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Sample records for 1970 1991 sectoral analysis

  1. Energy use in Poland, 1970--1991: Sectoral analysis and international comparison

    SciTech Connect

    Meyers, S.; Schipper, L.; Salay, J.

    1993-07-01

    This report provides an analysis of how and why energy use has changed in Poland since the 1970s, with particular emphasis on changes since the country began its transition from a centrally planned to a market economy in 1989. The most important factors behind the large decline in Polish energy use in 1990 were a sharp fall in industrial output and a huge drop in residential coal use driven by higher prices. The structural shift away from heavy industry was slight. Key factors that worked to increase energy use were the rise in energy intensity in many heavy industries and the shift toward more energy intensive modes of transport. The growth in private activities in 1991 was nearly sufficient to balance out continued decline in industrial energy use in that year. We compared energy use in Poland and the factors that shape it with similar elements in the West. We made a number of modifications to the Polish energy data to bring it closer to a Western energy accounting framework, and augmented these with a variety of estimates in order to construct a sufficiently detailed portrait of Polish energy use to allow comparison with Western data. Per capita energy use in Poland was not much below W. European levels despite Poland`s much lower GDP per capita. Poland has comparatively high energy intensities in manufacturing and residential space heating, and a large share of heavy industries in manufacturing output, all factors that contribute to higher energy use per capita. The structure of passenger and freight transportation and the energy intensity of automobiles contribute to lower energy use per capita in Poland than in Western Europe, but the patterns in Poland are moving closer to those that prevail in the West.

  2. Enrollment Analysis, 1970-1985.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodyear, Don

    A series of tables are presented, providing a 15-year analysis of enrollment, student demographic characteristics, and first census weekly student contact hours (WSCH) by division at College of the Sequoias (COS). Data indicate: (1) total enrollment increased from 5,447 in 1970 to 7,587 in 1985, peaking in 1981 with a high of 7,625 students; (2)…

  3. Technical progress report. Private sector initiatives between the United States and Japan. January 1991 - December 1991

    SciTech Connect

    1993-07-01

    This annual report for calendar year 1991 describes the efforts performed under the Private Sector Initiatives contract. The report also describes those efforts that have continued with private funding after being initiated under this contract.

  4. Avoidable mortality in Lithuania: 1991-199 compared with 1970-1990.

    PubMed

    Logminiene, Zeneta; Nolte, Ellen; McKee, Martin; Valius, Leonas; Gaizauskiene, Aldona

    2004-04-01

    This paper assesses the changes in avoidable mortality in Lithuania in 1991-1999 compared with 1970-1990. Causes of death were disaggregated into causes most amenable to treatment and those amenable to prevention. Trends in age-standardised death rates were calculated. In 1970-1990, avoidable causes of death accounted for 26.3% of all deaths. By 1991-1999 this figure had decreased slightly to 24.6%. At the same time, age-standardised death rates from avoidable causes increased by 8%, from 118.1 per 100000 in 1970-1990 to 127.9 in 1991-1999. Avoidable mortality among men was considerably higher than for women in both periods. There was considerable fluctuation in both treatable and preventable mortality during the 1990s, reflecting diversity in trends in different causes of death. Increases occurred in death rates from tuberculosis, cervical cancer and liver cirrhosis and, immediately after independence, also in hypertensive and cerebrovascular diseases and, among men, lung cancer, followed by subsequent declines. Deaths from chronic rheumatic heart disease, asthma and other respiratory diseases, appendicitis, abdominal hernia, cholelithiasis and maternal mortality consistently declined. In conclusion, avoidable mortality declined as a proportion of total mortality in Lithuania during 1991-1999 compared with 1970-1990. This reflected the combined impact of an initial rise in death rates from treatable and, to a lesser extent, preventable causes, followed by subsequent declines. While this indicates some success in the development of medical care, it emphasises the need for more effective public health policies directed at the major determinants of health. PMID:15003409

  5. [In the America of mountain ranges, the brief summer of Indian agrarian movements (1970-1991)].

    PubMed

    Le Bot, Y

    1991-01-01

    Important rural Indian movements appeared almost simultaneously in the early 1970s in 3 countries, Ecuador, Bolivia, and Guatemala, which had the distinction of remaining the most rural and the most Indian countries of Latin America. A similar movement with similar characteristics arose in a rural and Indian region of Colombia, a largely urban and mestizo country. Each movement constituted a particular response to the same problems in different contexts. This work provides a comparative analysis of the historical context, development, constitution, and functioning of Bolivian katarisme, the Ecuarrunari movement in Ecuador, the Regional Committee of the Indigenous of Cauca (CRIC) in Colombia, and the Committee of Peasant Unity (CUC) in Guatemala. The indigenous peasant movements were defined in relation to national-populist models of development and integration: limitations and failures of national-populism in Bolivia and to some extent also in Ecuador, marginalization of the Indian populations vis a vis modernization processes in Ecuador and Colombia, or a crisis caused by blockage of participation in the sociopolitical system in Guatemala. The movements appeared in the context of strong peasant communities left at the margin of processes of integration, but also in contexts where the social dynamics were reinforced by reforms and modernization during a long period of precarious reconstitution of communities sometimes dating back to the 1930s. Another contributing factor in some cases was the dissolution of peonage and other forms of servitude on the great estates. An Indian elite whose emergence was related to modernization of the communities is present in all the movements. It is composed of educated and partially urbanized young people who have maintained ties to the communities, of leaders trained in cooperative or union activity, of promoters of new religious currents, and others affected by change. The leaders belong to modern organizations that wish to make

  6. Buildings Sector Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Hostick, Donna J.; Nicholls, Andrew K.; McDonald, Sean C.; Hollomon, Jonathan B.

    2005-08-01

    A joint NREL, ORNL, and PNNL team conducted market analysis to help inform DOE/EERE's Weatherization and Intergovernmental Program planning and management decisions. This chapter presents the results of the market analysis for the Buildings sector.

  7. Energy Sector Market Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Arent, D.; Benioff, R.; Mosey, G.; Bird, L.; Brown, J.; Brown, E.; Vimmerstedt, L.; Aabakken, J.; Parks, K.; Lapsa, M.; Davis, S.; Olszewski, M.; Cox, D.; McElhaney, K.; Hadley, S.; Hostick, D.; Nicholls, A.; McDonald, S.; Holloman, B.

    2006-10-01

    This paper presents the results of energy market analysis sponsored by the Department of Energy's (DOE) Weatherization and International Program (WIP) within the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE). The analysis was conducted by a team of DOE laboratory experts from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), with additional input from Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). The analysis was structured to identify those markets and niches where government can create the biggest impact by informing management decisions in the private and public sectors. The analysis identifies those markets and niches where opportunities exist for increasing energy efficiency and renewable energy use.

  8. World data center a for solar-terrestrial physics. Catalog of coronal holes, 1970-1991

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez-Ibarra, A.; Barraza-Paredes, M.

    1992-10-01

    Coronal Holes were first noted as 'M' regions that produced periodic geomagnetic disturbances. These were first observed in 1970 by instruments on the Orbiting Solar Observatory (OSO) satellites, and also were noted with optical observations during the total solar eclipse of March 7, 1970. The Apollo Telescope Mount (ATM) on the Skylab manned mission observed in short wavelengths the real nature of Coronal Holes as regions of lower density and temperature than the rest of the solar corona. Three observational periods from Skylab produced substantial data on the development of Coronal Holes as well as their relationship with other types of solar activity. After Skylab, although Coronal Holes were later deduced from radio observations, the main data were obtained by observing the He l 10830A line at the Vacuum Solar Telescope at Kitt Peak National Observatory. These data, continuous from 1977 to date, were published in Solar-Geophysical Data (SGD) as Helium synoptic charts by Carrington Rotation or as Coronal Hole contours plotted on H-alpha synoptic charts. The Skylab observations of Coronal Holes were the subject of exhaustive examination. However, the main data source on Coronal Holes currently are the synoptic maps published in SGD. This catalogue was motivated by the lack of a global reference guide. This catalogue is based only on summary data for each Carrington Rotation, it presents interesting values and enough data to analyze several aspects of the evolution of Coronal Holes.

  9. Analysis of Coaching Science Research Published from 1970-2001

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Wade D.; Trudel, Pierre

    2004-01-01

    The study followed a four-phase design. In Phase I an exhaustive search was conducted for all English language coaching research published in journals from 1970 to 2001. In Phase II, copies of the research were obtained. An expert panel conducted a manual search and a review in Phase III to address validity. Analysis of the research was completed…

  10. Contribution of population growth to per capita income and sectoral output growth in Japan, 1880-1970.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, M; Kennedy, G

    1984-09-01

    The authors measured the positive and negative contributions of population and labor force growth to the growth of per capita income and sectoral output in Japan in the 1880-1970 period. A 2-sector growth accounting model that treats population and labor growth as separate variables was used. 3 alternative methods were used: the Residual method, the Verdoorn method, and the factor augmenting rate method. The total contribution of population cum labor growth to per capita income growth tended to be negative in the 1880-1930 period and positive in the 1930-40 and 1950-70. Over the 1880-1970 period as a whole, population cum labor growth made a positive contribution to per capita income growth under the Residual method (0.35%/year), the factor augmenting rate method (0.29%/year), and the Verdoorn method (0.01%/year). In addition, population cum labor growth contributed positively to sectoral output growth. The average contribution to agricultural output growth ranged from 1.03% (Verdoorn) - 1.46%/year (factor augmenting rate), while the average contribution to nonagricultural output growth ranged from 1.22% (Verdoorn) - 1.60%/year (Residual). Although these results are dependent on the model used, the fact that all 3 methods yielded consistent results suggests that population cum labor growth did make a positive contribution to per capita income and sectoral output growth in Japan. These findings imply that in economies where the rate of technical change in agricultural and nonagricultural sectors exceeds population growth, policies that reduce agricultural elasticities may be preferable; on the other hand, policies that reduce agricultural elasticities are to be avoided in economies with low rates of technical change. Moreover, in the early stages of economic development, policies that increase agricultural income and price elasticities should be considered. PMID:12340109

  11. Gender pay gap and employment sector: sources of earnings disparities in the United States, 1970-2010.

    PubMed

    Mandel, Hadas; Semyonov, Moshe

    2014-10-01

    Using data from the IPUMS-USA, the present research focuses on trends in the gender earnings gap in the United States between 1970 and 2010. The major goal of this article is to understand the sources of the convergence in men's and women's earnings in the public and private sectors as well as the stagnation of this trend in the new millennium. For this purpose, we delineate temporal changes in the role played by major sources of the gap. Several components are identified: the portion of the gap attributed to gender differences in human-capital resources; labor supply; sociodemographic attributes; occupational segregation; and the unexplained portion of the gap. The findings reveal a substantial reduction in the gross gender earnings gap in both sectors of the economy. Most of the decline is attributed to the reduction in the unexplained portion of the gap, implying a significant decline in economic discrimination against women. In contrast to discrimination, the role played by human capital and personal attributes in explaining the gender pay gap is relatively small in both sectors. Differences between the two sectors are not only in the size and pace of the reduction but also in the significance of the two major sources of the gap. Working hours have become the most important factor with respect to gender pay inequality in both sectors, although much more dominantly in the private sector. The declining gender segregation may explain the decreased impact of occupations on the gender pay gap in the private sector. In the public sector, by contrast, gender segregation still accounts for a substantial portion of the gap. The findings are discussed in light of the theoretical literature on sources of gender economic inequality and in light of the recent stagnation of the trend. PMID:25149647

  12. 1991 NASA Life Support Systems Analysis workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evanich, Peggy L.; Crabb, Thomas M.; Gartrell, Charles F.

    1992-01-01

    The 1991 Life Support Systems Analysis Workshop was sponsored by NASA Headquarters' Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology (OAST) to foster communication among NASA, industrial, and academic specialists, and to integrate their inputs and disseminate information to them. The overall objective of systems analysis within the Life Support Technology Program of OAST is to identify, guide the development of, and verify designs which will increase the performance of the life support systems on component, subsystem, and system levels for future human space missions. The specific goals of this workshop were to report on the status of systems analysis capabilities, to integrate the chemical processing industry technologies, and to integrate recommendations for future technology developments related to systems analysis for life support systems. The workshop included technical presentations, discussions, and interactive planning, with time allocated for discussion of both technology status and time-phased technology development recommendations. Key personnel from NASA, industry, and academia delivered inputs and presentations on the status and priorities of current and future systems analysis methods and requirements.

  13. Pronounced warming in the Indian and Pacific sectors of the Southern Ocean during the 1970s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turney, Chris; Fogwill, Chris; Palmer, Jonathan; van Sebille, Erik; Thomas, Zoë; McGlone, Matt; Richardson, Sarah; Wilmshurst, Janet; Fenwick, Pavla; Carter, Lionel; Jones, Richard; Harsch, Melanie; Wilson, Kerry-Jayne; Clark, Graeme; Marzinelli, Ezequiel; Rogers, Tracey; Rainsley, Eleanor; Ciasto, Laura; Waterman, Stephanie; Antarctic Expedition 2013-2014 Members, Australasian

    2015-04-01

    Occupying some 20% of the world's ocean surface, the Southern Ocean is home to a diverse and unique biota and plays a fundamental role in global oceanic circulation, climate variability, Antarctic ice sheet stability and carbon cycling. Significant warming has been observed over recent decades, most prominently in the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC). The mechanism(s) behind this warming, however, remain uncertain. Here, we integrate historic ocean and atmospheric observations and climate-sensitive tree growth on subantarctic islands from the northern limit of the ACC to extend historic and satellite measurements to produce a unique proxy record of temperature across 4˚ of latitude in the southwest Pacific. We demonstrate a hitherto unobserved abrupt warming during the 1970s that is unprecedented over the past 130 years, coincident with a significant decline in marine vertebrate populations and wider warming across the Indian Ocean. Comparison between our reconstruction and high-resolution ocean modelling provides a possible mechanism, suggesting warmer waters resulted from a poleward migration of the subtropical and ACC fronts. Projected increases in the strength of westerly winds are likely to continue the fronts' migration, driving warming in the Southern Ocean (>50˚S), with significant impacts on biota.

  14. Cross sectional analysis of mortality by country of birth in England and Wales, 1970-92.

    PubMed Central

    Wild, S.; McKeigue, P.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare mortalities for selected groups of immigrants with the national average. DESIGN: Analysis of mortality for adults aged 20-69 in 1970-2 and 1989-92 using population data from 1971 and 1991 censuses. Mortality of Scottish and Irish immigrants aged 25-74 was also compared with mortality in Scotland and Ireland for 1991. SETTING: England and Wales. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Standardised mortality ratios for deaths from all causes, ischaemic heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, lung cancer, and breast cancer. RESULTS: In 1989-92 mortality from all causes was higher than the national average for Scottish immigrants, by 32% for men and 36% for women; for Irish immigrants it was higher by 39% for men and 20% for women; and for Caribbean born men it was lower by 23%. Ischaemic heart disease and lung cancer accounted for 30-40% of the excess mortality in Scottish and Irish immigrants. For south Asians, excess mortality from circulatory disease was balanced by lower mortality from cancer. Standardised mortality ratios for cerebrovascular disease in 1989-92 were highest for west African immigrants (271 for men and 181 for women). CONCLUSIONS: Widening differences in mortality ratios for migrants compared with the general population were not simply due to socioeconomic inequalities. The low mortality from all causes for Caribbean immigrants could largely be attributed to low mortality from ischaemic heart disease, which is unexplained. The excess mortality from cerebrovascular and hypertensive diseases in migrants from both west Africa and the Caribbean suggests that genetic factors underlie the susceptibility to hypertension in people of black African descent. PMID:9116545

  15. Retrofitting America: A 1970s Home Energy Efficiency Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    2010-11-17

    This paper describes a modeling tool that Building America research team CARB developed to identify the energy benefits of various retrofit energy efficiency measures for a typical 1970’s ranch home in ten cities across four climate zones in the United States.

  16. An analysis of the coma of comet Bennett 1970 II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oppenheimer, M.

    1978-01-01

    Brightness profiles for emission features of H2O(+) in comet Bennett 1970 II are analyzed, taking into account the role of chemical reactions in the coma. By comparing the rates of transport processes derived from the brightness profile with known chemical rate constants, upper limits on the abundances and production rates of H2O, CH4, NH3, and other possible coma constituents are found. The derived upper limit on the H2O production rate inside 10 to the 4th power km is less than the observed OH production rate averaged over the coma of this comet. It is concluded that the brightness profiles of H2O(+) and OH in comet Bennett 1970 II which are presently available are inconsistent with production of OH primarily by photodissociation of H2O molecules sublimating from the nucleus. The existence of an extended source of H2O is not ruled out.

  17. State energy price and expenditure report 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    The State Energy Price and Expenditure Report (SEPER) presents energy price and expenditure estimates individually for the 50 States and the District of Columbia and in aggregate for the United States. The price and expenditure estimates are provided by energy source and economic sector and are published for the years 1970, 1975, 1980, and 1985 through 1991. Data for all years, 1970 through 1991, are available on personal computer diskettes. Documentation in Appendix A describes how the price estimates are developed, including sources of data, methods of estimation, and conversion factors applied. This report is an update of the State Energy Price and Expenditure Report 1990, published in September 1992.

  18. Health Disparities in Ischaemic Heart Disease Mortality in Hungary From 1970 to 2010: An Age-Period-Cohort Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Gero, Krisztina; Eshak, Ehab S.; Ma, Enbo; Takahashi, Hideto; Noda, Hiroyuki; Iso, Hiroyasu

    2015-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to examine long-term trends in rates of ischaemic heart disease (IHD) mortality, a leading cause of mortality in Hungary. The study examined the effects of age, period, and cohort on IHD mortality rates and compared mortality rates between the capital (Budapest) and non-capital counties. Methods Data on IHD deaths and population censuses were obtained from the Hungarian Central Statistical Office. Age-period-cohort analysis utilized nine age-group classes for ages 40 to 84 years, eight time periods from 1970 to 2009, and 16 birth cohorts from 1886 to 1969. Results Age-adjusted IHD mortality rates for men and for women generally increased from 1970 to 1993 and from 1980 to 1999, respectively, decreasing thereafter for both sexes. IHD mortality rates for men and for women from Budapest were lower from 1991 and from 1970, respectively, than corresponding rates in non-capital counties, with the difference increasing after 1999. Age had a more significant influence on mortality rates for women than for men. The period effect increased from 1972 to 1982 and decreased thereafter for men, while the period effect decreased consistently for women from 1972 to 2007. The decline in period effect for both sexes was larger for individuals from the capital than for those from non-capital counties. The cohort effect for both sexes declined from birth years 1890 to 1965, with a steeper decline for individuals from the capital than for those from non-capital counties. Conclusions The findings indicate a need for programs in Hungary for IHD prevention, especially for non-capital counties. PMID:25986153

  19. Trends of anthropogenic mercury emissions from 1970-2008 using the global EDGARv4 database: the role of increasing emission mitigation by the energy sector and the chlor-alkali industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muntean, M.; Janssens-Maenhout, G.; Olivier, J. G.; Guizzardi, D.; Dentener, F. J.

    2012-12-01

    The Emission Database for Global Atmospheric Research (EDGAR) describes time-series of emissions of man-made greenhouse gases and short-lived atmospheric pollutants from 1970-2008. EDGARv4 is continuously updated to respond to needs of both the scientific community and environmental policy makers. Mercury, a toxic pollutant with bioaccumulation properties, is included in the forthcoming EDGARv4.3 release, thereby enriching the spectrum of multi-pollutant sources. Three different forms of mercury have been distinguished: gaseous elemental mercury (Hg0), divalent mercury compounds (Hg2+) and particulate associated mercury (Hg-P). A complete inventory of mercury emission sources has been developed at country level using the EDGAR technology-based methodology together with international activity statistics, technology-specific abatement measures, and emission factors from EMEP/EEA (2009), USEPA AP 42 and the scientific literature. A comparison of the EDGAR mercury emission data to the widely used UNEP inventory shows consistent emissions across most sectors compared for the year 2005. The different shares of mercury emissions by region and by sector will be presented with special emphasis on the region-specific mercury emission mitigation potential. We provide a comprehensive ex-post analysis of the mitigation of mercury emissions by respectively end-of-pipe abatement measures in the power generation sector and technology changes in the chlor-alkali industry between 1970 and 2008. Given the local scale impacts of mercury, we have paid special attention to the spatial distribution of emissions. The default EDGAR Population proxy data was only used to distribute emissions from the residential and solid waste incineration sectors. Other sectors use point source data of power plants, industrial plants, gold and mercury mines. The 2008 mercury emission distribution will be presented, which shows emissions hot-spots on a 0.1°x0.1°resolution gridmap.

  20. Application of modified VICAR/IBIS GIS to analysis of July 1991 Flevoland AIRSAR data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norikane, L.; Broek, B.; Freeman, A.

    1992-01-01

    Three overflights of the Flevoland calibration/agricultural site were made by the JPL Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (AIRSAR) on 3, 12, and 28 July 1991 as part of MAC-Europe '92. A polygon map was generated at TNO-FEL which overlayed the slant range projected July 3 data set. Each polygon was identified by a sequence of points and a crop label. The polygon map was composed of 452 uniquely identified polygons and 15 different crop types. Analysis of the data was done using our modified Video Image Communication and Retrieval/Image Based Information System Geographic Information System (VICAR/IBIS GIS). This GIS is an extension of the VICAR/IBIS GIS first developed by Bryant in the 1970's which is itself an extension of the VICAR image processing system also developed at JPL.

  1. A Descriptive Analysis of Studies on Behavioural Treatment of Drooling (1970-2005)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van der Burg, Jan J. W.; Didden, Robert; Jongerius, Peter H.; Rotteveel, Jan J.

    2007-01-01

    A descriptive analysis was conducted on studies on the behavioural treatment of drooling (published between 1970 and 2005). The 17 articles that met the inclusion criteria described 53 participants (mean age 14y 7mo, [SD 4y 9mo]; range 6-28y). Sex of 87% of the participants was reported: 28 male, 18 female. For 60% of the participants the degree…

  2. Major models and data sources for residential and commercial sector energy conservation analysis. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-09-01

    Major models and data sources are reviewed that can be used for energy-conservation analysis in the residential and commercial sectors to provide an introduction to the information that can or is available to DOE in order to further its efforts in analyzing and quantifying their policy and program requirements. Models and data sources examined in the residential sector are: ORNL Residential Energy Model; BECOM; NEPOOL; MATH/CHRDS; NIECS; Energy Consumption Data Base: Household Sector; Patterns of Energy Use by Electrical Appliances Data Base; Annual Housing Survey; 1970 Census of Housing; AIA Research Corporation Data Base; RECS; Solar Market Development Model; and ORNL Buildings Energy Use Data Book. Models and data sources examined in the commercial sector are: ORNL Commercial Sector Model of Energy Demand; BECOM; NEPOOL; Energy Consumption Data Base: Commercial Sector; F.W. Dodge Data Base; NFIB Energy Report for Small Businesses; ADL Commercial Sector Energy Use Data Base; AIA Research Corporation Data Base; Nonresidential Buildings Surveys of Energy Consumption; General Electric Co: Commercial Sector Data Base; The BOMA Commercial Sector Data Base; The Tishman-Syska and Hennessy Data Base; The NEMA Commercial Sector Data Base; ORNL Buildings Energy Use Data Book; and Solar Market Development Model. Purpose; basis for model structure; policy variables and parameters; level of regional, sectoral, and fuels detail; outputs; input requirements; sources of data; computer accessibility and requirements; and a bibliography are provided for each model and data source.

  3. The role of health sectors in disaster preparedness. Floods in southeastern China, 1991.

    PubMed

    Shao, X

    1993-01-01

    Disasters, whether natural or man-made, usually are unpredictable. Efforts to reduce morbidity and mortality from a disaster should be put forth before it occurs. A brief survey is presented of the worst flood to occur in a hundred years that affected eight provinces in Southeast China. The disaster preparedness and response for Anhui Province, the hardest hit area, is summarized. The disaster preparedness was comprehensive, and cooperation was achieved among various specialties: military forces; firefighters; civil engineers; mechanics; police; provincial governors; the medical sectors; and so forth. Among these groups, the role of medical sectors was of great importance in reducing disease that would have resulted from such a disaster. The measures undertaken by the medical sectors included development of an organization to reduce the impact of disaster; training of medical personnel in techniques of rescue and in treatment of victims in disaster areas; development of a plan to assist the leadership in decision-making and establishing support for disaster preparedness; and maintaining sufficient capacity in general hospitals for the admission of victims from disaster areas. PMID:10155464

  4. Trend analysis from 1970 to 2008 and model evaluation of EDGARv4 global gridded anthropogenic mercury emissions.

    PubMed

    Muntean, Marilena; Janssens-Maenhout, Greet; Song, Shaojie; Selin, Noelle E; Olivier, Jos G J; Guizzardi, Diego; Maas, Rob; Dentener, Frank

    2014-10-01

    The Emission Database for Global Atmospheric Research (EDGAR) provides a time-series of man-made emissions of greenhouse gases and short-lived atmospheric pollutants from 1970 to 2008. Mercury is included in EDGARv4.tox1, thereby enriching the spectrum of multi-pollutant sources in the database. With an average annual growth rate of 1.3% since 1970, EDGARv4 estimates that the global mercury emissions reached 1,287 tonnes in 2008. Specifically, gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) (Hg(0)) accounted for 72% of the global total emissions, while gaseous oxidised mercury (GOM) (Hg(2+)) and particle bound mercury (PBM) (Hg-P) accounted for only 22% and 6%, respectively. The less reactive form, i.e., Hg(0), has a long atmospheric residence time and can be transported long distances from the emission sources. The artisanal and small-scale gold production, accounted for approximately half of the global Hg(0) emissions in 2008 followed by combustion (29%), cement production (12%) and other metal industry (10%). Given the local-scale impacts of mercury, special attention was given to the spatial distribution showing the emission hot-spots on gridded 0.1°×0.1° resolution maps using detailed proxy data. The comprehensive ex-post analysis of the mitigation of mercury emissions by end-of-pipe abatement measures in the power generation sector and technology changes in the chlor-alkali industry over four decades indicates reductions of 46% and 93%, respectively. Combined, the improved technologies and mitigation measures in these sectors accounted for 401.7 tonnes of avoided mercury emissions in 2008. A comparison shows that EDGARv4 anthropogenic emissions are nearly equivalent to the lower estimates of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP)'s mercury emissions inventory for 2005 for most sectors. An evaluation of the EDGARv4 global mercury emission inventory, including mercury speciation, was performed using the GEOS-Chem global 3-D mercury model. The model can generally

  5. Fertility, development, and family planning, 1970-1980: an analysis of cases weighted by population.

    PubMed

    Menard, S

    1987-01-01

    A series of related studies (Freedman and Berelson, 1976; Mauldin and Berelson, 1978; and Tsui and Bogue, 1978) have presented empirical findings based on multiple regression analysis which indicated that family planning program effort (FP), as measured by an index developed by Lapham and Mauldin (1972), was the single most important predictor of (or influence on) fertility reduction in less-developed countries (LDCs). The basic results have been confirmed repeatedly. A more extensive data set was used to extend the analysis to a comparison of results of corss-sectional models circa 1970 and 1980. The study builds upon the results of past studies yet differs from them in several ways. All the variables in the present study were measured at 2 points in time: circa 1970 and circa 1980, allowing a comparison between cross-sectional models for 1970 and 1980. Among the cases included in this multivariate analysis was China, a country usually excluded for lack of data. The analysis was extend to 85 countries. Cases were weighted by population, having the effect of increasing the impact of larger countries such as India and China on the outcome of the analysis. Total fertility rate (TFR) was used as an indicator of fertility. For 1970, family planning program effort had the strongest direct influence on fertility (a result consistent with previous studies). Life expectancy at birth was the other direct influence. The direct influence of life expectancy at birth was less than that of family planning, but the total influence was greater. After life expectancy and family planning, school enrollment and relative educational status of women had the strongest indirect and total influences. The other variables all had a positive influence on fertility. When the total variance attributable was considered, directly and indirectly to each of the independent variables, urbanization, carlorie supply, and per capita gross national product all accounted for less than 5% of the variance

  6. Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center: FY 1991 activities

    SciTech Connect

    Cushman, R.M.; Stoss, F.W.

    1992-06-01

    During the course of a fiscal year, Oak Ridge National Laboratory`s Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) distributes thousands of specially publications-numeric data packages (NDPs), computer model packages (CMPs), technical reports, public communication publications, newsletters, article reprints, and reference books-in response to requests for information related to global environmental issues, primarily those pertaining to climate change. CDIAC`s staff also provides technical responses to specific inquiries related to carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), other trace gases, and climate. Hundreds of referrals to other researchers, policy analysts, information specialists, or organizations are also facilitated by CDIAC`s staff. This report provides an account of the activities accomplished by CDIAC during the period October 1, 1990 to September 30, 1991. An organizational overview of CDIAC and its staff is supplemented by a detailed description of inquiries received and CDIAC`s response to those inquiries. An analysis and description of the preparation and distribution of numeric data packages, computer model packages, technical reports, newsletters, factsheets, specially publications, and reprints is provided. Comments and descriptions of CDIAC`s information management systems, professional networking, and special bilateral agreements are also described.

  7. Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center: FY 1991 activities

    SciTech Connect

    Cushman, R.M.; Stoss, F.W.

    1992-06-01

    During the course of a fiscal year, Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) distributes thousands of specially publications-numeric data packages (NDPs), computer model packages (CMPs), technical reports, public communication publications, newsletters, article reprints, and reference books-in response to requests for information related to global environmental issues, primarily those pertaining to climate change. CDIAC's staff also provides technical responses to specific inquiries related to carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), other trace gases, and climate. Hundreds of referrals to other researchers, policy analysts, information specialists, or organizations are also facilitated by CDIAC's staff. This report provides an account of the activities accomplished by CDIAC during the period October 1, 1990 to September 30, 1991. An organizational overview of CDIAC and its staff is supplemented by a detailed description of inquiries received and CDIAC's response to those inquiries. An analysis and description of the preparation and distribution of numeric data packages, computer model packages, technical reports, newsletters, factsheets, specially publications, and reprints is provided. Comments and descriptions of CDIAC's information management systems, professional networking, and special bilateral agreements are also described.

