These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

[Astrologic and medical manuscript of the 18th Century].  

PubMed

We present a manuscript from the 18th century, an extract taken from the "Great and the Little Albert" attributed to Albertus Magnus. The linguistic variety in the paper is typical for a text composed in Luxembourg. Added to this text are two incantations and a short cartomancy paper. PMID:20882751

Kugener, Henri

2010-01-01

2

[Counteraction against alcoholism in religious letters of 18th century].  

PubMed

The Polish historiography talks at length about the problem of alcoholism in Poland in the 18th century. Estimates were made about the scale and consumption of alcoholic beverages. Many records are available today, mainly in the form of diaries, which describe the extent of drunkenness at that time. Much information on drinking bouts comes from satires (this article quotes after an anonymous satire found in the Polish manuscripts of the 18th century). Apart from the literature, also preachers contributed to the present knowledge of alcohol consumption within that period. Drunkenness was often mentioned in sermons and varied types of religious guides. The 18th century priests deemed drunkenness as a heavy sin and fiercely counteracted the abuse of alcoholic beverages, by condemning people in a state of intoxication. PMID:14631978

Rok, B

1999-01-01

3

An exhibition of children's lives from the 18th century  

E-print Network

An exhibition of children's lives from the 18th century to the present day BillBrandt,BournvilleVillageTrustAlbum,1939-1943,3.F.L.S.04,BirminghamLibraries&Archives,©BournvilleVillageTrust CHILDREN'S LIVES Open 24 for itself. A `must-see' exhibition for visitors of all ages. Children's Lives reveals the changing nature

Birmingham, University of

4

Harvard in the 17th and 18th Centuries  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Several hundred years ago, Harvard University was a much smaller place, and higher education was only necessary to (or desired by) those hoping to enter a few select professions. Referring to this early period in Harvard's history, Josiah Quincy remarked in 1836 that "[Harvard] was, from the first, intimately connected with political and religious opinions and events." Supported by the Arcadia and the Sidney Verba Fund, this remarkable collection from the Harvard University Archives brings together thousands of items (such as diaries, maps, drawings, and legal documents) to tell the story of the institution during the 17th and 18th centuries. On the left side of the page, visitors will find topical headings that include College Life, Religion, and Personalities. It's a fine idea to start by looking through the College Life area. Here visitors will find droll commentaries on the cost and standard of living, along with notes on student discipline and humorous writings. Equally interesting is the Local and Regional History section. Here visitors can learn about Harvard's relationship with Cambridge, Native Americans, and the Commonwealth of Massachusetts.

2012-03-02

5

John Stirling and the Classical Approach to Style in 18th Century England.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Most 18th-century rhetoricians viewed style as the expression of a writer's individual character and thought, placing little emphasis on the lists of figures common in many 17th-century rhetorics. John Stirling and others, however, continued the 17th-century tradition that reduced rhetoric largely to style and emphasized classical figures of…

Moran, Michael G.

6

Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi: 18th Century Swiss Educator and Correctional Reformer  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is the second in a series of articles on famous correctional educators. The first article introduced Mary Carpenter: 19th Century English Correctional Education Hero. (Editor's Note: See the September 2003 Issue for the first article) This article focuses on Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi, 18th century Swiss educator. It begins with a summary of…

Bowers, Fredalene B.; Gehring, Thom

2004-01-01

7

The Legacy of LuxuryMoralities of Consumption Since the 18th Century  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article argues that the luxury debates of the 18th century left a legacy for discussions of consumption up to the present day. First, the vices and virtues of moral discourse became the use and abuse, productive and unproductive, of 19th-century liberalism; second, in the early 20th century, these dichotomies were applied to the new mass market, as cheap standardized

Matthew Hilton

2004-01-01

8

Bone Cadmium and Lead in 18th Century Population Groups from the Canary Islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was performed in order to determine the levels of lead and cadmium in bone samples of two historic (18th century) population groups from the Canary Islands (La Concepción and San Francisco), comparing the results with those obtained in modern inhabitants. We found that historic individuals from La Concepción (Tenerife) and San Francisco (Gran Canaria) showed significantly lower bone

M. Arnay-de-la-Rosa; E. González-Reimers; J. Velasco-Vázquez; L. Galindo-Martín; F. Santolaria-Fernández

2003-01-01

9

An early 18th-century case description of cluster headache.  

PubMed

We present a previously unreported early 18th-century description of cluster headache by the English antiquary Abraham de la Pryme (1671-1704) initially attributed to hydrophobia (rabies). We will also give a short overview of other descriptions of cluster and cluster-like headache in historical literature. PMID:20959434

Arkink, E B; van Buchem, M A; Haan, J; Ferrari, M D; Kruit, M C

2010-11-01

10

The Treatment of the Motion of a Simple Pendulum in Some Early 18th Century Newtonian Textbooks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The treatment of pendulum motion in early 18th century Newtonian textbooks is quite different to what we find in today's physics textbooks and is based on presuppositions and mathematical techniques which are not widely used today. In spite of a desire to present Newton's new philosophy of nature as found in his "Principia" 18th century textbook…

Gauld, Colin

2004-01-01

11

Four candles. Original perspectives and insights into 18th century hospital child healthcare.  

PubMed

It has only recently been recognised that for more than a century before the opening of Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children (1852) children were treated and even admitted in English Voluntary Hospitals. Among the earliest English 18th century records, that contain the patient's age, are those found at the Northampton General Hospital within an archive dating from its foundation as the Northampton Infirmary in 1744. They afford a fascinating glimpse into both inpatient and outpatient child health. Although there are no medical notes as such, the hospital archive has recently rediscovered 1743 statutes, contemporary patient literature entitled Some Friendly Advice to a Patient (written by the Northampton Infirmary's founding physician Dr (later Sir) James Stonhouse), minute books, contemporary engravings of the outside and inside of the hospital and inpatient menus. Thus we can speculate with a high degree of certainty as to what would be the then current infirmary environment and treatments for illustrative examples of the children seen in the period 1744-45 (two inpatients and two outpatients). Interestingly one of the inpatient cases, Elizabeth Ager, a child with fever, was admitted against the infirmary regulations, suggesting already a stretching of boundaries in favour of paediatric admissions. This paper gives a flavour of 18th century hospital child healthcare in an era before the formal recognition of paediatrics as a medical specialty and preceding by more than a century the construction of specialist provision through the foundation of the first children's hospitals. PMID:17185447

Williams, A N

2007-01-01

12

Analyses of Etna Eruptive Activity From 18th Century and Characterization of Flank Eruptions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Etna explosive activity has usually been considered subordinate with respect to the effusive eruptions. Nevertheless, in the last decade and overall after the 2001 and 2002 flank eruptions, explosive activity has drawn the attention of the scientific and politic communities owing to the damages that the long-lasting ash fall caused to Sicily's economy. We analyzed the eruptions from the 18th century to find some analogous behavior of Etna in the past. A study of the Etna historical record (Branca and Del Carlo, 2003) evidenced that after the 1727 eruption, there are no more errors in the attribution of the year of the eruption. Furthermore from this time on, the scientific quality of the chronicles allowed us to obtain volcanological information and to estimate the magnitude of the major explosive events. The main goal of this work was to characterize the different typologies of Etna eruptions in the last three centuries. Meanwhile, we have tried to find the possible relationship between the two kinds of activity (explosive and effusive) in order to understand the complexity of the eruptive phenomena and define the short-term behavior of Etna. On the base of the predominance of the eruptive typology (effusive or explosive) we have classified the flank eruptions in three classes: i) Type 1: almost purely effusive; ii) Type 2: the intensity of explosive activity comparable with the effusive; iii) Type 3: almost purely explosive with minor lava effusion (only the 1763 La Montagnola and 2002 eruptions belong to this class). Long-lasting explosive activity is produced by flank eruptions with continuous ash emission and prolonged fallout on the flanks (e.g. 1763, 1811, 1852-53, 1886, 1892, 2001 and 2002 eruptions). At summit craters continuous activity is weaker, whereas the strongest explosive eruptions are short-lived events. Furthermore, from the 18th to 20th century there were several years of intense and discontinuous summit explosive activity, from high strombolian to fire fountain. This activity produced abundant ash fall in the whole volcano area reaching the Calabria region and Malta Island. Generally, some of these periods preceded important flank eruptions. Concerning the occurrence of the higher magnitude explosive events, we observe that at least one subplinian eruption occurred both in the 18th and 19th centuries. In the 20th century the increased quality of the scientific reports has allowed to recognize 6 subplinian eruptions from summit craters.

del Carlo, P.; Branca, S.; Coltelli, M.

2003-12-01

13

[Experiences and knowledge exchanged in medical consultations by post (16th-18th centuries)].  

PubMed

Consultations by post make up together a significant part of the medical literature, especially between the 16(th) and 18(th) centuries and bring irreplaceable testimonies on how physicians could follow up their patients from far away, in relation with local practitioners who were at their patients' bedside or who could visit them on a regular basis. These testimonies are of a scientific nature since they show how illustrious physicians diagnosed, predicted and prescribed, such as Fernel, Chirac and later on Barthez and Tissot, or less famous practitioners such as Le Thieullier, for instance. They are of a literary nature since every physician has his own writing style, and the lay out of their letters often respects codes. They are of an anthropological nature in the sense that a conception of man, ill, with his character, his own life, is rendered under the form of narratives. PMID:24685223

Barroux, Gilles

2014-03-01

14

An analytical Raman spectroscopic study of an important english oil painting of the 18th Century  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An opportunity was afforded to analyse pigment specimens from an unrestored oil painting in the style of the English School of the mid-18th Century prior to conservation being undertaken. Raman spectroscopy was adopted to characterise the pigments and indicated the presence of a novel red pigment which was assigned to the complex chromium mineral, hemihedrite, in addition to other interesting materials found in combination. This is the first recorded identification of hemihedrite spectral signals in an art context in a range of mineral pigments that are otherwise typical of this period and some hypotheses are presented to explain its presence based on its occurrence with associated mineral pigments. It is suggested that the presence of powdered glass identified in certain areas of the painting enhanced the reflectivity of the pigment matrix.

Edwards, Howell G. M.; Vandenabeele, Peter; Jehlicka, Jan; Benoy, Timothy J.

2014-01-01

15

An analytical Raman spectroscopic study of an important english oil painting of the 18th Century.  

PubMed

An opportunity was afforded to analyse pigment specimens from an unrestored oil painting in the style of the English School of the mid-18th Century prior to conservation being undertaken. Raman spectroscopy was adopted to characterise the pigments and indicated the presence of a novel red pigment which was assigned to the complex chromium mineral, hemihedrite, in addition to other interesting materials found in combination. This is the first recorded identification of hemihedrite spectral signals in an art context in a range of mineral pigments that are otherwise typical of this period and some hypotheses are presented to explain its presence based on its occurrence with associated mineral pigments. It is suggested that the presence of powdered glass identified in certain areas of the painting enhanced the reflectivity of the pigment matrix. PMID:24095770

Edwards, Howell G M; Vandenabeele, Peter; Jehlicka, Jan; Benoy, Timothy J

2014-01-24

16

The Treatment of the Motion of a Simple Pendulum in some Early 18th Century Newtonian Textbooks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The treatment of pendulum motion in early 18th century Newtonian textbooks is quite different to what we find in today's physics textbooks and is based on presuppositions and mathematical techniques which are not widely used today. In spite of a desire to present Newton's new philosophy of nature as found in his Principia 18th century textbook analysis of pendulum motion appears to owe more to Galileo's insights than to those of Newton. The following case study outlines this analysis and identifies some of its distinctive features as a resource for teachers wishing to refer to this period in the history of science.

Gauld, Colin

17

Impotence in the 18th and 19th century: concepts of etiology and approaches to therapy.  

PubMed

The old word impotence is derived from the Latin word impotencia, which literally translated means "lack of power." Impotence, in the course of the history, has been attributed to mental pathology, anxiety, or demons or witches. Historically, the pharmacological treatments for impotence started in Greek times, when a myriad of herbal medications were applied locally to the genitals to enhance "sexual strength." In the 18th century, theories about the main factors inducing impotence saw it as an abnormal state of the fibers, a defect in the solid or liquid substances or a bad structure (tumor, inflammation, abscess, ulcer or foreign body). According to these mechanisms, when impotence depended on the state of the muscular fibers, treatment included a tepid bath and a clyster. In very fat or very weak people, who get particularly tired, it was important to use the remedies able to give energy to the fibers, such as ferrous mineral waters, for a month. Moreover, other suggestions were to ride a horse, to sleep few hours, to breathe good country air, to take a purge every 2 weeks, to drink half a glass of wine from Borgogne or to distract the mind continuously. In the 19th century, therapies regarding impotence included slight electric stimulation through the application of stimulators on the scrotum in the testis or epididymis areas, until pain was induced. In the same period, another method for treating impotence was flagellation. This method consisted of little flagellations with leather strips. PMID:20013735

Santoro, Domenico; Savica, Vincenzo; Satta, Ersilia; Scaffidi, Mariella; Mallamace, Agostino; Li Vecchi, Maurizio; Bellinghieri, Guido

2009-01-01

18

Scope of Western surgical techniques to correct cleft lip and palate prior to the 18th century.  

PubMed

Objectives : To present the state of knowledge and surgical practice concerning cleft lip and palate leading to the modern era. Design : Bibliographical review. Setting : Analysis of the scientific medical, surgical, and odontological literature from the 16th to 18th centuries. Results : Texts and art confirm the existence of cleft lip and palate from antiquity in all cultures; however, the first certain references in Western scientific literature did not appear until the works of Celsus (ca. 25 BC to AD 50) and Galen (AD 129 to 200). Indications for cleft lip surgery appear in the Middle Ages with Albucasis (936 to 1013) and Yperman (1260 to 1332). From the Renaissance period onward, and with the invention of the printing press, numerous authors described their own surgical methods. Conclusions : Given the limitations imposed by pain and infection, the authors of the Modern Age focus on correcting the functional and esthetic defect of the lip with techniques that do not differ greatly from those described in the Middle Ages. The treatment for cleft palate was limited to the creation of "obturators" and surgery for cleft palate was not possible until the 19th century. PMID:24090079

Romero, Martín; Saez, José Miguel

2014-09-01

19

Death by smallpox investigating the relationship between anaemia and viruses in 18th and 19th century South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The historical record combined with the presence of large numbers of individuals exhibiting skeletal responses to anaemia (porotic hyperostosis and cribra orbitalia; PH and CO) are the main reasons for investigating the presence of smallpox in three South African communities, Griqua, Khoe, and 'Black' African, during the 18th and 19th centuries. The smallpox virus (variola) raged throughout South Africa every

Tanya R. Peckmann

20

The "System of Chymists" and the "Newtonian Dream" in Greek-Speaking Communities in the 17th-18th Centuries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The acceptance of new chemical ideas, before the Chemical Revolution of Lavoisier, in Greek-speaking communities in the 17th and 18th centuries did not create a discourse of chemical philosophy, as it did in Europe, but rather a "philosophy" of chemistry as it was formed through the evolution of didactic traditions of Chemistry. This…

Bokaris, Efthymios P.; Koutalis, Vangelis

2008-01-01

21

From parish register to the “historical table”: The Prussian population statistics in the 17th and 18th centuries  

Microsoft Academic Search

This overview deals with the development of population statistics in Germany and Prussia, where different streams and trends in the field of statistics can be observed until the end of the 18th century: (1) the so-called university statistics (Staatenkunde); (2) political arithmetic; (3) table statistics; (4) “German Kameralia;” and (5) Prussian financial science. The most important sources for historical demographic

Jürgen Wilke

2004-01-01

22

The Economic Progress of American Jewry: From 18th Century Merchants to 21st Century Professionals  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper tracks the economic status of American Jewry over the past three centuries. It relies on qualitative material in the early period and quantitative data since 1890. The primary focus is on the occupational status of Jewish men and women, compared to non-Jews, with additional analyses of earnings, self-employment, and wealth. The Jews in Colonial America, many of Sephardic

Barry R. Chiswick

2009-01-01

23

Optical devices which incorporate liquids as a fundamental part of the structure can be traced as far back as the 18th century where  

E-print Network

be traced as far back as the 18th century where rotating pools of mercury were put forth as a simple of an accepted contri- bution is asked to register in advance, separately from abstract sub- mission. More at www

Walter, M.Todd

24

The historical archaeology of the 17th- and 18th-century Jewish community of Nevis, British West Indies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This is an historical archaeological examination of a 17th- and 18th-century Jewish community on the island of Nevis in the British West Indies. Unlike earlier archaeological studies of the Jewish Caribbean Diaspora that focused on single sites, this investigation used a community-wide approach to elucidate the daily experience of Sephardic Jews within the colonial Caribbean. This project included an archaeological excavation at the purported location of the community's synagogue, an electrical resistivity survey of the surviving cemetery, the construction of a map of property ownership in 18th-century Charlestown, and archival research. This study was carded out within a multiscalar and contextual framework that emphasized the importance of understanding the diaspora that brought the Jews to the West Indies, the development of the colonial Caribbean, and the surrounding environs of the port city of Charlestown, Nevis. The archaeological analysis of the supposed site of the synagogue proved that it was in fact that of a late 18th-century townhouse, but the associated land record research revealed the actual location of the community's former synagogue. Furthermore, the reconstruction of the physical layout of colonial-period Charlestown from the land records indicated the presence of a distinct Jewish quarter in the undesirable southern portion of the town. Evidence from the public records of Nevis and the social history of the members of the Jewish population unveiled external social and political pressures placed upon the Sephardim as well as internal religious and ethnic ties dig bound the community together. It is argued in closing that the archival evidence, in conjunction with the continued presence of a clustered settlement pattern like that of European Jewish communities during the medieval period, indicates that the Jews of the Caribbean were not fully integrated socially or politically into British colonial society. This examination of the Nevis community bears testimony to a period of transition from the closed communities of the medieval period to the more open and widespread communities begun after Jewish emancipation in the late 18th century.

Terrell, Michelle M.

2000-11-01

25

[Images of nursing mothers in France, 18th and 19th centuries].  

PubMed

As they became more widely adopted in eighteenth- and nineteenth-century France, wet-nursing and wet-nurses appeared prominently in the iconography of the time. Such images turned negative as criticism against “mercenary breast-feeding” mounted. Over the nineteenth century in particular, wet-nurses were heavily featured in press caricatures: they were being mocked while described as simple-minded, dumb, greedy creatures, with proclivities ranging from a taste for garish attire, to sexual appetites fuelling trysts in public gardens with soldiers on leave. A representative sample of such images will be selected to highlight the codes and values underpinning this mockery. PMID:21744533

Morel, Marie-France

2010-01-01

26

Marked post-18th century environmental change in high-arctic ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Paleolimnological data from three high-arctic ponds on Cape Herschel, Ellesmere Island, Canada, show that diatom assemblages were relatively stable over the last few millenia but then experienced unparalleled changes beginning in the 19th century. The environmental factors causing these assemblage shifts may be related to recent climatic warming. Regardless of the cause, the biota of these isolated and seemingly pristine

M. S. V. Douglas; J. P. Smol; W. Jr. Blake

1994-01-01

27

[The origins of the Pavilion Lazaretto: quarantine architecture between the 18th and 19th centuries].  

PubMed

The model of pavilion lazaretto was built above the scientific basis established during the hospital reform process held in France on the lasts decades of the eighteenth century. The morphological solutions adopted for the new quarantine taxonomy has not been given by the example borrowed by the new typology of hospital as resulted in this discussion, but by existing quarantine and detention facilities in general. In this paper we will analyse all factors that have influenced in the configuration of this model of lazarettos. PMID:19856531

Bonastra, Quim

2008-01-01

28

[The historian's competence tested by authority: on an academic debate of the 18th century].  

PubMed

The debate which took place in the 1720s at the Royal Academy of Inscriptions and Letters on the possibility or impossibility of understanding the history of the first centuries of Rome is generally interpreted to be less of a debate than an important epistemological clarification. A contextualization which takes into account the political stakes of the debate allows one to understand that the debate was the beginning of a larger process of the autonomisation of the field of historical studies, not only from the perspective of disciplinary divides, but also in relation to monarchal power. PMID:24871882

Schandeler, Jean-Pierre

2014-01-01

29

Venusians: the Planet Venus in the 18th-Century Extraterrestrial Life Debate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries it became possible to believe in the existence of life on other planets on scientific grounds. Once the Earth was no longer the center of the universe according to Copernicus, once Galileo had aimed his telescope at the Moon and found it a rough globe with mountains and seas, the assumption of life on other planets became much less far-fetched. In general there were no actual differences between Earth and Venus, since both planets orbited the Sun, were of similar size, and possessed mountains and an atmosphere. If there is life on Earth, one may ponder why it could not also exist on Venus. In the extraterrestrial life debate of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, the Moon, our closest celestial body, was the prime candidate for life on other worlds, although a number of scientists and scholars also speculated about life on Venus and on other planets, both within our solar system and beyond its frontiers. This chapter discusses the arguments for life on Venus and those scientific findings that were used to support them, which were based in particular on assumptions and claims that both mountains and an atmosphere had been found on Venus. The transits of Venus in the 1760s became especially important for the notion that life could thrive on Venus. Here, I detect two significant cognitive processes that were at work in the search for life on Venus, i.e., analogical reasoning and epistemic perception, while analogies and interpretations of sensory impressions based on prior knowledge played an important role in astrobiological theories.

Duner, David

2013-05-01

30

Evaluation of lead concentrations in 18th-century Omaha Indian skeletons using ICP-MS.  

PubMed

The analysis of skeletal remains of Omaha Indians buried between AD 1780 and 1820 indicated that lead was incorporated in cortical bone. The diagenetic or biogenetic origin of the lead was evaluated by examination of lead isotope ratios of the bones and artifacts, and comparison of lead concentrations in burial soils with those of the bones. The isotopic values of the lead artifacts demonstrate that the lead was mined in the Missouri region. Although the isotope ratios in the bones are not identical with that from the lead artifacts, there is a strong relationship between them. This finding indicates that the lead in the bone was at least partly derived from the artifacts. Because lead artifacts rarely accompanied the burials but lead was ubiquitous in the bones, we suggest a biogenetic origin for the lead. There is also the possibility that some of the lead may have been derived from pigments applied to the corpse during mortuary ritual. PMID:1443093

Reinhard, K J; Ghazi, A M

1992-10-01

31

Loss of genetic diversity in sea otters ( Enhydra lutris ) associated with the fur trade of the 18th and 19th centuries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sea otter ( Enhydra lutris ) populations experienced widespread reduction and extirpation due to the fur trade of the 18th and 19th centuries. We examined genetic variation within four microsatellite markers and the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) D -loop in one prefur trade population and compared it to five modern populations to determine potential losses in genetic variation. While mtDNA sequence

SHAWN L ARSON; R ONALD J AMESON; M ICHAEL E TNIER; M ELISSA F LEMING; PAUL B ENTZEN

32

Women's translations of scientific texts in the 18th century: a case study of Marie-Anne Lavoisier.  

PubMed

In the 18th century, many outstanding translations of scientific texts were done by women. These women were important mediators of science. However, I would like to raise the issue that the 'selection,' which is the process by which intellectual women chose to conduct translation works, and those 'selections' made by male translators, would not be made at the same level. For example, Émilie du Châtelet (1706-1749), the only French translator of Newton's "Principia," admitted her role as participating in important work, but, still, she was not perfectly satisfied with the position. For du Châtelet, the role as a translator was only an option under the current conditions that a female was denied the right to be a creator by society. In the case of Marie-Anne Lavoisier (1743-1794), like du Châtelet, we find an acute feeling in her mind that translation was not the work of creators. Because of her respect toward creative geniuses and her knowledge about the practical situation and concrete results of scientific studies, the translation works done by Marie-Anne Lavoisier were excellent. At the same time, the source of this excellence appears paradoxical at a glance: this excellence of translation was related closely with her low self-estimation in the field of science. Hence, we should not forget the gender problem that is behind such translations of scientific works done by women in that era. Such a possibility was a ray of light that was grasped by females, the sign of a gender that was eliminated from the center of scientific study due to social systems and norms and one of the few valuable opportunities to let people know of her own existence in the field of science. PMID:22606747

Kawashima, Keiko

2011-01-01

33

The first Finnish malariologist, Johan Haartman, and the discussion about malaria in 18th century Turku, Finland  

PubMed Central

After the Great Northern War in 1721, Sweden ceased to be an important military power. Instead, the kingdom concentrated on developing science. Swedish research got international fame with names as Carolus Linnaeus, Pehr Wargentin and Anders Celsius. Medical research remained limited and malaria was common especially in the coastal area and along the shores of the big lakes. Already in the beginning of the 18th century Swedish physicians recommended Peruvian bark as medication and they also emphasized that bleeding or blood-letting a malaria patient was harmful. Although malaria was a common disease in the kingdom, the situation was worst in the SW-part of Finland which consisted of the town of Turku and a large archipelago in the Baltic. The farmers had no opportunity to get modern healthcare until Johan Haartman was appointed district physician in 1754. To improve the situation he wrote a medical handbook intended for both the farmers and for persons of rank. Haartman's work was first published 1759 and he discussed all the different cures and medications. His aim was to recommend the best ones and warn against the harmful. His first choice was Peruvian bark, but he knew that the farmers could not afford it. Haartman was appointed professor in medicine at the Royal Academy of Turku in 1765. The malaria situation in Finland grew worse in the 1770's and Haartman analysed the situation. He found the connection between the warm summers and the spring epidemics next year. In a later thesis, Haartman analysed the late summer/early autumn malaria epidemics in the archipelago. Althouh Haartman did not know the connection between malaria and the vector, he gave astute advice and encouraged the farmers to build their cottages in windy places away from the shallow bays in which the Anopheles females hatched. Haartman died in 1788. After his death malaria research in Turku declined. His medical handbook would not be replaced until 1844. PMID:21324104

2011-01-01

34

The ``System of Chymists'' and the ``Newtonian dream'' in Greek-speaking Communities in the 17th-18th Centuries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The acceptance of new chemical ideas, before the Chemical Revolution of Lavoisier, in Greek-speaking communities in the 17th and 18th centuries did not create a discourse of chemical philosophy, as it did in Europe, but rather a “philosophy” of chemistry as it was formed through the evolution of didactic traditions of Chemistry. This “philosophical” chemistry was not based on the existence of any academic institutions, it was focused on the ontology of principles and forces governing the analysis/synthesis of matter and formulated two didactic traditions. The one, named “the system of chymists”, close to the Boylean/Cartesian tradition, accepted, contrary to Aristotelianism, the five “chymical” principles and also the analytical ideal, but the “chymical” principles were not under a conceptual and experimental investigation, as they were in Europe. Also, a crucial issue for this tradition remained the “mechanical” principles which were under the influence of the metaphysical nature of the Aristotelian principles. The other, close to the Boylean/Newtonian tradition, was the integrated presentation of the Newtonian “dream”, which maintained a discursive attitude with reference to the “chemical attractions”-“chemical affinities” and actualised the mathematical atomism of Boscovich, according to which the elementary texture of matter could be causally explained within this complex architecture of mathematical “ punkta”. In this tradition also coexisted, in a discursive synthesis, the “chemical element” of Lavoisier and the arguments of the new theory and its opposition to the phlogiston theory, but the “chemical affinities” were under the realm of the “physical element” as “metaphysical point”.

Bokaris, Efthymios P.; Koutalis, Vangelis

2008-06-01

35

Prevalence and Site Characteristics of Dental Caries in Primary Molar Teeth from Prehistoric Times to the 18th Century in England  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 1,974 primary molar teeth from the skeletal remains of 373 children from Prehistoric times to the 18th century were examined for caries prevalence and site characteristics. Results showed that caries in primary teeth was initiated more often at the cemento-enamel junction than the contact point in most time periods and that caries prevalence values recorded were comparable

E. A. O’Sullivan; S. A. Williams; R. C. Wakefield; J. E. Cape; M. E. J. Curzon

1993-01-01

36

Comparison Between Silica-based Methods for the Extraction of DNA from Human Bones from 18th to Mid19th Century London  

Microsoft Academic Search

We compared five silica-based methods for their efficiency at extracting DNA from human bones from 18th to mid-19th century London. Polymerase chain reactions (PCRs) were directed at two mitochondrial and one nuclear loci. Methods that used commercially available silica columns were more efficient than methods that used a silica slurry. Extraction with Qiagen QIAquick columns and the Qiagen QIAamp DNA

Abigail S. Bouwman; Terence A. Brown

2002-01-01

37

Towards a daily weather type classification for the alpine region back to the late 18th century  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Synoptic weather type classifications for the alpine region go back to the 1950s. The aim of such a combination of various meteorological elements over a certain area is to better understand atmospheric circulation and weather events and to provide a basis for long-term weather forecasts. For the analyses of climate change an investigation of a change in the atmospheric circulation patterns is of high interest. Such a classification is based on high temporal resolution (subdaily) meteorological information on different parameters. For Switzerland, three long (~250 yrs) historical time series (Basel, Geneva, Gr. St. Bernhard) that were hitherto available in the form of monthly means only have recently been digitized (in cooperation with MeteoSwiss) on a subdaily scale. The digitized time series contain subdaily data (varies from 2-6 daily measurements) on temperature, precipitation/snow height, pressure and humidity, and subdaily descriptions on wind direction, wind speeds and cloud cover. Based on different combinations of the parameters pressure, wind direction and wind speed, a weather type classification can be performed back to the late 18th century. With information on absolute pressure height, tendencies and gradients, as well as changes in wind direction and wind speed, typical circulation patterns can be expressed and subsequently weather types for the alpine region classified. For Switzerland Schüepp's "Alpenwetterstatistik", which is often used for daily weather type classification in the alpine region, contains daily assignments to weather types for the last 50 years. With a probabilistic approach daily weather types can be assigned, based on centralized weather types of the "Alpenwetterstatistik". For the analysis of temperature and precipitation anomalies of the year without a summer (1816) in Switzerland, such weather type classifications based on pressure and wind were already conducted and applied. Daily weather types for a 20 year reference period (1796- 1821, with some exceptions) were assigned and compared to the year 1816. With this method anomalous circulation patterns between the year without a summer and the reference period could be analyzed.

Kocen, R.; Brönnimann, S.; Breda, L.; Spadin, R.

2010-09-01

38

Evolution of Interannual and Decadal/Interdecadal variability of the SPCZ since the late 18th century using a network of Fiji coral ?18O time-series  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The South Pacific Convergence Zone (SPCZ) region is of high interest due to its impact on tropical rainfall and the export of moisture from the tropics. Documenting the amplitude and periodicity of SPCZ displacements on interannual (mainly influenced by El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO)) and decadal/interdecadal (D/I) time-scales is of high importance not only for risk management but also for understanding the dynamics of the SPCZ and for improving General Circulation Model climate predictions. We have generated a unique regional coral ?18O network from the Fiji Islands, which are located just south of the main SPCZ rainfall axis. This network consists of five monthly-resolved coral ?18O time-series from different regions of Fiji. Evaluation of interseries correlation coefficients indicates that ENSO-band (2 to 9 years) and D/I-band (10 to 50 years) ?18O variability is highly reproducible. Correlation to instrumental surface salinity (SSS) data indicates that interannual coral ?18O variability in Fiji is the result of interannual changes in SSS that are coupled to ENSO. The composite reconstruction (arithmetic average of the five Fiji ?18O records), extending from 1790 to 2004 AD, was compared to known climatic indices such as the Southern Oscillation and Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation indices over the 20th century. Pearson Product-Moment correlations between the coral ?18O composite and these target indices of the Pacific basin are r= 0.71 and 0.41 for ENSO and D/I timescales respectively, with p-values better than 0.001. These high values indicate that our Fiji composite ?18O record is suitable for reconstructing past ENSO and D/I variability prior to the instrumental record. Our Fiji ENSO-band and D/I-band reconstructions from the Southwest Pacific also share important similarities with other Pacific coral ?18O records such as the ?18O record from Malo-Channel (Vanuatu). The Fiji composite ?18O reconstruction also correlates negatively with interannual and D/I coral ?18O variability from equatorial sites in the Pacific (e.g. Maiana). Collectively, our results from the SPCZ region reflect the validity of the coral ?18O composite to track regional climatic variability at both interannual and decadal/interdecadal timescales. From the late 18th century to the late 19th century the D/I band dominates the Fiji composite while the ENSO-band amplitude is relatively small. Starting around 1885, this tendency reverses and we observed a drastic decrease in the D/I signal amplitude, with its variance reduced by more than 50%, while the ENSO-band signal increases progressively in amplitude toward the present, reaching unprecedented values during the mid-20th century. This switch around 1885 A.D. is unique over the last 250 years and may correspond to a reorganization of Pacific-wide climate.

Dassie, E. P.; Linsley, B. K.; Correge, T.; Wu, H. C.; Lemley, G. M.; Cabioch, G.

2012-12-01

39

21H.433 The Age of Reason: Europe in the 18th and 19th Centuries, Spring 2002  

E-print Network

A study of the evolution of European society from the end of the seventeenth century to the outbreak of World War I. Its politics, the nature of its social system, the workings of its economy, and its intellectual ...

Ravel, Jeffrey S.

40

Australian Literature Database: A Collection of 18th, 19th and early 20th century Australian texts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Part of the metasite of the Scholarly Electronic Text and Image Service (SETIS) at the University of Sydney Library, this site allows users to access hundreds of complete texts of literary and historical works written by Australians in the last three centuries. Included here are poems, short stories, novels, reference works, memoirs, historical narratives and documents, and much more. The texts can be browsed or searched with options allowing users to search or limit searches by date, publisher, author, title, genre, gender of author, or opening lines. A limited number of historically valuable texts are displayed in page image format; the rest are offered in standard .html. Since many of these texts can be difficult for students and researchers not on the southern continent to find, the database is all the more valuable to those doing work in this field.

41

Identification of animal glue species in artworks using proteomics: application to a 18th century gilt sample.  

PubMed

This study proposes a proteomic-based strategy for the identification of the origin species of glues used as binding media and adhesives in artworks. The methodology, based on FTICR high resolution mass spectrometry, was evaluated on glues from different animal origin (i.e., bovine, rabbit, and fish). The analysis of the peptide mixture resulting from the enzymatic hydrolysis of the proteins led to the identification of species-specific peptides. Up to 15 specific peptides were identified for the bovine species and three for the rabbit species and, in the case of sturgeon glue, three fish-specific peptides were found by sequence homology to the rainbow trout. Then, the method was applied to authenticate different rabbit skin glue samples, including a 100 year-old sample named "Colle à Doreurs" coming from the "Maison Totin-Frères". For this sample, two specific peptides of rabbit collagen were identified. To evaluate the method in a complex matrix, model paints composed of lead white, linseed oil, and animal glue were prepared. Species-specific peptides were identified in each paint sample. Finally, a gilt sample from St Maximin church dating from the eighteenth century was analyzed, and 13 peptides specific to bovine collagens were identified starting from very low sample amount (50 ?g). PMID:22014085

Dallongeville, Sophie; Koperska, Monika; Garnier, Nicolas; Reille-Taillefert, Geneviève; Rolando, Christian; Tokarski, Caroline

2011-12-15

42

The use of historical catch data to trace the influence of climate on fish populations: examples from the White and Barents Sea fisheries in the 17th and 18th centuries  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analysed catch records of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), cod (Gadus morhua), and halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus and Reinhardtius hippoglossoides) from the 17th and 18th centuries from several locations of the Barents and White Seas areas. Historical records, found in Russian archives, allow analysis of long-term series of catches, and sometimes of the average weight of the fish. In total, we

Dmitry L. Lajus; Julia A. Lajus; Zoya V. Dmitrieva; Alexei V. Kraikovski; Daniel A. Alexandrov

2005-01-01

43

The inquisitorial trial of a cross-dressing lesbian: reactions and responses to female homosexuality in 18th-century portugal.  

PubMed

This article analyzes the inquisitorial trial of Maria Duran, a Catalan novice in the Dominican convent of Nossa Senhora do Paraíso in Portugal. Maria Duran was arrested by the Inquisition in 1741 and, after a lengthy trial, condemned in 1744 to a public lashing and exile. She was suspected of having made a pact with the Devil and was accused by many female witnesses of possessing a "secret penis" that she had allegedly used in her amorous relations with fellow nuns and novices. Her voluminous trial dossier offers a rare and fascinating documentary insight into the often extreme reactions that female homosexuality provoked from both men and women in early modern Portugal. Using the evidence offered by the 18th-century trial of Maria Duran, this article highlights female bewilderment when faced with female-on-female sexual violence and the difficulty that men (in this case, churchmen) had coming to terms with the existence of female homosexuality. It also discusses the case in light of the acts/identity debate among historians of the history of sexuality. PMID:25022623

Soyer, François

2014-01-01

44

Bites, nibbles, sips and puffs: new exotic goods in Norway in the 18th and the first half of the 19th century.  

PubMed

The slow but significant changes in the material culture of European households that took place in the pre-industrial period are visible in several ways, such as in the changing patterns of housing, furnishing and clothing which have been illustrated in several studies. However, most of these studies focus on the pre-industrial economic leaders, often ignoring the changes taking place on the margins of the economic growth centres. This article seeks to rectify this by looking at changes in the material culture in one such 'marginal' country, namely Norway. The goods focused upon in this case are sugar, tobacco and coffee, which are often termed as exotic goods. These were new commodities in the 18th century and precisely because of their novelty and foreign origin, it is in many cases possible to trace how they spread in rural society, as well as how they impacted it. The emphasis has been put on rural areas for the simple reason that this was where the overall majority of Norwegians lived at the time. PMID:21954491

Hutchison, Ragnhild

2011-01-01

45

Human impacts of hydrometeorological extremes in the Bohemian-Moravian Highlands derived from documentary sources in the 18th-19th centuries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The extent of damage caused by hydrometeorological events or extremes (HME) has risen up in the entire world in the last few years. Especially the floods, flash floods, torrential rains and hailstorms are the most typical and one of the most frequent kind of natural disasters in the central Europe. Catastrophes are a part of human history and people were forced to cope with their consequences (e. g. material damage, economical losses, impacts on agriculture and society or losses of human lives). This paper analyses the human impacts of HME in the Bohemian-Moravian Highlands (central part of the Czech Republic) on the basis of documentary sources from the 18th-19th centuries. The paper presents various negative impacts of natural disasters on lives and property and subsequent inconveniences of Czech peasants. The preserved archival documents of estates or domains became the primary sources of data (e. g. taxation reliefs, damaged records, reports of afflicted farmers, administrative correspondence etc.). Particularly taxation reliefs relate to taxation system in the Czech lands during the 17th-19th centuries allowing to farmers to ask for tax alleviation when their crops were significantly damaged by any HME. These archival documents are a highly valuable source for the study of human impacts of natural disasters. Devastating consequences of these extremes affected individual farmers much more than the aristocracy. Floods caused inundations of farmer's fields, meadows, houses and farm buildings, washed away the arable land with crops, caused losses of cattle, clogged the land with gravel and mud and destroyed roads, bridges or agricultural equipment. Afflicted fields became worthless and it took them many years to become became fertile again. Crop was also damaged by hailstorms, droughts or late/early frosts. All these events led to lack of food and seeds in the following year and it meant the decrease of living standard, misery and poverty of farmers. Acquired results could give better insight of human impacts of HME in history and help to compare the negative consequences in the past and present.

Dolák, Lukáš; Brázdil, Rudolf; Valášek, Hubert

2014-05-01

46

Girls' Secondary Education in the Western World: From the 18th to the 20th Century. Secondary Education in a Changing World  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This long-awaited synthesis approaches the past three centuries with an eye to highlighting the importance of significant schools, as well as important women educators in the emergence of secondary education for girls. At the same time, each contributor pays careful attention to the specific political, cultural, and socio-economic factors that…

Albisetti, James C.; Goodman, Joyce; Rogers, Rebecca

2010-01-01

47

Friday 18th September 2009  

E-print Network

. We hope the debate will continue and lead to future guidance for ownership of medical, veterinaryFriday 18th September 2009 A celebratory Research Day to commemorate 41 years of research of ownership, there can be no clarity about responsibility. The line between personal responsibility

Burn, Charlotte

48

An investigation of skeletal indicators of vitamin D deficiency in adults: effective markers for interpreting past living conditions and pollution levels in 18th and 19th century Birmingham, England.  

PubMed

Vitamin D deficiency in adults is referred to as osteomalacia, and this condition has multiple causes related to factors such as environment, living conditions and cultural practices. Therefore, understanding the types and range of expression of osteomalacia in archaeological bone, using a number of investigative techniques, will have significant implications for interpretations made about past communities. This study aimed to understand the expression of vitamin D deficiency in the skeletons of adults through detailed analysis of human bone from the late 18(th) and 19(th) century churchyard of St. Martin's, Birmingham, England, at a gross, radiological and histological level. The collection from St. Martin's is unusual for the period as this central burial ground in Birmingham was used by a wide cross section of society rather than a narrow socio-economic group as at other sites of this date. Macroscopic and radiological analysis of 291 adults identified seven individuals with osteomalacia, and histological analysis using back-scattered scanning electron microscopy confirmed the findings. Detailed description of the range of pathological alterations observed in the archaeological skeletons are presented, and possible interpretations of the patterns seen considered. The results of this investigation will enable clear diagnosis and interpretation of this vitamin D deficiency disease, an important socio-economic indicator, to take place in the future. PMID:17078033

Brickley, Megan; Mays, Simon; Ives, Rachel

2007-01-01

49

Liu Xin (first century BC-first century AD)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astronomer to the Chinese war-lord Wang Mang. A hundred years before Ptolemy he constructed astronomical tables, and listed 1080 stars in six magnitude categories. He determined the year to be 365.2502 days. In AD 4, he organized a national congress on the modern scale, attended by 1000 scientists....

Murdin, P.

2000-11-01

50

An investigation of age-related changes at the acetabulum in 18th-19th century AD adult skeletons from Christ Church Spitalfields, London.  

PubMed

The age-markers described at the adult acetabulum by Rissech et al. (J Forensic Sci 51 (2006) 213-229) were scored in the Spitalfields collection of skeletons of documented age and sex (N = 161). The purpose of the work was as a contribution to the evaluation of the general utility of these markers for estimating age at death. To this end, their relationship both with age, and with some other factors, was investigated. The latter comprised sex, general tendency toward bone formation in periarticular soft tissue (as measured by the occurrence of diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis), and occupation (as documented for some of the males). Of the seven Rissech et al. variables, only four were found to show a statistically significant relationship with age. The correlation between a composite score derived from a linear combination of these four variables, and age was similar to or greater than correlations between age and composite scores based on other age indicators reported in the literature for Spitalfields. Male acetabula aged at a greater rate than those of females. There was no relationship with the occurrence of DISH, but for occupation, those in nonmanual professions showed greater acetabular scores-for-age than those in manual trades. PMID:23076982

Mays, S

2012-12-01

51

Installing Roundup 18th December 2002  

E-print Network

Installing Roundup 18th December 2002 Version: 1.37 Contents Overview Prerequisites Getting Roundup, there are several conceptual pieces to a Roundup installation: Roundup trackers: Trackers consist of issues (be they bug reports or otherwise), tracker configuration file(s), web HTML files etc. Roundup trackers

Allen, Jont

52

Preprint, AMS 18th Conference on Hydrology  

E-print Network

Preprint, AMS 18th Conference on Hydrology Seattle, Washington, 2004 1 JP4.16 TESTING OF SEVERAL rate, and the fractional exponent description of dew formation and evaporation. He used the concept of the physical processes more detailed and complex, the Interactions Soil Bio- sphere Atmosphere (ISBA

Xue, Ming

53

Problema vizual'noj registratsii nablyudenij v opticheskoj astronomii XVII-XVIII vekov %t Problem of visual registration of observations in optical astronomy in the 17th-18th centuries  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper attempts to explain the growth of optical astronomy as a result of more general social and cultural change in European life during the two post-Renaissance centuries. It shows how the introduction of optical instruments into astronomical work was accompanied (and partly conditioned) by a few nonastronomical practices, such as collecting unusual things and their images, producing illusionary effects

Kostantin V. Ivanov

2005-01-01

54

Problema vizual'noj registratsii nablyudenij v opticheskoj astronomii XVII-XVIII vekov %t Problem of visual registration of observations in optical astronomy in the 17th-18th centuries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper attempts to explain the growth of optical astronomy as a result of more general social and cultural change in European life during the two post-Renaissance centuries. It shows how the introduction of optical instruments into astronomical work was accompanied (and partly conditioned) by a few nonastronomical practices, such as collecting unusual things and their images, producing illusionary effects by means of optical devices, manufacturing pictures that could disturb the common visual perception, etc. The paper draws particular attention to the practices of manipulation with visual images that could help to introduce "illusionary" optical knowledge into making "true" drawings from natural objects, including celestial ones. In this way, the formation of new astronomical language can be understood as closely connected to the explicit formulation of technological instructions and legal rules for making copies from natural objects, as well as the general development of printing production and broadening of the market of printed illustrations. These often not enough co-ordinated practices stipulated the shift of optical astronomy into a significant part of seigniorial culture, where it obtained recognition as an essentially new and elite knowledge, associated with particular technological vigilance. During the transition of European monarchies into the absolutist social order, astronomy, on a level with other court services, assumed a shape of professional occupation supplied with certain monetary salaries, a stable position in official hierarchy, and supreme privileges. This was the way by which astronomy merged with the other natural studies and became one of the publicly recognised scientific disciplines.

