Science.gov

Sample records for 1990s measurement distribution

  1. SPRAWL IN THE 1990S Measurement, Distribution, and Trends

    PubMed Central

    LOPEZ, RUSS; HYNES, H. PATRICIA

    2006-01-01

    Although sprawl is a growing national debate, there have been few efforts to measure or monitor changes in degree of sprawl over time. By using a methodology that employs census data, this sprawl index allows computation of levels of sprawl and examination of temporal and geographic changes. The results show that sprawl has increased over the past decade in many metropolitan areas. There are important geographic variations in sprawl, implying that it is neither inevitable nor universal. PMID:16990927

  2. A data distribution strategy for the 1990s (files are not enough)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tankenson, Mike; Wright, Steven

    1993-01-01

    Virtually all of the data distribution strategies being contemplated for the EOSDIS era revolve around the use of files. Most, if not all, mass storage technologies are based around the file model. However, files may be the wrong primary abstraction for supporting scientific users in the 1990s and beyond. Other abstractions more closely matching the respective scientific discipline of the end user may be more appropriate. JPL has built a unique multimission data distribution system based on a strategy of telemetry stream emulation to match the responsibilities of spacecraft team and ground data system operators supporting our nations suite of planetary probes. The current system, operational since 1989 and the launch of the Magellan spacecraft, is supporting over 200 users at 15 remote sites. This stream-oriented data distribution model can provide important lessons learned to builders of future data systems.

  3. Solid Earth science in the 1990s. Volume 3: Measurement techniques and technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Reports are contained from the NASA Workshop on Solid Earth Science in the 1990s. The techniques and technologies needed to address the program objectives are discussed. The Measurement Technique and Technology Panel identified (1) candidate measurement systems for each of the measurements required for the Solid Earth Science Program that would fall under the NASA purview; (2) the capabilities and limitations of each technique; and (3) the developments necessary for each technique to meet the science panel requirements. In nearly all cases, current technology or a development path with existing technology was identified as capable of meeting the requirements of the science panels. These technologies and development paths are discussed.

  4. Growth, Distribution, and Poverty in Africa: Messages from the 1990s. Poverty Dynamics in Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christiaensen, Luc; Demery, Lionel; Paternostro, Stefano

    This book reviews trends in household well-being in Africa during the 1990s. Using the better data sets now available, the main factors behind observed poverty changes are examined in eight countries: Ethiopia, Ghana, Madagascar, Mauritania, Nigeria, Uganda, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. A broad view of poverty is taken, which includes income poverty and…

  5. An analysis of characteristics for change in night light distribution from 1980 s to 1990 s by the time series global dmsp mosaic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakayama, Y.; Tanaka, S.; Mitsugi, R.

    The Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) Operation Linescan System (OLS) data observing night light distribution on the earth's surface have been archived since the 1970's. The major light distribution on the earth detected by the OLS sensorthe city lights, the forest fire, burning of shifting cultivation, the flame of the gas combustion in the oil fields and the fishing fire of boats due to human activities. In this study, a global DMSP/OLS mosaic data set on the latter half in the 1990's which can be compared with a global DMSP/OLS mosaic one in the 1980's was newly produced after the processing for radiometric and geometric corrections to several OLS original data. Next, the characteristics of night lights distribution and their change in about 10 years from the 1980's to the 1990's were analyzed in detail through the comparison of two global mosaic data on the 1980's and the latter half in the 1990's. Some satellite images in the daytime, geographical information data and the other auxiliary sources were used for the analysis of the change situation of night lights distribution. Finally, the relationship between changes in night light distribution and situation of human activities of the world were discussed. The analysis results clearly showed the expansion of light distribution pattern in several big cities due to the increase of energy consumption depending on the population growth. And, changes in the geographical distribution of the lights from biomass burning by the development of agricultural land and the shifting cultivation due to the increase of population could be grasped evidently.

  6. Did Devonian shale wells drilled during the 1980`s and early 1990`s in West Virginia measure up to expectations?

    SciTech Connect

    Hohn, M.E.; McDowell, R.R.; Matchen, D.L.; Woods, T.J.

    1996-09-01

    In the mid-1980`s, a model of future Devonian shale drilling and production was prepared for the Gas Research Institute (GRI). In late 1995, the West Virginia Geological and Economic Survey (WVGES) was contracted by GRI to evaluate actual drilling and production in the 1980`s and early 1990`s and compare these data to the predictions made in the existing model. Drilling activity data were compiled for the years 1979-1993 for all wells drilled, and for all Devonian shale wells drilled. Monthly and annual production data were summarized for both categories. The Devonian shale wells were subdivided into two subsets: (1) the western black shales trend and (2) the eastern black and gray shales and siltstones trend, according to the play definitions used in the {open_quotes}Atlas of Major Appalachian Gas Reservoirs{close_quotes}. Devonian shale wells were subdivided into vintages by completion year. Finally, each Devonian shale well was assigned to a 30 minute geographic grid or {open_quotes}cell{close_quotes} and production data were compiled and compared between cells. Analysis of the data led to the following conclusions: fewer shale wells were being drilled in the early 1990s, but these wells had better recoveries than the wells drilled in the 1980s. Some grid cells showed higher recoveries for the black and gray shales and siltstones play than in cells with black shale reservoirs alone. These higher recoveries perhaps can be attributed to the common practice of completing and producing shallower zones (i.e. Mississippian sandstones) in addition to the Devonian shales.

  7. Estimating changes in ocean ventilation from early 1990s CFC-12 and late 2000s SF6 measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanhua, Toste; Waugh, Darryn W.; Bullister, John L.

    2013-03-01

    Transient tracer measurements can constrain the rates and pathways of ocean ventilation and act as proxies for biogeochemically relevant gases such as CO2 and oxygen. Various techniques have deduced changes in ocean ventilation over decadal timescales using transient tracer measurements made on repeat sections, but these require a priori assumptions about mixing in the ocean interior. Here, we introduce a simple, direct observational method that takes advantage of the similar atmospheric increase rates of chlorofluorocarbon-12 and sulfur hexafluoride, but with a time lag (offset) of 14-15 years. Such repeat measurements can be directly compared without prior assumptions about mixing. A difference larger than ~2 years between modern sulfur hexafluoride and historical chlorofluorocarbon-12 tracer ages implies a change in ventilation, although lack of difference does not necessarily imply no change. Several tracer data sets are presented, which suggest changes in ventilation in the South Pacific and North Atlantic Oceans.

  8. Strategies for the 1990s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaffee, Ellen Earle

    1990-01-01

    Eight strategies are recommended to higher education in the 1990s including committing to improving quality; stressing customer service; increasing use of data and analysis in management; developing data on outcomes issues, processes, and behaviors; and working cooperatively with elementary and secondary education. (MLW)

  9. Packet switching in 1990's

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rybczynski, A.

    The author assesses wide-area networking end-user needs as they evolve into the 1990s. He then turns to the network operator environment, both public and private, by examining service evolution trends. The author concludes with an assessment of how packet switching services and technologies are evolving to continue to match the identified market requirements, with specific emphasis on Northern Telecom's DPN Data Networking System. Key evolving DPN capabilities include the introduction of the high-end DPN100 30-kb/s switch, a variety of access options including ISDN (integrated services digital network) packet mode services, higher throughput virtual circuits, megabit trunking for improved network throughput and end-user transit delay, and SNA session switching, the latter being an example of adding value to packet networking through communication processing.

  10. European satellite in the late 1990's - A BT view

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, Antony G.

    The use of mobile satellite services, broadcasting satellite services (including TV distribution services in the FSS bands), and fixed satellite sevices to meet the telecommunications needs of the 1990s is considered. Fixed service satellites can cover low-traffic areas and can handle peak overloads of links in different time zones. Developmental needs have been identified in such areas as 16 Kbits/s encoding with speech interpolation, low-cost satellite business system ground terminals, and multichannel echo control devices.

  11. Law Library Service in the 1990's.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    The Bookmark, 1990

    1990-01-01

    This issue of "The Bookmark" presents 20 articles focusing on various aspects of law library services in New York State. The articles are: (1) "Law Library Services in the 1990's" (Christine Bain); (2) "A Librarian's View of Legal Publishing Today" (Margaret Maes Axtmann); (3) "Legal Publishing--A Publisher's View" (Kenneth Lee Halajian); (4)…

  12. Family Research in the 1990s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parke, Ross D.

    Theories about, methods of studying, and definitions of family have undergone profound shifts over the last several decades, and change continues to characterize developmental research on family functioning. In the 1990s, researchers have recognized the need for more descriptive studies as well as more process-oriented work. Research is beginning…

  13. Retirement Age Declines Again in 1990s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gendell, Murray

    2001-01-01

    The average retirement age continued to decline in the 1990s after having leveled off during the preceding 10-15 years. The resumption of the decline is attributed largely to a rise in the labor force participation rate of older men and women between the mid-1980s and 2000. (Author/JOW)

  14. National security in the 1990s

    SciTech Connect

    Rich, M.D.

    1991-02-01

    The Rand Paper contains the text of a speech given at a luncheon co-sponsored by Town Hall of California and the Los Angeles Council of Engineers and Scientists on national security affairs in the 1990s. The speech was given at the Biltmore Hotel, Los Angeles, California, on February 19, 1991.

  15. Depository Libraries in the 1990s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garner, Diane

    The assumption is made that what the 1990s have in store for users of depository libraries will hinge on three crucial areas: (1) the reform and development of government information policies; (2) changing technology; and (3) the willingness and ability of the depository libraries to accommodate these changes. The uncertain role of the government…

  16. Enterprise storage report for the 1990's

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Fred

    1991-01-01

    Data processing has become an increasingly vital function, if not the most vital function, in most businesses today. No longer only a mainframe domain, the data processing enterprise also includes the midrange and workstation platforms, either local or remote. This expanded view of the enterprise has encouraged more and more businesses to take a strategic, long-range view of information management rather than the short-term tactical approaches of the past. Some of the significant aspects of data storage in the enterprise for the 1990's are highlighted.

  17. Enterprise storage report for the 1990's

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Fred

    1992-01-01

    Data processing has become an increasingly vital function, if not the most vital function, in most businesses today. No longer only a mainframe domain, the data processing enterprise also includes the midrange and workstation platforms, either local or remote. This expanded view of the enterprise has encouraged more and more businesses to take a strategic, long-range view of information management rather than the short-term tactical approaches of the past. This paper will highlight some of the significant aspects of data storage in the enterprise for the 1990's.

  18. Explosive Welding in the 1990's

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lalwaney, N. S.; Linse, V. D.

    1985-01-01

    Explosive bonding is a unique joining process with the serious potential to produce composite materials capable of fulfilling many of the high performance materials capable of fulfilling many of the high performance materials needs of the 1990's. The process has the technological versatility to provide a true high quality metallurgical compatible and incompatible systems. Metals routinely explosively bonded include a wide variety of combinations of reactive and refractory metals, low and high density metals and their alloys, corrosion resistant and high strength alloys, and common steels. The major advantage of the process is its ability to custom design and engineer composites with physical and/or mechanical properties that meet a specific or unusual performance requirement. Explosive bonding offers the designer unique opportunities in materials selection with unique combinations of properties and high integrity bonds that cannot be achieved by any other metal joining process. The process and some applications are discussed.

  19. Infrared zoom lenses in the 1990s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, Allen

    1994-01-01

    The breadth of activity in the field of IR zoom lenses is international in scope. Representative IR zoom lens systems of the 1990s from the continents of North America, Europe, and Asia and the Middle East are presented. Design considerations unique to the IR spectrum such as athermalization are given special attention. The various approaches to solving these design problems are described along with the operating characteristics of these systems. Applications include forward-looking IR scanning systems and target simulators. Tolerance considerations during manufacture are presented. Innovative reflective zoom systems are also considered. Development trends for the next several years are discussed, including the use of diffractive optical elements in IR zoom lens systems.

  20. Physics through the 1990s: An overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The volume details the interaction of physics and society, and presents a short summary of the progress in the major fields of physics and a summary of the other seven volumes of the Physics through the 1990s series, issues and recommended policy changes are described regarding funding, education, industry participation, small-group university research and large facility programs, government agency programs, and computer database needs. Three supplements report in detail on international issues in physics (the US position in the field, international cooperation and competition-especially on large projects, freedom for scientists, free flow of information, and education of foreign students), the education and supply of physicists (the changes in US physics education, employment and manpower, and demographics of the field), and the organization and support of physics (government, university, and industry research; facilities; national laboratories; and decision making). An executive summary contains recommendations for maintaining excellence in physics. A glossary of scientific terms is appended.

  1. Physics through the 1990s: an overview

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    The volume details the interaction of physics and society, and presents a short summary of the progress in the major fields of physics and a summary of the other seven volumes of the Physics through the 1990s series. Issues and recommended policy changes are described regarding funding, education, industry participation, small-group university research and large facility programs, government agency programs, and computer database needs. Three supplements report in detail on international issues in physics (the US position in the field, international cooperation and competition--especially on large projects, freedom for scientists, free flow of information, and education of foreign students), the education and supply of physicists (the changes in US physics education, employment and manpower, and demographics of the field), and the organization and support of physics (government, university, and industry research; facilities; national laboratories; and decision making). An executive summary contains recommendations for maintaining excellence in physics. A glossary of scientific terms is appended.

  2. Physics through the 1990s: An overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The volume details the interaction of physics and society, and presents a short summary of the progress in the major fields of physics and a summary of the other seven volumes of the Physics through the 1990s series, issues and recommended policy changes are described regarding funding, education, industry participation, small-group university research and large facility programs, government agency programs, and computer database needs. Three supplements report in detail on international issues in physics (the US position in the field, international cooperation and competition-especially on large projects, freedom for scientists, free flow of information, and education of foreign students), the education and supply of physicists (the changes in US physics education, employment and manpower, and demographics of the field), and the organization and support of physics (government, university, and industry research; facilities; national laboratories; and decision making). An executive summary contains recommendations for maintaining excellence in physics. A glossary of scientific terms is appended.

  3. NASA scientific and technical information for the 1990s

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cotter, Gladys A.

    1990-01-01

    Projections for NASA scientific and technical information (STI) in the 1990s are outlined. NASA STI for the 1990s will maintain a quality bibliographic and full-text database, emphasizing electronic input and products supplemented by networked access to a wide variety of sources, particularly numeric databases.

  4. Nonmetro Poverty: Assessing the Effect of the 1990s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jolliffe, Dean

    2003-01-01

    During the 1990s, the poverty rate in nonmetropolitan areas declined to a record low of 13.4 percent. Drawing on census data, aspects of nonmetro poverty during the 1990s are outlined, including effects of urbanization, regional differences, racial and ethnic differences, importance of family structure, needs for assistance and human services,…

  5. The Bellagio Declaration: overcoming hunger in the 1990's.

    PubMed

    Alloo, F; Arizpe, L; Belford, T S; Clark, J; Csanadi, J; Davies, P J; Emmerij, L; George, S; Hyden, G; Jonsson, U

    1989-01-01

    In November 1989, 23 leading hunger experts met in Bellagio, Italy, issues a document called the "Bellagio Declaration: Overcoming Hunger in the 1990s." The report lists 4 achievable goals: eliminate famine deaths; end hunger in half of the world's poorest households; reduce by half malnutrition of mothers and small children; and eradicate iodine and vitamin A deficiencies. Famine deaths can be eliminated by setting up early-warning systems and longer-term relief objectives. The only remaining obstacle is how to prevent warring nations from blocking food deliveries and destroying food. Hunger can be eliminated in half the world's poor households by giving the poor access to resources and credit, rehabilitating degraded ecosystems, using sustainable farming, and using existing markets to distribute food equitably. Malnutrition can be halved by sustained breastfeeding, and supplementation of food and micronutrients. Iodine and vitamin A deficiencies can be eliminated by giving iodized oil injections, vitamin A capsules and iodized salt. Ways of dealing with obstacles such as population, deforestation, soil and water shortages, pollution, global warming and capital deficits in the South are discussed. There is hope that these goals can be attained because of the outbreak of peace and democracy, freeing up substantial portions of the 1 trillion US dollars spent on defense; abatement of feat of worldwide economic collapse; and evolution of a worldwide logistic system to provide emergency food aid. PMID:12343252

  6. Decline of subpolar North Atlantic circulation during the 1990s.

    PubMed

    Häkkinen, Sirpa; Rhines, Peter B

    2004-04-23

    Observations of sea surface height reveal that substantial changes have occurred over the past decade in the mid- to high-latitude North Atlantic Ocean. TOPEX/Poseidon altimeter data show that subpolar sea surface height increased during the 1990s, and the geostrophic velocity derived from altimeter data exhibits declining subpolar gyre circulation. Combining the data from earlier satellites, we find that subpolar circulation may have been weaker in the late 1990s than in the late 1970s and 1980s. Direct current-meter observations in the boundary current of the Labrador Sea support the weakening circulation trend of the 1990s and, together with hydrographic data, show that the mid- to late 1990s decline extends deep in the water column. Analysis of the local surface forcing suggests that the 1990s buoyancy forcing has a dynamic effect consistent with altimetric and hydrographic observations: A weak thermohaline forcing allows the decay of the domed structure of subpolar isopycnals and weakening of circulation. PMID:15087505

  7. Financing American Higher Education in the 1990s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hauptman, Arthur M.

    1997-01-01

    Reviews major issues in the financing of higher education in the 1990s, including overall resource level, revenue patterns (state and local financial commitment, federal funding, student charges, endowment income and private giving), and the changing role of student aid. Also examines issues as they affect different sectors or institution types.…

  8. Education and Inequalities in Rural Vietnam in the 1990s

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belanger, Daniele; Liu, Jianye

    2008-01-01

    This article examines the determinants of children's schooling during the 1990s in rural areas of Vietnam. It focuses on the impact of family attributes on the likelihood of children remaining in school or leaving during the primary and secondary school years. Using data from the Vietnam Living Standard Survey (VLSS) of 1992-93 and 1997-98, the…

  9. Preparing Schools for the 1990s: An Essay Collection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metropolitan Life Foundation.

    Education has emerged as a leading national issue for the 1990s. To address some of the current and future issues facing education, Metropolitan Life Insurance Company asked members of the Metropolitan Life Foundation Education Advisory Council to articulate their views about recent and future directions in public-school-improvement efforts. This…

  10. Changing Contexts for Counselor Preparation in the 1990s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hackney, Harold, Ed.

    The five chapters in this monograph provide guidelines for counselors in the 1990s who will be faced with such societal issues as substance abuse, Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS), teenage pregnancy, youth unemployment, homelessness, crime and delinquency, and school dropouts. "The Contemporary Counselor in a Changed World" (Harold…

  11. Prospects for Physics in the 1990's Surveyed.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Arthur L.

    1986-01-01

    A National Academy of Science report ("Physics Through the 1990's") says that American physics has been a highly diversified and productive enterprise, but continued excellence cannot be taken for granted. Progress in six subfields (elementary particle, nuclear, condensed-matter, atomic/molecular, plasma/fluid, and gravitation/cosmology physics)…

  12. Education in the 1990's: A Demographic View.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Ernest F.

    Since 1975, the United States has experienced the largest wave of immigration since the beginning of the century. This demographic fact holds important implications for education in the 1990s. First, because the birthrate among recent immigrants is relatively high, an increasing number of first generation Americans will enter the school system. As…

  13. Child Poverty Was Lower at End of 1990s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Carolyn C.

    2001-01-01

    Poverty rates increased in the early 1990s, but between 1994 and 1999 the metro child poverty rate declined 6 percentage points and the nonmetro rate declined 4 percent. In 1999, the poverty rate for nonmetro Black children was about double that of nonmetro White children, but the Black-White gap in poverty narrowed between 1985 and 1999. (TD)

  14. English Loanwords in the 1990's in Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakagawa, Akira

    A sociolinguistic analysis of English loan words in use in the 1990s in the discourse of young Japanese people is presented. The study drew data from a 1993 survey of undergraduate students at two Osaka (Japan) higher education institutions, one for men and one for women, which asked what loanwords students used and heard often. The report first…

  15. Transpersonal Social Work: A Theory for the 1990s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowley, Au-Deane S.

    1993-01-01

    Notes that transpersonal psychology contains growing body of literature and theory related to spiritual dimension of human nature and higher states of consciousness. Sees this approach as especially relevant for social work practitioners who are combating social ills of 1990s that manifest as violence, addiction, and spiritual malaise. (Author/NB)

  16. Shakespeare for the 1990s: A Multicultural Tempest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carey-Webb, Allen

    1993-01-01

    Argues that William Shakespeare's "The Tempest" is the play that is best suited for the high school English curriculum of the 1990s. Discusses historical and critical aspects the play's key themes. Shows ways of using the play in high school classes, and describes 19 works to read alongside of"The Tempest." (HB)

  17. Improved zircon iron corals for the 1990s

    SciTech Connect

    Decker, C. )

    1992-03-01

    CIBA-GEIGY/Drakenfeld Colors is dedicated to the research and development of consistent and cost-effective ceramic stains for the whitewares industry. After identifying the trends in color for the 1990s. CIBA-GEIGY/Drakenfeld Colors initiated an extensive R D project to improve zircon ion corals for the whitewares industry. These color trends indicated a need for stronger and cleaner zircon iron corals. This paper discusses the chemistry and crystal structure of zircon iron corals. A historical review of Drakenfeld corals will also be presented. The most recent development in Drakenfeld corals will then be compared to other commercially available zircon iron corals. Taking into consideration these comparisons, conclusions will be drawn suggesting the coral of choice for the 1990s.

  18. Teaching the Vietnam War in the 1990s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franklin, H. Bruce

    For an instructor who has been teaching the Vietnam War for over 30 years, the War has been teaching him for even longer. One of the objectives in teaching the Vietnam War in the 1990s is what it meant to teach the Vietnam War in the 1960s. It is easy to forget that the antiwar movement began as an attempt to educate the government and the nation,…

  19. Flux-vector splitting for the 1990s

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanleer, Bram

    1991-01-01

    The development of flux-vector splitting through the 1970s and 1980s is reviewed. Attention is given to the diffusive nature of flux-vector splitting, which makes it an undesirable technique for approximating the inviscid fluxes in a Navier-Stokes solver. Several proposed improvements, including a brand new one, are discussed and illustrated by a simple, yet revealing, numerical test case. Finally, an outlook for flux-vector splitting in the 1990s is presented.

  20. Student Borrowing in the 1990s. ACE Issue Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Council on Education, Washington, DC. Center for Policy Analysis.

    This brief discusses student borrowing to pay for college in the 1990s. Between 1990 and 2000, student loan volume more than doubled in real terms from $16.4 billion to $37.5 billion, and the number of loans made annually also more than doubled, from 4.5 million to 9.4 million. Data, primarily from the National Postsecondary Student Aid Study,…

  1. Will there be a 14C minimum in the tropical Pacific in the 1990s

    SciTech Connect

    Toggweiler, J.R. )

    1990-01-09

    14C distributions measured during GEOSECS showed large minima in bomb 14C levels in the tropical belts of the major ocean basins. Broecker et al. (1978, JGR, 83) attributed the minima to upwelling of deep water which was free of bomb 14C. Wyrtki (1981, JPO, 11) countered that heat budgets constrain the water upwelling the the equator to be from the upper themocline. Druffel (1987, JMR, 45) built a model of the Pacific upwelling system incorporating Wyrtki's description of the upwelling system. Druffel showed that the GEOSECS 14C minimum could be reproduced with upwelled upper thermocline water because bomb 14C levels were still relatively low in the tropical thermocline at the time of GEOSECS. Druffel went on to predict that mid latitude and tropical surface 14C levels would approach a common value before the 1990s and upper thermocline water masses acquired more bomb 14C and atmospheric 14C levels declined. By studying pre-bomb coral 14C records and a model simulation in Toggweiler et al. (1989, JGR, 94), I have found confirmation that some older and colder water upwells in the tropical Pacific. Upper thermocline (22-24C) water has about the same pre-bomb 14C content as pre-bomb surface waters and cannot generate a low 14C singal prior to the bomb test. The appearance of the oldest upwelled water in the coral data is correlated in time with the cold phase of the ENSO cycle. Most of the low 14C water moves southward into the South Pacific. I will argue that intensified upwelling during the cold phase of ENSO pulls up 12-14C water from the lower layers of the Equatorial Undercurrent. Upwelling from this layer may represent an important closure mechanism for mode waters formed in the subantarctic. A source of older water makes it certain that the tropical 14C minimum will persist through the 1990s and the remainder of the post-bomb era.

  2. 1990s bright for post-OPEC Ecuador

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-03-01

    Ecuador, in its first full year outside the fold of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries, stands poised for a significant expansion of production in the 1990s. While preparing for Ecuador's eventual withdrawal from OPEC last fall, the government since early summer 1992 has moved quickly to approve a number of key development projects. It was, perhaps, no coincidence that the most important conference on Ecuadorian petroleum prospects in recent years was timed to coincide with the government's public confirmation of the pullout. All foreign companies operating in Ecuador attended, with details disclosed of projects planned or under way. This article summarizes these projects and other key issues raised at the conference.

  3. Helioseismology in the 1980s and 1990s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goode, Philip R.

    2014-02-01

    Over more than twenty years, Wojtek Dziembowski and I collaborated on nearly fifty papers, which were concentrated in helioseismology through the 1980s and 1990s, but extended early into the new century. In this review, I discuss the most significant results of this collaboration and some of the underlying sociology that contributed to the intensity and longevity of our collaboration. Our work began with placing limits on the Sun's buried magnetic field and ended with extracting from the solar-cycle dependent oscillation frequency changes the roles (and net result) of competing dynamical drivers of changes in the solar diameter.

  4. The macroeconomic effects of immigration: Israel in the 1990s.

    PubMed

    Beenstock, M; Fisher, J

    1997-01-01

    "In this paper we try to quantify the contribution of immigration to the Israeli economy during the early 1990s. In doing so we consider the effects of immigration on key macroeconomic variables such as GDP, investment, consumption, the labor market, imports, exports and the housing market....A base-run simulation is prepared for 1990-1994 assuming actual immigration. Thereafter a counterfactual simulation is prepared assuming a reduction in immigration; the difference between the two simulations estimates the contribution of immigration to the relevant endogenous variables." PMID:12293419

  5. Riparian-wetland initiative for the 1990`s

    SciTech Connect

    1990-09-01

    This Riparian-Wetland Initiative for the 1990`s provides a blueprint for management and restoration of those areas encompassing 23.7 million acres of BLM lands. This strategy complements other plans such as Waterfowl Habitat Management on Public Lands, A Strategy for the Future and other interdisciplinary, multi-program, cooeprative efforts. Four goals have been established: to restore and maintain riparian-wetland areas so that 75% or more are in proper functioning condition by 1997, to protect areas through proper land management to avoid or mitigate negative impacts, to ensure an aggressive information program, and to improve partnerships and cooperative restorative and management processes.

  6. Physics through the 1990s: Condensed-matter physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The volume presents the current status of condensed-matter physics from developments since the 1970s to opportunities in the 1990s. Topics include electronic structure, vibrational properties, critical phenomena and phase transitions, magnetism, semiconductors, defects and diffusion, surfaces and interfaces, low-temperature physics, liquid-state physics, polymers, nonlinear dynamics, instabilities, and chaos. Appendices cover the connections between condensed-matter physics and applications of national interest, new experimental techniques and materials, laser spectroscopy, and national facilities for condensed-matter physics research. The needs of the research community regarding support for individual researchers and for national facilities are presented, as are recommendations for improved government-academic-industrial relations.

  7. The architect's framework for ground data system development in the 1990's

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebersole, M. M.

    1990-10-01

    The architect's framework which will describe the myriad of trends and practical conditions that influence the data system architect's design choices in developing the data systems architectures of the 1990's is discussed. The architectural choices are influenced by mission trends, information systems trends, technology trends and practical considerations such as available resources and schedules. These considerations, which will determine architectural choices, are described. A set of guidelines is presented for consideration, based on the recent experience of the author in developing a large scale, distributed system for spacecraft control.

  8. Trends in exclusive breastfeeding: findings from the 1990s.

    PubMed

    Labbok, Miriam H; Wardlaw, Tessa; Blanc, Ann; Clark, David; Terreri, Nancy

    2006-08-01

    This article presents trends and differentials in exclusive breastfeeding patterns that occurred in developing settings during the 1990s and considers these trends in relation to the breastfeeding-support activities in that decade. Between 1990 and 2000, the data suggest that exclusive breast-feeding levels in the developing world increased 15% overall among infants younger than 4 months (from 46% to 53%) and among infants older than 6 months (from 34% to 39%). The increase in urban areas is of special note. Urban areas are presumed to be most susceptible to the ambient health system and social and commercial pressures against breastfeeding; the support activities of the 1990s (eg, the Baby-friendly Hospital Initiative and the International Code of Marketing of Breastmilk Substitutes) were developed to address these pressures. Given this, implementation of the Global Strategy for Infant and Young Child Feeding, which supports these proven interventions, should be effective in further increasing optimal breast-feeding practices. PMID:16885487

  9. ACTS Multibeam Communications Package - Technology for the 1990S

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graebner, John C.; Cashman, William F.

    1990-01-01

    To maintain its competitive position in the 1990s, satellite communications must evolve to provide new services and to reduce the costs of supplying existing services. NASA's Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) program is directed toward developing the technology base that will support this evolution. The ACTS communications payload is optimized for digital communications using a time-division multiple access format. Scanning spot-beam antennas provide high-performance on-demand service to the earth communication stations. On-board processing and switching allow full connectivity in a single-hop network architecture. ACTS employs Ka-band (30/20 GHz) links for communications traffic and includes techniques for mitigating rain fades. Scheduled to be launched by a Space Shuttle in 1992, ACTS will provide in-orbit technology verification and support experimental communications networks for up to four years.

  10. European Telecommunications Conference. Strategic Planning for the 1990s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blackburn, J. F.

    1990-06-01

    The European Telecommunications Conference Strategic Planning for the 1990s provided information to delegates and their companies on strategic planning for the European market, particularly after the advent of the European Single Market at the end of 1992. The conference objective was to examine the impact of the initiatives of the European Commission (EC) and the changing attitudes to service provision by public and private sector organizations on industry and marketing. Organized by Blenheim Online and Logica, 40 delegates attended this conference, mainly from Europe, but with a few from the U.S. The papers were designed to illuminate such questions as emerging market sectors, impact of U.S telecommunications organizations in Europe, mergers and acquisition, standards, and value-added services.

  11. Future proton and electron colliders: Dreams for the 1990's

    SciTech Connect

    Richter, B.

