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Sample records for 1970 1991 sectoral analysis

  1. Energy use in Poland, 1970--1991: Sectoral analysis and international comparison

    SciTech Connect

    Meyers, S.; Schipper, L.; Salay, J.

    1993-07-01

    This report provides an analysis of how and why energy use has changed in Poland since the 1970s, with particular emphasis on changes since the country began its transition from a centrally planned to a market economy in 1989. The most important factors behind the large decline in Polish energy use in 1990 were a sharp fall in industrial output and a huge drop in residential coal use driven by higher prices. The structural shift away from heavy industry was slight. Key factors that worked to increase energy use were the rise in energy intensity in many heavy industries and the shift toward more energy intensive modes of transport. The growth in private activities in 1991 was nearly sufficient to balance out continued decline in industrial energy use in that year. We compared energy use in Poland and the factors that shape it with similar elements in the West. We made a number of modifications to the Polish energy data to bring it closer to a Western energy accounting framework, and augmented these with a variety of estimates in order to construct a sufficiently detailed portrait of Polish energy use to allow comparison with Western data. Per capita energy use in Poland was not much below W. European levels despite Poland`s much lower GDP per capita. Poland has comparatively high energy intensities in manufacturing and residential space heating, and a large share of heavy industries in manufacturing output, all factors that contribute to higher energy use per capita. The structure of passenger and freight transportation and the energy intensity of automobiles contribute to lower energy use per capita in Poland than in Western Europe, but the patterns in Poland are moving closer to those that prevail in the West.

  2. Enrollment Analysis, 1970-1985.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodyear, Don

    A series of tables are presented, providing a 15-year analysis of enrollment, student demographic characteristics, and first census weekly student contact hours (WSCH) by division at College of the Sequoias (COS). Data indicate: (1) total enrollment increased from 5,447 in 1970 to 7,587 in 1985, peaking in 1981 with a high of 7,625 students; (2)…

  3. Technical progress report. Private sector initiatives between the United States and Japan. January 1991 - December 1991

    SciTech Connect

    1993-07-01

    This annual report for calendar year 1991 describes the efforts performed under the Private Sector Initiatives contract. The report also describes those efforts that have continued with private funding after being initiated under this contract.

  4. Avoidable mortality in Lithuania: 1991-199 compared with 1970-1990.

    PubMed

    Logminiene, Zeneta; Nolte, Ellen; McKee, Martin; Valius, Leonas; Gaizauskiene, Aldona

    2004-04-01

    This paper assesses the changes in avoidable mortality in Lithuania in 1991-1999 compared with 1970-1990. Causes of death were disaggregated into causes most amenable to treatment and those amenable to prevention. Trends in age-standardised death rates were calculated. In 1970-1990, avoidable causes of death accounted for 26.3% of all deaths. By 1991-1999 this figure had decreased slightly to 24.6%. At the same time, age-standardised death rates from avoidable causes increased by 8%, from 118.1 per 100000 in 1970-1990 to 127.9 in 1991-1999. Avoidable mortality among men was considerably higher than for women in both periods. There was considerable fluctuation in both treatable and preventable mortality during the 1990s, reflecting diversity in trends in different causes of death. Increases occurred in death rates from tuberculosis, cervical cancer and liver cirrhosis and, immediately after independence, also in hypertensive and cerebrovascular diseases and, among men, lung cancer, followed by subsequent declines. Deaths from chronic rheumatic heart disease, asthma and other respiratory diseases, appendicitis, abdominal hernia, cholelithiasis and maternal mortality consistently declined. In conclusion, avoidable mortality declined as a proportion of total mortality in Lithuania during 1991-1999 compared with 1970-1990. This reflected the combined impact of an initial rise in death rates from treatable and, to a lesser extent, preventable causes, followed by subsequent declines. While this indicates some success in the development of medical care, it emphasises the need for more effective public health policies directed at the major determinants of health. PMID:15003409

  5. [In the America of mountain ranges, the brief summer of Indian agrarian movements (1970-1991)].

    PubMed

    Le Bot, Y

    1991-01-01

    Important rural Indian movements appeared almost simultaneously in the early 1970s in 3 countries, Ecuador, Bolivia, and Guatemala, which had the distinction of remaining the most rural and the most Indian countries of Latin America. A similar movement with similar characteristics arose in a rural and Indian region of Colombia, a largely urban and mestizo country. Each movement constituted a particular response to the same problems in different contexts. This work provides a comparative analysis of the historical context, development, constitution, and functioning of Bolivian katarisme, the Ecuarrunari movement in Ecuador, the Regional Committee of the Indigenous of Cauca (CRIC) in Colombia, and the Committee of Peasant Unity (CUC) in Guatemala. The indigenous peasant movements were defined in relation to national-populist models of development and integration: limitations and failures of national-populism in Bolivia and to some extent also in Ecuador, marginalization of the Indian populations vis a vis modernization processes in Ecuador and Colombia, or a crisis caused by blockage of participation in the sociopolitical system in Guatemala. The movements appeared in the context of strong peasant communities left at the margin of processes of integration, but also in contexts where the social dynamics were reinforced by reforms and modernization during a long period of precarious reconstitution of communities sometimes dating back to the 1930s. Another contributing factor in some cases was the dissolution of peonage and other forms of servitude on the great estates. An Indian elite whose emergence was related to modernization of the communities is present in all the movements. It is composed of educated and partially urbanized young people who have maintained ties to the communities, of leaders trained in cooperative or union activity, of promoters of new religious currents, and others affected by change. The leaders belong to modern organizations that wish to make

  6. Buildings Sector Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Hostick, Donna J.; Nicholls, Andrew K.; McDonald, Sean C.; Hollomon, Jonathan B.

    2005-08-01

    A joint NREL, ORNL, and PNNL team conducted market analysis to help inform DOE/EERE's Weatherization and Intergovernmental Program planning and management decisions. This chapter presents the results of the market analysis for the Buildings sector.

  7. Energy Sector Market Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Arent, D.; Benioff, R.; Mosey, G.; Bird, L.; Brown, J.; Brown, E.; Vimmerstedt, L.; Aabakken, J.; Parks, K.; Lapsa, M.; Davis, S.; Olszewski, M.; Cox, D.; McElhaney, K.; Hadley, S.; Hostick, D.; Nicholls, A.; McDonald, S.; Holloman, B.

    2006-10-01

    This paper presents the results of energy market analysis sponsored by the Department of Energy's (DOE) Weatherization and International Program (WIP) within the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE). The analysis was conducted by a team of DOE laboratory experts from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), with additional input from Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). The analysis was structured to identify those markets and niches where government can create the biggest impact by informing management decisions in the private and public sectors. The analysis identifies those markets and niches where opportunities exist for increasing energy efficiency and renewable energy use.

  8. World data center a for solar-terrestrial physics. Catalog of coronal holes, 1970-1991

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez-Ibarra, A.; Barraza-Paredes, M.

    1992-10-01

    Coronal Holes were first noted as 'M' regions that produced periodic geomagnetic disturbances. These were first observed in 1970 by instruments on the Orbiting Solar Observatory (OSO) satellites, and also were noted with optical observations during the total solar eclipse of March 7, 1970. The Apollo Telescope Mount (ATM) on the Skylab manned mission observed in short wavelengths the real nature of Coronal Holes as regions of lower density and temperature than the rest of the solar corona. Three observational periods from Skylab produced substantial data on the development of Coronal Holes as well as their relationship with other types of solar activity. After Skylab, although Coronal Holes were later deduced from radio observations, the main data were obtained by observing the He l 10830A line at the Vacuum Solar Telescope at Kitt Peak National Observatory. These data, continuous from 1977 to date, were published in Solar-Geophysical Data (SGD) as Helium synoptic charts by Carrington Rotation or as Coronal Hole contours plotted on H-alpha synoptic charts. The Skylab observations of Coronal Holes were the subject of exhaustive examination. However, the main data source on Coronal Holes currently are the synoptic maps published in SGD. This catalogue was motivated by the lack of a global reference guide. This catalogue is based only on summary data for each Carrington Rotation, it presents interesting values and enough data to analyze several aspects of the evolution of Coronal Holes.

  9. Analysis of Coaching Science Research Published from 1970-2001

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Wade D.; Trudel, Pierre

    2004-01-01

    The study followed a four-phase design. In Phase I an exhaustive search was conducted for all English language coaching research published in journals from 1970 to 2001. In Phase II, copies of the research were obtained. An expert panel conducted a manual search and a review in Phase III to address validity. Analysis of the research was completed…

  10. Contribution of population growth to per capita income and sectoral output growth in Japan, 1880-1970.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, M; Kennedy, G

    1984-09-01

    The authors measured the positive and negative contributions of population and labor force growth to the growth of per capita income and sectoral output in Japan in the 1880-1970 period. A 2-sector growth accounting model that treats population and labor growth as separate variables was used. 3 alternative methods were used: the Residual method, the Verdoorn method, and the factor augmenting rate method. The total contribution of population cum labor growth to per capita income growth tended to be negative in the 1880-1930 period and positive in the 1930-40 and 1950-70. Over the 1880-1970 period as a whole, population cum labor growth made a positive contribution to per capita income growth under the Residual method (0.35%/year), the factor augmenting rate method (0.29%/year), and the Verdoorn method (0.01%/year). In addition, population cum labor growth contributed positively to sectoral output growth. The average contribution to agricultural output growth ranged from 1.03% (Verdoorn) - 1.46%/year (factor augmenting rate), while the average contribution to nonagricultural output growth ranged from 1.22% (Verdoorn) - 1.60%/year (Residual). Although these results are dependent on the model used, the fact that all 3 methods yielded consistent results suggests that population cum labor growth did make a positive contribution to per capita income and sectoral output growth in Japan. These findings imply that in economies where the rate of technical change in agricultural and nonagricultural sectors exceeds population growth, policies that reduce agricultural elasticities may be preferable; on the other hand, policies that reduce agricultural elasticities are to be avoided in economies with low rates of technical change. Moreover, in the early stages of economic development, policies that increase agricultural income and price elasticities should be considered. PMID:12340109

  11. Gender pay gap and employment sector: sources of earnings disparities in the United States, 1970-2010.

    PubMed

    Mandel, Hadas; Semyonov, Moshe

    2014-10-01

    Using data from the IPUMS-USA, the present research focuses on trends in the gender earnings gap in the United States between 1970 and 2010. The major goal of this article is to understand the sources of the convergence in men's and women's earnings in the public and private sectors as well as the stagnation of this trend in the new millennium. For this purpose, we delineate temporal changes in the role played by major sources of the gap. Several components are identified: the portion of the gap attributed to gender differences in human-capital resources; labor supply; sociodemographic attributes; occupational segregation; and the unexplained portion of the gap. The findings reveal a substantial reduction in the gross gender earnings gap in both sectors of the economy. Most of the decline is attributed to the reduction in the unexplained portion of the gap, implying a significant decline in economic discrimination against women. In contrast to discrimination, the role played by human capital and personal attributes in explaining the gender pay gap is relatively small in both sectors. Differences between the two sectors are not only in the size and pace of the reduction but also in the significance of the two major sources of the gap. Working hours have become the most important factor with respect to gender pay inequality in both sectors, although much more dominantly in the private sector. The declining gender segregation may explain the decreased impact of occupations on the gender pay gap in the private sector. In the public sector, by contrast, gender segregation still accounts for a substantial portion of the gap. The findings are discussed in light of the theoretical literature on sources of gender economic inequality and in light of the recent stagnation of the trend. PMID:25149647

  12. 1991 NASA Life Support Systems Analysis workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evanich, Peggy L.; Crabb, Thomas M.; Gartrell, Charles F.

    1992-01-01

    The 1991 Life Support Systems Analysis Workshop was sponsored by NASA Headquarters' Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology (OAST) to foster communication among NASA, industrial, and academic specialists, and to integrate their inputs and disseminate information to them. The overall objective of systems analysis within the Life Support Technology Program of OAST is to identify, guide the development of, and verify designs which will increase the performance of the life support systems on component, subsystem, and system levels for future human space missions. The specific goals of this workshop were to report on the status of systems analysis capabilities, to integrate the chemical processing industry technologies, and to integrate recommendations for future technology developments related to systems analysis for life support systems. The workshop included technical presentations, discussions, and interactive planning, with time allocated for discussion of both technology status and time-phased technology development recommendations. Key personnel from NASA, industry, and academia delivered inputs and presentations on the status and priorities of current and future systems analysis methods and requirements.

  13. Pronounced warming in the Indian and Pacific sectors of the Southern Ocean during the 1970s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turney, Chris; Fogwill, Chris; Palmer, Jonathan; van Sebille, Erik; Thomas, Zoë; McGlone, Matt; Richardson, Sarah; Wilmshurst, Janet; Fenwick, Pavla; Carter, Lionel; Jones, Richard; Harsch, Melanie; Wilson, Kerry-Jayne; Clark, Graeme; Marzinelli, Ezequiel; Rogers, Tracey; Rainsley, Eleanor; Ciasto, Laura; Waterman, Stephanie; Antarctic Expedition 2013-2014 Members, Australasian

    2015-04-01

    Occupying some 20% of the world's ocean surface, the Southern Ocean is home to a diverse and unique biota and plays a fundamental role in global oceanic circulation, climate variability, Antarctic ice sheet stability and carbon cycling. Significant warming has been observed over recent decades, most prominently in the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC). The mechanism(s) behind this warming, however, remain uncertain. Here, we integrate historic ocean and atmospheric observations and climate-sensitive tree growth on subantarctic islands from the northern limit of the ACC to extend historic and satellite measurements to produce a unique proxy record of temperature across 4˚ of latitude in the southwest Pacific. We demonstrate a hitherto unobserved abrupt warming during the 1970s that is unprecedented over the past 130 years, coincident with a significant decline in marine vertebrate populations and wider warming across the Indian Ocean. Comparison between our reconstruction and high-resolution ocean modelling provides a possible mechanism, suggesting warmer waters resulted from a poleward migration of the subtropical and ACC fronts. Projected increases in the strength of westerly winds are likely to continue the fronts' migration, driving warming in the Southern Ocean (>50˚S), with significant impacts on biota.

  14. Cross sectional analysis of mortality by country of birth in England and Wales, 1970-92.

    PubMed Central

    Wild, S.; McKeigue, P.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare mortalities for selected groups of immigrants with the national average. DESIGN: Analysis of mortality for adults aged 20-69 in 1970-2 and 1989-92 using population data from 1971 and 1991 censuses. Mortality of Scottish and Irish immigrants aged 25-74 was also compared with mortality in Scotland and Ireland for 1991. SETTING: England and Wales. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Standardised mortality ratios for deaths from all causes, ischaemic heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, lung cancer, and breast cancer. RESULTS: In 1989-92 mortality from all causes was higher than the national average for Scottish immigrants, by 32% for men and 36% for women; for Irish immigrants it was higher by 39% for men and 20% for women; and for Caribbean born men it was lower by 23%. Ischaemic heart disease and lung cancer accounted for 30-40% of the excess mortality in Scottish and Irish immigrants. For south Asians, excess mortality from circulatory disease was balanced by lower mortality from cancer. Standardised mortality ratios for cerebrovascular disease in 1989-92 were highest for west African immigrants (271 for men and 181 for women). CONCLUSIONS: Widening differences in mortality ratios for migrants compared with the general population were not simply due to socioeconomic inequalities. The low mortality from all causes for Caribbean immigrants could largely be attributed to low mortality from ischaemic heart disease, which is unexplained. The excess mortality from cerebrovascular and hypertensive diseases in migrants from both west Africa and the Caribbean suggests that genetic factors underlie the susceptibility to hypertension in people of black African descent. PMID:9116545

  15. Retrofitting America: A 1970s Home Energy Efficiency Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    2010-11-17

    This paper describes a modeling tool that Building America research team CARB developed to identify the energy benefits of various retrofit energy efficiency measures for a typical 1970’s ranch home in ten cities across four climate zones in the United States.

  16. An analysis of the coma of comet Bennett 1970 II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oppenheimer, M.

    1978-01-01

    Brightness profiles for emission features of H2O(+) in comet Bennett 1970 II are analyzed, taking into account the role of chemical reactions in the coma. By comparing the rates of transport processes derived from the brightness profile with known chemical rate constants, upper limits on the abundances and production rates of H2O, CH4, NH3, and other possible coma constituents are found. The derived upper limit on the H2O production rate inside 10 to the 4th power km is less than the observed OH production rate averaged over the coma of this comet. It is concluded that the brightness profiles of H2O(+) and OH in comet Bennett 1970 II which are presently available are inconsistent with production of OH primarily by photodissociation of H2O molecules sublimating from the nucleus. The existence of an extended source of H2O is not ruled out.

  17. State energy price and expenditure report 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    The State Energy Price and Expenditure Report (SEPER) presents energy price and expenditure estimates individually for the 50 States and the District of Columbia and in aggregate for the United States. The price and expenditure estimates are provided by energy source and economic sector and are published for the years 1970, 1975, 1980, and 1985 through 1991. Data for all years, 1970 through 1991, are available on personal computer diskettes. Documentation in Appendix A describes how the price estimates are developed, including sources of data, methods of estimation, and conversion factors applied. This report is an update of the State Energy Price and Expenditure Report 1990, published in September 1992.

  18. Health Disparities in Ischaemic Heart Disease Mortality in Hungary From 1970 to 2010: An Age-Period-Cohort Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Gero, Krisztina; Eshak, Ehab S.; Ma, Enbo; Takahashi, Hideto; Noda, Hiroyuki; Iso, Hiroyasu

    2015-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to examine long-term trends in rates of ischaemic heart disease (IHD) mortality, a leading cause of mortality in Hungary. The study examined the effects of age, period, and cohort on IHD mortality rates and compared mortality rates between the capital (Budapest) and non-capital counties. Methods Data on IHD deaths and population censuses were obtained from the Hungarian Central Statistical Office. Age-period-cohort analysis utilized nine age-group classes for ages 40 to 84 years, eight time periods from 1970 to 2009, and 16 birth cohorts from 1886 to 1969. Results Age-adjusted IHD mortality rates for men and for women generally increased from 1970 to 1993 and from 1980 to 1999, respectively, decreasing thereafter for both sexes. IHD mortality rates for men and for women from Budapest were lower from 1991 and from 1970, respectively, than corresponding rates in non-capital counties, with the difference increasing after 1999. Age had a more significant influence on mortality rates for women than for men. The period effect increased from 1972 to 1982 and decreased thereafter for men, while the period effect decreased consistently for women from 1972 to 2007. The decline in period effect for both sexes was larger for individuals from the capital than for those from non-capital counties. The cohort effect for both sexes declined from birth years 1890 to 1965, with a steeper decline for individuals from the capital than for those from non-capital counties. Conclusions The findings indicate a need for programs in Hungary for IHD prevention, especially for non-capital counties. PMID:25986153

  19. Trends of anthropogenic mercury emissions from 1970-2008 using the global EDGARv4 database: the role of increasing emission mitigation by the energy sector and the chlor-alkali industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muntean, M.; Janssens-Maenhout, G.; Olivier, J. G.; Guizzardi, D.; Dentener, F. J.

    2012-12-01

    The Emission Database for Global Atmospheric Research (EDGAR) describes time-series of emissions of man-made greenhouse gases and short-lived atmospheric pollutants from 1970-2008. EDGARv4 is continuously updated to respond to needs of both the scientific community and environmental policy makers. Mercury, a toxic pollutant with bioaccumulation properties, is included in the forthcoming EDGARv4.3 release, thereby enriching the spectrum of multi-pollutant sources. Three different forms of mercury have been distinguished: gaseous elemental mercury (Hg0), divalent mercury compounds (Hg2+) and particulate associated mercury (Hg-P). A complete inventory of mercury emission sources has been developed at country level using the EDGAR technology-based methodology together with international activity statistics, technology-specific abatement measures, and emission factors from EMEP/EEA (2009), USEPA AP 42 and the scientific literature. A comparison of the EDGAR mercury emission data to the widely used UNEP inventory shows consistent emissions across most sectors compared for the year 2005. The different shares of mercury emissions by region and by sector will be presented with special emphasis on the region-specific mercury emission mitigation potential. We provide a comprehensive ex-post analysis of the mitigation of mercury emissions by respectively end-of-pipe abatement measures in the power generation sector and technology changes in the chlor-alkali industry between 1970 and 2008. Given the local scale impacts of mercury, we have paid special attention to the spatial distribution of emissions. The default EDGAR Population proxy data was only used to distribute emissions from the residential and solid waste incineration sectors. Other sectors use point source data of power plants, industrial plants, gold and mercury mines. The 2008 mercury emission distribution will be presented, which shows emissions hot-spots on a 0.1°x0.1°resolution gridmap.

  20. Application of modified VICAR/IBIS GIS to analysis of July 1991 Flevoland AIRSAR data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norikane, L.; Broek, B.; Freeman, A.

    1992-01-01

    Three overflights of the Flevoland calibration/agricultural site were made by the JPL Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (AIRSAR) on 3, 12, and 28 July 1991 as part of MAC-Europe '92. A polygon map was generated at TNO-FEL which overlayed the slant range projected July 3 data set. Each polygon was identified by a sequence of points and a crop label. The polygon map was composed of 452 uniquely identified polygons and 15 different crop types. Analysis of the data was done using our modified Video Image Communication and Retrieval/Image Based Information System Geographic Information System (VICAR/IBIS GIS). This GIS is an extension of the VICAR/IBIS GIS first developed by Bryant in the 1970's which is itself an extension of the VICAR image processing system also developed at JPL.

  1. Major models and data sources for residential and commercial sector energy conservation analysis. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-09-01

    Major models and data sources are reviewed that can be used for energy-conservation analysis in the residential and commercial sectors to provide an introduction to the information that can or is available to DOE in order to further its efforts in analyzing and quantifying their policy and program requirements. Models and data sources examined in the residential sector are: ORNL Residential Energy Model; BECOM; NEPOOL; MATH/CHRDS; NIECS; Energy Consumption Data Base: Household Sector; Patterns of Energy Use by Electrical Appliances Data Base; Annual Housing Survey; 1970 Census of Housing; AIA Research Corporation Data Base; RECS; Solar Market Development Model; and ORNL Buildings Energy Use Data Book. Models and data sources examined in the commercial sector are: ORNL Commercial Sector Model of Energy Demand; BECOM; NEPOOL; Energy Consumption Data Base: Commercial Sector; F.W. Dodge Data Base; NFIB Energy Report for Small Businesses; ADL Commercial Sector Energy Use Data Base; AIA Research Corporation Data Base; Nonresidential Buildings Surveys of Energy Consumption; General Electric Co: Commercial Sector Data Base; The BOMA Commercial Sector Data Base; The Tishman-Syska and Hennessy Data Base; The NEMA Commercial Sector Data Base; ORNL Buildings Energy Use Data Book; and Solar Market Development Model. Purpose; basis for model structure; policy variables and parameters; level of regional, sectoral, and fuels detail; outputs; input requirements; sources of data; computer accessibility and requirements; and a bibliography are provided for each model and data source.

  2. A Descriptive Analysis of Studies on Behavioural Treatment of Drooling (1970-2005)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van der Burg, Jan J. W.; Didden, Robert; Jongerius, Peter H.; Rotteveel, Jan J.

    2007-01-01

    A descriptive analysis was conducted on studies on the behavioural treatment of drooling (published between 1970 and 2005). The 17 articles that met the inclusion criteria described 53 participants (mean age 14y 7mo, [SD 4y 9mo]; range 6-28y). Sex of 87% of the participants was reported: 28 male, 18 female. For 60% of the participants the degree…

  3. The role of health sectors in disaster preparedness. Floods in southeastern China, 1991.

    PubMed

    Shao, X

    1993-01-01

    Disasters, whether natural or man-made, usually are unpredictable. Efforts to reduce morbidity and mortality from a disaster should be put forth before it occurs. A brief survey is presented of the worst flood to occur in a hundred years that affected eight provinces in Southeast China. The disaster preparedness and response for Anhui Province, the hardest hit area, is summarized. The disaster preparedness was comprehensive, and cooperation was achieved among various specialties: military forces; firefighters; civil engineers; mechanics; police; provincial governors; the medical sectors; and so forth. Among these groups, the role of medical sectors was of great importance in reducing disease that would have resulted from such a disaster. The measures undertaken by the medical sectors included development of an organization to reduce the impact of disaster; training of medical personnel in techniques of rescue and in treatment of victims in disaster areas; development of a plan to assist the leadership in decision-making and establishing support for disaster preparedness; and maintaining sufficient capacity in general hospitals for the admission of victims from disaster areas. PMID:10155464

  4. Trend analysis from 1970 to 2008 and model evaluation of EDGARv4 global gridded anthropogenic mercury emissions.

    PubMed

    Muntean, Marilena; Janssens-Maenhout, Greet; Song, Shaojie; Selin, Noelle E; Olivier, Jos G J; Guizzardi, Diego; Maas, Rob; Dentener, Frank

    2014-10-01

    The Emission Database for Global Atmospheric Research (EDGAR) provides a time-series of man-made emissions of greenhouse gases and short-lived atmospheric pollutants from 1970 to 2008. Mercury is included in EDGARv4.tox1, thereby enriching the spectrum of multi-pollutant sources in the database. With an average annual growth rate of 1.3% since 1970, EDGARv4 estimates that the global mercury emissions reached 1,287 tonnes in 2008. Specifically, gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) (Hg(0)) accounted for 72% of the global total emissions, while gaseous oxidised mercury (GOM) (Hg(2+)) and particle bound mercury (PBM) (Hg-P) accounted for only 22% and 6%, respectively. The less reactive form, i.e., Hg(0), has a long atmospheric residence time and can be transported long distances from the emission sources. The artisanal and small-scale gold production, accounted for approximately half of the global Hg(0) emissions in 2008 followed by combustion (29%), cement production (12%) and other metal industry (10%). Given the local-scale impacts of mercury, special attention was given to the spatial distribution showing the emission hot-spots on gridded 0.1°×0.1° resolution maps using detailed proxy data. The comprehensive ex-post analysis of the mitigation of mercury emissions by end-of-pipe abatement measures in the power generation sector and technology changes in the chlor-alkali industry over four decades indicates reductions of 46% and 93%, respectively. Combined, the improved technologies and mitigation measures in these sectors accounted for 401.7 tonnes of avoided mercury emissions in 2008. A comparison shows that EDGARv4 anthropogenic emissions are nearly equivalent to the lower estimates of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP)'s mercury emissions inventory for 2005 for most sectors. An evaluation of the EDGARv4 global mercury emission inventory, including mercury speciation, was performed using the GEOS-Chem global 3-D mercury model. The model can generally

  5. Fertility, development, and family planning, 1970-1980: an analysis of cases weighted by population.

    PubMed

    Menard, S

    1987-01-01

    A series of related studies (Freedman and Berelson, 1976; Mauldin and Berelson, 1978; and Tsui and Bogue, 1978) have presented empirical findings based on multiple regression analysis which indicated that family planning program effort (FP), as measured by an index developed by Lapham and Mauldin (1972), was the single most important predictor of (or influence on) fertility reduction in less-developed countries (LDCs). The basic results have been confirmed repeatedly. A more extensive data set was used to extend the analysis to a comparison of results of corss-sectional models circa 1970 and 1980. The study builds upon the results of past studies yet differs from them in several ways. All the variables in the present study were measured at 2 points in time: circa 1970 and circa 1980, allowing a comparison between cross-sectional models for 1970 and 1980. Among the cases included in this multivariate analysis was China, a country usually excluded for lack of data. The analysis was extend to 85 countries. Cases were weighted by population, having the effect of increasing the impact of larger countries such as India and China on the outcome of the analysis. Total fertility rate (TFR) was used as an indicator of fertility. For 1970, family planning program effort had the strongest direct influence on fertility (a result consistent with previous studies). Life expectancy at birth was the other direct influence. The direct influence of life expectancy at birth was less than that of family planning, but the total influence was greater. After life expectancy and family planning, school enrollment and relative educational status of women had the strongest indirect and total influences. The other variables all had a positive influence on fertility. When the total variance attributable was considered, directly and indirectly to each of the independent variables, urbanization, carlorie supply, and per capita gross national product all accounted for less than 5% of the variance

  6. Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center: FY 1991 activities

    SciTech Connect

    Cushman, R.M.; Stoss, F.W.

    1992-06-01

    During the course of a fiscal year, Oak Ridge National Laboratory`s Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) distributes thousands of specially publications-numeric data packages (NDPs), computer model packages (CMPs), technical reports, public communication publications, newsletters, article reprints, and reference books-in response to requests for information related to global environmental issues, primarily those pertaining to climate change. CDIAC`s staff also provides technical responses to specific inquiries related to carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), other trace gases, and climate. Hundreds of referrals to other researchers, policy analysts, information specialists, or organizations are also facilitated by CDIAC`s staff. This report provides an account of the activities accomplished by CDIAC during the period October 1, 1990 to September 30, 1991. An organizational overview of CDIAC and its staff is supplemented by a detailed description of inquiries received and CDIAC`s response to those inquiries. An analysis and description of the preparation and distribution of numeric data packages, computer model packages, technical reports, newsletters, factsheets, specially publications, and reprints is provided. Comments and descriptions of CDIAC`s information management systems, professional networking, and special bilateral agreements are also described.

  7. Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center: FY 1991 activities

    SciTech Connect

    Cushman, R.M.; Stoss, F.W.

    1992-06-01

    During the course of a fiscal year, Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) distributes thousands of specially publications-numeric data packages (NDPs), computer model packages (CMPs), technical reports, public communication publications, newsletters, article reprints, and reference books-in response to requests for information related to global environmental issues, primarily those pertaining to climate change. CDIAC's staff also provides technical responses to specific inquiries related to carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), other trace gases, and climate. Hundreds of referrals to other researchers, policy analysts, information specialists, or organizations are also facilitated by CDIAC's staff. This report provides an account of the activities accomplished by CDIAC during the period October 1, 1990 to September 30, 1991. An organizational overview of CDIAC and its staff is supplemented by a detailed description of inquiries received and CDIAC's response to those inquiries. An analysis and description of the preparation and distribution of numeric data packages, computer model packages, technical reports, newsletters, factsheets, specially publications, and reprints is provided. Comments and descriptions of CDIAC's information management systems, professional networking, and special bilateral agreements are also described.

  8. Quality Guidance: A Sectoral Analysis. NICEC Project Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watts, A. G.; Sadler, Jackie

    This report reviews the structure of the guidance field and provides a sector-by-sector analysis of current quality assurance arrangements in the United Kingdom. Part 1 presents an outline of the guidance sector, including some key concepts, structures, and roles. It defines guidance and other terms; discusses the three main categories…

  9. SECTOR ANALYSIS--FROM SENTENCE TO MORPHEME IN ENGLISH.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ALLEN, ROBERT L.

    THE ADVANTAGES OF SECTOR ANALYSIS ARE DISCUSSED, WITH SPECIAL REGARD TO THE SEPARATION OF FUNCTION AND FORM IN SENTENCE ANALYSIS. SECTOR ANALYSIS, LIKE TAGMEMIC ANALYSIS, REJECTS THE USE OF REWRITE RULES FOR EXPRESSING GRAMMATICAL TRANSFORMS, AS WELL AS THE CONCEPT OF "KERNEL SENTENCES." A BRIEF DISCUSSION OF A CHILD'S LANGUAGE ACQUISITION PROCESS…

  10. Nursing leadership in the US 1950s-1970s: a discourse analysis.

    PubMed

    Davis, J; Cushing, A

    1999-01-01

    This paper proposes that the development of nursing leadership and the struggle for professionalisation from the time of the early nineteenth century to the late twentieth century may be conceived as a series of products of constituent discourses. However, particular attention is focused on the concept of leadership as it pertains to the nursing profession in the US between the 1950s-1970s. This time-frame is an important period in the discursive formation of the idea of leadership and professionalisation as the US literature on these subjects in the areas of sociology, psychology, education and business administration exercised a strong influence on the microsocial world of professional nursing practice in the US and, indeed elsewhere, for example, Australia and the UK. The sociological complexity of the concept of leadership ultimately meant that it came to be regarded as a dynamic process pervading the existence of all people; their interrelationships, their morale, their confidence and their capacity to achieve. These features are reflected through the perceptions, beliefs and experiences of the American nursing profession as its constituent discourse appeared during the 1950s-1970s. Thus the paper is a discourse analysis on leadership in nursing with particular attention given to the bureaucratic authority of the hospital, the drive for the creation of a profession and the idea of leadership itself. PMID:11624211

  11. An analysis of children with typhoid fever admitted in 1991.

    PubMed

    Deshmukh, C T; Nadkarni, U B; Karande, S C

    1994-01-01

    In 28 children, with bacteriologically and/or serologically diagnosed typhoid fever treated at KEM Hospital, Bombay in 1991, initially one of the three recommended drugs (viz. chloramphenicol, amoxycillin or co-trimoxazole) was given for 7 days for defervescence to occur. In those who failed to respond, a second trial of therapy with one of the other two drugs was initiated, after omitting the first drug. A second failure of therapy was taken as an indication to use ciprofloxacin singly. Eventually, 18 (64.3%) cases responded to chloramphenicol or amoxycillin or co-trimoxazole. Ciprofloxacin was used in 19(35.7%) cases. the failure rate of treatment with chloramphenicol was 50%, with amoxycillin 71.4%, with co-trimoxazole 75% and 0% with ciprofloxacin. An analysis of the 28 cases revealed that apart from fever (in 100%), splenomegaly (in 82.1%) was the most important clinical pointer to diagnosis, along with absolute eosinopenia (in 71.4%). There were no major complications, except 2 cases with typhoid hepatitis who responded to choramphenicol and co-trimoxazole, respectively. Blood culture grew Salmonella typhi in 7 cases, of which 5 (72%) were multidrug resistant S. typhi. There were no characteristic clinical features to identify multi-drug resistant typhoid fever. PMID:9136240

  12. Solid waste integrated cost analysis model: 1991 project year report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of the City of Houston's 1991 Solid Waste Integrated Cost Analysis Model (SWICAM) project was to continue the development of a computerized cost analysis model. This model is to provide solid waste managers with tool to evaluate the dollar cost of real or hypothetical solid waste management choices. Those choices have become complicated by the implementation of Subtitle D of the Resources Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the EPA's Integrated Approach to managing municipal solid waste;. that is, minimize generation, maximize recycling, reduce volume (incinerate), and then bury (landfill) only the remainder. Implementation of an integrated solid waste management system involving all or some of the options of recycling, waste to energy, composting, and landfilling is extremely complicated. Factors such as hauling distances, markets, and prices for recyclable, costs and benefits of transfer stations, and material recovery facilities must all be considered. A jurisdiction must determine the cost impacts of implementing a number of various possibilities for managing, handling, processing, and disposing of waste. SWICAM employs a single Lotus 123 spreadsheet to enable a jurisdiction to predict or assess the costs of its waste management system. It allows the user to select his own process flow for waste material and to manipulate the model to include as few or as many options as he or she chooses. The model will calculate the estimated cost for those choices selected. The user can then change the model to include or exclude waste stream components, until the mix of choices suits the user. Graphs can be produced as a visual communication aid in presenting the results of the cost analysis. SWICAM also allows future cost projections to be made.

  13. Spatial Analysis of Earthquake Fatalities in the Middle East, 1970-2008: First Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khaleghy Rad, M.; Evans, S. G.; Brenning, A.

    2010-12-01

    earthquake at the epicenter. On the other hand, it is in inverse (negative) relation to elapsed time since 1970, focal depth and GDP of the country affected. These spatial and temporal patterns of life loss are consistent with the patterns expected within our conceptual framework in relationship with hazard, exposed population and proxies of vulnerability. Our findings suggest that for earthquakes with comparable physical characteristics, the number of fatalities has been falling since 1970 in the Middle East region. We interpret this as an overall reduction of vulnerability of the Middle East during 1970-2008. Ongoing research is focusing on more detailed analysis of particular indicators of vulnerability reduction such as the development of earthquake building codes and preparedness, and on the spatial disaggregation of exposed population and the attenuation of earthquake magnitude.

  14. Analysis of pediatric blood lead levels in New York City for 1970-1976.

    PubMed Central

    Billick, I H; Curran, A S; Shier, D R

    1979-01-01

    A study was completed of more than 170,000 records of pediatric venous blood levels and supporting demographic information collected in New York City during 1970-1976. The geometric mean (GM) blood lead level shows a consistent cyclical variation superimposed on an overall decreasing trend with time for all ages and ethnic groups studied. The GM blood lead levels for blacks are significantly greater than those for either Hispanics or whites. Regression analysis indicates a significant statistical association between GM blood lead level and ambient air lead level, after appropriate adjustments are made for age and ethnic group. These highly significant statistical relationships provide extremely strong incentives and directions for research into casual factors related to blood lead levels in children. PMID:499123

  15. Deciding State School Policy in Minnesota. An Analysis of Policy Participants, Influence Relationships, and Decision Processes in the 1970s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazzoni, Tim L.

    This report examines the process through which the Minnesota state government established school policy during the 1970s. The analysis focuses on who shaped state school policy and how they did it. The data come in part from personal interviews to determine the perceptions key participants had of the state school policy system. These interview…

  16. A Periodization of North American Adult Education (1919-1970): A Critical Sociological Analysis of Trends and Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grace, André P.

    2014-01-01

    This article provides a critical sociological analysis of trends and perspectives pervasive during the emergence of North American adult education (1919-1970). In discussing transitions during the first 50 years of what is considered modern practice, it draws on Webster E. Cotton's (1986, "On Behalf of Adult Education: A Historical…

  17. Analysis of fuel shares in the industrial sector

    SciTech Connect

    Roop, J.M.; Belzer, D.B.

    1986-06-01

    These studies describe how fuel shares have changed over time; determine what factors are important in promoting fuel share changes; and project fuel shares to the year 1995 in the industrial sector. A general characterization of changes in fuel shares of four fuel types - coal, natural gas, oil and electricity - for the industrial sector is as follows. Coal as a major fuel source declined rapidly from 1958 to the early 1970s, with oil and natural gas substituting for coal. Coal's share of total fuels stabilized after the oil price shock of 1972-1973, and increased after the 1979 price shock. In the period since 1973, most industries and the industrial sector as a whole appear to freely substitute natural gas for oil, and vice versa. Throughout the period 1958-1981, the share of electricity as a fuel increased. These observations are derived from analyzing the fuel share patterns of more than 20 industries over the 24-year period 1958 to 1981.

  18. Convective Weather Forecast Accuracy Analysis at Center and Sector Levels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Yao; Sridhar, Banavar

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a detailed convective forecast accuracy analysis at center and sector levels. The study is aimed to provide more meaningful forecast verification measures to aviation community, as well as to obtain useful information leading to the improvements in the weather translation capacity models. In general, the vast majority of forecast verification efforts over past decades have been on the calculation of traditional standard verification measure scores over forecast and observation data analyses onto grids. These verification measures based on the binary classification have been applied in quality assurance of weather forecast products at the national level for many years. Our research focuses on the forecast at the center and sector levels. We calculate the standard forecast verification measure scores for en-route air traffic centers and sectors first, followed by conducting the forecast validation analysis and related verification measures for weather intensities and locations at centers and sectors levels. An approach to improve the prediction of sector weather coverage by multiple sector forecasts is then developed. The weather severe intensity assessment was carried out by using the correlations between forecast and actual weather observation airspace coverage. The weather forecast accuracy on horizontal location was assessed by examining the forecast errors. The improvement in prediction of weather coverage was determined by the correlation between actual sector weather coverage and prediction. observed and forecasted Convective Weather Avoidance Model (CWAM) data collected from June to September in 2007. CWAM zero-minute forecast data with aircraft avoidance probability of 60% and 80% are used as the actual weather observation. All forecast measurements are based on 30-minute, 60- minute, 90-minute, and 120-minute forecasts with the same avoidance probabilities. The forecast accuracy analysis for times under one-hour showed that the errors in

  19. Analysis of U.S. soil lead (Pb) studies from 1970 to 2012.

    PubMed

    Datko-Williams, Laura; Wilkie, Adrien; Richmond-Bryant, Jennifer

    2014-01-15

    Although lead (Pb) emissions to the air have substantially decreased in the United States since the phase-out of leaded gasoline by 1995, amounts of lead in some soils remain elevated. Lead concentrations in residential and recreational soils are of concern because health effects have been associated with Pb exposure. Elevated soil Pb is especially harmful to young children due to their higher likelihood of soil ingestion. The purpose of this study is to create a comprehensive compilation of U.S. soil Pb data published from 1970 through 2012 as well as to analyze the collected data to reveal spatial and/or temporal soil Pb trends in the U.S. over the past 40 years. A total of 84 soil Pb studies across 62 U.S. cities were evaluated. Median soil Pb values from the studies were analyzed with respect to year of sampling, residential location type (e.g., urban, suburban), and population density. In aggregate, there was no statistically significant correlation between year and median soil Pb; however, within single cities, soil Pb generally declined over time. Our analysis shows that soil Pb quantities in city centers were generally highest and declined towards the suburbs and exurbs of the city. In addition, there was a statistically significant, positive relationship between median soil Pb and population density. In general, the trends examined here align with previously reported conclusions that soil Pb levels are higher in larger urban areas and Pb tends to remain in soil for long periods of time. PMID:24076506

  20. Content Analysis of Jordanian Elementary Textbooks during 1970-2013 as Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abed, Eman Rasmi; Al-Absi, Mohammad Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to determine types of mathematic disciplines (in term of topics) in Jordanian Elementary textbooks. This study evaluates mathematics text books especially in the period between 1970 and 2013 and identifies types and quantities of mathematics. To examine the relative quantity of mathematics, branches of mathematics, presentation…

  1. Farming and Place Population Change in Michigan, 1930-1970: An Exploratory Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goss, Kevin F.; Rodefeld, Richard D.

    Farming has undergone substantial changes in both economic and social structure in the past 40 years; these changes have affected the larger society with population changes in rural, nonmetropolitan areas. Seeking to explore the relationships between changes in farming and changes in place population for Michigan from 1930 to 1970, six variables…

  2. A Contextual Analysis of Black Self-Employment in Large Metropolitan Areas, 1970-1980.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, Robert L.

    1991-01-01

    In 1970, urban African-American self-employment depended upon niches created by racial disadvantage, but by 1980 increased educational attainment and occupational status of African-American workers enabled them to move beyond traditional niches and become entrepreneurs supported by a sizable middle class African-American community. Contains 53…

  3. Cross-Sector Impact Analysis of Industrial Efficiency Measures

    SciTech Connect

    Morrow, William; CreskoEngineering, Joe; Carpenter, Alberta; Masanet, Eric; Nimbalkar, Sachin U; Shehabi, Arman

    2013-01-01

    The industrial or manufacturing sector is a foundational component to all economic activity. In addition to being a large direct consumer of energy, the manufacturing sector also produces materials, products, and technologies that influence the energy use of other economic sectors. For example, the manufacturing of a lighter-weight vehicle component affects the energy required to ship that component as well as the fuel efficiency of the assembled vehicle. Many energy efficiency opportunities exist to improve manufacturing energy consumption, however comparisons of manufacturing sector energy efficiency investment opportunities tend to exclude any impacts that occur once the product leaves the factory. Expanding the scope of analysis to include energy impacts across different stages of product life-cycle can highlight less obvious opportunities and inform actions that create the greatest economy-wide benefits. We present a methodology and associated analysis tool (LIGHTEnUP Lifecycle Industry GHgas, Technology and Energy through the Use Phase) that aims to capture both the manufacturing sector energy consumption and product life-cycle energy consumption implications of manufacturing innovation measures. The tool architecture incorporates U.S. national energy use data associated with manufacturing, building operations, and transportation. Inputs for technology assessment, both direct energy saving to the manufacturing sector, and indirect energy impacts to additional sectors are estimated through extensive literature review and engineering methods. The result is a transparent and uniform system of comparing manufacturing and use-phase impacts of technologies.

  4. Cost analysis of ground-water supplies in the North Atlantic region, 1970

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cederstrom, Dagfin John

    1973-01-01

    The cost of municipal and industrial ground water (or, more specifically, large supplies of ground water) at the wellhead in the North Atlantic Region in 1970 generally ranged from 1.5 to 5 cents per thousand gallons. Water from crystalline rocks and shale is relatively expensive. Water from sandstone is less so. Costs of water from sands and gravels in glaciated areas and from Coastal Plain sediments range from moderate to very low. In carbonate rocks costs range from low to fairly high. The cost of ground water at the wellhead is low in areas of productive aquifers, but owing to the cost of connecting pipe, costs increase significantly in multiple-well fields. In the North Atlantic Region, development of small to moderate supplies of ground water may offer favorable cost alternatives to planners, but large supplies of ground water for delivery to one point cannot generally be developed inexpensively. Well fields in the less productive aquifers may be limited by costs to 1 or 2 million gallons a day, but in the more favorable aquifers development of several tens of millions of gallons a day may be practicable and inexpensive. Cost evaluations presented cannot be applied to any one specific well or specific site because yields of wells in any one place will depend on the local geologic and hydrologic conditions; however, with such cost adjustments as may be necessary, the methodology presented should have wide applicability. Data given show the cost of water at the wellhead based on the average yield of several wells. The cost of water delivered by a well field includes costs of connecting pipe and of wells that have the yields and spacings specified. Cost of transport of water from the well field to point of consumption and possible cost of treatment are not evaluated. In the methodology employed, costs of drilling and testing, pumping equipment, engineering for the well field, amortization at 5% percent interest, maintenance, and cost of power are considered. The

  5. Analysis of technological innovation and environmental performance improvement in aviation sector.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joosung; Mo, Jeonghoon

    2011-09-01

    The past oil crises have caused dramatic improvements in fuel efficiency in all industrial sectors. The aviation sector-aircraft manufacturers and airlines-has also made significant efforts to improve the fuel efficiency through more advanced jet engines, high-lift wing designs, and lighter airframe materials. However, the innovations in energy-saving aircraft technologies do not coincide with the oil crisis periods. The largest improvement in aircraft fuel efficiency took place in the 1960s while the high oil prices in the 1970s and on did not induce manufacturers or airlines to achieve a faster rate of innovation. In this paper, we employ a historical analysis to examine the socio-economic reasons behind the relatively slow technological innovation in aircraft fuel efficiency over the last 40 years. Based on the industry and passenger behaviors studied and prospects for alternative fuel options, this paper offers insights for the aviation sector to shift toward more sustainable technological options in the medium term. Second-generation biofuels could be the feasible option with a meaningful reduction in aviation's lifecycle environmental impact if they can achieve sufficient economies of scale. PMID:22016716

  6. Seminoma at Roswell Park, 1970 to 1979. An analysis of treatment failures.

    PubMed

    Huben, R P; Williams, P D; Pontes, J E; Panahon, A M; Murphy, G P

    1984-04-01

    A retrospective study of all cases of seminoma treated at Roswell Park Memorial Institute from 1970 through 1979 was conducted. Fifty-six evaluable patients treated initially with radiation therapy were seen during this period, and the overall survival rate at an average follow-up period of 52 months was 82%. The survival rate in patients with bulky abdominal or supradiaphragmatic metastases was only 33% (4 of 12 patients). Treatment failures were analyzed to determine their apparent causes and the implication of such failures to the future management of seminoma. The use of combination chemotherapy as the initial treatment modality in advanced seminoma is discussed in light of these results. PMID:6697290

  7. Seasonal trend analysis of published ground-based and TOMS total ozone data through 1991

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reinsel, Gregory C.; Tiao, George C.; Wuebbles, Donald J.; Kerr, James B.; Miller, Alvin J.; Nagatani, Ronald M.; Bishop, Lane; Ying, Lisa H.

    1994-01-01

    A seasonal trend analysis of published Dobson (including stations' newly revised and Brewer-simulated Dobson) total ozone data through 1991 from a network of 56 stations has been performed, using three different data periods. The trend results for the longest data period 1964 - 1991 indicate substantial negative trends in ozone in the higher northern latitudes during the winter and spring seasons, some evidence of negative trend in the higher southern latitudes (30 deg S - 55 deg S) during all seasons, and trends close to zero for all seasons over the 30 deg S - 30 deg N latitude range. For the shortest data period, November 1978 through 1991, there is a clear indication that trends have become more negative in the higher northern latitudes, especially during the winter and spring seasons, and also in the higher southern latitudes in all seasons. A seasonal trend analysis of zonal averages of total ozone mapping spectrometer (TOMS) satellite total ozone data for the comparable period November 1978 through 1991 has also been performed, and moderately good agreement is found between trends in Dobson and TOMS data over this period.

  8. Remote sensing to analysis of the land cover changes in Wuhan from 1991 to 2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Qiong; Chen, Si

    2010-11-01

    Rapid urbanization is the main driving force of land cover change in metropolitan Wuhan. This is especially critical with respect to the many lakes and shallow water bodies. Land cover changes from 1991 to 2006 were mapped by classifying Landsat TM images (1991, 2002, and 2006). Different band combinations were used to build high-quality false-color images; the spectral separability of sets of training pixels was then evaluated by contingency matrices and feature space plots. Maximum likelihood supervised classification was applied to extract built-up areas, vegetated areas and water bodies. Post-classification was carried out to detect the land cover changes. From the classification, vegetation and built-up areas expanded at the expense of water bodies. Further comparison of the variety in LULC was analyzed in both temporal and spatial aspects between 1991-2002 and 2002-2006. The growth rate of built-up area from 2002-2006 is 55.7%, which is much higher than the rate from 1991 to 2002, whereas water bodies decreased more in the first period. Vegetation increased in the first period and then decreased slightly in the second. This analysis showed urban expansion is mainly along Yangtze River and along the East-West axis. These spatio-temporal characteristics should allow urban planners to better understand the processes of urban sprawl in Wuhan.

  9. Remote sensing to analysis of the land cover changes in Wuhan from 1991 to 2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Qiong; Chen, Si

    2009-09-01

    Rapid urbanization is the main driving force of land cover change in metropolitan Wuhan. This is especially critical with respect to the many lakes and shallow water bodies. Land cover changes from 1991 to 2006 were mapped by classifying Landsat TM images (1991, 2002, and 2006). Different band combinations were used to build high-quality false-color images; the spectral separability of sets of training pixels was then evaluated by contingency matrices and feature space plots. Maximum likelihood supervised classification was applied to extract built-up areas, vegetated areas and water bodies. Post-classification was carried out to detect the land cover changes. From the classification, vegetation and built-up areas expanded at the expense of water bodies. Further comparison of the variety in LULC was analyzed in both temporal and spatial aspects between 1991-2002 and 2002-2006. The growth rate of built-up area from 2002-2006 is 55.7%, which is much higher than the rate from 1991 to 2002, whereas water bodies decreased more in the first period. Vegetation increased in the first period and then decreased slightly in the second. This analysis showed urban expansion is mainly along Yangtze River and along the East-West axis. These spatio-temporal characteristics should allow urban planners to better understand the processes of urban sprawl in Wuhan.

  10. Annual compilation and analysis of hydrologic data for Calaveras Creek, San Antonio River basin, Texas 1970

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reddy, D.R.