Ivanov, Kostantin V.

55

Peterburgskaya akademiya nauk v XVIII v. i ee pol' v rasprostranenii N'yutonianstva na kontinente Evropy %t Petersburg Academy of Sciences of 18th century and its role in the dissemination of Newtonianism in teh continental Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

"Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica" by I. Newton were published and immediately recognized in England in 1687. However in countries of the continental Europe up to 1744 dominated the Cartesianism. Few newtonians were exposed to persecutions. Under such circumstances in 1724 Peter The Great decided to found an Academy of sciences in Russia. Since in this country there were no scientists, it was decided to invite them from the continental Europe. Two scientists arrived to Russia were newtonians. Other just were graduated from universities and had no hope for scientific work in their native lands. This situation turned out to be rather happy. The newtonians - J. N. Delisle and J. Hermann - trained the youth (D. Bernoulli, L. Euler, F. Ch. Mayer, G. W. Krafft, A. D. Kantemir, G. W. Richmann, M. V. Lomonosov, N. I. Popov, V. K. Trediakovskij, A. D. Krasilnikov etc.). They created the science of Russia and enhanced the doctrine of Newton. Their scientific works were printed in "Commentarii" in Latin. The newspaper "St.-Petersburg sheets" and its appendix, the magazine "Notes on the Sheet" (issued in Russian and German) - published the works of Petersburg Academy of sciences and promoted the Newtonianism. Everyone, who could read in German, used these materials. One of the readers was I. Kant. He relied upon these publications in preparing his lectures at Königsberg University, and then later, in working out the cosmogony theory. The works of J. N. Delisle, L. Euler and A. C. Clairaut on the theory of comets' and planets' movement justified Newtons doctrine. They also forced J. Cassini to accept the doctrine as well. Delisle's papers on the history of astronomy published there are helpful for understanding of the history of development the astronomy. The books of J. F. Weidler "A history of astronomy" (1741) and "Astronomical bibliography" (1755) formed the basis for all histories of astronomy in the XVIII-XIX centuries.

Nevskaya, N. I.

56

Foxing on 18th century paper: A Lithograph Print  

E-print Network

. A smooth piece of limestone was used during the early days of the lithography. The word "lithos" in ancient Causes of Foxing Stain Metal directly oxidized cause distinct dark center and the migration Microscopy) EDX (Energy Dispersive x-ray) #12;Sample Examination Three Sample: � Non-Stain � Stain w

Petta, Jason

57

Exploring Fifth Force Interactions with 18th Century Technology  

E-print Network

Many theories which unify gravity with the other known forces of nature predict the existence of an intermediate-range ``fifth force'' similar to gravity. Such a force could be manifest as a deviation from the gravitational inverse-square law. Currently, at distances near $10^{-1}$m, the inverse-square law is known to be correct to about one part per thousand. I present the design of an experiment that will improve this limit by two orders of magnitude. This is accomplished by constructing a torsion pendulum and source mass apparatus that are particularly insensitive to Newtonian gravity and, simultaneously, maximally sensitive to violations of the same.

J. H. Steffen

2005-03-18

58

Lightning and Gunpowder in the 18th Century  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On or before June, 1751, Benjamin Franklin and co-workers showed that gunpowder could be ignited by a small electric spark, and subsequently people used gunpowder to enhance the explosions of "thunder houses" to demonstrate that grounded metallic rods would protect model structures against lightning damage. Even before the sentry box and kite experiments proved that thunderclouds are electrified and that lightning is an electrical discharge in 1752, Franklin had hypothesized that a tall, well-grounded conductor might reduce or prevent lightning damage by silently discharging the cloud, and if a discharge did occur, then the tall rod would offer a preferred place for the lightning to strike, and the grounding conductors would guide the current into the ground in a harmless fashion. Over the next 10 years, experience gained through practice showed that grounded rods did indeed protect ordinary structures from lightning damage, but a question remained about the best way to protect gunpowder magazines. In 1762, Franklin recommended a tall "mast not far from it, which may reach 15 or 20 feet above the top of it, with a thick iron rod in one piece fastened to it, pointed at the highest end, and reaching down through the earth till it comes to water," and in 1772 he made a similar recommendation for protecting the British powder magazine at Purfleet. In 1780, Jan Ingenhousz asked Franklin to "communicate to me some short hints, which may occur to you about the most convenient manner of constructing gun powder magazines, the manner of preserving the powder from moisture and securing the building in the best manner from the effects of lightning." In his reply, Franklin detailed a method of protection that is almost perfect, "they should be constructed in the Ground; that the Walls should be lin'd with Lead, the Floor Lead, all 1/4 Inch thick & the Joints well solder'd; the Cover Copper; with a little Scuttle to enter, the whole in the Form of a Canister for Tea. If the Edges of the Cover scuttle fall into a Copper Channel containing Mercury, not the smallest Particle of Air or Moisture can enter to the Powder, even tho' the Walls stood in Water, or the whole was under Water." In 1876, the Scottish physicist, James Clerk Maxwell, made almost exactly the same recommendation for protecting against lightning, a method known today as a "Faraday cage."

Krider, E. P.

2006-12-01

59

NAUTICAL WEATHER VOCABULARIES IN THE 18TH & 19TH CENTURIES  

E-print Network

, but many have passed into disuse. One of the tasks of the CLIWOC project was to examine their use enough to soften the action of the Sun, favourable to our voyage, and not enough to disturb the tranquil

Koek, Frits

60

Knowledge in Practice Paper given at the 18th  

E-print Network

1 Knowledge in Practice Paper given at the 18th International Human Science Research Conference...........................................................................................................................2 1. Examples of `knowledge in practice'.............................................................................2 2. `Knowledge in practice

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

61

National Taiwan University 2011 Summer+ Dates: July 18th  

E-print Network

National Taiwan University 2011 Summer+ Programs Dates: July 18th ­ August 26th 2011 Application, travel insurance, cultural events, field trips and 3-day tour. Credits: Laboratory Research (3 credits for Laboratory Research & Culture #12;

Wu, Yih-Min

62

Marathon of Majors Tuesday, March 18th, 2014  

E-print Network

Marathon of Majors Tuesday, March 18th, 2014 Union Building 2nd Floor Ballroom 5:00 pm - 7:00 pm College of Natural Science College of Nursing College of Osteopathic Medicine Residential College in Arts

63

Supplemental Compensation Program Open Forum January 18th  

E-print Network

Supplemental Compensation Program Open Forum January 18th , 3:00-4:00 PM Contact Amanda Brown (1 on distribution plan for the Supplemental Compensation Program. During the open forum, faculty will have of the Supplemental Compensation Program funds. The options which best represent discussions held in Faculty Senate

Wu, Mingshen

64

NVIDIA GPU Computing IDRIS -December 18th 2008  

E-print Network

NVIDIA GPU Computing IDRIS - December 18th 2008 Jean-Christophe Baratault jbaratault@nvidia.com #12;GPU as CPU coprocessor: Not a new idea Hoff, et al. 1999] Hoff, K.E.I., Culver, T., Keyser, J., Lin, M Caustics. Source: www.gpgpu.org #12;GPU: Parallelized Architecture for years 16 Quadro FX 3000 2003 Quadro

Richer, Jean-Michel

65

British Council Higher Education Conference : 18th October 2012  

E-print Network

British Council Higher Education Conference : 18th October 2012 Speech by Professor David Eastwood the British Council and the British Consulate-General, Chicago, for organising the event and DePaul University universities which remain the envy of the rest of the world. #12;British Council Higher Education Conference

Birmingham, University of

66

1 Copyright 1999 by ASME Proceedings of 18th  

E-print Network

1 Copyright © 1999 by ASME Proceedings of 18th International Conference on Offshore Mechanics structure. This paper presents a different approach in which the conditional distribution of the response is the normal distribution function (Madsen, 1988): #12;2 Copyright © 1999 by ASME q T zz zTX XG =subject

Bhattacharya, Baidurya

67

18th Space Photovoltaic Research and Technology Conference  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The 18th Space Photovoltaic Research and Technology (SPRAT XVIII) Conference was held September 16 to 18, 2003, at the Ohio Aerospace Institute (OAI) in Brook Park, Ohio. The SPRAT conference, hosted by the Photovoltaic and Space Environments Branch of the NASA Glenn Research Center, brought together representatives of the space photovoltaic community from around the world to share the latest advances in space solar cell technology. This year s conference continued to build on many of the trends shown in SPRAT XVII-the continued advances of thin-film and multijunction solar cell technologies and the new issues required to qualify those types of cells for space applications.

Morton, Thomas L. (Compiler)

2005-01-01

68

Optimizing Strategies for Telescoping LanguagesICS, June 18th , 2001, Sorrento, Italy  

E-print Network

Optimizing Strategies for Telescoping LanguagesICS, June 18th , 2001, Sorrento, Italy Optimizing 18th , 2001, Sorrento, Italy Motivation Shortage of programmers increasing application demands for Telescoping LanguagesICS, June 18th , 2001, Sorrento, Italy Motivation Shortage of programmers increasing

Chauhan, Arun

69

JANNAF 18th Propulsion Systems Hazards Subcommittee Meeting. Volume 1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This volume, the first of two volumes is a compilation of 18 unclassified/unlimited-distribution technical papers presented at the Joint Army-Navy-NASA-Air Force (JANNAF) 18th Propulsion Systems Hazards Subcommittee (PSHS) meeting held jointly with the 36th Combustion Subcommittee (CS) and 24th Airbreathing Propulsion Subcommittee (APS) meetings. The meeting was held 18-21 October 1999 at NASA Kennedy Space Center and The DoubleTree Oceanfront Hotel, Cocoa Beach, Florida. Topics covered at the PSHS meeting include: shaped charge jet and kinetic energy penetrator impact vulnerability of gun propellants; thermal decomposition and cookoff behavior of energetic materials; violent reaction; detonation phenomena of solid energetic materials subjected to shock and impact stimuli; and hazard classification, insensitive munitions, and propulsion systems safety.

Cocchiaro, James E. (Editor); Gannaway, Mary T. (Editor)

1999-01-01

70

Unprecedented low twentieth century winter sea ice extent in the Western Nordic Seas since A.D. 1200  

E-print Network

Arctic sea ice is a fundamental actor in the global climate system. The inhibition of heat exchange a realistic noise background. The twentieth century sustained the lowest sea ice extent values since A.D. 1200 both to the Arctic Ocean being an important and highly variable component of the global heat budget

Moore, John

71

PREFACE: 18th Microscopy of Semiconducting Materials Conference (MSM XVIII)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

YRM logo This volume contains invited and contributed papers from the 18th international conference on 'Microscopy of Semiconducting Materials' held at St Catherine's College, University of Oxford, on 7-11 April 2013. The meeting was organised under the auspices of the Royal Microscopical Society and supported by the Institute of Physics as well as the Materials Research Society of the USA. This conference series deals with recent advances in semiconductor studies carried out by all forms of microscopy, with an emphasis on electron microscopy and scanning probe microscopy with high spatial resolution. This time the meeting was attended by 109 delegates from 17 countries world-wide. We were welcomed by Professor Sir Peter Hirsch, who noted that this was the first of these conferences where Professor Tony Cullis was unable to attend, owing to ill-health. During the meeting a card containing greetings from many of Tony's friends and colleagues was signed, and duly sent to Tony afterwards. As semiconductor devices shrink further new routes for device processing and characterisation need to be developed, and, for the latter, methods that offer sub-nanometre spatial resolution are particularly valuable. The various forms of imaging, diffraction and spectroscopy available in modern microscopes are powerful tools for studying the microstructure, electronic structure, chemistry and also electric fields in semiconducting materials. Recent advances in instrumentation, from lens aberration correction in both TEM and STEM instruments, to the development of a wide range of scanning probe techniques, as well as new methods of signal quantification have been presented at this conference. Two topics that have at this meeting again highlighted the interesting contributions of aberration corrected transmission electron microscopy were: contrast quantification of annular dark-field STEM images in terms of chemical composition (Z-contrast), sample thickness and strain, and the study of dislocation core structures at atomic resolution. Conference photograph Figure 1. Conference photo taken by JLH inside St Catherine's College Each of the 49 manuscripts submitted for publication in this proceedings volume has been independently reviewed, most by two reviewers, and revised where necessary before being accepted for publication. The Editors are grateful to the following colleagues for their rapid and careful reviewing of manuscripts: R Beanland, C B Boothroyd, P D Brown, D Cherns, A J Craven, K Durose, C J Humphreys, U Kaiser, L Lari, G A Moebus, A G Norman, P Pecz, I M Ross, D J Smith and K Tillmann. Poster prizes were awarded to the following students: joint first prizes to Robert Schewski, Leibniz-Institut für Kristallzüchtung, Berlin and Xiaowei Wu, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy; and joint second prizes to Tyche Perkisas, University of Antwerp and Adi Pantzer, Ben Gurion University of the Negev. These presentations indicated both a broad range of microscopy techniques and materials issues covered as well as the excellent standard of microscopy now being achieved by younger scientists. They also reflected the internationality of the attending scientists. On the evening of 9 April 2013, the RMS Annual Materials Lecture was delivered by Professor Sir Colin J Humphreys from the University of Cambridge. Colin's highly entertaining talk on 'How microscopy and semiconductors can help to solve some major world problems' spanned a very broad range, from detailed atomistic investigation of lattice defects in gallium nitride layers by transmission electron microscopy, to the production of new light emitting diodes and its impact on reducing both our electricity bills and the effect of global warming. Entertainment during the conference dinner was provided by the Ariella String Trio, and during the meal we held a friendly competition in which teams had to recognise invited speakers and organisers from photos of them as babies or young children. The organisers are very grateful to the following companies who contributed to the success of the me

Walther, T.; Hutchison, John L.

2013-11-01

72

Preface: 18th Aps-Sccm and 24th Airapt  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 18th Biennial International Conference of the APS Topical Group on Shock Compression of Condensed Matter in conjunction with the 24th Biennial International Conference of the International Association for the Advancement of High Pressure Science & Technology (AIRAPT) was held at the Westin Hotel in Seattle, Washington from 7-12 July, 2013. This is only the second time that these two organizations have held a Joint Conference — the first was 20 years previous (1993) in Colorado Springs, Colorado. Seattle was chosen for this joint conference because of its central location for the world-wide attendees as well as its metropolitan vibrancy. The scientific program consisted of 858 scheduled presentations organized into 23 topical areas and included contributed (537), invited (95), and plenary (6) lectures, as well as two poster sessions with 110 posters each. The scientific focus of the Joint Conference was on fundamental and applied research topics related to the static or dynamic compression of condensed matter. This multidisciplinary field of research encompasses areas of physics, chemistry, materials science, mechanics, geophysics and planetary physics, and applied mathematics. Experimental, computational and theoretical studies all play important roles. The organizers endeavored to intertwine static and dynamic experimental alongside computational and theoretical studies of similar materials in the organization of the sessions. This goal was aided by the addition of three special focus sessions on deep carbon budget, high energy density materials, and dynamic response of materials. 722 scientists and engineers from 25 countries registered at the conference, including 132 students from 12 countries. The attendee countries represented included: Argentina (2), Australia (2), Brazil (3), Canada (25), China (22), Czech Republic (2), France (35), Germany (19), India (6), Israel (21), Italy (10), Japan (49), Netherlands (1), Poland (1), Portugal (2), Russia (26), Singapore (1), Slovakia (1), South Korea (5), Spain (7), Sweden (4), Switzerland (1), United Kingdom (69), United States of America (402). 79 of the students were supported by travel awards, funded in part by the APS Topical Group, the AIRAPT, and other sources. New for this conference was an expanded Student Program, including an all-day Student, Post-Doc, and Early Career Symposium held on Sunday 7 July . During the Conference, Gennady Kanel of the Institute for High Temperatures, Russian Academy of Sciences, was presented the 2013 George E Duval Shock Compression Science Award, and gave a plenary lecture ''Unusual behavior of usual materials in shock waves.'' Similarly, Karl Syassen of the Max Planck Institute Stuttgart received the 2013 Percy Bridgman Award at the conference, and presented a plenary lecture ''Stressed solids probed by diffraction and spectroscopy.'' In addition, there were two young investigator awards presented. First was the AIRAPT Jamieson Award, presented to Duck Young Kim of the Geophysical Laboratory, Carnegie Institution of Washington, DC. The other was a new APS SCCM Topical Group Student Award, presented to Rick Kraus of Harvard University. The two awardees shared a plenary talk slot on 8 July, with Duck Young Kim presenting ''Novel materials prediction and experimental synthesis under pressure'' and Rick Kraus ''Thermodynamic paths in planetary collisions: Shock vaporization of SiO2, MgO, and Fe.'' Details of the committees are available in the PDF

Collins, Gilbert; Moore, David S.; Yoo, Choong-Shik; Buttler, William; Furlanetto, Michael; Evans, William

2014-05-01

73

Anthropogenic Climate Change: A Reason for Concern Since the 18th Century and Earlier  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the last 20 years the concept of anthropogenic climate change has left academic circles and become a major public concern. Some people consider 'global warming' as the major en- vironmental threat to the planet. Even though most- ly considered a novel threat, a look into history tells us that claims of humans deliberately or uninten- tionally changing climate is

Hans Von Storch; Nico Stehr

2006-01-01

74

Analysis and reconstruction of impermanent structures of the 17th and 18th centuries  

E-print Network

in recording, manipulating, and displaying architectural data. This method has been used to reconstruct three historic buildings. Each of these structures represents a stage in the settlement process which was used by early colonists to survive and succeed...

Darrington, Glenn Paul

2012-06-07

75

Can legislation prevent debauchery? Mother gin and public health in 18th-century England.  

PubMed Central

The "gin epidemic" of 1720 to 1751 in England was the first time that government intervened in a systematic fashion to regulate and control sales of alcohol. The epidemic therefore provides an opportunity to gauge the effects of multiple legislative interventions over time. Toward that end, we employed time series analysis in conjunction with qualitative methodologies to test the interplay of multiple independent variables, including real wages and taxes, on the consumption of distilled spirits from 1700 through 1771. The results showed that each of the 3 major gin acts was successful in the short term only, consistent with the state's limited resources for enforcement at the local level, and that in each instance consumption actually increased shortly thereafter. This was true even of the Gin Act of 1751, which, contrary to the assumptions of contemporaries and many historians, succeeded by accident rather than by design. The results also suggest that the epidemic followed the inverse U-shaped trajectory of more recent drug scares and that consumption declined only after the more deleterious effects of distilled spirits had been experienced by large numbers of people. PMID:11236401

Warner, J; Her, M; Gmel, G; Rehm, J

2001-01-01

76

Statistical Accounts of Scotland: Accounts of Scottish Life from the 18th and 19th Centuries.  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Provided by the Edinburgh Data and Information Access (EDINA) on behalf of the Scottish Confederation of University and Research Libraries, this new site is an excellent resource for anyone researching Scotland, Britain, or the social impact of the industrial revolution. The site hosts the two Statistical Accounts of Scotland, which cover 1791-99 and 1834-1845. The information contained in the Accounts was largely provided by each parish church minister and covers topics such as "wealth, class and poverty; climate, agriculture, fishing and wildlife; population, schools, and the moral health of the people." Visitors can browse the Accounts via a table of contents, a general index, or by county or parish lists, or conduct a keyword search. The site provides digitized copies of the original texts which, unlike many similar projects, are easy to read and navigate. Further information about the Accounts and the project is available from the main page.

77

Surname Analysis in Biological Anthropology: Alpine Populations in the 17th and 18th Centuries  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of an interdisciplinary research program on Alpine populations, we studied the biodemographic evolution of two populations of the Dauphiné in the period 1690–1799.We analyzed several indexes derived from surname analysis to infer the genetic structure of the populations. Although situated in the same area of the Dauphiné, the two communities of Vallouise and Chiomonte had different biodemographic characteristics.

M. Prost; G. Boëtsch; M. Girotti; E. Rabino-Massa

2008-01-01

78

Surname Analysis in Biological Anthropology: Alpine Populations in the 17th and 18th Centuries  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of an interdisciplinary research program on Alpine populations, we studied the biodemographic evolution of two populations of the Dauphiné in the period 1690–1799.We analyzed several indexes derived from surname analysis to infer the genetic structure of the populations. Although situated in the same area of the Dauphiné, the two communities of Vallouise and Chiomonte had different biodemographic characteristics.

M. Prost; M. Girotti; E. Rabino-Massa

2008-01-01

79

Gestural Enthymemes: Delivering Movement in 18th- and 19th-Century Medical Images  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article contributes to recent efforts to add life and movement to rhetorical studies by focusing on the representation of movement in medical texts. More specifically, this study examines medical texts, illustrations, and photographs involving movement by Johann Casper Lavater, G. B. Duchenne de Bologne, Charles Darwin, and Etienne-Jules…

Newman, Sara

2009-01-01

80

Johann Christian Heuson, a little-known auroral scholar of the early 18th century  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Heuson published two booklets of observations of the aurora of 17/18 February, 1/2 March 1721, and 16/17 November 1729 together with contemporary thoughts about the subject. His work characterizes him as a well-educated scholar familiar with contemporary auroral observations and theories. Heuson rejects views of the aurora as an omen or portent of divine wrath, but explains the aurora as a natural phenomenon and is thus in line with other well-known auroral scholars of that time.

Schlegel, K.; Silverman, S.

2011-08-01

81

The Teaching of Astronomy in Jesuit Colleges in the 18th century  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On the occasion of the 250th anniversary of the foundation of the astronomical observatory at the college and seminary of Nagyszombat in 1755, it may be of interest to say something about the colleges of the Society of Jesus. The presence of the Jesuits there was brief, only two decades, as under the pressure of various external forces, the Jesuit Order was suppressed by Pope Clement XIV with the bull Dominus ac Redemptor on 23 July 1773. All the colleges that the Society had been running successfully all over the world either were closed, taken over by the governments, or given to the local bishops. Shortly after the Jesuits left the college of Nagyszombat, the king transferred it to Buda, where it gave rise to modern institutions of higher education derived. When Pope Pius VII returned to Rome after the Napoleonic wars, one of the first things he did was to reestablish the Society of Jesus in 1814. Old Jesuits, survivors of so many disgraces, joined younger Jesuits from Russia and Poland where in fact the order had never been suppressed. The most important of the Jesuit colleges, the Collegium Romanum in Rome, was given back to the Society of Jesus in 1823. Many other colleges were lost forever, but new ones were founded to continue the Society's previous successful activity.

Casanovas, J.

82

Translation Studies and the History of Science: The Greek Textbooks of the 18th Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The process of translation has been studied extensively from a philological point of view, and has been lately regarded as a creative activity, during which the translated text is not treated in isolation from the circumstances of its reception. Current research has related communicational and functional approaches with concepts such as…

Petrou, Georgia

2006-01-01

83

[The natural dream: physiology of dreaming in the 18th century].  

PubMed

To give back dreaming to reason, to remove from it "that which is marvellous, supernatural and often terrible for the common man who studies it seriously", that is the intention of Jérôme Richard and Samuel Formey, who were both contemporaries of the philosophers of the Age of the Enlightenment. Relying on the medical theories of the time as well as on the explanatory models of physiology and psychology, they try to demonstrate "the true cause of dreaming" and the natural character of the oneiric phenomenon. The transmission of sensations, the working of memory and the association of ideas, the nature and power of imagination, the predetermined or random character of dreams constitute the framework of the questions from which the explanation of "all this apparent confusion" is developed. PMID:10986794

Tavera, M

2000-01-01

84

H.M.S. Pallas: historical reconstruction of an 18th-century Royal Navy frigate  

E-print Network

A 1998 joint survey undertaken by the Institute of Nautical Archaeology and Portuguese authorities located and identified the sunken remains of the Royal Navy frigate HMS Pallas (1757-1783) off of the Azorean island of São Jorge. Physical remains...

Flynn, Peter Erik

2006-08-16

85

Gross enamel hypoplasia in molars from subadults in a 16th-18th century London graveyard.  

PubMed

Dental Enamel Hypoplasia has long been used as a common nonspecific stress indicator in teeth from archaeological samples. Most researchers report relatively minor linear and pitted hypoplastic defects on tooth crown surfaces. In this work we report a high prevalence and early age of onset of extensive enamel defects in deciduous and permanent molars in the subadults from the post-medieval cemetery of Broadgate, east central London. Analysis of the dentition of all 45 subadults from the cemetery, using both macroscopic and microscopic methods, reveals disturbed cusp patterns and pitted, abnormal and arrested enamel formation. Forty-one individuals from this group (93.2%) showed some evidence of enamel hypoplasia, 28 of them showing moderate or extensive lesions of molars, deciduous or permanent (63.6% of the sample). Scanning Electron Microscope images reveal many molars with grossly deformed cuspal architecture, multiple extra cusps and large areas of exposed Tomes' process pits, where the ameloblasts have abruptly ceased matrix production, well before normal completion. This indented, rough and poorly mineralized surface facilitates both bacterial adhesion and tooth wear, and when such teeth erupt fully into the mouth they are likely to wear and decay rapidly. We suggest that this complex combination of pitted and plane-form lesions, combined with disruption of cusp pattern and the formation of multiple small cusps, should henceforth be identified as "Cuspal Enamel Hypoplasia." PMID:17492667

Ogden, A R; Pinhasi, R; White, W J

2007-07-01

86

Growing Up a Washington: Childhood in 18th-Century Virginia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Children surround us in our lives, today and in the past. It is these important individuals to whom we pass on our values, norms, and everyday culture and without which our society would cease to exist. Yet these individuals can be difficult to access in the historical and archaeological record, and until recently, few archeologists have included children in their

Heidi Elizabeth Krofft

2012-01-01

87

Adaptation to Climate Change: Evidence from 18th and 19th Century Iceland  

E-print Network

about the effects that future global warming will have on poor populations in warmer countries. Key of the ratio of the concentration of Oxygen-18 to Oxygen-16 in ice core strata from nearby Greenland

Rosenthal, Jeffrey S.

88

Molecular analysis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis DNA from a family of 18th century Hungarians  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thenaturallymummified remainsofamotherandtwo daughtersfoundinan18thcenturyHungarian crypt were analysed, using multiple molecular genetic techniques to examine the epidemiology and evolution of tuberculosis. DNA was amplified from a number of targets on the Mycobacterium tuberculosis genome, including DNA from IS6110, gyrA, katG codon 463, oxyR, dnaA-dnaN, mtp40, plcD and the direct repeat (DR) region. The strains present in the mummified remains were identified as

Helen A. Fletcher; Helen D. Donoghue; G. Michael Taylor; Mark Spigelman

2003-01-01

89

VizieR Online Data Catalog: New standards in 18th century astrometry (Lequeux, 2014)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Catalogue of Flamsteed (flamstee.dat): John Flamsteed (1646-1719) was the first astronomer in charge of Greenwich Observatory. His stellar catalogue (Flamsteed 1725) was built on observations from 1675 to 1683 with a 6-feet radius sextant mounted on an axis parallel to the polar axis of the Earth, then from 1683 to 1719 with a mural circle with a radius of 79.5 inches (2m). 220 stars over 3925. Catalogue of Romer (romer.dat): Ole (or Olaus) Romer (1644-1710) is principally known for his 1676 discovery of the finite velocity of light, a discovery that he shared with Jean-Dominique Cassini. After a long stay in Paris, he returned to Copenhagen in 1681 and was appointed professor of astronomy at the University. The observatory and all the observations were destroyed in the great Copenhagen fire of 1728, with the exception of observations of 88 stars obtained during three observing nights, from 20 to 23 October 1706. La Caille's catalogue of fundamental stars (lacaifun.dat): Nicolas-Louis La Caille (or Lacaille, or de la Caille, 1713-1762) was a French astronomer who is remembered principally for his survey of the southern sky, where he introduced 14 new constellations that are still in use today. Before leaving for the Cape of Good Hope in 1750, he started a catalogue of the 400 brightest stars of both hemispheres, which he completed during his stays in Cape Town and in the Mauritius island, then after his return to Paris in 1754. He reduced the observations himself, including for the first time corrections for aberration and nutation, and published them with details of the observations and reductions (La Caille 1757). Bailly's adaptation of La Caille's catalogue of fundamental stars (bailly.dat): After the death of La Caille, Jean-Sylvain Bailly published a catalogue of the brighest stars of both hemispheres for the equinox B1750.0 in Ephemerides for 10 year from 1765 to 1775 (Anonymous (Bailly) 1763, p. lvii-lxiv). This catalogue obviously derives from the catalogue named lacaillefund.dat. La Caille's complete survey of the southern sky (lacaisur.dat): During his stay in Cape Town in 1751-1752, La Caille made the first systematic survey of the sky ever, in the modern sense. 244 stars over 9766. La Caille's catalogue of zodiacal stars (lacaizod.dat): When La Caille returned from his southern expedition in 1754, he undertook the construction of a catalogue of zodiacal stars. Mayer's zodiacal catalogue (mayer.dat): At exactly the same time as La Caille, Tobias Mayer (1723-1762) in Gottingen undertook a similar catalogue of zodiacal stars, using a 6-feet radius mural quadrant made by John Bird (1709-1776). 200 stars over 998. Bradley's stellar catalogue (bradley.dat): James Bradley (1693-1762) is famous for his discovery of aberration and nutation. From 1750 to his death in 1762, he built a large stellar catalogue, from observations first with an old mural sector and after 1753 with the Bird 8-ft mural sector located in Greenwich, where it 215 stars over 3220. Piazzi's stellar catalogue (piazzi.dat): Giuseppe Piazzi (1746-1846) built a large catalogue containing 7646 stars from 1792 to 1813, observed in Palermo with an altazimuthal circle of Jesse Ramsden (1735-1800) can still be seen. 202 stars over 7646. Lalande's stellar catalogue (lalande.dat): L'Histoire celeste francaise de Lalande (Lalande 1801), which contains the unreduced observations of approximately 40,000 stars, is the first very large stellar catalogue. 198 stars over ~45000. (10 data files).

Lequeux, J.

2014-05-01

90

Philanthropy in 18th-Century Central Europe: Evangelical Reform and Commerce  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article focuses on the close linkage between domestic philanthropy and commerce at the end of the early modern period, and the sophistication with which well-connected evangelical institutions transcended the confines of established religion and territorial boundaries. Use of a large set of primary and secondary sources that are relatively unknown in the history of the voluntary sector permits the

Renate Wilson

1998-01-01

91

January 18th, 2013Dwivedi, D., PhD Defense Presentation Control and operation of dividing-wall  

E-print Network

January 18th, 2013Dwivedi, D., PhD Defense Presentation 1 Control and operation of dividing-wall columns with vapor split manipulation PhD Defense Presentation Deeptanshu Dwivedi Jan 18th, 2013 Trondheim #12;January 18th, 2013Dwivedi, D., PhD Defense Presentation 2 Outline · Introduction & Scope · Chapter

Skogestad, Sigurd

92

Synthesis of calcium antimonate nano-crystals by the 18th dynasty Egyptian glassmakers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the 18th Egyptian dynasty (1570-1292 B.C.), opaque white, blue and turquoise glasses were opacified by calcium antimonate crystals dispersed in a vitreous matrix. The technological processes as well as the antimony sources used to manufacture these crystals remain unknown. Our results shed a new light on glassmaking history: contrary to what was thought, we demonstrate that Egyptian glassmakers did not use in situ crystallization but first synthesized calcium antimonate opacifiers, which do not exist in nature, and then added them to a glass. Furthermore, using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) for the first time in the study of Egyptian opaque glasses, we show that these opacifiers were nano-crystals. Prior to this research, such a process for glassmaking has not been suggested for any kind of ancient opaque glass production. Studying various preparation methods for calcium antimonate, we propose that Egyptian craftsmen could have produced Ca2Sb2O7 by using mixtures of Sb2O3 or Sb2O5 with calcium carbonates (atomic ratio Sb/Ca=1) heat treated between 1000 and 1100°C. We developed an original strategy focused on the investigation of the crystals and the vitreous matrices using an appropriate suite of high-sensitivity and high-resolution micro- and nano-analytical techniques (scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), TEM). Synchrotron-based micro X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (?-XANES) proved to be very well suited to the selective measure of the antimony oxidation state in the vitreous matrix. This work is the starting point for a complete reassessment not only of ancient Egyptian glass studies but more generally of high-temperature technologies used throughout antiquity.

Lahlil, S.; Biron, I.; Cotte, M.; Susini, J.; Menguy, N.

2010-01-01

93

Evidence of active tectonics on a Roman aqueduct system (II-III century A.D.) near Rome, Italy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we describe evidence of strong tectonic deformation affecting two aqueducts of Roman age (II-III century A.D.). The channels are located approximately 20 km northeast of Rome along the ancient Via Tiburtina. Brittle and ductile deformation affects these two structures, including extensional joint systems, NE-oriented faults, and horizontal distortion. This deformation is consistent with right-lateral movement on major N-striking faults, and represents the first evidence that tectonic deformation took place in historical times in the vicinity of Rome, with local strike-slip movement superimposed on a regional extensional fault system.

Marra, Fabrizio; Montone, Paola; Pirro, Mario; Boschi, Enzo

2004-04-01

94

Yersinia pestis DNA from Skeletal Remains from the 6th Century AD Reveals Insights into Justinianic Plague  

PubMed Central

Yersinia pestis, the etiologic agent of the disease plague, has been implicated in three historical pandemics. These include the third pandemic of the 19th and 20th centuries, during which plague was spread around the world, and the second pandemic of the 14th–17th centuries, which included the infamous epidemic known as the Black Death. Previous studies have confirmed that Y. pestis caused these two more recent pandemics. However, a highly spirited debate still continues as to whether Y. pestis caused the so-called Justinianic Plague of the 6th–8th centuries AD. By analyzing ancient DNA in two independent ancient DNA laboratories, we confirmed unambiguously the presence of Y. pestis DNA in human skeletal remains from an Early Medieval cemetery. In addition, we narrowed the phylogenetic position of the responsible strain down to major branch 0 on the Y. pestis phylogeny, specifically between nodes N03 and N05. Our findings confirm that Y. pestis was responsible for the Justinianic Plague, which should end the controversy regarding the etiology of this pandemic. The first genotype of a Y. pestis strain that caused the Late Antique plague provides important information about the history of the plague bacillus and suggests that the first pandemic also originated in Asia, similar to the other two plague pandemics. PMID:23658525

Harbeck, Michaela; Seifert, Lisa; Hansch, Stephanie; Wagner, David M.; Birdsell, Dawn; Parise, Katy L.; Wiechmann, Ingrid; Grupe, Gisela; Thomas, Astrid; Keim, Paul; Zoller, Lothar; Bramanti, Barbara; Riehm, Julia M.; Scholz, Holger C.

2013-01-01

95

Yersinia pestis DNA from skeletal remains from the 6(th) century AD reveals insights into Justinianic Plague.  

PubMed

Yersinia pestis, the etiologic agent of the disease plague, has been implicated in three historical pandemics. These include the third pandemic of the 19(th) and 20(th) centuries, during which plague was spread around the world, and the second pandemic of the 14(th)-17(th) centuries, which included the infamous epidemic known as the Black Death. Previous studies have confirmed that Y. pestis caused these two more recent pandemics. However, a highly spirited debate still continues as to whether Y. pestis caused the so-called Justinianic Plague of the 6(th)-8(th) centuries AD. By analyzing ancient DNA in two independent ancient DNA laboratories, we confirmed unambiguously the presence of Y. pestis DNA in human skeletal remains from an Early Medieval cemetery. In addition, we narrowed the phylogenetic position of the responsible strain down to major branch 0 on the Y. pestis phylogeny, specifically between nodes N03 and N05. Our findings confirm that Y. pestis was responsible for the Justinianic Plague, which should end the controversy regarding the etiology of this pandemic. The first genotype of a Y. pestis strain that caused the Late Antique plague provides important information about the history of the plague bacillus and suggests that the first pandemic also originated in Asia, similar to the other two plague pandemics. PMID:23658525

Harbeck, Michaela; Seifert, Lisa; Hänsch, Stephanie; Wagner, David M; Birdsell, Dawn; Parise, Katy L; Wiechmann, Ingrid; Grupe, Gisela; Thomas, Astrid; Keim, Paul; Zöller, Lothar; Bramanti, Barbara; Riehm, Julia M; Scholz, Holger C

2013-01-01

96

Composition, Preservation and Production Technology of Augusta Emerita Roman Glasses from the First to the Sixth Century a.d.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the results derived from an archaeometric study undertaken on glass samples from the Roman town of Augusta Emerita (Mérida, Spain). The main goal of the research was to provide for the first time some compositional and technological insights into the glass finds unearthed in this town. Glass samples from different sites and chronology, either from inside or from outside the perimeter of the ancient town and from the first to the sixth century AD, were analyzed and characterized through optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDS), X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometry and VIS spectrophotometry. Resulting data indicated that all the samples studied were natron-based soda lime silicate glasses, even though two chronological and compositionally distinct groups were distinguished. One composed of Early Empire glasses and a second one composed of glasses from the fourth century AD onward, which was characterized by the presence of the so-called HIMT (high iron, manganese, and titanium) glasses. Comparison with coeval glasses suggested that Augusta Emerita shared the same trade glass circles than other contemporary Roman towns, within the frame of a secondary production scale. Finally, some outstanding differences connected to composition and chronology were found, since Late Roman glasses presented a higher and distinct degree of alteration than Early Empire ones.

Palomar, Teresa; Garcia-Heras, Manuel; Sabio, Rafael; Rincon, Jesus-Maria; Villegas, Maria-Angeles

97

Hydraulics for Royal Gardens: Water Art as a Challenge for 18th Century Science and 21st Century Physics Teaching  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Hydraulics is an engineering specialty and largely neglected as a topic in physics teaching. But the history of hydraulics from the Renaissance to the Baroque, merits our attention because hydraulics was then more broadly conceived as a practical "and" theoretical science; it served as a constant bone of contention for mechanics and…

Eckert, Michael

2007-01-01

98

18th AIAA Aerospace Ground Testing Survey of Short Duration, Hypersonic and Hypervelocity Facilities  

E-print Network

18th AIAA Aerospace Ground Testing Conference #12;94-2491 Survey of Short Duration, Hypersonic 76019-0018 Hypersonic and hypervelocity testing relies to a large extent on short duration facilities activity con- fined mostly to hypersonic and hypervelocity regimes. Early development of such facilities

Texas at Arlington, University of

99

18th International Lightning Detection Conference 7 to 9 June 2004 Helsinki, Finland  

E-print Network

ILDC 2004 18th International Lightning Detection Conference 7 to 9 June 2004 Helsinki, Finland www.vaisala.com/ILDC2004 REF. NO. 4 UPGRADE AND EVALUATION OF A LIGHTNING DETECTION SYSTEM Hans Beekhuis Iwan Holleman ..................................................................................................................... 5 2.3 The KNMI HDF5 Lightning format

Stoffelen, Ad

100

SUSS-EX CLUB STEERING GROUP Minutes of the 18th  

E-print Network

SUSS-EX CLUB STEERING GROUP Minutes of the 18th meeting, in the DARO meeting room at 4.30 p Wheeler, of Tom Blundell.) 5. Interaction with University Administration: (a) Received paper on meeting that reducing eligibility for the title (which did carry practical benefits) was likely to lose some goodwill

Sussex, University of

101

Seismic and sedimentological evidence of an early 6th century AD earthquake at Lake Ohrid (Macedonia/Albania)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lake Ohrid shared by the Republics of Albania and Macedonia is formed by a tectonically active graben within the South Balkan and suggested to be the oldest lake in Europe. Several studies have shown that the lake provides a valuable record of climatic and environmental changes and a distal tephrostratigraphic record of volcanic eruptions from Italy. Fault structures identified in seismic data demonstrate that sediments have also the potential to record tectonic activity in the region. Here, we provide an example of linking tephrostratigraphic information and environmental changes with tectonic activity and anthropogenic impact. Historical documents indicate that a major earthquake destroyed the city of Ohrid in the early 6th century AD. This earthquake is documented in multichannel seismic profiles, in parametric sediment echosounder profiles, and in a ca. 10 m long sediment record from the western part of the lake. The sediment record exhibits a ca. 2 m thick mass wasting deposit, which is chronologically well constrained by the underlying 472 AD/512 AD tephra and cross correlation with other sediment sequences with similar geochemical characteristics of the Holocene.

Wagner, B.; Francke, A.; Sulpizio, R.; Zanchetta, G.; Lindhorst, K.; Krastel, S.; Vogel, H.; Daut, G.; Grazhdani, A.; Lushaj, B.; Trajanovski, S.

2012-09-01

102

Bone Lose of the Ancient Mediterranean lumbar vertebrae : Iasos, 6th century ad.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Evaluation of bone mineral density (BMD) of the ancient peoples has received great interest by anthropologists. The aims of this study are to investigate the lumbar vertebrae of the Iasos people during the Byzantine period, in order to determine the prevalence of bone loss and to interpret dietary conditions of ancient Mediterranean populations. Lumbar vertebrae belonging to twenty eight skeletons of the 6th c AD were analyzed by radiographs and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. The BMD values for each biologic sex and age group were compared. The correlation between the BMD and radiological features was also analyzed. The mean BMD was 0.940 g/cm2. BMD was decreased by aging in both sexes, but it was not significant. Osteopenia was found in 11 (39%) and osteoporosis in 4 (14.3%) out 28 vertebrae. The BMD was normal in 13 (46%) out of 28 vertebrae. Osteopenia was present in 7 (38%) of 18 male vertebrae and 4 (40%) of 10 female vertebrae. The spine score was high in the male group and there was a strong positive correlation between the BMD and spine score for both sexes. This study revealed that the BMD decreased by aging and that osteopenia was a problem in both sexes of the Iasos people during the 6th c AD. There was no correlation between the BMD and radiological features for age groups and biological sexes.

Kaya, Serdar; Solmaz, Ilker; Il?ca, A. Turan; Karaçal?o?lu, Özgür; Damla Y?lmaz, Nalan; Ba?o?lu, Ok?an; K?l?c, Selim; Izci, Yusuf

103

Late-twentieth-century warming in Lake Tanganyika unprecedented since AD 500  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Instrumental observations suggest that Lake Tanganyika, the largest rift lake in East Africa, has become warmer, increasingly stratified and less productive over the past 90years (refs 1,2). These trends have been attributed to anthropogenic climate change. However, it remains unclear whether the decrease in productivity is linked to the temperature rise, and whether the twentieth-century trends are anomalous within the context of longer-term variability. Here, we use the TEX86 temperature proxy, the weight per cent of biogenic silica and charcoal abundance from Lake Tanganyika sediment cores to reconstruct lake-surface temperature, productivity and regional wildfire frequency, respectively, for the past 1,500years. We detect a negative correlation between lake-surface temperature and primary productivity, and our estimates of fire frequency, and hence humidity, preclude decreased nutrient input through runoff as a cause for observed periods of low productivity. We suggest that, throughout the past 1,500years, rising lake-surface temperatures increased the stratification of the lake water column, preventing nutrient recharge from below and limiting primary productivity. Our records indicate that changes in the temperature of Lake Tanganyika in the past few decades exceed previous natural variability. We conclude that these unprecedented temperatures and a corresponding decrease in productivity can be attributed to anthropogenic global warming, with potentially important implications for the Lake Tanganyika fishery.

Tierney, Jessica E.; Mayes, Marc T.; Meyer, Natacha; Johnson, Christopher; Swarzenski, Peter W.; Cohen, Andrew S.; Russell, James M.

2010-06-01

104

The Search for Astronomical Alignments in the Seventh Century A.D. Silla Capital at Kyongju, Korea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the center of the modern Korean city of Kyongju stands a modest structure dating from the 7th century AD, known as Chomsongdae, or the Star Observatory. Known locally as the oldest observatory in Asia, details of its precise use are lost, but its construction coincided with the height of Silla culture and its dominance over the Korean peninsula. Radially from the structure are located the so-called Moon Fortress, numerous large tombsites for elite of the culture, plus hillside fortresses and elaborate Buddhist temples. During 1999, we've conducted a course at Denver as part of our Core Curriculum program for The Women's College, that has examined the astronomical and cultural aspects of the Kyongju site, to attempt to determine whether the architects may have included astronomical alignments into the ``Feng Shui" of their city planning, spanning centuries. The preliminary result of our studies suggests that east and west of Star Observatory lay fortress and wall features that may have been useful for equinox determination. A discussion of ethnographic supporting evidence will be provided, but additional on-site observations will be needed to confirm the idea.

Nelson, S. M.; Stencel, R. E.

1999-05-01

105

Synthesis of calcium antimonate nano-crystals by the 18th dynasty Egyptian glassmakers  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the 18th Egyptian dynasty (1570–1292 B.C.), opaque white, blue and turquoise glasses were opacified by calcium antimonate\\u000a crystals dispersed in a vitreous matrix. The technological processes as well as the antimony sources used to manufacture these\\u000a crystals remain unknown. Our results shed a new light on glassmaking history: contrary to what was thought, we demonstrate\\u000a that Egyptian glassmakers did

S. Lahlil; I. Biron; M. Cotte; J. Susini; N. Menguy

2010-01-01

106

Campus Activism in the 21st Century: A Historical Framing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This chapter frames campus activism by introducing the historical movements that have been important for higher education since the 18th century to the present and exploring the connections and shared characteristics among these various movements.