    1988-10-01

    In this paper I have reviewed the possibilities for new colliders that might be available in the 1990's. One or more new proton should be available in the late-90s based on plans of Europe, the US and the USSR. The two very high energy machines, LHC and SSC, are quite expensive, and their construction will be more decided by the politicians' view on the availability of resources than by the physicists' view of the need for new machines. Certainly something will be built, but the question is when. New electron colliders beyond LEP II could be available in the late 1990's as well. Most of the people who have looked at this problem believe that at a minimum three years of RandD are required before a proposal can be made, two years will be required to convince the authorities to go ahead, and five years will be required to build such a machine. Thus the earliest time a new electron collider at high energy could be available is around 1988. A strong international RandD program will be required to meet that schedule. In the field of B factories, PSI's proposal is the first serious step beyond the capabilities of CESR. There are other promising techniques but these need more RandD. The least RandD would be required for the asymmetric storage ring systems, while the most would be required for high luminosity linear colliders. For the next decade, high energy physics will be doing its work at the high energy frontier with Tevatron I and II, UNK, SLC, LEP I and II, and HERA. The opportunities for science presented by experiments at these facilities are very great, and it is to be hoped that the pressure for funding to construct the next generation facilities will not badly affect the operating budgets of the ones we now have or which will soon be turning on. 9 refs., 12 figs., 6 tabs.

  12. Factors associated with trends in infant and child mortality in developing countries during the 1990s.

    PubMed Central

    Rutstein, S. O.

    2000-01-01

    The 1990s have seen a remarkable decrease in mortality among infants and children in most developing countries. In some countries, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa, these declines in mortality among children have slowed and are now increasing again. Internationally comparable data derived from survey programmes, such as the Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) programme, are available both to document the changes that have occurred in mortality and to provide insight into some of the factors that may explain these trends in mortality. The factors found in repeated DHS programmes that explain these trends fall into five categories: fertility behaviour; nutritional status, breastfeeding, and infant feeding; the use of health services by mothers and for children; environmental health conditions; and socioeconomic status. Both simple analyses and multivariate analyses of changes in these factors between surveys indicate that all factors affected the mortality trends. However, to explain trends in mortality, the variables themselves had to have changed over time. During the 1990s fertility behaviour, breastfeeding, and infant feeding have changed less than other factors and so would seem to have played a smaller role in mortality trends. This study confirms that trends in mortality during the 1990s were related to more than just a handful of variables. It would, therefore, be a mistake to concentrate policy actions on one or a few of these while forsaking others. Countries with the largest decreases in mortality have had substantial improvements in most of the factors that might be used to explain these changes. In some countries mortality has risen. In part these increases can be explained by the factors included in this study, such as deterioration in seeking medical care for children with fever. Other factors that were not measured, such as the increasing resistance of malaria to drug treatment and the increased prevalence of parental HIV/AIDS, may be contributing

  13. Cardiac Exposures in Breast Cancer Radiotherapy: 1950s-1990s

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, Carolyn W. Nisbet, Andrew; McGale, Paul; Darby, Sarah C.

    2007-12-01

    Purpose: To estimate the doses to the heart and coronary arteries from common breast cancer radiotherapy (RT) regimens used worldwide from the 1950s to the 1990s. Methods and Materials: Virtual simulation and computed tomography planning were used to reconstruct the megavoltage and electron regimens. Manual planning was used for the orthovoltage and brachytherapy regimens. Several sources of variability associated with the dose estimates were assessed. Results: Breast or chest wall RT resulted in whole heart doses of 0.9-14 Gy for left-sided and of 0.4-6 Gy for right-sided irradiation. Internal mammary chain RT delivered heart doses of 3-17 Gy and 2-10 Gy for left- and right-sided irradiation, respectively. For most regimens, the dose to the left anterior descending coronary artery was greater than the heart dose. Scar boost, supraclavicular fossa, and axillary RT delivered mean cardiac doses of {<=}3 Gy. The greatest source of variability in estimating dose from a given regimen was patient anatomy. Conclusion: For most techniques, the greatest radiation doses were received by the anterior part of the heart and the left anterior descending coronary artery, a common site of atherosclerosis causing myocardial infarction. Irradiation of these structures might have contributed to the excess risk of death from heart disease seen after some past breast cancer RT regimens.

  14. Computerized structural mechanics for 1990's: Advanced aircraft needs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Viswanathan, A. V.; Backman, B. F.

    1989-01-01

    The needs for computerized structural mechanics (CSM) as seen from the standpoint of the aircraft industry are discussed. These needs are projected into the 1990's with special focus on the new advanced materials. Preliminary design/analysis, research, and detail design/analysis are identified as major areas. The role of local/global analyses in these different areas is discussed. The lessons learned in the past are used as a basis for the design of a CSM framework that could modify and consolidate existing technology and include future developments in a rational and useful way. A philosophy is stated, and a set of analyses needs driven by the emerging advanced composites is enumerated. The roles of NASA, the universities, and the industry are identified. Finally, a set of rational research targets is recommended based on both the new types of computers and the increased complexity the industry faces. Computerized structural mechanics should be more than new methods in structural mechanics and numerical analyses. It should be a set of engineering applications software products that combines innovations in structural mechanics, numerical analysis, data processing, search and display features, and recent hardware advances and is organized in a framework that directly supports the design process.

  15. U.S. Hispanics: challenging issues for the 1990s.

    PubMed

    Valdivieso, R; Davis, C

    1988-12-01

    Hispanics are the largest minority in the US after blacks and, as a poor and disadvantaged minority, face many problems and challenges with which they must deal in the future. There has been a 34% increase in the US Hispanic population from 1980-1988 due to heavy immigration and high birth rates, resulting in a young age structure for Latinos with a median age of 25.5 years vs. the US median of 32.2 years. US Latinos are a very diverse group which includes Mexicans (62%), Puerto Ricans (13%), Cubans (5%), and Central and South Americans (12%), although they tend to be clustered in very few states. Discrimination has plagued this population because of illegal immigration concerns and illegal drug flow problems. Hispanics continue to suffer from poor educational achievement, language barriers, low-paying jobs, and poverty. Cubans have made the most progress so far in all of these areas. Poverty will likely persist into the 1990's. Bilingualism is and will be prevalent as long as immigration continues, but future generations will begin to use English as their 1st language. 17 states, however, have adopted "official English" laws in order to decrease the use of funds for Spanish language services. Using Spanish in school is a very divided issue--some favor bilingual education, some favor the shot-gun English approach. As Hispanics grow into work force age, lack of education will prevent entry into skilled labor. Corporations, however, are taking a bigger interest in bilingual workers. Nationally, Hispanics are beginning to matter as an electorate. The number of Latino elected officials has doubled from 1974 to 1988. The 1990 census may show us that we have been underestimating the number of Hispanics in the US. A higher percentage of future Latin immigrants will be better educated. Policymakers should recognize Hispanic problems and help to promote solutions, in the interest of the American people as a whole. PMID:12315691

  16. Population Growth in the 1990s: Patterns within the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Marc

    2002-01-01

    Examines population growth during the 1990s for a variety of geographic levels including regions, divisions, states, metropolitan areas, counties, and large cities. Compares growth rates for the 1990s with earlier decades to provide an historical context for present-day trends in population growth and decline. Discusses how differential population…

  17. Glimpses of space physics in the 1960s and 1990s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petschek, Harry E.

    1996-05-01

    The author describes his experiences and impressions of space physics in the 1960s and on his return to the field in the 1990s. The field has made significant progress and has changed its operating style to that of a more mature science. It has also become a more closed society with less interaction with outside groups. There is a consequent pessimistic mood including a feeling of lack of progress. The author suggests that the field should become more outwardly oriented. The opportunity presented by present interest in space weather forecasting should be taken seriously by the community as an area of applied science. Additionally, the numerous basic science questions in the field should be viewed in terms of the opportunity of sharing basic discoveries with other parts of the physics community. Examples are given of particular problems where such an outlook will broaden the horizons of space science and allow us to measure our contributions to basic and applied science.

  18. The NASA cosmic ray program for the 1990's and beyond

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahlen, S. P.; Binns, W. R.; Cherry, M. L.; Gaisser, T. K.; Jones, W. V.; Ling, J. C.; Mewaldt, R. A.; Muller, D.; Ormes, J. O.; Ramaty, R.

    1990-01-01

    The interim report of the 1989 NASA Cosmic Ray Program Working Group is presented. The report summarizes the cosmic ray program for the 1990's, including the recently approved ACE, Astromag, HNC, POEMS, and SAMPEX missions, as well as other key elements of the program. New science themes and candidate missions are identified for the first part of the 21st century, including objectives that might be addressed as part of the Human Exploration Initiative. Among the suggested new thrusts for the 21st century are: an Interstellar Probe into the nearby interstellar medium; a Lunar-Based Calorimeter to measure the cosmic ray composition near 10 exp 16 eV; high-precision element and isotope spectroscopy of ultraheavy elements; and new, more sensitive studies of impulsive solar flare events.

  19. Predicted solar flare activity for the 1990s - Possible effects on navigation systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kunches, J.M.; Hirman, J.W. )

    1990-01-01

    The current solar cycle, which began in September 1986, may prove to be the highest ever, as measured by sunspot numbers and radio flux. The cycle's frequent and strong solar flare activity can be illustrated by the March 1989 episode, which caused many problems for navigation systems. Flares and the geomagnetic storms that sometimes accompany them can disrupt low-frequency systems such as Loran-C, as well as the satellite-borne GPS. Although the maximum of the solar cycle is expected during the first quarter of 1990, flare activity is likely to persist at high levels for a few years to follow. Geomagnetic activity may occur at any time in the cycle, and thus geomagnetic disruptions are possible at any point in the 1990s. 5 refs.

  20. Measurement Of Spectral Power Distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, J. R.

    1980-11-01

    The majority of spectroradiometers make measurements at a number of discrete wavelength settings spaced evenly across the spectrum. Many modern light sources such as fluorescent or metal halide lamps have complex line spectra which may not be properly evaluated by this method. An automated spectroradiometer system involving a non-stop spectral scan with continuous integration of the output signal from the detector is described. The method is designed to make accurate measurements of all types of spectral power distribution whether made up of lines or continuum or any mixture of the two.

  1. Epidemiological Study of Japanese Encephalitis Virus in Vientiane, Lao PDR, in 1990s

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Mika; Soukaloun, Douangdao; Phongsavath, Khampe; Phommasack, Bounlay; Makino, Yoshihiro

    2015-01-01

    Phylogenetic analysis of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) was conducted using core-premembrane and envelope gene sequence data of two strains from Vientiane, Lao People's Democratic Republic, in 1993 and five from Okinawa, Japan, in 2002 and 2003, and previously published strains. The two Vientiane strains designated as LaVS56 and LaVS145 belonged to genotype 1 (G1) and the same subcluster of G1 as Australian strain in 2000, Thai strains in 1982–1985 and 2004-2005, and Vietnamese strain in 2005, but were distinct from the subcluster of recently distributing G1 strains widely in Asia including Okinawan strains and recent Lao strain in 2009. These clusters with own distinct distributions indicated involvements of different mechanisms and routes of spreading viruses and clarified that Australian G1 strain is from Southeast Asia, not from East Asia. Both Vientiane strains were antigenically close to P19-Br (G1, isolate, Thailand), but distinct from Nakayama (G3, prototype strain, Japan), Beijing-1 (G3, laboratory strain, China), and JaGAr#01 (G3, laboratory strain, Japan), demonstrated by cross-neutralization tests using polyclonal antisera. These results together with seroepidemiologic study conducted in Vientiane strongly suggest that diversified JEV cocirculated there in early 1990s. PMID:25695095

  2. Gendered Patterns in Computing Work in the Late 1990s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panteli, Niki; Stack, Janet; Ramsay, Harvie

    2001-01-01

    Data on information technology employment in Britain and interviews in four companies depicted experiences of women in computing. Gender disparities in numbers and distribution, salaries, division of labor, and career progression were found. Masculine values in computing culture, gender differences in working style, and attitudes toward computers…

  3. Changes in Land Surface Water Dynamics since the 1990s and Relation to Population Pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prigent, C.; Papa, F.; Aires, F.; Jimenez, C.; Rossow, W. B.; Matthews, E.

    2012-01-01

    We developed a remote sensing approach based on multi-satellite observations, which provides an unprecedented estimate of monthly distribution and area of land-surface open water over the whole globe. Results for 1993 to 2007 exhibit a large seasonal and inter-annual variability of the inundation extent with an overall decline in global average maximum inundated area of 6% during the fifteen-year period, primarily in tropical and subtropical South America and South Asia. The largest declines of open water are found where large increases in population have occurred over the last two decades, suggesting a global scale effect of human activities on continental surface freshwater: denser population can impact local hydrology by reducing freshwater extent, by draining marshes and wetlands, and by increasing water withdrawals. Citation: Prigent, C., F. Papa, F. Aires, C. Jimenez, W. B. Rossow, and E. Matthews (2012), Changes in land surface water dynamics since the 1990s and relation to population pressure, in section 4, insisting on the potential applications of the wetland dataset.

  4. The World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE): An ocean climatology for the 1990s

    SciTech Connect

    Chapman, P.; Nowlin, W.D. Jr.

    1997-11-01

    During the last ten years, scientists have made remarkable progress in predicting seasonal and interannual climate variability, based on interactions between the atmosphere and the tropical ocean. The goals of the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) are to develop models useful for predicting climate variability on longer time scales and to collect the data from the global ocean necessary to test them. Using a variety of instrument platforms, researchers in the US and other nations have been sampling a suite of ocean variables which will be used to build up a climatology of the oceans in the 1990s and from the basis for developing both new models of ocean circulation and coupled models of the ocean and atmosphere. This paper presents some recent results from WOCE research. It includes examples of advances in the fields of sea surface temperature measurements, sea level monitoring, current velocities, upper ocean heat content, and air-sea flux measurements. In addition, we discuss some of the recent advances in modeling and the link between WOCE research and future programs such as CLIVAR, GOOS and GCOS. 27 refs., 2 tabs.

  5. Zinc: health effects and research priorities for the 1990s.

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, C T; Sandstead, H H; Prasad, A S; Newberne, P M; Fraker, P J

    1994-01-01

    This review critically summarizes the literature on the spectrum of health effects of zinc status, ranging from symptoms of zinc deficiency to excess exposure. Studies on zinc intake are reviewed in relation to optimum requirements as a function of age and sex. Current knowledge on the biochemical properties of zinc which are critical to the essential role of this metal in biological systems is summarized. Dietary and physiological factors influencing the bioavailability and utilization of zinc are considered with special attention to interactions with iron and copper status. The effects of zinc deficiency and toxicity are reviewed with respect to specific organs, immunological and reproductive function, and genotoxicity and carcinogenicity. Finally, key questions are identified where research is needed, such as the risks to human health of altered environmental distribution of zinc, assessment of zinc status in humans, effects of zinc status in relation to other essential metals on immune function, reproduction, neurological function, and the cardiovascular system, and mechanistic studies to further elucidate the biological effects of zinc at the molecular level. PMID:7925188

  6. Physics through the 1990s: Atomic, molecular and optical physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The volume presents a program of research initiatives in atomic, molecular, and optical physics. The current state of atomic, molecular, and optical physics in the US is examined with respect to demographics, education patterns, applications, and the US economy. Recommendations are made for each field, with discussions of their histories and the relevance of the research to government agencies. The section on atomic physics includes atomic theory, structure, and dynamics; accelerator-based atomic physics; and large facilities. The section on molecular physics includes spectroscopy, scattering theory and experiment, and the dynamics of chemical reactions. The section on optical physics discusses lasers, laser spectroscopy, and quantum optics and coherence. A section elucidates interfaces between the three fields and astrophysics, condensed matter physics, surface science, plasma physics, atmospheric physics, and nuclear physics. Another section shows applications of the three fields in ultra-precise measurements, fusion, national security, materials, medicine, and other topics.

  7. Health and the environment in the 1990s.

    PubMed Central

    Doll, R

    1992-01-01

    Expectation of life at birth provides a simple measure of the state of health of a country. Differences in the expectation are examined in the United States over time and between males and females and Whites and non-Whites, and worldwide between market and nonmarket developed countries, and between developed and developing countries. The principal factors responsible for the trends and the current differences are changes in the social and physical environment, in personal behavior, and in medical care, and their relative importance is assessed. It is concluded that, at present, the principal environmental hazards worldwide are those associated with poverty of individuals within the market economies and of communities in the developing countries and that in the future, they will be the effects of overpopulation and the production of greenhouse gases. PMID:1609912

  8. Health and the environment in the 1990s.

    PubMed

    Doll, R

    1992-07-01

    Expectation of life at birth provides a simple measure of the state of health of a country. Differences in the expectation are examined in the United States over time and between males and females and Whites and non-Whites, and worldwide between market and nonmarket developed countries, and between developed and developing countries. The principal factors responsible for the trends and the current differences are changes in the social and physical environment, in personal behavior, and in medical care, and their relative importance is assessed. It is concluded that, at present, the principal environmental hazards worldwide are those associated with poverty of individuals within the market economies and of communities in the developing countries and that in the future, they will be the effects of overpopulation and the production of greenhouse gases. PMID:1609912

  9. Benchmarks for health expenditures, services and outcomes in Africa during the 1990s.

    PubMed Central

    Peters, D. H.; Elmendorf, A. E.; Kandola, K.; Chellaraj, G.

    2000-01-01

    There is limited information on national health expenditures, services, and outcomes in African countries during the 1990s. We intend to make statistical information available for national level comparisons. National level data were collected from numerous international databases, and supplemented by national household surveys and World Bank expenditure reviews. The results were tabulated and analysed in an exploratory fashion to provide benchmarks for groupings of African countries and individual country comparison. There is wide variation in scale and outcome of health care spending between African countries, with poorer countries tending to do worse than wealthier ones. From 1990-96, the median annual per capita government expenditure on health was nearly US$ 6, but averaged US$ 3 in the lowest-income countries, compared to US$ 72 in middle-income countries. Similar trends were found for health services and outcomes. Results from individual countries (particularly Ethiopia, Ghana, Côte d'Ivoire and Gabon) are used to indicate how the data can be used to identify areas of improvement in health system performance. Serious gaps in data, particularly concerning private sector delivery and financing, health service utilization, equity and efficiency measures, hinder more effective health management. Nonetheless, the data are useful for providing benchmarks for performance and for crudely identifying problem areas in health systems for individual countries. PMID:10916913

  10. Dynamic-analogue correction of the decadal change of East Asian summer precipitation in the late 1990s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Zhiqiang; Li, Shangfeng; Hu, Po; Shen, Baizhu; Feng, Guolin

    2016-06-01

    This paper systematically evaluates the deviations that appear in the hindcasts of the East Asian summer precipitation (EASP) decadal change in the late 1990s in two global coupled models (BCC_CGCM and BCC_CSM). The possible causes for the deviations between the model hindcasts and observations are analyzed. The results show that the hindcasts of EASP by BCC_CGCM and BCC_CSM deviate from observations, with the anomaly correlation coefficient (ACC) being -0.01 and -0.09 for the two models, respectively. The SST anomalies in North and West Pacific and the SST index values predicted by the two models also deviate from the observations, indicating that inconsistent SST fields may be the key factor leading to the deviation in the prediction of the EASP decadal shift. Thus, a dynamic-analogue scheme is proposed to correct the precipitation hindcasts by using SSTs, where SST and EASP are highly correlated, to select historical analogue cases. Cross validations show that the average ACC of the temporal-latitude distribution of the EASP between the corrected hindcasts and observations is 0.18 for BCC_CGCM and 0.02 for BCC_CSM; both are much higher than the uncorrected hindcasts. Applying the dynamic-analogue correction scheme in both models successfully improves prediction of the EASP decadal change in the late 1990s.

  11. Public Education: A Major American Growth Industry in the 1990's.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrenhalt, Samuel M.

    Public education has been a major growth industry in the 1990s, expanding its employment by nearly 24 percent from 1988 to 1998. The 1.8 million jobs added in state and local government education functions placed this sector third among America's growth industries in the sheer magnitude of its employment rise. This report examines the record of…

  12. Glass Ceiling in Academic Administration in Turkey: 1990s versus 2000s

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunluk-Senesen, Gulay

    2009-01-01

    This paper assesses the glass ceiling for academics in the Turkish universities with reference to top administration positions: rectors and deans. Glass ceiling indicators show that the glass ceiling thickened from the 1990s to late 2000s. The findings are discussed against the background of the transformation in the Turkish universities in the…

  13. Parents and Schooling in the 1990s. Parent Involvement at the Middle School Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Review, 1991

    1991-01-01

    The "ERIC Review" announces research results, publications, and new programs relevant to each issue's theme topic. This theme issue is devoted to the topic of "Parent Involvement in Education" and contains three principal articles: "Parents and Schooling in the 1990s," by Erwin Flaxman and Morton Inger; "Parent Involvement at the Middle School…

  14. Equality, Diversity and Opportunity: Civil Rights and Affirmative Action in the 1990s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winston, Judith A.

    1991-01-01

    Challenges to civil rights and affirmative action in the 1990s are identified. Five cases of racial, sex, ethnic, and reverse discrimination behind the Civil Rights bills of 1990 and 1991 are discussed. The ultimate challenge is to demonstrate that if civil rights litigants win, others need not lose. (SLD)

  15. Merger of Higher Education Institutions: Case Studies in China in the 1990s

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Su, Mingni

    2009-01-01

    This study explores two specific cases of institutional mergers in the field of higher education. The two cases took place in China in the 1990s. One of the cases might be labeled a vertical merger and the other a horizontal merger. The former simply implies a merger between higher education institutions with equal status and the same level of…

  16. Campus Budgeting for Tough Times: Lessons from the First Half of the 1990s. Rockefeller Reports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Joseph C.

    This report lists 11 budgetary principles for higher education institutions, and presents the results of a survey which examined whether the practices of four-year public higher education institutions in California, Florida, Massachusetts, New York, Texas, and Wisconsin followed these precepts during the fiscal problems of the early 1990s. The 11…

  17. Grade Inflation Marches On: Grade Increases from the 1990s to 2000s

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kostal, Jack W.; Kuncel, Nathan R.; Sackett, Paul R.

    2016-01-01

    Grade inflation threatens the integrity of college grades as indicators of academic achievement. In this study, we contribute to the literature on grade inflation by providing the first estimate of the size of grade increases at the student level between the mid-1990s and mid-2000s. By controlling for student characteristics and course-taking…

  18. El Nino During the 1990's: Harbinger of Climatic Change or Normal Fluctuation?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Robert M.

    2000-01-01

    Today, El Nino refers to the extreme warming episodes of the globally effective, coupled ocean-atmospheric interaction commonly known as ENSO (i.e., "El Nino-Southern Oscillation"). Concerning its observed decadal frequency and severity, El Nino during the 1990's has often been regarded as being anomalous. Results of analysis reported herein; however, appear to mitigate this belief.

  19. El Nino During the 1990s: Harbinger of Climatic Change or Normal Fluctuation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Robert M.

    2000-01-01

    Today, El Nino refers to the extreme warming episodes of the globally effective, coupled ocean-atmospheric interaction commonly known as ENSO (i.e., "El Nino-Southern Oscillation"). Concerning its observed decadal frequency and severity, El Nino during the 1990's has often been regarded as being anomalous. Results of analysis reported herein; however, appear to mitigate this belief.

  20. Blueprints for Indian Education: Research and Development Needs for the 1990s. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cahape, Patricia

    Two landmark efforts to describe the condition of American Indian and Alaska Native education nationwide and to call for specific solutions took place in the early 1990s. These efforts were the Indian Nations At Risk Task Force and the White House Conference on Indian Education. This digest summarizes Task Force and Conference recommendations…

  1. Migration of Retirement-Age Blacks to Nonmetropolitan Areas in the 1990s

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beale, Calvin L.; Fuguitt, Glenn V.

    2011-01-01

    Older blacks migrated to nonmetropolitan (nonmetro) communities in the 1990s to a degree not true of the past. Some of the nonmetro counties that attracted them are well-known retirement areas also favored by other retirees, mostly whites. Two-thirds of black retirement counties, however, are areas in the Old South that are not attracting other…

  2. A Just Transition? Lessons from Defense Worker Adjustment in the 1990s. Technical Paper No. 237.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Laura; Markusen, Ann

    A study examined the experiences of some 1.4 million American defense industry workers, displaced in the wake of the Cold War, as a way of reviewing and evaluating national policies toward worker adjustment and re-employment as they have evolved in the 1990s. The study found that the federal government, through the Department of Labor,…

  3. Information Systems in the University of Saskatchewan Libraries: A Vision for the 1990s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saskatchewan Univ., Saskatoon. Libraries.

    This report describes the vision of the Information Systems Advisory Committee (ISAC) of an Information Systems Model for the 1990s. It includes an evaluation of the present automation environment at the university, a vision of library automation at the University of Saskatchewan between 1994 and 1999, and specific recommendations on such issues…

  4. Families in Poverty in the 1990s: Trends, Causes, Consequences, and Lessons Learned.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seccombe, Karen

    2000-01-01

    During the 1990s, poverty rates in the United States remained relatively stable despite a robust economy. This paper reviews the research and theoretical and conceptual developments during the past decade, including how the poverty line was developed; the causes of the virtually unchanged poverty rate; and the consequences of poverty for children.…

  5. Feature Articles on African Americans in Sports Illustrated in the 1990s

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angela Lumpkin

    2009-01-01

    This descriptive study examined whether the coverage of African Americans in the feature articles in Sports Illustrated during the 1990s was representative of their participation levels. Nearly half of the articles featured European Americans; about one-third featured African Americans. More African Americans were featured in basketball, boxing,…

  6. Civil Rights Movement and the 1990s: Racism and the African-American Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Czech, Christopher

    A plan is presented for a curriculum that shows how African Americans have been left out of decision making, stereotyped negatively, and denied resources. The project is intended to be a base for future studies of human relations issues in order to understand how society operates. Using the contexts of the 1960s and the 1990s, the power structures…

  7. El Nino during the 1990s: Harbinger of Climatic Change or Normal Fluctuation?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Robert M.

    1999-01-01

    Today, El Nino refers to the extreme warming episodes of the globally effective, coupled ocean-atmospheric interaction commonly known as ENSO (i.e., "El Nino-Southern Oscillation"). Concerning its observed decadal frequency and severity, El Nino during the 1990s has often been regarded as being anomalous. Results of analysis reported herein, however, appear to mitigate this belief. For example, regarding the frequency and severity of El Nino, the decade of the 1990s is found to compare quite favorably with that of preceding decades. Hence, the 1990s probably should not be regarded as being anomalous. On the other hand, the number of El Nino-related months per decade has sharply increased during the 1990s, as compared to the preceding four decades, hinting of a marginally significant upward trend. Perhaps, this is an indication that the Earth is now experiencing an ongoing global climatic change. Continued vigilance during the new millennium, therefore, is of paramount importance for determining whether or not this "hint" of a global change is real or if it merely reflects a normal fluctuation of climate.

  8. The Role of Communication Satellites in Education and Training: The 1990s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polcyn, Kenneth A.

    1981-01-01

    Presents an overview of satellite technology and trends in its use, reviews the evolution of education and training applications of communication satellites, and prognosticates about the possible national and international uses during the 1990s. A bibliography of 26 items is included. (CHC)

  9. World Agriculture: Review and Prospects into the 1990s. A Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winrock International Livestock Research & Training Center. Morrilton, AR.

    The four chapters of this analysis of world agriculture deal with production, consumption, and world trade. World food production and consumption continued to grow rapidly in the 1970's, but at a rate somewhat slower than in the 1960's. It is projected that for the 1990's consumption will increase faster than production in most of the world's…

  10. Exiting Welfare in the 1990s: Did Public Policy Influence Recipients' Behavior?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hofferth, Sandra L.; Stanhope, Stephen; Harris, Kathleen Mullan

    2002-01-01

    Evaluates the association between welfare policies implemented by states in the early to mid-1990s and the rate at which female household heads with children exit AFDC for work or for non-work reasons. Reports that waiver policies requiring work for mothers of very young children are associated with more rapid exits through employment. (Contains…

  11. Technology and Reference Changes in the 1990s: An Annotated Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dennison, Russell F.

    This paper presents an annotated bibliography of 69 articles published in the 1990s that examine the impact of technology on reference service in public, school, and academic libraries. The paper is organized in the following seven parts, each dealing with a different type of application of technology: (1) "General Change Caused by Technology";…

  12. Issues and Concerns for Local Government: Virginia in the 1990s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crockett, Mark

    Many challenges face local governments in Virginia and nationwide in the 1990s. As federal funding has decreased, local governments have been forced to take on greater responsibilities. This increased workload has created a greater demand for resources and forced many localities to raise taxes. Citizens have often voiced opposition to these tax…

  13. Into the Video Age: Open University Television in the 1990s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkwood, Adrian

    1990-01-01

    Discussion of developments in British television broadcasting that affect educational television focuses on Open University television productions. Topics discussed include advantages of broadcasting for distance education; growth in the use of video cassettes; current access to video equipment; and possible future developments for the 1990s.…

  14. Focus on the 1990's: International Trade Opportunities for the Permian Basin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Midland Coll., TX. Business and Economic Development Center.

    Designed to highlight business opportunities of the 1990s as well as available educational programs relating to international business, this report contains six presentations from a 1990 conference on international trade hosted by Midland College (MC). The first article, "Texas in the Global Economy: Attitude and Opportunity," by John A. Adams,…

  15. Mexican American Women's Activism at Indiana University in the 1990s

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernandez, Ebelia

    2013-01-01

    This article offers a historical analysis of documents and narratives from Mexican American women that reflect the tumultuous 1990s at Indiana University. Their recollections reveal how they became activists, the racist incidents that compelled them into activism, and the racial tensions and backlash towards identity politics felt by students of…

  16. Information Technology Issues in the 1990s: An Analysis from a CAUSE Postcard Survey for 1994.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Temares, M. Lewis; Zastrocky, Michael R.

    During the past 3 years, CAUSE and the University of Miami (Florida) have sponsored a survey to identify the most important issues facing information technology managers for the 1990s. Data from previous years were merged with postcard survey data from the 1994 survey. The survey, which was mailed to 1,012 institutions of higher learning and sent…

  17. Putting Children First: A Progressive Family Policy for the 1990s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamarck, Elaine Ciulla; Galston, William A.

