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Sample records for 1949-2009 fra regional

  1. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 241 - Geographical Boundaries of FRA's Regions and Addresses of FRA's Regional Headquarters

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Headquarters is: 300 West Adams Street, Rm 310, Chicago, Illinois 60606. The fax number is 312-886-9634. The E...-3804. The E-mail address of the Regional Administrator for Region 5 is: John.Megary@fra.dot.gov....

  2. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 241 - Geographical Boundaries of FRA's Regions and Addresses of FRA's Regional Headquarters

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Headquarters is: 300 West Adams Street, Rm 310, Chicago, Illinois 60606. The fax number is 312-886-9634. The E...-3804. The E-mail address of the Regional Administrator for Region 5 is: John.Megary@fra.dot.gov....

  3. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 241 - Geographical Boundaries of FRA's Regions and Addresses of FRA's Regional Headquarters

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Headquarters is: 300 West Adams Street, Rm 310, Chicago, Illinois 60606. The fax number is 312-886-9634. The E...-3804. The E-mail address of the Regional Administrator for Region 5 is: John.Megary@fra.dot.gov....

  4. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 241 - Geographical Boundaries of FRA's Regions and Addresses of FRA's Regional Headquarters

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Headquarters is: 300 West Adams Street, Rm 310, Chicago, Illinois 60606. The fax number is 312-886-9634. The E...-3804. The E-mail address of the Regional Administrator for Region 5 is: John.Megary@fra.dot.gov....

  5. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 241 - Geographical Boundaries of FRA's Regions and Addresses of FRA's Regional Headquarters

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Headquarters is: 300 West Adams Street, Rm 310, Chicago, Illinois 60606. The fax number is 312-886-9634. The E...-3804. The E-mail address of the Regional Administrator for Region 5 is: John.Megary@fra.dot.gov....

  6. Presence of hydroxyl in the Fra Mauro region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berezhnoy, Alexey; Wöhler, Christian; Sinitsyn, Mikhail; Grumpe, Arne; Feoktistova, Ekaterina; Shevchenko, Vladislav

    Lunar pyroclastic deposits (LPDs) are known to consist of volcanic material (basalt and glass) ejected by eruptions [1]. In the southern part of the crater Fra Mauro, a localised LPD is associated with Rima Parry V [2]. In [3], a suppressed neutron flux is described for the Fra Mauro region based on measurements of the Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector (LEND) [4], interpreted as an indicator of hydroxyl (OH). In this study we compare these measurements with NIR hyperspectral data acquired by the Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M(3) ) [5] instrument. The suppression factor of the neutron flux is defined according to delta = (N_ref-N_ex)/N_ref [6,7] with N_ex as the average count rate of the omnidirectional sensor (SETN) [8] of LEND for the region under study (here: the Fra Mauro region) and N_ref as the average count rate for a reference area (here: immediately west of Fra Mauro). For Fra Mauro crater, a suppression factor of 2.4% with a standard error of 0.41% was found. The epithermal neutron flux can be assumed to be inversely proportional to the hydrogen content. Hence, the measured positive suppression factor indicates a positive anomaly of the hydrogen content at up to 1 m depth. Under the approximative assumption of a proportional relation between the suppression factor delta and the hydrogen content, the observation in [7] of a suppression factor of 18% in the crater Cabeus associated with a homogeneous hydrogen content of about 500 ppm implies an enrichment in hydrogen by about 70 ppm for the Fra Mauro region. However, these values do not specifically refer to the small Fra Mauro LPD but to a larger area of about 150 km diameter. To identify the LPD-specific suppression factor, it would be necessary to acquire collimated neutron flux measurements. We have complemented the LEND-based measurements by the analysis of spectral reflectance data acquired by the M(3) instrument. The presence of OH in the surface material leads to an absorption band beyond 2700 nm

  7. David D. Derse, 1949-2009

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    David D. Derse, Ph.D., Head of the Retrovirus Gene Expression Section in the HIV Drug Resistance Program at the National Cancer Institute-Frederick (NCI-Frederick), passed away on October 9, 2009, a scant six weeks after being diagnosed with liver cancer. It was with great sadness that family, friends, and colleagues gathered together for his memorial service on Saturday, October 17, 2009, at the Middletown United Methodist Church in Maryland. As a NCI scientist since 1986, Dave studied the molecular mechanisms of infection and replication of a number of different types of retroviruses. Dave became an internationally known expert on human T cell lymphotrophic viruses type 1 and 2 (HTLV-1 and HTLV-2) and served on the editorial boards of Virology and Retrovirology. His most recent studies focused on the mechanisms of HTLV-1 virion morphogenesis, transmission, and replication. PMID:19951436

  8. Common chromosomal fragile site FRA16D sequence: identification of the FOR gene spanning FRA16D and homozygous deletions and translocation breakpoints in cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Ried, K; Finnis, M; Hobson, L; Mangelsdorf, M; Dayan, S; Nancarrow, J K; Woollatt, E; Kremmidiotis, G; Gardner, A; Venter, D; Baker, E; Richards, R I

    2000-07-01

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization of a tile path of DNA subclones has previously enabled the cyto-genetic definition of the minimal DNA sequence which spans the FRA16D common chromosomal fragile site, located at 16q23.2. Homozygous deletion of the FRA16D locus has been reported in adenocarcinomas of stomach, colon, lung and ovary. We have sequenced the 270 kb containing the FRA16D fragile site and the minimal homozygously deleted region in tumour cells. This sequence enabled localization of some of the tumour cell breakpoints to regions which contain AT-rich secondary structures similar to those associated with the FRA10B and FRA16B rare fragile sites. The FRA16D DNA sequence also led to the identification of an alternatively spliced gene, named FOR (fragile site FRA16D oxidoreductase), exons of which span both the fragile site and the minimal region of homozygous deletion. In addition, the complete DNA sequence of the FRA16D-containing FOR intron reveals no evidence of additional authentic transcripts. Alternatively spliced FOR transcripts (FOR I, FOR II and FOR III) encode proteins which share N-terminal WW domains and differ at their C-terminus, with FOR III having a truncated oxidoreductase domain. FRA16D-associated deletions selectively affect the FOR gene transcripts. Three out of five previously mapped translocation breakpoints in multiple myeloma are also located within the FOR gene. FOR is therefore the principle genetic target for DNA instability at 16q23.2 and perturbation of FOR function is likely to contribute to the biological consequences of DNA instability at FRA16D in cancer cells. PMID:10861292

  9. Elevated Fra-1 expression causes severe lipodystrophy.

    PubMed

    Luther, Julia; Driessler, Frank; Megges, Matthias; Hess, Andreas; Herbort, Bettina; Mandic, Vice; Zaiss, Mario M; Reichardt, Anne; Zech, Christine; Tuckermann, Jan P; Calkhoven, Cornelis F; Wagner, Erwin F; Schett, Georg; David, Jean-Pierre

    2011-05-01

    A shift from osteoblastogenesis to adipogenesis is one of the underlying mechanisms of decreased bone mass and increased fat during aging. We now uncover a new role for the transcription factor Fra-1 in suppressing adipogenesis. Indeed, Fra1 (Fosl1) transgenic (Fra1tg) mice, which developed progressive osteosclerosis as a result of accelerated osteoblast differentiation, also developed a severe general lipodystrophy. The residual fat of these mice appeared immature and expressed lower levels of adipogenic markers, including the fatty acid transporter Cd36 and the CCAAT/enhancer binding protein Cebpa. Consequently accumulation of triglycerides and free fatty acids were detected in the serum of fasting Fra1tg mice. Fra-1 acts cell autonomously because the adipogenic differentiation of Fra1 transgenic primary osteoblasts was drastically reduced, and overexpression of Fra-1 in an adipogenic cell line blocked their differentiation into adipocytes. Strikingly, Cebpa was downregulated in the Fra-1-overexpressing cells and Fra-1 could bind to the Cebpa promoter and directly suppress its activity. Thus, our data add to the known common systemic control of fat and bone mass, a new cell-autonomous level of control of cell fate decision by which the osteogenic transcription factor Fra-1 opposes adipocyte differentiation by inhibiting C/EBPα. PMID:21486951

  10. Fra-1 is a key driver of colon cancer metastasis and a Fra-1 classifier predicts disease-free survival

    PubMed Central

    Iskit, Sedef; Schlicker, Andreas; Wessels, Lodewyk; Peeper, Daniel S.

    2015-01-01

    Fra-1 (Fos-related antigen-1) is a member of the AP-1 (activator protein-1) family of transcription factors. We previously showed that Fra-1 is necessary for breast cancer cells to metastasize in vivo, and that a classifier comprising genes that are expressed in a Fra-1-dependent fashion can predict breast cancer outcome. Here, we show that Fra-1 plays an important role also in colon cancer progression. Whereas Fra-1 depletion does not affect 2D proliferation of human colon cancer cells, it impairs growth in soft agar and in suspension. Consistently, subcutaneous tumors formed by Fra-1-depleted colon cancer cells are three times smaller than those produced by control cells. Most remarkably, when injected intravenously, Fra-1 depletion causes a 200-fold reduction in tumor burden. Moreover, a Fra-1 classifier generated by comparing RNA profiles of parental and Fra-1-depleted colon cancer cells can predict the prognosis of colon cancer patients. Functional pathway analysis revealed Wnt as one of the central pathways in the classifier, suggesting a possible mechanism of Fra-1 function in colon cancer metastasis. Our results demonstrate that Fra-1 is an important determinant of the metastatic potential of human colon cancer cells, and that the Fra-1 classifier can be used as a prognostic predictor in colon cancer patients. PMID:26646695

  11. Fra-1/AP-1 induces EMT in mammary epithelial cells by modulating Zeb1/2 and TGFβ expression.

    PubMed

    Bakiri, L; Macho-Maschler, S; Custic, I; Niemiec, J; Guío-Carrión, A; Hasenfuss, S C; Eger, A; Müller, M; Beug, H; Wagner, E F

    2015-02-01

    Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is essential for embryonic morphogenesis and wound healing and critical for tumour cell invasion and dissemination. The AP-1 transcription factor Fra-1 has been implicated in tumorigenesis and in tumour-associated EMT in human breast cancer. We observed a significant inverse correlation between Fra-1 mRNA expression and distant-metastasis-free survival in a large cohort of breast cancer patients derived from multiple array data sets. This unique correlation among Fos genes prompted us to assess the evolutionary conservation between Fra-1 functions in EMT of human and mouse cells. Ectopic expression of Fra-1 in fully polarized, non-tumourigenic, mouse mammary epithelial EpH4 cells induced a mesenchymal phenotype, characterized by a loss of epithelial and gain of mesenchymal markers. Proliferation, motility and invasiveness were also increased in the resulting EpFra1 cells, and the cells were tumourigenic and efficiently colonized the lung upon transplantation. Molecular analyses revealed increased expression of Tgfβ1 and the EMT-inducing transcription factors Zeb1, Zeb2 and Slug. Mechanistically, Fra-1 binds to the tgfb1 and zeb2 promoters and to an evolutionarily conserved region in the first intron of zeb1. Furthermore, increased activity of a zeb2 promoter reporter was detected in EpFra1 cells and shown to depend on AP-1-binding sites. Inhibiting TGFβ signalling in EpFra1 cells moderately increased the expression of epithelial markers, whereas silencing of zeb1 or zeb2 restored the epithelial phenotype and decreased migration in vitro and tumorigenesis in vivo. Thus Fra-1 induces changes in the expression of genes encoding EMT-related transcription factors leading to the acquisition of mesenchymal, invasive and tumorigenic capacities by epithelial cells. This study defines a novel function of Fra-1/AP-1 in modulating tgfb1, zeb1 and zeb2 expression through direct binding to genomic regulatory regions, which establishes

  12. Fra-1/AP-1 induces EMT in mammary epithelial cells by modulating Zeb1/2 and TGFβ expression

    PubMed Central

    Bakiri, L; Macho-Maschler, S; Custic, I; Niemiec, J; Guío-Carrión, A; Hasenfuss, S C; Eger, A; Müller, M; Beug, H; Wagner, E F

    2015-01-01

    Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is essential for embryonic morphogenesis and wound healing and critical for tumour cell invasion and dissemination. The AP-1 transcription factor Fra-1 has been implicated in tumorigenesis and in tumour-associated EMT in human breast cancer. We observed a significant inverse correlation between Fra-1 mRNA expression and distant-metastasis-free survival in a large cohort of breast cancer patients derived from multiple array data sets. This unique correlation among Fos genes prompted us to assess the evolutionary conservation between Fra-1 functions in EMT of human and mouse cells. Ectopic expression of Fra-1 in fully polarized, non-tumourigenic, mouse mammary epithelial EpH4 cells induced a mesenchymal phenotype, characterized by a loss of epithelial and gain of mesenchymal markers. Proliferation, motility and invasiveness were also increased in the resulting EpFra1 cells, and the cells were tumourigenic and efficiently colonized the lung upon transplantation. Molecular analyses revealed increased expression of Tgfβ1 and the EMT-inducing transcription factors Zeb1, Zeb2 and Slug. Mechanistically, Fra-1 binds to the tgfb1 and zeb2 promoters and to an evolutionarily conserved region in the first intron of zeb1. Furthermore, increased activity of a zeb2 promoter reporter was detected in EpFra1 cells and shown to depend on AP-1-binding sites. Inhibiting TGFβ signalling in EpFra1 cells moderately increased the expression of epithelial markers, whereas silencing of zeb1 or zeb2 restored the epithelial phenotype and decreased migration in vitro and tumorigenesis in vivo. Thus Fra-1 induces changes in the expression of genes encoding EMT-related transcription factors leading to the acquisition of mesenchymal, invasive and tumorigenic capacities by epithelial cells. This study defines a novel function of Fra-1/AP-1 in modulating tgfb1, zeb1 and zeb2 expression through direct binding to genomic regulatory regions, which establishes

  13. FRA2A is a CGG repeat expansion associated with silencing of AFF3.

    PubMed

    Metsu, Sofie; Rooms, Liesbeth; Rainger, Jacqueline; Taylor, Martin S; Bengani, Hemant; Wilson, David I; Chilamakuri, Chandra Sekhar Reddy; Morrison, Harris; Vandeweyer, Geert; Reyniers, Edwin; Douglas, Evelyn; Thompson, Geoffrey; Haan, Eric; Gecz, Jozef; Fitzpatrick, David R; Kooy, R Frank

    2014-04-01

    Folate-sensitive fragile sites (FSFS) are a rare cytogenetically visible subset of dynamic mutations. Of the eight molecularly characterized FSFS, four are associated with intellectual disability (ID). Cytogenetic expression results from CGG tri-nucleotide-repeat expansion mutation associated with local CpG hypermethylation and transcriptional silencing. The best studied is the FRAXA site in the FMR1 gene, where large expansions cause fragile X syndrome, the most common inherited ID syndrome. Here we studied three families with FRA2A expression at 2q11 associated with a wide spectrum of neurodevelopmental phenotypes. We identified a polymorphic CGG repeat in a conserved, brain-active alternative promoter of the AFF3 gene, an autosomal homolog of the X-linked AFF2/FMR2 gene: Expansion of the AFF2 CGG repeat causes FRAXE ID. We found that FRA2A-expressing individuals have mosaic expansions of the AFF3 CGG repeat in the range of several hundred repeat units. Moreover, bisulfite sequencing and pyrosequencing both suggest AFF3 promoter hypermethylation. cSNP-analysis demonstrates monoallelic expression of the AFF3 gene in FRA2A carriers thus predicting that FRA2A expression results in functional haploinsufficiency for AFF3 at least in a subset of tissues. By whole-mount in situ hybridization the mouse AFF3 ortholog shows strong regional expression in the developing brain, somites and limb buds in 9.5-12.5dpc mouse embryos. Our data suggest that there may be an association between FRA2A and a delay in the acquisition of motor and language skills in the families studied here. However, additional cases are required to firmly establish a causal relationship. PMID:24763282

  14. FRA2A Is a CGG Repeat Expansion Associated with Silencing of AFF3

    PubMed Central

    Metsu, Sofie; Rooms, Liesbeth; Rainger, Jacqueline; Taylor, Martin S.; Bengani, Hemant; Wilson, David I.; Chilamakuri, Chandra Sekhar Reddy; Morrison, Harris; Vandeweyer, Geert; Reyniers, Edwin; Douglas, Evelyn; Thompson, Geoffrey; Haan, Eric; Gecz, Jozef; FitzPatrick, David R.; Kooy, R. Frank

    2014-01-01

    Folate-sensitive fragile sites (FSFS) are a rare cytogenetically visible subset of dynamic mutations. Of the eight molecularly characterized FSFS, four are associated with intellectual disability (ID). Cytogenetic expression results from CGG tri-nucleotide-repeat expansion mutation associated with local CpG hypermethylation and transcriptional silencing. The best studied is the FRAXA site in the FMR1 gene, where large expansions cause fragile X syndrome, the most common inherited ID syndrome. Here we studied three families with FRA2A expression at 2q11 associated with a wide spectrum of neurodevelopmental phenotypes. We identified a polymorphic CGG repeat in a conserved, brain-active alternative promoter of the AFF3 gene, an autosomal homolog of the X-linked AFF2/FMR2 gene: Expansion of the AFF2 CGG repeat causes FRAXE ID. We found that FRA2A-expressing individuals have mosaic expansions of the AFF3 CGG repeat in the range of several hundred repeat units. Moreover, bisulfite sequencing and pyrosequencing both suggest AFF3 promoter hypermethylation. cSNP-analysis demonstrates monoallelic expression of the AFF3 gene in FRA2A carriers thus predicting that FRA2A expression results in functional haploinsufficiency for AFF3 at least in a subset of tissues. By whole-mount in situ hybridization the mouse AFF3 ortholog shows strong regional expression in the developing brain, somites and limb buds in 9.5–12.5dpc mouse embryos. Our data suggest that there may be an association between FRA2A and a delay in the acquisition of motor and language skills in the families studied here. However, additional cases are required to firmly establish a causal relationship. PMID:24763282

  15. Experimental Investigation on FRA Diagnosis of Transformer Faults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sano, Takahiro; Miyagi, Katsunori

    The need for economical, reliable and effective delivery of electric power leads to the search for new, efficient and effective methods for diagnosing the high voltage equipments in the industries all over the world. As the average usage period of transformers increases, the necessity to know the internal condition of transformers is increasing. It is therefore critically important to establish monitoring and diagnostic techniques that can perform transformer condition assessment. Frequency response analysis, generally known as FRA, is one of the technologies to diagnose transformers. Using case studies, this paper presents the effectiveness of FRA as measurements for detecting transformer faults. This paper introduces the fact that FRA waveforms have useful information about diagnosis of fault on winding shield and core earths, and that the condition outside transformers can affect frequency response characteristics. The FRA measurement results are further investigated through a simulation study using a computer model.

  16. Correlated break at PARK2/FRA6E and loss of AF-6/Afadin protein expression are associated with poor outcome in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Letessier, A; Garrido-Urbani, S; Ginestier, C; Fournier, G; Esterni, B; Monville, F; Adélaïde, J; Geneix, J; Xerri, L; Dubreuil, P; Viens, P; Charafe-Jauffret, E; Jacquemier, J; Birnbaum, D; Lopez, M; Chaffanet, M

    2007-01-11

    Common fragile sites (CFSs) are regions of chromosomal break that may play a role in oncogenesis. The most frequent alteration occurs at FRA3B, within the FHIT gene, at chromosomal region 3p14. We studied a series of breast carcinomas for break of a CFS at 6q26, FRA6E, and its associated gene PARK2, using fluorescence in situ hybridization on tissue microarrays (TMA). We found break of PARK2 in 6% of cases. We studied the PARK2-encoded protein Parkin by using immunohistochemistry on the same TMA. Loss of Parkin was found in 13% of samples but was not correlated with PARK2 break. PARK2 break but not Parkin expression was correlated with prognosis. Alteration of PARK2/FRA6E may cause haplo-insufficiency of one or several telomeric potential tumor suppressor genes (TSG). The AF-6/MLLT4 gene, telomeric of PARK2, encodes the Afadin scaffold protein, which is essential for epithelial integrity. Loss of Afadin was found in 14.5% of cases, and 36% of these cases showed PARK2 break. Loss of Afadin had prognostic impact, suggesting that AF-6 may be a TSG. Loss of Afadin was correlated with loss of FHIT expression, suggesting fragility of FRA6E and FRA3B in a certain proportion of breast tumors. PMID:16819513

  17. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 230 - FRA Inspection Forms

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false FRA Inspection Forms C Appendix C to Part 230 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Pt. 230, App. C Appendix...

  18. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 230 - FRA Inspection Forms

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false FRA Inspection Forms C Appendix C to Part 230 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Pt. 230, App. C Appendix...

  19. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 230 - FRA Inspection Forms

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false FRA Inspection Forms C Appendix C to Part 230 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Pt. 230, App. C Appendix...

  20. 76 FR 41859 - Waiver Petition Docket Numbers FRA-2011-0002, CSX Transportation Railroad, and FRA-2004-17565...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-15

    ... Register (75 FR 224) announcing the Union Pacific Railroad's request for an amendment to their existing... Administration (FRA) published a notice in the Federal Register (76 FR 10087) announcing the CSX Transportation... submitted on behalf of an association, business, labor union, etc.). You may review DOT's complete...

  1. Rb-Sr ages of igneous rocks from the Apollo 14 mission and the age of the Fra Mauro formation.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Papanastassiou, D. A.; Wasserburg, G. J.

    1971-01-01

    Internal Rb-Sr isochrons were determined on four basaltic rocks and on a basaltic clast from a breccia from the Fra Mauro landing site. An internal isochron was determined for rock 12004 and yielded a value in agreement with previous results for basaltic rocks from the Apollo 12 site. The crystallization ages for Apollo 14 basalts are only 0.2 to 0.3 AE older than were found for mare basalts from the Sea of Tranquility. Assuming these leucocratic igneous rocks to be representative of the Fra Mauro site, it follows that there were major igneous processes active in these regions, and presumably throughout the highlands, at times only slightly preceding the periods at which the maria were last flooded.

  2. Transmission of the fra(X) haplotype from three nonpenetrant brothers to their affected grandsons.

    PubMed

    Kirkilionis, A J; Chudley, A E; Greenberg, C R; Yan, D L; McGillivray, B; Hamerton, J L

    1992-06-01

    We report on a family showing transmission of the fra(X) gene by 3 nonpenetrant, fra(X) negative, normally intelligent, full and half-brothers to their affected grandsons. The mothers of the affected boys are obligate carriers, fra(X) negative, and of normal intelligence. This family illustrates the "Sherman Paradox" and is compatible with the predictions of the Laird X-inactivation imprinting model. In addition, molecular and/or cytogenetic studies have enabled at-risk relatives to learn more about their carrier fra(X) status and have allowed for more accurate genetic counselling. PMID:1605253

  3. A metabolic intermediate of the fructose-asparagine utilization pathway inhibits growth of a Salmonella fraB mutant

    PubMed Central

    Sabag-Daigle, Anice; Blunk, Henry M.; Sengupta, Anindita; Wu, Jikang; Bogard, Alexander J.; Ali, Mohamed M.; Stahl, Christopher; Wysocki, Vicki H.; Gopalan, Venkat; Behrman, Edward J.; Ahmer, Brian M. M.

    2016-01-01

    Insertions in the Salmonella enterica fra locus, which encodes the fructose-asparagine (F-Asn) utilization pathway, are highly attenuated in mouse models of inflammation (>1000-fold competitive index). Here, we report that F-Asn is bacteriostatic to a fraB mutant (IC50 19 μM), but not to the wild-type or a fra island deletion mutant. We hypothesized that the presence of FraD kinase and absence of FraB deglycase causes build-up of a toxic metabolite: 6-phosphofructose-aspartate (6-P-F-Asp). We used biochemical assays to assess FraB and FraD activities, and mass spectrometry to confirm that the fraB mutant accumulates 6-P-F-Asp. These results, together with our finding that mutants lacking fraD or the fra island are not attenuated in mice, suggest that the extreme attenuation of a fraB mutant stems from 6-P-F-Asp toxicity. Salmonella FraB is therefore an excellent drug target, a prospect strengthened by the absence of the fra locus in most of the gut microbiota. PMID:27403719

  4. A metabolic intermediate of the fructose-asparagine utilization pathway inhibits growth of a Salmonella fraB mutant.

    PubMed

    Sabag-Daigle, Anice; Blunk, Henry M; Sengupta, Anindita; Wu, Jikang; Bogard, Alexander J; Ali, Mohamed M; Stahl, Christopher; Wysocki, Vicki H; Gopalan, Venkat; Behrman, Edward J; Ahmer, Brian M M

    2016-01-01

    Insertions in the Salmonella enterica fra locus, which encodes the fructose-asparagine (F-Asn) utilization pathway, are highly attenuated in mouse models of inflammation (>1000-fold competitive index). Here, we report that F-Asn is bacteriostatic to a fraB mutant (IC50 19 μM), but not to the wild-type or a fra island deletion mutant. We hypothesized that the presence of FraD kinase and absence of FraB deglycase causes build-up of a toxic metabolite: 6-phosphofructose-aspartate (6-P-F-Asp). We used biochemical assays to assess FraB and FraD activities, and mass spectrometry to confirm that the fraB mutant accumulates 6-P-F-Asp. These results, together with our finding that mutants lacking fraD or the fra island are not attenuated in mice, suggest that the extreme attenuation of a fraB mutant stems from 6-P-F-Asp toxicity. Salmonella FraB is therefore an excellent drug target, a prospect strengthened by the absence of the fra locus in most of the gut microbiota. PMID:27403719

  5. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 209 - FRA's Policy Statement Concerning Small Entities

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...) explains FRA's communication and enforcement policies concerning small entities subject to the federal... hazardous materials shippers meeting the economic criteria established for Class III railroads in 49 CFR... enforcement actions against small businesses. Small Entity Communication Policy It is FRA's policy that...

  6. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 209 - FRA's Policy Statement Concerning Small Entities

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false FRA's Policy Statement Concerning Small Entities C Appendix C to Part 209 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD SAFETY ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES Pt. 209, App. C Appendix C to Part 209—FRA's...

  7. 49 CFR 219.602 - FRA Administrator's determination of random drug testing rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false FRA Administrator's determination of random drug... (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Random Alcohol and Drug Testing Programs § 219.602 FRA Administrator's determination of random...

  8. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 215 - FRA Freight Car Standards Defect Code

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false FRA Freight Car Standards Defect Code C Appendix C to Part 215 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Pt. 215, App. C Appendix C to Part 215—FRA Freight Car...

  9. 49 CFR 219.206 - FRA access to breath test results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false FRA access to breath test results. 219.206 Section 219.206 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD... § 219.206 FRA access to breath test results. Documentation of breath test results must be made...

  10. 49 CFR 219.206 - FRA access to breath test results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false FRA access to breath test results. 219.206 Section 219.206 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD... § 219.206 FRA access to breath test results. Documentation of breath test results must be made...

  11. 49 CFR 219.206 - FRA access to breath test results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false FRA access to breath test results. 219.206 Section 219.206 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD... § 219.206 FRA access to breath test results. Documentation of breath test results must be made...

  12. 49 CFR 219.206 - FRA access to breath test results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false FRA access to breath test results. 219.206 Section 219.206 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD... § 219.206 FRA access to breath test results. Documentation of breath test results must be made...

  13. 49 CFR 219.206 - FRA access to breath test results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false FRA access to breath test results. 219.206 Section 219.206 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD... § 219.206 FRA access to breath test results. Documentation of breath test results must be made...

  14. News and views on EMT Fra-1 controls EMT in mammary epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Bakiri, Latifa; Wagner, Erwin F.

    2016-01-01

    Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), a process critical for breast cancer cell dissemination, engages the Fos-related antigen 1 (Fra-1) transcription factor. Molecular and cellular analyses revealed an evolutionary conservation of Fra-1 functions in EMT of mouse and human mammary cells, establishing a solid basis for preclinical studies in genetically engineered mouse models.

  15. Apollo 14 - Nature and origin of rock types in soil from the Fra Mauro formation.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aitken, F. K.; Anderson, D. H.; Bass, M. N.; Brown, R. W.; Butler, P., Jr.; Heiken, G.; Jakes, P.; Reid, A. M.; Ridley, W. I.; Takeda, H.

    1971-01-01

    Compositions of glasses in the Apollo 14 soil correspond to four types of Fra Mauro basalts, to mare basalts and soils, and, in minor amounts, to gabbroic anorthosite and potash granite. The Fra Mauro basalts can be related by simple low pressure crystal-liquid fractionation that implies a parent composition like that of Apollo 14 sample 14310.

  16. Fra-2/AP-1 controls bone formation by regulating osteoblast differentiation and collagen production.

    PubMed

    Bozec, Aline; Bakiri, Latifa; Jimenez, Maria; Schinke, Thorsten; Amling, Michael; Wagner, Erwin F

    2010-09-20

    The activator protein-1 (AP-1) transcription factor complex, in particular the Fos proteins, is an important regulator of bone homeostasis. Fra-2 (Fosl2), a Fos-related protein of the AP-1 family, is expressed in bone cells, and newborn mice lacking Fra-2 exhibit defects in chondrocytes and osteoclasts. Here we show that Fra-2-deficient osteoblasts display a differentiation defect both in vivo and in vitro. Moreover, Fra-2-overexpressing mice are osteosclerotic because of increased differentiation of osteoblasts, which appears to be cell autonomous. Importantly, the osteoblast-specific osteocalcin (Oc) gene and collagen1α2 (col1α2) are transcriptional targets of Fra-2 in both murine and human bone cells. In addition, Fra-2, Oc, and col1 are expressed in stromal cells of human chondroblastic and osteoblastic osteosarcomas (Os's) as well as during osteoblast differentiation of human Os cell lines. These findings reveal a novel function of Fra-2/AP-1 as a positive regulator of bone and matrix formation in mice and humans. PMID:20837772

  17. Mental retardation, acromegalic face, and megalotestes in two half-brothers: a specific form of X-linked mental retardation without fra(X) (q)?

    PubMed

    Tariverdian, G; Froster-Iskenius, U; Deuschl, G; Wolff, G

    1991-01-01

    We describe a family with two half-brothers affected with severe mental retardation. The phenotype in the affected individuals is characterized by apparent acromegaly, profound mental retardation, and hyperactivity. The mother has analogous but less severe facial anomalies and mild mental impairment. Screening for fra(X) (q) was negative in peripheral lymphocytes using methotrexate for fra(X) enhancement. The clinical findings in our patients are similar to those described by Fryns et al. [1986] in two patients with acquired lesions of the central nervous system. CT investigations in one of our patients showed areas of hyperdensity in the pontine region and a small subarachnoid cyst. The pedigree suggests X-linked inheritance. The association of apparent acromegaly, CNS anomalies, megalotestes, and mental retardation in this family supports the hypothesis that a distinct syndrome may exist with phenotype anomalies more severe than those characteristic for the Martin-Bell syndrome but without fragile X. PMID:2018059

  18. 75 FR 8785 - Agency Request for Emergency Processing of Collection of Information Associated With FRA's...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-25

    ... ICR, with applicable supporting documentation, may be obtained by calling FRA's Clearance Officers, Mr... toll-free. A copy of this ICR may also be obtained electronically by contacting Mr. Brogan at...

  19. In quest of lunar regolith breccias of exotic provenance - A uniquely anorthositic sample from the Fra Mauro (Apollo 14) highlands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jerde, Eric A.; Warren, Paul H.; Morris, Richard V.

    1990-01-01

    Bulk compositions of 21 Apollo regolith breccias were determined using an INAA procedure modified from that of Kallemeyn et al. (1989). With one major exception, namely, the 14076,1 sample, the regolith breccias analyzed were found to be not significantly different from the surfaces from which they were collected. In contrast, the 14076,1 sample from the Fra Mauro (Apollo 14) region is a highly anorthositic regolith breccia from a site where anorthosites are extremely scarce. The sample's composition resembles soils from the Descartes (Apollo 16) highlands. However, the low statistical probability for long-distance horizontal transport by impact cratering, together with the relatively high contents of imcompatible elements in 14076,1 suggest that this regolith breccia originated within a few hundred kilometers of the Apollo 14 site. Its compositional resemblance to ferroan anorthosite strengthens the hypothesis that ferroan anorthosite originated as the flotation crust of a global magmasphere.

  20. Histidine 103 in Fra2 Is an Iron-Sulfur Cluster Ligand in the [2Fe-2S] Fra2-Grx3 Complex and Is Required for in Vivo Iron Signaling in Yeast*

    PubMed Central

    Li, Haoran; Mapolelo, Daphne T.; Dingra, Nin N.; Keller, Greg; Riggs-Gelasco, Pamela J.; Winge, Dennis R.; Johnson, Michael K.; Outten, Caryn E.

    2011-01-01

    The BolA homologue Fra2 and the cytosolic monothiol glutaredoxins Grx3 and Grx4 together play a key role in regulating iron homeostasis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genetic studies indicate that Grx3/4 and Fra2 regulate activity of the iron-responsive transcription factors Aft1 and Aft2 in response to mitochondrial Fe-S cluster biosynthesis. We have previously shown that Fra2 and Grx3/4 form a [2Fe-2S]2+-bridged heterodimeric complex with iron ligands provided by the active site cysteine of Grx3/4, glutathione, and a histidine residue. To further characterize this unusual Fe-S-binding complex, site-directed mutagenesis was used to identify specific residues in Fra2 that influence Fe-S cluster binding and regulation of Aft1 activity in vivo. Here, we present spectroscopic evidence that His-103 in Fra2 is an Fe-S cluster ligand in the Fra2-Grx3 complex. Replacement of this residue does not abolish Fe-S cluster binding, but it does lead to a change in cluster coordination and destabilization of the [2Fe-2S] cluster. In vivo genetic studies further confirm that Fra2 His-103 is critical for control of Aft1 activity in response to the cellular iron status. Using CD spectroscopy, we find that ∼1 mol eq of apo-Fra2 binds tightly to the [2Fe-2S] Grx3 homodimer to form the [2Fe-2S] Fra2-Grx3 heterodimer, suggesting a mechanism for formation of the [2Fe-2S] Fra2-Grx3 heterodimer in vivo. Taken together, these results demonstrate that the histidine coordination and stability of the [2Fe-2S] cluster in the Fra2-Grx3 complex are essential for iron regulation in yeast. PMID:20978135

  1. FRaC: a feature-modeling approach for semi-supervised and unsupervised anomaly detection

    PubMed Central

    Brodley, Carla; Slonim, Donna

    2011-01-01

    Anomaly detection involves identifying rare data instances (anomalies) that come from a different class or distribution than the majority (which are simply called “normal” instances). Given a training set of only normal data, the semi-supervised anomaly detection task is to identify anomalies in the future. Good solutions to this task have applications in fraud and intrusion detection. The unsupervised anomaly detection task is different: Given unlabeled, mostly-normal data, identify the anomalies among them. Many real-world machine learning tasks, including many fraud and intrusion detection tasks, are unsupervised because it is impractical (or impossible) to verify all of the training data. We recently presented FRaC, a new approach for semi-supervised anomaly detection. FRaC is based on using normal instances to build an ensemble of feature models, and then identifying instances that disagree with those models as anomalous. In this paper, we investigate the behavior of FRaC experimentally and explain why FRaC is so successful. We also show that FRaC is a superior approach for the unsupervised as well as the semi-supervised anomaly detection task, compared to well-known state-of-the-art anomaly detection methods, LOF and one-class support vector machines, and to an existing feature-modeling approach. PMID:22639542

  2. Fra(10)(q25): the BrdU effect is substitution-dependent.

    PubMed Central

    Gollin, S M; Holmquist, G P; Ledbetter, D H

    1985-01-01

    Expression in the majority of fra(10)(q25) cases is either induced or enhanced by the presence of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) in the culture medium. BrdU is known to exert its effects on cells via two primary mechanisms: substitution-dependent and concentration-dependent. BrdU incorporation into DNA and BrdU concentration in the culture medium can be resolved as independent variables. The results of such experiments indicate that at three fixed levels of BrdU substitution, 100-fold variation of BrdU concentration had little or no effect on fra(10)(q25) expression. At a fixed BrdU concentration, the level of fra(10)(q25) expression rises as a function of increased BrdU substitution, approaching 100% expression at 100% substitution. Thus, BrdU induction or enhancement of fra(10)(q25) expression is clearly substitution-dependent. Iododeoxyuridine, another halogenated pyrimidine, has a similar effect. The critical time of incorporation is between 8 and 9 hrs before mitosis. After this time, removal of BrdU (and fluorodeoxyuridine [FdU]) from the culture medium followed by addition of deoxythymidine does not reverse the BrdU effect on fra(10)(q25) expression. PMID:3976659

  3. Transcriptional activation of the fra-1 gene by AP-1 is mediated by regulatory sequences in the first intron.

    PubMed Central

    Bergers, G; Graninger, P; Braselmann, S; Wrighton, C; Busslinger, M

    1995-01-01

    Constitutive expression of c-Fos, FosB, Fra-1, or c-Jun in rat fibroblasts leads to up-regulation of the immediate-early gene fra-1. Using the posttranslational FosER induction system, we demonstrate that this AP-1-dependent stimulation of fra-1 expression is rapid, depends on a functional DNA-binding domain of FosER, and is a general phenomenon observed in different cell types. In vitro mutagenesis and functional analysis of the rat fra-1 gene in stably transfected Rat-1A-FosER fibroblasts indicated that basal and AP-1-regulated expression of the fra-1 gene depends on regulatory sequences in the first intron which comprise a consensus AP-1 site and two AP-1-like elements. We have also investigated the transactivating and transforming properties of the Fra-1 protein to address the significance of fra-1 up-regulation. The entire Fra-1 protein fused to the DNA-binding domain of Ga14 is shown to lack any transactivation function, and yet it possesses oncogenic potential, as overexpression of Fra-1 in established rat fibroblasts results in anchorage-independent growth in vitro and tumor development in athymic mice, fra-1 is therefore not only induced by members of the Fos family, but its gene product may also contribute to cellular transformation by these proteins. Together, these data identify fra-1 as a unique member of the fos gene family which is under positive control by AP-1 activity. PMID:7791782

  4. Role of heterodimerization of c-Fos and Fra1 proteins in osteoclast differentiation.

    PubMed

    Bakiri, Latifa; Takada, Yasunari; Radolf, Martin; Eferl, Robert; Yaniv, Moshe; Wagner, Erwin F; Matsuo, Koichi

    2007-04-01

    Bone resorbing osteoclasts are specialized macrophages that cannot differentiate in the absence of c-Fos, a member of the dimeric transcription factor AP-1 (activator protein-1). However, osteoclast differentiation in the absence of c-Fos can be rescued in vitro and in vivo by Fra1, a Fos-like protein and transcriptional target of c-Fos. To enable AP-1 proteins binding to DNA, c-Fos or Fra1 must heterodimerize with a partner such as c-Jun, JunB and JunD. In this study, we investigated the dimerization partners of c-Fos and Fra1 required for osteoclast differentiation using synthetic "single-chain" AP-1 dimers in which c-Fos or Fra1 is tethered via a linker to Jun proteins. When c-Fos was analyzed in combination with any Jun protein, including a c-Jun mutant lacking major phosphorylation sites for c-Jun amino-terminal kinase (JNK), osteoclasts were efficiently formed from c-Fos-deficient hematopoietic precursors. However, Fra1 in combination with any Jun protein could not rescue osteoclastogenesis. The ability to rescue was compared to transcriptional activity measured in transient transfection assays using promoters driven by consensus AP-1 sites or a composite AP-1/NFAT binding site. These data show that a single Jun/c-Fos dimer is sufficient for osteoclast differentiation, likely due to its transactivation ability for a broader range of promoters, in particular consensus AP-1 sites. We propose that Fra1 together with a dimerization partner different from Jun proteins can rescue osteoclast differentiation in c-Fos-deficient precursors. PMID:17189721

  5. 49 CFR 229.207 - New locomotive crashworthiness design standards and changes to existing FRA-approved locomotive...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...-approved locomotive crashworthiness design standards. (a) General. The following procedures govern... approval of a locomotive crashworthiness design standard must be titled “Petition for FRA Approval of a New... petition for approval of a substantive change to an FRA-approved locomotive crashworthiness design...

  6. The F8H Glycosyltransferase is a Functional Paralog of FRA8 Involved in Glucuronoxylan Biosynthesis in Arabidopsis

    EPA Science Inventory

    The FRAGILE FIBER8 gene was previously shown to be required for the biosynthesis of the reducing end tetrasaccharide sequence of glucuronoxylan (GX) in Arabidopsis thaliana. Here, we demonstrate that F8H, a close homolog of FRA8, is a functional ortholog of FRA8 involved in GX bi...

  7. 49 CFR 229.207 - New locomotive crashworthiness design standards and changes to existing FRA-approved locomotive...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false New locomotive crashworthiness design standards... Design Requirements § 229.207 New locomotive crashworthiness design standards and changes to existing FRA... consideration and action upon requests for FRA approval of new locomotive crashworthiness design standards...

  8. 49 CFR 228.407 - Analysis of work schedules; submissions; FRA review and approval of submissions; fatigue...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Analysis of work schedules; submissions; FRA... Employees Engaged in Commuter or Intercity Rail Passenger Transportation § 228.407 Analysis of work schedules; submissions; FRA review and approval of submissions; fatigue mitigation plans. (a) Analysis...

  9. A comparison of forest cover maps in Mainland Southeast Asia from multiple sources: PALSAR, MERIS, MODIS and FRA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, J.; Xiao, X.; Sheldon, S. L.; Biradar, C. M.; Duong, N. D.; Hazarika, M.

    2012-12-01

    The uncertainty in tracking tropical forest extent and changes substantially affects our assessment of the consequences of forest change on the global carbon cycle, biodiversity and ecosystem services. Recently cloud-free imagery useful for tropical forest mapping from the Phased Array Type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR) onboard the Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) has become available. We used PALSAR 50-m Orthorectified mosaic imagery in 2009 and a decision tree method to conduct land cover classification and generate a 2009 forest map, which was evaluated using 2106 field photos from the Global Geo-referenced Field Photo Library (http://www.eomf.ou.edu/photos). The resulting land cover classification had a high overall accuracy of 93.3 % and a Kappa Coefficient of 0.9. The PALSAR-based forest map was then compared with three existing forest cover products at three scales (regional, national, and continental): the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) Forest Resources Assessments (FRA) 2010, Global Land Cover Map with MERIS (GlobCover) 2009, and the MODIS Terra + Aqua Land Cover Type product (MCD12Q1) 2009. The intercomparison results show that these four forest datasets differ. The PALSAR-based forest area estimate is within the range (6.1 ~ 9.0 ×105 km2) of the other three products and closest to the FAO FRA 2010 estimate. The spatial disagreements of the PALSAR-based forest, MCD12Q1 forest and GlobCover forest are evident; however, the PALSAR-based forest map provides more detail (50-m spatial resolution) and high accuracy (the Producer's and the User's Accuracies were 88 % and 95 %, respectively) and PALSAR can be used to evaluate MCD12Q1 2009 and GlobCover 2009 forest maps. Given the higher spatial resolution, PALSAR-based forest products could further improve the modeling accuracy of carbon cycle in tropical forests.

  10. Expression profiling of genes regulated by Fra-1/AP-1 transcription factor during bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The Fra-1/AP-1 transcription factor regulates the expression of genes controlling various processes including migration, invasion, and survival as well as extracellular remodeling. We recently demonstrated that loss of Fra-1 leads to exacerbated bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis, accompanied by enhanced expression of various inflammatory and fibrotic genes. To better understand the molecular mechanisms by which Fra-1 confers protection during bleomycin-induced lung injury, genome-wide mRNA expression profiling was performed. Results We found that Fra-1 regulates gene expression programs that include: 1) several cytokines and chemokines involved in inflammation, 2) several genes involved in the extracellular remodeling and cell adhesion, and 3) several genes involved in programmed cell death. Conclusion Loss of Fra-1 leads to the enhanced expression of genes regulating inflammation and immune responses and decreased the expression of genes involved in apoptosis, suggesting that this transcription factor distinctly modulates early pro-fibrotic cellular responses. PMID:23758685

  11. Uniparental disomy (UPD) for fra(X) in a 47,XXY male

    SciTech Connect

    Torfs, C.P.; Christianson, R.E.; Amos, J.A.; Huang, X.L.; Kang, X.Z.

    1994-09-01

    We report a 4-year-old hyperactive, mentally retarded male with 47,XXY and UPD for fra(X). Speech and motor delay were first noted at age 15 months. He has no dysmorphic features, normal ears, hyperextensible joints, small testes, and no history of seizures. His mother has prominent lowest ears, a long midface, anteverted nostrils, hyperextensible joints, malocclusion, and had learning problems in school. Routine chromosome analysis revealed the proband to be 47,XXY. Parental chromosomes were normal in number. The proband was fra(X) positive [30/160 cells, 18%]. No cells had two expressed fra(X)s; however, this may be a function of the low level of expression and the number of cells scored. Maternal cells were also fra(X) positive [19/205, 9.2%]. Southern analysis demonstrated the mother to be heterozygous for a methylated, full mutation (>220 repeats); her normal FMR-1 gene was disproportionately unmethylated. The proband had two fully expanded and methylated FMR-1 genes, one the same size as the maternal gene and the other >620 repeats. RFLP analysis revealed a maternal meiotic II error, the result of which was UPD of the X chromosome.

  12. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 209 - FRA's Policy Statement Concerning Small Entities

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... hazardous materials shippers meeting the economic criteria established for Class III railroads in 49 CFR... described in Appendix A to 49 CFR part 209, it is FRA's policy to consider a variety of factors in... provide oral and written responses to questions raised by small entities concerning the plain meaning...

  13. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 209 - FRA's Policy Statement Concerning Small Entities

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... hazardous materials shippers meeting the economic criteria established for Class III railroads in 49 CFR... described in Appendix A to 49 CFR part 209, it is FRA's policy to consider a variety of factors in... provide oral and written responses to questions raised by small entities concerning the plain meaning...

  14. 75 FR 34213 - Solicitation of Applications and Notice of Funding Availability for the FRA Railroad System...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-16

    ... 13, 2010 (75 FR 27112), the FRA sought applications from interested and responsible parties for two grants: to conduct a Locomotive Biofuel Study, and to conduct a Study of the Use of Bio-based... consult the notice published on May 13, 2010 in the Federal Register (75 FR 27112) for additional...

  15. 49 CFR 219.608 - FRA Administrator's determination of random alcohol testing rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Random Alcohol and Drug Testing Programs § 219.608 FRA Administrator's determination of random alcohol... random selection, with each pool containing the covered employees who are subject to testing at the...

  16. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 209 - FRA's Policy Statement Concerning Small Entities

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... hazardous materials shippers meeting the economic criteria established for Class III railroads in 49 CFR... described in Appendix A to 49 CFR part 209, it is FRA's policy to consider a variety of factors in... RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD SAFETY ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES Pt. 209,...

  17. 75 FR 27112 - Solicitation of Applications and Notice of Funding Availability for the FRA Railroad System...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-13

    ...Under this Notice, the FRA is soliciting applications from interested and responsible parties for two grants: (1) To conduct a Locomotive Biofuel Study, and (2) to conduct a Study of the Use of Bio- based Technologies (Lubricants) that can be used in locomotives, rolling stock and other rail...

  18. 75 FR 59322 - Notice of Availability of Answers to Frequently Asked Questions Regarding Buy America & FRA's...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-27

    ... Buy America & FRA's High-Speed Intercity Passenger Rail Program AGENCY: Federal Railroad...'s High Speed Intercity ] Passenger Rail Program. The Answers to Frequently Asked Questions can be... to support intercity passenger rail service (Sec. 301), high-speed corridor development (Sec....

  19. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 229 - FRA Locomotive Standards-Code of Defects

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... FR 21121, Mar. 31, 1980, as part of the original document, is not carried in the CFR. ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false FRA Locomotive Standards-Code of Defects C Appendix C to Part 229 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued)...

  20. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 229 - FRA Locomotive Standards-Code of Defects

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... FR 21121, Mar. 31, 1980, as part of the original document, is not carried in the CFR. ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false FRA Locomotive Standards-Code of Defects C Appendix C to Part 229 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued)...

  1. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 229 - FRA Locomotive Standards-Code of Defects

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... FR 21121, Mar. 31, 1980, as part of the original document, is not carried in the CFR. ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false FRA Locomotive Standards-Code of Defects C Appendix C to Part 229 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued)...

  2. 49 CFR 240.103 - Approval of design of individual railroad programs by FRA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Approval of design of individual railroad programs... (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION QUALIFICATION AND CERTIFICATION OF... individual railroad programs by FRA. (a) Each railroad shall submit its written certification program and...

  3. 49 CFR 240.103 - Approval of design of individual railroad programs by FRA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Approval of design of individual railroad programs... (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION QUALIFICATION AND CERTIFICATION OF... individual railroad programs by FRA. (a) Each railroad shall submit its written certification program and...

  4. 49 CFR 240.103 - Approval of design of individual railroad programs by FRA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Approval of design of individual railroad programs... (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION QUALIFICATION AND CERTIFICATION OF... individual railroad programs by FRA. (a) Each railroad shall submit its written certification program and...

  5. 49 CFR 240.103 - Approval of design of individual railroad programs by FRA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Approval of design of individual railroad programs... (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION QUALIFICATION AND CERTIFICATION OF... individual railroad programs by FRA. (a) Each railroad shall submit its written certification program and...

  6. 49 CFR 240.103 - Approval of design of individual railroad programs by FRA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Approval of design of individual railroad programs... (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION QUALIFICATION AND CERTIFICATION OF... individual railroad programs by FRA. (a) Each railroad shall submit its written certification program and...

  7. Requirement of Fra proteins for communication channels between cells in the filamentous nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. PCC 7120.

    PubMed

    Omairi-Nasser, Amin; Mariscal, Vicente; Austin, Jotham R; Haselkorn, Robert

    2015-08-11

    The filamentous nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. PCC 7120 differentiates specialized cells, heterocysts, that fix atmospheric nitrogen and transfer the fixed nitrogen to adjacent vegetative cells. Reciprocally, vegetative cells transfer fixed carbon to heterocysts. Several routes have been described for metabolite exchange within the filament, one of which involves communicating channels that penetrate the septum between adjacent cells. Several fra gene mutants were isolated 25 y ago on the basis of their phenotypes: inability to fix nitrogen and fragmentation of filaments upon transfer from N+ to N- media. Cryopreservation combined with electron tomography were used to investigate the role of three fra gene products in channel formation. FraC and FraG are clearly involved in channel formation, whereas FraD has a minor part. Additionally, FraG was located close to the cytoplasmic membrane and in the heterocyst neck, using immunogold labeling with antibody raised to the N-terminal domain of the FraG protein. PMID:26216997

  8. Requirement of Fra proteins for communication channels between cells in the filamentous nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. PCC 7120

    PubMed Central

    Omairi-Nasser, Amin; Mariscal, Vicente; Austin, Jotham R.; Haselkorn, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The filamentous nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. PCC 7120 differentiates specialized cells, heterocysts, that fix atmospheric nitrogen and transfer the fixed nitrogen to adjacent vegetative cells. Reciprocally, vegetative cells transfer fixed carbon to heterocysts. Several routes have been described for metabolite exchange within the filament, one of which involves communicating channels that penetrate the septum between adjacent cells. Several fra gene mutants were isolated 25 y ago on the basis of their phenotypes: inability to fix nitrogen and fragmentation of filaments upon transfer from N+ to N− media. Cryopreservation combined with electron tomography were used to investigate the role of three fra gene products in channel formation. FraC and FraG are clearly involved in channel formation, whereas FraD has a minor part. Additionally, FraG was located close to the cytoplasmic membrane and in the heterocyst neck, using immunogold labeling with antibody raised to the N-terminal domain of the FraG protein. PMID:26216997

  9. The Strawberry Pathogenesis-related 10 (PR-10) Fra a Proteins Control Flavonoid Biosynthesis by Binding to Metabolic Intermediates*

    PubMed Central

    Casañal, Ana; Zander, Ulrich; Muñoz, Cristina; Dupeux, Florine; Luque, Irene; Botella, Miguel Angel; Schwab, Wilfried; Valpuesta, Victoriano; Marquez, José A.