  8. Quality Guidance: A Sectoral Analysis. NICEC Project Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watts, A. G.; Sadler, Jackie

    This report reviews the structure of the guidance field and provides a sector-by-sector analysis of current quality assurance arrangements in the United Kingdom. Part 1 presents an outline of the guidance sector, including some key concepts, structures, and roles. It defines guidance and other terms; discusses the three main categories…

  9. Nursing leadership in the US 1950s-1970s: a discourse analysis.

    PubMed

    Davis, J; Cushing, A

    1999-01-01

    This paper proposes that the development of nursing leadership and the struggle for professionalisation from the time of the early nineteenth century to the late twentieth century may be conceived as a series of products of constituent discourses. However, particular attention is focused on the concept of leadership as it pertains to the nursing profession in the US between the 1950s-1970s. This time-frame is an important period in the discursive formation of the idea of leadership and professionalisation as the US literature on these subjects in the areas of sociology, psychology, education and business administration exercised a strong influence on the microsocial world of professional nursing practice in the US and, indeed elsewhere, for example, Australia and the UK. The sociological complexity of the concept of leadership ultimately meant that it came to be regarded as a dynamic process pervading the existence of all people; their interrelationships, their morale, their confidence and their capacity to achieve. These features are reflected through the perceptions, beliefs and experiences of the American nursing profession as its constituent discourse appeared during the 1950s-1970s. Thus the paper is a discourse analysis on leadership in nursing with particular attention given to the bureaucratic authority of the hospital, the drive for the creation of a profession and the idea of leadership itself. PMID:11624211

  10. SECTOR ANALYSIS--FROM SENTENCE TO MORPHEME IN ENGLISH.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ALLEN, ROBERT L.

    THE ADVANTAGES OF SECTOR ANALYSIS ARE DISCUSSED, WITH SPECIAL REGARD TO THE SEPARATION OF FUNCTION AND FORM IN SENTENCE ANALYSIS. SECTOR ANALYSIS, LIKE TAGMEMIC ANALYSIS, REJECTS THE USE OF REWRITE RULES FOR EXPRESSING GRAMMATICAL TRANSFORMS, AS WELL AS THE CONCEPT OF "KERNEL SENTENCES." A BRIEF DISCUSSION OF A CHILD'S LANGUAGE ACQUISITION PROCESS…

  11. An analysis of children with typhoid fever admitted in 1991.

    PubMed

    Deshmukh, C T; Nadkarni, U B; Karande, S C

    1994-01-01

    In 28 children, with bacteriologically and/or serologically diagnosed typhoid fever treated at KEM Hospital, Bombay in 1991, initially one of the three recommended drugs (viz. chloramphenicol, amoxycillin or co-trimoxazole) was given for 7 days for defervescence to occur. In those who failed to respond, a second trial of therapy with one of the other two drugs was initiated, after omitting the first drug. A second failure of therapy was taken as an indication to use ciprofloxacin singly. Eventually, 18 (64.3%) cases responded to chloramphenicol or amoxycillin or co-trimoxazole. Ciprofloxacin was used in 19(35.7%) cases. the failure rate of treatment with chloramphenicol was 50%, with amoxycillin 71.4%, with co-trimoxazole 75% and 0% with ciprofloxacin. An analysis of the 28 cases revealed that apart from fever (in 100%), splenomegaly (in 82.1%) was the most important clinical pointer to diagnosis, along with absolute eosinopenia (in 71.4%). There were no major complications, except 2 cases with typhoid hepatitis who responded to choramphenicol and co-trimoxazole, respectively. Blood culture grew Salmonella typhi in 7 cases, of which 5 (72%) were multidrug resistant S. typhi. There were no characteristic clinical features to identify multi-drug resistant typhoid fever. PMID:9136240

  12. Solid waste integrated cost analysis model: 1991 project year report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of the City of Houston's 1991 Solid Waste Integrated Cost Analysis Model (SWICAM) project was to continue the development of a computerized cost analysis model. This model is to provide solid waste managers with tool to evaluate the dollar cost of real or hypothetical solid waste management choices. Those choices have become complicated by the implementation of Subtitle D of the Resources Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the EPA's Integrated Approach to managing municipal solid waste;. that is, minimize generation, maximize recycling, reduce volume (incinerate), and then bury (landfill) only the remainder. Implementation of an integrated solid waste management system involving all or some of the options of recycling, waste to energy, composting, and landfilling is extremely complicated. Factors such as hauling distances, markets, and prices for recyclable, costs and benefits of transfer stations, and material recovery facilities must all be considered. A jurisdiction must determine the cost impacts of implementing a number of various possibilities for managing, handling, processing, and disposing of waste. SWICAM employs a single Lotus 123 spreadsheet to enable a jurisdiction to predict or assess the costs of its waste management system. It allows the user to select his own process flow for waste material and to manipulate the model to include as few or as many options as he or she chooses. The model will calculate the estimated cost for those choices selected. The user can then change the model to include or exclude waste stream components, until the mix of choices suits the user. Graphs can be produced as a visual communication aid in presenting the results of the cost analysis. SWICAM also allows future cost projections to be made.

  13. Spatial Analysis of Earthquake Fatalities in the Middle East, 1970-2008: First Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khaleghy Rad, M.; Evans, S. G.; Brenning, A.

    2010-12-01

    earthquake at the epicenter. On the other hand, it is in inverse (negative) relation to elapsed time since 1970, focal depth and GDP of the country affected. These spatial and temporal patterns of life loss are consistent with the patterns expected within our conceptual framework in relationship with hazard, exposed population and proxies of vulnerability. Our findings suggest that for earthquakes with comparable physical characteristics, the number of fatalities has been falling since 1970 in the Middle East region. We interpret this as an overall reduction of vulnerability of the Middle East during 1970-2008. Ongoing research is focusing on more detailed analysis of particular indicators of vulnerability reduction such as the development of earthquake building codes and preparedness, and on the spatial disaggregation of exposed population and the attenuation of earthquake magnitude.

  14. Analysis of pediatric blood lead levels in New York City for 1970-1976.

    PubMed Central

    Billick, I H; Curran, A S; Shier, D R

    1979-01-01

    A study was completed of more than 170,000 records of pediatric venous blood levels and supporting demographic information collected in New York City during 1970-1976. The geometric mean (GM) blood lead level shows a consistent cyclical variation superimposed on an overall decreasing trend with time for all ages and ethnic groups studied. The GM blood lead levels for blacks are significantly greater than those for either Hispanics or whites. Regression analysis indicates a significant statistical association between GM blood lead level and ambient air lead level, after appropriate adjustments are made for age and ethnic group. These highly significant statistical relationships provide extremely strong incentives and directions for research into casual factors related to blood lead levels in children. PMID:499123

  15. A Periodization of North American Adult Education (1919-1970): A Critical Sociological Analysis of Trends and Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grace, André P.

    2014-01-01

    This article provides a critical sociological analysis of trends and perspectives pervasive during the emergence of North American adult education (1919-1970). In discussing transitions during the first 50 years of what is considered modern practice, it draws on Webster E. Cotton's (1986, "On Behalf of Adult Education: A Historical…

  16. Deciding State School Policy in Minnesota. An Analysis of Policy Participants, Influence Relationships, and Decision Processes in the 1970s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazzoni, Tim L.

    This report examines the process through which the Minnesota state government established school policy during the 1970s. The analysis focuses on who shaped state school policy and how they did it. The data come in part from personal interviews to determine the perceptions key participants had of the state school policy system. These interview…

  17. Analysis of fuel shares in the industrial sector

    SciTech Connect

    Roop, J.M.; Belzer, D.B.

    1986-06-01

    These studies describe how fuel shares have changed over time; determine what factors are important in promoting fuel share changes; and project fuel shares to the year 1995 in the industrial sector. A general characterization of changes in fuel shares of four fuel types - coal, natural gas, oil and electricity - for the industrial sector is as follows. Coal as a major fuel source declined rapidly from 1958 to the early 1970s, with oil and natural gas substituting for coal. Coal's share of total fuels stabilized after the oil price shock of 1972-1973, and increased after the 1979 price shock. In the period since 1973, most industries and the industrial sector as a whole appear to freely substitute natural gas for oil, and vice versa. Throughout the period 1958-1981, the share of electricity as a fuel increased. These observations are derived from analyzing the fuel share patterns of more than 20 industries over the 24-year period 1958 to 1981.

  18. Analysis of U.S. soil lead (Pb) studies from 1970 to 2012.

    PubMed

    Datko-Williams, Laura; Wilkie, Adrien; Richmond-Bryant, Jennifer

    2014-01-15

    Although lead (Pb) emissions to the air have substantially decreased in the United States since the phase-out of leaded gasoline by 1995, amounts of lead in some soils remain elevated. Lead concentrations in residential and recreational soils are of concern because health effects have been associated with Pb exposure. Elevated soil Pb is especially harmful to young children due to their higher likelihood of soil ingestion. The purpose of this study is to create a comprehensive compilation of U.S. soil Pb data published from 1970 through 2012 as well as to analyze the collected data to reveal spatial and/or temporal soil Pb trends in the U.S. over the past 40 years. A total of 84 soil Pb studies across 62 U.S. cities were evaluated. Median soil Pb values from the studies were analyzed with respect to year of sampling, residential location type (e.g., urban, suburban), and population density. In aggregate, there was no statistically significant correlation between year and median soil Pb; however, within single cities, soil Pb generally declined over time. Our analysis shows that soil Pb quantities in city centers were generally highest and declined towards the suburbs and exurbs of the city. In addition, there was a statistically significant, positive relationship between median soil Pb and population density. In general, the trends examined here align with previously reported conclusions that soil Pb levels are higher in larger urban areas and Pb tends to remain in soil for long periods of time. PMID:24076506

  19. Convective Weather Forecast Accuracy Analysis at Center and Sector Levels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Yao; Sridhar, Banavar

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a detailed convective forecast accuracy analysis at center and sector levels. The study is aimed to provide more meaningful forecast verification measures to aviation community, as well as to obtain useful information leading to the improvements in the weather translation capacity models. In general, the vast majority of forecast verification efforts over past decades have been on the calculation of traditional standard verification measure scores over forecast and observation data analyses onto grids. These verification measures based on the binary classification have been applied in quality assurance of weather forecast products at the national level for many years. Our research focuses on the forecast at the center and sector levels. We calculate the standard forecast verification measure scores for en-route air traffic centers and sectors first, followed by conducting the forecast validation analysis and related verification measures for weather intensities and locations at centers and sectors levels. An approach to improve the prediction of sector weather coverage by multiple sector forecasts is then developed. The weather severe intensity assessment was carried out by using the correlations between forecast and actual weather observation airspace coverage. The weather forecast accuracy on horizontal location was assessed by examining the forecast errors. The improvement in prediction of weather coverage was determined by the correlation between actual sector weather coverage and prediction. observed and forecasted Convective Weather Avoidance Model (CWAM) data collected from June to September in 2007. CWAM zero-minute forecast data with aircraft avoidance probability of 60% and 80% are used as the actual weather observation. All forecast measurements are based on 30-minute, 60- minute, 90-minute, and 120-minute forecasts with the same avoidance probabilities. The forecast accuracy analysis for times under one-hour showed that the errors in

  20. Farming and Place Population Change in Michigan, 1930-1970: An Exploratory Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goss, Kevin F.; Rodefeld, Richard D.

    Farming has undergone substantial changes in both economic and social structure in the past 40 years; these changes have affected the larger society with population changes in rural, nonmetropolitan areas. Seeking to explore the relationships between changes in farming and changes in place population for Michigan from 1930 to 1970, six variables…

  1. Content Analysis of Jordanian Elementary Textbooks during 1970-2013 as Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abed, Eman Rasmi; Al-Absi, Mohammad Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to determine types of mathematic disciplines (in term of topics) in Jordanian Elementary textbooks. This study evaluates mathematics text books especially in the period between 1970 and 2013 and identifies types and quantities of mathematics. To examine the relative quantity of mathematics, branches of mathematics, presentation…

  2. A Contextual Analysis of Black Self-Employment in Large Metropolitan Areas, 1970-1980.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, Robert L.

    1991-01-01

    In 1970, urban African-American self-employment depended upon niches created by racial disadvantage, but by 1980 increased educational attainment and occupational status of African-American workers enabled them to move beyond traditional niches and become entrepreneurs supported by a sizable middle class African-American community. Contains 53…

  3. Cross-Sector Impact Analysis of Industrial Efficiency Measures

    SciTech Connect

    Morrow, William; CreskoEngineering, Joe; Carpenter, Alberta; Masanet, Eric; Nimbalkar, Sachin U; Shehabi, Arman

    2013-01-01

    The industrial or manufacturing sector is a foundational component to all economic activity. In addition to being a large direct consumer of energy, the manufacturing sector also produces materials, products, and technologies that influence the energy use of other economic sectors. For example, the manufacturing of a lighter-weight vehicle component affects the energy required to ship that component as well as the fuel efficiency of the assembled vehicle. Many energy efficiency opportunities exist to improve manufacturing energy consumption, however comparisons of manufacturing sector energy efficiency investment opportunities tend to exclude any impacts that occur once the product leaves the factory. Expanding the scope of analysis to include energy impacts across different stages of product life-cycle can highlight less obvious opportunities and inform actions that create the greatest economy-wide benefits. We present a methodology and associated analysis tool (LIGHTEnUP Lifecycle Industry GHgas, Technology and Energy through the Use Phase) that aims to capture both the manufacturing sector energy consumption and product life-cycle energy consumption implications of manufacturing innovation measures. The tool architecture incorporates U.S. national energy use data associated with manufacturing, building operations, and transportation. Inputs for technology assessment, both direct energy saving to the manufacturing sector, and indirect energy impacts to additional sectors are estimated through extensive literature review and engineering methods. The result is a transparent and uniform system of comparing manufacturing and use-phase impacts of technologies.

  4. Cost analysis of ground-water supplies in the North Atlantic region, 1970

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cederstrom, Dagfin John

    1973-01-01

    The cost of municipal and industrial ground water (or, more specifically, large supplies of ground water) at the wellhead in the North Atlantic Region in 1970 generally ranged from 1.5 to 5 cents per thousand gallons. Water from crystalline rocks and shale is relatively expensive. Water from sandstone is less so. Costs of water from sands and gravels in glaciated areas and from Coastal Plain sediments range from moderate to very low. In carbonate rocks costs range from low to fairly high. The cost of ground water at the wellhead is low in areas of productive aquifers, but owing to the cost of connecting pipe, costs increase significantly in multiple-well fields. In the North Atlantic Region, development of small to moderate supplies of ground water may offer favorable cost alternatives to planners, but large supplies of ground water for delivery to one point cannot generally be developed inexpensively. Well fields in the less productive aquifers may be limited by costs to 1 or 2 million gallons a day, but in the more favorable aquifers development of several tens of millions of gallons a day may be practicable and inexpensive. Cost evaluations presented cannot be applied to any one specific well or specific site because yields of wells in any one place will depend on the local geologic and hydrologic conditions; however, with such cost adjustments as may be necessary, the methodology presented should have wide applicability. Data given show the cost of water at the wellhead based on the average yield of several wells. The cost of water delivered by a well field includes costs of connecting pipe and of wells that have the yields and spacings specified. Cost of transport of water from the well field to point of consumption and possible cost of treatment are not evaluated. In the methodology employed, costs of drilling and testing, pumping equipment, engineering for the well field, amortization at 5% percent interest, maintenance, and cost of power are considered. The

  5. Analysis of technological innovation and environmental performance improvement in aviation sector.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joosung; Mo, Jeonghoon

    2011-09-01

    The past oil crises have caused dramatic improvements in fuel efficiency in all industrial sectors. The aviation sector-aircraft manufacturers and airlines-has also made significant efforts to improve the fuel efficiency through more advanced jet engines, high-lift wing designs, and lighter airframe materials. However, the innovations in energy-saving aircraft technologies do not coincide with the oil crisis periods. The largest improvement in aircraft fuel efficiency took place in the 1960s while the high oil prices in the 1970s and on did not induce manufacturers or airlines to achieve a faster rate of innovation. In this paper, we employ a historical analysis to examine the socio-economic reasons behind the relatively slow technological innovation in aircraft fuel efficiency over the last 40 years. Based on the industry and passenger behaviors studied and prospects for alternative fuel options, this paper offers insights for the aviation sector to shift toward more sustainable technological options in the medium term. Second-generation biofuels could be the feasible option with a meaningful reduction in aviation's lifecycle environmental impact if they can achieve sufficient economies of scale. PMID:22016716

  6. Seminoma at Roswell Park, 1970 to 1979. An analysis of treatment failures.

    PubMed

    Huben, R P; Williams, P D; Pontes, J E; Panahon, A M; Murphy, G P

    1984-04-01

    A retrospective study of all cases of seminoma treated at Roswell Park Memorial Institute from 1970 through 1979 was conducted. Fifty-six evaluable patients treated initially with radiation therapy were seen during this period, and the overall survival rate at an average follow-up period of 52 months was 82%. The survival rate in patients with bulky abdominal or supradiaphragmatic metastases was only 33% (4 of 12 patients). Treatment failures were analyzed to determine their apparent causes and the implication of such failures to the future management of seminoma. The use of combination chemotherapy as the initial treatment modality in advanced seminoma is discussed in light of these results. PMID:6697290

  7. Seasonal trend analysis of published ground-based and TOMS total ozone data through 1991

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reinsel, Gregory C.; Tiao, George C.; Wuebbles, Donald J.; Kerr, James B.; Miller, Alvin J.; Nagatani, Ronald M.; Bishop, Lane; Ying, Lisa H.

    1994-01-01

    A seasonal trend analysis of published Dobson (including stations' newly revised and Brewer-simulated Dobson) total ozone data through 1991 from a network of 56 stations has been performed, using three different data periods. The trend results for the longest data period 1964 - 1991 indicate substantial negative trends in ozone in the higher northern latitudes during the winter and spring seasons, some evidence of negative trend in the higher southern latitudes (30 deg S - 55 deg S) during all seasons, and trends close to zero for all seasons over the 30 deg S - 30 deg N latitude range. For the shortest data period, November 1978 through 1991, there is a clear indication that trends have become more negative in the higher northern latitudes, especially during the winter and spring seasons, and also in the higher southern latitudes in all seasons. A seasonal trend analysis of zonal averages of total ozone mapping spectrometer (TOMS) satellite total ozone data for the comparable period November 1978 through 1991 has also been performed, and moderately good agreement is found between trends in Dobson and TOMS data over this period.

  8. Remote sensing to analysis of the land cover changes in Wuhan from 1991 to 2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Qiong; Chen, Si

    2010-11-01

    Rapid urbanization is the main driving force of land cover change in metropolitan Wuhan. This is especially critical with respect to the many lakes and shallow water bodies. Land cover changes from 1991 to 2006 were mapped by classifying Landsat TM images (1991, 2002, and 2006). Different band combinations were used to build high-quality false-color images; the spectral separability of sets of training pixels was then evaluated by contingency matrices and feature space plots. Maximum likelihood supervised classification was applied to extract built-up areas, vegetated areas and water bodies. Post-classification was carried out to detect the land cover changes. From the classification, vegetation and built-up areas expanded at the expense of water bodies. Further comparison of the variety in LULC was analyzed in both temporal and spatial aspects between 1991-2002 and 2002-2006. The growth rate of built-up area from 2002-2006 is 55.7%, which is much higher than the rate from 1991 to 2002, whereas water bodies decreased more in the first period. Vegetation increased in the first period and then decreased slightly in the second. This analysis showed urban expansion is mainly along Yangtze River and along the East-West axis. These spatio-temporal characteristics should allow urban planners to better understand the processes of urban sprawl in Wuhan.

  9. Remote sensing to analysis of the land cover changes in Wuhan from 1991 to 2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Qiong; Chen, Si

    2009-09-01

    Rapid urbanization is the main driving force of land cover change in metropolitan Wuhan. This is especially critical with respect to the many lakes and shallow water bodies. Land cover changes from 1991 to 2006 were mapped by classifying Landsat TM images (1991, 2002, and 2006). Different band combinations were used to build high-quality false-color images; the spectral separability of sets of training pixels was then evaluated by contingency matrices and feature space plots. Maximum likelihood supervised classification was applied to extract built-up areas, vegetated areas and water bodies. Post-classification was carried out to detect the land cover changes. From the classification, vegetation and built-up areas expanded at the expense of water bodies. Further comparison of the variety in LULC was analyzed in both temporal and spatial aspects between 1991-2002 and 2002-2006. The growth rate of built-up area from 2002-2006 is 55.7%, which is much higher than the rate from 1991 to 2002, whereas water bodies decreased more in the first period. Vegetation increased in the first period and then decreased slightly in the second. This analysis showed urban expansion is mainly along Yangtze River and along the East-West axis. These spatio-temporal characteristics should allow urban planners to better understand the processes of urban sprawl in Wuhan.

  10. Annual compilation and analysis of hydrologic data for Calaveras Creek, San Antonio River basin, Texas 1970

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reddy, D.R.

    1971-01-01

    The U.S. Soil Conservation Service is actively engaged in the installation of flood and soil erosion reducing measures in Texas under the authority of "The Flood Control Act of 1936 and 1944" and ''Watershed Protection and Flood Prevention Act" (Public Law 566), as amended. The Soil Conservation Service has found a total of approximately 3,500 floodwater-retarding structures to be physically and economically feasible in Texas. As of September 30, 1970, 1,439 of these structures had been built. This watershed-development program will have varying but important effects on the natural surface- and ground-water resources of river basins, especially where a large number of the floodwater-retarding structures are built. Basic hydrologic data under natural and developed conditions are needed to appraise the effects of the structures on the yield and mode of occurrence of runoff.

  11. Age-period-cohort analysis of trends in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in Denmark, 1970-2009.

    PubMed

    Seals, Ryan M; Hansen, Johnni; Gredal, Ole; Weisskopf, Marc G

    2013-10-15

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a disease of the motor neuron with poorly understood etiology. Recent studies have suggested that the incidence rate of ALS and the rate of death from ALS are increasing, but it is unclear whether this is due to changing exposures or improvements in diagnosis. We used age-period-cohort models to investigate trends in ALS incidence (hospitalization) from 1982 to 2009 and ALS mortality from 1970 to 2009 in Denmark. Among those 45 years of age or older, 4,265 deaths (incidence rate = 5.35 per 100,000 person-years) and 3,228 incident diagnoses (incidence rate = 5.55 per 100,000 person-years) were recorded. Age-adjusted mortality rates increased by an average of 3.0% annually between 1970 and 2009 and by an average of 2.1% annually after 1982. Age-period-cohort analyses suggested that the full age-period-cohort model provided the best fit to the mortality data (P < 0.001), although restriction to the post-1982 period suggested that the age-cohort model provided the best fit. Age-adjusted incidence rates increased by 1.6% annually after 1982 (P < 0.001), which was best explained by the age-period model, with borderline significant cohort effects (P = 0.08). A consistent finding regardless of parameterization or data subset appeared to be an increase in ALS incidence and mortality rate with later birth cohorts, up to a birth year of at least 1910. PMID:24064744

  12. Age-Period-Cohort Analysis of Trends in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis in Denmark, 1970–2009

    PubMed Central

    Seals, Ryan M.; Hansen, Johnni; Gredal, Ole; Weisskopf, Marc G.

    2013-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a disease of the motor neuron with poorly understood etiology. Recent studies have suggested that the incidence rate of ALS and the rate of death from ALS are increasing, but it is unclear whether this is due to changing exposures or improvements in diagnosis. We used age-period-cohort models to investigate trends in ALS incidence (hospitalization) from 1982 to 2009 and ALS mortality from 1970 to 2009 in Denmark. Among those 45 years of age or older, 4,265 deaths (incidence rate = 5.35 per 100,000 person-years) and 3,228 incident diagnoses (incidence rate = 5.55 per 100,000 person-years) were recorded. Age-adjusted mortality rates increased by an average of 3.0% annually between 1970 and 2009 and by an average of 2.1% annually after 1982. Age-period-cohort analyses suggested that the full age-period-cohort model provided the best fit to the mortality data (P < 0.001), although restriction to the post-1982 period suggested that the age-cohort model provided the best fit. Age-adjusted incidence rates increased by 1.6% annually after 1982 (P < 0.001), which was best explained by the age-period model, with borderline significant cohort effects (P = 0.08). A consistent finding regardless of parameterization or data subset appeared to be an increase in ALS incidence and mortality rate with later birth cohorts, up to a birth year of at least 1910. PMID:24064744

  13. Electrodynamics of the Inner Magnetosphere Observed in the Dusk Sector by CRRES and DMSP during the Magnetic Storm of June 4-6, 1991

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruke, W. J.; Maynard, N. C.; Hagan, M. P.; Wolf, R. A.; Wilson, G. R.; Gentile, L. C.; Gussenhoven, M. S.; Huang, C. Y.; Garner, T. W.; Rich, F. J.

    1998-01-01

    We compare equatorward/earthward boundaries of convection electric fields and auroral/plasma sheet electrons detected by the DMSP F8 and CRRES satellites during the June 1991 magnetic storm. Measurements come from the dusk magnetic local time sector where the ring current penetrates closest to the Earth. The storm was triggered by a rapid increase in the solar wind dynamic pressure accompanied by a southward turning of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF). Satellite data show the following: (1) all particle and field boundaries moved equatorward/earthward during the initial phase, probably in response to the strong southward IMF turning; (2) electric field boundaries were either at lower magnetic L shells or close to the inner edge of ring current ions throughout the main and early recovery phases. Penetration earthward of the ring current occurred twice as the polar cap potential increased rapidly; (3) electric potentials at subauroral latitudes were large fractions of the total potentials in the afternoon cell, twice exceeding 60 kV; and (4) the boundaries of auroral electron precipitation were more variable than those of electric fields and mapped to lower L shells than where CRRES encountered plasma sheet electrons. Observations qualitatively agree with predictions of empirical models for auroral electron and electric field boundaries.

  14. Proceedings of the 1991 Socioeconomic Energy Research and Analysis Conference

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    These proceedings analyze US energy policy as it pertains to minority groups. Example topics include: Economic impacts of the National Energy Strategy on minority and majority households, Utility measures to assist payment-troubled customers, Equity impacts of controlling energy usage through market-based versus regulatory approaches, Technical and planning support for the DOE-HUD initiative for energy efficiency in housing, an analysis of residential energy consumption and expenditures by minority households by home type and housing vintage, and methodical issues in evaluating integrated least cost planning programs.

  15. Analysis of Technological Innovation and Environmental Performance Improvement in Aviation Sector

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Joosung; Mo, Jeonghoon

    2011-01-01

    The past oil crises have caused dramatic improvements in fuel efficiency in all industrial sectors. The aviation sector—aircraft manufacturers and airlines—has also made significant efforts to improve the fuel efficiency through more advanced jet engines, high-lift wing designs, and lighter airframe materials. However, the innovations in energy-saving aircraft technologies do not coincide with the oil crisis periods. The largest improvement in aircraft fuel efficiency took place in the 1960s while the high oil prices in the 1970s and on did not induce manufacturers or airlines to achieve a faster rate of innovation. In this paper, we employ a historical analysis to examine the socio-economic reasons behind the relatively slow technological innovation in aircraft fuel efficiency over the last 40 years. Based on the industry and passenger behaviors studied and prospects for alternative fuel options, this paper offers insights for the aviation sector to shift toward more sustainable technological options in the medium term. Second-generation biofuels could be the feasible option with a meaningful reduction in aviation’s lifecycle environmental impact if they can achieve sufficient economies of scale. PMID:22016716

  16. Candida Osteomyelitis: Analysis of 207 Pediatric and Adult Cases (1970–2011)

    PubMed Central

    Gamaletsou, Maria N.; Kontoyiannis, Dimitrios P.; Sipsas, Nikolaos V.; Moriyama, Brad; Alexander, Elizabeth; Roilides, Emmanuel; Brause, Barry; Walsh, Thomas J.

    2012-01-01

    Background. The epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, management, and outcome of Candida osteomyelitis are not well understood. Methods. Cases of Candida osteomyelitis from 1970 through 2011 were reviewed. Underlying conditions, microbiology, mechanisms of infection, clinical manifestations, antifungal therapy, and outcome were studied in 207 evaluable cases. Results. Median age was 30 years (range, ≤ 1 month to 88 years) with a >2:1 male:female ratio. Most patients (90%) were not neutropenic. Localizing pain, tenderness, and/or edema were present in 90% of patients. Mechanisms of bone infection followed a pattern of hematogenous dissemination (67%), direct inoculation (25%), and contiguous infection (9%). Coinciding with hematogenous infection, most patients had ≥2 infected bones. When analyzed by age, the most common distribution of infected sites for adults was vertebra (odds ratio [OR], 0.09; 95% confidence interval [CI], .04–.25), rib, and sternum; for pediatric patients (≤18 years) the pattern was femur (OR, 20.6; 95% CI, 8.4–48.1), humerus, then vertebra/ribs. Non-albicans Candida species caused 35% of cases. Bacteria were recovered concomitantly from 12% of cases, underscoring the need for biopsy and/or culture. Candida septic arthritis occurred concomitantly in 21%. Combined surgery and antifungal therapy were used in 48% of cases. The overall complete response rate of Candida osteomyelitis of 32% reflects the difficulty in treating this infection. Relapsed infection, possibly related to inadequate duration of therapy, occurred among 32% who ultimately achieved complete response. Conclusions. Candida osteomyelitis is being reported with increasing frequency. Localizing symptoms are usually present. Vertebrae are the most common sites in adults vs femora in children. Timely diagnosis of Candida osteomyelitis with extended courses of 6–12 months of antifungal therapy, and surgical intervention, when indicated, may improve

  17. Trends analysis of precipitation and temperature in the Alto Genil basin (Southeast Spain) from 1970 to 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-Chacón, Francisca; Pulido-Velázquez, David; Jiménez-Sánchez, Jorge; Jimeno-Sáez, Patricia; Juan Collados-Lara, Antonio; Luque-Espinar, Juan Antonio

    2016-04-01

    The last studies of climate change predict a trend to more arid conditions in most of Spain. These studies show a significant increment in seasonal and annual air temperature, a reduction in mean precipitation and a raising number of extreme events of both variables. The historic data analysis is essential for identifying cycles, recent weather trends and to calibrate predictive models. In this work we analyses the recent historical climate in Alto Genil Basin. The system is located at SE Iberian Peninsula and includes an important part of the Sierra Nevada catchment. A high-resolution Spain02 dataset (~11 km) have been employed in this study. In accordance with the available data we have analyzed the period from 1970 to 2010 for daily precipitation and from 1970 to 2007 for daily temperature. In order to detect cycles and climate trends we have analyzed the temporal, seasonal and spatial distribution of the precipitation and temperature variables. We have calculated and analyzed the accumulated deviations from the mean daily precipitation. This analysis has been also performed with monthly and annual series. A non-parametric Mann Kendall method has been applied to study trends. In the period 1971-2007, the temperature has increased. The strongest trends appear since 1994. Between of 1971-1993 the average temperature observed was 13.6 °C, however from 1994 to 2007 the average temperature observed was 14.84 °C. Seasonally, during the study period, the spring has been the season with biggest increment in temperature. These temperature increments are more significant during March, April, May, June, July and October. In the period 1971-2010 the Mann Kendall test does not show a clear trend for precipitation. It is mainly due to the series culminates in three exceptional hydrological years that mask the overall trend of the study period. For this reason, we have also performed a sensitivity analysis of the Mann Kendall analysis to the period of data considered. On the

  18. Supporting analysis and assessments quality metrics: Utility market sector

    SciTech Connect

    Ohi, J.