    Four policy papers delineate a progressive family policy for the 1990s that makes the family central among social issues and children central in families. An extensive introduction delineates the split between leaders' and ordinary citizens' views on the family and provides a summary of the papers. The first paper offers an economic review of the…

  18. Food for Thought: Children's Diets in the 1990s. Policy Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gleason, Philip; Suitor, Carol

    Since the late 1980s, identifying nutritional problems in children's and adults' diets and developing initiatives to help Americans improve what they eat have received considerable attention. This policy brief summarizes 2 studies of children's nutrition with the objectives of describing the diets of school-age children as of the mid-1990s,…

  19. The Mid-1990s Earned Income Tax Credit Expansion: EITC and Welfare Caseloads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Younghee

    2008-01-01

    Research and policy scholars have suggested that recent welfare caseload reductions have coincided with welfare reform efforts; however, few studies have incorporated the impacts of the Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC) expansions in the 1990s. Using annual state-level administrative data, the author estimated the effects of the fully phased-in…

  20. Measuring the Distribution of Spitefulness

    PubMed Central

    Kimbrough, Erik O.; Reiss, J. Philipp

    2012-01-01

    Spiteful, antisocial behavior may undermine the moral and institutional fabric of society, producing disorder, fear, and mistrust. Previous research demonstrates the willingness of individuals to harm others, but little is understood about how far people are willing to go in being spiteful (relative to how far they could have gone) or their consistency in spitefulness across repeated trials. Our experiment is the first to provide individuals with repeated opportunities to spitefully harm anonymous others when the decision entails zero cost to the spiter and cannot be observed as such by the object of spite. This method reveals that the majority of individuals exhibit consistent (non-)spitefulness over time and that the distribution of spitefulness is bipolar: when choosing whether to be spiteful, most individuals either avoid spite altogether or impose the maximum possible harm on their unwitting victims. PMID:22905108

  1. Measurement of 2D birefringence distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noguchi, Masato; Ishikawa, Tsuyoshi; Ohno, Masahiro; Tachihara, Satoru

    1992-10-01

    A new measuring method of 2-D birefringence distribution has been developed. It has not been an easy job to get a birefringence distribution in an optical element with conventional ellipsometry because of its lack of scanning means. Finding an analogy between the rotating analyzer method in ellipsometry and the phase-shifting method in recently developed digital interferometry, we have applied the phase-shifting algorithm to ellipsometry, and have developed a new method that makes the measurement of 2-D birefringence distribution easy and possible. The system contains few moving parts, assuring reliability, and measures a large area of a sample at one time, making the measuring time very short.

  2. Direct measurements show decreasing methane emissions from natural gas local distribution systems in the United States.

    PubMed

    Lamb, Brian K; Edburg, Steven L; Ferrara, Thomas W; Howard, Touché; Harrison, Matthew R; Kolb, Charles E; Townsend-Small, Amy; Dyck, Wesley; Possolo, Antonio; Whetstone, James R

    2015-04-21

    Fugitive losses from natural gas distribution systems are a significant source of anthropogenic methane. Here, we report on a national sampling program to measure methane emissions from 13 urban distribution systems across the U.S. Emission factors were derived from direct measurements at 230 underground pipeline leaks and 229 metering and regulating facilities using stratified random sampling. When these new emission factors are combined with estimates for customer meters, maintenance, and upsets, and current pipeline miles and numbers of facilities, the total estimate is 393 Gg/yr with a 95% upper confidence limit of 854 Gg/yr (0.10% to 0.22% of the methane delivered nationwide). This fraction includes emissions from city gates to the customer meter, but does not include other urban sources or those downstream of customer meters. The upper confidence limit accounts for the skewed distribution of measurements, where a few large emitters accounted for most of the emissions. This emission estimate is 36% to 70% less than the 2011 EPA inventory, (based largely on 1990s emission data), and reflects significant upgrades at metering and regulating stations, improvements in leak detection and maintenance activities, as well as potential effects from differences in methodologies between the two studies. PMID:25826444

  3. The Reform of Secondary Education in Indonesia during the 1990s: Basic Education Expansion and Quality Improvement through Curriculum Decentralization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeom, Min-Ho; Acedo, Clementina; Utomo, Erry

    2002-01-01

    Case study of two main secondary education reforms in Indonesia in the 1990s: Expansion of basic education and the decentralization of curriculum. Discusses the social, political, and economic trends in the 1990s, context of the secondary education reforms, and the rationale for the reforms. Focuses on the curriculum decentralization design and…

  4. Freshening of the Labrador Sea Surface Waters in the 1990s: Another Great Salinity Anomaly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hakkinen, Sirpa; Koblinsky, Chester J. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Both the observed and simulated time series of the Labrador Sea surface salinities show a major freshening event since the middles. It continues the series of decoder events of the 1970s and 1980s from which the freshening in the early 1970's was named as the Great Salinity Anomaly (GSA). These events are especially distinguishable in the late summer (August and September) time series. The observed data suggests that the 1990's freshening may equal the GSA in magnitude. This recent event is associated with a large reduction in the overturning rate between the early and latter part of the 1990s. Both the observations and model results indicate that the surface salinity conditions appear to be returning towards normal daring 1999 and 2000 in the coastal area, but offshore, the model predicts the freshening to linger on after peaking 1997.

  5. Network integration. A new vision for Catholic healthcare systems in the 1990s.

    PubMed

    Mason, S A

    1990-12-01

    The 1990s will be the decade of network integration for many of the nation's healthcare organizations. Catholic healthcare systems will have to refocus on local and regional healthcare delivery. To succeed in local and regional markets, the systems will have to offer various levels of care through numerous types of providers, share services among facilities, cooperate with secular organizations, and build stronger affiliations with local parishes. Managing this change (from offering fragmented healthcare services to offering integrated services) will be a major challenge facing organizations in the decade ahead. They must develop a clearly articulated vision to provide stability during this time of rapid change. To meet the challenges of the 1990s, Catholic healthcare systems will have to determine the types of functional sharing that will be beneficial at the local level, divest and transfer sponsorship of facilities that burden the system's mission, and expand the activities of the laity. PMID:10108005

  6. A post-1990s assessment of strategic hospital alliances and their marketplace orientations: time to refocus.

    PubMed

    Olden, Peter C; Roggenkamp, Susan D; Luke, Roice D

    2002-01-01

    In past years, many SHAs formed in local urban markets to better compete for managed care contracts. In response to 1990s forces, these SHAs appear to have adapted product, production, and selling orientations to their markets, aimed at large institutional purchasers of health care. However, health care markets have evolved differently than anticipated. SHAs and their hospitals should now adopt the marketing orientation and focus more on patients and enrollees. PMID:11985290

  7. Decadal changes in tropical cyclone activity over the western North Pacific in the late 1990s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Haozhe; Yang, Jing; Gong, Daoyi; Mao, Rui; Wang, Yuqing; Gao, Miaoni

    2015-12-01

    A pronounced decadal change in tropical cyclone (TC) activity over the western North Pacific (WNP) in the late 1990s was identified. Based on a comparison of the two epochs that occurred before and after the late 1990s, the TC genesis number exhibited an evident decrease over the southern WNP (S-WNP: 5°-20°N, 105°-170°E) and an increase over the northern WNP (N-WNP: 20°-25°N, 115°-155°E), which partly corresponded to a significant northward migration in the seasonal mean latitudinal location of TC genesis, i.e., from 17.2°N to 18.7°N. After the late 1990s, the northwestward-moving track became the most dominant track mode, accompanied by the weakening of both the westward-moving track and the northeastward-recurving track. Meanwhile, the TC occurrence frequency (TCF) experienced evident increases over southeastern China and the Okinawa islands, while prominent decreases occurred over the South China Sea, the Philippine Sea, Japan and east of Japan. Changes in the TCF were determined by TC genesis changes, TC track shifts and variations in regional TC durations, which were all ascribed to the decadal change in tropical Indo-Pacific sea surface temperature. The full picture on the decadal changes in the WNP TC activity revealed in this study may provide useful guidance for regional TC seasonal forecasts and future projections.

  8. The effect of competition on reserve capacity: The case of California hospitals in the late 1990s.

    PubMed

    Santerre, Rexford E; Adams, Ammon S

    2002-09-01

    This paper empirically investigates how competitive forces have affected bed capacity in the California hospital services industry using a data set for the late 1990s. The empirical results offer several conclusions about the effect of different types of competition on bed capacity during a period characterized by heightened price consciousness. In contrast to earlier periods, hospitals are found to continuously react to increased inter-hospital competition by reducing the supply of beds relative to patient demand. Similar to earlier periods, the empirical results suggest that increased physician/supplier competition leads to a reduction in bed capacity. Finally and in contrast to earlier studies, findings indicate that increased payer competition, as measured by the percentage of managed care patients in the market area, causes less bed capacity up to a point. PMID:14625941

  9. Phase-OFDR for distributed disturbance measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liehr, Sascha; Krebber, Katerina

    2016-05-01

    We introduce the optical frequency domain reflectometry (OFDR) technique based on intensity modulation frequency sweep measurement for distributed disturbance measurement in optical fibres. By evaluating interferometric Rayleigh scattering changes along the fibre, strain and temperature changes are detected with 100 n(epsilon) sensitivity and 10 mK resolution. The vibration frequencies for low frequencies and up to the kHz-range can be obtained from power change evaluation in the spatial domain. This novel OFDR approach is a low-cost alternative for distributed disturbance measurement up to distances of several kilometres.

  10. Analyses of the lunar surface with advanced remote sensors: Expectations for the 1990's

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pieters, Carle M.

    1991-01-01

    Today's advanced sensor capabilities provide unprecedented opportunities for exploration that mesh well with the science requirements for a sophisticated integration of several types of remotely acquired information. Science priorities for the 1990's include an evaluation of the global composition and structure of the primordial lunar crust in order to model its origin and evolution, using the Moon as a natural laboratory to study the impact process and time-cumulative events at 1 AU, and, ultimately, constraining the origin of the Moon and its relation to Earth.

  11. Latin American Social Medicine: Roots, Development During the 1990s, and Current Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Tajer, Débora

    2003-01-01

    Latin American social medicine arose during the 1950s and 1960s, drawing its inspiration from the social movements that emerged in France, Germany, and England in the mid-19th century. The Latin American movement of social medicine has clear ideological goals. It is organized around the Latin American Association of Social Medicine, which was founded in 1984 and is regarded as a social, political, and academic movement. This article takes a historical perspective and presents the reasons for the emergence and identity of the association, focusing on the main developments and contributions of this movement from the 1990s until the present time. PMID:14652326

  12. How have hospitals faced the pricing issues of the 1990's?

    PubMed

    Kleimenhagen, A; Naidu, G M; Pillari, G D

    1994-01-01

    National health care expenditures are rising rapidly, bringing on a health care financing crisis. For this reason, it is useful to see how hospitals are facing the price issues of the 1990's. This study examines the price strategies hospitals follow and analyzes their observations on price sensitivity and payer mix. The results clearly show that hospitals have not given much attention to the pricing variable. The study suggests that marketing and finance will have to work closely together in developing future pricing strategies. PMID:10137167

  13. Latin American social medicine: roots, development during the 1990s, and current challenges.

    PubMed

    Tajer, Débora

    2003-12-01

    Latin American social medicine arose during the 1950s and 1960s, drawing its inspiration from the social movements that emerged in France, Germany, and England in the mid-19th century. The Latin American movement of social medicine has clear ideological goals. It is organized around the Latin American Association of Social Medicine, which was founded in 1984 and is regarded as a social, political, and academic movement. This article takes a historical perspective and presents the reasons for the emergence and identity of the association, focusing on the main developments and contributions of this movement from the 1990s until the present time. PMID:14652326

  14. Solid earth science in the 1990s. Volume 1: Program plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This is volume one of a three volume series. A plan for solid earth science research for the next decade is outlined. The following topics are addressed: scientific requirements; status of current research; major new emphasis in the 1990's; interagency and international participation; and the program implementation plan. The following fields are represented: plate motion and deformation; lithospheric structure and evolution; volcanology; land surface (processes of change); earth structure and dynamics; earth rotation and reference frames; and geopotential fields. Other topics of discussion include remote sensing, space missions, and space techniques.

  15. Acoustical concept for measuring particle size distributions

    SciTech Connect

    Mahler, D.S.; Kaufman, M.

    1981-02-01

    A new concept is investigated for measuring particle size and distribution for air pollution control applications. This study illustrates that the proposed device--the Acoustic Particulate Monitor (APM)--can measure total mass loading, mean particle diameter, and width of particle size distributions on an in-situ basis. The concept for such an instrument is based upon experimental and theoretical observations that the presence of dust in air causes a reduction in the speed of sound as a function of the transmitted frequency. These percentage reductions in the speed of sound are small and the research results illustrate how the accompanying shift in the acoustical phase is a highly sensitive method for detecting such effects. The magnitudes of the phase shift are related to mass loading. The frequency associated with the maximum phase shift is defined as the acoustic frequency, fA. Experimentally determining fA provides a measure of the mean particle size of the distribution. The detailed shape of the phase shift as a function of frequency is a measure of the spread in the size distribution of the entrained particulate. Experiments were performed using several configurations. Results were verified using direct mass measurements and microphotographs.

  16. Measurement of gas distributions from PRS nozzles

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, B.V.; Stephanakis, S.J.; Commisso, R.J.; Fisher, A. Peterson, G.G.

    1997-05-01

    A high-sensitivity laser interferometer has been used to measure gas distributions from nozzles used in high-power plasma radiation source experiments. These measurements are important for determining experimental parameters and for modeling implosions. The integral of the gas density along the laser beam line of sight is measured as a function of time at one axial distance, z, and one radial displacement, r. The nozzle is moved to scan the (r,z) cross section. The measurements are Abel-inverted to compute the local density n(r,z,t). Several examples are shown to illustrate the technique. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  17. Measurement of gas distributions from PRS nozzles

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, B. V.; Stephanakis, S. J.; Commisso, R. J.; Fisher, A.; Peterson, G. G.

    1997-05-05

    A high-sensitivity laser interferometer has been used to measure gas distributions from nozzles used in high-power plasma radiation source experiments. These measurements are important for determining experimental parameters and for modeling implosions. The integral of the gas density along the laser beam line of sight is measured as a function of time at one axial distance, z, and one radial displacement, r. The nozzle is moved to scan the (r,z) cross section. The measurements are Abel-inverted to compute the local density n(r,z,t). Several examples are shown to illustrate the technique.

  18. POLRADS: polarization radiance distribution measurement system.

    PubMed

    Voss, Kenneth J; Souaidia, Nordine

    2010-09-13

    While the upwelling radiance distribution in the ocean can be highly polarized, there are few measurements of this parameter in the open ocean. To obtain the polarized in-water upwelling spectral radiance distribution data we have developed the POLRADS instrument. This instrument is based on the NuRADS radiance distribution camera systems in which linear polarizer's have been installed. By combining simultaneous images from three NuRADS instruments, three Stokes parameters (I, Q, U) for the water leaving radiance can be obtained for all upwelling angles simultaneously. This system measures the Stokes parameters Q/I and U/I with a 0.05-0.06 uncertainty and I with a 7-10% uncertainty. PMID:20940862

  19. Study of a tracking and data acquisition system for the 1990's. Volume 1: User community characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccreary, T.

    1981-01-01

    Projected 1990's experiments; navigation requirements and potentials; communications requirements associated with space experiments; alternative forecast options; and operational impacts on experiments are covered. A baseline of plans for the TDAS User Community, including a set of generic experiments developed to supplement existing planning for the 1990's time frame is generated. It includes extensive summaries of collected data, and a bibliography. The data are representative of inputs obtained from NASA planning sources through September 1981.

  20. Oil and gas markets, companies, and technology in the 1990`s and beyond

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, J.L.

    1995-08-01

    During the late 1990`s and beyond, oil prices will be stagnant while costs increase, competition for markets and capital will be fierce, funds available for exploration and development will be limited, and environmental extremists will keep prospective areas off-limits. Higher taxes will limit growth in oil and gas demand and reapportion energy market shares. And a campaign to brand oil use as an ``addiction`` that must be cured will gather steam. But opportunities abound, too, even in the US High-quality properties are available throughout the US, independents can find and develop reserves cheaper than the majors, and new tools are available to reduce risks both in the field and in the market. Gas prices are firming and natural gas is often labeled the ``fuel of the future.`` To succeed in the petroleum industry of the 1990`s, all companies must accept change, be creative, and take initiative. To prosper, oil and gas producers and refiners and those who supply and serve the industry must face the new realities of the market. They cannot mark time until the return of 4,000 active rigs and $40/bbl oil. those days are never coming back. Never.

  1. Welfare and poverty in the Europe of the 1990s: social progress or social dumping?

    PubMed

    Abrahamson, P E

    1991-01-01

    Social policy in Europe is changing fundamentally from a system of public (government) support to a welfare pluralism, or a "welfare mix" supported by the private and public sectors and by voluntary agencies. The overall tendencies are privatization, decentralization, and debureaucratization. With the prospect of a single-market economy within the European Communities in 1993, the fight against poverty in member nations may lead to "social dumping." Two major problems are identified: the lack of guaranteed minimum income schemes in the so-called "Latin Rim" countries, and the effect on workers' and citizens' rights in an integrated Europe. The fight against poverty is--despite some efforts from the Commission of the European Communities--basically left to the individual member states. This portends a gloomy scenario for the poorer populations of Europe in the 1990s. The author examines welfare state types within clusters of countries: the modern (Scandinavia), the corporatist (Federal Republic of Germany), the residual (Britain), and the rudimentary (Latin Rim). The conclusion, unfortunately, is that future overall development of European welfare systems in the 1990s will probably be toward "Americanization," with a move away from the modern, or Scandinavian, model toward a corporatist model for welfare policy. PMID:2071305

  2. Incomplete fusion dynamics by spin distribution measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, D.; Ali, R.; Ansari, M. Afzal; Singh, Pushpendra P.; Sharma, M. K.; Singh, B. P.; Babu, K. Surendra; Sinha, Rishi K.; Kumar, R.; Muralithar, S.; Singh, R. P.; Bhowmik, R. K.

    2010-02-15

    Spin distributions for various evaporation residues populated via complete and incomplete fusion of {sup 16}O with {sup 124}Sn at 6.3 MeV/nucleon have been measured, using charged particles (Z=1,2)-{gamma} coincidence technique. Experimentally measured spin distributions of the residues produced as incomplete fusion products associated with 'fast'{alpha}- and 2{alpha}-emission channels observed in the 'forward cone' are found to be distinctly different from those of the residues produced as complete fusion products. Moreover, 'fast'{alpha}-particles that arise from larger angular momentum in the entrance channel are populated at relatively higher driving input angular momentum than those produced through complete fusion. The incomplete fusion residues are populated in a limited, higher-angular-momentum range, in contrast to the complete fusion products, which are populated over a broad spin range.

  3. Understanding Coronal Heating with Emission Measure Distributions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klimchik, James A.; Tripathi, Durgesh; Bradshaw, Stephen J.; Mason, Helen E.

    2011-01-01

    It is widely believed that the cross-field spatial scale of coronal heating is small, so that the fundamental plasma structures (loop strands) are spatially unresolved. We therefore must appeal to diagnostic techniques that are not strongly affected by spatial averaging. One valuable observable is the emission measure distribution, EM(T), which indicates how much material is present at each temperature. Using data from the Extreme-ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph on the Hinode mission, we have determined emission measure distributions in the cores of two active regions. The distributions have power law slopes of approximately 2.4 coolward of the peak. We compare these slopes, as well as the amount of emission measure at very high temperature, with the predictions of a series of models. The models assume impulsive heating (nanoflares) in unresolved strands and take full account of non equilibrium ionization. A variety of nanoflare properties and initial conditions are considered. We also comment on the selection of spectral lines for upcoming missions like Solar Orbiter.

  4. Electronic cigarette aerosol particle size distribution measurements.

    PubMed

    Ingebrethsen, Bradley J; Cole, Stephen K; Alderman, Steven L

    2012-12-01

    The particle size distribution of aerosols produced by electronic cigarettes was measured in an undiluted state by a spectral transmission procedure and after high dilution with an electrical mobility analyzer. The undiluted e-cigarette aerosols were found to have particle diameters of average mass in the 250-450 nm range and particle number concentrations in the 10(9) particles/cm(3) range. These measurements are comparable to those observed for tobacco burning cigarette smoke in prior studies and also measured in the current study with the spectral transmission method and with the electrical mobility procedure. Total particulate mass for the e-cigarettes calculated from the size distribution parameters measured by spectral transmission were in good agreement with replicate determinations of total particulate mass by gravimetric filter collection. In contrast, average particle diameters determined for e-cigarettes by the electrical mobility method are in the 50 nm range and total particulate masses calculated based on the suggested diameters are orders of magnitude smaller than those determined gravimetrically. This latter discrepancy, and the very small particle diameters observed, are believed to result from almost complete e-cigarette aerosol particle evaporation at the dilution levels and conditions of the electrical mobility analysis. A much smaller degree, ~20% by mass, of apparent particle evaporation was observed for tobacco burning cigarette smoke. The spectral transmission method is validated in the current study against measurements on tobacco burning cigarette smoke, which has been well characterized in prior studies, and is supported as yielding an accurate characterization of the e-cigarette aerosol particle size distribution. PMID:23216158

  5. Halo-orbit and lunar-swingby missions of the 1990's

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farquhar, Robert W.

    1990-01-01

    A significant number of spacecraft are planning to use halo orbits and lunar-swingby trajectories in the next decade. Four spacecraft will be placed into halo orbits around the earth's sunward libration point, while two others will be stationed near the sun-earth L2 libration point in the distant geomagnetic tail. Six spacecraft, including two of the aforementioned halo orbiters, will make use of lunar-swingby maneuvers to fulfill their mission objectives. Thus, a total of ten spacecraft, five from the Soviet Union, two from Japan, two from the United States, and one from the European Space Agency, will employ halo orbits and/or lunar-swingby trajectories in the 1990's. Pertinent facts are presented for each of these missions.

  6. Computer-aided analysis at NASA Langley Research Center - Looking toward the 1990's

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petersen, Richard H.

    1985-01-01

    Aerospace research is inextricably intertwined with the programmable digital computer. Engineers and scientists at NASA Langley Research Center are requiring ever-increasing computing resources to carry out basic and applied research on problems and complex systems that would have been unthinkable Just ten years ago. The rapid changes in computer technology make planning for the future especially difficult, even five years in advance. In this paper, the evolution of computer resources and usage in research at Langley are briefly considered over the past thirty years, followed by a snapshot of the present. Finally, an extrapolation to the 1990's computer environment is made, with some thoughts on the tasks that engineers might face, and the background they will probably need.

  7. The "Cuban Epidemic Neuropathy" of the 1990s: A glimpse from inside a totalitarian disease.

    PubMed

    Coutin-Churchman, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    During the 1990s, Cuba was struck by a rare epidemic disease. Up to 50,000 people were affected by a pathology compromising primarily the optic nerve but also peripheral nerves and even spinal cord. This is a testimony from a direct witness and participant in the initial study of the epidemics showing that in spite of claims of a "multifactorial" etiology, still in the literature, the root cause of this disease is just result of the deliberate deprivation of the most elementary economic rights by extreme Government control over a population left unable to tend to its elementary survival by itself, in spite of a thorough Government-sponsored, universally celebrated Universal Healthcare System. PMID:25024884

  8. Clinical technology assessment, cost-effective adoption, and quality management by hospitals in the 1990s.

    PubMed

    Veluchamy, S; Saver, C L

    1990-06-01

    Technology assessment in the 1990s must become an integral part of a hospital's strategic priority goals, with active participation of physicians and top management. Technology assessment should involve a wide range of criteria and health care consumer expectations, so that the appropriateness, effectiveness, cost-effectiveness, and quality improvement aspects of new technologies are all considered. Mount Carmel Health's Advanced Treatment and Bionics Institute (ATBI), established in 1986, monitors significant developments in new technologies and performs technology and outcomes assessments. ATBI activities, which have facilitated adoption of 35 treatment-based projects, are integrated into the existing QA structure of Mount Carmel hospitals. Through resolution of identified problems, quality care can be promoted, while providing patients innovative medical treatments. PMID:2120659

  9. Macroeconomic adjustment, food availability and nutrition status in Nigeria. A look at the 1990s.

    PubMed

    Igbedioh, S O

    1990-12-01

    Faced with balance of payment problems, declining commodity prices, and a corresponding reduction in foreign exchange earnings, Nigeria implemented a structural adjustment program in 1986. This step was taken in response to encouragement from the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank, and was aimed to accomplish the following: find the true value of the official currency; overcome public sector inefficiency through improved public expenditure and parastatal rationalization; reschedule medium- and long-term debt to relieve debt burden; and encourage net foreign capital inflow while limiting foreign loans. Implementing and adhering to these macroeconomic adjustment policies has brought unprecedented inflation, lower real earnings, and increased malnutrition among lower income sectors of the population. The poor have suffered diminishing access to nutritious foods. Conscribed access to food and compromised nutritional status will most likely persist into the 1990s unless corrective policies are adopted. Appropriate policy would aim to increase the poor's access to food and limit population growth. PMID:12285940

  10. A survey of health sciences libraries in hospitals: implications for the 1990s.

    PubMed Central

    Wakeley, P J; Foster, E C

    1993-01-01

    In response to an expressed need for comprehensive data on health sciences libraries in hospitals, the American Hospital Association (AHA) conducted a survey of all U.S. registered hospitals in 1990. The response rate was 57%. Results showed that 2,167 hospitals (31.6% of all U.S. registered hospitals) had on-site libraries that met four definitional criteria. Survey results also indicated that hospitals use diverse resources and approaches to provide information services to a wide array of health care providers and consumers. These baseline data, combined with an assessment of key environmental factors affecting hospitals, can provide guidance to hospital libraries as they face the challenges of the 1990s. The AHA has added the health sciences library to services tracked in its annual survey of hospitals; additional research opportunities in this area remain. PMID:8471998

  11. Tracking and data acquisition system for the 1990's. Volume 7: TDAS space technology assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khatri, R.

    1983-01-01

    The results of the TDAS and user spacecraft technology assessment effort are provided. For each TDAS Satellite enhancement and user spacecraft element previously enumerated, the technology issues are identified and the R&D needed to resolve these issues is delineated. Subsequently, taking into account developments taking place elsewhere, the addition unique TDAS satellite module and user spacecraft element R&D efforts needed are identified, and conclusions are drawn in each case. From these conclusions, it is evident that with additional unique R&D efforts carried out for TDAS and appropriate user spacecraft elements the desired TDAS' capabilities for the 1990's can be realized and user spacecraft can be implemented that adequately interface with the projected TDAS.

  12. Health Reform in Ceará: the process of decentralisation in the 1990s

    PubMed Central

    Medeiros, Regianne Leila Rolim; Atkinson, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this article is to offer an overview of the health reform in Ceará focusing on the decentralisation process in the 1990s. The driving factor behind the Brazilian health reform movement was the necessity to reorganise the national health system and overcome inequalities. For the reformists, decentralisation, and together with it the idea of popular participation, is seen as essential to guarantee the fulfilment of the people’s needs and to incorporate their voice in the decision-making processes of the health system. In the state of Ceará, after the 1986 elections, health reform movement members took control over the management of the state Health Secretariat. This is the main cause of the acceleration of the decentralisation process with the transference of responsibility over the management of health care delivery to municipalities. PMID:25729333

  13. Tobacco lobby political influence on US state legislatures in the 1990s

    PubMed Central

    Givel, M.; Glantz, S.

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Throughout the 1990s the tobacco lobby was a potent political force in US state legislatures advancing its pro-tobacco agenda.
OBJECTIVE—To describe the market and political motivations of the tobacco lobby and the strategies they use to achieve these goals in US state legislatures.
DESIGN—This study is a content analysis and summary overview of recently released historical tobacco industry documents; tobacco related government documents; and recent state tobacco control policy reports.
RESULTS—In the 1990s, the tobacco lobby engaged in a comprehensive and aggressive political effort in state legislatures to sell tobacco with the least hindrance using lobbying, the media, public relations, front groups, industry allies, and contributions to legislators. These efforts included campaigns to neutralise clean indoor air legislation, minimise tax increases, and preserve the industry's freedom to advertise and sell tobacco. The tobacco lobby succeeded in increasing the number of states that enacted state pre-emption of stricter local tobacco control laws and prevented the passage of many state tobacco control policies. Public health advocates were able to prevent pre-emption and other pro-tobacco policies from being enacted in several states.
CONCLUSIONS—The tobacco lobby is a powerful presence in state legislatures. Because of the poor public image of the tobacco lobby, it seeks to wield this power quietly and behind the scenes. State and local health advocates, who often have high public credibility, can use this fact against the tobacco lobby by focusing public attention on the tobacco lobby's political influence and policy goals and expose links between the tobacco lobby and its legislative supporters.


Keywords: political lobbying; state legislatures; industry PMID:11387532

  14. Regime shift of the South China Sea SST in the late 1990s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Bijoy; Tkalich, Pavel; Malanotte-Rizzoli, Paola

    2016-05-01

    Decadal variability of the South China Sea (SCS) sea surface temperature (SST) during 1982-2014 is investigated using observations and ocean reanalysis datasets. The SCS SST shows an abrupt transition from a cold-to-warm regime in the late 1990s. Based on the long-term SST variability two epochs are defined, 1982-1996 and 2000-2014 as cold and warm regimes respectively, spanning on either side of the 1997-1999 SCS warming. Despite the occurrence of strong El Nino induced warming events, the SST anomalies tend to be negative in the cold regime. Conversely during the warm regime, the positive SST anomalies have dominated over the La Nina driven cooling events. The cold (warm) SST regime is marked by net heat gain (loss) by the SCS. The long-term variations of net surface heat flux are mainly driven by the latent heat flux anomalies while the short wave flux plays a secondary role. Low-frequency variability of the South China Sea throughflow (SCSTF) appears to be closely related to the SCS SST regime shift. The SCSTF shows reversing trends during the cold and warm epochs. The weakened SCSTF in the warm regime has promoted the SCS warming by limiting the outward flow of warm water from the SCS. Meanwhile, enhanced SCSTF during the cold regime acts as a cooling mechanism and lead to persistent negative SST anomalies. The change in trend of the SCSTF and SST regime shift coincides with the switching of pacific decadal oscillation from a warm to cold phase in the late 1990s.

  15. A new paradigm for the predominance of standing Central Pacific Warming after the late 1990s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Baoqiang; Wang, Bin; Li, Tim

    2013-07-01

    Canonical El Niño has a warming center in the eastern Pacific (EP), but in recent decades, El Niño warming center tends to occur more frequently in the central Pacific (CP). The definitions and names of this new type of El Niño, however, have been notoriously diverse, which makes it difficult to understand why the warming center shifts. Here, we show that the new type of El Niño events is characterized by: 1) the maximum warming standing and persisting in the CP and 2) the warming extending to the EP only briefly during its peak phase. For this reason, we refer to it as standing CP warming (CPW). Global warming has been blamed for the westward shift of maximum warming as well as more frequent occurrence of CPW. However, we find that since the late 1990s the standing CPW becomes a dominant mode in the Pacific; meanwhile, the epochal mean trade winds have strengthened and the equatorial thermocline slope has increased, contrary to the global warming-induced weakening trades and flattening thermocline. We propose that the recent predominance of standing CPW arises from a dramatic decadal change characterized by a grand La Niña-like background pattern and strong divergence in the CP atmospheric boundary layer. After the late 1990s, the anomalous mean CP wind divergence tends to weaken the anomalous convection and shift it westward from the underlying SST warming due to the suppressed low- level convergence feedback. This leads to a westward shift of anomalous westerly response and thus a zonally in-phase SST tendency, preventing eastward propagation of the SST anomaly. We anticipate more CPW events will occur in the coming decade provided the grand La Niña-like background state persists.

