, book reviews, and commentaries, visitors can also learn about the guidelines for submitting items for review.

Gustafson, Bruce, 1945-

437

21st Century Skills Map: Math  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This 34-page document (pdf) identifies student learning outcomes for each of eleven 21st Century Skills and provides examples of tasks for grade 4, 8, and 12. It strives to fuse mathematical content and mathematical practices with the 4Cs (communication, collaboration, critical thinking and creativity) and integrate them with interdisciplinary themes. Each skill is aligned with CCSS mathematical practices. This map was designed by the Partnership for 21st Century Skills (P21) in cooperation with the Mathematical Association of America (MAA), the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM), and dozens of math educators across the country.

Susan Saltrick, et al.

438

Hydration: issues for the 21st century.  

PubMed

Historically, hydration research reflected critical issues of the day. War, illness, surviving a shipwreck or time in the dessert, supplying fall-out shelters, and space exploration drove hydration research in the first half of the 20th century. The fitness revolution of the 1970s spurred research on dehydration in physically active people and athletes. The 1990s introduced the "fluid/disease relationship." What will be the driving force behind hydration research in the 21st century? Where are the gaps in our knowledge? This review provides an overview of issues pertinent to determining future directions in hydration research. PMID:13677588

Grandjean, Ann C; Reimers, Kristin J; Buyckx, Maxime E

2003-08-01

439

Kinship, ritual kinship and political milieus in an alpine Valley in 19th century  

Microsoft Academic Search

In my paper I will present some results about ritual kinship and political mobilization of popular groups in an alpine Valley: the Val de Bagnes, in the Swiss canton of Valais. There are two major reasons to choose the Val de Bagnes for our inquiry about social networks: the existence of sharp political and social conflicts during the 18th and

Sandro Guzzi-Heeb

2009-01-01

440

Archaeology Data Service (ADS) Library  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Archaeology Data Service yesterday announced the opening of its digital library, "a virtual library of on-line publications concerned with the historic environment." The library is currently divided into Books, Bibliographies, Journals, and Other resources. The book section includes the Council for British Archaeology's Research Report series and ADS's own Guides to Good Practice, among other texts, and the journal section links to a large number of scholarly journals. The other sections are still a bit thin, but no doubt will fill out soon. Resources are conveniently labelled "archived," for those available on-site or for download as .pdf files, and "linked," to alert users they are accessing off-site resources. This brand new library is sure to grow and will be a great source for archaeological researchers. Note: To access the library, users must first accept the terms of use on ADS's front page, then click on the Library link in the sidebar.

441

The AdS Graviton/Pomeron Description of Deep Inelastic Scattering at Small x  

E-print Network

In the holographic or AdS/CFT dual to QCD, the Pomeron is identified with a Reggeized Graviton in $AdS_5$. We emphasize the importance of confinement, which in this context corresponds to a deformation of $AdS_5$ geometry in the IR. The holographic Pomeron provides a very good fit to the combined data from HERA for Deep Inelastic Scattering at small $x$, lending new confidence to this AdS dual approach to high energy diffractive scattering.

Richard C. Brower; Marko Djuric; Ina Sarcevic; Chung-I Tan

2011-06-28

442

Adding Value to Agricultural Products  

E-print Network

business enterprise can be thought of as a value chain. Each activity that is performed should add value to the product. To do this, one must meticulously control the activities at each step in the value chain: procurement of inputs; converting inputs... into products; marketing and sales; supply chain logistics; and customer service activities. A new value-added business should focus on the product?s uniqueness. The uniqueness of your product or service (the value you add) is what ultimately attracts...