Broadhurst, Christopher J.

2014-01-01

107

Reconstructing the diets of Greek Byzantine populations (6th-15th centuries AD) using carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios.  

PubMed

Documentary evidence and artistic representations have traditionally served as the primary sources of information about Byzantine diet. According to these sources, Byzantine diet was based on grain (primarily wheat and barley), oil, and wine, supplemented with legumes, dairy products, meat, and marine resources. Here, we synthesize and compare the results of stable isotope ratio analyses of eight Greek Byzantine populations (6th-15th centuries AD) from throughout Greece. The ?(13) C and ?(15) N values are tightly clustered, suggesting that all of these populations likely consumed a broadly similar diet. Both inland and coastal Byzantine populations consumed an essentially land-based C(3) diet, significant amounts of animal protein, and possibly some C(4) plants, while no evidence of a general dependence on low-?(15) N legumes was observed. One interesting result observed in the isotopic data is the evidence for the consumption of marine protein at both coastal sites (a reasonable expectation given their location) and for some individuals from inland sites. This pattern contrasts with previous isotopic studies mainly on prehistoric Greek populations, which have suggested that marine species contributed little, or not at all, to the diet. The possibility that fasting practices contributed to marine protein consumption in the period is discussed, as are possible parallels with published isotope data from western European medieval sites. PMID:21952735

Bourbou, Chryssi; Fuller, Benjamin T; Garvie-Lok, Sandra J; Richards, Michael P

2011-12-01

108

An Eighteenth Century "Excellence Challenge."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The experiences of three 18th-century working class writers illustrate how elements of pure chance contributed to their success or lack of advancement. Their stories raise questions about the motives behind and the issues raised by today's policy initiatives to address poverty. (SK)

Jones, Bill

2003-01-01

109

Crime Alert -Robberies near Campus In the early morning hours of November 18th, two robberies occurred near campus.  

E-print Network

Crime Alert - Robberies near Campus In the early morning hours of November 18th, two robberies in the face. Both victims are UCR students. The City of Riverside Police Department is investigating both

110

Osteochondritis dissecans of the knee in a subadult from a medieval (ninth century A.D.) site in Croatia.  

PubMed

Although osteochondritis dissecans of the knee has been known for a long time, we still do not fully understand why it develops. This prompted us to present and describe an example of osteochondritis dissecans identified in the Osteological Collection of the Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts. The case of osteochondritis dissecans described in this report was recovered from the Gluvine ku?e cemetery in the Dalmatian hinterland, approximately 28 km north-east of Split. A total of 77 graves were excavated and the individual exhibiting osteochondritis dissecans was recovered from grave number 16 that belongs to the younger phase of the cemetery that lasted during the second half of the 9th century A.D. Osteochondritis dissecans was noted in a subadult individual. The pathological changes consistent with osteochondritis dissecans are present on both medial femoral condyles. The lesion on the right femoral condyle is an oval crater-like defect with well defined margins and a porous floor of rough trabecular bone. The lesion on the left femoral condyle is basically, with two small provisions, identical to the one on the right side. The first is that it is slightly smaller, while the second is that unlike its antimere, it has a well preserved bone fragment that fits perfectly into the ostechondritic pit. Radiographic analyses of the femoral condyles support a diagnosis of osteochondritis dissecans and show a well-demarcated radiolucent defect in the articular surfaces of both joints surrounded by a thin sclerotic repair zone. According to the classification systems this degree of change corresponds to stage 3 or grade 3 osteochondritis dissecans--a detached but non-displaced fragment. Returning, for a second, to the opinion that prompted us to present this case, it is clear that during the last 1100 years there have been no significant morphological or radiological changes in the characteristics of osteochondritis dissecans. PMID:21086739

Slaus, Mario; Cicvara-Pe?ina, Tatjana; Lucijani?, Ivica; Pe?ina, Marko; Stilinovi?, Davor

2010-06-01

111

The Harbours of Carthage and a Graphic Reconstruction of 2nd Century A.D. Buildings at the Ilot de L’Amiraute  

Microsoft Academic Search

The following thesis is a visual reconstruction of the 2nd century A.D. architectural concept of the Ilot de l’Amiraute as part of the Roman harbours at Carthage.\\u000aWe recognise two principles by which the physical aspects of a village, town or city developed in antiquity. In the first, natural and topographical features are utilized and its development proceeds along or

Karl Heinz Kruschen

1978-01-01

112

Luxury food and ornamental plants at the 15th century a.d. Renaissance court of the Este family (Ferrara, northern Italy)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports the archaeobotanical data from the so-called Vasca Ducale (Ducal Pit), a brick rubbish pit discovered in\\u000a the basal floor of the ducal palace of Ferrara, Emilia-Romagna, northern Italy. It was in use during the second half of the\\u000a 15th century a.d. when the rich and powerful Este family inhabited the palace. Therefore, the results help to investigate

Giovanna Bosi; Anna Maria Mercuri; Chiara Guarnieri; Marta Bandini Mazzanti

2009-01-01

113

DNA extraction: an anthropologic aspect of bone remains from sixth- to seventh-century ad bone remains.  

PubMed

In the archeological site of the early Christian Episcopal complex of Saint Peter, in Canosa di Puglia (Bari, Italy), during the operations of archaeological excavations, tombs were discovered. They were dated between the sixth and seventh centuries ad with carbon 14 methodology. Five skeletons were found in the 5 tombs: 28A: male individual, 43 years old. The height was 170 cm; the biomass was 65.7 kg. The analysis of the bones indicated several noteworthy pathologies, such as a number of hypoplasia lines of the enamel, the presence of Schmorl hernias on the first 2 lumbar vertebrae, and the outcome of subacromial impingement syndrome. 28E was a male individual, with a biologic age of death of between 44 and 60 years. The height was 177 cm. He had a posttraumatic fracture callus of the medial third of the clavicle, with an oblique fracture rima. 29B was a female individual, 44-49 years old. The height was 158.8 cm; the biomass was 64.8 kg. There was Wells bursitis on the ischial tuberosity on both sides. 29E was a male individual, 45-50 years old. The height was 169.47 cm; the biomass was 70.8 kg. The third and the fourth vertebrae showed Baastrup syndrome (compression of the vertebral spine). There were radiologic signs of deformity on the higher edge of the acetabula and results of frequent sprains of the ankles. 31A was a male individual, 47-54 years old. The height was 178.65 cm; the biomass was 81 kg. The vertebral index showed a heavy overloading in the thoracic lumbar region. There were bony formations under the periosteum on both on the higher and medium facets of the first metatarsus and on the higher and lateral facets of the fifth metatarsus on both sides. As the topography indicates, these small ossifications coincided with the contact points between the back of the foot and parts of the upper shoe. From the osseous remains, in particular from the teeth (central incisors), the DNA was extracted and typed to identify potential family ties among all the subjects. The extraction technique used came from the DNA Promega technique, partially modified by the authors. Stay times of the sample in the extraction buffer were increased and were increased the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) cycles. PMID:18043022

Di Nunno, Nunzio; Saponetti, Sandro Sublimi; Scattarella, Vito; Emanuel, Patrizia; Baldassarra, Stefania Lonero; Volpe, Giuliano; Di Nunno, Cosimo

2007-12-01

114

Proceedings of the 18th Annual Conference on Fossil Energy Materials.  

SciTech Connect

The 18th Annual conference on Fossil Energy Materials was held in Knoxville, Tennessee, on June 2 through June 4, 2004. The meeting was sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy through the Advanced Research Materials Program (ARM). The objective of the ARM Program is to conduct research and development on materials for longer-term fossil energy applications, as well as for generic needs of various fossil fuel technologies. The management of the program has been decentralized to the DOE Oak Ridge Operations Office and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The research is performed by staff members at ORNL and by researchers at other national laboratories, universities, and in private industry. The work is divided into the following categories: (1) structural, ceramics, (2) new alloys and coatings, (3) functional materials, and (4) technology development and transfer.

Judkins, RR

2004-11-02

115

Vaccines: the Fourth Century?  

PubMed Central

Vaccine development, which began with Edward Jenner's observations in the late 18th century, has entered its 4th century. From its beginnings, with the use of whole organisms that had been weakened or inactivated, to the modern-day use of genetic engineering, it has taken advantage of the tools discovered in other branches of microbiology. Numerous successful vaccines are in use, but the list of diseases for which vaccines do not exist is long. However, the multiplicity of strategies now available, discussed in this article, portends even more successful development of vaccines. PMID:19793898

Plotkin, Stanley A.

2009-01-01

116

Hybridity, Genre, and Ideology in 18th Century Cuban Theatre: A Reappraisal of El Príncipe Jardinero y Fingido Cloridano  

E-print Network

tocarom/oigamos esta letrica" (vv. 339-348; 73-4). Flora is now not only skirts the social codes: she is hell-bent and hell-bound. She justifies her behavior with the suggestion that all women, deep-down, want to be like her, with which Pita intended...

Hill, Ruth

1998-04-01

117

A 18^th century thermometer recipe: The begin of experimental physics courses in Guadalajara, M'exico?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As a part of the Special Funds Collection of the Jalisco's State Public Library ``Juan Jos'e Arreola'' is a physics course manuscript attributed to Francisco Javier Clavigero s.j. (1731-1787), teacher at the Jesuit Colegio de Santo Tom'as (a college-level institution in Guadalajara before the university opening), inside of the vellum bounded volume is a unbounded folio containing instructions on how to build a thermometer. In this work are discussed some evidences of the belonging of such folio to the manuscript in spite of their differences (it is written in Spanish not in Latin as the whole), we also describe the process to construct the thermometer and how could be the experimental part of the physics course. Also is briefly exposed the importance of the educational role of Clavigero as a builder of the concept of mexicanity.

de Alba Martinez, Durruty Jesus

2007-03-01

118

21H.433 The Age of Reason: Europe in the 18th and 19th Centuries, Spring 2005  

E-print Network

Has there ever been an "Age of Reason?" In the western tradition, one might make claims for various moments during Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and the Renaissance. In this class, however, we will focus on the two and a ...

Ravel, Jeffrey S.

119

A Role for Historical Experiments: Capturing the Spirit of the Itinerant Lecturers of the 18th Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Gerald Rutherford (1964), one of the original authors of the Harvard Project Physics course which emphasized the history of science, expressed a view of inquiry which advocated the historical re-constructions of significant experiments. To implement this view we examine two modes of historical re-constructions; Heering's ("Paper…

Metz, Don; Stinner, Art

2007-01-01

120

Instrumental pressure observations and atmospheric circulation from the 17th and 18th centuries: London and Paris  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Daily pressure observations recorded by William Derham (1657-1735) at Upminster, Essex (near London), from 1697 to 1706 and 1708 have been corrected, converted to modern units and the Gregorian calendar, and adjusted for homogeneity. These pressure readings have been compared with previously published contemporary observations from Paris, and the two sets of early instrumental data used to calculate a daily series of the pressure difference between Paris and London. Frequency analysis of the daily series reveals that reversals of the south-north pressure gradient and easterly winds were more common from 1697 to 1708 than during the 1990s. Monthly mean values of Paris-London pressure differences have been compared with previously published monthly mean reconstructed surface pressure maps and to a reconstructed North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index. There is a good agreement between the strength and direction of monthly mean flow between London and Paris estimated from the circulation maps and the sign and magnitude of the Paris-London westerly flow index, but the correlation between the Paris-London index, known to be a good proxy for European zonal circulation, and the reconstructed NAO index, is low (0.2). Correlations between the monthly mean Paris-London zonal circulation index and central England temperatures suggest a strong relationship during winter and late summer from 1697 to 1708. The meticulous daily instrumental observations and the monthly and seasonal climate descriptions of Derham, his collection of instrumental observations and climatic descriptions from contemporary observers throughout Europe, and his early theories on the causes of climate change make his publications a valuable source of information for studies on climate during the early instrumental period. It is hoped that more of Derham's papers related to weather and climate may eventually come to light.

Slonosky, V. C.; Jones, P. D.; Davies, T. D.

2001-03-01

121

Treatment of the mentally ill in the Chola Empire in 11th -12th centuries AD: A study of epigraphs  

PubMed Central

The paper deals with the epigraphs of the Chola emperors Veera Rajendra Deva (1063-1069 AD) and Raja Raja III (1216-1256 AD), found at the temples of Thirumukkudal and Vedaranyam, with emphasis on the treatment given to the residents of the attached hospitals with special reference to treatment of mental disorders. PMID:24891715

Raghavan, D. Vijaya; Tejus Murthy, A. G.; Somasundaram, O.

2014-01-01

122

Home Help Desk Administrative Systems Services & Support Instruction & Research Network Telephone About OIT Wednesday December 18th, 2013  

E-print Network

& Research Network Telephone About OIT Wednesday December 18th, 2013 Quick of disciplinary action, but also to protect against criminal prosecution and the initiation of civil litigation, movies, games and software over the Internet has become commonplace using file- sharing programs

Brody, James P.

123

WYGIWYS! ! Antony Unwin! Oxford, 18th/25th February 2010 What You Get Is What You See  

E-print Network

! Oxford, 18th/25th February 2010 Examples from R · Aspirin · Anorexia · Divorce · Lanza · Sexual Fun Plusth February 2010 Aspirin (HSAUR2) Efficacy of Aspirin in preventing death after a myocardial infarct number subjects treated with placebo da number of deaths after Aspirin ta total number of subjects

Goldschmidt, Christina

124

Cancer and its Treatment in Main Ancient Books of Islamic Iranian Traditional Medicine (7th to 14th Century AD)  

PubMed Central

Abstract Islamic medicine is regarded as a comprehensive medical school with a long, glorious and worldwide reputation. Some of the physicians of this school are famous worldwide and have contributed valuable services to the scientific world. Given the dramatically increasing prevalence of cancer and the relative inefficacy of current medications, there is a great demand for the introduction of effective therapeutic approaches. To this end, integration of traditional medicine with modern medical treatments represents a promising option. In this essay, methods of diagnosis and treatment of cancer have been mentioned from the viewpoint of five famous physicians before the Mongolian attack who used Islamic medicine, namely Rhazes, Akhaveyni, Ahwazi, Avicenna and Jorjani. The ideas discussed dates back to a period between the eighth and fourteenth centuries. PMID:23482830

Emami, Seyed Ahmad; Sahebkar, Amirhossein; Tayarani-Najaran, Nilufar; Tayarani-Najaran, Zahra

2012-01-01

125

PINK TIMETABLE Mon. 24th Feb. -Fri. 18th Apr. 14 Mon 28th July -Fri. 26th Sept. 14  

E-print Network

PINK TIMETABLE Mon. 24th Feb. - Fri. 18th Apr. 14 Mon 28th July - Fri. 26th Sept. 14 Mon. 28th Apr Shuttle Bus Timetable Broadway To Kuring-gai Broadway Departs 7:57 AM 9:10 AM 10:10 AM 10:47 AM 11:32 AM-gai Campus - outside main entry Please note : * Timetables and bus size are indicative only and may

University of Technology, Sydney

126

Real-World Vehicle Emissions: A Summary of the 18th Coordinating Research Council On-Road Vehicle Emissions Workshop  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Coordinating Research Council (CRC) convened its 18th On-Road Vehicle Emissions Workshop March 31– April 2, 2008, with 104 presentations describing the most recent mobile source-related emissions research. In this paper we summarize the presentations from researchers whose efforts are improving our understanding of the contribution of mobile sources to air quality. Participants in the workshop discussed emission models and

Steven H. Cadle; Alberto Ayala; Kevin N. Black; R. Rob Graze; John Koupal; Fred Minassian; Hannah B. Murray; Mani Natarajan; Christopher J. Tennant; Douglas R. Lawson; Kazuyuki Oshita; Shinsuke Morisawa; Hiroshi Tsuno; Masaki Takaoka; Yoshinori Kitajima; Wan-Fu Chiang; Hung-Yuan Fang; Chao-Hsiung Wu; Chang-Jun Huang; Ching-Yuan Chang; Yu-Min Chang; Ching-Liang Chen; Anders Nielsen; Lars Nielsen; Anders Feilberg; Knud Christensen; Yu-Yin Liu; Ta-Chang Lin; Ying-Jan Wang; Wei-Lun Ho; Janet Yanowitz; Robert McCormick; Lei Yu; Shichen Jia; Qinyi Shi; Tsang-Jung Chang; Hong-Ming Kao; Yu-Ting Wu; Wei-Hua Huang; Patrick Goodman; David Rich; Ariana Zeka; Luke Clancy; Douglas Dockery; Thomas Lavery; Christopher Rogers; Ralph Baumgardner; Kevin Mishoe; Wei-Chin Chen; Hsun-Yu Lin; Chung-Shin Yuan; Chung-Hsuang Hung; Li He; Guo Huang; Guangming Zeng; Hongwei Lu

2009-01-01

127

A ring-width-based reconstruction of June-July minimum temperatures since AD 1245 from white spruce stands in the Mackenzie Delta region, northwestern Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a reconstruction of June-July minimum temperatures since AD 1245 for the Mackenzie Delta region based on a 29-site network of white spruce (Picea glauca) ring-width series. Most but not all trees experienced a divergent temperature-growth response, similar to the divergence that has affected other white spruce trees across Yukon and Alaska. However, divergence in the study region began as early as AD 1900 and we have documented our methods to avoid including divergent signals in the reconstruction. Calibration/verification testing based on local temperature data, and multi-century coherence with nearby and large-scale temperature proxy records, confirm that our reconstruction is robust. The reconstruction shows cool conditions in the late 13th, early 18th and early 19th centuries, corresponding with solar minima and increased volcanism. These cool periods are interrupted by warm periods consistent with early to mid-20th century warmth. The late 20th century is the warmest interval, and the last decade is estimated to be 1.4°C warmer than any decade before the mid-20th century. The reconstructed climate history corroborates other proxy-based inferences and supports the notion that high-latitude regions such as the Mackenzie Delta have experienced rapid warming in recent decades that is exceptional in the last eight centuries.

Porter, Trevor J.; Pisaric, Michael F. J.; Kokelj, Steven V.; deMontigny, Peter

2013-09-01

128

Artificially deformed crania from the Hun-Germanic Period (5th-6th century ad) in northeastern Hungary: historical and morphological analysis.  

PubMed

From an anthropological point of view, artificial deformation of the cranial shape in newborns is one of the most interesting human customs, which has been recorded in all continents and in different cultures. However, the main goals of this procedure were basically the same everywhere; that is, to distinguish certain groups of people from others and to indicate the social status of individuals. In the Carpathian Basin all artificially deformed skulls are dated to the late Iron Age, especially to the early Migration Period. The authors examined 9 artificially deformed skulls from the Hun-Germanic Period (5th-6th century ad) excavated from two cemeteries in the northeastern part of the Great Hungarian Plain (Hungary). The extent and the type of the deformation as well as the technique were determined in each case. The authors also attempt to shed light on the probable origin and the historical context of the custom practiced in the Carpathian Basin (Hungary), relying on the anthropological and historical literature on the Hun-Germanic and preceding periods. It seems possible that this custom, which is associated with the finds in the Carpathian Basin, first appeared in the Kalmykia steppe, later in the Crimea, from where it spread to Central and Western Europe by way of the Hun migration. Neither the cranial find described presently nor the special literature on the subject furnish convincing evidence that the cranial deformation resulted in any chronic neurological disorder. PMID:24684322

Molnár, Mónika; János, István; Sz?cs, László; Szathmáry, László

2014-04-01

129

Satirizing Women's Speech in Eighteenth-Century England.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the 18th-century rhetorical convention of misogynist satire and how it shaped attitudes toward women speakers. Focuses not so much on the formal properties of the satire but on its convention and content as modes of insinuation. Surveys prominent journals, newspapers, magazines, and reviews of the period. (TB)

Browne, Stephen H.

1992-01-01

130

Strangers, the Russian Side: The Aleuts of the Eighteenth Century, Social Studies Unit, Book Ib.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This story is to be used as part of the social studies unit, The Aleuts of the Eighteenth Century, to show the Russian perspective on their first interaction with the Aleuts. A Russian trapper tells of his experiences on one of the first Russian ships to explore the Aleutian Islands in the 18th century. Written as a diary, the story describes…

Partnow, Patricia H.

131

As the Europeans Saw Them: The Aleuts of the Eighteenth Century, Social Studies Unit, Book II.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet is intended for use as reading material for the social studies unit, The Aleuts of the Eighteenth Century. Excerpts from journals of seven 18th-century explorers or travelers describe the inhabitants of the Aleutian Islands. The accounts have been translated from original notes kept by members of the Russian navy, ship commanders, a…

Partnow, Patricia H., Comp.

132

The initial giant umbrella cloud of the May 18th, 1980, explosive eruption of Mount St. Helens  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The initial eruption column of May 18th, 1980 reached nearly 30 km altitude and released 1017 joules of thermal energy into the atmosphere in only a few minutes. Ascent of the cloud resulted in forced intrusion of a giant umbrella-shaped cloud between altitudes of 10 and 20 km at radial horizontal velocities initially in excess of 50 m/s. The mushroom cloud expanded 15 km upwind, forming a stagnation point where the radial expansion velocity and wind velocity were equal. The cloud was initiated when the pyroclastic blast flow became buoyant. The flow reduced its density as it moved away from the volcano by decompression, by sedimentation, and by mixing with and heating the surrounding air. Observations indicate that much of the flow, covering an area of 600 km2, became buoyant within 1.5 minutes and abruptly ascended to form the giant cloud. Calculations are presented for the amount of air that must have been entrained into the flow to make it buoyant. Assuming an initial temperature of 450??C and a magmatic origin for the explosion, these calculations indicate that the flow became buoyant when its temperature was approximately 150??C and the flow consisted of a mixture of 3.25 ?? 1011 kg of pyroclasts and 5.0 ?? 1011 kg of air. If sedimentation is considered, these figures reduce to 1.1 ?? 1011 kg of pyroclasts and 1.0 ?? 1011 kg of air. ?? 1986.

Sparks, R.S.J.; Moore, J.G.; Rice, C.J.

1986-01-01

133

Submitted to 18th World Congress of the International Federation of Automatic Control (IFAC) Dynamic identification of a 6 dof industrial robot without joint position data  

E-print Network

) Dynamic identification of a 6 dof industrial robot without joint position data M. Gautier*, A. Janot**, PSubmitted to 18th World Congress of the International Federation of Automatic Control (IFAC-line robot dynamic identification methods are mostly based on the use of the inverse dynamic model, which

Boyer, Edmond

134

18th July 2014 Social Media Analytics are Evolving -From Twitter-based Crisis Mapping to Large-scale Real-Time  

E-print Network

18th July 2014 Social Media Analytics are Evolving - From Twitter-based Crisis Mapping to Large for social media can be broadly categorized as dashboards, crisis mapping toolkits and in-depth analysis). Tools for crisis mapping also follow a manual verification process (e.g. Ushahidi), using teams

Middleton, Stuart E.

135

A fluid dynamics approach to modelling the 18th March 2007 lahar at Mt. Ruapehu, New Zealand  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lahars are water-sediment mass flows from a volcanic source. They can be triggered by a variety of mechanisms and span a continuum of flow rheology and hydraulic properties, even within the same event. Lahars are extremely powerful landscaping agents and represent a considerable hazard potential. However, this highly dynamic character and a lack of direct measurements has made modelling lahars difficult. This study therefore applies a fluid dynamics model; Delft3D, to analyse the 18th March 2007 dam break lahar at Mount Ruapehu, New Zealand. The modelled lahar routed through the Whangaehu gorge in ~30 min, crossed the Whangaehu fan in ~60 min, and then over a further 3 h travelled an additional ~22 km distance along the Whangaehu River to the Tangiwai bridge. The modelled mean frontal velocity was 6.5 m s-1 along the gorge although peak velocity reached up to 19.6 m s-1. The modelled lahar flow front progressively slowed across the fan but along the River it accelerated from 2.1-3.3 m s-1. Calculated peak velocity along the River was <4.5 m s-1. These results generally compare well with gauged records, with historical records, and with other modelling approaches. However, discrepancies in frontal velocity and time to peak stage arise due to (1) specifying roughness, which arises from slope variations between adjacent computational nodes, and which is stage-dependant, and (2) due to rapid topographic changes that produce frequent hydraulic jumps, which are inadequately accommodated in the numerical scheme. The overall pattern of discharge attenuation, and of relationships between topographic and hydraulic variables, is similar to that calculated for lahars on other volcanoes. This modelling method could be applied at other similar sites where a likely source hydrograph and high-resolution topographic data are available. These results have important implications for hazard management at Ruapehu and for examining geomorphic and sedimentary impacts of this lahar.

Carrivick, Jonathan L.; Manville, Vern; Cronin, Shane J.

2009-03-01

136

[Vampires in the village Žrnovo on the island of Kor?ula: following an archival document from the 18th century].  

PubMed

The main interest of this essay is the analysis of the document from the State Archive in Venice (file: Capi del Consiglio de' Dieci: Lettere di Rettori e di altre cariche) which is connected with the episode from 1748 when the inhabitants of the village žrnove on the island of Kor?ula in Croatia opened tombs on the local cemetery in the fear of the vampires treating. This essay try to show some social circumstances connected with this event as well as a local vernacular tradition concerning superstitions. PMID:22047480

Coralic, Lovorka; Dugac, Zeljko; Sardelic, Sani

2011-01-01

137

Seven peasant communities in pre-industrial Europe. A comparative study of French, Italian and Swedish rural parishes (18th and early 19th century)  

E-print Network

the proportion of kinsmen chosen as godparents at christenings . 1 1 ------------- ._- Example s of such questionnaires on contacts with kinsmen: in In t erna tional...l.E2.urnal of .. Qom.I2..?.:.£a ti tt Soc iology . Voltune VI, number 1. March 1965...

Todd, Emmanuel

1976-07-29

138

Population and Governance in mid-18th Century Bhutan, as Revealed in the Enthronement Record of Thugs-sprul ’Jigs med grags pa I (1725-1761)  

E-print Network

obligation into kamthrel is a bad example causing injury to all.”39 This passage and its sequel clearly suggests that the combination of estates and the commuting of produce tax or lönthrel into the payment of coinage were practices that led to the reduction... in Masterpieces of Bhutanese Biographical Literature, New Delhi, 1970. Ura, Karma (1988). “Labour: Its Private and Public Uses.” Unpublished article. - (1995). The Hero With a Thousand Eyes, Thimphu: Helvetas. Oral Information Oral information was obtained during...

Ura, John Ardussi; Ura, Karma

2000-01-01

139

A Study of Some of the 17th and 18th Century Dramatic Versions of the Oedipus Legend in French and English with some Reference to Spanish  

E-print Network

Julleville, Louis, "Histoire de la langue et de la litterature francaise," Tomes 1 ,2 ,3 , Paris, 1896-99. Seneca, Lucius Annaeus,»••Translated by P.J.Miller, Chicago, 1907. . c % Sophocles, • • . • .#"0Edipus Tyrannus,"^ New York, Cincinnati, Chicago..., 1901• Sophocles , . . . . . / ."OEdipus Tyrannus," edited by Benjamin Hall Kennedy, London, Cambridge, Leipzig, 1882• "The Magazine of Art," Vol. 2, London, Paris, New York, Melbourne. Vaughan, Charles Edwyn,..."Types of Tragic Drama," London...

Malott, Anne C.

1914-01-01

140

Loss of genetic diversity in sea otters (Enhydra lutris) associated with the fur trade of the 18th and 19th centuries  

USGS Publications Warehouse

During 1969 and 1970, surveys of the endangered Yuma Clapper Rail were conducted using taped calls to elicit responses from the birds. During the two summers, more than 158 Yuma clappers were located in cattailtule marshes along the Colorado River south of Needles, California, to the International Boundary, a distance of about 240 miles. Clappers (probably of the same race) were also found in estuarian marshes of the Colorado River Delta of Mexico; in the Salton Sea; in two freshwater marsh areas near Phoenix, Arizona; and in two freshwater marshes adjacent to the lower Gila River near Tacna, Arizona.....Populations of Sonora Clapper Rails were discovered as permanent residents in five separate mangrove swamps along the west coast of Mexico in the vicinity of Kino Bay, Sonora. These observations were farther north than any heretofore reported for the race R. l. rhizophorae, and the swamps also represent the extreme northward limit of mangroves in Sonora.....During the winter, Yuma clappers did not respond to taped calls north of the International Boundary, whereas clappers along the coast of Sonora readily answered the calls during the same period of time. We conclude that most Yuma Clapper Rails migrate from their summer habitat along the Colorado River in September and do not return to the breeding areas until late April.

Larson, S.; Jameson, R.; Etnier, M.; Flemings, M.; Bentzen, P.

2002-01-01

141

Wood Densitometry in 17th and 18th Century Dutch, German, Austrian and French Violins, Compared to Classical Cremonese and Modern Violins  

PubMed Central

Classical violins produced by makers such as Antonio Stradivari and Guarneri del Gesu have long been considered the epitome of the luthier's art and the expressive tool of choice for the most celebrated violinists. It has been speculated these makers had access to wood that was unique in some way and that this was responsible for their acclaimed tonal characteristics. In an attempt to discern whether the above conjecture is true, we analyzed 17 modern and classical Dutch, German, Austrian and French violins by wood densitometry using computed tomography and correlated these results with our previous study of modern and Cremonese violins; in all studying 30 instruments of the violin family. In order to make this comparison possible we developed methods to cross calibrate results from different CT manufacturers using calibration wood pieces. We found no significant differences in median densities between modern and classical violins, or between classical violins from different origins. These results suggest that it is unlikely classical Cremonese makers had access to wood with significantly different wood density characteristics than that available to contemporaneous or modern makers. PMID:23071602

Stoel, Berend C.; Borman, Terry M.; de Jongh, Ronald

2012-01-01

142

Wood densitometry in 17th and 18th century Dutch, German, Austrian and French violins, compared to classical Cremonese and modern violins.  

PubMed

Classical violins produced by makers such as Antonio Stradivari and Guarneri del Gesu have long been considered the epitome of the luthier's art and the expressive tool of choice for the most celebrated violinists. It has been speculated these makers had access to wood that was unique in some way and that this was responsible for their acclaimed tonal characteristics. In an attempt to discern whether the above conjecture is true, we analyzed 17 modern and classical Dutch, German, Austrian and French violins by wood densitometry using computed tomography and correlated these results with our previous study of modern and Cremonese violins; in all studying 30 instruments of the violin family. In order to make this comparison possible we developed methods to cross calibrate results from different CT manufacturers using calibration wood pieces. We found no significant differences in median densities between modern and classical violins, or between classical violins from different origins. These results suggest that it is unlikely classical Cremonese makers had access to wood with significantly different wood density characteristics than that available to contemporaneous or modern makers. PMID:23071602

Stoel, Berend C; Borman, Terry M; de Jongh, Ronald

2012-01-01

143

Effects of slope on the dynamics of dilute pyroclastic density currents from May 18th, 1980 Mt. St. Helens eruption  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The infamous, May 18th, 1980 eruption of Mt St Helens in the state of Washington produced several episodes of pyroclastic density currents (PDCs) including the initial lateral blast, which traveled nearly 30 km, and later PDCs, which filled in the area up to 8 km north of the volcano. The focus of this research is on the later PDCs, which differed from the lateral blast in that they have a higher particle concentration and filled in the topography up to 40 m. While the concentrated portions of the afternoon PDCs followed deep topographic drainages down the steep flanks of the volcano, the dilute overriding cloud partially decoupled to develop fully dilute, turbulent PDCs on the flanks of the volcano (Beeson, D.L. 1988. Proximal Flank Facies of the May 18, 1980 Ignimbrite: Mt. St. Helens, Washington.). The dilute PDCs deposited thin, cross-stratified and stratified pyroclastic deposits, known as the proximal bedded deposits, which differ greatly in depositional characteristics from the thick, massive, poorly-sorted, block-rich deposits associated with the more concentrated portions of the flow. We explore the influence of topography on the formation of these dilute currents and influence of slope on the currents transport and depositional mechanisms. The deposits on steeper slopes (>15°) are fines depleted relative to the proximal bedded deposits on shallower slopes (<15°). Bedform amplitude and wavelength increase with increasing slope, as does the occurrence of regressive dunes. Increasing slope causes an increase in flow velocity and thus an increase in flow turbulence. The fines depleted deposits suggest that fine ash elutriation is more efficient in flows with stronger turbulence. The longer wavelength and amplitudes suggest that bedform morphology is directly related to flow velocity, an important finding since the controls on bedform wavelength and amplitude in density stratified flows remains poorly constrained. The occurrence of regressive dunes, often interpreted as high flow-regime bedforms, on steeper slopes relative to progressive dunes on shallower slopes further attests to the control of velocity and flow regime on bedform morphology. Samples collected from recently exposed deposits and analyzed by grain size measurements, density analyses, and crystal morphoscopy studies further assess modes of origin and transport of dilute PDCs. The collected data will be used to validate numerical models that attempt to quantify the hazards of decoupled, dilute PDCs.

Bendana, S.; Self, S.; Dufek, J.

2012-12-01

144

Evidence for a warmer period during the 12th and 13th centuries AD from chironomid assemblages in Southampton Island, Nunavut, Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study presents the Late-Holocene evolution of a northern Southampton Island (Nunavut, Canada) lake, using fossil chironomids supported by sedimentological evidences (XRF, grain size and CNS). All proxies revealed a relatively stable environment during the last millennium with short-lived events driving changes in the entire lake ecosystem. The chironomid-based paleotemperatures revealed variations of significant amplitude coincident with changes in the sediment density and chemical composition of the core. Higher temperature intervals were generally correlated to lower sediment density with higher chironomid concentration and diversity. Higher temperatures were recorded from cal yr AD 1160 to AD 1360, which may correspond to the Medieval Warm Period. Between cal yr AD 1360 and AD 1700, lower temperatures were probably related to a Little Ice Age event. This study presents new information on the timing of known climatic events which will refine our knowledge of the paleoclimate and climatic models of the Foxe Basin region. It also provides a new framework for the evolution of such freshwater ecosystems under the "Anthropocene" and underlines the importance of including sedimentological proxies when interpreting chironomid remains as this combined approach provides an extended overview of the past hydrological and geochemical changes and their impacts on lake biota.

Rolland, Nicolas; Larocque, Isabelle; Francus, Pierre; Pienitz, Reinhard; Laperrière, Laurence

2009-07-01

145

Settlement history and sustainability in the Carpathians in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of a historical study of the Carpathian ecoregion, to identify salient features of the changing human geography, this paper deals with the 18th and 19th centuries when there was a large measure political unity arising from the expansion of the Habsburg Empire. In addition to a growth of population, economic expansion - particularly in the railway age -

David Turnock

2005-01-01

146

On-site Raman analysis of Ktahya potteries (17-centuries) at The Muse national de  

E-print Network

- 1 - On-site Raman analysis of Kütahya potteries (17- 18th centuries) at The Musée national de Céramique, Sèvres, France, on Kütahya pottery. A comparison is made with Iznik and Safavid productions. Two for the classification of the different productions. Differentiation between Kütahya and Iznik Ottoman pottery

147

Dendroseismology on the central North Anatolian fault, Turkey: Documenting three centuries of surface rupture history using tree rings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tree ring analysis provides a precise dating source for characterizing the timing of natural hazards. Specifically, seismogenic disturbances on trees have been successfully documented on major faults such as the San Andreas fault in California and Denali fault in Alaska. In this study, dendroseismology was employed along a 15-km-long stretch of the central North Anatolian fault (NAF) between Ilgaz and Tosya, Turkey where the most recent surface rupturing event was the Mw 7.6 1943 A.D. earthquake. Morphologic documentation and dendrochronologic analyses of 28Pinus sylvestristrees demonstrates the effects of proximal surface rupture and secondary earthquake deformation. Fourteen trees show similar abrupt growth suppression and accelerated recovery trends following the 1943 A.D. Tosya earthquake. The number of trees yielding similar results, the linear spatial distribution of the traumatized trees along the NAF, similarity in the trend of annual ring growth response, and synchronity of these anomalies with the 1943 A.D. earthquake provide robust evidence for the correlation of the observed anomalies and the earthquake. In addition, four trees going back to early 18th century provide evidence for the lack of another surface rupturing large magnitude earthquake along this stretch of the fault. This finding corroborates that the historical 1668 A.D. earthquake is most likely the penultimate event for the Ilgaz-Tosya segment of the NAF.

Kozac?, Ã.-Zgür

2012-01-01

148

Dendroseismology on the central North Anatolian fault; Turkey: Documenting three centuries of surface rupture history using tree rings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tree rings provide a precise dating source for characterizing natural hazards. Specifically, seismogenic disturbances on trees have been successfully documented on major faults such as San Andres fault in California or Denali fault in Alaska. Dendroseismology was employed along a 15-km-long stretch of the central North Anatolian fault (NAF) between Ilgaz and Tosya, Turkey where most recent surface rupturing event was the M7.6 1943 A.D. earthquake. Morphologic documentation and dendrochronologic analyses on 28 Pinus sylvestris trees demonstrated the effects of surface rupture and secondary earthquake deformation. Fourteen trees show similar abrupt growth suppression and accelerated recovery trends following the 1943 A.D. Tosya earthquake. Number of trees yielding positive results, linear spatial distribution of the traumatized trees along the NAF, similarity in the trend of annual ring growth response, and synchronity of these anomalies with the 1943 A.D. earthquake provide robust evidence for the attribution of the observed anomalies and the earthquake. In addition, four trees going back to early 18th century provide evidence for the lack of another surface rupturing large magnitude earthquake through this stretch of the fault. This finding corroborates that the historical 1668 A.D. earthquake is most likely the penultimate event for the Ilgaz-Tosya segment of the NAF.

Kozaci, O.

2011-12-01

149

Regional tree growth and inferred summer climate in the Winnipeg River basin, Canada, since AD 1783  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A network of 54 ring-width chronologies is used to estimate changes in summer climate within the Winnipeg River basin, Canada, since AD 1783. The basin drains parts of northwestern Ontario, northern Minnesota and southeastern Manitoba, and is a key area for hydroelectric power production. Most chronologies were developed from Pinus resinosa and P. strobus, with a limited number of Thuja occidentalis, Picea glauca and Pinus banksiana. The dominant pattern of regional tree growth can be recovered using only the nine longest chronologies, and is not affected by the method used to remove variability related to age or stand dynamics from individual trees. Tree growth is significantly, but weakly, correlated with both temperature (negatively) and precipitation (positively) during summer. Simulated ring-width chronologies produced by a process model of tree-ring growth exhibit similar relationships with summer climate. High and low growth across the region is associated with cool/wet and warm/dry summers, respectively; this relationship is supported by comparisons with archival records from early 19th century fur-trading posts. The tree-ring record indicates that summer droughts were more persistent in the 19th and late 18th century, but there is no evidence that drought was more extreme prior to the onset of direct monitoring.

St. George, Scott; Meko, David M.; Evans, Michael N.

2008-09-01

150

Was the formation of a 15 mile wide meteorite crater on the Moon observed in June 1178 AD?  

E-print Network

Was the formation of a 15 mile wide meteorite crater on the Moon observed in June 1178 AD to the night of 18th June, 1178 AD: " ... after sunset when the moon had first become visible a marvellous phenomenon was witnessed by some five or more men who were sitting there facing the moon. Now

Withers, Paul

151

Added Sugars  

MedlinePLUS

Added Sugars Updated:Jun 12,2014 Sugars in your diet can be naturally occurring or added. Naturally occurring sugars ... or added at the table. Foods Containing Added Sugars The major sources of added sugars are regular ...

152

Early 20th Century Education in the United States: The Role of the Brothers of Holy Cross  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The French Revolution bears an ironic responsibility for generating works of charity. To counteract the devastating social effects of that late 18th century uprising, numerous religious communities were founded in France, among them the Congregation of Holy Cross. The Congregation of Holy Cross, the founding religious community behind the…

Armstrong, Philip C.

2007-01-01

153

Dendroclimatic Reconstruction of Summer Temperatures in Northwestern Canada since A.D. 1638 Based on Age-Dependent Modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ring widths from five Picea glauca stands at the alpine treeline in northwestern Canada are used to investigate climate-growth responses and to develop a long reconstruction of summer temperatures. Response function and linear regression analyses indicate that the radial growth response of these trees to climate varies with age and site. At most sites, the period of significant positive response to growing season temperatures declines with tree age. Age-dependent and standard (age independent) models are then used to develop two reconstructions of June-July temperatures for northwestern Canada extending back to A.D. 1638. Calibration statistics were similar for both models, but the standard model performed poorly during verification. The reconstruction produced using age-dependent modeling suggests June-July temperatures were cooler than present throughout most of the past 350 years, with the exception of the late 18th century. Particularly cool periods occurred at ˜1700 and in the mid-19th century. In constast, the standard model suggests that temperatures were similar to or warmer than present during the last 350 years. The age-dependent reconstruction compares favorably with other proxy climate records from northern North America. Age-dependent dendroclimatic modeling can provide a sensitive record of recent climatic change that allows the inclusion of previously rejected sites into dendroclimatic analyses.

Szeicz, Julian M.; MacDonald, Glen M.

1995-09-01

154

The American College of nuclear physicians 18th annual meeting and scientific sessions DOE day: Substance abuse and nuclear medicine abstracts  

SciTech Connect

Despite the enormous personal and social cost Of substance abuse, there is very little knowledge with respect to the mechanisms by which these drugs produce addiction as well as to the mechanisms of toxicity. Similarly, there is a lack of effective therapeutic intervention to treat the drug abusers. In this respect, nuclear medicine could contribute significantly by helping to gather information using brain imaging techniques about mechanisms of drug addiction which, in turn, could help design better therapeutic interventions, and by helping in the evaluation and diagnosis of organ toxicity from the use of drugs of abuse. This volume contains six short descriptions of presentations made at the 18th Meeting of the American College of Nuclear Physicians -- DOE Day: Substance Abuse and Nuclear Medicine.

Not Available

1992-02-01

155

Urine therapy through the centuries.  

PubMed

Urine has always interested and attracted the attention of people. It was in fact never considered a waste product of the body but rather as a distilled product selected from the blood and containing useful substances for the care of the body. It was referred to as the "gold of the blood" and "elixir of long life," indicating its therapeutic potential. This paper reports on the practice of urine therapy since its origin attributed to the Indian culture, and briefly reviews its use through the centuries and different cultures and traditions. Records from the Egyptians to Jews, Greeks, Romans and from the Middle Ages and the Renaissance testify to the practice of urine therapy--a practice that continues to be found in more recent times, from the 18th century to the present. Experiences with the practice of urine therapy have even been discussed and shared recently in 2 different conferences: in 1996 in India and in 1999 in Germany, where people from different countries shared and presented their own research on urine therapy. PMID:21614793

Savica, Vincenzo; Calò, Lorenzo A; Santoro, Domenico; Monardo, Paolo; Mallamace, Agostino; Bellinghieri, Guido

2011-01-01

156

18th Annual Traffic and  

E-print Network

other than alcohol in Wisconsin OWI cases. Ms. Laura J. Liddicoat #12;· OWI Offenders: More Than Just? Mr. James Evans Ms. Candace Lightner Ms. Linda Salo 9:45 ­ 10:00 Break 10:00 ­ 11:00 Current Drug

Sheridan, Jennifer

157

Satire on Learning and the Type of the Pedant in Eighteenth-Century Literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper discusses a series of 18th-century works which may be included in a genre sometimes referred to as 'satire on learning’, and, more specifically, which feature a particular character type—the pedant. The genre has not received much critical attention, so the paper will simply attempt to build a corpus of works integrating that genre—which, hopefully, may be expanded by

Pedro Javier Pardo García

2004-01-01

158

The poetry of the unenlightened: politics and literary enthusiasm in the early eighteenth century  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper will explore the notion of ‘poetic enthusiasm’ in early 18th-century verse. The representation of poetic enthusiasm—the claim to false inspiration, and the fanaticism that was perceived to accompany it—was frequently politicized in this period. Through a conflation of religious and literary discourses, poetic enthusiasm was seen to represent the sae kind of anarchy in the realm of literature

Abigail Williams

2005-01-01

159

Ad Critic  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Ad Critic strives to enter every television advertisement into its database of online commercials, which can be downloaded for free and viewed with QuickTime. A complete list of advertisements is indexed by company and by ad title. There are, however, also indexes of newly added ads, most-downloaded ads, movie trailers, and music found in ads, making it easier for users to search for a new or favorite advertisement. Ad Critic includes a section on advertising news and commentary and provides services for advertising agencies including online market research and detailed viewer statistics.

160

The 18th and Rhode Island Garden in San Francisco's Potrero Hill neighborhood and other urban farms could benefit from the new law. Urban Farming Law Breaks New Ground  

E-print Network

The 18th and Rhode Island Garden in San Francisco's Potrero Hill neighborhood and other urban farms could benefit from the new law. Urban Farming Law Breaks New Ground S MALL-SCALE URBAN FARMING could soon experience a growth spurt in California. The Urban Agriculture Incentive Zones Act, which takes

Handy, Susan L.