  16. Past changes in the vertical distribution of ozone - Part 1: Measurement techniques, uncertainties and availability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassler, B.; Petropavlovskikh, I.; Staehelin, J.; August, T.; Bhartia, P. K.; Clerbaux, C.; Degenstein, D.; De Mazière, M.; Dinelli, B. M.; Dudhia, A.; Dufour, G.; Frith, S. M.; Froidevaux, L.; Godin-Beekmann, S.; Granville, J.; Harris, N. R. P.; Hoppel, K.; Hubert, D.; Kasai, Y.; Kurylo, M. J.; Kyrölä, E.; Lambert, J.-C.; Levelt, P. F.; McElroy, C. T.; McPeters, R. D.; Munro, R.; Nakajima, H.; Parrish, A.; Raspollini, P.; Remsberg, E. E.; Rosenlof, K. H.; Rozanov, A.; Sano, T.; Sasano, Y.; Shiotani, M.; Smit, H. G. J.; Stiller, G.; Tamminen, J.; Tarasick, D. W.; Urban, J.; van der A, R. J.; Veefkind, J. P.; Vigouroux, C.; von Clarmann, T.; von Savigny, C.; Walker, K. A.; Weber, M.; Wild, J.; Zawodny, J. M.

    2014-05-01

    Peak stratospheric chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) and other ozone depleting substance (ODS) concentrations were reached in the mid- to late 1990s. Detection and attribution of the expected recovery of the stratospheric ozone layer in an atmosphere with reduced ODSs as well as efforts to understand the evolution of stratospheric ozone in the presence of increasing greenhouse gases are key current research topics. These require a critical examination of the ozone changes with an accurate knowledge of the spatial (geographical and vertical) and temporal ozone response. For such an examination, it is vital that the quality of the measurements used be as high as possible and measurement uncertainties well quantified. In preparation for the 2014 United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP)/World Meteorological Organization (WMO) Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion, the SPARC/IO3C/IGACO-O3/NDACC (SI2N) Initiative was designed to study and document changes in the global ozone profile distribution. This requires assessing long-term ozone profile data sets in regards to measurement stability and uncertainty characteristics. The ultimate goal is to establish suitability for estimating long-term ozone trends to contribute to ozone recovery studies. Some of the data sets have been improved as part of this initiative with updated versions now available. This summary presents an overview of stratospheric ozone profile measurement data sets (ground and satellite based) available for ozone recovery studies. Here we document measurement techniques, spatial and temporal coverage, vertical resolution, native units and measurement uncertainties. In addition, the latest data versions are briefly described (including data version updates as well as detailing multiple retrievals when available for a given satellite instrument). Archive location information for each data set is also given.

  17. Past Changes in the Vertical Distribution of Ozone Part 1: Measurement Techniques, Uncertainties and Availability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hassler, B.; Petropavlovskikh, I.; Staehelin, J.; August, T.; Bhartia, P. K.; Clerbaux, C.; Degenstein, D.; Maziere, M. De; Dinelli, B. M.; Dudhia, A.; Dufour, G.; Frith, S. M.; Froidevaux, L.; Godin-Beekmann, S.; Granville, J.; Harris, N. R. P.; Hoppel, K.; Hubert, D.; Kasai, Y.; Kurylo, M. J.; Kyrola, E.; Lambert, J.-C.; Levelt, P. F.; McElroy, C. T.; McPeters, R. D.; Munro, R.; Nakajima, H.; Parrish, A.; Raspollini, P.; Remsberg, E. E.; Rosenlof, K. H.; Rozanov, A.; Sano, T.; Sasano, Y.; Shiotani, M.; Zawodny, J. M.

    2014-01-01

    Peak stratospheric chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) and other ozone depleting substance (ODS) concentrations were reached in the mid- to late 1990s. Detection and attribution of the expected recovery of the stratospheric ozone layer in an atmosphere with reduced ODSs as well as efforts to understand the evolution of stratospheric ozone in the presence of increasing greenhouse gases are key current research topics. These require a critical examination of the ozone changes with an accurate knowledge of the spatial (geographical and vertical) and temporal ozone response. For such an examination, it is vital that the quality of the measurements used be as high as possible and measurement uncertainties well quantified. In preparation for the 2014 United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP)/World Meteorological Organization (WMO) Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion, the SPARC/IO3C/IGACO-O3/NDACC (SI2N) Initiative was designed to study and document changes in the global ozone profile distribution. This requires assessing long-term ozone profile data sets in regards to measurement stability and uncertainty characteristics. The ultimate goal is to establish suitability for estimating long-term ozone trends to contribute to ozone recovery studies. Some of the data sets have been improved as part of this initiative with updated versions now available. This summary presents an overview of stratospheric ozone profile measurement data sets (ground and satellite based) available for ozone recovery studies. Here we document measurement techniques, spatial and temporal coverage, vertical resolution, native units and measurement uncertainties. In addition, the latest data versions are briefly described (including data version updates as well as detailing multiple retrievals when available for a given satellite instrument). Archive location information for each data set is also given.

  18. Land-use change and carbon flux between 1970s and 1990s in central highlands of Chiapas, Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Jong, B.H.J. de; Ramirez-Marcial, N.; Ochoa-Gaona, S.; Mendoza-Vega, J.; Gonzalez-Espinosa, M.; March-Mifsut, I.; Cairns, M.A.; Haggerty, P.K.

    1999-04-01

    The authors present results of a study in an intensively impacted and highly fragmented landscape in which they apply field-measured carbon (C) density values to land-use/land-cover (LU/LC) statistics to estimate the flux of C between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere from the 1970s and 1990s. Carbon densities were assigned to common LU/LC classes on vegetation maps produced by Mexican governmental organizations and, by differencing areas and C pools, net C flux was calculated from the central highlands of Chiapas, Mexico, during a 16-year period. The total area of closed forests was reduced by half while degraded and fragmented forests expanded 56% and cultivated land and pasture areas increased by 8% and 30%, respectively. Total mean C densities ranged from a high of 504 tons C/ha in the oak and evergreen cloud forests class to a low of 147 tons C/ha in the pasture class. The differences in total C densities among the various LU/LC classes were due to changes in biomass while soil organic matter C remained similar. The authors estimate that a total of 19.99 {times} 10{sup 6} tons C were released to the atmosphere during the period of time covered by the study, equal to approximately 34% of the 1975 vegetation C pool. The Chiapas highlands, while comprising just 0.3% of Mexico`s surface area, contributed 3% of the net national C emissions.

  19. Measurement of nonvolatile particle number size distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gkatzelis, G. I.; Papanastasiou, D. K.; Florou, K.; Kaltsonoudis, C.; Louvaris, E.; Pandis, S. N.

    2016-01-01

    An experimental methodology was developed to measure the nonvolatile particle number concentration using a thermodenuder (TD). The TD was coupled with a high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer, measuring the chemical composition and mass size distribution of the submicrometer aerosol and a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) that provided the number size distribution of the aerosol in the range from 10 to 500 nm. The method was evaluated with a set of smog chamber experiments and achieved almost complete evaporation (> 98 %) of secondary organic as well as freshly nucleated particles, using a TD temperature of 400 °C and a centerline residence time of 15 s. This experimental approach was applied in a winter field campaign in Athens and provided a direct measurement of number concentration and size distribution for particles emitted from major pollution sources. During periods in which the contribution of biomass burning sources was dominant, more than 80 % of particle number concentration remained after passing through the thermodenuder, suggesting that nearly all biomass burning particles had a nonvolatile core. These remaining particles consisted mostly of black carbon (60 % mass contribution) and organic aerosol (OA; 40 %). Organics that had not evaporated through the TD were mostly biomass burning OA (BBOA) and oxygenated OA (OOA) as determined from AMS source apportionment analysis. For periods during which traffic contribution was dominant 50-60 % of the particles had a nonvolatile core while the rest evaporated at 400 °C. The remaining particle mass consisted mostly of black carbon with an 80 % contribution, while OA was responsible for another 15-20 %. Organics were mostly hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA) and OOA. These results suggest that even at 400 °C some fraction of the OA does not evaporate from particles emitted from common combustion processes, such as biomass burning and car engines, indicating that a fraction of this type of OA

  20. Raindrop Size Distribution Measurements in Tropical Cyclones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tokay, Ali; Bashor, Paul G.; Habib, Emad; Kasparis, Takis

    2008-01-01

    Characteristics of the raindrop size distribution in seven tropical cyclones have been studied through impact-type disdrometer measurements at three different sites during the 2004-06 Atlantic hurricane seasons. One of the cyclones has been observed at two different sites. High concentrations of small and/or midsize drops were observed in the presence or absence of large drops. Even in the presence of large drops, the maximum drop diameter rarely exceeded 4 mm. These characteristics of raindrop size distribution were observed in all stages of tropical cyclones, unless the storm was in the extratropical stage where the tropical cyclone and a midlatitude frontal system had merged. The presence of relatively high concentrations of large drops in extratropical cyclones resembled the size distribution in continental thunderstorms. The integral rain parameters of drop concentration, liquid water content, and rain rate at fixed reflectivity were therefore lower in extratropical cyclones than in tropical cyclones. In tropical cyclones, at a disdrometercalculated reflectivity of 40 dBZ, the number concentration was 700 plus or minus 100 drops m(sup -3), while the liquid water content and rain rate were 0.90 plus or minus 0.05 g m(sup -3) and 18.5 plus or minus 0.5 mm h(sup -1), respectively. The mean mass diameter, on the other hand, was 1.67 plus or minus 0.3 mm. The comparison of raindrop size distributions between Atlantic tropical cyclones and storms that occurred in the central tropical Pacific island of Roi-Namur revealed that the number density is slightly shifted toward smaller drops, resulting in higher-integral rain parameters and lower mean mass and maximum drop diameters at the latter site. Considering parameterization of the raindrop size distribution in tropical cyclones, characteristics of the normalized gamma distribution parameters were examined with respect to reflectivity. The mean mass diameter increased rapidly with reflectivity, while the normalized

  1. Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution.

    PubMed

    Lo, Hoi-Kwong; Curty, Marcos; Qi, Bing

    2012-03-30

    How to remove detector side channel attacks has been a notoriously hard problem in quantum cryptography. Here, we propose a simple solution to this problem--measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution (QKD). It not only removes all detector side channels, but also doubles the secure distance with conventional lasers. Our proposal can be implemented with standard optical components with low detection efficiency and highly lossy channels. In contrast to the previous solution of full device independent QKD, the realization of our idea does not require detectors of near unity detection efficiency in combination with a qubit amplifier (based on teleportation) or a quantum nondemolition measurement of the number of photons in a pulse. Furthermore, its key generation rate is many orders of magnitude higher than that based on full device independent QKD. The results show that long-distance quantum cryptography over say 200 km will remain secure even with seriously flawed detectors. PMID:22540686

  2. Analysis of residential, industrial and commercial sector responses to potential electricity supply constraints in the 1990s

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, Z.J.; Fang, J.M.; Lyke, A.J.; Krudener, J.R.

    1986-09-01

    There is considerable debate over the ability of electric generation capacity to meet the growing needs of the US economy in the 1990s. This study provides new perspective on that debate and examines the possibility of power outages resulting from electricity supply constraints. Previous studies have focused on electricity supply growth, demand growth, and on the linkages between electricity and economic growth. This study assumes the occurrence of electricity supply shortfalls in the 1990s and examines the steps that homeowners, businesses, manufacturers, and other electricity users might take in response to electricity outages.

  3. Ultraviolet, visible, and gravity astrophysics: A plan for the 1990's

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    NASA's Office of Space Science and Applications (OSSA) receives advice on scientific strategy and priorities from the U.S. National Academy of Sciences. Guidance to the OSSA Astrophysics Division, in particular, is provided by dedicated academy committees, ad hoc study groups, and, at ten-year intervals, by broadly mandated astronomy and astrophysics survey committees charged with making recommendations for the coming decade. Many of the academy's recommendations have important implications for the conduct of ultraviolet and visible-light astronomy from space. Moreover, these areas are now poised for an era of rapid growth. Through technological progress, ultraviolet astronomy has already risen from a novel observational technique four decades ago to the mainstream of astronomical research today. Recent developments in space technology and instrumentation have the potential to generate comparably dramatic strides in observational astronomy within the next ten years. In 1989, the Ultraviolet and Visible Astrophysics Branch of the OSSA Astrophysics Division recognized the need for a new, long-range plan that would implement the academy's recommendations in a way that yielded the most advantageous use of new technology. NASA's Ultraviolet, Visible, and Gravity Astrophysics Management Operations Working Group was asked to develop such a plan for the 1990's. Since the branch holds programmatic responsibility for space research in gravitational physics and relativity, as well as for ultraviolet and visible-light astrophysics, missions in those areas were also included. The working group met throughout 1989 and 1990 to survey current astrophysical problems, assess the potential of new technologies, examine prior academy recommendations, and develop the implementation plan. The present report is the product of those deliberations. Key astrophysical questions to be addressed cover topics such as the structure and evolution of the early universe, energetics of active

  4. Absorption Measure Distribution in Mrk 509

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adhikari, T. P.; Różańska, A.; Sobolewska, M.; Czerny, B.

    2015-12-01

    In this paper we model the observed absorption measure distribution (AMD) in Mrk 509, which spans three orders of magnitude in ionization level with a single-zone absorber in pressure equilibrium. AMD is usually constructed from observations of narrow absorption lines in radio-quiet active galaxies with warm absorbers. We study the properties of the warm absorber in Mrk 509 using recently published broadband spectral energy distribution observed with different instruments. This spectrum is an input in radiative transfer computations with full photoionization treatment using the titan code. We show that the simplest way to fully reproduce the shape of AMD is to assume that the warm absorber is a single zone under constant total pressure. With this assumption, we found theoretical AMD that matches the observed AMD determined on the basis of the 600 ks reflection grating spectrometer XMM-Newton spectrum of Mrk 509. The softness of the source spectrum and the important role of the free-free emission breaks the usual degeneracy in the ionization state calculations, and the explicit dependence of the depths of AMD dips on density open a new path to the density diagnostic for the warm absorber. In Mrk 509, the implied density is of the order of 108 cm-3.

  5. Global environmental security: Research and policy strategies for the 1990s

    SciTech Connect

    Lazaro, M.A.; Wang, Hua.

    1992-01-01

    The subject of global environmental change is emerging as one of the most hotly debated international issues for the 1990s. In fact, our earth system has undergone a nature-induced gradual change in climate on both a temporal scale that spans over millions of years and a spatial scale ranging from regional to transcontinental. Pollutant emissions associated with population growth and industrial activities manifest the anthropogenic climatic forcing that has been superimposed on the background of natural climate fluctuations. Our incomplete understanding of the global impacts of environmental pollution on the earth systems (atmosphere, biosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere, and lithosphere), however, make the prediction of the timing, magnitude, and patterns of future global change uncertain. This paper examines the science and policy background of global environmental change. The major scientific uncertainties and policy issues confronting decision makers are identified; and the scientific framework, as well as current national and international research programs aimed at resolving the scientific uncertainties, are discussed. A coherent, stable, and flexible policy is needed to provide a foundation for coordinated international-interagency programs of observation, research, analysis, and international negotiation toward a policy consensus concerning global environmental security. On the basis of what is currently known about global change, recommendations are presented on both near-term and long-term policy option decisions.

  6. Health policy in the Baltic countries since the beginning of the 1990s.

    PubMed

    Bankauskaite, Vaida; O'Connor, Julia S

    2008-12-01

    The objective of this article is to compare the development of health policies in three Baltic countries, Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania in the period from 1992 to 2004 and reflect on whether key dimensions of these policies are developing in parallel, diverging or even converging in some respects. The paper identifies the similarity in the overall goals and compares the policy content in primary health care, the hospital sector and financing. We conclude that health policy in Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania has been progressing in parallel towards a Western European social insurance funding model, developing a primary care system anchored on a general practitioner service and lessening the hospital orientation of the pre-1990s system. There is evidence of both convergence and divergence across the three countries and of progress in the direction of EU15 in key health policy and outcome characteristics. These patterns are explained partly by differing starting points and partly by political and economic factors over the 1992-2004 period. PMID:18485520

  7. Forces of change in the health care system. Implications for cancer care in the 1990s.

    PubMed

    Ettinger, W H

    1991-03-15

    Dramatic changes will occur in the health care system during the 1990s which will profoundly affect the delivery of care for cancer. Perhaps the most important factor is the aging of the population. As the proportion of people who achieve old age increases, the absolute prevalence and incidence of cancer will increase despite improved treatment techniques. This phenomenon will increase health care expenditures despite ongoing efforts to control costs. Second, there will be continuing efforts at cost control and increased emphasis on quality assurance and outcomes by third party payers. Providers will be scrutinized and compared with one another. The large payers of the nation's health care bills will demand proof of outcome and cost leading to bidding by providers and payment only to those who have the best outcome for the least money. Third, there will be an increasing emphasis on prevention and screening, in public health policy, an approach that may conflict with personal freedom. Fourth, there will be increasing deliberations and questions about the ethics of the health care system and treatment decisions. There will be continuing debate about the need for a rationing of health care and the right of individual privacy versus the states' right to preserve life. These changes will impact on all health care professionals whose practice includes patients with cancer. PMID:2001566

  8. Hydrocarbon occurrences in igneous and metamorphic rocks: Plays of the 1990s

    SciTech Connect

    Harrelson, D.W.

    1989-09-01

    A review of available geologic literature has indicated numerous references detailing the occurrences of hydrocarbon in igneous and metamorphic rocks. Notable among these references is a paper by Chung-Hsiang P'an and a group of papers edited by Sidney Powers. Collectively, these papers conclude a biogenic source for hydrocarbons, most of which occur in (1) weathered igneous and metamorphic reservoir rocks that are higher than the source rocks (e.g., Amarillo field) or (2) igneous and metamorphic rocks that exert structural or stratigraphic control on the reservoir or source rocks (e.g., Jackson dome and the Wiggins anticline-Hancock ridge). It should be noted that a new twist on the abiogenic origin of some inert hydrocarbon gases (i.e., helium and nitrogen) proposes a degassing of igneous and metamorphic rocks from sources in the underlying mantle. Recent european super-deep tests (e.g., the Siljan Ring and the Kola SG-3 testholes) have attempted, with mixed results, to verify this theory. Drilling for these deep igneous and metamorphic prospects today is considered at or below economic basement or worse - a rank wildcat. However, these plays should become increasingly commercial in the 1990s as deeper drilling technology progresses, the current oil glut is eliminated, and more exotic deep gas prospects become accepted.

  9. Toward Expanding Tremor Observations in the Northern San Andreas Fault System in the 1990s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damiao, L. G.; Dreger, D. S.; Nadeau, R. M.; Taira, T.; Guilhem, A.; Luna, B.; Zhang, H.

    2015-12-01

    The connection between tremor activity and active fault processes continues to expand our understanding of deep fault zone properties and deformation, the tectonic process, and the relationship of tremor to the occurrence of larger earthquakes. Compared to tremors in subduction zones, known tremor signals in California are ~5 to ~10 smaller in amplitude and duration. These characteristics, in addition to scarce geographic coverage, lack of continuous data (e.g., before mid-2001 at Parkfield), and absence of instrumentation sensitive enough to monitor these events have stifled tremor detection. The continuous monitoring of these events over a relatively short time period in limited locations may lead to a parochial view of the tremor phenomena and its relationship to fault, tectonic, and earthquake processes. To help overcome this, we have embarked on a project to expand the geographic and temporal scope of tremor observation along the Northern SAF system using available continuous seismic recordings from a broad array of 100s of surface seismic stations from multiple seismic networks. Available data for most of these stations also extends back into the mid-1990s. Processing and analysis of tremor signal from this large and low signal-to-noise dataset requires a heavily automated, data-science type approach and specialized techniques for identifying and extracting reliable data. We report here on the automated, envelope based methodology we have developed. We finally compare our catalog results with pre-existing tremor catalogs in the Parkfield area.

  10. Particle astrophysics - The NASA cosmic ray program for the 1990s and beyond

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, W. V. (Editor); Kerr, Frank J. (Editor); Ormes, Jonathan F. (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    Various papers on particle astrophysics are presented. Individual topics addressed include: the NASA cosmic ray (CR) program for the 1990s and beyond, SAMPEX Mission overview, the Advanced Composition Explorer, Positron Electron Magnet Spectrometer for the Eos Mission, Heavy Nucleus Collector for Space Station, the Astromag Facility, Large Isotope Spectrometer for Astromag, the Solar Probe Mission, the Mercury Dual Orbiter Mission, CRs in the heliosphere, origin of high-energy Galactic CRs, CR studies with the Gamma-Ray Observatory, gamma-ray astronomy at 1 TeV, experimental search for point sources above 1 TeV, the UMC Extensive Air Shower Array, status of the MACRO experiment. Also discussed are: CRs above 1 TeV/n and neutrino astronomy, abundance of ultraheavy nuclei in solar energetic particles, CR studies with an interstellar probe, isotopic composition of CR nuclei beyond the iron peak, experimental studies of CR isotopic composition up to Zr-40, use of accelerators in particle astrophysics, development of long-duration ballooning in Antarctica, Lunar-Based Heavy Nucleus Detector, neutrino astronomy on the moon, gamma rays at airplane altitudes, source composition of CRs.

  11. Evolution of the DSCS phase III satellite through the 1990's

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donovan, R.; Kelley, R.; Swimm, K.

    The Defense Satellite Communications Systems (DSCS) initiated its third generation when the first DSCS, Phase III (DSCS III) satellite was successfully launched in late 1982. DSCS III features a multibeam receive nulling antenna, six independent channels and a 10 year lifetime giving better jamming protection, operational flexibility and life cycle costs. DSCS III also supplies AFSATCOM service. During the 1980s DSCS III will incorporate solid state amplifiers, more redundancy, new COMSEC devices, an SHF AFSATCOM downlink, more autonomy and wider channel bandwidths to improve spacecraft reliability and mission performance. By the early 1990s new payloads enhancing mission capabilities are feasible. Possibilities include advanced wideband user and AFSATCOM payloads. The new wideband payload could feature EHF links, adaptive nulling, on-board despreading, and an active transmit array giving higher capacity and jammer protection. The AFSATCOM payload could include EHF and UHF links plus multichannel digital demodulation to give higher jamming protection and capacity in a MILSTAR backup role and EHF telemetry/commanding. Both payloads could utilize satellite crosslinks to improve global netting.

  12. Global environmental security: Research and policy strategies for the 1990s

    SciTech Connect

    Lazaro, M.A.; Wang, Hua

    1992-09-01

    The subject of global environmental change is emerging as one of the most hotly debated international issues for the 1990s. In fact, our earth system has undergone a nature-induced gradual change in climate on both a temporal scale that spans over millions of years and a spatial scale ranging from regional to transcontinental. Pollutant emissions associated with population growth and industrial activities manifest the anthropogenic climatic forcing that has been superimposed on the background of natural climate fluctuations. Our incomplete understanding of the global impacts of environmental pollution on the earth systems (atmosphere, biosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere, and lithosphere), however, make the prediction of the timing, magnitude, and patterns of future global change uncertain. This paper examines the science and policy background of global environmental change. The major scientific uncertainties and policy issues confronting decision makers are identified; and the scientific framework, as well as current national and international research programs aimed at resolving the scientific uncertainties, are discussed. A coherent, stable, and flexible policy is needed to provide a foundation for coordinated international-interagency programs of observation, research, analysis, and international negotiation toward a policy consensus concerning global environmental security. On the basis of what is currently known about global change, recommendations are presented on both near-term and long-term policy option decisions.

  13. The integration of 1990s thin-film technologies into photovoltaic system design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stolte, W. J.

    1987-05-01

    This report addresses the integration of 1990s timeframe thin-film flat-plate modules into system design. It includes the results of an industry survey to determine the characteristics of such future thin-film modules and the characteristics of a range of postulated module configurations. Impacts on balance-of-plant designs were evaluated for fixed, single-axis tracking and dual-axis tracking arrays in utility-scale plants using postulated low-voltage thin-film module counterparts of present crystalline silicon modules. Intermediate and high-voltage modules more suited to thin-film technology were used in developing plant design modifications to optimally incorporate such future modules. Blocking diode placement, the economics of replacing failed modules, dc field wiring optimization, and additional topics were also addressed. No mechanical or structural design changes were found to be necessary to integrate thin-film modules into existing system designs. Changes to the electrical designs mostly involved slight changes to equipment ratings or panel wiring and were considered to be insignificant. Cost impacts were minor, on the order of one cent per watt. It was found that blocking diode placement should be determined experimentally by the manufacturers, with calculations used only as a guide.

  14. Gay and bisexual men's use of the Internet: research from the 1990s through 2013.

    PubMed

    Grov, Christian; Breslow, Aaron S; Newcomb, Michael E; Rosenberger, Joshua G; Bauermeister, Jose A

    2014-01-01

    We document the historical and cultural shifts in how gay and bisexual men have used the Internet for sexuality between the 1990s and 2013-including shifting technology as well as research methods to study gay and bisexual men online. Gay and bisexual men have rapidly taken to using the Internet for sexual purposes: for health information seeking, finding sex partners, dating, cybersex, and pornography. Men have adapted to the ever-evolving technological advances that have been made in connecting users to the Internet-from logging on via dial-up modem on a desktop computer to geo-social-sexual networking via handheld devices. In kind, researchers have adapted to the Internet to study gay and bisexual men. Studies have carefully considered the ethics, feasibility, and acceptability of using the Internet to conduct research and interventions. Much of this work has been grounded in models of disease prevention, largely as a result of the ongoing HIV/AIDS epidemic. The need to reduce HIV in this population has been a driving force to develop innovative research and Internet-based intervention methodologies. The Internet, and specifically mobile technology, is an environment gay and bisexual men are using for sexual purposes. These innovative technologies represent powerful resources for researchers to study and provide outreach. PMID:24754360

  15. Comparison of in vitro antifungal activities of topical antimycotics launched in 1990s in Japan.

    PubMed

    Nimura, K; Niwano, Y; Ishiduka, S; Fukumoto, R

    2001-08-01

    In vitro anti-dermatophyte, anti-Candida albicans and anti-Malassezia furfur activities of amorolfine hydrochloride (AMF), terbinafine hydrochloride (TBF), butenafine hydrochloride (BTF), neticonazole hydrochloride (NCZ) and ketoconazole (KCZ), all of which were introduced for the treatment of dermatomycoses in the 1990s in Japan, were compared. Although all of the test drugs are classified as an ergosterol biosynthesis inhibitor, the antifungal properties were found to be different. TBF and BTF exerted extremely potent antifungal activity against Trichophyton spp. but not against C. albicans and M. furfur, whilst KCZ and NCZ showed potent antifungal activity against C. albicans and M. furfur rather than Trichophyton spp. AMF exhibited potent antifungal activity against all of the fungal species tested. Fungicidal activities of these antifungal agents against T. rubrum were determined by using neutral red staining. The fungicidal potentialities correlated with those obtained in the in vitro susceptibility test as determined by MICs against dermatophytes. TBF, BTF and AMF exerted more potent fungicidal action than NCZ and KCZ. PMID:11516941

  16. Image computing requirements for the 1990s: from multimedia to medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gove, Robert J.; Lee, Woobin; Kim, Yongmin; Alexander, Thomas

    1991-05-01

    Although the computer industry has begun incorporating new features in their newest computers and workstations, it has not been clear how best to utilize these new media to improve the productivity of the user. One problem stems from relative separation of various disciplines. For example, three distinct disciplines have evolved from visual information processing: image processing, computer graphics, and pattern recognition. All of them manipulate image data in some ways. The main difference between them is the domain where each discipline takes the input and produces the output. Recognizing the importance of merging the three distinct disciplines into one so that the image data can be successfully incorporated into the future computer technology, a new discipline, denoted as image computing, has been established to provide for consistency and efficiency in managing image data. In conjunction with other technologies such as video and computer-generated audio, image computing will play a key role in developing an integrated information processing platform that will be used in many areas in the 1990s. Some of the areas where image computing technology can be applied are presented. Requirements specific to each application are also described. Functions required of a typical computing workstation will be listed and each requirement will be investigated in detail. We describe how the continuing advances in technology will benefit image computing, and predict how the software algorithms of the future will be employed in image computing. We also introduce some possible future products that incorporate image computing technology.

  17. Sensitivity distributions of EEG and MEG measurements.

    PubMed

    Malmivuo, J; Suihko, V; Eskola, H

    1997-03-01

    It is generally believed that because the skull has low conductivity to electric current but is transparent to magnetic fields, the measurement sensitivity of the magnetoencephalography (MEG) in the brain region should be more concentrated than that of the electroencephalography (EEG). It is also believed that the information recorded by these techniques is very different. If this were indeed the case, it might be possible to justify the cost of MEG instrumentation which is at least 25 times higher than that of EEG instrumentation. The localization of measurement sensitivity using these techniques was evaluated quantitatively in an inhomogeneous spherical head model using a new concept called half-sensitivity volume (HSV). It is shown that the planar gradiometer has a far smaller HSV than the axial gradiometer. However, using the EEG it is possible to achieve even smaller HSV's than with whole-head planar gradiometer MEG devices. The micro-superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) MEG device does have HSV's comparable to those of the EEG. The sensitivity distribution of planar gradiometers, however, closely resembles that of dipolar EEG leads and, therefore, the MEG and EEG record the electric activity of the brain in a very similar way. PMID:9216133

  18. The Quality of Life of Hong Kong's Poor Households in the 1990s: Levels of Expenditure, Income Security and Poverty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Hung

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines the changes in the quality of life of poor households in Hong Kong in the late 1990s by analyzing their levels of expenditure, income security and poverty before and after 1997. Though there have been significant increases in the levels of expenditure among CSSA recipients, the expenditure among these poorest households in Hong…

  19. The Dynamics of Postsecondary Expansion in the 1990s. Report of the Executive Director. Report 90-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Kenneth B.