    1996-10-01

    In FY96, NREL was asked to coordinate all analysis tasks so that in FY97 these tasks will be part of an integrated analysis agenda that will begin to define a 5-15 year R&D roadmap and portfolio for the DOE Hydrogen Program. The purpose of the Supporting Analysis and Assessments task at NREL is to provide this coordination and conduct specific analysis tasks. One of these tasks is to prepare the Quality Metrics (QM) for the Program as part of the overall QM effort at DOE/EERE. The Hydrogen Program one of 39 program planning units conducting QM, a process begun in FY94 to assess benefits/costs of DOE/EERE programs. The purpose of QM is to inform decisionmaking during budget formulation process by describing the expected outcomes of programs during the budget request process. QM is expected to establish first step toward merit-based budget formulation and allow DOE/EERE to get {open_quotes}most bang for its (R&D) buck.{close_quotes} In FY96. NREL coordinated a QM team that prepared a preliminary QM for the utility market sector. In the electricity supply sector, the QM analysis shows hydrogen fuel cells capturing 5% (or 22 GW) of the total market of 390 GW of new capacity additions through 2020. Hydrogen consumption in the utility sector increases from 0.009 Quads in 2005 to 0.4 Quads in 2020. Hydrogen fuel cells are projected to displace over 0.6 Quads of primary energy in 2020. In future work, NREL will assess the market for decentralized, on-site generation, develop cost credits for distributed generation benefits (such as deferral of transmission and distribution investments, uninterruptible power service), cost credits for by-products such as heat and potable water, cost credits for environmental benefits (reduction of criteria air pollutants and greenhouse gas emissions), compete different fuel cell technologies against each other for market share, and begin to address economic benefits, especially employment.

  19. [Time-space analysis of internal migration in Spain (1962-1993): with special attention to the changes in migration pattern in the 1970s].

    PubMed

    Takenaka, K

    1996-01-01

    "In this study, the internal migration in Spain from 1962 to 1993 is analyzed from the viewpoint of migration flows, with special emphasis on the spatial scale and direction of migration as well as the migration fields.... The evolution of the spatial scale and direction of migration shows a radical change in the middle 1970s: migrations from 1962 to 1975 (first period) were unidirectional movements at great distance (interprovincial and interregional), whereas those from 1976 to 1993 (second period) are characterized by the weight of intraprovincial movements and the bidirectionality of interprovincial movements. Through the two periods, the major sector in which migrants are employed has shifted from the industry to the service sector." (EXCERPT) PMID:12178549

  20. Risk Dimensions and Political Decisions Frame Environmental Communication: A Content Analysis of Seven U.S. Newspapers from 1970-2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grantham, Susan; Vieira, Edward T., Jr.

    2014-01-01

    This project examined the focus of environmental news frames used in seven American newspapers between 1970 and 2010. During this time newspapers were a primary source of news. Based on gatekeeping and agenda-setting theory, as well as source credibility, the content analysis of 2,123 articles examined the environmental topics within the articles,…

  1. Analysis of nutrients in the surface waters of the Georgia-Florida Coastal Plain study unit, 1970-91

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ham, L.K.; Hatzell, H.H.

    1996-01-01

    During the early phase of the Georgia-Florida National Water Quality Assessment study, existing information on nutrients was compiled and analyzed in order to evaluate the nutrient concentrations within the 61,545 square mile study unit. Evaluation of the nutrient concentrations collected at surface- water sites between October 1, 1970, and September 30,1991, utilized the environmental characteristics of land resource provinces, land use, and nonpoint and point-source discharges within the study unit. Long-term trends were investigated to determine the temporal distribution of nutrient concentrations. In order to determine a level of concern for nutrient concentrations, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) guidelines were used-(1) for nitrate concentrations, the maximum contaminant level in public-drinking water supplies (10 mg/L); (2) for ammonia concentrations, the chronic exposure of aquatic organisms to un-ionized ammonia (2.1 mg/L); (3) for total-phosphorus concentrations, the recommended concentration in flowing water to discourage excessive growth of aquatic plants (0.1 mg/L); and (4) for kjeldahl concentrations, however, no guidelines were available. For sites within the 10 major river basins, median nutrient concentrations were generally below USEPA guidelines, except for total-phosphorus concentrations where 45 percent of the medians exceeded the guideline. The only median ammonia concentration that exceeded the guideline occurred at the Swift Creek site (3.4 mg/L), in the Suwannee River basin, perhaps due to wastewater discharges. For all sites within the Withlacoochee, Aucilla, and St. Marys River basins, median concentrations of nitrate, ammonia, and total phosphorus were below the USEPA guidelines. Nutrient data at each monitoring site within each major basin were aggregated for comparisons of median nutrient concentrations among major basins. The Ochlockonee and Hillsborough River basins had the highest median nutrient concentrations, the

  2. Summary of in situ vitrification modeling and analysis accomplishments for fiscal year 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Slater, C.E.

    1991-11-01

    The in situ vitrification (ISV) modeling activities encompass a variety of both modeling development efforts and analysis applications in support of the ISV project. The model development effort is directed toward modifying or developing a set of computer codes to simulate the ISV process. These codes are used to perform safety and environmental hazards analyses, assist in experimental test planning and design, assist in equipment design and development of operating procedures, and provide enhanced understanding of the ISV process. This report presents a summary description of the accomplishments in Fiscal Year 1991 for both the model development and analysis areas. Brief descriptions of the models that were developed and the more important conclusions from the analytical studies are presented.

  3. Dichotomous factor analysis of symptoms reported by UK and US veterans of the 1991 Gulf War.

    PubMed

    Nisenbaum, Rosane; Ismail, Khalida; Wessely, Simon; Unwin, Catherine; Hull, Lisa; Reeves, William C

    2004-09-01

    BACKGROUND: Factor analysis is one of the most used statistical techniques to analyze the inter-relationships among symptoms reported by Gulf War veterans. The objective of this study was to apply factor analyses to binary symptom data from the UK study of Gulf War illness and the US Air Force study of Gulf War veterans, and to compare the symptom domains derived from the distinct samples. METHODS: UK veterans of the 1991 Gulf War (n = 3,454), individuals deployed to Bosnia on U.N. peacekeeping operations (n = 1,979) and Gulf War-era servicemen (n = 2,577) who were not deployed to the Gulf were surveyed in 1997-1998, and US 1991 Gulf War veterans from four Air Force units (n = 1,163) were surveyed in 1995 to collect health characteristics including symptoms. Each sample was randomly split in half for exploratory and confirmatory dichotomous factor analyses with promax oblique rotation. RESULTS: Four correlated factors were identified in each of the samples. Three factors (Respiratory, Mood-Cognition, Peripheral Nervous) overlapped considerably across the UK cohorts. The Gastrointestinal/Urogenital factor in the UK Gulf cohort was noticeably different from the Gastrointestinal factor identified from the Bosnia and Era cohorts. Symptoms from Gulf War UK and U.S cohorts yielded similar Gastrointestinal, Respiratory and Mood-Cognition factors, despite differences in symptom inventories between the two surveys. A Musculoskeletal factor was only elicited from the US Gulf sample. CONCLUSION: Findings of this report are consistent with those from other factor analysis studies that identified similar symptom dimensions between Gulf and non-Gulf War veterans, except that the Gastrointestinal factor in Gulf veterans included other symptom types. Correlations among factors raise the question as to whether there is a general illness, even if not unique to Gulf veterans, representing the common pathway underlying the identified factors. Hierarchical factor analysis models may be

  4. LSAT Dimensionality Analysis for the December 1991, June 1992, and October 1992 Administrations. Statistical Report. LSAC Research Report Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglas, Jeff; Kim, Hae-Rim; Roussos, Louis; Stout, William; Zhang, Jinming

    An extensive nonparametric dimensionality analysis of latent structure was conducted on three forms of the Law School Admission Test (LSAT) (December 1991, June 1992, and October 1992) using the DIMTEST model in confirmatory analyses and using DIMTEST, FAC, DETECT, HCA, PROX, and a genetic algorithm in exploratory analyses. Results indicate that…

  5. Treatment Integrity of School-Based Interventions with Children in the "Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis" 1991-2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntyre, Laura Lee; Gresham, Frank M.; DiGennaro, Florence D.; Reed, Derek D.

    2007-01-01

    We reviewed all school-based experimental studies with individuals 0 to 18 years published in the "Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis" (JABA) between 1991 and 2005. A total of 142 articles (152 studies) that met review criteria were included. Nearly all (95%) of these experiments provided an operational definition of the independent variable,…

  6. A Content and Sample Analysis of Quantitative Articles Published in the "Journal of Counseling & Development" between 1991 and 2000

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nilsson, Johanna E.; Love, Keisha M.; Taylor, Kathryn J.; Slusher, Anita L.

    2007-01-01

    This study reviewed the content of articles and characteristics of samples in all quantitative articles published in the "Journal of Counseling & Development" between 1991 and 2000. The content analysis revealed that the areas that received the most attention were academic/career, multicultural issues, symptoms/disorders, and counseling process.…

  7. Malignant Lymphatic and Hematopoietic Neoplasms Mortality in Serbia, 1991–2010: A Joinpoint Regression Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ilic, Milena; Ilic, Irena

    2014-01-01

    Background Limited data on mortality from malignant lymphatic and hematopoietic neoplasms have been published for Serbia. Methods The study covered population of Serbia during the 1991–2010 period. Mortality trends were assessed using the joinpoint regression analysis. Results Trend for overall death rates from malignant lymphoid and haematopoietic neoplasms significantly decreased: by −2.16% per year from 1991 through 1998, and then significantly increased by +2.20% per year for the 1998–2010 period. The growth during the entire period was on average +0.8% per year (95% CI 0.3 to 1.3). Mortality was higher among males than among females in all age groups. According to the comparability test, mortality trends from malignant lymphoid and haematopoietic neoplasms in men and women were parallel (final selected model failed to reject parallelism, P = 0.232). Among younger Serbian population (0–44 years old) in both sexes: trends significantly declined in males for the entire period, while in females 15–44 years of age mortality rates significantly declined only from 2003 onwards. Mortality trend significantly increased in elderly in both genders (by +1.7% in males and +1.5% in females in the 60–69 age group, and +3.8% in males and +3.6% in females in the 70+ age group). According to the comparability test, mortality trend for Hodgkin's lymphoma differed significantly from mortality trends for all other types of malignant lymphoid and haematopoietic neoplasms (P<0.05). Conclusion Unfavourable mortality trend in Serbia requires targeted intervention for risk factors control, early diagnosis and modern therapy. PMID:25333862

  8. Mutual phenomena of the Galilean satellites: an analysis of the 1991 observations from VBO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasundhara, R.

    1994-01-01

    Results of analysis of seventeen mutual events, of the Galilean satellites, observed at the Vainu Bappu Observatory (VBO) during the 1991 are presented. The light curves were fitted with theoretical models to derive the relative astrometric positions of the satellites. The dependence of te derived parameters on the various light scattering laws are investigated. Results of the analysis indicate that for Io fits using Minnaert's and Lommel-Seeliger's laws are comparable however the Lambert's law solution fails to give good fit at the centre and at the wings of the light curves. The mean value of the Minnaert's parameter for this satellite derived from the good quality occulation of light curves in the I band is 0.559 +/- 0.11. Analysis of occulation light curves of 201 events using model with albedo variations inferred from Voyager imagery lead to best fit. An average residual of -340 +/- 10 km in the position of Io along its track relative to Europa compared to the E-3 ephemiris is noticed.

  9. Input-output analysis of some sector actions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Selected energy conservation actions previously discussed in depth but separately in the areas of the energy industry, the industry sector, the transportation sector, and the residential and commercial sector, were brought together and assessed as a group. Particular emphasis was devoted to identifying secondary or indirect impacts and multiple interactions. Preliminary results obtained from the ECASTAR energy input-output model suggest that the impacts of energy conservation actions can be grossly misrepresented if secondary impacts are not included in the assessment. A methodology which stresses the importance of secondary and multiple interactions permeates the underlying philosophy of this discussion.

  10. Detection and Analysis of Threats to the Energy Sector: DATES

    SciTech Connect

    Alfonso Valdes

    2010-03-31

    This report summarizes Detection and Analysis of Threats to the Energy Sector (DATES), a project sponsored by the United States Department of Energy and performed by a team led by SRI International, with collaboration from Sandia National Laboratories, ArcSight, Inc., and Invensys Process Systems. DATES sought to advance the state of the practice in intrusion detection and situational awareness with respect to cyber attacks in energy systems. This was achieved through adaptation of detection algorithms for process systems as well as development of novel anomaly detection techniques suited for such systems into a detection suite. These detection components, together with third-party commercial security systems, were interfaced with the commercial Security Information Event Management (SIEM) solution from ArcSight. The efficacy of the integrated solution was demonstrated on two testbeds, one based on a Distributed Control System (DCS) from Invensys, and the other based on the Virtual Control System Environment (VCSE) from Sandia. These achievements advance the DOE Cybersecurity Roadmap [DOE2006] goals in the area of security monitoring. The project ran from October 2007 until March 2010, with the final six months focused on experimentation. In the validation phase, team members from SRI and Sandia coupled the two test environments and carried out a number of distributed and cross-site attacks against various points in one or both testbeds. Alert messages from the distributed, heterogeneous detection components were correlated using the ArcSight SIEM platform, providing within-site and cross-site views of the attacks. In particular, the team demonstrated detection and visualization of network zone traversal and denial-of-service attacks. These capabilities were presented to the DistribuTech Conference and Exhibition in March 2010. The project was hampered by interruption of funding due to continuing resolution issues and agreement on cost share for four months in 2008

  11. Retrospective Analysis for Genetic Improvement of Hip Joints of Cohort Labrador Retrievers in the United States: 1970–2007

    PubMed Central

    Lust, George; Zhu, Lan; Zhang, Zhiwu; Todhunter, Rory J.

    2010-01-01

    Background Canine Hip Dysplasia (CHD) is a common inherited disease that affects dog wellbeing and causes a heavy financial and emotional burden to dog owners and breeders due to secondary hip osteoarthritis. The Orthopedic Foundation for Animals (OFA) initiated a program in the 1960's to radiograph hip and elbow joints and release the OFA scores to the public for breeding dogs against CHD. Over last four decades, more than one million radiographic scores have been released. Methodology/Principal Findings The pedigrees in the OFA database consisted of 258,851 Labrador retrievers, the major breed scored by the OFA (25% of total records). Of these, 154,352 dogs had an OFA hip score reported between 1970 and 2007. The rest of the dogs (104,499) were the ancestors of the 154,352 dogs to link the pedigree relationships. The OFA hip score is based on a 7-point scale with the best ranked as 1 (excellent) and the worst hip dysplasia as 7. A mixed linear model was used to estimate the effects of age, sex, and test year period and to predict the breeding value for each dog. Additive genetic and residual variances were estimated using the average information restricted maximum likelihood procedure. The analysis also provided an inbreeding coefficient for each dog. The hip scores averaged 1.93 (±SD = 0.59) and the heritability was 0.21. A steady genetic improvement has accrued over the four decades. The breeding values decreased (improved) linearly. By the end of 2005, the total genetic improvement was 0.1 units, which is equivalent to 17% of the total phenotypic standard deviation. Conclusion/Significance A steady genetic improvement has been achieved through the selection based on the raw phenotype released by the OFA. As the heritability of the hip score was on the low end (0.21) of reported ranges, we propose that selection based on breeding values will result in more rapid genetic improvement than breeding based on phenotypic selection alone. PMID:20195372

  12. Geotechnical Field Data and Analysis Report, July 1991--June 1992. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    The Geotechnical Field Data and Analysis Report documents the geotechnical data from the underground excavations at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) located near Carlsbad, New Mexico. The data are used to characterize conditions, confirm design assumptions, and understand and predict the performance of the underground excavations during operations. The data are obtained as part of a routine monitoring program and do not include data from tests performed by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), the Scientific Advisor to the project, in support of performance assessment studies. The purpose of the geomechanical monitoring program is to provide in situ data to support continuing assessments of the design for the underground facilities. Specifically, the program provides: Early detection of conditions that could compromise operational safety; evaluation of room closure to ensure retrievability of waste; guidance for design modifications and remedial actions; and data for interpreting the actual behavior of underground openings, in comparison with established design criteria. This Geotechnical Field Data and Analysis Report covers the period July 1, 1991 to June 30, 1992. Volume 1 provides an interpretation of the field data while Volume 2 describes and presents the data itself.

  13. National health expenditures, 1991

    PubMed Central

    Letsch, Suzanne W.; Lazenby, Helen C.; Levit, Katharine R.; Cowan, Cathy A.

    1992-01-01

    Spending for health care rose to $751.8 billion in 1991, an increase of 11.4 percent from the 1990 level. National health expenditures as a share of gross domestic product increased to 13.2 percent, up from 12.2 percent in 1990. The health care sector exhibited strong growth, despite slow growth in the overall economy. This combination resulted in the largest increase in the share of the Nation's output consumed by health care in the past three decades. In this article, the authors present estimates of health spending in the United States for 1991. The authors also examine reasons for the unusually large growth in Medicaid expenditures and highlight recent trends in the hospital sector. PMID:10127445

  14. United States Industrial Sector Energy End Use Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Shehabi, Arman; Morrow, William R.; Masanet, Eric

    2012-05-11

    The United States Department of Energy’s (DOE) Energy Information Administration (EIA) conducts the Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey (MECS) to provide detailed data on energy consumption in the manufacturing sector. The survey is a sample of approximately 15,000 manufacturing establishments selected from the Economic Census - Manufacturing Sector. MECS provides statistics on the consumption of energy by end uses (e.g., boilers, process, electric drives, etc.) disaggregated by North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) categories. The manufacturing sector (NAICS Sector 31-33) consists of all manufacturing establishments in the 50 States and the District of Columbia. According to the NAICS, the manufacturing sector comprises establishments engaged in the mechanical, physical, or chemical transformation of materials, substances, or components into new products. The establishments are physical facilities such as plants, factories, or mills. For many of the sectors in the MECS datasets, information is missing because the reported energy use is less than 0.5 units or BTUs, or is withheld to avoid disclosing data for individual establishments, or is withheld because the standard error is greater than 50%. We infer what the missing information likely are using several approximations techniques. First, much of the missing data can be easily calculated by adding or subtracting other values reported by MECS. If this is not possible (e.g. two data are missing), we look at historic MECS reports to help identify the breakdown of energy use in the past and assume it remained the same for the current MECS. Lastly, if historic data is also missing, we assume that 3 digit NAICS classifications predict energy use in their 4, 5, or 6 digit NAICS sub-classifications, or vice versa. Along with addressing data gaps, end use energy is disaggregated beyond the specified MECS allocations using additional industry specific energy consumption data. The result is a

  15. Concentration in the Greek private hospital sector: a descriptive analysis.

    PubMed

    Boutsioli, Zoe

    2007-07-01

    Over the last 20 years, governments all around the world have attempted to boost the role of market and competition in health care industries in order to increase efficiency and reduce costs. The increased competition and the significant implications on costs and prices of health care services resulted in health care industries being transformed. Large firms are merging and acquiring other firms. If this trend continues, few firms will dominate the health care markets. In this study, I use the simple concentration ratio (CR) for the largest 4, 8 and 20 companies to measure the concentration of Greek private hospitals during the period 1997-2004. Also, the Gini coefficient for inequality is used. For the two different categories of hospitals used (a) general and neuropsychiatric and (b) obstetric/gynaecological it is evident that the top four firms of the first category accounted for 43% of sales in 1997, and 52% in 2004, while the four largest firms of the second category accounted for almost 83% in 1997, and 81% in 2004. Also, the Gini coefficient increases over the 8-year period examined from 0.69 in 1997 to 0.82 in 2004. It explains that the market of the private health care services becomes less equal in the sense that fewer private hospitals and clinics hold more and more of the share of the total sales. From a cross-industry analysis it is clear that the private hospital sector has the highest concentration rate. Finally, it appears that the market structure of the private hospitals in Greece resembles more closely to an oligopoly rather than a monopolistic competition, since very few firms dominate the market. PMID:17056148

  16. Stable isotope analysis of 1987-1991 zooplankton samples and bowhead whale tissues. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Schell, D.M.

    1992-06-01

    Stable isotope analyses of bowhead whale tissue samples and bowhead whale prey organisms collected over the years 1987 to 1991 were used to provide detail on the isotope ratio gradients evident in the arctic Alaskan zooplankton and to verify previous findings regarding the growth rates and age determination techniques developed for bowhead whales. Zooplankton of the Bering and Chukchi seas are enriched in (13)C relative to the eastern Beaufort Sea. The analysis of baleen from bowhead whales taken between 1987 to 1990 indicate that the whales are slow-growing and the young animals between year one and about six to seven years of age, undergo a period of little or no linear growth. The authors estimate that bowheads require 16-18 years to reach the length of sexual maturity, i.e., 13-14 m. From baleen Delta(13C) cycles, a 20 year record of the isotope ratios in the phytoplankton of the northern Bering and Chukchi seas was constructed. The long-term record has been compared with the temperature anomalies in surface waters of the Bering Sea. The Delta(13C) of the zooplankton is inversely correlated with temperature and refutes current models attempting to relate ocean temperature, and atmospheric carbon dioxide levels with the Delta(13C) of ocean sediment organic matter.

  17. Population viability analysis of the Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris), 1976-1991

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marmontel, M.; Humphrey, S.R.; O'Shea, T.J.

    1997-01-01

    Recent development of age-determination techniques for Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) has permitted derivation of age-specific data on reproduction and survival of a sample of 1212 carcasses obtained throughout Florida from 1976–1991. Population viability analysis using these data projects a slightly negative growth rate (−0.003) and an unacceptably low probability of persistence (0.44) over 1000 years. The main factors affecting population projections were adult survival and fecundity. A 10% increase in adult mortality would drive the population to extinction over a 1000-year time scale, whereas a 10% decrease in adult mortality would allow slow population growth. A 10% decrease in reproduction would also result in extinction. We conclude that management must focus on retaining and improving the conditions under which manatee demography operates. The major identified agent of mortality is boat-manatee collisions, and rapidly increasing numbers of humans and registered boats portend an increase in manatee mortality. Zoning of manatee-occupied waters for reductions in boating activity and speed is essential to safeguard the manatee population. If boating regulations being implemented by the state of Florida in each of 13 key coastal counties are completed, enforced, and effective, manatees and human recreation could coexist indefinitely. If regulation is unsuccessful, the Florida manatee population is likely to decline slowly toward extinction.

  18. Solid waste integrated cost analysis model: 1991 project year report. Part 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-31

    The purpose of the City of Houston`s 1991 Solid Waste Integrated Cost Analysis Model (SWICAM) project was to continue the development of a computerized cost analysis model. This model is to provide solid waste managers with tool to evaluate the dollar cost of real or hypothetical solid waste management choices. Those choices have become complicated by the implementation of Subtitle D of the Resources Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the EPA`s Integrated Approach to managing municipal solid waste;. that is, minimize generation, maximize recycling, reduce volume (incinerate), and then bury (landfill) only the remainder. Implementation of an integrated solid waste management system involving all or some of the options of recycling, waste to energy, composting, and landfilling is extremely complicated. Factors such as hauling distances, markets, and prices for recyclable, costs and benefits of transfer stations, and material recovery facilities must all be considered. A jurisdiction must determine the cost impacts of implementing a number of various possibilities for managing, handling, processing, and disposing of waste. SWICAM employs a single Lotus 123 spreadsheet to enable a jurisdiction to predict or assess the costs of its waste management system. It allows the user to select his own process flow for waste material and to manipulate the model to include as few or as many options as he or she chooses. The model will calculate the estimated cost for those choices selected. The user can then change the model to include or exclude waste stream components, until the mix of choices suits the user. Graphs can be produced as a visual communication aid in presenting the results of the cost analysis. SWICAM also allows future cost projections to be made.

  19. Research and writing in the history of health sciences, 1970-1982: a quantitative analysis of NLM's HISTLINE database.

    PubMed

    Kopp, J J

    1985-04-01

    HISTLINE, the MEDLARS file on the history of the health sciences, was analyzed to determine predominant areas of historical research and publication in the years 1970-1982, as reflected in this database produced within the History of Medicine Division at the National Library of Medicine. Subject content, chronologic and geographic breakdowns, and subjects of biographical studies are examined in view of their frequency in the file. Speculation for the predominance of particular descriptors and individuals is presented. An examination is made of the journals publishing the most medical history. Strengths and weaknesses of the database as reflected in this study also are discussed. PMID:3888330

  20. Research and writing in the history of health sciences, 1970-1982: a quantitative analysis of NLM's HISTLINE database.

    PubMed Central

    Kopp, J J

    1985-01-01

    HISTLINE, the MEDLARS file on the history of the health sciences, was analyzed to determine predominant areas of historical research and publication in the years 1970-1982, as reflected in this database produced within the History of Medicine Division at the National Library of Medicine. Subject content, chronologic and geographic breakdowns, and subjects of biographical studies are examined in view of their frequency in the file. Speculation for the predominance of particular descriptors and individuals is presented. An examination is made of the journals publishing the most medical history. Strengths and weaknesses of the database as reflected in this study also are discussed. PMID:3888330

  1. Qualitative Environmental Health Research: An Analysis of the Literature, 1991–2008

    PubMed Central

    Scammell, Madeleine Kangsen

    2010-01-01

    Background Recent articles have advocated for the use of qualitative methods in environmental health research. Qualitative research uses nonnumeric data to understand people’s opinions, motives, understanding, and beliefs about events or phenomena. Objective In this analysis of the literature, I report the use of qualitative methods and data in the study of the relationship between environmental exposures and human health. Data sources A primary search on ISI Web of Knowledge/Web of Science for peer-reviewed journal articles dated from 1991 through 2008 included the following three terms: qualitative, environ*, and health. Inclusion and exclusion criteria are described. Data extraction Searches resulted in 3,155 records. Data were extracted and findings of articles analyzed to determine where and by whom qualitative environmental health research is conducted and published, the types of methods and analyses used in qualitative studies of environmental health, and the types of information qualitative data contribute to environmental health. Data synthesis Ninety-one articles met inclusion criteria. These articles were published in 58 different journals, with a maximum of eight for a single journal. The results highlight a diversity of disciplines and techniques among researchers who used qualitative methods to study environmental health, with most studies relying on one-on-one interviews. Details of the analyses were absent from a large number of studies. Nearly all of the studies identified increased scientific understanding of lay perceptions of environmental health exposures. Discussion and conclusions Qualitative data are published in traditionally quantitative environmental health studies to a limited extent. However, this analysis demonstrates the potential of qualitative data to improve understanding of complex exposure pathways, including the influence of social factors on environmental health, and health outcomes. PMID:20421191

  2. Women's labour force participation and socioeconomic development: the case of Peninsular Malaysia, 1957-1970.

    PubMed

    Hirschman, C; Aghajanian, A

    1980-03-01

    Changes in labor force participation of Malay, Chinese and Indian women in the agricultural and nonagricultural sectors in Peninsular Malaysia, based on the 1957 and 1970 censuses, are analyzed. Brief discussions of the relation between economic development and female labor force participation, the socioeconomic development and ethnic composition of Malaysia, and past research on women's labor force participation in Peninsular Malaysia provide background for the analysis. The overall participation rate of women aged 15 to 64 rose from 31% in 1957 to 37% in 1970, with most of the increase among younger women. Participation rates rose for Malay women at all ages, dropped sharply for Indian women at all ages, and rose for Chinese women below age 40 but declined thereafter. Trends in Chinese female labor force activity seem to fit the developmental model most closely; Malay employment in agriculture among middle-aged women probably appeared to increase due to underestimation in the 1957 census; and Indian participation declined due to a sharp curtailment of the entire plantation labor force. Cross sectional analysis using the 1970 2% census sample demonstrates that rural residence, low educational level, and married status are associated with employment in the traditional and modern agricultural sectors. Higher educational attainment, urban residence, and delayed marriage are associated with employment in the modern non-agricultural sector. Chinese women had higher proportions in the modern sector. PMID:12336488

  3. Longitudinal Analysis of Dietary Patterns in Chinese Adults from 1991 to 2009

    PubMed Central

    Batis, Carolina; Sotres-Alvarez, Daniela; Gordon-Larsen, Penny; Mendez, Michelle A.; Adair, Linda; Popkin, Barry

    2013-01-01

    Our aims were to identify the changes or stability in the structure of dietary patterns and the tracking, trends and factors related to the adherence of these patterns in China from 1991 to 2009. We used seven waves of the China Health and Nutrition Survey and included 9,253 adults with ≥3 waves complete. Diet was measured over a 3-day period with 24-hr recalls and a household food inventory. Using factor analysis in each wave we found that the structure of the two dietary patterns identified, remained stable over the studied period. The traditional southern pattern was characterized by high intake of rice, fresh leafy vegetables, low-fat red meat, pork, organ meats, poultry and fish/seafood and low intakes of wheat flour, corn/coarse grains; and the modern high-wheat pattern was characterized by high intake of wheat buns/breads, cakes/cookies/pastries, deep-fried wheat, nuts/seeds, starchy roots/tubers products, fruits, eggs/eggs products, soy milk, animal-based milk and instant noodles/frozen dumplings. Temporal tracking (maintenance of a relative position over time) was higher for the traditional southern, whereas adherence to the modern high-wheat had an upward trend over time. Higher income, education and urbanicity level were positively associated with both dietary patterns, but the association became smaller in the later years. These results suggest that even in the context of rapid economic changes in China; the way people chose to combine their foods remained relatively stable. However, the increasing popularity of the modern high-wheat pattern, a pattern associated with several energy-dense foods is cause of concern. PMID:24331247

  4. Longitudinal analysis of dietary patterns in Chinese adults from 1991 to 2009.

    PubMed

    Batis, Carolina; Sotres-Alvarez, Daniela; Gordon-Larsen, Penny; Mendez, Michelle A; Adair, Linda; Popkin, Barry

    2014-04-28

    In the present study, we aimed to identify the changes or stability in the structure of dietary patterns and tracking, trends and factors related to the adherence to these dietary patterns in China from 1991 to 2009. We analysed dietary data collected during seven waves of the China Health and Nutrition Survey and included 9253 adults with complete dietary data for three or more waves. Dietary intake assessment was carried out over a 3 d period with 24 h recalls and a household food inventory. Using factor analysis in each wave, we found that the structure of the two dietary patterns identified remained stable over the studied period. The traditional southern dietary pattern was characterised by high intakes of rice, fresh leafy vegetables, low-fat red meat, pork, organ meats, poultry and fish/seafood and low intakes of wheat flour and maize/coarse grains and the modern high-wheat dietary pattern was characterised by high intakes of wheat buns/breads, cakes/cookies/pastries, deep-fried wheat, nuts/seeds, starchy root/tuber products, fruits, eggs/egg products, soya milk, animal-based milk and instant noodles/frozen dumplings. Temporal tracking (maintenance of a relative position over time) was higher for the traditional southern dietary pattern, whereas adherence to the modern high-wheat dietary pattern had an upward trend over time. Higher income, education and urbanicity levels were positively associated with both the dietary patterns, but the association became weaker in the later years. These results suggest that even in the context of rapid economic changes in China, the way people chose to combine their foods remained relatively stable. However, the increasing popularity of the modern high-wheat dietary pattern, a pattern associated with several energy-dense foods, is a cause of concern. PMID:24331247

  5. Impact of climate on energy sector in economic analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, H.E.; LeDuc, S.K.