Anderson, David P.; Hanselka, Daniel

2009-06-01

443

Realizing "value-added" metrology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The conventional premise that metrology is a "non-value-added necessary evil" is a misleading and dangerous assertion, which must be viewed as obsolete thinking. Many metrology applications are key enablers to traditionally labeled "value-added" processing steps in lithography and etch, such that they can be considered integral parts of the processes. Various key trends in modern, state-of-the-art processing such as optical proximity correction (OPC), design for manufacturability (DFM), and advanced process control (APC) are based, at their hearts, on the assumption of fine-tuned metrology, in terms of uncertainty and accuracy. These trends are vehicles where metrology thus has large opportunities to create value through the engineering of tight and targetable process distributions. Such distributions make possible predictability in speed-sorts and in other parameters, which results in high-end product. Additionally, significant reliance has also been placed on defect metrology to predict, improve, and reduce yield variability. The necessary quality metrology is strongly influenced by not only the choice of equipment, but also the quality application of these tools in a production environment. The ultimate value added by metrology is a result of quality tools run by a quality metrology team using quality practices. This paper will explore the relationships among present and future trends and challenges in metrology, including equipment, key applications, and metrology deployment in the manufacturing flow. Of key importance are metrology personnel, with their expertise, practices, and metrics in achieving and maintaining the required level of metrology performance, including where precision, matching, and accuracy fit into these considerations. The value of metrology will be demonstrated to have shifted to "key enabler of large revenues," debunking the out-of-date premise that metrology is "non-value-added." Examples used will be from critical dimension (CD) metrology, overlay, films, and defect metrology.

Bunday, Benjamin; Lipscomb, Pete; Allgair, John; Patel, Dilip; Caldwell, Mark; Solecky, Eric; Archie, Chas; Morningstar, Jennifer; Rice, Bryan J.; Singh, Bhanwar; Cain, Jason; Emami, Iraj; Banke, Bill, Jr.; Herrera, Alfredo; Ukraintsev, Vladamir; Schlessinger, Jerry; Ritchison, Jeff

2007-03-01

444

Rural Policy in a New Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Past rural policies are reviewed, noting the effects of globalization and information technology. Rural business profits can be maximized by direct cost or value-added competition, but cost competition limits the development of productive capacity and leads to unequal income distribution. In contrast, value-added competition could create steep…

Marshall, Ray

445

Missing top of the AdS resonance structure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study a massless scalar field in AdSd +1 with a nonlinear coupling ?N and not limited to spherical symmetry. The free-field-eigenstate spectrum is strongly resonant, and it is commonly believed that the nonlinear coupling leads to energy transfer between eigenstates. We prove that when N d is even, the most efficient resonant channels to transfer energy are always absent. In particular, for N =3 this means no energy transfer at all. For N =4 , this effectively kills half of the channels, leading to the same set of extra conservation laws recently derived for gravitational interactions within spherical symmetry.

Yang, I.-Sheng

2015-03-01

446

Music Education Half a Century Hence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Focuses on what music education will be like in the year 2050. Addresses issues such as: technology's impact on music, cognitive science's role in music education, the effects of changing delivery systems, and the relationship of music and the elderly. Highlights the next half century's impact on music education. (CMK)

Mahlmann, John J.

2000-01-01

447

Lifelong Learning for the 21st Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Lifelong Learning Center for the 21st Century was proposed to provide personal renewal and technical training for employees at a major United States automotive manufacturing company when it implemented a new, computer-based Computer Numerical Controlled (CNC) machining, robotics, and high technology facility. The employees needed training for…

Goodnight, Ron

448

The Century Ahead: Searching for Sustainability  

Microsoft Academic Search

The global future lies before us as a highly uncertain and contested landscape with numerous perils along the way. This study explores possible pathways to sustainability by considering in quantitative detail four contrasting scenarios for the twenty-first century. The analysis reveals vividly the risks of conventional development approaches and the real danger of socio-ecological descent. Nonetheless, the paper underscores that

Paul D. Raskin; Christi Electris; Richard A. Rosen

2010-01-01

449

Century High School: Better Than Accessible.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A 6-minute videotape shows ways that one newly-built high school (Century High School, Rochester, MN) accommodates the needs of people with disabilities. Various building and room designs are detailed showing both poor and good design provisions. The accessibility and usefulness of the auditorium control room, emergency exits, elevators, science…

Century High School, Rochester, MN.

450

Biology Inspired 21st Century Robotics  

E-print Network

, in a further sign robots are becoming more like their human inventors. · Twendy-One, named as a 21st century to support humans as they sit up and stand, and supple movements that respond to human touch. It can pick up greeting its patient for the demonstration with a robotic "good morning" and "bon appetit." Sugano said he

Petriu, Emil M.

451

Transportation fuels for the 21st century  

EPA Science Inventory

As we enter the 21st century, policymakers face complex decisions regarding options for meeting the demand for transportation fuels. There is now a broad scientific consensus that the burning of fossil fuels has been contributing to climate change, and the transportation sector i...