    2013-01-01

    Pathogenesis-related 10 (PR-10) proteins are involved in many aspects of plant biology but their molecular function is still unclear. They are related by sequence and structural homology to mammalian lipid transport and plant abscisic acid receptor proteins and are predicted to have cavities for ligand binding. Recently, three new members of the PR-10 family, the Fra a proteins, have been identified in strawberry, where they are required for the activity of the flavonoid biosynthesis pathway, which is essential for the development of color and flavor in fruits. Here, we show that Fra a proteins bind natural flavonoids with different selectivity and affinities in the low μm range. The structural analysis of Fra a 1 E and a Fra a 3-catechin complex indicates that loops L3, L5, and L7 surrounding the ligand-binding cavity show significant flexibility in the apo forms but close over the ligand in the Fra a 3-catechin complex. Our findings provide mechanistic insight on the function of Fra a proteins and suggest that PR-10 proteins, which are widespread in plants, may play a role in the control of secondary metabolic pathways by binding to metabolic intermediates. PMID:24133217

  10. Osteoblast-specific expression of Fra-2/AP-1 controls adiponectin and osteocalcin expression and affects metabolism.

    PubMed

    Bozec, Aline; Bakiri, Latifa; Jimenez, Maria; Rosen, Evan D; Catalá-Lehnen, Philip; Schinke, Thorsten; Schett, Georg; Amling, Michael; Wagner, Erwin F

    2013-12-01

    Recent studies have established that the skeleton functions as an endocrine organ affecting metabolism through the osteoblast-derived hormone osteocalcin (Ocn). However, it is not fully understood how many transcription factors expressed in osteoblasts regulate the endocrine function. Here, we show that mice with osteoblast-specific deletion of Fra-2 (Fosl2) have low bone mass but increased body weight. In contrast, transgenic expression of Fra-2 in osteoblasts leads to increased bone mass and decreased body weight accompanied by reduced serum glucose and insulin levels, improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity. In addition, mice lacking Fra-2 have reduced levels of circulating Ocn, but high adiponectin (Adipoq), whereas Fra-2 transgenic mice exhibit high Ocn and low Adipoq levels. Moreover, we found that Adipoq was expressed in osteoblasts and that this expression was transcriptionally repressed by Fra-2. These results demonstrate that Fra-2 expression in osteoblasts represents a novel paradigm for a transcription factor controlling the endocrine function of the skeleton. PMID:24046454

  11. Transcriptional profiling of genes at the human common fragile site FRA1H in tumor-derived cell lines.

    PubMed

    Pelliccia, Franca; Curatolo, Angela; Limongi, Zaira M; Bosco, Nazario; Rocchi, Angela

    2007-10-15

    Common fragile sites (CFSs) are chromosome regions that exhibit gaps and breaks when the cells are exposed to replication stress and to some DNA-binding compounds. In cancer cells, the CFSs are frequently involved in recurrent chromosome rearrangements. Furthermore, altered expression of associated genes, known or potential oncogenes, and tumor-suppressor genes has often been observed. Seventeen of the 88 listed CFSs have been analyzed at the molecular level, but the basis of their fragility has not been clarified. In the present work, the nine genes TGFB2, IARS2, MARK1, TAF1A, TP53BP2, ADPRT, including a very large gene ESRRG and two microRNA genes, MIRN194-1 and MIRN215, localized in the fragile site FRA1H, were investigated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for homozygous deletions and by real-time PCR for modification or loss of gene expression in a panel of 19 cancer cell lines. The expression level of five (ESRRG, TGFB2, MIRN194-1, MIRN215, and MARK1) of the nine genes studied presented significant modifications in some of the 19 examined tumor-derived cell lines compared to their normal control tissues. Because of their function, these genes could have a role in neoplastic transformation. PMID:17954271

  12. Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 Tax activates transcription of the human fra-1 gene through multiple cis elements responsive to transmembrane signals.

    PubMed Central

    Tsuchiya, H; Fujii, M; Niki, T; Tokuhara, M; Matsui, M; Seiki, M

    1993-01-01

    We have shown that Tax1 of human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 stimulates the expression of several cellular immediate-early genes (M. Fujii, T. Niki, T. Mori, T. Matsuda, M. Matsui, N. Nomura, and M. Seiki, Oncogene 6:1023-1029, 1991). In this study, the 5'-flanking region of the human fra-1 gene, which is a Tax1-inducible fos-related gene, was isolated and Tax1 or serum-responsive cis elements were analyzed to obtain further insight into the mechanism of Tax1 action. The 62-bp sequence starting 46 nucleotides upstream from the translation initiation site showed 71% homology with the sequence surrounding the TATA box of the c-fos promoter. Regulatory motifs identified in the c-fos promoter, such as an Ets-binding site, E boxes, a CArG box, c-fos AP-1 sites, and two retinoblastoma control elements, were also found upstream of the c-fos homology region. A 502-bp fragment containing these motifs mediated transcriptional activation by Tax1 or by serum in a transient transfection assay. Three independent Tax1-responsive regions (TRRs) were identified, and mutations in each revealed that one of the retinoblastoma control elements in TRR1 and the c-fos AP-1 sites in TRR2 and TRR3 were essential for the activation. Although TRR2 contains a CArG box-like sequence, it was a weak binding site for p67SRF, if it bound at all, and was not required for activation. All three TRRs could also mediate the signals stimulated by serum. Thus, Tax1 appears to activate fra-1 gene expression by means of a part of the cellular machinery similar to that which mediates growth signals. Images PMID:8230424

  13. Dual role for mitogen-activated protein kinase (Erk) in insulin-dependent regulation of Fra-1 (fos-related antigen-1) transcription and phosphorylation.

    PubMed Central

    Hurd, Toby W; Culbert, Ainsley A; Webster, Kenneth J; Tavaré, Jeremy M

    2002-01-01

    Insulin regulates the activity of the AP-1 (activator protein-1) transcriptional complex in several cell types. One component of the AP-1 complex is the transcription factor Fra-1 (fos-related antigen-1), and we have demonstrated previously that insulin stimulates the expression of Fra-1 mRNA in CHO.T cells [Griffiths, Black, Culbert, Dickens, Shaw, Gillespie and Tavaré (1998) Biochem. J. 335, 19-26]. Here we demonstrate that insulin stimulates the activity of a fra-1 promoter linked to a luciferase reporter gene, indicating that the ability of insulin to induce expression of Fra-1 mRNA is due, at least in part, to an increase in gene transcription. Furthermore, we found that insulin induces the serine phosphorylation of Fra-1 and reduces its mobility during SDS/PAGE as a result of phosphorylation. The ability of insulin to induce the accumulation of Fra-1 mRNA, stimulate the fra-1 promoter and stimulate phosphorylation of Fra-1 all require the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase cascade, which leads to the activation of extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (Erk) 1/2. Consequently, our results demonstrate that the Erk cascade plays a dual role in the co-ordinated regulation of the transcription and the phosphorylation of Fra-1 by insulin. PMID:12197835

  14. Apollo 14 mineral ages and the thermal history of the Fra Mauro formation.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Compston, W.; Vernon, M. J.; Berry, H.; Rudowski, R.; Gray, C. M.; Ware, N.; Chappell, B. W.; Kaye, M.

    1972-01-01

    The thermal inertia of the Fra Mauro formation limits its rate of cooling. The calculations of Jaeger (1961) for the cooling of an extrusive sheet are used to estimate the time required for a central temperature drop of 10%. This time is found to be about 45 years. For a 90% temperature drop, the time is about 200 years. Analytical methods used in the investigations are discussed together with the diffusion of Rb and Sr within lunar basalt. Isochron diagrams for various minerals are presented.

  15. Pores of the toxin FraC assemble into 2D hexagonal clusters in both crystal structures and model membranes.

    PubMed

    Mechaly, Ariel E; Bellomio, Augusto; Morante, Koldo; Agirre, Jon; Gil-Cartón, David; Valle, Mikel; González-Mañas, Juan Manuel; Guérin, Diego M A

    2012-11-01

    The recent high-resolution structure of the toxin FraC derived from the sea anemone Actinia fragacea has provided new insight into the mechanism of pore formation by actinoporins. In this work, we report two new crystal forms of FraC in its oligomeric prepore conformation. Together with the previously reported structure, these two new structures reveal that ring-like nonamers of the toxin assemble into compact two-dimensional hexagonal arrays. This supramolecular organization is maintained in different relative orientations adopted by the oligomers within the crystal layers. Analyses of the aggregation of FraC pores in both planar and curved (vesicles) model membranes show similar 2D hexagonal arrangements. Our observations support a model in which hexagonal pore-packing is a clustering mechanism that maximizes toxin-driven membrane damage in the target cell. PMID:22728830

  16. FRA-1 as a driver of tumour heterogeneity: a nexus between oncogenes and embryonic signalling pathways in cancer.

    PubMed

    Dhillon, A S; Tulchinsky, E

    2015-08-20

    Tumour heterogeneity is a major factor undermining the success of therapies targeting metastatic cancer. Two major theories are thought to explain the phenomenon of heterogeneity in cancer--clonal evolution and cell plasticity. In this review, we examine a growing body of work implicating the transcription factor FOS-related antigen 1 (FRA-1) as a central node in tumour cell plasticity networks, and discuss mechanisms regulating its activity in cancer cells. We also discuss evidence from the FRA-1 perspective supporting the notion that clonal selection and cell plasticity represent two sides of the same coin. We propose that FRA-1-overexpressing clones featuring high plasticity undergo positive selection during consecutive stages of multistep tumour progression. This model underscores a potential mechanism through which tumour cells retaining elevated levels of plasticity acquire a selective advantage over other clonal populations within a tumour. PMID:25381818

  17. A functional activating protein 1 (AP-1) site regulates matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) transcription by cardiac cells through interactions with JunB-Fra1 and JunB-FosB heterodimers.

    PubMed Central

    Bergman, Marina R; Cheng, Sunfa; Honbo, Norman; Piacentini, Lucia; Karliner, Joel S; Lovett, David H

    2003-01-01

    Enhanced synthesis of a specific matrix metalloproteinase, MMP-2, has been demonstrated in experimental models of ventricular failure and in cardiac extracts from patients with ischaemic cardiomyopathy. Cultured neonatal rat cardiac fibroblasts and myocytes were used to analyse the determinants of MMP-2 synthesis, including the effects of hypoxia. Culture of rat cardiac fibroblasts for 24 h in 1% oxygen enhanced MMP-2 synthesis by more than 5-fold and augmented the MMP-2 synthetic responses of these cells to endothelin-1, angiotensin II and interleukin 1beta. A series of MMP-2 promoter-luciferase constructs were used to map the specific enhancer element(s) that drive MMP-2 transcription in cardiac cells. Deletion studies mapped a region of potent transactivating function within the 91 bp region from -1433 to -1342 bp, the activity of which was increased by hypoxia. Oligonucleotides from this region were cloned in front of a heterologous simian-virus-40 (SV40) promoter and mapped the enhancer activity to a region between -1410 and -1362 bp that included a potential activating protein 1 (AP-1)-binding sequence, C(-1394)CTGACCTCC. Site-specific mutagenesis of the core TGAC sequence (indicated in bold) eliminated the transactivating activity within the -1410 to -1362 bp sequence. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSAs) using the -1410 to -1362 bp oligonucleotide and rat cardiac fibroblast nuclear extracts demonstrated specific nuclear-protein binding that was eliminated by cold competitor oligonucleotide, but not by the AP-1-mutated oligonucleotide. Antibody-supershift EMSAs of nuclear extracts from normoxic rat cardiac fibroblasts demonstrated Fra1 and JunB binding to the -1410 to -1362 bp oligonucleotide. Nuclear extracts isolated from hypoxic rat cardiac fibroblasts contained Fra1, JunB and also included FosB. Co-transfection of cardiac fibroblasts with Fra1-JunB and FosB-JunB expression plasmids led to significant increases in transcriptional activity. These

  18. 49 CFR Appendix F to Part 236 - Minimum Requirements of FRA Directed Independent Third-Party Assessment of PTC System Safety...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Minimum Requirements of FRA Directed Independent... F to Part 236—Minimum Requirements of FRA Directed Independent Third-Party Assessment of PTC System... independent third-party assessment of PTC system safety verification and validation pursuant to subpart H or...

  19. 49 CFR Appendix F to Part 236 - Minimum Requirements of FRA Directed Independent Third-Party Assessment of PTC System Safety...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Minimum Requirements of FRA Directed Independent... F to Part 236—Minimum Requirements of FRA Directed Independent Third-Party Assessment of PTC System... independent third-party assessment of PTC system safety verification and validation pursuant to subpart H or...

  20. 49 CFR Appendix F to Part 236 - Minimum Requirements of FRA Directed Independent Third-Party Assessment of PTC System Safety...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Minimum Requirements of FRA Directed Independent... F to Part 236—Minimum Requirements of FRA Directed Independent Third-Party Assessment of PTC System... independent third-party assessment of PTC system safety verification and validation pursuant to subpart H or...

  1. Terminal epidermal differentiation is regulated by the interaction of Fra-2/AP-1 with Ezh2 and ERK1/2

    PubMed Central

    Wurm, Stefanie; Zhang, Jisheng; Guinea-Viniegra, Juan; García, Fernando; Muñoz, Javier; Bakiri, Latifa; Ezhkova, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Altered epidermal differentiation characterizes numerous skin diseases affecting >25% of the human population. Here we identified Fra-2/AP-1 as a key regulator of terminal epidermal differentiation. Epithelial-restricted, ectopic expression of Fra-2 induced expression of epidermal differentiation genes located within the epidermal differentiation complex (EDC). Moreover, in a papilloma-prone background, a reduced tumor burden was observed due to precocious keratinocyte differentiation by Fra-2 expression. Importantly, loss of Fra-2 in suprabasal keratinocytes is sufficient to cause skin barrier defects due to reduced expression of differentiation genes. Mechanistically, Fra-2 binds and transcriptionally regulates EDC gene promoters, which are co-occupied by the transcriptional repressor Ezh2. Fra-2 remains transcriptionally inactive in nondifferentiated keratinocytes, where it was found monomethylated and dimethylated on Lys104 and interacted with Ezh2. Upon keratinocyte differentiation, Fra-2 is C-terminally phosphorylated on Ser320 and Thr322 by ERK1/2, leading to transcriptional activation. Thus, the induction of epidermal differentiation by Fra-2 is controlled by a dual mechanism involving Ezh2-dependent methylation and activation by ERK1/2-dependent phosphorylation. PMID:25547114

  2. Terminal epidermal differentiation is regulated by the interaction of Fra-2/AP-1 with Ezh2 and ERK1/2.

    PubMed

    Wurm, Stefanie; Zhang, Jisheng; Guinea-Viniegra, Juan; García, Fernando; Muñoz, Javier; Bakiri, Latifa; Ezhkova, Elena; Wagner, Erwin F

    2015-01-15

    Altered epidermal differentiation characterizes numerous skin diseases affecting >25% of the human population. Here we identified Fra-2/AP-1 as a key regulator of terminal epidermal differentiation. Epithelial-restricted, ectopic expression of Fra-2 induced expression of epidermal differentiation genes located within the epidermal differentiation complex (EDC). Moreover, in a papilloma-prone background, a reduced tumor burden was observed due to precocious keratinocyte differentiation by Fra-2 expression. Importantly, loss of Fra-2 in suprabasal keratinocytes is sufficient to cause skin barrier defects due to reduced expression of differentiation genes. Mechanistically, Fra-2 binds and transcriptionally regulates EDC gene promoters, which are co-occupied by the transcriptional repressor Ezh2. Fra-2 remains transcriptionally inactive in nondifferentiated keratinocytes, where it was found monomethylated and dimethylated on Lys104 and interacted with Ezh2. Upon keratinocyte differentiation, Fra-2 is C-terminally phosphorylated on Ser320 and Thr322 by ERK1/2, leading to transcriptional activation. Thus, the induction of epidermal differentiation by Fra-2 is controlled by a dual mechanism involving Ezh2-dependent methylation and activation by ERK1/2-dependent phosphorylation. PMID:25547114

  3. Fra a 1.02 Is the Most Potent Isoform of the Bet v 1-like Allergen in Strawberry Fruit.

    PubMed

    Franz-Oberdorf, Katrin; Eberlein, Bernadette; Edelmann, Kathrin; Hücherig, Stephanie; Besbes, Fatma; Darsow, Ulf; Ring, Johannes; Schwab, Wilfried

    2016-05-11

    The strawberry fruit proteins Fra a 1.01E-1.08 are homologues of the major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1. Three of the proteins are known to have essential biological functions in pigment formation during fruit ripening and seem to be responsible for allergic reactions to strawberry fruit. We evaluated the cross-reactive allergenic potential of these putative strawberry allergens in patients allergic to birch pollen. Activation of basophils of eight atopic patients was studied using different concentrations of Fra a 1 isoforms. Bet v 1a was used as control and as atopic patient selection criterion. Although Fra a 1.01E-1.08 have amino acid sequence identities of 74.5-97.5% with Fra a 1.02, the basophil activation mediated by the eight Fra a 1 proteins differed substantially. Fra a 1.03 and Fra a 1.02 showed the highest activation of basophils, 73 and 66% of total basophils, respectively. On the basis of the high relative expression of the gene Fra a 1.02 in ripe strawberry fruits of allergenic varieties, Fra a 1.02 was identified as the main strawberry allergen of the Bet v 1 superfamily. Knowledge of the allergenic potential of Fra a 1.02/1.03 will help to improve food safety and can serve as a valuable marker for the development of red-fruited hypoallergenic strawberry cultivars. PMID:27086707

  4. The Yeast Iron Regulatory Proteins Grx3/4 and Fra2 Form Heterodimeric Complexes Containing a [2Fe-2S] Cluster with Cysteinyl and Histidyl Ligation†

    PubMed Central

    Li, Haoran; Mapolelo, Daphne T.; Dingra, Nin N.; Naik, Sunil G.; Lees, Nicolas S.; Hoffman, Brian M.; Riggs-Gelasco, Pamela J.; Huynh, Boi Hanh; Johnson, Michael K.; Outten, Caryn E.

    2009-01-01

    The transcription of iron uptake and storage genes in S. cerevisiae is primarily regulated by the transcription factor Aft1. Nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of Aft1 is dependent upon mitochondrial Fe-S cluster biosynthesis via a signaling pathway that includes the cytosolic monothiol glutaredoxins (Grx3 and Grx4) and the BolA homologue Fra2. However the interactions between these proteins and the iron-dependent mechanism by which they control Aft1 localization are unclear. To reconstitute and characterize components of this signaling pathway in vitro, we have overexpressed yeast Fra2 and Grx3/4 in E. coli. We have shown that co-expression of recombinant Fra2 with Grx3 or Grx4 allows purification of a stable [2Fe-2S]2+ cluster-containing Fra2-Grx3 or Fra2-Grx4 heterodimeric complex. Reconstitution of a [2Fe-2S] cluster on Grx3 or Grx4 without Fra2 produces a [2Fe-2S]-bridged homodimer. UV-visible absorption and CD, resonance Raman, EPR, ENDOR, Mössbauer, and EXAFS studies of [2Fe-2S] Grx3/4 homodimers and the [2Fe-2S] Fra2-Grx3/4 heterodimers indicate that inclusion of Fra2 in the Grx3/4 Fe-S complex causes a change in the cluster stability and coordination environment. Taken together, our analytical, spectroscopic, and mutagenesis data indicate that Grx3/4 and Fra2 form a Fe-S-bridged heterodimeric complex with Fe ligands provided by the active site cysteine of Grx3/4, glutathione, and a histidine residue. Overall, these results suggest that the ability of the Fra2-Grx3/4 complex to assemble a [2Fe-2S] cluster may act as a signal to control the iron regulon in response to cellular iron status in yeast. PMID:19715344

  5. 49 CFR 228.407 - Analysis of work schedules; submissions; FRA review and approval of submissions; fatigue...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Analysis of work schedules; submissions; FRA review and approval of submissions; fatigue mitigation plans. 228.407 Section 228.407 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HOURS OF SERVICE OF...

  6. Fracture network evaluation program (FraNEP): A software for analyzing 2D fracture trace-line maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeeb, Conny; Gomez-Rivas, Enrique; Bons, Paul D.; Virgo, Simon; Blum, Philipp

    2013-10-01

    Fractures, such as joints, faults and veins, strongly influence the transport of fluids through rocks by either enhancing or inhibiting flow. Techniques used for the automatic detection of lineaments from satellite images and aerial photographs, LIDAR technologies and borehole televiewers significantly enhanced data acquisition. The analysis of such data is often performed manually or with different analysis software. Here we present a novel program for the analysis of 2D fracture networks called FraNEP (Fracture Network Evaluation Program). The program was developed using Visual Basic for Applications in Microsoft Excel™ and combines features from different existing software and characterization techniques. The main novelty of FraNEP is the possibility to analyse trace-line maps of fracture networks applying the (1) scanline sampling, (2) window sampling or (3) circular scanline and window method, without the need of switching programs. Additionally, binning problems are avoided by using cumulative distributions, rather than probability density functions. FraNEP is a time-efficient tool for the characterisation of fracture network parameters, such as density, intensity and mean length. Furthermore, fracture strikes can be visualized using rose diagrams and a fitting routine evaluates the distribution of fracture lengths. As an example of its application, we use FraNEP to analyse a case study of lineament data from a satellite image of the Oman Mountains.

  7. 77 FR 15450 - Tier 1 Environmental Impact Statement for the Chicago, Illinois, to Omaha, Nebraska, Regional...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-15

    ... passenger rail system; introduction of modern, high-speed trains operating at speeds up to 110 mph; and..., Nebraska, Regional Passenger Rail System AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration (FRA), U.S. Department of... passenger rail improvements for the Chicago, Illinois to Omaha, Nebraska regional passenger rail system...

  8. Cancer-Associated Fibroblasts Regulate Tumor-Initiating Cell Plasticity in Hepatocellular Carcinoma through c-Met/FRA1/HEY1 Signaling.

    PubMed

    Lau, Eunice Yuen Ting; Lo, Jessica; Cheng, Bowie Yik Ling; Ma, Mark Kin Fai; Lee, Joyce Man Fong; Ng, Johnson Kai Yu; Chai, Stella; Lin, Chi Ho; Tsang, Suk Ying; Ma, Stephanie; Ng, Irene Oi Lin; Lee, Terence Kin Wah

    2016-05-10

    Like normal stem cells, tumor-initiating cells (T-ICs) are regulated extrinsically within the tumor microenvironment. Because HCC develops primarily in the context of cirrhosis, in which there is an enrichment of activated fibroblasts, we hypothesized that cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) would regulate liver T-ICs. We found that the presence of α-SMA(+) CAFs correlates with poor clinical outcome. CAF-derived HGF regulates liver T-ICs via activation of FRA1 in an Erk1,2-dependent manner. Further functional analysis identifies HEY1 as a direct downstream effector of FRA1. Using the STAM NASH-HCC mouse model, we find that HGF-induced FRA1 activation is associated with the fibrosis-dependent development of HCC. Thus, targeting the CAF-derived, HGF-mediated c-Met/FRA1/HEY1 cascade may be a therapeutic strategy for the treatment of HCC. PMID:27134167

  9. Forest cover maps of China in 2010 from multiple approaches and data sources: PALSAR, Landsat, MODIS, FRA, and NFI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Yuanwei; Xiao, Xiangming; Dong, Jinwei; Zhang, Geli; Shimada, Masanobu; Liu, Jiyuan; Li, Chungan; Kou, Weili; Moore, Berrien

    2015-11-01

    Forests and their changes are important to the regional and global carbon cycle, biodiversity and ecosystem services. Some uncertainty about forest cover area in China calls for an accurate and updated forest cover map. In this study, we combined ALOS PALSAR orthorectified 50-m mosaic images (FBD mode with HH and HV polarization) and MODIS time series data in 2010 to map forests in China. We used MODIS-based NDVI dataset (MOD13Q1, 250-m spatial resolution) to generate a map of annual maximum NDVI and used it to mask out built-up lands, barren lands, and sparsely vegetated lands. We developed a decision tree classification algorithm to identify forest and non-forest land cover, based on the signature analysis of PALSAR backscatter coefficient data. The PALSAR-based algorithm was then applied to produce a forest cover map in China in 2010. The resulting forest/non-forest classification map has an overall accuracy of 96.2% and a Kappa Coefficient of 0.91. The resultant 50-m PALSAR-based forest cover map was compared to five forest cover databases. The total forest area (2.02 × 106 km2) in China from the PALSAR-based forest map is close to the forest area estimates from China National Forestry Inventory (1.95 × 106 km2), JAXA (2.00 × 106 km2), and FAO FRA (2.07 × 106 km2). There are good linear relationships between the PALSAR-based forest map and the forest maps from the JAXA, MCD12Q1, and NLCD-China datasets at the province and county scales. All the forest maps have similar spatial distributions of forest/non-forest at pixel scale. Our PALSAR-based forest map recognizes well the agro-forests in China. The results of this study demonstrate the potential of integrating PALSAR and MODIS images to map forests in large areas. The resultant map of forest cover in China in 2010 can be used for many studies such as forest carbon cycle and ecological restoration.

  10. SIRT1 promotes epithelial-mesenchymal transition and metastasis in colorectal cancer by regulating Fra-1 expression.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Feifei; Su, Li; Yao, Chao; Liu, Limei; Shen, Junjie; Liu, Chungang; Chen, Xuejiao; Luo, Yongli; Jiang, Lupin; Shan, Juanjuan; Chen, Jun; Zhu, Wei; Shao, Jimin; Qian, Cheng

    2016-06-01

    Understanding molecular mechanisms of colorectal cancer (CRC) metastasis is urgently required for targeted therapy and prognosis of metastatic CRC. In this study, we explored potential effects of silent mating type information regulation 2 homolog 1 (SIRT1) on CRC metastasis. Our data showed that ectopic expression of SIRT1 markedly increased the migration and invasion of CRC cells. In contrast, silencing SIRT1 repressed this behavior in aggressive CRC cells. Tumor xenograft experiments revealed that knockdown of SIRT1 impaired CRC metastasis in vivo. Silencing SIRT1 in CRC cells induced mesenchymal-epithelial transition (MET), which is the reverse process of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and characterized by a gain of epithelial and loss of mesenchymal markers. We provided a mechanistic insight toward regulation of Fra-1 by SIRT1 and demonstrated a direct link between the SIRT1-Fra-1 axis and EMT. Moreover, SIRT1 expression correlated positively with Fra-1 expression, metastasis and overall survival in patients with CRC. Taken together, our data provide a novel mechanistic role of SIRT1 in CRC metastasis, suggesting that SIRT1 may serve as a potential therapeutic target for metastatic CRC. PMID:26975631

  11. UCSD/FRA non-contact ultrasonic guided-wave system for rail inspection: an update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coccia, Stefano; Phillips, Robert; Nucera, Claudio; Bartoli, Ivan; Salamone, Salvatore; Lanza di Scalea, Francesco; Fateh, Mahmood; Carr, Gary

    2011-04-01

    The University of California at San Diego (UCSD), under a Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) Office of Research and Development (R&D) grant, is developing a system for high-speed and non-contact rail defect detection. A prototype has been designed and field tested with the support of Volpe National Transportation Systems Center and ENSCO, Inc. The goal of this project is to develop a rail defect detection system that provides (a) better defect detection reliability (including internal transverse head defects under shelling and vertical split head defects), and (b) higher inspection speed than achievable by current rail inspection systems. This effort is also in direct response to Safety Recommendations issued by the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) following the disastrous train derailments at Superior, WI in 1992 and Oneida, NY in 2007 among others. The UCSD prototype uses non-contact ultrasonic probing of the rail head (laser and air-coupled), ultrasonic guided waves, and a proprietary real-time statistical analysis algorithm that maximizes the sensitivity to defects while minimizing false positives. The current design allows potential inspection speeds up to 40 mph, although all field tests have been conducted up to 15 mph so far. This paper summarizes (a) the latest technology development test conducted at the rail defect farm of Herzog, Inc. in St Joseph, MO in June 2010, and (b) the completion of the new Rail Defect Farm facility at the UCSD Camp Elliott Field Station with partial in-kind donations from the Burlington Northern Santa Fe (BNSF) Railway.

  12. Apollo 14 Impact Glasses and Clementine Data: Implications for Regional Geology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zellner, N. E. B.; Spudis, P. D.; Delano, J. W.; Whittet, D. C. B.

    2002-01-01

    Clementine color image data and analyses of 778 lunar impact glasses have been used together to suggest that the highlands of the Fra Mauro region consist of a KREEP-rich regolith overlying a feldspathic terrain. Low-KREEP impact glasses may possess a memory of impacts prior to 3.9 Ga ago. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  13. Neoplastic transformation of rat thyroid cells requires the junB and fra-1 gene induction which is dependent on the HMGI-C gene product.

    PubMed Central

    Vallone, D; Battista, S; Pierantoni, G M; Fedele, M; Casalino, L; Santoro, M; Viglietto, G; Fusco, A; Verde, P

    1997-01-01

    The expression of the high mobility group I (HMGI)-C chromatin component was shown previously to be essential for the establishment of the neoplastic phenotype in retrovirally transformed thyroid cell lines. To identify possible targets of the HMGI-C gene product, we have analyzed the AP-1 complex in normal, fully transformed and antisense HMGI-C-expressing rat thyroid cells. We show that neoplastic transformation is associated with a drastic increase in AP-1 activity, which reflects multiple compositional changes. The strongest effect is represented by the dramatic junB and fra-1 gene induction, which is prevented in cell lines expressing the antisense HMGI-C. These results indicate that the HMGI-C gene product is essential for the junB and fra-1 transcriptional induction associated with neoplastic transformation. The inhibition of Fra-1 protein synthesis by stable transfection with a fra-1 antisense RNA vector significantly reduces the malignant phenotype of the transformed thyroid cells, indicating a pivotal role for the fra-1 gene product in the process of cellular transformation. PMID:9311991

  14. Copy number and haplotype variation at the VRN-A1 and central FR-A2 loci are associated with frost tolerance in hexaploid wheat

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jie; Pearce, Stephen; Burke, Adrienne; See, Deven Robert; Skinner, Daniel Z.; Dubcovsky, Jorge; Campbell, Kimberly Garland

    2016-01-01

    Frost tolerance is critical for wheat survival during cold winters. Natural variation for this trait is mainly associated with allelic differences at the VERNALIZATION 1 (VRN1) and FROST RESISTANCE 2 (FR2) loci. VRN1 regulates the transition between vegetative and reproductive stages and FR2, a locus including several tandemly duplicated C-REPEAT BINDING FACTOR (CBF) transcription factors, regulates the expression of Cold regulated genes. We identified sequence and copy number variation at these two loci among winter and spring wheat varieties and characterized their association with frost tolerance. We identified two FR-A2 haplotypes – ‘FR-A2-S’ and ‘FR-A2-T’ – distinguished by two insertion/deletions and ten single nucleotide polymorphisms within the CBF-A12 and CBF-A15 genes. Increased copy number of CBF-A14 was frequently associated with the FR-A2-T haplotypes and with higher CBF14 transcript levels in response to cold. Factorial ANOVAs revealed significant interactions between VRN1 and FR-A2 for frost tolerance in both winter and spring panels suggesting a crosstalk between vernalization and cold acclimation pathways. The model including these two loci and their interaction explained 32.0 and 20.7% of the variation in frost tolerance in the winter and spring panels, respectively. The interaction was validated in a winter wheat F4:5 population segregating for both genes. Increased VRN-A1 copy number was associated with improved frost tolerance among varieties carrying the FR-A2-T allele but not among those carrying the FR-A2-S allele. These results suggest that selection of varieties carrying the FR-A2-T allele and three copies of the recessive vrn-A1 allele would be a good strategy to improve frost tolerance in wheat. PMID:24626953

  15. MEKK1 regulates the AP-1 dimer repertoire via control of JunB transcription and Fra-2 protein stability.

    PubMed

    Cuevas, Bruce D; Uhlik, Mark T; Garrington, Timothy P; Johnson, Gary L

    2005-01-27

    Activator protein 1 (AP-1) transcription factor dimers are composed of Jun, Fos, and ATF member proteins, but the mechanisms that determine AP-1 composition are not clearly defined and the function of specific dimers is not well understood. MEKK1 is a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) kinase kinase and an ubiquitin ligase that regulates both the extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 and the c-Jun amino-terminal kinase. Herein, we demonstrate that MEKK1 regulates the AP-1 protein repertoire. Both FGF-2 and phorbol ester-inducible urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) expression requires AP-1 binding to an enhancer element in the uPA promoter, and we have previously shown that FGF-2 or PMA induction of uPA expression is strongly dependent on MEKK1. JunB mRNA is significantly increased in MEKK1-/- cells, demonstrating that MEKK1 suppresses JunB mRNA expression. Upregulation of JunB expression in MEKK1-/- cells forms an inhibitory AP-1 complex that binds to the uPA promoter and inhibits uPA transcription. MEKK1 also regulates Fra-2 protein stability by inducing Fra-2 ubiquitination and degradation. MEKK1 regulates AP-1-dependent gene expression by regulating the expression, activity and degradation of component members of the AP-1 complex. Controlling the repertoire of a transcription factor complex is a newly defined function for an MAPK kinase kinase. PMID:15558021

  16. WWOX, the chromosomal fragile site FRA16D spanning gene: its role in metabolism and contribution to cancer.

    PubMed

    Richards, Robert I; Choo, Amanda; Lee, Cheng Shoou; Dayan, Sonia; O'Keefe, Louise

    2015-03-01

    The WWOX gene spans the common chromosomal fragile site FRA16D that is located within a massive (780 kb) intron. The WWOX gene is very long, at 1.1 Mb, which may contribute to the very low abundance of the full-length 1.4 kb mRNA. Alternative splicing also accounts for a variety of aberrant transcripts, most of which are devoid of C-terminal sequences required for WWOX to act as an oxidoreductase. The mouse WWOX gene also spans a chromosomal fragile site implying some sort of functional relationship that confers a selective advantage. The encoded protein domains of WWOX are conserved through evolution (between humans and Drosophila melanogaster) and include WW domains, an NAD -binding site, short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase enzyme and nuclear compartmentalization signals. This homology has enabled functional analyses in D. melanogaster that demonstrate roles for WWOX in reactive oxygen species regulation and metabolism. Indeed the human WWOX gene is also responsive to altered metabolism. Cancer cells typically exhibit altered metabolism (Warburg effect). Many cancers exhibit FRA16D DNA instability that results in aberrant WWOX expression and is associated with poor prognosis for these cancers. It is therefore thought that aberrant WWOX expression contributes to the altered metabolism in cancer. In addition, others have found that a specific (low-expression) allele of WWOX genotype contributes to cancer predisposition. PMID:25595186

  17. Selective participation of c-Jun with Fra-2/c-Fos promotes aggressive tumor phenotypes and poor prognosis in tongue cancer

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Shilpi; Kumar, Prabhat; Kaur, Harsimrut; Sharma, Nishi; Saluja, Daman; Bharti, Alok C.; Das, Bhudev C.

    2015-01-01

    Tongue squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC) is most aggressive head and neck cancer often associated with HR-HPV infection. The role of AP-1 which is an essential regulator of HPV oncogene expression and tumorigenesis is not reported in tongue cancer. One hundred tongue tissue biopsies comprising precancer, cancer and adjacent controls including two tongue cancer cell lines were employed to study the role of HPV infection and AP-1 family proteins. An exclusive prevalence (28%) of HR-HPV type 16 was observed mainly in well differentiated tongue carcinomas (78.5%). A higher expression and DNA binding activity of AP-1 was observed in tongue tumors and cancer cell lines with c-Fos and Fra-2 as the major binding partners forming the functional AP-1 complex but c-Jun participated only in HPV negative and poorly differentiated carcinoma. Knocking down of Fra-2 responsible for aggressive tongue tumorigenesis led to significant reduction in c-Fos, c-Jun, MMP-9 and HPVE6/E7 expression but Fra-1 and p53 were upregulated. The binding and expression of c-Fos/Fra-2 increased as a function of severity of tongue lesions, yet selective participation of c-Jun appears to promote poor differentiation and aggressive tumorigenesis only in HPV negative cases while HPV infection leads to well differentiation and better prognosis preferably in nonsmokers. PMID:26581505

  18. [Biological and physico-chemical properties of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis bacterial culture having the fra-operon Yersinia pestis].

    PubMed

    Byvalov, A A; Gavrilov, K E; Krupin, V V; Chebotarev, E V; Zheludkova, E V; Drubkov, V I; Smirnov, A E; Mal'kov, V N; Dupiasheva, T Iu; Pechenkin, D V; Bondarev, V P

    2008-01-01

    The biological and physico-chemical properties of cultures of two isogenous recombinant variants of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis were studied. The cell genomes of the cultures are distinguished from one another only by the presence or by the absence of the fra-operon, which is a determined attribute of the plague microbe capsule-forming process. The expression of the attribute is amplified by rising the microbial biomass cultivation temperature and stimulates the decrease in the viability of the bacteria and adaptation potential in vitro. In the warm-blooded owner organism the microbes of the capsule-forming recombinant variant are characterized by the greater residual pathogenicity and immunogenic ability to the experimental plague of the laboratory animals as compared to the reference-variant cells. These specific features could be explained by more expressed colonizing ability of the capsule-forming microbes provided by owner cells' stability to the phagocyte process. PMID:18368776

  19. WWOX, the common fragile site FRA16D gene product, regulates ATM activation and the DNA damage response

    PubMed Central

    Abu-Odeh, Mohammad; Salah, Zaidoun; Herbel, Christoph; Hofmann, Thomas G.; Aqeilan, Rami I.

    2014-01-01

    Genomic instability is a hallmark of cancer. The WW domain-containing oxidoreductase (WWOX) is a tumor suppressor spanning the common chromosomal fragile site FRA16D. Here, we report a direct role of WWOX in DNA damage response (DDR) and DNA repair. We show that Wwox deficiency results in reduced activation of the ataxia telangiectasia-mutated (ATM) checkpoint kinase, inefficient induction and maintenance of γ-H2AX foci, and impaired DNA repair. Mechanistically, we show that, upon DNA damage, WWOX accumulates in the cell nucleus, where it interacts with ATM and enhances its activation. Nuclear accumulation of WWOX is regulated by its K63-linked ubiquitination at lysine residue 274, which is mediated by the E3 ubiquitin ligase ITCH. These findings identify a novel role for the tumor suppressor WWOX and show that loss of WWOX expression may drive genomic instability and provide an advantage for clonal expansion of neoplastic cells. PMID:25331887

  20. Insulin-stimulated expression of c-fos, fra1 and c-jun accompanies the activation of the activator protein-1 (AP-1) transcriptional complex.

    PubMed Central

    Griffiths, M R; Black, E J; Culbert, A A; Dickens, M; Shaw, P E; Gillespie, D A; Tavaré, J M

    1998-01-01

    The activator protein-1 (AP-1) transcriptional complex is made up of members of the Fos (c-Fos, FosB, Fra1, Fra2) and Jun (c-Jun, JunB, JunD) families and is stimulated by insulin in several cell types. The mechanism by which insulin activates this complex is not well understood but it is dependent on the activation of the Erk1 and Erk2 isoforms of mitogen-activated protein kinases. In the current study we show that the AP-1 complex isolated from insulin-stimulated cells contained c-Fos, Fra1, c-Jun and JunB. The activation of the AP-1 complex by insulin was accompanied by (i) a transient increase in c-fos expression, and the transactivation of the ternary complex factors Elk1 and Sap1a, in an Erk1/Erk2-dependent fashion; (ii) a substantial increase in the expression of Fra1 protein and mRNA, which was preceded by a transient decrease in its electrophoretic mobility upon SDS/PAGE, indicative of phosphorylation; and (iii) a sustained increase in c-jun expression without increasing c-Jun phosphorylation on serines 63 and 73 or activation of the stress-activated kinase JNK/SAPK. In conclusion, insulin appears to stimulate the activity of the AP-1 complex primarily through a change in the abundance of the components of this complex, although there may be an additional role for Fra1 phosphorylation. PMID:9742208

  1. HDAC inhibitors suppress c-Jun/Fra-1-mediated proliferation through transcriptionally downregulating MKK7 and Raf1 in neuroblastoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Xiaomei; Xia, Yong; He, Guozhen; Min, Zhiqun; Li, Chun; Xiong, Shiqiu; Shi, Zhi; Lu, Yongjian; Yuan, Zhongmin

    2016-01-01

    Activator protein 1 (AP-1) is a transcriptional factor composed of the dimeric members of bZIP proteins, which are frequently deregulated in human cancer cells. In this study, we aimed to identify an oncogenic AP-1 dimer critical for the proliferation of neuroblastoma cells and to investigate whether histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACIs), a new generation of anticancer agents, could target the AP-1 dimer. We report here that HDACIs including trichostatin A, suberoylanilidehydroxamic acid, valproic acid and M344 can transcriptionally suppress both c-Jun and Fra-1, preceding their inhibition of cell growth. c-Jun preferentially interacting with Fra-1 as a heterodimer is responsible for AP-1 activity and critical for cell growth. Mechanistically, HDACIs suppress Fra-1 expression through transcriptionally downregulating Raf1 and subsequently decreasing MEK1/2-ERK1/2 activity. Unexpectedly, HDACI treatment caused MKK7 downregulation at both the protein and mRNA levels. Deletion analysis of the 5′-flanking sequence of the MKK7 gene revealed that a major element responsible for the downregulation by HDACI is located at −149 to −3 relative to the transcriptional start site. Knockdown of MKK7 but not MKK4 remarkably decreased JNK/c-Jun activity and proliferation, whereas ectopic MKK7-JNK1 reversed HDACI-induced c-Jun suppression. Furthermore, suppression of both MKK-7/c-Jun and Raf-1/Fra-1 activities was involved in the tumor growth inhibitory effects induced by SAHA in SH-SY5Y xenograft mice. Collectively, these findings demonstrated that c-Jun/Fra-1 dimer is critical for neuroblastoma cell growth and that HDACIs act as effective suppressors of the two oncogenes through transcriptionally downregulating MKK7 and Raf1. PMID:26734995

  2. Peptide Sequence Region That is Essential for the Interactions of the Enterotoxigenic Bacteroides fragilis Metalloproteinase II with E-cadherin

    PubMed Central

    Shiryaev, Sergey A.; Remacle, Albert G.; Cieplak, Piotr; Strongin, Alex Y.

    2015-01-01

    Bacteroides fragilis is a valuable anaerobic commensal and an essential component of the gut microbiome in humans. The presence of a short pathogenicity island in the genome is predominantly associated with the enterotoxigenic strains of B. fragilis. Metallopro-teinase II (MPII) and fragilysin (FRA) are the structurally related enzymes encoded by the pathogenicity island in the enterotoxigenic strains. Accordingly, there is a significant overlap between the cleavage preferences of MPII and FRA. These proteinases, however, are counter-transcribed in the bacterial genome suggesting their distinct and specialized functions in the course of infection. It is well established that FRA directly cleaves E-cadherin, a key protein of the cell-to-cell adhesion junctions in the intestinal epithelium. Counterintuitively, MPII directly binds to, rather than cleaves, E-cadherin. Structural modeling suggested that a potential E-cadherin binding site involves the C-terminal -helical region of the MPII catalytic domain. The sequence of this region is different in MPII and FRA. Here, we employed substitution mutagenesis of this C-terminal -helical region to isolate the MPII mutants with the potentially inactivated E-cadherin binding site. Overall, as a result of our modeling, mutagenesis and binding studies, we determined that the C-terminal ten residue segment is essential for the binding of MPII, but not of FRA3, to E-cadherin, and that the resulting MPII•E-cadherin complex does not impair E-cadherin-dependent cell-to-cell contacts. It is possible to envision that the putative cleavage targets of MPII should be explored not only on the host cell surface but also in B. fragilis. PMID:25964952

  3. Reducing inpatient falls in a 100% single room elderly care environment: evaluation of the impact of a systematic nurse training programme on falls risk assessment (FRA).

    PubMed

    Singh, Inderpal; Okeke, Justin

    2016-01-01

    Inpatient falls (IF) are the most commonly reported safety incidents. The high rate of inpatient falls was reported in a newly built hospital, within Aneurin Bevan University Health Board, Wales (UK). The aim of the project is to reduce the incidence of IF and associated adverse clinical outcomes in a hospital with 100% single rooms. The key mechanism for improvement was education and training of nursing staff around falls risk factors. A Plan-Do-Study-Act methodology was used and a geriatrician-led, systematic nurse training programme on the understanding and correct use of existing multifactorial falls risk assessment (FRA) tool was implemented in April 2013. Pre-training baseline data revealed inadequate falls assessment and low completion rates of the FRA tool. Subsequent, post-training data showed improvement in compliance with all aspects of FRA. Concurrent with nurse training, the actual falls incidence/1000 patient-bed-days fell significantly from the baseline of 18.19±3.46 (Nov 2011-March 2013) to 13.36±2.89 (p<0.001) over next 12 months (April 2013-March 2014) and remained low (mean falls 12.81±2.85) until November 2015. Improved clinical outcomes have been observed in terms of a reduction of length of stay and new care home placements, making total annualised savings of £642,055. PMID:27559476

  4. Reducing inpatient falls in a 100% single room elderly care environment: evaluation of the impact of a systematic nurse training programme on falls risk assessment (FRA)

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Inderpal; Okeke, Justin

    2016-01-01

    Inpatient falls (IF) are the most commonly reported safety incidents. The high rate of inpatient falls was reported in a newly built hospital, within Aneurin Bevan University Health Board, Wales (UK). The aim of the project is to reduce the incidence of IF and associated adverse clinical outcomes in a hospital with 100% single rooms. The key mechanism for improvement was education and training of nursing staff around falls risk factors. A Plan-Do-Study-Act methodology was used and a geriatrician-led, systematic nurse training programme on the understanding and correct use of existing multifactorial falls risk assessment (FRA) tool was implemented in April 2013. Pre-training baseline data revealed inadequate falls assessment and low completion rates of the FRA tool. Subsequent, post-training data showed improvement in compliance with all aspects of FRA. Concurrent with nurse training, the actual falls incidence/1000 patient-bed-days fell significantly from the baseline of 18.19±3.46 (Nov 2011-March 2013) to 13.36±2.89 (p<0.001) over next 12 months (April 2013-March 2014) and remained low (mean falls 12.81±2.85) until November 2015. Improved clinical outcomes have been observed in terms of a reduction of length of stay and new care home placements, making total annualised savings of £642,055. PMID:27559476

  5. Sources of clasts in terrestrial impact melts - Clues to the origin of LKFM. [Low-K Fra Mauro

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccormick, K. A.; Taylor, G. J.; Keil, K.; Spudis, P. D.; Grieve, R. A. F.

    1989-01-01

    Low-K Fra Mauro (LKFM) 'basalt', which is found exclusively as an impact melt rock, cannot be modeled geochemically from its clast population or from any combination of known pristine lunar rock types. To clarify clast/melt relationships, a study was made of impact melt rocks from Mistastin Lake crater, Labrador, where there are only three target rocks: anorthosite, quartz monzonite, and granodiorite. Feldspar compositions in these rocks define distinct fields on the An-Ab-Or ternary diagram, making it possible to identify the source of each feldspar clast. Clasts in the Mistastin impact melts do not reflect the abundance of target rocks melted during the impact. The abundance of anorthosite in the clast population varies from 34 to 100 percent compared to a relatively constant value of 65 percent calculated to be in the melt matrix. Therefore the clasts appear to be derived predominantly from material relatively far removed from the zone of impact melting. Melt-matrix composition is dictated strictly by the composition of the target materials within a small radius around and below the point of impact. This suggests that the LKFM composition was derived from a lower crustal source.

  6. Scribble Modulates the MAPK/Fra1 Pathway to Disrupt Luminal and Ductal Integrity and Suppress Tumour Formation in the Mammary Gland

    PubMed Central

    Godde, Nathan J.; Sheridan, Julie M.; Smith, Lorey K.; Pearson, Helen B.; Britt, Kara L.; Galea, Ryan C.; Yates, Laura L.; Visvader, Jane E.; Humbert, Patrick O.

    2014-01-01

    Polarity coordinates cell movement, differentiation, proliferation and apoptosis to build and maintain complex epithelial tissues such as the mammary gland. Loss of polarity and the deregulation of these processes are critical events in malignant progression but precisely how and at which stage polarity loss impacts on mammary development and tumourigenesis is unclear. Scrib is a core polarity regulator and tumour suppressor gene however to date our understanding of Scrib function in the mammary gland has been limited to cell culture and transplantation studies of cell lines. Utilizing a conditional mouse model of Scrib loss we report for the first time that Scrib is essential for mammary duct morphogenesis, mammary progenitor cell fate and maintenance, and we demonstrate a critical and specific role for Scribble in the control of the early steps of breast cancer progression. In particular, Scrib-deficiency significantly induced Fra1 expression and basal progenitor clonogenicity, which resulted in fully penetrant ductal hyperplasia characterized by high cell turnover, MAPK hyperactivity, frank polarity loss with mixing of apical and basolateral membrane constituents and expansion of atypical luminal cells. We also show for the first time a role for Scribble in mammalian spindle orientation with the onset of mammary hyperplasia being associated with aberrant luminal cell spindle orientation and a failure to apoptose during the final stage of duct tubulogenesis. Restoring MAPK/Fra1 to baseline levels prevented Scrib-hyperplasia, whereas persistent Scrib deficiency induced alveolar hyperplasia and increased the incidence, onset and grade of mammary tumours. These findings, based on a definitive genetic mouse model provide fundamental insights into mammary duct maturation and homeostasis and reveal that Scrib loss activates a MAPK/Fra1 pathway that alters mammary progenitor activity to drive premalignancy and accelerate tumour progression. PMID:24852022

  7. Serum from patients with ankylosing spondylitis can increase PPARD, fra-1, MMP7, OPG and RANKL expression in MG63 cells

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Zaiying; Lin, Dongfang; Qi, Jun; Qiu, Minli; Lv, Qing; Li, Qiuxia; Lin, Zhiming; Liao, Zetao; Pan, Yunfeng; Jin, Ou; Wu, Yuqiong; Gu, Jieruo

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To explore the effects of serum from patients with ankylosing spondylitis on the canonical Wnt/β-catenin pathway and to assess whether the serum has an osteogenic effect in MG63 cells. METHODS: MG63 cells were cultured with serum from 45 ankylosing spondylitis patients, 30 healthy controls, or 45 rheumatoid arthritis patients. The relative PPARD, fra-1, MMP7, OPG and RANKL mRNA levels were measured using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Associations between gene expression and patient demographics and clinical assessments were then analyzed. RESULTS: MG63 cells treated with serum from ankylosing spondylitis patients had higher PPARD, fra-1, MMP7 and OPG gene expression than did cells treated with serum from controls or rheumatoid arthritis patients (all p<0.05). RANKL expression was higher in MG63 cells treated with serum from patients with ankylosing spondylitis or rheumatoid arthritis than in those treated with serum from controls (both p<0.05). The OPG/RANKL ratio was also higher in MG63 cells treated with serum from ankylosing spondylitis patients than in those treated with serum from controls (p<0.05). No associations were found between the expression of the five genes and the patient demographics and clinical assessments (all p>0.05). CONCLUSIONS : Serum from ankylosing spondylitis patients increases PPARD, fra-1, MMP7, OPG and RANKL expression and the OPG/RANKL ratio in MG63 cells; these effects may be due to the stimulatory effect of the serum on the Wnt pathway. PMID:26602520

  8. A scientific approach to the characterization of the painting materials of Fra Mattia della Robbia polychrome terracotta altarpiece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amadori, M. L.; Barcelli, S.; Casoli, A.; Mazzeo, R.; Prati, S.