    1981-12-01

    Assessments of economic conditions by region or sector attempt to include relevant climatic variability through residual adjustment techniques. There is no direct consideration of climatic fluctuations. Three recent severe winters combined with the increasing price of energy have intensified the need to quantify the interaction of climate with the energy sector of the economy. This paper presents examples of the uses of climatic data by utilities, public service commissions and the NOAA Center for Environmental Assessment Services to determine econoclimatic energy relationships at the local, state, regional and national levels. A technique based on the linear relationships between heating degree days and natural gas consumption for space heating is used to quantify the interaction of climate and prices on gas consumption. This provides regional estimates of the response of gas consumption to degree days and price.

  6. Communication in Ballot Issue Campaigns: A Rhetorical Analysis of the 1991 Cincinnati Public Schools Levy Campaign.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joiner, Jeffrey; German, Kathleen

    Following the failure of several school levies, the Cincinnati Public School System placed a $9.83 million levy on the ballot in 1991 which passed in spite of tremendous odds against it. The Cincinnati tax levy campaign was successful largely because it adapted to the unique nature of ballot issue campaigns. First, it provided proactive leadership…

  7. Turn-over rate of academic faculty at the College of Health Sciences, Addis Ababa University: a 20-year analysis (1991 to 2011)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Faculty turn-over affects both workers and organizations. Turnover of faculty and researchers is increasing alarmingly and costing the universities and the country at large. Fast turnover of health professionals from the health system and from academic institutions has recently received substantial attention from both academia and health sector managers. This paper calculates the faculty turnover rate at the College of Health Sciences of Addis Ababa University during the period of September 1991 to August 2011. Methods The study was conducted at the College of Health Sciences, Addis Ababa University. Retrospective analysis of employee records was done. All records of the faculty that were working in the College during the 20-year period, starting from September 1991 to August 2011 were retrospectively reviewed. Data were collected from the employee records accessed from the College’s human resources database and supplemented by payroll sheets and different reports. A structured checklist was used to extract the required data from the database. The crude turnover rate for academic faculty was calculated. Results Within the 20-year period of September 1991 to August 2011, a total of 120 faculty members left. The overall turn-over rate was 92.8 %. The rate in the most recent five years (172 %) is 8.5 times higher than the rate for the first five years (20 %). The average retention period before the termination of an employment contract was 4.9 years. The top five departments where employment contracts were relatively higher include: Nursing 15 (15.6 %), Internal Medicine 12 (12.5%), Public Health 10 (10.4%), Pediatrics 9 (9.4%) and Surgery 9 (9.4%). About two thirds (66.6%) of the faculty who were leaving were at the ranks of assistant professorship and above. Conclusion This study revealed that outflow of faculty has been continuously increasing in the period reviewed. This implies that the College had been losing highly skilled professionals with

  8. Analysis of the industrial sector representation in the Fossil2 energy-economic model

    SciTech Connect

    Wise, M.A.; Woodruff, M.G.; Ashton, W.B.

    1992-08-01

    The Fossil2 energy-economic model is used by the US Department of Energy (DOE) for a variety of energy and environmental policy analyses. A number of improvements to the model are under way or are being considered. This report was prepared by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to provide a clearer understanding of the current industrial sector module of Fossil2 and to explore strategies for improving it. The report includes a detailed description of the structure and decision logic of the industrial sector module, along with results from several simulation exercises to demonstrate the behavior of the module in different policy scenarios and under different values of key model parameters. The cases were run with the Fossil2 model at PNL using the National Energy Strategy Actions Case of 1991 as the point of departure. The report also includes a discussion of suggested industrial sector module improvements. These improvements include changes in the way the current model is used; on- and off-line adjustments to some of the model`s parameters; and significant changes to include more detail on the industrial processes, technologies, and regions of the country being modeled. The potential benefits and costs of these changes are also discussed.

  9. Analysis of the industrial sector representation in the Fossil2 energy-economic model

    SciTech Connect

    Wise, M.A.; Woodruff, M.G.; Ashton, W.B.

    1992-08-01

    The Fossil2 energy-economic model is used by the US Department of Energy (DOE) for a variety of energy and environmental policy analyses. A number of improvements to the model are under way or are being considered. This report was prepared by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to provide a clearer understanding of the current industrial sector module of Fossil2 and to explore strategies for improving it. The report includes a detailed description of the structure and decision logic of the industrial sector module, along with results from several simulation exercises to demonstrate the behavior of the module in different policy scenarios and under different values of key model parameters. The cases were run with the Fossil2 model at PNL using the National Energy Strategy Actions Case of 1991 as the point of departure. The report also includes a discussion of suggested industrial sector module improvements. These improvements include changes in the way the current model is used; on- and off-line adjustments to some of the model's parameters; and significant changes to include more detail on the industrial processes, technologies, and regions of the country being modeled. The potential benefits and costs of these changes are also discussed.

  10. Industry sector analysis Mexico: Air pollution equipment. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    Ceron, F.

    1992-10-01

    The Industry Sector Analyses (I.S.A.) for pollution control equipment contains statistical and narrative information on projected market demand, end-users, receptivity of Mexican consumers to U.S. products, the competitive situation - Mexican production, total import market, U.S. market position, foreign competition, and competitive factors, and market access - Mexican tariffs, non-tariff barriers, standards, taxes and distribution channels. The I.S.A. provides the United States industry with meaningful information regarding the Mexican market for pollution control equipment.

  11. Technology Co-evolution Analysis in the Energy Sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sungjoo; Yoon, Byungun

    This paper suggests the method that can describe the co-evolutionary patterns in the energy sectors. Technologies that have facilitated the growth of other technologies should get the priority in the R&D investment, if other conditions are almost the same. In the suggested method, LVC equations were applied to the patents relating to energy technologies. Then a network showing the interactions between technologies in their evolution process is visualised. Research findings will provide numerous implications for policy-making and strategic planning for energy technology development.

  12. Earth Science in 1970

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geotimes, 1971

    1971-01-01

    Reviews advancements in earth science during 1970 in each of these areas: economic geology (fuels), economic geology (metals), economic geology (nonmetals), environmental geology, geochemistry, manpower, hydrology, mapping, marine geology, mineralogy, paleontology, plate tectonics, politics and geology, remote sensing, and seismology. (PR)

  13. Environment Law Review--1970.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherrod, H. Floyd; And Others

    This is the first of several volumes to be published annually in the field of environmental law. It contains material from periodicals published in early 1970, 1969, and several articles of special significance which appeared in periodicals bearing 1968 dates. It has been collected primarily for lawyers so they may have, in convenient reference…

  14. Risk-Based Input-Output Analysis of Influenza Epidemic Consequences on Interdependent Workforce Sectors

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Joost R.; May, Larissa; Haimar, Amine El

    2013-01-01

    Outbreaks of contagious diseases underscore the ever-looming threat of new epidemics. Compared to other disasters that inflict physical damage to infrastructure systems, epidemics can have more devastating and prolonged impacts on the population. This paper investigates the interdependent economic and productivity risks resulting from epidemic-induced workforce absenteeism. In particular, we develop a dynamic input-output model capable of generating sector-disaggregated economic losses based on different magnitudes of workforce disruptions. An ex post analysis of the 2009 H1N1 pandemic in the National Capital Region (NCR) reveals the distribution of consequences across different economic sectors. Consequences are categorized into two metrics: (i) economic loss, which measures the magnitude of monetary losses incurred in each sector, and (ii) inoperability, which measures the normalized monetary losses incurred in each sector relative to the total economic output of that sector. For a simulated mild pandemic scenario in NCR, two distinct rankings are generated using the economic loss and inoperability metrics. Results indicate that the majority of the critical sectors ranked according to the economic loss metric comprise of sectors that contribute the most to the NCR's gross domestic product (e.g., federal government enterprises). In contrast, the majority of the critical sectors generated by the inoperability metric include sectors that are involved with epidemic management (e.g., hospitals). Hence, prioritizing sectors for recovery necessitates consideration of the balance between economic loss, inoperability, and other objectives. Although applied specifically to the NCR region, the proposed methodology can be customized for other regions. PMID:23278756

  15. Risk-based input-output analysis of influenza epidemic consequences on interdependent workforce sectors.

    PubMed

    Santos, Joost R; May, Larissa; Haimar, Amine El

    2013-09-01

    Outbreaks of contagious diseases underscore the ever-looming threat of new epidemics. Compared to other disasters that inflict physical damage to infrastructure systems, epidemics can have more devastating and prolonged impacts on the population. This article investigates the interdependent economic and productivity risks resulting from epidemic-induced workforce absenteeism. In particular, we develop a dynamic input-output model capable of generating sector-disaggregated economic losses based on different magnitudes of workforce disruptions. An ex post analysis of the 2009 H1N1 pandemic in the national capital region (NCR) reveals the distribution of consequences across different economic sectors. Consequences are categorized into two metrics: (i) economic loss, which measures the magnitude of monetary losses incurred in each sector, and (ii) inoperability, which measures the normalized monetary losses incurred in each sector relative to the total economic output of that sector. For a simulated mild pandemic scenario in NCR, two distinct rankings are generated using the economic loss and inoperability metrics. Results indicate that the majority of the critical sectors ranked according to the economic loss metric comprise of sectors that contribute the most to the NCR's gross domestic product (e.g., federal government enterprises). In contrast, the majority of the critical sectors generated by the inoperability metric include sectors that are involved with epidemic management (e.g., hospitals). Hence, prioritizing sectors for recovery necessitates consideration of the balance between economic loss, inoperability, and other objectives. Although applied specifically to the NCR, the proposed methodology can be customized for other regions. PMID:23278756

  16. An analysis of variables influencing the number of radiation overexposure events in Texas from 1970 to 2000.

    PubMed

    Emery, R J; Valizadeh, F; Kennedy, V; Shelton, A J

    2005-07-01

    Sources of radiation are used in a variety of modern work settings, including industrial, medical, research, and agricultural applications. Although regulatory controls exist to limit radiation exposures in these different settings, instances of radiation doses in excess of acceptable limits (referred to as overexposures) do occur. A unique study examined overexposure events in Texas over a 45-y period from 1956 to 2001. The primary purpose of the study was to characterize the factors associated with overexposure events. As part of this characterization, an interesting trend in the number of overexposures by year was observed, but not completely explained. The data revealed a dramatic increase in the number of overexposure events, followed by three apparent phases of decline. These declines are of particular interest because, while the increase and subsequent decrease in overexposures occurred, the number of permits to possess radiation sources in Texas generally increased over the same time period. This study focused on the identification of the factors that led to the trends in overexposure events. Data describing the reported overexposure events in Texas from 1970 to 2000 were obtained from the Texas Department of Health Bureau of Radiation Control (TDH BRC) and entered into a computerized database. With the assistance of senior members of the TDH BRC, the three primary factors influencing the number of overexposures were identified. These included domestic oil and gas exploration and production from 1970 to 2000, wherein sources of radiation are employed in various operations; the establishment of a training and certification requirement for industrial radiographers during the period of 1986 to 1988; and modification of the applicable regulations between 1992 and 1994. The generally accepted indicator of oil and gas exploration and production activity, known as "rig count," is the measure of the number of active oil and gas exploration and production platforms

  17. Changing Structure of the Electric Power Industry: 1970-1991

    EIA Publications

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a comprehensive overview of the ownership of the U.S. electric power industry over the past two decades, with emphasis on the major changes that have occurred, their causes, and their effects.

  18. World Education Report 1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

    This report presents a global analysis of the state of education. Comprised of four chapters, the first chapter is an introduction. Chapter 2 reviews the development of education at the global level between 1970 and 1990. The chapter focuses mainly on access to and participation in the formal education system, while drawing attention to regional…

  19. NASA Space Geodesy Program: GSFC data analysis, 1992. Crustal Dynamics Project VLBI geodetic results, 1979 - 1991

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, J. W.; Ma, C.; Caprette, D. S.

    1993-01-01

    The Goddard VLBI group reports the results of analyzing 1648 Mark 3 data sets acquired from fixed and mobile observing sites through the end of 1991, and available to the Crustal Dynamics Project. Two large solutions were used to obtain Earth rotation parameters, nutation offsets, radio source positions, site positions, site velocities, and baseline evolution. Site positions are tabulated on a yearly basis for 1979 to 1995, inclusive. Site velocities are presented in both geocentric Cartesian and topocentric coordinates. Baseline evolution is plotted for 200 baselines, and individual length determinations are presented for an additional 356 baselines. This report includes 155 quasar radio sources, 96 fixed stations and mobile sites, and 556 baselines.

  20. Approaching 4 Decades of Legislation in the National Family Planning Program: An Analysis of Title X's History From 1970 to 2008

    PubMed Central

    Daley, Ellen M.; Perrin, Kay M.; Mahan, Charles S.; Buhi, Eric R.

    2011-01-01

    Family planning is an important public health activity. Title X (Pub L No. 91-572), enacted in 1970, remains the only national family planning program in the United States dedicated to providing voluntary and confidential services to all individuals. We conducted a thematic analysis of Title X's legislative history. Of 293 federal bills included in the legislative history, only 20 (6.8%) were enacted into law. Regardless of the proposed challenges, limited changes have been adopted. Except for technical amendments, bills involving restrictions accounted for the highest percentage of enacted bills, demonstrating efforts to undermine reproductive health rights. Title X requires political will and bipartisan support if it is to continue to protect individuals' reproductive rights. PMID:21940931

  1. Effects of urban land-use change on streamflow and water quality in Oakland County, Michigan, 1970-2003, as inferred from urban gradient and temporal analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aichele, Stephen S.

    2005-01-01

    This apparent contradiction may be caused by the differences in the changes measured in each analysis. The change-through-time approach describes change from a fixed starting point of approximately 1970; the gradient approach describes the cumulative effect of all change up to approximately 2000. These findings indicate that although urbanization in Oakland County results in most of the effects observed in the literature, as evidenced in the gradient approach, relatively few of the anticipated effects have been observed during the past three decades. This relative stability despite rapid land-cover change may be related to efforts to mitigate the effects of development and a general decrease in the density of new residential development. It may also be related to external factors such as climate variability and reduced atmospheric deposition of specific chemicals. 

  2. Analysis of the spatio-temporal and semantic aspects of land-cover/use change dynamics 1991-2001 in Albania at national and district levels.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Louisa J M; Carrai, Giancarlo; Morandini, Luca; Cerutti, Paolo O; Spisni, Andrea

    2006-08-01

    In the turmoil of a rapidly changing economy the Albanian government needs accurate and timely information for management of their natural resources and formulation of land-use policies. The transformation of the forestry sector has required major changes in the legal, regulatory and management framework. The World Bank financed Albanian National Forest Inventory project provides an analysis of spatially explicit land-cover/use change dynamics in the period 1991-2001 using the FAO/UNEP Land Cover Classification System for codification of classes, satellite remote sensing and field survey for data collection and elements of the object-oriented geo-database approach to handle changes as an evolution of land-cover/use objects, i.e. polygons, over time to facilitate change dynamics analysis. Analysis results at national level show the trend of natural resources depletion in the form of modifications and conversions that lead to a gradual shift from land-cover/use types with a tree cover to less dense tree covers or even a complete removal of trees. Policy failure (e.g., corruption, lack of law enforcement) is seen as the underlying cause. Another major trend is urbanisation of areas near large urban centres that change urban-rural linkages. Furthermore, after privatisation agricultural areas increased in the hills where environmental effects may be detrimental, while prime agricultural land in the plains is lost to urbanisation. At district level, the local variability of spatially explicit land-cover/use changes shows different types of natural resources depletion. The distribution of changes indicates a regional prevalence, thus a decentralised approach to the natural resources management could be advocated. PMID:16770509

  3. 3-D vibration analysis of annular sector plates using the Chebyshev-Ritz method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, D.; Lo, S. H.; Cheung, Y. K.

    2009-02-01

    The three-dimensional free vibration of annular sector plates with various boundary conditions is studied by means of the Chebyshev-Ritz method. The analysis is based on the three-dimensional small strain linear elasticity theory. The product of Chebyshev polynomials satisfying the necessary boundary conditions is selected as admissible functions in such a way that the governing eigenvalue equation can be conveniently derived through an optimization process by the Ritz method. The boundary functions guarantee the satisfaction of the geometric boundary conditions of the plates and the Chebyshev polynomials provide the robustness for numerical calculation. The present study provides a full vibration spectrum for the thick annular sector plates, which cannot be given by the two-dimensional (2-D) theories such as the Mindlin theory. Comprehensive numerical results with high accuracy are systematically produced, which can be used as benchmark to evaluate other numerical methods. The effect of radius ratio, thickness ratio and sector angle on natural frequencies of the plates with a sector angle from 120° to 360° is discussed in detail. The three-dimensional vibration solutions for plates with a re-entrant sector angle (larger than 180°) and shallow helicoidal shells (sector angle larger than 360°) with a small helix angle are presented for the first time.

  4. Industry sector analysis, Mexico: Emission monitoring equipment. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    Picazo, A.G.

    1992-10-01

    The market survey covers the emission monitoring equipment market in Mexico. The analysis contains statistical and narrative information on projected market demand, end-users; receptivity of Mexican consumers to US products; the competitive situation, and market access (tariffs, non-tariff barriers, standards, taxes, distribution channels). It also contains key contact information and information on upcoming trade events related to the industry.

  5. The mineral sector and economic development in Ghana: A computable general equilibrium analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Addy, Samuel N.

    A computable general equilibrium model (CGE) model is formulated for conducting mineral policy analysis in the context of national economic development for Ghana. The model, called GHANAMIN, places strong emphasis on production, trade, and investment. It can be used to examine both micro and macro economic impacts of policies associated with mineral investment, taxation, and terms of trade changes, as well as mineral sector performance impacts due to technological change or the discovery of new deposits. Its economywide structure enables the study of broader development policy with a focus on individual or multiple sectors, simultaneously. After going through a period of contraction for about two decades, mining in Ghana has rebounded significantly and is currently the main foreign exchange earner. Gold alone contributed 44.7 percent of 1994 total export earnings. GHANAMIN is used to investigate the economywide impacts of mineral tax policies, world market mineral prices changes, mining investment, and increased mineral exports. It is also used for identifying key sectors for economic development. Various simulations were undertaken with the following results: Recently implemented mineral tax policies are welfare increasing, but have an accompanying decrease in the output of other export sectors. World mineral price rises stimulate an increase in real GDP; however, this increase is less than real GDP decreases associated with price declines. Investment in the non-gold mining sector increases real GDP more than investment in gold mining, because of the former's stronger linkages to the rest of the economy. Increased mineral exports are very beneficial to the overall economy. Foreign direct investment (FDI) in mining increases welfare more so than domestic capital, which is very limited. Mining investment and the increased mineral exports since 1986 have contributed significantly to the country's economic recovery, with gold mining accounting for 95 percent of the

  6. Evidence of increased anthropogenic emissions of platinum: time-series analysis of mussels (1991-2011) of an urban beach.

    PubMed

    Neira, Patricia; Cobelo-García, Antonio; Besada, Victoria; Santos-Echeandía, Juan; Bellas, Juan

    2015-05-01

    The anthropogenic emissions of Pt to the environment have increased significantly over the past decades, especially after the introduction of the catalytic converters in motor vehicles. In order to check whether this is affecting the levels of this trace metal on living organisms, time-series analysis of freeze-dried soft tissue material of wild mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) covering the period from 1991 to 2001 and collected at an urban beach in the city of Vigo (NW Iberian Peninsula) was conducted. Concentrations ranged from 0.30 to 0.68 ng g(-1) with an average concentration of 0.47 ± 0.10 ng g(-1) (n=21); these concentrations were higher than those obtained for samples collected at a control location away from anthropogenic pressure (0.31 ± 0.10 ng g(-1); n=5). Platinum concentrations followed a statistically significant temporal trend (at the 0.020 level), and the excess of Pt in mussels over the 1991-2011 period compared to the control location were correlated with the European Pt autocatalyst demand (p=0.0006) and, especially, the car sales in Spain (p=0.0001). A bioaccumulation factor of ~5·10(3) was derived, which is greater than those previously calculated for Pt from exposure experiments, but 1-2 orders of magnitude lower than other trace elements (e.g. Zn, Cu, Pb, Cd). PMID:25679817

  7. Undergraduate programs for health professionals in Brazil: an analysis from 1991 to 2008.

    PubMed

    Haddad, Ana Estela; Morita, Maria Celeste; Pierantoni, Célia Regina; Brenelli, Sigisfredo Luis; Passarella, Teresa; Campos, Francisco Eduardo

    2010-06-01

    Study conducted to support the planning and implementation of public policies on human health resources. Fourteen undergraduate health courses were analyzed: biomedicine, biological sciences, physical education, nursing, pharmacy, physical therapy, speech and language therapy, medicine, veterinary medicine, nutrition, dentistry, psychology, social work and occupational therapy between 1991 and 2008. Data on number of students admitted, college admission rates, rates of graduating student by inhabitant, gender, geographic area and family income were collected from the Brazilian Ministry of Education database. For medicine undergraduate programs there were 40 applicants per place at public institutions and 10 at private ones. Most students admitted were females. The Southeast region concentrated 57% of graduating students. The study revealed trends that indicates opportunity inequalities in the regional distribution of health professional education, thus supporting the need for policies aimed at reducing such inequalities. PMID:20499011

  8. A Radio Emission Analysis of Nova Puppis 1991 (V351 Pup)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wendeln, Carolyn; Chomiuk, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Classical Nova Puppis 1991 (V351 Pup) went into outburst at the end of 1990, powered by a thermonuclear runaway on the surface of a white dwarf in a close binary system. Multi-frequency radio detections from one epoch were published for V351 Pup in the early 1990's, yet the remaining data collected by the Very Large Array telescope (VLA) has remained unpublished since. We analyzed the remaining radio continuum observations for V351 Pup and fit the resulting light curve as expanding thermal ejecta. A well-fit model provides great insight into the total ejected mass, density profile, and the kinetic energy of a nova eruption. Radio light curves are one of the best ways to derive fundamental parameters, and the archival V351 Pup data are a wonderful opportunity to expand the sample of well-studied novae.

  9. Industry sector analysis, China: Urban water sanitation. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    The market survey covers the water pollution control equipment market for urban water sanitation in China. The analysis contains statistical and narrative information on projected market demand, end-users; receptivity of Chinese consumers to U.S. products; the competitive situation, and market access (tariffs, non-tariff barriers, standards, taxes, distribution channels). It also contains key contact information and information on upcoming trade events related to the industry.

  10. The planet Jupiter (1970)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Divine, N.

    1971-01-01

    Data obtained through 1970, some materials published during the first half of 1971, and conclusions of the Jupiter Radiation Belt Workshop held in July 1971 are presented. All the information on Jupiter was derived from data obtained at angular and spectral resolutions possible with Earth-based instrumentation or with sensors on aircraft, rockets, and balloons. The observations were made primarily in the visible, near visible, infrared, and radio portions of the electromagnetic spectrum. The information was assessed for the potential effects of the Jovian environment on spacecraft performance. The assessment was done independently for the three types of missions under consideration and formulated for overall spacecraft as well as for subsystem design.

  11. Energy utilization and greenhouse gas emissions: End-use analysis. Final report, July 1991-November 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Darrow, K.G.

    1994-06-01

    The objective of this project is to develop a comparative model of energy sector greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from fuels production, processing, and transportation, through the final end-use. The report addresses the end-uses of energy and the interaction of competing fuels and equipment to meet specific energy service demands. The development of the GHG/energy accounting framework will provide GRI with an enhanced ability to incorporate environmental considerations into R D planning.

  12. Evolution and hazard analysis of high-mountain lakes in the Cordillera Vilcabamba (Southern Peru) from 1991 to 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guardamino, Lucía; Drenkhan, Fabian

    2015-04-01

    In recent decades, glaciers in high-mountain regions have experienced unprecedented glacier retreat since the Little Ice Age (LIA). This development triggers the formation and growth of glacier lakes, which in combination with changes in glacier parameters might produce more frequent conditions for the occurrence of disasters, such as Glacier Lake Outburst Floods (GLOF). Facing such a scenario, the analysis of changing lake characteristics and identification of new glacier lakes are imperative in order to identify and reduce potential hazards and mitigate or prevent future disasters for adjacent human settlements. In this study, we present a multi-temporal analysis with Landsat TM 5 and OLI 8 images between 1991 and 2014 in the Cordillera Vilcabamba region (Southern Peru), a remote area with difficult access and climate and glaciological in-situ data scarcity. A semi-automatic model was developed using the band ratios Normalized Difference Snow Index (NDSI) and Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI) in order to identify glacier and lake area changes. Results corroborate a strong glacier area reduction of about 51% from 1991 (200.3 km²) to 2014 (98.4 km²). At the same time, the number of lakes (total lake surface) has increased at an accelerated rate, from 0.77% (0.48%) in 1991 to 2.31% (2.49%) in 2014. In a multiple criteria analysis to identify potential hazards, 90 out of a total of 329 lakes in 2014 have been selected for further monitoring. Additionally, 29 population centers have been identified as highly exposed to lake related hazards from which 25 indicate a distance less than 1 km to an upstream lake and four are situated in a channel of potential debris flow. In these areas human risks are particularly high in view of a low HDI below Peru's average and hence pronounced vulnerability. We suggest more future research on measurements and monitoring of glacier and lake characteristics in these remote high-mountain regions, which include comprehensive risk

  13. Globalization, Development and International Migration: A Cross-National Analysis of Less-Developed Countries, 1970-2000

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanderson, Matthew R.; Kentor, Jeffrey D.

    2009-01-01

    It is widely argued that globalization and economic development are associated with international migration. However, these relationships have not been tested empirically. We use a cross-national empirical analysis to assess the impact of global and national factors on international migration from less-developed countries. An interdisciplinary…

  14. Structural Position in the World System and Economic Growth, 1955-1970: A Multiple-Network Analysis of Transactional Interactions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, David; Kick, Edward L.

    1979-01-01

    Addresses world-system/dependency theories of differential economic growth among nations and identifies reservations concerning the current empirical status of these theories. Presents a model which relates the world system to blockmodel analysis by considering four types of international networks--trade flows, military interventions, diplomatic…

  15. Education and Earnings: A Multilevel Analysis. A Case Study of the Manufacturing Sector in Iran.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naderi, A.; Mace, J.

    2003-01-01

    Using data from the manufacturing sector of Iran, examines the existence of hierarchical structure in data used and the advantages of employing multilevel modeling in human capital analysis of earnings differentials. Finds that (1) data used are dominated by a hierarchical structure and (2) the amount of education and experience is significantly…

  16. Integrated power sector efficiency analysis: A case study of Costa Rica

    SciTech Connect

    Waddle, D.B.; MacDonald, J.M.

    1990-03-01

    In an effort to analyze and document the potential for power sector efficiency improvements from generation to end-use, the Agency for International Development and the Government of Costa Rica are jointly conducting an integrated power sector efficiency analysis. Potential for energy and cost savings in power plants, transmission and distribution, and demand-side management programs are being evaluated. The product of this study will be an integrated investment plan for the Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad, incorporating both supply and demand side investment options. This paper presents the methodology employed in the study, as well as preliminary estimates of the results of the study. 14 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  17. Analysis of power sector efficiency improvements for an integrated utility planning process in Costa Rica

    SciTech Connect

    Waddle, D.B.; MacDonald, J.M.

    1990-01-01

    In an effort to analyze and document the potential for power sector efficiency improvements from generation to end-use, the Agency for International Development and the Government of Costa Rica are jointly conducting an integrated power sector efficiency analysis. Potential for energy and cost savings in power plants, transmission and distribution, and demand-side management programs are being evaluated. The product of this study will be an integrated investment plan for the Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad, incorporating both supply and demand side investment options. This paper presents the methodology employed in the study, as well as preliminary estimates of the results of the study. 14 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  18. Lost Opportunities in the Buildings Sector: Energy-Efficiency Analysis and Results

    SciTech Connect

    Dirks, James A.; Anderson, David M.; Hostick, Donna J.; Belzer, David B.; Cort, Katherine A.

    2008-09-12

    This report summarizes the results and the assumptions used in an analysis of the potential “lost efficiency opportunities” in the buildings sector. These targets of opportunity are those end-uses, applications, practices, and portions of the buildings market which are not currently being addressed, or addressed fully, by the Building Technologies Program (BTP) due to lack of resources. The lost opportunities, while a significant increase in effort and impact in the buildings sector, still represent only a small portion of the full technical potential for energy efficiency in buildings.