452

Recommendations for the 21st Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Group discussions on physical, sexual, and emotional child abuse and neglect, which took place at the "Child Protection for the 21st Century Conference," are summarized. The discussions noted practices that should be preserved and those requiring change in law/law enforcement, mental health, medicine/nursing, social work, and prevention and…

Child Abuse and Neglect: The International Journal, 1991

1991-01-01

453

Business Education for the 21st Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Each year, the Policies Commission for Business and Economic Education develops statements regarding business education. The following are among the commission's guidelines regarding planning the business education curriculum for the new century: (1) making business education an integral and equal partner within schools' educational communities…

Missouri State Dept. of Elementary and Secondary Education, Jefferson City. Div. of Vocational and Adult Education.

454

Alan Turing: A Century of Computing  

E-print Network

Alan Turing: A Century of Computing Cem Bozahin Cognitive Science Department, The Informatics Institute, METU www.ii.metu.edu.tr Department of Economics Seminars, METU 28.5.2012 Bozahin Alan Turing Centenary #12;Alan Mathison Turing: 1912­1954 Bozahin Alan Turing Centenary 2/23 #12;What was Turing up to

Bozsahin, Cem

455

Late Twentieth-Century Racial Uplift Work.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents a description and brief history of the concept of "racial uplift" and describes its implications for a contemporary, Black college professor. The phrase "racial uplift," for 19th-century Black women, describes almost any type of political activity designed to improve conditions for Black people during the critical…

Logan, Shirley Wilson

456

Building Olin for the Next Century  

E-print Network

Building Olin for the Next Century Page 2 Navigating the Brave New World of Social Media Page 22 ALUMNI NEWS 16 BY THE NUMBERS 19 SEEN & HEARD 20 CLASS NOTES 28 22 Navigating the Brave New World, and proactive were part of Robert Brookings' vision for the university's new business school 95 years ago. He

Subramanian, Venkat

457

Psychological Science in the 21st Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Science is constantly changing. If one hopes to keep pace with advances in science, one cannot simply repeat what one has done in the past, whether deciding how to invest limited research funds, searching to replace a retiring colleague, or teaching introductory psychology. Psychological science in the 21st century is more central and integrated…

Cacioppo, John T.

2013-01-01

458

"Stakes is High": Educating New Century Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

My apologies to iconic hip-hop artists, De La Soul for I have shamelessly appropriated the title, "Stakes is high" to underscore the importance of the work ahead for educators, students, parents, community members, and researchers as we attempt to develop a generation of what I call "new century" students for a world we can hardly imagine. Through…

Ladson-Billings, Gloria

2013-01-01

459

21st Century Learning Environment Models  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report provides short descriptions of systemic approaches for American Recovery and Reinvestment Act funding including: (1) 21st Century Classroom; (2) Comprehensive Professional Development; (3) Statewide Longitudinal Data Systems; (4) Formative Assessment; (5) Digital Content; (6) Virtual Learning; and (7) Learning Management Systems.

State Educational Technology Directors Association, 2011

2011-01-01

460

TWENTYFIRST CENTURY LEVEE OVERTOPPING PROJECTIONS FROM  

E-print Network

TWENTYFIRST CENTURY LEVEE OVERTOPPING PROJECTIONS FROM InSARDERIVED SUBSIDENCE RATES at the University of Hawaii: Contemporaneous Subsidence and Levee Overtopping Vulnerability, Sacramento-San Joaquin an updated synoptic assessment of vertical land motion rates in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta

461

Making Sense of the Eighteenth Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Pressures on curriculum time force us all to make difficult choices about curriculum content, but the eighteenth century seems to have suffered particular neglect. Inspired by the tercentenary of the accession of the first Georgian king and the interest in the Acts of Union prompted by this year's referendum on Scottish independence,…

Burn, Katharine

2014-01-01

462

21ST CENTURY MOLD ANALYSIS IN FOOD  

EPA Science Inventory

Traditionally, the indoor air community has relied on mold analysis performed by either microscopic observations or the culturing of molds on various media to assess indoor air quality. These techniques were developed in the 19th century and are very laborious and time consumin...