    2013-12-01

    During the last restoration (2008-2011) of the polychrome terracotta altarpiece called Coronation of Virgin between Saints Rocco, Sebastian, Peter martyr and Antonio abbot, located in the collegiate church of S. Maria Assunta in Montecassiano (Macerata, Italy), scientific investigations were carried out to acquire detailed information about the painting technique. The identification of materials allowed a correct restoration. The altarpiece is almost entirely realized by Marco della Robbia (Fra Mattia), dates back to the first half of the XVI century and represents an interesting example of painted terracotta produced by using two different techniques: glazed polychrome terracotta and the "cold painting" technique. The characterization of the samples' material constituents was obtained by analysing the cross-sections and the fragments by different techniques (optical, SEM-EDS and ATR-FTIR microscopy as well as GC-MS), as the real nature of a component is often difficult to assess with one single technique. The optical microscope examination of paint cross-sections shows the presence of many layers, indicating the complexity of the paint stratigraphic morphologies. The original polychromy of della Robbia's masterpiece is constituted of cinnabar, red lake, red lead, orpiment, red ochre, lead white, lead tin yellow, green earth and raw umber. Two different types of gilding technique have been distinguished. The first one presents a glue mordant, and the second one shows an oil mordant composed by a mixture of red lead, red ochre, cinnabar and orpiment. The GC-MS analysis allowed the characterisation of linseed oil and a mixture of animal glue and egg as binding media stratigraphically located by the use of ATR-FTIR mapping microscopy. The analytical results of the painted terracotta integrated investigations show that original technique adopted is characterised by the application of pigments in an oil-binding medium directly applied on the substrates, probably treated

  9. Retinoblastoma Protein and MyoD Function Together to Effect the Repression of Fra-1 and in Turn Cyclin D1 during Terminal Cell Cycle Arrest Associated with Myogenesis*

    PubMed Central

    Rajabi, Hasan N.; Takahashi, Chiaki; Ewen, Mark E.

    2014-01-01

    The acquisition of skeletal muscle-specific function and terminal cell cycle arrest represent two important features of the myogenic differentiation program. These cellular processes are distinct and can be separated genetically. The lineage-specific transcription factor MyoD and the retinoblastoma protein pRb participate in both of these cellular events. Whether and how MyoD and pRb work together to effect terminal cell cycle arrest is uncertain. To address this question, we focused on cyclin D1, whose stable repression is required for terminal cell cycle arrest and execution of myogenesis. MyoD and pRb are both required for the repression of cyclin D1; their actions, however, were found not to be direct. Rather, they operate to regulate the immediate early gene Fra-1, a critical player in mitogen-dependent induction of cyclin D1. Two conserved MyoD-binding sites were identified in an intronic enhancer of Fra-1 and shown to be required for the stable repression of Fra-1 and, in turn, cyclin D1. Localization of MyoD alone to the intronic enhancer of Fra-1 in the absence of pRb was not sufficient to elicit a block to Fra-1 induction; pRb was also recruited to the intronic enhancer in a MyoD-dependent manner. These observations suggest that MyoD and pRb work together cooperatively at the level of the intronic enhancer of Fra-1 during terminal cell cycle arrest. This work reveals a previously unappreciated link between a lineage-specific transcription factor, a tumor suppressor, and a proto-oncogene in the control of an important facet of myogenic differentiation. PMID:25006242

  10. Compositional variation in the Hadley Apennine region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, P. E.; Hawke, B. R.

    1982-01-01

    Orbital geochemical data in the Hadley Apennine region are related to typical rock compositions and used in determining the distribution of soils derived from the rock types found in this region. Orbital XRF Mg/Si and Al/Si intensities are the orbital data that are used primarily. These data are corrected for spurious interorbit variation using a modification of a previously developed method. The corrected values are than converted to % MgO and % Al2O3, respectively, from theoretical considerations, and as such are compared with similar concentrations for typical lunar rocks and soils of the Apollo 15 landing site. The relationship of the XRF values to Fe, Ti, and Th concentrations, derived from gamma-ray observations, is also considered. It is established that the orbital geochemistry data for this region are consistent with the presence of a mixture of ANT suite and Fra Mauro basalt components frequently dominated by a KREEP basalt component toward the west and by a mafic pyroclastic component toward the east.

  11. Nrf1 and Nrf2 positively and c-Fos and Fra1 negatively regulate the human antioxidant response element-mediated expression of NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase1 gene.

    PubMed

    Venugopal, R; Jaiswal, A K

    1996-12-10

    Twenty-four base pairs of the human antioxidant response element (hARE) are required for high basal transcription of the NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase1 (NQO1) gene and its induction in response to xenobiotics and antioxidants. hARE is a unique cis-element that contains one perfect and one imperfect AP1 element arranged as inverse repeats separated by 3 bp, followed by a "GC" box. We report here that Jun, Fos, Fra, and Nrf nuclear transcription factors bind to the hARE. Overexpression of cDNA derived combinations of the nuclear proteins Jun and Fos or Jun and Fra1 repressed hARE-mediated chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) gene expression in transfected human hepatoblastoma (Hep-G2) cells. Further experiments suggested that this repression was due to overexpression of c-Fos and Fra1, but not due to Jun proteins. The Jun (c-Jun, Jun-B, and Jun-D) proteins in all the possible combinations were more or less ineffective in repression or upregulation of hARE-mediated gene expression. Interestingly, overexpression of Nrf1 and Nrf2 individually in Hep-G2 and monkey kidney (COS1) cells significantly increased CAT gene expression from reporter plasmid hARE-thymidine kinase-CAT in transfected cells that were inducible by beta-naphthoflavone and teri-butyl hydroquinone. These results indicated that hARE-mediated expression of the NQO1 gene and its induction by xenobiotics and antioxidants are mediated by Nrf1 and Nrf2. The hARE-mediated basal expression, however, is repressed by overexpression of c-Fos and Fra1. PMID:8962164

  12. Monitoring thermal stresses and incipient buckling of continuous-welded rails: results from the UCSD/BNSF/FRA large-scale laboratory test track

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, Robert; Nucera, Claudio; Coccia, Stefano; Lanza di Scalea, Francesco; Bartoli, Ivan; Fateh, Mahmood; Carr, Gary

    2011-04-01

    Most modern railways use Continuous Welded Rail (CWR). A major problem is the almost total absence of expansion joints that can create buckling in hot weather and breakage in cold weather due to the rail thermal stresses. In June 2008 the University of California, San Diego (UCSD), under the sponsorship of a Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) Office of Research and Development (R&D) grant, began work to develop a technique for in-situ measurement of stress and detection of incipient buckling in CWR. The method under investigation is based on ultrasonic guided waves, and the ultimate goal is to develop a prototype that can be used in motion. A large-scale full rail track (70 feet in length) has been constructed at UCSD's Powell Structural Laboratories, the largest laboratories in the country for structural testing, to validate the CWR stress measurement and buckling detection technique under rail heating conditions well controlled in the laboratory. This paper will report on the results obtained from this unique large-scale test track to date. These results will pave the road for the future development of the rail stress measurement & buckling detection prototype.

  13. A Comparison of Forest Cover Maps in China in 2010 from Multi-source: Landsat, PALSAR, MCD12Q1, FAO FRA, and National Forestry Inventory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Y.; Xiao, X.; Dong, J.; Zhang, G.

    2014-12-01

    Forests and their changes are quite important to global carbon cycle, biodiversity and ecological services. Some uncertainties about forest cover maps still exist in China, so an accurate and updated forest cover distribution map is necessary as a baseline for carbon cycle estimation, especially at a fine spatial resolution. In this study, we developed a decision tree classification algorithm to identify forest and non-forest land cover, based on the signature analysis of 50 m ALOS PLASAR backscatter data in 2010 for a few land cover types. We used MODIS-based NDVI dataset in 2010 (MOD13Q1) to generate a map of annual maximum NDVI and used it to mask out built-up lands, barren lands, and sparsely vegetated lands. We applied the PALSAR-based algorithm and produced a forest cover map in China in 2010. Several comparisons in forest area and spatial distribution between the resultant forest map with other forest maps were carried out. The results show that the total forest area in China from the PALSAR-based forest map in 2010 is close to those of JAXA, FAO FRA, and National Forestry Inventory, and there are good linear relationships between the PALSAR-based forest map with the JAXA, MCD12Q1, and NLCD-China forest areas at province and county scales. All the forest maps have similar forest/non-forest distribution, but our PALSAR-based forest map recognizes well the agro-forests. The results of this study provide a baseline map of forest cover in China in 2010, which can be used for the studies of forest disturbance, carbon cycle, and ecological restoration projects in China.

  14. The altarpieces of Della Robbia atelier in Marche region: investigations on technology and provenance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amadori, M. L.; Barcelli, S.; Barcaioni, S.; Bouquillon, A.; Padeletti, G.; Pallante, P.

    2013-12-01

    Dissemination of Della Robbia glazed terracotta in the Marche (Italy) region started from the third decade of the 16th century. Numerous altarpieces, some of which no longer exist, document this artistic production. The protagonists of this diffusion phase were two of Andrea Della Robbia's sons, Marco (Fra Mattia) and Francesco (Fra Ambrogio). This paper shows the results of the scientific investigations carried out on constitutive materials of different altarpieces located in South Marche belonging to the Fra Mattia's production: the Coronation of Virgin between Saints Rocco, Sebastian, Peter martyr and Antonio abbot, dated back to 1527-1530, located in the collegiate church of S. Maria Assunta in Montecassiano; the Annunciation, dated back to 1520, placed in the church of S. Maria del Soccorso in Arcevia; the fragmentary Crowned Madonna and saints altarpiece, probably realized after 1531, today preserved in Civic Museum of Ripatransone. The first altarpiece was made in Montecassiano using two different assembling or production techniques: the external part of the lunette and the pillar strips are made of glazed polychrome terracotta, while the altar step and the internal part are an interesting and uncommon example of polychrome painted terracotta. The provenance of the glazed Arcevia altarpiece is not clear yet: some historians hypothesize a local manufacture of Fra Mattia and some others a Roman or Florentine production. The remaining parts of Ripatransone altarpiece are partially glazed and partially not coated perhaps because they were unfinished and not yet painted. Clay body samples collected from the above mentioned altarpieces were investigated using different analytical techniques (OM, XRD, XRF, PIXE) to point out differences in chemical and mineralogical composition and to determine if the altarpieces were made by using local raw clay materials or other clays from Tuscany or Campania as in the Della Robbia previous production. A comparison has also been

  15. Variations in the FRA10AC1 Fragile Site and 15q21 Are Associated with Cerebrospinal Fluid Aβ1-42 Level

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qingqin S.; Parrado, Antonio R.; Samtani, Mahesh N.; Narayan, Vaibhav A.

    2015-01-01

    Proteolytic fragments of amyloid and post-translational modification of tau species in Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) as well as cerebral amyloid deposition are important biomarkers for Alzheimer’s Disease. We conducted genome-wide association study to identify genetic factors influencing CSF biomarker level, cerebral amyloid deposition, and disease progression. The genome-wide association study was performed via a meta-analysis of two non-overlapping discovery sample sets to identify genetic variants other than APOE ε4 predictive of the CSF biomarker level (Aβ1–42, t-Tau, p-Tau181P, t-Tau:Aβ1–42 ratio, and p-Tau181P:Aβ1–42 ratio) in patients enrolled in the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) study. Loci passing a genome-wide significance threshold of P < 5 x 10−8 were followed-up for replication in an independent sample set. We also performed joint meta-analysis of both discovery sample sets together with the replication sample set. In the discovery phase, we identified variants in FRA10AC1 associated with CSF Aβ1–42 level passing the genome-wide significance threshold (directly genotyped SNV rs10509663 PFE = 1.1 x 10−9, imputed SNV rs116953792 PFE = 3.5 x 10−10), rs116953792 (Pone-sided = 0.04) achieved replication. This association became stronger in the joint meta-analysis (directly genotyped SNV rs10509663 PFE = 1.7 x 10−9, imputed SNV rs116953792 PFE = 7.6 x 10−11). Additionally, we identified locus 15q21 (imputed SNV rs1503351 PFE = 4.0 x 10−8) associated with CSF Aβ1–42 level. No other variants passed the genome-wide significance threshold for other CSF biomarkers in either the discovery sample sets or joint analysis. Gene set enrichment analyses suggested that targeted genes mediated by miR-33, miR-146, and miR-193 were enriched in various GWAS analyses. This finding is particularly important because CSF biomarkers confer disease susceptibility and may be predictive of the likelihood of disease progression in

  16. Variation of fundamental mode Rayleigh wave group velocity dispersion in Iran and the surrounding region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rham, D.; Priestley, K.; Tatar, M.; Paul, A.; Hatzfeld, D.; Radjaee, A.; Nowrouzi, G.; Kaviani, A.; Tiberi, C.

    2005-12-01

    We present group velocity dispersion results from a study of regional fundamental mode Rayleigh waves propagating across Iran and the surrounding region. Data for these measurements come from field deployments within Iran by the University of Cambridge (UK) and the Universite Joseph-Fourier (FRA) in conjunction with International Institute of Earthquake Engineering and Seismology (Iran), within Oman by the Universite Pierre et Marie Curie-Paris (FRA), in addition to data from IRIS and Geofone. 1D path-averaged dispersion measurements have been made for ~800 source-receiver paths using multiple filter analysis. We combine these observations in a tomographic inversion to produce group velocity images between 15 and 60~s period. Because of the dense path coverage, these images have substantially higher lateral resolution for this region than is currently available from global and regional group velocity studies. We observe variations in short-period group velocity which is consistent with the surface geology. Low group velocity (2.45-2.55~km/s) at short periods (15-20~s) is observed beneath the south Caspian Basin, northern Iran, the Persian Gulf, the Zagros, the Makran, northern Afghanistan and southern Pakistan. Somewhat higher group velocity (2.60-2.70~km/s) at these periods occurs in central Iran. At intermediate periods (30-40~s) group velocities over most of the region are low (2.90-3.10~km/s) compared to Arabia. At longer periods (50-60~s) group velocities remain low (3.35-3.45~km/s) over most of Iran but there is a suggestion of higher group velocities beneath the northern and central Zagros.

  17. Photodissociation Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollenbach, David J.; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The interstellar medium of galaxies is the reservoir out of which stars are born and into which stars inject newly created elements as they age. The physical properties of the interstellar medium are governed in part by the radiation emitted by these stars. Far-ultraviolet (6 eV< hNu < 13.6 eV) photons from massive stars dominate the heating and influence the chemistry of the neutral atomic gas and much of the molecular gas in galaxies. Predominantly neutral regions of the interstellar medium in which the heating and chemistry are regulated by far ultraviolet photons are termed Photodissociation Regions (PDRs). These regions are the origin of most of the non-stellar infrared (IR) and the millimeter and submillimeter CO emission from galaxies. The importance of PDRs has become increasingly apparent with the advances in IR and submillimeter astronomy. The IR emission from PDRs includes fine structure lines of C, C(+) and O; rovibrational lines of H2; rotational lines of CO; broad mid-IR features of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; and a luminous underlying IR continuum from interstellar dust. The transition of H to H2 and C(+) to CO occurs within PDRs. Comparison of observations with theoretical models of PDRs enables one to determine the density and temperature structure, the elemental abundances, the level of ionization, and the radiation field. PDR models have been applied to interstellar clouds near massive stars, planetary nebulae, red giant outflows, photoevaporating planetary disks around newly formed stars, diffuse clouds, the neutral intercloud medium, and molecular clouds in the interstellar radiation field-in summary, much of the interstellar medium in galaxies. Theoretical PDR models explain the observed correlations of the [CII] 158, micrometers with the CO J=1-0 emission, the CO J=1-0 luminosity with the interstellar molecular mass, and the [CII] 158 micrometers plus [OI] 63 micrometers luminosity with the IR continuum luminosity. On a more global

  18. Thorium concentrations in the lunar surface. III - Deconvolution of the Apenninus region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Metzger, A. E.; Haines, E. L.; Etchegaray-Ramirez, M. I.; Hawke, B. R.

    1979-01-01

    A technique of deconvoluting orbital-gamma ray data which improves spatial resolution and contrast has been applied to Th concentrations in the Apenninus region of the moon. The highest concentration seen from orbit has been found along the northern edge of the data track at Archimedes, requiring a component more highly fractionated in KREEP than the Apollo 15 medium-K Fra Mauro basalt. The results show generally diminishing Th levels extending outward from the Imbrium Basin, and impact penetration of basalt flows in Mare Imbrium to eject sub-mare Th-rich material. The results reinforce the hypothesis that the highlands which border and underlie the western maria contain a pre-mare layer of volcanically-derived KREEP material.

  19. Astrocytoma-associated antigens - IL13Rα2, Fra-1, and EphA2 as potential markers to monitor the status of tumour-derived cell cultures in vitro

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The molecular heterogeneity of high-grade astrocytomas underlies the difficulties in the development of representative and valuable in vitro experimental models for their studies. The purpose of our study was to estimate the value of astrocytoma-associated antigens (AAAs) - IL13Rα2, Fra-1, EphA2 - and the most common molecular aberrations typical for astrocytomas as potential markers to screen the status of tumour-derived cell cultures in vitro. Methods The tumour-derived cell cultures were established from high-grade astrocytomas. The expression analyses of the tested genes were performed via semi-quantitative real-time PCR and subsequently verified by immunohistochemical and immunocytochemical technique. The analyses of molecular aberrations at DNA level included gene dosage status evaluation based on real-time PCR, sequencing analysis, and loss of heterozygosity (LOH) assay. Results The expression analyses based on semi-quantitative real-time PCR showed that in the final stage of culture the expression level of all tested AAAs was significantly higher or at least comparable to that of primary tumours; however, two expression patterns were observed during cell culture establishment. Analysis at the single cell level via immunocytochemistry also demonstrated an increase of the level of tested proteins and/or selection of tumour cell populations strongly positive for AAAs vs. other cell types including admixed non-tumoural cells. Confrontation of AAA expression data with the results of molecular analyses at DNA level seems to support the latter, revealing that the expression pattern of astrocytoma-associated antigens in tumour-derived cells in subsequent stages of culture is convergent with changes in the molecular profile of examined cell populations. Conclusions The consistency of the obtained results seems to support the use of the selected AAAs, in particular IL13Rα2 and Fra-1, as tools facilitating the establishment of tumour-derived cultures

  20. Returning "Region" to World Regional Geography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rees, Peter W.; Legates, Margaret

    2013-01-01

    World regional geography textbooks rarely focus on the process of region formation, despite frequent calls to reincorporate a regional approach to teaching global geography. An instructional strategy using problem-based learning in a small honors section of a large world regional geography course is described. Using a hypothetical scenario…

  1. Ionospheric research. [E region, F region, D region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Progress is reported in the following areas: D-region theory; E and F-region; wave propagation; mass spectrometer measurements; and atmospheric reactions. Various supporting operations are included: design and construction of instrumentation; and programming.

  2. Regional Sustainable Environmental Management

    EPA Science Inventory

    Regional sustainable environmental management is an interdisciplinary effort to develop a sufficient understanding of the interactions between ecosystems, the economy, law, and technology to formulate effective long-term management strategies on a regional scale. Regional sustai...

  3. The group-based social skills training SOSTA-FRA in children and adolescents with high functioning autism spectrum disorder - study protocol of the randomised, multi-centre controlled SOSTA - net trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Group-based social skills training (SST) has repeatedly been recommended as treatment of choice in high-functioning autism spectrum disorder (HFASD). To date, no sufficiently powered randomised controlled trial has been performed to establish efficacy and safety of SST in children and adolescents with HFASD. In this randomised, multi-centre, controlled trial with 220 children and adolescents with HFASD it is hypothesized, that add-on group-based SST using the 12 weeks manualised SOSTA–FRA program will result in improved social responsiveness (measured by the parent rated social responsiveness scale, SRS) compared to treatment as usual (TAU). It is further expected, that parent and self reported anxiety and depressive symptoms will decline and pro-social behaviour will increase in the treatment group. A neurophysiological study in the Frankfurt HFASD subgroup will be performed pre- and post treatment to assess changes in neural function induced by SST versus TAU. Methods/design The SOSTA – net trial is designed as a prospective, randomised, multi-centre, controlled trial with two parallel groups. The primary outcome is change in SRS score directly after the intervention and at 3 months follow-up. Several secondary outcome measures are also obtained. The target sample consists of 220 individuals with ASD, included at the six study centres. Discussion This study is currently one of the largest trials on SST in children and adolescents with HFASD worldwide. Compared to recent randomised controlled studies, our study shows several advantages with regard to in- and exclusion criteria, study methods, and the therapeutic approach chosen, which can be easily implemented in non-university-based clinical settings. Trial registration ISRCTN94863788 – SOSTA – net: Group-based social skills training in children and adolescents with high functioning autism spectrum disorder. PMID:23289935

  4. Comments on Regional Geography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taaffe, Edward J.

    1985-01-01

    Reasons why regional geography should play a vital role in the development of U.S. geography are discussed. In addition, problems facing regional geographers are examined. A revival of regional geography can be significantly strengthened if there is more effective communication between regional and scientific geographers. (RM)

  5. Complex regional pain syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a chronic pain condition that can affect any area of the ... Bailey A, Audette JF. Complex regional pain syndrome. In: Frontera ... of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. 2nd ed. Philadelphia, ...

  6. Utah: Salt Lake Region

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    article title:  Winter and Summer Views of the Salt Lake Region     View Larger Image Magnificent views of the region surrounding Salt Lake City, Utah are captured in these winter and summer images from the ...

  7. 2009 Regional Reports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zitzow, Larry; Barbush, Jim; Riese, Gail; Quirk, Robert John; Morris, John P.; Hargrave, Heather

    2010-01-01

    APPA's six regions serve member institutions across the United States and Canada. They function independently from international APPA and offer their own educational programs, annual meetings, publications, and other benefits. Each region also maintains its own set of officers, committees, and activities. Participating in regions and state and…

  8. Learning Regions in Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thinesse-Demel, Jutta

    2010-01-01

    In 2000, the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) launched the programme "Learning Regions--Providing Support for Networks'" in cooperation with the Lander. It was co-financed by the European Social Fund (ESF). Some 90 regions were selected and financially supported. After one year, 71 regions continued to build-up their…

  9. Fra leggi fisiche ed equazioni matematiche

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castaldi, Francesco

    2006-04-01

    The author deals with the common names usually given to mathematical expressions. Newton's law of universal gravitation was never expressed by Newton in the complete form presented below as equation number 1. A different case is represented by Kepler's equation indicated here as equation number 4. That formula contains the definition of a uniform angular motion for the mean anomaly, which Kepler constantly refused and substituted with an area measure for this anomaly. The author would like to suggest two names to be remembered for these mathematical expressions: Henry Cavendish, for the first, and Leonard Euler, for the second.

  10. Apollo 14: Science at Fra Mauro.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    The many scientific activities and experiments performed during the Apollo 14 Mission are presented in a descriptive, non-technical format. Content relates to experiments on the lunar surface and to those performed while traveling in space, and provides a great deal of information about the flight. Many photographs from the journey, a map of the…

  11. Regional flood frequency analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, V.P.

    1987-01-01

    This book, the fourth of a four volume set, contains five sections encompassing major aspects of regional flood frequency analysis. Each section starts usually with an invited state-of-the-art paper followed by contributed papers. The first section provides an assessment of regional flood frequency analysis. Methods for performing regional frequency analysis for ungaged watersheds are presented in Section 2. More discussion on regional frequency analysis is provided in Section 3. Selection and comparison of regional frequency methods are dealt with in Section 4; these are of great interest to the user. Increasing attention is being focused these days on paleohydrologic flood analysis. This topic is covered in Section 5.

  12. Reversed-polarity regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tang, F.

    1982-01-01

    It is found by a statistical study of 58 reversed-polarity regions (RPRs) covering the 11-year period 1969-1979 that RPRs (1) have a lifespan comparable to normal active regions, (2) do not show a tendency to rotate toward a more normal alignment, and (3) have stable configurations that do not suggest stress due to their anomalous magnetic alignment. As in normal regions, RPR magnetic complexity is found to be the primary factor in flare productivity. Weak-field RPRs produce no flares, and regions with complex spots produce more flares than regions with non-complex spots by a factor of five. The main difference between RPRs and normal regions lies in complex spot frequency, with less that 17% of normal active regions having such spots and fewer than 1.8% having long-lived complex ones, while 41% of RPRs have complex spots and 24% have long-lived complex spots.

  13. Norway's Regional College System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanisch, Thor Einar

    1981-01-01

    Examines the structure of Norway's short-cycle educational system. Describes how the district colleges function individually as units and collectively within a regional system to provide comprehensive, community-based educational opportunities. Discusses the incorporation of a variety of colleges into the regional system and encourages increased…

  14. REGIONAL EMAP PROPOSALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US EPA's Environmental Assessment and Monitoring Program (EMAP) annually funds regional EMAP (REMAP) projects through each of the regions to support the improvement of monitoring activities by the states. The last call for proposals emphasized the need to support biological m...

  15. Ad Hoc Rural Regionalism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamin, Elisabeth M.; Marcucci, Daniel J.

    2008-01-01

    A new regionalism has been much documented and researched for metropolitan areas; this article documents that there is a new rural regionalism as well. In the United States, these groups appear most likely to emerge in areas that are challenged by outcomes characterizing globalization's effects on the rural condition: namely, exurban or…

  16. Reversed-polarity regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tang, F.

    1980-01-01

    The 58 RPRS studied have a lifespan comparable to normal active regions and have no tendency to rotate toward a more normal alignment. They seem to have stable configurations with no apparent evidence suggesting stress due to their anomalous magnetic alignment. Magnetic complexity in RPRs is the key to flare productivity just as it is in normal regions - weak field RPRs produced no flares and regions with complex spots produced more flares than regions with noncomplex spots by a factor of 5. The RPRs however, differ from normal regions in the frequency of having complex spots, particularly the long lived complex spots, in them. Less than 17 percent of normal ARs have complex spots; less than 1.8 percent have long lived complex spots. In contrast, 41 percent of RPRs have complex spots and 24 percent have long lived complex spots.

  17. Regional Ocean Data Assimilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, Christopher A.; Moore, Andrew M.; Hoteit, Ibrahim; Cornuelle, Bruce D.

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews the past 15 years of developments in regional ocean data assimilation. A variety of scientific, management, and safety-related objectives motivate marine scientists to characterize many ocean environments, including coastal regions. As in weather prediction, the accurate representation of physical, chemical, and/or biological properties in the ocean is challenging. Models and observations alone provide imperfect representations of the ocean state, but together they can offer improved estimates. Variational and sequential methods are among the most widely used in regional ocean systems, and there have been exciting recent advances in ensemble and four-dimensional variational approaches. These techniques are increasingly being tested and adapted for biogeochemical applications.

  18. Upper Extremity Regional Anesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Neal, Joseph M.; Gerancher, J.C.; Hebl, James R.; Ilfeld, Brian M.; McCartney, Colin J.L.; Franco, Carlo D.; Hogan, Quinn H.

    2009-01-01

    Brachial plexus blockade is the cornerstone of the peripheral nerve regional anesthesia practice of most anesthesiologists. As part of the American Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine’s commitment to providing intensive evidence-based education related to regional anesthesia and analgesia, this article is a complete update of our 2002 comprehensive review of upper extremity anesthesia. The text of the review focuses on (1) pertinent anatomy, (2) approaches to the brachial plexus and techniques that optimize block quality, (4) local anesthetic and adjuvant pharmacology, (5) complications, (6) perioperative issues, and (6) challenges for future research. PMID:19282714

  19. [Variations of heterochromatic chromosomal regions and chromosome abnormalities in children with autism: identification of genetic markers in autistic spectrum disorders].

    PubMed

    Vorsanova, S G; Iurov, I Iu; Demidova, I A; Voinova-Ulas, V Iu; Kravets, V S; Solov'ev, I V; Gorbachevskaia, N L; Iurov, Iu B

    2006-01-01

    In the present study, the cytogenetic and molecular cytogenetic analysis of 90 children with autism and their mothers (18 subjects) was carried out. Chromosome fragility and abnormalities were found in four cases: mos 47,XXX[98]/ 46,XX[2]; 46,XY,r(22)(p11q13); 46,XY,inv(2)(p11.2q13),16qh-; 46Y,fra(X)(q27.3)16qh-. Using C-banding and quantitative fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), the significantly increased incidence of heterochromatic region variation was shown in autism as compared to the controls (48 and 16%, respectively). Pericentric 9phqh inversion was not characteristic of the patients with autism whereas heterochromatic variations 1phqh, 9qh+ and 16qh- were more frequent in autism (p<0,05). Basing on the data obtained, a possible role of position effect in autism pathogenesis as well as a potential of heterochromatic region variation analysis for the search of biological markers of autistic spectrum disorders are discussed. PMID:16841485

  20. REGION 9 INDIAN RESERVATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polygon coverage of all Indian Reservations in US EPA Region 9 (California, Arizona and Nevada). Reservation boundaries are compiled from multiple sources and are derived from several different source scales. Information such as reservation type, primary tribe name and location...

  1. Complex Regional Pain Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a chronic pain condition. It causes intense pain, usually in the arms, hands, legs, or feet. ... in skin temperature, color, or texture Intense burning pain Extreme skin sensitivity Swelling and stiffness in affected ...

  2. Regional Health Information Systems

    PubMed Central

    Fuller, Sherrilynne

    1997-01-01

    Abstract In general, there is agreement that robust integrated information systems are the foundation for building successful regional health care delivery systems. Integrated Advanced Information Management System (IAIMS) institutions that, over the years, have developed strategies for creating cohesive institutional information systems and services are finding that IAIMS strategies work well in the even more complex regional environment. The key elements of IAIMS planning are described and lessons learned are discussed in the context of regional health information systems developed. The challenges of aligning the various information agencies and agendas in support of a regional health information system are complex ; however, the potential rewards for health care in quality, efficacy, and cost savings are enormous. PMID:9067887

  3. Regional Instrumentation Centers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cromie, William J.

    1980-01-01

    Focuses on the activities of regional instrumentation centers that utilize the state-of-the-art instruments and methodology in basic scientific research. The emphasis is on the centers involved in mass spectroscopy, magnetic resonance spectroscopy, lasers, and accelerators. (SA)

  4. Mercury's South Polar Region

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation shows 89 wide-angle camera (WAC) images of Mercury’s south polar region acquired by the Mercury Dual Imaging System (MDIS) over one complete Mercury solar day (176 Earth days). Thi...

  5. On regional geomagnetic charts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alldredge, L.R.

    1987-01-01

    When regional geomagnetic charts for areas roughly the size of the US were compiled by hand, some large local anomalies were displayed in the isomagnetic lines. Since the late 1960s, when the compilation of charts using computers and mathematical models was started, most of the details available in the hand drawn regional charts have been lost. One exception to this is the Canadian magnetic declination chart for 1980. This chart was constructed using a 180 degrees spherical harmonic model. -from Author

  6. Delineation of ecosystem regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, Robert G.

    1983-07-01

    As a means of developing reliable estimates of ecosystem productivity, ecosystem classification needs to be placed within a geographical framework of regions or zones. This paper explains the basis for the regions delineated on the 1976 map Ecoregions of the United States. Four ecological levels are discussed—domain, division, province, and section—based on climatic and vegetational criteria. Statistical tests are needed to verify and refine map units.

  7. Northeast Regional Biomass Program

    SciTech Connect

    Lusk, P.D.

    1992-12-01

    The Northeast Regional Biomass Program has been in operation for a period of nine years. During this time, state managed programs and technical programs have been conducted covering a wide range of activities primarily aim at the use and applications of wood as a fuel. These activities include: assessments of available biomass resources; surveys to determine what industries, businesses, institutions, and utility companies use wood and wood waste for fuel; and workshops, seminars, and demonstrations to provide technical assistance. In the Northeast, an estimated 6.2 million tons of wood are used in the commercial and industrial sector, where 12.5 million cords are used for residential heating annually. Of this useage, 1504.7 mw of power has been generated from biomass. The use of wood energy products has had substantial employment and income benefits in the region. Although wood and woodwaste have received primary emphasis in the regional program, the use of municipal solid waste has received increased emphasis as an energy source. The energy contribution of biomass will increase as potentia users become more familiar with existing feedstocks, technologies, and applications. The Northeast Regional Biomass Program is designed to support region-specific to overcome near-term barriers to biomass energy use.

  8. NV PFA Regional Data

    SciTech Connect

    James Faulds

    2015-10-28

    This project focused on defining geothermal play fairways and development of a detailed geothermal potential map of a large transect across the Great Basin region (96,000 km2), with the primary objective of facilitating discovery of commercial-grade, blind geothermal fields (i.e. systems with no surface hot springs or fumaroles) and thereby accelerating geothermal development in this promising region. Data included in this submission consists of: structural settings (target areas, recency of faulting, slip and dilation potential, slip rates, quality), regional-scale strain rates, earthquake density and magnitude, gravity data, temperature at 3 km depth, permeability models, favorability models, degree of exploration and exploration opportunities, data from springs and wells, transmission lines and wilderness areas, and published maps and theses for the Nevada Play Fairway area.

  9. Turbulence in HII regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'dell, C. R.

    1986-10-01

    It has been known for many decades that the Reynolds number in HII regions must be very high and that the corresponding fine scale flow must be turbulent. Even though the theoretical relation between turbulent element separation and random velocity was derived by Kolmogoroff over forty years ago, there have been only a few attempts to test this theory and its corresponding assumptions. An attempt by Munch for M42 with marginal velocity resolution lead to ambiguous results, although more recent studies by Jean Rene Roy and his colleagues have been more credible. The internal velocities of a number of HII regions were systematically studied and the theory was tested with considerable certainty. The results should be important for the determination of the energy balance of HII regions and the relation of small scale motion to the process of star formation.

  10. 17 CFR 140.2 - Regional office-regional coordinators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Regional office-regional coordinators. 140.2 Section 140.2 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, FUNCTIONS, AND PROCEDURES OF THE COMMISSION Organization § 140.2 Regional office—regional coordinators. Each of the Regional...

  11. Stability of regional configurations

    SciTech Connect

    Canavan, G.H.

    1998-08-13

    At moderate force levels the first strike stability index is proportional to the first strike cost, so as the attacker minimizes attack costs, he automatically minimizes stability. Weapons grow rapidly and saturate to levels comparable to the number of value targets held at risk. This growth could appear destabilizing to dominant regional powers, whose response could in turn appear threatening to the major nuclear powers, which could slow or halt efforts towards deep reductions. The fundamental way to alter these pressures appears to be through reducing the likelihood of regional crises by removing these fundamental antagonisms.

  12. MISR Regional SAMUM Products

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-08-24

    ... three types of MISR Regional products:  Radiance ,  Aerosol , and  Land Surface . Each product summarizes selected parameters ... Radiance/RQI field. Component Global Aerosol Product (CGAS): MI3DAER, MI3MAER, MI3QAER, MI3YAER ...

  13. MISR Regional VBBE Products

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-08-24

    ... three types of MISR Regional products:  Radiance ,  Aerosol , and  Land Surface . Each product summarizes selected parameters ... Radiance/RQI field. Component Global Aerosol Product (CGAS): MI3DAER, MI3MAER, MI3QAER, MI3YAER ...

  14. Regionalism. Clip and Save.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubbard, Guy

    2002-01-01

    Focuses on the art movement, called Regionalism, discussing the painters involved and describing the characteristics of the art movement. Provides a set of learning activities and background information on John Steuart Curry. Includes a discussion of Curry's painting, "Tornado Over Kansas," and a reproduction of the painting. (CMK)

  15. Benchmarks: WICHE Region 2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education, 2013

    2013-01-01

    Benchmarks: WICHE Region 2012 presents information on the West's progress in improving access to, success in, and financing of higher education. The information is updated annually to monitor change over time and encourage its use as a tool for informed discussion in policy and education communities. To establish a general context for the…

  16. Active region coronal evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golub, L.; Noci, G.; Poletto, G.; Vaiana, G. S.

    1982-01-01

    Scaling relations between coronal base pressure and longitudinal photospheric magnetic field strength are tested for the case of a single active region observed for five solar rotations from Skylab. The evolution of measureable quantities, such as coronal thermal energy content, total longitudinal photospheric magnetic flux, region scale size, and peak energy density, is traced throughout the five rotations observed. The theoretically derived scaling law of Golub et al. (1980) is found to provide an acceptable fit to the data throughout the entire evolutionary history of the region from an age of about 3 days to the fully evolved state in which the mature active region merges into the general large-scale structure of the quiet corona. An alternative scaling law obtained by including the results of Galeev et al. (1981), however, is found to provide a somewhat better fit to the data. The study is seen as providing additional justification for the belief that magnetic field-related heating is the operative mechanism in the solar corona.

  17. Multiethnic Societies and Regions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanfield, John H., II

    1996-01-01

    Maintains that sociology must reconceptualize the meaning of multiethnic societies and regions and also advance theories about how such social organizations came into being and transform themselves through conflicting and peaceful processes. Briefly reviews traditional approaches and outlines new areas of study. (MJP)

  18. SPARROW REGIONAL NUTRIENT MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is the second year of funding for the New England SPARROW (Spatially Referenced Regressions on Watershed Attributes) model. Funds in the first year (along with funds allocated for projects supporting Nutrient-Criteria development) were used to analyze regional results ...

  19. Regional Norms for English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kachru, Braj B.

    The debate continues about regional norms for English usage around the world, although the discussion has become more realistic and less didactic. Educated non-native varieties are increasingly accepted, distinctions are being made between national and international language uses, and localized varieties are no longer considered as necessarily…

  20. Climatic Concepts and Regions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Paul F.

    Designed for students in grades 7 through 12, this teaching unit presents illustrative resource materials depicting concepts related to climate and geographic regions. Emphasis is on giving students an understanding of climatic elements and factors, not as isolated, disjointed entities, but as a dynamic interplay of forces having a very definite…

  1. REGIONAL CONFERENCE SUMMARIES, 1966.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Adult, Vocational, and Technical Education (DHEW/OE), Washington, DC. Div. of Vocational and Technical Education.

    AN AVERAGE OF 200 TEACHER EDUCATORS, STATE DIRECTORS, LAYMEN, AND REPRESENTATIVES OF VARIOUS AGENCIES ATTENDED EACH OF NINE REGIONAL CONFERENCES CONDUCTED THROUGHOUT THE UNITED STATES TO DISCUSS THE INFLUENCE OF SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC CHANGES AND PROBLEMS IN PLANNING AND CONDUCTING VOCATIONAL AND TECHNICAL EDUCATION PROGRAMS. MAJOR SPEECHES PRESENTED…

  2. Recipe for Regional Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, Fred D.

    1994-01-01

    The Ceramics Corridor has created new jobs in New York's Appalachian region by fostering ceramics research and product development by small private companies. Corridor business incubators offer tenants low overhead costs, fiber-optic connections to Alfred University's mainframe computer, rental of lab space, and use of equipment small companies…

  3. Variation of Fundamental Mode Surface Wave Group Velocity Dispersion in Iran and the Surrounding Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rham, D. J.; Preistley, K.; Tatar, M.; Paul, A.

    2006-12-01

    We present group velocity dispersion results from a study of regional fundamental mode Rayleigh and Love waves propagating across Iran and the surrounding region. Data for these measurements comes from field deployments within Iran by the University of Cambridge (GBR) and the Universite Joseph-Fourier (FRA) in conjunction with International Institute of Earthquake Engineering and Seismology (Iran), in addition to data from IRIS and Geofone. 1D path- averaged dispersion measurements have been made for ~5500 source-receiver paths using multiple filter analysis. We combine these observations in a tomographic inversion to produce group velocity images between 10 and 60 s period. Because of the dense path coverage, these images have substantially higher lateral resolution for this region than is currently available from global and regional group velocity studies. We observe variations in short-period wave group velocity which is consistent with the surface geology. Low group velocities (2.00-2.55 km/s) at short periods (10-20 s), for both Rayleigh and Love waves are observed beneath thick sedimentary deposits; The south Caspian Basin, Black Sea, the eastern Mediterranean, the Persian Gulf, the Makran, the southern Turan shield, and the Indus and Gangetic basins. Somewhat higher group velocity (2.80-3.15 km/s for Rayleigh, and 3.00-3.40 km/s for Love) at these periods occur in sediment poor regions, such as; the Turkish-Iranian plateau, the Arabian shield, and Kazakhstan. At intermediate periods (30-40 s) group velocities over most of the region are low (2.65-3.20 km/s for Rayleigh, and 2.80-3.45 km/s for love) compared to Arabia (3.40-3.70 km/s Rayleigh, 3.50-4.0 km/s Love). At longer periods (50-60 s) Love wave group velocities remain low (3.25-3.70 km/s) over most of Iran, but there are even lower velocities (2.80-3.00 km/s) still associated with the thick sediments of the south Caspian basin, the surrounding shield areas have much higher group velocities (3

  4. REGIONAL RESEARCH, METHODS, AND SUPPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Human Exposure and Atmospheric Sciences Division (HEASD) has several collaborations with regional partners through the Regional Science Program (RSP) managed by ORD's Office of Science Policy (OSP). These projects resulted from common interests outlined in the Regional Appli...

  5. Active region seismology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bogdan, Tom; Braun, D. C.

    1995-01-01

    Active region seismology is concerned with the determination and interpretation of the interaction of the solar acoustic oscillations with near-surface target structures, such as magnetic flux concentration, sunspots, and plage. Recent observations made with a high spatial resolution and a long temporal duration enabled measurements of the scattering matrix for sunspots and solar active regions to be carried out as a function of the mode properties. Based on this information, the amount of p-mode absorption, partial-wave phase shift, and mode mixing introduced by the sunspot, could be determined. In addition, the possibility of detecting the presence of completely submerged magnetic fields was raised, and new procedures for performing acoustic holography of the solar interior are being developed. The accumulating evidence points to the mode conversion of p-modes to various magneto-atmospheric waves within the magnetic flux concentration as being the unifying physical mechanism responsible for these diverse phenomena.

  6. Northwest Regional Climate Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lipschultz, Fred

    2011-01-01

    Objectives are to establish a continuing, inclusive National process that: 1) synthesizes relevant science and information 2) increases understanding of what is known & not known 3) identifies information needs related to preparing for climate variability and change, and reducing climate impacts and vulnerability 4) evaluates progress of adaptation & mitigation activities 5) informs science priorities 6) builds assessment capacity in regions and sectors 7) builds understanding & skilled use of findings

  7. Transition Region Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brekke, P.; Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Ultraviolet emission lines emitted from the SOLAR TRANSITION REGION are often shifted from their expected rest wavelengths. Shifts of spectral lines are due to the so-called DOPPLER EFFECT, where the source of emission is moving either away from or towards the observer, causing a change in the apparent wavelength. The shifted emission lines are most often interpreted as a flow of plasma along ...

  8. Regional Renewable Energy Cooperatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazendonk, P.; Brown, M. B.; Byrne, J. M.; Harrison, T.; Mueller, R.; Peacock, K.; Usher, J.; Yalamova, R.; Kroebel, R.; Larsen, J.; McNaughton, R.

    2014-12-01

    We are building a multidisciplinary research program linking researchers in agriculture, business, earth science, engineering, humanities and social science. Our goal is to match renewable energy supply and reformed energy demands. The program will be focused on (i) understanding and modifying energy demand, (ii) design and implementation of diverse renewable energy networks. Geomatics technology will be used to map existing energy and waste flows on a neighbourhood, municipal, and regional level. Optimal sites and combinations of sites for solar and wind electrical generation (ridges, rooftops, valley walls) will be identified. Geomatics based site and grid analyses will identify best locations for energy production based on efficient production and connectivity to regional grids and transportation. Design of networks for utilization of waste streams of heat, water, animal and human waste for energy production will be investigated. Agriculture, cities and industry produce many waste streams that are not well utilized. Therefore, establishing a renewable energy resource mapping and planning program for electrical generation, waste heat and energy recovery, biomass collection, and biochar, biodiesel and syngas production is critical to regional energy optimization. Electrical storage and demand management are two priorities that will be investigated. Regional scale cooperatives may use electric vehicle batteries and innovations such as pump storage and concentrated solar molten salt heat storage for steam turbine electrical generation. Energy demand management is poorly explored in Canada and elsewhere - our homes and businesses operate on an unrestricted demand. Simple monitoring and energy demand-ranking software can easily reduce peaks demands and move lower ranked uses to non-peak periods, thereby reducing the grid size needed to meet peak demands. Peak demand strains the current energy grid capacity and often requires demand balancing projects and

  9. Complex regional pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bruehl, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome is a chronic pain condition characterized by autonomic and inflammatory features. It occurs acutely in about 7% of patients who have limb fractures, limb surgery, or other injuries. Many cases resolve within the first year, with a smaller subset progressing to the chronic form. This transition is often paralleled by a change from "warm complex regional pain syndrome," with inflammatory characteristics dominant, to "cold complex regional pain syndrome" in which autonomic features dominate. Multiple peripheral and central mechanisms seem to be involved, the relative contributions of which may differ between individuals and over time. Possible contributors include peripheral and central sensitization, autonomic changes and sympatho-afferent coupling, inflammatory and immune alterations, brain changes, and genetic and psychological factors. The syndrome is diagnosed purely on the basis of clinical signs and symptoms. Effective management of the chronic form of the syndrome is often challenging. Few high quality randomized controlled trials are available to support the efficacy of the most commonly used interventions. Reviews of available randomized trials suggest that physical and occupational therapy (including graded motor imagery and mirror therapy), bisphosphonates, calcitonin, subanesthetic intravenous ketamine, free radical scavengers, oral corticosteroids, and spinal cord stimulation may be effective treatments. Multidisciplinary clinical care, which centers around functionally focused therapies is recommended. Other interventions are used to facilitate engagement in functional therapies and to improve quality of life. PMID:26224572

  10. Regional Technical Committee meeting.

    PubMed

    1999-03-01

    In January 1999, the 7th Regional Technical Committee of the Asia Regional Project, which seeks to strengthen community-based delivery of reproductive health (RH) care and family planning (FP), met at JOICFP. The 15 participants from Bangladesh, Laos, Nepal, the Philippines, the UN Population Fund, and the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) reviewed project activities during 1996-98 and finalized a work plan for 1999, reviewed evaluation outcomes, drafted a set of guidelines for the implementation of community-based RH programs, and consolidated plans to ensure program sustainability beyond 2000. The delegates from each country reported on their accomplishments and future challenges, and these experiences will be incorporated into manuals that will be useful tools for policy-makers and grassroots activists alike. A representative of the IPPF recommended continued sharing of accumulated project experience, sharing IEC (information, education, communication) materials with other nongovernmental and governmental organizations, fostering site visits to expand projects, and involving local governments to raise local resources. She noted that the IPPF would explore ways to continue project support. The UNFPA representative called for increased regional activities in the areas of adolescent sexual and RH education and services, quality of care training, advocacy, and furthering male involvement. PMID:12349120

  11. Regional Shelter Analysis Methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Dillon, Michael B.; Dennison, Deborah; Kane, Jave; Walker, Hoyt; Miller, Paul

    2015-08-01

    The fallout from a nuclear explosion has the potential to injure or kill 100,000 or more people through exposure to external gamma (fallout) radiation. Existing buildings can reduce radiation exposure by placing material between fallout particles and exposed people. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory was tasked with developing an operationally feasible methodology that could improve fallout casualty estimates. The methodology, called a Regional Shelter Analysis, combines the fallout protection that existing buildings provide civilian populations with the distribution of people in various locations. The Regional Shelter Analysis method allows the consideration of (a) multiple building types and locations within buildings, (b) country specific estimates, (c) population posture (e.g., unwarned vs. minimally warned), and (d) the time of day (e.g., night vs. day). The protection estimates can be combined with fallout predictions (or measurements) to (a) provide a more accurate assessment of exposure and injury and (b) evaluate the effectiveness of various casualty mitigation strategies. This report describes the Regional Shelter Analysis methodology, highlights key operational aspects (including demonstrating that the methodology is compatible with current tools), illustrates how to implement the methodology, and provides suggestions for future work.

  12. The Pacific Region.

    PubMed

    Tagica, K

    1993-03-01

    Population education in the Pacific region is summarized in terms of awareness and commitment, curriculum and instructional materials development, integration into the school curricula, training programs, and evaluation research. Several population education issues of current concern relate to the increase in chronic diseases such as diabetes and hypertension that are associated with life styles and diet, and the rising incidence of AIDS and teenage pregnancy. In the Pacific region, many countries have advanced population programs and policies, while some still do not even have a population policy. The issue of balancing population and resources is a topic that has not been sufficiently addressed in resource-poor countries. There is wide variance in awareness and commitment to population education in the Pacific region. Commitment and continuous support are crucial to population education projects. Lack of support is sometimes due to changing government personnel and lack of awareness of policy makers. Population education is not the same as family planning or sex education, and traditionally is spread through seminars and workshops by part time project personnel unconnected to the entire educational apparatus. Presently, only 8 population projects are functioning in the region, with 2-3 in the planning stages. Materials development in the Pacific region has been devoted to the secondary school level, yet awareness is increasing that sexuality, family health, and the environment should be introduced at the primary level. A popular strategy is to integrate population issues into the existing curriculum, such as in Fiji, the Marshall Islands, and Kiribati, which also have teacher training curriculum. In most countries sex education is still a controversial topic, and materials are developed by teacher committees working after school rather in a curriculum development unit. AIDS has pushed this topic into the public sector. A chart is provided for each country and

  13. Extraction of texture regions using region-based local correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Sang Yong; Lim, Chae Whan; Chun, Young Deok; Kim, Nam Chul

    2000-12-01

    We present an efficient algorithm using a region-based texture feature for the extraction of texture regions. The key idea of this algorithm is based on the fact that most of the variations of local correlation coefficients (LCCs) according to different orientations are clearly larger in texture regions than in shade regions. An object image is first segmented into homogeneous regions. The variations of LCCs are next averaged in each segmented region. Based on the averaged variations of LCCs, each region is then classified as a texture or shade region. The threshold for classification is found automatically by an iterative threshold selection technique. In order to evaluate the performance of the proposed algorithm, we use six test images (Lena, Woman, Tank, Jet, Face and Tree) of 256 X 256 8-bit pixels. Experimental results show that the proposed feature suitably extracts the regions that appear visually as texture regions.

  14. Regional river sulfur runoff

    SciTech Connect

    Husar, R.B.; Husar, J.D.