  19. Household vehicles energy consumption 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-09

    The purpose of this report is to provide information on the use of energy in residential vehicles in the 50 States and the District of Columbia. Included are data about: the number and type of vehicles in the residential sector, the characteristics of those vehicles, the total annual Vehicle Miles Traveled (VMT), the per household and per vehicle VMT, the vehicle fuel consumption and expenditures, and vehicle fuel efficiencies. The data for this report are based on the household telephone interviews from the 1991 RTECS, conducted during 1991 and early 1992. The 1991 RTECS represents 94.6 million households, of which 84.6 million own or have access to 151.2 million household motor vehicles in the 50 States and the District of Columbia.

  20. Estimating size and scope economies in the Portuguese water sector using the Bayesian stochastic frontier analysis.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Pedro; Marques, Rui Cunha

    2016-02-15

    This study aims to search for economies of size and scope in the Portuguese water sector applying Bayesian and classical statistics to make inference in stochastic frontier analysis (SFA). This study proves the usefulness and advantages of the application of Bayesian statistics for making inference in SFA over traditional SFA which just uses classical statistics. The resulting Bayesian methods allow overcoming some problems that arise in the application of the traditional SFA, such as the bias in small samples and skewness of residuals. In the present case study of the water sector in Portugal, these Bayesian methods provide more plausible and acceptable results. Based on the results obtained we found that there are important economies of output density, economies of size, economies of vertical integration and economies of scope in the Portuguese water sector, pointing out to the huge advantages in undertaking mergers by joining the retail and wholesale components and by joining the drinking water and wastewater services. PMID:26674686

  1. Development of an improved commercial sector energy model for national policy analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Belzer, D.B.

    1992-12-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory provided support to the Office of Conservation and Renewable Energy (CE), under the Office of Planning and Assessment, to develop improved energy and environmental analysis tools. Commercial building sector energy models from the past decade were analyzed in order to provoke comment and stimulate discussion between potential model users and developers as to the appropriate structure and capability of a commercial sector energy model supported by CE. Three specific areas were examined during this review. These areas provide (1) a look at recent suggestions and guidance as to what constitutes a minimal set of requirements and capabilities for a commercial buildings energy model for CE, (2) a review of several existing models in terms of their general structure and how they match up with the requirements listed previously, and (3) an overview of a proposed improved commercial sector energy model.

  2. External assistance to the health sector in developing countries: a detailed analysis, 1972-90.

    PubMed Central

    Michaud, C.; Murray, C. J.

    1994-01-01

    This study, which was conducted for the World Bank's World development report 1993: investing in health, provides an objective analysis of the external assistance to the health sector by quantifying in detail the sources and recipients of such assistance in 1990, by analysing time trends for external assistance to the health sector over the last two decades, and, to the extent possible, by describing the allocation of resources to specific activities in the health sector. The main findings of the study are that total external assistance to the health sector in 1990 was US$ 4800 million, or only 2.9% of total health expenditures in developing countries. After stagnation in real terms during the first half of the 1980s, health sector assistance has been increasing since 1986. Despite their small volume, external assistance at the margins may play a critical role in capital investment, research and strategic planning. The study confirms prior findings that health status variables per se are not related to the amount of aid received. Comparing investments to the burden of disease shows tremendous differences in the funding for different health problems. A number of conditions are comparatively under-financed, particularly noncommunicable diseases and injuries. PMID:7923543

  3. Comparative analysis of energy data bases for the industrial and commercial sectors

    SciTech Connect

    Roop, J.M.; Belzer, D.B.; Bohn, A.A.

    1986-12-01

    Energy data bases for the industrial and commercial sectors were analyzed to determine how valuable this data might be for policy analysis. The approach is the same for both end-use sectors: first a descrption or overview of relevant data bases identifies the available data; the coverage and methods used to generate the data are then explained; the data are then characterized and examples are provided for the major data sets under consideration. A final step assesses the data bases under consideration and draws conclusions. There are a variety of data bases considered for each of the end-use sectors included in this report. Data bases for the industrial sector include the National Energy Accounts, process-derived data bases such as the Drexel data base and data obtained from industry trade associations. For the commercial sector, three types of data bases are analyzed: the Nonresidential Building Energy Consumption Surveys, Dodge Construction Data and the Building Owners and Manager's Association Experience Exchange Report.

  4. Conic Sector Analysis of Hybrid Control Systems. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, P. M.

    1982-01-01

    A hybrid control system contains an analog plant and a hybrid (or sampled-data) compensator. In this thesis a new conic sector is determined which is constructive and can be used to: (1) determine closed loop stability, (2) analyze robustness with respect to modelling uncertainties, (3) analyze steady state response to commands, and (4) select the sample rate. The use of conic sectors allows the designer to treat hybrid control systems as though they were analog control systems. The center of the conic sector can be used as a rigorous linear time invariant approximation of the hybrid control system, and the radius places a bound on the errors of this approximation. The hybrid feedback system can be multivariable, and the sampler is assumed to be synchronous. Algorithms to compute the conic sector are presented. Several examples demonstrate how the conic sector analysis techniques are applied. Extensions to single loop multirate hybrid feedback systems are presented. Further extensions are proposed for multiloop multirate hybrid feedback system and for single rate systems with asynchronous sampling.

  5. Thermal-hydraulics and safety analysis of sectored compact reactor for lunar surface power

    SciTech Connect

    Schriener, T. M.; El-Genk, M. S.

    2012-07-01

    The liquid NaK-cooled, fast-neutron spectrum, Sectored Compact Reactor (SCoRe-N 5) concept has been developed at the Univ. of New Mexico for lunar surface power applications. It is loaded with highly enriched UN fuel pins in a triangular lattice, and nominally operates at exit and inlet coolant temperatures of 850 K and 900 K. This long-life reactor generates up to 1 MWth continuously for {>=} 20 years. To avoid a single point failure in reactor cooling, the core is divided into 6 sectors that are neutronically and thermally coupled, but hydraulically independent. This paper performs a 3-D the thermal-hydraulic analysis of SCoRe--N 5 at nominal operation temperatures and a power level of 1 MWth. In addition, the paper investigates the potential of continuing reactor operation at a lower power in the unlikely event that one sector in the core experiences a loss of coolant (LOC). Redesigning the core with a contiguous steel matrix enhances the cooling of the sector experiencing a LOC. Results show that with a core sector experiencing a LOC, SCORE-N 5 could continue operating safely at a reduced power of 166.6 kWth. (authors)

  6. An analysis of inputs cost for carp farming sector in 2001 in Iran.

    PubMed

    Salehi, Hassan

    2007-11-01

    Carp is widely sold and used in its fresh in Iran, however, recently a range of value additions may also be observed. It is essential to the sustainable development of a carp farm to know the production costs and their contribution. Warm-water fish farming is mainly based on common, silver, grass and bighead carp and the common carp and the three Chinese species are often reared in poly culture in Iran. Since, the 1970s carp farming has spread around the Caspian coast and farmed production reached a peak in 2006 with production of more than 73,400 tons. A study of production, costs and profitability of carp farming sector was carried out to help clarify carp production costs and their difference with location in 2001. A total of 101 farms from the three main carp farming provinces, Guilan, Mazandaran and Khuzestan were randomly selected, classified and studied. The results of the survey showed that the various producer provinces have different cost structures. Overall, feed and fertilizer with the highest level of variation accounted for 23% of total costs, followed by seed and labor and salary with 23 and 17%, respectively. On average, benefit-cost ratio and the rate of farm income were closely related to location. This result suggests that farmers practice more efficiently and have better conditions in Mazandaran, followed by Guilan province. PMID:19090234

  7. Manufacturing consumption of energy 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-12-01

    This report provides estimates on energy consumption in the manufacturing sector of the US economy. These estimates are based on data from the 1991 Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey (MECS). This survey--administered by the Energy End Use and Integrated Statistics Division, Office of Energy Markets and End Use, Energy Information Administration (EIA)--is the most comprehensive source of national-level data on energy-related information for the manufacturing industries.

  8. Big Data Analysis Framework for Healthcare and Social Sectors in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Song, Tae-Min

    2015-01-01

    Objectives We reviewed applications of big data analysis of healthcare and social services in developed countries, and subsequently devised a framework for such an analysis in Korea. Methods We reviewed the status of implementing big data analysis of health care and social services in developed countries, and strategies used by the Ministry of Health and Welfare of Korea (Government 3.0). We formulated a conceptual framework of big data in the healthcare and social service sectors at the national level. As a specific case, we designed a process and method of social big data analysis on suicide buzz. Results Developed countries (e.g., the United States, the UK, Singapore, Australia, and even OECD and EU) are emphasizing the potential of big data, and using it as a tool to solve their long-standing problems. Big data strategies for the healthcare and social service sectors were formulated based on an ICT-based policy of current government and the strategic goals of the Ministry of Health and Welfare. We suggest a framework of big data analysis in the healthcare and welfare service sectors separately and assigned them tentative names: 'health risk analysis center' and 'integrated social welfare service network'. A framework of social big data analysis is presented by applying it to the prevention and proactive detection of suicide in Korea. Conclusions There are some concerns with the utilization of big data in the healthcare and social welfare sectors. Thus, research on these issues must be conducted so that sophisticated and practical solutions can be reached. PMID:25705552

  9. Liquid chromatographic analysis of coal surface properties. Final report, September 1991--February 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Kwon, K.C.

    1996-03-01

    Experiments on equilibrium adsorption loadings of various probe compounds on 60-200 mesh Illinois {number_sign}6 coal (PSOC-1539), Adaville {number_sign}1 coal (PSOC-1544), Wyodak coal (PSOC-1545) and Pittsburgh {number_sign}8 coal (PSOC-1549) were performed. the probe compounds include m-cresol, p-cresol, o-cresol, phenol, n-octanol, n-heptanol, n-propanol, isopropanol n-butanol, s-butanol, 2-butanol, t-butanol, 2-naphthol, cyclohexanol, 2-methyl-1-pentanol (2M1P), 4-methyl-2-pentanol (4M2P), benzene and toluene. Equilibrium adsorption of various probe compounds on the coals were measured with the inverse liquid chromatography method. Experiments on flotation of various 60-200 mesh treated coals such as Illinois {number_sign}6 coal (PSOC-1539), Adaville {number_sign}1 coal (PSOC-1544), Wyodak coal (PSOC-1545) and Pittsburgh {number_sign}8 coal (PSOC-1549) were performed. The chosen coals were treated with steam, nitrogen and air at 1 atm and 125-225{degrees}C for 24 hours. The coals were treated with water as well as 20-1000 ppm aqueous alcohol solutions for 3-24 hours at 150-225{degrees}C. The coals also were treated with 20-ppm alcohol aqueous solutions for 1-24 hours at the 0.002-g/min mass flow rate of alcohol aqueous solutions and at 225{degrees}C. Flotation experiments were conducted with a 500-cm{sup 3} batch-type micro flotation apparatus, introducing nitrogen at the bottom of the apparatus. This final report was prepared with the experimental data obtained during the period of September 1991-March 1994.

  10. Analysis of diurnal double maxima observed above Italy during 1975-1991

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katamzi, Z. T.; Smith, N. D.; Mitchell, C. N.; Spalla, P.

    2012-11-01

    One of the major features of the mid-latitude ionosphere is the anomalous enhancements that often either occur before or after the more usual post mid-day peak. The structure in the total electron content comprising a pre- or post-midday peak and another enhancement is referred to by Pi et al. (1993) as a diurnal double maxima (DDM). DDM structures were sometimes observed during daytime in a long time-series of mid-latitude slant total electron content (sTEC) measurements collected in Italy between 1975 and 1991. From a total of 1366 daily TEC observations, DDM structures were observed on 302 days. The first peak usually occurred between the hours of 10-11 UT, and the second peak usually occurred either between the hours of 13-14 UT or 18-19 UT, where UT≈LT-1hour. The times of occurrence of each peak demonstrated a seasonal variation, with the second peak appearing later in the day during summer. The rate of occurrence of the DDM structure was higher in winter and summer than in autumn and spring. Independent observations were sought by using foF2 and hmF2 measurements from an ionosonde in Rome. Some evidence shows that vertical plasma motions in the F-region can cause DDM, however the cause of many other DDM events is still not clear. Furthermore, a comparison of DDM structures across different geomagnetic and auroral activities indicated that the structures were not necessarily related to geomagnetic storms or substorm events.

  11. A multivariate analysis of observed and modeled biophysical variability on the Bering Sea shelf: Multidecadal hindcasts (1970-2009) and forecasts (2010-2040)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermann, Albert J.; Gibson, Georgina A.; Bond, Nicholas A.; Curchitser, Enrique N.; Hedstrom, Kate; Cheng, Wei; Wang, Muyin; Stabeno, Phyllis J.; Eisner, Lisa; Cieciel, Kristin D.

    2013-10-01

    Coupled physical/biological models can be used to downscale global climate change to the ecology of subarctic regions, and to explore the bottom-up and top-down effects of that change on the spatial structure of subarctic ecosystems—for example, the relative dominance of large vs. small zooplankton in relation to ice cover. Here we utilize a multivariate statistical approach to extract the emergent properties of a coupled physical/biological hindcast of the Bering Sea for years 1970-2009, which includes multiple episodes of warming and cooling (e.g. the recent cooling of 2005-2009), and a multidecadal regional forecast of the coupled models, driven by an IPCC global model forecast of 2010-2040. Specifically, we employ multivariate empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis to derive the spatial covariance among physical and biological timeseries from our simulations. These are compared with EOFs derived from spatially gridded measurements of the region, collected during multiyear field programs. The model replicates observed relationships among temperature and salinity, as well as the observed inverse correlation between temperature and large crustacean zooplankton on the southeastern Bering Sea shelf. Predicted future warming of the shelf is accompanied by a northward shift in both pelagic and benthic biomass.

  12. Analysis of US commercial building energy use trends, 1972--1991

    SciTech Connect

    Belzer, D.B.; Marsh, T.L.; Sands, R.D.

    1994-08-01

    Over the past two decades energy consumption in commercial buildings has been the fastest growing segment among the major end-use sectors in the US. This paper provides a decomposition of the major factors behind the trends in commercial energy use over this period. It examines the impact on overall commercial sector energy intensity from: (1) new buildings, (2) changes in the composition of buildings by geographic region and building type, (3) the growth in office equipment and computers, and (4) the influence of several common envelope conservation measures. A statistical decomposition of historical monthly electricity and gas consumption data is developed to separate energy use into heating, cooling, and ventilation (HVAC) and other components (non-HVAC). This data is then used in conjunction with historical commercial building floor space estimates to derive end-use intensities for these components of energy consumption. Deterministic analyses are performed to estimate the impacts of other factors. The impact of new buildings is measured by estimating the average improvement in heating efficiencies for buildings built after 1980. The effect of building composition on aggregate commercial building energy intensity is based upon estimates of historical floor space by building type and region and building-specific intensities derived from the 1989 Commercial Building Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS). Stocks of various types of office equipment were constructed from industry statistics and independent surveys. The stocks of selected office equipment were combined with estimates of unit energy consumption to estimate the impact on total commercial electricity consumption. For estimating changes in energy intensity due to the building retrofits, the study utilizes a new energy simulation tool developed as part of the Facility Energy Decision Screening (FEDS) system for the US Department of Energy.

  13. The public sector nursing workforce in Kenya: a county-level analysis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Kenya’s human resources for health shortage is well documented, yet in line with the new constitution, responsibility for health service delivery will be devolved to 47 new county administrations. This work describes the public sector nursing workforce likely to be inherited by the counties, and examines the relationships between nursing workforce density and key indicators. Methods National nursing deployment data linked to nursing supply data were used and analyzed using statistical and geographical analysis software. Data on nurses deployed in national referral hospitals and on nurses deployed in non-public sector facilities were excluded from main analyses. The densities and characteristics of the public sector nurses across the counties were obtained and examined against an index of county remoteness, and the nursing densities were correlated with five key indicators. Results Of the 16,371 nurses in the public non-tertiary sector, 76% are women and 53% are registered nurses, with 35% of the nurses aged 40 to 49 years. The nursing densities across counties range from 1.2 to 0.08 per 1,000 population. There are statistically significant associations of the nursing densities with a measure of health spending per capita (P value = 0.0028) and immunization rates (P value = 0.0018). A higher county remoteness index is associated with explaining lower female to male ratio of public sector nurses across counties (P value <0.0001). Conclusions An overall shortage of nurses (range of 1.2 to 0.08 per 1,000) in the public sector countrywide is complicated by mal-distribution and varying workforce characteristics (for example, age profile) across counties. All stakeholders should support improvements in human resources information systems and help address personnel shortages and mal-distribution if equitable, quality health-care delivery in the counties is to be achieved. PMID:24467776

  14. Waste Package Program. Progress report, January 1991--June 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Culbreth, W.; Ladkany, S.

    1991-07-21

    This was a progress report on the research program of waste packages at the University of Nevada, Las Vegas. The report has the overviews of what the program has done from January 1991 to June 1991, such as task assignments for personnel, equipment acquisitions, and staff meetings and travels on behalf of the project. Also, included was an abstract on the structural analysis of the waste package container design. (MB)

  15. Trends in Family Income: 1970-1986.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Roberton C.

    Comparing the experiences of different types of families, this report analyzes family incomes in the United States from 1970 to 1986. The adjusted family income (AFI) measure used in the analysis corrects for family size and for inflation, but does not take account of either in-kind income or taxes. After a section summarizing the report's…

  16. Green corona and solar sector structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antonucci, E.; Svalgaard, L.

    1974-01-01

    Analysis of the green-line corona for the interval 1947-1970 suggests the existence of large-scale organization of the emission. The green-line emission at high northern latitudes (approximately 40 to 60 deg) is correlated with the emission at high southern latitudes 6, 15, and 24 days later, while the low-latitude green corona seems to be correlated on both sides of the equator with no time lag. These coronal features are recurrent with a 27-day period at all latitudes between plus or minus 60 deg, and these large-scale structures are believed to be associated with the solar magnetic sector structure. The high correlation between northern and southern high-latitude emission at 15 days time lag is explained as a signature of a two-sector structure, while four sectors are associated with the 6- and 24-day peaks.

  17. Technology Outlook for STEM+ Education 2013-2018: An NMC Horizon Project Sector Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, L.; Adams Becker, S.; Estrada, V.; Martín, S.

    2013-01-01

    The "Technology Outlook for STEM+ Education 2013-2018: An NMC Horizon Project Sector Analysis" reflects a collaborative research effort between the New Media Consortium (NMC), the Centro Superior para la Enseñanza Virtual (CSEV), the Departamento de Ingeniería Eléctrica, Electrónica y de Control at the Universidad Nacional de Educación a…

  18. Civil Rights: Progress Report, 1970

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diamond, Robert A., Ed.; Alligood, Arlene, Ed.

    Contents of this comprehensive review of civil rights developments from 1968 to 1970 include: Introduction--civil rights 1970: progress continues, priority wanes; Legislative Background--20 years of civil rights; Commission Report--civil rights enforcement; a promise unfulfilled; Supreme Court Decision--key decision on busing, racial balance…

  19. Toward the greening of nuclear energy: A content analysis of nuclear energy frames from 1991 to 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Sonya R.

    Framing theory has emerged as one of the predominant theories employed in mass communications research in the 21st century. Frames are identified as interpretive packages for content where some issue attributes are highlighted over other attributes. While framing effects studies appear plentiful, longitudinal studies assessing trends in dominant framing packages and story elements for an issue appear to be less understood. Through content analysis, this study examines dominant frame packages, story elements, headline tone, story tone, stereotypes, and source attribution for nuclear energy from 1991-2008 in the New York Times, USA Today, the Wall Street Journal, and the Washington Post. Unlike many content analysis studies, this study compares intercoder reliability among three indices---percentage agreement, proportional reduction of loss and Scott's Pi. The newspapers represented in this study possess a commonality in the types of dominant frames packages employed. Significant dominant frame packages among the four newspapers include human/health, proliferation, procedural, and marketplace. While the procedural frame package was more likely to appear prior to the 1997 Kyoto Protocol, the proliferation frame packaged was more likely to appear after the Kyoto Protol. Over time, the sustainable frame package demonstrated increased significance. This study is part of the growing literature regarding the function of frames over time.

  20. Factors Influencing the Organizational Stress among Teachers Working in Higher Education Sector in Kerala: An Empirical Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Areekkuzhiyil, Santhosh

    2014-01-01

    The study aims to explore the various factors that influence the organizational stress of teachers working in higher education sector in the state of Kerala. The data required for the study has been conveniently collected from 200 teachers working in higher education sector. Exploratory factor analysis revealed nine factors, which significantly…

  1. Industry sector analysis Canada: Natural gas pipeline development. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    Stark, T.

    1992-08-01

    The analysis focuses on the Canadian natural gas pipeline industry and covers all inputs to natural gas pipeline construction and expansion projects: pipe, compressors, engineering services, tools, miscellaneous industrial supplies, and equipment rental. The Industry Sector Analysis (ISA) contains statistical and narrative information on projected market demand, end-users; receptivity of Canadian consumers to U.S. products; the competitive situation (Canadian production, total import market, U.S. market position, foreign competition, competitive factors), and market access (tariffs, non-tariff barriers, standards, taxes, distribution channels). The ISA also contains Key Contact information.

  2. Models for residential-and commercial-sector energy conservation analysis: Applications, limitations, and future potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, H. E.; Fuller, R. E.

    1980-09-01

    Four of the major models used by DOE for energy conservation analyses in the residential and commercial building sectors are reviewed and critically analyzed to determine how these models can serve as tools for DOE and its Conservation Policy Office in evaluating and quantifying their policy and program requirements. The most effective role for each model in addressing future issues of buildings energy conservation policy and analysis is assessed. The four models covered are: Oak Ridge Residential Energy Model; Micro Analysis of Transfers to Households/Comprehensive Human Resources Data System (MATH/CHRDS) Model; Oak Ridge Commercial Energy Model; and Brookhaven Buildings Energy Conservation Optimization Model (BECOM).

  3. Conceptual models for waste tank mechanistic analysis. Status report, January 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Allemann, R. T.; Antoniak, Z. I.; Eyler, L. L.; Liljegren, L. M.; Roberts, J. S.

    1992-02-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is conducting a study for Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford), a contractor for the US Department of Energy (DOE). The purpose of the work is to study possible mechanisms and fluid dynamics contributing to the periodic release of gases from double-shell waste storage tanks at the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington. This interim report emphasizing the modeling work follows two other interim reports, Mechanistic Analysis of Double-Shell Tank Gas Release Progress Report -- November 1990 and Collection and Analysis of Existing Data for Waste Tank Mechanistic Analysis Progress Report -- December 1990, that emphasized data correlation and mechanisms. The approach in this study has been to assemble and compile data that are pertinent to the mechanisms, analyze the data, evaluate physical properties and parameters, evaluate hypothetical mechanisms, and develop mathematical models of mechanisms.

  4. Economic Drought Impact on Agriculture: analysis of all agricultural sectors affected

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gil, M.; Garrido, A.; Hernández-Mora, N.

    2012-04-01

    The analysis of drought impacts is essential to define efficient and sustainable management and mitigation. In this paper we present a detailed analysis of the impacts of the 2004-2008 drought in the agricultural sector in the Ebro river basin (Spain). An econometric model is applied in order to determine the magnitude of the economic loss attributable to water scarcity. Both the direct impacts of drought on agricultural productivity and the indirect impacts of drought on agricultural employment and agroindustry in the Ebro basin are evaluated. The econometric model measures losses in the economic value of irrigated and rainfed agricultural production, of agricultural employment and of Gross Value Added both from the agricultural sector and the agro-industrial sector. The explanatory variables include an index of water availability (reservoir storage levels for irrigated agriculture and accumulated rainfall for rainfed agriculture), a price index representative of the mix of crops grown in each region, and a time variable. The model allows for differentiating the impacts due to water scarcity from other sources of economic losses. Results show how the impacts diminish as we approach the macro-economic indicators from those directly dependent on water abstractions and precipitation. Sectors directly dependent on water are the most affected with identifiable economic losses resulting from the lack of water. From the management perspective implications of these findings are key to develop mitigation measures to reduce drought risk exposure. These results suggest that more open agricultural markets, and wider and more flexible procurement strategies of the agro-industry reduces the socio-economic exposure to drought cycles. This paper presents the results of research conducted under PREEMPT project (Policy relevant assessment of the socioeconomic effects of droughts and floods, ECHO - grant agreement # 070401/2010/579119/SUB/C4), which constitutes an effort to provide

  5. Analysis of optical structures; Proceedings of the Meeting, San Diego, CA, July 23, 24, 1991

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Shea, Donald C.

    1991-12-01

    The present conference discusses the application of FEM methods to optical system structures, the design and analysis of a CCD array mounting structure, lightweight composite mirrors, the dynamic characteristics of joint-dominated space structures, and the design and manufacture of an ultralightweight solid deployable reflector. Also discussed is an analysis of the thermal stability of a fused optical structure, flow visualization for telescope enclosures, an overview of active optics technology, shape control of piezoelectric bimorph mirrors, CAE/CAM of extremely fast steering mirrors, and holographic optical elements as laser irradiation sensor components.

  6. A genetic analysis of Adh1 regulation. Progress report, June 1991--February 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Freeling, M.

    1992-03-01

    The overall goal of our research proposal is to understand the meaning of the various cis-acting sites responsible for AdH1 expression in the entire maize plant. Progress is reported in the following areas: Studies on the TATA box and analysis of revertants of the Adh1-3F1124 allele; screening for more different mutants that affect Adh1 expression differentially; studies on cis-acting sequences required for root-specific Adh1 expression; refinement of the use of the particle gun; and functional analysis of a non- glycolytic anaerobic protein.

  7. The Holocaust as History and Human Rights: A Cross-National Analysis of Holocaust Education in Social Science Textbooks, 1970-2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bromley, Patricia; Russell, Susan Garnett

    2010-01-01

    This article examines Holocaust education in secondary school social science textbooks around the world since 1970, using data coded from 465 textbooks from 69 countries. It finds that books and countries more connected to world society and with an accompanying emphasis on human rights, diversity in society and a depiction of international, rather…

  8. Crew interface analysis: Selected articles on space human factors research, 1987 - 1991

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bagian, Tandi (Compiler)

    1993-01-01

    As part of the Flight Crew Support Division at NASA, the Crew Interface Analysis Section is dedicated to the study of human factors in the manned space program. It assumes a specialized role that focuses on answering operational questions pertaining to NASA's Space Shuttle and Space Station Freedom Programs. One of the section's key contributions is to provide knowledge and information about human capabilities and limitations that promote optimal spacecraft and habitat design and use to enhance crew safety and productivity. The section provides human factors engineering for the ongoing missions as well as proposed missions that aim to put human settlements on the Moon and Mars. Research providing solutions to operational issues is the primary objective of the Crew Interface Analysis Section. The studies represent such subdisciplines as ergonomics, space habitability, man-computer interaction, and remote operator interaction.

  9. Private participation in infrastructure: A risk analysis of long-term contracts in power sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceran, Nisangul

    The objective of this dissertation is to assess whether the private participation in energy sector through long term contracting, such as Build-Operate-Transfer (BOT) type investments, is an efficient way of promoting efficiency in the economy. To this end; the theoretical literature on the issue is discussed, the experience of several developing countries are examined, and a BOT project, which is undertaken by the Enron company in Turkey, has been studied in depth as a case study. Different risk analysis techniques, including sensitivity and probabilistic risk analysis with the Monte Carlo Simulation (MCS) method have been applied to assess the financial feasibility and risks of the case study project, and to shed light on the level of rent-seeking in the BOT agreements. Although data on rent seeking and corruption is difficult to obtain, the analysis of case study investment using the sensitivity and MCS method provided some information that can be used in assessing the level of rent-seeking in BOT projects. The risk analysis enabled to test the sustainability of the long-term BOT contracts through the analysis of projects financial feasibility with and without the government guarantees in the project. The approach of testing the sustainability of the project under different scenarios is helpful to understand the potential costs and contingent liabilities for the government and project's impact on a country's overall economy. The results of the risk analysis made by the MCS method for the BOT project used as the case study strongly suggest that, the BOT projects does not serve to the interest of the society and transfers substantial amount of public money to the private companies, implying severe governance problems. It is found that not only government but also private sector may be reluctant about full privatization of infrastructure due to several factors such as involvement of large sunk costs, very long time period for returns to be received, political and

  10. Reregulation of the Swedish pharmacy sector-A qualitative content analysis of the political rationale.

    PubMed

    Wisell, Kristin; Winblad, Ulrika; Sporrong, Sofia Kälvemark

    2015-05-01

    In 2009, a reregulation of the Swedish pharmacy sector took place, and a fundamental change in ownership and structure followed. The reregulation provides an opportunity to reveal the politicians' views on pharmacies. The aim of this study was to explore and analyze the political arguments for the reregulation of the Swedish pharmacy sector in 2009. The method used was a qualitative content analysis of written political documents regarding the reregulation. The primary rationales for the reregulation were better availability, efficiency, price pressure, and safe usage of medicines. During the preparatory work, the rationales of diversity on the market and entrepreneurship were added, while the original rationales of efficiency, price pressure, and better usage of medicines were abandoned. The reform can be seen as a typical New Public Management reform influenced by the notion that private actors are better equipped to perform public activities. The results point to that the reform was done almost solely in order to introduce private ownership in the pharmacy sector, and was not initiated in order to solve any general problems, or to enhance patient outcomes of medicine use. PMID:25841749

  11. A genetic analysis of Adhl regulation. Progress report, June 1991--May 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Freeling, M.

    1992-12-01

    Several separate but related studies are reported on the mechanism of alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh-1) are reported. A study of a deletion mutation in the TATA box region which resulted in an increase from 6--60% of wildtype Adh-1 expression in the revertant has led to a focus on trans-acting protein factors that bind the TATA box. Analysis of another revertant has led to study of cis-acting sequences in Adh-1 expression. Screening efforts aimed at defining different mutants affecting Adh-1 expression are reported.

  12. Cost benefit analysis of excess flow valves: An update. Topical report, August 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-08-26

    Calculations and analysis of the cost-to-benefit ratio of using excess flow valves (EFVs) of all U.S. new and renewed gas services operating at 10 psig or more are presented. The study is an update of an earlier evaluation performed by the same contractor, entitled 'Costs and Benefits of Excess Flow Valves in Gas Distribution Services' (GRI-86/0022). As calculated with up-to-date information and average operating cost data, the ratio continues to be unfavorable even when using high value for human life and injury and low operating cost data. Data collected from EFV users indicate that EFVs are highly reliable and generally perform as required with very few problems. The report expresses the opinion that the cost-to-benefit ratio is highly dependent on individual company operations, location, and pipeline characteristics, and that the decision to use EFVs should be left to individual companies after performing their own cost benefit analysis, which should include an assessment of alternative accident mitigation measures.