    In this report, the executive director of the California State Postsecondary Education Commission summarizes the major demographic and political forces that will likely affect the shape of higher education leadership in California during the 1990s. The report discusses the implications of increased enrollment pressures on educational equity,…

  20. Massification, Bureaucratization and Questing for "World-Class" Status: Higher Education in China since the Mid-1990s

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ngok, Kinglun

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This article aims to review the latest developments of the higher education sector in China since the mid-1990s by focusing on the expansion of university education. Design/methodology/approach: It is argued that while massification of higher education is an important indication of the progress in China's higher education system, the…

  1. Reconsidering Gender Roles on MTV: Depictions in the Most Popular Music Videos of the Early 1990s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gow, Joe

    1996-01-01

    Finds that popular music videos of the early 1990s continued to underrepresent women, with men outnumbering women in lead roles by almost a 5 to 1 margin, and presenting women in a much narrower range of lead roles. Finds also that popular music videos portrayed women in a manor that emphasized physical appearance rather than musical ability. (SR)

  2. The Condition of the Diverse Regions of Rural America at the Start of the Decade of the 1990s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, E. Robert

    This paper constructs a profile of the condition of the diverse areas of rural America at the Beginning of the 1990s. The widely used designation of metropolitan or nonmetropolitan areas based on the metropolitan statistical area (MSA) does not describe the diverse nature of rural America. One alternative typology differentiates nonmetro counties…

  3. Turning Points: Books and Reports that Reflected and Shaped U.S. Education, 1749-1990s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Franklin

    This document explores a selection influential books and reports on U.S. education that appeared between 1749 and the 1990s. The analysis begins with Benjamin Franklin's "Proposals Relating to the Education of Youth in Pennsylvania", early writings on women's and adult education, the McGuffey reader of the mid-nineteenth century, and Charles…

  4. Determinants of Police Strength in Large U.S. Cities during the 1990s: A Fixed-Effects Panel Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarty, William P.; Ren, Ling; Zhao, Jihong

    2012-01-01

    The 1990s represented a unique decade in which to analyze the determinants of police strength in the United States. This decade was a time in which crime initially increased, then substantially decreased. Furthermore, this decade also was characterized by increases in the minority population throughout large American cities. Finally, the 1990s…

  5. Constructivism and the Neoliberal Agenda in the Spanish Curriculum Reform of the 1980s and 1990s

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Encarna

    2011-01-01

    This article challenges the assumption underlying most education reforms that constructivism is politically neutral and intrinsically democratic. It makes this argument by examining the curriculum reform in Spain during the 1980s and 1990s in light of the neoliberal politics that the country was experiencing at that time. This study employs the…

  6. Budget Blues: The Situation May Not Be Worse than in the Early 1990S, but Public Libraries Are Definitely Hurting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oder, Norman

    2004-01-01

    Public libraries are suffering budget cuts in most states nationwide, according to an informal LJ survey, with a significant segment--though not a majority characterizing the strictures as worse than in the early 1990s, the last time libraries were hit hard. LJ contacted state library agencies and, in some-cases, state library associations, for a…

  7. Development Goals and Strategies for Children in the 1990s. A UNICEF Policy Review. Executive Board Decision 1990-2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Children's Fund, New York, NY.

    This document presents proposals for goals and strategies for children and development in the 1990s that were approved by the UNICEF Executive Board in April, 1990. The paper proposes that developing human capabilities and meeting basic human needs should be the focus of the UNICEF contribution to the fourth United Nations developmental decade.…

  8. Market Forces in Higher Education--Chinese and British Experience between Mid-1980s and Mid-1990s

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Xiaonan

    2010-01-01

    This paper tries to examine how higher education in China and Britain has been affected by market forces between the mid-1980s and the mid-1990s, from three major issues. Comparing the experiences of both places, the paper argues that unlike the case of British counterpart, where marketisation of education has shifted to a corporate management…

  9. An interdecadal change in the intensity of interannual variability in summer rainfall over southern China around early 1990s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jiepeng; Wen, Zhiping; Wu, Renguang; Wang, Xin; He, Chao; Chen, Zesheng

    2016-03-01

    The intensity of interannual variability (IIV) in southern China (SC) summer rainfall experienced a remarkable increase in early 1990s, concurrent with the interdecadal increase in SC summer rainfall. Two factors are proposed for this interdecadal change. One is the interdecadal increase of IIV in tropical eastern Indian Ocean (TEIO) sea surface temperature (SST) after early 1990s. Anomalous warmer (cooler) TEIO SST triggers anomalous ascending (descending) motion and lower-level cyclonic (anticyclone) circulation in situ, which in turn induces anomalous descent (ascent) over SC through an anomalous meridional vertical circulation. This contributes to interannual summer rainfall variability over SC. The increase in the amplitude of TEIO SST anomalies in early 1990s led to an intensified interannual variability of summer rainfall over SC. The other is the strengthened influence of a coupled mode of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and North Atlantic triple SST anomaly on interannual variability in summer rainfall over SC after early 1990s. The leading EOF mode of the North Atlantic SST is characterized by a stripe pattern during 1979-1992, while during 1993-2008 the dominant mode of the North Atlantic SST is a triple pattern. The triple pattern of North Atlantic SST may exert positive effect on the NAO after early 1990s. Compared to the period 1979-1992, the relationship between the NAO and interannual summer rainfall over SC is enhanced during 1993-2008. The NAO coupled with North Atlantic SST triple exerts an important impact on SC summer rainfall variability through Eurasian wave-like train.

  10. MEASUREMENT OF METHANE EMISSIONS FROM UNDERGROUND DISTRIBUTION MAINS AND SERVICES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper reports results of measurements of methane emissions from underground distribution mains and services. In the program, leakage from underground distribution systems is estimated by combining leak measurements with historical leak record data and the length of undergroun...

  11. History of regulatory requirements for poultry biologics in the United States, 1970s to 1990s.

    PubMed

    Espeseth, David A; Lasher, Hiram

    2013-06-01

    By the end of the 1960s, The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) had established the basic purity and safety standards for poultry biologics in the United States and had licensed products to address many of the major poultry diseases of concern at that time. The emergence of new diseases, advances in scientific technology, and changes in poultry husbandry practices that occurred in the 1970s to the 1990s required the development of many new and amended regulatory requirements to keep abreast of the changing needs of the poultry industry. Veterinary Services often approved the use of special or conditional licensing procedures to shorten the time to license products needed to address emerging diseases. Infectious bronchitis, bursal disease, fowl cholera, duck virus enteritis, avian influenza, and other vaccines were rapidly licensed to address emerging disease problems using this procedure. Changes in labeling and packaging requirements were made to address changing vaccination practices. Veterinary Services permitted diluents to be shipped separate from product, first for Marek's disease vaccine and later for vaccines recommended for administration by automatic vaccinating machines. The maximum number of doses permitted to be in one container and package were also amended to address the increased size of poultry flocks. Veterinary Services also approved the use of split manufacturing procedures that permitted two or more licensed manufacturers to work together in the production of a product. This innovative use of licensing products for further manufacture allowed the industry to use production facilities more efficiently and provided a wider variety of combination products. In 1985, Congress passed an amendment to the Virus-Serum-Toxin Act that gave USDA the authority to regulate all veterinary biological products shipped in or from the United States. This amendment brought intrastate biologics manufacturers under federal jurisdiction and ensured all

  12. Increased frequency of wintertime stratification collapse events in the Gulf of Finland since the 1990s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elken, Jüri; Raudsepp, Urmas; Laanemets, Jaan; Passenko, Jelena; Maljutenko, Ilja; Pärn, Ove; Keevallik, Sirje

    2014-01-01

    Since the 1990s, an increased frequency of stratification collapse events in the Gulf of Finland has been noticed, when the density difference between near-bottom and surface waters fell below 0.5 kg m- 3. Such stratification crashes occur in the winter months, from October-November to March-April, when saline and thermal stratification decrease compared to the summer period according to the well-known seasonal cycle. The stratification decay process is forced primarily by (1) the westerly-southwesterly wind stress, which causes anti-estuarine straining, and (2) direct wind mixing proportional to the wind speed cubed. The potential energy anomaly (PEA) is occasionally reduced from the average winter level of 70 J m- 3 (per unit volume; 4.9 kJ m- 2 per unit area of 70-m water column) to nearly zero, manifesting the stratification collapse, when the current-straining work and wind-mixing work significantly exceed their average levels. Increased collapse frequency is caused by the shift of wind forcing. Namely, the average bimonthly cumulative westerly-southwesterly wind stress in December and January has increased from 1.7 N m- 2 d during 1962-1988 to 3.7 N m- 2 d during 1989-2007, yielding a reduction in PEA during these two winter months of about 4.4 kJ m- 2 between the periods. The other component of the reduction in PEA, wind mixing work per unit surface area, has also increased by 4.6 kJ m- 2 since 1999 for these two months.

  13. Staying single in the 1990s: single-handed practitioners in the new National Health Service.

    PubMed

    Lunt, N; Atkin, K; Hirst, M

    1997-08-01

    The U.K. health care system is organised around independent medical practitioners who work in community settings and act as gatekeepers for acute health interventions. Recent developments in U.K. health policy have revolutionised the environment within which all general medical practitioners (GPs) operate. The last five years in the U.K. have seen the most fundamental health service reforms since the inception of the National Health Service (NHS) in 1946: namely, the development of the internal market, an increasing emphasis on primary health care, and changes to the GP Contract in 1990. Single-handed GPs (practitioners not in partnership with other GPs) traditionally work in the most deprived areas with the greatest health and social problems. The current restructuring and the subsequent organisational and policy initiatives present particular problems for single-handed practitioners. How single-handed practitioners respond to the reforms raises particularly important debates that are significant both for themselves and for the populations they serve. Drawing upon a range of sources, this paper discusses three central issues that emerge. First, how do single-handed practices relate to the more managerial role envisaged for authorities responsible for supporting primary health care? Second, given the development of the internal market, how do single-handed practices fare in influencing local policy and priority setting? Third, to what extent can single-handed practitioners take advantage of the opportunities to hold their own budgets? Overall, in the context of recent U.K. health care reforms, what is the future for "staying single in the 1990s"? PMID:9232729

  14. Gay and Bisexual men's use of the Internet: Research from the 1990s through 2013

    PubMed Central

    Grov, Christian; Breslow, Aaron S.; Newcomb, Michael E.; Rosenberger, Joshua G.; Bauermeister, Jose A

    2014-01-01

    In this review, we document the historical and cultural shifts in how gay and bisexual men have used the Internet for sexuality between the 1990s and 2013. Over that time, gay and bisexual men have rapidly taken to using the Internet for sexual purposes: sexual health information seeking, finding sex partners, dating, cybersex, and pornography. Gay and bisexual men have adapted to the ever-evolving technological advances that have been made in connecting users to the Internet—from logging into the World Wide Web via dial-up modem on a desktop computer to geo-social and sexual networking via a handheld device. In kind, researchers too have adapted to the Internet to study gay and bisexual men, though not at the same rapid pace at which technology (and its users) have advanced. Studies have carefully considered the ethics, feasibility, and acceptability of using the Internet to conduct research and interventions with gay and bisexual men. Much of this work has been grounded in models of disease prevention, largely as a result of the ongoing HIV/AIDS epidemic. The urgent need to reduce HIV in this population has been a driving force to develop innovative research and Internet-based intervention methodologies. Moving forward, a more holistic understanding of gay and bisexual men's sexual behavior might be warranted to address continued HIV and STI disparities. The Internet, and specifically mobile technology, is an environment gay and bisexual men are using for sexual purposes. These innovative technologies represent powerful resources for researchers to study and provide rapidly evolving outreach to gay and bisexual men. PMID:24754360

  15. Gender equity in health care in Sweden--minor improvements since the 1990s.

    PubMed

    Jonsson, Pia Maria; Schmidt, Ingrid; Sparring, Vibeke; Tomson, Göran

    2006-06-01

    A report by the Swedish National Committee on Gender Disparities in Patient Care (1996) identified many shortcomings in the ability of the health sector to gear patient management and treatment to the specific needs of men and women. To promote gender equity in health care, the Committee presented several proposals relating to research, education, monitoring, and evaluation of health services and the responsibilities of health authorities. In 2002, the Swedish Government authorised the National Board of Health and Welfare to review and analyse gender equity trends in health care. Data from, e.g. the national quality registers, epidemiological health data registers, population surveys, and Patient Trust Boards were compiled to identify gender disparities in the quality and accessibility of health services. The curricula of medical universities and the policies of major research funds were reviewed, as were developments in major fields of health research. The National Board found that many of the gender disparities identified in the 1990s still exist, e.g. access to advanced evidence-based technologies such as coronary interventions. As previously, women account for around 60%, and men for 40%, of complaints, e.g. to the Patients' Advisory Committees. Many of the proposals of the National Committee have not been fully implemented by the national authorities or the county councils. We conclude that promoting gender equity in health care is an important but difficult task for health authorities. To make health services more gender sensitive a combination of strategies, including enforcement by guidelines and regulations, may be needed. PMID:16154225

  16. Australia's Youth: Reality and Risk. A National Perspective on Developments That Have Affected 15-19 Year Olds during the 1990s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dusseldorp Skills Forum, Inc., Sydney (Australia).

    This first annual report by the Dusseldorp Skills Forum on the situation of young Australians provides a national perspective on developments that have affected 15-19 year olds during the 1990s. An overview chapter, "Youth: The Rhetoric and the Reality of the 1990s" (Richard Sweet), addresses these topics: education-work transition; the labor…

  17. Distribution of pregnancy-related weight measures

    PubMed Central

    Woolcott, Christy; Dodds, Linda; Ashley-Martin, Jillian; Piccinini-Vallis, Helena

    2016-01-01

    Objective To describe the distribution of prepregnancy body mass index (BMI), gestational weight gain, and interpregnancy weight change. Design Descriptive epidemiologic study using the Nova Scotia Atlee Perinatal Database. Setting Nova Scotia, 2003 to 2013. Participants Included were 63 355 pregnancies in women aged 20 years and older. Analyses of gestational weight gain were restricted to 54 289 singleton pregnancies. Analyses of interpregnancy weight change included 22 890 pairs of successive pregnancies. Main outcome measures Prepregnancy BMI; gestational weight gain (the difference between delivery and prepregnancy weight adjusted for length of gestation); and interpregnancy weight change (the difference in prepregnancy weight between successive pregnancies). Results The median (interquartile range [IQR]) prepregnancy BMI was 24.7 kg/m2 (21.7 to 29.4 kg/m2). Fewer than half (48.5%) of the pregnancies were in normal-weight women, 24.6% were in overweight women, and 23.0% were in obese women. The median (IQR) weight loss needed for women who entered pregnancy overweight or obese to be within the normal range was 13.2 kg (5.7 to 25.2 kg). The median (IQR) gestational weight gain was 14.9 kg (11.0 to 19.1 kg). Inadequate weight gain was observed in 15.8% of women and of these women, half were below the recommended amount by at least 2.2 kg. Excess gestational weight gain was observed in 57.9% of pregnancies, and among these, half were above the recommended amount by at least 4.8 kg. The median (IQR) interpregnancy weight change was 2.3 kg (−0.9 to 6.8 kg). Most (57.2%) women gained more than 1 kg between pregnancies and 24.6% lost 1 kg or more between pregnancies. Conclusion In Nova Scotia, both inadequate and excess pregnancy-related weight are prevalent, although the latter is more common than the former. Strategies are needed to promote healthier weight in reproductive-aged women, optimize gestational weight gain, and support postpartum weight management.

  18. Distributed Capacitive Sensor for Sample Mass Measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toda, Risaku; McKinney, Colin; Jackson, Shannon P.; Mojarradi, Mohammad; Manohara, Harish; Trebi-Ollennu, Ashitey

    2011-01-01

    Previous robotic sample return missions lacked in situ sample verification/ quantity measurement instruments. Therefore, the outcome of the mission remained unclear until spacecraft return. In situ sample verification systems such as this Distributed Capacitive (DisC) sensor would enable an unmanned spacecraft system to re-attempt the sample acquisition procedures until the capture of desired sample quantity is positively confirmed, thereby maximizing the prospect for scientific reward. The DisC device contains a 10-cm-diameter pressure-sensitive elastic membrane placed at the bottom of a sample canister. The membrane deforms under the weight of accumulating planetary sample. The membrane is positioned in close proximity to an opposing rigid substrate with a narrow gap. The deformation of the membrane makes the gap narrower, resulting in increased capacitance between the two parallel plates (elastic membrane and rigid substrate). C-V conversion circuits on a nearby PCB (printed circuit board) provide capacitance readout via LVDS (low-voltage differential signaling) interface. The capacitance method was chosen over other potential approaches such as the piezoelectric method because of its inherent temperature stability advantage. A reference capacitor and temperature sensor are embedded in the system to compensate for temperature effects. The pressure-sensitive membranes are aluminum 6061, stainless steel (SUS) 403, and metal-coated polyimide plates. The thicknesses of these membranes range from 250 to 500 m. The rigid substrate is made with a 1- to 2-mm-thick wafer of one of the following materials depending on the application requirements glass, silicon, polyimide, PCB substrate. The glass substrate is fabricated by a microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) fabrication approach. Several concentric electrode patterns are printed on the substrate. The initial gap between the two plates, 100 m, is defined by a silicon spacer ring that is anodically bonded to the glass

  19. Concept to Reality: Contributions of the Langley Research Center to US Civil Aircraft of the 1990s

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chambers, Joseph R.

    2003-01-01

    This document is intended to be a companion to NASA SP-2000-4519, 'Partners in Freedom: Contributions of the Langley Research Center to U.S. Military Aircraft of the 1990s'. Material included in the combined set of volumes provides informative and significant examples of the impact of Langley's research on U.S. civil and military aircraft of the 1990s. This volume, 'Concept to Reality: Contributions of the NASA Langley Research Center to U.S. Civil Aircraft of the 1990s', highlights significant Langley contributions to safety, cruise performance, takeoff and landing capabilities, structural integrity, crashworthiness, flight deck technologies, pilot-vehicle interfaces, flight characteristics, stall and spin behavior, computational design methods, and other challenging technical areas for civil aviation. The contents of this volume include descriptions of some of the more important applications of Langley research to current civil fixed-wing aircraft (rotary-wing aircraft are not included), including commercial airliners, business aircraft, and small personal-owner aircraft. In addition to discussions of specific aircraft applications, the document also covers contributions of Langley research to the operation of civil aircraft, which includes operating problems. This document is organized according to disciplinary technologies, for example, aerodynamics, structures, materials, and flight systems. Within each discussion, examples are cited where industry applied Langley technologies to specific aircraft that were in operational service during the 1990s and the early years of the new millennium. This document is intended to serve as a key reference for national policy makers, internal NASA policy makers, Congressional committees, the media, and the general public. Therefore, it has been written for a broad general audience and does not presume any significant technical expertise. An extensive bibliography is provided for technical specialists and others who desire a

  20. Commodities consumed in Italy, Greece and other Mediterranean countries compared with Australia in 1960s and 1990s.

    PubMed

    Noah, Ann; Truswell, Stewart

    2003-01-01

    Consumption figures for 15 major commodities (cereals, wheat, rice, maize, potato, pulses, olive oil, other vegetable oils, vegetables, fruits, wine, meats, animal fats, milk + products, and fish + seafood) were collected from FAO Food Balance Sheets during the 1960s (1961-1969) and late 1990s (1995-1999). For some nutritionists the "model Mediterranean diet" is the Italian or Greek diet of the 1960s, for others the concept of Mediterranean countries is more general. Analysis shows: (1) In the 1960s, Australia consumed more meat, milk, animal fat than Italy or Greece and less cereals, wheat, pulses, olive oil, vegetables, fruits and wine. (2) In the 1960s, Australia's olive oil, vegetables, fruits and wine consumption were within the range for all 18 Mediterranean countries (i.e. Spain, France, Italy, Malta, Croatia, Bosnia, Albania, Greece, Cyprus, Turkey, Syria, Lebanon, Israel, Egypt, Libya, Tunisia, Algeria and Morocco). (3) In the 1990s, food consumptions have evolved; Australia's wine and milk consumption is now similar to Italy and Greece; consumption of wheat, olive oil, vegetables, fruits and fish are lower; consumption of potato, pulses, other vegetable oils and meat are higher than Italy or Greece. (4) Australia's consumption of the 15 commodities is within the range of all Mediterranean countries in the late 1990s, except wheat consumption was lower. PMID:12737007

  1. Contribution of the phase transition of Pacific Decadal Oscillation to the late 1990s' shift in East China summer rainfall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    zhu, yali

    2016-04-01

    Based on our previous study, the interdecadal changes in summer rainfall over East China in the late 1990s are further explored here. The increased local rising motion is implicated as the dominant factor of increased rainfall in the lower Huang-Huai River valley (LHR). Both the observation and numerical experiments using Community Atmosphere Model, version 4 suggest that the negative Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) mode can result in rising anomalies and thus more rainfall in the LHR. The East Asian westerly jet stream (EAWJS) is suggested as a bridge to link the Pacific sea surface temperature anomalies and East Asian summer rainfall. Model results reveal that the negative PDO mode can lead to significant easterly anomalies over East Asia. As a result, the EAWJS is weakened and shifts poleward, which coincides with observed changes in EAWJS after the late 1990s. In addition, weakened and poleward shifted EAWJS can result in an anomalous ascending motion to its south (in the LHR) by modulating the jet-related secondary meridional-vertical circulation. Consequently, rainfall increased in the LHR after the late 1990s. Besides, the positive Atlantic Meridional Oscillation can only induce insignificant changes over East Asia and partly counteract the negative PDO effect there.

  2. Measuring advances in HVAC distribution system designs

    SciTech Connect

    Franconi, Ellen

    1998-07-01

    Substantial commercial building energy savings have been achieved by improving the performance of the HVAC distribution system. The energy savings result from distribution system design improvements, advanced control capabilities, and use of variable-speed motors. Yet, much of the commercial building stock remains equipped with inefficient systems. Contributing to this is the absence of a definition for distribution system efficiency as well as the analysis methods for quantifying performance. This research investigates the application of performance indices to assess design advancements in commercial building thermal distribution systems. The index definitions are based on a first and second law of thermodynamics analysis of the system. The second law or availability analysis enables the determination of the true efficiency of the system. Availability analysis is a convenient way to make system efficiency comparisons since performance is evaluated relative to an ideal process. A TRNSYS simulation model is developed to analyze the performance of two distribution system types, a constant air volume system and a variable air volume system, that serve one floor of a large office building. Performance indices are calculated using the simulation results to compare the performance of the two systems types in several locations. Changes in index values are compared to changes in plant energy, costs, and carbon emissions to explore the ability of the indices to estimate these quantities.

  3. Measuring Advances in HVAC Distribution System Design

    SciTech Connect

    Franconi, E.

    1998-05-01

    Substantial commercial building energy savings have been achieved by improving the performance of the HV AC distribution system. The energy savings result from distribution system design improvements, advanced control capabilities, and use of variable-speed motors. Yet, much of the commercial building stock remains equipped with inefficient systems. Contributing to this is the absence of a definition for distribution system efficiency as well as the analysis methods for quantifying performance. This research investigates the application of performance indices to assess design advancements in commercial building thermal distribution systems. The index definitions are based on a first and second law of thermodynamics analysis of the system. The second law or availability analysis enables the determination of the true efficiency of the system. Availability analysis is a convenient way to make system efficiency comparisons since performance is evaluated relative to an ideal process. A TRNSYS simulation model is developed to analyze the performance of two distribution system types, a constant air volume system and a variable air volume system, that serve one floor of a large office building. Performance indices are calculated using the simulation results to compare the performance of the two systems types in several locations. Changes in index values are compared to changes in plant energy, costs, and carbon emissions to explore the ability of the indices to estimate these quantities.

  4. Measuring Social Aspects of Distributed Learning Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jochems, Wim; Kreijns, Karel

    2006-01-01

    Computer-supported group-based learning requires that interaction has to be structured within the group; otherwise it will not happen. Also, it is important to pay attention to social aspects of a distributed learning group (i.e. group dynamics); otherwise a good working team will not emerge. This article proposes a process-oriented framework that…

  5. Measuring strain distributions in amorphous materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poulsen, Henning F.; Wert, John A.; Neuefeind, Jörg; Honkimäki, Veijo; Daymond, Mark

    2005-01-01

    A number of properties of amorphous materials including fatigue, fracture and component performance are governed by the magnitude of strain fields around inhomogeneities such as inclusions, voids and cracks. At present, localized strain information is only available from surface probes such as optical or electron microscopy. This is unfortunate because surface and bulk characteristics in general differ. Hence, to a large extent, the assessment of strain distributions relies on untested models. Here we present a universal diffraction method for characterizing bulk stress and strain fields in amorphous materials and demonstrate its efficacy by work on a material of current interest in materials engineering: a bulk metallic glass. The macroscopic response is shown to be less stiff than the atomic next-neighbour bonds because of structural rearrangements at the scale of 4-10 Å. The method is also applicable to composites comprising an amorphous matrix and crystalline inclusions.

  6. Measuring and modeling continuous quality distributions of soil organic matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruun, S.; Gren, G. I. Ã.; Christensen, B. T.; Jensen, L. S.

    2010-01-01

    An understanding of the dynamics of soil organic matter (SOM) is important for our ability to develop management practices that preserve soil quality and sequester carbon. Most SOM decomposition models represent the heterogeneity of organic matter by a few discrete compartments with different turnover rates, while other models employ a continuous quality distribution. To make the multi-compartment models more mechanistic in nature, it has been argued that the compartments should be related to soil fractions actually occurring and having a functional role in the soil. In this paper, we make the case that fractionation methods that can measure continuous quality distributions should be developed, and that the temporal development of these distributions should be incorporated into SOM models. The measured continuous SOM quality distributions should hold valuable information not only for model development, but also for direct interpretation. Measuring continuous distributions requires that the measurements along the quality variable are so frequent that the distribution approaches the underlying continuum. Continuous distributions lead to possible simplifications of the model formulations, which considerably reduce the number of parameters needed to describe SOM turnover. A general framework for SOM models representing SOM across measurable quality distributions is presented and simplifications for specific situations are discussed. Finally, methods that have been used or have the potential to be used to measure continuous quality SOM distributions are reviewed. Generally, existing fractionation methods will have to be modified to allow measurement of distributions or new fractionation techniques will have to be developed. Developing the distributional models in concert with the fractionation methods to measure the distributions will be a major task. We hope the current paper will help generate the interest needed to accommodate this.

  7. Measuring and modelling continuous quality distributions of soil organic matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruun, S.; Gren, G. I.; Christensen, B. T.; Jensen, L. S.

    2009-09-01

    An understanding of the dynamics of soil organic matter (SOM) is important for our ability to develop management practices that preserve soil quality and sequester carbon. Most SOM decomposition models represent the heterogeneity of organic matter by a few discrete compartments with different turnover rates, while other models employ a continuous quality distribution. To make the multi-compartment models more mechanistic in nature, it has been argued that the compartments should be related to soil fractions actually occurring and having a functional role in the soil. In this paper, we make the case that fractionation methods that can measure continuous quality distributions should be developed, and that the temporal development of these distributions should be incorporated into SOM models. The measured continuous SOM quality distributions should hold valuable information not only for model development, but also for direct interpretation. Measuring continuous distributions requires that the measurements along the quality variable are so frequent that the distribution is approaching the underlying continuum. Continuous distributions leads to possible simplifications of the model formulations, which considerably reduce the number of parameters needed to describe SOM turnover. A general framework for SOM models representing SOM across measurable quality distributions is presented and simplifications for specific situations are discussed. Finally, methods that have been used or have the potential to be used to measure continuous quality SOM distributions are reviewed. Generally, existing fractionation methods have to be modified to allow measurement of distributions or new fractionation techniques will have to be developed. Developing the distributional models in concert with the fractionation methods to measure the distributions will be a major task. We hope the current paper will help spawning the interest needed to accommodate this.

  8. Abrupt summer warming and changes in temperature extremes over Northeast Asia since the mid-1990s: Drivers and physical processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Buwen; Sutton, Rowan T.; Chen, Wei; Liu, Xiaodong; Lu, Riyu; Sun, Ying

    2016-09-01

    This study investigated the drivers and physical processes for the abrupt decadal summer surface warming and increases in hot temperature extremes that occurred over Northeast Asia in the mid-1990s. Observations indicate an abrupt increase in summer mean surface air temperature (SAT) over Northeast Asia since the mid-1990s. Accompanying this abrupt surface warming, significant changes in some temperature extremes, characterized by increases in summer mean daily maximum temperature (Tmax), daily minimum temperature (Tmin), annual hottest day temperature (TXx), and annual warmest night temperature (TNx) were observed. There were also increases in the frequency of summer days (SU) and tropical nights (TR). Atmospheric general circulation model experiments forced by changes in sea surface temperature (SST)/sea ice extent (SIE), anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations, and anthropogenic aerosol (AA) forcing, relative to the period 1964-93, reproduced the general patterns of observed summer mean SAT changes and associated changes in temperature extremes, although the abrupt decrease in precipitation since the mid-1990s was not simulated. Additional model experiments with different forcings indicated that changes in SST/SIE explained 76% of the area-averaged summer mean surface warming signal over Northeast Asia, while the direct impact of changes in GHG and AA explained the remaining 24% of the surface warming signal. Analysis of physical processes indicated that the direct impact of the changes in AA (through aerosol-radiation and aerosol-cloud interactions), mainly related to the reduction of AA precursor emissions over Europe, played a dominant role in the increase in TXx and a similarly important role as SST/SIE changes in the increase in the frequency of SU over Northeast Asia via AA-induced coupled atmosphere-land surface and cloud feedbacks, rather than through a direct impact of AA changes on cloud condensation nuclei. The modelling results also imply

  9. Measuring SNM Isotopic Distributions using FRAM

    SciTech Connect

    Geist, William H.

    2015-12-02

    The first group of slides provides background information on the isotopic composition of plutonium. It is shown that 240Pu is the critical isotope in neutron coincidence/multiplicity counting. Next, response function analysis to determine isotopic composition is discussed. The isotopic composition can be determined by measuring the net peak counts from each isotope and then taking the ratio of the counts for each isotope relative to the total counts for the element. Then FRAM (Fixed energy Response function Analysis with Multiple efficiencies) is explained. FRAM can control data acquisition, automatically analyze newly acquired data, analyze previously acquired data, provide information on the quality of the analysis, and facilitate analysis in unusual situations (non-standard energy calibrations, gamma rays from non-SNM isotopes, poor spectra (within limits)).

  10. MEASURING THE MASS DISTRIBUTION IN GALAXY CLUSTERS

    SciTech Connect

    Geller, Margaret J.; Diaferio, Antonaldo; Rines, Kenneth J.; Serra, Ana Laura E-mail: diaferio@ph.unito.it E-mail: serra@to.infn.it

    2013-02-10

    Cluster mass profiles are tests of models of structure formation. Only two current observational methods of determining the mass profile, gravitational lensing, and the caustic technique are independent of the assumption of dynamical equilibrium. Both techniques enable the determination of the extended mass profile at radii beyond the virial radius. For 19 clusters, we compare the mass profile based on the caustic technique with weak lensing measurements taken from the literature. This comparison offers a test of systematic issues in both techniques. Around the virial radius, the two methods of mass estimation agree to within {approx}30%, consistent with the expected errors in the individual techniques. At small radii, the caustic technique overestimates the mass as expected from numerical simulations. The ratio between the lensing profile and the caustic mass profile at these radii suggests that the weak lensing profiles are a good representation of the true mass profile. At radii larger than the virial radius, the extrapolated Navarro, Frenk and White fit to the lensing mass profile exceeds the caustic mass profile. Contamination of the lensing profile by unrelated structures within the lensing kernel may be an issue in some cases; we highlight the clusters MS0906+11 and A750, superposed along the line of sight, to illustrate the potential seriousness of contamination of the weak lensing signal by these unrelated structures.