    1971-01-01

    The U.S. Soil Conservation Service is actively engaged in the installation of flood and soil erosion reducing measures in Texas under the authority of "The Flood Control Act of 1936 and 1944" and ''Watershed Protection and Flood Prevention Act" (Public Law 566), as amended. The Soil Conservation Service has found a total of approximately 3,500 floodwater-retarding structures to be physically and economically feasible in Texas. As of September 30, 1970, 1,439 of these structures had been built. This watershed-development program will have varying but important effects on the natural surface- and ground-water resources of river basins, especially where a large number of the floodwater-retarding structures are built. Basic hydrologic data under natural and developed conditions are needed to appraise the effects of the structures on the yield and mode of occurrence of runoff.

  11. Age-period-cohort analysis of trends in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in Denmark, 1970-2009.

    PubMed

    Seals, Ryan M; Hansen, Johnni; Gredal, Ole; Weisskopf, Marc G

    2013-10-15

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a disease of the motor neuron with poorly understood etiology. Recent studies have suggested that the incidence rate of ALS and the rate of death from ALS are increasing, but it is unclear whether this is due to changing exposures or improvements in diagnosis. We used age-period-cohort models to investigate trends in ALS incidence (hospitalization) from 1982 to 2009 and ALS mortality from 1970 to 2009 in Denmark. Among those 45 years of age or older, 4,265 deaths (incidence rate = 5.35 per 100,000 person-years) and 3,228 incident diagnoses (incidence rate = 5.55 per 100,000 person-years) were recorded. Age-adjusted mortality rates increased by an average of 3.0% annually between 1970 and 2009 and by an average of 2.1% annually after 1982. Age-period-cohort analyses suggested that the full age-period-cohort model provided the best fit to the mortality data (P < 0.001), although restriction to the post-1982 period suggested that the age-cohort model provided the best fit. Age-adjusted incidence rates increased by 1.6% annually after 1982 (P < 0.001), which was best explained by the age-period model, with borderline significant cohort effects (P = 0.08). A consistent finding regardless of parameterization or data subset appeared to be an increase in ALS incidence and mortality rate with later birth cohorts, up to a birth year of at least 1910. PMID:24064744

  12. Age-Period-Cohort Analysis of Trends in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis in Denmark, 1970–2009

    PubMed Central

    Seals, Ryan M.; Hansen, Johnni; Gredal, Ole; Weisskopf, Marc G.

    2013-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a disease of the motor neuron with poorly understood etiology. Recent studies have suggested that the incidence rate of ALS and the rate of death from ALS are increasing, but it is unclear whether this is due to changing exposures or improvements in diagnosis. We used age-period-cohort models to investigate trends in ALS incidence (hospitalization) from 1982 to 2009 and ALS mortality from 1970 to 2009 in Denmark. Among those 45 years of age or older, 4,265 deaths (incidence rate = 5.35 per 100,000 person-years) and 3,228 incident diagnoses (incidence rate = 5.55 per 100,000 person-years) were recorded. Age-adjusted mortality rates increased by an average of 3.0% annually between 1970 and 2009 and by an average of 2.1% annually after 1982. Age-period-cohort analyses suggested that the full age-period-cohort model provided the best fit to the mortality data (P < 0.001), although restriction to the post-1982 period suggested that the age-cohort model provided the best fit. Age-adjusted incidence rates increased by 1.6% annually after 1982 (P < 0.001), which was best explained by the age-period model, with borderline significant cohort effects (P = 0.08). A consistent finding regardless of parameterization or data subset appeared to be an increase in ALS incidence and mortality rate with later birth cohorts, up to a birth year of at least 1910. PMID:24064744

  13. Electrodynamics of the Inner Magnetosphere Observed in the Dusk Sector by CRRES and DMSP during the Magnetic Storm of June 4-6, 1991

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruke, W. J.; Maynard, N. C.; Hagan, M. P.; Wolf, R. A.; Wilson, G. R.; Gentile, L. C.; Gussenhoven, M. S.; Huang, C. Y.; Garner, T. W.; Rich, F. J.

    1998-01-01

    We compare equatorward/earthward boundaries of convection electric fields and auroral/plasma sheet electrons detected by the DMSP F8 and CRRES satellites during the June 1991 magnetic storm. Measurements come from the dusk magnetic local time sector where the ring current penetrates closest to the Earth. The storm was triggered by a rapid increase in the solar wind dynamic pressure accompanied by a southward turning of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF). Satellite data show the following: (1) all particle and field boundaries moved equatorward/earthward during the initial phase, probably in response to the strong southward IMF turning; (2) electric field boundaries were either at lower magnetic L shells or close to the inner edge of ring current ions throughout the main and early recovery phases. Penetration earthward of the ring current occurred twice as the polar cap potential increased rapidly; (3) electric potentials at subauroral latitudes were large fractions of the total potentials in the afternoon cell, twice exceeding 60 kV; and (4) the boundaries of auroral electron precipitation were more variable than those of electric fields and mapped to lower L shells than where CRRES encountered plasma sheet electrons. Observations qualitatively agree with predictions of empirical models for auroral electron and electric field boundaries.

  14. Proceedings of the 1991 Socioeconomic Energy Research and Analysis Conference

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    These proceedings analyze US energy policy as it pertains to minority groups. Example topics include: Economic impacts of the National Energy Strategy on minority and majority households, Utility measures to assist payment-troubled customers, Equity impacts of controlling energy usage through market-based versus regulatory approaches, Technical and planning support for the DOE-HUD initiative for energy efficiency in housing, an analysis of residential energy consumption and expenditures by minority households by home type and housing vintage, and methodical issues in evaluating integrated least cost planning programs.

  15. Analysis of Technological Innovation and Environmental Performance Improvement in Aviation Sector

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Joosung; Mo, Jeonghoon

    2011-01-01

    The past oil crises have caused dramatic improvements in fuel efficiency in all industrial sectors. The aviation sector—aircraft manufacturers and airlines—has also made significant efforts to improve the fuel efficiency through more advanced jet engines, high-lift wing designs, and lighter airframe materials. However, the innovations in energy-saving aircraft technologies do not coincide with the oil crisis periods. The largest improvement in aircraft fuel efficiency took place in the 1960s while the high oil prices in the 1970s and on did not induce manufacturers or airlines to achieve a faster rate of innovation. In this paper, we employ a historical analysis to examine the socio-economic reasons behind the relatively slow technological innovation in aircraft fuel efficiency over the last 40 years. Based on the industry and passenger behaviors studied and prospects for alternative fuel options, this paper offers insights for the aviation sector to shift toward more sustainable technological options in the medium term. Second-generation biofuels could be the feasible option with a meaningful reduction in aviation’s lifecycle environmental impact if they can achieve sufficient economies of scale. PMID:22016716

  16. Candida Osteomyelitis: Analysis of 207 Pediatric and Adult Cases (1970–2011)

    PubMed Central

    Gamaletsou, Maria N.; Kontoyiannis, Dimitrios P.; Sipsas, Nikolaos V.; Moriyama, Brad; Alexander, Elizabeth; Roilides, Emmanuel; Brause, Barry; Walsh, Thomas J.

    2012-01-01

    Background. The epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, management, and outcome of Candida osteomyelitis are not well understood. Methods. Cases of Candida osteomyelitis from 1970 through 2011 were reviewed. Underlying conditions, microbiology, mechanisms of infection, clinical manifestations, antifungal therapy, and outcome were studied in 207 evaluable cases. Results. Median age was 30 years (range, ≤ 1 month to 88 years) with a >2:1 male:female ratio. Most patients (90%) were not neutropenic. Localizing pain, tenderness, and/or edema were present in 90% of patients. Mechanisms of bone infection followed a pattern of hematogenous dissemination (67%), direct inoculation (25%), and contiguous infection (9%). Coinciding with hematogenous infection, most patients had ≥2 infected bones. When analyzed by age, the most common distribution of infected sites for adults was vertebra (odds ratio [OR], 0.09; 95% confidence interval [CI], .04–.25), rib, and sternum; for pediatric patients (≤18 years) the pattern was femur (OR, 20.6; 95% CI, 8.4–48.1), humerus, then vertebra/ribs. Non-albicans Candida species caused 35% of cases. Bacteria were recovered concomitantly from 12% of cases, underscoring the need for biopsy and/or culture. Candida septic arthritis occurred concomitantly in 21%. Combined surgery and antifungal therapy were used in 48% of cases. The overall complete response rate of Candida osteomyelitis of 32% reflects the difficulty in treating this infection. Relapsed infection, possibly related to inadequate duration of therapy, occurred among 32% who ultimately achieved complete response. Conclusions. Candida osteomyelitis is being reported with increasing frequency. Localizing symptoms are usually present. Vertebrae are the most common sites in adults vs femora in children. Timely diagnosis of Candida osteomyelitis with extended courses of 6–12 months of antifungal therapy, and surgical intervention, when indicated, may improve

  17. Trends analysis of precipitation and temperature in the Alto Genil basin (Southeast Spain) from 1970 to 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-Chacón, Francisca; Pulido-Velázquez, David; Jiménez-Sánchez, Jorge; Jimeno-Sáez, Patricia; Juan Collados-Lara, Antonio; Luque-Espinar, Juan Antonio

    2016-04-01

    The last studies of climate change predict a trend to more arid conditions in most of Spain. These studies show a significant increment in seasonal and annual air temperature, a reduction in mean precipitation and a raising number of extreme events of both variables. The historic data analysis is essential for identifying cycles, recent weather trends and to calibrate predictive models. In this work we analyses the recent historical climate in Alto Genil Basin. The system is located at SE Iberian Peninsula and includes an important part of the Sierra Nevada catchment. A high-resolution Spain02 dataset (~11 km) have been employed in this study. In accordance with the available data we have analyzed the period from 1970 to 2010 for daily precipitation and from 1970 to 2007 for daily temperature. In order to detect cycles and climate trends we have analyzed the temporal, seasonal and spatial distribution of the precipitation and temperature variables. We have calculated and analyzed the accumulated deviations from the mean daily precipitation. This analysis has been also performed with monthly and annual series. A non-parametric Mann Kendall method has been applied to study trends. In the period 1971-2007, the temperature has increased. The strongest trends appear since 1994. Between of 1971-1993 the average temperature observed was 13.6 °C, however from 1994 to 2007 the average temperature observed was 14.84 °C. Seasonally, during the study period, the spring has been the season with biggest increment in temperature. These temperature increments are more significant during March, April, May, June, July and October. In the period 1971-2010 the Mann Kendall test does not show a clear trend for precipitation. It is mainly due to the series culminates in three exceptional hydrological years that mask the overall trend of the study period. For this reason, we have also performed a sensitivity analysis of the Mann Kendall analysis to the period of data considered. On the

  18. Supporting analysis and assessments quality metrics: Utility market sector

    SciTech Connect

    Ohi, J.

    1996-10-01

    In FY96, NREL was asked to coordinate all analysis tasks so that in FY97 these tasks will be part of an integrated analysis agenda that will begin to define a 5-15 year R&D roadmap and portfolio for the DOE Hydrogen Program. The purpose of the Supporting Analysis and Assessments task at NREL is to provide this coordination and conduct specific analysis tasks. One of these tasks is to prepare the Quality Metrics (QM) for the Program as part of the overall QM effort at DOE/EERE. The Hydrogen Program one of 39 program planning units conducting QM, a process begun in FY94 to assess benefits/costs of DOE/EERE programs. The purpose of QM is to inform decisionmaking during budget formulation process by describing the expected outcomes of programs during the budget request process. QM is expected to establish first step toward merit-based budget formulation and allow DOE/EERE to get {open_quotes}most bang for its (R&D) buck.{close_quotes} In FY96. NREL coordinated a QM team that prepared a preliminary QM for the utility market sector. In the electricity supply sector, the QM analysis shows hydrogen fuel cells capturing 5% (or 22 GW) of the total market of 390 GW of new capacity additions through 2020. Hydrogen consumption in the utility sector increases from 0.009 Quads in 2005 to 0.4 Quads in 2020. Hydrogen fuel cells are projected to displace over 0.6 Quads of primary energy in 2020. In future work, NREL will assess the market for decentralized, on-site generation, develop cost credits for distributed generation benefits (such as deferral of transmission and distribution investments, uninterruptible power service), cost credits for by-products such as heat and potable water, cost credits for environmental benefits (reduction of criteria air pollutants and greenhouse gas emissions), compete different fuel cell technologies against each other for market share, and begin to address economic benefits, especially employment.

  19. [Time-space analysis of internal migration in Spain (1962-1993): with special attention to the changes in migration pattern in the 1970s].

    PubMed

    Takenaka, K

    1996-01-01

    "In this study, the internal migration in Spain from 1962 to 1993 is analyzed from the viewpoint of migration flows, with special emphasis on the spatial scale and direction of migration as well as the migration fields.... The evolution of the spatial scale and direction of migration shows a radical change in the middle 1970s: migrations from 1962 to 1975 (first period) were unidirectional movements at great distance (interprovincial and interregional), whereas those from 1976 to 1993 (second period) are characterized by the weight of intraprovincial movements and the bidirectionality of interprovincial movements. Through the two periods, the major sector in which migrants are employed has shifted from the industry to the service sector." (EXCERPT) PMID:12178549

  20. Risk Dimensions and Political Decisions Frame Environmental Communication: A Content Analysis of Seven U.S. Newspapers from 1970-2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grantham, Susan; Vieira, Edward T., Jr.

    2014-01-01

    This project examined the focus of environmental news frames used in seven American newspapers between 1970 and 2010. During this time newspapers were a primary source of news. Based on gatekeeping and agenda-setting theory, as well as source credibility, the content analysis of 2,123 articles examined the environmental topics within the articles,…

  1. Analysis of nutrients in the surface waters of the Georgia-Florida Coastal Plain study unit, 1970-91

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ham, L.K.; Hatzell, H.H.

    1996-01-01

    During the early phase of the Georgia-Florida National Water Quality Assessment study, existing information on nutrients was compiled and analyzed in order to evaluate the nutrient concentrations within the 61,545 square mile study unit. Evaluation of the nutrient concentrations collected at surface- water sites between October 1, 1970, and September 30,1991, utilized the environmental characteristics of land resource provinces, land use, and nonpoint and point-source discharges within the study unit. Long-term trends were investigated to determine the temporal distribution of nutrient concentrations. In order to determine a level of concern for nutrient concentrations, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) guidelines were used-(1) for nitrate concentrations, the maximum contaminant level in public-drinking water supplies (10 mg/L); (2) for ammonia concentrations, the chronic exposure of aquatic organisms to un-ionized ammonia (2.1 mg/L); (3) for total-phosphorus concentrations, the recommended concentration in flowing water to discourage excessive growth of aquatic plants (0.1 mg/L); and (4) for kjeldahl concentrations, however, no guidelines were available. For sites within the 10 major river basins, median nutrient concentrations were generally below USEPA guidelines, except for total-phosphorus concentrations where 45 percent of the medians exceeded the guideline. The only median ammonia concentration that exceeded the guideline occurred at the Swift Creek site (3.4 mg/L), in the Suwannee River basin, perhaps due to wastewater discharges. For all sites within the Withlacoochee, Aucilla, and St. Marys River basins, median concentrations of nitrate, ammonia, and total phosphorus were below the USEPA guidelines. Nutrient data at each monitoring site within each major basin were aggregated for comparisons of median nutrient concentrations among major basins. The Ochlockonee and Hillsborough River basins had the highest median nutrient concentrations, the

  2. Summary of in situ vitrification modeling and analysis accomplishments for fiscal year 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Slater, C.E.

    1991-11-01

    The in situ vitrification (ISV) modeling activities encompass a variety of both modeling development efforts and analysis applications in support of the ISV project. The model development effort is directed toward modifying or developing a set of computer codes to simulate the ISV process. These codes are used to perform safety and environmental hazards analyses, assist in experimental test planning and design, assist in equipment design and development of operating procedures, and provide enhanced understanding of the ISV process. This report presents a summary description of the accomplishments in Fiscal Year 1991 for both the model development and analysis areas. Brief descriptions of the models that were developed and the more important conclusions from the analytical studies are presented.

  3. Dichotomous factor analysis of symptoms reported by UK and US veterans of the 1991 Gulf War.

    PubMed

    Nisenbaum, Rosane; Ismail, Khalida; Wessely, Simon; Unwin, Catherine; Hull, Lisa; Reeves, William C

    2004-09-01

    BACKGROUND: Factor analysis is one of the most used statistical techniques to analyze the inter-relationships among symptoms reported by Gulf War veterans. The objective of this study was to apply factor analyses to binary symptom data from the UK study of Gulf War illness and the US Air Force study of Gulf War veterans, and to compare the symptom domains derived from the distinct samples. METHODS: UK veterans of the 1991 Gulf War (n = 3,454), individuals deployed to Bosnia on U.N. peacekeeping operations (n = 1,979) and Gulf War-era servicemen (n = 2,577) who were not deployed to the Gulf were surveyed in 1997-1998, and US 1991 Gulf War veterans from four Air Force units (n = 1,163) were surveyed in 1995 to collect health characteristics including symptoms. Each sample was randomly split in half for exploratory and confirmatory dichotomous factor analyses with promax oblique rotation. RESULTS: Four correlated factors were identified in each of the samples. Three factors (Respiratory, Mood-Cognition, Peripheral Nervous) overlapped considerably across the UK cohorts. The Gastrointestinal/Urogenital factor in the UK Gulf cohort was noticeably different from the Gastrointestinal factor identified from the Bosnia and Era cohorts. Symptoms from Gulf War UK and U.S cohorts yielded similar Gastrointestinal, Respiratory and Mood-Cognition factors, despite differences in symptom inventories between the two surveys. A Musculoskeletal factor was only elicited from the US Gulf sample. CONCLUSION: Findings of this report are consistent with those from other factor analysis studies that identified similar symptom dimensions between Gulf and non-Gulf War veterans, except that the Gastrointestinal factor in Gulf veterans included other symptom types. Correlations among factors raise the question as to whether there is a general illness, even if not unique to Gulf veterans, representing the common pathway underlying the identified factors. Hierarchical factor analysis models may be

  4. Treatment Integrity of School-Based Interventions with Children in the "Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis" 1991-2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntyre, Laura Lee; Gresham, Frank M.; DiGennaro, Florence D.; Reed, Derek D.

    2007-01-01

    We reviewed all school-based experimental studies with individuals 0 to 18 years published in the "Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis" (JABA) between 1991 and 2005. A total of 142 articles (152 studies) that met review criteria were included. Nearly all (95%) of these experiments provided an operational definition of the independent variable,…

  5. A Content and Sample Analysis of Quantitative Articles Published in the "Journal of Counseling & Development" between 1991 and 2000

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nilsson, Johanna E.; Love, Keisha M.; Taylor, Kathryn J.; Slusher, Anita L.

    2007-01-01

    This study reviewed the content of articles and characteristics of samples in all quantitative articles published in the "Journal of Counseling & Development" between 1991 and 2000. The content analysis revealed that the areas that received the most attention were academic/career, multicultural issues, symptoms/disorders, and counseling process.…

  6. LSAT Dimensionality Analysis for the December 1991, June 1992, and October 1992 Administrations. Statistical Report. LSAC Research Report Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglas, Jeff; Kim, Hae-Rim; Roussos, Louis; Stout, William; Zhang, Jinming

    An extensive nonparametric dimensionality analysis of latent structure was conducted on three forms of the Law School Admission Test (LSAT) (December 1991, June 1992, and October 1992) using the DIMTEST model in confirmatory analyses and using DIMTEST, FAC, DETECT, HCA, PROX, and a genetic algorithm in exploratory analyses. Results indicate that…

  7. Malignant Lymphatic and Hematopoietic Neoplasms Mortality in Serbia, 1991–2010: A Joinpoint Regression Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ilic, Milena; Ilic, Irena

    2014-01-01

    Background Limited data on mortality from malignant lymphatic and hematopoietic neoplasms have been published for Serbia. Methods The study covered population of Serbia during the 1991–2010 period. Mortality trends were assessed using the joinpoint regression analysis. Results Trend for overall death rates from malignant lymphoid and haematopoietic neoplasms significantly decreased: by −2.16% per year from 1991 through 1998, and then significantly increased by +2.20% per year for the 1998–2010 period. The growth during the entire period was on average +0.8% per year (95% CI 0.3 to 1.3). Mortality was higher among males than among females in all age groups. According to the comparability test, mortality trends from malignant lymphoid and haematopoietic neoplasms in men and women were parallel (final selected model failed to reject parallelism, P = 0.232). Among younger Serbian population (0–44 years old) in both sexes: trends significantly declined in males for the entire period, while in females 15–44 years of age mortality rates significantly declined only from 2003 onwards. Mortality trend significantly increased in elderly in both genders (by +1.7% in males and +1.5% in females in the 60–69 age group, and +3.8% in males and +3.6% in females in the 70+ age group). According to the comparability test, mortality trend for Hodgkin's lymphoma differed significantly from mortality trends for all other types of malignant lymphoid and haematopoietic neoplasms (P<0.05). Conclusion Unfavourable mortality trend in Serbia requires targeted intervention for risk factors control, early diagnosis and modern therapy. PMID:25333862

  8. Mutual phenomena of the Galilean satellites: an analysis of the 1991 observations from VBO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasundhara, R.

    1994-01-01

    Results of analysis of seventeen mutual events, of the Galilean satellites, observed at the Vainu Bappu Observatory (VBO) during the 1991 are presented. The light curves were fitted with theoretical models to derive the relative astrometric positions of the satellites. The dependence of te derived parameters on the various light scattering laws are investigated. Results of the analysis indicate that for Io fits using Minnaert's and Lommel-Seeliger's laws are comparable however the Lambert's law solution fails to give good fit at the centre and at the wings of the light curves. The mean value of the Minnaert's parameter for this satellite derived from the good quality occulation of light curves in the I band is 0.559 +/- 0.11. Analysis of occulation light curves of 201 events using model with albedo variations inferred from Voyager imagery lead to best fit. An average residual of -340 +/- 10 km in the position of Io along its track relative to Europa compared to the E-3 ephemiris is noticed.

  9. Input-output analysis of some sector actions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Selected energy conservation actions previously discussed in depth but separately in the areas of the energy industry, the industry sector, the transportation sector, and the residential and commercial sector, were brought together and assessed as a group. Particular emphasis was devoted to identifying secondary or indirect impacts and multiple interactions. Preliminary results obtained from the ECASTAR energy input-output model suggest that the impacts of energy conservation actions can be grossly misrepresented if secondary impacts are not included in the assessment. A methodology which stresses the importance of secondary and multiple interactions permeates the underlying philosophy of this discussion.

  10. Detection and Analysis of Threats to the Energy Sector: DATES

    SciTech Connect

    Alfonso Valdes

    2010-03-31

    This report summarizes Detection and Analysis of Threats to the Energy Sector (DATES), a project sponsored by the United States Department of Energy and performed by a team led by SRI International, with collaboration from Sandia National Laboratories, ArcSight, Inc., and Invensys Process Systems. DATES sought to advance the state of the practice in intrusion detection and situational awareness with respect to cyber attacks in energy systems. This was achieved through adaptation of detection algorithms for process systems as well as development of novel anomaly detection techniques suited for such systems into a detection suite. These detection components, together with third-party commercial security systems, were interfaced with the commercial Security Information Event Management (SIEM) solution from ArcSight. The efficacy of the integrated solution was demonstrated on two testbeds, one based on a Distributed Control System (DCS) from Invensys, and the other based on the Virtual Control System Environment (VCSE) from Sandia. These achievements advance the DOE Cybersecurity Roadmap [DOE2006] goals in the area of security monitoring. The project ran from October 2007 until March 2010, with the final six months focused on experimentation. In the validation phase, team members from SRI and Sandia coupled the two test environments and carried out a number of distributed and cross-site attacks against various points in one or both testbeds. Alert messages from the distributed, heterogeneous detection components were correlated using the ArcSight SIEM platform, providing within-site and cross-site views of the attacks. In particular, the team demonstrated detection and visualization of network zone traversal and denial-of-service attacks. These capabilities were presented to the DistribuTech Conference and Exhibition in March 2010. The project was hampered by interruption of funding due to continuing resolution issues and agreement on cost share for four months in 2008

  11. Retrospective Analysis for Genetic Improvement of Hip Joints of Cohort Labrador Retrievers in the United States: 1970–2007

    PubMed Central

    Lust, George; Zhu, Lan; Zhang, Zhiwu; Todhunter, Rory J.

    2010-01-01

    Background Canine Hip Dysplasia (CHD) is a common inherited disease that affects dog wellbeing and causes a heavy financial and emotional burden to dog owners and breeders due to secondary hip osteoarthritis. The Orthopedic Foundation for Animals (OFA) initiated a program in the 1960's to radiograph hip and elbow joints and release the OFA scores to the public for breeding dogs against CHD. Over last four decades, more than one million radiographic scores have been released. Methodology/Principal Findings The pedigrees in the OFA database consisted of 258,851 Labrador retrievers, the major breed scored by the OFA (25% of total records). Of these, 154,352 dogs had an OFA hip score reported between 1970 and 2007. The rest of the dogs (104,499) were the ancestors of the 154,352 dogs to link the pedigree relationships. The OFA hip score is based on a 7-point scale with the best ranked as 1 (excellent) and the worst hip dysplasia as 7. A mixed linear model was used to estimate the effects of age, sex, and test year period and to predict the breeding value for each dog. Additive genetic and residual variances were estimated using the average information restricted maximum likelihood procedure. The analysis also provided an inbreeding coefficient for each dog. The hip scores averaged 1.93 (±SD = 0.59) and the heritability was 0.21. A steady genetic improvement has accrued over the four decades. The breeding values decreased (improved) linearly. By the end of 2005, the total genetic improvement was 0.1 units, which is equivalent to 17% of the total phenotypic standard deviation. Conclusion/Significance A steady genetic improvement has been achieved through the selection based on the raw phenotype released by the OFA. As the heritability of the hip score was on the low end (0.21) of reported ranges, we propose that selection based on breeding values will result in more rapid genetic improvement than breeding based on phenotypic selection alone. PMID:20195372

  12. Geotechnical Field Data and Analysis Report, July 1991--June 1992. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    The Geotechnical Field Data and Analysis Report documents the geotechnical data from the underground excavations at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) located near Carlsbad, New Mexico. The data are used to characterize conditions, confirm design assumptions, and understand and predict the performance of the underground excavations during operations. The data are obtained as part of a routine monitoring program and do not include data from tests performed by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), the Scientific Advisor to the project, in support of performance assessment studies. The purpose of the geomechanical monitoring program is to provide in situ data to support continuing assessments of the design for the underground facilities. Specifically, the program provides: Early detection of conditions that could compromise operational safety; evaluation of room closure to ensure retrievability of waste; guidance for design modifications and remedial actions; and data for interpreting the actual behavior of underground openings, in comparison with established design criteria. This Geotechnical Field Data and Analysis Report covers the period July 1, 1991 to June 30, 1992. Volume 1 provides an interpretation of the field data while Volume 2 describes and presents the data itself.

  13. National health expenditures, 1991

    PubMed Central

    Letsch, Suzanne W.; Lazenby, Helen C.; Levit, Katharine R.; Cowan, Cathy A.

    1992-01-01

    Spending for health care rose to $751.8 billion in 1991, an increase of 11.4 percent from the 1990 level. National health expenditures as a share of gross domestic product increased to 13.2 percent, up from 12.2 percent in 1990. The health care sector exhibited strong growth, despite slow growth in the overall economy. This combination resulted in the largest increase in the share of the Nation's output consumed by health care in the past three decades. In this article, the authors present estimates of health spending in the United States for 1991. The authors also examine reasons for the unusually large growth in Medicaid expenditures and highlight recent trends in the hospital sector. PMID:10127445

  14. United States Industrial Sector Energy End Use Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Shehabi, Arman; Morrow, William R.; Masanet, Eric

    2012-05-11

    The United States Department of Energy’s (DOE) Energy Information Administration (EIA) conducts the Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey (MECS) to provide detailed data on energy consumption in the manufacturing sector. The survey is a sample of approximately 15,000 manufacturing establishments selected from the Economic Census - Manufacturing Sector. MECS provides statistics on the consumption of energy by end uses (e.g., boilers, process, electric drives, etc.) disaggregated by North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) categories. The manufacturing sector (NAICS Sector 31-33) consists of all manufacturing establishments in the 50 States and the District of Columbia. According to the NAICS, the manufacturing sector comprises establishments engaged in the mechanical, physical, or chemical transformation of materials, substances, or components into new products. The establishments are physical facilities such as plants, factories, or mills. For many of the sectors in the MECS datasets, information is missing because the reported energy use is less than 0.5 units or BTUs, or is withheld to avoid disclosing data for individual establishments, or is withheld because the standard error is greater than 50%. We infer what the missing information likely are using several approximations techniques. First, much of the missing data can be easily calculated by adding or subtracting other values reported by MECS. If this is not possible (e.g. two data are missing), we look at historic MECS reports to help identify the breakdown of energy use in the past and assume it remained the same for the current MECS. Lastly, if historic data is also missing, we assume that 3 digit NAICS classifications predict energy use in their 4, 5, or 6 digit NAICS sub-classifications, or vice versa. Along with addressing data gaps, end use energy is disaggregated beyond the specified MECS allocations using additional industry specific energy consumption data. The result is a

  15. Concentration in the Greek private hospital sector: a descriptive analysis.

    PubMed

    Boutsioli, Zoe

    2007-07-01

    Over the last 20 years, governments all around the world have attempted to boost the role of market and competition in health care industries in order to increase efficiency and reduce costs. The increased competition and the significant implications on costs and prices of health care services resulted in health care industries being transformed. Large firms are merging and acquiring other firms. If this trend continues, few firms will dominate the health care markets. In this study, I use the simple concentration ratio (CR) for the largest 4, 8 and 20 companies to measure the concentration of Greek private hospitals during the period 1997-2004. Also, the Gini coefficient for inequality is used. For the two different categories of hospitals used (a) general and neuropsychiatric and (b) obstetric/gynaecological it is evident that the top four firms of the first category accounted for 43% of sales in 1997, and 52% in 2004, while the four largest firms of the second category accounted for almost 83% in 1997, and 81% in 2004. Also, the Gini coefficient increases over the 8-year period examined from 0.69 in 1997 to 0.82 in 2004. It explains that the market of the private health care services becomes less equal in the sense that fewer private hospitals and clinics hold more and more of the share of the total sales. From a cross-industry analysis it is clear that the private hospital sector has the highest concentration rate. Finally, it appears that the market structure of the private hospitals in Greece resembles more closely to an oligopoly rather than a monopolistic competition, since very few firms dominate the market. PMID:17056148

  16. Stable isotope analysis of 1987-1991 zooplankton samples and bowhead whale tissues. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Schell, D.M.

    1992-06-01

    Stable isotope analyses of bowhead whale tissue samples and bowhead whale prey organisms collected over the years 1987 to 1991 were used to provide detail on the isotope ratio gradients evident in the arctic Alaskan zooplankton and to verify previous findings regarding the growth rates and age determination techniques developed for bowhead whales. Zooplankton of the Bering and Chukchi seas are enriched in (13)C relative to the eastern Beaufort Sea. The analysis of baleen from bowhead whales taken between 1987 to 1990 indicate that the whales are slow-growing and the young animals between year one and about six to seven years of age, undergo a period of little or no linear growth. The authors estimate that bowheads require 16-18 years to reach the length of sexual maturity, i.e., 13-14 m. From baleen Delta(13C) cycles, a 20 year record of the isotope ratios in the phytoplankton of the northern Bering and Chukchi seas was constructed. The long-term record has been compared with the temperature anomalies in surface waters of the Bering Sea. The Delta(13C) of the zooplankton is inversely correlated with temperature and refutes current models attempting to relate ocean temperature, and atmospheric carbon dioxide levels with the Delta(13C) of ocean sediment organic matter.

  17. Population viability analysis of the Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris), 1976-1991

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marmontel, M.; Humphrey, S.R.; O'Shea, T.J.

    1997-01-01

    Recent development of age-determination techniques for Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) has permitted derivation of age-specific data on reproduction and survival of a sample of 1212 carcasses obtained throughout Florida from 1976–1991. Population viability analysis using these data projects a slightly negative growth rate (−0.003) and an unacceptably low probability of persistence (0.44) over 1000 years. The main factors affecting population projections were adult survival and fecundity. A 10% increase in adult mortality would drive the population to extinction over a 1000-year time scale, whereas a 10% decrease in adult mortality would allow slow population growth. A 10% decrease in reproduction would also result in extinction. We conclude that management must focus on retaining and improving the conditions under which manatee demography operates. The major identified agent of mortality is boat-manatee collisions, and rapidly increasing numbers of humans and registered boats portend an increase in manatee mortality. Zoning of manatee-occupied waters for reductions in boating activity and speed is essential to safeguard the manatee population. If boating regulations being implemented by the state of Florida in each of 13 key coastal counties are completed, enforced, and effective, manatees and human recreation could coexist indefinitely. If regulation is unsuccessful, the Florida manatee population is likely to decline slowly toward extinction.

  18. Solid waste integrated cost analysis model: 1991 project year report. Part 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-31

    The purpose of the City of Houston`s 1991 Solid Waste Integrated Cost Analysis Model (SWICAM) project was to continue the development of a computerized cost analysis model. This model is to provide solid waste managers with tool to evaluate the dollar cost of real or hypothetical solid waste management choices. Those choices have become complicated by the implementation of Subtitle D of the Resources Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the EPA`s Integrated Approach to managing municipal solid waste;. that is, minimize generation, maximize recycling, reduce volume (incinerate), and then bury (landfill) only the remainder. Implementation of an integrated solid waste management system involving all or some of the options of recycling, waste to energy, composting, and landfilling is extremely complicated. Factors such as hauling distances, markets, and prices for recyclable, costs and benefits of transfer stations, and material recovery facilities must all be considered. A jurisdiction must determine the cost impacts of implementing a number of various possibilities for managing, handling, processing, and disposing of waste. SWICAM employs a single Lotus 123 spreadsheet to enable a jurisdiction to predict or assess the costs of its waste management system. It allows the user to select his own process flow for waste material and to manipulate the model to include as few or as many options as he or she chooses. The model will calculate the estimated cost for those choices selected. The user can then change the model to include or exclude waste stream components, until the mix of choices suits the user. Graphs can be produced as a visual communication aid in presenting the results of the cost analysis. SWICAM also allows future cost projections to be made.

  19. Research and writing in the history of health sciences, 1970-1982: a quantitative analysis of NLM's HISTLINE database.

    PubMed Central

    Kopp, J J

    1985-01-01

    HISTLINE, the MEDLARS file on the history of the health sciences, was analyzed to determine predominant areas of historical research and publication in the years 1970-1982, as reflected in this database produced within the History of Medicine Division at the National Library of Medicine. Subject content, chronologic and geographic breakdowns, and subjects of biographical studies are examined in view of their frequency in the file. Speculation for the predominance of particular descriptors and individuals is presented. An examination is made of the journals publishing the most medical history. Strengths and weaknesses of the database as reflected in this study also are discussed. PMID:3888330

  20. Research and writing in the history of health sciences, 1970-1982: a quantitative analysis of NLM's HISTLINE database.

    PubMed

    Kopp, J J

    1985-04-01

    HISTLINE, the MEDLARS file on the history of the health sciences, was analyzed to determine predominant areas of historical research and publication in the years 1970-1982, as reflected in this database produced within the History of Medicine Division at the National Library of Medicine. Subject content, chronologic and geographic breakdowns, and subjects of biographical studies are examined in view of their frequency in the file. Speculation for the predominance of particular descriptors and individuals is presented. An examination is made of the journals publishing the most medical history. Strengths and weaknesses of the database as reflected in this study also are discussed. PMID:3888330

  1. Women's labour force participation and socioeconomic development: the case of Peninsular Malaysia, 1957-1970.

    PubMed

    Hirschman, C; Aghajanian, A

    1980-03-01

    Changes in labor force participation of Malay, Chinese and Indian women in the agricultural and nonagricultural sectors in Peninsular Malaysia, based on the 1957 and 1970 censuses, are analyzed. Brief discussions of the relation between economic development and female labor force participation, the socioeconomic development and ethnic composition of Malaysia, and past research on women's labor force participation in Peninsular Malaysia provide background for the analysis. The overall participation rate of women aged 15 to 64 rose from 31% in 1957 to 37% in 1970, with most of the increase among younger women. Participation rates rose for Malay women at all ages, dropped sharply for Indian women at all ages, and rose for Chinese women below age 40 but declined thereafter. Trends in Chinese female labor force activity seem to fit the developmental model most closely; Malay employment in agriculture among middle-aged women probably appeared to increase due to underestimation in the 1957 census; and Indian participation declined due to a sharp curtailment of the entire plantation labor force. Cross sectional analysis using the 1970 2% census sample demonstrates that rural residence, low educational level, and married status are associated with employment in the traditional and modern agricultural sectors. Higher educational attainment, urban residence, and delayed marriage are associated with employment in the modern non-agricultural sector. Chinese women had higher proportions in the modern sector. PMID:12336488

  2. Qualitative Environmental Health Research: An Analysis of the Literature, 1991–2008

    PubMed Central

    Scammell, Madeleine Kangsen

    2010-01-01

    Background Recent articles have advocated for the use of qualitative methods in environmental health research. Qualitative research uses nonnumeric data to understand people’s opinions, motives, understanding, and beliefs about events or phenomena. Objective In this analysis of the literature, I report the use of qualitative methods and data in the study of the relationship between environmental exposures and human health. Data sources A primary search on ISI Web of Knowledge/Web of Science for peer-reviewed journal articles dated from 1991 through 2008 included the following three terms: qualitative, environ*, and health. Inclusion and exclusion criteria are described. Data extraction Searches resulted in 3,155 records. Data were extracted and findings of articles analyzed to determine where and by whom qualitative environmental health research is conducted and published, the types of methods and analyses used in qualitative studies of environmental health, and the types of information qualitative data contribute to environmental health. Data synthesis Ninety-one articles met inclusion criteria. These articles were published in 58 different journals, with a maximum of eight for a single journal. The results highlight a diversity of disciplines and techniques among researchers who used qualitative methods to study environmental health, with most studies relying on one-on-one interviews. Details of the analyses were absent from a large number of studies. Nearly all of the studies identified increased scientific understanding of lay perceptions of environmental health exposures. Discussion and conclusions Qualitative data are published in traditionally quantitative environmental health studies to a limited extent. However, this analysis demonstrates the potential of qualitative data to improve understanding of complex exposure pathways, including the influence of social factors on environmental health, and health outcomes. PMID:20421191

  3. Impact of climate on energy sector in economic analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, H.E.; LeDuc, S.K.

    1981-12-01

    Assessments of economic conditions by region or sector attempt to include relevant climatic variability through residual adjustment techniques. There is no direct consideration of climatic fluctuations. Three recent severe winters combined with the increasing price of energy have intensified the need to quantify the interaction of climate with the energy sector of the economy. This paper presents examples of the uses of climatic data by utilities, public service commissions and the NOAA Center for Environmental Assessment Services to determine econoclimatic energy relationships at the local, state, regional and national levels. A technique based on the linear relationships between heating degree days and natural gas consumption for space heating is used to quantify the interaction of climate and prices on gas consumption. This provides regional estimates of the response of gas consumption to degree days and price.

  4. Longitudinal analysis of dietary patterns in Chinese adults from 1991 to 2009.

    PubMed

    Batis, Carolina; Sotres-Alvarez, Daniela; Gordon-Larsen, Penny; Mendez, Michelle A; Adair, Linda; Popkin, Barry

    2014-04-28

    In the present study, we aimed to identify the changes or stability in the structure of dietary patterns and tracking, trends and factors related to the adherence to these dietary patterns in China from 1991 to 2009. We analysed dietary data collected during seven waves of the China Health and Nutrition Survey and included 9253 adults with complete dietary data for three or more waves. Dietary intake assessment was carried out over a 3 d period with 24 h recalls and a household food inventory. Using factor analysis in each wave, we found that the structure of the two dietary patterns identified remained stable over the studied period. The traditional southern dietary pattern was characterised by high intakes of rice, fresh leafy vegetables, low-fat red meat, pork, organ meats, poultry and fish/seafood and low intakes of wheat flour and maize/coarse grains and the modern high-wheat dietary pattern was characterised by high intakes of wheat buns/breads, cakes/cookies/pastries, deep-fried wheat, nuts/seeds, starchy root/tuber products, fruits, eggs/egg products, soya milk, animal-based milk and instant noodles/frozen dumplings. Temporal tracking (maintenance of a relative position over time) was higher for the traditional southern dietary pattern, whereas adherence to the modern high-wheat dietary pattern had an upward trend over time. Higher income, education and urbanicity levels were positively associated with both the dietary patterns, but the association became weaker in the later years. These results suggest that even in the context of rapid economic changes in China, the way people chose to combine their foods remained relatively stable. However, the increasing popularity of the modern high-wheat dietary pattern, a pattern associated with several energy-dense foods, is a cause of concern. PMID:24331247

  5. Longitudinal Analysis of Dietary Patterns in Chinese Adults from 1991 to 2009

    PubMed Central

    Batis, Carolina; Sotres-Alvarez, Daniela; Gordon-Larsen, Penny; Mendez, Michelle A.; Adair, Linda; Popkin, Barry

    2013-01-01

    Our aims were to identify the changes or stability in the structure of dietary patterns and the tracking, trends and factors related to the adherence of these patterns in China from 1991 to 2009. We used seven waves of the China Health and Nutrition Survey and included 9,253 adults with ≥3 waves complete. Diet was measured over a 3-day period with 24-hr recalls and a household food inventory. Using factor analysis in each wave we found that the structure of the two dietary patterns identified, remained stable over the studied period. The traditional southern pattern was characterized by high intake of rice, fresh leafy vegetables, low-fat red meat, pork, organ meats, poultry and fish/seafood and low intakes of wheat flour, corn/coarse grains; and the modern high-wheat pattern was characterized by high intake of wheat buns/breads, cakes/cookies/pastries, deep-fried wheat, nuts/seeds, starchy roots/tubers products, fruits, eggs/eggs products, soy milk, animal-based milk and instant noodles/frozen dumplings. Temporal tracking (maintenance of a relative position over time) was higher for the traditional southern, whereas adherence to the modern high-wheat had an upward trend over time. Higher income, education and urbanicity level were positively associated with both dietary patterns, but the association became smaller in the later years. These results suggest that even in the context of rapid economic changes in China; the way people chose to combine their foods remained relatively stable. However, the increasing popularity of the modern high-wheat pattern, a pattern associated with several energy-dense foods is cause of concern. PMID:24331247

  6. Communication in Ballot Issue Campaigns: A Rhetorical Analysis of the 1991 Cincinnati Public Schools Levy Campaign.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joiner, Jeffrey; German, Kathleen

    Following the failure of several school levies, the Cincinnati Public School System placed a $9.83 million levy on the ballot in 1991 which passed in spite of tremendous odds against it. The Cincinnati tax levy campaign was successful largely because it adapted to the unique nature of ballot issue campaigns. First, it provided proactive leadership…

  7. Turn-over rate of academic faculty at the College of Health Sciences, Addis Ababa University: a 20-year analysis (1991 to 2011)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Faculty turn-over affects both workers and organizations. Turnover of faculty and researchers is increasing alarmingly and costing the universities and the country at large. Fast turnover of health professionals from the health system and from academic institutions has recently received substantial attention from both academia and health sector managers. This paper calculates the faculty turnover rate at the College of Health Sciences of Addis Ababa University during the period of September 1991 to August 2011. Methods The study was conducted at the College of Health Sciences, Addis Ababa University. Retrospective analysis of employee records was done. All records of the faculty that were working in the College during the 20-year period, starting from September 1991 to August 2011 were retrospectively reviewed. Data were collected from the employee records accessed from the College’s human resources database and supplemented by payroll sheets and different reports. A structured checklist was used to extract the required data from the database. The crude turnover rate for academic faculty was calculated. Results Within the 20-year period of September 1991 to August 2011, a total of 120 faculty members left. The overall turn-over rate was 92.8 %. The rate in the most recent five years (172 %) is 8.5 times higher than the rate for the first five years (20 %). The average retention period before the termination of an employment contract was 4.9 years. The top five departments where employment contracts were relatively higher include: Nursing 15 (15.6 %), Internal Medicine 12 (12.5%), Public Health 10 (10.4%), Pediatrics 9 (9.4%) and Surgery 9 (9.4%). About two thirds (66.6%) of the faculty who were leaving were at the ranks of assistant professorship and above. Conclusion This study revealed that outflow of faculty has been continuously increasing in the period reviewed. This implies that the College had been losing highly skilled professionals with

  8. Analysis of the industrial sector representation in the Fossil2 energy-economic model

    SciTech Connect

    Wise, M.A.; Woodruff, M.G.; Ashton, W.B.

    1992-08-01

    The Fossil2 energy-economic model is used by the US Department of Energy (DOE) for a variety of energy and environmental policy analyses. A number of improvements to the model are under way or are being considered. This report was prepared by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to provide a clearer understanding of the current industrial sector module of Fossil2 and to explore strategies for improving it. The report includes a detailed description of the structure and decision logic of the industrial sector module, along with results from several simulation exercises to demonstrate the behavior of the module in different policy scenarios and under different values of key model parameters. The cases were run with the Fossil2 model at PNL using the National Energy Strategy Actions Case of 1991 as the point of departure. The report also includes a discussion of suggested industrial sector module improvements. These improvements include changes in the way the current model is used; on- and off-line adjustments to some of the model`s parameters; and significant changes to include more detail on the industrial processes, technologies, and regions of the country being modeled. The potential benefits and costs of these changes are also discussed.

  9. Analysis of the industrial sector representation in the Fossil2 energy-economic model

    SciTech Connect

    Wise, M.A.; Woodruff, M.G.; Ashton, W.B.

    1992-08-01

    The Fossil2 energy-economic model is used by the US Department of Energy (DOE) for a variety of energy and environmental policy analyses. A number of improvements to the model are under way or are being considered. This report was prepared by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to provide a clearer understanding of the current industrial sector module of Fossil2 and to explore strategies for improving it. The report includes a detailed description of the structure and decision logic of the industrial sector module, along with results from several simulation exercises to demonstrate the behavior of the module in different policy scenarios and under different values of key model parameters. The cases were run with the Fossil2 model at PNL using the National Energy Strategy Actions Case of 1991 as the point of departure. The report also includes a discussion of suggested industrial sector module improvements. These improvements include changes in the way the current model is used; on- and off-line adjustments to some of the model's parameters; and significant changes to include more detail on the industrial processes, technologies, and regions of the country being modeled. The potential benefits and costs of these changes are also discussed.

  10. Industry sector analysis Mexico: Air pollution equipment. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    Ceron, F.

    1992-10-01

    The Industry Sector Analyses (I.S.A.) for pollution control equipment contains statistical and narrative information on projected market demand, end-users, receptivity of Mexican consumers to U.S. products, the competitive situation - Mexican production, total import market, U.S. market position, foreign competition, and competitive factors, and market access - Mexican tariffs, non-tariff barriers, standards, taxes and distribution channels. The I.S.A. provides the United States industry with meaningful information regarding the Mexican market for pollution control equipment.

  11. Technology Co-evolution Analysis in the Energy Sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sungjoo; Yoon, Byungun

    This paper suggests the method that can describe the co-evolutionary patterns in the energy sectors. Technologies that have facilitated the growth of other technologies should get the priority in the R&D investment, if other conditions are almost the same. In the suggested method, LVC equations were applied to the patents relating to energy technologies. Then a network showing the interactions between technologies in their evolution process is visualised. Research findings will provide numerous implications for policy-making and strategic planning for energy technology development.

  12. Earth Science in 1970

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geotimes, 1971

    1971-01-01

    Reviews advancements in earth science during 1970 in each of these areas: economic geology (fuels), economic geology (metals), economic geology (nonmetals), environmental geology, geochemistry, manpower, hydrology, mapping, marine geology, mineralogy, paleontology, plate tectonics, politics and geology, remote sensing, and seismology. (PR)

  13. Environment Law Review--1970.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherrod, H. Floyd; And Others

    This is the first of several volumes to be published annually in the field of environmental law. It contains material from periodicals published in early 1970, 1969, and several articles of special significance which appeared in periodicals bearing 1968 dates. It has been collected primarily for lawyers so they may have, in convenient reference…

  14. Risk-Based Input-Output Analysis of Influenza Epidemic Consequences on Interdependent Workforce Sectors

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Joost R.; May, Larissa; Haimar, Amine El

    2013-01-01

    Outbreaks of contagious diseases underscore the ever-looming threat of new epidemics. Compared to other disasters that inflict physical damage to infrastructure systems, epidemics can have more devastating and prolonged impacts on the population. This paper investigates the interdependent economic and productivity risks resulting from epidemic-induced workforce absenteeism. In particular, we develop a dynamic input-output model capable of generating sector-disaggregated economic losses based on different magnitudes of workforce disruptions. An ex post analysis of the 2009 H1N1 pandemic in the National Capital Region (NCR) reveals the distribution of consequences across different economic sectors. Consequences are categorized into two metrics: (i) economic loss, which measures the magnitude of monetary losses incurred in each sector, and (ii) inoperability, which measures the normalized monetary losses incurred in each sector relative to the total economic output of that sector. For a simulated mild pandemic scenario in NCR, two distinct rankings are generated using the economic loss and inoperability metrics. Results indicate that the majority of the critical sectors ranked according to the economic loss metric comprise of sectors that contribute the most to the NCR's gross domestic product (e.g., federal government enterprises). In contrast, the majority of the critical sectors generated by the inoperability metric include sectors that are involved with epidemic management (e.g., hospitals). Hence, prioritizing sectors for recovery necessitates consideration of the balance between economic loss, inoperability, and other objectives. Although applied specifically to the NCR region, the proposed methodology can be customized for other regions. PMID:23278756

  15. Risk-based input-output analysis of influenza epidemic consequences on interdependent workforce sectors.

    PubMed

    Santos, Joost R; May, Larissa; Haimar, Amine El

    2013-09-01

    Outbreaks of contagious diseases underscore the ever-looming threat of new epidemics. Compared to other disasters that inflict physical damage to infrastructure systems, epidemics can have more devastating and prolonged impacts on the population. This article investigates the interdependent economic and productivity risks resulting from epidemic-induced workforce absenteeism. In particular, we develop a dynamic input-output model capable of generating sector-disaggregated economic losses based on different magnitudes of workforce disruptions. An ex post analysis of the 2009 H1N1 pandemic in the national capital region (NCR) reveals the distribution of consequences across different economic sectors. Consequences are categorized into two metrics: (i) economic loss, which measures the magnitude of monetary losses incurred in each sector, and (ii) inoperability, which measures the normalized monetary losses incurred in each sector relative to the total economic output of that sector. For a simulated mild pandemic scenario in NCR, two distinct rankings are generated using the economic loss and inoperability metrics. Results indicate that the majority of the critical sectors ranked according to the economic loss metric comprise of sectors that contribute the most to the NCR's gross domestic product (e.g., federal government enterprises). In contrast, the majority of the critical sectors generated by the inoperability metric include sectors that are involved with epidemic management (e.g., hospitals). Hence, prioritizing sectors for recovery necessitates consideration of the balance between economic loss, inoperability, and other objectives. Although applied specifically to the NCR, the proposed methodology can be customized for other regions. PMID:23278756

  16. An analysis of variables influencing the number of radiation overexposure events in Texas from 1970 to 2000.

    PubMed

    Emery, R J; Valizadeh, F; Kennedy, V; Shelton, A J

    2005-07-01

    Sources of radiation are used in a variety of modern work settings, including industrial, medical, research, and agricultural applications. Although regulatory controls exist to limit radiation exposures in these different settings, instances of radiation doses in excess of acceptable limits (referred to as overexposures) do occur. A unique study examined overexposure events in Texas over a 45-y period from 1956 to 2001. The primary purpose of the study was to characterize the factors associated with overexposure events. As part of this characterization, an interesting trend in the number of overexposures by year was observed, but not completely explained. The data revealed a dramatic increase in the number of overexposure events, followed by three apparent phases of decline. These declines are of particular interest because, while the increase and subsequent decrease in overexposures occurred, the number of permits to possess radiation sources in Texas generally increased over the same time period. This study focused on the identification of the factors that led to the trends in overexposure events. Data describing the reported overexposure events in Texas from 1970 to 2000 were obtained from the Texas Department of Health Bureau of Radiation Control (TDH BRC) and entered into a computerized database. With the assistance of senior members of the TDH BRC, the three primary factors influencing the number of overexposures were identified. These included domestic oil and gas exploration and production from 1970 to 2000, wherein sources of radiation are employed in various operations; the establishment of a training and certification requirement for industrial radiographers during the period of 1986 to 1988; and modification of the applicable regulations between 1992 and 1994. The generally accepted indicator of oil and gas exploration and production activity, known as "rig count," is the measure of the number of active oil and gas exploration and production platforms

  17. Changing Structure of the Electric Power Industry: 1970-1991

    EIA Publications

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a comprehensive overview of the ownership of the U.S. electric power industry over the past two decades, with emphasis on the major changes that have occurred, their causes, and their effects.