161

Century Studies - \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

In response to scholarship on eighteenth-century female consumerism, this essay argues that women's relationship to ornamental objects was both ambivalent and changing in the early decades of the eighteenth century. It contrasts the relationship between women and chinaware in Pope's \\

Eugenia Zuroski Jenkins

2009-01-01

162

Little Century  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the tradition of such classics as My Ántonia and There Will Be Blood, Anna Keesey’s Little Century is a resonant and moving debut novel by a writer of confident gifts.Orphaned after the death of her mother, eighteen-year-old Esther Chambers heads west in search of her only living relative. In the lawless frontier town of Century, Oregon, she’s met by

Anna Keesey

2012-01-01

163

Droughts in the Czech Lands, 1090-2012 AD  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper addresses droughts in the Czech Lands in the 1090-2012 AD period, basing its findings on documentary evidence and instrumental records. Various documentary sources were employed for the selection of drought events, which were then interpreted at a monthly level. While the data on droughts before 1500 AD are scarce, the analysis concentrated mainly on droughts after this time. A dry year in 1501-1804 period (i.e. pre-instrumental times) was defined as a calendar year in the course of which dry patterns occurred on at least two consecutive months. Using this definition, 129 dry years were identified (an average of one drought per 2.4 yr). From the 16th to the 18th centuries these figures become 41, 36 and 49 yr respectively, with the prevailing occurrence of dry months from April to September (73.7%). Drought indices - SPEI-1, Z-index and PDSI - calculated for the Czech Lands for April-September describe drought patterns between 1805 and 2012 (the instrumental period). N-year recurrence intervals were calculated for each of the three indices. Using N ? 5 yr, SPEI-1 indicates 40 drought years, Z-index 39 yr and PDSI 47 yr. SPEI-1 and Z-index recorded 100 yr drought in 1834, 1842, 1868, 1947 and 2003 (50 yr drought in 1992). PDSI as an indicator of long-term drought disclosed two important drought periods: 1863-1874 and 2004-2012. The first period was related to a lack of precipitation, the other may be attributed to recent temperature increases without significant changes in precipitation. Droughts from the pre-instrumental and instrumental period were used to compile a long-term chronology for the Czech Lands. The number of years with drought has fluctuated between 26 in 1951-2000 and 16 in 1651-1700. Only nine drought years were recorded between 1641 and 1680, while between 1981 and 2012 the figure was 22 yr. A number of past severe droughts are described in detail: in 1540, 1590, 1616, 1718 and 1719. A discussion of the results centres around the uncertainty problem, the spatial variability of droughts, comparison with tree-ring reconstructions from southern Moravia, and the broader central European context.

Brázdil, R.; Dobrovolný, P.; Trnka, M.; Kotyza, O.; ?ezní?ková, L.; Valášek, H.; Zahradní?ek, P.; Št?pánek, P.

2013-08-01

164

Droughts in the Czech Lands, 1090-2012 AD  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper addresses droughts in the Czech Lands in the 1090-2012 AD period, basing its findings on documentary evidence and instrumental records. Various documentary sources were employed for the selection of drought events, which were then interpreted at a monthly level. While the data on droughts before 1500 AD are scarce, the analysis concentrated mainly on droughts after this time. A dry year in 1501-1804 period (i.e. pre-instrumental times) was defined as a calendar year in the course of which dry patterns occurred on at least two consecutive months. Using this definition, 129 dry years were identified (an average of one drought per 2.4 yr). From the 16th to the 18th centuries these figures become 41, 36 and 49 yr, respectively, with the prevailing occurrence of dry months from April to September (73.7%). Drought indices - SPEI-1, Z-index and PDSI - calculated for the Czech Lands for April-September describe drought patterns between 1805 and 2012 (the instrumental period). N year recurrence intervals were calculated for each of the three indices. Using N ? 5 yr, SPEI-1 indicates 40 drought years, Z-index 39 yr and PDSI 47 yr. SPEI-1 and Z-index recorded 100 yr drought in 1834, 1842, 1868, 1947 and 2003 (50 yr drought in 1992). PDSI as an indicator of long-term drought disclosed two important drought periods: 1863-1874 and 2004-2012. The first period was related to a lack of precipitation, the other may be attributed to recent temperature increases without significant changes in precipitation. Droughts from the pre-instrumental and instrumental period were used to compile a long-term chronology for the Czech Lands. The number of years with drought has fluctuated between 26 in 1951-2000 and 16 in 1651-1700. Only nine drought years were recorded between 1641 and 1680, while between 1981 and 2012 the figure was 22 yr. A number of past severe droughts are described in detail: in 1540, 1590, 1616, 1718 and 1719. A discussion of the results centres around the uncertainty problem, the spatial variability of droughts, comparison with tree-ring reconstructions from southern Moravia, and the broader Central European context.

Brázdil, R.; Dobrovolný, P.; Trnka, M.; Kotyza, O.; ?ezní?ková, L.; Valášek, H.; Zahradní?ek, P.; Št?pánek, P.

2013-05-01

165

Effects of slope on the formation of dunes in dilute, turbulent pyroclastic currents: May 18th, 1980 Mt. St. Helens eruption  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The flanks of Mt St Helens volcano (MSH) are draped with thin, cross-stratified and stratified pyroclastic density current (PDC) deposits. These are known as the proximal bedded deposits produced during the May 18th, 1980 eruption of MSH. While the concentrated portions of the afternoon PDCs followed deep topographic drainages down the steep flanks of the volcano, the dilute overriding cloud partially decoupled to develop fully dilute, turbulent PDCs on the flanks of the volcano (Beeson, D.L. 1988. Proximal Flank Facies of the May 18, 1980 Ignimbrite: Mt. St. Helens, Washington.). The deposits along the flank thus vary greatly from those found in the pumice plain, which are generally thick, massive, poorly-sorted, block-rich deposits associated with the more concentrated portions of the flow (Brand et al, accepted. Dynamics of pyroclastic density currents: Conditions that promote substrate erosion and self-channelization - Mount St Helens, Washington (USA). JVGR). We explore the influence of topography on the formation of these dilute currents and influence of slope on the currents transport and depositional mechanisms. The deposits on steeper slopes (>15°) are fines depleted relative to the proximal bedded deposits on shallower slopes (<15°). Bedform amplitude and wavelength increase with increasing slope, as does the occurrence of regressive dunes. Increasing slope causes an increase in flow velocity and thus an increase in flow turbulence. The fines depleted deposits suggest that fine ash elutriation is more efficient in flows with stronger turbulence. The longer wavelength and amplitudes suggest that bedform morphology is directly related to flow velocity, an important finding since the controls on bedform wavelength and amplitude in density stratified flows remains poorly constrained. The occurrence of regressive dunes, often interpreted as high flow-regime bedforms, on steeper slopes relative to progressive dunes on shallower slopes further attests to the control of velocity and flow regime on bedform morphology. Samples collected from recently exposed deposits and analyzed by grain size measurements, density analyses, and crystal morphoscopy studies further assess modes of origin and transport of dilute PDCs.

Bendana, Sylvana; Brand, Brittany D.; Self, Stephen

2014-05-01

166

Credentialing Kepler: Transits in the Seventeenth Century  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Kepler's successful prediction of the 1631 transit of Mercury spurred an interest in his decidedly user-unfriendly Rudolfine Tables. Because his Ephemerides went only to 1636, he did not draw attention to the 1639 transit of Venus, although the tables actually predicted the phenomenon, and the observation by Horrocks again proved the superiority of Kepler's work. By mid-century alternative user-friendly versions of the Rudolfine Tables were published by V. Renieri in Italy, J.B. Morin in France, Maria Cunitia in Germany, and (in a more modified form) by J. Shakerley in England. Transits of Mercury were observed in 1651 (by Shakerley in Surat, India), 1661, 1667, 1690, and 1697, giving astronomers opportunities to compare the predictions from these tables as well as those of Lansbergen (which were a variant of the Copernican Prutenic Tables). Because of the subsequent interest in transits for determining the length of the astronomical unit, the 18th-century French astronomer J-N. Delisle compiled for these early transits extensive systematic records, which are now preserved at the Paris Observatory. By his day, however, the as-yet-unpublished tables of Edmond Halley gave the most successful predictions, and Delisle showed little interest in further credentialing the Rudolfine Tables, a process that had already taken place in the previous century.

Gingerich, O.

2005-08-01

167

The Environmental History of Cetaceans in Portugal: Ten Centuries of Whale and Dolphin Records  

PubMed Central

The history between cetaceans and humans is documented throughout time not only in reports, descriptions, and tales but also in legal documents, laws and regulations, and tithes. This wealth of information comes from the easy spotting and identification of individuals due to their large size, surface breathing, and conspicuous above water behaviour. This work is based on historical sources and accounts accounting for cetacean presence for the period between the 12th and 17th centuries, as well as scientific articles, newspapers, illustrations, maps, non-published scientific reports, and other grey literature from the 18th century onwards. Information on whale use in Portugal's mainland has been found since as early as the 12th century and has continued to be created throughout time. No certainty can be given for medieval and earlier events, but both scavenging of stranded whales or use of captured ones may have happened. There is an increasing number of accounts of sighted, stranded, used, or captured cetaceans throughout centuries which is clearly associated with a growing effort towards the study of these animals. Scientific Latin species denominations only started to be registered from the 18th century onwards, as a consequence of the evolution of natural sciences in Portugal and increasing interest from zoologists. After the 19th century, a larger number of observations were recorded, and from the 20th century to the present day, regular scientific records have been collected. Research on the environmental history of cetaceans in Portugal shows a several-centuries-old exploitation of whales and dolphins, as resources mainly for human consumption, followed in later centuries by descriptions of natural history documenting strandings and at sea encounters. Most cetaceans species currently thought to be present in Portuguese mainland waters were at some point historically recorded. PMID:21931627

Brito, Cristina; Sousa, Andreia

2011-01-01

168

Adding Fractions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this web-based tutorial, students learn procedures for adding fractions with like and unlike denominators. The tutorial includes visual representations of the problems using pizzas, animations of the algorithm, and links to related lessons, worksheets, and practice problems.

Website, Math I.

2011-09-23

169

Nutrition, aspects of land use and environment in medieval times in southern Germany: plant macro-remain analysis from latrines (late 11th–13th century a.d .) at the town of Überlingen, Lake Constance  

Microsoft Academic Search

From high medieval courtyards at Überlingen, Lake Constance (Bodensee), 17 archaeobotanical samples from seven latrines (11th–13th\\u000a century) were analysed for plant macrofossils. They contained small amounts of cultivated plants and many well preserved seeds\\u000a and fruits of wild plants. The most numerous cereal finds were of Triticum spelta followed by Secale cereale. Recorded oil plants were Papaver somniferum and Linum

Tanja Märkle

2005-01-01

170

Climatic information of Western Sahel (1535-1793 AD) in original documentary sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Sahel is the semi-arid transition zone between arid Sahara and humid tropical Africa, extending approximately 10-20° N from Mauritania in the West to Sudan in the East. The African continent, one of the most vulnerable regions to climate change, is subject to frequent droughts and famine. One climate challenge research is to isolate those aspects of climate variability that are natural from those that are related to human influences. Therefore, the study of climatic conditions before mid-19th century, when anthropogenic influence was of minor importance, is very interesting. In this work the frequency of extreme events, such as droughts and floods, in Western Sahel from the 16th to 18th centuries is investigated using documentary data. Original manuscripts with historical chronicles from Walata and Nema (Mauritania), Timbuktu and Arawan (Mali), and Agadez (Niger) have been analyzed. Information on droughts, intense rainfall, storms and floods, as well as socioeconomic aspects (famines, pests, scarcity, prosperity) has been codified in an ordinal scale ranging from -2 (drought and famines) to +2 (floods) to obtain a numerical index of the annual rainfall in the region. Results show wet conditions in the 17th century, as well as dry conditions in the 18th century (interrupted by a short wet period in the 1730s decade).

Millán, V.; Rodrigo, F. S.

2014-09-01

171

An Odyssey into the New Millennium: Rediscover 21st Century Business & Marketing Education. Proceedings of the Annual Atlantic Coast Business & Marketing Education Conference (18th, Raleigh, North Carolina, February 15-17, 2001).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The following 13 papers on business and marketing education are included in this document: "Internet Marketing" (Herb Brown, Jerry Kandies); "Disk This . . . Paper Flow on the Go!" (Mary Evans, Wilbur Whitley); "Production and Evaluation of On-Line Tutorials" (Margie Gallagher, Evelyn Farrior, Jane Geissler); "Basic Skills Needed for Entry-Level…

Tucker, Sheila, Ed.

172

THE 21st CENTURY AS WHOSE CENTURY?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Macro-analysis and East-West encounter are shown through consideration of objective yet subjective constructed concepts for the international system and international economy in the 21st century. Three paradigms are considered, namely the 21st century as the 'Pacific Century', as 'China's Century' and as the 'Asian Century'. Overlaps are shown between these three paradigms, as also developments in time, and gradually shift

David Scott

173

century drying  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global warming is expected to increase the frequency and intensity of droughts in the twenty-first century, but the relative contributions from changes in moisture supply (precipitation) versus evaporative demand (potential evapotranspiration; PET) have not been comprehensively assessed. Using output from a suite of general circulation model (GCM) simulations from phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, projected twenty-first century drying and wetting trends are investigated using two offline indices of surface moisture balance: the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) and the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI). PDSI and SPEI projections using precipitation and Penman-Monteith based PET changes from the GCMs generally agree, showing robust cross-model drying in western North America, Central America, the Mediterranean, southern Africa, and the Amazon and robust wetting occurring in the Northern Hemisphere high latitudes and east Africa (PDSI only). The SPEI is more sensitive to PET changes than the PDSI, especially in arid regions such as the Sahara and Middle East. Regional drying and wetting patterns largely mirror the spatially heterogeneous response of precipitation in the models, although drying in the PDSI and SPEI calculations extends beyond the regions of reduced precipitation. This expansion of drying areas is attributed to globally widespread increases in PET, caused by increases in surface net radiation and the vapor pressure deficit. Increased PET not only intensifies drying in areas where precipitation is already reduced, it also drives areas into drought that would otherwise experience little drying or even wetting from precipitation trends alone. This PET amplification effect is largest in the Northern Hemisphere mid-latitudes, and is especially pronounced in western North America, Europe, and southeast China. Compared to PDSI projections using precipitation changes only, the projections incorporating both precipitation and PET changes increase the percentage of global land area projected to experience at least moderate drying (PDSI standard deviation of ?-1) by the end of the twenty-first century from 12 to 30 %. PET induced moderate drying is even more severe in the SPEI projections (SPEI standard deviation of ?-1; 11 to 44 %), although this is likely less meaningful because much of the PET induced drying in the SPEI occurs in the aforementioned arid regions. Integrated accounting of both the supply and demand sides of the surface moisture balance is therefore critical for characterizing the full range of projected drought risks tied to increasing greenhouse gases and associated warming of the climate system.

Cook, Benjamin I.; Smerdon, Jason E.; Seager, Richard; Coats, Sloan

2014-11-01

174

Century Sculpture  

E-print Network

While staring right at us, the varied representations of eyes in sculpture have largely gone unrecognised. Their consideration is essential, however, for the contemporary viewer's perception of, and identification with, the political and mythology subjects of eighteenth and nineteenth century statuary. A historical overview of the depiction of eyes reveals contradictions in neo-classical sculptural practices: a move from the emulation of the antique, with coloured eyes, to the presentation of uncarved marble eyeballs. This is highly significant for the individualisation of a statue is most achieved through the expression of the eyes both in facial appearance and gaze. Eyes have the power of expression: their representation in sculpture can make the viewer identify with a piece of cold stone or metal. How eyes are sculpted is distinctively varied in regards to their shape, possible colouring or inlays of precious stones. Some eyeballs are deeply carved to represent the pupil, others show carefully rendered low relief carvings. From an early age humans learn to interpret facial

Anna Vermehren

175

Stability of AdS black strings  

E-print Network

We review the recent developements in the stability problem and phase diagram for asymptotically locally $AdS$ black strings. First, we quickly review the case of locally flat black string before turning to the case of locally $AdS$ spacetimes.

T. Delsate

2008-08-14

176

University of Strathclyde Minutes: 18th  

E-print Network

Smith (Dean of Education) Attending: The Secretary to the University, Mr D Coyle (Director of Finance, Finance), Mrs G McArthur (Court Secretary) Apologies: Chancellor, Vice-Principal Professor J Love, Mr P Islamic Extremism had caused real alarm amongst our students and discussion between the Muslim Student

Mottram, Nigel

177

2012 Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Friday, May 18th  

E-print Network

Julian M. Goldman CIMIT / Massachusetts General Hospital Stephen Buckley City of Philadelphia ­ Office of Transportation & Utilities Michael Cook Comcast Sam Chernak Comcast S. Ramesh General Motors Robert G. Loewy Malay Ganai NEC Labs Rajeev Shorey NIIT University, India John Zaleski Nuvon Gün Akkor Patton

Plotkin, Joshua B.

178

PRESS RELEASE 18th Wild Chimpanzee Foundation  

E-print Network

'Ivoire in the Educating Africa Pan-African Awards for Entrepreneurship in Education. With over 350 entries from all over African Awards for Entrepreneurship in Education have been run by UK- based international development in their region. Also the children gain basic knowledge on environmental issues in order to promote care

179

GLASPPE/200820 18 th November 2008  

E-print Network

, Scotland 2 Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, OX11 0QX, UK 3 vertex and tracking detectors capable of fast targeted readout. Active Pixel Sensors (APS) can region of interest Each frame was corrected using a pedestal frame calculated for each pixel over a range

Glasgow, University of

180

18th Annual Residence Hall Construction Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is said that "home is where the heart is." Many colleges and universities are keeping that in mind as they continue to invest in building residential facilities to attract students to on-campus living. Residence hall construction at the nation's higher-education institutions remains strong, as the benefits to students, parents, and the college…

Agron, Joe

2007-01-01

181

GEOBULLETIN OcTOBEr 18Th  

E-print Network

and post-doctoral research scientist positions in the fields of structural geology/earthquake hazards (all levels) and reflection seismology (post-doc only). · The Geohydrology Section of the Kansas Geological

Carlson, Anders

182

BPS Geometries and AdS Bubbles  

E-print Network

Recently, 1/2-BPS AdS bubble solutions have been obtained by Lin, Lunin and Maldacena, which correspond to Fermi droplets in phase space in the dual CFT picture. They can be thought of as generalisations of 1/2-BPS AdS black hole solutions in five or seven dimensional gauged supergravity. In this paper, we extend these solutions by invoking additional gauge fields and scalar fields in the supergravity Lagrangians, thereby obtaining AdS bubble generalisations of the previously-known multi-charge AdS black solutions of gauged supergravity. We also obtain analogous AdS bubble solutions in four-dimensional gauged supergravity. Our solutions generically preserve supersymmetry fractions 1/4, 1/8 and 1/8 in seven, five and four dimensions respectively. They can be lifted to M-theory or type IIB string theory, using previously known formulae for the consistent Pauli sphere reductions that yield the gauged supergravities. We also find similar solutions in six-dimensional gauged supergravity, and discuss their lift to the massive type IIA theory.

Z. -W. Chong; H. Lu; C. N. Pope

2004-12-20

183

Constructing Lifshitz solutions from AdS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Under general assumptions, we show that a gravitational theory in d + 1 dimensions admitting an AdS solution can be reduced to a d-dimensional theory containing a Lifshitz solution with dynamical exponent z = 2. Working in a d = 4, mathcal{N} = 2 supergravity setup, we prove that if the AdS background is mathcal{N} = 2 supersymmetric, then the Lifshitz geometry preserves 1/4 of the supercharges, and we construct the corresponding Killing spinors. We illustrate these results in examples from supersymmetric consistent truncations of type IIB supergravity, enhancing the class of known 4-dimensional Lifshitz solutions of string theory. As a byproduct, we find a new AdS4 × S 1 × T 1,1 solution of type IIB.

Cassani, Davide; Faedo, Anton F.

2011-05-01

184

AdBlockVideo  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Video ads can be quite a nuisance. AdBlockVideo can help users out by effectively blocking such ads. Visitors will need to download the program and they can toggle AdBlockVideo on and off as they see fit. This application is compatible with computers running Windows 98 and newer, Max OS 10.3 and newer, and Linux.

2011-01-01

185

AdS braneworld with backreaction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We review the tachyon model derived from the dynamics of a 3-brane moving in the AdS5 bulk. The bulk geometry is based on the Randall-Sundrum II model extended to include the radion. The effective tachyon Lagrangian is modified due to the back-reaction of the brane on the bulk geometry.

Bili?, Neven; Tupper, Gary B.

2014-03-01

186

Scalar collapse in AdS spacetimes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, studies of the gravitational collapse of a scalar field within spherically symmetric anti-de Sitter (AdS) spacetimes presented by Bizon and Rostroworoski [Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 031102 (2011)], Jalmuzna et al. [Phys. Rev. D 84, 085021 (2011).] showed an instability of pure AdS to black hole formation. In particular, the work showed that arbitrarily small initial configurations of a scalar field evolved through some number of reflections off the AdS boundary until a black hole forms. We consider this same system, extended to include a complex scalar field, and reproduce this phenomena. We present tests of our numerical code that demonstrate convergence and consistency. We study the properties of the evolution as the scalar pulse becomes more compact by examining the asymptotic behavior of the scalar field, an observable in the corresponding boundary conformal field theory. We demonstrate that such black hole formation occurs even when one places a reflecting boundary at finite radius, indicating that the sharpening is a property of gravity in a bounded domain and not of AdS itself. We examine how the initial energy is transferred to higher frequencies—which leads to black hole formation—and uncover interesting features of this transfer.

Buchel, Alex; Lehner, Luis; Liebling, Steven L.

2012-12-01

187

AdS orbifolds and Penrose limits  

SciTech Connect

In this paper we study the Penrose limit of AdS{sub 5} orbifolds. The orbifold can be either in the pure spatial directions or space and time directions. For the AdS{sub 5}/{Lambda} x S{sup 5} spatial orbifold we observe that after the Penrose limit we obtain the same result as the Penrose limit of AdS{sub 5} x S{sup 5}/{Lambda}. We identify the corresponding BMN operators in terms of operators of the gauge theory on R x S{sup 3}/{Lambda}. The semi-classical description of rotating strings in these backgrounds have also been studied. For the spatial AdS orbifold we show that in the quadratic order the obtained action for the fluctuations is the same as that in S{sup 5} orbifold, however, the higher loop correction can distinguish between two cases.

Alishahiha, Mohsen; Sheikh-Jabbari, Mohammad M.; Tatar, Radu

2002-12-09

188

AdS duals of matrix strings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We review recent work on the holographic duals of type II and heterotic matrix string theories described by warped AdS3 supergravities. In particular, we compute the spectra of Kaluza-Klein primaries for type I, II supergravities on warped AdS3 × S7 and match them with the primary operators in the dual two-dimensional gauge theories. The presence of non-trivial warp factors and dilaton profiles requires a modification of the familiar dictionary between masses and 'scaling' dimensions of fields and operators. We present these modifications for the general case of domain wall/QFT correspondences between supergravities on warped AdSd+1 × Sq geometries and super Yang-Mills theories with 16 supercharges.

Morales, Jose F.; Samtleben, Henning

2003-06-01

189

21st Century Scholars  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Bethpage Union Free School District in New York is a high-performing district by almost any current accountability measure. Yet administrators and teachers worried that they were not doing enough to prepare their students as critical thinkers for the 21st century. Inspired by the curriculum framework of the Partnership for 21st Century Skills, the…

Clark, Terrence

2009-01-01

190

Welcome To Century Village  

Microsoft Academic Search

Welcome to Century Village is a collection of short stories narrated by second and third generation Jewish Americans living in South Florida. All of the stories are told in first-person, in a distinctly Yiddish idiom. Most of the stories in the collection are about elderly Jews living in Building E of Century Village, a retirement community in Boca Raton and

Dan Melzer

2003-01-01

191

Archeointensity results on 13 - 17th century stonewares excavated from Kyoto  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In last decade, High temporal resolution archeointensity data have been accumulated particularly in Europe. To further decipher geomagetic field behaviors, archeomagnetic data from geographically remote areas from Europe are indispensable. In eastern Asia a variety of archeological artifacts are readily available, but archeointensity data later than 13th century are still limited. Here we present new archeointensity data from stonewares excavated in our university's campus, which is located just north of the ancient place in Kyoto. The ages were estimated based on archeological constraints and range from 13th to 17th centuries. Low-Ti titanomagnetite and high-Ti titanohematite were observed in many stonewares using a Curie balance. In successful Thellier archointensity experiment, specimens showed linear segments on Arai diagrams in wide temperature ranges and these samples did not show clear presence of high-Ti titanohematite. To confirm the reliability of the archeointensity data, we checked TRM anisotropy and its cooling rate dependance. Our Archeointensity data in Japan indicates a rapid decrease in 16th century. Schnepp et al., [2009] showed a similar decrease between the 17th and 18th century in Europe. These new results suggest that the contribution of non-dipole component of geomagnetic field cannot be ignored and high temporal resolution archeointensity data from outside Europe are quite important.

Ooga, M.; Fukuma, K.; Wakabayashi, K.

2011-12-01

192

[The century of noise].  

PubMed

When did, actually, "noise pollution" begin to coexist along with our daily life and activities and change our environmental natural sounds, which hadn't changed for centuries? Industrial revolution, first, and the introduction of new technologies later, introduced "noise" as one of the most relevant features that marked the development of progress. Later on, it became the distinctive characteristic of the XX century. The incessant rumble of industrial machinery, of weapons and cannons from the wars, the roar of cars in the streets and aeroplanes from the sky, the deafening sound of XX century music, as well as the shouting out of new political ideas suddenly invaded the new century. They became part of our daily life so much as almost to become a new lay religion of modernity. As the century proceeded towards economic boom, a "new noisy Man" complied with this change, becoming the anthropologic prototype who was able to adapt to the new style of life and even contribute to its expansion. All this finally allows, to day, a definition of the XX century as the "century of noise". PMID:22073664

Pivato, Stefano

2011-01-01

193

Securing Ad Hoc Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ad hoc networks are a new wireless networking paradigm for mobile hosts. Unlike traditional mobile wireless networks, ad hoc networks do not rely on any fixed infrastructure. Instead, hosts rely on each other to keep the network connected. The military tactical and other security-sensitive operations are still the main applications of ad hoc networks, although there is a trend to

Lidong Zhou; Zygmunt J. Haas

1999-01-01

194

AdFlip.com  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Here's a site that's both fun and useful to students of American pop culture. Billing itself "the world's largest searchable database of classic print ads," AdFlip may be keyword searched or browsed by several methods. The ads are indexed by category (automotive, electronic, fashion, etc.), decade (1940s to current), and several specialty categories (ad as art, famous, advocacy, provocative [a few nudes here], today's top ten). Each collection of ads (presented as thumbnails) can be displayed by date, name, or ID number. Each of the decade collections can be further refined by a number of categories, such as automotive manufacturers, women's fashion, alcohol, and furniture and appliances, among others.

195

BadAds  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The creators of BadAds believe that advertising has become far too intrusive in American lives. Along with TV, magazine, radio ads, and billboards, advertisements and commercials are popping up in movie theatres, schools, public bathrooms, and even on stickers on fruit. Four criteria determine whether advertising is intrusive: an inability to turn the ad off; its entrance into your home without your consent; your lack of choice whether or not to watch it; and ads that don't support anything in particular and may actually cost you money. Rather than just venting about intrusive advertising, BadAds urges visitors to become active in the fight against bad ads by writing complaint letters to a host of venues that support intrusive advertising including movie theaters, sporting venues, television networks, and the heads of educational institutions. BadAds offers instructions on writing complaint letters as well as many suggestions as to who should receive these letters.

196

Winding Strings in AdS_3  

E-print Network

Correlation functions of one unit spectral flowed states in string theory on AdS_3 are considered. We present the modified Knizhnik-Zamolodchikov and null vector equations to be satisfied by amplitudes containing states in winding sector one and study their solution corresponding to the four point function including one w=1 field. We compute the three point function involving two one unit spectral flowed operators and find expressions for amplitudes of three w=1 states satisfying certain particular relations among the spins of the fields. Several consistency checks are performed.

Estanislao Herscovich; Pablo Minces; Carmen Nunez

2005-12-15

197

Warped AdS_3 Black Holes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three dimensional topologically massive gravity (TMG) with a negative\\u000acosmological constant -\\\\ell^{-2} and positive Newton constant G admits an AdS_3\\u000avacuum solution for any value of the graviton mass \\\\mu. These are all known to\\u000abe perturbatively unstable except at the recently explored chiral point\\u000a\\\\mu\\\\ell=1. However we show herein that for every value of \\\\mu\\\\ell< 3 there are\\u000atwo

Dionysios Anninos; Wei Li; Megha Padi; Wei Song; Andrew Strominger

2008-01-01

198

When to celebrate the end of the century  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I was saddened to read an ad for AGU's Fall Meeting that described it as “the last geophysical meeting to be held in this century” It is not. “This” century (the twentieth) ends on December 31, 2000. If scientists aren't sure what the word “century” means or have difficulty counting off intervals of one hundred, starting at one, how can we ever expect the news media and general public to get things right?Some say this is just a matter of semantics or religious significance. Not so: it is about consistent definitions and counting—something scientists are supposed to care about and attend to.

Warren, Bruce A.

199

Boson stars in AdS spacetime  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We construct boson stars in global anti-de Sitter (AdS) space and study their stability. Linear perturbation results suggest that the ground state along with the first three excited state boson stars are stable. We evolve some of these solutions and study their nonlinear stability in light of recent work , arguing that a weakly turbulent instability drives scalar perturbations of AdS to black hole formation. However, evolutions suggest that boson stars are nonlinearly stable and immune to the instability for sufficiently small perturbation. Furthermore, these studies find other families of initial data which similarly avoid the instability for sufficiently weak parameters. Heuristically, we argue that initial data families with widely distributed mass energy distort the spacetime sufficiently to oppose the coherent amplification favored by the instability. From the dual CFT perspective our findings suggest that there exist families of rather generic initial conditions in strongly coupled CFT (with large number of degrees of freedom) that do not thermalize in the infinite future.

Buchel, Alex; Liebling, Steven L.; Lehner, Luis

2013-06-01

200

Banner Ad Placement Study  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Webreference.com (discussed in the April 19, 1996 Scout Report) has recently added this interesting and thought-provoking resource to its site. The resource presents the results of a study of banner ad placement at webreference.com, conducted between March 25 and April 15, 1997 by three University of Michigan School of Business Administration students. The study concludes that changes in placement of banner ads affects "click-through" rates.

Doyle, Kim.; Minor, Anastasia.; Weyrich, Carolyn.

1997-01-01

201

[Purgatory, mercy and charity: structural conditions of care in Portugal (15th to 19th centuries)].  

PubMed

The aim of this article is to show how the Portuguese welfare system was organized and how it survived for several centuries. It was rebuilt by the monarchy in the late 15th century, a process that coincided with the birth of the Misericordias under the protection of the King. After the Council of Trent, these fraternities ran the health system, which was financed by people who believed in the power of perpetual Masses to evade Purgatory. These institutions were run by the political elite, who exploited them for their own benefit. The article also analyses the main measures taken by the state in the 18th century to change the old and weak system of public care. These laws were ineffectual and unable to change the real situation: the Misericordias were alone--the elite had run away when money was short--and they received no support from the public purse or from the faithful, who at that time had less faith in the perpetual Mass. PMID:11640188

Abreu, L

2000-01-01

202

Strings on AdS wormholes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider the behavior of open strings on AdS wormholes in Gauss-Bonnet theory, which are the Gauss-Bonnet gravity duals of a pair of field theories. A string with both endpoints on the same side of the wormhole describes two charges within the same field theory, which exhibit Coulomb interaction for small separation. On the other hand, a string extending through the wormhole describes two charges which live in different field theories, and they exhibit a spring-like confining potential. A transition occurs when there is a pair of charges present within each field theory: for small separation each pair of charges exhibits Coulomb interaction, while for large separation the charges in the different field theories pair up and exhibit confinement. If two charges move faster than a critical speed, then they exhibit a separation gap and energy is transferred from the leading charge to the lagging one.

Ali, Mir; Ruiz, Frenny; Saint-Victor, Carlos; Vázquez-Poritz, Justin F.

2013-12-01

203

Flowing from AdS5 to AdS3 with T 1 ,1  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We construct supersymmetric domain wall solutions of type IIB supergravity that interpolate between AdS5 × T 1,1 in the UV and AdS3 × 2 × S 2 × S 3 solutions in the IR. The 2 factor can be replaced with a two-torus and then the solution describes a supersymmetric flow across dimensions, similar to wrapped brane solutions. While the domain wall solutions preserve (0 , 2) supersymmetry, the AdS3 solutions in the IR have an enhanced (4 , 2) superconformal supersymmetry and are related by two T-dualities to the AdS3 × S 3 × S 3 × S 1 type IIB solutions which preserve a large (4 , 4) superconformal super-symmetry. The domain wall solutions exist within the N = 4 D = 5 gauged supergravity theory that is obtained from a consistent Kaluza-Klein truncation of type IIB supergravity on T 1,1; a feature driving the flows is that two D = 5 axion like fields, residing in the N = 4 Betti multiplet, depend linearly on the two legs of the 2 factor.

Donos, Aristomenis; Gauntlett, Jerome P.

2014-08-01

204

Aeronautical ad hoc networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been an enormous growth in mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) in land based small to medium size networks with relatively strict power and resources. In this paper the concept of ad hoc networking between aircraft is introduced, which can be considered as a novel approach in increasing the data rate and practicality of future in-flight broadband Internet access.

Ehssan Sakhaee; Abbas Jamalipour; Nei Kato

2006-01-01

205

Southeast Asian Mega-Droughts of the Past 5 Centuries from Tree Rings and Historical Records  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The need for understanding the natural range of climate variability in the monsoon regions of Asia - among the worldês most heavily populated and most dependent on agriculture - is critical for making sound planning decisions in the face of expected hydrological changes associated with global climate change. As part of a US National Science Foundation-funded project (Tree Ring Reconstructions of Asian Monsoon Climate Variability) we have produced climate-responsive tree-ring records from tropical Asia that span the past five centuries. We find compelling evidence for 18th century decadal-scale summer monsoon droughts that span from India to Vietnam. Historical records corroborate that periods of severe drought occurred across much of the region during this time, while speleothem and coral records suggest multiple decadal-scale droughts for much of the Little Ice Age period in India, and elevated Sea Surface Temperature (SST) during the 18th century for much of the tropical Pacific, respectively. Tropical Pacific SST anomalies are seen as one key component to monsoon variability over the study region, with El Ni?o and La Ni?a like conditions resulting in rainfall reductions and increases, respectively, with corresponding opposite-sign anomalies across much of western North America. Persistent anomaly trends in the SST fields can result in the kinds of decadal-scale variability our studies suggest, although this is not the entire story. We explore the role of the Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation (IPO), first defined in 1999 as a Pacific-wide measure of variability that is physically distinct from both the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) and the El Ni?o Southern Oscillation (ENSO), in contributing to protracted -mega-droughts" in the region related to weakening monsoon strength, as suggested by recent research. Interestingly, near-millennium-aged conifers from Vietnam and Laos have been located and much longer records are now being constructed. Of great interest is the period of the late 14th and early 15th centuries when a very week monsoon is thought to have occurred, possibly contributing to the demise of the Angkor Wat civilization in Cambodia.

Buckley, B. M.

2007-12-01

206

Twentieth-century Authors  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

College and Research Library News has posted this new annotated directory to aid students and researchers working with English literature of the twentieth century. This site focuses on major English-language writers, offering mainly "biographical and bibliographic information, with some information on literary criticism."

207

Suidas (tenth century)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Greek encyclopedist. In the course of reading Suidas's Lexicon, EDMOND HALLEY mistakenly connected the naming of the Saros cycle of 223 synodic months by the tenth century Greek lexicographer Suidas with the eclipse cycle of the same period. The solar eclipse cycle is thus now known by the name that Suidas used for another phenomenon. Halley's mistake accounts for the historical confusion that th...

Murdin, P.

2000-11-01

208

Multi-archive summer temperature reconstruction for the European Alps, AD 1053-1996  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a multi-archive, multi-proxy summer temperature reconstruction for the European Alps covering the period AD 1053-1996 using tree-ring and lake sediment data. The new reconstruction is based on nine different calibration approaches and errors were estimated conservatively. Summer temperatures of the last millennium are characterised by two warm (AD 1053-1171 and 1823-1996) and two cold phases (AD 1172-1379 and 1573-1822). Highest pre-industrial summer temperatures of the 12th century were 0.3 °C warmer than the 20th century mean but 0.35 °C colder than proxy derived temperatures at the end of the 20th century. The lowest temperatures at the end of the 16th century were ˜1 °C lower than the 20th century mean.

Trachsel, Mathias; Kamenik, Christian; Grosjean, Martin; McCarroll, Danny; Moberg, Anders; Brázdil, Rudolf; Büntgen, Ulf; Dobrovolný, Petr; Esper, Jan; Frank, David C.; Friedrich, Michael; Glaser, Rüdiger; Larocque-Tobler, Isabelle; Nicolussi, Kurt; Riemann, Dirk

2012-07-01

209

News Conference: Take a hold of Hands-on Science Meeting: Prize-winning physics-education talks are a highlight of the DPG spring meeting in Jena Event: Abstracts flow in for ICPE-EPEC 2013 Schools: A new Schools Physics Partnership in Oxfordshire Conference: 18th MPTL is forum for multimedia in education Meeting: Pursuing playful science with Science on Stage Forthcoming events  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Conference: Take a hold of Hands-on Science Meeting: Prize-winning physics-education talks are a highlight of the DPG spring meeting in Jena Event: Abstracts flow in for ICPE-EPEC 2013 Schools: A new Schools Physics Partnership in Oxfordshire Conference: 18th MPTL is forum for multimedia in education Meeting: Pursuing playful science with Science on Stage Forthcoming events

2013-03-01

210

Ad Hoc Advisors  

Cancer.gov

The Long Island Breast Cancer Study Project (LIBCSP) had an Ad Hoc Advisory Committee of expert scientists and community breast cancer advocates. This committee was chaired by Dr. Mimi C. Yu. The committee met annually or as needed.

211

Adding Two Vectors  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website from David M. Harrison of the University of Toronto's physics department provides an animation of the addition of two vectors. Instructors may use this animation in explaining the concept of adding vectors and demonstrating the steps involved.

Harrison, David M.

2010-08-13

212

Nineteenth Century Children's Literature  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This database, maintained by the publishing house of Chadwyck-Healey, Ltd., provides searchable records of the British Library's Children's Literature collection, which contains 2,369 titles on 5,527 fiches. Search parameters include title and complete record keyword, author, subject, publisher, year(s) of publication, microfiche number, and number of records retrieved. (Users may also browse possible search terms for each parameter.) Each entry gives a full bibliographic record for the individual text, including author, uniform title, imprint, place and date of publication, pagination, copy-specific notes, British Library shelfmark, and Fiche quantity and number. The site is part of The Nineteenth Century, a larger collection from Chadwyck-Healey and the British Library that catalogs an impressive array of nineteenth-century texts useful for historical and cultural studies.

213

D-branes on AdS flux compactifications  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study D-branes in Script N = 1 flux compactifications to AdS4. We derive their supersymmetry conditions and express them in terms of background generalized calibrations. Basically because AdS has a boundary, the analysis of stability is more subtle and qualitatively different from the usual case of Minkowski compactifications. For instance, stable D-branes filling AdS4 may wrap trivial internal cycles.

Paul Koerber; Luca Martucci

2008-01-01

214

Ad Astra Magazine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Ad Astra ("To the Stars") is the award-winning magazine of the National Space Society. It features space exploration news and full-color photography. It is published quarterly and mailed to all National Space Society members as part of their membership benefits, as well as to subscriber libraries, schools, and businesses.

2005-04-25

215

ad hoc networks.\\  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Mobile ad hoc networks rely on cooperation to perform essential network mechanisms such as routing. Therefore, network performance depends to a great extent on giving participating nodes an incentive for cooperation. The level of trust among nodes is the most frequently used parameter for promoting cooperation in distributed systems. There are different models for representing trust, each of

Marcela Mejia; Néstor M. Peña; Jose L. Muñoz; Oscar Esparza

2009-01-01

216

Introducing ADS Labs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ADS Labs is a platform that ADS is introducing in order to test and receive feedback from the community on new technologies and prototype services. Currently, ADS Labs features a new interface for abstract searches, faceted filtering of results, visualization of co-authorship networks, article-level recommendations, and a full-text search service. The streamlined abstract search interface provides a simple, one-box search with options for ranking results based on a paper relevancy, freshness, number of citations, and downloads. In addition, it provides advanced rankings based on collaborative filtering techniques. The faceted filtering interface allows users to narrow search results based on a particular property or set of properties ("facets"), allowing users to manage large lists and explore the relationship between them. For any set or sub-set of records, the co-authorship network can be visualized in an interactive way, offering a view of the distribution of contributors and their inter-relationships. This provides an immediate way to detect groups and collaborations involved in a particular research field. For a majority of papers in Astronomy, our new interface will provide a list of related articles of potential interest. The recommendations are based on a number of factors, including text similarity, citations, and co-readership information. The new full-text search interface allows users to find all instances of particular words or phrases in the body of the articles in our full-text archive. This includes all of the scanned literature in ADS as well as a select portion of the current astronomical literature, including ApJ, ApJS, AJ, MNRAS, PASP, A&A, and soon additional content from Springer journals. Fulltext search results include a list of the matching papers as well as a list of "snippets" of text highlighting the context in which the search terms were found. ADS Labs is available at http://adslabs.org

Accomazzi, Alberto; Henneken, E.; Grant, C. S.; Kurtz, M. J.; Di Milia, G.; Luker, J.; Thompson, D. M.; Bohlen, E.; Murray, S. S.

2011-05-01

217

The management century.  

PubMed

In 1886, addressing the nascent American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Henry R. Towne proposed that "the management of works" be considered a modern art--thereby heralding the Management Century, when management as we know it came into being and shaped the world in which we work. Kiechel, a past editorial director of Harvard Business Publishing, elucidates the three eras that punctuate this period: the years leading up to World War II, during which scientific exactitude gave wings to a new managerial elite; the early postwar decades, managerialism's apogee of self-confidence and a time when wartime principles of strategy were adapted, sometimes ruthlessly, to the running of companies; and the 1980s to the present, years that saw fast-moving changes, disequilibrium, and a servitude to market forces but also ushered in globalism, unprecedented innovation, and heightened expectations about how workers are to be treated. Along the way he examines the contributions of thinkers such as Frederick Taylor, Elton Mayo, Peter Drucker, and Michael Porter. What lies ahead? Perhaps the biggest challenge facing the 21st-century company, Kiechel posits, is to truly free the spark of human imagination from the organization's tidal pull toward the status quo. There's almost always a better way, he concludes--and management will continue to seek it. PMID:23155998

Kiechel, Walter

2012-11-01

218

Ad Element Liking and Its Relationship to Overall Ad Liking  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explored differences in affective response content across three cultures and the role of these responses in predicting overall advertising liking. Based on a field survey, subjects from England, Norway and Spain evaluated cosmetic ads on a series of liking scales. Ad content was coded into elements reflecting product- or ad-related affect based on existing theory on ad evaluation

Rune Bjerke; Tom Rosendahl; Pradeep Gopalakrishna; Dennis Sandler

2006-01-01

219

AdViews  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The AdViews section of the Internet Archive site contains thousands of vintage television commercials dating from the 1950s to the 1980s. These items of commercial ephemera were created or collected by the ad agency Benton & Bowles or its successor, D'Arcy Masius Benton & Bowles (DMB&B). The commercials are currently found at the John W. Hartman Center for Sales, Advertising & Marketing History in Duke University's David M. Rubenstein Rare Book & Manuscript Library. Visitors will find work created for clients such as Post, Kraft, Old Spice, Pan Am, and many others. As with other Internet Archive collections, visitors can look on the Most Downloaded Items Last Week area. Here they will most likely find advertisements for Charlie's Angels dolls, Borden's Milk, and Sugar Rice Krinkles. Visitors shouldn't miss the Subcollections area, which divides the commercials into their constituent companies, such as Beech Nut Foods, Folgers, and dozens of others.

220

Political Ad Critic  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Brought to you by the folks at Adcritic.com, this Website features sixteen 30-second spots from the Presidential primary and general elections campaign. Political Ad Critic lists a "top ten," with Ralph Nader's hip parody ("The Truth: Priceless") of the popular MasterCard commercials awarded number one, and posts new ads from the campaign each week. Currently, there are four commercials from the Gore campaign posted here -- one of which has Gore speaking Spanish -- and six from Bush's camp, including the now-infamous "bureaucRATS" spot. (The QuickTime control bar allows users to advance frame by frame so they can judge for themselves the commercial's disputed subliminal content.) Commercials from the Libertarian party candidate Harry Browne, and primary contenders John McCain and Bill Bradley round out the Website. May the best commercial win.