    1985-01-20

    The water and sulfur runoff data for 54 large river basins were assembled, covering 65% of the nondesert land area of the world. The sulfur concentration ranges from 0.5 mg S/L for the West African rivers Niger and Volta to 100 mg S/L in the Colorado River; the world average is 3.2 mg S/L. The concentrations in central and eastern Europe as well as central and eastern North America exceed 8 mg S/L. The sulfur runoff density is also highest in the river basins over these industrialized regions, exceeding 2 g S/m/sup 2//yr. However, high sulfur runoff density in excess of 3 g S/m/sup 2//yr is also measured over the Pacific islands New Zealand and New Guinea and the archipelagos of Indonesia and the Philippines. The natural background sulfur runoff was estimated by assuming that South America, Africa, Australia, and the Pacific Islands are unperturbed by man and that the average river sulfur concentration is in the range 1--3 mg S/L. Taking these background concentration values, the man-induced sulfur runoff for Europe ranges between 2 and 8 times the natural flow, and over North America, man's contribution ranges between 1 and 5 times the natural runoff. The global sulfur flow from nondesert land to the oceans and the Caspian Sea is estimated as 131 Tg S/yr, of which 46--85 Tg S/yr is attributed to natural causes. The regional river sulfur runoff pattern discussed in this paper does not have enough spatial resolution to be directly applicable to studies of the environmental effects of man-induced sulfur flows. However, it points to the continental-size regions where those perturbations are most evident and to the magnitude of the perturbations as expressed in units of the natural flows.

  15. Regional river sulfur runoff

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Husar, Rudolf B.; Husar, Janja Djukic

    1985-01-01

    The water and sulfur runoff data for 54 large river basins were assembled, covering 65% of the nondesert land area of the world. The sulfur concentration ranges from 0.5 mg S/L for the West African rivers Niger and Volta to 100 mg S/L in the Colorado River; the world average is 3.2 mg S/L. The concentrations in central and eastern Europe as well as central and eastern North America exceed 8 mg S/L. The sulfur runoff density is also highest in the river basins over these industrialized regions, exceeding 2 g S/m2/yr. However, high sulfur runoff density in excess of 3 g S/m2/yr is also measured over the Pacific islands New Zealand and New Guinea and the archipelagos of Indonesia and the Philippines. The natural background sulfur runoff was estimated by assuming that South America, Africa, Australia, and the Pacific Islands are unperturbed by man and that the average river sulfur concentration is in the range 1-3 mg S/L. Taking these background concentration values, the man-induced sulfur runoff for Europe ranges between 2 and 8 times the natural flow, and over North America, man's contribution ranges between 1 and 5 times the natural runoff. The global sulfur flow from nondesert land to the oceans and the Caspian Sea is estimated as 131 Tg S/yr, of which 46-85 Tg S/yr is attributed to natural causes. The regional river sulfur runoff pattern discussed in this paper does not have enough spatial resolution to be directly applicable to studies of the environmental effects of man-induced sulfur flows. However, it points to the continental-size regions where those perturbations are most evident and to the magnitude of the perturbations as expressed in units of the natural flows.

  16. Complex regional pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sebastin, Sandeep J

    2011-05-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) previously known as reflex sympathetic dystrophy is a chronic neurological disorder involving the limbs characterized by disabling pain, swelling, vasomotor instability, sudomotor abnormality, and impairment of motor function. CRPS is not uncommon after hand surgery and may complicate post-operative care. There is no specific diagnostic test for CRPS and the diagnosis is based on history, clinical examination, and supportive laboratory findings. Recent modifications to diagnostic criteria have enabled clinicians to diagnose this disease more consistently. This review gives a synopsis of CRPS and discusses the diagnosis, pathophysiology, and treatment options based on the limited evidence in the literature. PMID:22022040

  17. Complex regional pain syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Sebastin, Sandeep J

    2011-01-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) previously known as reflex sympathetic dystrophy is a chronic neurological disorder involving the limbs characterized by disabling pain, swelling, vasomotor instability, sudomotor abnormality, and impairment of motor function. CRPS is not uncommon after hand surgery and may complicate post-operative care. There is no specific diagnostic test for CRPS and the diagnosis is based on history, clinical examination, and supportive laboratory findings. Recent modifications to diagnostic criteria have enabled clinicians to diagnose this disease more consistently. This review gives a synopsis of CRPS and discusses the diagnosis, pathophysiology, and treatment options based on the limited evidence in the literature. PMID:22022040

  18. Regional update: Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Deva, M P; D'Souza, R; Sundram, S

    2009-10-01

    Cambodia is a developing south-east Asian country located in the fertile Mekong delta. Its recent past has been complicated by European colonialism and internal conflict. Health including mental health services are limited and sparse in regional and rural areas. Very constrained public mental health facilities and services are hampered by a shortage of a skilled workforce and insufficient training programs. The recent formation of the Mental Health Association of Cambodia promises to be a positive step forward in promoting mental health throughout the country. PMID:23051055

  19. [Prevention in regional policy].

    PubMed

    Masi, M; Caponetti, A

    2006-01-01

    Prevention, safety and health promotion represent fondamental issues in the Regional policy. With this regard, the implementation of the Regional policy has been thought as the promotion of an integrated system which links different fields such as health, work-related information and education, job orientation and work in general. It is recommended that a good standard of prevention is achieved through the synergic actions and the collaborations among all the different actors playing a role in safety and prevention in workplace, including occupational physicians, safety and prevention operators, safety representatives for workers, trade unions, employers associations and public institutions. It is also necessary to adopt a strategy in order to decrease the number of misdiagnosed occupational diseases as well as to promote the "culture of safety in workplaces", increasing the awareness of all figures, with special focus on employers category. All this has to be set in the new scenario of the nowadays work characterized by the progressive increase of atypical job contracts, renewing the emphasis on the necessity of keeping joined "the right to a job with the right to health". PMID:17144418

  20. Colorado Regional Faults

    DOE Data Explorer

    Hussein, Khalid

    2012-02-01

    Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Originator: Colorado Geological Survey (CGS) Publication Date: 2012 Title: Regional Faults Edition: First Publication Information: Publication Place: Earth Science & Observation Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science, University of Colorado, Boulder Publisher: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Description: This layer contains the regional faults of Colorado Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4543192.100000 m Left: 144385.020000 m Right: 754585.020000 m Bottom: 4094592.100000 m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Contact Person: Khalid Hussein Address: CIRES, Ekeley Building Earth Science & Observation Center (ESOC) 216 UCB City: Boulder State: CO Postal Code: 80309-0216 Country: USA Contact Telephone: 303-492-6782 Spatial Reference Information: Coordinate System: Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) WGS’1984 Zone 13N False Easting: 500000.00000000 False Northing: 0.00000000 Central Meridian: -105.00000000 Scale Factor: 0.99960000 Latitude of Origin: 0.00000000 Linear Unit: Meter Datum: World Geodetic System 1984 (WGS ’984) Prime Meridian: Greenwich Angular Unit: Degree Digital Form: Format Name: Shape file

  1. [COMPLEX REGIONAL PAIN SYNDROME].

    PubMed

    Blažeković, Ivan; Bilić, Ervina; Žagar, Marija; Anić, Branimir

    2015-01-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) represents a state of constant and often disabling pain, affecting one region (usually hand) and often occurs after a trauma whose severity does not correlate with the level of pain. The older term for this condition of chronic pain associated with motor and autonomic symptoms is reflex sympathetic dystrophy or causalgia. The aim of this review, based on contemporary literature, is to show the epidemiology and etiology, proposed pathophysiological mechanisms, method of diagnosis and treatment options, prevention and mitigation of this under-recognized disease. CRPS I occurs without known neurological damage, unlike CRPS II, where the history of trauma is present and in some cases damage to the peripheral nervous system can be objectively assessed using electromyoneurography. New diagnostic methods, such as quantitative sensory testing (CST), challenge this division because the CST findings in patients with CRPS I can suggest damage to Adelta peripheral nerve fibers. Except for distinguishing type I and type II disease, it is important to bear in mind the diversity of clinical presentation of CRPS in acute and chronic phase of the disease. This regional pain syndrome typically includes the autonomic and motor signs and thus differs from other peripheral neuropathic pain syndromes. The complexity of the clinical presentation indicates the likely presence of different pathophysiological mechanisms underlying this disease. Previous studies have demonstrated the autonomic dysfunction, neurogenic inflammation and neuroplastic changes. The diagnosis of CRPS is based on anamnesis and clinical examination on the basis of which the disease can be graded according to the Budapest Criteria. A valuable aid in differentiating subtypes of the disease is electromyoneurography. The treatment of CRPS is as complex as the clinical picture and the pathophysiology of the disease and requires interdisciplinary cooperation and individual approach

  2. Variability in the heterochromatin regions of the chromosomes and chromosomal anomalies in children with autism: identification of genetic markers of autistic spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Vorsanova, S G; Yurov, I Yu; Demidova, I A; Voinova-Ulas, V Yu; Kravets, V S; Solov'ev, I V; Gorbachevskaya, N L; Yurov, Yu B

    2007-07-01

    Cytogenetic and molecular cytogenetic analysis of children with autism (90 subjects) and their mothers (18 subjects) is presented. Anomalies and fragility were found in chromosome X in four cases of autism: mos 47,XXX[98]/46, XX[2]; 46,XY,r(22)(p11q13); 46,XY,inv(2)(p11.2q13),16qh-; and 46,Y,fra(X)(q27.3),16qh-. C staining and quantitative fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) were used to demonstrate a significant increase in the frequency of variations in the heterochromatin regions of chromosomes in children with autism as compared with a control group (48% and 16% respectively). Pericentric chromosome inversion 9phqh was not characteristic of patients with autism, while variation in heterochromatin regions 1phqh, 9qh+, and 16qh-were found significantly more frequently in children with autism. These data provide the basis for discussing the possible role of the gene position effect in the pathogenesis of autism and the possible search for biological markers of autistic disorders. PMID:17657425

  3. Complex regional pain syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Carr, Emily S.; De La Cerda, Ashley

    2016-01-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a neurologic disorder that often results in debilitating chronic pain, but the diagnosis may elude providers as it is one of exclusion. A history of trauma may be elucidated. We report a case of CRPS and review the clinical findings, appropriate workup, and treatment options for the patient. The patient we describe went through an extensive workup before receiving the correct diagnosis. Delay in diagnosis leads to prolonged suffering for the patient and, at times, unnecessary invasive debridement procedures. Raising awareness of this entity may help physicians make the correct diagnosis early, as well as initiate a collaborative effort between neurology, anesthesiology, and dermatology to provide the patient the most favorable outcome. PMID:27365892

  4. Cydonia Region - detail

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Detail cut out of PIA01235, Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image of a 4.42 by 82.94 km area of the Cydonia Region. The left image is raw, the right has been filtered and contrast enhanced.

    Orbit: 220

    Range: 444.21 km

    Resolution: 4.32 m/pixel

    Emission angle: 44.66 degrees

    Incidence angle: 64.96 degrees

    Phase angle: 61.97 degrees

    Scan rate: 0.1 degree/sec

    Start time: periapsis + 375 sec

    Sequence submitted to JPL: Sat 04/04/98 15:15 PST

    Image acquired by MOC: Sun 04/05/98 00:39:37 PST

    Data retrieved from JPL: Mon 04/06/98 09:05 PDT

  5. Moldova. Historic regional conference.

    PubMed

    Moshin, V

    1995-05-01

    The Directorate of Maternal and Child Health and the Family Planning Association of Moldova organized a regional conference, which was held October 18-19, 1994, in Kishinev, Moldova, with the support of the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), the World Health Organization (WHO), and the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF). The conference,"Problems of Family Planning in Eastern Europe," was attended by approximately 400 Moldovan delegates of governmental and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), and by 25 delegates from Romania, Russia, Belarus, the Ukraine, and Georgia. The President of Moldova and the Ministry of Public Health of Moldova gave their approval. The main objectives of the conference were to inform the public about the recommendations of the ICPD, to analyze the status of women's reproductive health and family planning in Eastern Europe, and to find ways of implementing the ICPD Plan of Action. Major problems identified during the conference were: 1) the social and economic problems facing most families; 2) the high rate of morbidity and mortality; 3) the decrease in birth rate; 4) the increase in abortions; 5) the rising incidence of venereal disease; and 6) the absence of an effective family planning system. It was agreed that cooperation between governments and NGOs is essential in designing population programs for each country. The following goals were set: 1) to provide populations with sufficient contraceptives; 2) to actively promote family planning concepts through the mass media; 3) to train specialists and to open family planning offices and centers; 4) to introduce sex education in the curricula of Pedagogical Institutes; and 5) to create national and regional statistical and sociological databases on population issues. PMID:12222268

  6. Reull Vallis Source Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] (Released 1 July 2002) The jumbled, chaotic terrain in this THEMIS image may represent a source region for the Reull Vallis, one of the larger channel systems in the southern hemisphere of Mars. Such regions of chaos are thought to form by the catastrophic release of groundwater. If this was the case, then the water would have flowed down gradient to the south and may have contributed to the formation of the Reull Vallis. The top of the image shows two short segments of channels that are interrupted by the chaos, demonstrating that there was a channel system in place before the ground foundered to produce the chaos. One of the more intriguing features seen among the jumbled blocks are narrow ledges that vaguely resemble bath tub rings in the way they conform to the topography. Two good examples are seen running roughly left-right across the image about a fourth of the way down. At first they appear to be layers protruding from the cliff faces, but upon closer inspection a more ledge-like character is evident. Note how they appear different between the south-facing and north facing cliffs. The occurrence of one of these features on the south-facing interior rim of the largest crater in the image but nowhere else around the rim argues against the idea that the ledges are due to a layer of rock cropping out throughout the landscape. Instead, they appear more like the edges of a layer of sediment that drapes the topography. It is possible that the sediment is mixed with ice and is best preserved in the shadowed portions of the terrain. There is no easy explanation for these unusual features. They represent one more Martian enigma.

  7. Regional brain hypometabolism is unrelated to regional amyloid plaque burden.

    PubMed

    Altmann, Andre; Ng, Bernard; Landau, Susan M; Jagust, William J; Greicius, Michael D

    2015-12-01

    In its original form, the amyloid cascade hypothesis of Alzheimer's disease holds that fibrillar deposits of amyloid are an early, driving force in pathological events leading ultimately to neuronal death. Early clinicopathological investigations highlighted a number of inconsistencies leading to an updated hypothesis in which amyloid plaques give way to amyloid oligomers as the driving force in pathogenesis. Rather than focusing on the inconsistencies, amyloid imaging studies have tended to highlight the overlap between regions that show early amyloid plaque signal on positron emission tomography and that also happen to be affected early in Alzheimer's disease. Recent imaging studies investigating the regional dependency between metabolism and amyloid plaque deposition have arrived at conflicting results, with some showing regional associations and other not. We extracted multimodal neuroimaging data from the Alzheimer's disease neuroimaging database for 227 healthy controls and 434 subjects with mild cognitive impairment. We analysed regional patterns of amyloid deposition, regional glucose metabolism and regional atrophy using florbetapir ((18)F) positron emission tomography, (18)F-fluordeoxyglucose positron emission tomography and T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging, respectively. Specifically, we derived grey matter density and standardized uptake value ratios for both positron emission tomography tracers in 404 functionally defined regions of interest. We examined the relation between regional glucose metabolism and amyloid plaques using linear models. For each region of interest, correcting for regional grey matter density, age, education and disease status, we tested the association of regional glucose metabolism with (i) cortex-wide florbetapir uptake; (ii) regional (i.e. in the same region of interest) florbetapir uptake; and (iii) regional florbetapir uptake while correcting in addition for cortex-wide florbetapir uptake. P-values for each setting

  8. Landslides of Palestinian Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alwahsh, H.

    2013-12-01

    Natural disasters are extreme sudden events caused by environmental and natural actors that take away the lives of many thousands of people each year and damage large amount of properties. They strike anywhere on earth, often without any warning. A risk maps of natural disaster are very useful to identify the places that might be adversely affected in the event of natural disaster. The earthquakes are one of natural disaster that have the greatest hazards and will cause loss of life and properties due to damaging the structures of building, dams, bridges. In addition, it will affect local geology and soil conditions. The site effects play an important role in earthquake risk because of its amplification or damping simulation. Another parameter in developing risk map is landslide, which is also one of the most important topics in site effect hazards. Palestine region has been suffering landslide hazards because of the topographical and geological conditions of this region. Most Palestine consists of mountainous area, which has great steep slopes and the type of soil is mainly grayish to yellowish silty clay (Marl Soil). Due to the above mentioned factors many landslides have been occurred from Negev south to the northern borders of Palestine. An example of huge and destruction landslide in a Palestine authority is the landslide in the White Mountain area in the city of Nablus, which occurred in 1997. The geotechnical and geophysical investigation as well as slope stability analysis should be considered in making landslide maps that are necessary to develop risk levels of the natural disaster. Landslides occurred in slopes that are created naturally or by human beings. Failure of soil mass occurs, and hence landslide of soil mass happen due to sliding of soil mass along a plane or curved surface. In general, the slopes become unstable when the shear stresses (driving force) generated in the soil mass exceed the available shearing resistance on the rupture surface

  9. USArray Regional Phase Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buehler, J. S.; Shearer, P. M.

    2014-12-01

    The regional Pn and Sn phases, which are typically described as headwaves that propagate in the uppermost mantle, are sensitive to heterogeneities in the mantle lid and complement other seismic studies with poorer vertical resolution at this depth. We have experimented with a variety of approaches to image the velocity structure and anisotropy in the western U.S., starting with separate Pn and Sn time-term tomographies, but also localized cross-correlation and stacking approaches that benefit from the regular USArray station arrangement. Later we combined the data sets for joint Pn-Sn inversions and the resulting Vp/Vs maps provide further insight into the nature of the seismic anomalies. Now that USArray has reached the east coast, we are updating our models to include the cumulative station footprint. The sparser source distribution in the eastern U.S., and the resulting longer ray paths, provide new challenges and justify the inclusion of additional parameters that account for the velocity gradient in the mantle lid. Our results show generally higher Pn velocities in the eastern U.S., but we observe patches of lower velocities around the New Madrid seismic zone and below the eastern Appalachians. We find that the Pn fast axes generally do not agree with SKS splitting orientations, suggesting significant vertical changes in anisotropy in the upper mantle. For example, the circular pattern of the fast polarization direction of SKS in the western U.S. is much less pronounced in the Pn results, and in the eastern U.S. the dominant Pn fast direction is approximately north-south, whereas the SKS fast polarizations are oriented roughly parallel to the absolute plate motion direction. Since Pn and Sn travel through the crust, they can provide additional information on crustal thickness. In several regions our results and estimates from receiver function studies are inconsistent. For example, beneath the Colorado Plateau our crustal thickness estimates are about 35-40 km

  10. A Regional Resource: Appalachian Campuses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roesch, Harry

    1975-01-01

    An Appalachian Regional Commission survey of 180 institutions of higher education in the Appalachian Region pinpoints which institutions offer technical assistance to state and local governments and officals. (Author)

  11. Towards regional products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pujol, M.; Dibarboure, G.; Faugère, Y.; Bronner, E.

    2011-12-01

    During the last 17 years, altimeter Level 3 (along-track cross-calibrated SLA) and Level 4 products (merging multiple sensors as maps or time series) were developed in parallel with L2 (a.k.a GDR) processing improvements. Directly usable and easier to manipulate, L3/4 products are now vastly used in the user community. They contribute to various studies in different fields that cover the ocean, from climate and meteorological phenomena, to geophysics and biology. The quality and precision of these products were periodically improved, taking advantage of new missions and datasets of opportunity, advanced altimeter technology, improved L2 processing, but also from a better understanding of the ocean stemming from the analysis of past records. Moreover, as applications become more and more diversified, L3/L4 products are evolving to better fit users' needs. The data latency is improved with an "on the fly" RT (OGDR-based) data production. Regional L3/L4 products are developed, with higher resolution (still limited to temporal/spatial scales accessible to a small satellite constellation), as for Mozambique, European West Shelves, and Arctic areas. Different experimental datasets were made available for end users. They will be able to assess impact of different parameters on their applications. Their feedback will contribute to improve altimeter products.

  12. Regional Acceleratory Phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Verna, Carlalberta

    2016-01-01

    The regional acceleratory phenomenon (RAP) is a tissue reaction to a noxious stimulus that increases the healing capacities of the affected tissues. It is typical not only of hard tissues such as bone and cartilage, but also of soft tissues. The RAP is characterized by acceleration of the normal cellular activities, as an 'SOS' phenomenon of the body that has to respond to the new perturbation. In the alveolar bone, the RAP is characterized, at a cellular level, by increased activation of the basic multicellular units (BMUs), thereby increasing the remodeling space. At the tissue level, the RAP is characterized by the production of woven bone, with the typical unorganized pattern, that will be reorganized into lamellar bone at a later stage. In the alveolar bone, the RAP occurs typically in the healing process of the alveolar sockets after tooth extraction, in periodontal disease, after surgery and trauma and during orthodontic tooth movement. In relation to orthodontic tooth movement, the RAP can be seen as a tissue response to the mechanical cyclical perturbation that induces the formation of microdamage that has to be removed to avoid their accumulation and the following bone failure. The adaptation to the new orthodontically induced mechanical environment is ensured by an increased activation of the BMU that returns to normal levels after few months. PMID:26599115

  13. Evolution of Active Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Driel-Gesztelyi, Lidia; Green, Lucie May

    2015-09-01

    The evolution of active regions (AR) from their emergence through their long decay process is of fundamental importance in solar physics. Since large-scale flux is generated by the deep-seated dynamo, the observed characteristics of flux emergence and that of the subsequent decay provide vital clues as well as boundary conditions for dynamo models. Throughout their evolution, ARs are centres of magnetic activity, with the level and type of activity phenomena being dependent on the evolutionary stage of the AR. As new flux emerges into a pre-existing magnetic environment, its evolution leads to re-configuration of small-and large-scale magnetic connectivities. The decay process of ARs spreads the once-concentrated magnetic flux over an ever-increasing area. Though most of the flux disappears through small-scale cancellation processes, it is the remnant of large-scale AR fields that is able to reverse the polarity of the poles and build up new polar fields. In this Living Review the emphasis is put on what we have learned from observations, which is put in the context of modelling and simulation efforts when interpreting them. For another, modelling-focused Living Review on the sub-surface evolution and emergence of magnetic flux see Fan (2009). In this first version we focus on the evolution of dominantly bipolar ARs.

  14. Sudurnes Regional Heating Corp.

    SciTech Connect

    Lienau, P.J.

    1996-11-01

    The Svartsengi geothermal area is close to the town of Grindavik on the Rekjanes peninsula and is part of an active fissure swarm, lined with crater-rows and open fissures and faults. The high-temperature area has an area of 2 sq. km and shows only limited signs of geothermal activity at the surface. The reservoir, however, contains lots of energy and at least 8 wells supply the Svartsengi Power Plant with steam. The steam is not useable for domestic heating purposes so that heat exchangers are used to heat cold groundwater with the steam. Some steam is also used for producing 16.4 MW{sub e} of electrical power. The article shows the distribution system piping hot water to nine towns and the Keflavik International Airport. The effluent brine from the Svartsengi Plant is disposed of into a surface pond, called the Blue Lagoon, popular to tourists and people suffering from psoriasis and other forms of eczema seeking therapeutic effects from the silica rich brine. This combined power plant and regional district heating system (cogeneration) is an interesting and unique design for the application of geothermal energy.

  15. REGIONAL SCALE COMPARATIVE RISK ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Regional Vulnerability Assessment (ReVA) is an approach to regional-scale ecological risk assessment that is currently under development by EPA's Office of Research and Development. The pilot assessment will be done for the mid-Atlantic region and builds on data collected for th...

  16. Elysium Mons Volcanic Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    On July 4, 1998--the first anniversary of the Mars Pathfinder landing--Mars Global Surveyor's latest images were radioed to Earth with little fanfare. The images received on July 4, 1998, however, were very exciting because they included a rare crossing of the summit caldera of a major martian volcano. Elysium Mons is located at 25oN, 213oW, in the martian eastern hemisphere. Elysium Mons is one of three large volcanoes that occur on the Elysium Rise-- the others are Hecates Tholus (northeast of Elysium Mons) and Albor Tholus (southeast of Elysium Mons). The volcano rises about 12.5 kilometers (7.8 miles) above the surrounding plain, or about 16 kilometers (9.9 miles) above the martian datum-- the 'zero' elevation defined by average martian atmospheric pressure and the planet's radius.

    Elysium Mons was discovered by Mariner 9 in 1972. It differs in a number of ways from the familiar Olympus Mons and other large volcanoes in the Tharsis region. In particular, there are no obvious lava flows visible on the volcano's flanks. The lack of lava flows was apparent from the Mariner 9 images, but the new MOC high resolution image--obtained at 5.24 meters (17.2 feet) per pixel--illustrates that this is true even when viewed at higher spatial resolution.

    Elysium Mons has many craters on its surface. Some of these probably formed by meteor impact, but many show no ejecta pattern characteristic of meteor impact. Some of the craters are aligned in linear patterns that are radial to the summit caldera--these most likely formed by collapse as lava was withdrawn from beneath the surface, rather than by meteor impact. Other craters may have formed by explosive volcanism. Evidence for explosive volcanism on Mars has been very difficult to identify from previous Mars spacecraft images. This and other MOC data are being examined closely to better understand the nature and origin of volcanic features on Mars.

    The three MOC images, 40301 (red wide angle), 40302 (blue wide angle

  17. Europa Wedge Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    This image shows an area of crustal separation on Jupiter's moon, Europa. Lower resolution pictures taken earlier in the tour of NASA's Galileo spacecraft revealed that dark wedge-shaped bands in this region are areas where the icy crust has completely pulled apart. Dark material has filled up from below and filled the void created by this separation.

    In the lower left corner of this image, taken by Galileo's onboard camera on December 16, 1997, a portion of one dark wedge area is visible, revealing a linear texture along the trend of the wedge. The lines of the texture change orientation slightly and reflect the fact that we are looking at a bend in the wedge. The older, bright background, visible on the right half of the image, is criss-crossed with ridges. A large, bright ridge runs east-west through the upper part of the image, cutting across both the older background plains and the wedge. This ridge is rough in texture, with numerous small terraces and troughs containing dark material.

    North is to the top of the picture and the sun illuminates the surface from the northwest. This image, centered at approximately 16.5 degrees south latitude and 196.5 degrees west longitude, covers an area approximately 10 kilometers square (about 6.5 miles square). The resolution of this image is about 26 meters per picture element. This image was taken by the solid state imaging system from a distance of 1250 kilometers (750 miles).

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC. JPL is an operating division of California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/ galileo.

  18. Tilted Infall Regions?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Praton, Elizabeth A.; Abdullah, M.

    2014-01-01

    Recently, a thin plane of co-orbiting satellite galaxies was discovered around M31 (Ibata et al. 2013). Could there be similar unexpected flows on a larger scale, around galaxy clusters? In redshift space, infall regions with rotational flow distort into tilted artifacts. Transverse motion relative to the observer also causes a tilt. Are there galaxy clusters with structure that looks like this? In a recent exploratory study (Abdullah, Praton, Ali 2013), we show that some galaxy clusters do resemble tilted infall artifacts. The characteristic shape is obscured if the structure is axially convolved but clear when it is sliced, and can be fit by a spherical infall model (SIM) that is tilted by transverse motion or rotational flow. Tilted SIMs could therefore be a useful tool for roughly analyzing possible flows. We present a method for fitting tilted SIM envelopes and show how to use the tilt and width-to-length ratio of the envelope to estimate the possible velocity causing the tilt and also the observer's possible radial motion towards the cluster, if the structure is indeed an infall artifact. It is not clear if current cosmological n-body simulations can explain the galaxy clusters whose structure looks like a tilted infall artifact, since clusters in lambda-cdm simulations usually show little infall distortion. We found one similar shape in the outputs we examined. This n-body structure is not a result of velocity distortion and is mostly real (a pseudo-artifact). However, the velocity field of the nearest tilted galaxy cluster (Virgo) resembles a tilted SIM and not the pseudo-artifact. References Ibata, R.A. et al. 2013, Nature, 493, 62 Abdullah, M.H., Praton, E.A., & Ali, G.B. 2013, MNRAS, 434, 1989

  19. Scene segmentation through region growing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Latty, R. S.

    1984-01-01

    A computer algorithm to segment Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) images into areas representing surface features is described. The algorithm is based on a region growing approach and uses edge elements and edge element orientation to define the limits of the surface features. Adjacent regions which are not separated by edges are linked to form larger regions. Some of the advantages of scene segmentation over conventional TM image extraction algorithms are discussed, including surface feature analysis on a pixel-by-pixel basis, and faster identification of the pixels in each region. A detailed flow diagram of region growing algorithm is provided.

  20. Emission measure distribution for diffuse regions in solar active regions

    SciTech Connect

    Subramanian, Srividya; Tripathi, Durgesh; Klimchuk, James A.; Mason, Helen E.

    2014-11-01

    Our knowledge of the diffuse emission that encompasses active regions is very limited. In this paper we investigate two off-limb active regions, namely, AR 10939 and AR 10961, to probe the underlying heating mechanisms. For this purpose, we have used spectral observations from Hinode/EIS and employed the emission measure (EM) technique to obtain the thermal structure of these diffuse regions. Our results show that the characteristic EM distributions of the diffuse emission regions peak at log T = 6.25 and the coolward slopes are in the range 1.4-3.3. This suggests that both low- as well as high-frequency nanoflare heating events are at work. Our results provide additional constraints on the properties of these diffuse emission regions and their contribution to the background/foreground when active region cores are observed on-disk.

  1. Skill of regional and global model forecast over Indian region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Prashant; Kishtawal, C. M.; Pal, P. K.

    2016-02-01

    The global model analysis and forecast have a significant impact on the regional model predictions, as global model provides the initial and lateral boundary condition to regional model. This study addresses an important question whether the regional model can improve the short-range weather forecast as compared to the global model. The National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) Global Forecasting System (GFS) and the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model are used in this study to evaluate the performance of global and regional models over the Indian region. A 24-h temperature and specific humidity forecast from the NCEP GFS model show less error compared to WRF model forecast. Rainfall prediction is improved over the Indian landmass when WRF model is used for rainfall forecast. Moreover, the results showed that high-resolution global model analysis (GFS4) improved the regional model forecast as compared to low-resolution global model analysis (GFS3).

  2. Callisto's Equatorial Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This mosaic covers part of the equatorial region of Jupiter's moon, Callisto. The mosaic combines six separate image frames obtained by the solid state imaging (CCD) system on NASA's Galileo spacecraft during its ninth orbit around Jupiter. North is to the top of the picture. The mosaic shows several new features and characteristics of the surface revealed by Galileo. These include deposits that may represent landslides in the southern and southwestern floors of many craters. Two such deposits are seen in a 12 kilometer (7.3 mile) crater in the west-central part of the image, and in a 23 kilometer (14 mile) crater just north of the center of the image. Also notable are several sinuous valleys emanating from the southern rims of 10 to 15 kilometer (6.2 to 9.3 mile) irregular craters in the west-central part of the image. The pervasive local smoothing of Callisto's surface is well represented in the plains between the craters in the southeastern part of the image. Possible oblique impacts are suggested by the elongated craters in the northeastern and southeastern parts of the image.

    The mosaic, centered at 7.4 degrees south latitude and 6.6 degrees west longitude, covers an area of approximately 315 by 215 kilometers (192 by 131 miles). The sun illuminates the scene from the west (left). The smallest features that can be seen are about 300 meters (993 feet) across. The images were obtained on June 25, 1997, when the spacecraft was at a range of 15,200 kilometers (8,207 miles) from Callisto.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and educational context for the images can be found at URL http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/sepo

  3. Regional governance: strategies and disputes in health region management

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos, Adriano Maia; Giovanella, Ligia

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the regional governance of the health systemin relation to management strategies and disputes. METHODOLOGICAL PROCEDURES A qualitative study with health managers from 19 municipalities in the health region of Bahia, Northeastern Brazil. Data were drawn from 17 semi-structured interviews of state, regional, and municipal health policymakers and managers; a focus group; observations of the regional interagency committee; and documents in 2012. The political-institutional and the organizational components were analyzed in the light of dialectical hermeneutics. RESULTS The regional interagency committee is the chief regional governance strategy/component and functions as a strategic tool for strengthening governance. It brings together a diversity of members responsible for decision making in the healthcare territories, who need to negotiate the allocation of funding and the distribution of facilities for common use in the region. The high turnover of health secretaries, their lack of autonomy from the local executive decisions, inadequate technical training to exercise their function, and the influence of party politics on decision making stand as obstacles to the regional interagency committee’s permeability to social demands. Funding is insufficient to enable the fulfillment of the officially integrated agreed-upon program or to boost public supply by the system, requiring that public managers procure services from the private market at values higher than the national health service price schedule (Brazilian Unified Health System Table). The study determined that “facilitators” under contract to health departments accelerated access to specialized (diagnostic, therapeutic and/or surgical) services in other municipalities by direct payment to physicians for procedure costs already covered by the Brazilian Unified Health System. CONCLUSIONS The characteristics identified a regionalized system with a conflictive pattern of governance and

  4. Mapping Regional Laryngopharyngeal Mechanoreceptor Response

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To map mechanoreceptor response in various regions of the laryngopharynx. Methods Five patients with suspected laryngopharyngeal reflux and six healthy control subjects underwent stimulation of mechanoreceptors in the hypopharynx, interarytenoid area, arytenoids, aryepiglottic folds, and pyriform sinuses. The threshold stimuli evoking sensation and eliciting laryngeal adductor reflex were recorded. Results In controls, an air pulse with 2 mmHg pressure evoked mechanoreceptor response in all regions, except bilateral aryepiglottic folds of one control. In patients, stimulus intensity to elicit mechanoreceptor response ranged between 2 mmHg and 10 mmHg and varied among the regions. Air pulse intensity differed between right and left sides of laryngopharyngeal regions in the majority of patients. Conclusion Laryngopharyngeal mechanoreceptor response was uniform among regions and subjects in the healthy group. Patients with suspected laryngopharyngeal reflux showed inter- and intra-regional variations in mechanoreceptor response. Laryngopharyngeal sensory deficit in patients with suspected laryngopharyngeal reflux is not limited to aryepiglottic folds. PMID:25436053

  5. USEPA REGION 10 REGIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING AND ASSESSMENT PROGRAM: DISCHARGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The USEPA designed and implemented the Environmental Assessment Program (EMAP) to determine the current status, extent, changes, and trends in indicators of the condition of the Nations ecological resources on regional and national scales with known confidence. USEPA Region 10s ...

  6. 17 CFR 140.2 - Regional office-regional coordinators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... direction of a Regional Coordinator who, as a collateral duty, oversees the administration of the office and... parties. Each regional office has delegated authority for the enforcement of the Act and administration of... administration of programs of the Commission in the States of Alabama, Connecticut, Delaware, Florida,...

  7. 75 FR 28564 - Fisheries of the Northeast Region; Pacific Region

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-21

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XW26 Fisheries of the Northeast Region; Pacific... overfishing and Georges Bank winter flounder is in an overfished condition. In addition, in the Pacific Region... changed. These changes occurred in January 2010. On March 2, 2010, NMFS informed the Pacific...

  8. Document Delivery Policy. Region 2 [Regional Medical Library Network].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southeastern/Atlantic Regional Medical Library Services, Baltimore, MD.

    Standardized policies and procedures for interlibrary loan and resource sharing in the Southeastern/Atlantic Region of the Regional Medical Library (RML) Network are presented in this policy statement. RML network institutions, which are divided into categories based on their ability and willingness to assume responsibility for interlibrary…

  9. USEPA REGION 10 REGIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING AND ASSESSMENT PROGRAM: FISH

    EPA Science Inventory

    The USEPA designed and implemented the Environmental Assessment Program (EMAP) to determine the current status, extent, changes, and trends in indicators of the condition of the Nations ecological resources on regional and national scales with known confidence. USEPA Region 10s ...

  10. Effects of Selected American Regional Dialects Upon Regional Audience Members

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulac, Anthony; Rudd, Mary Jo

    1977-01-01

    Investigates speech norms in the United States by determining the effects of three American regional dialects on the attitudes towards speakers held by audience members from the same three regions. Includes selected dialects represented by General American, Appalachian, and Bostonian dialects. (MH)

  11. Vínculos sobre um modelo de quartessência de Chaplygin usando observações do satélite chandra da fração de massa de gás em aglomerados de galáxias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Souza, R. S.

    2003-08-01

    Observações de Supernovas do tipo Ia mostram que a expansão do Universo está acelerando. Segundo as equações de Einstein uma componente com pressão negativa (energia escura) é necessária para explicar a aceleração cósmica. Além da energia escura é usualmente admitido que no Universo há também uma matéria exótica com pressão zero, que é chamada de matéria escura. Essa componente possui um papel fundamental na formação de estruturas no Universo. Recentemente tem se explorado a possibilidade de que matéria e energia escura poderiam ser unificadas através de uma única componente, que tem sido denominada de quartessência. Um exemplo de fluido com essas características é o Gás de Chaplygin Generalizado, que possui uma equação de estado da forma p = -A/ra. Inicialmente consideramos o caso especial a = 1 (gás de Chaplygin) e vinculamos parâmetros do modelo utilizando observações em raios-X do satélite Chandra da fração de massa de gás em aglomerados de galáxias. Uma comparação dos vínculos obtidos com esse teste com outros testes, tais como supernovas e idade do Universo, mostra que esse teste é bastante restritivo. Exibiremos ainda resultados para o caso em que a curvatura é nula e o parâmetro a está compreendido no intervalo -1 < a 1.

  12. Training Teachers for Regional Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hla Myint; And Others

    This report presents alternative plans for training teachers for the newly-established Regional Colleges in Burma. The Regional Colleges are three-year postsecondary institutions designed to train middle level technicians to help increase the production of goods and services needed in the Burmese economy. Concentrating on the Hawaii Community…

  13. Regional Early Childhood Policy Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Judith

    2008-01-01

    The UNESCO-UNICEF joint regional policy review project was launched in September 2006 with the aim to support the countries of Asia-Pacific region in meeting the first goal of Education For All (EFA) on Early Childhood Care and Education (ECCE) by identifying, documenting and sharing good practices as well as constraints and challenges in early…

  14. REGIONAL DIFFERENCES IN JUNIOR COLLEGES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    RICHARDS, JAMES M., JR.; AND OTHERS

    SIX FACTORS OR CATEGORIES OF COLLEGE CHARACTERISTICS WERE COMPUTED FOR 581 ACCREDITED JUNIOR COLLEGES. WHEN THESE INSTITUTIONS WERE CLASSIFIED AND ANALYZED BY GEOGRAPHICAL REGION, SIGNIFICANT DIFFERENCES WERE FOUND AMONG REGIONS ON ALL SIX FACTORS. ON THE CULTURAL AFFLUENCE OR PRIVATE CONTROL FACTOR, THE MAIN TREND SEEMS TO BE FOR COLLEGES IN THE…

  15. About the REL Pacific Region

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regional Educational Laboratory Pacific, 2014

    2014-01-01

    REL Pacific is one of ten Regional Educational Laboratories established and funded by the U.S. Department of Education's Institute of Education Sciences. Their region encompasses approximately 4.9 million square miles and serves seven Pacific island entities, including American Samoa; the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands; the Federated…

  16. What's Happening to Regional Policy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ravenhall, Mark

    2005-01-01

    Back in November, voters in the North East of England overwhelmingly rejected the move towards an elected regional assembly. The scale of the defeat (three to one) of a Government-backed scheme was a rude awakening for the Office of the Deputy Prime Minister and the range of regional agencies created since 1997. After all, it was felt that the…

  17. Regional Resource Center for Innovation

    SciTech Connect

    Theis, K.

    2000-04-26

    The Regional Resource Centers for Innovation (RRCIs) promote networking among the various regional, state, and local specialists who provide services to inventors and small business innovators. This networking facilitates the rapid deployment of I&I technologies that provide solutions for the energy challenges facing the U.S.

  18. Culture Regions in Geography Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boehn, Dieter L.

    One of the demands imposed on geography instruction is to inform about the world, but there is some disagreement on how this is to be achieved. Criticism is most frequently directed at the regional geography approach of subdividing the world into culture regions. This paper addresses the question of whether global subdivision by culture regions…

  19. Regional Hospital Input Price Indexes

    PubMed Central

    Freeland, Mark S.; Schendler, Carol Ellen; Anderson, Gerard

    1981-01-01

    This paper describes the development of regional hospital input price indexes that is consistent with the general methodology used for the National Hospital Input Price Index. The feasibility of developing regional indexes was investigated because individuals inquired whether different regions experienced different rates of increase in hospital input prices. The regional indexes incorporate variations in cost-share weights (the amount an expense category contributes to total spending) associated with hospital type and location, and variations in the rate of input price increases for various regions. We found that between 1972 and 1979 none of the regional price indexes increased at average annual rates significantly different from the national rate. For the more recent period 1977 through 1979, the increase in one Census Region was significantly below the national rate. Further analyses indicated that variations in cost-share weights for various types of hospitals produced no substantial variations in the regional price indexes relative to the national index. We consider these findings preliminary because of limitations in the availability of current, relevant, and reliable data, especially for local area wage rate increases. PMID:10309557

  20. CLIMATE IMPACTS ON REGIONAL WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The New England region (including the 6 New England
    states plus upstate New York) offers a very diverse geography,
    matched by an equally diverse economy and human
    population. Livelihoods throughout the region are based
    on service industries that depend heavily on comm...

  1. The Complex Stratigraphy of the Highland Crust in the Serenitatis Region of the Moon Inferred from Mineral Fragment Chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryder, Graham; Norman, Marc D.; Taylor, G. Jeffrey

    1997-01-01

    Large impact basins are natural drill holes into the Moon, and their ejecta carries unique information about the rock types and stratigraphy of the lunar crust. We have conducted an electron microprobe study of mineral fragments in the poikilitic melt breccias collected from the Taurus Mountains at the Apollo 17 landing site. These breccias are virtually unanimously agreed to be impact melt produced in the Serenitatis impact event. They contain lithic fragments and much more abundant mineral fragments of crustal origin. We have made precise microprobe analyses of minor element abundances in fragments of olivine, pyroxene, and plagioclase to provide new information on the possible source rocks and the crustal stratigraphy in the Serenitatis region. These data were also intended to elucidate the nature of the cryptic geochemical component in breccias such as these with low-K Fra Mauro basalt compositions. We chose the finest-grained (i.e., most rapidly quenched) breccias for study, to avoid reacted and partly assimilated fragments as much as possible. Most of the mineral fragments appear to have been derived from rocks that would fall into the pristine igneous Mg-suite as represented by lithic fragments in the Apollo collection, or reasonable extensions of it. Gabbroic rocks were more abundant in the target stratigraphy than is apparent from the Apollo sample collection. Some pyroxene and plagiociase, but probably not much olivine, could be derived from feldspathic granulites, which are metamorphosed polymict breccias. Some mineral fragments are from previously unknown rocks. These include highly magnesian olivines (up to Fo(sub 94)), possibly volcanic in origin, that exacerbate the difficulty in explaining highly magnesian rocks in the lunar crust. It appears that some part of the lunar interior has an mg*(= 100 x Mg/(Mg/Fe) atomic) greater than the conventional bulk Moon value of 80-84. Other volcanic rocks, including mare basalts, and rapidly- cooled impact melt

  2. Disordered regions in transmembrane proteins.

    PubMed

    Tusnády, Gábor E; Dobson, László; Tompa, Peter

    2015-11-01

    The functions of transmembrane proteins in living cells are widespread; they range from various transport processes to energy production, from cell-cell adhesion to communication. Structurally, they are highly ordered in their membrane-spanning regions, but may contain disordered regions in the cytosolic and extra-cytosolic parts. In this study, we have investigated the disordered regions in transmembrane proteins by a stringent definition of disordered residues on the currently available largest experimental dataset, and show a significant correlation between the spatial distributions of positively charged residues and disordered regions. This finding suggests a new role of disordered regions in transmembrane proteins by providing structural flexibility for stabilizing interactions with negatively charged head groups of the lipid molecules. We also find a preference of structural disorder in the terminal--as opposed to loop--regions in transmembrane proteins, and survey the respective functions involved in recruiting other proteins or mediating allosteric signaling effects. Finally, we critically compare disorder prediction methods on our transmembrane protein set. While there are no major differences between these methods using the usual statistics, such as per residue accuracies, Matthew's correlation coefficients, etc.; substantial differences can be found regarding the spatial distribution of the predicted disordered regions. We conclude that a predictor optimized for transmembrane proteins would be of high value to the field of structural disorder. PMID:26275590

  3. Regional Anesthesia in Trauma Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Janice J.; Lollo, Loreto; Grabinsky, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    Regional anesthesia is an established method to provide analgesia for patients in the operating room and during the postoperative phase. While regional anesthesia offers unique advantages, as shown by the recent military experience, it is not commonly utilized in the prehospital or emergency department setting. Most often, regional anesthesia techniques for traumatized patients are first utilized in the operating room for procedural anesthesia or for postoperative pain control. While infiltration or single nerve block procedures are often used by surgeons or emergency medicine physicians in the preoperative phase, more advanced techniques such as plexus block procedures or regional catheter placements are more commonly performed by anesthesiologists for surgery or postoperative pain control. These regional techniques offer advantages over intravenous anesthesia, not just in the perioperative phase but also in the acute phase of traumatized patients and during the initial transport of injured patients. Anesthesiologists have extensive experience with regional techniques and are able to introduce regional anesthesia into settings outside the operating room and in the early treatment phases of trauma patients. PMID:22162684

  4. Finding Distant Galactic HII Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, L. D.; Armentrout, W. P.; Johnstone, B. M.; Bania, T. M.; Balser, Dana S.; Wenger, Trey V.; Cunningham, V.

    2015-12-01

    The WISE Catalog of Galactic H ii Regions contains ˜2000 H ii region candidates lacking ionized gas spectroscopic observations. All candidates have the characteristic H ii region mid-infrared morphology of WISE 12 μ {{m}} emission surrounding 22 μ {{m}} emission, and additionally have detected radio continuum emission. We here report Green Bank Telescope hydrogen radio recombination line and radio continuum detections in the X-band (9 GHz; 3 cm) of 302 WISE H ii region candidates (out of 324 targets observed) in the zone 225^\\circ ≥slant {\\ell }≥slant -20^\\circ , | {\\text{}}b| ≤slant 6^\\circ . Here we extend the sky coverage of our H ii region Discovery Survey, which now contains nearly 800 H ii regions distributed across the entire northern sky. We provide LSR velocities for the 302 detections and kinematic distances for 131 of these. Of the 302 new detections, 5 have ({\\ell },{\\text{}}b,v) coordinates consistent with the Outer Scutum-Centaurus Arm (OSC), the most distant molecular spiral arm of the Milky Way. Due to the Galactic warp, these nebulae are found at Galactic latitudes >1° in the first Galactic quadrant, and therefore were missed in previous surveys of the Galactic plane. One additional region has a longitude and velocity consistent with the OSC but lies at a negative Galactic latitude (G039.183-01.422 -54.9 {km} {{{s}}}-1). With Heliocentric distances >22 kpc and Galactocentric distances >16 kpc, the OSC H ii regions are the most distant known in the Galaxy. We detect an additional three H ii regions near {\\ell }≃ 150^\\circ whose LSR velocities place them at Galactocentric radii >19 kpc. If their distances are correct, these nebulae may represent the limit to Galactic massive star formation.

  5. Magnetic TRAnsition Region Probe (MTRAP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, R. L.; Davis, John; Hathaway, David; Six, N. Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    MTRAP (Magnetic Transition Region Probe) will reveal the fine-scale physical processes in the Sun's magnetic transition region, the complex layer from the upper photosphere to the upper chromosphere/lower transition region. In the magnetic transition region plasma forces and magnetic forces are of comparable strength, which results in complex interplay of the two, which interplay governs the coupling of the convectively-driven deeper layers to the magnetically-driven upper transition region and inner corona. The fine-scale magnetic structure, processes, and events in the magnetic transition region are key to the genesis of the Sun's entire hot, dynamic outer atmosphere and to the initiation of large eruptive events. MTRAP will be a single spacecraft in Sun-synchronous Earth orbit. Because MTRAP will probe and measure the 3-D structure and dynamics of the magnetic field and plasma in the chromosphere and transition region with unprecedented resolution, the required telescope size and telemetry rates dictate that MTRAP be in Earth orbit, not in deep space. The observations will feature visible and infrared maps of vector magnetic and velocity fields in the magnetic transition region and photosphere. These will have large field of view (greater than 100,000 km), high resolution (greater than 100 km), and high sensitivity (greater than 30 G in transverse field). These observations of the lower atmosphere will be complemented by UV maps of the structure, velocity, and magnetic field (including the full vector field if technically feasible) higher up, in the upper chromosphere and lower transition region. MTRAP will also have an EUV imaging spectrograph observing coronal structure and dynamics in the same field of view with comparable resolution. Specific phenomena to be analyzed include spicules, bright points, jets, the base of plumes, and the triggering of eruptive flares and coronal mass ejections. Additional information is included in the original extended abstract.

  6. Regional strategies for global leadership.

    PubMed

    Ghemawat, Pankaj

    2005-12-01

    The leaders of such global powerhouses as GE, Wal-Mart, and Toyota seem to have grasped two crucial truths: First, far from becoming submerged by the rising tide of globalization, geographic and other regional distinctions may in fact be increasing in importance. Second, regionally focused strategies, used in conjunction with local and global initiatives, can significantly boost a company's performance. The business and economic data reveal a highly regionalized world. For example, trade within regions, rather than across them, drove the surge of international commerce in the second half of the twentieth century. Regionalization is also apparent in foreign direct investment, companies' international sales, and competition among the world's largest multinationals. Harvard Business School Professor Pankaj Ghemawat says that the most successful companies employ five types of regional strategies in addition to--or even instead of--global ones: home base, portfolio, hub, platform, and mandate. Some companies adopt the strategies in sequence, but the most nimble switch from one to another and combine approaches as their markets and businesses evolve. At Toyota, for example, exports from the home base continue to be substantial even as the company builds up an international manufacturing presence. And as Toyota achieves economies of scale and scope with a strong network of hubs, the company also pursues economies of specialization through interregional mandates. Embracing regional strategies requires flexibility and creativity. A company must decide what constitutes a region, choose the most appropriate strategies, and mesh those strategies with the organization's existing structures. In a world that is neither truly global nor truly local, finding ways of coordinating within and across regions can deliver a powerful competitive advantage. PMID:16334585

  7. Future of multistate regional commissions

    SciTech Connect

    Newman, M.

    1980-04-01

    Multistate regional commissions in the United States have been used since 1965. The largest program has been that of the Appalachian Regional Commission (ARC). Institutional and financial barriers have been the most difficult problems encountered by the ARC and other programs (such as Title V commissions). Despite the imperfect performance of the existing regional commissions, they offer a demonstration that some improvement in governmental performance can be achieved. There is virtual unanimity among the nation's governors that this is the route for Federal state relations to follow. Also, the commission route is viewed privately as the most socially acceptable means to have a beneficial impact on government performance. (SAC)

  8. Boundary Preserving Dense Local Regions.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jaechul; Grauman, Kristen

    2015-05-01

    We propose a dense local region detector to extract features suitable for image matching and object recognition tasks. Whereas traditional local interest operators rely on repeatable structures that often cross object boundaries (e.g., corners, scale-space blobs), our sampling strategy is driven by segmentation, and thus preserves object boundaries and shape. At the same time, whereas existing region-based representations are sensitive to segmentation parameters and object deformations, our novel approach to robustly sample dense sites and determine their connectivity offers better repeatability. In extensive experiments, we find that the proposed region detector provides significantly better repeatability and localization accuracy for object matching compared to an array of existing feature detectors. In addition, we show our regions lead to excellent results on two benchmark tasks that require good feature matching: weakly supervised foreground discovery and nearest neighbor-based object recognition. PMID:26353319

  9. Active Region Release Two CMEs

    NASA Video Gallery

    Solar material can be seen blowing off the sun in this video captured by NASA’s Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) on the night of Feb. 5, 2013. This active region on the sun sent out two coronal ...