  13. The Impact Analysis of Direct Public R&D and Innovation Investments in Turkish Space Sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaya, Derya; Cakir, Serhat

    2016-07-01

    According to The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), space sector plays a pivotal role in the functioning of modern societies and their economic development. It is in the scope of OECD's International Futures Programme. The global space economy, as defined by the OECD Space Forum, comprises the space industry's core activities in space manufacturing and in satellite operations, plus other consumer activities that have been derived over the years from governmental research and development. In 2013 commercial revenues generated by the space economy amounted to USD 256.2 billion globally that is huge amount of space investment in the world. Recently, Turkey has also entered to the sector and it has growing strategic interest in space. First satellite project was started with a technology transfer from UK by TUBITAK Space Technologies Research Institute in 2001 and it launched to its orbit in 2003. Then RASAT and GÖKTÜRK-2 satellites were developed and launched to their orbits respectively in 2011 and 2012. Today, we have other satellite projects that are going on, too. However, we do not have a mechanism or a model to assess the impacts of those projects. What kind of model can be used to measure the impact of direct public R&D and innovation investments in Turkish space sector? The aim of this study is to develop a model which would be useful for monitoring the performance of R&D and Innovation investments that are conducted through government policies and strategies and so on to give feedback for effective strategy making. When we look at the impact analysis studies in Turkey, we see a few such as TUBITAK (Özçelik and Taymaz, 2008; Erden, 2010; Tandoǧan, 2011), İşkur (World Bank Report, 2013), Ministry of Economy (TTGV, 2013), Development Agencies (İZKA, 2011; Elçi vd., 2011; Pınar, 2014; Meydan, 2014). There is need for a systematic approach to impact analysis. Since there is no data for this study, we would develop a model with

  14. Applying machine learning techniques to DNA sequence analysis. Progress report, February 14, 1991--February 13, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Shavlik, J.W.

    1992-04-01

    We are developing a machine learning system that modifies existing knowledge about specific types of biological sequences. It does this by considering sample members and nonmembers of the sequence motif being learned. Using this information (which we call a ``domain theory``), our learning algorithm produces a more accurate representation of the knowledge needed to categorize future sequences. Specifically, the KBANN algorithm maps inference rules, such as consensus sequences, into a neural (connectionist) network. Neural network training techniques then use the training examples of refine these inference rules. We have been applying this approach to several problems in DNA sequence analysis and have also been extending the capabilities of our learning system along several dimensions.

  15. Direct coal liquefaction baseline design and system analysis. Quarterly report, April--June 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-07-01

    The primary objective of the study is to develop a computer model for a base line direct coal liquefaction design based on two stage direct coupled catalytic reactors. This primary objective is to be accomplished by completing the following: a base line design based on previous DOE/PETC results from Wilsonville pilot plant and other engineering evaluations; a cost estimate and economic analysis; a computer model incorporating the above two steps over a wide range of capacities and selected process alternatives; a comprehensive training program for DOE/PETC Staff to understand and use the computer model; a thorough documentation of all underlying assumptions for baseline economics; and a user manual and training material which will facilitate updating of the model in the future.

  16. Geotechnical field data and analysis report, July 1991--June 1992. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-31

    The Geotechnical Field Data and Analysis Report presents the data for the assessments of the geotechnical status of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). During the period of shaft sinking and construction of the principal underground access and experimental areas, reporting was on a quarterly basis. Since 1987, reporting has been carried out annually because excavation of the waste storage panels will take place more slowly and over an extended period. This report presents the data collected up to June 30, 1992. This report focuses on the presentation of geotechnical data from the various underground facilities including the shafts, shaft stations, access drifts, test rooms, and waste storage areas. It also describes the techniques used to acquire the data and the performance history of the instruments.

  17. Direct conversion technology. Annual summary report CY 1991, January 1, 1991--December 31, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Massier, P.F.; Back, L.H.; Ryan, M.A.; Fabris, G.

    1992-01-07

    The overall objective of the Direct Conversion Technology task is to develop an experimentally verified technology base for promising direct conversion systems that have potential application for energy conservation in the end-use sectors. This report contains progress of research on the Alkali Metal Thermal-to-Electric Converter (AMTEC) and on the Two-Phase Liquid-Metal MHD Electrical Generator (LMMHD) for the period January 1, 1991 through December 31, 1991. Research on AMTEC and on LMMHD was initiated during October 1987. Reports prepared on previous occasions (Refs. 1--5) contain descriptive and performance discussions of the following direct conversion concepts: thermoelectric, pyroelectric, thermionic, thermophotovoltaic, thermoacoustic, thermomagnetic, thermoelastic (Nitionol heat engine); and also, more complete descriptive discussions of AMTEC and LMMHD systems.

  18. Tipping points for carbon dioxide and air pollution benefits: an energy systems analysis of natural gas verses electric technologies in the U.S. buildings sector

    EPA Science Inventory

    Our analysis examines emission trade-offs between electricity and natural gas use in the buildings sector at the system level, including upstream emissions from the electric sector and natural gas mining emissions.

  19. TDWR 1991 Program Review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elmore, Kim

    1992-01-01

    The topics addressed are: (1) Terminal Doppler Weather Radar (TDWR) 1991 program review; (2) TDWR demonstrations notable results/events; (3) TDWR demonstration Denver chronology; (4) overview of generic integration concepts; (5) TDWR 1991 program review; (6) Denver operation 1991; and (7) FY-92 plans.

  20. A Statistical Power Analysis of the Quantitative Techniques Used in the "Journal of Research in Music Education," 1987 through 1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniel, Thomas Dyson

    Statistical power in music education was examined by taking an in-depth look at quantitative articles published in the "Journal of Research in Music Education" between 1987 and 1991, inclusive. Of the 109 articles of the period, 78 were quantitative, with both parametric and nonparametric procedures considered. Sample sizes were those reported by…

  1. [Demographic effects on development from 1970 to 1990].

    PubMed

    Porras Macias, A

    1990-01-01

    Although significant advances were achieved in Mexican school enrollment and educational status between 1950 and 1970, nearly half of 1970 entrants in the labor market had fewer than 5 years of formal schooling. Fertility and population growth rates began to decline in the 1970s, and the gross national product (GNP) was still growing at the rapid rate of 6.2%, although employment in the formal sector was increasingly limited. Income distribution did not alter greatly for the poorest households; in 1970, 1977, and 1983 the poorest 40% of households received around 11% of total income. The fertility decline continued in the 1980s, but it was not homogeneous in all social groups. During 1970-86 the poorest and least educated sectors had an average of nearly 3 children more than the wealthier and better educated. The poor population grew at a rate of 3% annually, while those with higher incomes grew at 1.3%. During the 1980s the economic crisis significantly affected social spending. Government spending as a percentage of GNP declined from 8% in the 1980s to 3.8% in 1988. The GNP grew at negative rates in 1982, 1983, and 1986, and at rates below demographic growth rates in 1987 and 1988. The economically active population grew at almost 3.5% annually, while employment only increased by 0.9%. A significant proportion of the skilled labor force was obliged to seek employment in the informal sector, placing additional pressure on the poor and unskilled. PMID:12158094

  2. [The influenza pandemic 1968-1970: crisis management in separated Germany - "Vodka and Raspberry Tea"].

    PubMed

    Witte, W

    2011-12-01

    The Hong Kong Flu in the years 1968-1970 challenged both German health care systems. This article intends to analyse the patterns of reaction to the pandemic. Both German states faced the threat according to their respective ideological orientation. This applied to the two parts of Berlin - West and East - as well. In the GDR the control of influenza was centrally organized. When the pandemic passed away an influenza guiding document ("Führungsdokument") was made obligatory for the fight against the plague. In the FRG hospital treatment maintained predominance while the outpatient sector was administrated by physicians in private practice. In West- Berlin outpatient clinics were declined by the Association of Physicians ("Kassenärztliche Vereinigung"). In 1970 a first concept of surveillance was presented on the level of the state in West Germany. In the years 1968-1970 vaccinations were not common in both German states. The essay is based on the analysis of archival sources, monographs, scientific and newspaper articles. PMID:22169920

  3. An analysis of the role of information and communication technology sectors on Japanese national economy from 1995 through 2005: An application of multiplier analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuhdi, Ubaidillah

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to continue the previous studies which focused on Japanese Information and Communication Technology (ICT) sectors. More specifically, this study aims to analyze the role of ICT sectors on Japanese national economy using simple household income multiplier, one of the analysis instruments in Input-Output (IO) analysis. The analysis period of this study is from 1995-2005. The results show that the sectors did not have an important role on the national economy of Japan on the period. Besides, the results also show that, from the point of view of the multiplier, Japanese national economy tended to stable during the period.

  4. Calculated analysis of the stressed and strain state of pipeline sector elbows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popov, A. B.

    2012-04-01

    The stressed and strain state of sector-type pipeline elbows is analyzed using the finite element method. Features in which sector elbows of pipelines differ from circular elbows are revealed. Formulas for determining the maximal equivalent stresses in sector elbows are presented.

  5. Topographyc metrics in the southern sector of the Marche foothills: implication for active tectonic analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Materazzi, Marco; Aringoli, Domenico; Carducci, Tamara; Cavitolo, Paolo; Farabollini, Piero; Giacopetti, Marco; Pambianchi, Gilberto; Tondi, Emanuele; Troiani, Francesco

    2016-04-01

    Quantitative geomorphic analysis can be provided a useful contribution to the study of recent tectonics. Some parameters, that quantify the channels morphology, as the Stream Length-Gradient (SL) Index (Hack, 1973) and the Steepness (Ks) Index (Flint, 1974), are generally used to detect anomalies on the expected concave-up equilibrium stream-profile, which can result in local abrupt changes in stream gradient (i.e., knickpoints) and/or broad convexities on stream long-profiles extending for tens of kilometres (i.e., knickzones). The main goal of this work is the study of the morphological and morphometrical features in the southern sector of the Marche Region, with the aim to gain new knowledge on the influences of rock resistance and rock uplift on the fluvial and topographic system. The investigated area is situated in central Italy and it extends from the axial zone of the Umbria-Marche Apennines to the Adriatic Sea, including the southern sector of the Marche Region and belongs to the foredeep domain of the Apennines orogenic system, which has affected by tectonic activity up to very recent times. The rheology of outcropping deposits doesn't allow the strain to be easily recorded at the outcrop scale. The analyses have been aimed at to test the sensitivity of both SL and Ks for evaluating active crustal deformations, acting at different wavelengths on land surface, within a low tectonically active thrust-and-fold belt. Additional purpose was the understanding of the pattern of regional differential crustal activity in the topographic arrangement of the study area In this research project two sets of analysis were conducted. References Hack J.T. 1973. Stream-profile analysis and stream-gradient index. Journal of Research of the U.S. Geological Survey, 1, 421-429. Flint J.J. 1974. Stream gradient as a function of order, magnitude and discharge. Water Resources Research, 10, 969-973.

  6. Sectoral Analysis of Wind Speed and Turbulence Intensity over Forest and Open Land

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beyer, Elisabeth

    2015-04-01

    More and more wind turbines are built onshore and reduce the available areas for wind energy. Forests are an additional potential for wind energy priority areas. But the high roughness of wooden areas and the resulting turbulences make it difficult to assess sites in forests. In order to cope with this problem some measurements, using Lidar and met masts were done inside and outside wooden areas. Therefore, two posters were created, dealing with the dependence of turbulence intensity on wind speed and wind direction. This poster summarises the existing results, concentrating on the sectoral analysis of wind speed and turbulence intensity. Furthermore it investigates the differences of inflow over landcover with low and high surface roughnesses.

  7. "Climate change on Friuli Venezia Giulia (Italy): rapid temperature rise, new records of heavy precipitation and orographic effects on temperature extremes across Alps and Adriatic. Analysis of the data of the period 1991-2015 in comparison to the histori

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nordio, Sergio

    2016-04-01

    Friuli Venezia Giulia is weel-know as the wettest land of Italy with important yearly average from 1000 m over coastal zone to 3300 m over prealpine sector., and from 1991, OSMER has implemented a observative meteorological system and investigated over a pattern of meteorological phenomena, some oh this, typical of this zone, as strong rainfall precipitation, frequent thunderstorms with hail, strong wind Bora over the sea. During the last 25 years we have seen significant change in weather conditions, with a rapid rise of temperature and distribution, frequency and intensity of precipitation. The most frequent extension to high latitude of tropical high pressure and a irregularity of westerly circulation over Mediterranean zone cause a change of the distribution of precipitation, an increasing a strong and quickly rainfall, and a rapid increase in average temperatures, with many new heat and cold records. During the 1961-1990 time, but too in the past since the beginning of observation, the average precipitation is quiet stable, but in the last 25 years it's possible observe more variability with more frequency of period of abundance and scarcity. This extremes of variability of precipitations is even more significant over the last 15 years, with an exceptional peak in 2014. The temperature analysis shows a clear upward trend, more pronounced than the other Italian regions, with new records, due to the location and geography of the region, the bridge between the Alps, the Adriatic and the Balkans.

  8. The dynamics of the total output of the Japanese fisheries sector: An analysis using input-output approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuhdi, Ubaidillah

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the dynamics of the total output of the fisheries industry when the changes of the final demand occur. This study focuses on the case of Japan. This study employs a demand-pull Input-Output (IO) quantity model, one of the calculation instruments in the IO analysis, as an analysis tool. Two conditions are included in calculations and analysis parts, namely (1) “whole sector change”, and (2) “pure change”. An initial period in this study is 2005. The results show that, in both conditions, the analyzed sector has similar patterns, namely this industry obtains the positive impacts from scenarios 1, 3, and 4 while the negative impact is received from scenario 2. The results also expose that, in both conditions, the biggest positive impact for the discussed sector is given by scenario 4, the modification of the consumption expenditures of the private.

  9. Survey review of models for use in market penetration analysis: utility sector focus

    SciTech Connect

    Groncki, P.J.; Kydes, A.S.; Lamontagne, J.; Marcuse, W.; Vinjamuri, G.

    1980-11-01

    The ultimate benefits of federal expenditures in research and development for new technologies are dependent upon the degree of acceptance of these technologies. Market penetration considerations are central to the problem of quantifying the potential benefits. These benefits are inputs to the selection process of projects competing for finite R and D funds. Market penetration is the gradual acceptance of a new commodity or technology. The Office of Coal utilization is concerned with the specialized area of market penetration of new electric power generation technologies for both replacement and new capacity. The common measure of market penetration is the fraction of the market serviced by the challenging technology for each time point considered. The methodologies for estimating market penetration are divided into three generic classes: integrated energy/economy modeling systems, utility capacity expansion models, and technology substitution models. In general, the integrated energy/economy modeling systems have three advantages: they provide internally consistent macro, energy-economy scenarios, they account for the effect of prices on demand by fuel form, and they explicitly capture the effects of population growth and the level and structure of economic activity on energy demand. A variety of deficiencies appear in most energy-economy systems models. All of the methodologies may be applied at some level to questions of market penetration of new technologies in the utility sector; choice of methods for a particular analysis must be conditioned by the scope of the analysis, data availability, and the relative cost of alternative analysis.

  10. Cost analysis of Periodontitis management in public sector specialist dental clinics

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The objective of this paper is to quantify the cost of periodontitis management at public sector specialist periodontal clinic settings and analyse the distribution of cost components. Methods Five specialist periodontal clinics in the Ministry of Health represented the public sector in providing clinical and cost data for this study. Newly-diagnosed periodontitis patients (N = 165) were recruited and followed up for one year of specialist periodontal care. Direct and indirect costs from the societal viewpoint were included in the cost analysis. They were measured in 2012 Ringgit Malaysia (MYR) and estimated from the societal perspective using activity-based and step-down costing methods, and substantiated by clinical pathways. Cost of dental equipment, consumables and labour (average treatment time) for each procedure was measured using activity-based costing method. Meanwhile, unit cost calculations for clinic administration, utilities and maintenance used step-down approach. Patient expenditures and absence from work were recorded via diary entries. The conversion from MYR to Euro was based on the 2012 rate (1€ = MYR4). Results A total of 2900 procedures were provided, with an average cost of MYR 2820 (€705) per patient for the study year, and MYR 376 (€94) per outpatient visit. Out of this, 90% was contributed by provider cost and 10% by patient cost; 94% for direct cost and 4% for lost productivity. Treatment of aggressive periodontitis was significantly higher than for chronic periodontitis (t-test, P = 0.003). Higher costs were expended as disease severity increased (ANOVA, P = 0.022) and for patients requiring surgeries (ANOVA, P < 0.001). Providers generally spent most on consumables while patients spent most on transportation. Conclusions Cost of providing dental treatment for periodontitis patients at public sector specialist settings were substantial and comparable with some non-communicable diseases. These findings

  11. Rural-urban migration, informal sector and development policies: a theoretical analysis.

    PubMed

    Gupta, M R

    1993-06-01

    "A theoretical model of rural-urban migration has been developed with special reference to the informal sector. The wage rate and employment in the informal sector are determined endogenously. The paper shows the simultaneous existence of open unemployment and informal sector in the urban area in migration equilibrium. The effects of alternative subsidy policies on unemployment and welfare of the workers are studied." The model is intended primarily for use in analyzing trends and policies in developing countries. PMID:12344755

  12. Mound publications for 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Nowka, Stephen L.

    1992-05-01

    This document is a compilation of all Mound formal technical publications and oral presentations for calendar year 1991. It is intended to serve as an aid to personnel in obtaining or referring to specific publications by giving the proper complete reference for each information item published during the year. Some items, such as proceedings publications, may have issue dates or periods of coverage prior to 1991; however, they were formally published during 1991.

  13. Water flows, energy demand, and market analysis of the informal water sector in Kisumu, Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Sima, Laura C.; Kelner-Levine, Evan; Eckelman, Matthew J.; McCarty, Kathleen M.; Elimelech, Menachem

    2013-01-01

    In rapidly growing urban areas of developing countries, infrastructure has not been able to cope with population growth. Informal water businesses fulfill unmet water supply needs, yet little is understood about this sector. This paper presents data gathered from quantitative interviews with informal water business operators (n=260) in Kisumu, Kenya, collected during the dry season. Sales volume, location, resource use, and cost were analyzed by using material flow accounting and spatial analysis tools. Estimates show that over 76% of the city's water is consumed by less than 10% of the population who have water piped into their dwellings. The remainder of the population relies on a combination of water sources, including water purchased directly from kiosks (1.5 million m3 per day) and delivered by hand-drawn water-carts (0.75 million m3 per day). Energy audits were performed to compare energy use among various water sources in the city. Water delivery by truck is the highest per cubic meter energy demand (35 MJ/m3), while the city's tap water has the highest energy use overall (21,000 MJ/day). We group kiosks by neighborhood and compare sales volume and cost with neighborhood-level population data. Contrary to popular belief, we do not find evidence of price gouging; the lowest prices are charged in the highest-demand low-income area. We also see that the informal sector is sensitive to demand, as the number of private boreholes that serve as community water collection points are much larger where demand is greatest. PMID:23543887

  14. The impacts of final demand changes on total output of Indonesian ICT sectors: An analysis using input-output approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuhdi, Ubaidillah

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the impacts of final demand changes on total output of Indonesian Information and Communication Technology (ICT) sectors. This study employs Input-Output (IO) analysis as a tool of analysis. More specifically, demand-pull IO quantity model is applied in order to achieve the objective. "Whole sector change" and "pure change" conditions are considered in this study. The results of calculation show that, in both conditions, the biggest positive impact to the total output of the sectors is given by the change of households consumption while the change of import has a negative impact. One of the recommendations suggested from this study is to construct import restriction policy for ICT products.

  15. SEADS 3.0 Sectoral Energy/Employment Analysis and Data System

    SciTech Connect

    Roop, Joseph M.; Anderson, David A.; Schultz, Robert W.; Elliott, Douglas B.

    2007-12-17

    SEADS 3.0, the Sectoral Energy/Employment Analysis and Data System, is a revision and upgrading of SEADS--PC, a software package designed for the analysis of policy that could be described by modifying final demands of consumer, businesses, or governments (Roop, et al., 1995). If a question can be formulated so that implications can be translated into changes in final demands for goods and services, then SEADS 3.0 provides a quick and easy tool to assess preliminary impacts. And SEADS 3.0 should be considered just that: a quick and easy way to get preliminary results. Often a thorough answer, even to such a simple question as, “What would be the effect on U. S. energy use and employment if the Federal Government doubled R&D expenditures?” requires a more sophisticated analytical framework than the input-output structure embedded in SEADS 3.0. This tool uses a static, input-output model to assess the impacts of changes in final demands on first industry output, then employment and energy use. The employment and energy impacts are derived by multiplying the industry outputs (derived from the changed final demands) by industry-specific energy and employment coefficients. The tool also allows for the specification of regional or state employment impacts, though this option is not available for energy impacts.

  16. Greenhouse gas mitigation options in the forestry sector of The Gambia: Analysis based on COMAP model

    SciTech Connect

    Jallow, B.P.

    1996-12-31

    Results of the 1993 Greenhouse Gas Emissions Inventory of The Gambia showed net CO{sub 2} emissions of over (1.66 x 10{sup 6} tons) and 1% was due to uptake by plantations (0.01 x 10{sup 6} tons). This is a clear indication that there is need to identify changes in the land-use policy, law and tenure that discourages forest clearing at the same time significantly influencing the sustainable distribution of land among forestry, rangeland and livestock, and agriculture. About 11% of the total area of The Gambia is either fallow or barren flats that once supported vegetation and hence is still capable of supporting vegetation. The US Country Study Programme has provided the Government of The Gambia through the National Climate Committee funds to conduct Assessment of Mitigation Options to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions. The Forestry Sector is one area for which assessment is being conducted. The assessment is expected to end in September 1996. The Comprehensive Mitigation Analysis Process (COMAP) is one of the Models supplied to the National Climate Committee by the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, on behalf of the US Country Study Programme, and is being used to conduct the analysis in The Gambia.

  17. Local and Regional Interactions Between Air Quality and Climate in New Delhi -- a Sector Based Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marrapu, P.; Cheng, Y.; Carmichael, G. R.; Beig, G.; Spak, S.; Lin, M.; Decker, M.; Schultz, M. G.; Winiwarter, W.

    2011-12-01

    Out of the 26 mega-cities in the world, 13 of them are affected by atmospheric brown clouds with high aerosol loadings and 5 of them are in South Asia. New Delhi (India) is one of the world's most polluted megacities. In this study we evaluate the air pollution levels in Delhi and their impacts on weather and climate. The two way interactions between pollution and meteorology are evaluated using the WRF-Chem model. The analysis period is focused on October 2010, the time period of the Commonwealth Games. The model is compared to BC and PM2.5 measurements at 11 sites. A sector based analysis is performed to assess the contributions to pollution and direct radiative forcing from transport, residential, power and industrial emissions. The contributions from emissions outside of Delhi are also evaluated to see the extent that regional emissions need to be controlled to meet air quality targets in Delhi. Results of simulations for emission scenarios generated by the GAINS model that address air quality and climate strategies are also discussed

  18. Occupations in the Hotel Tourist Sector within the European Community. A Comparative Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peroni, Giovanni; Guerra, Duccio

    This report contains a directory of job profiles in the tourist/hotel sector that is based on seven national monographs. It provides an instrument for comparing factors that characterize practitioners working in the sector in Germany, Spain, France, Greece, Italy, Portugal, and the United Kingdom. A methodological note discusses study objectives,…

  19. Social dynamics of health inequalities: a growth curve analysis of aging and self assessed health in the British household panel survey 1991–2001

    PubMed Central

    Sacker, A.; Clarke, P.; Wiggins, R.; Bartley, M.

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: To study how social inequalities change as people age, this paper presents a growth curve model of self assessed health, which accommodates changes in occupational class and individual health with age. Design: Nationally representative interview based longitudinal survey of adults in Great Britain. Setting: Representative members of private households of Great Britain in 1991. Participants: Survey respondents (n = 6705), aged 21–59 years in 1991 and followed up annually until 2001. Main outcome measure: Self assessed health. Results: On average, self assessed health declines slowly from early adulthood to retirement age. No significant class differences in health were observed at age 21. Health inequalities emerged later in life with the gap between mean levels of self assessed health of those in managerial and professional occupations and routine occupations widening approaching retirement. Individual variability in health trajectories increased between ages 40 and 59 years so that this widening of mean differences between occupational classes was not significant. When the analysis is confined to people whose occupational class remained constant over time, a far greater difference in health trajectories between occupational classes was seen. Conclusions: The understanding of social inequalities in health at the population level is enriched by an analysis of individual variation in age related declines by social position. PMID:15911646

  20. Development and benefit analysis of a sector design algorithm for terminal dynamic airspace configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sciandra, Vincent

    The National Airspace System (NAS) is the vast network of systems enabling safe and efficient air travel in the United States. It consists of a set of static sectors, each controlled by one or more air traffic controllers. Air traffic control is tasked with ensuring that all flights can depart and arrive on time and in a safe and efficient matter. However, skyrocketing demand will only increase the stress on an already inefficient system, causing massive delays. The current, static configuration of the NAS cannot possibly handle the future demand on the system safely and efficiently, especially since it is projected to triple by 2025. To overcome these issues, the Next Generation of Air Transportation System (NextGen) is being enacted to increase the flexibility of the NAS. A major objective of NextGen is to implement Adaptable Dynamic Airspace Configuration (ADAC) which will dynamically allocate the sectors to best fit the traffic in the area. Dynamically allocating sectors will allow resources such as controllers to be better distributed to meet traffic demands. Currently, most DAC research has involved the en route airspace. This leaves the terminal airspace, which accounts for a large amount of the overall NAS complexity, in need of work. Using a combination of methods used in en route sectorization, this thesis has developed an algorithm for the dynamic allocation of sectors in the terminal airspace. This algorithm will be evaluated using metrics common in the evaluation of dynamic density, which is adapted for the unique challenges of the terminal airspace, and used to measure workload on air traffic controllers. These metrics give a better view of the controller workload than the number of aircraft alone. By comparing the test results with sectors currently used in the NAS using real traffic data, the algorithm xv generated sectors can be quantitatively evaluated for improvement of the current sectorizations. This will be accomplished by testing the

  1. Adoption of formal HIV and AIDS workplace policies: an analysis of industry/sector variations.

    PubMed

    Bakuwa, Rhoda

    2010-12-01

    Addressing HIV and AIDS is the responsibility of many stakeholders including private sector companies. However, increasing evidence reveals that the majority of companies around the world are yet to acknowledge and respond to HIV and AIDS as a workplace issue. One factor that has been identified in the literature as playing a role in determining whether a company responds to HIV and AIDS, or not, is the industry/sector in which a company operates. This study therefore sought to empirically examine whether in the context of Malawi there were significant variations in the adoption of formal HIV and AIDS workplace policies based on the industry/sector in which a company was operating, as well as analyse the dynamics underlying such variations. Using survey data collected from 152 randomly selected private sector companies in Malawi, the results of this study revealed significant variations in the adoption of HIV and AIDS workplace policies among companies operating in various sectors. Companies in the service sector were leading the adoption compared to companies in other sectors such as the trading sector. Furthermore, the evidence from this study showed that differences in staff participation in the activities of HIV and AIDS institutions may explain the industry/sector variations. These results provide an important avenue to scale up company responses to HIV and AIDS by intensifying staff participation in the activities of HIV and AIDS institutions. Such institutions appear to play a vital role of providing up to date HIV-and AIDS-related information upon which companies are able to develop a business case for responding to the epidemic. PMID:21409305

  2. Analysis of International Policies In The Solar Electricity Sector: Lessons for India

    SciTech Connect

    Deshmukh, Ranjit; Bharvirkar, Ranjit; Gambhir, Ashwin; Phadke, Amol

    2011-08-10

    Although solar costs are dropping rapidly, solar power is still more expensive than conventional and other renewable energy options. The solar sector still needs continuing government policy support. These policies are driven by objectives that go beyond the goal of achieving grid parity. The need to achieve multiple objectives and ensure sufficient political support for solar power makes it diffi cult for policy makers to design the optimal solar power policy. The dynamic and uncertain nature of the solar industry, combined with the constraints offered by broader economic, political and social conditions further complicates the task of policy making. This report presents an analysis of solar promotion policies in seven countries - Germany, Spain, the United States, Japan, China, Taiwan, and India - in terms of their outlook, objectives, policy mechanisms and outcomes. The report presents key insights, primarily in qualitative terms, and recommendations for two distinct audiences. The first audience consists of global policy makers who are exploring various mechanisms to increase the penetration of solar power in markets to mitigate climate change. The second audience consists of key Indian policy makers who are developing a long-term implementation plan under the Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission and various state initiatives.

  3. Analysis of the strain on employees in the retail sector considering work-life balance.

    PubMed

    Zülch, Gert; Stock, Patricia; Schmidt, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Many companies currently strive to support their employees' work-life balance through appropriate measures in order to improve employees' loyalty towards the company and to recruit new employees. In this context, flexibility in the area of working times is a measure that can influence employees' private lives immensely. This is why the individualisation of working time arrangements has been accorded high importance in current discussions on work-life balance. In this area, best practice examples can be found showing how working-time arrangements can improve the situation of the employees. It should be noted, however, that there is not one single perfect working-time model. A working-time model must always be adapted specifically to the actual situation of the company and the employees. Therefore, a targeted analysis of the challenges facing the company and the demands on the employees is essential for the creation of an appropriate working time policy. In particular, the employees' working-time preferences must be appropriately taken into account. Owing, however, to a combination of organisational complications and legal data protection restrictions, it is for the most part impossible to meet these working-time preferences in their entirety. This paper, which is based on an employee survey, illustrates the strain on employees in the retail sector and identifies different types of working-time preferences. PMID:22317125

  4. El Niño, Climate, and Cholera Associations in Piura, Peru, 1991-2001: A Wavelet Analysis.

    PubMed

    Ramírez, Iván J; Grady, Sue C

    2016-03-01

    In Peru, it was hypothesized that epidemic cholera in 1991 was linked to El Niño, the warm phase of El Niño-Southern Oscillation. While previous studies demonstrated an association in 1997-1998, using cross-sectional data, they did not assess the consistency of this relationship across the decade. Thus, how strong or variable an El Niño-cholera relationship was in Peru or whether El Niño triggered epidemic cholera early in the decade remains unknown. In this study, wavelet and mediation analyses were used to characterize temporal patterns among El Niño, local climate variables (rainfall, river discharge, and air temperature), and cholera incidence in Piura, Peru from 1991 to 2001 and to estimate the mediating effects of local climate on El Niño-cholera relationships. The study hypothesis is that El Niño-related connections with cholera in Piura were transient and interconnected via local climate pathways. Overall, our findings provide evidence that a strong El Niño-cholera link, mediated by local hydrology, existed in the latter part of the 1990s but found no evidence of an El Niño association in the earlier part of the decade, suggesting that El Niño may not have precipitated cholera emergence in Piura. Further examinations of cholera epicenters in Peru are recommended to support these results in Piura. For public health planning, the results may improve existing efforts that utilize El Niño monitoring for preparedness during future climate-related extremes in the region. PMID:26832694

  5. A storm time assimilative mapping of ionospheric electrodynamics analysis for the severe geomagnetic storm of November 8-9, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, M.L.; Clauer, C.R.; Emery, B.A.