221

Ad*Access  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Duke University Libraries has an extensive physical and online collection of advertisements that appeared in magazines and newspapers in the U.S. and Canada from 1911-1955. The Ad*Access collection focuses on advertisements in five main subject areas: Radio, Television, Transportation, Beauty and Hygiene, and World War II. Visitors should read the "About Us" section to learn about why the collection was created and its importance for research. Visitors can "browse" the collection by the aforementioned categories, product, year, and company. For example, "War Bonds" are listed under "Product", and visitors will find that the messages in war bond advertisements are quite frank, and insistent, that people should help the war effort. Visitors should check out the following ads found when browsing war bonds: "I'm Saving to go to Ag College...And Buying Bullets for Pete!", "Avenge Pearl Harbor! Buy Bonds! Give Bonds!", and "Your Bond Purchase Makes These Nazis Shiver".

222

Killing spinors and supersymmetric AdS orbifolds  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine the behaviour of Killing spinors on AdS5 under various discrete symmetries of the spacetime. In this way we discover a number of supersymmetric orbifolds, reproducing the known ones and adding a few novel ones to the list. These orbifolds break the SO(4,2) invariance of AdS5 down to subgroups. We also make some comments on the non-compact Stiefel manifold

Bahniman Ghosh; Sunil Mukhi

1999-01-01

223

M. Tillier, Qs and the political use of the malim jurisdiction under the Abbsids , dans Maribel Fierro et Christian Lange (d.), Public Violence in Islamic Societies: Power, Discipline, and the Construction of the Public Sphere, 7th-18th Centuries CE, Edi  

E-print Network

Fierro et Christian Lange (éd.), Public Violence in Islamic Societies: Power, Discipline », dans Maribel Fierro et Christian Lange (éd.), Public Violence in Islamic Societies: Power, Discipline certaine difficulté à identifier ce qui relève spécifiquement de cette justice aux premiers siècles de l'Islam

Boyer, Edmond

224

Johann Gottfried Köhler - inspector at the Mathematical-Physical Salon in Dresden - an active observer of the starry sky in the last quarter of the 18th century (German Title: Johann Gottfried Köhler - Inspektor am Mathematisch-Physikalischen Salon Dresden - aktiver Beobachter des gestirnten Himmels im letzten Viertel des 18. Jahrhunderts )  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 1777, J. G. Köhler, an academician trained in mathematics and the sciences and with a deep interest in astronomy, was appointed inspector of the Mathematical-Physical Salon. He was lucky to find, in the person of the Saxonian electoral prince and later king, August the Righteous, a ruler who was open-minded to science, and thus he could combine his private interests with those of the sovereign. While the files of the Mathematical-Physical Salon from his time were lost during World War II, his actions can be reconstructed from a few archival sources and notes in the diaries of his successors. The Saxonian residence did not have an astronomical observatory. Köhler used the instruments from the collection of the Mathematical-Physical Salon for numerous celestial observations. He was in close contact with a number of other astronomers like Bode and Zach. They took care of his results, sometimes after editing them. Time determinations based on longitude and latitude determinations, as well as other astronomical observations, led to the development of a time service, which was carried out for about 150 years. Köhler himself constructed the clocks. Because of his responsibilities as an inspector, as well as due to local and material constraints, he was not able to carry out systematic and reproducible measurements over a long time span. His improvement of the circular micrometer and his stop-down photometer are of special interest. He also had considerable talent in drawing, as is shown in his drawings of lunar mountains. A number of instruments used by Köhler are still to be found in the Mathematical-Physical Salon.

Schillinger, Klaus

225

Indian Astronomy: History of  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

From the time of A macronryabhat under dota (ca AD 500) there appeared in India a series of Sanskrit treatises on astronomy. Written always in verse, and normally accompanied by prose commentaries, these served to create an Indian tradition of mathematical astronomy which continued into the 18th century. There are as well texts from earlier centuries, grouped under the name Jyotishaveda macronn d...

Mercier, R.; Murdin, P.

2002-01-01

226

Seventeenth-century uplift in eastern Hokkaido, Japan  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Shores of eastern Hokkaido rose by perhaps 1 m a few centuries ago. The uplifted area extended at least 50 km along the southern Kuril Trench. It included the estuaries Akkeshi-ko and Hichirippu, on the Pacific coast, and Fu??ren-ko and Onneto??, which open to the Okhotsk Sea. At each estuary, intertidal and subtidal flats rose with respect to tide level; wetland plants colonized the emerging land; and peaty wetland deposits thereby covered mud and sand of the former flats. Previous work at Akkeshi-ko and Onneto?? showed that such emergence occurred at least three times in the past 3000 years. Volcanic-ash layers date the youngest emergence to the seventeenth century AD. New evidence from Akkeshi-ko, Hichirippu and Fu??ren-ko clarifies the age and amount of this youngest emergence. Much of it probably dates from the century's middle decades. Some of the newly emerged land remained above high tides into the middle of the eighteenth century or later. The emergence in the last half of the seventeenth century probably exceeded 0.5 m (inferred from stratigraphy and diatom palaeoecology) without far exceeding 1 m (estimated by comparing seventeenth- and eighteenth-century descriptions of Akkeshi-ko). The stratigraphy and palaeoecology of the emergence are better explained by tectonic uplift than by bay-mouth blockage, tidal-flat accretion or sea-level fall. Eastern Hokkaido needs occasional uplift, moreover, to help reconcile its raised marine terraces with its chronic twentieth-century subsidence. Because it took place above forearc mantle, eastern Hokkaido's seventeenth-century uplift probably lacks analogy with coseismic uplift that occurs above typical plate-boundary ruptures at subduction zones.

Atwater, B.F.; Furakawa, R.; Hemphill-Haley, E.; Ikeda, Y.; Kashima, K.; Kawase, K.; Kelsey, H.M.; Moore, A.L.; Nanayama, F.; Nishimura, Y.; Odagiri, S.; Ota, Y.; Park, S.-C.; Satake, K.; Sawai, Y.; Shimokawa, K.

2004-01-01

227

Nonlinear realization of local symmetries of AdS space  

E-print Network

Coset methods are used to construct the action describing the dynamics associated with the spontaneous breaking of the local symmetries of AdS_{d+1} space due to the embedding of an AdS_d brane. The resulting action is an SO(2,d) invariant AdS form of the Einstein-Hilbert action, which in addition to the AdS_d gravitational vielbein, also includes a massive vector field localized on the brane. Its long wavelength dynamics is the same as a massive Abelian vector field coupled to gravity in AdS_d space.

T. E. Clark; S. T. Love; Muneto Nitta; T. ter Veldhuis

2005-06-11

228

21st Century Skills Map  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Partnership for 21st Century Skills (P21) has forged alliances with key national organizations representing the core academic subjects, including Social Studies, English, Math, Science, Geography, World Languages and the Arts. These collaborations have resulted in the development of 21st Century Skills Maps that illustrate the essential…

Partnership for 21st Century Skills, 2011

2011-01-01

229

Reading in the Twentieth Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper discusses reading instruction in the 20th century. The paper begins with a tour of the historical pathways that have led people, at the century's end, to the "rocky and highly contested terrain educators currently occupy in reading pedagogy." After the author/educator unfolds his version of a map of that terrain in the paper, he…

Pearson, P. David

230

Three Dimensional Origin of AdS_2 Quantum Gravity  

E-print Network

We study AdS_2 quantum gravity with emphasis on consistency with results from AdS_3. We lift AdS_2 black holes to three dimensions and map fluctuations around the solutions. Comparison with near extremal BTZ are discussed, with due emphasis on global aspects. The results confirm that parameters like central charges and conformal weights computed directly in 2D are consistent with standard results in 3D. Applying our results to the thermodynamics of near extreme Kerr black holes, we show that AdS_2 quantum gravity gives the correct central charge c=12J, and the entropy of excitations above the extremal limit is captured correctly.

Alejandra Castro; Cynthia Keeler; Finn Larsen

2010-04-05

231

AdS_{d+1} --> AdS_d  

E-print Network

Coset methods are used to construct the action describing the dynamics of the (massive) Nambu-Goldstone scalar degree of freedom associated with the spontaneous breaking of the isometry group of AdS_{d+1} space to that of an AdS_d subspace. The resulting action is an SO(2,d) invariant AdS generalization of the Nambu-Goto action. The vector field theory equivalent action is also determined.

T. E. Clark; S. T. Love; Muneto Nitta; T. ter Veldhuis

2005-01-30

232

Killing spinors and supersymmetry on AdS  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we construct several supersymmetric theories on AdS5 background. We discuss the proper definition of the Killing equation for the symplectic Majorana spinors required in AdS5 supersymmetric theories. We find that the symplectic Killing spinor equation involves a matrix M in the USp(2N) indices whose role was not recognized previously. Using the correct Killing spinors we explicitly confirm

Eugene Shuster

1999-01-01

233

Minisuperspace limit of the AdS 3 WZNW model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We derive the three-point function of the AdS 3 WZNW model in the minisuperspace limit by Wick rotation from the H {3/+} model. The result is expressed in terms of Clebsch-Gordan coefficients of the Lie algebra sell left( {2,mathbb{R}} right) . We also introduce a covariant basis of functions on AdS 3, which can be interpreted as bulk-boundary propagators.

Ribault, Sylvain

2010-04-01

234

A century of smoke.  

PubMed

Tobacco kills 5 million people annually. By the mid 2020s, that figure will increase to about 10 million a year, with most of the deaths occurring in developing countries. This review explains how early technological and regulatory developments contributed to the epidemic, reveals the efforts of the tobacco industry to conceal its products' harmfulness, and stresses the role of the globalization of trade and marketing as a means of increasing consumption world-wide. The results of tens of thousands of studies published globally over the past 50 years point to an association between smoking and lung cancer and other adverse health effects, and the non-smoker's rights movement has exposed the wide-spread perils of 'secondhand' smoke. Yet, the tobacco industry continues its global expansion, and consumers in low- and middle-income countries are especially susceptible to its marketing tactics. This review ends by emphasising the need for a global public-health response, and identifies the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control as a significant effort. It stresses the need for accelerated action and innovative tobacco-control efforts, if the projected death toll is to be reduced in this century. PMID:16899149

Yach, D; Wipfli, H

2006-01-01

235

Two Virasoro symmetries in stringy warped AdS$_3$  

E-print Network

We study three-dimensional consistent truncations of type IIB supergravity which admit warped AdS$_3$ solutions. These theories contain subsectors that have no bulk dynamics. We show that the symplectic form for these theories, when restricted to the non-dynamical subsectors, equals the symplectic form for pure Einstein gravity in AdS$_3$. Consequently, for each consistent choice of boundary conditions in AdS$_3$, we can define a consistent phase space in warped AdS$_3$ with identical conserved charges. This way, we easily obtain a Virasoro $\\times$ Virasoro asymptotic symmetry algebra in warped AdS$_3$; two different types of Virasoro $\\times$ Ka\\v{c}-Moody symmetries are also consistent alternatives. Next, we study the phase space of these theories when propagating modes are included. We show that, as long as one can define a conserved symplectic form without introducing instabilities, the Virasoro $\\times$ Virasoro asymptotic symmetries can be extended to the entire (linearized) phase space. This implies that, at least at semi-classical level, consistent theories of gravity in warped AdS$_3$ are described by a two-dimensional conformal field theory, as long as stability is not an issue.

Geoffrey Compère; Monica Guica; Maria J. Rodriguez

2014-07-29

236

ADS Development in Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accelerator driven nuclear transmutation system has been pursued to have a clue to the solution of high-level radioactive waste management. The concept consists of super conducting linac, sub-critical reactor and the beam window. Reference model is set up to 800MW thermal power by using 1.5GeV proton beams with considerations multi-factors such as core criticality. Materials damage is simulated by high-energy particle transport codes and so on. Recent achievement on irradiation materials experiment is stated and the differences are pointed out if core burn-up is considered or not. Heat balance in tank-type ADS indicates the temperature conditions of steam generator, the beam widow and cladding materials. Lead-bismuth eutectics demonstration has been conducted. Corrosion depth rate was shown by experiments.

Kikuchi, Kenji

2010-06-01

237

Value Added in English Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Value-added indicators are now a central part of school accountability in England, and value-added information is routinely used in school improvement at both the national and the local levels. This article describes the value-added models that are being used in the academic year 2007-8 by schools, parents, school inspectors, and other…

Ray, Andrew; McCormack, Tanya; Evans, Helen

2009-01-01

238

Distinct Clones of Yersinia pestis Caused the Black Death  

Microsoft Academic Search

From AD 1347 to AD 1353, the Black Death killed tens of millions of people in Europe, leaving misery and devastation in its wake, with successive epidemics ravaging the continent until the 18th century. The etiology of this disease has remained highly controversial, ranging from claims based on genetics and the historical descriptions of symptoms that it was caused by

Stephanie Haensch; Raffaella Bianucci; Michel Signoli; Minoarisoa Rajerison; Michael Schultz; Sacha Kacki; Marco Vermunt; Darlene A. Weston; Derek Hurst; Mark Achtman; Elisabeth Carniel; Barbara Bramanti

2010-01-01

239

The holy light: a study of natural light in Hindu temples in the southern region of Tamilnadu, India (7th century AD to 17th century AD)  

E-print Network

sacred monuments. The observations stated here are those of the author. In ancient Rome, the development of the round arch, barrel vault, and dome allowed masonry materials to be used for large spans. These larger interiors free of columns created...). The oculus in the dome controls the direction of a disk of light so that it directly strikes one altar in the morning and then moves gradually across the floor to shine on the opposite altar in the afternoon (Michel 1996). The long cylinder of light...

Mukherji, Anuradha

2012-06-07

240

Carillon Studio Recital Century Tower  

E-print Network

music immediately before and after the annual "Sounds of the Seasons" presented by the School of Music on the afternoon of Sunday, December 3. About the Carillon Century Tower, a monument constructed in 1953 in memory

Guo, Jing

241

Shock. A century of progress.  

PubMed Central

The word shock has been used for at least a century in all clinical disciplines to describe a progressive but gradual collapse of vital organ functions. Important initial steps in understanding the problem began at the turn of the century by two means: clear clinical descriptions and the initiation of research into etiology and treatment. The growth of shock treatment and its promising future are discussed. PMID:3977444

MacLean, L D

1985-01-01

242

Classification of Boundary Gravitons in AdS$_3$ Gravity  

E-print Network

We revisit the description of the space of asymptotically AdS3 solutions of pure gravity in three dimensions with a negative cosmological constant as a collection of coadjoint orbits of the Virasoro group. Each orbit corresponds to a set of metrics related by diffeomorphisms which do not approach the identity fast enough at the boundary. Orbits contain more than a single element and this fact manifests the global degrees of freedom of AdS3 gravity, being each element of an orbit what we call boundary graviton. We show how this setup allows to learn features about the classical phase space that otherwise would be quite difficult. Most important are the proof of energy bounds and the characterization of boundary gravitons unrelated to BTZs and AdS3. In addition, it makes manifest the underlying mathematical structure of the space of solutions close to infinity. Notably, because of the existence of a symplectic form in each orbit, being this related with the usual Dirac bracket of the asymptotic charges, this approach is a natural starting point for the quantization of different sectors of AdS3 gravity. We finally discuss previous attempts to quantize coadjoint orbits of the Virasoro group and how this is relevant for the formulation of AdS3 quantum gravity.

Alan Garbarz; Mauricio Leston

2014-03-13

243

Two Virasoro symmetries in stringy warped AdS$_3$  

E-print Network

We study three-dimensional consistent truncations of type IIB supergravity which admit warped AdS$_3$ solutions. These theories contain subsectors that have no bulk dynamics. We show that the symplectic form for these theories, when restricted to the non-dynamical subsectors, equals the symplectic form for pure Einstein gravity in AdS$_3$. Consequently, for each consistent choice of boundary conditions in AdS$_3$, we can define a consistent phase space in warped AdS$_3$ with identical conserved charges. This way, we easily obtain a Virasoro $\\times$ Virasoro asymptotic symmetry algebra in warped AdS$_3$; two different types of Virasoro $\\times$ Ka\\v{c}-Moody symmetries are also consistent alternatives. Next, we study the phase space of these theories when propagating modes are included. We show that, as long as one can define a conserved symplectic form without introducing instabilities, the Virasoro $\\times$ Virasoro asymptotic symmetries can be extended to the entire (linearized) phase space. This implies t...

Compère, Geoffrey; Rodriguez, Maria J

2014-01-01

244

Historic Building Information Modelling - Adding intelligence to laser and image based surveys of European classical architecture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Historic Building Information Modelling (HBIM) is a novel prototype library of parametric objects, based on historic architectural data and a system of cross platform programmes for mapping parametric objects onto point cloud and image survey data. The HBIM process begins with remote collection of survey data using a terrestrial laser scanner combined with digital photo modelling. The next stage involves the design and construction of a parametric library of objects, which are based on the manuscripts ranging from Vitruvius to 18th century architectural pattern books. In building parametric objects, the problem of file format and exchange of data has been overcome within the BIM ArchiCAD software platform by using geometric descriptive language (GDL). The plotting of parametric objects onto the laser scan surveys as building components to create or form the entire building is the final stage in the reverse engineering process. The final HBIM product is the creation of full 3D models including detail behind the object's surface concerning its methods of construction and material make-up. The resultant HBIM can automatically create cut sections, details and schedules in addition to the orthographic projections and 3D models (wire frame or textured) for both the analysis and conservation of historic objects, structures and environments.

Murphy, Maurice; McGovern, Eugene; Pavia, Sara

2013-02-01

245

Historic Building Information Modelling - Adding Intelligence to Laser and Image Based Surveys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Historic Building Information Modelling (HBIM) is a novel prototype library of parametric objects based on historic data and a system of cross platform programmes for mapping parametric objects onto a point cloud and image survey data. The HBIM process begins with remote collection of survey data using a terrestrial laser scanner combined with digital photo modelling. The next stage involves the design and construction of a parametric library of objects, which are based on the manuscripts ranging from Vitruvius to 18th century architectural pattern books. In building parametric objects, the problem of file format and exchange of data has been overcome within the BIM ArchiCAD software platform by using geometric descriptive language (GDL). The plotting of parametric objects onto the laser scan surveys as building components to create or form the entire building is the final stage in the reverse engin- eering process. The final HBIM product is the creation of full 3D models including detail behind the object's surface concerning its methods of construction and material make-up. The resultant HBIM can automatically create cut sections, details and schedules in addition to the orthographic projections and 3D models (wire frame or textured).

Murphy, M.; McGovern, E.; Pavia, S.

2011-09-01

246

[Malaria in Pula in the seventies of the 19th century and the epidemic in 1879].  

PubMed

Malaria played a leading role in the complex Istrian sanitary history. From the beginning of the 18th century, wars, famine, and epidemics depopulated large areas and favoured the spread of the diseases. Socioeconomic structures were also affected, generating a drop in cultivation of the fields, end of drainage works, and later, abandonment of farmed land because of the formation of palustrine stagnant water and decay of traditional sanitary regulations. The dissolution of Benedictine monasteries also played an important role in the spread of malaria. Working on tillage, drainage and cultivation, the Benedictines not only radically changed the Istrian landscape, reducing the impact and spread of infectious diseases but, through a wise land administration, they also succeeded in creating food supplies for famine periods, which were so frequent in the region. Southern Istria and the town of Pula in particular, were the most affected by the disease. Owing to severe famine that hit Istria in 1879, malaria assumed epidemic proportions, causing widespread malnutrition and physiological weakness on the population, which favoured the propagation of infectious agents. PMID:23094841

Cigui, Rino

2012-01-01

247

Foreword: 18th Aps-Sccm and 24th Airapt  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This second joint conference between the APS Topical Group on Shock Compression of Condensed Matter and the International Association for the Advancement of High Pressure Science and Technology (AIRAPT) demonstrates that static and dynamic compression of condensed matter continues to be a vibrant field of science and engineering. It is also by its nature an interdisciplinary field, incorporating chemistry, materials science, solid mechanics, plasma physics, and condensed matter physics, and utilizes theoretical, computational, and experimental tools. Recent years have brought about many advances in loading platforms, diagnostics, and computations that are leading to the emergence of many new avenues of research. These advances are also breathing new life into traditional topics such as equations of state, phase transformations, and chemistry at extreme conditions. The plenary lectures by Gennady Kanel, Karl Syassen, David Ceperley, Jon Eggert, Duck Young Kim, and Richard Kraus spanned the disciplines of static and dynamic high pressure physics and illustrated the breadth of the field. They also showed that interesting and important problems remain for researchers of the future to solve. The main guiding principal in the organization of this conference was to intertwine static and dynamical experimental alongside computational and theoretical studies of similar materials. To achieve this goal, we arranged the conference to include static, dynamic, and computational components in the same sessions, quite often taking presenters out of their comfort zone. The three special sessions on Deep Carbon Budget (organized by Giulia Galli and Rus Hemley), High Energy Density Materials (organized by Raymond Jeanloz and Jon Eggert), and Dynamic Response of Materials (organized by Yogendra Gupta and John Sarrao) furthered this guiding principal. We also endeavored to represent the breadth of static and dynamic high pressure science and technology, notably beyond that done at national laboratories. To this end, a significant fraction of the plenary, invited and contributed presentations showcased work done in academia, defense laboratories and industry, as well as internationally. Although travel distance and visa issues always present difficulties, the conference had strong representation from a record number of international participants, including sizable groups from Russia and China (thanks to Tony Zocher and Frank Cherne), as well as Japan, the United Kingdom, France, Canada, Germany, Israel, and Italy. It is our sincere hope that international interactions that occurred at the conference will lead to further collaborations in the future. Finally, we strived to increase student participation at the conference. Through the leadership of Scott Alexander and his committee, a new all-day student symposium was held the day before the main conference, with only student attendees and presenters, in order to acclimate the students to conference participation and help them network with their peers. In cooperation with the APS Topical Group and the AIRAPT and with additional support from DTRA and the AWE, the conference was able to provide financial assistance to a large number of students to attend the conference and present their research. This aid helped increase the number of student attendees significantly over previous conferences. Finally, the conference sponsored a networking lunch for students and representatives from a number of laboratories and other institutions, which was well attended. Seattle proved itself to be an excellent venue for the conference. The international flavor of the city provided ample dining options and numerous activity choices outside of the conference sessions. The major international airport made travel as easy as possible, as Seattle is a convenient central location for attendees from Europe and Asia. The conference was truly a team effort with critical contributions from many individuals. We deeply appreciate their contributions to the success of the conference and the publication of these proceedings. G

Collins, Gilbert; Moore, David S.; Yoo, Choong-Shik

2014-05-01

248

May 18th, 2010 -Assessment of current water conditions  

E-print Network

of average: 71% #12;Indian Creek and Hams Fork #12;#12;Duchesne River Basin #12;Basin snowpack: 82% Peak://www.wcc.nrcs.usda.gov/gis/precip.html #12;Steve Gray Wyoming State Climatologist W y o m i n g U p d a t e #12;#12;DRAINAGE BASIN 5

249

Longitude errors in ships' observations during the 18th  

E-print Network

* 1. Introduction The method described here was developed during the CLIWOC project, which aimed at digitation of ship data over the world's oceans 1750-1854. Among the 4,816 CLIWOC voyages, 646 different zero-meridians were identified. It became clear from the very beginning of the CLIWOC project that the digitizing

Koek, Frits

250

JPRS Report, Science and Technology Japan, 18th FRP Symposium.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In 1985, the Electronic Communications Business Law was enacted in Japan. This law decontrolled the country's electrical communication business. Following the liberalization of the business, many newcomers entered into this field to compete with the monop...

1990-01-01

251

Slides for Research Awayday Sept 18th 2008 Some interdisciplinary  

E-print Network

-post.] The problem: What exactly are virtual machines? How do they work? How can they make things happen? How, Robotics 1: Orangutans viewed as robots? 2: Baby robot mathematicians? 3: Unraveling the mysteries Is The Spice Of Cognition: Cognitive Demands Of Arboreal Gap Crossing In Orangutans [Roughly: how a roboticist

Sloman, Aaron

252

18th Annual February 21-22, 2012  

E-print Network

the participation of any Front Range student conducting ecological or ecologically, research-in-progress, research proposals, senior or class projects, or simply ideas deserving a closer look by ecologists. Off-Campus Participation This year

253

The 18th Annual Condensed Matter Physics Meeting  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Handbook contains abstracts of oral and poster presentations covering various aspects of condensed matter physics such as magnetism, superconductivity, semiconductor materials and their properties, as well as the use of nuclear techniques in studies of these materials. 162 contributions have been considered to be in the INIS subject scope and were indexed separately.

Don Chaplin; Wayne Hutchinson; Nick Yazidjoglou; Glen Stewart

1994-01-01

254

Students' Association Senate Minutes Meeting of February 18th  

E-print Network

Garden Inn that will fulfill the need for more hotels near the University. It will have an 85 seat sit-down restaurant, 136 rooms, a bar, and an outdoor seating area as well as a conference room. Behind the hotel

Mahon, Bradford Z.

255

UWM Urban Studies Programs 18th Annual Student Forum  

E-print Network

Fund UWM College of Letters & Science Center for Urban Initiatives & Research Center for Economic Panel 4: Crime & Space - Billiard Room 12:00 - 12:45 Lunch - Dining Room 12:50 - 2:15 Session 3 & Dining Hall Roundtable Discussions ­ Dining Room Foreclosure Crisis - Michael Martin Challenges

Saldin, Dilano

256

Proceedings of the 18th Fault-Tolerant Computing Symposium  

E-print Network

. ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ This research is supported by Hughes Aircraft Company and the State of California MICRO program. The second author is partially supported by the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada. One way module) may be polluted with damaged information before an error signal arrives. Therefore

Tamir, Yuval

257

CDRC Regional Service Center 901 E. 18th St  

E-print Network

the development of young children who may be at risk for autism. Research study: eirb #0009582 Principal.346.0738 Participate in a special research clinic tracking the development of young children who may be at risk of young children who may be at risk for developing Autism Spectrum Disorder Who: Infants / toddlers 6

258

"Astronomers Anticipate Meteor "Storm" on November 18th"  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The annual Leonid meteor shower, named for its emanation from the constellation Leo, will blow past Earth on November 18, 2001. Astronomers predict that North America will get the most spectacular Leonid shower it has seen in 35 years. "Earth is about to plow through a cloud of space dust that could light up our skies with celestial fireworks," notes Alan MacRobert, senior editor for Sky and Telescope (S&T) magazine. For more about the Leonids, refer to Sky and Telescope online. From the press release above, users can access a special report, peak activity prediction tables, images and QuickTime animations (intended for the press), and a .pdf of the S&T print article on the Leonid showers.

2001-01-01

259

Wilson lines for AdS_5 black strings  

E-print Network

We describe a simple method of extending AdS_5 black string solutions of 5d gauged supergravity in a supersymmetric way by adding Wilson lines along the string direction. Due to the specific form of 5d supergravity that features Chern-Simons terms, the existence of magnetic charges automatically generates conserved electric charges upon the addition of such Wilson lines in a 5d analogue of the Witten effect. Therefore we find a rather generic, model-independent way of adding electric charges to already existing solutions with no backreaction from the geometry or breaking of any symmetry. We use this method to explicitly write down a more general version of the Benini-Bobev black strings and comment on the implications for the dual field theory and the similarities with generalizations of the Cacciatori-Klemm black holes in AdS_4.

Hristov, Kiril

2014-01-01

260

On the Geometric Properties of AdS Instantons  

E-print Network

According to the positive energy conjecture of Horowitz and Myers, there is a specific supergravity solution, AdS soliton, which has minimum energy among all asymptotically locally AdS solutions with the same boundary conditions. Related to the issue of semiclassical stability of AdS soliton in the context of pure gravity with a negative cosmological constant, physical boundary conditions are determined for an instanton solution which would be responsible for vacuum decay by barrier penetration. Certain geometric properties of instantons are studied, using Hermitian differential operators. On a $d$-dimensional instanton, it is shown that there are $d-2$ harmonic functions. A class of instanton solutions, obeying more restrictive boundary conditions, is proved to have $d-1$ Killing vectors which also commute. All but one of the Killing vectors are duals of harmonic one-forms, which are gradients of harmonic functions, and do not have any fixed points.

Ali Kaya

1999-05-31

261

Brane Embeddings in AdS4 × { {CP}}3  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We construct D-brane embeddings in AdS4 × { {CP}}3 by studying the consistency conditions following from the pull back of target space equations of motion. We explicitly discuss the supersymmetry preserved by these embeddings by analyzing the compatibility of kappa symmetry projections with the target space Killing spinors in each case. The embeddings correspond to AdS/dCFT dualities involving ABJM theories with a defect. We also comment on the defect CFT.

Chandrasekhar, B.; Panda, Binata

262

Comments on String Theory on $AdS_3$  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study string propagation on $AdS_3$ times a compact space from an ``old fashioned'' worldsheet point of view of perturbative string theory. We derive the spacetime CFT and its Virasoro and current algebras, thus establishing the conjectured $AdS$\\/CFT correspondence for this case in the full string theory. Our results have implications for the extreme IR limit of the $D1-D5$ system,

Amit Giveon; David Kutasov; Nathan Seiberg

1998-01-01

263

On the Eikonal Approximation in AdS Space  

E-print Network

We explore the eikonal approximation to graviton exchange in AdS_5 space, as relevant to scattering in gauge theories. We restrict ourselves to the regime where conformal invariance of the dual gauge theory holds, and to large 't Hooft coupling where the computation involves pure gravity. We give a heuristic argument, a direct loop computation, and a shock wave derivation. The scalar propagator in AdS_3 plays a key role, indicating that even at strong coupling, two-dimensional conformal invariance controls high-energy four-dimensional gauge-theory scattering.

Richard C. Brower; Matthew J. Strassler; Chung-I Tan

2007-07-17

264

Mixed-symmetry fields in AdS(5), conformal fields, and AdS/CFT  

E-print Network

Mixed-symmetry arbitrary spin massive, massless, and self-dual massive fields in AdS(5) are studied. Light-cone gauge actions for such fields leading to decoupled equations of motion are constructed. Light-cone gauge formulation of mixed-symmetry anomalous conformal currents and shadows in 4d flat space is also developed. AdS/CFT correspondence for normalizable and non-normalizable modes of mixed-symmetry AdS fields and the respective boundary mixed-symmetry anomalous conformal currents and shadows is studied. We demonstrate that the light-cone gauge action for massive mixed-symmetry AdS field evaluated on solution of the Dirichlet problem amounts to the light-cone gauge 2-point vertex of mixed-symmetry anomalous shadow. Also we show that UV divergence of the action for mixed-symmetry massive AdS field with some particular value of mass parameter evaluated on the Dirichlet problem amounts to the action of long mixed-symmetry conformal field, while UV divergence of the action for mixed-symmetry massless AdS field evaluated on the Dirichlet problem amounts to the action of short mixed-symmetry conformal field. We speculate on string theory interpretation of a model which involves short low-spin conformal fields and long higher-spin conformal fields.

R. R. Metsaev

2014-10-27

265

White Macael marble: a key element in the architectonic heritage of Andalusia for over 25 centuries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Marble from Macael (Andalusia) is one of the most important natural stones in the architectonic heritage of Andalusia; in particular the variety commercially known as "White Macael". This natural stone has been used outdoors as well as indoors for decorative, ornamental or structural purposes. During the 7th century (B.C.) the Phoenicians began to systematically extract these quarries to be used in their more social important elements such as sarcophagus. During the Roman period this rock had a greater importance in construction; we find columns, pavements, tombstones… in many historical buildings such as the Roman amphitheatre in Mérida (1st century B.C.) and the city of Itálica in Seville (3rd century B.C.). But it is during the Muslim period when marble from Macael is more widely used: the Mosque of Córdoba (8th century), the Lions Court in the Alhambra palace, the Alcazaba in Almería, the Medina-Azahara palace in Córdoba (10th century). Other important buildings using the white marble are: Carlos V palace or the Royal Chapel in Granada (15th century), the Almería cathedral or El Escorial monastery in Madrid (16th century), San Telmo palace in Seville (17th century) or The Royal Palace in Madrid (18th century). Uncountable number of buildings, both historical and contemporary, show different elements made of this marble. From a geological point of view, the quarries are located in the upper part of the Nevado-Filábride Complex, the lowest nappe of the Internal Zones of the Betic Chains. Under the "White Macael" name is also possible to include another commercial denominations such "White Macael Río" or "White Macael Río Veteado". It is a clear white coloured, calcitic marble (up than 97% calcite), with average grain size between 0,16 y 3,2 mm in a mosaic texture with a very homogenous aspect. Regarding the main physical and mechanical properties, this rock has an open porosity value between 0,1-0,6%, bulk density 2,50-2,75 g/cm3, water absorption at atmospheric pressure between 0,1-0,2%, compressive strength (dry) between 81,1-87,4 MPa, flexural resistance (dry) between 12,1-14,2 MPa and salt crystallization loss of mass of 1,25-2,20%. We suggest to consider this natural stone as Global Heritage Stone Resource because of its aesthetic characteristics, its optimal behaviour when emplaced in construction as can be evident throughout the more than 25 centuries of use of this rock all over the country, and because the volume of international trade and exploitation. Macael white marble can be considered the main ornamental rock in Andalusia. This is a contribution of the Spanish network CONSTRUROCK.

Navarro, Rafael; Sol Cruz, Ana; Arriaga, Lourdes; Baltuille, José Manuel

2013-04-01

266

Evidence for abrupt geomagnetic field intensity changes in Europe between 200 and 1400 AD  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Available archaeomagnetic data indicate that during the past 2500 yr there have been periods of rapid geomagnetic field intensity fluctuations interspersed with periods of almost constant field strength. Despite Europe being the most widely covered region in terms of archaeomagnetic data the occurrence and the behaviour of these rapid geomagnetic field intensity changes is under discussion and the challenge now is to precisely describe them. Here we present an improved description of the sharp intensity change that took place in Europe around 800 AD. For this purpose 13 precisely dated early medieval Spanish pottery fragments, four archaeological French kilns and three collections of bricks used for the construction of different French historical buildings with ages ranging between 335 and 1260 AD have been studied. Classical Thellier experiments performed on 164 specimens, and including anisotropy of thermoremanent magnetisation and cooling rate corrections, gave 119 reliable results. The 10 new high-quality mean archaeointensities obtained confirm the existence of an intensity maximum of about 85 ?T (at the latitude of Paris) centred at ~800 AD and suggest that a previous abrupt intensity change occurred around 600 AD. Western European data also suggest the occurrence of abrupt geomagnetic field intensity changes during the 12th century AD and around the second half of the 13th century AD. Reliable selected eastern European data show a similar variation of geomagnetic field intensity with the occurrence of two intensity bumps (up to 75 ?T at the latitude of Sofia) at ages around 650 and 950 AD and two periods of rapid intensity changes during the 12th century AD and 1300 AD. The results suggest that the described features of the geomagnetic field are observed at a continental scale and that very rapid intensity changes (of at least of 20 ?T/century) took place in the recent history of the Earth's magnetic field.

Gomez-Paccard, M.; Chauvin, A.; Lanos, P.

2013-05-01

267

The 19th Century World  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Harpweek, "a privately funded project begun in 1992 to digitize the entire contents of the nineteenth-century, illustrated periodical Harper's Weekly" (see the March 31, 2000 Scout Report) offers a number of free Websites archiving materials from Harper's Weekly on specific historical topics of the nineteenth century. In addition to the materials on Black America, reviewed in the Scout Report issue cited above, there are collections on the impeachment of Andrew Johnson, Civil War literature, education, immigrant and ethnic America, the editorial cartoons of Thomas Nast, the American West, and 19th Century advertising. These free sites offer a wealth of primary documentation on their respective subjects, including, for example, over 200 article excerpts dealing with the Andrew Johnson and his impeachment drawn from 1865-1869 issues; examples of 19th-century advertisements for appliances, packaged goods, pest killers, insurance policies, and memorabilia; political cartoons of the famous editorial illustrator Thomas Nast; and much more. The sections are well organized and are introduced by contemporary scholarship. This is a superb source for both researchers and those planning to teach primary historical and cultural research to secondary and post-secondary students. Note: those who purchase a subscription to Harpweek will have access to numerous other 19th Century Harper's Weekly materials in addition to these.

268

Arianna Borrelli. Aspects of the Astrolabe: “Architectonica Ratio” in Tenth and Eleventh-Century Europe. (Sudhoffs Archiv, 57.) 270 pp., illus., apps., bibl., indexes. Stuttgart: Franz Steiner Verlag, 2008. €44 (cloth)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary transmission of mathematics and astronomy from the Islamic world to medieval Europe took place in the form of Latin translations from Arabic made in the twelfth century a.d. The book under review concerns the history of the astrolabe in Christian Europe before the twelfth century. In the tenth and eleventh centuries, the astrolabe was well known in the

2009-01-01

269

AdS pure spinor superstring in constant backgrounds  

E-print Network

In this paper we study the pure spinor formulation of the superstring in $AdS_5\\times S^5$ around point particle solutions of the classical equations of motion. As a particular example we quantize the pure spinor string in the BMN background.

Osvaldo Chandia; L. Ibiapina Bevilaqua; Brenno Carlini Vallilo

2014-04-03

270

Adding patents v4 1 myPublications: Adding patents  

E-print Network

Adding patents v4 1 myPublications: Adding patents You can use myPublications to record details of all your different research outputs, including patents. The system does not automatically search any patent databases so it is necessary for you to enter them manually. 1. On your Home screen click

Oakley, Jeremy

271

Tachyonic perturbations in AdS5 orbifolds Cyril Cartier  

E-print Network

for a theory of quantum gravity, is consis- tent only in ten space-time dimensions (11 dimensions for M contains a so-called "warp fac- tor". An especially attractive model of this type, where the bulk is a 5-dimensional anti-de Sitter (AdS5 ) space has been developed by Randall and Sundrum [14]. This is the model

Durrer, Ruth

272

Renormalized AdS action and Critical Gravity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is shown that the renormalized action for AdS gravity in even spacetime dimensions is equivalent -on shell- to a polynomial of the Weyl tensor, whose first non-vanishing term is proportional to $Weyl^2$. Remarkably enough, the coupling of this last term coincides with the one that appears in Critical Gravity.

Miskovic, Olivera; Tsoukalas, Minas; Olea, Rodrigo

2014-08-01

273

From nerves and hormones to bacteria in the stomach; Nobel prize for achievements in gastrology during last century.  

PubMed

Rapid progress in gastroenterological research, during past century, was initiated by the discovery by W. Prout in early 18th century of the presence of inorganic, hydrochloric acid in the stomach and by I.P. Pavlov at the end of 19th century of neuro-reflex stimulation of secretion of this acid that was awarded by Nobel prize in 1904. Then, J. W. Black, who followed L. Popielski's concept of histamine involvement in the stimulation of this secretion, was awarded second Nobel prize in gastrology within the same century for the identification of histamine H2-receptor (H2-R) antagonists, potent gastric acid inhibitors, accelerating ulcer healing. The concept of H2-R interaction with other receptors such as muscarinic receptors (M3-R), mediating the action of acetylocholine released from local cholinergic nerves, and those mediating the action of gastrin (CCK2-R) on parietal cells, has been confirmed both in vivo studies and in vitro isolated parietal cells. The discovery of H2-R antagonists by Black and their usefulness in control of gastric secretion and ulcer healing, were considered as real breakthrough both in elucidation of gastric secretory mechanisms and in ulcer therapy. Discovery of even more powerful gastric acid inhibitors, proton pump inhibitors (PPI), also highly effective in acceleration of ulcer healing was, however, not awarded Nobel prize. Unexpectedly, two Australian clinical researchers, R.J. Warren and B.J. Marshall, who discovered in the stomach spiral bacteria, named Helicobacter pylori, received the third in past century Nobel prize in gastrology for the finding that this bacterium, is related to the pathogenesis of gastritis and peptic ulcer. They documented that eradication of H. pylori from the stomach, using antibiotics and potent gastric inhibitors, not only accelerates healing of ulcer but also prevents its recurrence, the finding considered as greatest discovery in practical gastrology during last century. Thus, the outstanding achievements in gastroenterology during last century have been awarded by three Nobel prizes and appreciated by millions of ulcer patients all over the world. PMID:16391411

Konturek, S J; Konturek, P C; Brzozowski, T; Konturek, J W; Pawlik, W W

2005-12-01

274

The 8th Century Megadrought Across North America  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tree-ring data suggest that the 8th and 16th century megadroughts may have been the most severe and sustained droughts to impact North America in the past 1500 years. The 16th century megadrought may have persisted for up to 40 years, and extended from the tropics to the boreal forest and from the Pacific to Atlantic coasts. Evidence for the 8th century drought is sparse, but tree-ring and lake sediment data indicate that this drought extended from the northern Great Plains, across the southwestern United States, and into central Mexico and the Yucatan peninsula. Tree-ring data from Colorado and New Mexico document severe drought from A.D. 735-765, and may provide accurate and precise dating for the onset of the epic droughts reconstructed during the late first millennium A.D. with sedimentary data from Elk Lake, Minnesota; Moon Lake, South Dakota; La Piscina de Yuriria, Guanajuato; and Lake Chichancanab, Yucatan. If these chronological refinements are correct, then the sedimentary records suggest much greater persistence to the 8th century megadrought than indicated by the very high resolution tree-ring data, and a strong second pulse of prolonged drought late in the first millennium. Analyses of instrumental precipitation and drought indices during the 20th century, along with tree-ring reconstructions of climate in Mexico and the Southwest, indicate that annual and decadal droughts can both simultaneously impact the entire region from New Mexico and Texas down into central Mexico. The intensity and large-scale impact of drought across this region seem to be greatest when La Nina conditions and the low phase of the North Pacific oscillation prevail. The tree-ring dated 8th century megadrought occurred near the decline of the Classic Period civilizations at Teotihuacan in central Mexico and in the Mayan region of the Yucatan. The 8th century megadrought may have interacted with anthropogenic environmental degradation, epidemic disease, and social upheaval to contribute to the collapse of the Classic Period in Mesoamerica.

Stahle, D. W.; Therrell, M. D.; Cleaveland, M. K.; Fye, F. K.; Cook, E. R.; Grissino-Mayer, H. D.; Acuna-Soto, R.

2002-12-01

275

ADS's Dexter Data Extraction Applet  

Microsoft Academic Search

The NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) now holds 1.3 million scanned pages, containing numerous plots and figures for which the original data sets are lost or inaccessible. The availability of scans of the figures can significantly ease the regeneration of the data sets. For this purpose, the ADS has developed Dexter, a Java applet that supports the user in this

M. Demleitner; A. Accomazzi; G. Eichhorn; C. S. Grant; M. J. Kurtz; S. S. Murray

2001-01-01

276

The ADS Bibliographic Reference Resolver  

Microsoft Academic Search

An increasingly larger number of publishers and institutions are using the NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) to verify the existence and availability of references published in the astronomical literature. In this paper we discuss the tools and utilities that the ADS is developing to provide the capability to automatically parse, identify, and verify the existence and correctness of citations appearing

Alberto Accomazzi; Guenther Eichhorn; M. J. Kurtz; C. S. Grant; Stephen S. Murray

1999-01-01

277

Usual Intake of Added sugars  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Added sugars Table A40. Added sugars: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 teaspoons3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 9.4 (0.31) 3.1 (0.17) 4.1

278

Adding Sections, Pages, Modules & Media  

E-print Network

COLLECT: Adding Sections, Pages, Modules & Media #12;Part 5: Add Sections, Pages & Modules #12 if you change your mind.) #12;Part 6: Add Media #12;1. Here we've added a Rich Text module. In order to put media into the module, you will need to click on the Edit tab. #12;2. From this page, you can: 1

Goldberg, Bennett

279

Self-dual warped AdS3 black holes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study a new class of solutions of three-dimensional topological massive gravity. These solutions can be taken as nonextremal black holes, with their extremal counterparts being discrete quotients of spacelike warped AdS3 along the U(1)L isometry. We study the thermodynamics of these black holes and show that the first law is satisfied. We also show that for consistent boundary conditions, the asymptotic symmetry generators form only one copy of the Virasoro algebra with central charge cL=(4??)/(G(?2+3)), with which the Cardy formula reproduces the black hole entropy. We compute the real-time correlators of scalar perturbations and find a perfect match with the dual conformal field theory (CFT) predictions. Our study provides a novel example of warped AdS/CFT correspondence: the self-dual warped AdS3 black hole is dual to a CFT with nonvanishing left central charge. Moreover, our investigation suggests that the quantum topological massive gravity asymptotic to the same spacelike warped AdS3 in different consistent ways may be dual to different two-dimensional CFTs.