  18. World Education Report 1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

    This report presents a global analysis of the state of education. Comprised of four chapters, the first chapter is an introduction. Chapter 2 reviews the development of education at the global level between 1970 and 1990. The chapter focuses mainly on access to and participation in the formal education system, while drawing attention to regional…

  19. NASA Space Geodesy Program: GSFC data analysis, 1992. Crustal Dynamics Project VLBI geodetic results, 1979 - 1991

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, J. W.; Ma, C.; Caprette, D. S.

    1993-01-01

    The Goddard VLBI group reports the results of analyzing 1648 Mark 3 data sets acquired from fixed and mobile observing sites through the end of 1991, and available to the Crustal Dynamics Project. Two large solutions were used to obtain Earth rotation parameters, nutation offsets, radio source positions, site positions, site velocities, and baseline evolution. Site positions are tabulated on a yearly basis for 1979 to 1995, inclusive. Site velocities are presented in both geocentric Cartesian and topocentric coordinates. Baseline evolution is plotted for 200 baselines, and individual length determinations are presented for an additional 356 baselines. This report includes 155 quasar radio sources, 96 fixed stations and mobile sites, and 556 baselines.

  20. Effects of urban land-use change on streamflow and water quality in Oakland County, Michigan, 1970-2003, as inferred from urban gradient and temporal analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aichele, Stephen S.

    2005-01-01

    This apparent contradiction may be caused by the differences in the changes measured in each analysis. The change-through-time approach describes change from a fixed starting point of approximately 1970; the gradient approach describes the cumulative effect of all change up to approximately 2000. These findings indicate that although urbanization in Oakland County results in most of the effects observed in the literature, as evidenced in the gradient approach, relatively few of the anticipated effects have been observed during the past three decades. This relative stability despite rapid land-cover change may be related to efforts to mitigate the effects of development and a general decrease in the density of new residential development. It may also be related to external factors such as climate variability and reduced atmospheric deposition of specific chemicals. 

  1. Approaching 4 Decades of Legislation in the National Family Planning Program: An Analysis of Title X's History From 1970 to 2008

    PubMed Central

    Daley, Ellen M.; Perrin, Kay M.; Mahan, Charles S.; Buhi, Eric R.

    2011-01-01

    Family planning is an important public health activity. Title X (Pub L No. 91-572), enacted in 1970, remains the only national family planning program in the United States dedicated to providing voluntary and confidential services to all individuals. We conducted a thematic analysis of Title X's legislative history. Of 293 federal bills included in the legislative history, only 20 (6.8%) were enacted into law. Regardless of the proposed challenges, limited changes have been adopted. Except for technical amendments, bills involving restrictions accounted for the highest percentage of enacted bills, demonstrating efforts to undermine reproductive health rights. Title X requires political will and bipartisan support if it is to continue to protect individuals' reproductive rights. PMID:21940931

  2. Analysis of the spatio-temporal and semantic aspects of land-cover/use change dynamics 1991-2001 in Albania at national and district levels.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Louisa J M; Carrai, Giancarlo; Morandini, Luca; Cerutti, Paolo O; Spisni, Andrea

    2006-08-01

    In the turmoil of a rapidly changing economy the Albanian government needs accurate and timely information for management of their natural resources and formulation of land-use policies. The transformation of the forestry sector has required major changes in the legal, regulatory and management framework. The World Bank financed Albanian National Forest Inventory project provides an analysis of spatially explicit land-cover/use change dynamics in the period 1991-2001 using the FAO/UNEP Land Cover Classification System for codification of classes, satellite remote sensing and field survey for data collection and elements of the object-oriented geo-database approach to handle changes as an evolution of land-cover/use objects, i.e. polygons, over time to facilitate change dynamics analysis. Analysis results at national level show the trend of natural resources depletion in the form of modifications and conversions that lead to a gradual shift from land-cover/use types with a tree cover to less dense tree covers or even a complete removal of trees. Policy failure (e.g., corruption, lack of law enforcement) is seen as the underlying cause. Another major trend is urbanisation of areas near large urban centres that change urban-rural linkages. Furthermore, after privatisation agricultural areas increased in the hills where environmental effects may be detrimental, while prime agricultural land in the plains is lost to urbanisation. At district level, the local variability of spatially explicit land-cover/use changes shows different types of natural resources depletion. The distribution of changes indicates a regional prevalence, thus a decentralised approach to the natural resources management could be advocated. PMID:16770509

  3. 3-D vibration analysis of annular sector plates using the Chebyshev-Ritz method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, D.; Lo, S. H.; Cheung, Y. K.

    2009-02-01

    The three-dimensional free vibration of annular sector plates with various boundary conditions is studied by means of the Chebyshev-Ritz method. The analysis is based on the three-dimensional small strain linear elasticity theory. The product of Chebyshev polynomials satisfying the necessary boundary conditions is selected as admissible functions in such a way that the governing eigenvalue equation can be conveniently derived through an optimization process by the Ritz method. The boundary functions guarantee the satisfaction of the geometric boundary conditions of the plates and the Chebyshev polynomials provide the robustness for numerical calculation. The present study provides a full vibration spectrum for the thick annular sector plates, which cannot be given by the two-dimensional (2-D) theories such as the Mindlin theory. Comprehensive numerical results with high accuracy are systematically produced, which can be used as benchmark to evaluate other numerical methods. The effect of radius ratio, thickness ratio and sector angle on natural frequencies of the plates with a sector angle from 120° to 360° is discussed in detail. The three-dimensional vibration solutions for plates with a re-entrant sector angle (larger than 180°) and shallow helicoidal shells (sector angle larger than 360°) with a small helix angle are presented for the first time.

  4. Industry sector analysis, Mexico: Emission monitoring equipment. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    Picazo, A.G.

    1992-10-01

    The market survey covers the emission monitoring equipment market in Mexico. The analysis contains statistical and narrative information on projected market demand, end-users; receptivity of Mexican consumers to US products; the competitive situation, and market access (tariffs, non-tariff barriers, standards, taxes, distribution channels). It also contains key contact information and information on upcoming trade events related to the industry.

  5. The mineral sector and economic development in Ghana: A computable general equilibrium analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Addy, Samuel N.

    A computable general equilibrium model (CGE) model is formulated for conducting mineral policy analysis in the context of national economic development for Ghana. The model, called GHANAMIN, places strong emphasis on production, trade, and investment. It can be used to examine both micro and macro economic impacts of policies associated with mineral investment, taxation, and terms of trade changes, as well as mineral sector performance impacts due to technological change or the discovery of new deposits. Its economywide structure enables the study of broader development policy with a focus on individual or multiple sectors, simultaneously. After going through a period of contraction for about two decades, mining in Ghana has rebounded significantly and is currently the main foreign exchange earner. Gold alone contributed 44.7 percent of 1994 total export earnings. GHANAMIN is used to investigate the economywide impacts of mineral tax policies, world market mineral prices changes, mining investment, and increased mineral exports. It is also used for identifying key sectors for economic development. Various simulations were undertaken with the following results: Recently implemented mineral tax policies are welfare increasing, but have an accompanying decrease in the output of other export sectors. World mineral price rises stimulate an increase in real GDP; however, this increase is less than real GDP decreases associated with price declines. Investment in the non-gold mining sector increases real GDP more than investment in gold mining, because of the former's stronger linkages to the rest of the economy. Increased mineral exports are very beneficial to the overall economy. Foreign direct investment (FDI) in mining increases welfare more so than domestic capital, which is very limited. Mining investment and the increased mineral exports since 1986 have contributed significantly to the country's economic recovery, with gold mining accounting for 95 percent of the

  6. Industry sector analysis, China: Urban water sanitation. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    The market survey covers the water pollution control equipment market for urban water sanitation in China. The analysis contains statistical and narrative information on projected market demand, end-users; receptivity of Chinese consumers to U.S. products; the competitive situation, and market access (tariffs, non-tariff barriers, standards, taxes, distribution channels). It also contains key contact information and information on upcoming trade events related to the industry.

  7. Evidence of increased anthropogenic emissions of platinum: time-series analysis of mussels (1991-2011) of an urban beach.

    PubMed

    Neira, Patricia; Cobelo-García, Antonio; Besada, Victoria; Santos-Echeandía, Juan; Bellas, Juan

    2015-05-01

    The anthropogenic emissions of Pt to the environment have increased significantly over the past decades, especially after the introduction of the catalytic converters in motor vehicles. In order to check whether this is affecting the levels of this trace metal on living organisms, time-series analysis of freeze-dried soft tissue material of wild mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) covering the period from 1991 to 2001 and collected at an urban beach in the city of Vigo (NW Iberian Peninsula) was conducted. Concentrations ranged from 0.30 to 0.68 ng g(-1) with an average concentration of 0.47 ± 0.10 ng g(-1) (n=21); these concentrations were higher than those obtained for samples collected at a control location away from anthropogenic pressure (0.31 ± 0.10 ng g(-1); n=5). Platinum concentrations followed a statistically significant temporal trend (at the 0.020 level), and the excess of Pt in mussels over the 1991-2011 period compared to the control location were correlated with the European Pt autocatalyst demand (p=0.0006) and, especially, the car sales in Spain (p=0.0001). A bioaccumulation factor of ~5·10(3) was derived, which is greater than those previously calculated for Pt from exposure experiments, but 1-2 orders of magnitude lower than other trace elements (e.g. Zn, Cu, Pb, Cd). PMID:25679817

  8. The planet Jupiter (1970)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Divine, N.

    1971-01-01

    Data obtained through 1970, some materials published during the first half of 1971, and conclusions of the Jupiter Radiation Belt Workshop held in July 1971 are presented. All the information on Jupiter was derived from data obtained at angular and spectral resolutions possible with Earth-based instrumentation or with sensors on aircraft, rockets, and balloons. The observations were made primarily in the visible, near visible, infrared, and radio portions of the electromagnetic spectrum. The information was assessed for the potential effects of the Jovian environment on spacecraft performance. The assessment was done independently for the three types of missions under consideration and formulated for overall spacecraft as well as for subsystem design.

  9. Undergraduate programs for health professionals in Brazil: an analysis from 1991 to 2008.

    PubMed

    Haddad, Ana Estela; Morita, Maria Celeste; Pierantoni, Célia Regina; Brenelli, Sigisfredo Luis; Passarella, Teresa; Campos, Francisco Eduardo

    2010-06-01

    Study conducted to support the planning and implementation of public policies on human health resources. Fourteen undergraduate health courses were analyzed: biomedicine, biological sciences, physical education, nursing, pharmacy, physical therapy, speech and language therapy, medicine, veterinary medicine, nutrition, dentistry, psychology, social work and occupational therapy between 1991 and 2008. Data on number of students admitted, college admission rates, rates of graduating student by inhabitant, gender, geographic area and family income were collected from the Brazilian Ministry of Education database. For medicine undergraduate programs there were 40 applicants per place at public institutions and 10 at private ones. Most students admitted were females. The Southeast region concentrated 57% of graduating students. The study revealed trends that indicates opportunity inequalities in the regional distribution of health professional education, thus supporting the need for policies aimed at reducing such inequalities. PMID:20499011

  10. A Radio Emission Analysis of Nova Puppis 1991 (V351 Pup)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wendeln, Carolyn; Chomiuk, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Classical Nova Puppis 1991 (V351 Pup) went into outburst at the end of 1990, powered by a thermonuclear runaway on the surface of a white dwarf in a close binary system. Multi-frequency radio detections from one epoch were published for V351 Pup in the early 1990's, yet the remaining data collected by the Very Large Array telescope (VLA) has remained unpublished since. We analyzed the remaining radio continuum observations for V351 Pup and fit the resulting light curve as expanding thermal ejecta. A well-fit model provides great insight into the total ejected mass, density profile, and the kinetic energy of a nova eruption. Radio light curves are one of the best ways to derive fundamental parameters, and the archival V351 Pup data are a wonderful opportunity to expand the sample of well-studied novae.

  11. Energy utilization and greenhouse gas emissions: End-use analysis. Final report, July 1991-November 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Darrow, K.G.

    1994-06-01

    The objective of this project is to develop a comparative model of energy sector greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from fuels production, processing, and transportation, through the final end-use. The report addresses the end-uses of energy and the interaction of competing fuels and equipment to meet specific energy service demands. The development of the GHG/energy accounting framework will provide GRI with an enhanced ability to incorporate environmental considerations into R D planning.

  12. Globalization, Development and International Migration: A Cross-National Analysis of Less-Developed Countries, 1970-2000

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanderson, Matthew R.; Kentor, Jeffrey D.

    2009-01-01

    It is widely argued that globalization and economic development are associated with international migration. However, these relationships have not been tested empirically. We use a cross-national empirical analysis to assess the impact of global and national factors on international migration from less-developed countries. An interdisciplinary…

  13. Structural Position in the World System and Economic Growth, 1955-1970: A Multiple-Network Analysis of Transactional Interactions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, David; Kick, Edward L.

    1979-01-01

    Addresses world-system/dependency theories of differential economic growth among nations and identifies reservations concerning the current empirical status of these theories. Presents a model which relates the world system to blockmodel analysis by considering four types of international networks--trade flows, military interventions, diplomatic…

  14. Evolution and hazard analysis of high-mountain lakes in the Cordillera Vilcabamba (Southern Peru) from 1991 to 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guardamino, Lucía; Drenkhan, Fabian

    2015-04-01

    In recent decades, glaciers in high-mountain regions have experienced unprecedented glacier retreat since the Little Ice Age (LIA). This development triggers the formation and growth of glacier lakes, which in combination with changes in glacier parameters might produce more frequent conditions for the occurrence of disasters, such as Glacier Lake Outburst Floods (GLOF). Facing such a scenario, the analysis of changing lake characteristics and identification of new glacier lakes are imperative in order to identify and reduce potential hazards and mitigate or prevent future disasters for adjacent human settlements. In this study, we present a multi-temporal analysis with Landsat TM 5 and OLI 8 images between 1991 and 2014 in the Cordillera Vilcabamba region (Southern Peru), a remote area with difficult access and climate and glaciological in-situ data scarcity. A semi-automatic model was developed using the band ratios Normalized Difference Snow Index (NDSI) and Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI) in order to identify glacier and lake area changes. Results corroborate a strong glacier area reduction of about 51% from 1991 (200.3 km²) to 2014 (98.4 km²). At the same time, the number of lakes (total lake surface) has increased at an accelerated rate, from 0.77% (0.48%) in 1991 to 2.31% (2.49%) in 2014. In a multiple criteria analysis to identify potential hazards, 90 out of a total of 329 lakes in 2014 have been selected for further monitoring. Additionally, 29 population centers have been identified as highly exposed to lake related hazards from which 25 indicate a distance less than 1 km to an upstream lake and four are situated in a channel of potential debris flow. In these areas human risks are particularly high in view of a low HDI below Peru's average and hence pronounced vulnerability. We suggest more future research on measurements and monitoring of glacier and lake characteristics in these remote high-mountain regions, which include comprehensive risk

  15. Education and Earnings: A Multilevel Analysis. A Case Study of the Manufacturing Sector in Iran.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naderi, A.; Mace, J.

    2003-01-01

    Using data from the manufacturing sector of Iran, examines the existence of hierarchical structure in data used and the advantages of employing multilevel modeling in human capital analysis of earnings differentials. Finds that (1) data used are dominated by a hierarchical structure and (2) the amount of education and experience is significantly…

  16. Integrated power sector efficiency analysis: A case study of Costa Rica

    SciTech Connect

    Waddle, D.B.; MacDonald, J.M.

    1990-03-01

    In an effort to analyze and document the potential for power sector efficiency improvements from generation to end-use, the Agency for International Development and the Government of Costa Rica are jointly conducting an integrated power sector efficiency analysis. Potential for energy and cost savings in power plants, transmission and distribution, and demand-side management programs are being evaluated. The product of this study will be an integrated investment plan for the Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad, incorporating both supply and demand side investment options. This paper presents the methodology employed in the study, as well as preliminary estimates of the results of the study. 14 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  17. Analysis of power sector efficiency improvements for an integrated utility planning process in Costa Rica

    SciTech Connect

    Waddle, D.B.; MacDonald, J.M.

    1990-01-01

    In an effort to analyze and document the potential for power sector efficiency improvements from generation to end-use, the Agency for International Development and the Government of Costa Rica are jointly conducting an integrated power sector efficiency analysis. Potential for energy and cost savings in power plants, transmission and distribution, and demand-side management programs are being evaluated. The product of this study will be an integrated investment plan for the Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad, incorporating both supply and demand side investment options. This paper presents the methodology employed in the study, as well as preliminary estimates of the results of the study. 14 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  18. Lost Opportunities in the Buildings Sector: Energy-Efficiency Analysis and Results

    SciTech Connect

    Dirks, James A.; Anderson, David M.; Hostick, Donna J.; Belzer, David B.; Cort, Katherine A.

    2008-09-12

    This report summarizes the results and the assumptions used in an analysis of the potential “lost efficiency opportunities” in the buildings sector. These targets of opportunity are those end-uses, applications, practices, and portions of the buildings market which are not currently being addressed, or addressed fully, by the Building Technologies Program (BTP) due to lack of resources. The lost opportunities, while a significant increase in effort and impact in the buildings sector, still represent only a small portion of the full technical potential for energy efficiency in buildings.

  19. Household vehicles energy consumption 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-09

    The purpose of this report is to provide information on the use of energy in residential vehicles in the 50 States and the District of Columbia. Included are data about: the number and type of vehicles in the residential sector, the characteristics of those vehicles, the total annual Vehicle Miles Traveled (VMT), the per household and per vehicle VMT, the vehicle fuel consumption and expenditures, and vehicle fuel efficiencies. The data for this report are based on the household telephone interviews from the 1991 RTECS, conducted during 1991 and early 1992. The 1991 RTECS represents 94.6 million households, of which 84.6 million own or have access to 151.2 million household motor vehicles in the 50 States and the District of Columbia.

  20. Development of an improved commercial sector energy model for national policy analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Belzer, D.B.

    1992-12-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory provided support to the Office of Conservation and Renewable Energy (CE), under the Office of Planning and Assessment, to develop improved energy and environmental analysis tools. Commercial building sector energy models from the past decade were analyzed in order to provoke comment and stimulate discussion between potential model users and developers as to the appropriate structure and capability of a commercial sector energy model supported by CE. Three specific areas were examined during this review. These areas provide (1) a look at recent suggestions and guidance as to what constitutes a minimal set of requirements and capabilities for a commercial buildings energy model for CE, (2) a review of several existing models in terms of their general structure and how they match up with the requirements listed previously, and (3) an overview of a proposed improved commercial sector energy model.

  1. Estimating size and scope economies in the Portuguese water sector using the Bayesian stochastic frontier analysis.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Pedro; Marques, Rui Cunha

    2016-02-15

    This study aims to search for economies of size and scope in the Portuguese water sector applying Bayesian and classical statistics to make inference in stochastic frontier analysis (SFA). This study proves the usefulness and advantages of the application of Bayesian statistics for making inference in SFA over traditional SFA which just uses classical statistics. The resulting Bayesian methods allow overcoming some problems that arise in the application of the traditional SFA, such as the bias in small samples and skewness of residuals. In the present case study of the water sector in Portugal, these Bayesian methods provide more plausible and acceptable results. Based on the results obtained we found that there are important economies of output density, economies of size, economies of vertical integration and economies of scope in the Portuguese water sector, pointing out to the huge advantages in undertaking mergers by joining the retail and wholesale components and by joining the drinking water and wastewater services. PMID:26674686

  2. Conic Sector Analysis of Hybrid Control Systems. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, P. M.

    1982-01-01

    A hybrid control system contains an analog plant and a hybrid (or sampled-data) compensator. In this thesis a new conic sector is determined which is constructive and can be used to: (1) determine closed loop stability, (2) analyze robustness with respect to modelling uncertainties, (3) analyze steady state response to commands, and (4) select the sample rate. The use of conic sectors allows the designer to treat hybrid control systems as though they were analog control systems. The center of the conic sector can be used as a rigorous linear time invariant approximation of the hybrid control system, and the radius places a bound on the errors of this approximation. The hybrid feedback system can be multivariable, and the sampler is assumed to be synchronous. Algorithms to compute the conic sector are presented. Several examples demonstrate how the conic sector analysis techniques are applied. Extensions to single loop multirate hybrid feedback systems are presented. Further extensions are proposed for multiloop multirate hybrid feedback system and for single rate systems with asynchronous sampling.

  3. External assistance to the health sector in developing countries: a detailed analysis, 1972-90.

    PubMed Central

    Michaud, C.; Murray, C. J.

    1994-01-01

    This study, which was conducted for the World Bank's World development report 1993: investing in health, provides an objective analysis of the external assistance to the health sector by quantifying in detail the sources and recipients of such assistance in 1990, by analysing time trends for external assistance to the health sector over the last two decades, and, to the extent possible, by describing the allocation of resources to specific activities in the health sector. The main findings of the study are that total external assistance to the health sector in 1990 was US$ 4800 million, or only 2.9% of total health expenditures in developing countries. After stagnation in real terms during the first half of the 1980s, health sector assistance has been increasing since 1986. Despite their small volume, external assistance at the margins may play a critical role in capital investment, research and strategic planning. The study confirms prior findings that health status variables per se are not related to the amount of aid received. Comparing investments to the burden of disease shows tremendous differences in the funding for different health problems. A number of conditions are comparatively under-financed, particularly noncommunicable diseases and injuries. PMID:7923543

  4. Comparative analysis of energy data bases for the industrial and commercial sectors

    SciTech Connect

    Roop, J.M.; Belzer, D.B.; Bohn, A.A.

    1986-12-01

    Energy data bases for the industrial and commercial sectors were analyzed to determine how valuable this data might be for policy analysis. The approach is the same for both end-use sectors: first a descrption or overview of relevant data bases identifies the available data; the coverage and methods used to generate the data are then explained; the data are then characterized and examples are provided for the major data sets under consideration. A final step assesses the data bases under consideration and draws conclusions. There are a variety of data bases considered for each of the end-use sectors included in this report. Data bases for the industrial sector include the National Energy Accounts, process-derived data bases such as the Drexel data base and data obtained from industry trade associations. For the commercial sector, three types of data bases are analyzed: the Nonresidential Building Energy Consumption Surveys, Dodge Construction Data and the Building Owners and Manager's Association Experience Exchange Report.

  5. Thermal-hydraulics and safety analysis of sectored compact reactor for lunar surface power

    SciTech Connect

    Schriener, T. M.; El-Genk, M. S.

    2012-07-01

    The liquid NaK-cooled, fast-neutron spectrum, Sectored Compact Reactor (SCoRe-N 5) concept has been developed at the Univ. of New Mexico for lunar surface power applications. It is loaded with highly enriched UN fuel pins in a triangular lattice, and nominally operates at exit and inlet coolant temperatures of 850 K and 900 K. This long-life reactor generates up to 1 MWth continuously for {>=} 20 years. To avoid a single point failure in reactor cooling, the core is divided into 6 sectors that are neutronically and thermally coupled, but hydraulically independent. This paper performs a 3-D the thermal-hydraulic analysis of SCoRe--N 5 at nominal operation temperatures and a power level of 1 MWth. In addition, the paper investigates the potential of continuing reactor operation at a lower power in the unlikely event that one sector in the core experiences a loss of coolant (LOC). Redesigning the core with a contiguous steel matrix enhances the cooling of the sector experiencing a LOC. Results show that with a core sector experiencing a LOC, SCORE-N 5 could continue operating safely at a reduced power of 166.6 kWth. (authors)

  6. An analysis of inputs cost for carp farming sector in 2001 in Iran.

    PubMed

    Salehi, Hassan

    2007-11-01

    Carp is widely sold and used in its fresh in Iran, however, recently a range of value additions may also be observed. It is essential to the sustainable development of a carp farm to know the production costs and their contribution. Warm-water fish farming is mainly based on common, silver, grass and bighead carp and the common carp and the three Chinese species are often reared in poly culture in Iran. Since, the 1970s carp farming has spread around the Caspian coast and farmed production reached a peak in 2006 with production of more than 73,400 tons. A study of production, costs and profitability of carp farming sector was carried out to help clarify carp production costs and their difference with location in 2001. A total of 101 farms from the three main carp farming provinces, Guilan, Mazandaran and Khuzestan were randomly selected, classified and studied. The results of the survey showed that the various producer provinces have different cost structures. Overall, feed and fertilizer with the highest level of variation accounted for 23% of total costs, followed by seed and labor and salary with 23 and 17%, respectively. On average, benefit-cost ratio and the rate of farm income were closely related to location. This result suggests that farmers practice more efficiently and have better conditions in Mazandaran, followed by Guilan province. PMID:19090234

  7. Big Data Analysis Framework for Healthcare and Social Sectors in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Song, Tae-Min

    2015-01-01

    Objectives We reviewed applications of big data analysis of healthcare and social services in developed countries, and subsequently devised a framework for such an analysis in Korea. Methods We reviewed the status of implementing big data analysis of health care and social services in developed countries, and strategies used by the Ministry of Health and Welfare of Korea (Government 3.0). We formulated a conceptual framework of big data in the healthcare and social service sectors at the national level. As a specific case, we designed a process and method of social big data analysis on suicide buzz. Results Developed countries (e.g., the United States, the UK, Singapore, Australia, and even OECD and EU) are emphasizing the potential of big data, and using it as a tool to solve their long-standing problems. Big data strategies for the healthcare and social service sectors were formulated based on an ICT-based policy of current government and the strategic goals of the Ministry of Health and Welfare. We suggest a framework of big data analysis in the healthcare and welfare service sectors separately and assigned them tentative names: 'health risk analysis center' and 'integrated social welfare service network'. A framework of social big data analysis is presented by applying it to the prevention and proactive detection of suicide in Korea. Conclusions There are some concerns with the utilization of big data in the healthcare and social welfare sectors. Thus, research on these issues must be conducted so that sophisticated and practical solutions can be reached. PMID:25705552

  8. Manufacturing consumption of energy 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-12-01

    This report provides estimates on energy consumption in the manufacturing sector of the US economy. These estimates are based on data from the 1991 Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey (MECS). This survey--administered by the Energy End Use and Integrated Statistics Division, Office of Energy Markets and End Use, Energy Information Administration (EIA)--is the most comprehensive source of national-level data on energy-related information for the manufacturing industries.

  9. The public sector nursing workforce in Kenya: a county-level analysis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Kenya’s human resources for health shortage is well documented, yet in line with the new constitution, responsibility for health service delivery will be devolved to 47 new county administrations. This work describes the public sector nursing workforce likely to be inherited by the counties, and examines the relationships between nursing workforce density and key indicators. Methods National nursing deployment data linked to nursing supply data were used and analyzed using statistical and geographical analysis software. Data on nurses deployed in national referral hospitals and on nurses deployed in non-public sector facilities were excluded from main analyses. The densities and characteristics of the public sector nurses across the counties were obtained and examined against an index of county remoteness, and the nursing densities were correlated with five key indicators. Results Of the 16,371 nurses in the public non-tertiary sector, 76% are women and 53% are registered nurses, with 35% of the nurses aged 40 to 49 years. The nursing densities across counties range from 1.2 to 0.08 per 1,000 population. There are statistically significant associations of the nursing densities with a measure of health spending per capita (P value = 0.0028) and immunization rates (P value = 0.0018). A higher county remoteness index is associated with explaining lower female to male ratio of public sector nurses across counties (P value <0.0001). Conclusions An overall shortage of nurses (range of 1.2 to 0.08 per 1,000) in the public sector countrywide is complicated by mal-distribution and varying workforce characteristics (for example, age profile) across counties. All stakeholders should support improvements in human resources information systems and help address personnel shortages and mal-distribution if equitable, quality health-care delivery in the counties is to be achieved. PMID:24467776

  10. Liquid chromatographic analysis of coal surface properties. Final report, September 1991--February 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Kwon, K.C.

    1996-03-01

    Experiments on equilibrium adsorption loadings of various probe compounds on 60-200 mesh Illinois {number_sign}6 coal (PSOC-1539), Adaville {number_sign}1 coal (PSOC-1544), Wyodak coal (PSOC-1545) and Pittsburgh {number_sign}8 coal (PSOC-1549) were performed. the probe compounds include m-cresol, p-cresol, o-cresol, phenol, n-octanol, n-heptanol, n-propanol, isopropanol n-butanol, s-butanol, 2-butanol, t-butanol, 2-naphthol, cyclohexanol, 2-methyl-1-pentanol (2M1P), 4-methyl-2-pentanol (4M2P), benzene and toluene. Equilibrium adsorption of various probe compounds on the coals were measured with the inverse liquid chromatography method. Experiments on flotation of various 60-200 mesh treated coals such as Illinois {number_sign}6 coal (PSOC-1539), Adaville {number_sign}1 coal (PSOC-1544), Wyodak coal (PSOC-1545) and Pittsburgh {number_sign}8 coal (PSOC-1549) were performed. The chosen coals were treated with steam, nitrogen and air at 1 atm and 125-225{degrees}C for 24 hours. The coals were treated with water as well as 20-1000 ppm aqueous alcohol solutions for 3-24 hours at 150-225{degrees}C. The coals also were treated with 20-ppm alcohol aqueous solutions for 1-24 hours at the 0.002-g/min mass flow rate of alcohol aqueous solutions and at 225{degrees}C. Flotation experiments were conducted with a 500-cm{sup 3} batch-type micro flotation apparatus, introducing nitrogen at the bottom of the apparatus. This final report was prepared with the experimental data obtained during the period of September 1991-March 1994.

  11. Analysis of diurnal double maxima observed above Italy during 1975-1991

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katamzi, Z. T.; Smith, N. D.; Mitchell, C. N.; Spalla, P.

    2012-11-01

    One of the major features of the mid-latitude ionosphere is the anomalous enhancements that often either occur before or after the more usual post mid-day peak. The structure in the total electron content comprising a pre- or post-midday peak and another enhancement is referred to by Pi et al. (1993) as a diurnal double maxima (DDM). DDM structures were sometimes observed during daytime in a long time-series of mid-latitude slant total electron content (sTEC) measurements collected in Italy between 1975 and 1991. From a total of 1366 daily TEC observations, DDM structures were observed on 302 days. The first peak usually occurred between the hours of 10-11 UT, and the second peak usually occurred either between the hours of 13-14 UT or 18-19 UT, where UT≈LT-1hour. The times of occurrence of each peak demonstrated a seasonal variation, with the second peak appearing later in the day during summer. The rate of occurrence of the DDM structure was higher in winter and summer than in autumn and spring. Independent observations were sought by using foF2 and hmF2 measurements from an ionosonde in Rome. Some evidence shows that vertical plasma motions in the F-region can cause DDM, however the cause of many other DDM events is still not clear. Furthermore, a comparison of DDM structures across different geomagnetic and auroral activities indicated that the structures were not necessarily related to geomagnetic storms or substorm events.

  12. A multivariate analysis of observed and modeled biophysical variability on the Bering Sea shelf: Multidecadal hindcasts (1970-2009) and forecasts (2010-2040)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermann, Albert J.; Gibson, Georgina A.; Bond, Nicholas A.; Curchitser, Enrique N.; Hedstrom, Kate; Cheng, Wei; Wang, Muyin; Stabeno, Phyllis J.; Eisner, Lisa; Cieciel, Kristin D.

    2013-10-01

    Coupled physical/biological models can be used to downscale global climate change to the ecology of subarctic regions, and to explore the bottom-up and top-down effects of that change on the spatial structure of subarctic ecosystems—for example, the relative dominance of large vs. small zooplankton in relation to ice cover. Here we utilize a multivariate statistical approach to extract the emergent properties of a coupled physical/biological hindcast of the Bering Sea for years 1970-2009, which includes multiple episodes of warming and cooling (e.g. the recent cooling of 2005-2009), and a multidecadal regional forecast of the coupled models, driven by an IPCC global model forecast of 2010-2040. Specifically, we employ multivariate empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis to derive the spatial covariance among physical and biological timeseries from our simulations. These are compared with EOFs derived from spatially gridded measurements of the region, collected during multiyear field programs. The model replicates observed relationships among temperature and salinity, as well as the observed inverse correlation between temperature and large crustacean zooplankton on the southeastern Bering Sea shelf. Predicted future warming of the shelf is accompanied by a northward shift in both pelagic and benthic biomass.

  13. Waste Package Program. Progress report, January 1991--June 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Culbreth, W.; Ladkany, S.

    1991-07-21

    This was a progress report on the research program of waste packages at the University of Nevada, Las Vegas. The report has the overviews of what the program has done from January 1991 to June 1991, such as task assignments for personnel, equipment acquisitions, and staff meetings and travels on behalf of the project. Also, included was an abstract on the structural analysis of the waste package container design. (MB)

  14. Analysis of US commercial building energy use trends, 1972--1991

    SciTech Connect

    Belzer, D.B.; Marsh, T.L.; Sands, R.D.

    1994-08-01

    Over the past two decades energy consumption in commercial buildings has been the fastest growing segment among the major end-use sectors in the US. This paper provides a decomposition of the major factors behind the trends in commercial energy use over this period. It examines the impact on overall commercial sector energy intensity from: (1) new buildings, (2) changes in the composition of buildings by geographic region and building type, (3) the growth in office equipment and computers, and (4) the influence of several common envelope conservation measures. A statistical decomposition of historical monthly electricity and gas consumption data is developed to separate energy use into heating, cooling, and ventilation (HVAC) and other components (non-HVAC). This data is then used in conjunction with historical commercial building floor space estimates to derive end-use intensities for these components of energy consumption. Deterministic analyses are performed to estimate the impacts of other factors. The impact of new buildings is measured by estimating the average improvement in heating efficiencies for buildings built after 1980. The effect of building composition on aggregate commercial building energy intensity is based upon estimates of historical floor space by building type and region and building-specific intensities derived from the 1989 Commercial Building Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS). Stocks of various types of office equipment were constructed from industry statistics and independent surveys. The stocks of selected office equipment were combined with estimates of unit energy consumption to estimate the impact on total commercial electricity consumption. For estimating changes in energy intensity due to the building retrofits, the study utilizes a new energy simulation tool developed as part of the Facility Energy Decision Screening (FEDS) system for the US Department of Energy.

  15. Trends in Family Income: 1970-1986.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Roberton C.

    Comparing the experiences of different types of families, this report analyzes family incomes in the United States from 1970 to 1986. The adjusted family income (AFI) measure used in the analysis corrects for family size and for inflation, but does not take account of either in-kind income or taxes. After a section summarizing the report's…

  16. Green corona and solar sector structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antonucci, E.; Svalgaard, L.

    1974-01-01

    Analysis of the green-line corona for the interval 1947-1970 suggests the existence of large-scale organization of the emission. The green-line emission at high northern latitudes (approximately 40 to 60 deg) is correlated with the emission at high southern latitudes 6, 15, and 24 days later, while the low-latitude green corona seems to be correlated on both sides of the equator with no time lag. These coronal features are recurrent with a 27-day period at all latitudes between plus or minus 60 deg, and these large-scale structures are believed to be associated with the solar magnetic sector structure. The high correlation between northern and southern high-latitude emission at 15 days time lag is explained as a signature of a two-sector structure, while four sectors are associated with the 6- and 24-day peaks.

  17. Technology Outlook for STEM+ Education 2013-2018: An NMC Horizon Project Sector Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, L.; Adams Becker, S.; Estrada, V.; Martín, S.

    2013-01-01

    The "Technology Outlook for STEM+ Education 2013-2018: An NMC Horizon Project Sector Analysis" reflects a collaborative research effort between the New Media Consortium (NMC), the Centro Superior para la Enseñanza Virtual (CSEV), the Departamento de Ingeniería Eléctrica, Electrónica y de Control at the Universidad Nacional de Educación a…

  18. Civil Rights: Progress Report, 1970

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diamond, Robert A., Ed.; Alligood, Arlene, Ed.

    Contents of this comprehensive review of civil rights developments from 1968 to 1970 include: Introduction--civil rights 1970: progress continues, priority wanes; Legislative Background--20 years of civil rights; Commission Report--civil rights enforcement; a promise unfulfilled; Supreme Court Decision--key decision on busing, racial balance…

  19. Toward the greening of nuclear energy: A content analysis of nuclear energy frames from 1991 to 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Sonya R.

    Framing theory has emerged as one of the predominant theories employed in mass communications research in the 21st century. Frames are identified as interpretive packages for content where some issue attributes are highlighted over other attributes. While framing effects studies appear plentiful, longitudinal studies assessing trends in dominant framing packages and story elements for an issue appear to be less understood. Through content analysis, this study examines dominant frame packages, story elements, headline tone, story tone, stereotypes, and source attribution for nuclear energy from 1991-2008 in the New York Times, USA Today, the Wall Street Journal, and the Washington Post. Unlike many content analysis studies, this study compares intercoder reliability among three indices---percentage agreement, proportional reduction of loss and Scott's Pi. The newspapers represented in this study possess a commonality in the types of dominant frames packages employed. Significant dominant frame packages among the four newspapers include human/health, proliferation, procedural, and marketplace. While the procedural frame package was more likely to appear prior to the 1997 Kyoto Protocol, the proliferation frame packaged was more likely to appear after the Kyoto Protol. Over time, the sustainable frame package demonstrated increased significance. This study is part of the growing literature regarding the function of frames over time.

  20. Factors Influencing the Organizational Stress among Teachers Working in Higher Education Sector in Kerala: An Empirical Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Areekkuzhiyil, Santhosh

    2014-01-01

    The study aims to explore the various factors that influence the organizational stress of teachers working in higher education sector in the state of Kerala. The data required for the study has been conveniently collected from 200 teachers working in higher education sector. Exploratory factor analysis revealed nine factors, which significantly…

  1. Industry sector analysis Canada: Natural gas pipeline development. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    Stark, T.

    1992-08-01

    The analysis focuses on the Canadian natural gas pipeline industry and covers all inputs to natural gas pipeline construction and expansion projects: pipe, compressors, engineering services, tools, miscellaneous industrial supplies, and equipment rental. The Industry Sector Analysis (ISA) contains statistical and narrative information on projected market demand, end-users; receptivity of Canadian consumers to U.S. products; the competitive situation (Canadian production, total import market, U.S. market position, foreign competition, competitive factors), and market access (tariffs, non-tariff barriers, standards, taxes, distribution channels). The ISA also contains Key Contact information.

  2. Models for residential-and commercial-sector energy conservation analysis: Applications, limitations, and future potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, H. E.; Fuller, R. E.

    1980-09-01

    Four of the major models used by DOE for energy conservation analyses in the residential and commercial building sectors are reviewed and critically analyzed to determine how these models can serve as tools for DOE and its Conservation Policy Office in evaluating and quantifying their policy and program requirements. The most effective role for each model in addressing future issues of buildings energy conservation policy and analysis is assessed. The four models covered are: Oak Ridge Residential Energy Model; Micro Analysis of Transfers to Households/Comprehensive Human Resources Data System (MATH/CHRDS) Model; Oak Ridge Commercial Energy Model; and Brookhaven Buildings Energy Conservation Optimization Model (BECOM).

  3. Economic Drought Impact on Agriculture: analysis of all agricultural sectors affected

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gil, M.; Garrido, A.; Hernández-Mora, N.

    2012-04-01

    The analysis of drought impacts is essential to define efficient and sustainable management and mitigation. In this paper we present a detailed analysis of the impacts of the 2004-2008 drought in the agricultural sector in the Ebro river basin (Spain). An econometric model is applied in order to determine the magnitude of the economic loss attributable to water scarcity. Both the direct impacts of drought on agricultural productivity and the indirect impacts of drought on agricultural employment and agroindustry in the Ebro basin are evaluated. The econometric model measures losses in the economic value of irrigated and rainfed agricultural production, of agricultural employment and of Gross Value Added both from the agricultural sector and the agro-industrial sector. The explanatory variables include an index of water availability (reservoir storage levels for irrigated agriculture and accumulated rainfall for rainfed agriculture), a price index representative of the mix of crops grown in each region, and a time variable. The model allows for differentiating the impacts due to water scarcity from other sources of economic losses. Results show how the impacts diminish as we approach the macro-economic indicators from those directly dependent on water abstractions and precipitation. Sectors directly dependent on water are the most affected with identifiable economic losses resulting from the lack of water. From the management perspective implications of these findings are key to develop mitigation measures to reduce drought risk exposure. These results suggest that more open agricultural markets, and wider and more flexible procurement strategies of the agro-industry reduces the socio-economic exposure to drought cycles. This paper presents the results of research conducted under PREEMPT project (Policy relevant assessment of the socioeconomic effects of droughts and floods, ECHO - grant agreement # 070401/2010/579119/SUB/C4), which constitutes an effort to provide

  4. Conceptual models for waste tank mechanistic analysis. Status report, January 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Allemann, R. T.; Antoniak, Z. I.; Eyler, L. L.; Liljegren, L. M.; Roberts, J. S.

    1992-02-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is conducting a study for Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford), a contractor for the US Department of Energy (DOE). The purpose of the work is to study possible mechanisms and fluid dynamics contributing to the periodic release of gases from double-shell waste storage tanks at the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington. This interim report emphasizing the modeling work follows two other interim reports, Mechanistic Analysis of Double-Shell Tank Gas Release Progress Report -- November 1990 and Collection and Analysis of Existing Data for Waste Tank Mechanistic Analysis Progress Report -- December 1990, that emphasized data correlation and mechanisms. The approach in this study has been to assemble and compile data that are pertinent to the mechanisms, analyze the data, evaluate physical properties and parameters, evaluate hypothetical mechanisms, and develop mathematical models of mechanisms.

  5. The Holocaust as History and Human Rights: A Cross-National Analysis of Holocaust Education in Social Science Textbooks, 1970-2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bromley, Patricia; Russell, Susan Garnett

    2010-01-01

    This article examines Holocaust education in secondary school social science textbooks around the world since 1970, using data coded from 465 textbooks from 69 countries. It finds that books and countries more connected to world society and with an accompanying emphasis on human rights, diversity in society and a depiction of international, rather…

  6. Analysis of optical structures; Proceedings of the Meeting, San Diego, CA, July 23, 24, 1991

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Shea, Donald C.

    1991-12-01

    The present conference discusses the application of FEM methods to optical system structures, the design and analysis of a CCD array mounting structure, lightweight composite mirrors, the dynamic characteristics of joint-dominated space structures, and the design and manufacture of an ultralightweight solid deployable reflector. Also discussed is an analysis of the thermal stability of a fused optical structure, flow visualization for telescope enclosures, an overview of active optics technology, shape control of piezoelectric bimorph mirrors, CAE/CAM of extremely fast steering mirrors, and holographic optical elements as laser irradiation sensor components.

  7. A genetic analysis of Adh1 regulation. Progress report, June 1991--February 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Freeling, M.

    1992-03-01

    The overall goal of our research proposal is to understand the meaning of the various cis-acting sites responsible for AdH1 expression in the entire maize plant. Progress is reported in the following areas: Studies on the TATA box and analysis of revertants of the Adh1-3F1124 allele; screening for more different mutants that affect Adh1 expression differentially; studies on cis-acting sequences required for root-specific Adh1 expression; refinement of the use of the particle gun; and functional analysis of a non- glycolytic anaerobic protein.

  8. Private participation in infrastructure: A risk analysis of long-term contracts in power sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceran, Nisangul

    The objective of this dissertation is to assess whether the private participation in energy sector through long term contracting, such as Build-Operate-Transfer (BOT) type investments, is an efficient way of promoting efficiency in the economy. To this end; the theoretical literature on the issue is discussed, the experience of several developing countries are examined, and a BOT project, which is undertaken by the Enron company in Turkey, has been studied in depth as a case study. Different risk analysis techniques, including sensitivity and probabilistic risk analysis with the Monte Carlo Simulation (MCS) method have been applied to assess the financial feasibility and risks of the case study project, and to shed light on the level of rent-seeking in the BOT agreements. Although data on rent seeking and corruption is difficult to obtain, the analysis of case study investment using the sensitivity and MCS method provided some information that can be used in assessing the level of rent-seeking in BOT projects. The risk analysis enabled to test the sustainability of the long-term BOT contracts through the analysis of projects financial feasibility with and without the government guarantees in the project. The approach of testing the sustainability of the project under different scenarios is helpful to understand the potential costs and contingent liabilities for the government and project's impact on a country's overall economy. The results of the risk analysis made by the MCS method for the BOT project used as the case study strongly suggest that, the BOT projects does not serve to the interest of the society and transfers substantial amount of public money to the private companies, implying severe governance problems. It is found that not only government but also private sector may be reluctant about full privatization of infrastructure due to several factors such as involvement of large sunk costs, very long time period for returns to be received, political and

  9. Crew interface analysis: Selected articles on space human factors research, 1987 - 1991

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bagian, Tandi (Compiler)

    1993-01-01

    As part of the Flight Crew Support Division at NASA, the Crew Interface Analysis Section is dedicated to the study of human factors in the manned space program. It assumes a specialized role that focuses on answering operational questions pertaining to NASA's Space Shuttle and Space Station Freedom Programs. One of the section's key contributions is to provide knowledge and information about human capabilities and limitations that promote optimal spacecraft and habitat design and use to enhance crew safety and productivity. The section provides human factors engineering for the ongoing missions as well as proposed missions that aim to put human settlements on the Moon and Mars. Research providing solutions to operational issues is the primary objective of the Crew Interface Analysis Section. The studies represent such subdisciplines as ergonomics, space habitability, man-computer interaction, and remote operator interaction.

  10. Reregulation of the Swedish pharmacy sector-A qualitative content analysis of the political rationale.

    PubMed

    Wisell, Kristin; Winblad, Ulrika; Sporrong, Sofia Kälvemark

    2015-05-01

    In 2009, a reregulation of the Swedish pharmacy sector took place, and a fundamental change in ownership and structure followed. The reregulation provides an opportunity to reveal the politicians' views on pharmacies. The aim of this study was to explore and analyze the political arguments for the reregulation of the Swedish pharmacy sector in 2009. The method used was a qualitative content analysis of written political documents regarding the reregulation. The primary rationales for the reregulation were better availability, efficiency, price pressure, and safe usage of medicines. During the preparatory work, the rationales of diversity on the market and entrepreneurship were added, while the original rationales of efficiency, price pressure, and better usage of medicines were abandoned. The reform can be seen as a typical New Public Management reform influenced by the notion that private actors are better equipped to perform public activities. The results point to that the reform was done almost solely in order to introduce private ownership in the pharmacy sector, and was not initiated in order to solve any general problems, or to enhance patient outcomes of medicine use. PMID:25841749

  11. The Impact Analysis of Direct Public R&D and Innovation Investments in Turkish Space Sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaya, Derya; Cakir, Serhat

    2016-07-01

    According to The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), space sector plays a pivotal role in the functioning of modern societies and their economic development. It is in the scope of OECD's International Futures Programme. The global space economy, as defined by the OECD Space Forum, comprises the space industry's core activities in space manufacturing and in satellite operations, plus other consumer activities that have been derived over the years from governmental research and development. In 2013 commercial revenues generated by the space economy amounted to USD 256.2 billion globally that is huge amount of space investment in the world. Recently, Turkey has also entered to the sector and it has growing strategic interest in space. First satellite project was started with a technology transfer from UK by TUBITAK Space Technologies Research Institute in 2001 and it launched to its orbit in 2003. Then RASAT and GÖKTÜRK-2 satellites were developed and launched to their orbits respectively in 2011 and 2012. Today, we have other satellite projects that are going on, too. However, we do not have a mechanism or a model to assess the impacts of those projects. What kind of model can be used to measure the impact of direct public R&D and innovation investments in Turkish space sector? The aim of this study is to develop a model which would be useful for monitoring the performance of R&D and Innovation investments that are conducted through government policies and strategies and so on to give feedback for effective strategy making. When we look at the impact analysis studies in Turkey, we see a few such as TUBITAK (Özçelik and Taymaz, 2008; Erden, 2010; Tandoǧan, 2011), İşkur (World Bank Report, 2013), Ministry of Economy (TTGV, 2013), Development Agencies (İZKA, 2011; Elçi vd., 2011; Pınar, 2014; Meydan, 2014). There is need for a systematic approach to impact analysis. Since there is no data for this study, we would develop a model with

  12. A genetic analysis of Adhl regulation. Progress report, June 1991--May 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Freeling, M.

    1992-12-01

    Several separate but related studies are reported on the mechanism of alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh-1) are reported. A study of a deletion mutation in the TATA box region which resulted in an increase from 6--60% of wildtype Adh-1 expression in the revertant has led to a focus on trans-acting protein factors that bind the TATA box. Analysis of another revertant has led to study of cis-acting sequences in Adh-1 expression. Screening efforts aimed at defining different mutants affecting Adh-1 expression are reported.