  11. Measurement of multidimensional ion velocity distributions by optical tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koslover, R.; McWilliams, R.

    1986-10-01

    The development of a new diagnostic capable of measuring plasma ion distributions as a function of all three velocity-space coordinates is reported. The diagnostic makes use of laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) and computer-assisted image reconstruction techniques. LIF yields high-resolution, nonperturbing measurements of one-dimensional distributions that are integrated in two directions through three-dimensional velocity space. Computer tomography allows for the unambiguous determinations of the complete ion velocity distribution. In addition to a description of the diagnostic, examples of recovered distributions obtained from experiments are given, and the effects of the major steps in the data processing are discussed.

  12. Nature of Persecutors and Their Behaviors in the Delusions of Schizophrenia: Changes between the 1990s and the 2000s

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Hyun Young; Kim, Daeho

    2012-01-01

    Objective Research suggests that the contents of delusions in schizophrenia are influenced by culture and social environment. However, few studies have investigated the chronological change of such delusions within a society. To investigate specifically the changes in the persecutory delusions of schizophrenia that have occurred over time, we compared the nature of the persecutors and their persecutory behaviors among inpatients with schizophrenia. Methods All admissions to the psychiatric unit of Hanyang University Guri Hospital with discharge diagnoses of schizophrenia during two different five-year time frames (1996-2000 and 2006-2010) were reviewed. From their inpatient medical records, we investigated the descriptions of persecutors and their persecutory behaviors in the delusions of 124 patients (54 in the1990s and 72 in the 2000s). Results Overall, persecutory behaviors and nature of persecutors in the delusions of schizophrenia did not differ between the two time frames. However, subgroup analysis revealed that in women but not in men, rejection as a persecutory behavior was significantly higher in the 1990s (p<0.05). Conclusion The ten-year time interval may be too short to find significant changes in delusional content in general. However, our additional finding in women may be a result of the tremendous change in status of Korean women during the last decade. PMID:23251194

  13. Educational Inequalities among Latin American Adolescents: Continuities and Changes over the 1980s, 1990s and 2000s

    PubMed Central

    Marteleto, Letícia; Gelber, Denisse; Hubert, Celia; Salinas, Viviana

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to examine recent trends in educational stratification for Latin American adolescents growing up in three distinct periods: the 1980s, during severe recession; the 1990s, a period of structural adjustments imposed by international organizations; and the late 2000s, when most countries in the region experienced positive and stable growth. In addition to school enrollment and educational transitions, we examine the quality of education through enrollment in private schools, an important aspect of inequality in education that most studies have neglected. We use nationally representative household survey data for the 1980s, 1990s and 2000s in Brazil, Chile, Mexico and Uruguay. Our overall findings confirm the importance of macroeconomic conditions for inequalities in educational opportunity, suggesting important benefits brought up by the favorable conditions of the 2000s. However, our findings also call attention to increasing disadvantages associated with the quality of the education adolescents receive, suggesting the significance of the EMI framework—Effectively Maintained Inequality—and highlighting the value of examining the quality in addition to the quantity of education in order to fully understand educational stratification in the Latin American context. PMID:22962512

  14. Electro-optic measurement of terahertz pulse energy distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, J. H.; Gallacher, J. G.; Brussaard, G. J. H.; Lemos, N.; Issac, R.; Huang, Z. X.; Dias, J. M.; Jaroszynski, D. A.

    2009-11-01

    An accurate and direct measurement of the energy distribution of a low repetition rate terahertz electromagnetic pulse is challenging because of the lack of sensitive detectors in this spectral range. In this paper, we show how the total energy and energy density distribution of a terahertz electromagnetic pulse can be determined by directly measuring the absolute electric field amplitude and beam energy density distribution using electro-optic detection. This method has potential use as a routine method of measuring the energy density of terahertz pulses that could be applied to evaluating future high power terahertz sources, terahertz imaging, and spatially and temporarily resolved pump-probe experiments.

  15. System for measuring spatial distribution of ejected droplets, a concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ayvazian, R. A.

    1968-01-01

    System measures the spatial distribution of high-velocity droplets ejected from a nozzle or spray gun. The system employs an electrically resistive grid as the sensing screen, electrical leads, and a signal scanner such as a cathode ray tube.

  16. Measurement of the electronic momentum distributions of Rydberg Stark states

    SciTech Connect

    Murray-Krezan, J.; Jones, R. R.

    2007-06-15

    Approximate momentum distributions of Rydberg electrons in static electric fields have been obtained using an improved impulsive momentum retrieval (IMR) technique. An imaging detector enables the measurement of half-cycle pulse (HCP) ionization probability across the spatial profile of a focused half-cycle pulse beam. By modulating the HCP amplitude we directly measure the derivative of the ionization vs HCP impulse curve, enabling the recovery of momentum distributions with better resolution than previously demonstrated with IMR. For example, for Stark states with small dipole moments, we observe predicted fine-structure in the projection of the momentum distribution along the Stark field axis. We use a semiclassical model to simulate the effect that the nonzero HCP duration has on our measurements. Good agreement between simulated and measured momentum distributions is obtained.

  17. Job Measurement Standards and Workload Planning in Distribution System Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Water Works Association Journal, 1979

    1979-01-01

    This report describes methods and benefits of applying standard work measurement and planning techniques to water distribution system work. The three sections of the report discuss: a general work standards survey; application; and consideration of benefits. (CS)

  18. Understanding the rapid summer warming and changes in temperature extremes since the mid-1990s over Western Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Buwen; Sutton, Rowan T.; Shaffrey, Len

    2016-05-01

    Analysis of observations indicates that there was a rapid increase in summer (June-August) mean surface air temperature (SAT) since the mid-1990s over Western Europe. Accompanying this rapid warming are significant increases in summer mean daily maximum temperature, daily minimum temperature, annual hottest day temperature and warmest night temperature, and an increase in frequency of summer days and tropical nights, while the change in the diurnal temperature range (DTR) is small. This study focuses on understanding causes of the rapid summer warming and associated temperature extreme changes. A set of experiments using the atmospheric component of the state-of-the-art HadGEM3 global climate model have been carried out to quantify relative roles of changes in sea surface temperature (SST)/sea ice extent (SIE), anthropogenic greenhouse gases (GHGs), and anthropogenic aerosols (AAer). Results indicate that the model forced by changes in all forcings reproduces many of the observed changes since the mid-1990s over Western Europe. Changes in SST/SIE explain 62.2 ± 13.0 % of the area averaged seasonal mean warming signal over Western Europe, with the remaining 37.8 ± 13.6 % of the warming explained by the direct impact of changes in GHGs and AAer. Results further indicate that the direct impact of the reduction of AAer precursor emissions over Europe, mainly through aerosol-radiation interaction with additional contributions from aerosol-cloud interaction and coupled atmosphere-land surface feedbacks, is a key factor for increases in annual hottest day temperature and in frequency of summer days. It explains 45.5 ± 17.6 % and 40.9 ± 18.4 % of area averaged signals for these temperature extremes. The direct impact of the reduction of AAer precursor emissions over Europe acts to increase DTR locally, but the change in DTR is countered by the direct impact of GHGs forcing. In the next few decades, greenhouse gas concentrations will continue to rise and AAer precursor

  19. Women as the Aggressors in Intimate Partner Homicide in Houston, 1980s to 1990s

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Titterington, Victoria B.; Harper, Laura

    2005-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to inform the ongoing quest for efficacious treatment of domestically violent women by (a) describing their representation in cases of intimate partner homicide over the period of 1985-1999 in Houston, Texas, and (b) by utilizing a measure known as the spousal sex ratio of killing (SROK), determining…

  20. Superthermal electron distribution measurements from polarized electron cyclotron emission

    SciTech Connect

    Luce, T.C.; Efthimion, P.C.; Fisch, N.J.

    1988-06-01

    Measurements of the superthermal electron distribution can be made by observing the polarized electron cyclotron emission. The emission is viewed along a constant magnetic field surface. This simplifies the resonance condition and gives a direct correlation between emission frequency and kinetic energy of the emitting electron. A transformation technique is formulated which determines the anisotropy of the distribution and number density of superthermals at each energy measured. The steady-state distribution during lower hybrid current drive and examples of the superthermal dynamics as the runaway conditions is varied are presented for discharges in the PLT tokamak. 15 refs., 8 figs.

  1. On developing the local research environment of the 1990s - The Space Station era

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chase, Robert; Ziel, Fred

    1989-01-01

    A requirements analysis for the Space Station's polar platform data system has been performed. Based upon this analysis, a cluster, layered cluster, and layered-modular implementation of one specific module within the Eos Data and Information System (EosDIS), an active data base for satellite remote sensing research has been developed. It is found that a distributed system based on a layered-modular architecture and employing current generation work station technologies has the requisite attributes ascribed by the remote sensing research community. Although, based on benchmark testing, probabilistic analysis, failure analysis and user-survey technique analysis, it is found that this architecture presents some operational shortcomings that will not be alleviated with new hardware or software developments. Consequently, the potential of a fully-modular layered architectural design for meeting the needs of Eos researchers has also been evaluated, concluding that it would be well suited to the evolving requirements of this multidisciplinary research community.

  2. NASA's strategy for Mars exploration in the 1990s and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huntress, W. T.; Feeley, T. J.; Boyce, J. M.

    NASA's Office of Space Science is changing its approach to all its missions, both current and future. Budget realities are necessitating that we change the way we do business and the way we look at NASA's role in the U.S. Government. These challenges are being met by a new and innovative approach that focuses on achieving a balanced world-class space science program that requires less U.S. resources while providing an enhanced role for technology and education as integral components of our Research and Development (R&D) programs. Our Mars exploration plans, especially the Mars Surveyor program, are a key feature of this new NASA approach to space science. The Mars Surveyor program will be affordable, engaging to the public with global and close-up images of Mars, have high scientific value, employ a distributed risk strategy (two launches per opportunity), and will use significant advanced technologies.

  3. Long-term changes in UT/LS ozone between the late 1970s and the 1990s deduced from the GASP and MOZAIC aircraft programs and from ozonesondes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnadt Poberaj, C.; Staehelin, J.; Brunner, D.; Thouret, V.; de Backer, H.; Stübi, R.

    2009-01-01

    We present ozone measurements of the Global Atmospheric Sampling Program (GASP) performed from four commercial and one research aircraft in the late 1970s to compare them with respective measurements of the ongoing MOZAIC project. Climatologies of UT/LS ozone were built using the aircraft data sets (1975-1979 and 1994-2001), and long-term changes between the 1970s and 1990s were derived by comparison. The data were binned relative to the dynamical tropopause to separate between UT and LS air masses. LS data were analysed using equivalent latitudes. In the UT, pronounced increases are found over the Middle East and South Asia in the spring and summer seasons. Increases are also found over Japan, Europe, and the eastern parts of the Unites States depending on season. LS ozone over northern mid- and high latitudes was found to be lower in the 1990s compared to the 1970s in all seasons of the year. In addition, a comparison with long-term changes deduced from ozonesondes is presented. An altitude offset was applied to the sonde data to account for the slow response time of the ozone sensors. The early 1970s European Brewer-Mast (BM) sonde data agree with GASP within the range of uncertainty (UT) or measured slightly less ozone (LS). In contrast, the 1990s BM sensors show consistently and significantly higher UT/LS ozone values than MOZAIC. This unequal behaviour of aircraft/sonde comparisons in the 1970s and 1990s leads to differences in the estimated long-term changes over Europe: while the comparison between GASP and MOZAIC indicates ozone changes of -5% to 10% over Europe, the sondes suggest a much larger increase of 10%-35% depending on station and season, although statistical significance is not conclusive due to data sample limitations. In contrast to the BM sondes, the Electrochemical Cell (ECC) sonde at Wallops Island, USA, measured higher UT ozone than both GASP and MOZAIC. Hence, long-term changes from GASP/MOZAIC agree within the range of uncertainty with

  4. Disappearance of the southeast U.S. "warming hole" with the late 1990s transition of the Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meehl, Gerald A.; Arblaster, Julie M.; Chung, Christine T. Y.

    2015-07-01

    Observed surface air temperatures over the contiguous U.S. for the second half of the twentieth century showed a slight cooling over the southeastern part of the country, the so-called "warming hole," while temperatures over the rest of the country warmed. This pattern reversed after 2000. Climate model simulations show that the disappearance of the warming hole in the early 2000s is likely associated with the transition of the Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation (IPO) phase from positive to negative in the tropical Pacific in the late 1990s, coincident with the early 2000s slowdown of the warming trend in globally averaged surface air temperature. Analysis of a specified convective heating anomaly sensitivity experiment in an atmosphere-only model traces the disappearance of the warming hole to negative sea surface temperature anomalies and consequent negative precipitation and convective heating anomalies in the central equatorial Pacific Ocean associated with the negative phase of the IPO after 2000.

  5. Expectations and beliefs in science communication: Learning from three European gene therapy discussions of the early 1990s.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Gitte

    2016-04-01

    There is widespread agreement that the potential of gene therapy was oversold in the early 1990s. This study, however, comparing written material from the British, Danish and German gene therapy discourses of the period finds significant differences: Over-optimism was not equally strong everywhere; gene therapy was not universally hyped. Against that background, attention is directed towards another area of variation in the material: different basic assumptions about science and scientists. Exploring such culturally rooted assumptions and beliefs and their possible significance to science communication practices, it is argued that deep beliefs may constitute drivers of hype that are particularly difficult to deal with. To participants in science communication, the discouragement of hype, viewed as a practical-ethical challenge, can be seen as a learning exercise that includes critical attention to internalised beliefs. PMID:25313143

  6. Environmental monitoring report for commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal sites (1960`s through 1990`s)

    SciTech Connect

    1996-11-01

    During the time period covered in this report (1960`s through early 1990`s), six commercial low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) disposal facilities have been operated in the US. This report provides environmental monitoring data collected at each site. The report summarizes: (1) each site`s general design, (2) each site`s inventory, (3) the environmental monitoring program for each site and the data obtained as the program has evolved, and (4) what the program has indicated about releases to off-site areas, if any, including a statement of the actual health and safety significance of any release. A summary with conclusions is provided at the end of each site`s chapter. The six commercial LLRW disposal sites discussed are located near: Sheffield, Illinois; Maxey Flats, Kentucky; Beatty, Nevada; West Valley, New York; Barnwell, South Carolina; Richland, Washington.

  7. CEO expectation: the Star Wars materiel manager of the 1990s, or C-3PO as role model.

    PubMed

    Zenty, T F; Olson, M R

    1993-05-01

    Materiel-intensive expenditures account for a significant portion of all hospital costs, second only to salaries and wages, yet materiel managers may often be overlooked as key members of the management team. This is alarming since the potential exists for materiel managers to impact annual savings of hundreds of thousands of dollars by operating efficient departments. Materiel managers have a tremendous opportunity to enhance their image and improve hospital productivity in the coming decade. The challenges of the 1990s will stretch materiel managers' skills toward enhancing their professionalism and achieving the expectations of themselves and top management. If materiel managers will effectively utilize (C3)PO they will increase their educational levels, continue to learn new skills, maintain a customer-oriented management style, exercise creativity, develop and adhere to standards, and be proactive in their responsibilities. The benefits of their success will be felt by patients, hospitals, the industry, and materiel managers everywhere. PMID:10125274

  8. When 'drugs' become 'drugs': issues of pharmaceutical abuse in France from the 1960s to the 1990s.

    PubMed

    Marchant, Alexandre

    2014-01-01

    Since the 1970s, media frenzies about drug addiction have focused mainly on illicit drugs taken by rebellious or marginalised addicts, relegating iatrogenic drug abuse, and policies and problems linked to psychotropic pharmaceuticals available by prescription or over-the-counter to the shadows. In this article I go beyond the division between illicit drugs and medicines still configuring both public representations and historiography: using archival materials from the 1960s-1990s in France, I highlight some blind spots in drug history. Firstly I demonstrate the role of pharmaceutical abuse in the career of addicts, and then examine regulation policies, which are the dark side, however complementary, of drug policies and prohibition. Finally, I analyse the role of physicians and pharmacists in this control, and discuss the various professional debates relating to the legal supply of psychoactive drugs. In all these issues, the frame of the Cold War context will also be highlighted. PMID:26054215

  9. Causes of the Decline in Cigarette Smoking Among African American Youths From the 1970s to the 1990s

    PubMed Central

    Foulds, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    Adult cigarette smoking prevalence trends among African Americans (AAs) and Whites are similar. However, during the decline in youth smoking that occurred between the mid-1970s and the early 1990s, the drop in smoking rates among AA adolescents was more than double that among Whites. We examined the evidence for potential explanations for this phenomenon. On the basis of our findings, we propose that racial differences in parental attitudes, religious ties, negative perceptions and experiences of the health effects of smoking, worsening poverty, increased use of food stamps, and price sensitivity were major factors contributing to the more rapid decrease in and continued lower rates of smoking among AA youths. PMID:21852655

  10. The “Cuban Epidemic Neuropathy” of the 1990s: A glimpse from inside a totalitarian disease

    PubMed Central

    Coutin-Churchman, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    During the 1990s, Cuba was struck by a rare epidemic disease. Up to 50,000 people were affected by a pathology compromising primarily the optic nerve but also peripheral nerves and even spinal cord. This is a testimony from a direct witness and participant in the initial study of the epidemics showing that in spite of claims of a “multifactorial” etiology, still in the literature, the root cause of this disease is just result of the deliberate deprivation of the most elementary economic rights by extreme Government control over a population left unable to tend to its elementary survival by itself, in spite of a thorough Government-sponsored, universally celebrated Universal Healthcare System. PMID:25024884

  11. Department of Medicine Local Area Network: A Strategic Solution for the 1990's

    PubMed Central

    Price, Ronald N.; Chandrasekhar, Arcot J.

    1989-01-01

    In 1986 the Department of Medicine at Loyola University Medical Center (LUMC) Chicago chose local area network technology (LAN) for implementing an integrated departmental health care computing system. LAN technology was selected for its: 1) low cost; 2) flexibility/adaptability in system design; and, 3) wealth of end user software. The departmental network (MED-LAN) consists of six LANs, running Novell Netware 2.1 on Intel 80386 microcomputer file servers, with 75 nodes and 120 users. Each LAN encompasses one or more buildings and is internetworked through a campus-wide ethernet. These LANs provide access to applications such as electronic mail, wordprocessing, spreadsheet, database management and statistics. The Section of Medical Informatics has developed over 40 integrated applications utilizing distributed data management techniques that include: 1) new patient appointment system (14,000 patients annually); 2) patient charge capturing system; 3) clinical research databases; and, 4) patient management systems. To date MED-LAN has proven to be flexible and efficient in meeting the department's informational needs.

  12. The matilda effect in science: awards and prizes in the US, 1990s and 2000s.

    PubMed

    Lincoln, Anne E; Pincus, Stephanie; Koster, Janet Bandows; Leboy, Phoebe S

    2012-04-01

    Science is stratified, with an unequal distribution of research facilities and rewards among scientists. Awards and prizes, which are critical for shaping scientific career trajectories, play a role in this stratification when they differentially enhance the status of scientists who already have large reputations: the 'Matthew Effect'. Contrary to the Mertonian norm of universalism--the expectation that the personal attributes of scientists do not affect evaluations of their scientific claims and contributions--in practice, a great deal of evidence suggests that the scientific efforts and achievements of women do not receive the same recognition as do those of men: the 'Matilda Effect'. Awards in science, technology, engineering and medical (STEM) fields are not immune to these biases. We outline the research on gender bias in evaluations of research and analyze data from 13 STEM disciplinary societies. While women's receipt of professional awards and prizes has increased in the past two decades, men continue to win a higher proportion of awards for scholarly research than expected based on their representation in the nomination pool. The results support the powerful twin influences of implicit bias and committee chairs as contributing factors. The analysis sheds light on the relationship of external social factors to women's science careers and helps to explain why women are severely underrepresented as winners of science awards. The ghettoization of women's accomplishments into a category of 'women-only' awards also is discussed. PMID:22849001

  13. The `hockey stick' and the 1990s: a statistical perspective on reconstructing hemispheric temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Bo; Nychka, Douglas W.; Ammann, Caspar M.

    2007-10-01

    The short instrumental record of about 100-150 yr forces us to use proxy indicators to study climate over long timescales. The climate information in these indirect data is embedded in considerable noise, and the past temperature reconstructions are therefore full of uncertainty, which blurs the understanding of the temperature evolution. To date, the characterization and quantification of uncertainty have not been a high priority in reconstruction procedures. Here we propose a new statistical methodology to explicitly account for three types of uncertainties in the reconstruction process. Via ensemble reconstruction, we directly obtain the distribution of decadal maximum as well as annual maximum. Our method is an integration of linear regression, bootstrapping and cross-validation techniques, and it (1) accounts for the effects of temporal correlation of temperature; (2) identifies the variability of the estimated statistical model and (3) adjusts the effects of potential overfitting. We apply our method to the Northern Hemisphere (NH) average temperature reconstruction. Our results indicate that the recent decadal temperature increase is rapidly overwhelming previous maxima, even with uncertainty taken into account, and the last decade is highly likely to be the warmest in the last millennium.

  14. The Soviet health care system: Glasnost, Perestroika, and health problems of the 1990s.

    PubMed

    Moody, L E

    1992-03-01

    Worsening economic conditions and political turmoil in the Soviet Union have led to significant health care problems in the 90s. The Soviet people are calling for reforms of education and the health care system that extend beyond the unsuccessful program of glasnost and perestroika. The purposes of this article are to (a) describe the health care system in the Soviet Union, (b) highlight health issues and concerns of the Soviet people, (c) describe the education of physicians and nurses, and (d) compare and contrast common and unique factors about Soviet health care with health care in the West. The data base for the article was collected from observational site visits, on-site focused interviews with key informants in Kiev and Moscow, and extensive computerized and manual literature searches. Data were also gathered from questionnaires distributed to a convenience sample of 17 nurses in Moscow. Study results include demographic information and the state of nursing education and research, including availability and access to resources to conduct nursing research in Moscow. PMID:1293203

  15. Changes in CH4 emission from rice fields from 1960 to 1990s. 1. Impacts of modern rice technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Gon, Hugo Denier

    2000-03-01

    Four countries (Indonesia, Philippines, Thailand, and Nepal) were taken as an example to assess the impact of changes in rice cultivation on methane emissions from rice fields since the 1960s. The change of rice area by type of culture from 1960-1990s is estimated, and its relative contribution to national harvested rice area is calculated and multiplied with an emission factor, to derive the relative methane emission per unit rice land. Relative methane emission per ha rice land has increased since 1960 for all four countries, largely due to an increase in irrigated rice area and partly due to a decrease in upland rice area. Patterns of rice area changes and related emission changes differ considerably among countries. On the basis of the rice area increases between 1960 and the 1990s, significant increases in methane emissions from rice fields due to increases in total rice cultivated area are not to be expected in the future. The impact of modern rice variety adoption is assessed by relating methane emissions to rice production. The organic matter returned to the paddy soil is largely determined by rice biomass production which, given a certain yield, is different for traditional and modern rice varieties. By calculating total organic matter returned to rice paddy soils and assuming a constant fraction to be emitted as methane, rice production and methane emission can be related. The analysis indicates that (1) up to now, rice yield increases in countries with high modern rice variety adoption have not resulted in increased methane emissions per unit of harvested area and, (2) global annual emission from rice fields may be considerably lower than generally assumed. The introduction of modern rice varieties can be regarded as a historical methane emission mitigation strategy because higher rice yields resulted in lower or equal methane emissions.

  16. Changes in CH4 emission from rice fields from 1960 to 1990s: 1. Impacts of modern rice technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gon, Hugo Denier

    2000-03-01

    Four countries (Indonesia, Philippines, Thailand, and Nepal) were taken as an example to assess the impact of changes in rice cultivation on methane emissions from rice fields since the 1960s. The change of rice area by type of culture from 1960-1990s is estimated, and its relative contribution to national harvested rice area is calculated and multiplied with an emission factor, to derive the relative methane emission per unit rice land. Relative methane emission per ha rice land has increased since 1960 for all four countries, largely due to an increase in irrigated rice area and partly due to a decrease in upland rice area. Patterns of rice area changes and related emission changes differ considerably among countries. On the basis of the rice area increases between 1960 and the 1990s, significant increases in methane emissions from rice fields due to increases in total rice cultivated area are not to be expected in the future. The impact of modern rice variety adoption is assessed by relating methane emissions to rice production. The organic matter returned to the paddy soil is largely determined by rice biomass production which, given a certain yield, is different for traditional and modern rice varieties. By calculating total organic matter returned to rice paddy soils and assuming a constant fraction to be emitted as methane, rice production and methane emission can be related. The analysis indicates that (1) up to now, rice yield increases in countries with high modern rice variety adoption have not resulted in increased methane emissions per unit of harvested area and, (2) global annual emission from rice fields may be considerably lower than generally assumed. The introduction of modern rice varieties can be regarded as a historical methane emission mitigation strategy because higher rice yields resulted in lower or equal methane emissions.

  17. Petroleum geology of heavy oil in the Oriente basin of Ecuador: Exploration and exploitation challenge for the 1990s

    SciTech Connect

    Leadholm, R.H. )

    1990-05-01

    Published Ecuadorian government forecasts suggest that Oriente basin light oil (21-32{degree} API) production may start to decline in the early to mid-1990s. To maintain stabilized production into the next century, heavy oil reserves (10-20{degree} API) will have to be aggressively exploited. The Oriente's undeveloped proven plus probable heavy reserves are substantial and are expected to exceed 0.5 billion bbl. A recent discovery made by Conoc Ecuador Ltd., operator of Block 16 for a group which consists of O.P.I.C., Maxus, Nomeco, Murphy and Canam, is a good model for future exploration and exploitation of heavy oil in the remote eastern regions of the basin. Amo-1 tested a low-relief anticline (less than 100 ft vertical closure) and encountered 10-20{degree} API oil in five Cretaceous sandstone reservoirs (8,000-10,000 ft depth). Cumulative test production was 1,062 BOPD. Subsequent drilling along the trend resulted in three additional discoveries. The Cretaceous sands were transported from the Brazilian shield by the westward flowing proto-Amazon River and were deposited in fluviodeltaic, tidal, and high-energy marginal marine environments. Air permeabilities are high and geometric mean values approaching several darcies. Porosities average 18-22% in generally well-consolidated sands. The heavy oils are the result of mild biodegradation and/or expulsion from a thermally immature source. Oil-to-oil correlations suggest that all of the basin oils have the same or similar origin, probably marine calcareous shales of the Cretaceous Napo formation. The Block 16 project will provide a major step toward the strategic exploitation of the Oriente basin's heavy oil reserves, when it comes on stream in the early 1990s.

  18. Sensitizing events as trigger for discursive renewal and institutional change in Flanders’ environmental health approach, 1970s-1990s

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Sensitizing events may trigger and stimulate discursive renewal. From a discursive institutional perspective, changing discourses are the driving force behind the institutional dynamics of policy domains. Theoretically informed by discursive institutionalism, this article assesses the impact of a series of four sensitizing events that triggered serious environmental health concerns in Flanders between the 1970s till the 1990s, and led onto the gradual institutionalization of a Flemish environmental health arrangement. Methods The Policy Arrangement Approach is used as the analytical framework to structure the empirical results of the historical analysis based on document analysis and in-depth interviews. Results Until the 1990s, environmental health was characterized as an ad hoc policy field in Flanders, where agenda setting was based on sensitizing events – also referred to as incident-driven. Each of these events contributed to a gradual rethinking of the epistemological discourses about environmental health risks and uncertainties. These new discourses were the driving forces behind institutional dynamics as they gradually resulted in an increased need for: 1) long-term, policy-oriented, interdisciplinary environmental health research; 2) policy coordination and integration between the environmental and public health policy fields; and 3) new forms of science-policy interactions based on mutual learning. These changes are desirable in order to detect environmental health problems as fast as possible, to react immediately and communicate appropriately. Conclusions The series of four events that triggered serious environmental health concerns in Flanders provided the opportunity to rethink and re-organize the current affairs concerning environmental health and gradually resulted into the institutionalization of a Flemish environmental health arrangement. PMID:23758822

  19. Optical and Radar Measurements of the Meteor Speed Distribution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moorhead, A. V.; Brown, P. G.; Campbell-Brown, M. D.; Kingery, A.; Cooke, W. J.

    2016-01-01

    The observed meteor speed distribution provides information on the underlying orbital distribution of Earth-intersecting meteoroids. It also affects spacecraft risk assessments; faster meteors do greater damage to spacecraft surfaces. Although radar meteor networks have measured the meteor speed distribution numerous times, the shape of the de-biased speed distribution varies widely from study to study. Optical characterizations of the meteoroid speed distribution are fewer in number, and in some cases the original data is no longer available. Finally, the level of uncertainty in these speed distributions is rarely addressed. In this work, we present the optical meteor speed distribution extracted from the NASA and SOMN allsky networks [1, 2] and from the Canadian Automated Meteor Observatory (CAMO) [3]. We also revisit the radar meteor speed distribution observed by the Canadian Meteor Orbit Radar (CMOR) [4]. Together, these data span the range of meteoroid sizes that can pose a threat to spacecraft. In all cases, we present our bias corrections and incorporate the uncertainty in these corrections into uncertainties in our de-biased speed distribution. Finally, we compare the optical and radar meteor speed distributions and discuss the implications for meteoroid environment models.

  20. Measurements and calculations of electron dose distributions in circular materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yong; Zhou, Xinzhi; An, Zhu; Zhou, Youyi; Wang, Shiming

    2002-03-01

    In this paper, the absorbed dose distributions of 0.6-2.0 MeV electrons in circular compound materials have been calculated by the calculation method of electron energy deposition in multi-layer media based on bipartition model of electron transport. In addition, the blue cellophane film dosimeters have been used to measure the electron absorbed dose distributions in some circular objects. The calculation results are in agreement with some measurement data. The results indicate the usefulness of the calculation and measurement methods for electron dose monitoring and control in radiation processing of wire and cable.

  1. Three optical methods for remotely measuring aerosol size distributions.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reagan, J. A.; Herman, B. M.

    1971-01-01

    Three optical probing methods for remotely measuring atmospheric aerosol size distributions are discussed and contrasted. The particular detection methods which are considered make use of monostatic lidar (laser radar), bistatic lidar, and solar radiometer sensing techniques. The theory of each of these measurement techniques is discussed briefly, and the necessary constraints which must be applied to obtain aerosol size distribution information from such measurements are pointed out. Theoretical and/or experimental results are also presented which demonstrate the utility of the three proposed probing methods.

  2. Long-term changes in UT/LS ozone between the late 1970s and the 1990s deduced from the GASP and MOZAIC aircraft programs and from ozonesondes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnadt Poberaj, C.; Staehelin, J.; Brunner, D.; Thouret, V.; de Backer, H.; Stübi, R.