  10. A regional technology transfer program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chenery, P. J.

    1972-01-01

    The activities of the NC/STRC are reported. The background and organization of the regional dissemination center, and marketing methods are discussed along with the services provided, and available information resources.

  11. Regions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moulin-Acevedo, Madeleine; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Includes "From School to Jobs: Africa's Dilemma" (Moulin-Acevedo); "Helping Change in Eastern Europe"; "Recognizing the Dignity of Indigenous Peoples"; "An Employment Plan for Pakistan"; and "Around the Continents." (JOW)

  12. Slot Region Radiation Environment Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandberg, Ingmar; Daglis, Ioannis; Heynderickx, Daniel; Evans, Hugh; Nieminen, Petteri

    2013-04-01

    Herein we present the main characteristics and first results of the Slot Region Radiation Environment Models (SRREMs) project. The statistical models developed in SRREMs aim to address the variability of trapped electron and proton fluxes in the region between the inner and the outer electron radiation belt. The energetic charged particle fluxes in the slot region are highly dynamic and are known to vary by several orders of magnitude on both short and long timescales. During quiet times, the particle fluxes are much lower than those found at the peak of the inner and outer belts and the region is considered benign. During geospace magnetic storms, though, this region can fill with energetic particles as the peak of the outer belt is pushed Earthwards and the fluxes can increase drastically. There has been a renewed interest in the potential operation of commercial satellites in orbits that are at least partially contained within the Slot Region. Hence, there is a need to improve the current radiation belt models, most of which do not model the extreme variability of the slot region and instead provide long-term averages between the better-known low and medium Earth orbits (LEO and MEO). The statistical models developed in the SRREMs project are based on the analysis of a large volume of available data and on the construction of a virtual database of slot region particle fluxes. The analysis that we have followed retains the long-term temporal, spatial and spectral variations in electron and proton fluxes as well as the short-term enhancement events at altitudes and inclinations relevant for satellites in the slot region. A large number of datasets have been used for the construction, evaluation and inter-calibration of the SRREMs virtual dataset. Special emphasis has been given on the use and analysis of ESA Standard Radiation Environment Monitor (SREM) data from the units on-board PROBA-1, INTEGRAL, and GIOVE-B due to the sufficient spatial and long temporal

  13. Ig Constant Region Effects on Variable Region Structure and Function.

    PubMed

    Janda, Alena; Bowen, Anthony; Greenspan, Neil S; Casadevall, Arturo

    2016-01-01

    The adaptive humoral immune response is responsible for the generation of antimicrobial proteins known as immunoglobulin molecules or antibodies. Immunoglobulins provide a defense system against pathogenic microbes and toxins by targeting them for removal and/or destruction. Historically, antibodies have been thought to be composed of distinct structural domains known as the variable and constant regions that are responsible for antigen binding and mediating effector functions such as opsonization and complement activation, respectively. These domains were thought to be structurally and functionally independent. Recent work has revealed however, that in some families of antibodies, the two regions can influence each other. We will discuss the body of work that led to these observations, as well as the mechanisms that have been proposed to explain how these two different antibody regions may interact in the function of antigen binding. PMID:26870003

  14. Ig Constant Region Effects on Variable Region Structure and Function

    PubMed Central

    Janda, Alena; Bowen, Anthony; Greenspan, Neil S.; Casadevall, Arturo

    2016-01-01

    The adaptive humoral immune response is responsible for the generation of antimicrobial proteins known as immunoglobulin molecules or antibodies. Immunoglobulins provide a defense system against pathogenic microbes and toxins by targeting them for removal and/or destruction. Historically, antibodies have been thought to be composed of distinct structural domains known as the variable and constant regions that are responsible for antigen binding and mediating effector functions such as opsonization and complement activation, respectively. These domains were thought to be structurally and functionally independent. Recent work has revealed however, that in some families of antibodies, the two regions can influence each other. We will discuss the body of work that led to these observations, as well as the mechanisms that have been proposed to explain how these two different antibody regions may interact in the function of antigen binding. PMID:26870003

  15. Regional waveform calibration in the Pamir-Hindu Kush region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Lupei; Helmberger, Donald V.; Saikia, Chandan K.; Woods, Bradley B.

    1997-10-01

    Twelve moderate-magnitude earthquakes (mb 4-5.5) in the Pamir-Hindu Kush region are investigated to determine their focal mechanisms and to relocate them using their regional waveform records at two broadband arrays, the Kyrgyzstan Regional Network (KNET), and the 1992 Pakistan Himalayas seismic experiment array (PAKH) in northern Pakistan. We use the "cut-and-paste" source estimation technique to invert the whole broadband waveforms for mechanisms and depths, assuming a one-dimensional velocity model developed for the adjacent Tibetan plateau. For several large events the source mechanisms obtained agree with those available from the Harvard centroid moment tensor (CMT) solutions. An advantage of using regional broadband waveforms is that focal depths can be better constrained either from amplitude ratios of Pnl to surface waves for crustal events or from time separation between the direct P and the shear-coupled P wave (sPn + sPmP) for mantle events. All the crustal events are relocated at shallower depths compared with their International Seismological Centre bulletin or Harvard CMT depths. After the focal depths are established, the events are then relocated horizontally using their first-arrival times. Only minor offsets in epicentral location are found for all mantle events and the bigger crustal events, while rather large offsets (up to 30 km) occur for the smaller crustal events. We also tested the performance of waveform inversion using only two broadband stations, one from the KNET array in the north of the region and one from the PAKH array in the south. We found that this geometry is adequate for determining focal depths and mechanisms of moderate size earthquakes in the Pamir-Hindu Kush region.

  16. Regional Transmission Projects: Finding Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    The Keystone Center

    2005-06-15

    The Keystone Center convened and facilitated a year-long Dialogue on "Regional Transmission Projects: Finding Solutions" to develop recommendations that will help address the difficult and contentious issues related to expansions of regional electric transmission systems that are needed for reliable and economic transmission of power within and across regions. This effort brought together a cross-section of affected stakeholders and thought leaders to address the problem with the collective wisdom of their experience and interests. Transmission owners sat at the table with consumer advocates and environmental organizations. Representatives from regional transmission organizations exchanged ideas with state and federal regulators. Generation developers explored common interests with public power suppliers. Together, the Dialogue participants developed consensus solutions about how to begin unraveling some of the more intractable issues surrounding identification of need, allocation of costs, and reaching consensus on siting issues that can frustrate the development of regional transmission infrastructure. The recommendations fall into three broad categories: 1. Recommendations on appropriate institutional arrangements and processes for achieving regional consensus on the need for new or expanded transmission infrastructure 2. Recommendations on the process for siting of transmission lines 3. Recommendations on the tools needed to support regional planning, cost allocation, and siting efforts. List of Dialogue participants: List of Dialogue Participants: American Electric Power American Transmission Company American Wind Energy Association California ISO Calpine Corporation Cinergy Edison Electric Institute Environmental Defense Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Great River Energy International Transmission Company ISO-New England Iowa Public Utility Board Kanner & Associates Midwest ISO National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners National Association

  17. Hierarchical probabilistic regionalization of volcanism for Sengan region, Japan.

    SciTech Connect

    Balasingam, Pirahas; Park, Jinyong; McKenna, Sean Andrew; Kulatilake, Pinnaduwa H. S. W.

    2005-03-01

    A 1 km square regular grid system created on the Universal Transverse Mercator zone 54 projected coordinate system is used to work with volcanism related data for Sengan region. The following geologic variables were determined as the most important for identifying volcanism: geothermal gradient, groundwater temperature, heat discharge, groundwater pH value, presence of volcanic rocks and presence of hydrothermal alteration. Data available for each of these important geologic variables were used to perform directional variogram modeling and kriging to estimate geologic variable vectors at each of the 23949 centers of the chosen 1 km cell grid system. Cluster analysis was performed on the 23949 complete variable vectors to classify each center of 1 km cell into one of five different statistically homogeneous groups with respect to potential volcanism spanning from lowest possible volcanism to highest possible volcanism with increasing group number. A discriminant analysis incorporating Bayes theorem was performed to construct maps showing the probability of group membership for each of the volcanism groups. The said maps showed good comparisons with the recorded locations of volcanism within the Sengan region. No volcanic data were found to exist in the group 1 region. The high probability areas within group 1 have the chance of being the no volcanism region. Entropy of classification is calculated to assess the uncertainty of the allocation process of each 1 km cell center location based on the calculated probabilities. The recorded volcanism data are also plotted on the entropy map to examine the uncertainty level of the estimations at the locations where volcanism exists. The volcanic data cell locations that are in the high volcanism regions (groups 4 and 5) showed relatively low mapping estimation uncertainty. On the other hand, the volcanic data cell locations that are in the low volcanism region (group 2) showed relatively high mapping estimation uncertainty

  18. Regional desertification: A global synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helldén, Ulf; Tottrup, Christian

    2008-12-01

    The paper presents results on the use of NOAA AVHRR data for desertification monitoring on a regional-global level. It is based on processing of the GIMMS 8 km global NDVI data set. Time series of annually integrated and standardized annual NDVI anomalies were generated and compared with a corresponding rainfall data set (1981-2003). The regions studied include the Mediterranean basin, the Sahel from the Atlantic to the Red Sea, major parts of the drylands of Southern Africa, China-Mongolia and the drylands of South America, i.e. important parts of the desertification prone drylands of the world. It is concluded that the suggested methodology is a robust and reliable way to assess and monitor vegetation trends and related desertification on a regional-global scale. A strong general relationship between NDVI and rainfall over time is demonstrated for considerable parts of the drylands. The results of performed trend analysis cannot be used to verify any systematic generic land degradation/desertification trend at the regional-global level. On the contrary, a "greening-up" seems to be evident over large regions.

  19. Correlation of regional breath sound with regional ventilation in emphysema

    SciTech Connect

    Ploysongsang, Y.; Pare, J.A.; Macklem, P.T.

    1982-09-01

    We measured regional breath sound intensities (Ib) by a microphone amplifier system in 8 subjects with emphysema. We also measured regional white noise transmissions (Tn) from the same areas in all subjects. The recorded areas were 5, 10, 15, and 20 cm from the apex of the lung just lateral to the right anterior midclavicular line. Xenon ventilation indexes (xenon tidal raw counts, an index of total regional ventilation; xenon equilibration raw counts, an index of ventilating lung volume; xenon ventilation per unit volume (Vr), an index of ventilation per unit volume) were also recorded from the same areas. The Ib, Tn, Ib/Tn (an index of sound generation), and xenon ventilation indexes were all expressed as a fraction of the mean value of all four recorded areas. The Ib and Ib/Tn correlated best with the xenon tidal raw counts, correlated well with the xenon equilibration raw counts, and correlated poorly with Vr. We conclude that Ib and Ib/Tn can be used to quantify regional ventilation in subjects with emphysema.

  20. Parsing surrounding space into regions.

    PubMed

    Franklin, N; Henkel, L A; Zangas, T

    1995-07-01

    Surrounding space is not inherently organized, but we tend to treat it as though it consisted of regions (e.g., front, back, right, and left). The current studies show that these conceptual regions have characteristics that reflect our typical interactions with space. Three experiments examined the relative sizes and resolutions of front, back, left, and right around oneself. Front, argued to be the most important horizontal region, was found to be (a) largest, (b) recalled with the greatest precision, and (c) described with the greatest degree pf detao. Our findings suggest that some of the characteristics of the category model proposed by Huttenlocher, Hedges, and Duncan (1991) regarding memory for pictured circular displays may be generalized to space around oneself. More broadly, our results support and extend the spatial framework analysis of representation of surrounding space (Franklin & Tversky, 1990). PMID:7666754

  1. Northeast Regional Biomass Energy Program

    SciTech Connect

    O'Connell, R.A.

    1992-02-01

    The Northeast Regional Biomass Program (NRBP) is entering its ninth year of operation. The management and the objectives have virtually remained unchanged and are stated as follows. The program conducted by NRBP has three basic features: (1) a state grant component that provides funds (with a 50 percent matching requirement) to each of the states in the region to strengthen and integrate the work of state agencies involved in biomass energy; (2) a series of technical reports and studies in areas that have been identified as being of critical importance to the development of biomass energy in the region; and (3) a continuous long range planning component with heavy private sector involvement that helps to identify activities necessary to spur greater development and use of biomass energy in the Northeast.

  2. Multithermal emission in active regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Zanna, Giulio

    High-resolution EUV observations from SDO/AIA, Hi-C and Hinode/EIS are used, together with updated new atomic data, to study the multi-thermal emission in active region structures. Previous observations are largely confirmed, with most structures being not co-spatial and having nearly isothermal cross-sections. Those at temperatures below 1 MK appear as nearly resolved but those at 1-3 MK are still largely unresolved even at the Hi-C resolution. Very little emission above 3 MK is present in quiescent active regions. Elemental abundances vary in different structures. The active region cores show FIP enhancements of about a factor of three. X-ray spectroscopy confirms the results of the EUV observations for the hot cores.

  3. Region extraction from complex shapes.

    PubMed

    Nevins, A J

    1982-05-01

    An algorithm is described which extracts primitive regions (i.e., convex, spiral shaped, and biconcave lens) from complex shapes. The interior region bounded by the shape is decomposed by first slicing it into a set of convex subregions and then rotating and dissolving the various boundaries between subregions until a satisfactory decomposition is obtained. The same algorithm also is used to decompose the exterior region between the shape and its convex hull. The algorithm has been implemented as an Algol-W computer program for the UNIVAC 90/80 and results of running the program are presented for a wide variety of complex shapes. These results compare favorably with the experience reported by previous programs. PMID:21869069

  4. Regional sea level change in the Thailand-Indonesia region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fenoglio-Marc, L.; Becker, M. H.; Buchhaupt, C.

    2013-12-01

    It is expected that the regional sea level rise will strongly affect particular regions with direct impacts including submergence of coastal zones, rising water tables and salt intrusion into groundwaters. It can possibly also exacerbate other factors as floodings, associated to storms and hurricanes, as well as ground subsidence of anthropogenic nature. The Thailand-Vietnam-Indonesian region is one of those zones. On land, the Chao-Praya and Mekong Delta are fertile alluvial zones. The potential for sea level increases and extreme floodings due to global warming makes the Deltas a place where local, regional, and global environmental changes are converging. We investigate the relative roles of regional and global mechanisms resulting in multidecadal variations and inflections in the rate of sea level change. Altimetry and GRACE data are used to investigate the variation of land floodings. The land surface water extent is evaluated at 25 km sampling intervals over fifteen years (1993-2007) using a multisatellite methodology which captures the extent of episodic and seasonal inundations, wetlands, rivers, lakes, and irrigated agriculture, using passive and active (microwaves and visible observations. The regional sea level change is analysed during the period 1993-2012 using satellite altimetry, wind and ocean model data, tide gauge data and GPS. The rates of absolute eustatic sea level rise derived from satellite altimetry through 19-year long precise altimeter observations are in average higher than the global mean rate. Several tide gauge records indicate an even higher sea level rise relative to land. We show that the sea level change is closely linked to the ENSO mode of variability and strongly affected by changes in wind forcing and ocean circulation. We have determined the vertical crustal motion at a given tide gauge location by differencing the tide gauge sea level time-series with an equivalent time-series derived from satellite altimetry and by computing

  5. Plexiform Schwannoma of Lumbar Region

    PubMed Central

    Parihar, Asmita; Verma, Sarika; Suri, Tarun; Agarwal, Anil; Bansal, Kalpana

    2015-01-01

    Plexiform schwannoma is an unusual peripheral nerve sheath tumor. It can mimic plexiform neurofibroma. A five-year-old girl presented with painful swelling in left lumbar region. Radiologic investigations showed a multinodular tumor in the subcutaneous plane of lumbosacral region. A complete excision and histopathologic examination revealed a plexiform tumor composed of hypocellular and hypercellular areas with verocay bodies. The tumor cells showed strong positivity for S-100 protein, rendering a final diagnosis of plexiform schwannoma. The child has been free of recurrence in 12-month follow-up. PMID:26064806

  6. Ancient crustal components in the Fra Mauro breccias

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shervais, J. W.; Taylor, L. A.; Laul, J. C.

    1983-01-01

    Texturally pristine clasts preserve primary petrographic relationships and mineral compositions, yielding insights into igneous processes of the early lunar crust that cannot be gained from highly shocked and brecciated 'chemically pristine' samples. The use of texture as a prime criterion allows for expansion of the data base derived solely from chemical criteria, and provides complementary data. Texturally pristine clasts from the Apollo 14 site studied here include anorthosite, troctolites, gabbronorites, and basalts. Alkali anorthosites are plagioclase orthocumulates and may form by flotation in Mg-suite plutons. Ferroan anorthosite was cataclastically deformed and metamorphosed to granulite facies. Troctolites include both 01 + Plg and 01 + En + Plg cumulates. Major and trace element analyses of two troctolites reveal 'eastern' geochemical affinities that contrast other 'western' troctolites. Gabbronorites are Pig + Plg + or - Sp cumulates whose parent magmas may range from high-Al to intermediate-Ti mare basalt. At least three varieties of mare basalt are found at Apollo 14: high-Al, low-Ti; low-Al, intermediate-Ti; and low-Al, Ti VHK basalt. VHK (Very High Potassium) basalt is a new variety indigenous to Apollo 14.

  7. Molecular Regionalization of the Diencephalon

    PubMed Central

    Martinez-Ferre, Almudena; Martinez, Salvador

    2012-01-01

    The anatomic complexity of the diencephalon depends on precise molecular and cellular regulative mechanisms orchestrated by regional morphogenetic organizers at the neural tube stage. In the diencephalon, like in other neural tube regions, dorsal and ventral signals codify positional information to specify ventro-dorsal regionalization. Retinoic acid, Fgf8, BMPs, and Wnts signals are the molecular factors acting upon the diencephalic epithelium to specify dorsal structures, while Shh is the main ventralizing signal. A central diencephalic organizer, the zona limitans intrathalamica (ZLI), appears after neurulation in the central diencephalic alar plate, establishing additional antero-posterior positional information inside diencephalic alar plate. Based on Shh expression, the ZLI acts as a morphogenetic center, which cooperates with other signals in thalamic specification and pattering in the alar plate of diencephalon. Indeed, Shh is expressed first in the basal plate extending dorsally through the ZLI epithelium as the development proceeds. Despite the importance of ZLI in diencephalic morphogenesis the mechanisms that regulate its development remain incompletely understood. Actually, controversial interpretations in different experimental models have been proposed. That is, experimental results have suggested that (i) the juxtaposition of the molecularly heterogeneous neuroepithelial areas, (ii) cell reorganization in the epithelium, and/or (iii) planar and vertical inductions in the neural epithelium, are required for ZLI specification and development. We will review some experimental data to approach the study of the molecular regulation of diencephalic regionalization, with special interest in the cellular mechanisms underlying planar inductions. PMID:22654731

  8. Regional Enteritis of the Duodenum

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, A. M.; Michalyshyn, B.; Sherbaniuk, R. W.; Costopoulos, L. B.

    1965-01-01

    Forty-three cases of regional enteritis of the duodenum were found in the world literature. Regional duodenitis is relatively uncommon; in one large series of 600 cases of regional enteritis only three involved the duodenum. At the University of Alberta Hospital, in a three-year period (1962 to 1965), the authors encountered five patients with regional duodenitis, demonstrating a spectrum of clinical, radiologic and pathologic characteristics of this disease. The description of these patients brings the world's total to 48 reported cases. Two of these patients had symptoms of severe duodenal obstruction and were relieved by bypass procedures and vagotomy; one required surgery because of co-existent obstructive ileal disease: and two patients have improved on corticoids and salicylazosulfapyridine without surgery. In our experience treatment with corticoids and salicylazosulfapyridine is beneficial. Four of the five patients remain in a state of mild to moderate nutritional impairment and have evidence of intestinal malabsorption. In the fifth case the period of followup is too short to permit assessment. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Figs. 6 (X 50) and 7 (X 450)Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12Figs. 13 and 14 (both X 100)Fig. 15Fig. 16Fig. 17Fig. 18Fig. 19Fig. 20Fig. 21 PMID:5843869

  9. Regional seismic networks upgrade encouraged

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    A partnership between the U.S. National Seismic Network (USNSN)—planned by the U.S. Geological Survey for implementation in the early 1990s—and a group of modernized, independently run regional seismic networks is recommended by the National Research Council in their recent report, “Assessing the Nation's Earthquakes: The Health and Future of Regional Seismograph Networks.” The panel that prepared the report said that together, the facilities would constitute a National Seismic System, a satellite-based network capable of systematically monitoring and analyzing earthquakes throughout the nation within minutes of their occurrence.Regional seismic networks are arrays of tens to hundreds of seismic stations targeted chiefly on seismically active regions. They provide a broad range of data and information, which can be applied to public safety and emergency management, quantification of hazard and risk assessment associated with natural and human-induced earthquakes, surveillance of underground nuclear explosions, basic research on earthquake mechanics and dynamics, seismic wave propagation, seismotectonic processes, earthquake forecasting and prediction, and properties and composition of the crust and the internal structure of the Earth.

  10. Higher Education and European Regionalism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paterson, Lindsay

    2001-01-01

    Speculates about the relationship between two fundamental social changes occurring in Europe: the development of a mass higher education system and the slow decay of the old states that were inherited from the 19th century, eroded from below by various movements for national and regional autonomy, and eroded from above by the growing power and…

  11. Education and Italian Regional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Di Liberto, Adriana

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we study the connection between growth and human capital in a convergence regression for the panel of Italian regions. We include measures of average primary, secondary and tertiary education. We find that increased education seems to contribute to growth only in the South. Decomposing total schooling into its three constituent…

  12. SDO Sees Active Region Outbursts

    NASA Video Gallery

    This close up video by NASA’s Solar Dynamics Observatory shows an active region near the right-hand edge of the sun’s disk, which erupted with at least a dozen minor events over a 30-hour period fr...

  13. International Division Regional Advisers' Reports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Jenny

    2006-01-01

    An Advisers primary job is to nominate candidates for the five annual ID awards; this involves working with the five International Division award coordinators. Advisers also submit an annual report on activities in their country/ region to their Area Coordinators who, in turn, report on educational technology activities in their Areas. In the…

  14. Regional Needs Analysis Report. 2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington Higher Education Coordinating Board, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The Higher Education Coordinating Board (HECB) is required to develop a comprehensive and ongoing needs assessment process to analyze demand for additional degrees and programs [RCW 28B.76.230 (1)]. This report fulfills a portion of that mandate by focusing on employer demand on the regional level, but also includes additional information on…

  15. PREL Pacific Region Language Cards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pacific Region Educational Lab., Honolulu, HI.

    This collection of 10 cue cards presents English translations of common English words and expressions into 10 Pacific Region languages: Palauan, Samoan, Chamorro, Hawaiian, Carolinian, Chuukese, Pohnpeian, Marshallese, Yapese, and Kosraean. The cards translate the following: hello, good morning, good afternoon, good night, thank you, you're…

  16. Regionalization--Deja Vu Again?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallanan, Edwin J.

    The subject of regionalization or the consolidation of schools has been a major issue of discussion and educational research for the past 15 years. A fact that has come out of the research is that consolidation is expensive. Yet, some observers continue to recommend consolidating the remaining school districts. When schools are closed, children…

  17. MISR Regional SAMUM Map Projection

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-06-26

    ... Regional Imagery:  Overview  |  Products  |  Data Quality  | Map Projection |  File Format  |  View Data  |  ... on the reference ellipsoid. Note that more sophisticated GIS tools (e.g., ERDAS Imagine) will do this conversion automatically for you. ...

  18. REGION 10 SITEINFO GIS APPLICATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    SITEINFO was developed to be a simple to use GIS application that is usable by regional staff to create informative reports and map displays of EPA management concerns, regulated sources, human health, and ecosystem information for areas surrounding any given location in the re...

  19. NORTH ALBEMARLE REGION HYDROGEOLOGIC FRAMEWORK

    EPA Science Inventory

    The North Albemarle region lies north of the Albemarle Sound and east of the Chowan River, including Camden, Chowan, Currituck, Gates, Pasquotank, and Perquimans Counties. This area is in great need of additional water sources in order to accommodate a growing population spilling...

  20. Regional Background Fine Particulate Matter

    EPA Science Inventory

    A modeling system composed of the global model GEOS-Chem providing hourly lateral boundary conditions to the regional model CMAQ was used to calculate the policy relevant background level of fine particulate: matter. Simulations were performed for the full year of 2004 over the d...

  1. 32 CFR 1605.7 - Region Manager.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Region Manager. 1605.7 Section 1605.7 National... ORGANIZATION Region Administration § 1605.7 Region Manager. (a) Subject to the direction and control of the Director of Selective Service, the Region Manager of Selective Service for each region shall be...

  2. Regional location in western China

    SciTech Connect

    Cogbill, A.H.; Steck, L.K.

    1996-10-01

    Accurately locating seismic events in western China using only regional seismic stations is a challenge. Not only is the number of seismic stations available for locating events small, but most stations available to researchers are often over 10{degree} distant. Here the authors describe the relocation, using regional stations, of both nuclear and earthquake sources near the Lop Nor test site in western China. For such relocations, they used the Earthquake Data Reports provided by the US Geological Survey (USGS) for the reported travel times. Such reports provide a listing of all phases reported to the USGS from stations throughout the world, including many stations in the People`s Republic of China. LocSAT was used as the location code. The authors systematically relocated each event int his study several times, using fewer and fewer stations at reach relocation, with the farther stations being eliminated at each step. They found that location accuracy, judged by comparing solutions from few stations to the solution provided using all available stations, remained good typically until fewer than seven stations remained.With a good station distribution, location accuracy remained surprisingly good (within 7 km) using as few as 3 stations. Because these relocations were computed without good station corrections and without source-specific station corrections (that is, path corrections), they believe that such regional locations can be substantially improved, largely using static station corrections and source-specific station corrections, at least in the Lop nor area, where sources have known locations. Elsewhere in China, one must rely upon known locations of regionally-recorded explosions. Locating such sources is clearly one of the major problems to be overcome before one can provide event locations with any assurance from regional stations.

  3. Numerical Simulation of Regional Circulation in the Monterey Bay Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tseng, Y. H.; Dietrich, D. E.; Ferziger, J. H.

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this study is to produce a high-resolution numerical model of Mon- terey Bay area in which the dynamics are determined by the complex geometry of the coastline, steep bathymetry, and the in uence of the water masses that constitute the CCS. Our goal is to simulate the regional-scale ocean response with realistic dynamics (annual cycle), forcing, and domain. In particular, we focus on non-hydrostatic e ects (by comparing the results of hydrostatic and non-hydrostatic models) and the role of complex geometry, i.e. the bay and submarine canyon, on the nearshore circulation. To the best of our knowledge, the current study is the rst to simulate the regional circulation in the vicinity of Monterey Bay using a non-hydrostatic model. Section 2 introduces the high resolution Monterey Bay area regional model (MBARM). Section 3 provides the results and veri cation with mooring and satellite data. Section 4 compares the results of hydrostatic and non-hydrostatic models.

  4. Regional downscaling of decadal predictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feldmann, H.

    2014-12-01

    During the last years the research field of decadal predictions gained increased attention. Its intention is to exploit the predictability derived from slowly varying components of the climate system on inter-annual to decadal time-scales. Such predictions are mostly performed using ensembles of global earth system models. The prediction systems are able to achieve a relatively high predictive skill over some oceanic regions, like the North Atlantic sector. But potential users of decadal predictions are often interested in forecasts over land areas and require a higher resolution, too. Therefore, the German research program MiKlip develops a decadal ensemble predictions system with regional downscaling as an additional option. Dynamical downscaling and a statistical-dynamical downscaling approach are applied within the MiKlip regionalization module. The global prediction system consists of the MPI-ESM model. Different RCMs are used for the downscaling, e.g. CCLM and REMO. The focus regions are Europe and Western Africa. Hindcast experiments for the period 1960 - 2013 were performed to assess the general skill of the prediction system. Of special interest is the value added by the regional downscaling. For mean quantities, like annual mean temperature and precipitation, the predictive skill is comparable between the global and the downscaled systems. For extremes on the other hand there seems to be an improvement by the RCM ensemble. The skill strongly varies on sub-continental regions and with the season. The lead time up to which a positive predictive skill can be achieved depends on the parameter and season, too. A further goal is to assess the potential for valuable information, which can be derived from predicting long-term variations of the European climate. The leading mode of decadal variability in the European/Atlantic sector is the Atlantic Multidecadal Variation (AMV). The potential predictability from AMV teleconnections especially for extreme value

  5. Marine cloud brightening: regional applications

    PubMed Central

    Latham, John; Gadian, Alan; Fournier, Jim; Parkes, Ben; Wadhams, Peter; Chen, Jack

    2014-01-01

    The general principle behind the marine cloud brightening (MCB) climate engineering technique is that seeding marine stratocumulus clouds with substantial concentrations of roughly monodisperse sub-micrometre-sized seawater particles might significantly enhance cloud albedo and longevity, thereby producing a cooling effect. This paper is concerned with preliminary studies of the possible beneficial application of MCB to three regional issues: (1) recovery of polar ice loss, (2) weakening of developing hurricanes and (3) elimination or reduction of coral bleaching. The primary focus is on Item 1. We focus discussion herein on advantages associated with engaging in limited-area seeding, regional effects rather than global; and the levels of seeding that may be required to address changing current and near-term conditions in the Arctic. We also mention the possibility that MCB might be capable of producing a localized cooling to help stabilize the West Antarctic Ice Sheet. PMID:25404682

  6. Domestic and regional satellite systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keigler, John E.; Profera, Charles E.

    1990-07-01

    The technical characteristics of domestic and regional satellite systems are discussed. Spacecraft technology is reviewed, communication payload technology developments are discussed, and resources and economics are discussed. It is seen that, compared to the installation of terrestrial microwave or optical cable networks in remote and harsh areas, satellite systems offer both lower costs and shorter time to bring on line. Proven technology and mature hardware is available for regions where orbit/spectrum space is still plentiful. As in North America, the sequence of growth is likely to be C-band and then K-band. Corresponding earth station advances in efficient modulation techniques and time-division multiple access will increase the capacity per transponder channel, while frequency and spatial reuse will provide more channels per satellite.

  7. The transition regions of Capella

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linsky, Jeffrey L.; Wood, Brian E.; Judge, Philip; Brown, Alexander; Andrulis, Catherine; Ayers, Thomas R.

    1995-01-01

    We have used the Goddard High Resolution Spectrometer (GHRS) to observe the spectoscopic binary system Capella (G8 III + G1 III). Exposures with the G140L, G140M, G160M, G200M, and echelle gratings provide emission line profiles with unprecedented signal-to-noise and spectral resolving power (lambda/Delta-lambda) up to 92,000. Multi-Gaussin fits to the line profiles show that the hotter star contributes 60%-70% of the total flux in the chromospheric O I and Mg II resonance lines, but about 90% of the flux in the Si III, Si IV, and C IV lines formed in the transition region at T less than or = 10(exp 5) K. We find clear evidence that the emission lines from the hotter star are systemtically redshifted relative to the photosphere with Doppler shifts of 5 +/- 1 km/s for the +9 +/- 3 km/s in the chromospheric Mg II and O I lines, respectively, increasing to +24 +/- 5 km/s for the transition region Si IV 1393.8A line. The multi-Gaussian fits to permitted transition region lines of SI III, Si IV, C IV, and N V indicate the presence of three components: moderately broad lines formed in the transition region of the hotter star (component H), narrow lines formed in the transition region of the cooler star (component C), and very broad lines that we think are formed in microflares on the hotter star (component B). The He II 1640.4 A feature has an broad profile, which indicates that it is formed by collisional excitation primarily from the hotter star, and a weak narrow component that we interpret as due to radiative recombination on the cooler star. We observed spin-forbidden emission lines of C III), O III), Si III), O IV), O V), and S IV) that are sensitive to electron density. Fainter members of the O IV) multiplet and all of the S IV) lines have never before been seen in any star than the Sun. We determine electron densities in the transition regions of the Capella stars using lines ratios of O IV) lines and emission measure analysis. The emission measures are self

  8. New regions of nuclear deformation

    SciTech Connect

    Lister, C.J.; Gelletly, W.; Varley, B.J.; Price, H.G.; Olness, J.W.

    1983-01-01

    It has long been expected from general theoretical considerations that nuclei with Z and N far removed from major shell closures should exhibit considerable collectivity and maybe deformed in their groundstates. A number of calculations have recently attempted to quantify these expectations through detailed predictions of nuclear shapes across the periodic table. In this contribution we review predictions and experimental data for the regions with Z,N = (40,40), (40,64) and (64,64) which are all off the valley of stability. Emphasis is placed on the experimental techniques and data obtained from the first of these regions where the prediction of extremely large prolate deformation has been experimentally verified.

  9. Schwannoma Located in Nasopharyngeal Region.

    PubMed

    Aksoy, Fadlullah; Yenigun, Alper; Senturk, Erol; Ozturan, Orhan

    2016-01-01

    Schwannoma is a tumor which has neuroectoderm origins, is hard, well-circumscribed, encapsulated, and slow growing benign cranial tumor, and may autonomously grow out of the nerve sheath of peripheral nerves. It is mostly seen in the head and neck region. In the paranasal sinus and nose areas, it is seen at a rate of 4%. The diagnosis is mostly made after histopathological examination. In this paper, a Schwannoma case observed in the nasopharyngeal region was presented in a 20-year-old female who had complaints of sleeping with open mouth, snoring, foreign body feeling in throat, and swallowing difficulties. The tumor was extracted via transoral approach. No recurrence was observed during follow-up over the next year. This case presentation is presented for the first time in the literature in English. PMID:27293938

  10. Global oscillations and active regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durrant, C. J.

    The author presents further estimates of the amplitude of the modulation of the solar global velocity signal caused by the passage of active regions across the solar disc. Using measurements of the profile of the K I λ769.9 nm line in the quiet sun and in plages he finds a global velocity variation of ≡2 m s-1 during the transit of a typical active region of area 3300 millionths of the hemisphere. However, during the period in which a velocity amplitude of 6 m s-1 was reported by Claverie et al. (1982), the sunspot areas were exceptionally large and the author confirms Schröter's (1984) result that the combination of spot and plage contributions is sufficient to account for the observed signal. The velocity modulation is thus attributable to surface inhomogeneities, not to the structure of the solar core.

  11. Schwannoma Located in Nasopharyngeal Region

    PubMed Central

    Aksoy, Fadlullah; Senturk, Erol; Ozturan, Orhan

    2016-01-01

    Schwannoma is a tumor which has neuroectoderm origins, is hard, well-circumscribed, encapsulated, and slow growing benign cranial tumor, and may autonomously grow out of the nerve sheath of peripheral nerves. It is mostly seen in the head and neck region. In the paranasal sinus and nose areas, it is seen at a rate of 4%. The diagnosis is mostly made after histopathological examination. In this paper, a Schwannoma case observed in the nasopharyngeal region was presented in a 20-year-old female who had complaints of sleeping with open mouth, snoring, foreign body feeling in throat, and swallowing difficulties. The tumor was extracted via transoral approach. No recurrence was observed during follow-up over the next year. This case presentation is presented for the first time in the literature in English. PMID:27293938

  12. Venus - Lavinia Region Impact Craters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Three large meteorite impact craters, with diameters that range from 37 to 50 kilometers (23 to 31 miles), are seen in this image of the Lavinia region of Venus. The image is centered at 27 degrees south latitude and 339 degrees east longitude (longitude on Venus is measured from 0 degrees to 360 degrees east), and covers an area 550 kilometers (342 miles) wide by about 500 kilometers (311 miles) long. Situated in a region of fractured plains, the craters show many features typical of meteorite impact craters, including rough (bright) material around the rim, terraced inner walls and central peaks. Numerous domes, probably caused by volcanic activity, are seen in the southeastern corner of the mosaic. The domes range in diameter from 1 to 12 kilometers (0.6 to 7 miles). Some of the domes have central pits that are typical of some types of volcanoes. North is at the top of the image.

  13. Jupiter's Great Red Spot Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    This mosaic of the Great Red Spot shows that the region has changed significantly since the Voyager 1 encounter three months ago. Around the northern boundary a white cloud is seen, which extends to east of the region. The presence of this cloud prevents small cloud vertices from circling the spot in the manner seen in the Voyager 1 encounter. Another white oval cloud (different from the one present in this position three months ago) is seen south of the Great Red Spot. The internal structure of these spots is identical. Since they both rotate in an anticyclonic manner these observations indicate that they are meteorologically similar. This image was taken on July 6 from a range of 2,633,003 kilometers.

  14. Complex Regional Pain Type 1.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Michael Joseph; Barnett, Peter Leslie John

    2016-03-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome is increasingly recognized in the pediatric population. Owing to the nature of presentation with pain, many of these children present to the emergency setting at different stages of the syndrome with or without numerous prior interactions with health professionals. Complex regional pain syndrome type 1 (CRPS1) is a clinical syndrome characterized by amplified musculoskeletal limb pain that is out of proportion to the history and physical findings, or pain due to non-noxious stimuli (allodynia/hyperalgesia), and accompanied by one or more signs of autonomic dysfunction. Differential diagnosis may include significant trauma (eg, fractures), inflammatory conditions, malignancies, and systemic illness. The diagnosis is clinical. The treatment goals for CRPS1 are restoration of function and relief of pain. Education, physical, and occupational therapy with psychotherapy and defined goals of achievement with reward are the mainstay of treatment for this population. Most children with CRPS1 will have a favorable outcome. PMID:26928099

  15. [Health in Andean regional integration].

    PubMed

    Agudelo, Carlos A

    2007-01-01

    Despite their shared history, the Andean countries are socially and politically diverse, with heterogeneous health realities and complex integration processes. General developments such as the Latin American Free Trade Association and Latin American Integration Association have existed for decades, along with others of a regional scope, like the Andean Community of Nations, Caribbean Community, and Central American Common Market. The health field has a specific instrument in the Andean Region called the Hipólito Unánue Agreement, created in 1971. Integration processes have concentrated on economic aspects, based on preferential customs agreements that have led to an important long-term increase in trade. Less progress has been made in the field of health in terms of sharing national experiences, knowledge, and capabilities. Analysis of experiences in health has shown that integration depends on the countries' respective strengths and to a major extent on national political processes. PMID:17625652

  16. A Regional Medical Library Network *

    PubMed Central

    Pizer, Irwin H.

    1969-01-01

    The raison d'être for cooperative networks is discussed, and the development of the SUNY Biomedical Communication Network is traced briefly; a description of the system and its products is given. The cooperative cataloging program engaged in with the Francis A. Countway Library of Medicine and the National Library of Medicine is described, as are the efforts of the Network in the production of regional and state-wide union lists of serials. PMID:5778720

  17. Climatology of urban regional systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pease, R. W.

    1970-01-01

    The combining of remote sensing technologies to urban-regional energy climatology is studied. It was found to be three dimensional with a mosaic urban surface, each smaller surface with its own radiant and thermal properties. Urban patterns of radiant exchange were found to be constantly changing during diurnal and annual cycles. Results were derived from Barbados data using remote methods for monitoring and mapping radiation. Isoline maps of terrestrial radiation patterns were made generalizing the minute patterns of the scan image.

  18. MC-19 Margaritifer Sinus Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Mars digital-image mosaic merged with color of the MC-19 quadrangle, Margaritifer Sinus region of Mars. Heavily cratered highlands, which dominate the Margaritifer Sinus quadrangle, are marked by large expanses of chaotic terrain. In the northwestern part, the major rift zone of Valles Marineris connects with a broad canyon filled with chaotic terrain. Latitude range -30 to 0, longitude range 0 to 45 degrees.

  19. MC-20 Sinus Sabeus Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Mars digital-image mosaic merged with color of the MC-20 quadrangle, Sinus Sabeus region of Mars. Heavily cratered highlands dominate the Sinus Sabeus quadrangle. The northern part is marked by a large impact crater, Schiaparelli. Schiaparelli is an ancient remnant of the many large impact events that occurred during the period of heavy bombardment. Latitude range -30 to 0 degrees, longitude range -45 to 0.

  20. Southeast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership

    SciTech Connect

    Kenneth J. Nemeth

    2006-08-30

    The Southeast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership's (SECARB) Phase I program focused on promoting the development of a framework and infrastructure necessary for the validation and commercial deployment of carbon sequestration technologies. The SECARB program, and its subsequent phases, directly support the Global Climate Change Initiative's goal of reducing greenhouse gas intensity by 18 percent by the year 2012. Work during the project's two-year period was conducted within a ''Task Responsibility Matrix''. The SECARB team was successful in accomplishing its tasks to define the geographic boundaries of the region; characterize the region; identify and address issues for technology deployment; develop public involvement and education mechanisms; identify the most promising capture, sequestration, and transport options; and prepare action plans for implementation and technology validation activity. Milestones accomplished during Phase I of the project are listed below: (1) Completed preliminary identification of geographic boundaries for the study (FY04, Quarter 1); (2) Completed initial inventory of major sources and sinks for the region (FY04, Quarter 2); (3) Completed initial development of plans for GIS (FY04, Quarter 3); (4) Completed preliminary action plan and assessment for overcoming public perception issues (FY04, Quarter 4); (5) Assessed safety, regulatory and permitting issues (FY05, Quarter 1); (6) Finalized inventory of major sources/sinks and refined GIS algorithms (FY05, Quarter 2); (7) Refined public involvement and education mechanisms in support of technology development options (FY05, Quarter 3); and (8) Identified the most promising capture, sequestration and transport options and prepared action plans (FY05, Quarter 4).

  1. Region processing algorithm for HSTAMIDS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngan, Peter; Burke, Sean; Cresci, Roger; Wilson, Joseph N.; Gader, Paul; Ho, Dominic K. C.

    2006-05-01

    The AN/PSS-14 (a.k.a. HSTAMIDS) has been tested for its performance in South East Asia, Thailand), South Africa (Namibia) and in November of 2005 in South West Asia (Afghanistan). The system has been proven effective in manual demining particularly in discriminating indigenous, metallic artifacts in the minefields. The Humanitarian Demining Research and Development (HD R&D) Program has sought to further improve the system to address specific needs in several areas. One particular area of these improvement efforts is the development of a mine detection/discrimination improvement software algorithm called Region Processing (RP). RP is an innovative technique in processing and is designed to work on a set of data acquired in a unique sweep pattern over a region-of-interest (ROI). The RP team is a joint effort consisting of three universities (University of Florida, University of Missouri, and Duke University), but is currently being led by the University of Florida. This paper describes the state-of-the-art Region Processing algorithm, its implementation into the current HSTAMIDS system, and its most recent test results.

  2. Developing a Regional Recovery Framework

    SciTech Connect

    Lesperance, Ann M.; Olson, Jarrod; Stein, Steven L.; Clark, Rebecca; Kelly, Heather; Sheline, Jim; Tietje, Grant; Williamson, Mark; Woodcock, Jody

    2011-09-01

    Abstract A biological attack would present an unprecedented challenge for local, state, and federal agencies; the military; the private sector; and individuals on many fronts ranging from vaccination and treatment to prioritization of cleanup actions to waste disposal. To prepare the Seattle region to recover from a biological attack, the Seattle Urban Area Security Initiative (UASI) partners collaborated with military and federal agencies to develop a Regional Recovery Framework for a Biological Attack in the Seattle Urban Area. The goal was to reduce the time and resources required to recover and restore wide urban areas, military installations, and other critical infrastructure following a biological incident by providing a coordinated systems approach. Based on discussions in small workshops, tabletop exercises, and interviews with emergency response agency staff, the partners identified concepts of operation for various areas to address critical issues the region will face as recovery progresses. Key to this recovery is the recovery of the economy. Although the Framework is specific to a catastrophic, wide-area biological attack using anthrax, it was designed to be flexible and scalable so it could also serve as the recovery framework for an all-hazards approach. The Framework also served to coalesce policy questions that must be addressed for long-term recovery. These questions cover such areas as safety and health, security, financial management, waste management, legal issues, and economic development.

  3. Gangliocytomas in the sellar region.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Nidan; Ye, Zhao; Wang, Yongfei; Li, Shiqi; Mao, Yin; Bao, Weimin; Che, Xiaoming; Qin, Zhiyong; Xu, Wei; Shen, Ming; Chen, Hong; Shou, Xuefei; Zhao, Yao

    2014-11-01

    Gangliocytomas occurring in the sellar region are extremely rare. We examined a cohort of these tumors to examine their clinical presentations and prognoses. Between January 2000 and December 2012, 23 patients were diagnosed with sellar region gangliocytomas in Huashan Hospital. These patients were retrospectively reviewed for medical histories, endocrinological examinations, preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), pathological findings and follow-ups. Endocrinological tests revealed elevated prolactin (PRL) levels in 10 cases (43.5%) and elevated growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) levels in 9 cases (39.1%). Scattered ganglion cells admixed with adenomatous components were observed in 16 cases (69.6%). In the remaining 7 cases (30.4%), only fragments with ganglion cells dispersed in the fibrillar matrix without adenohypophyseal components were detected. Immunohistochemistry revealed PRL-positive adenomas in 6 cases (26.1%) and GH-positive adenomas in 8 cases (34.8%). The average follow-up period was 4.2 years (range: 1-12.7 years). Gross total resection was achieved in 20 cases (87.0%). One patient recurred five years after tumor resection (4.3%). One patient died of acute myocardial infarction six years after operation. Gangliocytomas located in the sellar region may represent a unique immunopathological entity. The surgical results and prognoses of the gangliocytomas were comparable with those of pituitary adenomas. PMID:25259876

  4. [Population and environment: regional perspective].

    PubMed

    Gonzales Reategui, J T

    1995-06-01

    The ultimate objective of Peru's national environmental policy is to guarantee an adequate quality of life for Peruvians. Giving priority to preservation of resources without utilizing them is unjust; the capacity to protect natural resources requires a parallel social and economic development. The government's environmental policy must be in harmony with development policy at all levels. The concept of sustainable development, or conservation of natural resources with economic growth and equity, must be incorporated into policy. The regional governments must harmonize their development plans with the guidelines set down by the National Council on the Environment (CONAM). A meeting of regional officials and CONAM personnel is planned to ensure participation and coordination. Past styles of development in the department of Loreto have led to a vicious circle of poverty and environmental deterioration. The disappearance of the tropical forest, loss of habitat and biodiversity, poor water quality, and deficit of sanitary infrastructure, in the context of rapid population growth, have led to declines in living standards. The Amazon is the object of worldwide attention because of the possible consequences of deforestation. The riches of the forest should be used rationally and left for future generations. It is expected that decentralized environmental offices will be opened to coordinate multisectorial actions at the regional level. PMID:12158269

  5. Regional Location Calibration in Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steck, L. K.; Hartse, H.; Aprea, C.; Franks, J.; Velasco, A.; Randall, G.; Bradley, C.; Begnaud, M.; Aguilar-Chang, J.

    2002-12-01

    This paper presents a spectrum of issues and efforts involved in improving seismic location performance worldwide. Our efforts are largely designed around providing validated, rigorously calibrated travel times, azimuths, and slownesses along with accurate error estimates. To do so entails a significant effort that includes data mining, data integration, database management, developing optimal 1-, 2-, and 3-D Earth models, using the Earth models to predict wave propagation, developing corrections and errors for travel times, azimuths, and slownesses, and validation of all products. Results presented here will focus on Asia. For the region around station MAKZ in north-central Asia we have looked at several tens of published 1-D velocity models. For each model, travel time calculations were performed, predictions for P and S arrivals were established, and the predicted times were compared to the observed. We will present best-fit models for tectonic provinces out to regional distances from MAKZ. Previous work has shown that Non-stationary Modified Bayesian Kriging of travel time residuals successfully improves regional seismic event location, and this method is being extended to calculate corrections for azimuth and slowness. The ability to krig over 3-D Earth models is also being implemented. In order to produce the most useful corrections, we require accurate ground truth. For this we are continuing efforts to create a location database consisting of the best available seismic event locations and the most accurate and precise travel times. Building this database relies on participation from universities, other NNSA laboratories, and contacts in private industry. Through the kriging procedure we are able to stabilize location algorithms, but the ultimate usefulness of the corrections themselves is directly related to the quality of the ground truth from which the corrections are derived. Indeed, epicentral mislocations from EvLoc using travel time correction

  6. Regional air pollution over Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krysztofiak, G.; Catoire, V.; Dorf, M.; Grossmann, K.; Hamer, P. D.; Marécal, V.; Reiter, A.; Schlager, H.; Eckhardt, S.; Jurkat, T.; Oram, D.; Quack, B.; Atlas, E.; Pfeilsticker, K.

    2012-12-01

    During the SHIVA (Stratospheric Ozone: Halogen Impacts in a Varying Atmosphere) campaign in Nov. and Dec. 2011 a number of polluted air masses were observed in the marine and terrestrial boundary layer (0 - 2 km) and in the free troposphere (2 - 12 km) over Borneo/Malaysia. The measurements include isoprene, CO, CO2, CH4, N2O, NO2, SO2 as primary pollutants, O3 and HCHO as secondary pollutants, and meteorological parameters. This set of trace gases can be used to fingerprint different sources of local and regional air pollution (e.g., biomass burning and fossil fuel burning, gas flaring on oil rigs, emission of ships and from urban areas, volcanic emissions, and biogenic emissions). Individual sources and location can be identified when the measurements are combined with a nested-grid regional scale chemical and meteorological model and lagrangian particle dispersion model (e.g., CCATT-BRAMS and FLEXPART). In the case of the former, emission inventories of the primary pollutants provide the basis for the trace gas simulations. In this region, the anthropogenic influence on air pollution seems to dominate over natural causes. For example, CO2 and CH4 often show strong correlations with CO, suggesting biomass burning or urban fossil fuel combustion dominates the combustion sources. The study of the CO/CO2 and CH4/CO ratios can help separate anthropogenic combustion from biomass burning pollution sources. In addition, these ratios can be used as a measure of combustion efficiency to help place the type of biomass burning particular to this region within the wider context of fire types found globally. On several occasions, CH4 enhancements are observed near the ocean surface, which are not directly correlated with CO enhancements thus indicating a non-combustion-related CH4 source. Positive correlations between SO2 and CO show the anthropogenic influence of oil rigs located in the South China Sea. Furthermore, SO2 enhancements are observed without any increase in CO

  7. Assessment of homogeneity of regions for regional flood frequency analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jeong Eun; Kim, Nam Won

    2016-04-01

    This paper analyzed the effect of rainfall on hydrological similarity, which is an important step for regional flood frequency analysis (RFFA). For the RFFA, storage function method (SFM) using spatial extension technique was applied for the 22 sub-catchments that are partitioned from Chungju dam watershed in Republic of Korea. We used the SFM to generate the annual maximum floods for 22 sub-catchments using annual maximum storm events (1986~2010) as input data. Then the quantiles of rainfall and flood were estimated using the annual maximum series for the 22 sub-catchments. Finally, spatial variations in terms of two quantiles were analyzed. As a result, there were significant correlation between spatial variations of the two quantiles. This result demonstrates that spatial variation of rainfall is an important factor to explain the homogeneity of regions when applying RFFA. Acknowledgements: This research was supported by a grant (11-TI-C06) from Advanced Water Management Research Program funded by Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport of Korean government.