  13. Cost benefit analysis of excess flow valves: An update. Topical report, August 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-08-26

    Calculations and analysis of the cost-to-benefit ratio of using excess flow valves (EFVs) of all U.S. new and renewed gas services operating at 10 psig or more are presented. The study is an update of an earlier evaluation performed by the same contractor, entitled 'Costs and Benefits of Excess Flow Valves in Gas Distribution Services' (GRI-86/0022). As calculated with up-to-date information and average operating cost data, the ratio continues to be unfavorable even when using high value for human life and injury and low operating cost data. Data collected from EFV users indicate that EFVs are highly reliable and generally perform as required with very few problems. The report expresses the opinion that the cost-to-benefit ratio is highly dependent on individual company operations, location, and pipeline characteristics, and that the decision to use EFVs should be left to individual companies after performing their own cost benefit analysis, which should include an assessment of alternative accident mitigation measures.

  14. Direct coal liquefaction baseline design and system analysis. Quarterly report, April--June 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-07-01

    The primary objective of the study is to develop a computer model for a base line direct coal liquefaction design based on two stage direct coupled catalytic reactors. This primary objective is to be accomplished by completing the following: a base line design based on previous DOE/PETC results from Wilsonville pilot plant and other engineering evaluations; a cost estimate and economic analysis; a computer model incorporating the above two steps over a wide range of capacities and selected process alternatives; a comprehensive training program for DOE/PETC Staff to understand and use the computer model; a thorough documentation of all underlying assumptions for baseline economics; and a user manual and training material which will facilitate updating of the model in the future.

  15. Geotechnical field data and analysis report, July 1991--June 1992. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-31

    The Geotechnical Field Data and Analysis Report presents the data for the assessments of the geotechnical status of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). During the period of shaft sinking and construction of the principal underground access and experimental areas, reporting was on a quarterly basis. Since 1987, reporting has been carried out annually because excavation of the waste storage panels will take place more slowly and over an extended period. This report presents the data collected up to June 30, 1992. This report focuses on the presentation of geotechnical data from the various underground facilities including the shafts, shaft stations, access drifts, test rooms, and waste storage areas. It also describes the techniques used to acquire the data and the performance history of the instruments.

  16. Applying machine learning techniques to DNA sequence analysis. Progress report, February 14, 1991--February 13, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Shavlik, J.W.

    1992-04-01

    We are developing a machine learning system that modifies existing knowledge about specific types of biological sequences. It does this by considering sample members and nonmembers of the sequence motif being learned. Using this information (which we call a ``domain theory``), our learning algorithm produces a more accurate representation of the knowledge needed to categorize future sequences. Specifically, the KBANN algorithm maps inference rules, such as consensus sequences, into a neural (connectionist) network. Neural network training techniques then use the training examples of refine these inference rules. We have been applying this approach to several problems in DNA sequence analysis and have also been extending the capabilities of our learning system along several dimensions.

  17. Direct conversion technology. Annual summary report CY 1991, January 1, 1991--December 31, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Massier, P.F.; Back, L.H.; Ryan, M.A.; Fabris, G.

    1992-01-07

    The overall objective of the Direct Conversion Technology task is to develop an experimentally verified technology base for promising direct conversion systems that have potential application for energy conservation in the end-use sectors. This report contains progress of research on the Alkali Metal Thermal-to-Electric Converter (AMTEC) and on the Two-Phase Liquid-Metal MHD Electrical Generator (LMMHD) for the period January 1, 1991 through December 31, 1991. Research on AMTEC and on LMMHD was initiated during October 1987. Reports prepared on previous occasions (Refs. 1--5) contain descriptive and performance discussions of the following direct conversion concepts: thermoelectric, pyroelectric, thermionic, thermophotovoltaic, thermoacoustic, thermomagnetic, thermoelastic (Nitionol heat engine); and also, more complete descriptive discussions of AMTEC and LMMHD systems.

  18. Tipping points for carbon dioxide and air pollution benefits: an energy systems analysis of natural gas verses electric technologies in the U.S. buildings sector

    EPA Science Inventory

    Our analysis examines emission trade-offs between electricity and natural gas use in the buildings sector at the system level, including upstream emissions from the electric sector and natural gas mining emissions.

  19. TDWR 1991 Program Review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elmore, Kim

    1992-01-01

    The topics addressed are: (1) Terminal Doppler Weather Radar (TDWR) 1991 program review; (2) TDWR demonstrations notable results/events; (3) TDWR demonstration Denver chronology; (4) overview of generic integration concepts; (5) TDWR 1991 program review; (6) Denver operation 1991; and (7) FY-92 plans.

  20. A Statistical Power Analysis of the Quantitative Techniques Used in the "Journal of Research in Music Education," 1987 through 1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniel, Thomas Dyson

    Statistical power in music education was examined by taking an in-depth look at quantitative articles published in the "Journal of Research in Music Education" between 1987 and 1991, inclusive. Of the 109 articles of the period, 78 were quantitative, with both parametric and nonparametric procedures considered. Sample sizes were those reported by…

  1. [Demographic effects on development from 1970 to 1990].

    PubMed

    Porras Macias, A

    1990-01-01

    Although significant advances were achieved in Mexican school enrollment and educational status between 1950 and 1970, nearly half of 1970 entrants in the labor market had fewer than 5 years of formal schooling. Fertility and population growth rates began to decline in the 1970s, and the gross national product (GNP) was still growing at the rapid rate of 6.2%, although employment in the formal sector was increasingly limited. Income distribution did not alter greatly for the poorest households; in 1970, 1977, and 1983 the poorest 40% of households received around 11% of total income. The fertility decline continued in the 1980s, but it was not homogeneous in all social groups. During 1970-86 the poorest and least educated sectors had an average of nearly 3 children more than the wealthier and better educated. The poor population grew at a rate of 3% annually, while those with higher incomes grew at 1.3%. During the 1980s the economic crisis significantly affected social spending. Government spending as a percentage of GNP declined from 8% in the 1980s to 3.8% in 1988. The GNP grew at negative rates in 1982, 1983, and 1986, and at rates below demographic growth rates in 1987 and 1988. The economically active population grew at almost 3.5% annually, while employment only increased by 0.9%. A significant proportion of the skilled labor force was obliged to seek employment in the informal sector, placing additional pressure on the poor and unskilled. PMID:12158094

  2. [The influenza pandemic 1968-1970: crisis management in separated Germany - "Vodka and Raspberry Tea"].

    PubMed

    Witte, W

    2011-12-01

    The Hong Kong Flu in the years 1968-1970 challenged both German health care systems. This article intends to analyse the patterns of reaction to the pandemic. Both German states faced the threat according to their respective ideological orientation. This applied to the two parts of Berlin - West and East - as well. In the GDR the control of influenza was centrally organized. When the pandemic passed away an influenza guiding document ("Führungsdokument") was made obligatory for the fight against the plague. In the FRG hospital treatment maintained predominance while the outpatient sector was administrated by physicians in private practice. In West- Berlin outpatient clinics were declined by the Association of Physicians ("Kassenärztliche Vereinigung"). In 1970 a first concept of surveillance was presented on the level of the state in West Germany. In the years 1968-1970 vaccinations were not common in both German states. The essay is based on the analysis of archival sources, monographs, scientific and newspaper articles. PMID:22169920

  3. Calculated analysis of the stressed and strain state of pipeline sector elbows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popov, A. B.

    2012-04-01

    The stressed and strain state of sector-type pipeline elbows is analyzed using the finite element method. Features in which sector elbows of pipelines differ from circular elbows are revealed. Formulas for determining the maximal equivalent stresses in sector elbows are presented.

  4. An analysis of the role of information and communication technology sectors on Japanese national economy from 1995 through 2005: An application of multiplier analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuhdi, Ubaidillah

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to continue the previous studies which focused on Japanese Information and Communication Technology (ICT) sectors. More specifically, this study aims to analyze the role of ICT sectors on Japanese national economy using simple household income multiplier, one of the analysis instruments in Input-Output (IO) analysis. The analysis period of this study is from 1995-2005. The results show that the sectors did not have an important role on the national economy of Japan on the period. Besides, the results also show that, from the point of view of the multiplier, Japanese national economy tended to stable during the period.

  5. Topographyc metrics in the southern sector of the Marche foothills: implication for active tectonic analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Materazzi, Marco; Aringoli, Domenico; Carducci, Tamara; Cavitolo, Paolo; Farabollini, Piero; Giacopetti, Marco; Pambianchi, Gilberto; Tondi, Emanuele; Troiani, Francesco

    2016-04-01

    Quantitative geomorphic analysis can be provided a useful contribution to the study of recent tectonics. Some parameters, that quantify the channels morphology, as the Stream Length-Gradient (SL) Index (Hack, 1973) and the Steepness (Ks) Index (Flint, 1974), are generally used to detect anomalies on the expected concave-up equilibrium stream-profile, which can result in local abrupt changes in stream gradient (i.e., knickpoints) and/or broad convexities on stream long-profiles extending for tens of kilometres (i.e., knickzones). The main goal of this work is the study of the morphological and morphometrical features in the southern sector of the Marche Region, with the aim to gain new knowledge on the influences of rock resistance and rock uplift on the fluvial and topographic system. The investigated area is situated in central Italy and it extends from the axial zone of the Umbria-Marche Apennines to the Adriatic Sea, including the southern sector of the Marche Region and belongs to the foredeep domain of the Apennines orogenic system, which has affected by tectonic activity up to very recent times. The rheology of outcropping deposits doesn't allow the strain to be easily recorded at the outcrop scale. The analyses have been aimed at to test the sensitivity of both SL and Ks for evaluating active crustal deformations, acting at different wavelengths on land surface, within a low tectonically active thrust-and-fold belt. Additional purpose was the understanding of the pattern of regional differential crustal activity in the topographic arrangement of the study area In this research project two sets of analysis were conducted. References Hack J.T. 1973. Stream-profile analysis and stream-gradient index. Journal of Research of the U.S. Geological Survey, 1, 421-429. Flint J.J. 1974. Stream gradient as a function of order, magnitude and discharge. Water Resources Research, 10, 969-973.

  6. Sectoral Analysis of Wind Speed and Turbulence Intensity over Forest and Open Land

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beyer, Elisabeth

    2015-04-01

    More and more wind turbines are built onshore and reduce the available areas for wind energy. Forests are an additional potential for wind energy priority areas. But the high roughness of wooden areas and the resulting turbulences make it difficult to assess sites in forests. In order to cope with this problem some measurements, using Lidar and met masts were done inside and outside wooden areas. Therefore, two posters were created, dealing with the dependence of turbulence intensity on wind speed and wind direction. This poster summarises the existing results, concentrating on the sectoral analysis of wind speed and turbulence intensity. Furthermore it investigates the differences of inflow over landcover with low and high surface roughnesses.

  7. The dynamics of the total output of the Japanese fisheries sector: An analysis using input-output approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuhdi, Ubaidillah

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the dynamics of the total output of the fisheries industry when the changes of the final demand occur. This study focuses on the case of Japan. This study employs a demand-pull Input-Output (IO) quantity model, one of the calculation instruments in the IO analysis, as an analysis tool. Two conditions are included in calculations and analysis parts, namely (1) “whole sector change”, and (2) “pure change”. An initial period in this study is 2005. The results show that, in both conditions, the analyzed sector has similar patterns, namely this industry obtains the positive impacts from scenarios 1, 3, and 4 while the negative impact is received from scenario 2. The results also expose that, in both conditions, the biggest positive impact for the discussed sector is given by scenario 4, the modification of the consumption expenditures of the private.

  8. "Climate change on Friuli Venezia Giulia (Italy): rapid temperature rise, new records of heavy precipitation and orographic effects on temperature extremes across Alps and Adriatic. Analysis of the data of the period 1991-2015 in comparison to the histori

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nordio, Sergio

    2016-04-01

    Friuli Venezia Giulia is weel-know as the wettest land of Italy with important yearly average from 1000 m over coastal zone to 3300 m over prealpine sector., and from 1991, OSMER has implemented a observative meteorological system and investigated over a pattern of meteorological phenomena, some oh this, typical of this zone, as strong rainfall precipitation, frequent thunderstorms with hail, strong wind Bora over the sea. During the last 25 years we have seen significant change in weather conditions, with a rapid rise of temperature and distribution, frequency and intensity of precipitation. The most frequent extension to high latitude of tropical high pressure and a irregularity of westerly circulation over Mediterranean zone cause a change of the distribution of precipitation, an increasing a strong and quickly rainfall, and a rapid increase in average temperatures, with many new heat and cold records. During the 1961-1990 time, but too in the past since the beginning of observation, the average precipitation is quiet stable, but in the last 25 years it's possible observe more variability with more frequency of period of abundance and scarcity. This extremes of variability of precipitations is even more significant over the last 15 years, with an exceptional peak in 2014. The temperature analysis shows a clear upward trend, more pronounced than the other Italian regions, with new records, due to the location and geography of the region, the bridge between the Alps, the Adriatic and the Balkans.

  9. Survey review of models for use in market penetration analysis: utility sector focus

    SciTech Connect

    Groncki, P.J.; Kydes, A.S.; Lamontagne, J.; Marcuse, W.; Vinjamuri, G.

    1980-11-01

    The ultimate benefits of federal expenditures in research and development for new technologies are dependent upon the degree of acceptance of these technologies. Market penetration considerations are central to the problem of quantifying the potential benefits. These benefits are inputs to the selection process of projects competing for finite R and D funds. Market penetration is the gradual acceptance of a new commodity or technology. The Office of Coal utilization is concerned with the specialized area of market penetration of new electric power generation technologies for both replacement and new capacity. The common measure of market penetration is the fraction of the market serviced by the challenging technology for each time point considered. The methodologies for estimating market penetration are divided into three generic classes: integrated energy/economy modeling systems, utility capacity expansion models, and technology substitution models. In general, the integrated energy/economy modeling systems have three advantages: they provide internally consistent macro, energy-economy scenarios, they account for the effect of prices on demand by fuel form, and they explicitly capture the effects of population growth and the level and structure of economic activity on energy demand. A variety of deficiencies appear in most energy-economy systems models. All of the methodologies may be applied at some level to questions of market penetration of new technologies in the utility sector; choice of methods for a particular analysis must be conditioned by the scope of the analysis, data availability, and the relative cost of alternative analysis.

  10. Cost analysis of Periodontitis management in public sector specialist dental clinics

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The objective of this paper is to quantify the cost of periodontitis management at public sector specialist periodontal clinic settings and analyse the distribution of cost components. Methods Five specialist periodontal clinics in the Ministry of Health represented the public sector in providing clinical and cost data for this study. Newly-diagnosed periodontitis patients (N = 165) were recruited and followed up for one year of specialist periodontal care. Direct and indirect costs from the societal viewpoint were included in the cost analysis. They were measured in 2012 Ringgit Malaysia (MYR) and estimated from the societal perspective using activity-based and step-down costing methods, and substantiated by clinical pathways. Cost of dental equipment, consumables and labour (average treatment time) for each procedure was measured using activity-based costing method. Meanwhile, unit cost calculations for clinic administration, utilities and maintenance used step-down approach. Patient expenditures and absence from work were recorded via diary entries. The conversion from MYR to Euro was based on the 2012 rate (1€ = MYR4). Results A total of 2900 procedures were provided, with an average cost of MYR 2820 (€705) per patient for the study year, and MYR 376 (€94) per outpatient visit. Out of this, 90% was contributed by provider cost and 10% by patient cost; 94% for direct cost and 4% for lost productivity. Treatment of aggressive periodontitis was significantly higher than for chronic periodontitis (t-test, P = 0.003). Higher costs were expended as disease severity increased (ANOVA, P = 0.022) and for patients requiring surgeries (ANOVA, P < 0.001). Providers generally spent most on consumables while patients spent most on transportation. Conclusions Cost of providing dental treatment for periodontitis patients at public sector specialist settings were substantial and comparable with some non-communicable diseases. These findings

  11. Rural-urban migration, informal sector and development policies: a theoretical analysis.

    PubMed

    Gupta, M R

    1993-06-01

    "A theoretical model of rural-urban migration has been developed with special reference to the informal sector. The wage rate and employment in the informal sector are determined endogenously. The paper shows the simultaneous existence of open unemployment and informal sector in the urban area in migration equilibrium. The effects of alternative subsidy policies on unemployment and welfare of the workers are studied." The model is intended primarily for use in analyzing trends and policies in developing countries. PMID:12344755

  12. Water flows, energy demand, and market analysis of the informal water sector in Kisumu, Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Sima, Laura C.; Kelner-Levine, Evan; Eckelman, Matthew J.; McCarty, Kathleen M.; Elimelech, Menachem

    2013-01-01

    In rapidly growing urban areas of developing countries, infrastructure has not been able to cope with population growth. Informal water businesses fulfill unmet water supply needs, yet little is understood about this sector. This paper presents data gathered from quantitative interviews with informal water business operators (n=260) in Kisumu, Kenya, collected during the dry season. Sales volume, location, resource use, and cost were analyzed by using material flow accounting and spatial analysis tools. Estimates show that over 76% of the city's water is consumed by less than 10% of the population who have water piped into their dwellings. The remainder of the population relies on a combination of water sources, including water purchased directly from kiosks (1.5 million m3 per day) and delivered by hand-drawn water-carts (0.75 million m3 per day). Energy audits were performed to compare energy use among various water sources in the city. Water delivery by truck is the highest per cubic meter energy demand (35 MJ/m3), while the city's tap water has the highest energy use overall (21,000 MJ/day). We group kiosks by neighborhood and compare sales volume and cost with neighborhood-level population data. Contrary to popular belief, we do not find evidence of price gouging; the lowest prices are charged in the highest-demand low-income area. We also see that the informal sector is sensitive to demand, as the number of private boreholes that serve as community water collection points are much larger where demand is greatest. PMID:23543887

  13. Mound publications for 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Nowka, Stephen L.

    1992-05-01

    This document is a compilation of all Mound formal technical publications and oral presentations for calendar year 1991. It is intended to serve as an aid to personnel in obtaining or referring to specific publications by giving the proper complete reference for each information item published during the year. Some items, such as proceedings publications, may have issue dates or periods of coverage prior to 1991; however, they were formally published during 1991.

  14. The impacts of final demand changes on total output of Indonesian ICT sectors: An analysis using input-output approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuhdi, Ubaidillah

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the impacts of final demand changes on total output of Indonesian Information and Communication Technology (ICT) sectors. This study employs Input-Output (IO) analysis as a tool of analysis. More specifically, demand-pull IO quantity model is applied in order to achieve the objective. "Whole sector change" and "pure change" conditions are considered in this study. The results of calculation show that, in both conditions, the biggest positive impact to the total output of the sectors is given by the change of households consumption while the change of import has a negative impact. One of the recommendations suggested from this study is to construct import restriction policy for ICT products.

  15. SEADS 3.0 Sectoral Energy/Employment Analysis and Data System

    SciTech Connect

    Roop, Joseph M.; Anderson, David A.; Schultz, Robert W.; Elliott, Douglas B.

    2007-12-17

    SEADS 3.0, the Sectoral Energy/Employment Analysis and Data System, is a revision and upgrading of SEADS--PC, a software package designed for the analysis of policy that could be described by modifying final demands of consumer, businesses, or governments (Roop, et al., 1995). If a question can be formulated so that implications can be translated into changes in final demands for goods and services, then SEADS 3.0 provides a quick and easy tool to assess preliminary impacts. And SEADS 3.0 should be considered just that: a quick and easy way to get preliminary results. Often a thorough answer, even to such a simple question as, “What would be the effect on U. S. energy use and employment if the Federal Government doubled R&D expenditures?” requires a more sophisticated analytical framework than the input-output structure embedded in SEADS 3.0. This tool uses a static, input-output model to assess the impacts of changes in final demands on first industry output, then employment and energy use. The employment and energy impacts are derived by multiplying the industry outputs (derived from the changed final demands) by industry-specific energy and employment coefficients. The tool also allows for the specification of regional or state employment impacts, though this option is not available for energy impacts.

  16. Greenhouse gas mitigation options in the forestry sector of The Gambia: Analysis based on COMAP model

    SciTech Connect

    Jallow, B.P.

    1996-12-31

    Results of the 1993 Greenhouse Gas Emissions Inventory of The Gambia showed net CO{sub 2} emissions of over (1.66 x 10{sup 6} tons) and 1% was due to uptake by plantations (0.01 x 10{sup 6} tons). This is a clear indication that there is need to identify changes in the land-use policy, law and tenure that discourages forest clearing at the same time significantly influencing the sustainable distribution of land among forestry, rangeland and livestock, and agriculture. About 11% of the total area of The Gambia is either fallow or barren flats that once supported vegetation and hence is still capable of supporting vegetation. The US Country Study Programme has provided the Government of The Gambia through the National Climate Committee funds to conduct Assessment of Mitigation Options to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions. The Forestry Sector is one area for which assessment is being conducted. The assessment is expected to end in September 1996. The Comprehensive Mitigation Analysis Process (COMAP) is one of the Models supplied to the National Climate Committee by the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, on behalf of the US Country Study Programme, and is being used to conduct the analysis in The Gambia.

  17. Local and Regional Interactions Between Air Quality and Climate in New Delhi -- a Sector Based Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marrapu, P.; Cheng, Y.; Carmichael, G. R.; Beig, G.; Spak, S.; Lin, M.; Decker, M.; Schultz, M. G.; Winiwarter, W.

    2011-12-01

    Out of the 26 mega-cities in the world, 13 of them are affected by atmospheric brown clouds with high aerosol loadings and 5 of them are in South Asia. New Delhi (India) is one of the world's most polluted megacities. In this study we evaluate the air pollution levels in Delhi and their impacts on weather and climate. The two way interactions between pollution and meteorology are evaluated using the WRF-Chem model. The analysis period is focused on October 2010, the time period of the Commonwealth Games. The model is compared to BC and PM2.5 measurements at 11 sites. A sector based analysis is performed to assess the contributions to pollution and direct radiative forcing from transport, residential, power and industrial emissions. The contributions from emissions outside of Delhi are also evaluated to see the extent that regional emissions need to be controlled to meet air quality targets in Delhi. Results of simulations for emission scenarios generated by the GAINS model that address air quality and climate strategies are also discussed

  18. Occupations in the Hotel Tourist Sector within the European Community. A Comparative Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peroni, Giovanni; Guerra, Duccio

    This report contains a directory of job profiles in the tourist/hotel sector that is based on seven national monographs. It provides an instrument for comparing factors that characterize practitioners working in the sector in Germany, Spain, France, Greece, Italy, Portugal, and the United Kingdom. A methodological note discusses study objectives,…

  19. Social dynamics of health inequalities: a growth curve analysis of aging and self assessed health in the British household panel survey 1991–2001

    PubMed Central

    Sacker, A.; Clarke, P.; Wiggins, R.; Bartley, M.

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: To study how social inequalities change as people age, this paper presents a growth curve model of self assessed health, which accommodates changes in occupational class and individual health with age. Design: Nationally representative interview based longitudinal survey of adults in Great Britain. Setting: Representative members of private households of Great Britain in 1991. Participants: Survey respondents (n = 6705), aged 21–59 years in 1991 and followed up annually until 2001. Main outcome measure: Self assessed health. Results: On average, self assessed health declines slowly from early adulthood to retirement age. No significant class differences in health were observed at age 21. Health inequalities emerged later in life with the gap between mean levels of self assessed health of those in managerial and professional occupations and routine occupations widening approaching retirement. Individual variability in health trajectories increased between ages 40 and 59 years so that this widening of mean differences between occupational classes was not significant. When the analysis is confined to people whose occupational class remained constant over time, a far greater difference in health trajectories between occupational classes was seen. Conclusions: The understanding of social inequalities in health at the population level is enriched by an analysis of individual variation in age related declines by social position. PMID:15911646

  20. Development and benefit analysis of a sector design algorithm for terminal dynamic airspace configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sciandra, Vincent

    The National Airspace System (NAS) is the vast network of systems enabling safe and efficient air travel in the United States. It consists of a set of static sectors, each controlled by one or more air traffic controllers. Air traffic control is tasked with ensuring that all flights can depart and arrive on time and in a safe and efficient matter. However, skyrocketing demand will only increase the stress on an already inefficient system, causing massive delays. The current, static configuration of the NAS cannot possibly handle the future demand on the system safely and efficiently, especially since it is projected to triple by 2025. To overcome these issues, the Next Generation of Air Transportation System (NextGen) is being enacted to increase the flexibility of the NAS. A major objective of NextGen is to implement Adaptable Dynamic Airspace Configuration (ADAC) which will dynamically allocate the sectors to best fit the traffic in the area. Dynamically allocating sectors will allow resources such as controllers to be better distributed to meet traffic demands. Currently, most DAC research has involved the en route airspace. This leaves the terminal airspace, which accounts for a large amount of the overall NAS complexity, in need of work. Using a combination of methods used in en route sectorization, this thesis has developed an algorithm for the dynamic allocation of sectors in the terminal airspace. This algorithm will be evaluated using metrics common in the evaluation of dynamic density, which is adapted for the unique challenges of the terminal airspace, and used to measure workload on air traffic controllers. These metrics give a better view of the controller workload than the number of aircraft alone. By comparing the test results with sectors currently used in the NAS using real traffic data, the algorithm xv generated sectors can be quantitatively evaluated for improvement of the current sectorizations. This will be accomplished by testing the

  1. Adoption of formal HIV and AIDS workplace policies: an analysis of industry/sector variations.

    PubMed

    Bakuwa, Rhoda

    2010-12-01

    Addressing HIV and AIDS is the responsibility of many stakeholders including private sector companies. However, increasing evidence reveals that the majority of companies around the world are yet to acknowledge and respond to HIV and AIDS as a workplace issue. One factor that has been identified in the literature as playing a role in determining whether a company responds to HIV and AIDS, or not, is the industry/sector in which a company operates. This study therefore sought to empirically examine whether in the context of Malawi there were significant variations in the adoption of formal HIV and AIDS workplace policies based on the industry/sector in which a company was operating, as well as analyse the dynamics underlying such variations. Using survey data collected from 152 randomly selected private sector companies in Malawi, the results of this study revealed significant variations in the adoption of HIV and AIDS workplace policies among companies operating in various sectors. Companies in the service sector were leading the adoption compared to companies in other sectors such as the trading sector. Furthermore, the evidence from this study showed that differences in staff participation in the activities of HIV and AIDS institutions may explain the industry/sector variations. These results provide an important avenue to scale up company responses to HIV and AIDS by intensifying staff participation in the activities of HIV and AIDS institutions. Such institutions appear to play a vital role of providing up to date HIV-and AIDS-related information upon which companies are able to develop a business case for responding to the epidemic. PMID:21409305

  2. Analysis of International Policies In The Solar Electricity Sector: Lessons for India

    SciTech Connect

    Deshmukh, Ranjit; Bharvirkar, Ranjit; Gambhir, Ashwin; Phadke, Amol

    2011-08-10

    Although solar costs are dropping rapidly, solar power is still more expensive than conventional and other renewable energy options. The solar sector still needs continuing government policy support. These policies are driven by objectives that go beyond the goal of achieving grid parity. The need to achieve multiple objectives and ensure sufficient political support for solar power makes it diffi cult for policy makers to design the optimal solar power policy. The dynamic and uncertain nature of the solar industry, combined with the constraints offered by broader economic, political and social conditions further complicates the task of policy making. This report presents an analysis of solar promotion policies in seven countries - Germany, Spain, the United States, Japan, China, Taiwan, and India - in terms of their outlook, objectives, policy mechanisms and outcomes. The report presents key insights, primarily in qualitative terms, and recommendations for two distinct audiences. The first audience consists of global policy makers who are exploring various mechanisms to increase the penetration of solar power in markets to mitigate climate change. The second audience consists of key Indian policy makers who are developing a long-term implementation plan under the Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission and various state initiatives.

  3. Analysis of the strain on employees in the retail sector considering work-life balance.

    PubMed

    Zülch, Gert; Stock, Patricia; Schmidt, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Many companies currently strive to support their employees' work-life balance through appropriate measures in order to improve employees' loyalty towards the company and to recruit new employees. In this context, flexibility in the area of working times is a measure that can influence employees' private lives immensely. This is why the individualisation of working time arrangements has been accorded high importance in current discussions on work-life balance. In this area, best practice examples can be found showing how working-time arrangements can improve the situation of the employees. It should be noted, however, that there is not one single perfect working-time model. A working-time model must always be adapted specifically to the actual situation of the company and the employees. Therefore, a targeted analysis of the challenges facing the company and the demands on the employees is essential for the creation of an appropriate working time policy. In particular, the employees' working-time preferences must be appropriately taken into account. Owing, however, to a combination of organisational complications and legal data protection restrictions, it is for the most part impossible to meet these working-time preferences in their entirety. This paper, which is based on an employee survey, illustrates the strain on employees in the retail sector and identifies different types of working-time preferences. PMID:22317125

  4. Spatial analysis of low carbon development 2050: A case of residential sector, Bhopal, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheolikar, P.; Yawale, S.; Puntambekar, K.; Kapshe, M.

    2014-02-01

    Indian cities are witnessing economic development, urbanization and lifestyle changes, leading to increase in Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions. In cities, sectors contributing to GHG emission are residential sector, transport and waste sector. In order to reduce emission, it is important to assess how individual city can contribute to emission reduction to become a Low Carbon Society (LCS). In this paper, we have analyzed residential sector of Bhopal City at ward level for demand side management through energy efficiency and lifestyle change. Two LCS, countermeasure scenarios CM1 and CM2 along with a Business as Usual scenario are developed and emission reduction potential is quantified using the AIM/Enduse model up to year 2050. The quantitative results are represented in spatial format using Geographical Information System (GIS) software providing a better understanding for decision makers.

  5. The European space sector in a global context - ESA's annual analysis 2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battrick, Bruce

    2005-05-01

    This report provides an overview of the European space sector in a global context. It takes into account the geopolitical and economic changes that occurred in the World during 2004 and are of importance to the current and future development of the European space sector. It therefore provides facts and figures with regard to the latest state of European space policies and industry, while putting recent developments into perspective with the situation of other space powers, notably the United States.

  6. El Niño, Climate, and Cholera Associations in Piura, Peru, 1991-2001: A Wavelet Analysis.

    PubMed

    Ramírez, Iván J; Grady, Sue C

    2016-03-01

    In Peru, it was hypothesized that epidemic cholera in 1991 was linked to El Niño, the warm phase of El Niño-Southern Oscillation. While previous studies demonstrated an association in 1997-1998, using cross-sectional data, they did not assess the consistency of this relationship across the decade. Thus, how strong or variable an El Niño-cholera relationship was in Peru or whether El Niño triggered epidemic cholera early in the decade remains unknown. In this study, wavelet and mediation analyses were used to characterize temporal patterns among El Niño, local climate variables (rainfall, river discharge, and air temperature), and cholera incidence in Piura, Peru from 1991 to 2001 and to estimate the mediating effects of local climate on El Niño-cholera relationships. The study hypothesis is that El Niño-related connections with cholera in Piura were transient and interconnected via local climate pathways. Overall, our findings provide evidence that a strong El Niño-cholera link, mediated by local hydrology, existed in the latter part of the 1990s but found no evidence of an El Niño association in the earlier part of the decade, suggesting that El Niño may not have precipitated cholera emergence in Piura. Further examinations of cholera epicenters in Peru are recommended to support these results in Piura. For public health planning, the results may improve existing efforts that utilize El Niño monitoring for preparedness during future climate-related extremes in the region. PMID:26832694

  7. A storm time assimilative mapping of ionospheric electrodynamics analysis for the severe geomagnetic storm of November 8-9, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, M.L.; Clauer, C.R.; Emery, B.A.

    1995-10-01

    Global parameters are obtained for the November 8-9, 1991, severe geomagnetic storm with the application of a slightly modified version of the Assimilative Mapping of Ionospheric Electrodynamics (AMIE) data inversion model. Inputs to the model include ground magnetometer data, satellite electron precipitation data, satellite ion drift data, and ion drift velocities obtained from radar measurements. The authors compare two of the AMIE computed parameters, the total Joule heating and the polar cap potential, to both the AE (12) index and the AE{sub AMIE} index, an AMIE modeled AE index created specifically for severe storm times. The equation obtained from a linear fit to the total Joule heating versus the AE{sub AMIE} index, closely resembles other equations found during much less disturbed times using the AE(12) index. These results using the AE(12) index appear to saturate at a level around 1300 nT. However, this saturation is associated with the calculation of the AE(12) index and not a physical result. An apparent saturation can also be seen in the comparison of the polar cap potential with the AE(12) index, but this is not the case when using the AE{sub AMIE} index. The comparison between the polar cap potential and the AE{sub AMIE} index yields an approximate linear relationship with a correlation coefficient of 0.80. From these results, the authors find that the magnitude of the auroral electrojets and the polar cap potential drop do not show signs of saturation at the activity levels that were present during the November 8-9, 1991 severe storm. 37 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Decoupling of greenhouse gas emissions from global agricultural production: 1970-2050.

    PubMed

    Bennetzen, Eskild H; Smith, Pete; Porter, John R

    2016-02-01

    Since 1970 global agricultural production has more than doubled; contributing ~1/4 of total anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) burden in 2010. Food production must increase to feed our growing demands, but to address climate change, GHG emissions must decrease. Using an identity approach, we estimate and analyse past trends in GHG emission intensities from global agricultural production and land-use change and project potential future emissions. The novel Kaya-Porter identity framework deconstructs the entity of emissions from a mix of multiple sources of GHGs into attributable elements allowing not only a combined analysis of the total level of all emissions jointly with emissions per unit area and emissions per unit product. It also allows us to examine how a change in emissions from a given source contributes to the change in total emissions over time. We show that agricultural production and GHGs have been steadily decoupled over recent decades. Emissions peaked in 1991 at ~12 Pg CO2 -eq. yr(-1) and have not exceeded this since. Since 1970 GHG emissions per unit product have declined by 39% and 44% for crop- and livestock-production, respectively. Except for the energy-use component of farming, emissions from all sources have increased less than agricultural production. Our projected business-as-usual range suggests that emissions may be further decoupled by 20-55% giving absolute agricultural emissions of 8.2-14.5 Pg CO2 -eq. yr(-1) by 2050, significantly lower than many previous estimates that do not allow for decoupling. Beyond this, several additional costcompetitive mitigation measures could reduce emissions further. However, agricultural GHG emissions can only be reduced to a certain level and a simultaneous focus on other parts of the food-system is necessary to increase food security whilst reducing emissions. The identity approach presented here could be used as a methodological framework for more holistic food systems analysis. PMID:26451699

  9. Statistical analysis of thermospheric density response to solar wind sector structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Dongjie; Lei, Jiuhou; Dou, Xiankang

    2015-06-01

    The global averaged thermospheric mass density data during 1967-2007 are analyzed to investigate thermospheric response to solar wind sector structure. Well-defined solar wind sectors have polarities of interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) toward (+Bx, -By) or away (-Bx, +By) from the Sun for multiple days. In March, thermospheric mass densities increase from the away to toward polarities, with a maximum density perturbation of ~23% at 400 km with respect to the 11 day averages; they decline from the toward to away polarities, and the maximum reduction at 400 km can reach 12%, which is associated with a weakened heating effect of the geomagnetic activity. In September, thermospheric densities respond in an opposite way to the same sector structure as compared with the March results. In solstice seasons, thermospheric density variations in response to solar wind sector structure are typically smaller than 10% relative to the 11 day averages. Besides the seasonal dependence, relative density changes tend to become greater at higher altitude and lower solar activity. However, during solar minimum the density variations at 550 km are not substantially larger than those at 400 km due to the possible descending of the transition altitude between helium and atomic oxygen. Moreover, the corotating interaction region (CIR) has a high probability to occur around the sector boundary. Consequently, the CIR effects account for one third of the density enhancement at 400 km during ineffective-effective sectors, whereas the density reduction associated with effective-ineffective sectors can be impaired by about 50%, which is independent of altitude.

  10. Generalized cost-effectiveness analysis for national-level priority-setting in the health sector

    PubMed Central

    Hutubessy, Raymond; Chisholm, Dan; Edejer, Tessa Tan-Torres

    2003-01-01

    Cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) is potentially an important aid to public health decision-making but, with some notable exceptions, its use and impact at the level of individual countries is limited. A number of potential reasons may account for this, among them technical shortcomings associated with the generation of current economic evidence, political expediency, social preferences and systemic barriers to implementation. As a form of sectoral CEA, Generalized CEA sets out to overcome a number of these barriers to the appropriate use of cost-effectiveness information at the regional and country level. Its application via WHO-CHOICE provides a new economic evidence base, as well as underlying methodological developments, concerning the cost-effectiveness of a range of health interventions for leading causes of, and risk factors for, disease. The estimated sub-regional costs and effects of different interventions provided by WHO-CHOICE can readily be tailored to the specific context of individual countries, for example by adjustment to the quantity and unit prices of intervention inputs (costs) or the coverage, efficacy and adherence rates of interventions (effectiveness). The potential usefulness of this information for health policy and planning is in assessing if current intervention strategies represent an efficient use of scarce resources, and which of the potential additional interventions that are not yet implemented, or not implemented fully, should be given priority on the grounds of cost-effectiveness. Health policy-makers and programme managers can use results from WHO-CHOICE as a valuable input into the planning and prioritization of services at national level, as well as a starting point for additional analyses of the trade-off between the efficiency of interventions in producing health and their impact on other key outcomes such as reducing inequalities and improving the health of the poor. PMID:14687420

  11. 1991 research and technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Selected research and technology activities at Ames Research Center, including the Moffett Field site and the Dryden Flight Research Facility, are summarized. These activities exemplify the Center's varied and productive research efforts for 1991.

  12. Social network analysis of multi-level linkages: a Swedish case study on Northern Forest-Based sectors.

    PubMed

    Keskitalo, E Carina H; Baird, Julia; Laszlo Ambjörnsson, Emmeline; Plummer, Ryan

    2014-10-01

    Forest use in Northern Sweden is being influenced both by global trends and local situations. This results in interactions between numerous groups that may impact local forest governance. Social network analysis can here provide insight into the total pattern of positive, negative, and cross-level interactions within user group community structure (within and among groups). This study analyses interactions within selected renewable resource sectors in two northern Swedish municipalities, both with regard to whether they are positive, neutral, or negative, as well as with regard to how local actors relate to actors across levels, e.g., with regional, national, and international actors. The study illustrates that many interactions both within and outside a given sector are seen as neutral or positive, and that considerable interaction and impact are defined as national and in some cases even international. It also indicates that the impact of Sweden's only existing Model Forest may to some extent constitute a bridge between different sectors and levels, in comparison with the interactions between sectors in a municipality where such a cooperation mechanism does not exist. PMID:24570210

  13. Analysis of the occupational, consumer and environmental exposure to engineered nanomaterials used in 10 technology sectors.

    PubMed

    Nowack, Bernd; Brouwer, Connie; Geertsma, Robert E; Heugens, Evelyn H W; Ross, Bryony L; Toufektsian, Marie-Claire; Wijnhoven, Susan W P; Aitken, Robert J

    2013-09-01

    Humans and the environment can come into contact with nanomaterials through a wide range of applications during all stages of the life cycle of nanoproducts. The aim of this commentary is to present an assessment of the potential for exposure and thus identify possible environmental, health and safety (EHS) issues for nanomaterials used in 10 technology sectors. We analysed all life cycle stages with regard to potential for exposure of workers, consumers/patients, and the environment. A wide variety of nanomaterials are used of which many have negligible potential for exposure, while others have medium or even high potential for exposure. Based on the likelihood of exposure, it appears that in general most attention should be paid to the agrifood, chemistry/materials, textiles and health sectors; and less to the information and communication technology (ICT), security and energy sectors. Toxicity and exposure are both important; however, the EHS impact of nanomaterials is always dependent on their particular use. PMID:22783888

  14. Minerals yearbook, 1991: Nonrenewable organic materials. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Simmons, M.R.; Kelly, T.D.

    1993-05-01

    Mrs. Simmons, industrial program manager with the Branch of Materials of the U.S. Bureau of Mines, directs work in the analysis of the petroleum, petrochemical, and plastic industries as related to the application of nonrenewable organic materials in major industrial sectors. Mr. Kelly, materials specialist in the Materials Engineering Group at the Minerals Availability Office of the U.S. Bureau of Mines, has over 6 years of experience in the petroleum industry. Some of the data were prepared by John Sznopeke, materials specialist in the Materials Engineering Group at the Minerals Availability Field Office. The data were obtained from a variety of sources, including the Annual Energy Review 1991 from the Energy Information Administration, U.S. Department of Energy; the Department of Commerce; and a wide variety of industry contacts.

  15. Comparative estimated effectiveness of antibiotic classes as initial and secondary treatments of respiratory tract infections: longitudinal analysis of routine data from UK primary care 1991-2012.

    PubMed

    Berni, Ellen; Butler, Chris C; Jenkins-Jones, Sara; de Voogd, Hanka; Ouwens, Mario; Morgan, Christopher Ll; Currie, Craig J

    2016-06-01

    Purpose To compare the estimated effectiveness of seven frequently prescribed antibiotic classes as initial and secondary treatments of upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) and lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) 1991-2012. The main outcome measure was a surrogate for estimated antibiotic effectiveness. Methods Routine, primary care data from the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) were used. Having established standardized criteria representing antibiotic treatment failure, estimated treatment effectiveness rates were calculated as one minus the treatment failure rate. For each year from 1991 to 2012, estimated effectiveness rates by treatment line, indication, and sub-indication were calculated. These were presented by antibiotic class, with a sub-analysis for the macrolide clarithromycin. Findings From approximately 58 million antibiotic prescriptions in CPRD, we analyzed 8,654,734 courses of antibiotic monotherapy: 4,825,422 courses (56%) were associated with URTI; 3,829,312 (44%) were associated with LRTI. Amino-penicillins (4,148,729 [56%]), penicillins (1,304,561 [18%]), and macrolides (944,622 [13%]) predominated as initial treatments; macrolides (375,903 [32%]), aminopenicillins (275,866 [23%]), and cephalosporins (159,954 [14%]) as secondary treatments. Macrolides and aminopenicillins had estimated effectiveness rates ≥80% across the study period as initial treatments of URTI and LRTI. In secondary use, only macrolides maintained these rates: 80.7% vs. 79.8% in LRTI, 85.1% vs. 84.5% in throat infections, 80.7% vs. 82.3% in nasal infections, 83.5% vs. 83.8% in unspecified URTI in 1991 and 2012, respectively. Implications After more than two decades, macrolides remained amongst the most effective antibiotic classes for both URTI and LRTI in initial and secondary antibiotic treatment when a further antibiotic course was prescribed. Limitations Antibiotic treatments were classified as intention to treat. It is unknown whether the

  16. Relationships between regional economic sectors and water use in a water-scarce area in China: A quantitative analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Weiping; Gao, Lei; Liu, Pin; Hailu, Atakelty

    2014-07-01

    Northern China has been facing severe water scarcity as a result of vigorous economic growth, population expansion and changing lifestyles. A typical case is Shandong province whose water resources per capita is approximately only a sixth of the national average and a twentieth of the global average. It is useful to assess the implications of the province’s growth and trade patterns for water use and water conservation strategies. This study quantitatively analyses relationships between regional economic sectors and water use in Shandong using an input-output model for virtual water resources. The changes in key indicators for 1997-2007 are tracked and the effects of water-saving policies on these changes are examined. The results highlight the benefits of applying a virtual water trade analysis on a water-scarce region where water resources exhibit highly heterogeneous temporal and geographical distributions. The net export of virtual water in Shandong was initially large, but this declined over the years and the province has recently become a net importer. Between 1997 and 2002, water use in most sectors increased due to rapid urbanisation and industrialisation. Since then, water use in all Shandong economic sectors exhibit a downward trend despite continued increases in goods and services net exports, a trend which can be attributed to the vigorous implementation of water-saving policies and measures, especially water use quotas. Economic sectors consume water directly and indirectly and understanding the pattern of virtual water trade implied by sectoral relationships is important for managing water scarcity problems. This study fills the knowledge gap in the existing literature created by the lack of case studies that dynamically assess virtual water trade and analyse the effects of water-saving policies and measures. The study draws policy recommendations that are relevant for future water planning in Shandong and other regions in northern China.

  17. A Market Analysis of the Latter Half of the Nineteenth-Century American Higher Education Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edirisooriya, Gunapala

    2009-01-01

    Most of the basic features of the American higher education sector started to evolve during the latter half of the nineteenth century. In response to the deficient demand in higher education, the suppliers (higher education institutions) adopted various marketing strategies to stay afloat in the market. Such strategies not only contributed a great…

  18. Sector-Based Analysis of the Education-Occupation Mismatch in the Turkish Labor Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercan, Murat Anil; Karakas, Mesut; Citci, Sadettin Haluk; Babacan, Mehmet

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the existence of sectorial undereducation and overeducation problems in the Turkish labor market. In order to cope with this issue, the 2009 Household Labor Force Survey (TurkStat), which covers 145,934 individuals within 27 sectors, was utilized. An objective measure of education-occupation mismatch based…

  19. Leadership Strategies of Performance Measures Impacts in Public Sector Management: A National Content Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kubala, James Joseph

    A quantitative and qualitative study examined three leadership strategies found in performance-based management (human resource, scientific management and political strategies used in public sector management); a framework by which performance measurement (PM) supports leadership strategies; and how the strategies impact PM. It examined leadership…

  20. Economic analysis of the water demand in the hotels and restaurants sector: Shadow prices and elasticities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angulo, Ana; Atwi, Majed; Barberán, Ramón; Mur, Jesús

    2014-08-01

    Despite the growing economic importance of tourism, and its impact on relative water shortage, little is known about the role that water plays in the productive process of hotels and restaurants and, therefore, the possible implications of water demand management policy for this sector. This study aims to fill this gap. It is based on the microdata of 676 firms in the sector, operating in the city of Zaragoza (Spain) for a 12 year period. Based on the Translog cost function, we estimate the shadow price of water in the short run and, from a long-run perspective, its direct price elasticity, its cross elasticities relative to labor, capital, and supplies, and its elasticity with respect to the level of output. The results obtained show that water provides sector firms returns that are on average higher than its price, although in the case of hotels the margin is really narrow. This situation provides policy makers with a margin for applying price increases without affecting the sector's viability, with some caution in the case of hotels. Water demand elasticity equals -0.38 in the case of hotels, but it is not significant in the case of restaurants and bar-cafes; hence, only in hotels is there potential for influencing water use patterns, encouraging the resource's conservation through pricing policy. Moreover, capital is a substitutive factor of water, and the elasticity of water with respect to output is 0.40, all of which should also be considered by policy makers in water resource management.

  1. Archaeology: site studies, activation analysis, preservation, and remote sensing. December 1979-December 1980 (citations from the NTIS Data Base). Report for December 1970-December 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    These citations of federally-funded research contains the chemical analysis of archaeological specimens, as well as general studies. The chemical analysis deals primarily with activation analysis. Articles examined include metals, pottery, coins, paintings, soils, glass, and paper from Medieval, Grecian, Egyptian, Mayan, and prehistoric times. The general studies cites other archaeological research, including results of excavation from the United States. Also covered is work on preservation of artifacts and remote sensing for the site location. (This updated bibliography contains 133 citations, all of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  2. Analysis of Aircraft Clusters to Measure Sector-Independent Airspace Congestion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bilimoria, Karl D.; Lee, Hilda Q.

    2005-01-01

    The Distributed Air/Ground Traffic Management (DAG-TM) concept of operations* permits appropriately equipped aircraft to conduct Free Maneuvering operations. These independent aircraft have the freedom to optimize their trajectories in real time according to user preferences; however, they also take on the responsibility to separate themselves from other aircraft while conforming to any local Traffic Flow Management (TFM) constraints imposed by the air traffic service provider (ATSP). Examples of local-TFM constraints include temporal constraints such as a required time of arrival (RTA), as well as spatial constraints such as regions of convective weather, special use airspace, and congested airspace. Under current operations, congested airspace typically refers to a sector(s) that cannot accept additional aircraft due to controller workload limitations; hence Dynamic Density (a metric that is indicative of controller workload) can be used to quantify airspace congestion. However, for Free Maneuvering operations under DAG-TM, an additional metric is needed to quantify the airspace congestion problem from the perspective of independent aircraft. Such a metric would enable the ATSP to prevent independent aircraft from entering any local areas of congestion in which the flight deck based systems and procedures may not be able to ensure separation. This new metric, called Gaggle Density, offers the ATSP a mode of control to regulate normal operations and to ensure safety and stability during rare-normal or off-normal situations (e.g., system failures). It may be difficult to certify Free Maneuvering systems for unrestricted operations, but it may be easier to certify systems and procedures for specified levels of Gaggle Density that could be monitored by the ATSP, and maintained through relatively minor flow-rate (RTA type) restrictions. Since flight deck based separation assurance is airspace independent, the challenge is to measure congestion independent of sector

  3. Severe malaria--analysis of prognostic symptoms and signs in 169 patients treated in Gdynia in 1991-2005.

    PubMed

    Goljan, Jolanta; Nahorski, Wacław Leszek; Wroczyńska, Agnieszka; Felczak-Korzybska, Iwona; Pietkiewicz, Halina

    2006-01-01

    In the period 1991-2005, 169 patients with the diagnosis of malaria were hospitalized in the Department of Tropical and Parasitic Diseases, Institute of Maritime and Tropical Medicine in Gdynia (from 2003--the Academic Centre of Maritime and Tropical Medicine, Medical University of Gdańsk). All the cases were analysed for severity, occurrence of complications and permanent sequelae of the disease. According to the criteria set by the WHO (5), malaria was classified as severe in 36 cases. All of them were Plasmodium falciparum infections or mixed infections: P. f. and another species of the parasite. Patients in this group developed a number of complications, inter alia shock, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), acute renal failure, blackwater fever, severe anemia, disseminated intravascular coagulation, myocarditis, consciousness disorders of varied degree, acute transient psychoses, and exacerbation of ischemic heart disease. In one case of a pregnant woman, necrosis of the fetus occurred in the course of disease in the 4th month of pregnancy. Moreover, meningoencephalitis was diagnosed in two patients--in one of them concurrently with symptoms and signs of malaria, while in the other one-3 weeks after the symptoms subsided. In 6 patients, permanent sequelae of the disease developed and in 4 patients the disease was fatal. The cause of death was multi-organ failure, with the first sign of poor prognosis being rapidly progressing renal failure resistant to treatment in three men; in one case death resulted from cerebral malaria. In cases of suspected malaria, relapsing malaria or in mixed infections, molecular testing was a valuable complementary tool of diagnosis, which helped in beginning the appropriate treatment. PMID:17312703

  4. An application of multiplier analysis in analyzing the role of information and communication technology sectors on Indonesian national economy: 1990-2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuhdi, Ubaidillah

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to continue the previous studies which focused on Indonesian Information and Communication Technology (ICT) sectors. More specifically, this study aims to analyze the role of ICT sectors on Indonesian national economy using simple household income multiplier, one of the analysis tools in Input-Output (IO) analysis. The analysis period of this study is from 1990-2005. The results show that the sectors did not have an important role on the national economy of Indonesia on the period. Besides, the results also show that, from the point of view of the multiplier, Indonesian national economy tended to stable during the period.