    1995-10-01

    Global parameters are obtained for the November 8-9, 1991, severe geomagnetic storm with the application of a slightly modified version of the Assimilative Mapping of Ionospheric Electrodynamics (AMIE) data inversion model. Inputs to the model include ground magnetometer data, satellite electron precipitation data, satellite ion drift data, and ion drift velocities obtained from radar measurements. The authors compare two of the AMIE computed parameters, the total Joule heating and the polar cap potential, to both the AE (12) index and the AE{sub AMIE} index, an AMIE modeled AE index created specifically for severe storm times. The equation obtained from a linear fit to the total Joule heating versus the AE{sub AMIE} index, closely resembles other equations found during much less disturbed times using the AE(12) index. These results using the AE(12) index appear to saturate at a level around 1300 nT. However, this saturation is associated with the calculation of the AE(12) index and not a physical result. An apparent saturation can also be seen in the comparison of the polar cap potential with the AE(12) index, but this is not the case when using the AE{sub AMIE} index. The comparison between the polar cap potential and the AE{sub AMIE} index yields an approximate linear relationship with a correlation coefficient of 0.80. From these results, the authors find that the magnitude of the auroral electrojets and the polar cap potential drop do not show signs of saturation at the activity levels that were present during the November 8-9, 1991 severe storm. 37 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Spatial analysis of low carbon development 2050: A case of residential sector, Bhopal, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheolikar, P.; Yawale, S.; Puntambekar, K.; Kapshe, M.

    2014-02-01

    Indian cities are witnessing economic development, urbanization and lifestyle changes, leading to increase in Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions. In cities, sectors contributing to GHG emission are residential sector, transport and waste sector. In order to reduce emission, it is important to assess how individual city can contribute to emission reduction to become a Low Carbon Society (LCS). In this paper, we have analyzed residential sector of Bhopal City at ward level for demand side management through energy efficiency and lifestyle change. Two LCS, countermeasure scenarios CM1 and CM2 along with a Business as Usual scenario are developed and emission reduction potential is quantified using the AIM/Enduse model up to year 2050. The quantitative results are represented in spatial format using Geographical Information System (GIS) software providing a better understanding for decision makers.

  7. The European space sector in a global context - ESA's annual analysis 2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battrick, Bruce

    2005-05-01

    This report provides an overview of the European space sector in a global context. It takes into account the geopolitical and economic changes that occurred in the World during 2004 and are of importance to the current and future development of the European space sector. It therefore provides facts and figures with regard to the latest state of European space policies and industry, while putting recent developments into perspective with the situation of other space powers, notably the United States.

  8. Decoupling of greenhouse gas emissions from global agricultural production: 1970-2050.

    PubMed

    Bennetzen, Eskild H; Smith, Pete; Porter, John R

    2016-02-01

    Since 1970 global agricultural production has more than doubled; contributing ~1/4 of total anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) burden in 2010. Food production must increase to feed our growing demands, but to address climate change, GHG emissions must decrease. Using an identity approach, we estimate and analyse past trends in GHG emission intensities from global agricultural production and land-use change and project potential future emissions. The novel Kaya-Porter identity framework deconstructs the entity of emissions from a mix of multiple sources of GHGs into attributable elements allowing not only a combined analysis of the total level of all emissions jointly with emissions per unit area and emissions per unit product. It also allows us to examine how a change in emissions from a given source contributes to the change in total emissions over time. We show that agricultural production and GHGs have been steadily decoupled over recent decades. Emissions peaked in 1991 at ~12 Pg CO2 -eq. yr(-1) and have not exceeded this since. Since 1970 GHG emissions per unit product have declined by 39% and 44% for crop- and livestock-production, respectively. Except for the energy-use component of farming, emissions from all sources have increased less than agricultural production. Our projected business-as-usual range suggests that emissions may be further decoupled by 20-55% giving absolute agricultural emissions of 8.2-14.5 Pg CO2 -eq. yr(-1) by 2050, significantly lower than many previous estimates that do not allow for decoupling. Beyond this, several additional costcompetitive mitigation measures could reduce emissions further. However, agricultural GHG emissions can only be reduced to a certain level and a simultaneous focus on other parts of the food-system is necessary to increase food security whilst reducing emissions. The identity approach presented here could be used as a methodological framework for more holistic food systems analysis. PMID:26451699

  9. Statistical analysis of thermospheric density response to solar wind sector structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Dongjie; Lei, Jiuhou; Dou, Xiankang

    2015-06-01

    The global averaged thermospheric mass density data during 1967-2007 are analyzed to investigate thermospheric response to solar wind sector structure. Well-defined solar wind sectors have polarities of interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) toward (+Bx, -By) or away (-Bx, +By) from the Sun for multiple days. In March, thermospheric mass densities increase from the away to toward polarities, with a maximum density perturbation of ~23% at 400 km with respect to the 11 day averages; they decline from the toward to away polarities, and the maximum reduction at 400 km can reach 12%, which is associated with a weakened heating effect of the geomagnetic activity. In September, thermospheric densities respond in an opposite way to the same sector structure as compared with the March results. In solstice seasons, thermospheric density variations in response to solar wind sector structure are typically smaller than 10% relative to the 11 day averages. Besides the seasonal dependence, relative density changes tend to become greater at higher altitude and lower solar activity. However, during solar minimum the density variations at 550 km are not substantially larger than those at 400 km due to the possible descending of the transition altitude between helium and atomic oxygen. Moreover, the corotating interaction region (CIR) has a high probability to occur around the sector boundary. Consequently, the CIR effects account for one third of the density enhancement at 400 km during ineffective-effective sectors, whereas the density reduction associated with effective-ineffective sectors can be impaired by about 50%, which is independent of altitude.

  10. Generalized cost-effectiveness analysis for national-level priority-setting in the health sector

    PubMed Central

    Hutubessy, Raymond; Chisholm, Dan; Edejer, Tessa Tan-Torres

    2003-01-01

    Cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) is potentially an important aid to public health decision-making but, with some notable exceptions, its use and impact at the level of individual countries is limited. A number of potential reasons may account for this, among them technical shortcomings associated with the generation of current economic evidence, political expediency, social preferences and systemic barriers to implementation. As a form of sectoral CEA, Generalized CEA sets out to overcome a number of these barriers to the appropriate use of cost-effectiveness information at the regional and country level. Its application via WHO-CHOICE provides a new economic evidence base, as well as underlying methodological developments, concerning the cost-effectiveness of a range of health interventions for leading causes of, and risk factors for, disease. The estimated sub-regional costs and effects of different interventions provided by WHO-CHOICE can readily be tailored to the specific context of individual countries, for example by adjustment to the quantity and unit prices of intervention inputs (costs) or the coverage, efficacy and adherence rates of interventions (effectiveness). The potential usefulness of this information for health policy and planning is in assessing if current intervention strategies represent an efficient use of scarce resources, and which of the potential additional interventions that are not yet implemented, or not implemented fully, should be given priority on the grounds of cost-effectiveness. Health policy-makers and programme managers can use results from WHO-CHOICE as a valuable input into the planning and prioritization of services at national level, as well as a starting point for additional analyses of the trade-off between the efficiency of interventions in producing health and their impact on other key outcomes such as reducing inequalities and improving the health of the poor. PMID:14687420

  11. 1991 research and technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Selected research and technology activities at Ames Research Center, including the Moffett Field site and the Dryden Flight Research Facility, are summarized. These activities exemplify the Center's varied and productive research efforts for 1991.

  12. Minerals yearbook, 1991: Nonrenewable organic materials. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Simmons, M.R.; Kelly, T.D.

    1993-05-01

    Mrs. Simmons, industrial program manager with the Branch of Materials of the U.S. Bureau of Mines, directs work in the analysis of the petroleum, petrochemical, and plastic industries as related to the application of nonrenewable organic materials in major industrial sectors. Mr. Kelly, materials specialist in the Materials Engineering Group at the Minerals Availability Office of the U.S. Bureau of Mines, has over 6 years of experience in the petroleum industry. Some of the data were prepared by John Sznopeke, materials specialist in the Materials Engineering Group at the Minerals Availability Field Office. The data were obtained from a variety of sources, including the Annual Energy Review 1991 from the Energy Information Administration, U.S. Department of Energy; the Department of Commerce; and a wide variety of industry contacts.

  13. Social network analysis of multi-level linkages: a Swedish case study on Northern Forest-Based sectors.

    PubMed

    Keskitalo, E Carina H; Baird, Julia; Laszlo Ambjörnsson, Emmeline; Plummer, Ryan

    2014-10-01

    Forest use in Northern Sweden is being influenced both by global trends and local situations. This results in interactions between numerous groups that may impact local forest governance. Social network analysis can here provide insight into the total pattern of positive, negative, and cross-level interactions within user group community structure (within and among groups). This study analyses interactions within selected renewable resource sectors in two northern Swedish municipalities, both with regard to whether they are positive, neutral, or negative, as well as with regard to how local actors relate to actors across levels, e.g., with regional, national, and international actors. The study illustrates that many interactions both within and outside a given sector are seen as neutral or positive, and that considerable interaction and impact are defined as national and in some cases even international. It also indicates that the impact of Sweden's only existing Model Forest may to some extent constitute a bridge between different sectors and levels, in comparison with the interactions between sectors in a municipality where such a cooperation mechanism does not exist. PMID:24570210

  14. Analysis of the occupational, consumer and environmental exposure to engineered nanomaterials used in 10 technology sectors.

    PubMed

    Nowack, Bernd; Brouwer, Connie; Geertsma, Robert E; Heugens, Evelyn H W; Ross, Bryony L; Toufektsian, Marie-Claire; Wijnhoven, Susan W P; Aitken, Robert J

    2013-09-01

    Humans and the environment can come into contact with nanomaterials through a wide range of applications during all stages of the life cycle of nanoproducts. The aim of this commentary is to present an assessment of the potential for exposure and thus identify possible environmental, health and safety (EHS) issues for nanomaterials used in 10 technology sectors. We analysed all life cycle stages with regard to potential for exposure of workers, consumers/patients, and the environment. A wide variety of nanomaterials are used of which many have negligible potential for exposure, while others have medium or even high potential for exposure. Based on the likelihood of exposure, it appears that in general most attention should be paid to the agrifood, chemistry/materials, textiles and health sectors; and less to the information and communication technology (ICT), security and energy sectors. Toxicity and exposure are both important; however, the EHS impact of nanomaterials is always dependent on their particular use. PMID:22783888

  15. Comparative estimated effectiveness of antibiotic classes as initial and secondary treatments of respiratory tract infections: longitudinal analysis of routine data from UK primary care 1991-2012.

    PubMed

    Berni, Ellen; Butler, Chris C; Jenkins-Jones, Sara; de Voogd, Hanka; Ouwens, Mario; Morgan, Christopher Ll; Currie, Craig J

    2016-06-01

    Purpose To compare the estimated effectiveness of seven frequently prescribed antibiotic classes as initial and secondary treatments of upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) and lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) 1991-2012. The main outcome measure was a surrogate for estimated antibiotic effectiveness. Methods Routine, primary care data from the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) were used. Having established standardized criteria representing antibiotic treatment failure, estimated treatment effectiveness rates were calculated as one minus the treatment failure rate. For each year from 1991 to 2012, estimated effectiveness rates by treatment line, indication, and sub-indication were calculated. These were presented by antibiotic class, with a sub-analysis for the macrolide clarithromycin. Findings From approximately 58 million antibiotic prescriptions in CPRD, we analyzed 8,654,734 courses of antibiotic monotherapy: 4,825,422 courses (56%) were associated with URTI; 3,829,312 (44%) were associated with LRTI. Amino-penicillins (4,148,729 [56%]), penicillins (1,304,561 [18%]), and macrolides (944,622 [13%]) predominated as initial treatments; macrolides (375,903 [32%]), aminopenicillins (275,866 [23%]), and cephalosporins (159,954 [14%]) as secondary treatments. Macrolides and aminopenicillins had estimated effectiveness rates ≥80% across the study period as initial treatments of URTI and LRTI. In secondary use, only macrolides maintained these rates: 80.7% vs. 79.8% in LRTI, 85.1% vs. 84.5% in throat infections, 80.7% vs. 82.3% in nasal infections, 83.5% vs. 83.8% in unspecified URTI in 1991 and 2012, respectively. Implications After more than two decades, macrolides remained amongst the most effective antibiotic classes for both URTI and LRTI in initial and secondary antibiotic treatment when a further antibiotic course was prescribed. Limitations Antibiotic treatments were classified as intention to treat. It is unknown whether the

  16. Archaeology: site studies, activation analysis, preservation, and remote sensing. December 1979-December 1980 (citations from the NTIS Data Base). Report for December 1970-December 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    These citations of federally-funded research contains the chemical analysis of archaeological specimens, as well as general studies. The chemical analysis deals primarily with activation analysis. Articles examined include metals, pottery, coins, paintings, soils, glass, and paper from Medieval, Grecian, Egyptian, Mayan, and prehistoric times. The general studies cites other archaeological research, including results of excavation from the United States. Also covered is work on preservation of artifacts and remote sensing for the site location. (This updated bibliography contains 133 citations, all of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  17. Relationships between regional economic sectors and water use in a water-scarce area in China: A quantitative analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Weiping; Gao, Lei; Liu, Pin; Hailu, Atakelty

    2014-07-01

    Northern China has been facing severe water scarcity as a result of vigorous economic growth, population expansion and changing lifestyles. A typical case is Shandong province whose water resources per capita is approximately only a sixth of the national average and a twentieth of the global average. It is useful to assess the implications of the province’s growth and trade patterns for water use and water conservation strategies. This study quantitatively analyses relationships between regional economic sectors and water use in Shandong using an input-output model for virtual water resources. The changes in key indicators for 1997-2007 are tracked and the effects of water-saving policies on these changes are examined. The results highlight the benefits of applying a virtual water trade analysis on a water-scarce region where water resources exhibit highly heterogeneous temporal and geographical distributions. The net export of virtual water in Shandong was initially large, but this declined over the years and the province has recently become a net importer. Between 1997 and 2002, water use in most sectors increased due to rapid urbanisation and industrialisation. Since then, water use in all Shandong economic sectors exhibit a downward trend despite continued increases in goods and services net exports, a trend which can be attributed to the vigorous implementation of water-saving policies and measures, especially water use quotas. Economic sectors consume water directly and indirectly and understanding the pattern of virtual water trade implied by sectoral relationships is important for managing water scarcity problems. This study fills the knowledge gap in the existing literature created by the lack of case studies that dynamically assess virtual water trade and analyse the effects of water-saving policies and measures. The study draws policy recommendations that are relevant for future water planning in Shandong and other regions in northern China.

  18. Leadership Strategies of Performance Measures Impacts in Public Sector Management: A National Content Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kubala, James Joseph

    A quantitative and qualitative study examined three leadership strategies found in performance-based management (human resource, scientific management and political strategies used in public sector management); a framework by which performance measurement (PM) supports leadership strategies; and how the strategies impact PM. It examined leadership…

  19. A Market Analysis of the Latter Half of the Nineteenth-Century American Higher Education Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edirisooriya, Gunapala

    2009-01-01

    Most of the basic features of the American higher education sector started to evolve during the latter half of the nineteenth century. In response to the deficient demand in higher education, the suppliers (higher education institutions) adopted various marketing strategies to stay afloat in the market. Such strategies not only contributed a great…

  20. Sector-Based Analysis of the Education-Occupation Mismatch in the Turkish Labor Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercan, Murat Anil; Karakas, Mesut; Citci, Sadettin Haluk; Babacan, Mehmet

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the existence of sectorial undereducation and overeducation problems in the Turkish labor market. In order to cope with this issue, the 2009 Household Labor Force Survey (TurkStat), which covers 145,934 individuals within 27 sectors, was utilized. An objective measure of education-occupation mismatch based…

  1. Economic analysis of the water demand in the hotels and restaurants sector: Shadow prices and elasticities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angulo, Ana; Atwi, Majed; Barberán, Ramón; Mur, Jesús

    2014-08-01

    Despite the growing economic importance of tourism, and its impact on relative water shortage, little is known about the role that water plays in the productive process of hotels and restaurants and, therefore, the possible implications of water demand management policy for this sector. This study aims to fill this gap. It is based on the microdata of 676 firms in the sector, operating in the city of Zaragoza (Spain) for a 12 year period. Based on the Translog cost function, we estimate the shadow price of water in the short run and, from a long-run perspective, its direct price elasticity, its cross elasticities relative to labor, capital, and supplies, and its elasticity with respect to the level of output. The results obtained show that water provides sector firms returns that are on average higher than its price, although in the case of hotels the margin is really narrow. This situation provides policy makers with a margin for applying price increases without affecting the sector's viability, with some caution in the case of hotels. Water demand elasticity equals -0.38 in the case of hotels, but it is not significant in the case of restaurants and bar-cafes; hence, only in hotels is there potential for influencing water use patterns, encouraging the resource's conservation through pricing policy. Moreover, capital is a substitutive factor of water, and the elasticity of water with respect to output is 0.40, all of which should also be considered by policy makers in water resource management.

  2. Severe malaria--analysis of prognostic symptoms and signs in 169 patients treated in Gdynia in 1991-2005.

    PubMed

    Goljan, Jolanta; Nahorski, Wacław Leszek; Wroczyńska, Agnieszka; Felczak-Korzybska, Iwona; Pietkiewicz, Halina

    2006-01-01

    In the period 1991-2005, 169 patients with the diagnosis of malaria were hospitalized in the Department of Tropical and Parasitic Diseases, Institute of Maritime and Tropical Medicine in Gdynia (from 2003--the Academic Centre of Maritime and Tropical Medicine, Medical University of Gdańsk). All the cases were analysed for severity, occurrence of complications and permanent sequelae of the disease. According to the criteria set by the WHO (5), malaria was classified as severe in 36 cases. All of them were Plasmodium falciparum infections or mixed infections: P. f. and another species of the parasite. Patients in this group developed a number of complications, inter alia shock, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), acute renal failure, blackwater fever, severe anemia, disseminated intravascular coagulation, myocarditis, consciousness disorders of varied degree, acute transient psychoses, and exacerbation of ischemic heart disease. In one case of a pregnant woman, necrosis of the fetus occurred in the course of disease in the 4th month of pregnancy. Moreover, meningoencephalitis was diagnosed in two patients--in one of them concurrently with symptoms and signs of malaria, while in the other one-3 weeks after the symptoms subsided. In 6 patients, permanent sequelae of the disease developed and in 4 patients the disease was fatal. The cause of death was multi-organ failure, with the first sign of poor prognosis being rapidly progressing renal failure resistant to treatment in three men; in one case death resulted from cerebral malaria. In cases of suspected malaria, relapsing malaria or in mixed infections, molecular testing was a valuable complementary tool of diagnosis, which helped in beginning the appropriate treatment. PMID:17312703

  3. Analysis of Aircraft Clusters to Measure Sector-Independent Airspace Congestion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bilimoria, Karl D.; Lee, Hilda Q.

    2005-01-01

    The Distributed Air/Ground Traffic Management (DAG-TM) concept of operations* permits appropriately equipped aircraft to conduct Free Maneuvering operations. These independent aircraft have the freedom to optimize their trajectories in real time according to user preferences; however, they also take on the responsibility to separate themselves from other aircraft while conforming to any local Traffic Flow Management (TFM) constraints imposed by the air traffic service provider (ATSP). Examples of local-TFM constraints include temporal constraints such as a required time of arrival (RTA), as well as spatial constraints such as regions of convective weather, special use airspace, and congested airspace. Under current operations, congested airspace typically refers to a sector(s) that cannot accept additional aircraft due to controller workload limitations; hence Dynamic Density (a metric that is indicative of controller workload) can be used to quantify airspace congestion. However, for Free Maneuvering operations under DAG-TM, an additional metric is needed to quantify the airspace congestion problem from the perspective of independent aircraft. Such a metric would enable the ATSP to prevent independent aircraft from entering any local areas of congestion in which the flight deck based systems and procedures may not be able to ensure separation. This new metric, called Gaggle Density, offers the ATSP a mode of control to regulate normal operations and to ensure safety and stability during rare-normal or off-normal situations (e.g., system failures). It may be difficult to certify Free Maneuvering systems for unrestricted operations, but it may be easier to certify systems and procedures for specified levels of Gaggle Density that could be monitored by the ATSP, and maintained through relatively minor flow-rate (RTA type) restrictions. Since flight deck based separation assurance is airspace independent, the challenge is to measure congestion independent of sector

  4. An application of multiplier analysis in analyzing the role of information and communication technology sectors on Indonesian national economy: 1990-2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuhdi, Ubaidillah

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to continue the previous studies which focused on Indonesian Information and Communication Technology (ICT) sectors. More specifically, this study aims to analyze the role of ICT sectors on Indonesian national economy using simple household income multiplier, one of the analysis tools in Input-Output (IO) analysis. The analysis period of this study is from 1990-2005. The results show that the sectors did not have an important role on the national economy of Indonesia on the period. Besides, the results also show that, from the point of view of the multiplier, Indonesian national economy tended to stable during the period.

  5. Women's Labor Force Participation and Socioeconomic Development: The Case of Peninsular Malaysia, 1957-1970.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirschman, Charles; Aghajanian, Akbar

    Using 1957 and 1970 census data, four independent variables were used to explore determinants and constraints of Malaysian women's participation in the modern sector: ethnic community, educational attainment, size of place of residence, and marital/family status. Women's labor force participation increased as agricultural employment declined and a…

  6. Is Deindustrialization Causing High Unemployment in Affluent Countries? Evidence from 16 OECD Countries, 1970-2003

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kollmeyer, Christopher; Pichler, Florian

    2013-01-01

    This study assesses the possibility that deindustrialization has been contributing to the persistently high unemployment rates experienced by most affluent countries since the mid-1970s. Combining insights from Lilien's (1982) "sectoral shift" thesis and the literature on deindustrialization, the authors assert that the decades-long contraction of…

  7. Manpower Research in the 1970's.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palomba, Neil A., Ed.; Jakubauskas, Edward B., Ed.

    Manpower research needs for the 1970's and the development and purpose of manpower research centers were the themes of a 1-week summer Manpower Research Institute held at Ames, Iowa in 1970. Sponsored by the Industrial Relations Center and funded by the U.S. Department of Labor's Manpower Institutional Grant Program, this interdisciplinary…

  8. Women on Campus: 1970; A Symposium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor. Center for Continuing Education for Women.

    The symposium: Women on Campus, 1970, held at Michigan University on October 14, 1970, centered on 3 major topics: "Toward a New Psychology of Women"; "The Case of the Woman Graduate Student"; and "The University and Women." The papers that were presented concerning the first topic included: "Internal Barriers to Achievement in Women--An…

  9. Australian Communication Scholarship: 1970-beyond 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irwin, Harry

    The development of Australian communication studies has closely followed capitalization upon the opportunities provided by major structural changes in the higher education system in the early 1970s and the late 1980s as well as those provided by disciplinary development and student demand. Before 1970, little in the way of communication studies…

  10. California energy flow in 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Borg, I.Y.; Briggs, C.K.

    1993-04-01

    Energy consumption in California fell in 1991 for the first time in five years. The State`s economy was especially hard hit by a continuing national recession. The construction industry for the second year experienced a dramatic downturn. Energy use in the industrial sector showed a modest increase, but consumption in other end-use categories declined. The decrease in energy used in transportation can be traced to a substantial fall in the sales of both highway diesel fuels and vessel bunkering fuels at California ports, the latter reflecting a mid-year increase in taxes. Gasoline sales by contrast increased as did the number of miles traveled and the number of automobiles in the State. Production in California`s oil and gas fields was at 1990 levels thus arresting a steady decline in output. Due to enlarged steam flooding operations, production at several fields reached record levels. Also countering the decline in many of California fields was new production from the Port Arguello offshore field. California natural gas production, despite a modest 1991 increase, will not fill the use within the State. Petroleum comprised more than half of the State`s energy supply principally for transportation. Natural gas use showed a small increase. Oil products play virtually no role in electrical production. The largest single source of electricity to the State is imports from the Pacific Northwest and from coal-fired plants in the Southwest. Combined contributions to transmitted electricity from renewable and alternate sources declined as hydropower was constrained by a prolonged drought and as geothermal power from the largest and oldest field at The Geysers fell. Windpower grew slightly; however solar power remained at 1990 levels and made no substantial contribution to total power generation.

  11. FPL's Christmas 1991 transmission outages

    SciTech Connect

    Burnham, J.T.; Busch, D.W.; Renowden, J.D. . Transmission Line Dept.)

    1993-10-01

    A record number of contamination related outages occurred on FPL transmission lines during Christmas of 1991 and resulted in an investigation of inservice insulator performance. The field investigation process used was enhanced by recent improvements in outage data recording. Also used in the analysis were weather information, the results of recently completed accelerated aging tests of polymers, and specially conducted tests on the effects of weathering steel stain on porcelain insulators. Specific insulator problems were identified and actions taken to reduce the possibility of recurrence.

  12. Pollen calendar of the city of Salamanca (Spain). Aeropalynological analysis for 1981-1982 and 1991-1992.

    PubMed

    Hernández Prieto, M; Lorente Toledano, F; Romo Cortina, A; Dávila González, I; Laffond Yges, E; Calvo Bullón, A

    1998-01-01

    We report a study on the contents of airborne pollen in the city of Salamanca (Spain) aimed at establishing a pollen calendar for the city for the yearly periods of maximum concentrations, relating these with quantifiable atmospheric variables over two two-year periods with an interval of 10 years between them: 1981-82 and 1991-92. The pollen was captured with Burkard spore-traps, based on Hirst's volumetric method. Determinations were made daily and were used to make preparations, previously stained with basic fuscin, for study under light microscopy at x 1,000 magnification. 946 preparations were analyzed, corresponding to the same number of days distributed over 150 weeks of the periods studied. The results afforded the identification of 48 different types of pollen grain: Grasses (Poaceae), Olea europea (olive), Quercus rotundifolia (Holm-oak), other Quercus spp. (Q. pyrenaica, Q. suber, Q. faginea, etc.), Cupressaceae (Cupressus sempervivens, C. arizonica, Juniperus communis etc.), Plantago (Plantago lanceolata, Plantago media, etc.), Pinaceae (Pinus communis, Abies alba, etc.), Rumex sp. (osier), Urtica dioica (nettle), Parietaria (Parietaria officinalis, P. judaica), Chenopodio-Amaranthaceae (Chenopodium sp., Amaranthus sp., Salsola kali, etc.), Artemisia vulgaris (Artemisia), other Compositae (Taraxacum officinalis, Hellianthus sp. etc.), Castanea sativa (Chestnut), Ligustrum sp. (privet), Betula sp. (birch), Alnus sp. (common alder), Fraxinus sp (ash), Populus sp. (poplar), Salix sp. (willow), Ulmus sp. (elm), Platanus sp. (plantain, plane), Carex sp. (sweet flag), Erica sp. (common heather), Leguminosae or Fabaceae:--Papillionaceae (Medicago sp.; Cercis sp., Robina sp.)--Cesalpinoideae Acacia sp. (Acacia),--Mimosoideae: Sophora japonica, Umbelliferae (Foeniculum sp., Cirsium sp., etc.), Centaurea sp., Cistus sp. (rock rose), Typha sp (bulrush), Mirtaceae (Myrtus communis), Juglans regia (Walnut), Galium verum, Filipendula sp. (spirea/drop wort), Rosaceae

  13. The Analytic Onion: Examining Training Issues from Different Levels of Analysis. Interim Technical Paper for Period July 1989-June 1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamb, Theodore A.; Chin, Keric B. O.

    This paper proposes a conceptual framework based on different levels of analysis using the metaphor of the layers of an onion to help organize and structure thinking on research issues concerning training. It discusses the core of the "analytic onion," the biological level, and seven levels of analysis that surround that core: the individual, the…

  14. Local and regional interactions between air quality and climate in New Delhi- A sector based analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marrapu, Pallavi

    Deteriorating air quality is one of the major problems faced worldwide and in particular in Asia. The world's most polluted megacities are located in Asia highlighting the urgent need for efforts to improve the air quality. New Delhi (India), one of the world's most polluted cities, was the host of the Common Wealth Games during the period of 4-14 October 2010. This high profile event provided a good opportunity to accelerate efforts to improve air quality. Computational advances now allow air quality forecast models to fully couple the meteorology with chemical constituents within a unified modeling system that allows two-way interactions. The WRF-Chem model is used to simulate air quality in New Delhi. The thesis focuses on evaluating air quality and meteorology feedbacks. Four nested domains ranging from South Asia, Northern India, NCR Delhi and Delhi city at 45km, 15km, 5km and 1.67km resolution for a period of 20 day (26th Sep--15th Oct, 2010) are used in the study. The predicted mean surface concentrations of various pollutants show similar spatial distributions with peak values in the middle of the domain reflecting the traffic and population patterns in the city. Along with these activities, construction dust and industrial emissions contribute to high levels of criteria pollutants. The study evaluates the WRF-Chem capabilities using a new emission inventory developed over Delhi at a fine resolution of 1.67km and evaluating the results with observational data from 11 monitoring sties placed at various Game venues. The contribution of emission sectors including transportation, power, industry, and domestic to pollutant concentrations at targeted regions are studied and the results show that transportation and domestic sector are the major contributors to the pollution levels in Delhi, followed by industry. Apart from these sectors, emissions outside of Delhi contribute 20-50% to surface concentrations depending on the species. This indicates that pollution

  15. Development Communication Report, 1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Development Communication Report, 1991

    1991-01-01

    The four 1991 issues of the newsletter "Development Communication Report" are primarily concerned with the use of communication technologies in developing countries to educate the people. Evaluation is the theme of the first issue, which contains the following articles: "Evaluating Communication Programs: Means and Ends,""Making a Splash: How…

  16. English Leadership Quarterly. 1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strickland, James, Ed.

    1991-01-01

    These four issues of the English Leadership Quarterly represent the quarterly for 1991. Articles in number 1 deal with whole language and include: "CEL: Shorter and Better" (Myles D. Eley); "Toward a New Philosophy of Language Learning" (Kathleen Strickland); "Whole Language: Implications for Secondary Classrooms" (Barbara King-Shaver); "Whole…

  17. Commercial fertilizers 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Hargett, N.L.; Berry, J.T.; Montgomery, M.H.