  8. Top-down constraints on disturbance dynamics in the terrestrial carbon cycle: effects at global and regional scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloom, A. A.; Exbrayat, J. F.; van der Velde, I.; Peters, W.; Williams, M.

    2014-12-01

    Large uncertainties preside over terrestrial carbon flux estimates on a global scale. In particular, the strongly coupled dynamics between net ecosystem productivity and disturbance C losses are poorly constrained. To gain an improved understanding of ecosystem C dynamics from regional to global scale, we apply a Markov Chain Monte Carlo based model-data-fusion approach into the CArbon DAta-MOdel fraMework (CARDAMOM). We assimilate MODIS LAI and burned area, plant-trait data, and use the Harmonized World Soil Database (HWSD) and maps of above ground biomass as prior knowledge for initial conditions. We optimize model parameters based on (a) globally spanning observations and (b) ecological and dynamic constraints that force single parameter values and parameter inter-dependencies to be representative of real world processes. We determine the spatial and temporal dynamics of major terrestrial C fluxes and model parameter values on a global scale (GPP = 123 +/- 8 Pg C yr-1 & NEE = -1.8 +/- 2.7 Pg C yr-1). We further show that the incorporation of disturbance fluxes, and accounting for their instantaneous or delayed effect, is of critical importance in constraining global C cycle dynamics, particularly in the tropics. In a higher resolution case study centred on the Amazon Basin we show how fires not only trigger large instantaneous emissions of burned matter, but also how they are responsible for a sustained reduction of up to 50% in plant uptake following the depletion of biomass stocks. The combination of these two fire-induced effects leads to a 1 g C m-2 d-1reduction in the strength of the net terrestrial carbon sink. Through our simulations at regional and global scale, we advocate the need to assimilate disturbance metrics in global terrestrial carbon cycle models to bridge the gap between globally spanning terrestrial carbon cycle data and the full dynamics of the ecosystem C cycle. Disturbances are especially important because their quick occurrence may have

  9. Regional Slip Tendency Analysis of the Great Basin Region

    DOE Data Explorer

    Faulds, James E.

    2013-09-30

    Slip and dilation tendency on the Great Basin fault surfaces (from the USGS Quaternary Fault Database) were calculated using 3DStress (software produced by Southwest Research Institute). Slip and dilation tendency are both unitless ratios of the resolved stresses applied to the fault plane by the measured ambient stress field. - Values range from a maximum of 1 (a fault plane ideally oriented to slip or dilate under ambient stress conditions) to zero (a fault plane with no potential to slip or dilate). - Slip and dilation tendency values were calculated for each fault in the Great Basin. As dip is unknown for many faults in the USGS Quaternary Fault Database, we made these calculations using the dip for each fault that would yield the maximum slip or dilation tendency. As such, these results should be viewed as maximum slip and dilation tendency. - The resulting along‐fault and fault‐to‐fault variation in slip or dilation potential is a proxy for along fault and fault‐to‐fault variation in fluid flow conduit potential. Stress Magnitudes and directions were calculated across the entire Great Basin. Stress field variation within each focus area was approximated based on regional published data and the world stress database (Hickman et al., 2000; Hickman et al., 1998 Robertson‐Tait et al., 2004; Hickman and Davatzes, 2010; Davatzes and Hickman, 2006; Blake and Davatzes 2011; Blake and Davatzes, 2012; Moeck et al., 2010; Moos and Ronne, 2010 and Reinecker et al., 2005). The minimum horizontal stress direction (Shmin) was contoured, and spatial bins with common Shmin directions were calculated. Based on this technique, we subdivided the Great Basin into nine regions (Shmin <070, 070140). Slip and dilation tendency were calculated using 3DStress for the faults within each region using the mean Shmin for the region. Shmin variation throughout Great Basin

  10. 47 CFR 90.1211 - Regional plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Regional plan. 90.1211 Section 90.1211... § 90.1211 Regional plan. (a) To facilitate the shared use of the 4.9 GHz band, each region may submit a plan on guidelines to be used for sharing the spectrum within the region. Any such plan must...

  11. 47 CFR 90.1211 - Regional plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Regional plan. 90.1211 Section 90.1211... § 90.1211 Regional plan. (a) To facilitate the shared use of the 4.9 GHz band, each region may submit a plan on guidelines to be used for sharing the spectrum within the region. Any such plan must...

  12. 47 CFR 90.1211 - Regional plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Regional plan. 90.1211 Section 90.1211... § 90.1211 Regional plan. (a) To facilitate the shared use of the 4.9 GHz band, each region may submit a plan on guidelines to be used for sharing the spectrum within the region. Any such plan must...

  13. 47 CFR 90.1211 - Regional plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Regional plan. 90.1211 Section 90.1211... § 90.1211 Regional plan. (a) To facilitate the shared use of the 4.9 GHz band, each region may submit a plan on guidelines to be used for sharing the spectrum within the region. Any such plan must...

  14. 5 CFR 2421.6 - Regional Director.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Regional Director. 2421.6 Section 2421.6... FEDERAL LABOR RELATIONS AUTHORITY MEANING OF TERMS AS USED IN THIS SUBCHAPTER § 2421.6 Regional Director. Regional Director means the Director of a region of the Authority with geographical boundaries as fixed...

  15. 50 CFR 1.7 - Regional director.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Regional director. 1.7 Section 1.7 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL PROVISIONS DEFINITIONS § 1.7 Regional director. Regional director means the official in charge of a region...

  16. 22 CFR 1421.5 - Regional Director.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2012-04-01 2009-04-01 true Regional Director. 1421.5 Section 1421.5 Foreign Relations FOREIGN SERVICE LABOR RELATIONS BOARD; FEDERAL LABOR RELATIONS AUTHORITY; GENERAL COUNSEL OF THE... THIS SUBCHAPTER § 1421.5 Regional Director. Regional Director means the Director of a region of...

  17. 50 CFR 1.7 - Regional director.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Regional director. 1.7 Section 1.7 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL PROVISIONS DEFINITIONS § 1.7 Regional director. Regional director means the official in charge of a region...

  18. 5 CFR 2421.6 - Regional Director.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Regional Director. 2421.6 Section 2421.6... FEDERAL LABOR RELATIONS AUTHORITY MEANING OF TERMS AS USED IN THIS SUBCHAPTER § 2421.6 Regional Director. Regional Director means the Director of a region of the Authority with geographical boundaries as fixed...

  19. 5 CFR 2421.6 - Regional Director.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Regional Director. 2421.6 Section 2421.6... FEDERAL LABOR RELATIONS AUTHORITY MEANING OF TERMS AS USED IN THIS SUBCHAPTER § 2421.6 Regional Director. Regional Director means the Director of a region of the Authority with geographical boundaries as fixed...

  20. 22 CFR 1421.5 - Regional Director.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2013-04-01 2009-04-01 true Regional Director. 1421.5 Section 1421.5 Foreign Relations FOREIGN SERVICE LABOR RELATIONS BOARD; FEDERAL LABOR RELATIONS AUTHORITY; GENERAL COUNSEL OF THE... THIS SUBCHAPTER § 1421.5 Regional Director. Regional Director means the Director of a region of...

  1. 50 CFR 1.7 - Regional director.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Regional director. 1.7 Section 1.7 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL PROVISIONS DEFINITIONS § 1.7 Regional director. Regional director means the official in charge of a region...

  2. 22 CFR 1421.5 - Regional Director.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Regional Director. 1421.5 Section 1421.5 Foreign Relations FOREIGN SERVICE LABOR RELATIONS BOARD; FEDERAL LABOR RELATIONS AUTHORITY; GENERAL COUNSEL OF THE... THIS SUBCHAPTER § 1421.5 Regional Director. Regional Director means the Director of a region of...

  3. 5 CFR 2421.6 - Regional Director.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Regional Director. 2421.6 Section 2421.6... FEDERAL LABOR RELATIONS AUTHORITY MEANING OF TERMS AS USED IN THIS SUBCHAPTER § 2421.6 Regional Director. Regional Director means the Director of a region of the Authority with geographical boundaries as fixed...

  4. 5 CFR 2421.6 - Regional Director.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Regional Director. 2421.6 Section 2421.6... FEDERAL LABOR RELATIONS AUTHORITY MEANING OF TERMS AS USED IN THIS SUBCHAPTER § 2421.6 Regional Director. Regional Director means the Director of a region of the Authority with geographical boundaries as fixed...

  5. 50 CFR 1.7 - Regional director.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Regional director. 1.7 Section 1.7 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL PROVISIONS DEFINITIONS § 1.7 Regional director. Regional director means the official in charge of a region...

  6. 22 CFR 1421.5 - Regional Director.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Regional Director. 1421.5 Section 1421.5 Foreign Relations FOREIGN SERVICE LABOR RELATIONS BOARD; FEDERAL LABOR RELATIONS AUTHORITY; GENERAL COUNSEL OF THE... THIS SUBCHAPTER § 1421.5 Regional Director. Regional Director means the Director of a region of...

  7. 50 CFR 1.7 - Regional director.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Regional director. 1.7 Section 1.7 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL PROVISIONS DEFINITIONS § 1.7 Regional director. Regional director means the official in charge of a region...

  8. The French Regions and Their Social Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jany-Catrice, Florence

    2009-01-01

    In this article, a new indicator designed to capture the multidimensionality of the social health of the French regions is put to the test. Drawing on regional data for 2004, this indicator of social health (ISH) sheds new light on the social performance of the French regions. The worst performers are the highly urbanised regions, whereas others,…

  9. Appalachian Regional Commission: 1987 Annual Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Jack, Ed.; And Others

    The Appalachian Regional Commission (ARC) used its $105 million appropriation for fiscal year 1987 to support three major program areas in the 13 state region: (1) creating and retaining regional jobs; (2) assisting in construction of basic facilities, particularly water and sewer systems, in the region's 90 poorest counties; and (3) working…

  10. 47 CFR 90.1211 - Regional plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Regional plan. 90.1211 Section 90.1211... § 90.1211 Regional plan. (a) To facilitate the shared use of the 4.9 GHz band, each region may submit a plan on guidelines to be used for sharing the spectrum within the region. Any such plan must...

  11. How is the ERBE region number determined?

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-12-08

    The ERBE region number can be easily determined with the following: 2.5-degree Data: Region number = int(colat / 2.5) * 144 + (lon / 2.5) 5-degree Data: Region number = int(colat / 5) * 72 + (lon / 5) 10-degree Data: Region number ...

  12. Precipitation in topographically diverse regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarboton, David

    A 1991 AGU Fall Meeting session, Precipitation in Topographically Diverse Regions, focused on the understanding and modeling of precipitation in regions with significant topography, concentrating on the effect of topography on precipitation. Contributions ranged from detailed mesoscale atmospheric models to statistical approaches.Two papers presented detailed physical modeling. A. P. Barros and D. P. Lettenmaier described their work, consisting of a threedimensional finite element model based on the measurement of moist static energy. Application of the model in the Olympic and Cascades mountains demonstrated its potential to model monthly precipitation totals to within 15%. F. Giorgi described some of the work being done at NCAR that is focusing on the regional impacts of global climate change. This work uses a mesoscale meteorological model (Penn State/NCAR MM4) embedded within a general circulation model. There were three papers from the USGS/Colorado State group that described work involving the RHEA-CSU orographic precipitation model that has been coupled with the USGS/s distributed parameter Precipitation Runoff Modeling System (PRMS). The orographic precipitation model has been integrated into a geographic information system to facilitate the use of digital elevation data. The PRMS is based on the concept of hydrologic response units, and the results presented illustrated the scale's sensitivity to these. When rectangular boxes were used instead of the usual response units defined by streams and drainage divides, there was no appreciable degradation in the quality of the simulation. The size and number of response units appears to be more crucial than whether they are demarcated by drainage divides and streams or simply arbitrary.

  13. Dynamics of Saturn's polar regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antuñano, A.; Río-Gaztelurrutia, T.; Sánchez-Lavega, A.; Hueso, R.

    2015-02-01

    We analyze data retrieved by the imaging science system onboard the Cassini spacecraft to study the horizontal velocity and vorticity fields of Saturn's polar regions (latitudes 60-90°N in June-December 2013 and 60-90°S in October 2006 and July-December 2008), including the northern region where the hexagonal wave is prominent. With the aid of an automated two-dimensional correlation algorithm we determine two-dimensional maps of zonal and meridional winds and deduce vorticity maps. We extract zonal averages of zonal winds, providing wind profiles that reach latitudes as high as 89.5° in the south and 89.9° in the north. Wind measurements cover the intense polar cyclonic vortices that reach similar peak velocities of 150 m s-1 at ±88.5°. The hexagonal wave lies in the core of an intense eastward jet at planetocentric latitude 75.8°N with motions that become nonzonal at the hexagonal feature. In the south hemisphere the peak of the eastward jet is located at planetocentric latitude 70.4°S. A large anticyclone (the south polar spot, SPS), similar to the north polar spot (NPS) observed at the Voyager times (1980-1981), has been observed in images from April 2008 to January 2009 in the south polar region at latitude -66.1° close to the eastward jet. The SPS does not apparently excite a wave on the jet. We analyze the stability of the zonal jets, finding potential instabilities at the flanks of the eastward jets around 70°, and we measure the eddy wind components, suggesting momentum transfer from eddy motion to the westward jets closer to the poles.

  14. Balancing regional sea level budgets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leuliette, E. W.; Miller, L.; Tamisiea, M. E.

    2015-12-01

    Balancing the sea-level budget is critical to understanding recent and future climate change as well as balancing Earth's energy budget and water budget. During the last decade, advancements in the ocean observing system — satellite altimeters, hydrographic profiling floats, and space-based gravity missions — have allowed the global mean sea level budget to?be assessed with unprecedented accuracy from direct, rather than inferred, estimates. In particular, several recent studies have used the sea-level budget to bound the rate of deep ocean warming [e.g. Llovel et al. 2014]. On a monthly basis, the sum of the steric component estimated from Argo and the ocean mass (barostatic) component from GRACE agree total sea level from Jason within the estimated uncertainties with the residual difference having an r.m.s. of less than 2 mm [Leuliette 2014]. Direct measurements of ocean warming above 2000 m depth during January 2005 and July 2015 explain about one-third of the observed annual rate of global mean sea-level rise. Extending the understanding of the sea-level budget from global mean sea level to regional patterns of sea level change is crucial for identifying regional differences in recent sea level change. The local sea-level budget can be used to identify any systematic errors in the global ocean observing system. Using the residuals from closing the sea level budget, we demonstrate that systematic regional errors remain, in part due to Argo sampling. We also show the effect of applying revised geocentric pole-tide corrections for GRACE [Wahr et al. 2015] and altimetry [Desai et al., 2015].

  15. The ALMA Regional Centers (ARC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreani, P.; Hibbard, J.; Okumura, S. K.; Braatz, J.

    2011-04-01

    ALMA is an international facility, a partnership between Europe, East Asia, and North America, in cooperation with the Republic of Chile. As such, ALMA will serve a worldwide community of astronomers. To interface with the geographically distributed user community, the partners have established three ALMA Regional Centers, or ARCs. The ARCs provide the primary gateway to ALMA for the user community. The ARCs are staffed by scientists with expertise in radio astronomy and interferometry, and their purpose is to work with the community of astronomers to maximize the scientific productivity of the telescope.

  16. Diversity in Mawrth Region, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    This view shows diverse materials and morphologies in the region south of Mawrth Vallis on Mars. The color is composed of infrared, red, and blue-green color images, and has been enhanced to accentuate the color differences. The bright material may be rich in clays and date back to a time when Mars had a wetter environment. This is a sub-image of a larger view imaged by the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) on NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter on Oct. 1, 2006. The resolution is 25 centimeters (10 inches) per pixel, and the scene is 352 meters (385 yards) wide.

  17. Ripples in Tempe Mensa Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    1 February 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows large windblown ripples (or, some might say, small dunes) in troughs between mesas of the Tempe Mensa region. The ripples are generally perpendicular to the trough walls, indicating that [missing text] the features blew through these canyons. The image is located near 33.5oN, 69.2oW. The picture covers an area 3 km (1.9 mi) wide; sunlight illuminates the scene from the lower left.

  18. The effects of HII regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dale, J. E.

    2016-05-01

    Recent work on the effects of HII regions on giant molecular clouds (GMCs) and their embedded clusters is discussed. Although the dispersive effects of ionising radiation on clouds, particularly massive ones with high escape velocities, is rather modest, it is argued that it is still a vitally important process in the evolution of GMCs and clusters. It is able to drive turbulence on GMC scales, to set the optical emergence timescales of at last ˜ 103 M⊙ clusters, and has a strong influence on the large-scale energy and momentum input of supernovae by determining their detonation environments.

  19. Magnetospheric plasma regions and boundaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heikkila, W. J.

    1975-01-01

    The boundaries of the various regions of the magnetospheric plasma are considered, taking into account the bow shock, the magnetopause, the outer boundary of the plasma sheet, the inner boundary of the plasma sheet, and the trapping boundary for energetic particles. Attention is given to the steady state, or quasi-steady state, to substorm effects in which temporal changes are important, and to primary auroral processes. A description is presented of the high latitude lobes of the magnetotail. The characteristics of magnetic field topology associated with interconnected interplanetary and geomagnetic field lines are illustrated with the aid of a graph.

  20. Surface compositions in the Aristarchus Region: Implications for regional stratigraphy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hawke, H. R.; Lucey, P. G.; Mccord, T. B.; Pieters, C. M.; Head, J. W.

    1984-01-01

    Near infrared reflectance spectra for the Aristachus region, obtained using the 2.2m UH telescope at the Mauna Kea Observatory, were reduced and analyzed. The spectra obtained for the central peak, southern floor, southwestern wall, eastern wall, and northwestern wall of Aristachus crater exhibit shallow continuum slopes, relatively strong feldspar bands, pyroxene bands stronger than those typically seen in the spectra of fresh higland features, and pyroxene band centers near l micrometer suggesting the dominance of Ca rich clinopyroxene. The spectrum of the south rim of Aristachus is quite distinct from those of other crater units. The position of Aristrchus on the plateau/mare boundary raises questions concerning compositional variations in crater ejects deposits.

  1. Region IX mainland regional contingency plan. Draft report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-30

    The purpose of this plan is to promote the coordination of a timely, effective response by various Federal agencies and local, state, and non-government organizations to discharges of oil and releases of hazardous substances, pollutants and contaminants in order to protect public health, welfare and the environment. Although this plan includes information on Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) remedial response actions, the primary purpose of the plan is to provide guidance for emergency response and removal under the provisions of the Clean Water Act (CWA) as amended by the Oil Pollution Act of 1990 (OPA), for response actions under provisions of CERCLA, and for regional contingency planning under the provisions of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (SARA).

  2. regioneR: an R/Bioconductor package for the association analysis of genomic regions based on permutation tests

    PubMed Central

    Gel, Bernat; Díez-Villanueva, Anna; Serra, Eduard; Buschbeck, Marcus; Peinado, Miguel A.; Malinverni, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Motivation: Statistically assessing the relation between a set of genomic regions and other genomic features is a common challenging task in genomic and epigenomic analyses. Randomization based approaches implicitly take into account the complexity of the genome without the need of assuming an underlying statistical model. Summary: regioneR is an R package that implements a permutation test framework specifically designed to work with genomic regions. In addition to the predefined randomization and evaluation strategies, regioneR is fully customizable allowing the use of custom strategies to adapt it to specific questions. Finally, it also implements a novel function to evaluate the local specificity of the detected association. Availability and implementation: regioneR is an R package released under Artistic-2.0 License. The source code and documents are freely available through Bioconductor (http://www.bioconductor.org/packages/regioneR). Contact: rmalinverni@carrerasresearch.org PMID:26424858

  3. Regional solid waste management study

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-01

    In 1990, the Lower Savannah Council of Governments (LSCOG) began dialogue with the United States Department of Energy (DOE) regarding possibilities for cooperation and coordination of solid waste management practices among the local governments and the Savannah River Site. The Department of Energy eventually awarded a grant to the Lower Savannah Council of Governments for the development of a study, which was initiated on March 5, 1992. After careful analysis of the region`s solid waste needs, this study indicates a network approach to solid waste management to be the most viable. The network involves the following major components: (1) Rural Collection Centers, designed to provide convenience to rural citizens, while allowing some degree of participation in recycling; (2) Rural Drop-Off Centers, designed to give a greater level of education and recycling activity; (3) Inert landfills and composting centers, designed to reduce volumes going into municipal (Subtitle D) landfills and produce useable products from yard waste; (4) Transfer Stations, ultimate landfill disposal; (5) Materials Recovery Facilities, designed to separate recyclables into useable and sellable units, and (6) Subtitle D landfill for burial of all solid waste not treated through previous means.

  4. Cold Dust in Hot Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sreenilayam, Gopika; Fich, Michel; Ade, Peter; Bintley, Dan; Chapin, Ed; Chrysostomou, Antonio; Dunlop, James S.; Gibb, Andy; Greaves, Jane S.; Halpern, Mark; Holland, Wayne S.; Ivison, Rob; Jenness, Tim; Robson, Ian; Scott, Douglas

    2014-03-01

    We mapped five massive star-forming regions with the SCUBA-2 camera on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope. Temperature and column density maps are obtained from the SCUBA-2 450 and 850 μm images. Most of the dense clumps we find have central temperatures below 20 K, with some as cold as 8 K, suggesting that they have no internal heating due to the presence of embedded protostars. This is surprising, because at the high densities inferred from these images and at these low temperatures such clumps should be unstable, collapsing to form stars and generating internal heating. The column densities at the clump centers exceed 1023 cm-2, and the derived peak visual extinction values are from 25 to 500 mag for β = 1.5-2.5, indicating highly opaque centers. The observed cloud gas masses range from ~10 to 103 M ⊙. The outer regions of the clumps follow an r -2.36 ± 0.35 density distribution, and this power-law structure is observed outside of typically 104 AU. All these findings suggest that these clumps are high-mass starless clumps and most likely contain high-mass starless cores.

  5. Cold dust in hot regions

    SciTech Connect

    Sreenilayam, Gopika; Fich, Michel; Ade, Peter; Bintley, Dan; Chapin, Ed; Chrysostomou, Antonio; Jenness, Tim; Dunlop, James S.; Holland, Wayne S.; Ivison, Rob; Gibb, Andy; Halpern, Mark; Scott, Douglas; Greaves, Jane S.; Robson, Ian

    2014-03-01

    We mapped five massive star-forming regions with the SCUBA-2 camera on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope. Temperature and column density maps are obtained from the SCUBA-2 450 and 850 μm images. Most of the dense clumps we find have central temperatures below 20 K, with some as cold as 8 K, suggesting that they have no internal heating due to the presence of embedded protostars. This is surprising, because at the high densities inferred from these images and at these low temperatures such clumps should be unstable, collapsing to form stars and generating internal heating. The column densities at the clump centers exceed 10{sup 23} cm{sup –2}, and the derived peak visual extinction values are from 25 to 500 mag for β = 1.5-2.5, indicating highly opaque centers. The observed cloud gas masses range from ∼10 to 10{sup 3} M {sub ☉}. The outer regions of the clumps follow an r {sup –2.36±0.35} density distribution, and this power-law structure is observed outside of typically 10{sup 4} AU. All these findings suggest that these clumps are high-mass starless clumps and most likely contain high-mass starless cores.

  6. Nuclear weapons and regional conflict

    SciTech Connect

    Latter, A.L.; Martinelli, E.A.

    1993-05-01

    An important national defense objective for the US in the post cold-war era -- according to Secretary of Defense, Cheney is to deter regional conflicts. To satisfy this objective there is more or less general agreement that nuclear weapons are not needed, especially against regional powers like Iraq that do not (as yet) have a nuclear capability. Modern conventional weapons (PGMs), it is believed, are adequate when used in the traditional way of fighting: massive ground forces with heavy ground equipment, supported by air and naval forces. Of course, there are arguments against this view. For example, nuclear advocates call attention to deeply buried targets that are unattackable with conventional munitions. But this argument, and others, for US use (or threat of use) of nuclear weapons are presently discounted in favor of the political/moral advantages of a no-first-use policy. We do not wish to take sides in this debate. We believe, however, that the debate win continue as political, military, technical and economic factors undergo inevitable changes. In this brief paper, we want to present another pro-nuclear argument which, to the best of our knowledge, has received little or no attention. This argument, we believe, could become important in weighing the pros and cons of the debate if domestic pressures cause the defense budget to undergo such severe cuts that we must either abandon our political commitments or adopt a non-traditional war-fighting strategy that is effective under a greatly reduced defense budget.

  7. Southern Appalachian Regional Seismic Network

    SciTech Connect

    Chiu, S.C.C.; Johnston, A.C.; Chiu, J.M.

    1994-08-01

    The seismic activity in the southern Appalachian area was monitored by the Southern Appalachian Regional Seismic Network (SARSN) since late 1979 by the Center for Earthquake Research and Information (CERI) at Memphis State University. This network provides good spatial coverage for earthquake locations especially in east Tennessee. The level of activity concentrates more heavily in the Valley and Ridge province of eastern Tennessee, as opposed to the Blue Ridge or Inner Piedmont. The large majority of these events lie between New York - Alabama lineament and the Clingman/Ocoee lineament, magnetic anomalies produced by deep-seated basement structures. Therefore SARSN, even with its wide station spacing, has been able to define the essential first-order seismological characteristics of the Southern Appalachian seismic zone. The focal depths of the southeastern U.S. earthquakes concentrate between 8 and 16 km, occurring principally beneath the Appalachian overthrust. In cross-sectional views, the average seismicity is shallower to the east beneath the Blue Ridge and Piedmont provinces and deeper to the west beneath the Valley and Ridge and the North American craton. Results of recent focal mechanism studies by using the CERI digital earthquake catalog between October, 1986 and December, 1991, indicate that the basement of the Valley and Ridge province is under a horizontal, NE-SW compressive stress. Right-lateral strike-slip faulting on nearly north-south fault planes is preferred because it agrees with the trend of the regional magnetic anomaly pattern.

  8. Guided Surgery in Esthetic Region.

    PubMed

    Motta, Marcos; Monsano, Rodrigo; Velloso, Glauco Rodrigues; de Oliveira Silva, Júlio César; Luvizuto, Eloá Rodrigues; Margonar, Rogério; Queiroz, Thallita Pereira

    2016-05-01

    The placement of dental implants and subsequent placement of immediate temporary dentures after extractions has become a treatment modality accepted by the scientific community. In addition to the functional factor, the surgical procedure in a single stage in the anterior region of the maxilla offers an esthetic appearance, and relieves the psychological concerns of patients. To guarantee the success and longevity of treatments performed, the fabrication of surgical guides is a helpful method in these situations. Guided surgery has gained attention because it restores esthetics with immediate restoration, provides the patient with comfort in addition to dispensing with the need for performing surgical flaps. This auxiliary method allows the position and design of the implant, as well as the perforation sequence to be programmed, thus optimizing the clinical results. In this study, the authors present a clinical case of a patient who was submitted to extraction and subsequent implant placement with immediate loading in the anterior region of the maxilla, performed in a satisfactory manner. PMID:27035599

  9. Jalisco Regional Seismic Network (RESAJ)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunez-Cornu, F. J.; Suarez Plascencia, C.; Escudero, C. R.; Gomez, A.

    2011-12-01

    Many societies and their economies endure the disastrous consequences of destructive earthquakes. The Jalisco region is exposing to this natural hazard. Scientific knowledge constitutes the only way to avoid or at least to mitigate the negative effects of such events. Accordingly the study of geological and geophysical causes; structural, kinematics and dynamic characteristics; and destructive effects of such events is indispensable. The main objective of this project is to developed capability to monitor and to analyze the potential destructive earthquakes along the Jalisco region. This network will allows us to study the Rivera plate and the Jalisco block seismicity. Ten earthquakes greater than 7.4 occurred in the last 160 years, including the largest Mexican earthquake (8.2) producing considerable damage in the area. During this project we installed 20 telemetric seismic stations and we plan to deploy up to 30. The stations are component by 24 bit A/D, 6 channels Quanterra Q330-6 DAS, Lennartz Triaxial 1Hz wide band seismometer, a triaxial accelerometer episensor Model FBA ES-T from Kinemetrics and solar power supply. The data is transmitted using freewave Ethernet radios or wireless internet links. All stations will transmit the data in to the central at Puerto Vallarta where all data is processed using Antelope system to localize and make preliminary evaluations of the events in almost real time and stored for future research. This network will produce high quality data enough to evaluate the eight previously identified seismic zones along Jalisco.

  10. Pulsating aurora: Source region & morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaynes, Allison

    Pulsating aurora, a common phenomenon in the polar night sky, offers a unique opportunity to study the precipitating particle populations responsible for this subtle yet fascinating display of lights. The conjecture that the source of these electrons originates near the equator, made decades ago, has now been confirmed using in-situ measurements. In this thesis, we present these results that compare the frequencies of equatorial electron flux pulsations and pulsating aurora luminosity fluctuations at the ionospheric footprint. We use simultaneous satellite-based data from GOES 13 and ground-based data from the THEMIS allsky imager array to show that there is a direct correlation between luminosity fluctuations near the ground and particle pulsations in equatorial space; the source region of the pulsating aurora. Pulsating aurora almost exclusively occurs embedded within a region of diffuse aurora. By studying the two particle populations, one can contribute to the theory behind auroral pulsations. The interplay between the two auroral types, and the systems that control them, are not yet well known. We analyze ground optical observations of pulsating aurora events to attempt to characterize the relationship between the two types of auroral precipitation. Pulsating aurora is a significant component of energy transfer within the framework of magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling. Further study of the morphology, total energy deposition, and the pulsation mechanism of pulsating aurora is key to a better understanding of our earth-sun system.

  11. [Epidemiological imaginary in Campania Region].

    PubMed

    Greco, Pietro

    2012-01-01

    The interviews on the epidemiological imaginary, collected within the framework of the project Sebiorec,(1) clearly demonstrate that also in Campania, on the border between the provinces of Naples and Caserta - where the issue of waste and land devastation take forms that are unprecedented compared to any other part of Europe - there is a widespread, strong, sacrosanct demand of participation in environment and health management. The request of deliberative ecological democracy is pressing.(2) There is an urgent need to meet that plethora of rights emerging in the "knowledge society" and in the "risk society" that someone has called "rights for scientific citizenship."(3) This request of the population of Campania, net of local cultural specificity, it is quite similar to that of the people of any other region of Europe. The context in which this request of participation is expressed, however, is quite different. Not only and not just for that real or perceived social pre-modern and familist web that would replace a modern civil society in Campania and all across the Southern Italian regions, but also and especially for some structural causes that we here try to list. Campania is a unique region in Europe - in many ways different even from other regions of southern Italy - due to the conjunction of at least five factors, not independent from each other. 1) The presence of a widespread organized crime which, in many areas, metropolitan and non-metropolitan alike, and especially in the provinces of Naples and Caserta, is a sort of state against the State and has one of its main levers of power and a major source of its wealth in the illegal control of the territory, in its different dimensions (military, but also economic, social and even cultural). 2) A huge social and economic disintegration, exacerbated in the last twenty years by a process of deindustrialization (until the early nineties Naples was the fifth industrial city of Italy, today it is a desert where

  12. Geomorphology of Titan's Polar Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birch, S. P.; Hayes, A. G., Jr.; Dietrich, W. E.; Malaska, M. J.; Kirk, R. L.; Lucas, A.

    2014-12-01

    Numerous lakes and seas have been observed in Titan's polar regions (Stofan et al., 2007), primarily at the north pole (Hayes et al., 2008), while evidence for channelized fluid flow has been found at all latitudes (Lorenz et al., 2008), though primarily at the poles as well. We construct a geomorphologic map of both poles at latitudes higher than 600 using a combination of the Cassini Synthetic Aperture Radar images along with topographic data in the form of SARTopo (Stiles et al., 2009) and sparsely distributed Digital Terrain Models. Utilizing data from flybys Ta through T98, we define five governing morphologic units: plains, small depressions, large seas, mountains and ridge and valley networks. These units are subdivided according to their radar properties (bright or dark, uniformity), morphologies (degree of dissection, undulation, curvature and organization, regional slope), relative elevations and contact relations. These units are systematically mapped in a repeatable, quantitative manner along with various structural features such as remnant ridges, channels, alluvial fans and scarps. In combining SAR imagery with topographic data, our geomorphic map reveals a stratigraphic sequence from which we can infer processes. We find that the North Pole is dominated by an elevated, radar-dark plains unit, embedded by numerous filled, wet and dry small depressions with a sparse number of channels. The dark-plains unit transitions into a highly dissected radar-bright, lowland unit closer to the mare. A high density of radar-dark remnant ridges, channels and alluvial fans characterizes this unit. The South Pole is markedly different from the North, having far fewer lakes, no large filled seas, larger elevation gradients and a greater number of mountain regions while also being dominated by an organized ridge and valley network. Our work suggests the South Pole is not a drier version of the North. Rather the observed dichotomy between the two poles is likely the

  13. Regional strategy tested in Caribbean.

    PubMed

    1984-01-01

    Barbados, St. Vincent, and St. Lucia have joined forces in the world's 1st regional Contraceptive Social Marketing (CSM) effort -- the Caribbean CSM. The Barbados Family Planning Association (BFPS) is overseeing the operation, which begins selling 2 contraceptive pills and a condom in early February. Costs and start-up times were shaved by adopting brand names and advertising materials from Jamaica's highly successful CSM project. Jamaica's popular "Panther" condom and "Perle" oral contraceptive (OC) are being used by the Caribbean CSM project. Perle's 9-year-old package has been redesigned and the Caribbean CSM project also is selling a 2nd, low-dose version called "Perle-LD." The products are manufactured in the US by Syntex as Noriday and Norminest, respectively. But the regional approach's financial gains also had a debit side, most notably a tripling of bureaucratic procedures. Part of project difficulties stem from differences among the 3 Caribbean countries. While sharing a common cultural heritage, St. Lucians speak a patois dialect in addition to the English prevalent on the other islands. The biggest hurdle was overcoming an economic disparity between Barbados and its less affluent neighbors, St. Vincent and St. Lucia. The CSM project decided to try a 2-tier product pricing strategy. In US currency, prices run $1.75 per cycle for both OCs on Barbados, but $1.26 on St. Vincent and St. Lucia. A Panther 3-pack costs 75 cents on Barbados and 42 cents on the othe 2 islands. The project is being promoted with generic family planning media advertisements. The project also has held physician orientation seminars on each island. The pilot program will be accompanied by retailer training seminars. In addition the project may introduce a spermicidal foaming tablet, once the US Food and Drug Administration approvs a new American-made product. The unique Caribbean CSM project may spread an idea as potent as the family planning message. Its success could transmit the

  14. Frontal association cortex is engaged in stimulus integration during associative learning.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Daisuke; Baraki, Zohal; Onoue, Kousuke; Ikegaya, Yuji; Matsuki, Norio; Nomura, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    The frontal association cortex (FrA) is implicated in higher brain function. Aberrant FrA activity is likely to be involved in dementia pathology. However, the functional circuits both within the FrA and with other regions are unclear. A recent study showed that inactivation of the FrA impairs memory consolidation of an auditory fear conditioning in young mice. In addition, dendritic spine remodeling of FrA neurons is sensitive to paired sensory stimuli that produce associative memory. These findings suggest that the FrA is engaged in neural processes critical to associative learning. Here we characterize stimulus integration in the mouse FrA during associative learning. We experimentally separated contextual fear conditioning into context exposure and shock, and found that memory formation requires protein synthesis associated with both context exposure and shock in the FrA. Both context exposure and shock trigger Arc, an activity-dependent immediate-early gene, expression in the FrA, and a subset of FrA neurons was dually activated by both stimuli. In addition, we found that the FrA receives projections from the perirhinal (PRh) and insular (IC) cortices and basolateral amygdala (BLA), which are implicated in context and shock encoding. PRh and IC neurons projecting to the FrA were activated by context exposure and shock, respectively. Arc expression in the FrA associated with context exposure and shock depended on PRh activity and both IC and BLA activities, respectively. These findings indicate that the FrA is engaged in stimulus integration and contributes to memory formation in associative learning. PMID:25496961

  15. Emerging flux in active regions. [of sun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liggett, M.; Zirin, H.

    1985-01-01

    The rates at which flux emerges in active and quiet solar regions within the sunspot belts are compared. The emerging flux regions (EFRs) were identified by the appearance of arch filament structures in H-alpha. All EFRs in high resolution films of active regions made at Big Bear in 1978 were counted. The comparable rate of flux emergence in quiet regions was obtained from SGD data and independently from EFRs detected outside the active region perimeter on the same films. The rate of flux emergence is 10 times higher in active regions than in quiet regions. A sample of all active regions in 31 days of 1983 gave a ratio of 7.5. Possible mechanisms which might funnel new magnetic flux to regions of strong magnetic field are discussed.

  16. Selection of USSR foreign similarity regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Disler, J. M. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    The similarity regions in the United States and Canada were selected to parallel the conditions that affect labeling and classification accuracies in the U.S.S.R. indicator regions. In addition to climate, a significant condition that affects labeling and classification accuracies in the U.S.S.R. is the proportion of barley and wheat grown in a given region (based on sown areas). The following regions in the United States and Canada were determined to be similar to the U.S.S.R. indicator regions: (1) Montana agrophysical unit (APU) 104 corresponds to the Belorussia high barley region; (2) North Dakota and Minnesota APU 20 and secondary region southern Manitoba and Saskatchewan correspond to the Ural RSFSR barley and spring wheat region; (3) Montana APU 23 corresponds to he North Caucasus barley and winter wheat region. Selection criteria included climates, crop type, crop distribution, growth cycles, field sizes, and field shapes.

  17. Cooperative monitoring of regional security agreements

    SciTech Connect

    Pregenzer, A.L.; Vannoni, M.; Biringer, K.L.

    1996-11-01

    This paper argues that cooperative monitoring plays a critical role in the implementation of regional security agreements and confidence building measures. A framework for developing cooperative monitoring options is proposed and several possibilities for relating bilateral and regional monitoring systems to international monitoring systems are discussed. Three bilateral or regional agreements are analyzed briefly to illustrate different possibilities. These examples illustrate that the relationship of regional or bilateral arms control or security agreements to international agreements depends on a number of factors: the overlap of provisions between regional and international agreements; the degree of interest in a regional agreement among the international community; efficiency in implementing the agreement; and numerous political considerations. Given the importance of regional security to the international community, regions should be encouraged to develop their own infrastructure for implementing regional arms control and other security agreements. A regional infrastructure need not preclude participation in an international regime. On the contrary, establishing regional institutions for arms control and nonproliferation could result in more proactive participation of regional parties in developing solutions for regional and international problems, thereby strengthening existing and future international regimes. Possible first steps for strengthening regional infrastructures are identified and potential technical requirements are discussed.

  18. Tumors of the pineal region.

    PubMed

    Piovan, E; Beltramello, A

    1996-01-01

    The role played by neuroradiologic examinations in the diagnosis of neoformations of the pineal region is considered. Results of reports of literature are compared with the personal experience (40 patients) to draw possible significant conclusions for the diagnosis of the oncological type. First, intrinsic pineal lesions should be separated from those of adjacent structures. Reliable discriminating parameters useful in the differential diagnosis are represented by sex and age. Diagnosis based on biochemistry with markers was shown not to be univocal. A further separation can be based on CT and MRI findings. In particular, teratomas appear as solid tumors with calcification and fat. The latter is depicted on MRI even if minimal. To the contrary, germinomas do not contain fat and are markedly enhancing. Microcysts seem to be more common in tumors originating from parenchymal pineal cells. A reliable differential diagnosis is however possible only for small-sized lesions where identification of the anatomical structure of origin is easier. PMID:8677341

  19. Venus - Landslide in Navka Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The Magellan spacecraft has observed remnant landslide deposits apparently resulting from the collapse of volcanic structures. This Magellan radar image is centered about 25.4 degrees south latitude and 308 degrees east longitude in the southwestern Navka Region of Venus. The image shows a 17.4 kilometer (10.8 mile) diameter volcanic dome on the plains. The dome is approximately 1.86 kilometers (1.2 mile) in height and it has a slope of about 23 degrees. The northwest and northeast flanks of the dome have collapsed to form landslides that have deposited debris on the plains. The image shows an area 110 kilometers (68 miles) across and 100 kilometers (62 miles) in length.

  20. Regional geothermal exploration in Egypt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, P.; Boulos, F. K.; Swanberg, C. A.

    1983-01-01

    A study is presented of the evaluation of the potential geothermal resources of Egypt using a thermal gradient/heat flow technique and a groundwater temperature/chemistry technique. Existing oil well bottom-hole temperature data, as well as subsurface temperature measurements in existing boreholes, were employed for the thermal gradient/heat flow investigation before special thermal gradient holes were drilled. The geographic range of the direct subsurface thermal measurements was extended by employing groundwater temperature and chemistry data. Results show the presence of a regional thermal high along the eastern margin of Egypt with a local thermal anomaly in this zone. It is suggested that the sandstones of the Nubian Formation may be a suitable reservoir for geothermal fluids. These findings indicate that temperatures of 150 C or higher may be found in this reservoir in the Gulf of Suez and Red Sea coastal zones where it lies at a depth of 4 km and deeper.

  1. Muon collider interaction region design

    SciTech Connect

    Alexahin, Y.I.; Gianfelice-Wendt, E.; Kashikhin, V.V.; Mokhov, N.V.; Zlobin, A.V.; Alexakhin, V.Y.; /Dubna, JINR

    2010-05-01

    Design of a muon collider interaction region (IR) presents a number of challenges arising from low {beta}* < 1 cm, correspondingly large beta-function values and beam sizes at IR magnets, as well as the necessity to protect superconducting magnets and collider detectors from muon decay products. As a consequence, the designs of the IR optics, magnets and machine-detector interface are strongly interlaced and iterative. A consistent solution for the 1.5 TeV c.o.m. muon collider IR is presented. It can provide an average luminosity of 10{sup 34} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1} with an adequate protection of magnet and detector components.

  2. Regional medical data mining system.

    PubMed

    Robu, Raul; Stoicu-Tivadar, Vasile

    2011-01-01

    This paper suggests a solution to acquire medical data from hospitals located in a region (addressing especially the DKMT Euroregion), and then perform data mining. The medical data from the hospital databases are exported in XML format, according to HL7 CDA standard. Afterwards, they are automatically centralized on a server in a database using web services calls. The data will be analyzed with the data mining tool WEKA. Data of interest are converted into ARFF format and loaded into WEKA. The next stage consists in preprocessing and analyzing the data based on the algorithms provided by WEKA, having as a goal several relevant medical conclusions. WEKA application interface has been improved to facilitate the process of performing predictions. PMID:21685596

  3. Zoonoses in the Mediterranean region.

    PubMed

    Seimenis, Aristarco; Morelli, Daniela; Mantovani, Adriano

    2006-01-01

    The Mediterranean and Middle East Region (MME) is considered the most important area for the historical development and concentration of zoonoses. Besides the classical Mediterranean pattern, an urbanised pattern has emerged which is strongly influenced by globalisation. Both patterns co-exist and have many peculiarities affecting the life cycles of zoonoses and their social impact. The features of those zoonoses which are now most relevant in the MME (brucellosis, rabies, cystic echinococcosis, leishmaniasis, food-borne zoonoses) are discussed. Besides other relevant activities, the World Health Organization has established, since 1979, a specialised programme with a unit coordinating and managing activities: i.e. the Mediterranean Zoonoses Control Centre, operating from Athens, Greece. PMID:17361068

  4. Regional differences in sodomy laws.

    PubMed

    Young, T J

    1991-02-01

    As of 1989, 24 states prohibited either heterosexual or homosexual sodomy. This raises for study the following question: in what ways do states with sodomy laws differ from states without sodomy laws. It was hypothesized that states with sodomy laws are more punitive (as measured by the rate of adults under correctional supervision and the number of restricted civil rights for a felony conviction), rural, and southern. Although the first two hypotheses were rejected, states with sodomy laws scored significantly higher than states without such laws on Gastil's Index of Southerness. Sodomy laws may be more commonly found in the South given regional differences in social values about sex, morality, and family life. PMID:2034763

  5. Volcanically Active Regions on Io

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Shown here is a portion of one of the highest-resolution images of Io (Latitude: +10 to +60 degrees, Longitude: 180 to 225 degrees) acquired by the Galileo spacecraft, revealing immense lava flows and other volcanic landforms. Several high-temperature volcanic hot spots have been detected in this region by both the Near Infrared Mapping Spectrometer and the imaging system of Galileo. The temperatures are consistent with active silicate volcanism in lava flows or lava lakes (which reside inside irregular depressions called calderas). The large dark lava flow in the upper left region of the image is more than 400 km long, similar to ancient flood basalts on Earth and mare lavas on the Moon.

    North is to the top of the picture and the sun illuminates the surface from the left. The image covers an area 1230 kilometers wide and the smallest features that can be discerned are 2.5 kilometers in size. This image was taken on November 6th, 1996, at a range of 245,719 kilometers by the Solid State Imaging (CCD) system on the Galileo Spacecraft.

    Launched in October 1989, Galileo entered orbit around Jupiter on December 7, 1995. The spacecraft's mission is to conduct detailed studies of the giant planet, its largest moons and the Jovian magnetic environment. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the Galileo mission home page on the World Wide Web at http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and educational context for the images can be found at URL http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/sepo

  6. Surface chemistry in photodissociation regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esplugues, G. B.; Cazaux, S.; Meijerink, R.; Spaans, M.; Caselli, P.

    2016-06-01

    Context. The presence of dust can strongly affect the chemical composition of the interstellar medium. We model the chemistry in photodissociation regions (PDRs) using both gas-phase and dust-phase chemical reactions. Aims: Our aim is to determine the chemical compositions of the interstellar medium (gas/dust/ice) in regions with distinct (molecular) gas densities that are exposed to radiation fields with different intensities. Methods: We have significantly improved the Meijerink PDR code by including 3050 new gas-phase chemical reactions and also by implementing surface chemistry. In particular, we have included 117 chemical reactions occurring on grain surfaces covering different processes, such as adsorption, thermal desorption, chemical desorption, two-body reactions, photo processes, and cosmic-ray processes on dust grains. Results: We obtain abundances for different gas and solid species as a function of visual extinction, depending on the density and radiation field. We also analyse the rates of the formation of CO2 and H2O ices in different environments. In addition, we study how chemistry is affected by the presence/absence of ice mantles (bare dust or icy dust) and the impact of considering different desorption probabilities. Conclusions: The type of substrate (bare dust or icy dust) and the probability of desorption can significantly alter the chemistry occurring on grain surfaces, leading to differences of several orders of magnitude in the abundances of gas-phase species, such as CO, H2CO, and CH3OH. The type of substrate, together with the density and intensity of the radiation field, also determine the threshold extinction to form ices of CO2 and H2O. We also conclude that H2CO and CH3OH are mainly released into the gas phase of low, far-ultraviolet illuminated PDRs through chemical desorption upon two-body surface reactions, rather than through photodesorption.

  7. Cometary nucleus and active regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whipple, F. L.

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of the icy conglomerate model of cometary nuclei, various observations demonstrate the spotted nature of many or most nuclei, i.e., regions of unusual activity, either high or low. Rotation periods, spin axes and even precession of the axes are determined. The observational evidence for variations in activity over the surfaces of cometary nuclei are listed and discussed. On June 11 the comet IRAS-ARAKI-ALCOCK approached the Earth to a distance of 0.031 AU, the nearest since C/Lexell, 1770 I, providing a unique opportunity for near-nucleus observations. Preliminary analysis of these images establishes the spin axis of the nucleus, with an oblioquity to the orbit plane of approximately 50 deg, and a lag angle of sublimation approximately 35 deg from the solar meridian on the nucleus. Asymmetries of the inner coma suggests a crazy-quilt distribution of ices with differing volatility over the surface of the nucleus. The observations of Comet P/Homes 1892 III, exhibiting two 8-10 magnitude bursts, are carefully analyzed. The grazing encounter produced, besides the first great burst, an active area on the nucleus, which was rotating retrograde with a period of 16.3hr and inclination nearly 180 deg. After the first burst the total magnitude fell less than two magnitudes from November 7 to November 30 (barely naked eye) while the nuclear region remained diffuse or complex, rarely if ever showing a stellar appearance. The fading was much more rapid after the second burst. The grazing encounter distributed a volume of large chunks in the neighborhood of the nucleus, maintaining activity for weeks.

  8. Scandinavia and the Baltic Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Data from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer's vertical-viewing (nadir) camera were combined to create this cloud-free natural-color mosaic of Scandinavia and the Baltic region. The image extends from 64oN, 0oE in the northwest to 56oN, 32oE in the southeast, and has been draped over a shaded relief Digital Terrain Elevation Model from the United States Geological Survey. It is displayed in an equidistant conic projection.

    The image area includes southern Norway, Sweden and Finland, northern Denmark, Estonia, Latvia and part of western Russia. Norway's rugged western coastline is deeply indented by fjords. Elongated lakes, formed by glacial erosion and deposition, are characteristic of the entire region, and are particularly dense throughout Finland and Sweden. Numerous islands are present, and a virtually continuous chain of small, scattered islands occur between Sweden and Finland. The northern and eastern waters of the Baltic Sea are almost fresh, since the Baltic receives saltwater only from the narrow and shallow sounds between Denmark and Sweden that connect it to the North Sea. Most of the major cities within the image area are coastal, including St. Petersburg, Stockholm, Helsinki, Riga, and Oslo.

    The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) observes the daylit Earth continuously from pole to pole, and every 9 days views the entire globe between 82 degrees north and 82 degrees south latitude.

    MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

  9. [Chromosomal variation in Chironomus plumosus L. (Diptera, Chironomidae) from populations of Bryansk region, Saratov region (Russia), and Gomel region (Belarus)].

    PubMed

    Belyanina, S I

    2015-02-01

    Cytogenetic analysis was performed on samples of Chironomus plumosus L. (Diptera, Chironomidae) taken from waterbodies of various types in Bryansk region (Russia) and Gomel region (Belarus). Karyotypes of specimens taken from stream pools of the Volga were used as reference samples. The populations of Bryansk and Gomel regions (except for a population of Lake Strativa in Starodubskii district, Bryansk region) exhibit broad structural variation, including somatic mosaicism for morphotypes of the salivary gland chromosome set, decondensation of telomeric sites, and the presence of small structural changes, as opposed to populations of Saratov region. As compared with Saratov and Bryansk regions, the Balbiani ring in the B-arm of chromosome I is repressed in populations of Gomel region. It is concluded that the chromosome set of Ch. plumosus in a range of waterbodies of Bryansk and Gomel regions is unstable. PMID:25966582

  10. Regional Heterogenity In Ceres' Subsurface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raymond, Carol A.; Marchi, Simone; Bland, Michael T.; Castillo-Rogez, Julie C.; Park, Ryan S.; Russell, Christopher T.; Hughson, Kynan G.; Scully, Jennifer E. C.