  5. Women's Labor Force Participation and Socioeconomic Development: The Case of Peninsular Malaysia, 1957-1970.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirschman, Charles; Aghajanian, Akbar

    Using 1957 and 1970 census data, four independent variables were used to explore determinants and constraints of Malaysian women's participation in the modern sector: ethnic community, educational attainment, size of place of residence, and marital/family status. Women's labor force participation increased as agricultural employment declined and a…

  6. Is Deindustrialization Causing High Unemployment in Affluent Countries? Evidence from 16 OECD Countries, 1970-2003

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kollmeyer, Christopher; Pichler, Florian

    2013-01-01

    This study assesses the possibility that deindustrialization has been contributing to the persistently high unemployment rates experienced by most affluent countries since the mid-1970s. Combining insights from Lilien's (1982) "sectoral shift" thesis and the literature on deindustrialization, the authors assert that the decades-long contraction of…

  7. Women on Campus: 1970; A Symposium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor. Center for Continuing Education for Women.

    The symposium: Women on Campus, 1970, held at Michigan University on October 14, 1970, centered on 3 major topics: "Toward a New Psychology of Women"; "The Case of the Woman Graduate Student"; and "The University and Women." The papers that were presented concerning the first topic included: "Internal Barriers to Achievement in Women--An…

  8. Australian Communication Scholarship: 1970-beyond 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irwin, Harry

    The development of Australian communication studies has closely followed capitalization upon the opportunities provided by major structural changes in the higher education system in the early 1970s and the late 1980s as well as those provided by disciplinary development and student demand. Before 1970, little in the way of communication studies…

  9. Manpower Research in the 1970's.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palomba, Neil A., Ed.; Jakubauskas, Edward B., Ed.

    Manpower research needs for the 1970's and the development and purpose of manpower research centers were the themes of a 1-week summer Manpower Research Institute held at Ames, Iowa in 1970. Sponsored by the Industrial Relations Center and funded by the U.S. Department of Labor's Manpower Institutional Grant Program, this interdisciplinary…

  10. California energy flow in 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Borg, I.Y.; Briggs, C.K.

    1993-04-01

    Energy consumption in California fell in 1991 for the first time in five years. The State`s economy was especially hard hit by a continuing national recession. The construction industry for the second year experienced a dramatic downturn. Energy use in the industrial sector showed a modest increase, but consumption in other end-use categories declined. The decrease in energy used in transportation can be traced to a substantial fall in the sales of both highway diesel fuels and vessel bunkering fuels at California ports, the latter reflecting a mid-year increase in taxes. Gasoline sales by contrast increased as did the number of miles traveled and the number of automobiles in the State. Production in California`s oil and gas fields was at 1990 levels thus arresting a steady decline in output. Due to enlarged steam flooding operations, production at several fields reached record levels. Also countering the decline in many of California fields was new production from the Port Arguello offshore field. California natural gas production, despite a modest 1991 increase, will not fill the use within the State. Petroleum comprised more than half of the State`s energy supply principally for transportation. Natural gas use showed a small increase. Oil products play virtually no role in electrical production. The largest single source of electricity to the State is imports from the Pacific Northwest and from coal-fired plants in the Southwest. Combined contributions to transmitted electricity from renewable and alternate sources declined as hydropower was constrained by a prolonged drought and as geothermal power from the largest and oldest field at The Geysers fell. Windpower grew slightly; however solar power remained at 1990 levels and made no substantial contribution to total power generation.

  11. FPL's Christmas 1991 transmission outages

    SciTech Connect

    Burnham, J.T.; Busch, D.W.; Renowden, J.D. . Transmission Line Dept.)

    1993-10-01

    A record number of contamination related outages occurred on FPL transmission lines during Christmas of 1991 and resulted in an investigation of inservice insulator performance. The field investigation process used was enhanced by recent improvements in outage data recording. Also used in the analysis were weather information, the results of recently completed accelerated aging tests of polymers, and specially conducted tests on the effects of weathering steel stain on porcelain insulators. Specific insulator problems were identified and actions taken to reduce the possibility of recurrence.

  12. Pollen calendar of the city of Salamanca (Spain). Aeropalynological analysis for 1981-1982 and 1991-1992.

    PubMed

    Hernández Prieto, M; Lorente Toledano, F; Romo Cortina, A; Dávila González, I; Laffond Yges, E; Calvo Bullón, A

    1998-01-01

    We report a study on the contents of airborne pollen in the city of Salamanca (Spain) aimed at establishing a pollen calendar for the city for the yearly periods of maximum concentrations, relating these with quantifiable atmospheric variables over two two-year periods with an interval of 10 years between them: 1981-82 and 1991-92. The pollen was captured with Burkard spore-traps, based on Hirst's volumetric method. Determinations were made daily and were used to make preparations, previously stained with basic fuscin, for study under light microscopy at x 1,000 magnification. 946 preparations were analyzed, corresponding to the same number of days distributed over 150 weeks of the periods studied. The results afforded the identification of 48 different types of pollen grain: Grasses (Poaceae), Olea europea (olive), Quercus rotundifolia (Holm-oak), other Quercus spp. (Q. pyrenaica, Q. suber, Q. faginea, etc.), Cupressaceae (Cupressus sempervivens, C. arizonica, Juniperus communis etc.), Plantago (Plantago lanceolata, Plantago media, etc.), Pinaceae (Pinus communis, Abies alba, etc.), Rumex sp. (osier), Urtica dioica (nettle), Parietaria (Parietaria officinalis, P. judaica), Chenopodio-Amaranthaceae (Chenopodium sp., Amaranthus sp., Salsola kali, etc.), Artemisia vulgaris (Artemisia), other Compositae (Taraxacum officinalis, Hellianthus sp. etc.), Castanea sativa (Chestnut), Ligustrum sp. (privet), Betula sp. (birch), Alnus sp. (common alder), Fraxinus sp (ash), Populus sp. (poplar), Salix sp. (willow), Ulmus sp. (elm), Platanus sp. (plantain, plane), Carex sp. (sweet flag), Erica sp. (common heather), Leguminosae or Fabaceae:--Papillionaceae (Medicago sp.; Cercis sp., Robina sp.)--Cesalpinoideae Acacia sp. (Acacia),--Mimosoideae: Sophora japonica, Umbelliferae (Foeniculum sp., Cirsium sp., etc.), Centaurea sp., Cistus sp. (rock rose), Typha sp (bulrush), Mirtaceae (Myrtus communis), Juglans regia (Walnut), Galium verum, Filipendula sp. (spirea/drop wort), Rosaceae

  13. Local and regional interactions between air quality and climate in New Delhi- A sector based analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marrapu, Pallavi

    Deteriorating air quality is one of the major problems faced worldwide and in particular in Asia. The world's most polluted megacities are located in Asia highlighting the urgent need for efforts to improve the air quality. New Delhi (India), one of the world's most polluted cities, was the host of the Common Wealth Games during the period of 4-14 October 2010. This high profile event provided a good opportunity to accelerate efforts to improve air quality. Computational advances now allow air quality forecast models to fully couple the meteorology with chemical constituents within a unified modeling system that allows two-way interactions. The WRF-Chem model is used to simulate air quality in New Delhi. The thesis focuses on evaluating air quality and meteorology feedbacks. Four nested domains ranging from South Asia, Northern India, NCR Delhi and Delhi city at 45km, 15km, 5km and 1.67km resolution for a period of 20 day (26th Sep--15th Oct, 2010) are used in the study. The predicted mean surface concentrations of various pollutants show similar spatial distributions with peak values in the middle of the domain reflecting the traffic and population patterns in the city. Along with these activities, construction dust and industrial emissions contribute to high levels of criteria pollutants. The study evaluates the WRF-Chem capabilities using a new emission inventory developed over Delhi at a fine resolution of 1.67km and evaluating the results with observational data from 11 monitoring sties placed at various Game venues. The contribution of emission sectors including transportation, power, industry, and domestic to pollutant concentrations at targeted regions are studied and the results show that transportation and domestic sector are the major contributors to the pollution levels in Delhi, followed by industry. Apart from these sectors, emissions outside of Delhi contribute 20-50% to surface concentrations depending on the species. This indicates that pollution

  14. The Analytic Onion: Examining Training Issues from Different Levels of Analysis. Interim Technical Paper for Period July 1989-June 1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamb, Theodore A.; Chin, Keric B. O.

    This paper proposes a conceptual framework based on different levels of analysis using the metaphor of the layers of an onion to help organize and structure thinking on research issues concerning training. It discusses the core of the "analytic onion," the biological level, and seven levels of analysis that surround that core: the individual, the…

  15. The footwear factory's assembly sector: opposing organizational structure and quality from the ergonomic work analysis.

    PubMed

    Silva, Kláudia M M N; Coelho, Bernardo G P; Junior, Josemir V S; Faria, Luiz F M; Dutra, Ludmila; Alvarenga, Marília; Roggini, Renan; Echternach, Eliza Helena de Oliveira

    2012-01-01

    Data from 2006 indicated that Brazilian footwear leather industry was composed of approximately 9,488 formally registered establishments, considering the leather industry, footwear and leather goods. It was responsible for 211,582 people employed. However, in spite of having many employees, this kind of organization found several problems when analyzed from the ergonomics view. With this premise, then, in order to identify bottlenecks and other engineering problems that could cause discomfort and motivation lack among workers, leading directly to the loss of the product quality, the assembly sector of women's shoes factory was characterized. PMID:22316956

  16. Analysis of the gas-lubricated flat-sector-pad thrust bearing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Etsion, I.

    1976-01-01

    A flat sector-shaped pad geometry for a gas-lubricated thrust bearing is analyzed considering both the pitch and roll of the pad. It is shown that maximum load capacity is achieved when the pad is tilted so as to create uniform minimum film thickness along the pad trailing edge. Performance characteristics for various geometries and operating conditions of gas thrust bearings are presented in the form of design curves, and a comparison is made with the rectangular slider approximation. It is found that this approximation is unsafe for practical design, since it always overestimates load capacity.

  17. Commercial fertilizers 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Hargett, N.L.; Berry, J.T.; Montgomery, M.H.

    1991-12-01

    This document contains consumption data for commercial fertilizers in the USA for 1991. Graphical information on the consumption by class is given for the nation. State by state data for consumption of several types of commercial fertilizers are presented. Only numerical data is included.

  18. Development Communication Report, 1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Development Communication Report, 1991

    1991-01-01

    The four 1991 issues of the newsletter "Development Communication Report" are primarily concerned with the use of communication technologies in developing countries to educate the people. Evaluation is the theme of the first issue, which contains the following articles: "Evaluating Communication Programs: Means and Ends,""Making a Splash: How…

  19. English Leadership Quarterly. 1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strickland, James, Ed.

    1991-01-01

    These four issues of the English Leadership Quarterly represent the quarterly for 1991. Articles in number 1 deal with whole language and include: "CEL: Shorter and Better" (Myles D. Eley); "Toward a New Philosophy of Language Learning" (Kathleen Strickland); "Whole Language: Implications for Secondary Classrooms" (Barbara King-Shaver); "Whole…

  20. International Relations Program, 1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doyle, Robert P.

    This brochure describes the following 1991 international relations programs of the American Library Association (ALA): (1) the Books for Romania Program, which resulted in donations of books, journals, microfilm products, and microfilm readers valued at approximately $5 million to Rumanian libraries; (2) the Colloquium on Library Science, a…

  1. Models for residential- and commercial-sector energy-conservation analysis: applications, limitations, and future potential. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, Henry E.; Fullen, Robert E.

    1980-09-01

    This report reviews four of the major models used by the Department of Energy (DOE) for energy conservation analyses in the residential- and commercial-building sectors. The objective is to provide a critical analysis of how these models can serve as tools for DOE and its Conservation Policy Office in evaluating and quantifying their policy and program requirements. For this, the study brings together information on the models' analytical structure and their strengths and limitations in policy applications these are then employed to assess the most-effective role for each model in addressing future issues of buildings energy-conservation policy and analysis. The four models covered are: Oak Ridge Residential Energy Model; Micro Analysis of Transfers to Households/Comprehensive Human Resources Data System (MATH/CHRDS) Model; Oak Ridge Commercial Energy Model; and Brookhaven Buildings Energy Conservation Optimization Model (BECOM).

  2. Envisioning the Third Sector's Welfare Role: Critical Discourse Analysis of ‘Post-Devolution’ Public Policy in the UK 1998–2012

    PubMed Central

    Chaney, Paul; Wincott, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Welfare state theory has struggled to come to terms with the role of the third sector. It has often categorized welfare states in terms of the pattern of interplay between state social policies and the structure of the labour market. Moreover, it has frequently offered an exclusive focus on state policy – thereby failing to substantially recognize the role of the formally organized third sector. This study offers a corrective view. Against the backdrop of the international shift to multi-level governance, it analyses the policy discourse of third sector involvement in welfare governance following devolution in the UK. It reveals the changing and contrasting ways in which post-devolution territorial politics envisions the sector's role as a welfare provider. The mixed methods analysis compares policy framing and the structural narratives associated with the development of the third sector across the four constituent polities of the UK since 1998. The findings reveal how devolution has introduced a new spatial policy dynamic. Whilst there are elements of continuity between polities – such as the increasing salience of the third sector in welfare provision – policy narratives also provide evidence of the territorialization of third sector policy. From a methodological standpoint, this underlines the distinctive and complementary role discourse-based analysis can play in understanding contemporary patterns and processes shaping welfare governance. PMID:25574063

  3. The Forgotten Minority: An Analysis of American Indian Employment Patterns in State and Local Governments, 1991-2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Valerie H.; Kerr, Brinck; Ketcher, Linda K.; Murphy, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to address a gap in the empirical literature by analyzing levels of proportional representation of American Indians over time in state and local government bureaucracies in key states. The authors limit their analysis to six states with the largest percentages of American Indian populations in 2000: Alaska, Arizona,…

  4. Exploring Oman's Energy Sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Saqlawi, Juman; Madani, Kaveh; Mac Dowell, Niall

    2016-04-01

    Located in a region where over 40% of the world's oil and gas reserves lie and in a trend similar to that of its neighbors, Oman's economy has been reliant on crude oil export since the 1970's. Being aware of the dangers of this reliance along with the discovery of Natural Gas since the 1980s, the Omani government's policy of diversifying its economy has shifted its reliance on Oil to another fossil fuel, namely Natural Gas. Given that energy is the lifeline of Oman's economy, effective and efficient forward planning and policy development is essential for the country's current and future economic development. This presentation explores the current status of the energy sector in Oman from home production and import to eventual final uses. The presentation highlights the major issues with Oman's current energy policies and suggests various strategies that could be adopted by Oman for a more efficient and sustainable future.

  5. An input-output table based analysis on the virtual water by sectors with the five northwest provinces in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Chenchen; Zhan, Jinyan

    Virtual water refers to the volumes of water required to produce a commodity or service. It reflects human's actual consumption of water resources and therefore has certain significance in water resources management. Over the years, the concept of virtual water has caught the attentions of water manager and decision maker. In order to utilize this concept, the accounting and estimation of virtual water is the foundation that lies in this issue. Till now, the accounting methods mainly include the method provided by Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), water footprint and input-output analysis method. In this paper, we chose Northwest China, which is a typical arid region that is facing with rapid economic development, as the study area and built an Input-Output (IO) analysis method to estimate virtual water among different industry sectors in the northwest China. The accounting and estimation results could be used to give suggestions to increase water use efficiency and promote virtual water trade in the study area. Comparison of the proposed method with other prevailing method was also analyzed. The introduced method could be utilized for accounting and estimation of virtual water by sectors, with its superiority in characterizing industrial water consumption and the accounting results could lend certain credence to the water resource management and industrial transformation for the future economic development of northwest China.

  6. Computational Analysis of Dynamic SPK(S8)-JP8 Fueled Combustor-Sector Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryder, R.; Hendricks, Roberts C.; Huber, M. L.; Shouse, D. T.

    2010-01-01

    Civil and military flight tests using blends of synthetic and biomass fueling with jet fuel up to 50:50 are currently considered as "drop-in" fuels. They are fully compatible with aircraft performance, emissions and fueling systems, yet the design and operations of such fueling systems and combustors must be capable of running fuels from a range of feedstock sources. This paper provides Smart Combustor or Fuel Flexible Combustor designers with computational tools, preliminary performance, emissions and particulates combustor sector data. The baseline fuel is kerosene-JP-8+100 (military) or Jet A (civil). Results for synthetic paraffinic kerosene (SPK) fuel blends show little change with respect to baseline performance, yet do show lower emissions. The evolution of a validated combustor design procedure is fundamental to the development of dynamic fueling of combustor systems for gas turbine engines that comply with multiple feedstock sources satisfying both new and legacy systems.

  7. Analysis of decontamination solutions of G agents to detect reformation of agent. Final report, December 1991-March 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Beaudry, W.T.; Buchanan, J.H.; Rohrbaugh, D.K.; Samuel, J.B.; Szafraniec, L.L.

    1993-01-01

    Agents from a full scale binary munition test were decontaminated with caustic in a 300 gal holding tank. Analysis of the contents by standard methods revealed a trace amount of G agent present despite the highly caustic solution. A technical review of the analytical methods was carried out to determine if the G agent was actually present or an artifact of the analysis. A literature search revealed similar concerns when brine solutions from nerve agent decontamination were analyzed using similar analytical methods. This study concluded that nerve agents reformed at reduced PH or in chloroform extracts of the neutralized or slightly acidic brines. Experiments using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), gas chromatography (GC), and GC/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) were used to see where, if any, G agent was present during the analysis. Results obtained confirmed G agent reforming in either the neutral aqueous solution or in the chloroform extract but not in chloroform extracts of the caustic solution. No agent was detected using methylene chloride as the extraction solvent as recommended by the earlier study.

  8. Using multipliers analysis in order to get another perspective related to the role of ICT sectors in national economy of Indonesia: 1990-2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuhdi, Ubaidillah

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to get another perspective related to the role of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) sectors in national economy of Indonesia. The period of analysis of this study is 1990-2005. This study employs Input-Output (IO) analysis as a tool of analysis. More specifically, this study uses simple output multipliers method in order to achieve the purpose. Comparison with previous study is conducted in order to get the objective of this study. Previous study, using Structural Decomposition Analysis (SDA), showed that ICT sectors did not have an important role in Indonesian national economy in above period. The similar results also appear in this study. In other words, from this study, another perspective related to the role of these sectors in Indonesian national economy in analysis period is not found.

  9. SOIL AND FILL LABORATORY SUPPORT - 1991

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of soil analysis laboratory work by the University of Florida in Support of the Florida Radon Research Program (FRRP). Analyses were performed on soil and fill samples collected during 1991 by the FRRP Research House program and the New House Evaluation P...

  10. Review: 1991 industry developments

    SciTech Connect

    1992-01-01

    This is NUEXCO`s annual summary of the previous year`s (1991) events. There are reviews of major nuclear developments in each continent, as well as international developments. Specific topics include fuels, waste management, new facilities, and decommissioning. Nuclear activities in the following countries are noted: South Africa, Yemen, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, Namibia, France, Japan, Taiwan, China, Korea, India, Pakistan, Federal Republic of Germany, Spain, Hungary, Kazakhstan, Italy, Czechoslovakia, United Kingdom, Switzerland, Canada, USA, Argentina, Brazil, and Uraguay.

  11. Temporal and spatial trends in water quality of Lake Taihu, China: analysis from a north to mid-lake transect, 1991-2011.

    PubMed

    Akyuz, Dilek Eren; Luo, Liancong; Hamilton, David P

    2014-06-01

    Interpretations of state and trends in lake water quality are generally based on measurements from one or more stations that are considered representative of the response of the lake ecosystem. The objective of this study is to examine how these interpretations may be influenced by station location in a large lake. We addressed this by analyzing trends in water quality variables collected monthly from eight monitoring stations along a transect from the central lake to the north in Lake Taihu (area about 2,338 km(2)), China, from October 1991 to December 2011. The parameters examined included chlorophyll a (Chl a), total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorus (TP) concentrations, and Secchi disk depth (SD). The individual variables were increasingly poorly correlated among stations along the transect from the central lake to the north, particularly for Chl a and TP. The timing of peaks in individual variables was also dependent on station location, with spectral analysis revealing a peak at annual frequency for the central lake station but absence of, or much reduced signal, at this frequency for the near-shore northern station. Percentage annual change values for each of the four variables also varied with station and indicated general improvement in water quality at northern stations, particularly for TN, but little change or decline at central lake stations. Sediment resuspension and tributary nutrient loads were considered to be responsible for some of the variability among stations. Our results indicate that temporal trends in water quality may be station specific in large lakes and that calculated whole-lake trophic status trends or responses to management actions may be specific to the station(s) selected for monitoring and analysis. These results have important implications for efficient design of monitoring programs that are intended to integrate the natural spatial variability of large lakes. PMID:24595699

  12. Chromosome region-specific libraries for human genome analysis. Final progress report, 1 March 1991--28 February 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Kao, F.T.

    1994-04-01

    The objectives of this grant proposal include (1) development of a chromosome microdissection and PCR-mediated microcloning technology, (2) application of this microtechnology to the construction of region-specific libraries for human genome analysis. During this grant period, the authors have successfully developed this microtechnology and have applied it to the construction of microdissection libraries for the following chromosome regions: a whole chromosome 21 (21E), 2 region-specific libraries for the long arm of chromosome 2, 2q35-q37 (2Q1) and 2q33-q35 (2Q2), and 4 region-specific libraries for the entire short arm of chromosome 2, 2p23-p25 (2P1), 2p21-p23 (2P2), 2p14-p16 (wP3) and 2p11-p13 (2P4). In addition, 20--40 unique sequence microclones have been isolated and characterized for genomic studies. These region-specific libraries and the single-copy microclones from the library have been used as valuable resources for (1) isolating microsatellite probes in linkage analysis to further refine the disease locus; (2) isolating corresponding clones with large inserts, e.g. YAC, BAC, P1, cosmid and phage, to facilitate construction of contigs for high resolution physical mapping; and (3) isolating region-specific cDNA clones for use as candidate genes. These libraries are being deposited in the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) for general distribution.

  13. Cost-benefit analysis of alternative LNG vapor-mitigation measures. Topical report, September 14, 1987-January 15, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Atallah, S.

    1992-06-25

    A generalized methodology is presented for comparing the costs and safety benefits of alternative hazard mitigation measures for a large LNG vapor release. The procedure involves the quantification of the risk to the public before and after the application of LNG vapor mitigation measures. In the study, risk was defined as the product of the annual accident frequency, estimated from a fault tree analysis, and the severity of the accident. Severity was measured in terms of the number of people who may be exposed to 2.5% or higher concentration. The ratios of the annual costs of the various mitigation measures to their safety benefits (as determined by the differences between the risk before and after mitigation measure implementation), were then used to identify the most cost-effective approaches to vapor cloud mitigation.

  14. Multifractality of sectoral price indices: Hurst signature analysis of Cantillon effects in disequilibrium factor markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulligan, Robert F.

    2014-06-01

    This paper presents Hurst exponent signatures from time series of aggregate price indices for the US over the 1975-2011 time period. Though all highly aggregated, these indices include both broad measures of consumer and producer prices. The constellation of prices evolves as a complex system throughout processes of production and distribution, culminating in the final delivery of output to consumers. Massive feedback characterizes this system, where the demand for consumable output determines the demand for the inputs used to produce it, and supply scarcities for the necessary inputs in turn determine the supply of the final product. Prices in both factor and output markets are jointly determined by interdependent supply and demand conditions. Fractal examination of the interplay among market prices would be of interest regardless, but added interest arises from the consideration of how these markets respond to external shocks over the business cycle, particularly monetary expansion. Because the initial impact of monetary injection is localized in specific sectors, the way the impact on prices diffuses throughout the economy is of special interest.

  15. Issues in International Energy Consumption Analysis: Electricity Usage in India’s Housing Sector

    EIA Publications

    2014-01-01

    India offers a unique set of features for studying electricity use in the context of a developing country. First, it has a rapidly developing economy with high yearly growth rates in gross domestic product (GDP). Second, it has the second -largest population in the world and is likely to have the largest population in the future. Third, its electric system is maturing—with known difficulties (outages, shortages, issues with reliability and quality) that are characteristic of a developing country. This article focuses on electricity use in the residential sector of India and discusses key trends and provides an overview of available usage estimates from various sources. Indian households are an interesting environment where many of India’s unique features interact. The recent economic gains correlate with rising incomes and possible changes in living standards, which could affect electricity or other energy use within households. Additionally, the maturing electric system and large population in India both offer opportunities to study a range of interactions between electrification and electricity usage in a developing country.

  16. Analysis of fruitland water production treatment and disposal, San Juan Basin. Topical report, October 1991-March 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, D.O.; Decker, A.D.; Stevens, S.H.

    1993-06-01

    The San Juan Basin produces more coalbed methane than the rest of the world combined. Brackish water is produced with the gas. Water production climbed from 40,000 barrels per day in 1989 to 115,000 bpd by late 1992. Underground injection is used to dispose of virtually all the produced water. Water production is projected to increase to 180,000 bpd in 1995. 650 million to 1.1 billion barrels are projected to be produced over the next 20 years. Restricted injection capacity and aquifer storage capacity may necessitate additional disposal wells and, ultimately, other methods to dispose of the water. Alternative treatment technologies, especially electrodialysis and/or reverse osmosis, may be applicable at costs of $0.17 to $0.22 per barrel, a considerable savings over the $0.80 to $1.00/bbl cost of deep injection. With suitable treatment, the majority of the produced water could be made suitable for agricultural or municipal uses. Reservoir analysis and simulations indicate stimulations can be optimized, and that heating water prior to injection might increase injectivity in some wells.

  17. Sectoral shifts and aggregate unemployment

    SciTech Connect

    Loungani, P.

    1986-01-01

    Some recent research has taken the view that sectoral or industry-specific shocks significantly affect aggregate unemployment by increasing the amount of inter-industry labor reallocation required. The empirical evidence for this view rests on the finding that during the 1950s - and again during the 1970s - there was a positive correlation between aggregate unemployment and the dispersion of employment growth rates. This thesis demonstrates that this correlation arises largely because oil price shocks affect both unemployment and the dispersion of employment growth. Once the dispersion due to oil shocks is accounted for, the residual dispersion in employment has very low explanatory power for unemployment. Since the dispersion index does not measure pure sectoral shifts, an alternate measure of dispersion is developed that serves as a better proxy for the amount of inter-industry labor reallocation required each period. Estimates using this measure suggest that, during the 1950s, temporary increases in the relative price of oil were responsible for generating the observed correlation. On the other hand, sectoral shifts were important during the 1970s; in particular, the 1973 oil price increase has had significant reallocative effects on the economy. This contention is subjected to further tests by looking at the time-series behavior of employment in durable-goods industries and also by following the inter-industry movements of workers over time through the use of panel data.

  18. Analysis of energy use in building services of the industrial sector in California: Two case studies

    SciTech Connect

    Akbari, H.; Sezgen, O.

    1991-09-01

    Energy-use patterns in many of California's fastest-growing industries are not typical of the existing mix of industries in the US. Many California firms operate small- and medium-sized facilities housed in buildings used simultaneously or interchangeably over time for commercial (office, retail, warehouse) and industrial activities. In these industrial subsectors, the energy required for building services (providing occupant comfort and necessities like lighting, HVAC, office equipment, computers, etc.) may be at least as important as the more familiar process energy requirements -- especially for electricity and on-peak demand. Electricity for building services is sometimes priced as if it were base loaded like process uses; in reality this load varies significantly according to occupancy schedules and cooling and heating loads, much as in any commercial building. Using informal field surveys, simulation studies, and detailed analyses of existing data (including utility commercial/industrial audit files), we studied the energy use of this industrial subsector through a multi-step procedure: (1) characterizing non-process building energy and power use in California industries, (2) identifying conservation and load-shaping opportunities in industrial building services, and (3) investigating industrial buildings and system design methodologies. In an earlier report, we addressed these issues by performing an extensive survey of the existing publicly available data, characterizing and comparing the building energy use in this sector. In this report, we address the above objectives by examining and analyzing energy use in two industrial case-study facilities in California. Based on the information for the case studies, we discuss the design consideration for these industrial buildings, characterize their energy use, and review their conservation and load-shaping potentials. In addition, we identify and discuss some research ideas for further investigation.

  19. 1996-2004 Trends in the Single-Family Housing Market: Spatial Analysis of the Residential Sector

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Dave M.; Elliott, Douglas B.

    2006-09-05

    This report provides a detailed geographic analysis of two specific topics affecting the residential sector. First, we performed an analysis of new construction market trends using annual building permit data. We report summarized tables and national maps to help illustrate market conditions. Second, we performed a detailed geographic analysis of the housing finance market. We analyzed mortgage application data to provide citable statistics and detailed geographic summarization of the residential housing picture in the US for each year in the 1996-2004 period. The databases were linked to geographic information system tools to provide various map series detailing the results geographically. Looking at these results geographically may suggest potential new markets for TD programs addressing the residential sector that have not been considered previously. For example, we show which lenders affect which regions and which income or mortgage product classes. These results also highlight the issue of housing affordability. Energy efficiency R&D programs focused on developing new technology for the residential sector must be conscious of the costs of products resulting from research that will eventually impact the home owner or new home buyer. Results indicate that home values as a proportion of median family income in Building America communities are closely aligned with the national average of home value as a proportion of median income. Other key findings: • The share of home building and home buying activity continues to rise steadily in the Hot-Dry and Hot-Humid climate zones, while the Mixed-Humid and Cold climate zone shares continue to decline. Other zones remain relatively stable in terms of share of housing activity. • The proportion of home buyers having three times the median family income for their geography has been steadily increasing during the study period. • Growth in the Hispanic/Latino population and to a lesser degree in the Asian population has

  20. Assessing National Employment Impacts of Investment in Residential and Commercial Sector Energy Efficiency: Review and Example Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, David M.; Belzer, David B.; Livingston, Olga V.; Scott, Michael J.

    2014-06-18

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) modeled the employment impacts of a major national initiative to accelerate energy efficiency trends at one of two levels: • 15 percent savings by 2030. In this scenario, efficiency activities save about 15 percent of the Annual Energy Outlook (AEO) Reference Case electricity consumption by 2030. It is assumed that additional energy savings in both the residential and commercial sectors begin in 2015 at zero, and then increase in an S-shaped market penetration curve, with the level of savings equal to about 7.0 percent of the AEO 2014 U.S. national residential and commercial electricity consumption saved by 2020, 14.8 percent by 2025, and 15 percent by 2030. • 10 percent savings by 2030. In this scenario, additional savings begin at zero in 2015, increase to 3.8 percent in 2020, 9.8 percent by 2025, and 10 percent of the AEO reference case value by 2030. The analysis of the 15 percent case indicates that by 2030 more than 300,000 new jobs would likely result from such policies, including an annual average of more than 60,000 jobs directly supporting the installation and maintenance of energy efficiency measures and practices. These are new jobs resulting initially from the investment associated with the construction of more energy-efficient new buildings or the retrofit of existing buildings and would be sustained for as long as the investment continues. Based on what is known about the current level of building-sector energy efficiency jobs, this would represent an increase of more than 10 percent from the current estimated level of over 450,000 such jobs. The more significant and longer-lasting effect comes from the redirection of energy bill savings toward the purchase of other goods and services in the general economy, with its attendant influence on increasing the total number of jobs. This example analysis utilized PNNL’s ImSET model, a modeling framework that PNNL has used over the past two decades to assess

  1. How sustainable is Japan's foreign aid policy? An analysis of Japan's official development assistance and funding for energy sector projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, Hideka

    Japan has adopted a sustainable development strategy since the late 1980s in the effort to address social and environmental damages caused by past Japan-funded projects in partner nations. Even after about a decade and a half of the policy implementation, however, there are few reports which critically examine effects of the adoption of the idea of sustainable development. This dissertation evaluates Japan's foreign aid policy to determine the extent to which new revisions of aid policy have improved the environmental sustainability of the policy. This dissertation reviews the mainstream idea of sustainable development (also known as the sustainable development paradigm in this dissertation) to reveal the nature of the idea of sustainable development that Japan's foreign aid policy depends on. A literature review of two development discourses---modernization theory and ecological modernization theory---and three types of critiques against the sustainable development paradigm---focused on adverse impacts of modern science, globalization, and environmental overuse---reveals core logics of and problems with the sustainable development paradigm. Japan's foreign aid policy impacts on energy sector development in recipient countries is examined by means of a quantitative analysis and a qualitative analysis. Specifically, it examines the effect of Japan's ODA program over fifteen years that proposed to facilitate sustainable development in developing countries. Special emphasis is given to investigation of ODA disbursements in the energy sector and detailed case studies of several individual energy projects are performed. The dissertation discovers that the sustainable development paradigm guiding Japan's ODA has little capacity to accomplish its goals to bring about social and ecological improvement in developing countries. This dissertation finds three fundamental weaknesses in Japanese ODA policy on energy sector development as well as the sustainable development

  2. A threat analysis framework as applied to critical infrastructures in the Energy Sector.

    SciTech Connect

    Michalski, John T.; Duggan, David Patrick

    2007-09-01

    The need to protect national critical infrastructure has led to the development of a threat analysis framework. The threat analysis framework can be used to identify the elements required to quantify threats against critical infrastructure assets and provide a means of distributing actionable threat information to critical infrastructure entities for the protection of infrastructure assets. This document identifies and describes five key elements needed to perform a comprehensive analysis of threat: the identification of an adversary, the development of generic threat profiles, the identification of generic attack paths, the discovery of adversary intent, and the identification of mitigation strategies.

  3. An observational analysis of warm-sector rainfall characteristics associated with the 21 July 2012 Beijing extreme rainfall event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Lingzhi; Mu, Rong; Zhang, Dalin; Zhao, Ping; Zhang, Zhiqiang; Wang, Nan

    2015-04-01

    An observational analysis of the multiscale processes leading to the extreme rainfall event in Beijing on 21 July 2012 is performed using rain gauge records, Doppler radar, and satellite products, radiosondes, and atmospheric analysis. This rainstorm process included two heavy rainfall stages in the early afternoon [1300-1400 Beijing Standard time (BST) (0500-0600 UTC)] and the evening (1600-1900 BST), respectively. The first stage exhibited warm-sector rainfall characteristics as it occurred under low-level warm and moist southeasterly flows ahead of a synoptic-scale vortex and a cold front. When the southeasterly flows turned northeastward along a southwest-northeast oriented mountain range in western Beijing, mesoscale convergence centers formed on the windward side of the mountain range in the early afternoon, initiating moist convection. Radar echo showed a northeastward propagation as these flows extended northward. Despite the shallowness of moist convection in the warm sector, atmospheric liquid water content showed the rapid accumulation, and a large amount of supercooled water and/or ice particles was possibly accumulated above the melting level. These appeared to contribute to the occurrence of the largest rainfall rate. During the second stage, as the synoptic-scale vortex moved across Beijing, with southeastward intrusion of its northwesterly flows, the vortex-associated lifting caused the generation of strong updrafts aloft and formed deep convection. This facilitated the further accumulation of supercooled water and/or ice particles above the melting level. Radar echo propagated southeastward. Liquid water showed a decrease in the lower troposphere, and there were strong downdrafts due to evaporation of liquid water particles, which resulted in the relatively weak hourly rainfall rates.

  4. Environmental report for 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Hunter, S.; Wilt, G.; Balke, B.K.; Surano, K.A.; Hoppes, W.G.; Tate, P.J.; Steenhoven, J.C.; Fields, B.C.; Garcia, L.M.; Lamson, K.C.

    1991-01-01

    As part of its commitment to environmental compliance and accountability, LLNL prepares this report each year to communicate the results of monitoring and compliance activities. Analytical data are produced from sampling of air, sewage effluent, groundwater, surface water, soil, vegetation and foodstuff, and through measurement of environmental radiation. The Environmental Protection Department performed more than 150,000 analyses of environmental samples during 1991. This Executive Summary provides a comprehensive synopsis, organized along the general outline of the report, and furnishes an overview of the supporting methodologies, data, and findings that are presented in the chapters that follow.

  5. Environmental report for 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Hunter, S.; Wilt, G.; Balke, B.K.; Surano, K.A.; Hoppes, W.G.; Tate, P.J.; Steenhoven, J.C.; Fields, B.C.; Garcia, L.M.; Lamson, K.C.

    1991-12-31

    As part of its commitment to environmental compliance and accountability, LLNL prepares this report each year to communicate the results of monitoring and compliance activities. Analytical data are produced from sampling of air, sewage effluent, groundwater, surface water, soil, vegetation and foodstuff, and through measurement of environmental radiation. The Environmental Protection Department performed more than 150,000 analyses of environmental samples during 1991. This Executive Summary provides a comprehensive synopsis, organized along the general outline of the report, and furnishes an overview of the supporting methodologies, data, and findings that are presented in the chapters that follow.

  6. Indian Health Service Training Center, Training Course TC-70-4 (April 13-May 1, 1970): A Descriptive Analysis of the Utilization of Health Resources in the Zuni, New Mexico Service Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Public Health Service (DHEW), Washington, DC. Div. of Indian Health.

    A descriptive study of health services utilization patterns, and possible factors contributing to such patterns, was conducted in April 1970 at the Zuni, New Mexico, Indian Health Service Unit. Health service utilization was explored by selected disease categories, preventative services (maternal and child health), and general population attitudes…

  7. Small Town Population Change in Ohio, 1960-1970 and 1970-1980.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Donald W.

    This study of population change in Ohio during the 1960s and 1970s analyzed change by size of place and found sharp contrasts between the two decades. Places in metropolitan core counties which had the highest growth rate in the 1960s showed that lowest growth rate in the 1970s. Small towns in fringe metropolitan areas and nonmetropolitan counties…

  8. International oil and gas exploration and development: 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    This report starts where the previous quarterly publication ended. This first publication of a new annual series contains most of the same data as the quarterly report, plus some new material, through 1991. It also presents historical data covering a longer period of time than the previous quarterly report. Country-level data on oil reserves, oil production, active drilling rigs, seismic crews, wells drilled, oil reserve additions, and oil reserve-to-production rations (R/P ratios) are listed for about 85 countries, where available, from 1970 through 1991. World and regional summaries are given in both tabular and graphical form. The most popular table in the previous quarterly report, a listing of new discoveries, continues in this annual report as Appendix A.

  9. The Magnitude and Components of Change in the Black-White IQ Difference from 1920 to 1991: A Birth Cohort Analysis of the Woodcock-Johnson Standardizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Charles

    2007-01-01

    The black-white difference in test scores for the three standardizations of the Woodcock-Johnson battery of cognitive tests is analyzed in terms of birth cohorts covering the years from 1920 through 1991. Among persons tested at ages 6-65, a narrowing of the difference occurred in overall IQ and in the two most highly "g"-loaded clusters in the…

  10. An Analysis of the Implementation and Impact of Speech-Recognition Technology in the Healthcare Sector

    PubMed Central

    Parente, Ronaldo; Kock, Ned; Sonsini, John

    2004-01-01

    This paper develops a conceptual framework and offers research propositions for understanding the adoption of speech-recognition technology, drawing from Rogers's work on the diffusion of innovation, from interview findings, and from case study analysis. The study's focus was the analysis of the implementation of speech recognition and its impact on performance in the healthcare industry. Our interview findings indicated that, while there is still much room for improvement in the way speech-recognition technology is adopted and implemented, this particular technology has had a significant impact on the ability of healthcare providers to operate more cost effectively and provide a better level of patient care. PMID:18066385

  11. Semiannual final report, 1 October 1991 - 31 March 1992

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    A summary of research conducted at the Institute for Computer Applications in Science and Engineering in applied mathematics, numerical analysis, and computer science during the period 1 Oct. 1991 through 31 Mar. 1992 is presented.

  12. Agriculture sector resource and environmental policy analysis: an economic and biophysical approach.

    PubMed

    House, R; McDowell, H; Peters, M; Heimlich, R

    1999-01-01

    Agricultural pollution of the environment is jointly determined by economic decisions driving land use, production practices, and stochastic biophysical processes associated with agricultural production, land and climate characteristics. It follows that environmental and economic statistics, traditionally collected independently of each other, offer little insight into non-point pollutant loadings. We argue that effective policy development would be facilitated by integrating environmental and economic data gathering, combined with simulation modelling linking economic and biophysical components. Integrated data collection links economics, land use, production methods and environmental loadings. An integrated economic/biophysical modelling framework facilitates policy analysis because monetary incentives to reduce pollution can be evaluated in the context of market costs and returns that influence land use and production activity. This allows prediction of environmental and economic outcomes from alternative policies to solve environmental problems. We highlight steps taken to merge economic and biophysical modelling for policy analysis within the Economic Research Service of the United States Department of Agriculture. An example analysis of a policy to reduce agricultural nitrogen pollution is presented, with the economic and environmental results illustrating the value of linked economic and biophysical analysis. PMID:10231835

  13. Industry sector analysis, China: Electrical generating equipment in guangdong province. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    The market survey covers the electrical generating equipment market in the Guangdong Province of China. The analysis contains statistical and narrative information on projected market demand, end-users; receptivity of Chinese consumers to U.S. products; the competitive situation, and market access (tariffs, non-tariff barriers, standards, taxes, distribution channels). It also contains key contact information.

  14. A Hybrid Model for IT Investment Analysis: Application to RFID Adoption in the Retail Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kasiri, Narges A.

    2010-01-01

    Scope and Method of Study. One of the major obstacles in Information Technology (IT) adoption is its return on investment analysis. IT benefits in organizations are hard to measure and are usually realized over time. System dynamics approach has been used in IT literature to identify the impact of IT on business processes. Given benefits of any IT…

  15. Public and private sector responses to essential drugs policies: a multilevel analysis of drug prescription and selling practices in Mali.

    PubMed

    Maïga, Fatoumata Ina; Haddad, Slim; Fournier, Pierre; Gauvin, Lise

    2003-09-01

    Many African countries have introduced cost recovery mechanisms based on the sale of drugs and measures aimed at improving drug supply. This study compares prescribing and selling practices in Mali, in 3 cities where the public sector contributes differentially to the supply of drugs on the market. Multilevel models are used to analyse the content and cost of 700 medication transactions observed in 14 private and public legal points of sale. Results show that the objective of improving access to drugs seems to have been achieved in the sites studied. Costs of prescriptions were lower where public health services had been revitalized. Affordable generic drugs were accessible and widely used, even in the private sector. However, measures intended to rationalize the prescription and delivery of drugs did not always have the desired effect. While agents in the public sector tended to prescribe fewer antibiotics, injectables, or brand-name drugs, the data confirm the virtual absence of advice concerning the use or the side effects of the drugs in both public and private sectors. In addition, data supported the notion that the public and private sectors are closely intertwined. Notably, availability of drugs in the public sector contributed to diminishing the prices charged in the private sector. Similarly, the use that agents in the public sector made of the opportunities afforded by the presence of the private pharmaceutical sector provided another illustration of interrelatedness. Finally, the data showed that the presence of a private sector, which has not been affected by measures aimed at rationalizing prescription and sales practices, limits the effects of measures implemented in the public sector. More assertive policies, based on strategies encompassing actors in the private sector, are needed to increase the safety and effectiveness of prescription and sales practices. PMID:12850118

  16. Industry sector analysis, China: Petrochemical industry in east China. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    The market survey covers the petrochemical equipment and technology market in East China. The analysis contains statistical and narrative information on projected market demand, end-users; receptivity of Chinese consumers to U.S. products; the competitive situation, and market access (tariffs, non-tariff barriers, standards, taxes, distribution channels). It also contains key contact information and information on upcoming trade events related to the industry.

  17. Industry sector analysis, Hong Kong: Air pollution monitoring equipment. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    The market survey covers the air pollution monitoring equipment market in Hong Kong. The analysis contains statistical and narrative information on projected market demand, end-users; receptivity of Hong Kong consumers to U.S. products; the competitive situation, and market access (tariffs, non-tariff barriers, standards, taxes, distribution channels). It also contains key contact information and information on upcoming trade events related to the industry.

  18. Industry sector analysis, Hong Kong: Air conditioning equipment. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    The market survey covers the air conditioning equipment market in Hong Kong. The analysis contains statistical and narrative information on projected market demand, end-users; receptivity of Hong Kong consumers to U.S. products; the competitive situation, and market access (tariffs, non-tariff barriers, standards, taxes, distribution channels). It also contains key contact information and information on upcoming trade events related to the industry.

  19. Industry sector analysis, Hong Kong: Asbestos control industry. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    The market survey covers the asbestos control market in Hong Kong. The analysis contains statistical and narrative information on projected market demand, end-users; receptivity of Hong Kong consumers to U.S. products; the competitive situation, and market access (tariffs, non-tariff barriers, standards, taxes, distribution channels). It also contains key contact information and information on upcoming trade events related to the industry.

  20. Training in the Motor Vehicle Repair and Sales Sector in Ireland. Report for the FORCE Programme.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuite, Dominick

    A study viewed the existing motor vehicle sector, structure, and trading conditions and identified and analyzed the best and most significant continuing vocational training practices in Ireland. In 1991, the motor vechicle sector accounted for 6.2 percent of the Gross National Product. Employment in the sector has decreased from an estimated…

  1. Public Interest Energy Research (PIER) Program. Final Project Report. California Energy Balance Update and Decomposition Analysis for the Industry and Building Sectors

    SciTech Connect

    de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Hasanbeigi, Ali; Sathaye, Jayant

    2010-12-01

    This report on the California Energy Balance version 2 (CALEB v2) database documents the latest update and improvements to CALEB version 1 (CALEB v1) and provides a complete picture of how energy is supplied and consumed in the State of California. The CALEB research team at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) performed the research and analysis described in this report. CALEB manages highly disaggregated data on energy supply, transformation, and end-use consumption for about 40 different energy commodities, from 1990 to 2008. This report describes in detail California's energy use from supply through end-use consumption as well as the data sources used. The report also analyzes trends in energy demand for the "Manufacturing" and "Building" sectors. Decomposition analysis of energy consumption combined with measures of the activity driving that consumption quantifies the effects of factors that shape energy consumption trends. The study finds that a decrease in energy intensity has had a very significant impact on reducing energy demand over the past 20 years. The largest impact can be observed in the industry sector where energy demand would have had increased by 358 trillion British thermal units (TBtu) if subsectoral energy intensities had remained at 1997 levels. Instead, energy demand actually decreased by 70 TBtu. In the "Building" sector, combined results from the "Service" and "Residential" subsectors suggest that energy demand would have increased by 264 TBtu (121 TBtu in the "Services" sector and 143 TBtu in the "Residential" sector) during the same period, 1997 to 2008. However, energy demand increased at a lesser rate, by only 162 TBtu (92 TBtu in the "Services" sector and 70 TBtu in the "Residential" sector). These energy intensity reductions can be indicative of energyefficiency improvements during the past 10 years. The research presented in this report provides a basis for developing an energy-efficiency performance index to measure

  2. FOI Digest Index, 1970-1979.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freedom of Information Center, Columbia, MO.

    An index of the reports and articles appearing in the 1970-79 issues of the "Freedom of Information Digest," a bimonthly newsletter, presents the titles in more than 100 subject categories. The topics covered by the index include access laws, general/school censorship, access to records, employee records, executive privilege, financial disclosure,…

  3. American Women's History during the 1970s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Hugh Davis

    1988-01-01

    Surveys current literature dealing with the 1970s feminist movement, concentrating on national public policy. Remarks that little of the research is archival because the Nixon and Carter presidential papers were just recently opened. Offers predictions for the second wave of reconstruction and interpretation that will follow the opening of the…

  4. Teacher MA Attainment Rates, 1970-2000

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsen, S. Eric

    2010-01-01

    The share of female teachers in the U.S. with an MA more than doubled between 1970 and 2000. This increase is puzzling, as it is much larger than that of other college-educated women, and it occurred over a period of declining teacher aptitude. I estimate the contribution of changes in teacher demographic characteristics, increases in the returns…

  5. Asian Studies Survey--Spring 1970.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wakita, Kayoko

    Of a questionnaire sent to 1700 Asian students enrolled in the 1970 spring semester at Los angeles City College, 659 (38%) responded. Returns were mostly from those of Japanese or Chinese ancestry who were categorized as (1) foreign-born, (2) native-born, and (3) those from Hawaii. A distinct language barrier between the foreign-born and…

  6. 1970s: Camping in Tough Times.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camping Magazine, 1999

    1999-01-01

    In the 1970s, camps were challenged by economic recession, growing administrative demands, and changing attitudes and interests of campers and staff. An illustrative article from 1972, "Facing the Camping Future with Confidence" (Michael F. Buynak), discusses hidden costs in camp operation and the need for camp administration to shift from…

  7. Jobs for America. Annual Report Fiscal 1970.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Economic Development Administration (DOC), Washington, DC.

    During fiscal year 1970, over 800 projects were approved by the Economic Development Administration (EDA) to help create employment opportunities for jobless and underemployed Americans. EDA activities included public works, business loans, technical assistance, and support for local and regional planning programs. Establishment of multi-state…

  8. Bibliography of Nursing Monographs, 1970-1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewens, Wilma A., Comp.; And Others

    This list consists of titles published since 1970 on nursing, grouping them into five broad categories: (1) nursing practice, including clinical nursing, communication, community health, emergency care, family health, obstetrics, and universal self care; (2) nursing as a profession; (3) educational aspects of nursing; (4) basic health science…

  9. Medical School Salary Study, 1970-71.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of American Medical Colleges, Washington, DC.

    The Association of American Medical Colleges conducted a survey by means of a questionnaire in 1970-71 to determine the salaries of medical school faculties. Ninety-three schools submitted returns; salaries for 4,366 basic scientists and 12,701 clinical scientists are reported. The areas covered include strict full-time faculty by department, and…

  10. Reproductive success of Potomac River ospreys--1970

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wiemeyer, Stanley N.

    1971-01-01

    Osprey reproductive success on the Potomac River during 1970 is described. Thirty-five percent of the accessible active nests fledged young and only 0.70 young were fledged per active nest. Egg failure was the major cause of poor success. Reproduction was below that considered normal for a stable population.

  11. The corn blight problem: 1970 and 1971

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, M. E.

    1972-01-01

    Southern corn leaf blight is caused by the fungus, Helminthosporium maydis. Race T of H maydis adapted itself to the Texas male sterile cytoplasm corn. The problems caused by this variety of the blight in 1970 and 1971 are discussed, as well as the symptoms and development of the disease.

  12. Resources for the Future. Annual Report 1970.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Resources for the Future, Inc., Washington, DC.

    Presented is the Annual Report for Resources For The Future, Inc. (RFF) for the year ending September 30, 1970. This organization is dedicated to advancing the development, conservation, and use of natural resources and the improvement of the quality of the environment through programs of research and education. Most of their studies are in the…

  13. Oregon Migrant Health Project, 1970 Annual Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon State Board of Health, Portland.