Chen, Bin; Ning, Bo

2010-12-01

280

Moduli spaces in AdS 4 supergravity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the structure of the supersymmetric moduli spaces of = 1 and = 2 supergravity theories in AdS 4 backgrounds. In the = 1 case, the moduli space cannot be a complex submanifold of the Kähler field space, but is instead real with respect to the inherited complex structure. In = 2 supergravity the same result holds for the vector multiplet moduli space, while the hypermultiplet moduli space is a Kähler submanifold of the quaternionic-Kähler field space. These findings are in agreement with AdS/CFT considerations.

de Alwis, Senarath; Louis, Jan; McAllister, Liam; Triendl, Hagen; Westphal, Alexander

2014-05-01

281

A Century of Juvenile Justice.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The millennium marks the beginning of a second century for the formal system of juvenile justice in the United States. From its inception, the central focus of the system has been delinquency, an amorphous construct that includes not only "criminal" behavior but also an array of youthful actions that offend prevailing social norms. Thus, the…

Harris, Philip W.; Welsh, Wayne N.; Butler, Frank

282

Toward 21st Century Supports  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents an interview with Linda Darling-Hammond, Charles Ducommun Professor of Education at Stanford University, director of the Stanford Center for Opportunity Policy and Education, and codirector of the school redesign network at Stanford. In this interview, Darling-Hammond describes the term "21st century skills" and shares her…

Umphrey, Jan

2010-01-01

283

Preparing for Our Next Century  

E-print Network

' Science, Technology, Education, and Mathematics (STEM) initiatives, which would expand the pipelinePreparing for Our Next Century Johns Hopkins University School of Education #12;#12;The School of Education has prepared this document for friends, alumni, and potential new partners who seek to make

Niebur, Ernst

284

Twenty-first-century science.  

PubMed Central

Scientific life is changing in fundamental ways as the twenty-first century approaches. Advances in technology are changing methods of scientific communications and dissemination of information, while diminishing resources lead to stabilization, politicization, increased public oversight, and the potential for significant downsizing. Libraries can foster the crucial interdisciplinary connections necessary to forge a new vision of scholarship. PMID:7703945

Greenwood, M R

1995-01-01

285

Three Centuries of American Inequality.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Income inequality in the United States displays considerable variance since the seventeenth century. There is no eternal constancy to the degree of inequality in total income, in labor earnings, or in income from conventional nonhuman wealth either before or after the effects of government taxes and spending. When all the necessary adjustments to…

Lindert, Peter H.; Williamson, Jeffrey G.

286

Cellarius, Andreas (fl. seventeenth century)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biographical details are unknown for Cellarius, who produced finest celestial atlas of the seventeenth century, the Atlas Coelestis, 1660, couched in terms both of the Ptolemaic and Copernican theories of the universe, for example a Ptolemaic view of the Earth as if seen through the starry sphere from an external distant point in space....

Murdin, P.

2000-11-01

287

Some nineteenth century African philosophers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several West-African intellectuals obtained great fame in the second half of the nineteenth century and are of lasting importance for African philosophy. Their work covered a range of fields, such as religion, culture, race, science, technology and politics, and addressed pressing issues related to the rapid rise of European domination. Such issues came up first in Liberia and in European

Pieter Boele van Hensbroek

2000-01-01

288

Viruses in a 14th-Century Coprolite  

PubMed Central

Coprolites are fossilized fecal material that can reveal information about ancient intestinal and environmental microbiota. Viral metagenomics has allowed systematic characterization of viral diversity in environmental and human-associated specimens, but little is known about the viral diversity in fossil remains. Here, we analyzed the viral community of a 14th-century coprolite from a closed barrel in a Middle Ages site in Belgium using electron microscopy and metagenomics. Viruses that infect eukaryotes, bacteria, and archaea were detected, and we confirmed the presence of some of them by ad hoc suicide PCR. The coprolite DNA viral metagenome was dominated by sequences showing homologies to phages commonly found in modern stools and soil. Although their phylogenetic compositions differed, the metabolic functions of the viral communities have remained conserved across centuries. Antibiotic resistance was one of the reconstructed metabolic functions detected. PMID:24509925

Appelt, Sandra; Fancello, Laura; Le Bailly, Matthieu; Raoult, Didier; Drancourt, Michel

2014-01-01

289

AdS plane waves, entanglement and mutual information  

E-print Network

$AdS$ plane wave backgrounds are dual to CFT excited states with energy momentum density $T_{++}=Q$. Building on previous work on entanglement entropy in these and nonconformal brane plane wave backgrounds, we first describe a phenomenological scaling picture for entanglement in terms of "entangling partons". We then study aspects of holographic mutual information in these backgrounds for two strip shaped subsystems, aligned parallel or orthogonal to the flux. We focus on the wide ($Ql^d\\gg 1$) and narrow ($Ql^d\\ll 1$) strip regimes. In the wide strip regime, mutual information exhibits growth with the individual strip sizes and a disentangling transition as the separation between the strips increases, whose behaviour is distinct from the ground and thermal states. In the narrow strip case, our calculations have parallels with "entanglement thermodynamics" for these $AdS$ plane wave deformations. We also discuss some numerical analysis.

Debangshu Mukherjee; K. Narayan

2014-05-14

290

Thermodynamics of Einstein-Proca AdS black holes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study static spherically-symmetric solutions of the Einstein-Proca equations in the presence of a negative cosmological constant. We show that the theory admits solutions describing both black holes and also solitons in an asymptotically AdS background. Interesting subtleties can arise in the computation of the mass of the solutions and also in the derivation of the first law of thermodynamics. We make use of holographic renormalisation in order to calculate the mass, even in cases where the solutions have a rather slow approach to the asymptotic AdS geometry. By using the procedure developed by Wald, we derive the first law of thermodynamics for the black hole and soliton solutions. This includes a non-trivial contribution associated with the Proca "charge". The solutions cannot be found analytically, and so we make use of numerical integration techniques to demonstrate their existence.

Liu, Hai-Shan; Lü, H.; Pope, C. N.

2014-06-01

291

New boundary conditions for AdS3  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New chiral boundary conditions are found for quantum gravity with matter on AdS3. The associated asymptotic symmetry group is generated by a single right-moving U(1) Kac-Moody-Virasoro algebra with {c_R}={3?}/2G . The Kac-Moody zero mode generates global left-moving translations and equals, for a BTZ black hole, the sum of the total mass and spin. The level is positive about the global vacuum and negative in the black hole sector, corresponding to ergosphere formation. Realizations arising in Chern-Simons gravity and string theory are analyzed. The new boundary conditions are shown to naturally arise for warped AdS3 in the limit that the warp parameter is taken to zero.

Compère, Geoffrey; Song, Wei; Strominger, Andrew

2013-05-01

292

Warped AdS3/dipole-CFT duality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

String theory contains solutions with {{SL}}( {{2},{R}} ){{R}} × {{U}}{( {1} )_L} -invariant warped AdS3 (WAdS3) factors arising as continuous deformations of ordinary AdS3 factors. We propose that some of these are holographically dual to the IR limits of nonlocal dipole-deformed 2D D-brane gauge theories, referred to as "dipole CFTs". Neither the bulk nor boundary theories are currently well-understood, and consequences of the proposed duality for both sides is investigated. The bulk entropy-area law suggests that dipole CFTs have (at large N) a high-energy density of states which does not depend on the deformation parameter. Putting the boundary theory on a spatial circle leads to closed timelike curves in the bulk, suggesting a relation of the latter to dipole-type nonlocality.

Song, Wei; Strominger, Andrew

2012-05-01

293

[Mercury (and...) through the centuries].  

PubMed

Mercury has a long history, fascinating in its many aspects. Through the centuries--from ancient times to the present day--the metal in its various forms, also known under the name "quicksilver", accompanied the man and was used for diversified purposes. Today, mercury is employed in manufacturing thermometers, barometers, vacuum pumps and explosives. It is also used in silver and gold mining processes. Mercury compounds play a significant role in dentistry, pharmaceutical industry and crop protection. The contemporary use of mercury markedly decreases, but historically speaking, the archives abound in materials that document facts and events occurring over generations and the immense intellectual effort aiming at discovering the true properties and mechanisms of mercury activity. Mercury toxicity, manifested in destruction of biological membranes and binding of the element with proteins, what disturbs biochemical processes occurring in the body, was discovered only after many centuries of the metal exerting its effect on the lives of individuals and communities. For centuries, mercury was present in the work of alchemists, who searched for the universal essence or quintessence and the so-called philosopher's stone. In the early modern era, between the 16th and 19th centuries, mercury was used to manufacture mirrors. Mercury compounds were employed as a medication against syphilis, which plagued mankind for more than four hundred years--from the Middle Ages till mid 20th century, when the discovery of penicillin became the turning point. This extremely toxic therapy resulted in much suffering, individual tragedies, chronic poisonings leading to fatalities and dramatic sudden deaths. In the last fifty years, there even occurred attempts of mentally imbalanced individuals at injecting themselves with metallic mercury, also as a performance-enhancing drug. Instances of mass mercury poisoning occurred many times in the past in consequence of eating food products poisoned with organic mercury compounds originating from the natural environment. PMID:21863739

K?ys, Ma?gorzata

2010-01-01

294

Self-dual warped AdS3 black holes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study a new class of solutions of three-dimensional topological massive gravity. These solutions can be taken as nonextremal black holes, with their extremal counterparts being discrete quotients of spacelike warped AdS3 along the U(1)L isometry. We study the thermodynamics of these black holes and show that the first law is satisfied. We also show that for consistent boundary conditions,

Bin Chen; Bo Ning

2010-01-01

295

Supersymmetric giant graviton solutions in AdS3  

Microsoft Academic Search

We parametrize all classical probe brane configurations that preserve four supersymmetries in (a) the extremal D1-D5 geometry, (b) the extremal D1-D5-P geometry, (c) the smooth D1-D5 solutions proposed by Lunin and Mathur, and (d) global AdS3×S3×T4\\/K3. These configurations consist of D1 branes, D5 branes, and bound states of D5 and D1 branes with the property that a particular Killing vector

Gautam Mandal; Suvrat Raju; Mikael Smedbäck

2008-01-01

296

Geometries with Killing Spinors and Supersymmetric AdS Solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The seven and nine dimensional geometries associated with certain classes of supersymmetric AdS\\u000a 3 and AdS\\u000a 2 solutions of type IIB and D = 11 supergravity, respectively, have many similarities with Sasaki-Einstein geometry. We further elucidate their properties\\u000a and also generalise them to higher odd dimensions by introducing a new class of complex geometries in 2n + 2 dimensions, specified by a Riemannian metric,

Jerome P. Gauntlett; Nakwoo Kim

2008-01-01

297

SUSY properties of warped AdS3  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We examine supersymmetric properties of null-warped AdS3, or alternatively Schrödinger geometries, dual to putative warped CFTs in two dimensions. We classify super Schrödinger subalgebras of the superalgebra psu(1, 1|2) ? psu(1, 1|2), corresponding to the superconformal algebra of the AdS3 × S3 geometry. We comment on geometric realisations and provide a string theory description with enhanced supersymmetry in terms of intersecting D3-branes. For type IIB supergravity solutions based on T 1,1, we consider the relationship between five-dimensional Schrödinger solutions and their three-dimensional null-warped counterparts, corresponding to R symmetry twists. Finally, we study a family of null-warped AdS3 solutions in a setting where there is an ambiguity over the R symmetry and confirm that, for examples admitting a Kaluza-Klein (KK) reduction to three dimensions, the minimisation of a real superpotential of the three-dimensional gauged supergravity captures the central charge and R symmetry.

Jeong, Jaehoon; Colgáin, Eoin Ó.; Yoshida, Kentaroh

2014-06-01

298

N=2 AdS supergravity and supercurrents  

E-print Network

We consider the minimal off-shell formulation for four-dimensional N=2 supergravity with a cosmological term, in which the second compensator is an improved tensor multiplet. We use it to derive a linearized supergravity action (and its dual versions) around the anti-de Sitter (AdS) background in terms of three N=2 off-shell multiplets: an unconstrained scalar superfield, vector and tensor multiplets. This allows us to deduce the structure of the supercurrent multiplet associated with those supersymmetric theories which naturally couple to the supergravity formulation chosen, with or without a cosmological term. Finally, our linearized N=2 AdS supergravity action is reduced to N=1 superspace. The result is a sum of two N=1 linearized actions describing (i) old minimal supergravity; and (ii) an off-shell massless gravitino multiplet. We also derive dual formulations for the massless N=1 gravitino multiplet in AdS. As a by-product of our consideration, we derive the consistent supergravity extension of the N=1 ...

Butter, Daniel

2011-01-01

299

N=2 AdS supergravity and supercurrents  

E-print Network

We consider the minimal off-shell formulation for four-dimensional N=2 supergravity with a cosmological term, in which the second compensator is an improved tensor multiplet. We use it to derive a linearized supergravity action (and its dual versions) around the anti-de Sitter (AdS) background in terms of three N=2 off-shell multiplets: an unconstrained scalar superfield, vector and tensor multiplets. This allows us to deduce the structure of the supercurrent multiplet associated with those supersymmetric theories which naturally couple to the supergravity formulation chosen, with or without a cosmological term. Finally, our linearized N=2 AdS supergravity action is reduced to N=1 superspace. The result is a sum of two N=1 linearized actions describing (i) old minimal supergravity; and (ii) an off-shell massless gravitino multiplet. We also derive dual formulations for the massless N=1 gravitino multiplet in AdS. As a by-product of our consideration, we derive the consistent supergravity extension of the N=1 supercurrent multiplet advocated recently by Komargodski and Seiberg.

Daniel Butter; Sergei M. Kuzenko

2011-04-12

300

Classification of Boundary Gravitons in AdS$_3$ Gravity  

E-print Network

We revisit the description of the space of asymptotically AdS3 solutions of pure gravity in three dimensions with a negative cosmological constant as a collection of coadjoint orbits of the Virasoro group. Each orbit corresponds to a set of metrics related by diffeomorphisms which do not approach the identity fast enough at the boundary. Orbits contain more than a single element and this fact manifests the global degrees of freedom of AdS3 gravity, being each element of an orbit what we call boundary graviton. We show how this setup allows to learn features about the classical phase space that otherwise would be quite difficult. Most important are the proof of energy bounds and the characterization of boundary gravitons unrelated to BTZs and AdS3. In addition, it makes manifest the underlying mathematical structure of the space of solutions close to infinity. Notably, because of the existence of a symplectic form in each orbit, being this related with the usual Dirac bracket of the asymptotic charges, this ap...

Garbarz, A

2014-01-01

301

Contesting the Norm: Women and Professional Sports in Late Nineteenth-Century America  

Microsoft Academic Search

Athletic opportunities for females have reached an extent that few women living in the nineteenth century might ever have imagined. For more than two decades the women's 10,000-metre run has been part of the Olympics. Women's wrestling was added at Athens in 2004 and women's boxing competitions will begin at the 2012 London Games. Changing cultural norms, especially those brought

Roberta J. Park

2012-01-01

302

AD status and consolidation plans  

E-print Network

The CERN Antiproton Decelerator (AD) has now completed its 12th year of supplying low-energy antiproton beams for the successful physics program. Most of the machine’s key components are in operation since more than 25 years and prompted by the approval of the ELENA project, a substantial consolidation program is now being launched to ensure continued reliable operation. Over the course of the next few years a progressive renovation of the AD-Target area and the AD-ring with all the associated systems will take place. Status and performance of the AD are presented along with an overview of planned and ongoing consolidation activities with emphasis on stochastic and electron beam cooling.

Eriksson, T; Arnaudon, L; Belochitskii, P; Bojtar, L; Calviani, M; Caspers, F; Federmann, S; Jørgensen, L; Louwerse, R; Oliveira, C; Tranquille, G

2013-01-01

303

ADS/CFT and QCD  

SciTech Connect

The AdS/CFT correspondence between string theory in AdS space and conformal .eld theories in physical spacetime leads to an analytic, semi-classical model for strongly-coupled QCD which has scale invariance and dimensional counting at short distances and color confinement at large distances. Although QCD is not conformally invariant, one can nevertheless use the mathematical representation of the conformal group in five-dimensional anti-de Sitter space to construct a first approximation to the theory. The AdS/CFT correspondence also provides insights into the inherently non-perturbative aspects of QCD, such as the orbital and radial spectra of hadrons and the form of hadronic wavefunctions. In particular, we show that there is an exact correspondence between the fifth-dimensional coordinate of AdS space z and a specific impact variable {zeta} which measures the separation of the quark and gluonic constituents within the hadron in ordinary space-time. This connection allows one to compute the analytic form of the frame-independent light-front wavefunctions, the fundamental entities which encode hadron properties and allow the computation of decay constants, form factors, and other exclusive scattering amplitudes. New relativistic lightfront equations in ordinary space-time are found which reproduce the results obtained using the 5-dimensional theory. The effective light-front equations possess remarkable algebraic structures and integrability properties. Since they are complete and orthonormal, the AdS/CFT model wavefunctions can also be used as a basis for the diagonalization of the full light-front QCD Hamiltonian, thus systematically improving the AdS/CFT approximation.

Brodsky, Stanley J.; /SLAC; de Teramond, Guy F.; /Costa Rica U. /SLAC

2007-02-21

304

Floodplain deposits, channel changes and riverbank stratigraphy of the Mekong River area at the 14th-Century city of Chiang Saen, Northern Thailand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Riverbank stratigraphy and paleochannel patterns of the Mekong River at Chiang Saen provide a geoarchaeological framework to explore for evidence of Neolithic, Bronze-age, AD 5th Century Yonok and AD 14–16th Century Lan Na Cultures. Typical bank stratigraphy charted on the Thailand side is imbricate cobble gravel overlain by 5–10 m of reddish-brown sandy silt. The silt section is composed chiefly of

Spencer H. Wood; Alan D. Ziegler; Tharaporn Bundarnsin

2008-01-01

305

The 21st Century Skills Movement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since 2002, the Partnership for 21st Century Skills has been the leading advocacy organization in the United States focused on infusing 21st century skills into education. Its "Framework for 21st Century Learning," the result of a consensus among hundreds of stakeholders, describes the skills, knowledge, and expertise students need to succeed in…

Johnson, Paige

2009-01-01

306

21st Century Retirement Calculator  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Available from US News Online and Watson Wyatt Worldwide, the 21st Century Retirement Calculator creates a "financial picture" of retirement for planning purposes. A variety of "dig deeper" links educate users as they calculate, and links to related articles supply "fund picks" for types from "Ally McBeal" (single, mid-20s) to "George Costanza" (no savings) and "the cigarette smoker" (a prospective retiree).

307

Seventeenth-Century English millenarianism  

Microsoft Academic Search

This essay, which is not a review of recent scholarship, offers an overview of 17th-century English Protestant (especially Puritan) millenarianism. Its major point is that English millenarianism was above all else a pre-modern species of historiography. The essay begins with a discussion of the so-called last things, the historiographical categories through which Puritans made history intelligible. It then presents some

Richard W Cogley

1987-01-01

308

Immigration and the American century  

Microsoft Academic Search

The full impact of immigration on American society is obscured in policy and academic analyses that focus on the short-term\\u000a problems of immigrant adjustment. With a longer-term perspective, which includes the socioeconomic roles of the children of\\u000a immigrants, immigration appears as one of the defining characteristics of twentieth-century America. Major waves of immigration\\u000a create population diversity with new languages and

Charles Hirschman

2005-01-01

309

Preliminary Consideration of the ADS Research in China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Power supply is a key issue for China's further economic development. To meet the needs of our economic growth in the next century, the part of nuclear energy in the total newly increased power supply must become larger. However, the present nuclear power stations dominated by the PWR in the world are facing some troubles. Recently, a new concept, called ADS (Accelerator Driven Subcritical system), can avoid these troubles and it is recognized as a most prospective power system for fission energy. So during the early time of nuclear power development in our country, it is worthwhile to exploit this novel idea. In this paper, the ADS research program and a proposed verification facility are described. It consists of an 300MeV/3mA low energy accelerator, a swimming pool reactor and some basic research equipment. Beam physics, such as beam halo formation, in the intense-beam accelerator is also discussed.

Fang, Shouxian; Fu, Shinian

2002-08-01

310

Adding  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity will help you learn how to add numbers from 0-9. Objectives: After completing the learning activities you will be understand how to add numbers from 0-9. You will take a quiz to show what you know. Materials: You will need: a paper, 9 unifix cubes, and a computer with an Internet connection. Learning Activities: 1 Use your unifix cubes to count ...

Schick, Mrs.

2005-11-30

311

Early Seafarers of the Comoro Islands: the Dembeni Phase of the IXth-Xth Centuries AD  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although previous volumes of Azania have carried articles and notes on Madagascar and Mozambique as well as allusions to the Comoro Islands (as in Derek Nurse's study of Swahili linguistic history in XVIII), this is the first article specifically on the Archipelago. Being concerned with the earliest recognised human settlements on the Comores, which show similarities to the earliest levels

Henry T. Wright; Carla Sinopoli; Laura Wojnaroski; Ellen S. Hoffman; Susan L. Scott; Richard W. Redding; Steven M. Goodman

1984-01-01

312

Giant magnon on deformed AdS3×S3  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study giant magnon solutions for strings moving on a deformed AdS3×S3 background. We impose a conformal gauge on the Polyakov action and proceed with solving the Virasoro constraints. The expressions of the conserved charge J and the energy of a single magnon excitation are then computed. Then we determine the dispersion relation of a giant magnon in the infinite J limit configuration and we find that for ? =0 it reduces to the celebrated Hofman-Maldacena dispersion relation.

Khouchen, Malak; KlusoÅ, Josef

2014-09-01

313

Brane World Gravity in an AdS Black Hole  

E-print Network

We consider a model of brane world gravity in the context of non-conformal non-SUSY matter. In particular we modify the earlier strong coupling solution to the glueball spectrum in an $AdS^7$ Black Hole by introducing a Randall-Sundrum Planck brane as a UV cut-off. The consequence is a new normalizable zero mass tensor state, which gives rise to an effective Einstein-Hilbert theory of gravity, with exponentially small corrections set by the mass gap to the discrete glueball spectrum. However the simplest microscopic theory for the Planck brane is found to have a tachyonic instability in the radion mode.

Richard C. Brower; Samir D. Mathur; Chung-I Tan

2002-10-29

314

Glueball Spectrum for QCD from AdS Supergravity Duality  

E-print Network

We present the analysis of the complete glueball spectrum for the $AdS^7$ black hole supergravity dual of $QCD_4$ in strong coupling limit: $g^2 N \\to \\infty$. The bosonic fields in the supergravity multiplet lead to 6 independent wave equations contributing to glueball states with $J^{PC} = 2^{++},1^{+-}, 1^{--}$, $0^{++}$ and $0^{-+}$. We study the spectral splitting and degeneracy patterns for both $QCD_4$ and $QCD_3$. Despite the expected limitations of a leading order strong coupling approximation, the pattern of spins, parities and mass inequalities bear a striking resemblance to the known $QCD_4$ glueball spectrum as determined by lattice simulations at weak coupling.

Richard C. Brower; Samir D. Mathur; Chung-I Tan

2000-03-14

315

Diffractive Higgs Production by AdS Pomeron Fusion  

E-print Network

The double diffractive Higgs production at central rapidity is formulated in terms of the fusion of two AdS gravitons/Pomerons first introduced by Brower, Polchinski, Strassler and Tan in elastic scattering. Here we propose a simple self-consistent holographic framework capable of providing phenomenologically compelling estimates of diffractive cross sections at the LHC. As in the traditional weak coupling approach, we anticipate that several phenomenological parameters must be tested and calibrated through factorization for a self-consistent description of other diffractive process such as total cross sections, deep inelastic scattering and heavy quark production in the central region.

Richard C. Brower; Marko Djuri?; Chung-I Tan

2012-02-22

316

Self-Dual Warped AdS$_3$ Black Holes  

E-print Network

We propose a new class of solutions of three-dimensional topological massive gravity. These solutions are non-extremal black holes, with their extremal counterparts being discrete quotients of spacelike warped AdS$_3$ along the $U(1)_L$ isometry. We study the thermodynamics of these black holes and show that the first law is satisfied. We also show that for consistent boundary conditions, the asymptotic symmetry generators form only one copy of the Virasoro algebra with central charge $c_L = \\frac{4\

Chen, Bin; Ning, Bo

2010-01-01

317

Self-Dual Warped AdS$_3$ Black Holes  

E-print Network

We study a new class of solutions of three-dimensional topological massive gravity. These solutions can be taken as non-extremal black holes, with their extremal counterparts being discrete quotients of spacelike warped AdS$_3$ along the $U(1)_L$ isometry. We study the thermodynamics of these black holes and show that the first law is satisfied. We also show that for consistent boundary conditions, the asymptotic symmetry generators form only one copy of the Virasoro algebra with central charge $c_L = \\frac{4\

Bin Chen; Bo Ning

2010-05-23

318

Pure Spinors in AdS and Lie Algebra Cohomology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We show that the BRST cohomology of the massless sector of the Type IIB superstring on AdS5 × S 5 can be described as the relative cohomology of an infinite-dimensional Lie superalgebra. We explain how the vertex operators of ghost number 1, which correspond to conserved currents, are described in this language. We also give some algebraic description of the ghost number 2 vertices, which appears to be new. We use this algebraic description to clarify the structure of the zero mode sector of the ghost number two states in flat space, and initiate the study of the vertices of the higher ghost number.

Mikhailov, Andrei

2014-10-01

319

Surgery for inguinal hernia in Byzantine times (A.D. 324-1453): first scientific descriptions.  

PubMed

The aim of this article is to present the techniques applied by Byzantine physicians for inguinal hernia repair and to note their influence on the development of surgery after that time. A study and analysis of the original texts of the Byzantine medical writers, written in Greek, and containing the now mostly lost knowledge of the ancient Hellenistic and Roman periods, was undertaken. Two Byzantine physicians, Aetius of Amida (6th century A.D.) and Paul of Aegina (7th century A.D.), described two techniques for confrontation of inguinal hernia, namely the surgical removal of the prolapsed peritoneum and the cauterization of the groin. These methods were probably derived from the texts of earlier Greek surgeons to which they added their own keen observations. The study of Byzantine medical and literary texts proves that the surgical techniques for inguinal hernia were practiced in Byzantine times and influenced later Arabian and European surgery, thus constituting significant roots of surgery. PMID:12925906

Lascaratos, John G; Tsiamis, Constantine; Kostakis, Alkiviadis

2003-10-01

320

Geometries with Killing Spinors and Supersymmetric AdS Solutions  

E-print Network

The seven and nine dimensional geometries associated with certain classes of supersymmetric $AdS_3$ and $AdS_2$ solutions of type IIB and D=11 supergravity, respectively, have many similarities with Sasaki-Einstein geometry. We further elucidate their properties and also generalise them to higher odd dimensions by introducing a new class of complex geometries in $2n+2$ dimensions, specified by a Riemannian metric, a scalar field and a closed three-form, which admit a particular kind of Killing spinor. In particular, for $n\\ge 3$, we show that when the geometry in $2n+2$ dimensions is a cone we obtain a class of geometries in $2n+1$ dimensions, specified by a Riemannian metric, a scalar field and a closed two-form, which includes the seven and nine-dimensional geometries mentioned above when $n=3,4$, respectively. We also consider various ansatz for the geometries and construct infinite classes of explicit examples for all $n$.

Jerome P. Gauntlett; Nakwoo Kim

2007-10-13

321

UV-IR relations in AdS dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

We point out that two distinct distance-energy relations have been discussed in the AdS-CFT correspondence. In conformal backgrounds they differ only in normalization, but in nonconformal backgrounds they differ in functional form. We discuss the relation to probe processes, the holographic principle, and black hole entropies.

Amanda W. Peet; Joseph Polchinski

1999-01-01

322

Adaptive Routing in Dynamic Ad Hoc Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dynamic ad hoc networks are mobile ad hoc net- works (MANETs) where network characteristics, such as network density and node mobility, change significantly over time and space. Sometimes, dynamic ad hoc networks resemble a dense ad hoc network. At other times, they resemble a delay tolerant network. Many real networks follow the paradigm of dynamic ad hoc networks. Military networks,

Cong Liu; Jie Wu

2008-01-01

323

Circa a.d. 626 volcanic eruption, climatic cooling, and the collapse of the Eastern Turkic Empire  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the late sixth century and early seventh century, the Eastern Turkic Empire (i.e., the Eastern Turkic Khanate) was\\u000a the most powerful country in the Northeast Asia. It collapsed suddenly in a.d. 630, and historians concluded that the combination of social, political and economic factors, as well as the invasion of\\u000a the Tang Empire, would be the root cause. Here

Jie Fei; Jie Zhou; Yongjian Hou

2007-01-01

324

Dwarf cepheid AD CMi -- revisited  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An analysis of UBVR light variations of AD Canis Minoris (CMi) is presented. The mean effective temperature derived from the intrinsic (B - V) index is estimated to be 7400 K +/- 100 K whereas that of the (V - R) index value is 8425 K +/- 120 K. The mean variation of temperature from the (B - V) index over a pulsation cycle is almost twice that of the estimated (V - R) index value. The estimated mass, radius and effective gravity values suggest that AD CMi is a normal population-I pulsating star and a member of the delta-Scuti group.

Kilambi, G. C.; Rahman, A.

1993-03-01

325

[The influence of anatomical treaties on the works of Wendel Dietterlin and his successors in the second half of the 16th century].  

PubMed

In 1543 in Basel, Johannes Oporinus published one of the most famous treatises in the history of anatomy, De humani corporis fabrica by Andreas Vesalius. The book was an immediate success all over Europe, especially in the Upper Rhine region. In Strasbourg, Walter Ryff (Gualterius Rivius) was responsible for an early copy; others followed, as for example Felix Platter in Basel in 1581. One of the novelties of all these books consisted in the fact that for the first time the human body was dissected into its smallest units. Anatomical elements such as the opened thorax, the vertebral column, the kidney sectionned, or the laryngeal cartilages apparently stimulated an artist of the late 16th century in the same geographical region: Wendel Dietterlin (c.1550-1599) who principally worked in Strasbourg and introduced these elements into his treatise on architecture as architectural ornaments. This seems to be the first instance of a transfer of motifs from human anatomy to architecture. From this time on, the transfer reappeared in some works until William Hogarth's era in the 18th century. PMID:22400472

Gampp, Axel

2011-01-01

326

Nineteenth Century Exploration of Australia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by Dr. Charles H. Smith and Jennifer Rakestraw, this well-crafted site is built around an Australian map that details the routes taken by nineteenth century Australian explorers. The map has been reproduced into three online sections -- western, central, and eastern -- and each section contains a list of explorers who navigated that region of the continent. Also included are Internet links to all of the explorers, which can be accessed from the left-side panel on the home page or at the bottom of each map section.

Rakestraw, Jennifer.; Smith, Charles H. (Charles Hyde), 1950-

2002-01-01

327

The Diary of Frances Jacobs: Astronomical Observations by a 19th-century Oregon Woman  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This abstract summarizes my research, transcription and editing of Francis Jacob's 170-page handwritten astronomical diary. This diary is a unique example of a time in early Portland history, illustrating the mind of a young woman who was interested in science and astronomy. Reflected in her diary are the discoveries and mention of leading astronomers of the day like Emerson Bernard and Edward Pickering. Francis Jacobs lived in an era of the great refractors For example, ``The Leviathan," built by Lord Rosse in Ireland was completed in 1847. In this 72-inch telescope, stars of 18th magnitude could be seen. The first spiral nebulae to be revealed was M51 - known today as the Whirlpool Galaxy. The Earl was the first to suggest that these spirals could actually be rotating masses of stars. At the turn of the century, study of observational astronomy was rooted in naked eye observing, study of binary stars and nebula. This was a time when women were becoming interested in the sciences and had begun to play an important role in science and astronomy. It was an incredible inspiration for other women across the country to hear what was happening on the astronomical frontiers at Harvard. Some constellation asterisms used in Francis Jacob's diary were different than they are today. One asterism in particular, the Egyptian Cross, is relatively unknown now. The summer triangle and winter circle asterisms were used in her notes and obviously popular in her era, as today. Her written comments included some Messier catalogue numbers and in some case written on her sketches and diagrams nicknames, such as the 'Dumbbell' nebula. She also referred to M99 as `St. Katherine's Wheel', a nickname that is not in common use today.

McGown, R. D.

2002-12-01

328

Separating Growth from Value Added  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses Rochester's two academic models that offer different tools for different purposes--measuring individual learning and measuring what affects learning. The main focus of currently available growth measures is formative assessment--providing data to inform instructional planning. Value-added assessment is not a student…

Yeagley, Raymond

2007-01-01

329

Social Media Ad Metrics Definitions  

E-print Network

Social Media Ad Metrics Definitions Released May 2009 #12;Social Media Metrics Definitions © 2008 & Social Media Committee. About the IAB's User-Generated Content & Social Media Committee: The User-Generated Content & Social Media Committee of the IAB is comprised of over 150 member companies dedicated to helping

Collins, Gary S.

330

Four centuries of Shakespeare publication  

E-print Network

in the First Folio and reprinted in the Second, are now added seven more, of which only Pericles has stood the test of time. The other six had all at some time been printed in quarto with either Shakespeare's name or the initials W. S. on the title...

Dawson, Giles E.

1964-01-01

331

Supersymmetric AdS3 Solutions in Heterotic Supergravity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We analyze the AdS_{3} × M_{7}-type supersymmetric solutions, including nontrivial fluxes, of Killing spinor equations in heterotic supergravity. We classify these solutions using their G-structures and intrinsic torsions, for the cases that the number of seven-dimensional Killing spinors N are equal to 1,2,3 and 4. We find that the solutions cannot have a nontrivial warp factor and the seven-dimensional manifold M_{7} is characterized by G_2(SU(3))-structures for the N = 1 (2) case and an SU(2)-structure for the N = 3 and 4 cases. They are further classified using their nontrivial intrinsic torsions. It is shown, including the leading-order ?'-corrections, that if we impose the Bianchi identities, the integrability conditions of the Killing spinor equations imply that all the field equations are satisfied.

Kunitomo, H.; Ohta, M.

2009-09-01

332

Supersymmetric AdS_3 solutions in Heterotic Supergravity  

E-print Network

We analyze the AdS_3 x M_7 type supersymmetric solutions, including non-trivial fluxes, of the Killing spinor equations in the heterotic supergravity. We classify these solutions by their G-structures and intrinsic torsions, for the cases that the number of seven-dimensional Killing spinors N are equal to 1,2,3 and 4. We find that the solutions cannot have non-trivial warp factor and the seven dimensional manifold M_7 is charactrized by G_2(SU(3))-structures for N=1 (2) case and SU(2)-structure for N=3 and 4 cases. They are further classified by their non-trivial intrinsic torsions. It is shown, including the leading order \\alpha'-corrections, that if we impose the Bianchi identities, the integrability conditions of the Killing spinor equations imply all the field equations.

Hiroshi Kunitomo; Mitsuhisa Ohta

2009-02-04

333

The massive wave equation in asymptotically AdS spacetimes  

E-print Network

We consider the massive wave equation on asymptotically AdS spaces. We show that the timelike scri behaves like a finite timelike boundary, on which one may impose the equivalent of Dirichlet, Neumann or Robin conditions for a range of (negative) mass parameter which includes the conformally coupled case. We demonstrate well posedness for the associated initial-boundary value problems at the $H^1$ level of regularity. We also prove that higher regularity may be obtained, together with an asymptotic expansion for the field near scri. The proofs rely on energy methods, tailored to the modified energy introduced by Breitenlohner and Freedman. We do not assume the spacetime is stationary, nor that the wave equation separates.

C. M. Warnick

2012-02-15

334

Aspects of warped AdS3/CFT2 correspondence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we apply the thermodynamics method to investigate the holographic pictures for the BTZ black hole, the spacelike and the null warped black holes in three-dimensional topologically massive gravity (TMG) and new massive gravity (NMG). Even though there are higher derivative terms in these theories, the thermodynamics method is still effective. It gives consistent results with the ones obtained by using asymptotical symmetry group (ASG) analysis. In doing the ASG analysis we develop a brute-force realization of the Barnich-Brandt-Compere formalism with Mathematica code, which also allows us to calculate the masses and the angular momenta of the black holes. In particular, we propose the warped AdS3/CFT2 correspondence in the new massive gravity, which states that quantum gravity in the warped spacetime could holographically dual to a two-dimensional CFT with {c_R}={c_L}=24 /{Gm{?^2?{{2( {21-4{?^2}} )}}}}.

Chen, Bin; Zhang, Jia-Ju; Zhang, Jian-Dong; Zhong, De-Liang

2013-04-01

335

Chiral gauge theory on AdS domain wall  

SciTech Connect

We describe a realization of chiral gauge theories based on the domaim wall fermion construction implemented on an interval in five dimensional AdS spacetime. At semi-classical level deconstructed description of the theory is given in terms of 4-dimensional Minkowski slices supporting chiral zero modes at the ends. Energy scales warp down along the fifth dimension. When the theory is augmented by 4-dimensional neutral Majorana spinors together with the Higgs mechanism at the low energy end, we can arrange for a theory where the lightest gauge boson mode as well as chiral zero mode at the high energy end are parametrically lighter than other states. Triangle anomalies and instanton effects are expected to make gauge bosons heavy if the resulting effective theory is anomalous. Due to the strong coupling effects at the quantum level, full non-perturbative calculation will be necessary to validate this construction.

Shirman, Yuri [T-8, Theoretical Division, MS B285, LANL, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

2005-12-02

336

Scattering States in AdS/CFT  

SciTech Connect

We show that suitably regulated multi-trace primary states in large N CFTs behave like 'in' and 'out' scattering states in the flat-space limit of AdS. Their transition matrix elements approach the exact scattering amplitudes for the bulk theory, providing a natural CFT definition of the flat space S-Matrix. We study corrections resulting from the AdS curvature and particle propagation far from the center of AdS, and show that AdS simply provides an IR regulator that disappears in the flat space limit.

Fitzpatrick, A.Liam; /Boston U.; Kaplan, Jared; /SLAC

2012-02-14

337

76 FR 5236 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Pastel Portraits: Images...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Pastel Portraits: Images of 18th-Century Europe'' SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given...objects to be included in the exhibition ``Pastel Portraits: Images of 18th-Century Europe,'' imported from abroad for...

2011-01-28

338

AdS Bubbles, E$p$-branes and Entanglement  

E-print Network

The AdS-bubble solutions interestingly mimic Schr\\"odinger-like geometries when expressed in light-cone coordinates. These D$p$ bubble vacuas exhibit asymmetric scaling property with a negative dynamical exponent of time $abubbles with $a>0$ in type II* super-strings. We obtain an expression for the entanglement entropy for `bubble E3-branes'. It is argued that the entropy from E3-bubbles has to be the lowest.

Harvendra Singh

2014-10-15

339

AdS Bubbles, E$p$-branes and Entanglement  

E-print Network

The AdS-bubble solutions interestingly mimic Schr\\"odinger-like geometries when expressed in light-cone coordinates. These D$p$ bubble vacuas exhibit asymmetric scaling property with a negative dynamical exponent of time $a0$ in type II* super-strings. We obtain an expression for the entanglement entropy for `bubble E3-branes'. It is argued that the entropy from E3-bubbles has to be the lowest.

Singh, Harvendra

2014-01-01

340

How to make ad-hoc polymorphism less ad hoc  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents type classes, a new approach to ad-hoc polymorphism. Type classes permit overloading of arithmetic operators such as multiplication, and generalise the “eqtype variables” of Standard ML. Type classes extend the Hindley\\/Milner polymorphic type system, and provide a new approach to issues that arise in object-oriented programming, bounded type quantification, and abstract data types. This paper provides an

Philip Wadler; Stephen Blott

1989-01-01

341

ADS's Dexter Data Extraction Applet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) now holds 1.3 million scanned pages, containing numerous plots and figures for which the original data sets are lost or inaccessible. The availability of scans of the figures can significantly ease the regeneration of the data sets. For this purpose, the ADS has developed Dexter, a Java applet that supports the user in this process. Dexter's basic functionality is to let the user manually digitize a plot by marking points and defining the coordinate transformation from the logical to the physical coordinate system. Advanced features include automatic identification of axes, tracing lines and finding points matching a template. This contribution both describes the operation of Dexter from a user's point of view and discusses some of the architectural issues we faced during implementation.

Demleitner, M.; Accomazzi, A.; Eichhorn, G.; Grant, C. S.; Kurtz, M. J.; Murray, S. S.

342

LIFE EXPECTANCY IN ALZHEIMER'S DISEASE (AD)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Survival following a diagnosis of AD is important information for health planners, caregivers, patients, and their families. AD is associated with variable, but shortened life expectancy. Knowing the expected survival time may empower people with AD and their families, but clinicians currently have limited predictive information. A better knowledge about prognosis in patients affected by AD and related disorders should

O. Zanetti; S. B. Solerte; F. Cantoni

2009-01-01

343

Four Centuries of Massachusetts Furniture  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The history of furniture making provides an unusual glimpse into the early history of American material culture and folkways. This remarkable site unites eleven institutions with a shared interest in celebrating furniture-making in the Bay State, including the Colonial Society of Massachusetts, Historic Deerfield, and the Massachusetts Historical Society. Through a multitude of exhibitions and events, the site allows visitors to explore a detailed visual timeline of furniture making history, view great short videos profiling artisans and their techniques, and much more. Visitors will find the Explore & Learn area particularly engaging with the aforementioned timeline and notable furniture including a remarkable joined chest crafted in the late 17th century. Additionally, the Resources area contains links to museums and institutions with significant furniture holdings, along with a bibliography, and a list of prominent furniture makers.

344

Exploring 20th Century London  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From the expansion of the Underground to the waves of new arrivals from the British colonies, London was greatly transformed through the 20th century. Recently, several London institutions, including the Museum of London, combed through their respective resources to create this interactive exhibit and archive that would tell visitors a bit about the city's evolution during those 100 years. The materials can be viewed through three sections: "Timeline", "Themes", and "Places". In the "Timeline" section, visitors can browse through featured objects and also learn about major events during the period. Moving on, the "Themes" area organizes the city's recent past into topical areas that focus on art and design, the built environment, ethnic communities, and leisure activities. The "Places" section features a clickable map of London's boroughs which reveals artifacts from each of these respective areas.

345

Theoretical astrophysics in the 19th century (Homage to Radó von Kövesligethy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The nature of astronomical information is determined mostly by the incoming light. Theoretical astrophysics means basically the theory of light emission and its relation to the physical constitution of the emitting celestial bodies. The necessary physical disciplines include theory of gravitation, theory of radiation, thermodynamics, matter--radiation interaction. The most significant theoretical achievement in the 17th - 18th century was the axiomatic foundation of mechanics and the law of gravitation. In the context of the nature of light, there were two conceptions: Newton contra Huygens, i.e. particle versus wave phenomenon. Using the theory of gravitation, first speculations appeared on black holes (Michell, Laplace), cosmogony (Kant-Laplace theory), the structure of the Milky Way (Kant), and the explanation of motion of the celestial bodies. The Olbers Paradox, formulated in the 19th century, is still one of the most significant constraints on observational cosmology. The development of thermodynamics, matter-radiation interaction, development of the theory of electromagnetism became important milestones. Maxwell's theory was the classical framework of the interaction between matter and radiation. Kirchhoff and Bunsen's revolutionary discovery of spectral analysis (1859) showed that observation of spectra makes it possible to study the chemical composition of emitting bodies. Thermodynamics predicted the existence of the black body radiation. It did not succeed, however, to determine the functional form of the wavelength dependence. A combination of the thermodynamic equation of state with the equation of hydrostatics resulted in the first stellar models (Lane, Ritter, Schuster). The first successful spectral equation of black body radiation was the theory of continuous spectra of celestial bodies by Radó von Kövesligethy (published 1885 in Hungarian, 1890 in German). Kövesligethy made several assumptions on the matter-radiation interaction: radiating matter consists of interacting particles, the form of interaction is an inverse power law, the radiation field is represented by the aether, aether is made also from interacting particles, light is the propagation of the oscillation of the aether particles, there is an equipartition between the oscillations energy of material and aetheric particles. Based on these assumptions, he derived a spectral equation with the following properties: the spectral distribution of radiation depends only on the temperature, the total irradiated energy is finite (15 years before Planck!), the wavelength of the intensity maximum is inversely proportional to the temperature (eight years before Wien!). Using his spectral equation, he estimated the temperature of several celestial bodies, including the Sun.

Balázs, Lajos G.

346

The ADS All Sky Survey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We will create the first interactive sky map of astronomers' understanding of the Universe over time. We will accomplish this goal by turning the NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS), widely known for its unrivaled value as a literature resource, into a data resource. GIS and GPS systems have made it commonplace to see and explore information about goings-on on Earth in the context of maps and timelines. Our proposal shows an example of a program that lets a user explore which countries have been mentioned in the New York Times, on what dates, and in what kinds of articles. By analogy, the goal of our project is to enable this kind of exploration-on the sky-for the full corpus of astrophysical literature available through ADS. Our group's expertise and collaborations uniquely position us to create this interactive sky map of the literature, which we call the "ADS All-Sky Survey." To create this survey, here are the principal steps we need to follow. First, by analogy to "geotagging," we will "astrotag," the ADS literature. Many "astrotags" effectively already exist, thanks to curation efforts at both CDS and NED. These efforts have created links to "source" positions on the sky associated with each of the millions of articles in the ADS. Our collaboration with ADS and CDS will let us automatically extract astrotags for all existing and future ADS holdings. The new ADS Labs, which our group helps to develop, includes the ability for researchers to filter article search results using a variety of "facets" (e.g. sources, keywords, authors, observatories, etc.). Using only extracted astrotags and facets, we can create functionality like what is described in the Times example above: we can offer a map of the density of positions' "mentions" on the sky, filterable by the properties of those mentions. Using this map, researchers will be able to interactively, visually, discover what regions have been studied for what reasons, at what times, and by whom. Second, where images can be extracted from articles, we will attempt to "astroreference" those images in order allow for their overlay on the sky. "Astroreferencing" is the analog of "georeferencing," where coordinate information is used to overlay information on maps. Our first pass at astroreferencing will be made using the astrometry.net program, in collaboration with one of its creators. If enough optically-visible stars are present in an image, astrometry.net can place it where it goes on the sky. Only a small fraction of ADS holdings contain images solvable by astrometry.net, but for the articles which do, reviving the data in this way holds tremendous value-especially in the case of historically important observations. Lastly, we will also astroreference images by text-mining to extract "metadata" buried in the figure captions and text. As it is built, the ADSASS will effectively create dynamic data layers of astrotags and astroreferenced images. Users will be able to explore these layers using a wide variety of free all-sky data viewers. Our group and our collaborators have been involved in the development of the WorldWide Telescope and Aladin programs, so we will use those to develop examples of how we intend for the ADSASS to be used. But, we plan to ensure that the data feed represented by the ADSASS will be ingestible by any program capable of understanding sky coordinates and all-sky views. Our proposal can only give a glimpse into the wealth of science it will enable, which includes everything from observation-planning to data discovery to studying the sky distributions of classes of objects. Just as it would have been hard to predict the full and amazing impact of GIS and GPS on society, it is similarly hard to gauge the full impact of the NASA ADSASS. The ADS on its own is already the envy of other sciences as a unified research tool, with the advent of the ADSASS, NASA will have led the way to the future once again.