    2016-04-01

    The Dawn mission arrived at Ceres in March 2015 to find a body different than expected. Dawn found that Ceres was slightly smaller (avg radius of 470 versus 476.2 km), flatter and denser than the previous estimates, raising the question of how completely Ceres had differentiated. Dawn's gravity measurements indicate that Ceres is close to hydrostatic equilibrium and there is some degree of central condensation, suggesting a gradient in the content of volatiles within the interior. The surface is heavily cratered indicating that the outer shell is not dominated by ice, as would be expected for a differentiated body. Crater preservation at all scales, absent those larger than ~300 km, and complex morphology of the surface indicate a strong outer shell comprising no more than 40% ice by volume. The global, near-hydrostatic shape is consistent with a warmer, weaker interior beneath the strong outer shell. While the lack of evidence for an ice-dominated layer near the surface could indicate that it never formed, and thus Ceres only partially differentiated, an alternate explanation is that the volatile-rich outermost shell was lost as a result of im-pacts and to mixing of the ice with the silicate-rich briny layer that formed at the base of the former frozen ocean. Understanding the composition and rheology of the outer shell is a key part of solving the interior evolution puzzle. Thus far, we see evidence in the crater record for a viscosity several orders of magnitude higher than pure water ice; however, the crater preservation state varies considerably over the surface. There is no striking latitude dependence to the variation in crater preservation state, rather there are regional and local variations that juxtapose smooth, ap-parently relaxed or resurfaced areas next to areas of well-defined impacts and tectonic features. The largest craters Kerwan and Yalode are associated with surronding smoother, more sparsely cratered terrains, and show smooth inte-riors with

  11. Regional distribution of rat electroolfactogram.

    PubMed

    Ezeh, P I; Davis, L M; Scott, J W

    1995-06-01

    1. Electroolfactorgram (EOG) recordings were made from different regions of the rat olfactory epithelium to test for spatial distribution of odor responses. 2. The EOG recordings showed spatial distribution of the odor responses in the olfactory epithelium. While some odorants (amyl acetate, anisole, and ethyl butyrate) were more effective in evoking responses in the dorsal recess near the septum, other odorants (including limonene, cineole, cyclooctane, and hexane) were more effective in the lateral recesses among the turbinate bones. These differences were seen as statistically significant odorant-by-position interactions in analysis of variance. 3. Comparisons of recordings along the anteroposterior dimension of the epithelium produced smaller differences between the odor responses. These were not significant for 3-mm distances, but were statistically significant for 5- to 6-mm distances along the dorsomedial epithelium. 4. The latencies were significantly longer in the lateral recesses than in the medial region. This probably reflects a more tortuous air path along the turbinate bones to the lateral recesses. 5. The olfactory receptor cells were activated by antidromic stimulation via the nerve layer of the olfactory bulb. The population spikes evoked from the olfactory receptor cells could be suppressed by prior stimulation with odorants that evoked strong EOG responses. This collision of the antidromic action potentials with the odor-evoked action potentials indicates that the same population of receptor cells was activated in both cases. 6. The flow rate and duration of the artificial sniff were varied systematically in some experiments. The differential distribution of response sizes was present at all flow rates and sniff durations. Some odors (e.g., amyl acetate and anisole) produced increased responses in the epithelium of the lateral recesses when flow rates or sniff durations were high. We suggest that these changes may reflect the sorptive properties

  12. Time-Dependent Photodissociation Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollenbach, David; Natta, Antonella

    1995-01-01

    We present theoretical models of the time-dependent thermal and chemical structure of molecular gas suddenly exposed to far-ultraviolet (FUV) (6 eV less than hv less than 13.6 eV) radiation fields and the consequent time- dependent infrared emission of the gas. We focus on the response of molecular hydrogen for cloud densities ranging from n = 10(exp 3) to 10(exp 6)/cu cm and FUV fluxes G(sub 0) = 10(exp 3)-10(exp 6) times the local FUV interstellar flux. For G(sub 0)/n greater than 10(exp -2) cu cm, the emergent H(sub 2) vibrational line intensities are initially larger than the final equilibrium values. The H(sub 2) lines are excited by FUV fluorescence and by collisional excitation in warm gas. Most of the H(sub 2) intensity is generated at a characteristic hydrogen column density of N approximately 10(exp 21)/sq cm, which corresponds to an FUV optical depth of unity caused by dust opacity. The time dependence of the H(sub 2) intensities arises because the initial abundances of H(sub 2) at these depths is much higher than the equilibrium values, so that H(sub 2) initially competes more effectively with dust in absorbing FUV photons. Considerable column densities of warm (T approximately 1000) K H(sub 2) gas can be produced by the FUV pumping of H(sub 2) vibrational levels followed by collisional de-excitation, which transfers the energy to heat. In dense (n greater than or approximately 10(exp 5)/cu cm) gas exposed to high (G(sub 0) greater than or approximately 10(exp 4)) fluxes, this warm gas produces a 2-1 S(1)/1-0 S(l) H(sub 2) line ratio of approximately 0.1, which mimics the ratio found in shocked gas. In lower density regions, the FUV pumping produces a pure-fluorescent ratio of approximately 0.5. We also present calculations of the time dependence of the atomic hydrogen column densities and of the intensities of 0 I 6300 A, S II 6730 A, Fe II 1.64 microns, and rotational OH and H20 emission. Potential applications include star-forming regions, clouds

  13. How State Laws Affect Regional Media Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vick, Nancy Harper

    1978-01-01

    Discusses ways in which state legislation affects such regional media service administrative units as (1) the state education agency, (2) regional educational service agencies, and (3) educational cooperative centers. (CMV)

  14. Enhancing regional security agreements through cooperative monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Pregenzer, A.L.

    1995-05-01

    This paper proposes that strengthening regional capabilities for formulating and implementing arms control and confidence-building measures is a tangible method of enhancing regional security. It discusses the importance of developing a regional infrastructure for arms control and confidence building and elucidates the role of technology in facilitating regional arms control and confidence-building agreements. In addition, it identifies numerous applications for regional cooperative monitoring in the areas of arms control, resource management, international commerce and disaster response. The Cooperative Monitoring Center at Sandia National Laboratories, whose aim is to help individual countries and regions acquire the tools they need to develop their own solutions to regional problems, is discussed briefly. The paper ends with recommendations for establishing regional cooperative monitoring centers.

  15. 7 CFR 2610.3 - Regional organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., and Texas. Great Plains Region, 9435 Holmes, Room 233, Kansas City, Missouri 64131, Mailing address..., (817) 774-1351; Arkansas, Louisiana, New Mexico, Oklahoma, and Texas. Great Plains Region, 9435...

  16. 7 CFR 2610.3 - Regional organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., and Texas. Great Plains Region, 9435 Holmes, Room 233, Kansas City, Missouri 64131, Mailing address..., (817) 774-1351; Arkansas, Louisiana, New Mexico, Oklahoma, and Texas. Great Plains Region, 9435...

  17. 7 CFR 2610.3 - Regional organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., and Texas. Great Plains Region, 9435 Holmes, Room 233, Kansas City, Missouri 64131, Mailing address..., (817) 774-1351; Arkansas, Louisiana, New Mexico, Oklahoma, and Texas. Great Plains Region, 9435...

  18. 7 CFR 2610.3 - Regional organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., and Texas. Great Plains Region, 9435 Holmes, Room 233, Kansas City, Missouri 64131, Mailing address..., (817) 774-1351; Arkansas, Louisiana, New Mexico, Oklahoma, and Texas. Great Plains Region, 9435...

  19. 7 CFR 2610.3 - Regional organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., and Texas. Great Plains Region, 9435 Holmes, Room 233, Kansas City, Missouri 64131, Mailing address..., (817) 774-1351; Arkansas, Louisiana, New Mexico, Oklahoma, and Texas. Great Plains Region, 9435...

  20. Interannual Behavior of Large Regional Dust Storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kass, D. M.; Kleinboehl, A.; McCleese, D. J.; Schofield, J. T.; Smith, M. D.

    2014-07-01

    We examine large regional dust storms in MCS and TES retrieved temperature profiles. There is significant repeatability with three regional storms (A, B and C) each Mars year. Each type of storm is distinct seasonally and in its behavior.

  1. REGION 4-SESD COASTAL PROGRAM PROJECTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Region 4 Science and Ecosystem Support Division (SESD) coastal activities include projects to support the Region 4 Water Management Division Coastal programs. These field investigations include development of a Quality Assurance Project Plan for field sample collection and a sub...

  2. 43 CFR 2653.9 - Regional selections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Appeals in accordance with 43 CFR part 4, subpart E. ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) ALASKA NATIVE SELECTIONS Miscellaneous Selections § 2653.9 Regional selections. (a) Applications by a regional corporation for selection of land within...

  3. Diode having trenches in a semiconductor region

    DOEpatents

    Palacios, Tomas Apostol; Lu, Bin; Matioli, Elison de Nazareth

    2016-03-22

    An electrode structure is described in which conductive regions are recessed into a semiconductor region. Trenches may be formed in a semiconductor region, such that conductive regions can be formed in the trenches. The electrode structure may be used in semiconductor devices such as field effect transistors or diodes. Nitride-based power semiconductor devices are described including such an electrode structure, which can reduce leakage current and otherwise improve performance.

  4. Intensity Distribution of the Solar Transition Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, George H.

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this research project was to use high resolution spectroscopic observations from the SUMER instrument on SOHO to study the structure of the solar transition region. Our focus in this grant was to study the structure of the transition region in a small active region, and compare it to similar observations we made of the quiet Sun. We also used SXT and EIT data to constrain the coronal and transition region emission measure distribution.

  5. Hybrid regional air pollution models

    SciTech Connect

    Drake, R.L.

    1980-03-01

    This discussion deals with a family of air quality models for predicting and analyzing the fine particulate loading in the atmosphere, for assessing the extent and degree of visibility impairment, and for determining the potential of pollutants for increasing the acidity of soils and water. The major horizontal scales of interest are from 400km to 2000km; and the time scales may vary from several hours, to days, weeks, and a few months or years, depending on the EPA regulations being addressed. First the role air quality models play in the general family of atmospheric simulation models is described. Then, the characteristics of a well-designed, comprehensive air quality model are discussed. Following this, the specific objectives of this workshop are outlined, and their modeling implications are summarized. There are significant modeling differences produced by the choice of the coordinate system, whether it be the fixed Eulerian system, the moving Lagrangian system, or some hybrid of the two. These three systems are briefly discussed, and a list of hybrid models that are currently in use are given. Finally, the PNL regional transport model is outlined and a number of research needs are listed.

  6. The complex regional pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Oaklander, Anne Louise; Horowitz, Steven H

    2015-01-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is the current consensus-derived name for a syndrome usually triggered by limb trauma. Required elements include prolonged, disproportionate distal-limb pain and microvascular dysregulation (e.g., edema or color changes) or altered sweating. CRPS-II (formerly "causalgia") describes patients with identified nerve injuries. CRPS-I (formerly "reflex sympathetic dystrophy") describes most patients who lack evidence of specific nerve injuries. Diagnosis is clinical and the pathophysiology involves combinations of small-fiber axonopathy, microvasculopathy, inflammation, and brain plasticity/sensitization. Females have much higher risk and workplace accidents are a well-recognized cause. Inflammation and dysimmunity, perhaps facilitated by injury to the blood-nerve barrier, may contribute. Most patients, particularly the young, recover gradually, but treatment can speed healing. Evidence of efficacy is strongest for rehabilitation therapies (e.g., graded-motor imagery), neuropathic pain medications, and electric stimulation of the spinal cord, injured nerve, or motor cortex. Investigational treatments include ketamine, botulinum toxin, immunoglobulins, and transcranial neuromodulation. Nonrecovering patients should be re-evaluated for neurosurgically treatable causal lesions (nerve entrapment, impingement, infections, or tumors) and treatable potentiating medical conditions, including polyneuropathy and circulatory insufficiency. Earlier impressions that CRPS represents malingering or psychosomatic illness have been replaced by evidence that CRPS is a rare complication of limb injury in biologically susceptible individuals. PMID:26563805

  7. The Baltics: Regional energy profiles

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    However, all three Baltic Republics are heavily dependent on primary energy imports. Domestic energy sources in the Baltics are limited to oil shale mines in Estonia, small oil deposits in Lithuania, peat, and some very small hydroelectric power plants. A RBMK nuclear power station, similar to Chernobyl, operates at Snieckus in Lithuania, but the reactor fuel is also imported from Russia. However, Lithuania and Estonia are net exporters of electricity despite their reliance on primary fuels imports. The major power stations in these two Republics are the Ignalina Nuclear Power Station and the two thermal power plants at Narva in Estonia which are fueled by oil shale. The only oil refinery in the Baltics is also located in Lithuania, at Mazeikiai. This refinery has the capacity to satisfy the demand for selected refined products of the entire region, including the Kaliningrad oblast, a noncontiguous part of Russia. The Mazeikiai refinery has operated at only forty to sixty percent capacity since 1990 due to halts in crude oil supplies from Russia. The Baltic Republics also import one hundred percent of their coal and natural gas supplies. Russia is the main trading partner for all the Baltic states, accounting for more than half of their trade flow. Mutual trade within the Baltics has been surprisingly low. Other Baltic states contribute less than ten percent to each Republic`s exports or imports, even less than Belarus or Ukraine. Aside from Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus, only Kazakhstan contributes more than two percent to Baltics trade.

  8. The Baltics: Regional energy profiles

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    However, all three Baltic Republics are heavily dependent on primary energy imports. Domestic energy sources in the Baltics are limited to oil shale mines in Estonia, small oil deposits in Lithuania, peat, and some very small hydroelectric power plants. A RBMK nuclear power station, similar to Chernobyl, operates at Snieckus in Lithuania, but the reactor fuel is also imported from Russia. However, Lithuania and Estonia are net exporters of electricity despite their reliance on primary fuels imports. The major power stations in these two Republics are the Ignalina Nuclear Power Station and the two thermal power plants at Narva in Estonia which are fueled by oil shale. The only oil refinery in the Baltics is also located in Lithuania, at Mazeikiai. This refinery has the capacity to satisfy the demand for selected refined products of the entire region, including the Kaliningrad oblast, a noncontiguous part of Russia. The Mazeikiai refinery has operated at only forty to sixty percent capacity since 1990 due to halts in crude oil supplies from Russia. The Baltic Republics also import one hundred percent of their coal and natural gas supplies. Russia is the main trading partner for all the Baltic states, accounting for more than half of their trade flow. Mutual trade within the Baltics has been surprisingly low. Other Baltic states contribute less than ten percent to each Republic's exports or imports, even less than Belarus or Ukraine. Aside from Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus, only Kazakhstan contributes more than two percent to Baltics trade.

  9. Transition Region and Coronal Explorer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolfson, C. Jacob

    2001-01-01

    This contract is for the development and flight of an experiment to study the solar atmosphere with excellent spatial and temporal resolution; and reduction and analysis of the resultant data. After being launched into a near perfect orbit on 2 April 1998, the spacecraft and instrument remain in good condition and the resultant data are spectacular. Over 6.6 million images have now been taken. Observing highlights this month included several coordinations with CDS, studies of the quiet Sun with SUMER and NMI, coordinations with observers at the SPO Dunn Tower Telescope, and a variety of active region observations. Some of the latter were relatively unique in that they emphasized using the hottest (284A) channel of TRACE. We were informed of the results of the Senior Review Committee's evaluation of all Space Science on-orbit missions and the corresponding fiscal year budgets for TRACE. The budget for FY-02 is modestly less than is being spent in FY-01 and for the years beyond that it is much, much lower.

  10. 29 CFR 102.4 - Region; subregion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Region; subregion. 102.4 Section 102.4 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor NATIONAL LABOR RELATIONS BOARD RULES AND REGULATIONS, SERIES 8 Definitions § 102.4 Region; subregion. The term region as used herein shall mean that part of the United States or any Territory...

  11. 22 CFR 1421.5 - Regional Director.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Regional Director. 1421.5 Section 1421.5 Foreign Relations FOREIGN SERVICE LABOR RELATIONS BOARD; FEDERAL LABOR RELATIONS AUTHORITY; GENERAL... TERMS AS USED IN THIS SUBCHAPTER § 1421.5 Regional Director. Regional Director means the Director of...

  12. Regional Differences in Attitudes toward Corporal Punishment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flynn, Clifton P.

    1994-01-01

    Used data from 1988 General Social Survey for 978 adults to analyze regional differences in attitudes toward corporal punishment. Results revealed that most respondents in each of four regions favored spanking children; support varied among regions. After controlling for sociodemographic variables, northeast respondents had significantly less…

  13. LATIN--Latin American Regional News Agency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, John Spicer

    The establishment of a regional news agency for Latin America to improve the balance of news flow and increase the transmission of news more applicable to regional problems has often been proposed. Despite wide acceptance of the concept, the birth of the Third World's first regional news agency, Agencia Latinoamericana de Informacion (LATIN), has…

  14. 43 CFR 2653.9 - Regional selections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... § 2653.9 Regional selections. (a) Applications by a regional corporation for selection of land within its... Act. (b) A regional corporation may select a total area in excess of its entitlement to ensure that it... cause shown for such selection, taking into consideration good land management planning and...

  15. 43 CFR 2653.9 - Regional selections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... § 2653.9 Regional selections. (a) Applications by a regional corporation for selection of land within its... Act. (b) A regional corporation may select a total area in excess of its entitlement to ensure that it... cause shown for such selection, taking into consideration good land management planning and...

  16. 43 CFR 2653.9 - Regional selections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... § 2653.9 Regional selections. (a) Applications by a regional corporation for selection of land within its... Act. (b) A regional corporation may select a total area in excess of its entitlement to ensure that it... cause shown for such selection, taking into consideration good land management planning and...

  17. Motor Functions of the Broca's Region

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Binkofski, Ferdinand; Buccino, Giovanni

    2004-01-01

    Broca's region in the dominant cerebral hemisphere is known to mediate the production of language but also contributes to comprehension. This region evolved only in humans and is constituted of Brodmann's areas 44 and 45 in the inferior frontal gyrus. There is, however, evidence that Broca's region overlaps, at least in part, with the ventral…

  18. The Regional University Centers: Innovation in Chile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feliz, George C.

    In 1960 a regional college at Temuco, Chile was established to take education to the people of that area and to reach citizens outside metropolitan areas where the only post-secondary institutions were located. In 1961 another regional college at La Serena was established with 6 additional regional centers in operation by 1970. These institutions,…

  19. Cooperative monitoring of regional security agreements

    SciTech Connect

    Pregenzer, A.L.; Vannoni, M.; Biringer, K.L.

    1995-08-01

    This paper argues that cooperative monitoring plays a critical role in the implementation of regional security agreements and confidence building measures. A framework for developing cooperative monitoring options is proposed and several possibilities for relating bilateral and regional monitoring systems to international monitoring systems are discussed. Three bilateral or regional agreements are analyzed briefly to illustrate different possibilities: (1) the demilitarization of the Sinai region between Israel and Egypt in the 1970s; (2) the 1991 quadripartite agreement for monitoring nuclear facilities among Brazil, Argentina, The Argentine-Brazilian Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials and the International Atomic Energy Agency; and (3) a bilateral Open Skies agreement between Hungary and Romania in 1991. These examples illustrate that the relationship of regional or bilateral arms control or security agreements to international agreements depends on a number of factors: the overlap of provisions between regional and international agreements; the degree of interest in a regional agreement among the international community; efficiency in implementing the agreement; and numerous political considerations.Given the importance of regional security to the international community, regions should be encouraged to develop their own infrastructure for implementing regional arms control and other security agreements. A regional infrastructure need not preclude participation in an international regime. On the contrary, establishing regional institutions for arms control and nonproliferation could result in more proactive participation of regional parties in developing solutions for regional and international problems, thereby strengthening existing and future international regimes. Possible first steps for strengthening regional infrastructures are identified and potential technical requirements are discussed.

  20. Regional variations in seismic boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shumlyanska, Ludmila

    2010-05-01

    in the same depth interval [1, 2]. A general approach to the solving of the seismic tomography task by the method of Taylor's approximation is as follows: construction of a generalized field of mid-point of arrival times of waves at the observation station; construction of mid-points travel-time curves, i.e. cross-sections of the generalized field of mid-point of the arrival times of waves; inversion of travel time of the mid-point curve into speed curve. Due to the imposed limitations there are no abrupt velocity leaps in the model in use. First derivatives of the velocity for each curve were calculated points of local extreme were identified in order to determine the seismic boundaries. Maps of depths of occurrences of seismic boundaries at about 410 km, 670 km, 1700 km, and 2800 km were constructed. In general there is a deviation from generally accepted values beneath regions with different geodynamic regimes. There is a correlation of the 410 km and 670 km boundaries behaviour with the observed heat flow anomalies and gravitational field. [1] V.Geyko, T. Tsvetkova, L. Shymlanskaya, I. Bugaienko, L. Zaets Regional 3-D velocity model of the mantle of Sarmatia (south-west of the East European Platform). Geophysical Journal, 2005, iss. 6, P. 927-939. (In Russian) [2] V. Geyko, L. Shymlanskaya, T. Tsvetkova, I.Bugaenko, L.Zaets Three-dimensional model of the upper mantle of Ukraine constructed from the times of P waves arrival. Geophysical Journal, 2006, iss. 1, P. 3-16. (In Russian)

  1. PM science and regional haze

    SciTech Connect

    Casuccio, G.; Watson, J.

    1999-07-01

    Excessive levels of suspended particle are measured in many urban areas throughout the world. The U.S. EPA has promulgated new ambient air quality standards for PM2.5 and PM10 (particles with aerodynamic diameters less than 10 and 2.5 microns, respectively). The new PM10 standards are less stringent than the prior standards, setting targets of 3-year average 98th percentiles for 24-hour PM2.5 averages, 99th percentiles for 24-hour PM10 averages, and three-year averages in place of annual averages. This means that infrequent events, such as fires or industrial upsets, will not greatly influence compliance status. The acceptable PM2.5 levels are strict for the annual average at 15 {micro}g/m{sup 3}, but compliance will be determined by a spatial average from several monitors rather than for a single monitor. Carbon, ammonium, sulfate, and nitrate are the major PM2.5 components in most areas, with geological material constituting only 5% to 15% of the mass. Chemical concentrations in the PM2.5 size fraction are also the major cause of urban and regional haze. This haze results from both the scattering and absorption of light by small particles. PM2.5 will use only population-oriented monitors to determine attainment, and ``fence line'' sites located to determine maximum impact from a facility will not be used to determine compliance as they have been in the past. Primary particles and precursor gases from fuel combustion in vehicles, homes, and industries will become the pollutants under greatest scrutiny in non-attainment areas.

  2. Securing non-volatile memory regions

    SciTech Connect

    Faraboschi, Paolo; Ranganathan, Parthasarathy; Muralimanohar, Naveen

    2013-08-20

    Methods, apparatus and articles of manufacture to secure non-volatile memory regions are disclosed. An example method disclosed herein comprises associating a first key pair and a second key pair different than the first key pair with a process, using the first key pair to secure a first region of a non-volatile memory for the process, and using the second key pair to secure a second region of the non-volatile memory for the same process, the second region being different than the first region.

  3. Region effects influence local tree species diversity

    PubMed Central

    Ricklefs, Robert E.; He, Fangliang

    2016-01-01

    Global patterns of biodiversity reflect both regional and local processes, but the relative importance of local ecological limits to species coexistence, as influenced by the physical environment, in contrast to regional processes including species production, dispersal, and extinction, is poorly understood. Failure to distinguish regional influences from local effects has been due, in part, to sampling limitations at small scales, environmental heterogeneity within local or regional samples, and incomplete geographic sampling of species. Here, we use a global dataset comprising 47 forest plots to demonstrate significant region effects on diversity, beyond the influence of local climate, which together explain more than 92% of the global variation in local forest tree species richness. Significant region effects imply that large-scale processes shaping the regional diversity of forest trees exert influence down to the local scale, where they interact with local processes to determine the number of coexisting species. PMID:26733680

  4. Region effects influence local tree species diversity.

    PubMed

    Ricklefs, Robert E; He, Fangliang

    2016-01-19

    Global patterns of biodiversity reflect both regional and local processes, but the relative importance of local ecological limits to species coexistence, as influenced by the physical environment, in contrast to regional processes including species production, dispersal, and extinction, is poorly understood. Failure to distinguish regional influences from local effects has been due, in part, to sampling limitations at small scales, environmental heterogeneity within local or regional samples, and incomplete geographic sampling of species. Here, we use a global dataset comprising 47 forest plots to demonstrate significant region effects on diversity, beyond the influence of local climate, which together explain more than 92% of the global variation in local forest tree species richness. Significant region effects imply that large-scale processes shaping the regional diversity of forest trees exert influence down to the local scale, where they interact with local processes to determine the number of coexisting species. PMID:26733680

  5. Regional carbon fluxes from land use and land cover change in Asia, 1980–2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calle, Leonardo; Canadell, Josep G.; Patra, Prabir; Ciais, Philippe; Ichii, Kazuhito; Tian, Hanqin; Kondo, Masayuki; Piao, Shilong; Arneth, Almut; Harper, Anna B.; Ito, Akihiko; Kato, Etsushi; Koven, Charlie; Sitch, Stephen; Stocker, Benjamin D.; Vivoy, Nicolas; Wiltshire, Andy; Zaehle, Sönke; Poulter, Benjamin

    2016-07-01

    We present a synthesis of the land-atmosphere carbon flux from land use and land cover change (LULCC) in Asia using multiple data sources and paying particular attention to deforestation and forest regrowth fluxes. The data sources are quasi-independent and include the U.N. Food and Agriculture Organization-Forest Resource Assessment (FAO-FRA 2015; country-level inventory estimates), the Emission Database for Global Atmospheric Research (EDGARv4.3), the ‘Houghton’ bookkeeping model that incorporates FAO-FRA data, an ensemble of 8 state-of-the-art Dynamic Global Vegetation Models (DGVM), and 2 recently published independent studies using primarily remote sensing techniques. The estimates are aggregated spatially to Southeast, East, and South Asia and temporally for three decades, 1980–1989, 1990–1999 and 2000–2009. Since 1980, net carbon emissions from LULCC in Asia were responsible for 20%–40% of global LULCC emissions, with emissions from Southeast Asia alone accounting for 15%–25% of global LULCC emissions during the same period. In the 2000s and for all Asia, three estimates (FAO-FRA, DGVM, Houghton) were in agreement of a net source of carbon to the atmosphere, with mean estimates ranging between 0.24 to 0.41 Pg C yr‑1, whereas EDGARv4.3 suggested a net carbon sink of ‑0.17 Pg C yr‑1. Three of 4 estimates suggest that LULCC carbon emissions declined by at least 34% in the preceding decade (1990–2000). Spread in the estimates is due to the inclusion of different flux components and their treatments, showing the importance to include emissions from carbon rich peatlands and land management, such as shifting cultivation and wood harvesting, which appear to be consistently underreported.

  6. 29 CFR 102.5 - Regional director; officer-in-charge; regional attorney.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... regional director as used herein shall mean the agent designated by the Board as the regional director for... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Regional director; officer-in-charge; regional attorney. 102.5 Section 102.5 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor NATIONAL LABOR RELATIONS BOARD RULES...

  7. Eighteen Years of the Great Lakes Regional Counseling Psychology Conference: Revisiting the Need for Regional Conferences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delgado-Romero, Edward A.; Bowman, Sharon L.; Gerstein, Lawrence H.

    2006-01-01

    The Great Lakes Regional Conference on Counseling Psychology is the only conference to continuously fulfill the 1987 mandate issued by Division 17 for regional counseling conferences. The rationale for regional conferences is reviewed, and the 18-year history of the Great Lakes Regional Conference is examined. The authors conclude by noting the…

  8. Spatial region filtering in IRAF/PROS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mandel, Eric; Roll, John; Schmidt, Dennis; Vanhilst, Mike; Burg, Richard

    1992-01-01

    In order to analyze x ray data, it is nearly always necessary to extract source and background events from a data set. Typically, this is done by defining geometric spatial regions of the data set to describe the source and background. For example, one might wish to extract source events from a circular or elliptical region centered at a particular pixel, and background events from a circular or elliptical annulus whose inner radius matches the source region. At the same time, it might be necessary to exclude one or more nearby sources from the source or background region in question. Thus, it might be necessary to define a pie-shaped region or even an entirely irregularly-shaped region to exclude. A spatial filtering scheme called REGIONS was implemented in IRAF/PROS to support these and other types of spatial region extraction. It allows users to create a spatial mask by specifying one or more ASCII geometric shape descriptors (box, circle, ellipse, pie, point, annulus, and polygon) as regions to be included or excluded in the mask. In addition, two or more shapes can be combined using Boolean algebra to create an infinite variety of sophisticated regions. Each geometric shape has a specific set of parameters that describe that shape. For example, a circle is described by a center and a radius, while a box is described by a center, length, width, and rotation angle. These quantities can be specified in units of pixels or, in cases where the target image contains world coordinate system information, they can be described in units such as RA and Dec. Users can create region mask files by feeding an ASCII region descriptor to the IRAF/PROS plcreate task. Temporary masks can also be created from ASCII region descriptors by individual applications that call the routines in the region creation library. This library implements a yacc-based region parser that compiles the ASCII descriptors into 'software CPU' instructions which are then executed to create the mask. The

  9. Handwriting Moroccan regions recognition using Tifinagh character.

    PubMed

    El Kessab, B; Daoui, C; Bouikhalene, B; Salouan, R

    2015-09-01

    The territorial organization of Morocco during administratives division of 2009 is based on 16 regions. In this work we will create a system of recognition of handwritten words (names of regions) using the Amazigh language is an official language by the Moroccan Royal Institute of Amazigh Culture (IRCAM) (2003a) [1] such as this language is slightly treated by researchers in pattern recognition field that is why we decided to study this language (El Kessab et al., 2013 [3]; El Kessab et al., 2014 [4]) that knowing the state make a decision to computerize the various public sectors by this language. In this context we propose a data set for handwritten Tifinagh regions composed of 1600 image (100 Image for each region). The dataset can be used in one hand to test the efficiency of the Tifinagh region recognition system in extraction of characteristics significatives and the correct identification of each region in classification phase in the other hand. PMID:26966718

  10. Qualitative Change to 3-Valued Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duckham, Matt; Stell, John; Vasardani, Maria; Worboys, Michael

    Regions which evolve over time are a significant aspect of many phenomena in the natural sciences and especially in geographic information science. Examples include areas in which a measured value (e.g. temperature, salinity, height, etc.) exceeds some threshold, as well as moving crowds of people or animals. There is already a well-developed theory of change to regions with crisp boundaries. In this paper we develop a formal model of change for more general 3-valued regions. We extend earlier work which used trees to represent the topological configuration of a system of crisp regions, by introducing trees with an additional node clustering operation. One significant application for the work is to the decentralized monitoring of changes to uncertain regions by wireless sensor networks. Decentralized operations required for monitoring qualitative changes to 3-valued regions are determined and the complexity of the resulting algorithms is discussed.

  11. Magnetic shear. III - Hale region 17255

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Athay, R. G.; Jones, H. P.; Zirin, H.

    1986-01-01

    Hale active region 17255, which in many respects was the most vigorous active region observed during the first operational period of SMM, appears to lie between two large areas of flow (observed in C IV) converging toward the major axis of the region. In the 6-day period from November 6-12, 1980, the major axis of the region rotates by about 25 deg. Several segments of the magnetic neutral line show C IV flow velocities of opposite sign on either side of the neutral line. Those segments whose orientation is favorable for measuring velocity components parallel to the neutral line show evidence that such flow is present, which is interpreted as evidence for magnetic shear. This, together with other evidence, suggests that magnetic shear is widespread in this region, as in the two previous regions studied. It is concluded that magnetic shear is often associated with flaring activity but is not a sufficient condition for flaring to occur.

  12. A regional cooperative acquisition program for monographs.

    PubMed

    Kronick, D A

    1979-07-01

    A cooperative acquisition program for monographs for the twelve resource libraries in Region IX of the Regional Medical Library Network is described. Each of the participating libraries has agreed to purchase all books of an assigned publisher which fall within a prescribed subject-format profile. It is hoped that this will help to reduce unnecessary duplication and contribute toward the development of resources in the region. PMID:476317

  13. Regional Climatology and Surface Radiation Budget

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilber, Anne C.; Smith, G. Louis; Stackhouse, Paul W., Jr.

    1999-01-01

    The climatology and surface radiation budget (SRB) of a region are intimately related. This paper presents a brief examination of this relationship. An 8-year surface radiation budget data set has been developed based on satellite measurements. In that data set and in this paper a region is defined as a quasi-square 2.5o in latitude and approximately the same physical distance in longitude. A pilot study by Wilber et al. (1998) showed a variety of behaviors of the annual cycles for selected regions. Selected desert regions form a loop in a specific part of the plot, with large NLW and large NSW. Tropical wet regions form much smaller loops in a different part of the plot, with small NLW and large NSW. For regions selected in high latitude the annual cycles form nearly linear figures in another part of the plot. The question arises as to whether these trajectories are characteristic of the climatology of the region or simply the behavior of the few regions selected from the set of 6596 regions. In order to address this question, it is necessary to classify the climatology of the each region, e.g. as classified by Koeppen (1936) or Trenwarthe and Horne (1980). This paper presents a method of classifying climate of the regions on the basis of the surface radiation behavior such that the results are very similar to the classification of Trenwarthe and Horne. The characteristics of the annual cycle of SRB components can then be investigated further, based on the climate classification of each region.

  14. Challenges in Modeling Regional Climate Change (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leung, L.

    2013-12-01

    Precipitation, soil moisture, and runoff are vital to ecosystems and human activities. Predicting changes in the space-time characteristics of these water cycle processes has been a longstanding challenge in climate modeling. Different modeling approaches have been developed to allow high resolution to be achieved using available computing resources. Although high resolution is necessary to better resolve regional forcing and processes, improvements in simulating water cycle response are difficult to demonstrate and climate models have so far shown irreducible sensitivity to model resolution, dynamical framework, and physics parameterizations that confounds reliable predictions of regional climate change. Additionally, regional climate responds to both regional and global forcing but predicting changes in regional and global forcing such as related to land use/land cover and aerosol requires improved understanding and modeling of the dynamics of human-earth system interactions. Furthermore, regional response and regional forcing may be related through complex interactions that are dependent on the regional climate regimes, making decisions on regional mitigation and adaptation more challenging. Examples of the aforementioned challenges from on-going research and possible future directions will be discussed.

  15. Optimal error regions for quantum state estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shang, Jiangwei; Khoon Ng, Hui; Sehrawat, Arun; Li, Xikun; Englert, Berthold-Georg

    2013-12-01

    An estimator is a state that represents one's best guess of the actual state of the quantum system for the given data. Such estimators are points in the state space. To be statistically meaningful, they have to be endowed with error regions, the generalization of error bars beyond one dimension. As opposed to standard ad hoc constructions of error regions, we introduce the maximum-likelihood region—the region of largest likelihood among all regions of the same size—as the natural counterpart of the popular maximum-likelihood estimator. Here, the size of a region is its prior probability. A related concept is the smallest credible region—the smallest region with pre-chosen posterior probability. In both cases, the optimal error region has constant likelihood on its boundary. This surprisingly simple characterization permits concise reporting of the error regions, even in high-dimensional problems. For illustration, we identify optimal error regions for single-qubit and two-qubit states from computer-generated data that simulate incomplete tomography with few measured copies.

  16. Regional Resource Centers for Innovation Brochure (Revised)

    SciTech Connect

    Wogsland, J.

    2000-09-14

    This brochure describes OIT's Regional Resource Centers for Innovation (RCIs), which provide the Innovation and Invention program grantees and other small business energy innovators commercialization assistance.

  17. 7 CFR 600.3 - Regional offices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... leadership, guidance, coordination, and partnering for solutions to regional resource issues; (2) Program... operations management; (4) Administrative operations and support; (5) Fund integrity and accountability;...

  18. 7 CFR 600.3 - Regional offices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... leadership, guidance, coordination, and partnering for solutions to regional resource issues; (2) Program... operations management; (4) Administrative operations and support; (5) Fund integrity and accountability;...

  19. Active Region Emergence and Remote Flares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Yixing; Welsch, Brian T.

    2016-02-01

    We study the effect of new emerging solar active regions on the large-scale magnetic environment of existing regions. We first present a theoretical approach to quantify the "interaction energy" between new and pre-existing regions as the difference between i) the summed magnetic energies of their individual potential fields and ii) the energy of their superposed potential fields. We expect that this interaction energy can, depending upon the relative arrangements of newly emerged and pre-existing magnetic flux, indicate the existence of "topological" free magnetic energy in the global coronal field that is independent of any "internal" free magnetic energy due to coronal electric currents flowing within the newly emerged and pre-existing flux systems. We then examine the interaction energy in two well-studied cases of flux emergence, but find that the predicted energetic perturbation is relatively small compared to energies released in large solar flares. Next, we present an observational study of the influence of the emergence of new active regions on flare statistics in pre-existing active regions, using NOAA's Solar Region Summary and GOES flare databases. As part of an effort to precisely determine the emergence time of active regions in a large event sample, we find that emergence in about half of these regions exhibits a two-stage behavior, with an initial gradual phase followed by a more rapid phase. Regarding flaring, we find that the emergence of new regions is associated with a significant increase in the occurrence rate of X- and M-class flares in pre-existing regions. This effect tends to be more significant when pre-existing and new emerging active regions are closer. Given the relative weakness of the interaction energy, this effect suggests that perturbations in the large-scale magnetic field, such as topology changes invoked in the "breakout" model of coronal mass ejections, might play a significant role in the occurrence of some flares.

  20. The Twist Limit for Bipolar Active Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Ron; Falconer, David; Gary, Allen

    2008-01-01

    We present new evidence that further supports the standard idea that active regions are emerged magnetic-flux-rope omega loops. When the axial magnetic twist of a cylindrical flux rope exceeds a critical amount, the flux rope becomes unstable to kinking, and the excess axial twist is converted into writhe twist by the kinking. This suggests that, if active regions are emerged omega loops, then (1) no active region should have magnetic twist much above the limit set by kinking, (2) active regions having twist near the limit should often arise from kinked omega loops, and (3) since active regions having large delta sunspots are outstandingly twisted, these arise from kinked omega loops and should have twist near the limit for kinking. From each of 36 vector magnetograms of bipolar active regions, we have measured (1) the total flux of the vertical field above 100 G, (2) the area covered by this flux, and (3) the net electric current that arches over the polarity inversion line. These three quantities yield an estimate of the axial magnetic twist in a simple model cylindrical flux rope that corresponds to the top of the active region s hypothetical omega loop prior to emergence. In all 36 cases, the estimated twist is below the critical limit for kinking. The 11 most twisted active regions (1) have estimated twist within a factor of approx.3 of the limit, and (2) include all of our 6 active regions having large delta sunspots. Thus, our observed twist limit for bipolar active regions is in good accord with active regions being emerged omega loops.

  1. A new region descriptor for multi-modal medical image registration and region detection.

    PubMed

    Xiaonan Wan; Dongdong Yu; Feng Yang; Caiyun Yang; Chengcai Leng; Min Xu; Jie Tian

    2015-08-01

    Establishing accurate anatomical correspondences plays a critical role in multi-modal medical image registration and region detection. Although many features based registration methods have been proposed to detect these correspondences, they are mostly based on the point descriptor which leads to high memory cost and could not represent local region information. In this paper, we propose a new region descriptor which depicts the features in each region, instead of in each point, as a vector. First, feature attributes of each point are extracted by a Gabor filter bank combined with a gradient filter. Then, the region descriptor is defined as the covariance of feature attributes of each point inside the region, based on which a cost function is constructed for multi-modal image registration. Finally, our proposed region descriptor is applied to both multi-modal region detection and similarity metric measurement in multi-modal image registration. Experiments demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of our proposed region descriptor. PMID:26736903

  2. The Main Sequence of Explosive Solar Active Regions: Comparison of Emerging and Mature Active Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Falconer, David; Moore, Ron

    2011-01-01

    For mature active regions, an active region s magnetic flux content determines the maximum free energy the active region can have. Most Large flares and CMEs occur in active regions that are near their free-energy limit. Active-region flare power radiated in the GOES 1-8 band increases steeply as the free-energy limit is approached. We infer that the free-energy limit is set by the rate of release of an active region s free magnetic energy by flares, CMEs and coronal heating balancing the maximum rate the Sun can put free energy into the active region s magnetic field. This balance of maximum power results in explosive active regions residing in a "mainsequence" in active-region (flux content, free energy content) phase space, which sequence is analogous to the main sequence of hydrogen-burning stars in (mass, luminosity) phase space.

  3. Environmental management on the basis of Complex Regional Indicators Concept: case of the Murmansk region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozlov, A.; Gutman, S.; Zaychenko, I.; Rytova, E.; Nijinskaya, P.

    2015-09-01

    The article presents an approach to sustainable environmental development of the Murmansk region of the Russian Federation based on the complex regional indicators as a transformation of a balance scorecard method. The peculiarities of Murmansk region connected with sustainable environmental development are described. The complex regional indicators approach allows to elaborate the general concept of complex regional development taking into consideration economic and non-economic factors with the focus on environmental aspects, accumulated environmental damage in particular. General strategic chart of sustainable environmental development of the Murmansk region worked out on the basis of complex regional indicators concept is composed. The key target indicators of sustainable ecological development of the Murmansk region are presented for the following strategic chart components: regional finance; society and market; industry and entrepreneurship; training, development and innovations. These charts are to be integrated with international environmental monitoring systems.

  4. Coactivation of the Default Mode Network regions and Working Memory Network regions during task preparation.

    PubMed

    Koshino, Hideya; Minamoto, Takehiro; Yaoi, Ken; Osaka, Mariko; Osaka, Naoyuki

    2014-01-01

    The Default Mode Network (DMN) regions exhibit deactivation during a wide variety of resource demanding tasks. However, recent brain imaging studies reported that they also show activation during various cognitive activities. In addition, studies have found a negative correlation between the DMN and the working memory network (WMN). Here, we investigated activity in the DMN and WMN regions during preparation and execution phases of a verbal working memory task. Results showed that the core DMN regions, including the medial prefrontal cortex and posterior cingulate cortex, and WMN regions were activated during preparation. During execution, however, the WMN regions were activated but the DMN regions were deactivated. The results suggest that activation of these network regions is affected by allocation of attentional resources to the task relevant regions due to task demands. This study extends our previous results by showing that the core DMN regions exhibit activation during task preparation and deactivation during task execution. PMID:25092432

  5. Coactivation of the Default Mode Network regions and Working Memory Network regions during task preparation

    PubMed Central

    Koshino, Hideya; Minamoto, Takehiro; Yaoi, Ken; Osaka, Mariko; Osaka, Naoyuki

    2014-01-01

    The Default Mode Network (DMN) regions exhibit deactivation during a wide variety of resource demanding tasks. However, recent brain imaging studies reported that they also show activation during various cognitive activities. In addition, studies have found a negative correlation between the DMN and the working memory network (WMN). Here, we investigated activity in the DMN and WMN regions during preparation and execution phases of a verbal working memory task. Results showed that the core DMN regions, including the medial prefrontal cortex and posterior cingulate cortex, and WMN regions were activated during preparation. During execution, however, the WMN regions were activated but the DMN regions were deactivated. The results suggest that activation of these network regions is affected by allocation of attentional resources to the task relevant regions due to task demands. This study extends our previous results by showing that the core DMN regions exhibit activation during task preparation and deactivation during task execution. PMID:25092432

  6. Dynamic systems of regional economy management optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trofimov, S.; Kudzh, S.

    One of the most actual problems of the Russian economic life is a regional economic systems formation. The hierarchy of economic and branch priorities should follow from the general idea of an industrial policy. The matter is that the concept of an industrial policy is defined by the system of priorities mainly incorporated in it. The problem of priorities is not solved yet neither on federal, nor at a regional level. It is necessary to recognize, that a substantiation of this or that variant of priorities - objectively a challenge. Such substantiation can be received with the help of dynamic structural modeling and management technology. At formation of the regional industrial policy program the special attention is given to creation of modern type commercial structures. In regions there are headquarters and branches of many largest corporations, holdings and banks. Besides it, many regional enterprises already became inter-regional or even the transnational companies. In this connection an assistance of transformation of the industrial enterprises and their groups in vertically integrated companies and modern type holdings can become a prominent aspect of an industrial policy. Regional economic structures should be reconstructed gradually on the general model of the world class competitive companies. Assistance to creation of new corporational control systems, the organization of headquarters and the central services work - all this can be included into the sphere of regional administration industrial policy. The special attention should be turned on necessity of development of own system of the corporate structures, capable to provide to the region an independent participation in use of the natural resources and industrial-technological potential, at the stage of a regional industrial policy program formation. Transformation of the industrial enterprises and their groups into modern type vertically-integrated companies and holdings can become one of the major

  7. Appalachian Regional Commission: 1984 Annual Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appalachian Regional Commission, Washington, DC.

    Federal appropriations totalling over $162 million during fiscal year 1984 enabled the Appalachian Regional Commission (ARC) to attack the region's most critical needs. Area development appropriations ($43 million) were used to create almost 10,550 new jobs and retain nearly 4,100 jobs, give special assistance to Appalachia's neediest 80 counties…

  8. Greater Capital Region Career Pathways Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Workforce Strategy Center, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This case study documents the activities of the Greater Capital Region Career Pathways Initiative (CPI), a partnership to develop regional, demand driven career pathways for the biotechnology sector in and around Albany, NY. This document is written for three primary audiences. First, it provides a report to the New York State Department of Labor…

  9. MID-ATLANTIC REGIONAL ASSESSMENT: OVERVIEW REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This peer-reviewed report summarizes the findings of the first Mid-Atlantic Regional Assessment. The Mid-Atlantic Regional Assessment was led by a team from The Pennsylvania State University. The assessment was sponsored by and conducted in partnership with the U.S. Environmental...

  10. Creating Opportunities: Tennessee's Southeast Regional Skills Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, Fred D.

    2002-01-01

    Rural Marion County (Tennessee), the town of Kimball, the Appalachian Regional Commission, and a local community college founded a regional skills center. The center offers a 2-year associate of science degree and classes in GED preparation, parenting, drug abuse prevention, cosmetology, and air conditioning and refrigeration. It has expanded…

  11. COMPLIANCE AND ENFORCEMENT REGIONAL TRACKING SYSTEM (CERTS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Compliance and Enforcement Regional Tracking System (CERTS) is a system that allows Region 10 employees integrated access to information in EPA national media data bases through the LAN system. CERTS will allow you to identify regulated facilities in a given location such as...

  12. LLNL`s regional seismic discrimination research

    SciTech Connect

    Walter, W.R.; Mayeda, K.M.; Goldstein, P.

    1995-07-01

    The ability to negotiate and verify a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) depends in part on the ability to seismically detect and discriminate between potential clandestine underground nuclear tests and other seismic sources, including earthquakes and mining activities. Regional techniques are necessary to push detection and discrimination levels down to small magnitudes, but existing methods of event discrimination are mainly empirical and show much variability from region to region. The goals of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s (LLNL`s) regional discriminant research are to evaluate the most promising discriminants, improve our understanding of their physical basis and use this information to develop new and more effective discriminants that can be transported to new regions of high monitoring interest. In this report we discuss our preliminary efforts to geophysically characterize two regions, the Korean Peninsula and the Middle East-North Africa. We show that the remarkable stability of coda allows us to develop physically based, stable single station magnitude scales in new regions. We then discuss our progress to date on evaluating and improving our physical understanding and ability to model regional discriminants, focusing on the comprehensive NTS dataset. We apply this modeling ability to develop improved discriminants including slopes of P to S ratios. We find combining disparate discriminant techniques is particularly effective in identifying consistent outliers such as shallow earthquakes and mine seismicity. Finally we discuss our development and use of new coda and waveform modeling tools to investigate special events.

  13. Insect Biodiversity in the Palearctic Region

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Insect biodiversity in the Palearctic Region is described. Palearctic occupies cold, temperate, and subtropical regions of Eurasia and Africa north of the Sahara Desert together with islands of the Arctic, Atlantic and Pacific oceans. Based on currently available data, there are about 200,000 speci...

  14. Regional Phonological Variants in Louisiana Speech.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubrecht, August Weston

    Based on tape recorded conversations of 28 informants in 18 Louisiana communities, this study investigated regional phonological variants in Louisiana speech. On the basis of settlement history and previous dialect studies, four regions are defined: northern Louisiana, the Florida Parishes, French Louisiana, and New Orleans. The informants are all…

  15. The Southern HII Region Discovery Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wenger, Trey; Miller Dickey, John; Jordan, Christopher; Bania, Thomas M.; Balser, Dana S.; Dawson, Joanne; Anderson, Loren D.; Armentrout, William P.; McClure-Griffiths, Naomi

    2016-01-01

    HII regions are zones of ionized gas surrounding recently formed high-mass (OB-type) stars. They are among the brightest objects in the sky at radio wavelengths. HII regions provide a useful tool in constraining the Galactic morphological structure, chemical structure, and star formation rate. We describe the Southern HII Region Discovery Survey (SHRDS), an Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) survey that discovered ~80 new HII regions (so far) in the Galactic longitude range 230 degrees to 360 degrees. This project is an extension of the Green Bank Telescope HII Region Discovery Survey (GBT HRDS), Arecibo HRDS, and GBT Widefield Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) HRDS, which together discovered ~800 new HII regions in the Galactic longitude range -20 degrees to 270 degrees. Similar to those surveys, candidate HII regions were chosen from 20 micron emission (from WISE) coincident with 10 micron (WISE) and 20 cm (SGPS) emission. By using the ATCA to detect radio continuum and radio recombination line emission from a subset of these candidates, we have added to the population of known Galactic HII regions.

  16. The Learning Region between Pedagogy and Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piazza, Roberta

    2010-01-01

    Economic growth is stimulated through learning. In "the learning economies" of those European regions that chose to develop their human and intellectual capital wisely, benefits have been visible. But this is a one-dimensional outlook in a multi-dimensional world. A "Learning Region" is an entirely different entity, pooling and mobilising its…

  17. Superdeformation in the A ~ 40 mass region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afanasjev, Anatoli

    2014-09-01

    There is a renewed interest to the investigation of the superdeformation in light A = 32 - 46 nuclei. In my talk, I will present the overview of the current theoretical understanding of the superdeformed structures in this mass region. The major focus will be on the results obtained within the cranked Nilsson+Strutinsky method and more microscopic cranked relativistic Hartree+Bogoliubov and cranked relativistic mean field approaches. The role of underlying shell structure, intruder orbitals and some other aspects of the superdeformation in this mass region will be discussed in detail. The comparison with other regions of superdeformation will be presented. A possible role of hyperdeformation in this mass region will also be discussed. There is a renewed interest to the investigation of the superdeformation in light A = 32 - 46 nuclei. In my talk, I will present the overview of the current theoretical understanding of the superdeformed structures in this mass region. The major focus will be on the results obtained within the cranked Nilsson+Strutinsky method and more microscopic cranked relativistic Hartree+Bogoliubov and cranked relativistic mean field approaches. The role of underlying shell structure, intruder orbitals and some other aspects of the superdeformation in this mass region will be discussed in detail. The comparison with other regions of superdeformation will be presented. A possible role of hyperdeformation in this mass region will also be discussed. This work has been supported by the U.S. Department of Energy under the Grant DE-FG02-07ER41459.

  18. Scintigraphic assessment of regional cardiac adrenergic innervation

    SciTech Connect

    Dae, M.W.; O'Connell, J.W.; Botvinick, E.H.; Ahearn, T.; Yee, E.; Huberty, J.P.; Mori, H.; Chin, M.C.; Hattner, R.S.; Herre, J.M.