    The 1970 annual report on the Oregon Migrant Health Project discusses health services for migrant agricultural workers and their families (approximately 30,000 individuals) who worked and lived temporarily in various Oregon counties. As noted, some 9,000 of the 30,000 migrants were estimated to be in need of some type of medical service. Thus, the…

  14. Remembering 1970, and Premonitions about 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gouran, Dennis S.

    In the history of small group studies (in the field of communication theory and research), two factors contributed to the changes that led to Ernest Bormann publishing in 1970 his work questioning the value of the knowledge being reported and the appropriateness of the methods by which it was being generated. First, prior to 1965, a limited amount…

  15. Vocational and Technical Training--1970-71.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1973

    Divided into seven sections and written in a 2-column format in both English and French, this document presents statistical data on the following vocational schools and training programs in operation in Canada during the 1970-71 academic year: (1) publicly sponsored post-secondary courses, (2) publicly-operated vocational schools, (3)…

  16. Women and Crime: 1960-1970

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noblit, George W.; Burcart, Janie M.

    1976-01-01

    Using data from the Federal Bureau of Investigation's Uniform Crime Report, this research looks at crimes committed by women in 1960 and 1970. The study documents trends and offers possible explanations for the observed patterns. (For a critique of this article, see SO 504 653). (Author/RM)

  17. The Total Solar Eclipse, March 1970

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn, William H.

    1970-01-01

    Describes the circumstances of the total and partial solar eclipse of March 7, 1970 in certain American cities. Also discussed are (1) a classroom demonstration of the cause of solar eclipses, (2) techniques for safely observing the eclipse, and (3) what to observe during the eclipse. Bibliography. (LC)

  18. Pennsylvania Farm Labor Service Annual Report, 1970.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennsylvania State Dept. of Labor and Industry, Harrisburg.

    A delineation of the results of an effort to satisfy the needs of the Pennsylvania farmer and to procure gainful employment for migrant workers is the stated purpose of this 1970 annual report by the Rural Services Section of the Pennsylvania Bureau of Employment Security. The report divides Pennsylvania into 7 crop-reporting areas, in which…

  19. NASA Airborne Lidar July 1991

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-05-26

    NASA Airborne Lidar July 1991 Data from the 1991 NASA Langley Airborne Lidar flights following the eruption of Pinatubo in July ... and Osborn [1992a, 1992b]. Project Title:  NASA Airborne Lidar Discipline:  Field Campaigns ...

  20. A retrospective content analysis of studies on factors constraining the implementation of health sector reform in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Sakyi, E Kojo

    2008-01-01

    Ghana has undertaken many public service management reforms in the past two decades. But the implementation of the reforms has been constrained by many factors. This paper undertakes a retrospective study of research works on the challenges to the implementation of reforms in the public health sector. It points out that most of the studies identified: (1) centralised, weak and fragmented management system; (2) poor implementation strategy; (3) lack of motivation; (4) weak institutional framework; (5) lack of financial and human resources and (6) staff attitude and behaviour as the major causes of ineffective reform implementation. The analysis further revealed that quite a number of crucial factors obstructing reform implementation which are particularly internal to the health system have either not been thoroughly studied or overlooked. The analysis identified lack of leadership; weak communication and consultation; lack of stakeholder participation, corruption and unethical professional behaviour as some of the missing variables in the literature. The study, therefore, indicated that there are gaps in the literature that needed to be filled through rigorous reform evaluation based on empirical research particularly at district, sub-district and community levels. It further suggested that future research should be concerned with the effects of both systems and structures and behavioural factors on reform implementation. PMID:18536006

  1. Efficacy of fuzzy MADM approach in Six Sigma analysis phase in automotive sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rathi, Rajeev; Khanduja, Dinesh; Sharma, S. K.

    2016-02-01

    Six Sigma is a strategy for achieving process improvement and operational excellence within an organization. Decisions on critical parameter selection in analysis phase are always very crucial; it plays a primary role in successful execution of Six Sigma project and for productivity improvement in manufacturing environment and involves the imprecise, vague and uncertain information. Using a case study approach; the paper demonstrates a tactical approach for selection of critical factors of machine breakdown in center less grinding (CLG) section at an automotive industry using fuzzy logic based multi attribute decision making approach. In this context, we have considered six crucial attributes for selection of critical factors for breakdown. Mean time between failure is found to be the pivotal selection criterion in CLG section. Having calculated the weights pertinent to criteria through two methods (fuzzy VIKOR and fuzzy TOPSIS) critical factors for breakdown are prioritized. Our results are in strong agreement with the perceptions of production and maintenance department of the company.

  2. Access to Vocational Training in Three Sectors of the European Economy. Comparative Analysis. 2nd Edition. CEDEFOP Panorama.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lassibille, Gerard; Paul, Jean-Jacques

    This report presents findings of a study of the theoretical and practical methods of access to continuing vocational training. It summarizes six reports that compare the following: the construction sector in Spain, France, Italy, and Luxembourg; the banking, insurance, commerce, and administration sectors in Germany, Ireland, the Netherlands, and…

  3. Unemployment, public–sector health care expenditure and HIV mortality: An analysis of 74 countries, 1981–2009

    PubMed Central

    Maruthappu, Mahiben; Da Zhou, Charlie; Williams, Callum; Zeltner, Thomas; Atun, Rifat

    2015-01-01

    Background The global economic downturn has been associated with increased unemployment and reduced public–sector expenditure on health care (PSEH). We determined the association between unemployment, PSEH and HIV mortality. Methods Data were obtained from the World Bank and the World Health Organisation (1981–2009). Multivariate regression analysis was implemented, controlling for country–specific demographics and infrastructure. Time–lag analyses and robustness–checks were performed. Findings Data were available for 74 countries (unemployment analysis) and 75 countries (PSEH analysis), equating to 2.19 billion and 2.22 billion people, respectively, as of 2009. A 1% increase in unemployment was associated with a significant increase in HIV mortality (men: 0.1861, 95% CI: 0.0977 to 0.2744, P = 0.0000, women: 0.0383, 95% CI: 0.0108 to 0.0657, P = 0.0064). A 1% increase in PSEH was associated with a significant decrease in HIV mortality (men: –0.5015, 95% CI: –0.7432 to –0.2598, P = 0.0001; women: –0.1562, 95% CI: –0.2404 to –0.0720, P = 0.0003). Time–lag analysis showed that significant changes in HIV mortality continued for up to 5 years following variations in both unemployment and PSEH. Interpretation Unemployment increases were associated with significant HIV mortality increases. PSEH increases were associated with reduced HIV mortality. The facilitation of access–to–care for the unemployed and policy interventions which aim to protect PSEH could contribute to improved HIV outcomes. PMID:25734005

  4. Research and technology, 1991

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    NASA Lewis' research and technology accomplishments are summarized for the fiscal year 1991. Approximately 150 articles are presented which were submitted by the technical directorates. There are six major sections: Aeronautics; Aerospace technology; Space flight systems; Space Station Freedom; Engineering and Computational support; and Lewis Research Academy. A table of contents by subject was developed to assist the reader in finding articles of special interest. For each article, a Lewis contact person is identified, and where possible, a reference document is listed so that additional information can be easily obtained. The diversity of topics attests to the breadth of research and technology being pursued and to the skill mix of the staff that makes it possible.

  5. Energy use and conservation in the commercial sector: Volume 1, Conditional demand analysis applied to the Nonresidential Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (NBECS): Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Parti, M.; Sebald, A.V.; Farber, M.

    1988-02-01

    This report describes an investigation into the application of an enhanced conditional demand analysis (CDA) technique to the estimation and forecasting of commercial sector energy demand. The report consists of two volumes. This volume, the first, presents the theoretical background of the procedure and applies it to a national data set. 4 figs., 24 tabs.

  6. Meanings in Economics Education (Presidential Address at the Annual Conference of the Economics Association, Torquay, April 3rd, 1991).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Keith

    1991-01-01

    Discusses British economics education between 1951 and 1991. Reports the scarcity of economics courses and materials during the 1950s, growth the discipline in the 1960s, the inception of the Economics Association's 14-16 Project during the 1970s, and the increased curriculum integration of the 1980s. Examines prospects for economics education in…

  7. The Changing Face of War in Textbooks: Depictions of World War II and Vietnam, 1970-2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lachmann, Richard; Mitchell, Lacy

    2014-01-01

    How have U.S. high school textbook depictions of World War II and Vietnam changed since the 1970s? We examined 102 textbooks published from 1970 to 2009 to see how they treated U.S. involvement in World War II and Vietnam. Our content analysis of high school history textbooks finds that U.S. textbooks increasingly focus on the personal experiences…

  8. 1991 Fall Meeting Report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, David S.

    The AGU 1991 Fall Meeting, held in San Francisco December 9-13, was the largest national AGU meeting ever held. Meeting participation continued the steady growth trend set throughout the previous decade. A total of 4,037 papers and posters were presented, and by Friday noon of the meeting over 5,500 members had registered.Several special events were scheduled to inform and engage members on societal and programmatic aspects of our science. AGU's Committee on Education and Human Resources sponsored an open forum that addressed opportunities and problems associated with dual-career couples. A discussion of NASA's strategic plan by Berrien Moore and Joseph Alexander drew a large audience, and a special session on societal aspects of the Mt. Pinatubo eruption drew an overflow crowd. Two special lectures— “Plumes, Plates, and Deep Earth Structure” by Don L. Anderson and “New Frontiers in Aeronomy: Effects of Global Atmospheric Change” by P. M. Banks-also drew overflow crowds.

  9. PVUSA progress report, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Ellyn, W.; Jennings, C.

    1991-12-31

    Photovoltaics for Utility Scale Applications (PVUSA) is a national public-private partnership that is assessing and demonstrating the viability of utility-scale photovoltaic (PV) electric generating systems. PVUSA participants include Pacific Gas & Electric (PG&E), the US Department of Energy (DOE), the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), the California Energy Commission (CEC), and eight utilities and other agencies. This report updates the progress of the PVUSA project, reviews the status and performance of the various PV installations during 1991, and summarizes key findings and conclusions from work to date. PVUSA offers utilities hands-on experience needed to evaluate and utilize maturing PV technology. The project also provides manufacturers a test bed for their products, encourages technology improvement and cost reductions in PV modules and other system components, and establishes communication channels between utilities and the PV industry. The project consists of two types of demonstrations: Emerging Module Technology (EMT) arrays, which are unproven but promising state-of-the-art PV technologies in 20-kW (nominal) arrays; and Utility Scale (US) systems, which represent more mature PV technologies in 200- to 500-kW turnkey systems.

  10. Trends in the association between height and socioeconomic indicators in France, 1970–2003

    PubMed Central

    Gourmelen, Julie; Ferrie, Jane; Silventoinen, Karri; Guéguen, Alice; Stringhini, Silvia; Nabi, Hermann; Kivimaki, Mika

    2010-01-01

    Average physical stature has increased dramatically during the 20th century in many populations across the world with few exceptions. It remains unclear if social inequalities in height persist despite improvements in living standards in the welfare economies of Western Europe. We examined trends in the association between height and socioeconomic indicators in adults over three decades in France. The data were drawn from the French Decennial Health Surveys: a multistage, stratified, random survey of households, representative of the population, conducted in 1970, 1980, 1991, and 2003. We categorised age into 10-year bands, 25–34, 35–44, 45–54 and 55–64 years. Education and income were the two socioeconomic measures used. The slope index of inequality (SII) was used as a summary index of absolute social inequalities in height. The results show that average height increased over this period; men and women aged 25–34 years were 171.9 and 161.2 cm tall in 1970 and 177.0 and 164.0 cm in 2003. However, education-related inequalities in height remained unchanged over this period and in men were 4.48 cm (1970), 4.71 cm (1980), 5.58 cm (1991) and 4.69 cm (2003), the corresponding figures in women were 2.41, 2.37, 3.14 and 2.96 cm. Income-related inequalities in height were smaller and much attenuated after adjustment for education. These results suggest that in France, social inequalities in adult height in absolute terms have remained unchanged across the three decades under examination. PMID:20400383

  11. Analysis of geomagnetic secular variation during 1980-1985 and 1985- 1990, and geomagnetic models proposed for the 1991 revision of the International Geomagnetic Reference Field

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peddie, N.W.

    1992-01-01

    The secular variation of the main geomagnetic field during the periods 1980-1985 and 1985-1990 was analyzed in terms of spherical harmonics up to the eighth degree and order. Data from worldwide magnetic observatories and the Navy's Project MAGNET aerial surveys were used. The resulting pair of secular-variation models was used to update the Definitive Geomagnetic Reference Field (DGRF) model for 1980, resulting in new mainfield models for 1985.0 and 1990.0. These, along with the secular-variation model for 1985-1990, were proposed for the 1991 revision of the International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF). -Author

  12. Comparison of implant quality between intraoperatively built custom-linked seeds and loose seeds in permanent prostate brachytherapy using sector analysis

    PubMed Central

    Katayama, Norihisa; Takemoto, Mitsuhiro; Takamoto, Atsushi; Ihara, Hiroki; Katsui, Kuniaki; Ebara, Shin; Nasu, Yasutomo; Kanazawa, Susumu

    2016-01-01

    We compared the implant quality of intraoperatively built custom-linked (IBCL) seeds with loose seeds in permanent prostate brachytherapy. Between June 2012 and January 2015, 64 consecutive prostate cancer patients underwent brachytherapy with IBCL seeds (n = 32) or loose seeds (n = 32). All the patients were treated with 144 Gy of brachytherapy alone. Brachytherapy was performed using a dynamic dose calculation technique. Computed tomography/magnetic resonance imaging fusion-based dosimetry was performed 1 month after brachytherapy. Post-implant dose–volume histogram (DVH) parameters, prostate sector dosimetry, operation time, seed migration, and toxicities were compared between the IBCL seed group and the loose seed group. A sector analysis tool was used to divide the prostate into six sectors (anterior and posterior sectors at the base, mid-gland, and apex). V100 (95.3% vs 89.7%; P = 0.014) and D90 (169.7 Gy vs 152.6 Gy; P = 0.013) in the anterior base sector were significantly higher in the IBCL seed group than in the loose seed group. The seed migration rate was significantly lower in the IBCL seed group than in the loose seed group (6% vs 66%; P < 0.001). Operation time per seed was significantly longer in the IBCL seed group than in the loose seed group (1.31 min vs 1.13 min; P = 0.003). Other post-implant DVH parameters and toxicities did not differ significantly between the two groups. Our study showed more dose coverage post-operatively in the anterior base prostate sector and less seed migration in IBCL seed implantation compared with loose seed implantation. PMID:26976125

  13. Astronautics and aeronautics, 1970. Chronology on science, technology, and policy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    An immediate reference to aerospace-related events of 1970 is provided to help historians in preserving historical accuracy and precision. Chronologies of major NASA launches, and manned space flights for 1970 are included.

  14. Job satisfaction and motivation of health workers in public and private sectors: cross-sectional analysis from two Indian states

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Ensuring health worker job satisfaction and motivation are important if health workers are to be retained and effectively deliver health services in many developing countries, whether they work in the public or private sector. The objectives of the paper are to identify important aspects of health worker satisfaction and motivation in two Indian states working in public and private sectors. Methods Cross-sectional surveys of 1916 public and private sector health workers in Andhra Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh, India, were conducted using a standardized instrument to identify health workers' satisfaction with key work factors related to motivation. Ratings were compared with how important health workers consider these factors. Results There was high variability in the ratings for areas of satisfaction and motivation across the different practice settings, but there were also commonalities. Four groups of factors were identified, with those relating to job content and work environment viewed as the most important characteristics of the ideal job, and rated higher than a good income. In both states, public sector health workers rated "good employment benefits" as significantly more important than private sector workers, as well as a "superior who recognizes work". There were large differences in whether these factors were considered present on the job, particularly between public and private sector health workers in Uttar Pradesh, where the public sector fared consistently lower (P < 0.01). Discordance between what motivational factors health workers considered important and their perceptions of actual presence of these factors were also highest in Uttar Pradesh in the public sector, where all 17 items had greater discordance for public sector workers than for workers in the private sector (P < 0.001). Conclusion There are common areas of health worker motivation that should be considered by managers and policy makers, particularly the importance of non

  15. Work satisfaction of professional nurses in South Africa: a comparative analysis of the public and private sectors

    PubMed Central

    Pillay, Rubin

    2009-01-01

    Background Work satisfaction of nurses is important, as there is sufficient empirical evidence to show that it tends to affect individual, organizational and greater health and social outcomes. Although there have been several studies of job satisfaction among nurses in South Africa, these are limited because they relate to studies of individual organizations or regions, use small samples or are dated. This paper presents a national study that compares and contrasts satisfaction levels of nurses in both public and private sectors. Methods This was a cross-sectional survey of professional nurses conducted throughout South Africa using a pretested and self-administered questionnaire. Univariate and bivariate statistical models were used to evaluate levels of satisfaction with various facets of work and to elicit the differences in satisfaction levels between different groups of nurses. A total of 569 professional nurses participated in the study. Results Private-sector nurses were generally satisfied, while public-sector nurses were generally dissatisfied. Public-sector nurses were most dissatisfied with their pay, the workload and the resources available to them. They were satisfied only with the social context of the work. Private-sector nurses were dissatisfied only with their pay and career development opportunities. Professional nurses in the more rural provinces, those intending to change sectors and those more likely not to be in their current positions within the next five years were also more likely to be dissatisfied with all facets of their work. Conclusion This study highlighted the overall dissatisfaction among South African nurses and confirmed the disparity between the levels of job satisfaction between the public and private sectors. Health managers should address those factors that affect job satisfaction, and therefore retention, of nurses in South Africa. Improving the work environment so that it provides a context congruent with the aspirations

  16. Space View of the 1991 Gulf War Kuwaiti Oil Fires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres, O.; Bhartia, P. K.; Larko, D.

    2014-12-01

    During the 1991 Persian Gulf War, over 700 oil wells in Kuwait were set ablaze by the withdrawing Iraqi army with the apparent intent of hindering satellite reconnaissance and intelligence gathering activities by the coalition of forces repelling Iraq from occupied Kuwait. The oil fires that burned for an estimated 10 months, created a huge smoke plume whose spatial extent went at times beyond the Persian Gulf region, mobilized across the Saharan Desert reaching as far west as the North Atlantic Ocean. The Nimbus-7 TOMS Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer, in operation from October 1978 to May 1993, measured the near UV radiances that in the mid-1990's became the input in the calculation of the well know Absorbing Aerosol Index that represented a major breakthrough in satellite-based aerosol remote sensing. Thus, unknowingly to the world, the N7-TOMS sensor was collecting in 1991 an unprecedented daily record of what can be considered the worst environmental catastrophe affecting the atmosphere since the beginning of the era of space-based remote sensing in the 1970's. An overview of the temporal and spatial extent of the synoptic scale 1991 Gulf War smoke plume as seen by the Nimbus-7 TOMS Absorbing Aerosol Index will be presented.

  17. Analysis of energy use in building services of the industrial sector in California: A literature review and a preliminary characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Akbari, H.; Borgers, T.; Gadgil, A.; Sezgen, O.

    1991-04-01

    Energy use patterns in many of California's fastest-growing industries are not typical of those in the mix of industries elsewhere in the US. Many California firms operate small and medium-sized facilities, often in buildings used simultaneously or interchangeably for commercial (office, retail, warehouse) and industrial activities. In these industrial subsectors, the energy required for building services'' to provide occupant comfort and necessities (lighting, HVAC, office equipment, computers, etc.) may be at least as important as the more familiar process energy requirements -- especially for electricity and on-peak demand. In this report, published or unpublished information on energy use for building services in the industrial sector have been compiled and analyzed. Seven different sources of information and data relevant to California have been identified. Most of these are studies and/or projects sponsored by the Department of Energy, the California Energy Commission, and local utilities. The objectives of these studies were diverse: most focused on industrial energy use in general, and, in one case, the objective was to analyze energy use in commercial buildings. Only one of these studies focused directly on non-process energy use in industrial buildings. Our analysis of Northern California data for five selected industries shows that the contribution of total electricity consumption for lighting ranges from 9.5% in frozen fruits to 29.1% in instruments; for air-conditioning, it ranges from nonexistent in frozen fruits to 35% in instrument manufacturing. None of the five industries selected had significant electrical space heating. Gas space heating ranges from 5% in motor vehicles facilities to more than 58% in the instrument manufacturing industry. 15 refs., 15 figs., 9 tabs.

  18. Analysis of water and soil from the wetlands of Upper Three Runs Creek. Volume 2A, Analytical data packages September--October 1991 sampling

    SciTech Connect

    Haselow, L.A.; Rogers, V.A.; Riordan, C.J.; Eidson, G.W.; Herring, M.K.

    1992-08-01

    Shallow water and soils along Upper Three Runs Creek (UTRC) and associated wetlands between SRS Road F and Cato Road were sampled for nonradioactive and radioactive constituents. The sampling program is associated with risk evaluations being performed for various regulatory documents in these areas of the Savannah River Site (SRS). WSRC selected fifty sampling sites bordering the Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF), F- and H-Area Seepage Basins (FHSB), and the Sanitary Landfill (SL). The analytical results from this study provided information on the water and soil quality in UTRC and its associated wetlands. The analytical results from this investigation indicated that the primary constituents and radiological indicators detected in the shallow water and soils were tritium, gross alpha, radium 226, total radium and strontium 90. This investigation involved the collection of shallow water samples during the Fall of 1991 and the Spring of 1992 at fifty (50) sampling locations. Sampling was performed during these periods to incorporate high and low water table periods. Samples were collected from three sections along UTRC denoted as Phase I (MWMF), Phase II (FHSB) and Phase III (SL). One vibracored soil sample was also collected in each phase during the Fall of 1991. This document is compiled solely of experimental data obtained from the sampling procedures.

  19. 38 CFR 1.970 - Standards for compromise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards for compromise. 1.970 Section 1.970 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS GENERAL PROVISIONS Referrals to Gao, Department of Justice, Or Irs § 1.970 Standards for compromise. Decisions of...

  20. 38 CFR 1.970 - Standards for compromise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standards for compromise. 1.970 Section 1.970 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS GENERAL PROVISIONS Referrals to Gao, Department of Justice, Or Irs § 1.970 Standards for compromise. Decisions of...

  1. 42 CFR 423.1970 - Right to an ALJ hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Right to an ALJ hearing. 423.1970 Section 423.1970 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES..., and Judicial Review § 423.1970 Right to an ALJ hearing. (a) If the amount remaining in...

  2. 40 CFR 49.921-49.1970 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false 49.921-49.1970 Section 49.921-49.1970 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE TRIBAL CLEAN AIR ACT AUTHORITY Implementation Plans for Tribes-Region V §§ 49.921-49.1970...

  3. 21 CFR 892.1970 - Radiographic ECG/respirator synchronizer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Radiographic ECG/respirator synchronizer. 892.1970 Section 892.1970 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1970 Radiographic...

  4. 21 CFR 892.1970 - Radiographic ECG/respirator synchronizer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Radiographic ECG/respirator synchronizer. 892.1970 Section 892.1970 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1970 Radiographic...

  5. 21 CFR 892.1970 - Radiographic ECG/respirator synchronizer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Radiographic ECG/respirator synchronizer. 892.1970 Section 892.1970 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1970 Radiographic...

  6. 21 CFR 892.1970 - Radiographic ECG/respirator synchronizer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Radiographic ECG/respirator synchronizer. 892.1970 Section 892.1970 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1970 Radiographic...

  7. Venus ionopause 'clouds' and IMF sector boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luhmann, Janet G.; Russell, C. T.; Wei, Hanying; Ma, Yingjuan; Zhang, Tielong; McEnulty, T.

    Disconnected or partially connected structures observed by the PVO Langmuir Probe near the ionopause of Venus were called 'clouds' by Brace et al. (1980). These authors speculated that the loss of atmosphere represented by these features could be significant compared to other loss processes. Russell et al. (1982) subsequently showed that the clouds occurred together with sharp rotations in the magnetic field. They suggested that the extreme draping of the interplanetary field that occurs near the ionopause at the draping poles could exert JxB forces sufficient to pull the ionospheric plasma in the cloud tailward and out into the heliosphere. But in 1991, Ong et al. demonstrated via analysis of many clouds that they are not generally seen in the polar regions of the draped magnetosheath field. Instead they occur at times when the interplanetary magnetic field undergoes a sudden rotation, as in interplanetary field sector boundaries. We discuss the statistics of such rotations at the orbit of Venus and their frequency as a function of solar cycle. Whether they enable or enhance escape or not requires simulation studies, but this study calls attention to the potential importance of time dependent external conditions.

  8. Tight gas field, reservoir, and completion analysis of the United States. Volume 2. Output tables. Topical report, November 1, 1991-May 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Hugman, R.H.; Springer, P.S.; Vidas, E.H.

    1992-05-01

    Tight gas fields, reservoirs, and completions have been identified in all non-Appalachian U.S. basins containing tight formation designations specified by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission. A total of 909 fields containing 1,643 tight reservoirs and 37,074 tight gas completions have been identified (through 1988). Non-Appalachian tight production increased from 0.88 Tcf per year in 1970 to 1.71 Tcf per year in 1985 before declining slightly to 1.65 Tcf in 1988. Tight ultimate recovery (cumulative production plus proven reserves) is estimated to be 52.3 Tcf. Evaluation includes basin and formation level evaluation of completion counts, production, ultimate recovery, field size distribution and well density.

  9. Tight gas field, reservoir, and completion analysis of the United States. Volume 1. Project summary. Topical report, November 1, 1991-May 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Hugman, R.H.; Springer, P.S.; Vidas, E.H.

    1992-05-01

    Tight gas fields, reservoirs, and completions have been identified in all non-Appalachian U.S. basins containing tight formation designations specified by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission. A total of 909 fields containing 1,643 tight reservoirs and 37,074 tight gas completions have been identified (through 1988). Non-Appalachian tight production increased from 0.88 Tcf per year in 1970 to 1.71 Tcf per year in 1985 before declining slightly to 1.65 Tcf in 1988. Tight ultimate recovery (cumulative production plus proven reserves) is estimated to be 52.3 Tcf. Evaluation includes basin and formation level evaluation of completion counts, production, ultimate recovery, field size distribution and well density.

  10. Selection and analysis of sites highly vulnerable to groundwater contamination in southwestern Michigan. Final technical report, 1 April 1991-31 March 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Ervin, J.L.; Lusch, D.P.

    1992-04-01

    An ongoing study in central Cass County has demonstrated extensive nitrate contamination of the glacial drift aquifer in the Donnell Lake watershed. In addition, about 20% of 121 wells sampled showed detectable herbicides (atrazine, alachlor/metolachlor, and/or alachlor soil metabolite). Monthly monitoring of these wells in 1991 demonstrated stable water quality in the deeper wells, with some shallow wells showing from 30 to 300% increases in nitrate concentration over the summer. One well showed an 80% decrease in nitrate concentration. Herbicide concentrations were quite stable and consistent with previous findings. Generally the deeper wells (over 50 feet) demonstrated less contamination, but one 80 foot deep well demonstrated substantial nitrate and herbicide concentrations.

  11. Comparison of inferred and observed interplanetary magnetic field polarities, 1970-1972

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilcox, J. M.; Svalgaard, L.; Hedgecock, P. C.

    1975-01-01

    The inferred polarity (toward or away from the sun) of the interplanetary magnetic field at earth using polar observations of the geomagnetic field has been compared with spacecraft observations. A list published by Svalgaard (1974) of the inferred field polarities in the period from 1970 to 1972 is found to be correct on 82% of the days. A near real-time (same day) method of inferring the polarity of the interplanetary magnetic field using geomagnetic observations at Vostok and Thule is in use at the NOAA Space Environment Laboratory, Boulder, Colorado. During 1972, this method is found to be correct on 87% of the days. A list of 'well-defined' sector boundaries at earth from 1970 to 1972 is given.

  12. Vortex Wake Turbulence: Flight Tests Conducted During 1970

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    A flight test program designed to obtain data on the characteristics of wing-tip vortices generated by large jet aircraft was initiated on 12 February 1970. The objective was to update the interim air traffic separation standards issued on 21 January 1970 restricting the airspace behind the B-747 and C-5A aircraft 60 deg either side and 2,000 feet below to a distance of 10 miles. The program involved flight tests at three different locations, which were conducted simultaneously. (1) At the Edwards Air Force Base test range, a NASA CV-990 and F-104 probed the vortices of a C-5A. This supplemented previous flight tests in U-3A and F-104 behind a B-52 and C-5A. (2) At Seattle, the Boeing Company probed the vortices of a B-747 and a B-707-300 with a B-737 and F-86. In addition, approach, landing, takeoff, and crossing runway tests were conducted with a B-737 trailing a B-747. Immediately following the Edwards tests, the NASA CV-990 proceeded to Seattle and engaged in probing flights behind the same B-747 and B-707-300. (3) At Idaho Falls, Idaho, FAA personnel, utilizing the Atomic Energy Commission and Environmental Science Services Administration facilities and a 200 ft, instrumented tower, conducted 114 flights past the tower. The aircraft were positioned to permit their vortices to descend into the air flow sensors and smoke generated from various levels on the tower. This permitted obtaining measurements and photography of the vortex core diameters, tangential velocities and related characteristics. Immediately following this test phase, analysis of the interrelated data was completed by the project managers representing NASA, Boeing and FAA and a Compilation of Work Papers was issued on 30 April 1970. These data were the basis of a revised General Notice issued on 26 February 1970 which, in essence, modified the restricted airspace to five miles behind heavy jets in the 300,000 lb. gross takeoff weight category.

  13. Injury Hospitalizations Due to Unintentional Falls among the Aboriginal Population of British Columbia, Canada: Incidence, Changes over Time, and Ecological Analysis of Risk Markers, 1991-2010

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Aboriginal people in British Columbia (BC) have higher injury incidence than the general population. Our project describes variability among injury categories, time periods, and geographic, demographic and socio-economic groups. This report focuses on unintentional falls. Methods We used BC’s universal health care insurance plan as a population registry, linked to hospital separation and vital statistics databases. We identified Aboriginal people by insurance premium group and birth and death record notations. We identified residents of specific Aboriginal communities by postal code. We calculated crude incidence and Standardized Relative Risk (SRR) of hospitalization for unintentional fall injury, standardized for age, gender and Health Service Delivery Area (HSDA), relative to the total population of BC. We tested hypothesized associations of geographic, socio-economic, and employment-related characteristics with community SRR of injury by linear regression. Results During 1991 through 2010, the crude rate of hospitalization for unintentional fall injury in BC was 33.6 per 10,000 person-years. The Aboriginal rate was 49.9 per 10,000 and SRR was 1.89 (95% confidence interval 1.85-1.94). Among those living on reserves SRR was 2.00 (95% CI 1.93-2.07). Northern and non-urban HSDAs had higher SRRs, within both total and Aboriginal populations. In every age and gender category, the HSDA-standardized SRR was higher among the Aboriginal than among the total population. Between 1991 and 2010, crude rates and SRRs declined substantially, but proportionally more among the Aboriginal population, so the gap between the Aboriginal and total population is narrowing, particularly among females and older adults. These community characteristics were associated with higher risk: lower income, lower educational level, worse housing conditions, and more hazardous types of employment. Conclusions Over the years, as socio-economic conditions improve, risk of

  14. Wage Differentials Between Federal Government and Private Sector Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Sharon Patricia

    This study examined the earnings and wage rate differentials between Federal government and private sector workers in 1960 and 1970 to consider the comparability of these workers and the application of the Comparability Doctrine in Federal pay policy during that period. Two types of earnings and wage rate equations were estimated by ordinary least…

  15. Reauthorizing the Higher Education Act: An Analysis of the Role of the For-Profit Higher Education Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Brittny Adair

    2013-01-01

    This research project examines the influence of the for-profit college sector on the 2008 reauthorization of the "Higher Education Act." It is based on interviews with Congressional staff, college lobbyists, and higher education reporters, as well as the "Congressional Record" and advocacy materials. Findings indicate that the…

  16. Assessing the Sustainability of Japan's Foreign Aid Program: An Analysis of Development Assistance to Energy Sectors of Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamaguchi, Hideka

    2005-01-01

    This article examines the effect of Japan's official development assistance (ODA) over 10 years that proposed to facilitate environmental conservation in developing countries. Special emphasis is given to ODA disbursements in the energy sector to evaluate whether Japan's foreign aid has shifted its policy toward more environmentally sound goals.…

  17. Social Sector Expenditure and Child Mortality in India: A State-Level Analysis from 1997 to 2009

    PubMed Central

    Makela, Susanna M.; Dandona, Rakhi; Dilip, T. R.; Dandona, Lalit

    2013-01-01

    Background India is unlikely to meet the Millennium Development Goal for child mortality. As public policy impacts child mortality, we assessed the association of social sector expenditure with child mortality in India. Methods and Findings Mixed-effects regression models were used to assess the relationship of state-level overall social sector expenditure and its major components (health, health-related, education, and other) with mortality by sex among infants and children aged 1–4 years from 1997 to 2009, adjusting for potential confounders. Counterfactual models were constructed to estimate deaths averted due to overall social sector increases since 1997. Increases in per capita overall social sector expenditure were slightly higher in less developed than in more developed states from 1997 to 2009 (2.4-fold versus 2-fold), but the level of expenditure remained 36% lower in the former in 2009. Increase in public expenditure on health was not significantly associated with mortality reduction in infants or at ages 1–4 years, but a 10% increase in health-related public expenditure was associated with a 3.6% mortality reduction (95% confidence interval 0.2–6.9%) in 1–4 years old boys. A 10% increase in overall social sector expenditure was associated with a mortality reduction in both boys (6.8%, 3.5–10.0%) and girls (4.1%, 0.8–7.5%) aged 1–4 years. We estimated 119,807 (95% uncertainty interval 53,409 – 214,662) averted deaths in boys aged 1–4 years and 94,037 (14,725 – 206,684) in girls in India in 2009 that could be attributed to increases in overall social sector expenditure since 1997. Conclusions Further reduction in child mortality in India would be facilitated if policymakers give high priority to the social sector as a whole for resource allocation in the country’s 5-year plan for 2012–2017, as public expenditure on health alone has not had major impact on reducing child mortality. PMID:23409166

  18. Photovoltaic Subcontract Program, FY 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    This report summarizes the fiscal year (FY) 1991 (October 1, 1990, through September 30, 1991) progress of the subcontracted photovoltaic (PV) research and development (R D) performed under the Photovoltaic Advanced Research and Development Project at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) -- formerly the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI). The mission of the national PV program is to develop PV technology for large-scale generation of economically competitive electric power in the United States. The technical sections of the report cover the main areas of the subcontract program: the Amorphous Silicon Research Project, Polycrystalline Thin Films, Crystalline Silicon Materials Research, High-Efficiency Concepts, the New Ideas Program, the University Participation Program, and the Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology (PVMaT) project. Technical summaries of each of the subcontracted programs provide a discussion of approaches, major accomplishments in FY 1991, and future research directions.

  19. Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Options in ISEEM Global Energy Model: 2010-2050 Scenario Analysis for Least-Cost Carbon Reduction in Iron and Steel Sector

    SciTech Connect

    Karali, Nihan; Xu, Tengfang; Sathaye, Jayant

    2013-12-01

    The goal of the modeling work carried out in this project was to quantify long-term scenarios for the future emission reduction potentials in the iron and steel sector. The main focus of the project is to examine the impacts of carbon reduction options in the U.S. iron and steel sector under a set of selected scenarios. In order to advance the understanding of carbon emission reduction potential on the national and global scales, and to evaluate the regional impacts of potential U.S. mitigation strategies (e.g., commodity and carbon trading), we also included and examined the carbon reduction scenarios in China’s and India’s iron and steel sectors in this project. For this purpose, a new bottom-up energy modeling framework, the Industrial Sector Energy Efficiency Modeling (ISEEM), (Karali et al. 2012) was used to provide detailed annual projections starting from 2010 through 2050. We used the ISEEM modeling framework to carry out detailed analysis, on a country-by-country basis, for the U.S., China’s, and India’s iron and steel sectors. The ISEEM model applicable to iron and steel section, called ISEEM-IS, is developed to estimate and evaluate carbon emissions scenarios under several alternative mitigation options - including policies (e.g., carbon caps), commodity trading, and carbon trading. The projections will help us to better understand emission reduction potentials with technological and economic implications. The database for input of ISEEM-IS model consists of data and information compiled from various resources such as World Steel Association (WSA), the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), China Steel Year Books, India Bureau of Mines (IBM), Energy Information Administration (EIA), and recent LBNL studies on bottom-up techno-economic analysis of energy efficiency measures in the iron and steel sector of the U.S., China, and India, including long-term steel production in China. In the ISEEM-IS model, production technology and manufacturing details are

  20. Antimicrobial resistance in Libya: 1970–2011

    PubMed Central

    Ghenghesh, Khalifa Sifaw; Rahouma, Amal; Tawil, Khaled; Zorgani, Abdulaziz; Franka, Ezzedin

    2013-01-01

    Resistance to antimicrobial agents is a major health problem that affects the whole world. Providing information on the past state of antimicrobial resistance in Libya may assist the health authorities in addressing the problem more effectively in the future. Information was obtained mainly from Highwire Press (including PubMed) search for the period 1970–2011 using the terms ‘antibiotic resistance in Libya’, ‘antimicrobial resistance in Libya’, ‘tuberculosis in Libya’, and ‘primary and acquired resistance in Libya’ in title and abstract. From 1970 to 2011 little data was available on antimicrobial resistance in Libya due to lack of surveillance and few published studies. Available data shows high resistance rates for Salmonella species in the late 1970s and has remained high to the present day. High prevalence rates (54–68%) of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) were reported in the last decade among S. aureus from patients with burns and surgical wound infections. No reports were found of vancomycin-resistant S. aureus (VRSA) or vancomycin-intermediate-resistant S. aureus (VISA) using standard methods from Libya up to the end of 2011. Reported rates of primary (i.e. new cases) and acquired (i.e. retreatment cases) multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) from the eastern region of Libya in 1971 were 16.6 and 33.3% and in 1976 were 8.6 and 14.7%, in western regions in 1984–1986 were 11 and 21.5% and in the whole country in 2011 were estimated at 3.4 and 29%, respectively. The problem of antibiotic resistance is very serious in Libya. The health authorities in particular and society in general should address this problem urgently. Establishing monitoring systems based on the routine testing of antimicrobial sensitivity and education of healthcare workers, pharmacists, and the community on the health risks associated with the problem and benefits of prudent use of antimicrobials are some steps that can be taken to tackle the

  1. 1991 in Review. October 1, 1990 to September 30, 1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bendahmane, Diane, Ed.

    This report summarizes the 1991 activities of the Inter-American Foundation (IAF). The IAF is an independent agency of the U.S. Government created in 1969 as an experimental alternative to established U.S. foreign assistance programs benefiting Latin America and the Caribbean. The IAF works to promote equitable, responsive, and participatory…

  2. Pre-industrial and recent (1970-2010) atmospheric deposition of sulfate and mercury in snow on southern Baffin Island, Arctic Canada.

    PubMed

    Zdanowicz, Christian; Kruemmel, Eva; Lean, David; Poulain, Alexandre; Kinnard, Christophe; Yumvihoze, Emmanuel; Chen, JiuBin; Hintelmann, Holger

    2015-03-15

    Sulfate (SO4(2-)) and mercury (Hg) are airborne pollutants transported to the Arctic where they can affect properties of the atmosphere and the health of marine or terrestrial ecosystems. Detecting trends in Arctic Hg pollution is challenging because of the short period of direct observations, particularly of actual deposition. Here, we present an updated proxy record of atmospheric SO4(2-) and a new 40-year record of total Hg (THg) and monomethyl Hg (MeHg) deposition developed from a firn core (P2010) drilled from Penny Ice Cap, Baffin Island, Canada. The updated P2010 record shows stable mean SO4(2-) levels over the past 40 years, which is inconsistent with observations of declining atmospheric SO4(2-) or snow acidity in the Arctic during the same period. A sharp THg enhancement in the P2010 core ca 1991 is tentatively attributed to the fallout from the eruption of the Icelandic volcano Hekla. Although MeHg accumulation on Penny Ice Cap had remained constant since 1970, THg accumulation increased after the 1980s. This increase is not easily explained by changes in snow accumulation, marine aerosol inputs or air mass trajectories; however, a causal link may exist with the declining sea-ice cover conditions in the Baffin Bay sector. The ratio of THg accumulation between pre-industrial times (reconstructed from archived ice cores) and the modern industrial era is estimated at between 4- and 16-fold, which is consistent with estimates from Arctic lake sediment cores. The new P2010 THg record is the first of its kind developed from the Baffin Island region of the eastern Canadian Arctic and one of very few such records presently available in the Arctic. As such, it may help to bridge the knowledge gap linking direct observation of gaseous Hg in the Arctic atmosphere and actual net deposition and accumulation in various terrestrial media. PMID:24835341

  3. March 7, 1970 solar eclipse investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Accardo, C. A.

    1972-01-01

    Studies from rockets directed toward establishing the solar X-ray fluxes during the 7 March 1970 total eclipse over the North American continent are reported. A map of the eclipse path is presented. The measured absorption profiles for the residual X-rays are useful in establishing their contribution to the D and E region ionization during the eclipse. The studies were performed with two Nike-Apache payloads launched over Wallops Island, Virginia. In addition to three X-ray detectors in the 1 to 8A, 8 to 20A and 44 to 60A bands, there was included in the payloads two additional experiments. These were an electric field experiment and an epithermal photoelectron experiment. The X-ray instrumentation, payload description, flight circumstances and finally, the X-ray results obtained are described. The various computer codes employed for the purpose of reducing the telemetered data as well as the eclipse codes are included.

  4. Conjoined twins in Hungary, 1970-1986.

    PubMed

    Métneki, J; Czeizel, A

    1989-01-01

    The total prevalence of conjoined twins (birth + prenatally diagnosed) was 1:68,000 in the study of 1970-1986. Symmetrical cases (the so-called siamese twins) have an obvious predominance (92.3%). Associated major malformations occurred in 80% of conjoined twins and more than 1/5 were discordant. The surviving time of liveborn conjoined twin sets was not more than two days except in two surgically successfully separated pairs. The family study did not indicate a higher recurrence risk. The case group was compared to two control groups and it appeared that the periconceptional use of oral contraception and ovulation induction were mentioned more frequently in pregnancies resulting in conjoined twins. PMID:2631499

  5. Analysis of 151 agricultural driveline-related incidents resulting in fatal and non-fatal injuries to U.S. children and adolescents under age 18 from 1970 through 2004.

    PubMed

    Beer, S R; Deboy, G R; Field, W E

    2007-04-01

    Agricultural driveline-related incidents have been identified as an important cause of farm-related injury resulting in death and permanently disabling conditions to children and adolescents. A database of driveline-related injuries, including both PTO drivelines and secondary shafts and drivelines on agricultural equipment, developed at Purdue University was mined to identify all cases involving children and adolescents under age 18 who had been involved in a driveline-related incident from 1970 through 2004. Although these incidents did not account for a high percentage of all childhood farm-related injuries, this age group was found to make up nearly one in four documented agricultural driveline incidents. Of the 685 cases in the database with known ages, 151 were identified as youth under age 18. Findings indicated that these incidents often resulted in catastrophic injuries including amputation, spinal cord injuries, and compound bone fractures. Over the period studied, the trend in documented cases is declining, with recent years reporting below the yearly average and 2004 reporting no fatalities. Youth, primarily males, age 13 had the highest frequency of incidents, and over 50% of all cases occurred to youth ages 12 to 17. Fall was identified as the season with the most reported incidents. Amputations were documented in nearly 50% of all cases, and augers, elevators, and conveyors were the machines most frequently identified as being involved in the incident. Recommendations and strategies that specifically target the childhood injury problem related to agricultural drivelines are provided. PMID:17555204

  6. Analyzing cross-sector interdependencies.

    SciTech Connect

    Peerenboom, J. P.; Fisher, R. E.; Decision and Information Sciences

    2007-01-01

    This paper discusses cross-sector infrastructure interdependencies and key risk considerations, analysis approaches, research and development needs, and the range of interdisciplinary skills required for comprehensive cross-sector analysis. Traditional analysis of interdependencies involves characterization of infrastructure-to-infrastructure linkages to identify the key infrastructure components that, if lost or degraded, could adversely affect the performance of other infrastructures. Such analysis is motivated by the recognition that a series of incidents could interact (cascade) across critical infrastructures to degrade the service upon which all depend. From a risk perspective, cross-sector analysis also must involve identifying and characterizing a wide range of threats (natural and accidental, systems related, and intentional), vulnerabilities (physical and cyber), and consequences of loss (e.g., health and safety, economic, national security, environmental, sociopolitical). Such information provides a foundation for making defensible, cost-effective infrastructure protection and operation decisions to ensure the security and reliability of our interdependent systems.

  7. Reduction and analysis of seasons 15 and 16 (1991 - 1992) Pioneer Venus radio occulation data and correlative studies with observations of the near infrared emission of Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenkins, Jon M.

    1995-01-01

    In this study, we sought to characterize variations in the abundance and distribution of subcloud H2SO4(g) in the Venus atmosphere by using a number of 13cm radio occultation measurements conducted with the Pioneer Venus Orbiter near the inferior conjunction of 1991. A total of ten data sets were examined and analyzed, producing vertical profiles of temperature and pressure in the neutral atmosphere, and sulfuric acid vapor abundance below the main cloud layer. Two of the vertical profiles of the abundance of H2SO4(g) were correlated with NIR images of the night side of Venus made during the same period of time by Boris Ragent (under a separate PVO Guest Investigator Grant). Initially, we had hoped that the combination of these two different types of data would make it possible to constrain or identify the composition of the large particles causing the features observed in the NIR images. However, the sparseness of the radio occultation data set, combined with the sparseness of the NIR data set (one image per day over an 8 day period) made it impossible to draw strong conclusions. Considered on their own, however, the parameters retrieved from the radio occultation experiments are valuable science products.

  8. Leadership Abstracts; Volume 4, 1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doucette, Don, Ed.

    1991-01-01

    "Leadership Abstracts" is published bimonthly and distributed to the chief executive officer of every two-year college in the United States and Canada. This document consists of the 15 one-page abstracts published in 1991. Addressing a variety of topics of interest to the community college administrators, this volume includes: (1) "Delivering the…

  9. Reports of planetary astronomy - 1991

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rahe, Jurgen (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    This publication provides information about currently funded scientific research projects conducted in the Planetary Astronomy Program during 1991, and consists of two main sections. The first section gives a summary of research objectives, past accomplishments, and projected future investigations, as submitted by each principal investigator. In the second section, recent scientifically significant accomplishments within the Program are highlighted.

  10. The Science of Reading. 1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arisawa, Shuntaro, Ed.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    This collection of the 1991 issues of the Japanese-language journal "The Science of Reading" presents 18 articles (research reports and "personal views of reading") on a variety of questions dealing with reading. The articles in the collection all have summaries in English. Articles in the April issue are "Features of Large-Print Picture Books for…

  11. The Forum, 1987-1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Herbert L., Ed.; Whittaker, Catherine J. R., Ed.

    1987-01-01

    This document consists of five consecutive volumes (19 issues) of the newsletter of the New York State Federation of Chapters of Council for Exceptional Children, covering the 5-year period 1987-1991. Selected major articles from the last three years are are follows (only first author noted); (1) "Whole Language and Special Education" (Kathy…

  12. Reports of planetary astronomy, 1991

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    A collection is presented of summaries designed to provide information about scientific research projects conducted in the Planetary Astronomy Program in 1990 and 1991, and to facilitate communication and coordination among concerned scientists and interested persons in universities, government, and industry. Highlights of recent accomplishments in planetary astronomy are included.

  13. Support Budget 1991-92.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Univ., Long Beach. Office of the Chancellor.

    This report presents a proposed budget for the California State University (CSU) system (1991-92) which concentrates on three critical needs: financing enrollment increases; staffing new facilities; and restitution of funds removed from the basic budget for 1990-91. The budget proposal represents $1.94 billion, 13.7 percent over 1990-91, on…

  14. Fossil Energy Program semiannual progress report for April 1991 through September 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Judkins, R.R.

    1992-10-01

    This report covers progress made during the period April 1, 1991, through September 30, 1991, for research and development projects that contribute to the advancement of various fossil energy technologies. Projects on the Fossil Energy Program are supported by the DOE Office of Fossil Energy, the DOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center, the DOE Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, the DOE Fossil Energy Clean Coal Technology Program, the DOE Fossil Energy Office of Petroleum Reserves, and the US Agency for International Development (USAID). The Fossil Energy Program organization chart is shown in the appendix. Project discussed are: materials research and development; environmental analysis support; coal conversion development; coal combustion research; fossil fuel supplies modeling and research; evaluations and assessments; and coal structure and chemistry.

  15. Saturnispora Liu & Kurtzman (1991)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This book chapter describes species of the yeast genus Saturnispora. The genus has been defined from analysis of multiple gene sequences and includes seven species that form ascospores as well as two additional species in which ascospores have not yet been detected. The species are most often foun...

  16. 21 CFR 73.1991 - Zinc oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Zinc oxide. 73.1991 Section 73.1991 Food and Drugs... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1991 Zinc oxide. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive zinc... indirect process whereby zinc metal isolated from the zinc-containing ore is vaporized and then...

  17. 21 CFR 73.1991 - Zinc oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Zinc oxide. 73.1991 Section 73.1991 Food and Drugs... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1991 Zinc oxide. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive zinc... indirect process whereby zinc metal isolated from the zinc-containing ore is vaporized and then...

  18. 21 CFR 73.1991 - Zinc oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Zinc oxide. 73.1991 Section 73.1991 Food and Drugs... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1991 Zinc oxide. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive zinc... indirect process whereby zinc metal isolated from the zinc-containing ore is vaporized and then...

  19. 21 CFR 73.1991 - Zinc oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Zinc oxide. 73.1991 Section 73.1991 Food and Drugs... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1991 Zinc oxide. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive zinc... indirect process whereby zinc metal isolated from the zinc-containing ore is vaporized and then...

  20. 21 CFR 73.1991 - Zinc oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Zinc oxide. 73.1991 Section 73.1991 Food and Drugs... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1991 Zinc oxide. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive zinc... indirect process whereby zinc metal isolated from the zinc-containing ore is vaporized and then...