    2009-07-01

    We present ozone measurements of the Global Atmospheric Sampling Program (GASP) performed from four commercial and one research aircraft in the late 1970s to compare them with respective measurements of the ongoing MOZAIC project. Multi-annual averages of UT/LS ozone were built using the aircraft data sets (1975-1979 and 1994-2001), and long-term changes between the 1970s and 1990s were derived by comparison. The data were binned relative to the dynamical tropopause to separate between UT and LS air masses. LS data were analysed using equivalent latitudes. In the UT, pronounced increases of 20-40% are found over the Middle East and South Asia in the spring and summer seasons. Increases are also found over Japan, Europe, and the eastern parts of the United States depending on season. LS ozone over northern mid- and high latitudes was found to be lower in the 1990s compared to the 1970s in all seasons of the year. In addition, a comparison with long-term changes deduced from ozonesondes is presented. The early 1970s European Brewer-Mast (BM) sonde data agree with GASP within the range of uncertainty (UT) or measured slightly less ozone (LS). In contrast, the 1990s BM sensors show consistently and significantly higher UT/LS ozone values than MOZAIC. This unequal behaviour of aircraft/sonde comparisons in the 1970s and 1990s leads to differences in the estimated long-term changes over Europe: while the comparison between GASP and MOZAIC indicates ozone changes of -5% to 10% over Europe, the sondes suggest a much larger increase of 10%-35% depending on station and season, although statistical significance is not conclusive due to data sample limitations. In contrast to the BM sondes, the Electrochemical Cell (ECC) sonde at Wallops Island, USA, measured higher UT ozone than both GASP and MOZAIC. Hence, long-term changes from GASP/MOZAIC agree within the range of uncertainty with the changes deduced from Wallops Island.

  3. Non-Gaussian Error Distributions of LMC Distance Moduli Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crandall, Sara; Ratra, Bharat

    2015-12-01

    We construct error distributions for a compilation of 232 Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) distance moduli values from de Grijs et al. that give an LMC distance modulus of (m - M)0 = 18.49 ± 0.13 mag (median and 1σ symmetrized error). Central estimates found from weighted mean and median statistics are used to construct the error distributions. The weighted mean error distribution is non-Gaussian—flatter and broader than Gaussian—with more (less) probability in the tails (center) than is predicted by a Gaussian distribution; this could be the consequence of unaccounted-for systematic uncertainties. The median statistics error distribution, which does not make use of the individual measurement errors, is also non-Gaussian—more peaked than Gaussian—with less (more) probability in the tails (center) than is predicted by a Gaussian distribution; this could be the consequence of publication bias and/or the non-independence of the measurements. We also construct the error distributions of 247 SMC distance moduli values from de Grijs & Bono. We find a central estimate of {(m-M)}0=18.94+/- 0.14 mag (median and 1σ symmetrized error), and similar probabilities for the error distributions.

  4. Satellite Laser Ranging in the 1990s: Report of the 1994 Belmont Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Degnan, John J. (Editor)

    1994-01-01

    An international network of 43 stations in 30 countries routinely collects satellite ranging data which is used to study the solid Earth and its interactions with the oceans, atmosphere, and Moon. Data products include centimeter accuracy site positions on a global scale, tectonic plate motions, regional crustal deformation, long wavelength gravity field and geoid, polar motion, and variations in the Earth's spin rate. By calibrating and providing precise orbits for spaceborne microwave altimeters, satellite laser ranging also enables global measurement of sea and ice surface topography, mean sea level, global ocean circulation, and short wavelength gravity fields and marine geoids. It provides tests of general relativity and a means or subnanosecond time transfer. This workshop was convened to define future roles and directions in satellite laser ranging.

  5. Setting a standard for a "silent" disease: defining osteoporosis in the 1980s and 1990s.

    PubMed

    Wylie, Caitlin Donahue

    2010-12-01

    Osteoporosis, a disease of bone loss associated with aging and estrogen loss, can be crippling but is 'silent' (symptomless) prior to bone fracture. Despite its disastrous health effects, high prevalence, and enormous associated health care costs, osteoporosis lacked a universally accepted definition until 1992. In the 1980s, the development of more accurate medical imaging technologies to measure bone density spurred the medical community's need and demand for a common definition. The medical community tried, and failed, to resolve these differing definitions several times at consensus conferences and through published articles. These experts finally accepted a standard definition at an international consensus conference convened by the World Health Organization in 1992. The construction of osteoporosis as a disease of quantifiable risk diagnosed by medical imaging machines reflects contemporary trends in medicine, including the quantification of disease, the risk factor model, medical disciplinary boundaries, and global standardization of medical knowledge. PMID:21112012

  6. A strategy for space biology and medical science for the 1980s and 1990s

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    A guideline is provided for developing NASA's long-term mission plans and a rational, coherent research program. Ten topical areas for research are addressed: developmental biology, gravitropism in plants, sensorimotor integration, bone and mineral metabolism, cardiovascular/pulmonary function, muscle remodeling, nutrition, human reproduction, space anemia, and human behavior. Scientific goals, objectives, and required measurements and facilities for each of the major areas of space biology and medicine are identified and described along with primary goals and objectives for each of these disciplines. Proposals are made concerning the use of scientific panels to oversee the implementation of the strategy, life sciences' need for continuous access to spaceflight opportunities, the advantages of a focused mission strategy, certain design features that will enhance spaceflight experimentation, and general facilities. Other topics that are considered include mission planning, crew selection and training, and interagency and international cooperation.

  7. [Biological psychiatry (neuropsychiatry)--status and perspectives for for the 1990s].

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, R

    1993-01-01

    In recent years, research into biological aspects of psychiatric disorders has had high priority. Biological psychiatry, or neuropsychiatry, is characterised by (a) empiricist epistemology, (b) a diathesis-stress disease model, (c) neurobiological pathogenetic theories, (d) chemical or physical treatment as an essential though not necessarily sufficient measure, and (e) a patient-oriented ethical approach. A short review of some major topics is given, including standardised assessment, clinical and molecular genetics, neurotransmitter theories, neuro-imaging techniques, panic disorder, classic and novel psychopharmacological compounds, and alcohol and drug dependence. Avenues of future research endeavours are delineated, and it is concluded that in the future neuropsychiatry should play a major part in psychiatry, though closely integrated with psychological and social theory. PMID:8098866

  8. Challenging the Future - Journey to Excellence. Aeropropulsion strategic plan for the 1990's

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Over the past several months, the Lewis Aeropropulsion Management Council (AMC) has conducted a critical assessment of its strategic plan. This assessment clearly indicated a need for change, both in the aeropropulsion program emphasis and in the approach to carrying out that program. Customers sent a strong message that the program must improve the timeliness of research and technology products and services and must work more closely with them to develop and transfer new technology. The strategic plan defines AMC's vision for the future and underlying organizational values. It contains a set of broad strategies and actions that point the way toward achieving the goals of customer satisfaction, organizational effectiveness, and programmatic excellence. Those strategies are expected to form the basis for the development of specific tactical plans by Lewis aeropropulsion thrust teams, divisions, and branches. To guide tactical planning of the aeropropulsion program, this strategic plan outlines the agency's strategic directions and long-range aeronautics goals, the aeropropulsion goals and key objectives for achieving them, projections of Lewis aeropropulsion budgets, planned allocations of resources, and the processes that will be used to measure success in carrying out the strategic plan.

  9. Challenging the Future - Journey to Excellence. Aeropropulsion strategic plan for the 1990's

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Over the past several months, the Lewis Aeropropulsion Management Council (AMC) has conducted a critical assessment of its strategic plan. This assessment clearly indicated a need for change, both in the aeropropulsion program emphasis and in the approach to carrying out that program. Customers sent a strong message that the program must improve the timeliness of research and technology products and services and must work more closely with them to develop and transfer new technology. The strategic plan defines AMC's vision for the future and underlying organizational values. It contains a set of broad strategies and actions that point the way toward achieving the goals of customer satisfaction, organizational effectiveness, and programmatic excellence. Those strategies are expected to form the basis for the development of specific tactical plans by Lewis aeropropulsion thrust teams, divisions, and branches. To guide tactical planning of the aeropropulsion program, this strategic plan outlines the agency's strategic directions and long-range aeronautics goals, the aeropropulsion goals and key objectives for achieving them, projections of Lewis aeropropulsion budgets, planned allocations of resources, and the processes that will be used to measure success in carrying out the strategic plan.

  10. Modelling the Absorption Measurement Distribution (AMD) for Mrk 509

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adhikari, T.; Rozanska, A.; Sobolewska, M.; Czerny, B.

    2015-07-01

    Absorption Measurement Distribution (AMD) measures the distribution of absorbing column over a range of ionization parameters of the X-ray absorbers in Seyfert galaxies. In this work, we modeled the AMD in Mrk 509 using its recently published broad band Spectral Energy Distribution (SED). This SED is used as an input for radiative transfer computations with full photoionization treatment using the photoionization codes Titan and Cloudy. Assuming a photoionized medium with a uniform total pressure (gas+radiation), we reproduced the discontunity in the observed AMD distribution which is usually described as the region of thermal instability of the absorber. We also studied the structure and properties of the warm absorber in Mrk 509.

  11. Photochemistry in Power Plant and Urban Plumes over Forested and Agricultural Regions during SOS (1990s) and SENEX (2013) field intensives (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trainer, M.; Frost, G. J.; Kim, S.; Ryerson, T. B.; Pollack, I. B.; Roberts, J. M.; Veres, P. R.; Flocke, F. M.; Neuman, J. A.; Nowak, J. B.; Nenes, A.; Warneke, C.; Graus, M.; Gilman, J.; Lerner, B. M.; Kuster, W.; Atlas, E. L.; Hanisco, T. F.; Wolfe, G. M.; Keutsch, F. N.; Kaiser, J.; Lee, Y.; Brock, C. A.; Middlebrook, A. M.; Liao, J.; Welti, A.; Parrish, D. D.; Fehsenfeld, F. C.; De Gouw, J. A.

    2013-12-01

    Extensive forested regions of the southeastern United States show high emissions of biogenic reactive hydrocarbons such as isoprene, while emissions of these compounds are typically much lower from agricultural areas. The Southern Oxidant Study (SOS) field intensives during the 1990s contributed to an improved understanding of ozone (O3) formation resulting from nitrogen oxides (NOx) emitted from urban areas and power plants in the presence and absence of the biogenic hydrocarbons. Decreases in NOx emissions from power plants and urban areas have contributed to the widespread reduction of ambient O3 over the southeastern US during the past two decades. Measurements of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs), NOx, and their reaction products made at successive distances downwind of emission sources during the SOS (1999) and the Southeast Nexus (SENEX, 2013) campaigns reflect the modulation of the photochemical processing of biogenic VOCs by ambient NOx concentrations. The results constrain the ambient levels of HOx radicals as a function of NOx, and they reflect the mechanisms of the coupling between anthropogenic and biogenic emissions that form species such as ozone, formaldehyde, PeroxyAcetic Nitric anhydride (PAN), nitric acid, as well as, inorganic and organic aerosols.

  12. Measured quantum probability distribution functions for Brownian motion

    SciTech Connect

    Ford, G. W.; O'Connell, R. F.

    2007-10-15

    The quantum analog of the joint probability distributions describing a classical stochastic process is introduced. A prescription is given for constructing the quantum distribution associated with a sequence of measurements. For the case of quantum Brownian motion this prescription is illustrated with a number of explicit examples. In particular, it is shown how the prescription can be extended in the form of a general formula for the Wigner function of a Brownian particle entangled with a heat bath.

  13. Radiation distribution measurement for forest plant canopies tracing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Xuefen; Cui, Jian; Yang, Yi; Liu, Hui

    2012-11-01

    Plant canopies structures are important biophysical parameters required in many ecological and climate models. To obtain precise canopies characteristic, the radiation distribution in forest gap should be tracing. In this paper, a radiation transmission measuring method with gyroscope correction for forest gap radiation distribution measurement is present. And a Zigbee wireless network is imbedded for communicating between portable full-trace radiation detector and host computer. Using the solar beam as a probe, the measuring nodes collect radiation distribution in forest gap. Because the constant pace of operator in forest and other outdoor occasion is hard to validate, radiation distribution curves suffer some error. We present a Forest radiation distribution meter with Gyro correction for TRAC measuring. In this meter, A Gyroscope records transect route data and provide speed correction for canopy gaps curve in tracing route. A Microchip PIC16F877 MCU is employed for radiation data collection. The collected data is sent to central station by Zigbee wireless network or CF376 in-line USB flash drives/SD card. Solar radiation spike data and other environment parameters (Temperature and Humidity) are sampled simultaneously. So the gap removal processes suffer less error. A portable node provides full-trace radiation distribution. Host computer can get potential relationship in tracing-line LAI and FPAR and compute them in long-term. A portable full-trace radiation detector and host computer is tested. The experimental results show our design could be a competitive candidate for radiation distribution measurement for forest plant canopies tracing.

  14. Prospects For Measurements Of Generalized Parton Distributions At COMPASS

    SciTech Connect

    Neyret, Damien

    2007-06-13

    The concept of Generalized Parton Distributions extends classical parton distributions by giving a '3-dimensional' view of the nucleons, allowing to study correlations between the parton longitudinal momentum and its transverse position in the nucleon. Measurements of such generalized distributions can be done with the COMPASS experiment, in particular using Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering events. They require to modify the set-up of COMPASS by introducing a recoil proton detector, an additional electromagnetic calorimeter and a new liquid hydrogen target. These upgrades are presently under study, and the first data taking could take place in 2010.

  15. An Industrial Gauge for Measuring The Phase Distribution of Galvanneal

    SciTech Connect

    Christopher BUrnett; Roland Gouel; James R. Phillips

    1996-01-19

    Augmentation of the internal software of a commercial x-ray fluorescence gauge is shown to enable the instrument to extend its continuous on-line real-time measurements of a galvanneal coating's total elemental content to encompass similar measurements of the relative thickness of the coating's three principal metallurgical phases. The mathematical structure of this software augmentation is derived from the theory of neural networks. The empirical basis for the numerics embedded in the software's decision logic is presented. The performance of the augmented gauge is validated by comparing the gauge-implied real-time phase distribution with the phase distribution independently measured off-line on time-tagged samples drawn from the galvanneal production line where the measurement gauge had been installed. The performance validation is shown to demonstrate good agreement between the gauge and laboratory measurements and to suggest preferred approaches to be followed in future applications of the augmented gauge.

  16. Measurement of Species Distributions in Operating Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Partridge Jr, William P; Toops, Todd J; Parks, II, James E; Armstrong, Timothy R.

    2004-10-01

    Measurement and understanding of transient species distributions across and within fuel cells is a critical need for advancing fuel cell technology. The Spatially Resolved Capillary Inlet Mass Spectrometer (SpaciMS) instrument has been applied for in-situ measurement of transient species distributions within operating reactors; including diesel catalyst, air-exhaust mixing systems, and non-thermal plasma reactors. The work described here demonstrates the applicability of this tool to proton exchange membrane (PEM) and solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) research. Specifically, we have demonstrated SpaciMS measurements of (1) transient species dynamics across a PEM fuel cell (FC) associated with load switching, (2) intra-PEM species distributions, and transient species dynamics at SOFC temperatures associated with FC load switching.

  17. Airborne Particle Size Distribution Measurements at USDOE Fernald

    SciTech Connect

    Harley, N.H.; Chittaporn, P.; Heikkinen, M.; Medora, R.; Merrill, R.

    2003-03-27

    There are no long term measurements of the particle size distribution and concentration of airborne radionuclides at any USDOE facility except Fernald. Yet the determinant of lung dose is the particle size, determining the airway and lower lung deposition. Beginning in 2000, continuous (6 to 8 weeks) measurements of the aerosol particle size distribution have been made with a miniature sampler developed under EMSP. Radon gas decays to a chain of four short lived solid radionuclides that attach immediately to the resident atmospheric aerosol. These in turn decay to long lived polonium 210. Alpha emitting polonium is a tracer for any atmospheric aerosol. Six samplers at Fernald and four at QC sites in New Jersey show a difference in both polonium concentration and size distribution with the winter measurements being higher/larger than summer by almost a factor of two at all locations. EMSP USDOE Contract DE FG07 97ER62522.

  18. Measurements and Predictions for a Distributed Exhaust Nozzle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kinzie, Kevin W.; Brown, Martha C.; Schein, David B.; Solomon, W. David, Jr.

    2001-01-01

    The acoustic and aerodynamic performance characteristics of a distributed exhaust nozzle (DEN) design concept were evaluated experimentally and analytically with the purpose of developing a design methodology for developing future DEN technology. Aerodynamic and acoustic measurements were made to evaluate the DEN performance and the CFD design tool. While the CFD approach did provide an excellent prediction of the flowfield and aerodynamic performance characteristics of the DEN and 2D reference nozzle, the measured acoustic suppression potential of this particular DEN was low. The measurements and predictions indicated that the mini-exhaust jets comprising the distributed exhaust coalesced back into a single stream jet very shortly after leaving the nozzles. Even so, the database provided here will be useful for future distributed exhaust designs with greater noise reduction and aerodynamic performance potential.

  19. Variations and climatology of CI0 in the polar lower stratosphere from UARS Microwave Limb Sounder measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santee, M. L.; Manney, G. L.; Water, J. W.; Livesey, N. J.

    2002-01-01

    The Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) on board the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) measured the global distribution of stratospheric ClO over annual cycles for much of the 1990s, albeit with reduced sampling frequency in the latter half of the decade. Here we present an overview of the interannual and interhemispheric variations in the distribution of ClO derived from UARS MLS measurements, with a particular emphasis on enhancements in the winter polar lower stratosphere.

  20. Tissue temperature distribution measurement and laser immunotherapy for cancer treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yichao; Gyanwalib, Surya; Bjorlie, Jeremy; Andrienko, Kirill; Liu, Hong; Tesiram, Yasvir A.; Abbott, Andrew; Towner, Rheal A.; Chen, Wei R.

    2006-02-01

    Temperature distribution in tissue can be a crucial factor in laser treatment for inducing immunization responses. In this study, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) was used to measure thermal temperature distribution in target tissue in laser treatment of metastatic tumors. It is the only feasible method for in vivo, non-invasive temperature distribution measurement. The measurement was conducted using phantom gel and tumor-bearing rats. The thermal couple measurement of target temperature was also was used to calibrate the relative temperature increase. The phantom system was constructed with a dye-enhanced spherical gel embedded in uniform gel phantom, simulating a tumor within normal tissue. Irradiation by an 805-nm laser increased the system temperature. Using an MRI system and proper algorithm processing for small animal studies, a clear temperature distribution matrix was obtained. The temperature profiles of rat tumors, irradiated by the laser with a power in the range of 2-3.5W and injected with a light-absorbing dye, ICG, and an immunoadjuvant, GC, were obtained. The temperature distribution provided in vivo thermal information and future reference for optimizing dye concentration and irradiation parameters to reach the optimum tumor destruction and immunization effects.

  1. A Dramatic Regime Shift in Rainfall Predictability Related to the Ningaloo Niño/Niña in the Late 1990s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doi, T.; Behera, S. K.; Yamagata, T.

    2014-12-01

    The global warming and the Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation (IPO) started influencing the coastal ocean off Western Australia, leading to a dramatic change in the regional climate predictability. The warmed ocean started driving rainfall regionally there after the late 1990s. Because of this, rainfall predictability off Western Australia on a seasonal time scale was drastically enhanced in the late 1990s; it is significantly predictable 5 months ahead after the late 1990s. The high prediction skill of the rainfall in recent decades encourages development of an early warning system of Ningaloo Niño/Niña events to mitigate possible societal as well as agricultural impacts in the granary.

  2. Determination and optimization of spatial samples for distributed measurements.

    SciTech Connect

    Huo, Xiaoming; Tran, Hy D.; Shilling, Katherine Meghan; Kim, Heeyong

    2010-10-01

    There are no accepted standards for determining how many measurements to take during part inspection or where to take them, or for assessing confidence in the evaluation of acceptance based on these measurements. The goal of this work was to develop a standard method for determining the number of measurements, together with the spatial distribution of measurements and the associated risks for false acceptance and false rejection. Two paths have been taken to create a standard method for selecting sampling points. A wavelet-based model has been developed to select measurement points and to determine confidence in the measurement after the points are taken. An adaptive sampling strategy has been studied to determine implementation feasibility on commercial measurement equipment. Results using both real and simulated data are presented for each of the paths.

  3. Measurement of aggregates' size distribution by angular light scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caumont-Prim, Chloé; Yon, Jérôme; Coppalle, Alexis; Ouf, François-Xavier; Fang Ren, Kuan

    2013-09-01

    A novel method is introduced for in situ determination of the size distribution of submicronic fractal aggregate particles by unique measurement of angular scattering of light. This method relies on the dependence of a new defined function Rg⋆ on the polydispersity of the aggregates' size distribution. The function Rg⋆ is then interpreted by the use of iso-level charts to determine the parameters of the log-normal soot size distribution. The main advantage of this method is its independence of the particle optical properties and primary sphere diameter. Moreover, except for the knowledge of fractal dimension, this method does not require any additional measurement. It is validated on monodisperse particles selected by a differential mobility analyzer and polydisperse soot from ethylene diffusion flame whose size distribution is independently determined by Transmission Electron Microscopy. Finally, the size distribution of soot generated by a commercial apparatus is measured by the proposed method and the comparison to that given by a commercial granulometer shows a good agreement.

  4. Measurement of Melt Pressure Distribution on Injection Mold Cavity Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murata, Yasuhiko; Nukariya, Akihiro; Matsui, Hiroshi; Yoshinaga, Kazuhiro; Yokoi, Hidetoshi

    In order to clarify undesirable molding phenomena in injection molding, it is important to measure melt pressure distribution on the injection mold cavity in detail. In a previous paper, we reported a new method for measuring melt pressure distribution on the injection mold cavity surface using a mold with a pressure transmission pin array and tactile sensor. In this study, we attempted to measure the variation of melt pressure distribution when the injection rate and the holding pressure are changed. The results indicate phenomenon in which pressure remains near the gate in the cavity until the instant the mold is opened. This phenomenon is considered to be due to the extreme increase in melt density from the filling process through the pressure holding process and cooling process, which causes the melt to cool and solidify before it can shrink adequately. Furthermore, it was also found that there exists a close relation between the thickness distribution, residual pressure distribution and birefringence pattern of molded products.

  5. Thermal electron energy distribution measurements in the ionosphere.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hays, P. B.; Nagy, A. F.

    1973-01-01

    A recoverable payload instrumented for twilight airglow studies was launched by an Aerobee 150 from the White Sands Test Range on Feb. 8, 1971 at 13.56 UT. The payload included a low energy electron spectrometer (HARP) and a cylindrical Langmuir probe. The HARP electron spectrometer is a new device designed to make high resolution differential electron flux measurements. Measurements of ionospheric electron energy distribution in the range from about 0.2 to 4.0 eV are presented.

  6. Directional velocity analyzer for measuring electron distribution functions in plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stenzel, R. L.; Gekelman, W.; Wild, N.; Urrutia, J. M.; Whelan, D.

    1983-01-01

    A directional velocity analyzer has been developed for measuring electron distribution functions in plasmas. It contains a collimating aperture which selects particles from a narrow cone in velocity space and a retarding potential analyzer. The distribution function f(v, theta, phi) is obtained from a large number of analyzer traces taken at different angles theta, phi. In addition, the small analyzer can be moved in space and the measurements are time resolved so as to obtain the complete phase space information f(v,r,t). The large data flow of this seven-variable function is processed with a high-speed digital data-acquisition system. The new electron velocity analyzer is applicable over a wide parameter range in electron energies and densities. Various cases of anisotropic distributions such as beams, shells, tails, and drifts have been successfully investigated.

  7. Measurement of three-dimensional radiation dose distributions using MRI.

    PubMed

    Prasad, P V; Nalcioglu, O; Rabbani, B

    1991-10-01

    Recent investigations have shown that nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) can be used in conjunction with a suitable chemical dosimeter to estimate the dose from ionizing radiation (Gore et al., Phys Med. Biol. 29, 1189-1197, 1984). Based on this fact it was proposed that spatial dose distributions can be measured in gels infused with the chemical dosimeter using NMR imaging. There have been few such attempts and they provided only qualitative results. In this paper, we report results demonstrating the feasibility of obtaining quantitative dose distribution measurements by this technique. It is shown that quantitative dose distribution measurements necessitate the calculation of relaxation rate maps. We have determined that the spin-spin relaxation rate is a more sensitive parameter than the spin-lattice relaxation rate. It is also demonstrated that the addition of chemical sensitizers could improve the dose sensitivity of the measured NMR parameters. The two features characterizing a photon beam, depth-dose relationship, and beam profile as measured by this technique are in good agreement with the measurements using conventional methods, ionization chambers, and film dosimetry. PMID:1924718

  8. Non-Gaussian error distribution of 7Li abundance measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crandall, Sara; Houston, Stephen; Ratra, Bharat

    2015-07-01

    We construct the error distribution of 7Li abundance measurements for 66 observations (with error bars) used by Spite et al. (2012) that give A(Li) = 2.21 ± 0.065 (median and 1σ symmetrized error). This error distribution is somewhat non-Gaussian, with larger probability in the tails than is predicted by a Gaussian distribution. The 95.4% confidence limits are 3.0σ in terms of the quoted errors. We fit the data to four commonly used distributions: Gaussian, Cauchy, Student’s t and double exponential with the center of the distribution found with both weighted mean and median statistics. It is reasonably well described by a widened n = 8 Student’s t distribution. Assuming Gaussianity, the observed A(Li) is 6.5σ away from that expected from standard Big Bang Nucleosynthesis (BBN) given the Planck observations. Accounting for the non-Gaussianity of the observed A(Li) error distribution reduces the discrepancy to 4.9σ, which is still significant.

  9. Development of a distribution system for measuring nozzle integrative parameters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The experimental system used in this study was equipped with sensors and computer-controlled processing technology. This system was used in the measurement of major performance parameters such as pressure, flux, spray angle, spray distribution character of the nozzle and its integrative performance...

  10. Diaphony, a measure of uniform distribution, and the Patterson function.

    PubMed

    Hornfeck, Wolfgang; Kuhn, Philipp

    2015-07-01

    This paper reviews the number-theoretic concept of diaphony, a measure of uniform distribution for number sequences and point sets based on a Fourier theory approach, and its relation to crystallographic concepts like the largest interplanar spacing of a lattice, the structure-factor equation and the Patterson function. PMID:26131895

  11. Decadal trends of the upper ocean salinity in the tropical Indo-Pacific since mid-1990s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Yan; Zhang, Yuhong; Feng, Ming; Wang, Tianyu; Zhang, Ningning; Wijffels, Susan

    2015-11-01

    A contrasting trend pattern of sea surface salinity (SSS) between the western tropical Pacific (WTP) and the southeastern tropical Indian Ocean (SETIO) is observed during 2004-2013, with significant salinity increase in the WTP and freshening in the SETIO. In this study, we show that increased precipitation around the Maritime Continent (MC), decreased precipitation in the western-central tropical Pacific, and ocean advection processes contribute to the salinity trends in the region. From a longer historical record, these salinity trends started in the mid-1990s, a few years before the Global Warming Hiatus from 1998 to present. The salinity trends are associated a strengthening trend of the Walker Circulation over the tropical Indo-Pacific, which have reversed the long-term salinity changes in the tropical Indo-Pacific as a consequence of global warming. Understanding decadal variations of SSS in the tropical Indo-Pacific will better inform on how the tropical hydrological cycle will be affected by the natural variability and a warming climate.

  12. Partners in Freedom: Contributions of the Langley Research Center to U.S. Military Aircraft of the 1990's

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chambers, Joseph R.

    2000-01-01

    Established in 1917 as the nation#s first civil aeronautics research laboratory under the National Advisory Commit-tee for Aeronautics (NACA), Langley was a small laboratory that solved the problems of flight for military and civil aviation. Throughout history, Langley has maintained a working partnership with the Department of Defense, U.S. industry, universities, and other government agencies to support the defense of the nation with research. During World War II, Langley directed virtually all of its workforce and facilities to research for military aircraft. Following the war, a balanced program of military and civil projects was undertaken. In some instances Langley research from one aircraft program helped solve a problem in another. At the conclusion of some programs, Langley obtained the research models for additional tests to learn more about previously unknown phenomena. The data also proved useful in later developmental programs. Many of the military aircraft in the U.S. inventory as of late 1999 were over 20 years old. Langley activities that contributed to the development of some of these aircraft began over 50 years prior. This publication documents the role, from early concept stages to problem solving for fleet aircraft, that Langley played in the military aircraft fleet of the United States for the 1990's.

  13. Impact of local sea surface temperature on changes of summer precipitation components over Northeast Asia in mid-1990s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Eun-Chul; Yeh, Sang-Wook; Yoshimura, Kei

    2014-05-01

    In this study, the new global atmospheric analysis dataset (DA126) which is produced by the global and regional integrated model system (GRIMs) global model program (GMP) is used to identify changes of the summer precipitation components in mid-1990s over Northeast Asia. The convective rain ratio (CRR) is used as the index to find changes of the precipitation component, which is the proportion of convective precipitation to the total precipitation. The CRR shows increasing trend over Northeast Asia where includes the Korea-Japan region for recent 30-years, whereas precipitation anomaly does not have a distinct trend over this region. The increased CRR shows a significant relationship with the increased local sea surface temperature (SST) variability. To investigate effects of the local SST on the summer precipitation components over Northeast Asia, two experiments are performed by utilizing the GRIMs regional model program (RMP). The CNTL experiment is forced by the observed SST whereas the CLIM run is forced by the climatological SST. Lateral boundary condition for two regional model experiments is provided by the GRIMs GMP run forced by the historical SSTs over tropical region to exclude mid-latitude SST effect. The SST warming increases the convective precipitation through the increased convective available potential energy and does not have large effects on the large-scale rainfall component. Consequently, the total amount of the precipitation and the CRR are increased by the local SST warming over Northeast Asia.

  14. Decadal trends of the upper ocean salinity in the tropical Indo-Pacific since mid-1990s

    PubMed Central

    Du, Yan; Zhang, Yuhong; Feng, Ming; Wang, Tianyu; Zhang, Ningning; Wijffels, Susan

    2015-01-01

    A contrasting trend pattern of sea surface salinity (SSS) between the western tropical Pacific (WTP) and the southeastern tropical Indian Ocean (SETIO) is observed during 2004–2013, with significant salinity increase in the WTP and freshening in the SETIO. In this study, we show that increased precipitation around the Maritime Continent (MC), decreased precipitation in the western-central tropical Pacific, and ocean advection processes contribute to the salinity trends in the region. From a longer historical record, these salinity trends started in the mid-1990s, a few years before the Global Warming Hiatus from 1998 to present. The salinity trends are associated a strengthening trend of the Walker Circulation over the tropical Indo-Pacific, which have reversed the long-term salinity changes in the tropical Indo-Pacific as a consequence of global warming. Understanding decadal variations of SSS in the tropical Indo-Pacific will better inform on how the tropical hydrological cycle will be affected by the natural variability and a warming climate. PMID:26522168

  15. Tropical forests were the primary sources of new agricultural land in the 1980s and 1990s

    PubMed Central

    Gibbs, H. K.; Ruesch, A. S.; Achard, F.; Clayton, M. K.; Holmgren, P.; Ramankutty, N.; Foley, J. A.