    1989-03-01

    To assess the feasibility of noninvasively imaging the regional distribution of myocardial sympathetic innervation, we evaluated the distribution of sympathetic nerve endings, using 123I metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG), and compared this with the distribution of myocardial perfusion, using 201Tl. Twenty dogs were studied: 11 after regional denervation, and nine as controls. Regional denervation was done by left stellate ganglion removal, right stellate ganglion removal, and application of phenol to the epicardial surface. Computer-processed functional maps displayed the relative distribution of MIBG and thallium in multiple projections in vivo and excised heart slices in all animals. In six animals, dual isotope emission computed tomograms were acquired in vivo. Tissue samples taken from innervated and denervated regions of the MIBG images were analyzed for norepinephrine content to validate image findings. Normal controls showed homogeneous and parallel distributions of MIBG and thallium in the major left ventricular mass. In the left stellectomized hearts, MIBG was reduced relative to thallium in the posterior left ventricle; whereas in right stellectomized hearts, reduced MIBG was in the anterior left ventricle. Phenol-painted hearts showed a broad area of decreased MIBG extending beyond the area of phenol application. In both stellectomized and phenol-painted hearts, thallium distribution remained homogeneous and normal. Norepinephrine content was greater in regions showing normal MIBG (550 +/- 223 ng/g) compared with regions showing reduced MIBG (39 +/- 44 ng/g) (p less than 0.001), confirming regional denervation. Combined MIBG-thallium functional maps display the regional distribution of sympathetic innervation.

  19. Regional Campus Success: Strategies for Psychology Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poling, Devereaux A.; Loschiavo, Frank M.; Shatz, Mark A.

    2009-01-01

    Psychology professors on regional campuses play a vital role in higher education yet find themselves unrepresented in the vast literature on professional development. Regional campuses operate under unique parameters that set them apart from other academic environments, such as main campuses, liberal arts colleges, and 2-year institutions. Job…

  20. 7 CFR 322.4 - Approved regions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEES, BEEKEEPING BYPRODUCTS, AND BEEKEEPING EQUIPMENT Importation of Adult Honeybees, Honeybee Germ Plasm, and Bees Other Than Honeybees From Approved Regions § 322.4 Approved regions..., Bermuda, Canada, France, Great Britain, New Zealand, and Sweden. (c) Bees other than honeybees....

  1. 7 CFR 322.4 - Approved regions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEES, BEEKEEPING BYPRODUCTS, AND BEEKEEPING EQUIPMENT Importation of Adult Honeybees, Honeybee Germ Plasm, and Bees Other Than Honeybees From Approved Regions § 322.4 Approved regions..., Bermuda, Canada, France, Great Britain, New Zealand, and Sweden. (c) Bees other than honeybees....

  2. 7 CFR 322.4 - Approved regions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEES, BEEKEEPING BYPRODUCTS, AND BEEKEEPING EQUIPMENT Importation of Adult Honeybees, Honeybee Germ Plasm, and Bees Other Than Honeybees From Approved Regions § 322.4 Approved regions..., Bermuda, Canada, France, Great Britain, New Zealand, and Sweden. (c) Bees other than honeybees....

  3. 7 CFR 322.4 - Approved regions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEES, BEEKEEPING BYPRODUCTS, AND BEEKEEPING EQUIPMENT Importation of Adult Honeybees, Honeybee Germ Plasm, and Bees Other Than Honeybees From Approved Regions § 322.4 Approved regions..., Bermuda, Canada, France, Great Britain, New Zealand, and Sweden. (c) Bees other than honeybees....

  4. 7 CFR 322.4 - Approved regions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEES, BEEKEEPING BYPRODUCTS, AND BEEKEEPING EQUIPMENT Importation of Adult Honeybees, Honeybee Germ Plasm, and Bees Other Than Honeybees From Approved Regions § 322.4 Approved regions..., Bermuda, Canada, France, Great Britain, New Zealand, and Sweden. (c) Bees other than honeybees....

  5. 36 CFR 1253.7 - Regional Archives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Regional Archives. 1253.7 Section 1253.7 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION PUBLIC AVAILABILITY AND USE LOCATION OF NARA FACILITIES AND HOURS OF USE § 1253.7 Regional Archives. Hours...

  6. EPA Regional Science Workshop on Stormwater Management

    EPA Science Inventory

    This workshop is being held at Region 2. It will provide a great opportunity for collaboration with Regions 1 and 3 as well as ORD. Topics to be discussed include: National Research Council's report, the new Administration's serious interest in stormwater management, issueanc...

  7. Regional anesthesia for major vascular surgery.

    PubMed Central

    O'Toole, D. P.; Cunningham, A. J.

    1993-01-01

    The relative merits of general vs regional anesthesia for patients undergoing major vascular surgery has been the subject of debate over the past decade. Previous studies of regional vs general anesthesia often were deficient in experimental design and, therefore, did not produce definitive answers. Some of these deficiencies related to non-standardized, poorly conducted, and/or described general anesthetic techniques, nonstandardized methods of postoperative analgesia in the general anesthesia groups, and variations in preoperative cardiac status in the study groups. Furthermore, most studies did not conclusively demonstrate a cause and effect relationship between the proposed mechanisms of the beneficial effect of regional anesthesia and outcome. Recent studies, however, have claimed improvements in outcome following regional anesthesia in patients undergoing peripheral vascular procedures. The reported beneficial effects have included amelioration of the neuroendocrine stress response to surgery, improvement in pulmonary function, cardiovascular stability, enhancement of lower limb blood flow, reduction in the incidence of graft thrombosis, and a reduction in the thrombic response to surgery. Skeptics still question whether recent studies have the power to determine whether regional anesthesia decreases the incidence of cardiac and pulmonary complications following major vascular surgery. Furthermore, the issue of whether the beneficial effects of regional anesthesia on the incidence of graft thrombosis and the thrombotic response to surgery relating to intraoperative or postoperative regional anesthesia/analgesia, to regional anesthesia per se, or to the systemic effects of absorbed local anesthetics remains unresolved. PMID:7825346

  8. A Neural Region of Abstract Working Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowan, Nelson; Li, Dawei; Moffitt, Amanda; Becker, Theresa M.; Martin, Elizabeth A.; Saults, J. Scott; Christ, Shawn E.

    2011-01-01

    Over 350 years ago, Descartes proposed that the neural basis of consciousness must be a brain region in which sensory inputs are combined. Using fMRI, we identified at least one such area for working memory, the limited information held in mind, described by William James as the trailing edge of consciousness. Specifically, a region in the left…

  9. MID-ATLANTIC REGIONAL ASSESSMENT: PROJECT DESCRIPTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of the USGCRP's First National Assessment effort, EPA's Global Change Research Program sponsored the first Mid-Atlantic Regional Assessment. A multi-disciplinary team of 14 Pennsylvania State University (Penn State) faculty members led this regional assessment effort.

  10. REGIONAL AIR POLLUTION STUDY, EMISSION INVENTORY SUMMARIZATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of the Regional Air Pollution Study (RAPS), data for an air pollution emission inventory are summarized for point and area sources in the St. Louis Air Quality Control Region. Data for point sources were collected for criteria and noncriteria pollutants, hydrocarbons, sul...

  11. Selection of the Argentine indicator region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramirez, C. J.; Reed, C. R. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    Determined from available Argentine crop statistics, selection of the Indicator Region was based on the highest wheat, corn, and soybean producing provinces, which were: Buenos Aires, Cordoba, Entre Rios, and Santa Fe. Each province in Argentina was examined for the availability of LANDSAT data; area, yield and production statistics; crop calendars; and other ancillary data. The Argentine Indicator Region is described.

  12. Vision impairment in the Pacific region

    PubMed Central

    Keeffe, J E; Konyama, K; Taylor, H R

    2002-01-01

    The Western Pacific region is one of great diversity, containing the most populous country, China, and many small Pacific island countries. This review describes the prevalence of blindness and vision loss, illustrates the changing trends in the important causes of vision loss and blindness, and the stages of development of the delivery of eye care services across this region. PMID:12034678

  13. 7 CFR 600.3 - Regional offices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Regional offices. 600.3 Section 600.3 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... leadership, guidance, coordination, and partnering for solutions to regional resource issues; (2)...

  14. REGIONAL PATTERNS OF WET MERCURY DEPOSITION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Most of the mercury contamination in lakes and streams of nonindustrialized regions of the United States and Canada is derived from atmospheric deposition. In order to determine the regional patterns of these inputs, seven mercury-in-precipitation monitoring sites were establishe...

  15. Dynamics of Saturn’s Polar Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antuñano, Arrate; del Río Gaztelurrutia, Teresa; Sánchez Lavega, Agustin; Hueso, Ricardo

    2014-11-01

    In this study we analyze the horizontal velocity fields of Saturn’s North and South Polar regions, including the hexagonal wave and its jet. The studied regions cover 30° in latitude going from 60° to 90° in both hemispheres. Using an automated two dimensional brightness correlation we create 2D zonal and meridional wind maps and zonal wind profiles for both polar regions, obtaining information on the horizontal velocity field up to 89.9° latitude in the north polar region and -89.5° latitude in the south. The eastward jet in the north polar region has its peak of velocity at higher latitudes (closer to the pole) than that in the south polar region, and this could be one of the reasons for the formation of the hexagonal wave in the north. An anticyclone (South Polar Vortex) is observed in the south polar region, just outside the eastward jet and impinging on it, similar to the NPS anticyclone (north Polar Vortex observed in Voyager time). However, it does not excite a wave, showing that these anticyclones are not the cause of the formation of the hexagonal feature. We also deduce vorticity maps and analyze the stability of the zonal jets, finding potential instability at the flanks of the eastward jets. Finally, we study the transfer of momentum from the turbulent motion to the westward jets in these regions.

  16. Complex Burn Region Module (CBRM) update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Carl L.; Jenkins, Billy

    1991-01-01

    Presented here is a Complex Burn Region Module (CBRM) update for the Solid Rocket Internal Ballistics Module (SRIBM) Program for the Advanced Solid Rocket Motor (ASRM) design/performance assessments. The goal was to develop an improved version of the solid rocket internal ballistics module program that contains a diversified complex region model for motor grain design, performance prediction, and evaluation.

  17. GULF COAST REGIONAL ASSESSMENT: PROJECT DESCRIPTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of the USGCRP's First National Assessment effort, EPA is sponsoring the Gulf Coast Regional Assessment. Southern University and A&M College and its collaborators are analyzing and evaluating the potential consequences of climate variability and change for the region in th...

  18. Conceptual Design of a Regional Information System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denver Regional Council of Governments, CO.

    This report describes the conceptual design of a regional information system, developed in support of the Denver Regional Council of Government's established comprehensive planning work program. It includes a discussion of system objectives, available data sources, recommended system content, software and system maintenance requirements,…

  19. 48 CFR 970.2673 - Regional partnerships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Regional partnerships. 970.2673 Section 970.2673 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY AGENCY SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Other Socioeconomic Programs 970.2673 Regional partnerships....

  20. 48 CFR 970.2673 - Regional partnerships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Regional partnerships. 970.2673 Section 970.2673 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY AGENCY SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Other Socioeconomic Programs 970.2673 Regional partnerships....

  1. Threading One's Way Through the Geographic Region.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Paul F.

    1982-01-01

    Designed for students in grades 7 through 12, the paper presents illustrative resource materials for teaching concepts related to geographic regions. Emphasis is on giving students an understanding of the interrelationship between regional characteristics and human behavior. The paper introduces students to the following notions: environmental…

  2. Pacific Regional Solar Heating Handbook. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Writers' Development Trust, Toronto (Ontario).

    This handbook is intended as a guide for engineers, architects, and individuals familiar with heating and ventilating applications who wish to design a solar heating system for a residential or small commercial building in the Pacific Coast Region. The climate of the region is discussed by selected cities in terms of the effect of climate on solar…

  3. REGIONAL VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENT: A CONCEPTUAL APPROACH

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA's Regional Vulnerability Assessment (REVA) project is developing and testing an approach to conducting comparative ecological risk assessments at the regional scale. I't seeks an objective and quantifiable answer to answer the question, "What are the greatest threaten accompa...

  4. 40 CFR 1.61 - Regional Offices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... comprehensive and integrated environmental protection activities; (c) Total resource management in their Regions... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Regional Offices. 1.61 Section 1.61 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL STATEMENT OF ORGANIZATION AND...

  5. 40 CFR 1.61 - Regional Offices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... comprehensive and integrated environmental protection activities; (c) Total resource management in their Regions... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Regional Offices. 1.61 Section 1.61 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL STATEMENT OF ORGANIZATION AND...

  6. 40 CFR 1.61 - Regional Offices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... comprehensive and integrated environmental protection activities; (c) Total resource management in their Regions... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Regional Offices. 1.61 Section 1.61 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL STATEMENT OF ORGANIZATION AND...

  7. 40 CFR 1.61 - Regional Offices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... comprehensive and integrated environmental protection activities; (c) Total resource management in their Regions... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Regional Offices. 1.61 Section 1.61 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL STATEMENT OF ORGANIZATION AND...

  8. 40 CFR 1.61 - Regional Offices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... comprehensive and integrated environmental protection activities; (c) Total resource management in their Regions... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Regional Offices. 1.61 Section 1.61 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL STATEMENT OF ORGANIZATION AND...

  9. Region-Resolved Global Dust Transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagstrom, K.; Lamancusa, C.

    2015-12-01

    Currently the functionality required to directly track the transport of regionally tagged chemical species does not exist in global models as it does in select regional models. While some global models contain adjoint formulations that allow for the concentration sensitivities of a given region to be determined, this method does not show how pollution from a given region impacts all the areas around it. The closest that global models get to directly tracking regionally tagged species have primarily been through brute-force or zero-out applications, which tend to be either very limited in scope or have significant impacts on chemical reaction rates. Specifically the tagged species approach captures both the non-linear behaviors within the model, missed in the brute-force method, and the full scope of the chemical reactions, missed in the zero-out applications. With the ability to easily tag pollutants based on their source region it becomes realistic to estimate the impacts that sub-continent scale regions can have on air pollution levels. Depending on the resolution of both the model and available population data, it is possible to use this functionality to estimate exposure resulting from region specific pollution. In this study we have implemented a module within the GEOS-Chem 3-D atmospheric composition model that will allow for this type of flexible region tagging for non-reactive species as a step towards being able to track species point of origin through chemical reactions. Functionally this module behaves similarly to the Particulate Matter Source Apportionment Technology (PSAT) feature within the Comprehensive Air Quality Model with Extensions (CAMx) which tracks the species utilizing the various fluxes in each grid cell in the model. Utilizing this module we have divided the sub-Saharan into several distinct regions in order to track how dust from each region is transported around the globe. The results are compared to identify regional differences in how

  10. Combination of Face Regions in Forensic Scenarios.

    PubMed

    Tome, Pedro; Fierrez, Julian; Vera-Rodriguez, Ruben; Ortega-Garcia, Javier

    2015-07-01

    This article presents an experimental analysis of the combination of different regions of the human face on various forensic scenarios to generate scientific knowledge useful for the forensic experts. Three scenarios of interest at different distances are considered comparing mugshot and CCTV face images using MORPH and SC face databases. One of the main findings is that inner facial regions combine better in mugshot and close CCTV scenarios and outer facial regions combine better in far CCTV scenarios. This means, that depending of the acquisition distance, the discriminative power of the facial regions change, having in some cases better performance than the full face. This effect can be exploited by considering the fusion of facial regions which results in a very significant improvement of the discriminative performance compared to just using the full face. PMID:26189995

  11. Wintertime meteorology of the Grand Canyon region

    SciTech Connect

    Whiteman, C.D.

    1992-09-01

    The Grand Canyon region of the American Southwest is an interesting region meteorologically, but because of its isolated location, the lack of major population centers in the region, and the high cost of meteorological field experiments, it has historically received little observational attention. In recent years, however, attention has been directed to episodes of visibility degradation in many of the US National parks, and two recent field studies focused on this visibility problem have greatly increased the meteorological data available for the Grand Canyon region. The most recent and comprehensive of these studies is the Navajo Generating Station Winter Visibility Study of 1989--90. This study investigated the sources of visibility degradation in Grand Canyon National Park and the meteorological mechanisms leading to low visibility episodes. In this paper we present analyses of this rich data set to gain a better understanding of the key wintertime meteorological features of the Grand Canyon region.

  12. Cosmic ray modulation and merged interaction regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burlaga, L. F.; Goldstein, M. L.; Mcdonald, F. B.

    1985-01-01

    Beyond several AU, interactions among shocks and streams give rise to merged interaction regions in which the magnetic field is turbulent. The integral intensity of . 75 MeV/Nuc cosmic rays at Voyager is generally observed to decrease when a merged interaction region moves past the spacecraft and to increase during the passage of a rarefaction region. When the separation between interaction regions is relatively large, the cosmic ray intensity tends to increase on a scale of a few months. This was the case at Voyager 1 from July 1, 1983 to May 1, 1984, when the spacecraft moved from 16.7 to 19.6 AU. Changes in cosmic ray intensity were related to the magnetic field strength in a simple way. It is estimated that the diffusion coefficient in merged interaction regions at this distance is similar to 0.6 x 10 to the 22nd power sq cm/s.

  13. Towards predictive understanding of regional climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Shang-Ping; Deser, Clara; Vecchi, Gabriel A.; Collins, Matthew; Delworth, Thomas L.; Hall, Alex; Hawkins, Ed; Johnson, Nathaniel C.; Cassou, Christophe; Giannini, Alessandra; Watanabe, Masahiro

    2015-10-01

    Regional information on climate change is urgently needed but often deemed unreliable. To achieve credible regional climate projections, it is essential to understand underlying physical processes, reduce model biases and evaluate their impact on projections, and adequately account for internal variability. In the tropics, where atmospheric internal variability is small compared with the forced change, advancing our understanding of the coupling between long-term changes in upper-ocean temperature and the atmospheric circulation will help most to narrow the uncertainty. In the extratropics, relatively large internal variability introduces substantial uncertainty, while exacerbating risks associated with extreme events. Large ensemble simulations are essential to estimate the probabilistic distribution of climate change on regional scales. Regional models inherit atmospheric circulation uncertainty from global models and do not automatically solve the problem of regional climate change. We conclude that the current priority is to understand and reduce uncertainties on scales greater than 100 km to aid assessments at finer scales.

  14. Improving image segmentation by learning region affinities

    SciTech Connect

    Prasad, Lakshman; Yang, Xingwei; Latecki, Longin J

    2010-11-03

    We utilize the context information of other regions in hierarchical image segmentation to learn new regions affinities. It is well known that a single choice of quantization of an image space is highly unlikely to be a common optimal quantization level for all categories. Each level of quantization has its own benefits. Therefore, we utilize the hierarchical information among different quantizations as well as spatial proximity of their regions. The proposed affinity learning takes into account higher order relations among image regions, both local and long range relations, making it robust to instabilities and errors of the original, pairwise region affinities. Once the learnt affinities are obtained, we use a standard image segmentation algorithm to get the final segmentation. Moreover, the learnt affinities can be naturally unutilized in interactive segmentation. Experimental results on Berkeley Segmentation Dataset and MSRC Object Recognition Dataset are comparable and in some aspects better than the state-of-art methods.

  15. The flare productivity of active regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuroda, N.; Christe, S.

    2012-12-01

    Previous studies have shown that the flare frequency distribution is consistent with a power-law. Furthermore, studies have shown that regions of higher magnetic complexity produce more large flares. This may imply that the flare frequency distribution is harder for magnetically complex active regions. However, the relationship between source active regions' magnetic complexity and the flare size distribution has not been extensively studied. We present a new study of 25,000 microflares detected by the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) from March 2002 to February 2007. For each flare, we have obtained the two classifications of magnetic complexity, the Mount Wilson Magnetic Classification and the Zurich/McIntosh Sunspot Classification, from the Solar Region Summary prepared by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)/ Space Weather Prediction Center (SWPC), and compared them with the RHESSI flare size distribution as observed in the 12 to 25 keV energy range. We investigate the relationship between the slope of the microflare size distribution and the magnetic properties of source active regions. For each flare we obtain the relevant MDI magnetogram to determine properties such as the area of the source active region and total unsigned magnetic flux. These properties are then compared to properties of the associated microflares such as peak flux and microflare size distribution. We find that, for both the Mount Wilson Magnetic Classification and the Zurich/McIntosh Sunspot Classification, the slopes of the microflare size distribution tend to get harder as a function of magnetic complexity. For example, in Mount Wilson Magnetic Classification the slope for α regions was 1.66 and the slope for βγδ region was 1.51.This suggests that βγδ regions are 50 % more likely to produce X class flares than α regions.

  16. EPA'S REGIONAL VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENT PROGRAM: TOOLS TO FACILITATE REGIONAL TO LOCAL DECISION-MAKING

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA's Regional Vulnerability Assessment (ReVA) program is developing and testing approaches to conducting comparative environmental risk assessments at the regional scale, considering impacts to ecological human, and fiscal health endpoints. It seeks an objective and quantifiable...

  17. SADC establishes a regional action plan.

    PubMed

    Klouda, T

    1997-02-01

    The regional meeting held on AIDS strategy in Lilongwe, Malawi, in December, 1996, made important advances. The 12 countries of the SADC (Southern Africa Development Community) joined the European Union to institute a regional action plan for the reduction of susceptibility of people to HIV because of social, cultural, and environmental factors; the vulnerability of people with HIV infection to social and other difficulties; and the vulnerability of institutions because of the foregoing impacts. At the conference the issues explored were employment, mining, medical drugs, education, and tourism. An employment charter was seen as crucial for the success of AIDS and workplace activities. Facilitation of travel across borders was important for the reduction of susceptibility to HIV infection. Enhancement of regional policies for essential drugs was vital for drugs for the treatment of AIDS. The clarification of the regional role was critical for regional support of national action (strengthening technical and institutional capacities) and for regional joint action such as studies on research, harmonization of data collection on HIV/AIDS; organization of training; development of information and education on HIV/AIDS; facilitation of manufacturing of drugs and condoms; and the development of a regional information and education program about HIV/AIDS. The conference also clarified HIV/AIDS programs in relation to other health and socioeconomic problems. PMID:12292055

  18. Automatic image segmentation by dynamic region merging.

    PubMed

    Peng, Bo; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, David

    2011-12-01

    This paper addresses the automatic image segmentation problem in a region merging style. With an initially oversegmented image, in which many regions (or superpixels) with homogeneous color are detected, an image segmentation is performed by iteratively merging the regions according to a statistical test. There are two essential issues in a region-merging algorithm: order of merging and the stopping criterion. In the proposed algorithm, these two issues are solved by a novel predicate, which is defined by the sequential probability ratio test and the minimal cost criterion. Starting from an oversegmented image, neighboring regions are progressively merged if there is an evidence for merging according to this predicate. We show that the merging order follows the principle of dynamic programming. This formulates the image segmentation as an inference problem, where the final segmentation is established based on the observed image. We also prove that the produced segmentation satisfies certain global properties. In addition, a faster algorithm is developed to accelerate the region-merging process, which maintains a nearest neighbor graph in each iteration. Experiments on real natural images are conducted to demonstrate the performance of the proposed dynamic region-merging algorithm. PMID:21609885

  19. Thyroidectomy Under Regional Anaesthesia: An ORL Perspective

    PubMed Central

    K. B, Prashanth; Mohammed, Shamna J.; Pereira, Nivedeeta J.; Gupta, Srijoy; K. R, Sumanth; K. M, Triveni

    2015-01-01

    Background The use of regional anaesthesia as an effective alternative to general anaesthesia in thyroid surgeries is now being accepted in many parts of the world. In this day of computers and technology, there is an increased awareness among the people of the available options of anaesthesia and the adverse effects of general anaesthesia. They thus have an inclination to avoid general anaesthesia wherever feasible. This study dwells on the use of regional anaesthesia as an alternative tool that can be offered to the patients undergoing thyroidectomy. Aims This study aims at analysing the effectiveness, safety, ease and patient acceptability of performing thyroidectomies under regional anaesthesia. Settings and Design This prospective study was performed at a university – affiliated hospital. Materials and Methods Twenty nine patients who underwent thyroidectomy for benign thyroid diseases under regional anaesthesia were included in this study: 20 patients under deep cervical plexus block and 9 patients under cervical epidural anaesthesia. Statistical analysis used Z-test and validity test. Results In our study, all the 29 patients who underwent thyroidectomy under regional anaesthesia found the anaesthesia effective and were comfortable throughout the procedure. The surgeon too was at ease while performing the surgery. No complications were recorded. Conclusion In our present study, regional anaesthesia (Cervical epidural anaesthesia and Cervical plexus block) has been used safely and effectively in 29 thyroid surgeries. We conclude that although regional anaesthesia has been reserved for high risk thyroidectomies it may be offered as effective alternative to general anaesthesia even in routine thyroid surgeries. PMID:26557548

  20. Regional seismic discrimination research at LLNL

    SciTech Connect

    Walter, W.R.; Mayeda, K.M.; Goldstein, P.; Patton, H.J.; Jarpe, S.; Glenn, L.

    1995-10-01

    The ability to verify a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) depends in part on the ability to seismically detect and discriminate between potential clandestine underground nuclear tests and other seismic sources, including earthquakes and mining activities. Regional techniques are necessary to push detection and discrimination levels down to small magnitudes, but existing methods of event discrimination are mainly empirical and show much variability from region to region. The goals of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s (LLNL`s) regional discriminant research are to evaluate the most promising discriminants, improve the understanding of their physical basis and use this information to develop new and more effective discriminants that can be transported to new regions of high monitoring interest. In this report the authors discuss preliminary efforts to geophysically characterize the Middle East and North Africa. They show that the remarkable stability of coda allows one to develop physically based, stable single station magnitude scales in new regions. They then discuss progress to date on evaluating and improving physical understanding and ability to model regional discriminants, focusing on the comprehensive NTS dataset. The authors apply this modeling ability to develop improved discriminants including slopes of P to S ratios. They find combining disparate discriminant techniques is particularly effective in identifying consistent outliers such as shallow earthquakes and mine seismicity. Finally they discuss development and use of new coda and waveform modeling tools to investigate special events.

  1. Segmentation of liver region with tumorous tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xuejun; Lee, Gobert; Tajima, Tetsuji; Kitagawa, Teruhiko; Kanematsu, Masayuki; Zhou, Xiangrong; Hara, Takeshi; Fujita, Hiroshi; Yokoyama, Ryujiro; Kondo, Hiroshi; Hoshi, Hiroaki; Nawano, Shigeru; Shinozaki, Kenji

    2007-03-01

    Segmentation of an abnormal liver region based on CT or MR images is a crucial step in surgical planning. However, precisely carrying out this step remains a challenge due to either connectivities of the liver to other organs or the shape, internal texture, and homogeneity of liver that maybe extensively affected in case of liver diseases. Here, we propose a non-density based method for extracting the liver region containing tumor tissues by edge detection processing. False extracted regions are eliminated by a shape analysis method and thresholding processing. If the multi-phased images are available then the overall outcome of segmentation can be improved by subtracting two phase images, and the connectivities can be further eliminated by referring to the intensity on another phase image. Within an edge liver map, tumor candidates are identified by their different gray values relative to the liver. After elimination of the small and nonspherical over-extracted regions, the final liver region integrates the tumor region with the liver tissue. In our experiment, 40 cases of MDCT images were used and the result showed that our fully automatic method for the segmentation of liver region is effective and robust despite the presence of hepatic tumors within the liver.

  2. Regional Climate Modeling: Progress, Challenges, and Prospects

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yuqing; Leung, Lai R.; McGregor, John L.; Lee, Dong-Kyou; Wang, Wei-Chyung; Ding, Yihui; Kimura, Fujio

    2004-12-01

    Regional climate modeling with regional climate models (RCMs) has matured over the past decade and allows for meaningful utilization in a broad spectrum of applications. In this paper, latest progresses in regional climate modeling studies are reviewed, including RCM development, applications of RCMs to dynamical downscaling for climate change assessment, seasonal climate predictions and climate process studies, and the study of regional climate predictability. Challenges and potential directions of future research in this important area are discussed, with the focus on those to which less attention has been given previously, such as the importance of ensemble simulations, further development and improvement of regional climate modeling approach, modeling extreme climate events and sub-daily variation of clouds and precipitation, model evaluation and diagnostics, applications of RCMs to climate process studies and seasonal predictions, and development of regional earth system models. It is believed that with both the demonstrated credibility of RCMs’ capability in reproducing not only monthly to seasonal mean climate and interannual variability but also the extreme climate events when driven by good quality reanalysis and the continuous improvements in the skill of global general circulation models (GCMs) in simulating large-scale atmospheric circulation, regional climate modeling will remain an important dynamical downscaling tool for providing the needed information for assessing climate change impacts and seasonal climate predictions, and a powerful tool for improving our understanding of regional climate processes. An internationally coordinated effort can be developed with different focuses by different groups to advance regional climate modeling studies. It is also recognized that since the final quality of the results from nested RCMs depends in part on the realism of the large-scale forcing provided by GCMs, the reduction of errors and improvement in

  3. Dynamic systems of regional economy management optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trofimov, S.; Kudzh, S.

    One of the most actual problems of the Russian economic life is a regional economic systems formation. The hierarchy of economic and branch priorities should follow from the general idea of an industrial policy. The matter is that the concept of an industrial policy is defined by the system of priorities mainly incorporated in it. The problem of priorities is not solved yet neither on federal, nor at a regional level. It is necessary to recognize, that a substantiation of this or that variant of priorities - objectively a challenge. Such substantiation can be received with the help of dynamic structural modeling and management technology. At formation of the regional industrial policy program the special attention is given to creation of modern type commercial structures. In regions there are headquarters and branches of many largest corporations, holdings and banks. Besides it, many regional enterprises already became inter-regional or even the transnational companies. In this connection an assistance of transformation of the industrial enterprises and their groups in vertically integrated companies and modern type holdings can become a prominent aspect of an industrial policy. Regional economic structures should be reconstructed gradually on the general model of the world class competitive companies. Assistance to creation of new corporational control systems, the organization of headquarters and the central services work - all this can be included into the sphere of regional administration industrial policy. The special attention should be turned on necessity of development of own system of the corporate structures, capable to provide to the region an independent participation in use of the natural resources and industrial-technological potential, at the stage of a regional industrial policy program formation. Transformation of the industrial enterprises and their groups into modern type vertically-integrated companies and holdings can become one of the major

  4. REGIONAL VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENT OF THE MID-ATLANTIC REGION: EVALUATION OF INTEGRATION METHODS AND ASSESSMENTS RESULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report describes methods for quantitative regional assessment developed by the Regional Vulnerability Assessment (ReVA) program. The goal of ReVA is to develop regional-scale assessments of the magnitude, extent, distribution, and uncertainty of current and anticipated envir...

  5. Comparison of DMSP and SECS region-1 and region-2 ionospheric current boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weygand, J. M.; Wing, S.

    2016-06-01

    The region-1 and region-2 boundary has traditionally been identified using data from a single spacecraft crossing the auroral region and measuring the large scale changes in the cross track magnetic field. With data from the AUTUMN, CANMOS, CARISMA, GIMA, DTU MGS, MACCS, McMAC, STEP, THEMIS, and USGS ground magnetometer arrays we applied a state-of-art technique based on spherical elementary current system (SECS) method developed by Amm and Viljanen (1999) in order to calculate maps of region-1 and region-2 current system over the North American and Greenland auroral region. Spherical elementary current (SEC) amplitude (proxy for vertical currents) maps can be inferred at 10 s temporal resolution, ~1.5° geographic latitude (Glat), and 3.5° geographic longitude (Glon) spatial resolution. We compare the location of the region-1 and region-2 boundary obtained by the DMSP spacecraft with the region-1 and region-2 boundary observed in the SEC current amplitudes. We find that the boundaries typically agree within 0.2°±1.3°. These results indicate that the location of the region-1 and region-2 boundary can reasonably be determined from ground magnetometer data. The SECS maps represent a value-added product from the magnetometer database and can be used for contextual interpretation in conjunction with other missions as well as help with our understanding of magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling mechanisms using the ground arrays and the magnetospheric spacecraft data.

  6. Global Inventory of Regional and National Qualifications Frameworks. Volume II: National and Regional Cases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    UNESCO Institute for Lifelong Learning, 2015

    2015-01-01

    This second volume of the "Global Inventory of Regional and National Qualifications Frameworks" focuses on national and regional cases of national qualifications frameworks for eighty- six countries from Afghanistan to Uzbekistan and seven regional qualifications frameworks. Each country profile provides a thorough review of the main…

  7. Dust continuum spectra from model HII regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aannestad, P. A.; Emery, R. J.

    1989-01-01

    The infrared spectrum emitted by nebular dust, heated by the ionizing stars in H II blisters and spherical H II regions, is calculated for various model parameters. Absorption of the non-ionizing radiation in a neutral layer is included. Heating by the Lyman alpha photon field is taken into account. The dust is composed of silicate and graphite grains, and evaporation of the grains in the inner region is considered. The models are presented with a view to interpretation of infrared observations of dusty H II regions and can be applied directly to the infrared astronomy satellite survey data. The continuum emission is compared with calculated fine structure line emission.

  8. Making Porous Luminescent Regions In Silicon Wafers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fathauer, Robert W.; Jones, Eric W.

    1994-01-01

    Regions damaged by ion implantation stain-etched. Porous regions within single-crystal silicon wafers fabricated by straightforward stain-etching process. Regions exhibit visible photoluminescence at room temperature and might constitute basis of novel class of optoelectronic devices. Stain-etching process has advantages over recently investigated anodic-etching process. Process works on both n-doped and p-doped silicon wafers. Related development reported in article, "Porous Si(x)Ge(1-x) Layers Within Single Crystals of Si," (NPO-18836).

  9. Retinal regionalization and heterogeneity of butterfly eyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stavenga, D.; Kinoshita, M.; Yang, E.-C.; Arikawa, K.

    2001-11-01

    The regional characteristics of the eyes of butterflies from different families have been surveyed using epi-illumination microscopy, utilizing the eyeshine visible due to the tapetum situated proximally to the rhabdom. All butterflies studied have a high spatial acuity in the frontal region. The facet diameter varies slightly across the eye, and the interommatidial angle and the eye parameter p are especially large dorsally. Whereas the ommatidial lattice is generally highly regular, the eyeshine colours distinctly depend on the species. Sometimes the eyeshine is locally uniform, but often it is heterogeneous. It is hypothesized that the regional characteristics as well as the local heterogeneity are adaptations that optimize spectral discrimination.

  10. Regional program for acquisition of medical experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vannordstrand, P. C.

    1978-01-01

    A U.S. company was contracted to cover different regions of the country. A moderately detailed description of the highlights of the company activities along with some conclusions and recommendations are reported. In summary, the regional program effectively: (1) informed segments of the medical community of research opportunities; (2) validated formats for regional workshops; (3) assisted potential investigators with follow-up consultations and proposal preparations; and (4) identified a latent intersect requiring continual dialog at the scientist/engineer interface for successful cultivation and integration.

  11. Regional satellite systems: Are they "the solution?"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ospina, Sylvia

    Regional satellite systems are in operation in Europe and the Arab League countries. Several others are under consideration for developing countries in Africa, Asia and South America. Studies have concluded that technically, the regional satellite systems are feasible. However, their viability depends on more than the succesful launch of a satellite. This paper analyzes the existing systems, extrapolates a few "lessons" from their experience and examines how they may be applied to the proposed systems. It is suggested that future feasibility studies should give some attention to terrestrial concerns: the physical infrastructure as well as economic and legal issues which will affect any regional system's viability.

  12. Millimetric observations of southern H II regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabbatini, L.; Cavaliere, F.; dall'Oglio, G.; Davies, R. D.; Martinis, L.; Miriametro, A.; Paladini, R.; Pizzo, L.; Russo, P. A.; Valenziano, L.

    2005-08-01

    We report on millimetric continuum observations of two bright compact H II regions, which have been observed for the first time in this frequency range. For the two observed regions (G291.6-0.5 and G291.3-0.7), we derive the flux densities at the two observed wavelengths (1.25 and 2 mm) as well as the spectral index and the temperature of the surrounding dust by fitting a modified blackbody curve to our results combined with IR values obtained from the literature. We also estimate the dust mass and the bolometric luminosity of the two regions.

  13. Selection of the Australian indicator region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, C. R. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    Each Australian state was examined for the availability of LANDSAT data, area, yield, and production characteristics, statistics, crop calendars, and other ancillary data. Agrophysical conditions that could influence labeling and classification accuracies were identified in connection with the highest producing states as determined from available Australian crop statistics. Based primarily on these production statistics, Western Australia and New South Wales were selected as the wheat indicator region for Australia. The general characteristics of wheat in the indicator region, with potential problems anticipated for proportion estimation are considered. The varieties of wheat, the diseases and pests common to New South Wales, and the wheat growing regions of both states are examined.

  14. Far Outer Galaxy H II Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudolph, A. L.; deGues, E. J.; Brand, J.; Wouterloot, J. G. A.; Gross, Anthony R. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    We have made a multifrequency (6, 3.6, and 2 cm), high-resolution (3"-6"), radio continuum survey of IRAS selected sources from the catalogue of Wouterloot & Brand (1989) to search for and study H II regions in the far outer Galaxy. We identified 31 sources in this catalog with well determined galactocentric distances, and with R approx.. greater than 15 kpc and L(sub FIR) approx.greater than 10(exp 4) solar luminosity, indicating the presence of high-mass star-formation. We have observed 11 of these sources with the Very Large Array (VLA). We observed the sources at 6 and 2 cm using "scaled arrays", making possible a direct and reliable comparison of the data at these two wavelengths for the determination of spectral indices. We detected a total of 12 radio sources, of which 10 have spectral indices consistent with optically-thin free-free emission from H II regions. Combined with previous VLA observations by other investigators, we have data on a total of 15 H II regions at galactocentric distances of 15 to 18.2kpc, among the most remote H II regions found in our Galaxy. The sizes of the H II regions range from approx. less than 0.10 to 2.3 pc. Using the measured fluxes and sizes, we determine the electron densities, emission measures, and excitation parameters of the H II regions, as well as the fluxes of Lyman continuum photons needed to keep the nebulae ionized. The sizes and electron densities are consistent with most of the sources detected in this survey being compact or ultracompact H II regions. Seven of the fifteen H II regions have sizes approx. less than 0.20 pc. Assuming simple pressure-driven expansion of the H II regions, these sizes indicate ages approx. less than 5 x 10(exp 4) yr, or only 1% of the lifetime of an O star, which implies an unlikely overabundance of O stars in the outer Galaxy. Thus, the large number of compact H II regions suggests that the time these regions spend in a compact phase must be much longer than their dynamical

  15. 23 CFR 940.9 - Regional ITS architecture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION INTELLIGENT TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS INTELLIGENT TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE AND STANDARDS § 940.9 Regional ITS architecture. (a) A regional... ITS project for that region advancing to final design. (d) The regional ITS architecture shall...

  16. 23 CFR 940.9 - Regional ITS architecture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION INTELLIGENT TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS INTELLIGENT TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE AND STANDARDS § 940.9 Regional ITS architecture. (a) A regional... ITS project for that region advancing to final design. (d) The regional ITS architecture shall...

  17. 23 CFR 940.9 - Regional ITS architecture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION INTELLIGENT TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS INTELLIGENT TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE AND STANDARDS § 940.9 Regional ITS architecture. (a) A regional... ITS project for that region advancing to final design. (d) The regional ITS architecture shall...

  18. 23 CFR 940.9 - Regional ITS architecture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION INTELLIGENT TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS INTELLIGENT TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE AND STANDARDS § 940.9 Regional ITS architecture. (a) A regional... ITS project for that region advancing to final design. (d) The regional ITS architecture shall...

  19. regionReport: Interactive reports for region-level and feature-level genomic analyses

    PubMed Central

    Collado-Torres, Leonardo; Jaffe, Andrew E.; Leek, Jeffrey T.

    2016-01-01

    regionReport is an R package for generating detailed interactive reports from region-level genomic analyses as well as feature-level RNA-seq. The report includes quality-control checks, an overview of the results, an interactive table of the genomic regions or features of interest and reproducibility information. regionReport provides specialised reports for exploring DESeq2, edgeR, or derfinder differential expression analyses results. regionReport is also flexible and can easily be expanded with report templates for other analysis pipelines. PMID:27429738

  20. Transcribed ultraconserved region in human cancers

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Jiang Chen; Shen, Jun; Ran, Zhi Hua

    2013-01-01

    Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are transcripts longer than ~200 nucleotides with little or no protein-coding capacity. Growing evidence shows that lncRNAs present important function in development and are associated with many human diseases such as cancers, Alzheimer disease, and heart diseases. Transcribed ultraconserved region (T-UCR) transcripts are a novel class of lncRNAs transcribed from ultraconserved regions (UCRs). UCRs are absolutely conserved (100%) between the orthologous regions of the human, rat, and mouse genomes. The UCRs are frequently located at fragile sites and at genomic regions involved in cancers. Recent data suggest that T-UCRs are altered at the transcriptional level in human tumorigenesis and the aberrant T-UCRs expression profiles can be used to differentiate human cancer types. The profound understanding of T-UCRs can throw new light on the pathogenesis of human cancers. PMID:24384562

  1. Hinode Captures Images of Solar Active Region

    NASA Video Gallery

    In these images, Hinode's Solar Optical Telescope (SOT) zoomed in on AR 11263 on August 4, 2011, five days before the active region produced the largest flare of this cycle, an X6.9. We show images...

  2. Regional Climate Change Hotspots over Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anber, U.; Zakey, A.; Abd El Wahab, M.

    2009-04-01

    Regional Climate Change Index (RCCI), is developed based on regional mean precipitation change, mean surface air temperature change, and change in precipitation and temperature interannual variability. The RCCI is a comparative index designed to identify the most responsive regions to climate change, or Hot- Spots. The RCCI is calculated for Seven land regions over North Africa and Arabian region from the latest set of climate change projections by 14 global climates for the A1B, A2 and B1 IPCC emission scenarios. The concept of climate change can be approaches from the viewpoint of vulnerability or from that of climate response. In the former case a Hot-Spot can be defined as a region for which potential climate change impacts on the environment or different activity sectors can be particularly pronounced. In the other case, a Hot-Spot can be defined as a region whose climate is especially responsive to global change. In particular, the characterization of climate change response-based Hot-Spot can provide key information to identify and investigate climate change Hot-Spots based on results from multi-model ensemble of climate change simulations performed by modeling groups from around the world as contributions to the Fourth Assessment Report of Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). A Regional Climate Change Index (RCCI) is defined based on four variables: change in regional mean surface air temperature relative to the global average temperature change ( or Regional Warming Amplification Factor, RWAF ), change in mean regional precipitation (P % , of present day value ), change in regional surface air temperature interannual variability (T % ,of present day value), change in regional precipitation interannual variability (P % ,of present day value ). In the definition of the RCCI it is important to include quantities other than mean change because often mean changes are not the only important factors for specific impacts. We thus also include inter

  3. Regional Climate Change Hotspots over Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anber, U.

    2009-04-01

    Regional Climate Change Index (RCCI), is developed based on regional mean precipitation change, mean surface air temperature change, and change in precipitation and temperature interannual variability. The RCCI is a comparative index designed to identify the most responsive regions to climate change, or Hot- Spots. The RCCI is calculated for Seven land regions over North Africa and Arabian region from the latest set of climate change projections by 14 global climates for the A1B, A2 and B1 IPCC emission scenarios. The concept of climate change can be approaches from the viewpoint of vulnerability or from that of climate response. In the former case a Hot-Spot can be defined as a region for which potential climate change impacts on the environment or different activity sectors can be particularly pronounced. In the other case, a Hot-Spot can be defined as a region whose climate is especially responsive to global change. In particular, the characterization of climate change response-based Hot-Spot can provide key information to identify and investigate climate change Hot-Spots based on results from multi-model ensemble of climate change simulations performed by modeling groups from around the world as contributions to the Assessment Report of Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). A Regional Climate Change Index (RCCI) is defined based on four variables: change in regional mean surface air temperature relative to the global average temperature change ( or Regional Warming Amplification Factor, RWAF ), change in mean regional precipitation ( , of present day value ), change in regional surface air temperature interannual variability ( ,of present day value), change in regional precipitation interannual variability ( , of present day value ). In the definition of the RCCI it is important to include quantities other than mean change because often mean changes are not the only important factors for specific impacts. We thus also include inter annual

  4. Detection of amplified or deleted chromosomal regions

    DOEpatents

    Stokke, T.; Pinkel, D.; Gray, J.W.

    1995-12-05

    The present invention relates to in situ hybridization methods for the identification of new chromosomal abnormalities associated with various diseases. In particular, it provides probes which are specific to a region of amplification in chromosome 20. 3 figs.

  5. Detection of amplified or deleted chromosomal regions

    DOEpatents

    Stokke, Trond; Pinkel, Daniel; Gray, Joe W.

    1995-01-01

    The present invention relates to in situ hybridization methods for the identification of new chromosomal abnormalities associated with various diseases. In particular, it provides probes which are specific to a region of amplification in chromosome 20.

  6. Detection Of Amplified Or Deleted Chromosomal Regions

    DOEpatents

    Stokke, Trond , Pinkel, Daniel , Gray, Joe W.

    1997-05-27

    The present invention relates to in situ hybridization methods for the identification of new chromosomal abnormalities associated with various diseases. In particular, it provides probes which are specific to a region of amplification in chromosome 20.

  7. 2011 Reports of the Regional Associations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Presents the 2011 reports from the Annual Meetings of the Regional Psychological Associations. The following Associations are featured: The Eastern Psychological Association, Midwestern Psychological Association, New England Psychological Association, Rocky Mountain Psychological Association, Southeastern Psychological Association, Southwestern…

  8. 2007 Reports of the Regional Associations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Provides the 2007 reports of APA's Regional Associations. Included are the annual meeting reports from the Eastern Psychological Association, Midwestern Psychological Association, New England Psychological Association, Rocky Mountain Psychological Association, Southeastern Psychological Association, Southwestern Psychological Association, and…

  9. Turbulence in HII regions: New results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joncas, Gilles

    HII regions were the first interstellar objects where scale dependant brightness and velocity fluctuations were indentified (von Hoerner 1951, Courtes 1955, Munch 1958). The study of turbulent motions in HII regions was then forgotten for many years until the work of Joncas and O'Dell which started in 1985. I will present my deductions stemming from the analysis of the velocity fields of 6 HII regions (Sh 142, M17, Sh 158, Sh 170 and Sh 212). New data from the radial velocity AND density fields of the HII region Sh 269 will also be shown. The analysis was done using the well known two-point correlation functions. However I innovated by using the higher order structure functions. PDF calculations were also done hinting at the presence of intermittency in Sh 269.

  10. The polar regions and the USGCRP

    SciTech Connect

    MacCracken, M. C.,

    1997-06-01

    The US Global Change Research Program provides interagency coordination for the ten federal agencies supporting research on global environmental change. Program activities are described annually in Our Changing Planet, which is a report submitted to Congress each year in support of the President`s budget request. The USGCRP also periodically prepares a multiyear research overview (referred to officially as a multiyear research plan even though it is more of a strategy) to provide a framework for organizing research over the next ten years. Consideration of the polar regions is of particular interest in pursuit of the goals of the USGCRP in each of the major environmental issue areas. Especially with the increased emphasis of the USGCRP on the regional aspects of global environmental change and the regional differentiation of consequences for the environment, the polar regions will be receiving intense attention in future research activities.

  11. MID-ATLANTIC REGIONAL VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    ORD's Regional Vulnerability Assessment (REVA) Program is developing and demonstrating approaches to assess current and future environmental vulnerabilities so that risk management activities can be targeted. The sister program to EMA.P (Environmental Monitoring Assessment Progr...

  12. Large-scale regions of antimatter

    SciTech Connect

    Grobov, A. V. Rubin, S. G.

    2015-07-15

    Amodified mechanism of the formation of large-scale antimatter regions is proposed. Antimatter appears owing to fluctuations of a complex scalar field that carries a baryon charge in the inflation era.

  13. Regional Instrumentation Facilities Established by NSF.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Analytical Chemistry, 1979

    1979-01-01

    This article describes the six regional instrumentation facilities established by the National Science Foundation. These centers make available to scientists state-of-the-art instrumentation such as: gas chromatographs; lasers; NMR spectrometers; X-rays; and others. (CS)

  14. Geochemistry and origin of regional dolomites

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, G.N.; Meyers, W.J.

    1992-01-01

    This grant supports research on the origins and geochemical aspects of regional dolomites. Eight graduate students are involved in research on dolomite allowing a diverse range of studies. This report outlines their work in the field. (JL)

  15. [Local, central and regional functions. Obsolete concepts?].

    PubMed

    Stene-Larsen, G; Bjørnstad, E; Bergesen, O; Nordhaug, B; Abildgaard, U

    1990-11-30

    As a consequence of the regionalization of the health services in Norway hospitals were given either local, central or regional responsibility. This system was intended to improve the availability of expertise and costly equipment, and at the same time reduce the growth of expenditures on health care. In the last few years, however, many of the smaller hospitals have improved their technical and medical skills to such an extent that this classification system has become less meaningful. Aker hospital in Oslo carries out local, central and regional functions. In a prospective study at this hospital we found that 88% of 980 consecutive medical admissions could be classified as local hospital admissions. Only 5% of the patients needed service at the central level, and 5% at the regional level. In our opinion it would suffice to have two types of hospital ("treatment levels"), standard hospitals and referral hospitals. PMID:2274952

  16. STATE BOUNDARIES COVERAGE FOR EPA REGION 8

    EPA Science Inventory

    This coverage contains the state boundaries for Montana, Colorado, South Dakota, North Dakota, Wyoming, and Utah. These states make up EPA Region 8. The associated attributes include only the state name and the state Federal Information Processing Standards code.

  17. Practical utility of the blue spectral region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, D. S.

    1972-01-01

    Some aspects of multispectral photography in the blue region are discussed briefly, and sample images are submitted to demonstrate the potential utility of the blue multispectral record for oceanography.

  18. Residential market transformation: National and regional indicators

    SciTech Connect

    Van Wie McGrory, Laura L.; McNamara, Maureen; Suozzo, Margaret

    2000-06-01

    A variety of programs are underway to address market barriers to the adoption of energy-efficient residential technologies and practices. Most are administered by utilities, states, or regions that rely on the Energy Star as a consistent platform for program marketing and messaging. This paper reviews regional and national market transformation activities for three key residential end-uses -- air conditioning, clothes washing, and lighting -- characterizing current and ongoing programs; reporting on progress; identifying market indicators; and discussing implications.

  19. Mature brain tissue in the sacrococcygeal region.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Binod Bade; Ghimire, Pradeep; Ghartimagar, Dilasma; Jwarchan, Bishnu; Lalchan, Subita; Karmacharya, Mikesh

    2016-01-01

    Complete mature brain tissue in sacrococcygeal region is a rare congenital anomaly in a newborn, which usually is misdiagnosed for sacrococcygeal teratoma. Glial tumor-like ependymoma is also common in sacrococcygeal area but mostly appears later in life. We present a case of complete heterotopic brain tissue in the sacrococcygeal region. The patient underwent total excision of mass with coccygectomy. To our knowledge it is the second case being reported. PMID:27194682

  20. Mature brain tissue in the sacrococcygeal region

    PubMed Central

    Shrestha, Binod Bade; Ghimire, Pradeep; Ghartimagar, Dilasma; Jwarchan, Bishnu; Lalchan, Subita; Karmacharya, Mikesh

    2016-01-01

    Complete mature brain tissue in sacrococcygeal region is a rare congenital anomaly in a newborn, which usually is misdiagnosed for sacrococcygeal teratoma. Glial tumor-like ependymoma is also common in sacrococcygeal area but mostly appears later in life. We present a case of complete heterotopic brain tissue in the sacrococcygeal region. The patient underwent total excision of mass with coccygectomy. To our knowledge it is the second case being reported. PMID:27194682