463

CHARLES DARWIN UNIVERSITY Our Asian centuries: provenance  

E-print Network

CHARLES DARWIN UNIVERSITY Our Asian centuries: provenance and proximity Professor Sharon Bell Deputy Vice-Chancellor, Charles Darwin University 5:30pm ­ 7:00pm 30 July 2013 Nitmiluk Lounge, Level 4 Bell Deputy Vice-Chancellor, Charles Darwin University; Professorial Fellow, LH Martin Institute

464

Computerized Farm of the 21st Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Advancement in computer technology comes at a time when agriculture is in transition from a production-oriented to a business-oriented activity and will require new skills and knowledge if farmers are to be prepared for the future. Electronic technology applications on 21st century commercial farms and ranches will include farm decision support…

McGrann, James M.

465

One Century of Relativity. Djamel Dou.  

E-print Network

CUE-02-26 One Century of Relativity. Djamel Dou. + Institute of Exact Science and Technology the theory of relativity, mathematicians have already enough axioms. We will rather attempt to explain the basic physical ideas of relativity at an introductory level using standard geometrical terms.With an eye

Zeghib, Abdelghani

466

Transcendent Schools for the 21st Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Amidst the debate over funding cuts, an increased focus on teacher effectiveness, and the move toward e-learning, many question the importance of quality educational facilities. But an examination of developmental and psychological theory suggests that exceptional schools have an exciting and crucial role to play in 21st century education. So,…

Monberg, Greg; Kacan, George; Bannourah, Riyad

2011-01-01

467

Smallpox in Nineteenth-Century India  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study uses the large, but neglected, body of Indian historical demographic and health data to show that smallpox was a major killer in past times. At the start of the nineteenth century roughly 80 percent of India's population had no effective protection against the disease, and in these circumstances virtually everyone suffered from it in childhood. The main exception

Jayant Banthia; Tim Dyson

1999-01-01

468

The Constitution in the Twentieth Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigates the development of the United States Constitution in the twentieth century up to and including the Burger Court. Contends that interpreting the Constitution is an important issue of our times. Consequently argues that we should teach students about the development of this document. (RKM)

Murphy, Paul L.

1987-01-01

469

Developing Leaders for the 21st Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes the Leadership Development for the 21st Century: Linking Research, Academics and Extension program that began in June 2005. This 12-month program, designed to explore different models of leadership, develop peer networks, and enhance skills and knowledge in leadership competencies, is specifically for land grand educators…

Phillips, John L.

2005-01-01

470

ORITIOAL THEORIES IN EIGHTEENTH - CENTURY ENGLAND  

Microsoft Academic Search

This thesis began life as an attempt to relate the main critical theories of the eighteenth century to those of the first Romantic poets, and possibly to find reason in this for the rise of criticism as a significant part of literature. This plan, through the shortness of time, has been artificially truncated. The period 1781-1798, from the publication of

Christopher David Tyler

1967-01-01

471

Faculty Development for the 21st Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the 21st century, colleges and universities need to consider faculty development programs in the same way that they view academic programs for their Net Gen and Millennial students. In other words, successful faculty development programs should include mentoring, delivery in a variety of on-campus and off-campus formats (face-to-face, blended,…

Diaz, Veronica; Garrett, P. B.; Kinley, Edward R.; Moore, John F.; Schwartz, Celeste M.; Kohrman, Pat

2009-01-01

472

Creating 21st Century Learning Environments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

What is involved in creating learning environments for the 21st century? How can school facilities serve as tools for teaching and meet the needs of students in the future? What components are required to design effective schools, and how does architecture relate to the purposes of schooling? These are some of the questions addressed at the…

Li, Phan P.; Locke, John; Nair, Prakash; Bunting, Andrew

2005-01-01

473

Influenza Pandemics of the 20th Century  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three worldwide (pandemic) outbreaks of influenza occurred in the 20th century: in 1918, 1957, and 1968. The latter 2 were in the era of modern virology and most thor- oughly characterized. All 3 have been informally identified by their presumed sites of origin as Spanish, Asian, and Hong Kong influenza, respectively. They are now known to represent 3 different antigenic

Edwin D. Kilbourne

2006-01-01

474

Workforce Education: Issues for the New Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book contains 22 papers on workforce education issues for the new century: "Introduction" (Alfred J. Pautler, Jr.); "Vocational Education: Past, Present, and Future" (Cheryl L. Hogg); "A Philosophic View for Seeing the Past of Vocational Education and Envisioning the Future of Workforce Education: Pragmatism Revisited" (Melvin D. Miller,…

Pautler, Albert J., Jr., Ed.