Goodman, Alyssa

347

AdS black holes from duality in gauged supergravity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study and utilize duality transformations in a particular STU-model of four dimensional gauged supergravity. This model is a truncation of the de Wit-Nicolai =8 theory and as such has a lift to eleven-dimensional supergravity on the seven-sphere. Our duality group is U(1)3 and while it can be applied to any solution of this theory, we consider known asymptotically AdS4, supersymmetric black holes and focus on duality transformations which preserve supersymmetry. For static black holes we generalize the supersymmetric solutions of Cacciatori and Klemm from three magnetic charges to include two additional electric charges and argue that this is co-dimension one in the full space of supersymmetric static black holes in the STU-model. These new static black holes have nontrivial profiles for axions. For rotating black holes, we generalize the known two-parameter supersymmetric solution to include an additional parameter. When lifted to M-theory, these black holes correspond to the near horizon geometry of a stack of BPS rotating M2-branes, spinning on an S 7 which is fibered non-trivially over a Riemann surface.

Halmagyi, Nick; Vanel, Thomas

2014-04-01

348

Lifshitz-like systems and AdS null deformations  

SciTech Connect

Following K. Balasubramanian and K. Narayan [J. High Energy Phys. 08 (2010) 014], we discuss certain lightlike deformations of AdS{sub 5}xX{sup 5} in type IIB string theory sourced by a lightlike dilaton {Phi}(x{sup +}) dual to the N=4 super Yang-Mills theory with a lightlike varying gauge coupling. We argue that, in the case where the x{sup +} direction is noncompact, these solutions describe anisotropic 3+1-dim Lifshitz-like systems with a potential in the x{sup +} direction generated by the lightlike dilaton. We then describe solutions of this sort with a linear dilaton. This enables a detailed calculation of two-point correlation functions of operators dual to bulk scalars and helps illustrate the spatial structure of these theories. Following this, we discuss a nongeometric string construction involving a compactification along the x{sup +} direction of this linear dilaton system. We also point out similar IIB axionic solutions. Similar bulk arguments for x{sup +}-noncompact can be carried out for deformations of AdS{sub 4}xX{sup 7} in M theory.

Narayan, K. [Chennai Mathematical Institute, SIPCOT IT Park, Padur PO, Siruseri 603103 (India)

2011-10-15

349

A Century of AT BEREA COLLEGE  

E-print Network

A Century of Forestry AT BEREA COLLEGE BY JOHN PERRY #12;A Century of Forestry at Berea College By John Perry printed by Berea College Printing Services, 2000 revised, 2011 #12;Berea College Foresters Carl Marsh 1980 - 1991 John Perry 1991 - 2010 Clint Patterson 2010 - #12;Hosting the Kentucky Master

Baltisberger, Jay H.

350

Meeting the Challenges of the Global Century  

Microsoft Academic Search

astering the challenges of the 21st century will require governments and citizens everywhere to see, think, and act globally—in ways never de- manded of them before. In previous centuries, the course of history was determined largely by events in only a few regions, particularly Europe and North America. The world's continents existed mostly apart, not influencing each other a great

Stephen J. Flanagan

351

The AdS Graviton/Pomeron Description of Deep Inelastic Scattering at Small x  

E-print Network

In the holographic or AdS/CFT dual to QCD, the Pomeron is identified with a Reggeized Graviton in $AdS_5$. We emphasize the importance of confinement, which in this context corresponds to a deformation of $AdS_5$ geometry in the IR. The holographic Pomeron provides a very good fit to the combined data from HERA for Deep Inelastic Scattering at small $x$, lending new confidence to this AdS dual approach to high energy diffractive scattering.

Richard C. Brower; Marko Djuric; Ina Sarcevic; Chung-I Tan

2011-06-28

352

Adding Value to Agricultural Products  

E-print Network

to believe, but value can be added to woody plants such as cedar and mes- quite. Cedar fiber can be used to make boards and recap oil wells. Mesquite wood can be used to make boards, jewelry boxes, lawn furniture, and molding for floors. The sawdust... and fiber from cedar and mesquite can be made into fiber- board. South Texas Molding, Texas Kiln Prod- ucts and Uvalde Mesquite Company are some of the firms that add value to mesquite wood by making furniture and lumber. There are also opportunities...

Anderson, David P.; Hanselka, Daniel

2009-06-01

353

String theories on warped AdS backgrounds and integrable deformations of spin chains  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study integrable deformations of AdS/CFT by focusing upon three kinds of warped AdS3 geometries, 1) space-like warped AdS3, 2) time-like warped AdS3 and 3) null warped AdS3 . These geometries are embedded into type IIB supergravity solutions and are regarded as consistent string backgrounds. By restricting the classical motion of strings on the warped AdS3×S1 subspace, the Landau-Lifshitz sigma models are derived by taking the fast-moving limit. The first two warped AdS3 spaces correspond to anisotropic deformations of the sl(2) spin chain and the last one to Jordanian deformations. After taking the continuum limit of the deformed spin chains with coherent states, the resulting theories agree with the Landau-Lifshitz sigma models obtained from the string-theory side.

Kameyama, Takashi; Yoshida, Kentaroh

2013-05-01

354

Swahili Cosmopolitanism in Africa and the Indian Ocean World, A.D. 600–1500  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coastal peoples who lived along the Eastern African seaboard in the first millennium A.D. onwards began converting to Islam\\u000a in the mid-eighth century. Clearly rooted in and linked throughout to an indigenous regional Iron Age tradition, they created\\u000a a marked difference between themselves and their regional neighbors through their active engagement with Islam and the expanding\\u000a Indian Ocean world system.

Adria LaViolette

2008-01-01

355

Urban Violence in Fifth Century Antioch: Riot Culture and Dynamics in Late Antique Eastern Mediterranean Cities  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the early fourth century, during the reign of the first Christian emperor, Constantine the Great (AD 324-337), Antioch was one of the largest and most important political, cultural, and religious centers of the Greco-Roman and Christian world.1 Christians, Jews, Pagans, Greeks, Syrians, et al, vied for control within the city. This form of internal urban violence and armed revolt

David A. Heayn

356

[Modern medicine environment and adaptation of Korean trader for medicinal herbs from the late 19th century to the early 20th century].  

PubMed

Since the late 18th century, the Korean traditional medicine trade witnessed a steady growth. There were lots of stores which sold Korean medicinal herbs in Seoul and every major towns had at least one or more stores in Korea, which led to a subsequent growth of people involved in the trade. However, Korean medicine merchants encountered a new environment with the influx of western medicines after the Opening of Ports and the execution of modern medicine policies. Such change of atmosphere led the merchants to seek new breakthroughs. Some of the merchants found the answer in producing and selling patent medicine. The people in the industry had little knowledge of western medicine, so that they had little choice but to combine their experience of Korean medicine with whatever information they had about western counterpart. Such resolution generated a new kind of medicine known as patent medicine. Patent medicine businessmen observed the new medicine policies of the Korean Empire. Some visionary ones even sought to eagerly utilize the trademark system to secure the selling route. The Japanese colonial government strengthened the medicine policies. It revised the legislature and mobilized administrative powers to manage and control the industry. However, such colonial policies in the 1910s implicated certain limits due to its lack of understanding of Korean medicine industry. Also, the colonial government showed poor efforts in introducing modern medicine facilities and systems, so that the ground was set for the patent medicine business to flourish. Patent medicine enjoyed a high turnover. So, the entrepreneurs endeavored to promote the sales in whatever means necessary. The most basic form of advertisement was through the newspaper. Indirect promotion through newspaper articles, issuing medicine flyers, free gift draw, reputation of an influential expert were widely used for its sales. Consequently, patent medicine industry in the 1910s saw a healthy prosperity. One example of such golden days was the case of Hwuapyungdangyakbabg (one of the biggest patent medicine companies), which won a third place along with Kyungsungbangjik, which was the top Korean company at that time, in the advertisement design contest hosted by the classified department of Dong-a Daily in 1926. But actually, a few Japanese medicine merchants led the industry. So prosperity of Korean medicine merchant had its limits. PMID:17575704

Yang, Jeongpil

2006-12-01

357

Projected distributions of novel and disappearing climates by 2100 AD  

PubMed Central

Key risks associated with projected climate trends for the 21st century include the prospects of future climate states with no current analog and the disappearance of some extant climates. Because climate is a primary control on species distributions and ecosystem processes, novel 21st-century climates may promote formation of novel species associations and other ecological surprises, whereas the disappearance of some extant climates increases risk of extinction for species with narrow geographic or climatic distributions and disruption of existing communities. Here we analyze multimodel ensembles for the A2 and B1 emission scenarios produced for the fourth assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, with the goal of identifying regions projected to experience (i) high magnitudes of local climate change, (ii) development of novel 21st-century climates, and/or (iii) the disappearance of extant climates. Novel climates are projected to develop primarily in the tropics and subtropics, whereas disappearing climates are concentrated in tropical montane regions and the poleward portions of continents. Under the high-end A2 scenario, 12–39% and 10–48% of the Earth's terrestrial surface may respectively experience novel and disappearing climates by 2100 AD. Corresponding projections for the low-end B1 scenario are 4–20% and 4–20%. Dispersal limitations increase the risk that species will experience the loss of extant climates or the occurrence of novel climates. There is a close correspondence between regions with globally disappearing climates and previously identified biodiversity hotspots; for these regions, standard conservation solutions (e.g., assisted migration and networked reserves) may be insufficient to preserve biodiversity. PMID:17389402

Williams, John W.; Jackson, Stephen T.; Kutzbach, John E.

2007-01-01

358

Everglades Plant Community Response to 20th Century Hydrologic Changes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pollen records in sediment cores from sites in the historic Everglades allowed us to document the natural variability of the ecosystem over the past 2,000 years and contrast it to 20th century changes in wetland plant communities. The natural system included extensive water-lily sloughs, sawgrass ridges, and scattered tree islands extending from Lake Okeechobee southward through Shark River Slough. Between ~1000 AD and 1200 AD, weedy species such as Amaranthus (water hemp) became more abundant, indicating decreased annual rainfall, shorter hydroperiods, and shallower water depths during this time. After ~1200 AD, vegetation returned to its pre-1000 AD composition. During the 20th century, two phases of hydrologic alteration occurred. Completed by 1930, the first phase included construction of the Hoover Dike, canals linking Lake Okeechobee to the Atlantic Ocean, and the Tamiami Trail. Reconstructions of plant communities indicate that these changes shortened hydroperiods and lowered water depths throughout the Everglades. The extent of water-lily slough communities decreased, and tree islands became larger in Shark River Slough. The second phase resulted from construction of canals and levees in the 1950s, creating three Water Conservation Areas. The response of plant communities to these changes varied widely depending on location in the Everglades. In Loxahatchee NWR, weedy and short-hydroperiod plant species became more abundant in marshes, and species composition of tree islands changed. In Water Conservation Area 2A, cattail replaced sawgrass in marshes with high nutrient influx; the ridge and slough structure of the marshes was replaced by more homogeneous sawgrass marshes; sustained high water levels for more than a decade resulted in loss of tree islands that had existed for more than 1,000 years. In Everglades National Park, the extent of slough vegetation decreased further. Near Florida Bay, the rate of mangrove intrusion into fresh-water marshes accelerated due to increased diversion of fresh water from the southernmost Everglades. Our reconstruction of pre-1930s vegetational distribution provides a scenario that may be a harbinger of Everglades vegetational response to decompartmentalization of the system as levees and canals are removed and restoration of a more natural (deeper water, rain-driven seasonality) hydrologic regime. Drowned tree islands provide the one exception; they were destroyed by a hydrologic regime that does not occur naturally, and it is unclear whether their recovery is possible.

Willard, D. A.; Bernhardt, C. E.; Holmes, C. W.; Weimer, L. M.

2002-05-01

359

The quadruple system ADS 1652  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A detailed study of the rare nearby quadruple system with a three-tier hierarchy is presented, contributing to the still scarce data on such multiples. We compute the first combined spectroscopic and interferometric orbit of HD 12889 with a period of 2.58 yr and eccentricity 0.77. This refers to the inner pair Aa, Ab in the quadruple system ADS 1652 which also contains the visual binary A, B with a known orbit of ˜200 yr period and another companion, C (HD 12873), at a projected distance of 2500 au from A. Photometry of all components is provided. The multiple system is located at a distance of 44 pc and it is composed of main-sequence dwarfs with estimated masses of 0.74, 0.72, 0.57, and 0.78 solar masses for Aa, Ab, B and C, respectively. The orbits of Aa, Ab and A, B are likely coplanar.

Tokovinin, A.; Gorynya, N. A.; Morrell, N. I.

2014-10-01

360

U(1) Instantons on AdS_4 and the Uplift to Exact Supergravity Solutions  

E-print Network

We consider self-duality equation of U(1) gauge fields on Euclidean AdS_4 space, and find a simple finite action solution. With a suitable ansatz, we are able to embed this solution into the 10d supergravity background of AdS_4\\times CP^3. Further, we show that the solution can be uplifted to an exact solution in 11d supergravity background of AdS_4\\times SE_7.

Ali Imaanpur

2011-08-13

361

Quantum self-consistency of AdS×? brane models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Continuing our previous work, we consider a class of higher dimensional brane models with the topology of AdSD1+1×?, where ? is a one-parameter compact manifold and two branes of codimension one are located at the orbifold fixed points. We consider a setup where such a solution arises from Einstein-Yang-Mills theory and evaluate the one-loop effective potential induced by gauge fields and by a generic bulk scalar field. We show that this type of brane model resolves the gauge hierarchy between the Planck and electroweak scales through redshift effects due to the warp factor a=e-?kr. The value of a is then fixed by minimizing the effective potential. We find that, as in the Randall-Sundrum case, the gauge field contribution to the effective potential stabilizes the hierarchy without fine-tuning as long as the Laplacian ?? on ? has a zero eigenvalue. Scalar fields can stabilize the hierarchy depending on the mass and the nonminimal coupling. We also address the quantum self-consistency of the solution, showing that the classical brane solution is not spoiled by quantum effects.

Flachi, Antonino; Pujolàs, Oriol

2003-07-01

362

New Features in the ADS Abstract Service  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA-ADS Abstract Service provides a sophisticated search capability for the literature in Astronomy, Planetary Sciences, Physics/Geophysics, and Space Instrumentation. The ADS is funded by NASA and access to the ADS services is free to anybody world-wide without restrictions. It allows the user to search the literature by author, title, and abstract text.

Eichhorn, Guenther; Accomazzi, Alberto; Grant, Carolyn S.; Kurtz, Michael J.; Henneken, Edwin A.; Thompson, Donna M.; Murray, Stephen S.

2005-01-01

363

Wormhole Detection in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

As mobile ad hoc network applications are deployed, security emerges as a central requirement. In this paper, we introduce the wormhole attack, a severe attack against ad hoc routing protocols that is par ticularly challenging to defend against. We show how an attacker can use the wormhole attack to cripple a range of ad hoc network routing protocols. In the

Yih-Chun Hu; Adrian Perrig; David B. Johnson

2002-01-01

364

What's the Value in Value-Added?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A growing number of school districts are adopting "value-added" measures of teaching quality to award bonuses or even tenure. And two competitive federal grants are spurring them on. Districts using value-added data are encouraged by the results. But researchers who support value-added measures advise caution. The ratings, which use a statistical…

Duffrin, Elizabeth

2011-01-01

365

M5-branes in AdS4×Q1,1,1 spacetime  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we study the M5-brane configurations in AdS4×Q1,1,1 spacetime. We consider the configurations with an AdS2 factor embedding into AdS4 and manage to construct two solutions, which could be dual to line defects in the boundary gauge theory. Moreover, we discuss their Bogomol'nyi-Prasad-Sommerfield (BPS) nature and find that neither of them is supersymmetric. We show that the M5-brane with an Rt or an AdS3 factor found previously is half-BPS.

Li, De-Sheng; Liu, Zheng-Wen; Wu, Jun-Bao; Chen, Bin

2014-09-01

366

A CENTURY OF UNRIVALLED PROSPERITY Rudi Dornbusch  

E-print Network

have done much to provide the engine. And a half century of peace (and super power competition) has helped not divert attention from economic growth. Whether progress is measured by automobiles and TV sets

Bilbao Arrese, Jesús Mario

367

The Ninth-Century Renaissance in Astronomy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the events in the ninth century that moved astronomy away from the pursuit of mystical hermetic sciences and astrology back toward observation and measurement. Describes the achievements of astronomers and the instruments and calculations used during that period. (JRH)

Farrell, Charlotte

1996-01-01

368

Museums, Libraries, and 21st Century Skills  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Institute of Museum and Library Services (IMLS) has an aggressive research program dedicated to providing cutting-edge information about the trends in library services and other matters. This timely 40-page report is intended to "support museums and public libraries in envisioning and defining their roles as institutions of learning in the 21st century." To achieve this goal, this report brings together case studies of successful 21st century projects at different institutions, along outlining a "vision for the role of libraries and museums in the national dialogue around learning and 21st century skills." Along with the main report and the case studies, the report also includes a self-assessment tool, which allows museums and libraries to determine where they fit on the continuum of 21st century skills operations and programming.

369

The New York Times ad.  

PubMed

Feminization of patriarchal institutions is necessary in order to eliminate the exclusivity and mutuality of hierarchical, gender, class, and race stratification. The aim of this paper is to explain the history and activities surrounding the New York Times ad on Sunday, October 7, 1984 (the Catholic Statement on Pluralism and Abortion signed by Barbara Ferraro and Patricia Hussey of the Sisters of Note Dame de Namur, Rose Dominic Trapasso of the Maryknoll Sisters, and 67 other signers). The significance of this ad for Roman Catholic feminists and suggestions for new models of relationships between feminists is given. The Statement was written by Daniel Maguire and Frances Kissling and reviewed by 20 Roman Catholic ethicists. A sponsoring committee of early signers sought other support. Catholics for a Free Choice sponsored the funding for circulation of the Statement among professional societies, but not necessarily canonical communities. Publication of the entire statement in the Times was at the height of the presidential campaign. Conservative Bishops Bernard Law of Boston and John O'Connor of Boston publicly denounced Ferraro's position. The first institutional church response came on November 14, 1984, and stated that the Statement was personal opinion and contradictory to clear and constant church teachings about abortion. On November 30, 1984, Cardinal Jean Jerome Hamer of the Congregation for Religious and Secular Institutes responded to most presidents of canonical communities to request a public retraction from signers under threat of dismissal. The issue was obedience to the church. Several members of the canonical community and priests published retractions; negotiations with the Vatican began. Freedom of conscience and empowerment of canonical communities, as agents of their own lives, were given as reasons for the challenge to paternalism. The response was that women were subject to obedience within their communities and had taken public vows and were public members of the church. The superiors groups (Committee of Concerned Leadership) did not have a united public stand. A compromise was reached on "clarification" rather than retraction. On March 2, 1986, another Times letter declared that reprisals have a chilling effect on dissent. PMID:12178920

Hunt, M E; Kissling, F

1993-01-01

370

Eighteenth-century merchant ship interiors  

E-print Network

: Anthropology EIGHTEENTH-CENTURY MERCHANT SHIP INTERIORS A Thesis by MARY ANNE RENNER Approved as to style and content by: Don L. Hamilton (Chairman of Committee) David L. Carlson (Member) Clark E. Adams (Member) Vaughn M. B ant, Jr. (Head...: Anthropology EIGHTEENTH-CENTURY MERCHANT SHIP INTERIORS A Thesis by MARY ANNE RENNER Approved as to style and content by: Don L. Hamilton (Chairman of Committee) David L. Carlson (Member) Clark E. Adams (Member) Vaughn M. B ant, Jr. (Head...

Renner, Mary Anne

2012-06-07

371

Twentieth century sea level: An enigma  

PubMed Central

Changes in sea level (relative to the moving crust) are associated with changes in ocean volume (mostly thermal expansion) and in ocean mass (melting and continental storage): ?(t) = ?steric(t) + ?eustatic(t). Recent compilations of global ocean temperatures by Levitus and coworkers are in accord with coupled ocean/atmosphere modeling of greenhouse warming; they yield an increase in 20th century ocean heat content by 2 × 1023 J (compared to 0.1 × 1023 J of atmospheric storage), which corresponds to ?greenhouse(2000) = 3 cm. The greenhouse-related rate is accelerating, with a present value ??greenhouse(2000) ? 6 cm/century. Tide records going back to the 19th century show no measurable acceleration throughout the late 19th and first half of the 20th century; we take ??historic = 18 cm/century. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change attributes about 6 cm/century to melting and other eustatic processes, leaving a residual of 12 cm of 20th century rise to be accounted for. The Levitus compilation has virtually foreclosed the attribution of the residual rise to ocean warming (notwithstanding our ignorance of the abyssal and Southern Oceans): the historic rise started too early, has too linear a trend, and is too large. Melting of polar ice sheets at the upper limit of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change estimates could close the gap, but severe limits are imposed by the observed perturbations in Earth rotation. Among possible resolutions of the enigma are: a substantial reduction from traditional estimates (including ours) of 1.5–2 mm/y global sea level rise; a substantial increase in the estimates of 20th century ocean heat storage; and a substantial change in the interpretation of the astronomic record. PMID:12011419

Munk, Walter

2002-01-01

372

Possible earthquake trigger for 6th century mass wasting deposit at Lake Ohrid (Macedonia/Albania)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lake Ohrid shared by the Republics of Albania and Macedonia is formed by a tectonically active graben within the south Balkans and suggested to be the oldest lake in Europe. Several studies have shown that the lake provides a valuable record of climatic and environmental changes and a distal tephrostratigraphic record of volcanic eruptions from Italy. Fault structures identified in seismic data demonstrate that sediments have also the potential to record tectonic activity in the region. Here, we provide an example of linking seismic and sedimentological information with tectonic activity and historical documents. Historical documents indicate that a major earthquake destroyed the city of Lychnidus (today: city of Ohrid) in the early 6th century AD. Multichannel seismic profiles, parametric sediment echosounder profiles, and a 10.08 m long sediment record from the western part of the lake indicate a 2 m thick mass wasting deposit, which is tentatively correlated with this earthquake. The mass wasting deposit is chronologically well constrained, as it directly overlays the AD 472/AD 512 tephra. Moreover, radiocarbon dates and cross correlation with other sediment sequences with similar geochemical characteristics of the Holocene indicate that the mass wasting event took place prior to the onset of the Medieval Warm Period, and is attributed it to one of the known earthquakes in the region in the early 6th century AD.

Wagner, B.; Francke, A.; Sulpizio, R.; Zanchetta, G.; Lindhorst, K.; Krastel, S.; Vogel, H.; Rethemeyer, J.; Daut, G.; Grazhdani, A.; Lushaj, B.; Trajanovski, S.

2012-12-01

373

On the uniqueness and global dynamics of AdS spacetimes  

E-print Network

We study global aspects of complete, non-singular asymptotically locally AdS spacetimes solving the vacuum Einstein equations whose conformal infinity is an arbitrary globally stationary spacetime. It is proved that any such solution which is asymptotically stationary to the past and future is itself globally stationary. This gives certain rigidity or uniqueness results for exact AdS and related spacetimes.

Michael T. Anderson

2006-05-31

374

Created by the UTHSC Adobe Connect TeamAdding a URL -1 Adding a URL  

E-print Network

Created by the UTHSC Adobe Connect TeamAdding a URL - 1 Adding a URL Select an image to show where URL will be added. #12;Created by the UTHSC Adobe Connect TeamAdding a URL - 2 Create a Web Link Hover your mouse over the Build Content drop down menu. From the Create section, select Web Link. URL

Cui, Yan

375

Matching the observed cosmological constant with vacuum energy density in AdS  

E-print Network

We calculate the vacuum energy density by taking account of different massive scalar fields in AdS spacetime. It is found that the mass spectrum of a scalar field in AdS spacetime is discrete because of a natural boundary condition. The results match well with the observed cosmological constant.

Zhe Chang; Xin-Bing Huang

2001-03-27

376

Historical Literature in the ADS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Astrophysics Data System at http://adswww.harvard.edu is in the process of scanning the historical astronomical literature and making it available through the World Wide Web. We have scanned several volumes from the early 1800's of the "Astronomische Nachrichten", and the "Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society", the two oldest astronomical journals. We also have several of the early volumes of the "Astrophysical Journal" and the "Astronomical Journal" available. For all the journals that we cover, we have scanned volume 1. These early volumes can be accessed on a page-by-page basis. We plan to continue to scan this historical literature and complete these journals within the next year. We are also collaborating with a preservation project at Harvard University. This project will microfilm selected parts of astronomical Observatory reports. We plan to scan these microfilms to produce electronic images of these reports and put them on-line in the ADS. We hope to eventually cover most of the astronomical literature. In order to organize the scanned pages into articles, we need tables of contents (ToC). The early issues of the journals did not have printed ToC pages, so this needs to be done by hand. We do not have the financial resources to build these ToCs. We are looking for collaborators who would be willing to work with us in building these ToCs for the older journals and observatory reports. If you are interested in such a project, please contact the first author at gei@cfa.harvard.edu.

Eichhorn, G.; Kurtz, M. J.; Accomazzi, A.; Grant, C. S.

1997-12-01

377

From AdS black holes to supersymmetric flux-branes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We show that AdS black hole solutions admit an analytical continuation to become magnetic flux-branes. Although a static BPS AdS black hole generally has a naked singularity, the BPS flux-brane can be regular everywhere with an appropriate choice of U(1)-charges. This flux-brane interpolates from AdSD?2×H2 at small distance to an asymptotic AdSD-type metric with an AdSD?2×S1 boundary. We also obtain

H. Lü; C. N. Pope; J. F. Vázquez-Poritz

2005-01-01

378

Non-Vacuum AdS Cosmologies and the Approach to Equilibrium of Entanglement Entropy  

E-print Network

We extend standard results for vacuum asymptotically locally AdS (AlAdS) spacetimes, showing that such spacetimes can be constructed as foliations where the induced metric on each hypersurface satisfies Einstein's equation with stress-energy. By an appropriate choice of stress-energy on the hypersurfaces, the resulting AlAdS spacetime satisfies Einstein's equation with a negative cosmological constant and physical stress tensor. We use this construction to obtain AlAdS solutions whose boundaries are FRW cosmologies sourced by a massless scalar field or by a perfect fluid obeying the strong energy condition. We focus on FRW universes that approach Minkowski spacetime at late times, yielding AlAdS spacetimes that approach either the Poincar\\'e patch of pure AdS or the AdS soliton, which we view as late time equilibrium states. As an application of these solutions, we use the AdS/CFT correspondence to study the approach to equilibrium of the entanglement entropy and of the boundary stress tensor of the boundary CFT. We find that the energy of the asymptotically AdS solitonic solution is consistent with the conjecture that the AdS soliton is the lowest-energy solution to Einstein's equation with negative cosmological constant. The time dependent correction to the entanglement entropy is found to decay like a power law, with rate set by the Hubble parameter and the power determined by the equation of state of the cosmic fluid.

Sebastian Fischetti; David Kastor; Jennie Traschen

2014-07-16

379

Nineteenth-Century American and British Poets on Columbus: A Twentieth-Century View.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the 19th century alone, Christopher Columbus was the subject of hundreds of poems that rarely questioned his voyage, his methods, or his place in human history. However, the scholarly work and political realities of the 20th century have undermined the noble, heroic visions conveyed by the poets. Modern readers/students have a dual duty to…

Gorman, Anita G.

380

A Gathering of Great Minds: Designing Twenty-First Century Education with Twentieth Century Ideas  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As the 21st century turns five and a half and looks forward to summer vacation, the higher education community seems poised to undertake an endeavor of epic proportions: the remodeling of the American approach to college student learning. To begin building structures and designing strategies for 21st century education, the "Greater Expectations: A…

Taylor, Kari B.

2005-01-01

381

Fusion EnergyFusion Energy Powering the XXI centuryPowering the XXI century  

E-print Network

the current energy sources Shortfall must be supplied by alternative sources 20th International Atomic Energy Agency, Fusion Energy Conference, Vilamoura, Portugal #12;Sources of Energy in XXISources of EnergyFusion EnergyFusion Energy Powering the XXI centuryPowering the XXI century Carlos Matos Ferreira

382

Chronology Protection in AdS/CFT  

E-print Network

We review the issue of chronology protection and show how string theory can solve it in the half BPS sector of AdS/CFT. According to the LLM prescription, half BPS excitations of AdS_5 x S^5 geometries in type IIB string theory can be mapped into free fermion configurations. We show that unitarity of the theory describing these fermions is intimately related to the protection of the chronology in the dual geometries.

Marco M. Caldarelli

2006-02-28

383

The eleven observations of comets between 687 AD and 1114 AD recorded in the Anglo Saxon Chronicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This research paper is an examination of the eleven cometary references (679AD, 729AD, 892AD, 950AD, 975AD, 995AD, 1066AD, 1097AD, 1106AD, 1110AD and 1114AD) found in the various manuscripts of The Anglo Saxon Chronicle between 678 AD and 1114 AD. The manuscripts contain more than 35 celestial observations. This is an examination of astronomical phenomena and other climatic or natural events, that are described in The Anglo Saxon Chronicle, which is also referred to as The Old English Annals.

Mardon, E. G.; Williams, J.; Mardon, A. A.

1992-01-01

384

Secret symmetries of type IIB superstring theory on Ad{{S}_{3}} × {{S}^{3}} × {{M}^{4}}  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We establish features of so-called Yangian secret symmetries for AdS3 type IIB superstring backgrounds, thus verifying the persistence of such symmetries to this new instance of the AdS/CFT correspondence. Specifically, we find two a priori different classes of secret symmetry generators. One class of generators, anticipated from the previous literature, is more naturally embedded in the algebra governing the integrable scattering problem. The other class of generators is more elusive and somewhat closer in its form to its higher-dimensional AdS5 counterpart. All of these symmetries respect left-right crossing. In addition, by considering the interplay between left and right representations, we gain a new perspective on the AdS5 case. We also study the RTT-realisation of the Yangian in AdS3 backgrounds, thus establishing a new incarnation of the Beisert–de Leeuw construction.

Pittelli, Antonio; Torrielli, Alessandro; Wolf, Martin

2014-11-01

385

Global Multidecadal to Century-Scale Climate Oscillations During the Last 1000 Years  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The problem we address is the detection, distribution and analysis of quasiperiodic features in the climate system at time scales approaching the length of the instrumental record. There are multiple lines of evidence for the existence of roughly century-scale oscillations in the instrumental temperature record, and in annual-resolution proxy records from many parts of the world. Clearly, the instrumental record of 100-150 years in length is of limited help in identifying and explaining such oscillations. Mann et al. (1995), in a multivariate analysis of a globally distributed set of temperature proxy records of several centuries' duration, produced evidence for persistent natural interdecadal and century-scale climate oscillations. They saw a coherent signal with roughly 50-year period before AD 1650, which got stronger and more significant after that date, drifting into a 60-70 year periodicity in recent centuries. We attempt to place these changing patterns of oscillation in a global perspective for the past 1000 years, using a greatly expanded data set of high quality proxy records. We use approximately 100 existing quality-controlled annual or near-annual resolution proxy records valid for all or most of the last 1000 years. As we are interested specifically in the frequency-domain structure of past climate variability, it is advantageous to use frequency-domain methods applied to the raw proxy data, rather than to climate reconstructions based on time-domain based eigenvector techniques, to elucidate, with greatest fidelity, the frequency-domain structure of any underlying climate. For this reason, we use the Mann et al (1995) MTM-SVD and evolutive MTM-SVD method. Preliminary results confirm and extend the conclusions of Mann et al. (1995). Reference. Mann, Michael E., Jeffrey Park, and Raymond S. Bradley. 1995. Global Interdecadal and Century-Scale Climate Oscillations During the Past Five Centuries. Nature 378: 266-70.

Hughes, M. K.; Ni, F.; Mann, M. E.; Park, J.

2003-12-01

386

Supersymmetric asymptotic AdS and Lifshitz solutions in Einstein-Weyl and conformal supergravities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We show that there exist supersymmetric Lifshitz vacua in off-shell Einstein- Weyl supergravity, in addition to the BPS AdS4 vacuum. The Lifshitz exponents are determined by the product of the cosmological constant and the coupling of the Weyl- squared term. We then obtain the equations of the supersymmetric solutions that are asymptotic to the AdS or Lifshitz vacua. We obtain many examples of exact solutions as well as numerical ones. We find examples of extremal AdS black branes whose near-horizon geometry is AdS2 × T 2. We also find an extremal Lifshitz black hole with z = -2, whose horizon coincides with the curvature singularity. However the asymptotic Lifshitz solutions are in general smooth wormholes. In conformal supergravity, we find intriguing examples of non-extremal "BPS" AdS and Lifshitz black holes whose local Killing spinor is divergent on the horizon. We show that all the supersymmetric asymptotic AdS and Lifshitz solutions have the vanishing Noether charge associated with some scaling symmetry. We also study the integrability condition of the Killing spinor equation and the supersymmetric invariance of the action. Finally we show that the only spherically-symmetric BPS solution is the AdS vacuum.

Lü, H.; Wang, Zhao-Long

2012-08-01

387

Journal of Seventeenth-Century Music  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From the tones of the viola da gamba to the mellifluence of the lute, seventeenth-century music (and its instruments) is considered a premier subject of inquiry by musicologists and others around the world. Published by the Society for Seventeenth-Century Music, the Journal of Seventeenth-Century Music is dedicated to studying all aspects of music from this era, including performance practice and theater. The Journal was started in 1995, and visitors with a penchant for such topics can utilize this website to look over past and current issues of the Journal as they see fit. Along with looking over the past articles, book reviews, and commentaries, visitors can also learn about the guidelines for submitting items for review.

Gustafson, Bruce, 1945-

388

= 4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theories in AdS3  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For all types of = 4 anti-de Sitter (AdS) supersymmetry in three dimensions, we construct manifestly supersymmetric actions for Abelian vector multiplets and explain how to extend the construction to the non-Abelian case. Manifestly = 4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills (SYM) actions are explicitly given in the cases of (2,2) and critical (4,0) AdS supersymmetries. The = 4 vector multiplets and the corresponding actions are then reduced to (2,0) AdS superspace, in which only = 2 supersymmetry is manifest. Using the off-shell structure of the = 4 vector multiplets, we provide complete = 4 SYM actions in (2,0) AdS superspace for all types of = 4 AdS supersymmetry. In the case of (4,0) AdS supersymmetry, which admits a Euclidean counterpart, the resulting = 2 action contains a Chern-Simons term proportional to q/r, where r is the radius of AdS 3 and q is the R-charge of a chiral scalar superfield. The R-charge is a linear inhomogeneous function of X, an expectation value of the = 4 Cotton superfield. Thus our results explain the mysterious structure of = 4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theories on S 3 discovered in arXiv:1401.7952. In the case of (3,1) AdS supersymmetry, which has no Euclidean counterpart, the SYM action contains both a Chern-Simons term and a chiral mass-like term. In the case of (2,2) AdS supersymmetry, which admits a Euclidean counterpart, the SYM action has no Chern-Simons and chiral mass-like terms.

Kuzenko, Sergei M.; Tartaglino-Mazzucchelli, Gabriele

2014-05-01

389

Climate: Into the 21st Century  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Toward the end of the twentieth century, it became evident to professionals working within the meterological arena that the world's climate system was showing signs of change that could not be adequately explained in terms of natural variation. Since that time there has been an increasing recognition that the climate system is changing as a result of human industries and lifestyles, and that the outcomes may prove catastrophic to the world's escalating population. Compiled by an international team formed under the auspices of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO), Climate: Into the 21st Century features an unrivalled collection of essays by the world's leading meteorological experts. These fully integrated contributions provide a perspective of the global climate system across the twentieth century, and describe some of the most arresting and extreme climatic events and their effects that have occurred during that time. In addition, the book traces the development of our capabilities to observe and monitor the climate system, and outlines our understanding of the predictability of climate on time-scales of months and longer. It concludes with a summary of the prospects for applying the twentieth century climate experience in order to benefit society in the twenty-first century. Lavishly illustrated in color, Climate is an accessible acccount of the challenges that climate poses at the start of the twenty-first century. Filled with fascinating facts and diagrams, it is written for a wide audience and will captivate the general reader interested in climate issues, and will be a valuable teaching resource. William Burroughs is a successful science author of books on climate, including Weather (Time Life, 2000), and Climate Change: A Multidisciplinary Approach (2001), Does the Weather Really Matter? (1997) and The Climate Revealed (1999), all published by Cambridge University Press.

Burroughs, William

2003-08-01

390

Geometric finiteness, holography and quasinormal modes for the warped AdS3 black hole  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We show that there exists a precise kinematical notion of holography for the Euclidean warped AdS3 black hole. This follows from the fact that the Euclidean warped AdS3 black hole spacetime is a geometrically finite hyperbolic manifold. For such manifolds a theorem of Sullivan provides a one-to-one correspondence between the hyperbolic structure in the bulk and the conformal structure of its boundary. Using this theorem we obtain the holographic quasinormal modes for the warped AdS3 black hole.

Gupta, Kumar S.; Harikumar, E.; Sen, Siddhartha; Sivakumar, M.

2010-08-01

391

Entropy of Warped Taub-NUT AdS Black String via the Brick Wall Method  

E-print Network

When we consider five-dimensional warped Taub-NUT AdS black string with minimally coupled massive scalar field, we calculate an entropy by using the brick wall method. In extremely light effective mass, we find the entropy is proportional to an extra dimension wave number as well as quadratically divergent in a cutoff parameter. After taking zero NUT charge, we find the entropy of warped (AdS) Schwartzshield black hole string has a similar properties in as warped Taub-NUT AdS black string.

Chong Oh Lee

2014-02-17

392

Phase Transition and Clapeyon Equation of Black Hole in Higher Dimensional AdS Spacetime  

E-print Network

By Maxwell equal area law we study the phase transition in higher dimensional Anti-de Sitter (AdS) Reissner-Nordstr\\"{o}m (RN) black hole and Kerr black hole in this paper. The coexisting region of the two phases involved in the phase transition is found and the coexisting curves are shown in $P-T$ figures. We also analytically investigate the parameters which affect the coexisting curves. To better compare with ordinary thermodynamic systems, the Clapeyon equation is derived for higher dimensional AdS black holes. This paper can help to deepen the understanding of the phase transition and phase structure of AdS black holes.

Zhao, Hui-Hua; Ma, Meng-Sen; Zhao, Ren

2014-01-01

393

Maglev: Transportation for the 21st century  

SciTech Connect

The noise, gaseous and particulate pollution inherent in 19th and 20th century transportation must be eliminated from the city of the 21st century. If cities are to achieve their full potential as economic and cultural centers they must possess superior transportation systems. Ultra-silent, energy stingy, non-polluting maglevs can furnish the passenger and freight transportation system that the coming millennium will demand. Maglev floats railroad-like cars on a magnetic field a few inches above an elevated guideway. The cars can move at any convenient speed up to 300 mph. Yet, maglev produces less noise than a well muffled automobile, no vibration and no pollution.

Andrus, G.M.; Gillies, G.T.

1987-04-01

394

21st Century Skills Map: Math  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This 34-page document (pdf) identifies student learning outcomes for each of eleven 21st Century Skills and provides examples of tasks for grade 4, 8, and 12. It strives to fuse mathematical content and mathematical practices with the 4Cs (communication, collaboration, critical thinking and creativity) and integrate them with interdisciplinary themes. Each skill is aligned with CCSS mathematical practices. This map was designed by the Partnership for 21st Century Skills (P21) in cooperation with the Mathematical Association of America (MAA), the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM), and dozens of math educators across the country.

Susan Saltrick, Et A.

2012-04-01

395

Want Ads and the Job Market  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Olympus Research Corporation (ORC) made an in-depth study of want ads. It was found the ads did not offer adequate, accurate, or easily obtained information that would make it possible for job seekers to decide whether they are suited to a job, or want it. (Author/BP)

Walsh, John; Johnson, Miriam

1974-01-01

396

Cytokine Modulation of AD Filaggrin Skin Expression  

PubMed Central

Background Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease that is characterized by a defective skin barrier function. Recent studies have reported mutations of the skin barrier gene encoding filaggrin in a subset of patients with AD. Objective We investigated whether reduced filaggrin expression was found in AD patients who were not carriers of known filaggrin mutations and if filaggrin expression was modulated by the atopic inflammatory response. Methods Filaggrin expression was measured in skin biopsies and cultured keratinocytes using real-time RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. Filaggrin loss-of-function mutations were screened in a total of 69 subjects. Results As compared with normal skin, filaggrin expression was significantly reduced (p<0.05) in acute AD skin, with further reduction seen in acute lesions from three European American AD subjects who were heterozygous for the 2282del4 mutation. This was confirmed using immunohistochemistry. AD skin is characterized by the over-expression of IL-4 and IL-13. Keratinocytes differentiated in the presence of IL-4 and IL-13 exhibited significantly reduced filaggrin gene expression (0.04±0.01 ng filaggrin/ng GAPDH, p<0.05) compared to media alone (0.16±0.03). Conclusion Patients with AD have an acquired defect in filaggrin expression which can be modulated by the atopic inflammatory response. Clinical Implications The atopic immune response contributes to the skin barrier defect in AD; therefore neutralization of IL-4 and IL-13 could improve skin barrier integrity. PMID:17512043

Howell, Michael D.; Kim, Byung Eui; Gao, Peisong; Grant, Audrey V.; Boguniewicz, Mark; DeBenedetto, Anna; Schneider, Lynda; Beck, Lisa A.; Barnes, Kathleen C.; Leung, Donald Y.M.

2009-01-01

397

Google's Auction for TV Ads Preliminary version  

E-print Network

Google's Auction for TV Ads Preliminary version Noam Nisan Jason Bayer Deepak Chandra Tal Franji Robert Gardner Yossi Matias Neil Rhodes Misha Seltzer Danny Tom Hal Varian Dan Zigmond Google Inc. Abstract This document describes the auction system used by Google for allocation and pricing of TV ads

Nisan, Noam

398

HARP - HYBRID AD HOC ROUTING PROTOCOL  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a bandwidth- efficient low-delay routing protocol for mobile ad hoc networks called HARP - hybrid ad hoc rout- ing protocol. HARP is a hybrid scheme combin- ing reactive and proactive approaches. The routing is performed on two levels: intra-zone and inter- zone, depending on whether the destination be- longs to the same zone as the forwarding node.

Navid Nikaein; Christian Bonnet; Neda Nikaein

399

Global perspective on energy. [Projecting into 21st century  

SciTech Connect

The technological world of today finds us with a population of over 4 billion with a doubling time of 30 to 40 years. Even with the rapid introduction of effective fertility control, the momentum of population - a phenomenon caused by a population age structure biased toward the young - will carry us to a population of 12 to 16 billion in the 21st century. With fixed land resources, the energy inputs to support the increased population will be several tims the present world energy consumption. How does this conclusion square with the notion that we are running out of energy. Are the billions of new people doomed to malnutrition and disease because we cannot provide the energy needed to support them. Answering in the negative, the author says: (1) proved reserves of conventional energy resources are substantial and the prospects of adding to these reserves are good; (2) unconventional resources of oil, gas, and uranium are many times larger than our present conventional reserves; and (3) nuclear fisson energy alone could support the world for several centuries. Even though the general energy picture is bright, the outlook for the less developed countries is not, he feels. To exploit the energy sources of the future requires large capital investments - something that only the developed countries can manage. One of the major contributions the developed countries can make to those that are less fortunate is to take the pressure off oil so as to stabilize the price and supply situation. In this regard, the US is in an excellent position to take the lead.

Anderson, T.D.