  1. Energy consumption behavior in the commercial sector: An ethnographic analysis of utility bill information and customer comprehension in the workplace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Payne, Christopher Todd

    The commercial and industrial sectors of the United States compose roughly one-third of total United States energy consumption. Many studies have suggested that significant cost-effective energy savings opportunities exist in this sector, but there is a gap between predictions of potential and actual investment in energy-efficient technologies. Very few studies have been conducted to examine the decision-making environment of the business sector. In particular, there is essentially no information about how small-business decision-makers make choices about energy consumption. My research is intended to begin the process of understanding this important arena of energy consumption behavior. Using semi-structured interview techniques, I interviewed forty-four businesses in ten states. The focus of the interviews was the business decision-maker's handling and use of the utility bill---the main (often sole) piece of information that links energy consumption to cost. Through the interviews, I collected information about how utility bills are understood and misunderstood, what components of the bill are seen as useful or confusing, and how energy consumption was seen in the context of larger business decision-making. In addition, I collected data on two forms of energy consumption feedback: historic consumption feedback, in which informants compared their current energy use to patterns of their own energy consumption over time; and group comparison consumption feedback, in which informants compared their energy consumption to the consumption of a group of similar energy consumers. Finally, I collected data on sources of information to which decision-makers turned when they wanted to seek more information about energy consumption alternatives. Overall, my findings suggest that the current utility bill format is often misunderstood. In many cases, particularly in the small-business and medium-size-business categories, the link between energy consumption and energy cost is

  2. Capacity utilization and fuel consumption in the electric power industry, 1970-1981

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, E.W.

    1982-07-01

    This report updates the 1980 Energy Information Administration (EIA) publication entitled Trends in the Capacity Utilization and Fuel Consumption of Electric Utility Powerplants, 1970-1978, DOE/EIA-184/32. The analysis covers the period from 1970 through 1981, and examines trends during the period prior to the 1973 Arab oil embargo (1970-1973), after the embargo (1974-1977), and during the immediate past (1978-1981). The report also addresses other factors affecting the electric utility industry since the oil embargo: the reduction in foreign oil supplies as a result of the 1979 Iranian crisis, the 1977 drought in the western United States, the 1978 coal strike by the United Mine Workers Union, and the shutdown of nuclear plants in response to the accident at Three Mile Island. Annual data on electric utility generating capacity, net generation, and fuel consumption are provided to identify changes in patterns of power plant capacity utilization and dispatching.

  3. Analysis of reservoir heterogeneities due to shallowing-upward cycles in carbonate rocks of the Pennsylvanian Wahoo Limestone of Northeastern Alaska. Annual report, October 1990--September 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Watts, K.

    1992-09-01

    The primary objective of this project is to develop an integrated database to characterize reservoir heterogeneities resulting from numerous small-scale shallowing-upward cycles (parasequences) comprising the carboniferous Pennsylvanian Wahoo Limestone. The Wahoo Limestone is the upper formation of an extensive carbonate platform sequence of the Carboniferous Lisburne Group which is widely exposed in the Brooks Range and is a widespread hydrocarbon reservoir unit in the subsurface of the North Slope of Alaska. A principal goal is to determine lateral and vertical variations in the complex mosaic of carbonate facies comprising the Wahoo Limestone. This report presents the preliminary results of research accomplished by a team of specialists in carbonate petrology, biostratigraphy, and diagenesis during the 1990--1991 fiscal year.It includes a summary of regional geological framework studies, a discussion conodont analyses, an overview of diagenetic studies, a brief description of progress in computerized database development, and appendices containing some of the new data on petrographic analyses, conodont analyses, and locality and sample information. Our correlation scheme, which uses cyclic stratigraphy, biostratigraphy, and cement stratigraphy, will allow interpretation of the depositional history and paleogeographic evolution of the region. We have developed predictive facies models and will make paleogeographic maps to illustrate different stages in the history of the Wahoo carbonate ramp. Our detailed analyses of the Wahoo Limestone will provide a basis for interpreting correlative rocks in the adjacent subsurface of the coastal plain of ANWR, a potential hydrocarbon lease-sale area. In a broader sense, our work will provide an excellent generic example of carbonate shallowing-upward cycles which typify carbonate sediments.

  4. Reduction and analysis of seasons 15 and 16 (1991 - 1992) Pioneer Venus radio occultation data and correlative studies with observations of the near-infrared emission of Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenkins, Jon M.

    1992-01-01

    Radio occultation experiments, and radio astronomical observations have suggested that significant variations (both spatial and temporal) in the abundances of sulfur-bearing gases are occurring below the Venus cloud layers. In addition, recent Near Infra-Red images of the nightside of Venus revealed large-scale features which sustain their shape over multiple rotations (the rotation periods of the features are 6.0 +/- 0.5 days). Presumably, the contrast variations in the NIR images are caused by variations in the abundance of large particles in the cloud deck. If these particles are composed of liquid sulfuric acid, one would expect a strong anticorrelation between regions with a high abundance of sulfuric acid vapor, and regions where there are large particles. One technique for monitoring the abundance and distribution of sulfuric acid vapor (H2SO4) at and below the main Venus cloud layer (altitudes below 50 km) is to measure the 13-cm wavelength opacity using Pioneer Venus Orbiter Radio Occultation Studies (PV-ORO). We are working to characterize variations in the abundance and distribution of subcloud H2SO4(g) in the Venus atmosphere by using a number of 13-cm radio occultation measurements conducted with the Pioneer Venus Orbiter near the inferior conjunction of 1991. When retrieved, the vertical profiles of the abundance of H2SO4(g) will be compared and correlated with NIR images of the night side of Venus made during the same period of time. Hopefully, the combination of these two different types of data will make it possible to constrain or identify the composition of the large particles causing the features observed in the NIR images. Considered on their own, however, the parameters retrieved from the radio occultation experiments are valuable science products.

  5. [Trends of tuberculosis related mortality and hospital discharges before and after the implementation of the health sector reform, Colombia, 1985-1999].

    PubMed

    Segura, Angela María; Rey, Juan José; Arbelaéz, María Patricia

    2004-06-01

    We describe the changes that have been presented in the tendencies of mortality and hospital discharges by tuberculosis (TB) between 1985-1999, period before and during the implementation of the Health Sector Reform (HSR) in Colombia. For it, we carried out an exploratory descriptive study with analysis of time series of hospital discharges and mortality rates of TB in Colombia. It was found that although starting from 1991 the Series approach stabilized, their tendencies showed a significant descent diminishing both in 30% between 1985 and 1990. The steady trend registered from 1991 to 1999, could be explained by deterioration of the primary care during this period, also due to other complex social processes occurred in Colombia during this decade, which barred the continuing the descent trend in hospital discharges and mortality due to TB previously registered. Due to the study design limitations we cannot establish causal relationships between these trends and the health sector reform in the country; we recommend the improvement the health sector performance about public health problems such as TB in order to avoid unnecessary hospitalizations and deaths due to causes responsive to health sector interventions. PMID:15495579

  6. College Women Pursuing Careers in Science, Mathematics, and Engineering in the 1970s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNamara, Patricia P.; Scherrei, Rita A.

    The characteristics and persistence of young women who entered college during the 1970s and expressed an interest in science, math, and engineering (SME) are examined. The study design includes: (1) trend analysis of changes in characteristics of the science-oriented freshman pool from 1971-1979; (2) a longitudinal study of the educational and…

  7. Remote Sensing of Earth Resources: A literature survey with indexes (1970 - 1973 supplement). Section 1: Abstracts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Abstracts of reports, articles, and other documents introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system between March 1970 and December 1973 are presented in the following areas: agriculture and forestry, environmental changes and cultural resources, geodesy and cartography, geology and mineral resources, oceanography and marine resources, hydrology and water management, data processing and distribution systems, instrumentation and sensors, and economic analysis.

  8. The Political Economy of Manufacturing Growth and Decline across the American States, 1970-1985.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Don Sherman, II; Wallace, Michael

    1994-01-01

    A pooled, cross-sectional, time-series analysis of state manufacturing growth rates for 1970-85 indicates that manufacturing growth was influenced by workforce quality, population density, and elements of states' political economies, including state fiscal capacity, organizational capacity of labor, social wage policies, and state…

  9. Photovoltaics program plan, FY 1991--FY 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    This program plan describes the goals and philosophy of DOE National Photovoltaics Program and its major research and development activities for fiscal years (FY) 1991 through 1995. The plan represents a consensus among researchers and manufacturers, as well as current and potential users of photovoltaics (PV). It defines the activites that we believe are necessary to continue the rapid progress toward acceptance of photovoltaics as a serious candidate for cost-competitive electric power generation by the utility, transportation, buildings, and industrial sectors. A succesful National Photovoltaics Program will help achieve many of our national priorities. The mission of the National Photovoltaics Program is to help US industry to develop photovoltaic technology for large-scale generation of economically competitive electric power in the United States, making PV a significant part of our national energy mix. To fully achieve this, we must continue to work toward the long-term goals established in our previous program plan: reducing the price of delivered electricity to 5 to 6 cents per kilowatt-hour (kWh), increasing lifetimes to 30 years, and increasing module efficiencies to 15% for flat-plate and 25% for concentrator technologies. If progress continues at its current pace, we expect that the PV industry will have installed at least 1000 megawatts (MW) of capacity in the United States and 500 MW internationally by the year 2000.

  10. Buildings Energy Program annual report, FY 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Secrest, T.J.

    1992-05-01

    The Buildings Energy Program at PNL conducts research and development (R&D) for DOE`s Office of Building Technologies (OBT). The OBT`s mission is to lead a national program supporting private and federal sector efforts to improve the energy efficiency of the nation`s buildings and to increase the use of renewable energy sources. Under an arrangement with DOE, Battelle staff also conduct research and development projects for other federal agencies and private clients. This annual report contains an account of the buildings-related research projects conducted at PNL during fiscal year (FY) 1991. A major focus of PNL`s energy projects is to improve the energy efficiency of commercial and residential buildings. Researchers who are developing solutions to energy-use problems view a building as an energy-using system. From this perspective, a desirable solution is not only one that is cost-effective and responsive to the needs of the occupants, but also one that optimizes the interaction among the energy components and systems that compose the whole.

  11. Marine power - Accomplishments of the 1970s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, W. R.

    Progress made in the 1970s toward power production using marine power systems is discussed, noting that all renewable systems have a low intensity source. Consideration has been given to tidal, ocean current, kelp biomass, wave, salinity gradient, thermal gradient, and wind energy systems. Tidal plants delivering 240 MWe and 400 kWe are operating in France and Russia, respectively, and China is operating 90 small plants generating around 7 MW. Kelp growth rates were found to be lower than necessary for economic methane conversion. Experimentation in compressed air wave energy conversion is being pursued in Japan, and small programs are being conducted to study salinity gradients in the U.S. and Sweden. A 10 kW OTEC plant was operated successfully in Hawaii and the Japanese are testing a 100 kW plant. Offshore windpower is projected as the most likely marine system to succeed, both as a power producer and as a supplemental power system for ships. Near term efforts are expected to be in small facilities to expand the data base, gain experience in construction and operations, and to make evaluations.

  12. Compariton of quadrupole ICP-MS and magnetic sector ICP-MS for the analysis of U-Th series isotopes in natural samples

    SciTech Connect

    Shaw, T.J.

    1995-12-01

    Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) provides an ideal method for the analysis of refractory elements such as U and Th in natural samples. The excellent sensitivity and relative absence of interferences in the high mass ranges has made the analysis of the more abundant isotopes of uranium and thorium routine. However, the analysis of daughter isotopes such as {sup 230}Th, {sup 231}Pa, and {sup 234}U present more complex problems related to abundance sensitivity, hydride generation and detector dynamic range. Tailing of high abundance isotopes (e.g., {sup 232}Th) into neighboring masses is a problem for measurement of mother daughter pairs in the U-Th series. Detector dynamic range is also a major problem when measuring both high and low abundance isotopes using conventional ion multipliers. This paper considers the relative merits of the current generation of quadrupole ICP-MS and magnetic sector ICP-MS instruments for these analyses.

  13. Adjustment, social sectors, and demographic change in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Ekouevi, K; Adepoju, A

    1995-01-01

    This discussion concludes that the economic crises of the 1980s resulted in a halt to the social and economic development of sub-Saharan Africa. Employment, health, and education sectors all deteriorated under structural adjustment programs (SAPs) and poor economic performance. SAPs are considered inadequate solutions to long-term problems. Economic crises were found to affect countries differently in their demographic impact. Delayed demographic transition occurred both through economic development as a prerequisite and as a result of poor economic development. Case studies of each country are considered the appropriate geographic unit of analysis of demographic change rather than regional or comparative studies. The economic crises in sub-Saharan Africa occurred due to both external (commodity prices, high real interest rates, and decreasing net capital flows) and internal distortions (strategies of development such as import substitution, neglect of the agricultural sector, and government control of prices and trade). The unfavorable external context reduced export prices and earnings while increasing the costs of imports. Internal controls were detrimental to farmers. During the 1970s and 1980s African countries experienced declines in both the volume and value of exports, increases in import volume, and imbalances in the balance of payments. Large domestic borrowing and foreign borrowing was done by governments, which was at the expense of the private sector. Economic management and corruption were rampant. SAPs restrained demand, reduced public expenditures, adjusted exchange rates, contracted the size of the public sector, liberalized trade, deregulated the interest rate, stimulated domestic production, and used market forces for balancing optimum allocation of resources. SAPs were the fix for trade imbalances and government debt. Development was slowed or stopped. During 1980-87 spending on health care, education, and infrastructure was drastically reduced

  14. 21 CFR 892.1970 - Radiographic ECG/respirator synchronizer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Radiographic ECG/respirator synchronizer. 892.1970... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1970 Radiographic ECG/respirator synchronizer. (a) Identification. A radiographic ECG/respirator synchronizer is a device intended to be used...

  15. Employment by Industry in Ohio Counties, 1940-1970.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Bureau of Employment Services, Columbus.

    These 89 tables present total employment in Ohio (civilian and military) and in each of its 88 counties from 1940 to 1970 as tabulated by the Bureau of Census. Each table indicates the number employed and the percent of the total employed for 1940, 1950, 1960, and 1970 in the following industries: Agriculture, forestry, and fisheries; mining;…

  16. 26 CFR 1.615-1 - Pre-1970 exploration expenditures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Pre-1970 exploration expenditures. 1.615-1 Section 1.615-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Natural Resources § 1.615-1 Pre-1970 exploration expenditures. (a) General rule. Section 615 prescribes...

  17. Swedish Schools and Gender Equality in the 1970s

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hedlin, Maria

    2013-01-01

    In Sweden, as in many countries before Sweden, boys' academic achievements are getting considerable attention as the big gender issue. The Swedish gender equality policy that was put on the agenda in the 1970s is now associated with extreme discussions. This study aims to explore how gender equality was discussed in the 1970s, in connection with…

  18. Pre-1970 transuranic solid waste at the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Greenhalgh, W.O.

    1995-05-23

    The document is based on a search of pre-1970 Hanford Solid Waste Records. The available data indicates seven out of thirty-one solid waste burial sites used for pre-1970 waste appear to be Transuranic (TRU). A burial site defined to be TRU contains >100 nCi/gm Transuranic nuclides.

  19. Analysis of ambient conditions and simulation of hydrodynamics, constituent transport, and water-quality characteristics in Lake Maumelle, Arkansas, 1991-92

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Green, W. Reed

    2001-01-01

    Lake Maumelle is the major drinking-water source for the Little Rock metropolitan area in central Arkansas. Urban and agricultural development has increased in the Lake Maumelle Basin and information is needed related to constituent transport and waterquality response to changes in constituent loading or hydrologic regime. This report characterizes ambient conditions in Lake Maumelle and its major tributary, Maumelle River; describes the calibration and verification of a numerical model of hydrodynamics and water quality; and provides several simulations that describe constituent transport and water quality response to changes in constituent loading and hydrologic regime. Ambient hydrologic and water-quality conditions demonstrate the relatively undisturbed nature of Lake Maumelle and the Maumelle River. Nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations were low, one to two orders of magnitude lower than estimates of national background nutrient concentrations. Phosphorus and chlorophyll a concentrations in Lake Maumelle demonstrate its oligotrophic/mesotrophic condition. However, concentrations of chlorophyll a appeared to increase since 1990 within the upper and middle reaches of the reservoir. A two-dimensional, laterally averaged hydrodynamic and water-quality model developed and calibrated for Lake Maumelle simulates water level, currents, heat transport and temperature distribution, conservative material transport, and the transport and transformation of 11 chemical constituents. Simulations included the movement and dispersion of spills or releases in the reservoir during stratified and unstratified conditions, release of the fish nursery pond off the southern shore of Lake Maumelle, and algal responses to changes in external loading. The model was calibrated using 1991 data and verified using 1992 data. Simulated temperature and dissolved oxygen concentrations related well when compared to measured values. Simulated nutrient and algal biomass also related reasonably

  20. 1991 - The year in review

    SciTech Connect

    Cross, P.S.

    1992-01-01

    A look at the last year shows that utility regulators devoted a large part of their 1991 resources to the task of refining programs put in place over the last decade to push electric, gas and telephone regulation toward a more market-oriented approach. Heightened competition in electric generation, natural gas supply and transmission, and telecommunications markets kept regulators busy running competitive bidding programs, sorting competitive from noncompetitive services, and ensuring access to utility delivery networks.

  1. Impact of the 1970 Reforms to Cuba's National Tuberculosis Control Program.

    PubMed

    Beldarraín, Enrique

    2015-07-01

    INTRODUCTION To reach the goal of eliminating tuberculosis as a public health problem in Cuba, the epidemiological evolution of the disease and of strategies designed to prevent and manage it to date must be well understood. In this context, in 1970, changes were introduced in Cuba's National Tuberculosis Control Program. OBJECTIVE Review background and evolution of Cuba's strategy for tuberculosis control, the changes implemented in the 1970 revision of the Program, and their impact on the subsequent evolution of the disease in Cuba. METHODS Published articles on the history of tuberculosis control in Cuba were reviewed, along with archival documents and medical records. Documents concerning the situation of pulmonary tuberculosis in Cuba, including measures adopted to address the disease and its extent, were selected for study, with an emphasis on the period of the Program. Interviews with key informants were conducted. RESULTS Cuba's fight against tuberculosis began in Santiago de Cuba, with the creation of a local Anti-Tuberculosis League in 1890. Strategic changes introduced by Cuba's public health sector, stressing health promotion and disease prevention, led to the 1959 creation of the Tuberculosis Department, which implemented Cuba's first National Tuberculosis Control Program in 1963. This Program was completely reorganized in 1970. The National Tuberculosis Control Program (1963) covered a network of 27 tuberculosis dispensaries, 8 sanatoriums and 24 bacteriology laboratories. Diagnosis was based on radiographic imaging criteria. Incidence was 52.6/100,000 in 1964 and reached 31.2 in 1970. The Program was updated in 1970 to include two major changes: the requirement for bacteriological confirmation of diagnosis and directly-observed outpatient treatment fully integrated into health services. By 1971, incidence was down to 17.8/100,000, and further reduced to 11.6 in 1979. The decrease is interpreted as the result of the greater specificity of

  2. Nonlinear stochastic model for the analysis of energy investment in the manufacturing sector of the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Pena-Taveras, M.S.

    1986-01-01

    The fast depletion of the non-renewable energy resources and the need to introduce new technologies into the manufacturing sector of the US economy require a better understanding of investment patterns for equipment and operational energy. In view of the above, and to provide a useful tool to the decision maker, a nonlinear, stochastic model is developed using the concepts of the Schumpeter Clock Model. The proposed model is validated using economic data for the period 1961-1980. It appears that the proposed model is a useful tool in the decision making process, where the manager, to maximize profit, must make choices between investing in equipment and the purchase of fuels and electricity.

  3. Regional compilation and analysis of aeromagnetic anomalies for the Transantarctic Mountains Ross Sea sector of the Antarctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiappini, M.; Ferraccioli, F.; Bozzo, E.; Damaske, D.

    2002-03-01

    Magnetic observations over the area of the Transantarctic Mountains (TAM) and the Ross Sea have been compiled into a digital database that furnishes a new regional scale view of the magnetic anomaly crustal field in this key sector of the Antarctic continent. This compilation is a component of the ongoing IAGA/SCAR Antarctic Digital Magnetic Anomaly Project (ADMAP). The aeromagnetic surveys total 115 000 line km, and are distributed across the Victoria Land sector of the TAM, the Ross Sea, and Marie Byrd Land. The magnetic campaigns were performed within the framework of the national and international Italian-German-US Antarctic research programs and conducted with differing specifications during nine field seasons from 1971 until 1997. Generally flight line spacing was less than 5 km while survey altitude varied from about 610 to 4000 m above sea level for barometric surveys and was equal to 305 m above topography for the single draped survey. Reprocessing included digitizing the old contour data, improved levelling by means of microlevelling in the frequency domain, and re-reduction to a common reference field based on the DGRF90 model. A multi-frequency grid procedure was then applied to obtain a coherent and merged total intensity magnetic anomaly map. The shaded relief map covers an area of approximately 380 000 km 2. This new compilation provides a regional image of the location and spatial extent of the Cenozoic alkaline magmatism related to the TAM-Ross Sea rift, Jurassic tholeiites, and crustal segments of the Early Palaeozoic magmatic arc. A linear, approximately 100-km wide and 600-km long Jurassic rift-like structure is newly identified. Magnetic fabric in the Ross Sea rift often matches seismically imaged Cenozoic fault arrays. Major buried onshore pre-rift fault zones, likely inherited from the Ross Orogen, are also delineated. These faults may have been reactivated as strike-slip belts that segmented the TAM into various crustal blocks.

  4. Economic impact of ethanol production on U.S. livestock sector: A spatial analysis of corn and distillers grain shipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    N'guessan, Yapo Genevier

    2007-12-01

    The production of corn-based ethanol in the U.S. has increased from 1,630 million gallons in 2000 to 4,855 million gallons in 2006, representing a 198% growth over the period considered. This growth is favored by the availability of more efficient technologies in the production process of ethanol and is sustained by the high prices of ethanol in the market. The industry is also supported by a favorable public policy, expressed in the form of laws, mandating an increase in the use of ethanol, and also in the form of tax incentives. The tremendous increase in the use of corn for the ethanol industry is made at the expense of the livestock industry that was the traditional destination for much of the U.S. corn grain. As the ethanol industry continues to expand, concerns are raised in regard to its impact as more and more corn is diverted from the livestock sector. This study investigates the economic impact of the ethanol industry on the U.S. livestock sector. Specifically, a shipping cost model is developed to simulate the impact of the ethanol industry on the shipping cost of corn at the national and individual state levels. The dynamics for major livestock producing states are also analyzed at the crop reporting district level. Different scenarios based on assumptions on the availability of corn and the production capacities of the ethanol industry are displayed. Results from the model indicate that nationwide there is a 5 to 22% increase in the shipping cost of corn for the livestock industry due to the ethanol industry, depending on the scenario involved. At the state level, there is an increase in the transportation cost for most of the states, with shipping cost doubling in some cases. Nevertheless, some states benefit from the dynamics created by the development of ethanol plants and are experiencing a reduction in their livestock industry corn transportation cost.

  5. Decomposition analysis of wastewater pollutant discharges in industrial sectors of China (2001-2009) using the LMDI I Method.

    PubMed

    Lei, Hongjun; Xia, Xunfeng; Li, Changjia; Xi, Beidou

    2012-06-01

    China's industry accounts for 46.8% of the national Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and plays an important strategic role in its economic growth. On the other hand, industrial wastewater is also the major source of water pollution. In order to examine the relationship between the underlying driving forces and various environmental indicators, values of two critical industrial wastewater pollutant discharge parameters (Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) and ammonia nitrogen (NH(4)-N)), between 2001 and 2009, were decomposed into three factors: i.e., production effects (caused by change in the scale of economic activity), structure effects (caused by change in economic structure) and intensity effects (caused by change in technological level of each sector), using additive version of the Logarithmic Mean Divisia Index (LMDI I) decomposition method. Results showed that: (1) the average annual effect of COD discharges in China was -2.99%, whereas the production effect, the structure effect, and the intensity effect were 14.64%, -1.39%, and -16.24%, respectively. Similarly, the average effect of NH(4)-N discharges was -4.03%, while the production effect, the structure effect, and the intensity effect were 16.18%, -2.88%, and -17.33%, respectively; (2) the production effect was the major factor responsible for the increase in COD and NH(4)-N discharges, accounting for 45% and 44% of the total contribution, respectively; (3) the intensity effect, which accounted for 50% and 48% of the total contribution, respectively, exerted a dominant decremental effect on COD and NH(4)-N discharges; intensity effect was further decomposed into cleaner production effect and pollution abatement effect with the cleaner production effect accounting for 60% and 55% of the reduction of COD and NH(4)-N, respectively; (4) the major contributors to incremental COD and NH(4)-N discharges were divided among industrial sub-sectors and the top contributors were identified. Potential restructuring and

  6. Letter report: Media information review, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Harvey, G.L.

    1992-04-01

    The media information review, requested by the Communications Subcommittee of the Technical Steering Panel (TSP), provides a general indication of the media's areas of interests with regard to the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project. This review briefly assesses 24 newspaper and magazine articles collected between September 1991 and January 1992 by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). Articles that mention the project, activities closely associated with it, or members of the Panel were included in the analysis. Attempts were made to identify general categories and issues found within the articles and display the results in an order of ranking. This review is unscientific and is not meant to display a technical analysis of the materials.

  7. Morphometric analysis of drainage network in the northern sector of the southern Italian foredeep: implications for fluvial denudation processes and Late Quaternary geomorphological evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gioia, D.; Moretti, M.; Gallicchio, S.; Schiattarella, M.

    2012-04-01

    We present new data about the morphological and stratigraphic evolution and the rates of fluvial denudation of an area located in the northernmost sector of the foredeep of the southern Apennines. The study area is the medium- to low-relief sector located between the easternmost part of the Daunia Apennine and the Apulian foreland of the Gargano promontory. This area is characterized by several orders of terraced fluvial deposits disconformably overlying lower Pleistocene marine clay and organized in a staircase geometry, which recorded the emersion and the long-term incision history of this sector since mid-Pleistocene times. Geomorphological analyses have been carried out in order to retrace the landscape evolution of the area and its relationships with tectonic- and eustatic-induced variations of base-levels of erosion. Drainage network morphometry and the estimation of several topographic attributes have been added to the data collected through photo-aerial geomorphological interpretation and field survey. Drainage pattern, morphometric indexes and geological data seem to indicate that the thrust front is not active in the Late Quaternary. Paleotopographic reconstruction of ancient base-levels of erosion has permitted to calculated missing volumes. The estimation of eroded volumes in river valleys was performed through a GIS-aided calculation supported by a DEM with spatial resolution of 8 m, using the several orders of terraced deposits recognized in the area. The mapped remnants of relict geomorphological land surfaces have been interpolated by geospatial analysis and subtracted pixel by pixel to the present-day topography. Then, denudation rates were calculated on the basis of the relative age assigned to the deposits. Middle to upper Pleistocene denudation rates estimated by means of such an approach are about 0.1 mm/y, in good agreement with data coming from direct and indirect evaluation of transport sediment yield. The analysis of longitudinal river

  8. Demographics of the Canadian dairy industry from 1991 to 2011

    PubMed Central

    Jelinski, Murray D.; LeBlanc, Stephen; Kennedy, Richard

    2015-01-01

    A retrospective study of the demographics of the Canadian dairy industry was conducted using data derived from Statistics Canada’s Census of Agriculture from 1991 to 2011. This longitudinal study shows that Canada’s dairy industry has undergone considerable consolidation. From 1991 to 2011, the number of dairy producers and dairy farms decreased by 48.9% and 61.9%, respectively. Furthermore, this trend in consolidation is likely to continue; nearly half (45.8%) of all dairy producers in Canada were ≥ 50 y of age in 2011. Not only will most of these producers be retired by 2021, but younger producers will also exit the industry for other reasons. These findings mirror what is occurring in Canada’s cow-calf industry, underscoring that supply-managed sectors experience demographic consolidation similar to non-supply managed sectors. These substantial changes will have ramifications for the veterinary profession. There will be fewer but larger farms, and the services and knowledge demanded of veterinarians will change accordingly, which has implications for food animal veterinary education. PMID:26130831

  9. Demographics of the Canadian dairy industry from 1991 to 2011.

    PubMed

    Jelinski, Murray D; LeBlanc, Stephen; Kennedy, Richard

    2015-07-01

    A retrospective study of the demographics of the Canadian dairy industry was conducted using data derived from Statistics Canada's Census of Agriculture from 1991 to 2011. This longitudinal study shows that Canada's dairy industry has undergone considerable consolidation. From 1991 to 2011, the number of dairy producers and dairy farms decreased by 48.9% and 61.9%, respectively. Furthermore, this trend in consolidation is likely to continue; nearly half (45.8%) of all dairy producers in Canada were ≥ 50 y of age in 2011. Not only will most of these producers be retired by 2021, but younger producers will also exit the industry for other reasons. These findings mirror what is occurring in Canada's cow-calf industry, underscoring that supply-managed sectors experience demographic consolidation similar to non-supply managed sectors. These substantial changes will have ramifications for the veterinary profession. There will be fewer but larger farms, and the services and knowledge demanded of veterinarians will change accordingly, which has implications for food animal veterinary education. PMID:26130831

  10. Undergraduate Origins of Women and Men 1970-1982 Graduates Who Received Doctorates between 1970-1986.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, Carol H.

    Data from a study of the undergraduate origins of Ph.D.s are presented. Baccalaureate origins of doctorate recipients were analyzed for total and proportional productivity for each of the U.S. institutions whose graduates between 1970 and 1982 had earned at least one doctorate between 1970 and 1986. The numbers of baccalaureate degrees for men and…

  11. Coal supply/demand, 1980 to 2000. Task 3. Resource applications industrialization system data base. Final review draft. [USA; forecasting 1980 to 2000; sector and regional analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Fournier, W.M.; Hasson, V.

    1980-10-10

    This report is a compilation of data and forecasts resulting from an analysis of the coal market and the factors influencing supply and demand. The analyses performed for the forecasts were made on an end-use-sector basis. The sectors analyzed are electric utility, industry demand for steam coal, industry demand for metallurgical coal, residential/commercial, coal demand for synfuel production, and exports. The purpose is to provide coal production and consumption forecasts that can be used to perform detailed, railroad company-specific coal transportation analyses. To make the data applicable for the subsequent transportation analyses, the forecasts have been made for each end-use sector on a regional basis. The supply regions are: Appalachia, East Interior, West Interior and Gulf, Northern Great Plains, and Mountain. The demand regions are the same as the nine Census Bureau regions. Coal production and consumption in the United States are projected to increase dramatically in the next 20 years due to increasing requirements for energy and the unavailability of other sources of energy to supply a substantial portion of this increase. Coal comprises 85 percent of the US recoverable fossil energy reserves and could be mined to supply the increasing energy demands of the US. The NTPSC study found that the additional traffic demands by 1985 may be met by the railways by the way of improved signalization, shorter block sections, centralized traffic control, and other modernization methods without providing for heavy line capacity works. But by 2000 the incremental traffic on some of the major corridors was projected to increase very significantly and is likely to call for special line capacity works involving heavy investment.

  12. The role of Northern NGOs (Non-Governmental Organisations) in rehabilitating the health sector in post-conflict settings: a need for a critical analysis.

    PubMed

    Putoto, G

    1997-01-01

    The paper addresses issues of the health sector rehabilitation in post-conflict situation, and in particular the role of Northern Non-Governmental Organisations (NNGOs) in this process. While armed conflicts are regarded as public health issues for their negative implications on health and health systems, post-conflict situation is considered, despite its complexity, as having both risks and opportunities for making the health system more equitable and sustainable. In this respect, NNGOs are believed to be able to play an efficient and effective role in rehabilitating the health system. The paper asserts that the assumed good qualities of the whole NNGOs sector in this specific context is not based on evidence and that a critical analysis is needed. Problems affecting NNGOs interventions are then highlighted. These include their political neutrality, technical accountability to policy, planning and quality development. These problems may have their roots at conceptual, operational and political levels. To avoid generalisations and unproved assumptions, research is therefore needed to distinguish NNGOs' characteristics, roles and motivations and to assess the extent to which NNGOs' interventions are effective in rehabilitating the health system in post-conflict settings as well as in strengthening local institutions. PMID:10174540

  13. Lubricating oil analysis for wear monitoring. January 1984-November 1991 (Citations from the NTIS Data-Base). Rept. for Jan 84-Nov 91

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the analysis of lubricating oils to determine and monitor the wear of mechanical equipment. The purpose of the analysis is to predict failure before it occurs in order to undertake corrective maintenance. Considerable attention is given to specific programs implemented by the military services. Various detectors and analytical methods are included, as well as their utilization in oil analyses. (Contains 164 citations with title list and subject index.)

  14. Kokanee Stock Status and Contribution of Cabinet Gorge Hatchery, Lake Pend Oreille, Idaho, 1991 Annual Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Paragamian, Vaughn L.

    1991-01-01

    Initially, rehabilitation of kokanee Oncorhynchus nerka met with apparent success reaching a peak abundance of 10.2 million fishTl988. However, a decline of 47% followed from 1988 through 1991 to 5.4 million fish. The decreased population was attributed to poor recruitment of wild fish, poor egg take, thus, low stocking of hatchery fry (7.3 million in 1990 and 5.0 million in 1991 compared to about 13.0 million in 1981), and poor survival of fish ages 3 and 4 (average survival of the older fish was only 35% in 1990 compared to 72% in prior years but it was 68% in 1991). In addition, standing stocks of kokanee have remained relatively stable (x = 8.6 kg/hectare) since 1986 despite the dramatic changes in density. Prior to this study (1985) standing stocks were substantially higher (x = 13.6 kg/hectare). The kokanee population is probably operating below carrying capacity. Hatchery fry comprised 59% of the total kokanee recruitment in 1991 (93% of fry biomass). This contribution of 1.06 million fry ranked fifth behind 1988 (3.74 million), 1989 (2.25 million), 1982 (1.89 million), and 1990 (1.56 million) since hatchery supplementation began in the 1970s. Survival of hatchery fry was 21% in 1991, the second highest since this investigation began. Two release strategies were tested in 1991 of which the best survival was recorded for the Sullivan Springs release at 23% while the early Clark Fork River release continued to have lowest survival at 18%. Survival of hatchery reared kokanee fry is still below the goal of 30% and it appears that this goal may not be attainable most years. Statistical analysis between number of days from fry release to recapture day and fry survival did not reveal a relationship (P = 0.43). Survival of fry from late releases is higher (P = 0.05) than early releases but no difference (P L 0.71) was detected between stocking locations. Good survival of fry from the Sullivan Springs releases was attributed to large size of kokanee fry (55 mm), warm

  15. Analysis of energy use in building services of the industrial sector in California: Two case studies. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Akbari, H.; Sezgen, O.

    1991-09-01

    Energy-use patterns in many of California`s fastest-growing industries are not typical of the existing mix of industries in the US. Many California firms operate small- and medium-sized facilities housed in buildings used simultaneously or interchangeably over time for commercial (office, retail, warehouse) and industrial activities. In these industrial subsectors, the energy required for building services (providing occupant comfort and necessities like lighting, HVAC, office equipment, computers, etc.) may be at least as important as the more familiar process energy requirements -- especially for electricity and on-peak demand. Electricity for building services is sometimes priced as if it were base loaded like process uses; in reality this load varies significantly according to occupancy schedules and cooling and heating loads, much as in any commercial building. Using informal field surveys, simulation studies, and detailed analyses of existing data (including utility commercial/industrial audit files), we studied the energy use of this industrial subsector through a multi-step procedure: (1) characterizing non-process building energy and power use in California industries, (2) identifying conservation and load-shaping opportunities in industrial building services, and (3) investigating industrial buildings and system design methodologies. In an earlier report, we addressed these issues by performing an extensive survey of the existing publicly available data, characterizing and comparing the building energy use in this sector. In this report, we address the above objectives by examining and analyzing energy use in two industrial case-study facilities in California. Based on the information for the case studies, we discuss the design consideration for these industrial buildings, characterize their energy use, and review their conservation and load-shaping potentials. In addition, we identify and discuss some research ideas for further investigation.

  16. Trends in health sciences library and information science research: an analysis of research publications in the Bulletin of the Medical Library Association and Journal of the Medical Library Association from 1991 to 2007*

    PubMed Central

    Gore, Sally A.; Nordberg, Judith M.; Palmer, Lisa A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This study analyzed trends in research activity as represented in the published research in the leading peer-reviewed professional journal for health sciences librarianship. Methodology: Research articles were identified from the Bulletin of the Medical Library Association and Journal of the Medical Library Association (1991–2007). Using content analysis and bibliometric techniques, data were collected for each article on the (1) subject, (2) research method, (3) analytical technique used, (4) number of authors, (5) number of citations, (6) first author affiliation, and (7) funding source. The results were compared to a previous study, covering the period 1966 to 1990, to identify changes over time. Results: Of the 930 articles examined, 474 (51%) were identified as research articles. Survey (n = 174, 37.1%) was the most common methodology employed, quantitative descriptive statistics (n = 298, 63.5%) the most used analytical technique, and applied topics (n = 332, 70%) the most common type of subject studied. The majority of first authors were associated with an academic health sciences library (n = 264, 55.7%). Only 27.4% (n = 130) of studies identified a funding source. Conclusion: This study's findings demonstrate that progress is being made in health sciences librarianship research. There is, however, room for improvement in terms of research methodologies used, proportion of applied versus theoretical research, and elimination of barriers to conducting research for practicing librarians. PMID:19626146

  17. Savannah River Site environmental report for 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Arnett, M.W.; Karapatakis, L.K.; Mamatey, A.R.; Todd, J.L.

    1991-01-01

    This report describes environmental activities conducted on and in the vicinity of the Savannah River Site (SRS) in Aiken, S.C., from Jan. 1 to Dec. 31, 1991, with an update on compliance activities through April 1, 1992. The report is a single volume with a separate summary pamphlet highlighting the major findings for 1991. The report is divided into an executive summary and 14 chapters containing information on environmental compliance issues, environmental monitoring methods and programs, and environmental research activities for 1991, as well as historical data from previous years. Analytical results, figures, charts, and data tables relevant to the environmental monitoring program for 1991 at SRS are included.

  18. Atomic and molecular data for space astronomy - Needs, analysis, and availability; 21st IAU General Assembly, Buenos Aires, Argentina, July 23-Aug. 1, 1991, Selected Papers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Peter L. (Editor); Wiese, Wolfgang L. (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    The present volume on atomic and molecular spectroscopic data for space astrophysics discusses scientific problems and laboratory data needs associated with the Hubble Space Telescope, atomic data needed for far ultraviolet astronomy with HUT and FUSE and for analysis of EUV and X-ray spectra, and data for observations of interstellar medium with the Hubble Space Telescope. Attention is also given to atomic and molecular data for analysis of IR spectra from ISO and SIRTF, atomic data from the opacity project, sources of atomic spectroscopic data for astrophysics, and summary of current molecular data bases.

  19. Hierarchical analysis of spatial pattern and processes of Douglas-fir forests. Ph.D. Thesis, 10 Sep. 1991 Abstract Only

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradshaw, G. A.

    1995-01-01

    There has been an increased interest in the quantification of pattern in ecological systems over the past years. This interest is motivated by the desire to construct valid models which extend across many scales. Spatial methods must quantify pattern, discriminate types of pattern, and relate hierarchical phenomena across scales. Wavelet analysis is introduced as a method to identify spatial structure in ecological transect data. The main advantage of the wavelet transform over other methods is its ability to preserve and display hierarchical information while allowing for pattern decomposition. Two applications of wavelet analysis are illustrated, as a means to: (1) quantify known spatial patterns in Douglas-fir forests at several scales, and (2) construct spatially-explicit hypotheses regarding pattern generating mechanisms. Application of the wavelet variance, derived from the wavelet transform, is developed for forest ecosystem analysis to obtain additional insight into spatially-explicit data. Specifically, the resolution capabilities of the wavelet variance are compared to the semi-variogram and Fourier power spectra for the description of spatial data using a set of one-dimensional stationary and non-stationary processes. The wavelet cross-covariance function is derived from the wavelet transform and introduced as a alternative method for the analysis of multivariate spatial data of understory vegetation and canopy in Douglas-fir forests of the western Cascades of Oregon.

  20. 8. July, 1970 DETAIL OF BRICK SIDEWALK AND GRANITE CURB, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. July, 1970 DETAIL OF BRICK SIDEWALK AND GRANITE CURB, LOOKING EAST ON NORTH SIDE OF INDIA STREET FROM DRIVEWAY OF 31 INDIA STREET - India Street Neighborhood Study, 15-45 India Street, Nantucket, Nantucket County, MA

  1. 7. July, 1970 DETAIL OF BRICK SIDEWALK AND GRANITE CURB, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. July, 1970 DETAIL OF BRICK SIDEWALK AND GRANITE CURB, LOOKING EAST ON NORTH SIDE OF INDIA STREET FROM DRIVEWAY OF 31 INDIA STREET - India Street Neighborhood Study, 15-45 India Street, Nantucket, Nantucket County, MA

  2. Sex-Role Attitudes in Finland, 1966-1970

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haavio-Mannila, Elina

    1972-01-01

    Compares two surveys of attitudes toward the emancipation of women, one taken in 1966 among residents of small towns, the capital city, and rural communities; and the other taken in 1970 as a part of the Finnish Gallup Poll. (JM)

  3. 20. Historic American Buildings Survey Elmer R. Pearson, Photographer 1970 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. Historic American Buildings Survey Elmer R. Pearson, Photographer 1970 DINING ROOM DOORS (closed), LOOKING NORTH - Shaker Church Family Main Dwelling House, U.S. Route 20, Hancock, Berkshire County, MA

  4. 2. August, 1970 VIEW LOOKING SOUTH ON ORANGE STREET FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. August, 1970 VIEW LOOKING SOUTH ON ORANGE STREET FROM TOP OF UNITARIAN CHURCH - Orange & Union Streets Neighborhood Study, 8-31 Orange Street, 9-21 Union Street & Stone Alley, Nantucket, Nantucket County, MA

  5. 24. August, 1970 STONE ALLEY, LOOKING TOWARD ORANGE STREET FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. August, 1970 STONE ALLEY, LOOKING TOWARD ORANGE STREET FROM HALF-WAY POINT - Orange & Union Streets Neighborhood Study, 8-31 Orange Street, 9-21 Union Street & Stone Alley, Nantucket, Nantucket County, MA

  6. 8. August, 1970 PUMP BEHIND PELEG COGGESHALL HOUSE, 10 ORANGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. August, 1970 PUMP BEHIND PELEG COGGESHALL HOUSE, 10 ORANGE STREET (MASS-1063) - Orange & Union Streets Neighborhood Study, 8-31 Orange Street, 9-21 Union Street & Stone Alley, Nantucket, Nantucket County, MA

  7. 22. August, 1970 STONE ALLEY, VIEW TO ORANGE STREET FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. August, 1970 STONE ALLEY, VIEW TO ORANGE STREET FROM GARDNER HOUSES - Orange & Union Streets Neighborhood Study, 8-31 Orange Street, 9-21 Union Street & Stone Alley, Nantucket, Nantucket County, MA

  8. 16. August, 1970 #31 ORANGE STREET & GENERAL VIEW OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. August, 1970 #31 ORANGE STREET & GENERAL VIEW OF WEST SIDE OF STREET - Orange & Union Streets Neighborhood Study, 8-31 Orange Street, 9-21 Union Street & Stone Alley, Nantucket, Nantucket County, MA

  9. 10. August, 1970 EAST SIDE OF ORANGE STREET LOOKING NORTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. August, 1970 EAST SIDE OF ORANGE STREET LOOKING NORTH FOM IN FRONT OF THE LEVI STARBUCK HOUSE - Orange & Union Streets Neighborhood Study, 8-31 Orange Street, 9-21 Union Street & Stone Alley, Nantucket, Nantucket County, MA

  10. 7. August, 1970 9 ORANGE STREET, ADJACENT TO UNITARIAN CHURCH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. August, 1970 9 ORANGE STREET, ADJACENT TO UNITARIAN CHURCH (NOT IN STUDY AREA) - Orange & Union Streets Neighborhood Study, 8-31 Orange Street, 9-21 Union Street & Stone Alley, Nantucket, Nantucket County, MA

  11. 11. August, 1970 ORANGE STREET SIDEWALK IN FRONT OF LEVI ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. August, 1970 ORANGE STREET SIDEWALK IN FRONT OF LEVI STARBUCK HOUSE (MASS-912), 14 ORANGE STREET - Orange & Union Streets Neighborhood Study, 8-31 Orange Street, 9-21 Union Street & Stone Alley, Nantucket, Nantucket County, MA

  12. 11. COPY OF 1970 AERIAL PHOTOGRAPH OF LORING AIR FORCE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. COPY OF 1970 AERIAL PHOTOGRAPH OF LORING AIR FORCE BASE. PHOTOGRAPH LOCATED AT AIR FORCE BASE CONVERSION AGENCY, LORING AIR FORCE BASE, MAINE. - Loring Air Force Base, Airfield, Central portion of base, Limestone, Aroostook County, ME

  13. 40. August, 1970 VIEW OF UNION STREET WITH ELISHA GREEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    40. August, 1970 VIEW OF UNION STREET WITH ELISHA GREEN HOUSE (9 UNION STREET) AT LEFT - Orange & Union Streets Neighborhood Study, 8-31 Orange Street, 9-21 Union Street & Stone Alley, Nantucket, Nantucket County, MA

  14. 16. Photocopy of postcard, circa 1970, corner view FACING SOUTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Photocopy of postcard, circa 1970, corner view FACING SOUTH AND EAST, FEATURING 'STAR PLATFORM' - Mount Evans Crest House, State Route 5, Mount Evans summit, Arapaho National Forest, Idaho Springs, Clear Creek County, CO

  15. Trends in Job Search Methods, 1970-92.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ports, Michelle Harrison

    1993-01-01

    Updates the existing research on job search behaviors and analyzes trends in job search behavior since the 1970s. Tables show data on search methods by age, sex, race, Hispanic origin, type of work sought, and reason for unemployment. (JOW)

  16. Persistent Scatterer Interferometry analysis of ground deformation in the Po Plain (Piacenza-Reggio Emilia sector, Northern Italy): Seismo-tectonic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonielli, Benedetta; Monserrat, Oriol; Bonini, Marco; Cenni, Nicola; Devanthéry, Núria; Righini, Gaia; Sani, Federico

    2016-06-01

    This work aims to explore the ongoing tectonic activity of structures in the outermost sector of the Northern Apennines, which represents the active leading-edge of the thrust belt and is dominated by compressive deformation. We have applied the Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (PSI) technique to obtain new insights into the present-day deformation pattern of the frontal area of the Northern Apennine. PSI has proved to be effective in detecting surface deformation of wide regions involved in low tectonic movements. We used 34 Envisat images in descending geometry over the period of time between 2004 and 2010, performing about 300 interferometric pairs. The analysis of the velocity maps and of the PSI time series have allowed to observe ground deformation over the sector of the Po Plain between Piacenza and Reggio Emilia. The time series of permanent GPS stations located in the study area, validated the results of the PSI technique, showing a good correlation with the PS time series. The PS analysis reveals the occurrence of a well-known subsidence area on the rear of the Ferrara arc, mostly connected to the exploitation of water resources. In some instances, the PS velocity pattern reveals ground uplift (with mean velocities ranging from 1 to 2.8 mm/yr) above active thrust-related anticlines of the Emilia and Ferrara folds, and part of the Pede-Apennine margin. We hypothesise a correlation between the observed uplift deformation pattern and the growth of the thrust-related anticlines. As the uplift pattern corresponds to known geological features, it can be used to constrain the seismo-tectonic setting, and a working hypothesis may involve that the active Emilia and Ferrara thrust folds would be characterised by inter-seismic periods possibly dominated by aseismic creep.

  17. Climate change mitigation in the agricultural sector- an analysis of marginal abatement costs of climate mitigation in global paddy rice agriculture based on DNDC simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, C.; Li, J.; Beach, R.; Salas, W.; Ingraham, P.; Ragnauth, S.

    2012-12-01

    Authors: Jia Li1, Robert H. Beach2, Changsheng Li3, William Salas4, Pete Ingraham5, Shaun Ragnauth1 INSTITUTIONS (ALL): 1. Climate Change Division, US Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, United States. 2. RTI International, Durham, NC, United States. 3. ESRC, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH, United States. 4. Applied Geosolutions, LLC, Newmarket, NH, United States. Global agriculture sector faces the dual challenge of climate change mitigation and providing food security for a growing population. In a new study, the U.S. EPA has developed an analysis of mitigation of non-CO2 greenhouse gases for the global agriculture sector. We estimate global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from paddy rice cultivation and rice yields under baseline management conditions as well as for alternative mitigation options. These biophysical effects are combined with data on input use and costs to estimate marginal abatement cost curves and evaluate the cost-effectiveness of mitigation options for global rice cropping systems. DNDC, a process-based crop model, is used to simulate crop yields, methane and nitrous oxide emissions, as well as soil carbon sequestration of the various rice cropping systems (irrigated and rainfed, and single, double, triple and mixed rotations) under local climatic and soil conditions at a 0.5 degree resolution at the global scale. We evaluate the impacts of various management alternatives (e.g., flooding methods, fertilizer applications, and crop residue management) on crop yields and GHG emissions and report the spatial and temporal distributions of the outcomes. The analysis provides important insights on the potential for closing the production efficiency gaps and the trade-offs and synergies between GHG mitigation and food security in different parts of the world.

  18. Persistent Scatterer Interferometry analysis of ground deformation in the Po Plain (Piacenza-Reggio Emilia sector, Northern Italy): seismo-tectonic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonielli, Benedetta; Monserrat, Oriol; Bonini, Marco; Cenni, Nicola; Devanthéry, Núria; Righini, Gaia; Sani, Federico

    2016-08-01

    This work aims to explore the ongoing tectonic activity of structures in the outermost sector of the Northern Apennines, which represents the active leading edge of the thrust belt and is dominated by compressive deformation. We have applied the Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (PSI) technique to obtain new insights into the present-day deformation pattern of the frontal area of the Northern Apennine. PSI has proved to be effective in detecting surface deformation of wide regions involved in low tectonic movements. We used 34 Envisat images in descending geometry over the period of time between 2004 and 2010, performing about 300 interferometric pairs. The analysis of the velocity maps and of the PSI time-series has allowed to observe ground deformation over the sector of the Po Plain between Piacenza and Reggio Emilia. The time-series of permanent GPS stations located in the study area, validated the results of the PSI technique, showing a good correlation with the PS time-series. The PS analysis reveals the occurrence of a well-known subsidence area on the rear of the Ferrara arc, mostly connected to the exploitation of water resources. In some instances, the PS velocity pattern reveals ground uplift (with mean velocities ranging from 1 to 2.8 mm yr-1) above active thrust-related anticlines of the Emilia and Ferrara folds, and part of the Pede-Apennine margin. We hypothesize a correlation between the observed uplift deformation pattern and the growth of the thrust-related anticlines. As the uplift pattern corresponds to known geological features, it can be used to constrain the seismo-tectonic setting, and a working hypothesis may involve that the active Emilia and Ferrara thrust folds would be characterized by interseismic periods possibly dominated by aseismic creep.