475

Glaciers in 21st Century Himalayan Geopolitics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glaciers are ablating rapidly the world over. Nowhere are the rates of retreat and downwasting greater than in the Hindu Kush-Himalaya (HKH) region. It is estimated that over the next century, 40,000 square kilometers of present glacier area in the HKH region will become ice free. Most of this area is in major valleys and the lowest glaciated mountain passes.

J. S. Kargel; R. Wessels; H. H. Kieffer

2002-01-01

476

The ADS All Sky Survey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We will create the first interactive sky map of astronomers' understanding of the Universe over time. We will accomplish this goal by turning the NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS), widely known for its unrivaled value as a literature resource, into a data resource. GIS and GPS systems have made it commonplace to see and explore information about goings-on on Earth in the context of maps and timelines. Our proposal shows an example of a program that lets a user explore which countries have been mentioned in the New York Times, on what dates, and in what kinds of articles. By analogy, the goal of our project is to enable this kind of exploration-on the sky-for the full corpus of astrophysical literature available through ADS. Our group's expertise and collaborations uniquely position us to create this interactive sky map of the literature, which we call the "ADS All-Sky Survey." To create this survey, here are the principal steps we need to follow. First, by analogy to "geotagging," we will "astrotag," the ADS literature. Many "astrotags" effectively already exist, thanks to curation efforts at both CDS and NED. These efforts have created links to "source" positions on the sky associated with each of the millions of articles in the ADS. Our collaboration with ADS and CDS will let us automatically extract astrotags for all existing and future ADS holdings. The new ADS Labs, which our group helps to develop, includes the ability for researchers to filter article search results using a variety of "facets" (e.g. sources, keywords, authors, observatories, etc.). Using only extracted astrotags and facets, we can create functionality like what is described in the Times example above: we can offer a map of the density of positions' "mentions" on the sky, filterable by the properties of those mentions. Using this map, researchers will be able to interactively, visually, discover what regions have been studied for what reasons, at what times, and by whom. Second, where images can be extracted from articles, we will attempt to "astroreference" those images in order allow for their overlay on the sky. "Astroreferencing" is the analog of "georeferencing," where coordinate information is used to overlay information on maps. Our first pass at astroreferencing will be made using the astrometry.net program, in collaboration with one of its creators. If enough optically-visible stars are present in an image, astrometry.net can place it where it goes on the sky. Only a small fraction of ADS holdings contain images solvable by astrometry.net, but for the articles which do, reviving the data in this way holds tremendous value-especially in the case of historically important observations. Lastly, we will also astroreference images by text-mining to extract "metadata" buried in the figure captions and text. As it is built, the ADSASS will effectively create dynamic data layers of astrotags and astroreferenced images. Users will be able to explore these layers using a wide variety of free all-sky data viewers. Our group and our collaborators have been involved in the development of the WorldWide Telescope and Aladin programs, so we will use those to develop examples of how we intend for the ADSASS to be used. But, we plan to ensure that the data feed represented by the ADSASS will be ingestible by any program capable of understanding sky coordinates and all-sky views. Our proposal can only give a glimpse into the wealth of science it will enable, which includes everything from observation-planning to data discovery to studying the sky distributions of classes of objects. Just as it would have been hard to predict the full and amazing impact of GIS and GPS on society, it is similarly hard to gauge the full impact of the NASA ADSASS. The ADS on its own is already the envy of other sciences as a unified research tool, with the advent of the ADSASS, NASA will have led the way to the future once again.