1980-04-11

400

Signatures of high-magnitude 19th-century floods in Quercus macrocarpa tree rings along the Red River, Manitoba, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quercus macrocarpa (Michx.) growing along the Red River, Manitoba, Canada, contain an anatomical signature related to high-magnitude 19th-century floods. Tree-ring samples were collected from 194 Q. macrocarpa over a 100 km transect along the Red River valley. The combined tree-ring record extends from A.D. 1463 to A.D. 1999; sample depth between 1463 and 1650 is limited and made up exclusively

Scott St. George; Erik Nielsen

2000-01-01

401

Dynamical sectors for a spinning particle in AdS3  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider the dynamics of a particle of mass M and spin J in AdS3. The study reveals the presence of different dynamical sectors depending on the relative values of M, J and the AdS3 radius R. For the subcritical M2R2-J2>0 and supercritical M2R2-J2<0 cases, it is seen that the equations of motion give the geodesics of AdS3. For the critical case M2R2=J2 there exist extra gauge transformations which further reduce the physical degrees of freedom, and the motion corresponds to the geodesics of AdS2. This result should be useful in the holographic interpretation of the entanglement entropy for two-dimensional conformal field theories with gravitational anomalies.

Batlle, Carles; Gomis, Joaquim; Kamimura, Kiyoshi; Zanelli, Jorge

2014-09-01

402

Two gravitational shock waves on the AdS3 brane  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A gravitational shock wave is a solution to Einstein equations describing the gravitational field of a massless particle. We obtain such a geometry for a particle moving on a AdS3 brane embedded in a AdS4 bulk (the lower dimensional version of the ``locally localized gravity'' model of Karch and Randall). In order to do this, we use two different techniques. First, we solve directly Einstein equations sourced by a massless particle. Then we boost to the speed of light the AdS3 brane black hole solution of Emparan et al. [1] while sending its mass parameter to zero. Surprisingly, we obtain two different results. We discuss the origin of these two different solutions both in the bulk and in the CFT picture. As a by-product, we derive the expression for the shock wave associated to a transversally accelerating particle in AdS4.

Anber, Mohamed; Sorbo, Lorenzo

2007-10-01

403

Dynamical sectors for a spinning particle in AdS3 Carles Batlle1  

E-print Network

, they are obtained by identification in AdS3 by a global spacelike Killing vector with a fixed point in a similar way features, like admitting globally defined Killing spinors (supersymmetric BPS states). Figure 1 dis- plays

Batlle, Carles

404

Renormalization group, secular term resummation and AdS (in)stability  

E-print Network

We revisit the issues of non-linear AdS stability, its relation to growing (secular) terms in naive perturbation theory around the AdS background, and the need and possible strategies for resumming such terms. To this end, we review a powerful and elegant resummation method, which is mathematically identical to the standard renormalization group treatment of ultraviolet divergences in perturbative quantum field theory. We apply this method to non-linear gravitational perturbation theory in the AdS background at first non-trivial order and display the detailed structure of the emerging renormalization flow equations. We prove, in particular, that a majority of secular terms (and the corresponding terms in the renormalization flow equations) that could be present on general grounds given the spectrum of frequencies of linear AdS perturbations, do not in fact arise.

Ben Craps; Oleg Evnin; Joris Vanhoof

2014-07-23

405

Renormalization group, secular term resummation and AdS (in)stability  

E-print Network

We revisit the issues of non-linear AdS stability, its relation to growing (secular) terms in naive perturbation theory around the AdS background, and the need and possible strategies for resumming such terms. To this end, we review a powerful and elegant resummation method, which is mathematically identical to the standard renormalization group treatment of ultraviolet divergences in perturbative quantum field theory. We apply this method to non-linear gravitational perturbation theory in the AdS background at first non-trivial order and display the detailed structure of the emerging renormalization flow equations. We prove, in particular, that a majority of secular terms (and the corresponding terms in the renormalization flow equations) which could be present on general grounds given the spectrum of frequencies of linear AdS perturbations, do not in fact arise.

Craps, Ben; Vanhoof, Joris

2014-01-01

406

NASA astrophysics data system (ADS) study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The forthcoming launches of the Great Observatories create an opportunity for multi-spectral research in astronomy that will extend into the next century. Recognizing that both the operational and the budgetary aspects of the Great Observatories must be addressed in a timely manner, the Director of the NASA Astrophysics Division, in 1985, initiated a thorough study of the operation and data

G. F. Squibb; C. Y. Cheung

1988-01-01

407

Recommendations for the 21st Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Group discussions on physical, sexual, and emotional child abuse and neglect, which took place at the "Child Protection for the 21st Century Conference," are summarized. The discussions noted practices that should be preserved and those requiring change in law/law enforcement, mental health, medicine/nursing, social work, and prevention and…

Child Abuse and Neglect: The International Journal, 1991

1991-01-01

408

The 21st Century Information Environment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper on the 21st century information environment begins with a section that discusses the impact of e-commerce over the next ten years. The second section addresses government focus areas, including ensuring a telecommunications infrastructure, developing the IT (information technology) industry, promoting innovation and entrepreneurship,…

Badger, Rod

409

Advanced Propulsion for the XXIst Century  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This document represents a poster presentation offered at the AIAA/CAS International Air & Space Symposium and Exposition from July 14-17, 2003 in Dayton Ohio. This presentation outlines advanced space propulsion concepts as well as associated research and industry activities during the 21st century.

Frisbee, Robert H.

2003-01-01

410

Listening Education in the 21 Century  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 1999 tragic shootings at Columbine High School in Littleton, Colorado, served as a wake-up call for Americans that we need to listen to our teenagers. How unfortunate it is that it takes a tragedy to reawaken educational interest in listening as a crucial component of human communication behavior. As we enter the 21 Century, this article re-emphasizes the crucial

Andrew D. Wolvin; Carolyn G. Coakley

2000-01-01

411

management in the 21st century  

E-print Network

in the 2st century have invested in "smarter" drivers' licenses, passports, automated border control of identity fraud, illegal immigration, international crime and global terrorism has driven many nations borders ­ have prompted a closer examination of the effectiveness of some of these programs. Many

412

THE SEVENTH-CENTURY ISLAMIC GOLD STANDARD  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monetary systems are catalysts for economic, social and political progress. The interdependence between monetary, economic and political order is illustrated by currency competition between the Byzantine and Muslim empires in the seventh century. The evolution of an Islamic gold standard demonstrates that Byzantine and Muslim ruling circles were conversant with the dynamics of currency competition. In keeping with the theory

Benedikt Koehler

2010-01-01

413

Creating 21st Century Learning Environments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

What is involved in creating learning environments for the 21st century? How can school facilities serve as tools for teaching and meet the needs of students in the future? What components are required to design effective schools, and how does architecture relate to the purposes of schooling? These are some of the questions addressed at the…

Li, Phan P.; Locke, John; Nair, Prakash; Bunting, Andrew

2005-01-01

414

China's March on the 21st Century  

E-print Network

#12;China's March on the 21st Century A Report of the Aspen Strategy Group Kurt M. Campbell, Editor Willow Darsie, Editor Co-Chairmen Joseph S. Nye, Jr. Brent Scowcroft #12;CONTENTS PREFACE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 SCENE SETTER AND DISCUSSION GUIDE Kurt M. Campbell

Deutch, John

415

Workforce Education: Issues for the New Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book contains 22 papers on workforce education issues for the new century: "Introduction" (Alfred J. Pautler, Jr.); "Vocational Education: Past, Present, and Future" (Cheryl L. Hogg); "A Philosophic View for Seeing the Past of Vocational Education and Envisioning the Future of Workforce Education: Pragmatism Revisited" (Melvin D. Miller,…

Pautler, Albert J., Jr., Ed.

416

20th-Century Gold Rush.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents Nevada's gold rush activities spurred by technological advancements in search methods. Describes the events that led to the twentieth-century gold rush, the techniques for finding deposits and the geological formation process of disseminated gold deposits. Vignettes present the gold extraction process, cross-section, and profile of a…

Wargo, Joseph G.

1992-01-01

417

The New Model Eighteenth-Century Novel  

Microsoft Academic Search

I begin not with a model but an anecdote. Clifford Siskin's The Work of Writing: Literature and Social Change in Britain, 1700-1830 (1998) describes an overflow crowd at the 1993 American Society for Eighteenth-Century Studies (ASECS) annual meeting for a session with \\

Robert Folkenflik

2000-01-01

418

21ST CENTURY MOLD ANALYSIS IN FOOD  

EPA Science Inventory

Traditionally, the indoor air community has relied on mold analysis performed by either microscopic observations or the culturing of molds on various media to assess indoor air quality. These techniques were developed in the 19th century and are very laborious and time consumin...

419

"Stakes is High": Educating New Century Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

My apologies to iconic hip-hop artists, De La Soul for I have shamelessly appropriated the title, "Stakes is high" to underscore the importance of the work ahead for educators, students, parents, community members, and researchers as we attempt to develop a generation of what I call "new century" students for a world we can hardly imagine. Through…

Ladson-Billings, Gloria

2013-01-01

420

21st Century Skills Literacy in  

E-print Network

Inventive Thinking 33 Effective Communication 47 High Productivity 59 Glimpses Into 21st Century Classrooms embrace new designs for learning based on emerging research about how people learn, effective uses: Literacy in the Digital Age 2 #12;Extra! Extra! The World Is Different! The Workplace Farmers are checking

Al-Qahtani, Mohammad

421

Late Twentieth-Century Racial Uplift Work.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents a description and brief history of the concept of "racial uplift" and describes its implications for a contemporary, Black college professor. The phrase "racial uplift," for 19th-century Black women, describes almost any type of political activity designed to improve conditions for Black people during the critical…

Logan, Shirley Wilson

422

Global warming and 21st century drying  

E-print Network

to PET changes than the PDSI, especially in arid regions such as the Sahara and Middle East. Regional), and there is concern that anthropogenic climate change will increase the occurrence, magnitude, or impact-first century, but the relative contributions from changes in moisture supply (precipitation) versus evaporative

Smerdon, Jason E.

423

A Century of Plays by American Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Chosen for their literary quality and because they reflect the historical periods in which they were written, the 23 one-act dramas in this anthology represent the work of American female playwrights. The plays range from the realistic dramas produced in the "Little Theatres" of New York City at the turn of the century to current off-Broadway…

France, Rachel, Ed.

424

Half a Century of Physical Review Letters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fifty years ago, Sam Goudsmit started an experiment: the journal Physical Review Letters. Since 1958, the experiment has thrived. PRL has gone through many changes, published many important papers, and become a leader in international scientific publication. I will trace the rise of PRL from its early 20th century roots as 'Letters to the Editor,' through changes in editorial process

Garisto

2008-01-01

425

Twentieth?century women, inside and out  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sheila Rowbotham, A Century of Women: The History of Women in Britain and the United States, London: Viking, 1997, £20.Joan Raphael?Leff and Rosine Jozef Perelberg (eds.), Female Experience: Three Generations of British Women Psychoanalysts on Work with Women, London: Routledge, 1997, £17.99.

Helen Hayward

1998-01-01

426

TWENTYFIRST CENTURY LEVEE OVERTOPPING PROJECTIONS FROM  

E-print Network

, in the Delta's southeastern sector. The time- and space-varying differences between the two solutions (VLM00 ground-motion rate map and the most current twenty-first century sea-level rise predictions to project when Delta levees will subside below high-water design thresholds. The study showed that the time

427

Asian Americans in the Twentieth Century  

Microsoft Academic Search

At the close of the century, Asian\\/Pacific Islander Americans comprise a rapidly growing and diverse population in the United States. This population consists of ethnic groups that have been here for up to five generations, as well as recent immigrants and refugees. The Chinese and Japanese were the two groups that were identified by the United States census just before

Harry H. Kitano; Susan Nakaoka

2000-01-01

428

Business Education for the 21st Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Each year, the Policies Commission for Business and Economic Education develops statements regarding business education. The following are among the commission's guidelines regarding planning the business education curriculum for the new century: (1) making business education an integral and equal partner within schools' educational communities…

Missouri State Dept. of Elementary and Secondary Education, Jefferson City. Div. of Vocational and Adult Education.

429

Listening in the 21st Century  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because the communication technology and business environments have changed considerably in recent years, so must our concept of effective listening. As we enter the 21 century, the need for research into the scope and impact of recent changes is great if we are to determine the most effective listening strategies and behaviors to adopt. This article explores the idea that

Sheila C. Bentley

2000-01-01

430

Edkins and a Century of Acid Suppression  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1905, John Edkins (1863–1940) undertook the studies of gastrin that have subsequently formed the basis for a century of investigation into the physiological basis of acid secretion and led to the elucidation of a variety of acid-suppressive pharmacological agents that have revolutionized the management of acid peptic disease. Although his name is known to few, his contributions to the

I. M. Modlin; G. Sachs; N. Wright; M. Kidd

2005-01-01

431

Developing Leaders for the 21st Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes the Leadership Development for the 21st Century: Linking Research, Academics and Extension program that began in June 2005. This 12-month program, designed to explore different models of leadership, develop peer networks, and enhance skills and knowledge in leadership competencies, is specifically for land grand educators…

Phillips, John L.

2005-01-01

432

Creating 21st Century Learning Environments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The seminar on "Creating 21st Century Learning Environments" was organized by the United Kingdom's Department for Education and Skills (DfES) and the OECD Program on Educational Building (PEB). The seminar was posed as a networked learning experience with professionals from throughout the world presenting their accomplishments and findings.…

Stuebing, Susan

2004-01-01

433

21st Century Learning Environment Models  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report provides short descriptions of systemic approaches for American Recovery and Reinvestment Act funding including: (1) 21st Century Classroom; (2) Comprehensive Professional Development; (3) Statewide Longitudinal Data Systems; (4) Formative Assessment; (5) Digital Content; (6) Virtual Learning; and (7) Learning Management Systems.

State Educational Technology Directors Association, 2011

2011-01-01

434

A cluster of stratospheric volcanic eruptions in the AD 530s recorded in Siberian tree rings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently published, improved chronologies for volcanic sulfate in Greenland and Antarctic ice permit a comparison of the growth responses of absolutely annually dated tree rings at three locations in Siberia with annual ice-core records of volcanic eruptions centered on AD 536. For the first time for this region and period, we present unique data sets for tree-ring width, cell-wall thickness, ?13C and ?18O in cellulose. These were based on multiple samples from relict wood of larch obtained from two sites close to the northern limit of tree growth on the Taimyr Peninsula and in northeastern Yakutia, and at a high-elevation, location 20° further South in the Altai Mts. An event in AD 536 was associated with different, but marked, changes in tree-ring parameters at the high-latitude sites compared with the high elevation site. An AD 541 event was associated with its own distinctive tree-ring responses across the three sites and multiple variables. The years after AD 532 were marked by a strong and sustained decrease in growth at the high-elevation, more southerly, site. The combination of improved ice-core chronology for the climatically effective volcanic eruptions of this part of the 6th century AD, and an array of tree-ring sites with different climates and multiple tree-ring variables permits a richer description of tree responses to this cluster of events. The pattern of tree-ring parameter responses at the three locations in AD 536, AD 541, and perhaps AD 532 is consistent with responses to climatically effective volcanic eruptions influencing tree response in those and subsequent years.

Churakova (Sidorova), Olga V.; Bryukhanova, Marina V.; Saurer, Matthias; Boettger, Tatjana; Naurzbaev, Mukhtar M.; Myglan, Vladimir S.; Vaganov, Eugene A.; Hughes, Malcolm K.; Siegwolf, Rolf T. W.

2014-11-01

435

Near extremal black hole entropy as entanglement entropy via AdS2\\/CFT1  

Microsoft Academic Search

We point out that the entropy of (near) extremal black holes can be interpreted as the entanglement entropy of dual conformal quantum mechanics via AdS2\\/CFT1. As an explicit example, we study near extremal Banados-Teitelboim-Zanelli black holes and derive this claim from AdS3\\/CFT2. We also analytically compute the entanglement entropy in the two dimensional CFT of a free Dirac fermion compactified

Tatsuo Azeyanagi; Tatsuma Nishioka; Tadashi Takayanagi

2008-01-01

436

Massless vs. Massive Hawking Radiation in AdS2 Spacetime  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study massless and massive Hawking radiations on a two-dimensional AdS spacetime. For the massless case, the quantum stress-energy tensor of a massless scalar field on the AdS background is calculated, and the expected null radiation is obtained. However, for the massive case, the scattering analy- sis is performed in order to calculate the absorption and reflection coefficients which are

Sung-Won Kim; Won Tae Kim; John J. Oh

437

AdS solutions to the 2D type 0A effective action David Mattoon Thompson*  

E-print Network

with R-R fluxes, among other things. AdS backgrounds of type 0A string theory should be no exception. In particular, the recent discovery of a matrix quantum mechanics dual to two-dimensional type 0A string theory. II, we briefly review the 2D 0A string theory. In Sec. III, we present our family of AdS2 solutions

Romps, David M.

438

Free Field Dynamics in the Generalized AdS (Super)Space  

E-print Network

Pure gauge representation for general vacuum background fields (Cartan forms) in the generalized $AdS$ superspace identified with $OSp(L,M)$ is found. This allows us to formulate dynamics of free massless fields in the generalized $AdS$ space-time and to find their (generalized) conformal and higher spin field transformation laws. Generic solution of the field equations is also constructed explicitly. The results are obtained with the aid of the star product realization of ortosymplectic superalgebras.

V. E. Didenko; M. A. Vasiliev

2003-01-09

439

On massless 4D gravitons from asymptotically AdS 5 space–times  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate the conditions for obtaining four-dimensional massless spin-2 states in the spectrum of fluctuations around an asymptotically AdS5 solution of Einstein–Dilaton gravity. We find it is only possible to have normalizable massless spin-2 modes if the space–time terminates at some IR point in the extra dimension, far from the UV AdS boundary, and if suitable boundary conditions are imposed

E. Kiritsis; F. Nitti

2007-01-01

440

Annual precipitation in the Yellowstone National Park region since AD 1173  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Cores and cross sections from 133 limber pine (Pinus flexilis James) and Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirbel) Franco) at four sites were used to estimate annual (July to June) precipitation in the Yellowstone National Park region for the period from AD 1173 to 1998. Examination of the long-term record shows that the early 20th century was markedly wet compared to the previous 700 yr. Extreme wet and dry years within the instrumental period fall within the range of past variability, and the magnitude of the worst-case droughts of the 20th century (AD 1930s and 1950s) was likely equaled or exceeded on numerous occasions before AD 1900. Spectral analysis showed significant decadal to multidecadal precipitation variability. At times this lower frequency variability produces strong regime-like behavior in regional precipitation, with the potential for rapid, high-amplitude switching between predominately wet and predominately dry conditions. Over multiple time scales, strong Yellowstone region precipitation anomalies were almost always associated with spatially extensive events spanning various combinations of the central and southern U.S. Rockies, the northern U.S.-Southern Canadian Rockies and the Pacific Northwest.

Gray, Stephen T.; Graumlich, Lisa J.; Betancourt, Julio L.

2007-01-01

441

Annual precipitation in the Yellowstone National Park region since AD 1173  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Cores and cross sections from 133 limber pine (Pinus flexilis James) and Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirbel) Franco) at four sites were used to estimate annual (July to June) precipitation in the Yellowstone National Park region for the period from AD 1173 to 1998. Examination of the long-term record shows that the early 20th century was markedly wet compared to the previous 700??yr. Extreme wet and dry years within the instrumental period fall within the range of past variability, and the magnitude of the worst-case droughts of the 20th century (AD 1930s and 1950s) was likely equaled or exceeded on numerous occasions before AD 1900. Spectral analysis showed significant decadal to multidecadal precipitation variability. At times this lower frequency variability produces strong regime-like behavior in regional precipitation, with the potential for rapid, high-amplitude switching between predominately wet and predominately dry conditions. Over multiple time scales, strong Yellowstone region precipitation anomalies were almost always associated with spatially extensive events spanning various combinations of the central and southern U.S. Rockies, the northern U.S.-Southern Canadian Rockies and the Pacific Northwest. ?? 2007 University of Washington.

Gray, S.T.; Graumlich, L.J.; Betancourt, J.L.

2007-01-01

442

Ad-hoc and Hybrid Networks Performance Comparison of MANET Routing Protocols in Ad-hoc  

E-print Network

Ad-hoc and Hybrid Networks Performance Comparison of MANET Routing Protocols in Ad-hoc and Hybrid 1 List of Figures 4 List of Tables 4 Listings 4 1 General 5 1.1 Mobile Adhoc Networks References 28 A Source Code 30 B Source Code Hybrid 32 2 #12;Abstract An ad-hoc network is an accumulation

Braun, Torsten

443

Supersymmetric Asymptotic AdS and Lifshitz Solutions in Einstein-Weyl and Conformal Supergravities  

E-print Network

We show that there exist supersymmetric Lifshitz vacua in off-shell Einstein-Weyl supergravity, in addition to the BPS AdS_4 vacuum. The Lifshitz exponents are determined by the product of the cosmological constant and the coupling of the Weyl-squared term. We then obtain the equations of the supersymmetric solutions that are asymptotic to the AdS or Lifshitz vacua. We obtain many examples of exact solutions as well as numerical ones. We find examples of extremal AdS black branes whose near-horizon geometry is AdS_2\\times T^2. We also find an extremal Lifshitz black hole with z=-2, whose horizon coincides with the curvature singularity. However the asymptotic Lifshitz solutions are in general smooth wormholes. In conformal supergravity, we find intriguing examples of non-extremal "BPS" AdS and Lifshitz black holes whose local Killing spinor is divergent on the horizon. We show that all the supersymmetric asymptotic AdS and Lifshitz solutions have the vanishing Noether charge associated with some scaling symme...

Lu, H

2012-01-01

444

Ad-hoc Routing Protocol for Aeronautical Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present a theoretical approach and the simulation results for an innovative Mobile Ad Hoc Network (MANET) routing protocol designed for the needs of aeronautical applications, particularly having the free flight concept in mind as an ultimate goal. The protocol we propose is the Ad-hoc Routing Protocol for Aeronautical Mobile Ad hoc Networks (ARPAM) and it is

Michael Iordanakis; Dimitrios Yannis; Kimon Karras; Georgios Bogdos; Georgios Dilintas; Massimiliano Amirfeiz; Giorgio Colangelo; Stefano Baiotti

445

AdS black hole solutions in dilatonic Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet gravity  

SciTech Connect

We find that anti-de Sitter (AdS) spacetime with a nontrivial linear dilaton field is an exact solution in the effective action of the string theory, which is described by gravity with the Gauss-Bonnet curvature terms coupled to a dilaton field in the string frame without a cosmological constant. The AdS radius is determined by the spacetime dimensions and the coupling constants of curvature corrections. We also construct the asymptotically AdS black hole solutions with a linear dilaton field numerically. We find these AdS black holes for hyperbolic topology and in dimensions higher than four. We discuss the thermodynamical properties of those solutions. Extending the model to the case with the even-order higher Lovelock curvature terms, we also find the exact AdS spacetime with a nontrivial dilaton. We further find a cosmological solution with a bounce of three-dimensional space and a solitonic solution with a nontrivial dilaton field, which is regular everywhere and approaches an asymptotically AdS spacetime.

Maeda, Kei-ichi [Department of Physics, Waseda University, Shinjuku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Advanced Research Institute for Science and Engineering, Waseda University, Shinjuku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Ohta, Nobuyoshi [Department of Physics, Kinki University, Higashi-Osaka, Osaka 577-8502 (Japan); Sasagawa, Yukinori [Department of Physics, Waseda University, Shinjuku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan)

2011-02-15

446

The ADS All-Sky Survey  

E-print Network

The ADS All-Sky Survey (ADSASS) is an ongoing effort aimed at turning the NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS), widely known for its unrivaled value as a literature resource for astronomers, into a data resource. The ADS is not a data repository per se, but it implicitly contains valuable holdings of astronomical data, in the form of images, tables and object references contained within articles. The objective of the ADSASS effort is to extract these data and make them discoverable and available through existing data viewers. The resulting ADSASS data layer promises to greatly enhance workflows and enable new research by tying astronomical literature and data assets into one resource.

Pepe, Alberto; Muench, August

2011-01-01

447

The ADS All-Sky Survey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ADS All-Sky Survey (ADSASS) is an ongoing effort aimed at turning the NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS), widely known for its unrivaled value as a literature resource for astronomers, into a data resource. The ADS is not a data repository per se, but it implicitly contains valuable holdings of astronomical data, in the form of images, tables and object references contained within articles. The objective of the ADSASS effort is to extract these data and make them discoverable and available through existing data viewers. The resulting ADSASS data layer promises to greatly enhance workflows and enable new research by tying astronomical literature and data assets into one resource.

Pepe, A.; Goodman, A.; Muench, A.

2012-09-01

448

Video Ads Blocker 1.0b  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These days all types of advertisements can intrude on the web-browsing experience, and some of them can be quite noxious in their character and appearance. One particularly annoying type of ad is the short video clip that may sometimes appear in various guises. The Video Ads Blocker 1.0 is a good way to block out these types of ads, along with animated .gif files, Macromedia Flash movies, and other background sounds as well. The application is compatible with all systems running Windows 98 and above.

449

[Steadiness and progress. Medicine in Würzburg in the mirror of the centuries - a contribution to the foundation of the University of Würzburg 600 years ago].  

PubMed

In the year 1402 one of the first German universities was founded by bishop Johann von Egloffstein, but it had last in its full composition for only a few decades. Nevertheless, the 600th anniversary has a great importance, because in the 16th century, during the second foundation, there was an adequate tradition of university in Würzburg to lean on and go back to.Although, in a medical-history view, in 1402 this university had been without a greater importance, the medicine in Würzburg in the Middle Ages and the Early modern Times had been on a high level, what is shown by representatives like Ortolf von Baierland (13th century) and Berthold Blumentrost (14th century) or by documents like the 'Würzburger Wundarznei' at the end of the 15th century and the 'Nüttzlicher Bericht' by Walther Hermann Ryff, printed 1548 in Würzburg, as one of the first dental mongraphies.A lasting success was finally the university opened in the year 1582. In 1575/6 bishop Julius Echter von Mespelbrunn had reached, using the traditions of the university of 1402, a new privilege by the pope and the emperor. The medical faculty which was functional deeply connected with the Juliusspital as a kind of hospital right from the beginning, was determined by Wilhelm Schefferlein, Gottfriedt van der Steighe and Adriaen van Roomen. In the beginning of the 17th century the medical faculty turned pale, but two representatives of the philosophic faculty, Athanasius Kircher and Caspar Schott, accomplished remarkable outcomes in medical fields. Heavily stricken by the Thirty Years' War the medicine at the University of Würzburg was changed by the prince-bishops to the model of the University of Leiden, in order to improve the feeble position of the medical faculty. After not being successful in the beginning, the foundation of the blossom and of its worldwide importance had been laid in the last third of the 18th century. Karl Kaspar Siebold had, with the help of some of his fellows, students, and his family (like his sons Johann Barthel and Adadam Elias von Siebold), reorganized the medical faculty, which had brought her in the byname 'Academia Sieboldiana". In the beginning of the 19th century the recovery of the faculty moved on more and more: OUtstanding representatives like Ignaz Döllinger, Johann Lukas Schoenlein and Franz von Rinecker founded by their great medical-scientific and organizational achievements, the high reputation of the medical faculty of Würzburg. Especially in the second half of the 19th century the University of Würzburg was in a leading position in a lot of traditional disciplines and in the developing and establishing of new medical fields, shown by names like Franz Kiwisch Ritter von Rotterau and Friedrich Wilhelm Scanzoni von Lichtenfels, Cajetan von Textor and Wenzel von Linhart, Rudolf Virchow, Albert Kölliker, Franz von Leydig, Carl Joseph von Ringelmann, Johann Joseph von Scherer, Johann Georg Heine, Adolf Fick or Carl Gerhardt. PMID:15635774

Vollmuth, Ralf; Keil, Gundolf

2003-01-01

450

AdS-Sliced Flavor Branes and Adding Flavor to the Janus Solution  

E-print Network

We implement D7 flavor branes in AdS-sliced coordinates on $AdS_5\\times S^5$ with the ansatz that the brane fluctuates only in the warped ($\\mu$) direction in this slicing, which is particularly appropriate for studying the Janus solution. The natural field theory dual in this slicing is $\\mathcal{N}=4$ super Yang-Mills on two copies of $AdS_4$. Branes extending from $\\mu=\\pm\\pi/2$ can end at different locations, giving rise to quarks with piecewise constant mass on each $AdS_4$ half-space, jumping discontinuously between them. A second class of flavor brane solutions exists in this coordinate system, dubbed "continuous" flavor branes, that extend across the entire range of $\\mu$. We propose that the correct dual interpretation of "disconnected" flavor brane in this ansatz is a quark hypermultiplet with constant mass on one of the AdS$_4$ half-spaces with totally reflecting boundary conditions at the boundary of AdS$_4$; whereas the dual interpretation of a continuous flavor brane has totally transparent boun...

Clark, Adam B; Newman, George M; Rommal, Andrea

2014-01-01

451

Non-Vacuum AdS Cosmologies and the Approach to Equilibrium of Entanglement Entropy  

E-print Network

We extend standard results for vacuum asymptotically locally AdS (AlAdS) spacetimes, showing that such spacetimes can be constructed as foliations where the induced metric on each hypersurface satisfies Einstein's equation with stress-energy. By an appropriate choice of stress-energy on the hypersurfaces, the resulting AlAdS spacetime satisfies Einstein's equation with a negative cosmological constant and physical stress tensor. We use this construction to obtain AlAdS solutions whose boundaries are FRW cosmologies sourced by a massless scalar field or by a perfect fluid obeying the strong energy condition. We focus on FRW universes that approach Minkowski spacetime at late times, yielding AlAdS spacetimes that approach either the Poincar\\'e patch of pure AdS or the AdS soliton, which we view as late time equilibrium states. As an application of these solutions, we use the AdS/CFT correspondence to study the approach to equilibrium of the entanglement entropy and of the boundary stress tensor of the boundary ...

Fischetti, Sebastian; Traschen, Jennie

2014-01-01

452

Chern-Simons AdS_5 supergravity in a Randall-Sundrum background  

E-print Network

Chern-Simons AdS supergravity theories are gauge theories for the super-AdS group. These theories possess a fermionic symmetry which differs from standard supersymmetry. In this paper, we study five-dimensional Chern-Simons AdS supergravity in a Randall-Sundrum scenario with two Minkowski 3-branes. After making modifications to the D = 5 Chern-Simons AdS supergravity action and fermionic symmetry transformations, we obtain a Z_2-invariant total action S = \\tilde{S}_bulk + S_brane and fermionic transformations \\tilde{\\delta}_\\epsilon. While \\tilde{\\delta}_\\epsilon \\tilde{S}_bulk = 0, the fermionic symmetry is broken by S_brane. Our total action reduces to the original Randall-Sundrum model when \\tilde{S}_bulk is restricted to its gravitational sector. We solve the Killing spinor equations for a bosonic configuration with vanishing su(N) and u(1) gauge fields.

Richard S. Garavuso; Francesco Toppan

2007-05-28

453

Winter and summer climate patterns in the European-Middle East during recent centuries as documented in a northern Red Sea coral record  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Ras Umm Sidd coral 6180 record from the northern Red Sea is the northernmost centuries long coral time series that is currently available in seasonal resolution (AD 1750-1995). Here we investigate climate patterns associated with the coral 6180 time series separately for boreal winter and summer, using instrumental and reconstructed climate fields for the European-Middle East region. The winter

Norel Rimbu; Thomas Felis; Gerrit Lohmann; Jürgen Päatzold

2006-01-01

454

An ad-hoc wireless communication system  

E-print Network

This thesis studies the challenges of providing load balancing and fault-tolerant external links between ad-hoc multicast mesh networks. The work is the gateway component of a research platform called FluidVoice, a wireless ...

Yuen, Hector

2006-01-01

455

Research of Ad Hoc Networks Access Algorithm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the continuous development of mobile communication technology, Ad Hoc access network has become a hot research, Ad Hoc access network nodes can be used to expand capacity of multi-hop communication range of mobile communication system, even business adjacent to the community, improve edge data rates. When the ad hoc network is the access network of the internet, the gateway discovery protocol is very important to choose the most appropriate gateway to guarantee the connectivity between ad hoc network and IP based fixed networks. The paper proposes a QoS gateway discovery protocol which uses the time delay and stable route to the gateway selection conditions. And according to the gateway discovery protocol, it also proposes a fast handover scheme which can decrease the handover time and improve the handover efficiency.

Xiang, Ma

456

Efficient Mechanical Dewatering by Adding Microfungi.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

To achieve an effective dewatering of peat slurries one can induce aggregation of the negatively charged peat particles which restrict the waterflow through the peat matrix and the filter during pressing. When polyelectrolytes are added aggregation of the...

M. Nordstroem

1988-01-01

457

Spatial aspects of mobile ad hoc collaboration  

E-print Network

Traditionally, communication devices are designed to overcome distance in space or time. How can personal mobile tools augment local interaction and promote spontaneous collaboration between users in proximity? Mobile ad ...

Chardin, Ivan Sergeyevich, 1977-

2003-01-01

458

Communication Algorithms for Wireless Ad Hoc Networks  

E-print Network

time maintain local neighborhood information. In the last part of this dissertation we look at the distributed trigger counting problem in the wireless ad hoc network setting. We present a deterministic algorithm for this problem which is communication...

Viqar, Saira

2012-10-19

459

Distributed algorithms for mobile ad hoc networks  

E-print Network

We first present two new leader election algorithms for mobile ad hoc networks. The algorithms ensure that eventually each connected component of the topology graph has exactly one leader. The algorithms are based on a routing algorithm called TORA...

Malpani, Navneet

2012-06-07

460

Testing the AdS/CFT Correspondence  

SciTech Connect

This lecture begins with some history and basic facts about string theory and its connections with strong interactions. Comparisons of stacks of Dirichlet branes with curved backgrounds produced by them are used to motivate the AdS/CFT correspondence between superconformal gauge theory and string theory on a product of Anti-de Sitter space and a compact manifold. The ensuing duality between semi-classical spinning strings and long gauge theory operators is briefly reviewed. We go on to describe a recent test of the AdS/CFT correspondence using the Wilson loop cusp anomaly as a function of the coupling, which also enters dimensions of high-spin operators. Finally, strongly coupled thermal SYM theory is explored via a black hole in 5-dimensional AdS space, which leads to explicit results for its entropy and shear viscosity.

Klebanov, Igor R. [Joseph Henry Laboratories and Princeton Center for Theoretical Science, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)

2008-07-28

461

Doubleclick Ad Exchange Auction Yishay Mansour  

E-print Network

is determined by offline negotiation between sales teams of publishers and advertisers, perhaps via per day in YouTube homepage for a movie trailer). Instead, ad exchanges trade individual impressions

Nisan, Noam

462

The Mathematics Education into the 21st Century Project  

E-print Network

Century Project. These principles are based mainly on connecting mathematics education to life, humanizingThe Mathematics Education into the 21st Century Project Proceedings ooff tthhee IInntteerrnnaattiioonnaall CCoonnffeerreennccee The Decidable and the Undecidable in Mathematics Education Brno, Czech

Spagnolo, Filippo

463

Addressing the Challenges Facing the Distributed, 21st Century  

E-print Network

Addressing the Challenges Facing the Distributed, 21st Century Business Through Telework Practical Methods for Transforming Organizational DNA through New Ways of Working Alan Greenberg & Andy Nilssen.........................................................................................................................4 Business Issues Facing the 21st Century Enterprise

Narasayya, Vivek

464

Transforming Scientific Communication for the 21st Century  

E-print Network

Since its inception in the 17th century the research journal emerged as the formal communication method in the sciences. The last half of the 20th century has seen stresses develop on the journal system due to the explosion ...

Gass, Steven

2001-01-01

465

Monthly, seasonal and annual temperature reconstructions for Central Europe derived from documentary evidence and instrumental records since AD 1500  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monthly temperature series for Central Europe back to AD 1500 are developed from documentary index series from Germany, Switzerland\\u000a and the Czech Republic (1500–1854) and 11 instrumental temperature records (1760–2007). Documentary evidence from the Low\\u000a Countries, the Carpathian Basin and Poland are used for cross-checking for earlier centuries. The instrumental station records\\u000a are corrected for inhomogeneities, including insufficient radiation protection

Petr Dobrovolný; Anders Moberg; Rudolf Brázdil; Christian Pfister; Rüdiger Glaser; Rob Wilson; Aryan van Engelen; Danuta Limanówka; Andrea Kiss; Monika Halí?ková; Jarmila Macková; Dirk Riemann; Jürg Luterbacher; Reinhard Böhm

2010-01-01

466

A Well-Verified, Multiproxy Reconstruction of the Winter North Atlantic Oscillation Index since a.d. 1400  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new, well-verified, multiproxy reconstruction of the winter North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index is described that can be used to examine the variability of the NAO prior to twentieth century greenhouse forcing. It covers the period A.D. 1400-1979 and successfully verifies against independent estimates of the winter NAO index from European instrumental and noninstrumental data as far back as 1500.

Edward R. Cook; Michael E. Mann

2002-01-01

467

Tracing the Phylogeography of Human Populations in Britain Based on 4th11th Century mtDNA Genotypes  

E-print Network

Tracing the Phylogeography of Human Populations in Britain Based on 4th­11th Century mtDNA,theextenttowhichtheseweremigrations(asopposedtoculturalexchange)remainscontroversial.Weinvestigated the history of migration by women by amplifying mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) from ancient Britons who lived between approximately A.D. 300­1,000 and compared these with 3,549 modern mtDNA database genotypes from

468

Engineering a Suburban Ad-Hoc Network  

Microsoft Academic Search

networks are growing in popularity, as wireless communication hardware, both fixed and mobile, becomes more common and affordable. The Monash Suburban Ad-Hoc Network (SAHN) project has devised a system that provides a highly secure and survivable ad-hoc network, capable of delivering broadband speeds to co-operating users within a fixed environment, such as a residential neighbourhood, or a campus. The SAHN

Mike Tyson; Ronald D Pose; Carlo Kopp; Mohammad Rokonuzzaman; Muhammad Mahmudul Islam

2006-01-01

469

Precision spectroscopy of AdS\\/CFT  

Microsoft Academic Search

We extend recent remarkable progress in the comparison of the dynamical energy spectrum of rotating closed strings in AdS5 × S5 and the scaling weights of the corresponding non-near-BPS operators in planar Script N = 4 supersymmetric gauge theory. On the string side the computations are feasible, using semiclassical methods, if angular momentum quantum numbers are large. This results in

Niklas Beisert; Matthias Staudacher; Sergey Frolov; Arkady A. Tseytlin

2003-01-01

470

Gender Role Portrayals in Indian Television Ads  

Microsoft Academic Search

318 randomly selected television ads from India (from 2004) in three different languages (English, Hindi, and Tamil) were\\u000a content analyzed to examine both the frequency of appearance and prevalence of gender stereotypes. Results indicate that there\\u000a are more male than female central characters and voiceovers in Indian ads; stereotypical differences were also found in the\\u000a type of credibility used by

Mallika Das

2011-01-01

471

Surgical Diseases of the Womb According to Aetius of Amida (6th Century a . d .)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  In the interest of presenting historical background for modern-day medicine and surgery, the authors comment on the concepts\\u000a of the eminent Byzantine physician Aetius of Amida (sixth century a.d.) in surgical treatment of diseases of the womb.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Study design  The 16th book of Aetius’ work Tetrabiblus, in the original Greek language, a treatise on gynecology and obstetrics of his era, was

Dimitrios P. Lazaris; Faidon J. Laskaratos; Gerassimos J. Lascaratos

2009-01-01

472

A 1,200-year perspective of 21st century drought in southwestern North America  

PubMed Central

A key feature of anticipated 21st century droughts in Southwest North America is the concurrence of elevated temperatures and increased aridity. Instrumental records and paleoclimatic evidence for past prolonged drought in the Southwest that coincide with elevated temperatures can be assessed to provide insights on temperature-drought relations and to develop worst-case scenarios for the future. In particular, during the medieval period, ?AD 900–1300, the Northern Hemisphere experienced temperatures warmer than all but the most recent decades. Paleoclimatic and model data indicate increased temperatures in western North America of approximately 1?°C over the long-term mean. This was a period of extensive and persistent aridity over western North America. Paleoclimatic evidence suggests drought in the mid-12th century far exceeded the severity, duration, and extent of subsequent droughts. The driest decade of this drought was anomalously warm, though not as warm as the late 20th and early 21st centuries. The convergence of prolonged warming and arid conditions suggests the mid-12th century may serve as a conservative analogue for severe droughts that might occur in the future. The severity, extent, and persistence of the 12th century drought that occurred under natural climate variability, have important implications for water resource management. The causes of past and future drought will not be identical but warm droughts, inferred from paleoclimatic records, demonstrate the plausibility of extensive, severe droughts, provide a long-term perspective on the ongoing drought conditions in the Southwest, and suggest the need for regional sustainability planning for the future. PMID:21149683

Woodhouse, Connie A.; Meko, David M.; MacDonald, Glen M.; Stahle, Dave W.; Cook, Edward R.

2010-01-01

473

[Sexuality and medicine: the 20th-century sexual revolution].  

PubMed

This paper discusses the role of medicine, ranging from the normative and technological control of women's sexuality ad reproductive process (childbirth, breastfeeding, contraception, and treatment of infertility) through the construction of a new (biological and social) reproductive model, based on a radical change of identities, relations, and forms of union between the sexes (a break with the traditional concept of marriage, growth of open unions, serial monogamy, etc.). This model is sustained by a radical distinction between sexuality and reproduction, related to a unique and horizontal model of sexuality (in opposition to the hierarchical 19th-century two-sexes model); the new model focuses mainly on pleasure and moves progressively away from social ties and affection. In addition to the contribution of medicine (notably through assisted reproduction) and sexology (universalization of the orgasm imperative), the paper also discusses the contribution of epidemiology (through AIDS-related research) to the transformation of a moral sexual norm into an abstract and merely statistical standard PMID:12973545

Loyola, Maria Andréa

2003-01-01

474

Who Will the 21st-Century Learners Be?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the "Standards for the 21st-Century Learner," the American Association of School Librarians (AASL) describes the skills, dispositions, responsibilities, and self-assessment strategies that are necessary for a 21st-century learner. However, as wonderful as AASL's 21st-century goals sound, they will fall on deaf ears because students who have a…

Dweck, Carol

2009-01-01

475

Tourism, modernization, and difference: a twentieth-century Spanish paradigm  

Microsoft Academic Search

This essay explores the role of tourism in Spanish cultural and political history in the late nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Although Spain developed modern domestic leisure practices in the nineteenth century, tourism promoters were dismayed by the small numbers of foreign visitors they received. By the early twentieth century, the project of developing a receptive tourism industry became a major

Sasha Pack

2008-01-01

476

Twentieth Century Thinkers in Adult & Continuing Education. Second Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book contains 19 papers on 20th century thinkers in adult and continuing education. The book is arranged in four parts as follows: early 20th century English thinkers; early 20th century American thinkers; theorists of adult and continuing education; and theorists of adult education and social change. The following papers are included:…

Jarvis, Peter, Ed.

477

The Second Century of Ability Testing: Some Predictions and Speculations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The last century was marked by dazzling changes in many areas, such as technology and communications. Predictions into the second century of testing are seemingly difficult in such a context. Yet, looking back to the turn of the last century, Kirkpatrick (1900), in his American Psychological Association presidential address, presented fundamental…

Embretson, Susan E.

2004-01-01

478

Twenty?first century learning: communities, interaction and ubiquitous computing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advanced technology makes 21st century learning, communities and interactions unique and leads people to an era of ubiquitous computing. The purpose of this article is to contribute to the discussion of learning in the 21st century. The paper will review literature on learning community, community learning, interaction, 21st century learning and ubiquitous computing. It will also present work conducted by

Amy S. C. Leh; Barbara Kouba; Dirk Davis

2005-01-01

479

A New Biology for a New Century  

PubMed Central

Biology today is at a crossroads. The molecular paradigm, which so successfully guided the discipline throughout most of the 20th century, is no longer a reliable guide. Its vision of biology now realized, the molecular paradigm has run its course. Biology, therefore, has a choice to make, between the comfortable path of continuing to follow molecular biology's lead or the more invigorating one of seeking a new and inspiring vision of the living world, one that addresses the major problems in biology that 20th century biology, molecular biology, could not handle and, so, avoided. The former course, though highly productive, is certain to turn biology into an engineering discipline. The latter holds the promise of making biology an even more fundamental science, one that, along with physics, probes and defines the nature of reality. This is a choice between a biology that solely does society's bidding and a biology that is society's teacher. PMID:15187180

Woese, Carl R.

2004-01-01

480

Paris: Capital of the 19th Century  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The world of Paris in the 19th century was one that might be called a gaudy yet rich mixture of cultural, social, and other such delights. From the poems of Baudelaire to the architectural fancies of the Second Empire, the City of Lights became an icon of all that was (and is) urban, for good and for ill. Much of this world can be explored through a variety of visual documents offered by this ongoing project that is being developed as part of the digital projects initiative at Brown University. Visitors to the site can browse the materials here by subject, title, or by historical period. The site also contains a number of historical essays that provide additional background to this subject. The essays deal with the emerging condition of modernity, panoramic literature, and alienation in the city. The site is rounded out by a nice listing of additional online resources dealing with 19th century France.