    1991-12-01

    This document contains consumption data for commercial fertilizers in the USA for 1991. Graphical information on the consumption by class is given for the nation. State by state data for consumption of several types of commercial fertilizers are presented. Only numerical data is included.

  18. International Relations Program, 1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doyle, Robert P.

    This brochure describes the following 1991 international relations programs of the American Library Association (ALA): (1) the Books for Romania Program, which resulted in donations of books, journals, microfilm products, and microfilm readers valued at approximately $5 million to Rumanian libraries; (2) the Colloquium on Library Science, a…

  19. The footwear factory's assembly sector: opposing organizational structure and quality from the ergonomic work analysis.

    PubMed

    Silva, Kláudia M M N; Coelho, Bernardo G P; Junior, Josemir V S; Faria, Luiz F M; Dutra, Ludmila; Alvarenga, Marília; Roggini, Renan; Echternach, Eliza Helena de Oliveira

    2012-01-01

    Data from 2006 indicated that Brazilian footwear leather industry was composed of approximately 9,488 formally registered establishments, considering the leather industry, footwear and leather goods. It was responsible for 211,582 people employed. However, in spite of having many employees, this kind of organization found several problems when analyzed from the ergonomics view. With this premise, then, in order to identify bottlenecks and other engineering problems that could cause discomfort and motivation lack among workers, leading directly to the loss of the product quality, the assembly sector of women's shoes factory was characterized. PMID:22316956

  20. Analysis of the gas-lubricated flat-sector-pad thrust bearing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Etsion, I.

    1976-01-01

    A flat sector-shaped pad geometry for a gas-lubricated thrust bearing is analyzed considering both the pitch and roll of the pad. It is shown that maximum load capacity is achieved when the pad is tilted so as to create uniform minimum film thickness along the pad trailing edge. Performance characteristics for various geometries and operating conditions of gas thrust bearings are presented in the form of design curves, and a comparison is made with the rectangular slider approximation. It is found that this approximation is unsafe for practical design, since it always overestimates load capacity.

  1. Models for residential- and commercial-sector energy-conservation analysis: applications, limitations, and future potential. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, Henry E.; Fullen, Robert E.

    1980-09-01

    This report reviews four of the major models used by the Department of Energy (DOE) for energy conservation analyses in the residential- and commercial-building sectors. The objective is to provide a critical analysis of how these models can serve as tools for DOE and its Conservation Policy Office in evaluating and quantifying their policy and program requirements. For this, the study brings together information on the models' analytical structure and their strengths and limitations in policy applications these are then employed to assess the most-effective role for each model in addressing future issues of buildings energy-conservation policy and analysis. The four models covered are: Oak Ridge Residential Energy Model; Micro Analysis of Transfers to Households/Comprehensive Human Resources Data System (MATH/CHRDS) Model; Oak Ridge Commercial Energy Model; and Brookhaven Buildings Energy Conservation Optimization Model (BECOM).

  2. The Forgotten Minority: An Analysis of American Indian Employment Patterns in State and Local Governments, 1991-2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Valerie H.; Kerr, Brinck; Ketcher, Linda K.; Murphy, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to address a gap in the empirical literature by analyzing levels of proportional representation of American Indians over time in state and local government bureaucracies in key states. The authors limit their analysis to six states with the largest percentages of American Indian populations in 2000: Alaska, Arizona,…

  3. Envisioning the Third Sector's Welfare Role: Critical Discourse Analysis of ‘Post-Devolution’ Public Policy in the UK 1998–2012

    PubMed Central

    Chaney, Paul; Wincott, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Welfare state theory has struggled to come to terms with the role of the third sector. It has often categorized welfare states in terms of the pattern of interplay between state social policies and the structure of the labour market. Moreover, it has frequently offered an exclusive focus on state policy – thereby failing to substantially recognize the role of the formally organized third sector. This study offers a corrective view. Against the backdrop of the international shift to multi-level governance, it analyses the policy discourse of third sector involvement in welfare governance following devolution in the UK. It reveals the changing and contrasting ways in which post-devolution territorial politics envisions the sector's role as a welfare provider. The mixed methods analysis compares policy framing and the structural narratives associated with the development of the third sector across the four constituent polities of the UK since 1998. The findings reveal how devolution has introduced a new spatial policy dynamic. Whilst there are elements of continuity between polities – such as the increasing salience of the third sector in welfare provision – policy narratives also provide evidence of the territorialization of third sector policy. From a methodological standpoint, this underlines the distinctive and complementary role discourse-based analysis can play in understanding contemporary patterns and processes shaping welfare governance. PMID:25574063

  4. An input-output table based analysis on the virtual water by sectors with the five northwest provinces in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Chenchen; Zhan, Jinyan

    Virtual water refers to the volumes of water required to produce a commodity or service. It reflects human's actual consumption of water resources and therefore has certain significance in water resources management. Over the years, the concept of virtual water has caught the attentions of water manager and decision maker. In order to utilize this concept, the accounting and estimation of virtual water is the foundation that lies in this issue. Till now, the accounting methods mainly include the method provided by Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), water footprint and input-output analysis method. In this paper, we chose Northwest China, which is a typical arid region that is facing with rapid economic development, as the study area and built an Input-Output (IO) analysis method to estimate virtual water among different industry sectors in the northwest China. The accounting and estimation results could be used to give suggestions to increase water use efficiency and promote virtual water trade in the study area. Comparison of the proposed method with other prevailing method was also analyzed. The introduced method could be utilized for accounting and estimation of virtual water by sectors, with its superiority in characterizing industrial water consumption and the accounting results could lend certain credence to the water resource management and industrial transformation for the future economic development of northwest China.

  5. Computational Analysis of Dynamic SPK(S8)-JP8 Fueled Combustor-Sector Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryder, R.; Hendricks, Roberts C.; Huber, M. L.; Shouse, D. T.

    2010-01-01

    Civil and military flight tests using blends of synthetic and biomass fueling with jet fuel up to 50:50 are currently considered as "drop-in" fuels. They are fully compatible with aircraft performance, emissions and fueling systems, yet the design and operations of such fueling systems and combustors must be capable of running fuels from a range of feedstock sources. This paper provides Smart Combustor or Fuel Flexible Combustor designers with computational tools, preliminary performance, emissions and particulates combustor sector data. The baseline fuel is kerosene-JP-8+100 (military) or Jet A (civil). Results for synthetic paraffinic kerosene (SPK) fuel blends show little change with respect to baseline performance, yet do show lower emissions. The evolution of a validated combustor design procedure is fundamental to the development of dynamic fueling of combustor systems for gas turbine engines that comply with multiple feedstock sources satisfying both new and legacy systems.

  6. Exploring Oman's Energy Sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Saqlawi, Juman; Madani, Kaveh; Mac Dowell, Niall

    2016-04-01

    Located in a region where over 40% of the world's oil and gas reserves lie and in a trend similar to that of its neighbors, Oman's economy has been reliant on crude oil export since the 1970's. Being aware of the dangers of this reliance along with the discovery of Natural Gas since the 1980s, the Omani government's policy of diversifying its economy has shifted its reliance on Oil to another fossil fuel, namely Natural Gas. Given that energy is the lifeline of Oman's economy, effective and efficient forward planning and policy development is essential for the country's current and future economic development. This presentation explores the current status of the energy sector in Oman from home production and import to eventual final uses. The presentation highlights the major issues with Oman's current energy policies and suggests various strategies that could be adopted by Oman for a more efficient and sustainable future.

  7. Analysis of decontamination solutions of G agents to detect reformation of agent. Final report, December 1991-March 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Beaudry, W.T.; Buchanan, J.H.; Rohrbaugh, D.K.; Samuel, J.B.; Szafraniec, L.L.

    1993-01-01

    Agents from a full scale binary munition test were decontaminated with caustic in a 300 gal holding tank. Analysis of the contents by standard methods revealed a trace amount of G agent present despite the highly caustic solution. A technical review of the analytical methods was carried out to determine if the G agent was actually present or an artifact of the analysis. A literature search revealed similar concerns when brine solutions from nerve agent decontamination were analyzed using similar analytical methods. This study concluded that nerve agents reformed at reduced PH or in chloroform extracts of the neutralized or slightly acidic brines. Experiments using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), gas chromatography (GC), and GC/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) were used to see where, if any, G agent was present during the analysis. Results obtained confirmed G agent reforming in either the neutral aqueous solution or in the chloroform extract but not in chloroform extracts of the caustic solution. No agent was detected using methylene chloride as the extraction solvent as recommended by the earlier study.

  8. Using multipliers analysis in order to get another perspective related to the role of ICT sectors in national economy of Indonesia: 1990-2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuhdi, Ubaidillah

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to get another perspective related to the role of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) sectors in national economy of Indonesia. The period of analysis of this study is 1990-2005. This study employs Input-Output (IO) analysis as a tool of analysis. More specifically, this study uses simple output multipliers method in order to achieve the purpose. Comparison with previous study is conducted in order to get the objective of this study. Previous study, using Structural Decomposition Analysis (SDA), showed that ICT sectors did not have an important role in Indonesian national economy in above period. The similar results also appear in this study. In other words, from this study, another perspective related to the role of these sectors in Indonesian national economy in analysis period is not found.

  9. Review: 1991 industry developments

    SciTech Connect

    1992-01-01

    This is NUEXCO`s annual summary of the previous year`s (1991) events. There are reviews of major nuclear developments in each continent, as well as international developments. Specific topics include fuels, waste management, new facilities, and decommissioning. Nuclear activities in the following countries are noted: South Africa, Yemen, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, Namibia, France, Japan, Taiwan, China, Korea, India, Pakistan, Federal Republic of Germany, Spain, Hungary, Kazakhstan, Italy, Czechoslovakia, United Kingdom, Switzerland, Canada, USA, Argentina, Brazil, and Uraguay.

  10. SOIL AND FILL LABORATORY SUPPORT - 1991

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of soil analysis laboratory work by the University of Florida in Support of the Florida Radon Research Program (FRRP). Analyses were performed on soil and fill samples collected during 1991 by the FRRP Research House program and the New House Evaluation P...

  11. Chromosome region-specific libraries for human genome analysis. Final progress report, 1 March 1991--28 February 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Kao, F.T.

    1994-04-01

    The objectives of this grant proposal include (1) development of a chromosome microdissection and PCR-mediated microcloning technology, (2) application of this microtechnology to the construction of region-specific libraries for human genome analysis. During this grant period, the authors have successfully developed this microtechnology and have applied it to the construction of microdissection libraries for the following chromosome regions: a whole chromosome 21 (21E), 2 region-specific libraries for the long arm of chromosome 2, 2q35-q37 (2Q1) and 2q33-q35 (2Q2), and 4 region-specific libraries for the entire short arm of chromosome 2, 2p23-p25 (2P1), 2p21-p23 (2P2), 2p14-p16 (wP3) and 2p11-p13 (2P4). In addition, 20--40 unique sequence microclones have been isolated and characterized for genomic studies. These region-specific libraries and the single-copy microclones from the library have been used as valuable resources for (1) isolating microsatellite probes in linkage analysis to further refine the disease locus; (2) isolating corresponding clones with large inserts, e.g. YAC, BAC, P1, cosmid and phage, to facilitate construction of contigs for high resolution physical mapping; and (3) isolating region-specific cDNA clones for use as candidate genes. These libraries are being deposited in the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) for general distribution.

  12. Temporal and spatial trends in water quality of Lake Taihu, China: analysis from a north to mid-lake transect, 1991-2011.

    PubMed

    Akyuz, Dilek Eren; Luo, Liancong; Hamilton, David P

    2014-06-01

    Interpretations of state and trends in lake water quality are generally based on measurements from one or more stations that are considered representative of the response of the lake ecosystem. The objective of this study is to examine how these interpretations may be influenced by station location in a large lake. We addressed this by analyzing trends in water quality variables collected monthly from eight monitoring stations along a transect from the central lake to the north in Lake Taihu (area about 2,338 km(2)), China, from October 1991 to December 2011. The parameters examined included chlorophyll a (Chl a), total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorus (TP) concentrations, and Secchi disk depth (SD). The individual variables were increasingly poorly correlated among stations along the transect from the central lake to the north, particularly for Chl a and TP. The timing of peaks in individual variables was also dependent on station location, with spectral analysis revealing a peak at annual frequency for the central lake station but absence of, or much reduced signal, at this frequency for the near-shore northern station. Percentage annual change values for each of the four variables also varied with station and indicated general improvement in water quality at northern stations, particularly for TN, but little change or decline at central lake stations. Sediment resuspension and tributary nutrient loads were considered to be responsible for some of the variability among stations. Our results indicate that temporal trends in water quality may be station specific in large lakes and that calculated whole-lake trophic status trends or responses to management actions may be specific to the station(s) selected for monitoring and analysis. These results have important implications for efficient design of monitoring programs that are intended to integrate the natural spatial variability of large lakes. PMID:24595699

  13. Cost-benefit analysis of alternative LNG vapor-mitigation measures. Topical report, September 14, 1987-January 15, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Atallah, S.

    1992-06-25

    A generalized methodology is presented for comparing the costs and safety benefits of alternative hazard mitigation measures for a large LNG vapor release. The procedure involves the quantification of the risk to the public before and after the application of LNG vapor mitigation measures. In the study, risk was defined as the product of the annual accident frequency, estimated from a fault tree analysis, and the severity of the accident. Severity was measured in terms of the number of people who may be exposed to 2.5% or higher concentration. The ratios of the annual costs of the various mitigation measures to their safety benefits (as determined by the differences between the risk before and after mitigation measure implementation), were then used to identify the most cost-effective approaches to vapor cloud mitigation.

  14. Analysis of fruitland water production treatment and disposal, San Juan Basin. Topical report, October 1991-March 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, D.O.; Decker, A.D.; Stevens, S.H.

    1993-06-01

    The San Juan Basin produces more coalbed methane than the rest of the world combined. Brackish water is produced with the gas. Water production climbed from 40,000 barrels per day in 1989 to 115,000 bpd by late 1992. Underground injection is used to dispose of virtually all the produced water. Water production is projected to increase to 180,000 bpd in 1995. 650 million to 1.1 billion barrels are projected to be produced over the next 20 years. Restricted injection capacity and aquifer storage capacity may necessitate additional disposal wells and, ultimately, other methods to dispose of the water. Alternative treatment technologies, especially electrodialysis and/or reverse osmosis, may be applicable at costs of $0.17 to $0.22 per barrel, a considerable savings over the $0.80 to $1.00/bbl cost of deep injection. With suitable treatment, the majority of the produced water could be made suitable for agricultural or municipal uses. Reservoir analysis and simulations indicate stimulations can be optimized, and that heating water prior to injection might increase injectivity in some wells.

  15. Issues in International Energy Consumption Analysis: Electricity Usage in India’s Housing Sector

    EIA Publications

    2014-01-01

    India offers a unique set of features for studying electricity use in the context of a developing country. First, it has a rapidly developing economy with high yearly growth rates in gross domestic product (GDP). Second, it has the second -largest population in the world and is likely to have the largest population in the future. Third, its electric system is maturing—with known difficulties (outages, shortages, issues with reliability and quality) that are characteristic of a developing country. This article focuses on electricity use in the residential sector of India and discusses key trends and provides an overview of available usage estimates from various sources. Indian households are an interesting environment where many of India’s unique features interact. The recent economic gains correlate with rising incomes and possible changes in living standards, which could affect electricity or other energy use within households. Additionally, the maturing electric system and large population in India both offer opportunities to study a range of interactions between electrification and electricity usage in a developing country.

  16. Multifractality of sectoral price indices: Hurst signature analysis of Cantillon effects in disequilibrium factor markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulligan, Robert F.

    2014-06-01

    This paper presents Hurst exponent signatures from time series of aggregate price indices for the US over the 1975-2011 time period. Though all highly aggregated, these indices include both broad measures of consumer and producer prices. The constellation of prices evolves as a complex system throughout processes of production and distribution, culminating in the final delivery of output to consumers. Massive feedback characterizes this system, where the demand for consumable output determines the demand for the inputs used to produce it, and supply scarcities for the necessary inputs in turn determine the supply of the final product. Prices in both factor and output markets are jointly determined by interdependent supply and demand conditions. Fractal examination of the interplay among market prices would be of interest regardless, but added interest arises from the consideration of how these markets respond to external shocks over the business cycle, particularly monetary expansion. Because the initial impact of monetary injection is localized in specific sectors, the way the impact on prices diffuses throughout the economy is of special interest.

  17. Sectoral shifts and aggregate unemployment

    SciTech Connect

    Loungani, P.

    1986-01-01

    Some recent research has taken the view that sectoral or industry-specific shocks significantly affect aggregate unemployment by increasing the amount of inter-industry labor reallocation required. The empirical evidence for this view rests on the finding that during the 1950s - and again during the 1970s - there was a positive correlation between aggregate unemployment and the dispersion of employment growth rates. This thesis demonstrates that this correlation arises largely because oil price shocks affect both unemployment and the dispersion of employment growth. Once the dispersion due to oil shocks is accounted for, the residual dispersion in employment has very low explanatory power for unemployment. Since the dispersion index does not measure pure sectoral shifts, an alternate measure of dispersion is developed that serves as a better proxy for the amount of inter-industry labor reallocation required each period. Estimates using this measure suggest that, during the 1950s, temporary increases in the relative price of oil were responsible for generating the observed correlation. On the other hand, sectoral shifts were important during the 1970s; in particular, the 1973 oil price increase has had significant reallocative effects on the economy. This contention is subjected to further tests by looking at the time-series behavior of employment in durable-goods industries and also by following the inter-industry movements of workers over time through the use of panel data.

  18. Analysis of energy use in building services of the industrial sector in California: Two case studies

    SciTech Connect

    Akbari, H.; Sezgen, O.

    1991-09-01

    Energy-use patterns in many of California's fastest-growing industries are not typical of the existing mix of industries in the US. Many California firms operate small- and medium-sized facilities housed in buildings used simultaneously or interchangeably over time for commercial (office, retail, warehouse) and industrial activities. In these industrial subsectors, the energy required for building services (providing occupant comfort and necessities like lighting, HVAC, office equipment, computers, etc.) may be at least as important as the more familiar process energy requirements -- especially for electricity and on-peak demand. Electricity for building services is sometimes priced as if it were base loaded like process uses; in reality this load varies significantly according to occupancy schedules and cooling and heating loads, much as in any commercial building. Using informal field surveys, simulation studies, and detailed analyses of existing data (including utility commercial/industrial audit files), we studied the energy use of this industrial subsector through a multi-step procedure: (1) characterizing non-process building energy and power use in California industries, (2) identifying conservation and load-shaping opportunities in industrial building services, and (3) investigating industrial buildings and system design methodologies. In an earlier report, we addressed these issues by performing an extensive survey of the existing publicly available data, characterizing and comparing the building energy use in this sector. In this report, we address the above objectives by examining and analyzing energy use in two industrial case-study facilities in California. Based on the information for the case studies, we discuss the design consideration for these industrial buildings, characterize their energy use, and review their conservation and load-shaping potentials. In addition, we identify and discuss some research ideas for further investigation.

  19. 1996-2004 Trends in the Single-Family Housing Market: Spatial Analysis of the Residential Sector

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Dave M.; Elliott, Douglas B.

    2006-09-05

    This report provides a detailed geographic analysis of two specific topics affecting the residential sector. First, we performed an analysis of new construction market trends using annual building permit data. We report summarized tables and national maps to help illustrate market conditions. Second, we performed a detailed geographic analysis of the housing finance market. We analyzed mortgage application data to provide citable statistics and detailed geographic summarization of the residential housing picture in the US for each year in the 1996-2004 period. The databases were linked to geographic information system tools to provide various map series detailing the results geographically. Looking at these results geographically may suggest potential new markets for TD programs addressing the residential sector that have not been considered previously. For example, we show which lenders affect which regions and which income or mortgage product classes. These results also highlight the issue of housing affordability. Energy efficiency R&D programs focused on developing new technology for the residential sector must be conscious of the costs of products resulting from research that will eventually impact the home owner or new home buyer. Results indicate that home values as a proportion of median family income in Building America communities are closely aligned with the national average of home value as a proportion of median income. Other key findings: • The share of home building and home buying activity continues to rise steadily in the Hot-Dry and Hot-Humid climate zones, while the Mixed-Humid and Cold climate zone shares continue to decline. Other zones remain relatively stable in terms of share of housing activity. • The proportion of home buyers having three times the median family income for their geography has been steadily increasing during the study period. • Growth in the Hispanic/Latino population and to a lesser degree in the Asian population has

  20. Assessing National Employment Impacts of Investment in Residential and Commercial Sector Energy Efficiency: Review and Example Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, David M.; Belzer, David B.; Livingston, Olga V.; Scott, Michael J.

    2014-06-18

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) modeled the employment impacts of a major national initiative to accelerate energy efficiency trends at one of two levels: • 15 percent savings by 2030. In this scenario, efficiency activities save about 15 percent of the Annual Energy Outlook (AEO) Reference Case electricity consumption by 2030. It is assumed that additional energy savings in both the residential and commercial sectors begin in 2015 at zero, and then increase in an S-shaped market penetration curve, with the level of savings equal to about 7.0 percent of the AEO 2014 U.S. national residential and commercial electricity consumption saved by 2020, 14.8 percent by 2025, and 15 percent by 2030. • 10 percent savings by 2030. In this scenario, additional savings begin at zero in 2015, increase to 3.8 percent in 2020, 9.8 percent by 2025, and 10 percent of the AEO reference case value by 2030. The analysis of the 15 percent case indicates that by 2030 more than 300,000 new jobs would likely result from such policies, including an annual average of more than 60,000 jobs directly supporting the installation and maintenance of energy efficiency measures and practices. These are new jobs resulting initially from the investment associated with the construction of more energy-efficient new buildings or the retrofit of existing buildings and would be sustained for as long as the investment continues. Based on what is known about the current level of building-sector energy efficiency jobs, this would represent an increase of more than 10 percent from the current estimated level of over 450,000 such jobs. The more significant and longer-lasting effect comes from the redirection of energy bill savings toward the purchase of other goods and services in the general economy, with its attendant influence on increasing the total number of jobs. This example analysis utilized PNNL’s ImSET model, a modeling framework that PNNL has used over the past two decades to assess

  1. How sustainable is Japan's foreign aid policy? An analysis of Japan's official development assistance and funding for energy sector projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, Hideka

    Japan has adopted a sustainable development strategy since the late 1980s in the effort to address social and environmental damages caused by past Japan-funded projects in partner nations. Even after about a decade and a half of the policy implementation, however, there are few reports which critically examine effects of the adoption of the idea of sustainable development. This dissertation evaluates Japan's foreign aid policy to determine the extent to which new revisions of aid policy have improved the environmental sustainability of the policy. This dissertation reviews the mainstream idea of sustainable development (also known as the sustainable development paradigm in this dissertation) to reveal the nature of the idea of sustainable development that Japan's foreign aid policy depends on. A literature review of two development discourses---modernization theory and ecological modernization theory---and three types of critiques against the sustainable development paradigm---focused on adverse impacts of modern science, globalization, and environmental overuse---reveals core logics of and problems with the sustainable development paradigm. Japan's foreign aid policy impacts on energy sector development in recipient countries is examined by means of a quantitative analysis and a qualitative analysis. Specifically, it examines the effect of Japan's ODA program over fifteen years that proposed to facilitate sustainable development in developing countries. Special emphasis is given to investigation of ODA disbursements in the energy sector and detailed case studies of several individual energy projects are performed. The dissertation discovers that the sustainable development paradigm guiding Japan's ODA has little capacity to accomplish its goals to bring about social and ecological improvement in developing countries. This dissertation finds three fundamental weaknesses in Japanese ODA policy on energy sector development as well as the sustainable development

  2. A threat analysis framework as applied to critical infrastructures in the Energy Sector.

    SciTech Connect

    Michalski, John T.; Duggan, David Patrick

    2007-09-01

    The need to protect national critical infrastructure has led to the development of a threat analysis framework. The threat analysis framework can be used to identify the elements required to quantify threats against critical infrastructure assets and provide a means of distributing actionable threat information to critical infrastructure entities for the protection of infrastructure assets. This document identifies and describes five key elements needed to perform a comprehensive analysis of threat: the identification of an adversary, the development of generic threat profiles, the identification of generic attack paths, the discovery of adversary intent, and the identification of mitigation strategies.

  3. An observational analysis of warm-sector rainfall characteristics associated with the 21 July 2012 Beijing extreme rainfall event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Lingzhi; Mu, Rong; Zhang, Dalin; Zhao, Ping; Zhang, Zhiqiang; Wang, Nan

    2015-04-01

    An observational analysis of the multiscale processes leading to the extreme rainfall event in Beijing on 21 July 2012 is performed using rain gauge records, Doppler radar, and satellite products, radiosondes, and atmospheric analysis. This rainstorm process included two heavy rainfall stages in the early afternoon [1300-1400 Beijing Standard time (BST) (0500-0600 UTC)] and the evening (1600-1900 BST), respectively. The first stage exhibited warm-sector rainfall characteristics as it occurred under low-level warm and moist southeasterly flows ahead of a synoptic-scale vortex and a cold front. When the southeasterly flows turned northeastward along a southwest-northeast oriented mountain range in western Beijing, mesoscale convergence centers formed on the windward side of the mountain range in the early afternoon, initiating moist convection. Radar echo showed a northeastward propagation as these flows extended northward. Despite the shallowness of moist convection in the warm sector, atmospheric liquid water content showed the rapid accumulation, and a large amount of supercooled water and/or ice particles was possibly accumulated above the melting level. These appeared to contribute to the occurrence of the largest rainfall rate. During the second stage, as the synoptic-scale vortex moved across Beijing, with southeastward intrusion of its northwesterly flows, the vortex-associated lifting caused the generation of strong updrafts aloft and formed deep convection. This facilitated the further accumulation of supercooled water and/or ice particles above the melting level. Radar echo propagated southeastward. Liquid water showed a decrease in the lower troposphere, and there were strong downdrafts due to evaporation of liquid water particles, which resulted in the relatively weak hourly rainfall rates.

  4. Environmental report for 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Hunter, S.; Wilt, G.; Balke, B.K.; Surano, K.A.; Hoppes, W.G.; Tate, P.J.; Steenhoven, J.C.; Fields, B.C.; Garcia, L.M.; Lamson, K.C.

    1991-01-01

    As part of its commitment to environmental compliance and accountability, LLNL prepares this report each year to communicate the results of monitoring and compliance activities. Analytical data are produced from sampling of air, sewage effluent, groundwater, surface water, soil, vegetation and foodstuff, and through measurement of environmental radiation. The Environmental Protection Department performed more than 150,000 analyses of environmental samples during 1991. This Executive Summary provides a comprehensive synopsis, organized along the general outline of the report, and furnishes an overview of the supporting methodologies, data, and findings that are presented in the chapters that follow.

  5. Environmental report for 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Hunter, S.; Wilt, G.; Balke, B.K.; Surano, K.A.; Hoppes, W.G.; Tate, P.J.; Steenhoven, J.C.; Fields, B.C.; Garcia, L.M.; Lamson, K.C.

    1991-12-31

    As part of its commitment to environmental compliance and accountability, LLNL prepares this report each year to communicate the results of monitoring and compliance activities. Analytical data are produced from sampling of air, sewage effluent, groundwater, surface water, soil, vegetation and foodstuff, and through measurement of environmental radiation. The Environmental Protection Department performed more than 150,000 analyses of environmental samples during 1991. This Executive Summary provides a comprehensive synopsis, organized along the general outline of the report, and furnishes an overview of the supporting methodologies, data, and findings that are presented in the chapters that follow.

  6. Indian Health Service Training Center, Training Course TC-70-4 (April 13-May 1, 1970): A Descriptive Analysis of the Utilization of Health Resources in the Zuni, New Mexico Service Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Public Health Service (DHEW), Washington, DC. Div. of Indian Health.

    A descriptive study of health services utilization patterns, and possible factors contributing to such patterns, was conducted in April 1970 at the Zuni, New Mexico, Indian Health Service Unit. Health service utilization was explored by selected disease categories, preventative services (maternal and child health), and general population attitudes…

  7. Small Town Population Change in Ohio, 1960-1970 and 1970-1980.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Donald W.

    This study of population change in Ohio during the 1960s and 1970s analyzed change by size of place and found sharp contrasts between the two decades. Places in metropolitan core counties which had the highest growth rate in the 1960s showed that lowest growth rate in the 1970s. Small towns in fringe metropolitan areas and nonmetropolitan counties…

  8. The Magnitude and Components of Change in the Black-White IQ Difference from 1920 to 1991: A Birth Cohort Analysis of the Woodcock-Johnson Standardizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Charles

    2007-01-01

    The black-white difference in test scores for the three standardizations of the Woodcock-Johnson battery of cognitive tests is analyzed in terms of birth cohorts covering the years from 1920 through 1991. Among persons tested at ages 6-65, a narrowing of the difference occurred in overall IQ and in the two most highly "g"-loaded clusters in the…

  9. International oil and gas exploration and development: 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    This report starts where the previous quarterly publication ended. This first publication of a new annual series contains most of the same data as the quarterly report, plus some new material, through 1991. It also presents historical data covering a longer period of time than the previous quarterly report. Country-level data on oil reserves, oil production, active drilling rigs, seismic crews, wells drilled, oil reserve additions, and oil reserve-to-production rations (R/P ratios) are listed for about 85 countries, where available, from 1970 through 1991. World and regional summaries are given in both tabular and graphical form. The most popular table in the previous quarterly report, a listing of new discoveries, continues in this annual report as Appendix A.

  10. Semiannual final report, 1 October 1991 - 31 March 1992

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    A summary of research conducted at the Institute for Computer Applications in Science and Engineering in applied mathematics, numerical analysis, and computer science during the period 1 Oct. 1991 through 31 Mar. 1992 is presented.