Goodman, Alyssa

477

Lifshitz-like systems and AdS null deformations  

SciTech Connect

Following K. Balasubramanian and K. Narayan [J. High Energy Phys. 08 (2010) 014], we discuss certain lightlike deformations of AdS{sub 5}xX{sup 5} in type IIB string theory sourced by a lightlike dilaton {Phi}(x{sup +}) dual to the N=4 super Yang-Mills theory with a lightlike varying gauge coupling. We argue that, in the case where the x{sup +} direction is noncompact, these solutions describe anisotropic 3+1-dim Lifshitz-like systems with a potential in the x{sup +} direction generated by the lightlike dilaton. We then describe solutions of this sort with a linear dilaton. This enables a detailed calculation of two-point correlation functions of operators dual to bulk scalars and helps illustrate the spatial structure of these theories. Following this, we discuss a nongeometric string construction involving a compactification along the x{sup +} direction of this linear dilaton system. We also point out similar IIB axionic solutions. Similar bulk arguments for x{sup +}-noncompact can be carried out for deformations of AdS{sub 4}xX{sup 7} in M theory.

Narayan, K. [Chennai Mathematical Institute, SIPCOT IT Park, Padur PO, Siruseri 603103 (India)

2011-10-15

478

AdS black holes from duality in gauged supergravity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study and utilize duality transformations in a particular STU-model of four dimensional gauged supergravity. This model is a truncation of the de Wit-Nicolai =8 theory and as such has a lift to eleven-dimensional supergravity on the seven-sphere. Our duality group is U(1)3 and while it can be applied to any solution of this theory, we consider known asymptotically AdS4, supersymmetric black holes and focus on duality transformations which preserve supersymmetry. For static black holes we generalize the supersymmetric solutions of Cacciatori and Klemm from three magnetic charges to include two additional electric charges and argue that this is co-dimension one in the full space of supersymmetric static black holes in the STU-model. These new static black holes have nontrivial profiles for axions. For rotating black holes, we generalize the known two-parameter supersymmetric solution to include an additional parameter. When lifted to M-theory, these black holes correspond to the near horizon geometry of a stack of BPS rotating M2-branes, spinning on an S 7 which is fibered non-trivially over a Riemann surface.

Halmagyi, Nick; Vanel, Thomas

2014-04-01

479

High energy astrophysics 21st century workshop 'Space Capabilities in the 21st Century'. [NASA programs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An overview of 20th-century NASA accomplishments and of the infrastructure and technology that NASA plans to have in place in the 21st century is presented. Attention is given to the Great Observatories Program, AXAF, the Space Infrared Telescope Facility, the Cosmic Background Explorer, the Small Explorers Program, the Large Area Modular Array of Reflectors, and the X-Ray Background Survey Spectrometer. Also discussed are earth-to-orbit communication links, transportation in the 1990s, the evolution of the space infrastructure, and the Space Station Freedom. Consideration is given to the possibilities of the 21st-century infrastructure, with emphasis on exploration on Mars and the moon. Topics addressed include telecommunications, navigation, information management, and 21st-century space science.

Rhome, Robert C.

1990-01-01

480

Annually-resolved lake record of extreme hydro-meteorological events since AD 1347 in NE Iberian Peninsula  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an annual reconstruction of extreme rainfall events interpreted from detrital layers and turbidites interbedded within a varved sediment record since the 14th century in Montcortés Lake (NE Spain, 1027 m a.s.l.). Clastic microfacies intercalated within the biochemical calcite varves were characterized and their depositional dynamics interpreted using high-resolution geochemical and sedimentological analyses. Annual number of detrital layers was compared against instrumental records of extreme daily rainfalls providing minimum rainfall thresholds and return periods associated to the identified types of clastic microfacies. Non-continuous detrital layers were deposited during rainfall events higher than 80 mm (>2-year return period) while graded detrital layers and turbidites were associated with higher magnitude rainfall events (>90 mm and >4-year return period). The frequency distribution of extreme hydro-meteorological events is not stationary and its pattern coincides with historical floods from the nearby Segre River. High frequency of heavy rainfalls occurred during the periods AD 1347-1400 and AD 1844-1894. A lower frequency of heavy rainfall was found during the periods AD 1441-1508, 1547-1592, 1656-1712, 1765-1822 and 1917-2012. The 20th century stands out as the longest interval within the studied period of very low number of extreme rainfall events. Variability in extreme rainfall events prior to the 20th century is in phase with solar activity, suggesting a mechanistic link in mid-latitude atmospheric circulation patterns that ceased during the 20th century.

Corella, J. P.; Benito, G.; Rodriguez-Lloveras, X.; Brauer, A.; Valero-Garcés, B. L.

2014-06-01