  19. Astronomical data analysis software and systems I; Proceedings of the 1st Annual Conference, Tucson, AZ, Nov. 6-8, 1991

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Worrall, Diana M. (Editor); Biemesderfer, Chris (Editor); Barnes, Jeannette (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    Consideration is given to a definition of a distribution format for X-ray data, the Einstein on-line system, the NASA/IPAC extragalactic database, COBE astronomical databases, Cosmic Background Explorer astronomical databases, the ADAM software environment, the Groningen Image Processing System, search for a common data model for astronomical data analysis systems, deconvolution for real and synthetic apertures, pitfalls in image reconstruction, a direct method for spectral and image restoration, and a discription of a Poisson imagery super resolution algorithm. Also discussed are multivariate statistics on HI and IRAS images, a faint object classification using neural networks, a matched filter for improving SNR of radio maps, automated aperture photometry of CCD images, interactive graphics interpreter, the ROSAT extreme ultra-violet sky survey, a quantitative study of optimal extraction, an automated analysis of spectra, applications of synthetic photometry, an algorithm for extra-solar planet system detection and data reduction facilities for the William Herschel telescope.

  20. Experiments and analysis concerning the use of external burning to reduce aerospace vehicle transonic drag. Ph.D. Thesis - Maryland Univ., 1991

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trefny, Charles J.

    1992-01-01

    The external combustion of hydrogen to reduce transonic drag was investigated. A control volume analysis is developed and indicates that the specific impulse performance of external burning is competitive with other forms of airbreathing propulsion and depends on the fuel-air ratio, freestream Mach number, and the severity of the base drag. A method is presented for sizing fuel injectors for a desired fuel-air ratio in the unconfined stream. A two-dimensional Euler analysis is also presented which indicates that the total axial force generated by external burning depends on the total amount of energy input and is independent of the transverse and streamwise distribution of heat addition. Good agreement between the Euler and control volume analysis is demonstrated. Features of the inviscid external burning flowfield are discussed. Most notably, a strong compression forms at the sonic line within the burning stream which may induce separation of the plume and prevent realization of the full performance potential. An experimental program was conducted in a Mach 1.26 free-jet to demonstrate drag reduction on a simple expansion ramp geometry, and verify hydrogen-air stability limits at external burning conditions. Stable combustion appears feasible to Mach number of between 1.4 and 2 depending on the vehicle flight trajectory. Drag reduction is demonstrated on the expansion ramp at Mach 1.26; however, force levels showed little dependence on fuel pressure or altitude in contrast to control volume analysis predictions. Various facility interference mechanisms and scaling issues were studied and are discussed.

  1. Methods used in studies of drink-drive control efforts: a meta-analysis of the literature from 1960 to 1991.

    PubMed

    Wagenaar, A C; Zobeck, T S; Williams, G D; Hingson, R

    1995-06-01

    We searched the drink-drive control literature over the past three decades, finding over six thousand documents. After detailed review of the abstracts and papers, 125 studies contained separate empirical evaluations of the effects of 12 DWI control policies and enforcement efforts (administrative license suspension, illegal per se, implied consent, preliminary breath test, mandatory jail sentence, mandatory community service, mandatory license suspension, limits on plea bargaining, mandatory fines, selective enforcement patrols, regular police patrols, and sobriety checkpoints). The 125 studies contained 664 distinct analyses that formed the basis for meta-analysis. All of the DWI control efforts were associated with reductions in drink-driving and traffic crashes. The DWI control literature is limited by the preponderance of weak study designs and reports that often fail to include basic data required for meta-analysis. Because of the poor quality of much extant research, we were limited to simple gain scores or percent change estimates in the current study. Further research that does not include appropriate research designs and analytic methods will be of limited utility. We recommend that all future reports include effect estimates and standard error estimates, minimum data required for effective meta-analysis. PMID:7639915

  2. The Emergence of a Service Society: Demographic and Sociological Aspects of the Sectoral Transformation of the Labor Force in the U.S.A.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Browning, Harley L.; Singelmann, Joachim

    Sectoral transformation (inter-industry shifts), which is generally analyzed by use of the Fisher-Clark tri-partite division, is examined in this study dealing mainly with the 1960-1970 decade and based on the 1/100 sample of the 1960 and 1970 censuses. (The Fisher-Clark tri-partite division of labor involves a primary sector--agriculture, mining,…

  3. Roadmap for Development of Natural Gas Vehicle Fueling Infrastructructure and Analysis of Vehicular Natural Gas Consumption by Niche Sector

    SciTech Connect

    Stephen C. Yborra

    2007-04-30

    per-vehicle fuel use, central fueling and sensitivity to fuel costs, fleets will continue to be the primary target for NGV deployment and station development efforts. The transit sector is projected to continue to account for the greatest vehicular natural gas use and for new volume growth. New tax incentives and improved life-cycle economics also create opportunities to deploy additional vehicles and install related vehicular natural gas fueling infrastructure in the refuse, airport and short-haul sectors. Focusing on fleets generates the highest vehicular natural gas throughout but it doesn't necessarily facilitate public fueling infrastructure because, generally, fleet operators prefer not to allow public access due to liability concerns and revenue and tax administrative burdens. While there are ways to overcome this reluctance, including ''outside the fence'' retail dispensers and/or co-location of public and ''anchor'' fleet dispensing capability at a mutually convenient existing or new retail location, each has challenges that complicate an already complex business transaction. Partnering with independent retail fuel station companies, especially operators of large ''truck stops'' on the major interstates, to include natural gas at their facilities may build public fueling infrastructure and demand enough to entice the major oil companies to once again engage. Garnering national mass media coverage of success in California and Utah where vehicular natural gas fueling infrastructure is more established will help pave the way for similar consumer market growth and inclusion of public accessibility at stations in other regions. There isn't one ''right'' business model for growing the nation's NGV inventory and fueling infrastructure. Different types of station development and ownership-operation strategies will continue to be warranted for different customers in different markets. Factors affecting NGV deployment and station development include: regional air

  4. Engineering design and analysis of advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies. Quarterly technical progress report No. 9, October--December 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-20

    This project is sponsored by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) for the ``Engineering Design and Analysis of Advanced Physical Fine Coal Cleaning Technologies. The major goal is to provide the simulation tools for modeling both conventional and advanced coal cleaning technologies. This DOE project is part of a major research initiative by the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) aimed at advancing three advanced coal cleaning technologies-heavy-liquid cylconing, selective agglomeration, and advanced froth flotation through the proof-of-concept (POC) level.

  5. Residential Segregation in Southern Cities: 1970

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    And Others; Roof, Wade Clark

    1976-01-01

    Based on an analysis of the age, size, percent black, and occupational income differential in 32 southern cities, the findings show that age is still the strongest predictor of residential segregation. (Author)

  6. 27 CFR 19.91 - Operating permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... industrial use; (6) Manufacture articles; or (7) Engage in any other distilling, warehousing, or processing... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Operating permit. 19.91 Section 19.91 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU,...

  7. 27 CFR 19.91 - Operating permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... industrial use; (6) Manufacture articles; or (7) Engage in any other distilling, warehousing, or processing... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Operating permit. 19.91 Section 19.91 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU,...

  8. 27 CFR 19.91 - Operating permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... industrial use; (6) Manufacture articles; or (7) Engage in any other distilling, warehousing, or processing... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Operating permit. 19.91 Section 19.91 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU,...

  9. 27 CFR 19.91 - Operating permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... industrial use; (6) Manufacture articles; or (7) Engage in any other distilling, warehousing, or processing... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Operating permit. 19.91 Section 19.91 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU,...

  10. State Legislation Relating to Native Americans, 1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, James B.

    1991-01-01

    This report summarizes legislative activities in states that enacted bills and resolutions relating to Native Americans in 1991. Conflicts between states and the Indian tribes within their borders were the subject of significant legislation in 1991. In all, 220 bills and resolutions were introduced in state legislatures; 77 passed and 20 are still…

  11. Relationships between ozone precursor levels and response to emissions reductions: Analysis of regional oxidant model results for the northeastern united states. Final report, October 1991-February 1093

    SciTech Connect

    Milford, J.; Gao, D.; Zafirakou, A.

    1993-04-01

    A detailed analysis of results from the Regional Ozone Modeling for Northeast Transport (ROMNET) study has been conducted to examine the conditions under which alternative control strategies were predicted to be effective in improving air quality. The ROMNET study had predicted that for most of the northeastern United States, reducing nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions by about 60 percent would be more effective in reducing ozone (O3) than reducing anthropogenic reactive organic gas (ROG) emissions by approximately the same proportion. However, for the New York City and Baltimore-Washington areas, ROG controls were predicted to be highly effective and NOx controls to be counterproductive. The authors recommend further investigation of the idea that NOy concentrations could serve as an indicator of the likely sensitivity of O3 to ROG or NOx controls, if NOy is monitored along with peak O3 during photochemical air pollution episodes.

  12. Mergers and acquistions of 1991

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kales, David

    1992-05-01

    When I went back and started to track the industry for the last year, we see a tremendous amount of acquisitions and mergers. Tremendous amount of startups which by the way has a very good side to the recession, which I'll speak to. And reorganization which is also maybe a euphemism for restructuring, downsizing. As Gary mentioned, these trends were well underway before the recession, but certainly in 1991 we saw the acceleration of this, primarily from government defense cutbacks, which again have been accelerated by the end of the Cold War. We also have the restructuring which has been going on for several years because of the heightened global competition. And the third thing, of course, it's all come together with all recession.

  13. Selected Instrumentation Films, 1969-1970.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Raymond L., Ed.

    This list of currently available films and filmstrips pertinent to instrumentation has been compiled from information solicited from many government and private sources. The 1969 compilation has been organized into the following eight categories: (1) principles of measurement and basic measurements; (2) analysis instrumentation; (3) automation and…

  14. World oil flow slips in 1991 amid Mideast, U. S. S. R. woes

    SciTech Connect

    Beck, R.J.

    1992-03-09

    World crude oil production slipped 0.9% in 1991 to average 59,964 million b/d. This paper reports that production declines related to war damage in Kuwait, United Nations sanctions on exports from Iraq, and oil sector woes in the crumbling U.S.S.R. were almost offset by higher production from other members of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries. OPEC crude production rose 0.6% in 1991 to average 23.425 million b/d, and non-OPEC output fell 1.9% to average 36.539 million b/d in 1991. Excluding the U.S.S.R., non-OPEC production moved up 1.5% to average 26.239 million b/d. World demand inched up about 200,000 b/d, estimates International Energy Agency, and IEA data show about 300,000 b/d was added to stocks in 1991. World crude prices started 1991 at their highest level, then fell off to average $17.82/bbl, down 16.5% from 1990 levels. Meantime, a slight increase in demand is predicted for 1992, and price stability again hinges on OPEC's ability to limit production.

  15. Evaluating community investments in the mining sector using multi-criteria decision analysis to integrate SIA with business planning

    SciTech Connect

    Esteves, A.M.

    2008-05-15

    Gaining senior management's commitment to long-term social development projects, which are characterised by uncertainty and complexity, is made easier if projects are shown to benefit the site's strategic goals. However, even though the business case for community investment may have been accepted at a general level, as a strategy for competitive differentiation, risk mitigation and a desire to deliver - and to be seen to deliver - a 'net benefit' to affected communities, mining operations are still faced with implementation challenges. Case study research on mining companies, including interviews with social investment decision-makers, has assisted in developing the Social Investment Decision Analysis Tool (SIDAT), a decision model for evaluating social projects in order to create value for both the company and the community. Multi-criteria decision analysis techniques integrating business planning processes with social impact assessment have proved useful in assisting mining companies think beyond the traditional drivers (i.e. seeking access to required lands and peaceful relations with neighbours), to broader issues of how they can meet their business goals and contribute to sustainable development in the regions in which they operate.

  16. Analysis of the research and development effort in the private sector to reduce energy consumption in irrigated agriculture

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, E.A.; Cone, B.W.

    1980-09-01

    Manufacturers of irrigation equipment perform research and development in an effort to improve or maintain their position in a very competitive market. The market forces and conditions that create the intense competition and provide incentive for invention are described. Particular emphasis is placed on the market force of increased energy costs, but the analysis is developed from the perspective that energy is but one of many inputs to agricultural production. The analysis is based upon published literature, patent activity profiles, microeconomic theory, and conversations with many representatives of the irrigation industry. The published literature provides an understanding of the historical development of irrigation technology, a description of the industry's structure, and various data, which were important for the quantitative analyses. The patent activity profiles, obtained from the US Patent Office, provided details of patent activity within the irrigation industry over the past decade. Microeconomic theory was used to estimate industry-wide research and development expenditures on energy-conserving products. The results of these analyses were then compared with the insights gained from conversations with the industry representatives.

  17. Coal sector profile

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-06-05

    Coal is our largest domestic energy resource with recoverable reserves estimated at 268 billion short tons or 5.896 quads Btu equivalent. This is approximately 95 percent of US fossil energy resources. It is relatively inexpensive to mine, and on a per Btu basis it is generally much less costly to produce than other energy sources. Its chief drawbacks are the environmental, health and safety concerns that must be addressed in its production and consumption. Historically, coal has played a major role in US energy markets. Coal fueled the railroads, heated the homes, powered the factories. and provided the raw materials for steel-making. In 1920, coal supplied over three times the amount of energy of oil, gas, and hydro combined. From 1920 until the mid 1970s, coal production remained fairly constant at 400 to 600 million short tons a year. Rapid increases in overall energy demands, which began during and after World War II were mostly met by oil and gas. By the mid 1940s, coal represented only half of total energy consumption in the US. In fact, post-war coal production, which had risen in support of the war effort and the postwar Marshall plan, decreased approximately 25 percent between 1945 and 1960. Coal demand in the post-war era up until the 1970s was characterized by increasing coal use by the electric utilities but decreasing coal use in many other markets (e.g., rail transportation). The oil price shocks of the 1970s, combined with natural gas shortages and problems with nuclear power, returned coal to a position of prominence. The greatly expanded use of coal was seen as a key building block in US energy strategies of the 1970s. Coal production increased from 613 million short tons per year in 1970 to 950 million short tons in 1988, up over 50 percent.

  18. Analysis of linkage effects among industry sectors in China's stock market before and after the financial crisis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Rui; Li, Xiangyang; Zhang, Tong

    2014-10-01

    This paper uses two physics-derived techniques, the minimum spanning tree and the hierarchical tree, to investigate the networks formed by CITIC (China International Trust and Investment Corporation) industry indices in three periods from 2006 to 2013. The study demonstrates that obvious industry clustering effects exist in the networks, and Durable Consumer Goods, Industrial Products, Information Technology, Frequently Consumption and Financial Industry are the core nodes in the networks. We also use the rolling window technique to investigate the dynamic evolution of the networks' stability, by calculating the mean correlations and mean distances, as well as the variance of correlations and the distances of these indices. China's stock market is still immature and subject to administrative interventions. Therefore, through this analysis, regulators can focus on monitoring the core nodes to ensure the overall stability of the entire market, while investors can enhance their portfolio allocations or investment decision-making.

  19. Proceedings of the 1991 Oil Heat Technology Conference and Workshop

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, R.J.

    1992-07-01

    This Conference, which was the sixth held since 1984, is a key technology-transfer activity supported by the ongoing Combustion Equipment Technology program at BNL, and is aimed at providing a forum for the exchange of information among international researchers, engineers, manufacturers, and marketers of oil-fired space-conditioning equipment. The objectives of the Conference were to: Identify and evaluate the state-of-the-art and recommend; new initiatives to satisfy consumer needs cost-effectively, reliably, and safely; Foster cooperation among federal and industrial representatives with the common goal of national security via energy conservation. The 1991 Oil Technology Conference comprised: (a) two plenary sessions devoted to presentations and summations by public and private sector representatives from the United States, Europe, and Canada; and, (b) four workshops which focused on mainstream issues in oil-heating technology. Selected papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  20. Birds of Wallops Island, Virginia, 1970 - 1992

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaughn, Charles R.

    1993-01-01

    This Technical Memorandum provides extensive data on birdlife at Wallops Island, a mid-Atlantic barrier island, and home to NASA Wallops Flight Facility's launch range. Variation in the distribution and abundance of many species is considerable in this region, which is centered along the north-south axis of the Delmarva Peninsula. Data (date of occurrence and general abundance) and analysis of the Island's diverse habitat structure are provided. A total of 244 species of birds are recorded; a summary of the records are given in the Species Accounts and the Appendix.

  1. [[Changes in population and households in a Malay village, 1971-1991

    PubMed

    Tsubouchi, Y

    1992-09-01

    "The Malay village of Galok in Kelantan was revisited [in]...1991 to investigate the changes in the population and households in the 20 years since the first intensive community study was conducted there in 1970/71. Major economic activities in 1970/71 were paddy cultivation in rain-fed fields, small scale rubber tapping, and newly introduced tobacco cultivation. The village's population increased from 690 in 1971 to 1,100 in 1991, and the number of households from 145 to 211. Despite the increase in population and households, the households cultivating paddy decreased from 71 to 36, those tapping rubber from 94 to 53, and those growing tobacco from 124 to 40, while regular employment, irregular wage labor in the surrounding areas, and temporary migratory work in Singapore increased remarkably. Many people moved out of the village and many others moved in. Though the former exceed the latter in number, the village population is still increasing owing to the high fertility...." (SUMMARY IN ENG) PMID:12157850

  2. A Labor Market Analysis of the Electricity Sector for 2030 using the National Energy with Weather System Simulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terry, L.; Clack, C.; Marquis, M.; Paine, J.; Picciano, P.

    2015-12-01

    We conducted an analysis that utilized the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) Jobs and Economic Development Impact (JEDI) models to estimate the temporary and permanent jobs, earnings, and state sales tax revenues that would be created by various scenarios of the National Energy with Weather System (NEWS) simulator. This simulator was created by a collaboration between the Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences (CIRES) at the University of Colorado and the Earth Systems Research Laboratory (ESRL NOAA). The NEWS simulator used three years of high-resolution (13-km, hourly) weather and power data to select the most cost-efficient, resource-maximizing, and complementary locations for wind, solar photovoltaic, and natural gas power plants along with high-voltage direct-current transmission, thereby providing the cheapest possible electricity grid that facilitates the incorporation of large amounts of wind and solar PV. We applied various assumptions to ensure that we produced conservative estimates, while keeping costs in line with those of the NEWS simulator. Our analysis shows that under the lowest carbon-emitting scenario of the NEWS carried out (80% reduction in CO2 compared with 1990 levels), almost ten million new jobs could be created by 2030. Of those jobs, over 400,000 would be permanently supporting the operations of the power plants. That particular scenario would also add over 500 billion to the paychecks of American workers and 75 billion to state tax revenues by 2030. All of this is achieved with average electricity costs of 10.7¢/kWh, because the electric system relies less heavily on fuel and more on jobs constructing, operating, and maintaining infrastructure. We use the current presentation to describe the methods used to reach these findings and examine some potential impacts of our estimates on public policy. Although we are able to identify some systematic problems with the JEDI model, we find that these problems

  3. American social psychology: Examining the contours of the 1970s crisis.

    PubMed

    Faye, Cathy

    2012-06-01

    Throughout the 1960s and 1970s, social psychologists diagnosed their field as suffering a state of disciplinary crisis. The crisis was a multifaceted one, but issues of methodology, social relevance, and disciplinary, philosophical, and theoretical orientation were the primary areas of concern. Given that these issues have been prominent ones throughout the history of the social and behavioral sciences, it becomes necessary to look to the immediate context of the 1970s crisis to understand how and why a disciplinary crisis came to be diagnosed. The present analysis suggests that the crisis reflected the larger crisis in American society and also drew on the language of crisis prevalent at the time. Employing this language may have offered the field a method of making sense of, reframing, and redirecting internal and external critiques of the discipline. PMID:22520200

  4. The global reorganization and revitalization of the asbestos industry, 1970-2007.

    PubMed

    Rice, James

    2011-01-01

    The intent of this essay is to highlight the global reorganization of the asbestos industry over the period 1970-2007. Descriptive analysis illustrates that asbestos consumption in the industrialized countries declined precipitously over this period, in juxtaposition to a notable increase in consumption in the developing countries. In 2007, asbestos consumption in the developing countries was more than two million metric tons but negligible elsewhere in the world economy. The author argues that as asbestos increasingly became the focus of government oversight in the industrialized countries, continued capital accumulation efforts necessitated displacement of risk to the developing countries. The global revitalization of asbestos production and consumption over the period 1970-2007 presents numerous challenges in terms of occupational and environmental health hazards in the developing countries. It has the potential, moreover, to prefigure a significant expansion of asbestos-related disease into the 21st century, absent a global ban on asbestos use. PMID:21563623

  5. HEALTH SECTOR ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of the USGCRP's First National Assessment effort, EPA's Global Change Research Program sponsored the Health Sector Assessment. The Health Sector Assessment was co-chaired by Dr. Jonathan A. Patz, Director of the Program on the Health Effects of Global Environmental Change...

  6. NASA SBIR product catalog, 1991

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This catalog is a partial list of products of NASA SBIR (Small Business Innovation Research) projects that have advanced to some degree into Phase 3. While most of the products evolved from work conducted during SBIR Phase 1 and 2, a few advanced to commercial status solely from Phase 1 activities. The catalog presents information provided to NASA by SBIR contractors who wished to have their products exhibited at Technology 2001, a NASA-sponsored technology transfer conference held in San Jose, California, on December 4, 5, and 6, 1991. The catalog presents the product information in the following technology areas: computer and communication systems; information processing and AI; robotics and automation; signal and image processing; microelectronics; electronic devices and equipment; microwave electronic devices; optical devices and lasers; advanced materials; materials processing; materials testing and NDE; materials instrumentation; aerodynamics and aircraft; fluid mechanics and measurement; heat transfer devices; refrigeration and cryogenics; energy conversion devices; oceanographic instruments; atmosphere monitoring devices; water management; life science instruments; and spacecraft electromechanical systems.

  7. Syria: World Oil Report 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-08-01

    This paper reports on discoveries by foreign license holders in 1991, another production record and progress on a major water injection project that could further substantially boost national output that are highlights of recent activity in Syria. Syrian production at the end of last year topped 470,000 bpd, about 300,000 of which was 37{degrees} gravity oil from 20 fields in eastern Syria operated by the Al Furat Petroleum Co. (AFPC). Some 20,000 bpd of 36{degrees} crude being produced by Elf from its Attala North field and 150,000 bpd of heavy oil produced by Syrian Petroleum Co. (SPC) from its declining fields in the northeastern part of the country accounted for the remainder. Discoveries of significant light oil production near the town of Deir Ez Zor in recent years were made by the Shell Group (Royal Dutch, Pecten International and Deminex). AFPC, owned by SPC and Shell Group participants, which is developing the discoveries, has become the largest producer in the country. AFPC recently began injecting water on its $100-million flood in Omar field which is designed to overcome a sharp reservoir pressure decline that occurred in 1989 when the field was brought onstream at 100,000 bpd. Water injection is ultimately expected to boost Omar production from about 16,400 bpd last January to between 40,000 and 50,000 bpd.

  8. An examination of population changes in Alabama's Black Belt counties: 1960-1970 and 1970-1980.

    PubMed

    Bogie, D W; Harrison, D E

    1982-01-01

    "Population changes in 11 Alabama Black Belt counties are examined by comparing annual average birth, death, and migration rates during the 1960s with those of the 1970s. The specific focus of the study is migration patterns among the nonwhite segment of the population. Data from the 1980 and earlier censuses are utilized, along with birth and death data from Alabama vital statistics reports." The results show "that net migration losses among nonwhites declined substantially during the 1970s compared with the 1960s and that in two Black Belt counties there was a reversal from heavy net losses to moderate net gains. Whites, on a county-to-county basis, however, were generally characterized by significantly higher rates of loss during the 1970s than in the 1960s." PMID:12266445

  9. [Retrospective study of foot and mouth disease in West Africa from 1970 to 2003].

    PubMed

    Couacy-Hymann, E; Aplogan, G L; Sangaré, O; Compaoré, Z; Karimu, J; Awoueme, K A; Seini, A; Martin, V; Valarcher, J F

    2006-12-01

    A retrospective study of foot and mouth disease in seven West African countries was conducted for the period 1970 to 2003. The study included three cattle-exporting Sahel countries (Burkina-Faso, Mali and Niger) and four cattle-importing coastal countries (Benin, Côte d'lvoire, Ghana and Togo). Foot and mouth disease has been enzootic in these countries since 1990/1991. Four of the seven serotypes are regularly notified (O, A, SAT 1 and SAT 2). In the seven countries as a whole, 198 biological samples from identified foot and mouth disease outbreaks confirmed the involvement of the following serotypes: O (62 outbreaks); A (32 outbreaks); SAT 1 (18 outbreaks); SAT 2 (86 outbreaks). This result, which is largely underestimated, clearly demonstrates the seriousness of foot and mouth disease in West Africa, whose livestock production system characterised by continual uncontrolled animal movements facilitates the spread of the disease. Unlike in Southern Africa, for foot and mouth disease to be controlled in West Africa it is necessary immediately to introduce a regional strategy involving all countries which takes into account the real situation in the field: transhumance, nomadism and live-animal imports by coastal countries. PMID:17361767

  10. The Growth of Protestantism in Brazil and Its Impact on Male Earnings, 1970–2000

    PubMed Central

    Potter, Joseph E.; Amaral, Ernesto F. L.; Woodberry, Robert D.

    2015-01-01

    Protestantism has expanded rapidly in Brazil in recent decades. The question we tackle in this paper is whether Protestantism has had a positive influence on male earnings in this setting, either through its influence on health and productivity, by way of social networks or employer favor and reduced discrimination, or through other mechanisms. We tackle the problem of the selectivity of religious conversion and affiliation using microdata from the Brazilian censuses of 1970, 1980, 1991, and 2000, and analyzing the association between Protestantism and earnings at the group rather than the individual level. Our results show a strong association between the proportion of Protestants in a region, and the earnings of men in one educational group: those with less than five years of education. Upon introducing race into our models, we found that the association between religion and the earnings of less educated men is concentrated in regions in which there is a substantial non-white population. The relationships we have uncovered contribute to the literature on racial inequality and discrimination in Brazil, which to date has given little space to the role of religion in moderating the pernicious effect of race on economic outcomes in Brazil. The substantial association we found between religion and earnings contrasts with much of the research that has been carried out on the influence of religion on earnings in the United States. PMID:26146415

  11. Degrees Conferred by Connecticut Institutions of Higher Education, 1970-71 to 1979-80. BHE Reports, R-5-81.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rickes, Persis C.

    Trends in degrees conferred by Connecticut institutions of higher education from 1970-1971 to 1979-1980 are reviewed. After rising steadily to 1973-1974, the number of degrees conferred has fluctuated between 26,000 and 27,000 for the balance of the decade. The proportion of degrees awarded by institutions in the public sector rose from 52.4…

  12. Petroleum supply monthly, September 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-30

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of three publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other two publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR) and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administrations for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 states and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in Primary Supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections (1) the Summary Statistics and (2) the Detailed Statistics. 65 tabs.

  13. Geothermal Energy Program Overview: Fiscal Year 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-01

    In FY 1990-1991, the Geothermal Energy Program made significant strides in hydrothermal, geopressured brine, hot dry rock, and magma research, continuing a 20-year tradition of advances in geothermal technology.

  14. Minerals yearbook, 1991: Colorado. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, E.K.; Cappa, J.A.

    1993-06-01

    The value of nonfuel minerals produced in Colorado in 1991 was about $338 million, a decrease of more than 12% from the value of production in 1990, according to data reported to the U.S. Bureau of Mines. The continued effects of an economic slowdown on metal values were evident for copper, gold, lead, molybdenum, silver, and zinc. Unit values for sand and gravel also fell in 1991.

  15. Minerals yearbook, 1991: Massachusetts. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, D.K.; Sinnott, J.A.

    1993-05-01

    The value of nonfuel mineral production in 1991 was $111.6 million, a decrease of $16 million compared with the 1990 value. The decrease in 1991 was largely attributable to lower sales of construction sand and gravel and crushed stone, the State's two leading mineral commodities. Other mineral commodities produced included common clay, industrial sand, dimension stone, lime, and peat. Nationally, the State ranked 41st in the production of nonfuel minerals. It ranked fifth of 34 States that produced dimension stone.

  16. Louisiana Annual Farm Labor Report. ES 225, 1970.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louisiana State Dept. of Employment Security, Baton Rouge

    Due to continued changes in Louisiana's agricultural economy, the supply and demand for seasonal and year-round farm workers changed during 1970. Therefore, the Rural Manpower Service's major emphases were directed toward worker and employer relations, recruitment, day-haul operations, and limited services to rural non-agricultural workers and…

  17. Health for the Harvesters: Decade of Hope 1960-1970.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, David O.

    In 1970, the Farm Workers Health Service, which was begun in 1961, included 33 decentralized medical clinics which served 24,000 seasonal farm workers and their families in 17 counties during the peak harvest months. Seventeen clinics offered year-round general medical services, and in 12 counties free medical and dental care was available to farm…

  18. Proceedings: Rural Sociology Section. Association of Southern Agricultural Workers, 1970.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auburn Univ., AL. Agricultural Experiment Station.

    Twenty-seven papers relating to rural sociology which were presented at the 1970 annual meeting of the Association of Southern Agricultural Workers are compiled in this volume. Areas emphasized are the educational and occupational aspirations of rural youth, community development and regional planning, and the racial composition and…

  19. Maintaining Campus Order and Integrity. AASCU Studies 1970/4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of State Colleges and Universities, Washington, DC. Office of Information and Research.

    To prepare for the possibility of further campus unrest and disorders, the American Association of State Colleges and Universities (AASCU) held a series of regional seminars in the summer of 1970. About 70 presidents and other administrators attended each of the seminars. Their major concern was not the repression of student dissent but finding…

  20. Trends in Artist Occupations: 1970-1990. Report #29.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Diane C.; Beresford, John C.

    This report examines the characteristics of the artist population in 1990 and compares them to the 1980 and 1970 census results. Artist occupations selected for study include: actors and directors; announcers; architects; authors; dancers; designers; musicians and composers; painters, sculptors, craft-artists, and artist printmakers;…

  1. Parent Evaluation Form Summary - 1970 Summer Reading Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Steven P.

    As part of the evaluation of the Southwest Regional Laboratory (SWRL) 1970 Summer Reading Program, a Parent Evaluation Form was distributed at the conclusion of the program. This form was sent home with 342 pupils whose parents were invited to participate with them in the program. The summary given in this report includes information received…

  2. 221. Photocopy of photograph, Denver Post photographer, 20 March 1970 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    221. Photocopy of photograph, Denver Post photographer, 20 March 1970 (original print located at Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Commerce City, Colorado). RABBIT USED TO TEST FOR NERVE GAS AT RMA. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Bounded by Ninety-sixth Avenue & Fifty-sixth Avenue, Buckley Road, Quebec Street & Colorado Highway 2, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  3. Third World Communication Development in the 1970s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Robert L.

    Quantitative data on various indexes of national development--mass media, "horizontal communication" (mail, telephones, and telegrams), democracy, social growth, literacy, and urbanization--were collected and estimated for more than 100 developing countries for roughly the decade between 1970 and 1980. These data were then used to test various…

  4. The Environmental and Ecological Forum 1970-1971.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atomic Energy Commission, Washington, DC. Office of Information Services.

    This report contains the papers presented in the 1970-1971 Environmental and Ecological Forum series, planned to provide an overview of the significant environmental, social, and economic aspects of electric power generation, more specifically, the pros and cons of nuclear power production. The Forum was organized as a public service to foster…

  5. 2. VIEW OF THE EXPERIMENT CONTROL PANEL IN 1970. THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW OF THE EXPERIMENT CONTROL PANEL IN 1970. THE NUCLEAR SAFETY GROUP CONDUCTED ABOUT 1,700 CRITICAL MASS EXPERIMENTS USING URANIUM AND PLUTONIUM IN SOLUTIONS (900 TESTS), COMPACTED POWDER (300), AND METALLIC FORMS (500). ALL 1,700 CRITICALITY ASSEMBLIES WERE CONTROLLED FROM THIS PANEL. - Rocky Flats Plant, Critical Mass Laboratory, Intersection of Central Avenue & 86 Drive, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  6. Suicide in the 1970s: A Second Look.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comstock, Betsy S.

    1979-01-01

    Reviews the 1970s using "Suicide Prevention in the 70s" as a guide. The 21 goals put forward are reviewed in light of subsequent progress in the field. Presented as the presidential address at the 11th Annual Meeting of the American Association of Suicidology, April, 1978, New Orleans. (Author)

  7. Lynch Street. The May 1970 Slayings at Jackson State College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spofford, Tim

    The story of the 1970 Jackson State College slayings following an unruly anti-war demonstration by black students is pieced together via interviews with students wounded in the gunfire and other eyewitnesses, as well as an examination of public records, court testimony, and newspaper accounts. The events are presented in the context of the history…

  8. Educational Research: European Survey 1970, Volume V, Index.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borch-Jacobsen, Niels

    The second European Survey on Educational Research, carried out by the Secretariat of the Council of Europe in cooperation with member governments, covers the period 1969-1970. It contains, in four volumes, replies from 14 countries and reports on the activities of over 240 research institutes. This present index volume is in two parts. Part I…

  9. 18. Photographic copy of photograph, 1970 (original photograph in STRATCOM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. Photographic copy of photograph, 1970 (original photograph in STRATCOM Historian files, Offutt AFB, Bellevue, Nebraska). Interior view of two crew members operating the data display system in the battle staff compartment. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Looking Glass Aircraft, On Operational Apron covering northeast half of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  10. The Mount Sinai Hospital Library, 1883 to 1970

    PubMed Central

    Culp, Robert W.

    1972-01-01

    A history of the Mount Sinai Hospital Library in New York City from its inception in 1883 to 1970 is presented. From its modest beginnings the growth and development of the library is reviewed through eight decades. The paper reports the library's expanded role in the Mount Sinai School of Medicine of the City University of New York. Images PMID:4559908

  11. Economic study of future aircraft fuels (1970-2000)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, A. D., III

    1972-01-01

    Future aircraft fuels are evaluated in terms of fuel resource availability and pricing, processing methods, and economic projections over the period 1970-2000. Liquefied hydrogen, methane and propane are examined as potential turbine engine aircraft fuels relative to current JP fuel.

  12. Migrant Health Program. [New Jersey] 1970 Annual Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Jersey State Dept. of Health, Trenton.

    During 1970, 3 federally supported migrant health projects continued to serve New Jersey's migrant workers with comprehensive health care. In the 7 counties of principal migrant activity, 4,464 patients received health services. This group represented more than 60% of the noncontract workers. Migrant health programs in Burlington, Gloucester,…

  13. 3. Photographic copy of original design drawing, dated January 1970 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Photographic copy of original design drawing, dated January 1970 (original Army Operation Drawing in possession of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Huntsville Division) Upper area and roof plans - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Universal Missile Building, Between Tactical Road South & Patrol Road, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  14. Photographic copy of original design drawing, dated January 1970, revised ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of original design drawing, dated January 1970, revised 12 March 1971 (original Army Operational Drawing in the possession of U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Huntsville, Division). MSRPP interior elevations, corridors #216, upper and lower levels - Stanely R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Missile Site Radar Power Plant, Southeast of, & adjacent to, Missile Site Control Building, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  15. 23. Photographic copy of original design drawing, dated January 1970, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. Photographic copy of original design drawing, dated January 1970, revised 2 January 1974 (original Army Operation Drawing in possession of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Huntsville Division) Composite first floor plan - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Missile Site Control Building, Northeast of Tactical Road; southeast of Tactical Road South, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  16. Photographic copy of original design drawing, dated January 1970, revised ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of original design drawing, dated January 1970, revised 24 May 1972 (original Army Operational Drawing in the possession of U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Huntsville, Division). MSRPP general floor plan, lower level - Stanely R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Missile Site Radar Power Plant, Southeast of, & adjacent to, Missile Site Control Building, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  17. 20. Photographic copy of original design drawing, dated January 1970, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. Photographic copy of original design drawing, dated January 1970, revised 2 January 1974 (original Army Operation Drawing in possession of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Huntsville Division) Sections "B" and "C" - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Missile Site Control Building, Northeast of Tactical Road; southeast of Tactical Road South, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  18. 4. Photographic copy of original design drawing, dated January 1970 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Photographic copy of original design drawing, dated January 1970 (original Army Operation Drawing in possession of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Huntsville Division) Elevations - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Universal Missile Building, Between Tactical Road South & Patrol Road, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  19. 24. Photographic copy of original design drawing, dated January 1970, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. Photographic copy of original design drawing, dated January 1970, revised 2 January 1974 (original Army Operation Drawing in possession of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Huntsville Division) Composite mezzanine floor plan - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Missile Site Control Building, Northeast of Tactical Road; southeast of Tactical Road South, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  20. 22. Photographic copy of original design drawing, dated January 1970, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. Photographic copy of original design drawing, dated January 1970, revised 2 January 1974 (original Army Operation Drawing in possession of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Huntsville Division) Partial underfloor plan of first floor - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Missile Site Control Building, Northeast of Tactical Road; southeast of Tactical Road South, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  1. 26. Photographic copy of original design drawing, dated January 1970, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. Photographic copy of original design drawing, dated January 1970, revised 2 January 1974 (original Army Operation Drawing in possession of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Huntsville Division) Composite removable third floor and duplexer area - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Missile Site Control Building, Northeast of Tactical Road; southeast of Tactical Road South, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  2. 28. Photographic copy of original design drawing, dated January 1970, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. Photographic copy of original design drawing, dated January 1970, revised 2 January 1974 (original Army Operation Drawing in possession of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Huntsville Division) Composite fourth floor plan, equipment and access platforms - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Missile Site Control Building, Northeast of Tactical Road; southeast of Tactical Road South, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  3. 25. Photographic copy of original design drawing, dated January 1970, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. Photographic copy of original design drawing, dated January 1970, revised 2 January 1974 (original Army Operation Drawing in possession of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Huntsville Division) Composite second floor plan - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Missile Site Control Building, Northeast of Tactical Road; southeast of Tactical Road South, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  4. 29. Photographic copy of original design drawing, dated January 1970, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. Photographic copy of original design drawing, dated January 1970, revised 2 January 1974 (original Army Operation Drawing in possession of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Huntsville Division) Interior elevations, fourth floor - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Missile Site Control Building, Northeast of Tactical Road; southeast of Tactical Road South, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  5. 2. Photographic copy of original design drawing, dated January 1970 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Photographic copy of original design drawing, dated January 1970 (original Army Operation Drawing in possession of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Huntsville Division) First floor plan - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Universal Missile Building, Between Tactical Road South & Patrol Road, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  6. 21. Photographic copy of original design drawing, dated January 1970, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. Photographic copy of original design drawing, dated January 1970, revised 2 January 1974 (original Army Operation Drawing in possession of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Huntsville Division) Roof plan - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Missile Site Control Building, Northeast of Tactical Road; southeast of Tactical Road South, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  7. 12. Photographic copy of original design drawing, dated January 1970, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Photographic copy of original design drawing, dated January 1970, revised 15 June 1973 (original print in possession of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Huntsville Division). Spartan launch station concrete sections - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Missile Launch Area, Within Exclusion Area, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  8. 27. Photographic copy of original design drawing, dated January 1970, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. Photographic copy of original design drawing, dated January 1970, revised 2 January 1974 (original Army Operation Drawing in possession of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Huntsville Division) Interior elevations, third floor - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Missile Site Control Building, Northeast of Tactical Road; southeast of Tactical Road South, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  9. 19. Photographic copy of original design drawing, dated January 1970, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. Photographic copy of original design drawing, dated January 1970, revised 2 January 1974 (original Army Operation Drawing in possession of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Huntsville Division) Elevation and section "A" - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Missile Site Control Building, Northeast of Tactical Road; southeast of Tactical Road South, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  10. Census of Population: 1970; Subject Reports: Vocational Training. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of the Census (DOC), Suitland, MD. Population Div.

    This report presents detailed statistics for the population of the United States on the field of vocational training, classified by various social and economic characteristics. The statistics are based on the 1970 Census of Population. The introduction contains information relating specifically to this report, including definitions. The tables…

  11. The Future of the Telephone Industry; 1970-1985.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baran, Paul; Lipinski, Andrew J.

    Projections about the growth of the telephone industry from 1970-1985 were made from forecasts of five panels of experts, in five areas: (1) the regulatory environment; (2) changes in U.S. society; (3) existing networks and services; (4) future networks and services; (5) future characteristics of the labor force and employee-management relations.…

  12. The "Magazine Methodology Mess" of the 1970s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Sandra J.

    Throughout most of the 1970s, the two major competing syndicated services measuring consumer magazine audiences utilized different methodologies in gathering magazine audience measurements and released somewhat differing figures. A study was conducted to explore the historical developments of W.R. Simmons and Associates Research, Inc. (Simmons),…

  13. 4. August, 1970 VIEW FROM TOP OF UNITARIAN CHURCH OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. August, 1970 VIEW FROM TOP OF UNITARIAN CHURCH OF ORANGE STREET PARTICULARLY NOS. 12, 14 AND 14 1/3, AND THE HARBOR - Orange & Union Streets Neighborhood Study, 8-31 Orange Street, 9-21 Union Street & Stone Alley, Nantucket, Nantucket County, MA

  14. 12. July, 1970 EAST SIDE OF ORANGE STREET LOOKING SOUTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. July, 1970 EAST SIDE OF ORANGE STREET LOOKING SOUTH FROM GARDEN (FORMER SITE OF COL. BRAYTON HOUSE) OF #16 TO #18, #20 AND #22 ORANGE STREET - Orange & Union Streets Neighborhood Study, 8-31 Orange Street, 9-21 Union Street & Stone Alley, Nantucket, Nantucket County, MA

  15. 3. August, 1970 VIEW FROM TOP OF UNITARIAN CHURCH OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. August, 1970 VIEW FROM TOP OF UNITARIAN CHURCH OF ORANGE STREET WITH LEVI STARBUCK HOUSE (#14) AT LEFT AND THE BLOCK (#15-23) AT RIGHT - Orange & Union Streets Neighborhood Study, 8-31 Orange Street, 9-21 Union Street & Stone Alley, Nantucket, Nantucket County, MA

  16. Higher Education and Middle Manpower for the 1970's.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Norman C.

    After taking a brief look at the developments and some generalized trends of the past three decades, this paper attempts to identify some of the characteristics of the decade ahead and new and emerging middle manpower occupations in the 1970's. It is the thesis of this paper that a country interested in rapid economic development should invest…

  17. Training Grant Scheme, 1969-1970; General Guide to Employers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ceramics, Glass, and Mineral Products Industry Training Board, Harrow (England).

    In its fourth grant scheme, the Ceramics, Glass, and Mineral Products Industry Training Board of Great Britain gives guidelines on grants available to its industries for training conducted between August 1, 1969 and July 31, 1970. It covers such aspects as grant conditions for external and internal training; training staff qualifications; rates…

  18. 3. Inclined Plane 10, 1970. Track bed at left. View ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Inclined Plane 10, 1970. Track bed at left. View some what similar to that of NJ-30-2. Stone track bed is visible under cable system of NJ-30-2. - Morris Canal, Inclined Plane 10 West, Phillipsburg, Warren County, NJ

  19. TV Classroom In Color: Report of 1970 - 1971 School Year.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Thomas L.; And Others

    This is a report of activities on an adult education television program, conducted by San Diego Community Colleges, in cooperation with TV Channel KFMB in San Diego, California, during the school year, October, 1970 through June, 1971. The report begins with a history of the program, begun in 1951, and which has presented 174 courses since then.…

  20. 6. Photographic copy of construction drawing 1970 (original drawing located ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Photographic copy of construction drawing 1970 (original drawing located in Building 301, Offutt AFB, Bellevue, Nebraska). Floor plan and section. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Vehicle Refueling Shop, In west corner of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  1. Profiles of Children: 1970 White House Conference on Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Washington, DC.

    This book of charts of comparative statistics was compiled to help the 1970 White House Conference on Children evaluate past efforts to improve the well-being of America's children. First, it presents data about aspects of the world into which American children are born, such as population, urbanization, income levels, incidence of disease,…

  2. Data Summaries, 1970-1974 on Postsecondary Education Institutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Systems Research Inc., Los Angeles, CA.

    Data summaries illustrated by charts and graphs are presented with some commentary for the years 1970-71, 1972-73, and 1973-74 for the approximately 3,000 postsecondary institutions, including branch campuses, in the U.S. enrolling about 9 million students. Statistics include enrollment (total enrollment and full-time equivalent enrollment and the…

  3. The Future of Newsprint; 1970-2000. Report R-16.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baran, Paul

    A panel of 37 experts predicted trends in the use of newsprint by the year 2000. The panelists agreed that as a result of increasing education, worldwide demand for newsprint will continue to increase, with consumption exceeding 35 million short tons a year in 2000, compared with 10 million in 1950 and 22 million in 1970. The type of paper desired…

  4. 26 CFR 1.615-1 - Pre-1970 exploration expenditures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Natural Resources § 1.615-1 Pre-1970 exploration expenditures... the development stage of the mine or other natural deposit. Such expenditures hereinafter in the... mine or other natural deposit will be deemed to begin at the time when, in consideration of all...

  5. A History of Australian Children's Literature, 1941-1970.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saxby, H. M.

    This book is a systematic examination of the range of fiction available to Australian children from 1941 to 1970. The author not only provides a guide for parents, teachers, librarians, and students who are discovering that there is a considerable body of Australian fiction for children, but he also outlines possible trends and patterns that are…

  6. 1970-1971 Annual Report: Extension Service Program, Silliman University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maturan, Eulalio G.

    The 1970-1971 annual report of the Extension Service Program of Silliman University, Dumaguete City, Philippines, treats the following projects: Mabinay Agricultural Extension, Mabinay Negrito Action-Research, Reforestation, and Livestock Dispersal. Also discussed are the Rural Publications Center and other extension services--a radio program,…

  7. Federal Library Committee Annual Report, Fiscal Year 1970

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Library Committee, Washington, DC.

    The three goals of the Federal Library Committee are to: (1) achieve better utilization of library resources and facilities; (2) provide more effective planning, development and operation of Federal libraries and (3) promote an optimum exchange of experience, skills and resources. During fiscal year 1970, emphasis of secretariat efforts was placed…

  8. Progress Report on Rural Development for Fiscal Year 1970.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC.

    Rural development progress relative to State-U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) committees is presented via exemplary citation in this 1970 report. Summaries are given for: (1) Status of State-USDA Organization for Rural Development, (2) Functional Relationships of USDA Committees on Rural Development, (3) Activities and Projects Underway, (4)…

  9. Earlier Guidance Opportunities: Priorities for the 1970's.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nemec, William E., Ed.

    "Earlier Guidance Opportunities (EGO): Priorities for the 1970's" was the topic for this Ohio Elementary Guidance Conference. In his keynote address entitled "New Perspectives on the Guidance of Younger Children - Can We Afford to Delay Vocational Guidance?" Dr. George E. Hill used EGO to say, "Education Gives Opportunity,""Ego's Grow on…

  10. 5. Photographic copy of construction drawing, dated September 30, 1970, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Photographic copy of construction drawing, dated September 30, 1970, U.S. Army Engineer District, Detroit, Corps of Engineers, in possession of Selfridge Base Museum, Mt. Clemens, Michigan. ELEVATIONS AND DETAILS, SHEET 1 OF 3, DRAWING NO. 86-11-22, FILE SF 5/1782. - Selfridge Field, Building No. 570, Ammo Road northeast of Taxiway A, Mount Clemens, Macomb County, MI

  11. Citation Characteristics of Physiology Literature, 1970-72

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hafner, A. W.

    1976-01-01

    To identify and describe selected characteristics of the research literature of the basic medical science area of physiology during the three-year period 1970-72, this literature was analyzed to determine where, when, by what subject area, and in what countries it was published. (Author/PF)

  12. TERRESTRIAL TOXICITY DATA BASE (TERRE-TOX), 1970-1985

    EPA Science Inventory

    TERRE-TOX is a new data base developed for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to aid in evaluating pre-manufacturing notices and research. TERRE-TOX contains published (1970 to present) information on toxicity of anthropogenic substances to terrestrial animals. Currently, s...

  13. NUC Symposium on Environmental Preservation, 20-21 May 1970.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naval Undersea Center, San Diego, CA.

    This publication consists of papers presented at an in-house symposium held at the Naval Undersea Research and Development (R and D) Center, San Diego, in May 1970. The topics discussed in these presentations are as follows: principles of evolution and the ecological crisis; alternatives to overpopulation; examples of San Diego noise climate;…

  14. Bethune Continuous Progress Primary Evaluation, 1970-1972.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nesset, Bonna C.; Faunce, R. W.

    The Continuous Progress Primary (CPP) was adopted in grades K-3 at Bethune Elementary School (Minneapolis) in 1970. The intermediate grades (4-6) were organized in grade levels. In the CPP, each child progresses at his own rate, the emphasis being on small-group learning. The school staff took part in a questionnaire evaluation of the CPP in May…

  15. Science: A Memoir of the 1960's and 1970's.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfle, Dael

    1980-01-01

    This is a summary of the period between 1960 and 1979 in the history of the journal, "Science." It is a personal account by the executive officer of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) from 1954 to 1970, concerning the publication of a major journal. (SA)

  16. Women on Dental School Faculties in the 1970s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pait, Carol; Solomon, Eric

    1981-01-01

    A statistical outline is given of female dental school faculty in 1970-71, 1973-74, and 1979-80, broken down by primary teaching area, type of appointment (full- or part-time), earned degree, and academic rank. The trend is toward increased female faculty with dental degrees, especially in clinical departments and at lower ranks. (MSE)

  17. Cumulative index to NASA Tech Briefs, 1970-1975. [bibliographies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Tech briefs of technology derived from the research and development activities of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration are presented. Abstracts and indexes of subject, personal author, originating center, and tech brief number for the 1970-1975 tech briefs are presented.

  18. Child Labor in Agriculture, Summer 1970: A Special Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Friends Service Committee, Philadelphia, PA.

    A special project, undertaken to furnish some of the hard facts on child labor in agriculture in the summer of 1970, resulted in publication of this report. Part I of the report discusses society's attitudes toward agricultural workers, laws about the use of children as industrial laborers, work activities (with definitions of work for the various…

  19. Academic Relations between Canada and China: 1970-95.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, Martin

    This report reviews development of Sino-Canadian academic relations over the past 25 years. It offers an overview of four periods of Sino-Canadian academic relations (1970-79, 1979-83, 1983-89, and 1989-95), and briefly describes a number of programs in six areas: (1) foreign trade and economic cooperation, (2) foreign affairs and international…

  20. The Mass Media and Political Socialization: Chile, 1970-2000

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walter, Amy R.

    2005-01-01

    This project seeks to determine the effect of the mass media on political attitudes and behaviors in Chile between the years 1970 and 2000. The relationship between the media and "political socialization" is just now gaining recognition in scholarly research, and Chile offers an excellent case study. This paper traces these two variables during…