    2010-01-01

    Global demand for agricultural products such as food, feed, and fuel is now a major driver of cropland and pasture expansion across much of the developing world. Whether these new agricultural lands replace forests, degraded forests, or grasslands greatly influences the environmental consequences of expansion. Although the general pattern is known, there still is no definitive quantification of these land-cover changes. Here we analyze the rich, pan-tropical database of classified Landsat scenes created by the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations to examine pathways of agricultural expansion across the major tropical forest regions in the 1980s and 1990s and use this information to highlight the future land conversions that probably will be needed to meet mounting demand for agricultural products. Across the tropics, we find that between 1980 and 2000 more than 55% of new agricultural land came at the expense of intact forests, and another 28% came from disturbed forests. This study underscores the potential consequences of unabated agricultural expansion for forest conservation and carbon emissions. PMID:20807750

  16. Decadal trends of the upper ocean salinity in the tropical Indo-Pacific since mid-1990s.

    PubMed

    Du, Yan; Zhang, Yuhong; Feng, Ming; Wang, Tianyu; Zhang, Ningning; Wijffels, Susan

    2015-01-01

    A contrasting trend pattern of sea surface salinity (SSS) between the western tropical Pacific (WTP) and the southeastern tropical Indian Ocean (SETIO) is observed during 2004-2013, with significant salinity increase in the WTP and freshening in the SETIO. In this study, we show that increased precipitation around the Maritime Continent (MC), decreased precipitation in the western-central tropical Pacific, and ocean advection processes contribute to the salinity trends in the region. From a longer historical record, these salinity trends started in the mid-1990s, a few years before the Global Warming Hiatus from 1998 to present. The salinity trends are associated a strengthening trend of the Walker Circulation over the tropical Indo-Pacific, which have reversed the long-term salinity changes in the tropical Indo-Pacific as a consequence of global warming. Understanding decadal variations of SSS in the tropical Indo-Pacific will better inform on how the tropical hydrological cycle will be affected by the natural variability and a warming climate. PMID:26522168

  17. Measuring an antibody affinity distribution molecule by molecule

    SciTech Connect

    Bradbury, Andrew M; Werner, James H; Temirov, Jamshid

    2008-01-01

    Single molecule fluorescence mIcroscopy was used to observe the binding and unbinding of hapten decorated quantum dots with individual surface immobilized antibodies. The fluorescence time history from an individual antibody site can be used to calculate its binding affinity. While quantum dot blinking occurs during these measurements, we describe a simple empirical method to correct the apparent/observed affinity to account for the blinking contribution. The combination of many single molecule affinity measurements from different antibodies yields not only the average affinity, it directly measures the full shape and character of the surface affinity distribution function.

  18. DROPLET SIZE DISTRIBUTION MEASUREMENTS OF ISO NOZZLES BY SHADOWGRAPHY METHOD.

    PubMed

    De Cock, N; Massinon, M; Salah, S Ouled Taleb; Mercatoris, B C; Lebeau, F

    2015-01-01

    The droplet size distribution of agricultural sprays is a key parameter during the plant protection product applications. Therefore, measurement of the drop size distribution is an important concern for spray users as well as nozzle manufacturers. The present work assessed the capability of a shadowgraphy technique to distinguish correctly the 6 spray class boundaries defined in the ISO draft standard (ISO 25358). The measurement set-up is composed by a high speed camera synchronized with a LED backlighting. The tested spray is positioned between the camera and the light. The droplets appear on the images as shadows on a brighter background. For each acquisition, two frames are recorded within a small time laps (38 μI. The droplet diameter and velocity are retrieved by using advanced image analysis algorithm on each pair of frames. Then, the drop size distribution is obtained by gathering the data retrieved from all the images. The global results showed that the 6 drop size distributions were correctly separated highlighting the ability of the method to measure small as well as large droplets using the same set-up configuration. The spatial analysis showed that the spray scanning should be extended in the minor axis direction in order to catch the whole spray. PMID:27141727

  19. New method for analysing sensitivity distributions of electroencephalography measurements.

    PubMed

    Väisänen, Juho; Väisänen, Outi; Malmivuo, Jaakko; Hyttinen, Jari

    2008-02-01

    In this paper, we introduce a new modelling related parameter called region of interest sensitivity ratio (ROISR), which describes how well the sensitivity of an electroencephalography (EEG) measurement is concentrated within the region of interest (ROI), i.e. how specific the measurement is to the sources in ROI. We demonstrate the use of the concept by analysing the sensitivity distributions of bipolar EEG measurement. We studied the effects of interelectrode distance of a bipolar EEG lead on the ROISR with cortical and non-cortical ROIs. The sensitivity distributions of EEG leads were calculated analytically by applying a three-layer spherical head model. We suggest that the developed parameter has correlation to the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of a measurement, and thus we studied the correlation between ROISR and SNR with 254-channel visual evoked potential (VEP) measurements of two testees. Theoretical simulations indicate that source orientation and location have major impact on the specificity and therefore they should be taken into account when the optimal bipolar electrode configuration is selected. The results also imply that the new ROISR method bears a strong correlation to the SNR of measurement and can thus be applied in the future studies to efficiently evaluate and optimize EEG measurement setups. PMID:18189153

  20. Global temperature distributions from OGO-6 6300 A airglow measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blamont, J. E.; Luton, J. M.; Nisbet, J. S.

    1974-01-01

    The OGO-6 6300 A airglow temperature measurements have been used to develop models of the global temperature distributions under solstice and equinox conditions for the altitude region from 240 to 300 km and for times ranging from dawn in this altitude region to shortly after sunset. The distributions are compared with models derived from satellite orbital decay and incoherent scatter sounding. The seasonal variation of the temperature as a function of latitude is shown to be very different from that derived from static diffusion models with constant boundary conditions.

  1. Distributed birefringence, strain and temperature measurement by homodyne BOTDR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Yuangang; Bao, Xiaoyi; Chen, Liang

    A novel distributed fiber birefringence, strain and temperature measurement based on homodyne Brillouin optical time domain reflectometry (BOTDR) is proposed. Birefringence measurement is based on the beat period detection of Brillouin beat of the same acoustic mode. Strain and temperature are obtained by measuring the power changes of Brillouin beat spectrum (BBS), which corresponds to the optical interaction of different acoustic modes in a complex profile fiber. The birefringence of a 4.3 km large-effective-area fiber (LEAF) was measured with 0.6-m spatial resolution, and strain and temperature at the end of a 4.5 km LEAF were measured at 1.5-m resolution in 140s.

  2. Temperature measurement inside metallic cables using distributed temperature system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaros, Jakub; Papes, Martin; Liner, Andrej; Vasinek, Vladimir; Mach, Veleslav; Hruby, David; Kajnar, Tomas; Perecar, Frantisek

    2015-07-01

    Nowadays, metallic cables are produced so as to avoid the maximum allowable temperature of the cable by the normal operation and the maximum allowable temperature for short-circuit the exceeding the maximum allowable internal temperature. The temperature increase is an unwanted phenomena causing losses in the cable and its abrasion. Longterm overload can lead to damaging of the cable or to the risk of fire in extreme cases. In our work, we present the temperature distribution measurement inside the metallic cables using distributed temperature system. Within the cooperation with manufacturer of the metallic cables, optical fibers were implemented into these cables. The cables are double coated and the fibers are allocated between these coatings and also in the centre of the cable. Thus we are able to measure the temperature inside the cable and also on the surface temperature along the whole cable length with spatial resolution 1 m during the cable heating. This measurement method can be also used for short-circuit prediction and detection, because this phenomena is always accompanied with temperature increase. Distributed temperature systems are already successfully implemented in temperature measurements in industry environment, such as construction, sewer systems, caliducts etc. The main advantage of these systems is electromagnetic resistance, low application price and the possibility of monitoring several kilometers long distances.

  3. Measurement of Tc distribution in Nb3Sn CICC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calzolaio, Ciro; Bruzzone, Pierluigi; Uglietti, Davide

    2012-05-01

    Knowledge of the actual Nb3Sn filaments’ thermal strain, ɛth, in a cable-in-conduit conductor (CICC) is essential to predict the CICC performance in operation starting from the strand scaling laws for the critical current density Jc(B,T,ɛ). To obtain a measurement of ɛth under relevant conditions, i.e. at low temperature and with the mechanical constraints of a long length section of CICC, the critical temperature as a function of the applied field, Tc(B), is measured by an inductive method for the CICC in situ and for the freestanding filaments used for the cable manufacture. To deduce the thermal strain in the CICC, the Tc(B) results are compared with the Tc(B,ɛ) curve. Starting from the susceptibility curves measured for both the CICC and the filaments, it is possible to compute the Tc distribution in the CICC using a deconvolution algorithm. The first results of Tc measured on two CICCs in the SULTAN test facility suggest a broad distribution of thermal strain, peaked at negative strain, which remains almost constant during the cyclic loading. From the knowledge of both the thermal strain distribution and the actual CICC performances, it will be possible to discriminate between reversible and irreversible degradation in Nb3Sn CICC.

  4. Comparison of Measured Leakage Current Distributions with Calculated Damage Energy Distributions in HgCdTe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, C. J.; Ladbury, R.; Marshall, P. W.; Reed, R. A.; Howe, C.; Weller, B.; Mendenhall, M.; Waczynski, A.; Jordan, T. M.; Fodness, B.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a combined Monte Carlo and analytic approach to the calculation of the pixel-to-pixel distribution of proton-induced damage in a HgCdTe sensor array and compares the results to measured dark current distributions after damage by 63 MeV protons. The moments of the Coulombic, nuclear elastic and nuclear inelastic damage distribution were extracted from Monte Carlo simulations and combined to form a damage distribution using the analytic techniques first described in [I]. The calculations show that the high energy recoils from the nuclear inelastic reactions (calculated using the Monte Car10 code MCNPX [2]) produce a pronounced skewing of the damage energy distribution. The nuclear elastic component (also calculated using the MCNPX) has a negligible effect on the shape of the damage distribution. The Coulombic contribution was calculated using MRED [3,4], a Geant4 [4,5] application. The comparison with the dark current distribution strongly suggests that mechanisms which are not linearly correlated with nonionizing damage produced according to collision kinematics are responsible for the observed dark current increases. This has important implications for the process of predicting the on-orbit dark current response of the HgCdTe sensor array.

  5. Collective Bargaining in Higher Education: The 1990's. Proceedings of the Annual Conference (18th, New York, New York, April 23-24, 1990).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglas, Joel M., Ed.

    This report of proceedings provides transcripts of 14 speeches concerning collective bargaining in higher education. Conference themes were: unionized employment relations; and the economic, political, and legal issues of the 1990s that are viewed as being influential in the collective bargaining process. The speeches are as follows: "Union…

  6. Influence of climate regime shift on the interdecadal change in tropical cyclone activity over the Pacific Basin during the middle to late 1990s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Chi-Cherng; Wu, Yi-Kai; Li, Tim

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a new interpretation is proposed for the abrupt decrease in tropical cyclone (TC) activity in the western North Pacific (WNP) after the late 1990s. We hypothesize that this abrupt change constitutes a part of the phenomenon of interdecadal change in TC activity in the Pacific Basin, including the WNP, western South Pacific (WSP), and eastern North Pacific. Our analysis revealed that the climate-regime shift (CRS) in the Pacific during the middle to late 1990s resulted in a La Niña-like mean state, which was responsible for the interdecadal change in TC activity in the late 1990s. Analyses of the TC genesis potential index and numerical experiments revealed that the decline in TC activity in both the WNP and WSP was primarily attributable to the increase of vertical wind shear in the central Pacific due to the La Niña-like associated cold sea surface temperature (SST). Conversely, the La Niña-like associated warm SST in the western Pacific produced anomalous vertical transport of water vapor, increasing moisture levels in the mid-troposphere and TC activity in the western WNP. Furthermore, the CRS modified the mean TC genesis position and shifted the steering flow to the west, resulting in the increased frequency of TC landfalls in Taiwan, southeastern China, and northern Australia after the late 1990s.

  7. Educating for Location? The Policy Context of "Becoming Asia-Literate" in Five Western Countries/Regions in the 1990s

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pang, David

    2005-01-01

    This article examines the educational policy responses by five western countries/regions to the "Asian economic miracle" in the 1990s. It begins by stating that the idea of the global economic context has assumed considerable importance in the current educational thinking and debates. It then shows that Asia has been thematized in the west as a…

  8. The Top Ten Judicial Decisions Affecting Labor Relations in Public Education during the Decade of the 1990's: The Verdict of Quiescent Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruben, Alan Miles

    2001-01-01

    The author discusses what he considers to be the 10 leading cases on education labor relations decided in state and federal courts during the 1990s. Concludes with a prediction that efforts to implement merit-pay schemes tied to student performance will lead to employment conflict. (PKP)

  9. Comparing the Understanding of the Nature of Science by Preservice Secondary Science Teachers in the Mid-1960s and the Early 1990s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boone, William J.; Andersen, Hans O.

    1996-01-01

    Presents a study comparing the understanding of the nature of science by preservice secondary science teachers in the mid-1960s and the early 1990s. Uses the Nature of Science Scale (NOSS) to determine teachers' understanding. Concludes with an evaluation of most items for which the responses changed dramatically in those 25 years. Contains 19…

  10. Years of Challenge: The Impact of Demographic and Work Force Trends on Higher Education in the 1990s. A NACUBO Monograph.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, K. Scott; And Others

    This report describes national demographic and work force trends that have important implications for institutions and presents recommended management strategies for the 1990s. Among the trends predicted for the next 10 years are the following: (1) a continuing reduction in the traditional 18-24 year-old college-going population; (2) the…

  11. Higher Education Reform in the 1990s. Minutes of the Meeting of the Association of Research Libraries (116th, New Orleans, Louisiana, May 9-11, 1990).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bixby, Pamela, Ed.

    This membership meeting focused on higher education reform in the 1990s and the mission of educational institutions in the face of changes in educational philosophy, cultural and demographic changes, and shifts in public policy. It is argued that the ongoing academic revolution will define higher education in the next decade, and that research…

  12. Children and Development in the 1990s: A UNICEF Sourcebook on the Occasion of the World Summit for Children (New York, New York, September 20-30, 1990).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Children's Fund, New York, NY.

    This eight-part sourcebook provides background information, data, and references relating to child welfare issues throughout the world. The book is organized around a set of goals for children in the 1990s. An introductory section provides an overview of these goals and strategies for achieving them, and discusses infant and child mortality,…

  13. A Descriptive Analysis of Race/Ethnicity and Sex of Individuals Appearing on the Covers of "Sports Illustrated" in the 1990s

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lumpkin, Angela

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether the number of individuals pictured on the covers of Sports Illustrated during the 1990s was reflective of their levels of participation by sport, race/ethnicity, and sex. These descriptors of the individuals pictured on each cover between 1990 and 1999 were identified and analyzed. African Americans…

  14. The Effect of Local Labor Market Conditions in the 1990s on the Likelihood of Community College Students' Persistence and Attainment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kienzl, Gregory S.; Alfonso, Mariana; Melguizo, Tatiana

    2007-01-01

    This study analyzes the influence of local labor market conditions on the year-to-year persistence and attainment decisions of a sample of traditional-aged students who attended community colleges during the 1990s. The findings suggest that the enrollment and attainment decisions of these first-time community college students were not made purely…

  15. Higher Education into the 1990s: New Dimensions. To Commemorate the Jubilee of the Society for Research into Higher Education, 1964-1989.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Christopher, Ed.; Eggins, Heather, Ed.

    This collection of essays aims to contribute to the understanding of the present predicament and future potential of higher education in the United Kingdom. It considers the new dimensions being introduced into higher education which are likely to have marked effects in the 1990s. It explores the tensions between the past and future, tradition and…

  16. Pathbreaking CBO Study Shows Dramatic Increases in Income Disparities in 1980s and 1990s: An Analysis of the CBO Data. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapiro, Isaac; Greenstein, Robert; Primus, Wendell

    A study by the Congressional Budget Office of income and tax trends since 1979 showed dramatic increases in income disparities, especially between the wealthiest one percent of Americans and the rest of society, in the 1980s and 1990s. The percentage of income Americans paid in federal taxes declined for every income group between 1979-97. The…

  17. An entropy based measure for comparing distributions of complexity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajaram, R.; Castellani, B.

    2016-07-01

    This paper is part of a series addressing the empirical/statistical distribution of the diversity of complexity within and amongst complex systems. Here, we consider the problem of measuring the diversity of complexity in a system, given its ordered range of complexity types i and their probability of occurrence pi, with the understanding that larger values of i mean a higher degree of complexity. To address this problem, we introduce a new complexity measure called case-based entropyCc - a modification of the Shannon-Wiener entropy measure H. The utility of this measure is that, unlike current complexity measures-which focus on the macroscopic complexity of a single system-Cc can be used to empirically identify and measure the distribution of the diversity of complexity within and across multiple natural and human-made systems, as well as the diversity contribution of complexity of any part of a system, relative to the total range of ordered complexity types.

  18. Intra-Fuel Cell Stack Measurements of Transient Concentration Distributions

    SciTech Connect

    Partridge Jr, William P; Toops, Todd J; Green Jr, Johney Boyd; Armstrong, Timothy R.

    2006-01-01

    Intra-fuel-cell measurements are required to understand detailed fuel-cell chemistry and physics, validate models, optimize system design and control, and realize enhanced efficiency regimes; in comparison, conventional integrated fuel-cell supply and effluent measurements are fundamentally limited in value. Intra-reactor measurements are needed for all fuel cell types. This paper demonstrates the ability of a capillary-inlet mass spectrometer to resolve transient species distributions within operating polymer-electrolyte-membrane (PEM) fuel cells and at temperatures typical of solid-oxide fuel cells (SOFC). This is the first such demonstration of a diagnostic that is sufficiently minimally invasive as to allow measurements throughout an operating fuel cell stack. Measurements of transient water, hydrogen, oxygen and diluent concentration dynamics associated with fuel-cell load switching suggest oxygen-limited chemistry. Intra-PEM fuel cell measurements of oxygen distribution at various fuel-cell loads are used to demonstrate concentration gradients, non-uniformities, and anomalous fuel cell operation.

  19. Development of TDR distributed sensors for land subsidence measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Chih-Chung; Lin, Chih-Ping

    2016-04-01

    The influences subjected by land subsidence and notably inundation are raising in Taiwan recently. To efficiently access the problems, historical trends and the instant field measurement data (at least by days), including multi-depth subsidence leveling and water leveling, are essential and urgent. However, current multi-depth subsidence leveling with magnetic rings conducted by manual operating, for example, lacks high temporal and spatial resolution data, which cannot evaluate the consistency between the subsidence leveling and the limited underground water levels in the same aquifer layer appropriately. To improve the field measurements, this study is carried out based on the core technology of Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR). In the preliminary idea, TDR distributed sensors, as magnetic rings for land subsidence measurements in a borehole, are developed with the underground water level sensors embedded. The prototypes of TDR distributed sensors indicates the feasibility of measuring, but the influence of signal dissipating due to the long transmission line (>100 m) need to be brought attention to, as well as the corresponding measurement accuracy. Therefore, a laboratorial physical modeling is suggested for further evaluation, and this modeling is constructed now. All the measurement data are expected to be employed and fed back as the calibrators and indicators to propose the defense strategy for land subsidence and inundation.

  20. Measuring the intrarenal distribution of glomerular volumes from histological sections.

    PubMed

    Hann, Bradley D; Baldelomar, Edwin J; Charlton, Jennifer R; Bennett, Kevin M

    2016-06-01

    Glomerular volume is an important metric reflecting glomerular filtration surface area within the kidney. Glomerular hypertrophy, or increased glomerular volume, may be an important marker for renal stress. Current stereological techniques report the average glomerular volume (AVglom) within the kidney. These techniques cannot assess the spatial or regional heterogeneity common in developing renal pathology. Here, we report a novel "unfolding" technique to measure the actual distribution of individual glomerular volumes in a kidney from the two-dimensional glomerulus profiles observed by optical microscopy. The unfolding technique was first developed and tested for accuracy with simulations and then applied to measure the number of glomeruli (Nglom), AVglom, and intrarenal distribution of individual glomerular volume (IVglom) in the oligosyndactyl (Os/(+)) mouse model compared with wild-type (WT) controls. The Os/(+) mice had fewer and larger glomeruli than WT mice: Nglom was 12,126 ± 1,658 (glomeruli/kidney) in the WT mice and 5,516 ± 899 in the Os/(+) mice; AVglom was 2.01 ± 0.28 × 10(-4) mm(3) for the WT mice and 3.47 ± 0.35 × 10(-4) mm(3) for the Os/(+) mice. Comparing the glomerular volume distributions in Os/(+) and WT kidneys, we observed that the Os/(+) distribution peaked at a higher value of IVglom than the WT distribution peak, and glomeruli with a radius greater than 55 μm were more prevalent in the Os/(+) mice (3.4 ± 1.6% of total glomeruli vs. 0.6 ± 1.2% in WT). Finally, the largest profiles were more commonly found in the juxtamedullary region. Unfolding is a novel stereological technique that provides a new quantitative view of glomerular volume distribution in the individual kidney. PMID:26984953

  1. Active region emission measure distributions and implications for nanoflare heating

    SciTech Connect

    Cargill, P. J.

    2014-03-20

    The temperature dependence of the emission measure (EM) in the core of active regions coronal loops is an important diagnostic of heating processes. Observations indicate that EM(T) ∼ T{sup a} below approximately 4 MK, with 2 < a < 5. Zero-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations of nanoflare trains are used to demonstrate the dependence of a on the time between individual nanoflares (T{sub N} ) and the distribution of nanoflare energies. If T{sub N} is greater than a few thousand seconds, a < 3. For smaller values, trains of equally spaced nanoflares cannot account for the observed range of a if the distribution of nanoflare energies is either constant, randomly distributed, or a power law. Power law distributions where there is a delay between consecutive nanoflares proportional to the energy of the second nanoflare do lead to the observed range of a. However, T{sub N} must then be of the order of hundreds to no more than a few thousand seconds. If a nanoflare leads to the relaxation of a stressed coronal field to a near-potential state, the time taken to build up the required magnetic energy is thus too long to account for the EM measurements. Instead, it is suggested that a nanoflare involves the relaxation from one stressed coronal state to another, dissipating only a small fraction of the available magnetic energy. A consequence is that nanoflare energies may be smaller than previously envisioned.

  2. A Novel Microsensor for Measuring Angular Distribution of Radiative Intensity.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Thomas E; Pilorz, Stuart; Prufert-Bebout, Leslie; Bebout, Brad

    2015-01-01

    This article presents the design, construction and characterization of a novel type of light probe for measuring the angular radiance distribution of light fields. The differential acceptance angle (DAA) probe can resolve the directionality of a light field in environments with steep light gradients, such as microbial mats, without the need to remove, reorient, and reinsert the probe, a clear advantage over prior techniques. The probe consists of an inner irradiance sensor inside a concentric, moveable light-absorbing sheath. The radiative intensity in a specific zenith direction can be calculated by comparing the irradiance onto the sensor at different acceptance angles. We used this probe to measure the angular radiance distribution of two sample light fields, and observed good agreement with a conventional radiance probe. The DAA probe will aid researchers in understanding light transfer physics in dense microbial communities and expedite validation of numerical radiative transfer models for these environments. PMID:25763775

  3. Fault Location Methods for Ungrounded Distribution Systems Using Local Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiu, Wanjing; Liao, Yuan

    2013-08-01

    This article presents novel fault location algorithms for ungrounded distribution systems. The proposed methods are capable of locating faults by using obtained voltage and current measurements at the local substation. Two types of fault location algorithms, using line to neutral and line to line measurements, are presented. The network structure and parameters are assumed to be known. The network structure needs to be updated based on information obtained from utility telemetry system. With the help of bus impedance matrix, local voltage changes due to the fault can be expressed as a function of fault currents. Since the bus impedance matrix contains information about fault location, superimposed voltages at local substation can be expressed as a function of fault location, through which fault location can be solved. Simulation studies have been carried out based on a sample distribution power system. From the evaluation study, it is evinced that very accurate fault location estimates are obtained from both types of methods.

  4. Remote measurement of microwave distribution based on optical detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Zhong; Ding, Wenzheng; Yang, Sihua; Chen, Qun; Xing, Da

    2016-01-01

    In this letter, we present the development of a remote microwave measurement system. This method employs an arc discharge lamp that serves as an energy converter from microwave to visible light, which can propagate without transmission medium. Observed with a charge coupled device, quantitative microwave power distribution can be achieved when the operators and electronic instruments are in a distance from the high power region in order to reduce the potential risk. We perform the experiments using pulsed microwaves, and the results show that the system response is dependent on the microwave intensity over a certain range. Most importantly, the microwave distribution can be monitored in real time by optical observation of the response of a one-dimensional lamp array. The characteristics of low cost, a wide detection bandwidth, remote measurement, and room temperature operation make the system a preferred detector for microwave applications.

  5. Measurements of Plasma Potential Distribution in Segmented Electrode Hall Thruster

    SciTech Connect

    Y. Raitses; D. Staack; N.J. Fisch

    2001-10-16

    Use of a segmented electrode placed at the Hall thruster exit can substantially reduce the voltage potential drop in the fringing magnetic field outside the thruster channel. In this paper, we investigate the dependence of this effect on thruster operating conditions and segmented electrode configuration. A fast movable emissive probe is used to measure plasma potential in a 1 kW laboratory Hall thruster with semented electrodes made of a graphite material. Relatively small probe-induced perturbations of the thruster discharge in the vicinity of the thruster exit allow a reasonable comparison of the measured results for different thruster configurations. It is shown that the plasma potential distribution is almost not sensitive to changes of the electrode potential, but depends on the magnetic field distribution and the electrode placement.

  6. Measures of dependence for multivariate Lévy distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boland, J.; Hurd, T. R.; Pivato, M.; Seco, L.

    2001-02-01

    Recent statistical analysis of a number of financial databases is summarized. Increasing agreement is found that logarithmic equity returns show a certain type of asymptotic behavior of the largest events, namely that the probability density functions have power law tails with an exponent α≈3.0. This behavior does not vary much over different stock exchanges or over time, despite large variations in trading environments. The present paper proposes a class of multivariate distributions which generalizes the observed qualities of univariate time series. A new consequence of the proposed class is the "spectral measure" which completely characterizes the multivariate dependences of the extreme tails of the distribution. This measure on the unit sphere in M-dimensions, in principle completely general, can be determined empirically by looking at extreme events. If it can be observed and determined, it will prove to be of importance for scenario generation in portfolio risk management.

  7. Paramagnetic metal ions in pulsed ESR distance distribution measurements.

    PubMed

    Ji, Ming; Ruthstein, Sharon; Saxena, Sunil

    2014-02-18

    The use of pulsed electron spin resonance (ESR) to measure interspin distance distributions has advanced biophysical research. The three major techniques that use pulsed ESR are relaxation rate based distance measurements, double quantum coherence (DQC), and double electron electron resonance (DEER). Among these methods, the DEER technique has become particularly popular largely because it is easy to implement on commercial instruments and because programs are available to analyze experimental data. Researchers have widely used DEER to measure the structure and conformational dynamics of molecules labeled with the methanethiosulfonate spin label (MTSSL). Recently, researchers have exploited endogenously bound paramagnetic metal ions as spin probes as a way to determine structural constraints in metalloproteins. In this context Cu(2+) has served as a useful paramagnetic metal probe at X-band for DEER based distance measurements. Sample preparation is simple, and a coordinated-Cu(2+) ion offers limited spatial flexibility, making it an attractive probe for DEER experiments. On the other hand, Cu(2+) has a broad absorption ESR spectrum at low temperature, which leads to two potential complications. First, the Cu(2+)-based DEER time domain data has lower signal to noise ratio compared with MTSSL. Second, accurate distance distribution analysis often requires high-quality experimental data at different external magnetic fields or with different frequency offsets. In this Account, we summarize characteristics of Cu(2+)-based DEER distance distribution measurements and data analysis methods. We highlight a novel application of such measurements in a protein-DNA complex to identify the metal ion binding site and to elucidate its chemical mechanism of function. We also survey the progress of research on other metal ions in high frequency DEER experiments. PMID:24289139

  8. Planck/LFI measures of Planets Spectral Energy Distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maris, Michele; Romelli, Erik; Gregorio, Anna; Zacchei, Andrea; Tomasi, Maurizio; Vassallo, Thomas; Sandri, Maura

    2015-08-01

    The spectral energy distribution at millimetric wavelengths of planets is an important benchmark to inter-calibrate different CMB experiments and a source of information on the atmospheric structure of planets. Planck/LFI observed Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune from three to eight times during its mission. In particular, as a calibrator Jupiter allows accurate comparison due to its high S/N ratio. Since planets are moving objects, the measure must account for their proper motion as well as a number of second order effects. Here we present the results of accurate measurements of brightness temperature Tb of planets, and we compare them with WMAP.

  9. System for measuring the spatial reflectance distribution of material surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berni, L. A.; Ribeiro, M. S.; Paes, T. F.; Beloto, A. F.

    2015-04-01

    An automatic device for measuring the reflectance distribution from material surfaces was assembled in the laboratory. The mechanical setup employs two aluminum rotating arms driven by stepper motors: one for the light source and the second for the collecting optics. The two arms can rotate in the zenith direction from -90 to +90 degrees and the light collecting arm in the azimuth angle over 360 degrees, both with adjustable angular resolution. Measurements from black anodized aluminum, PTFE, graphite, porous silicon and a lambertian reference surface were performed to validate the system.

  10. Pattern of declining blood pressure across replicate population surveys of the WHO MONICA project, mid-1980s to mid-1990s, and the role of medication

    PubMed Central

    Tunstall-Pedoe, Hugh; Connaghan, John; Woodward, Mark; Tolonen, Hanna; Kuulasmaa, Kari

    2006-01-01

    Objective Declining mean systolic and diastolic blood pressures were observed in most populations of the World Health Organization MONICA (monitoring trends and determinants in cardiovascular disease) project from the mid-1980s to mid-1990s. We tested whether pooled results would show mean change associated with decline in high readings only, resulting from better antihypertensive medication, or with similar falls in low, middle, and high readings, implying other causes. Design Independent, random sample, cross sectional population surveys, each end of the MONICA decade. Setting 38 populations in 21 countries across four continents. Participants Design target in each survey of 200 participants in each 10 year age and sex group from age 35 to 64 Main outcome measures Changes in the population in mean systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and in low, middle, and high readings—the 20th, 50th, and 80th centiles—and the differences between these changes. Results Individual populations differed considerably, but pooling the 38 population results gave mean changes in systolic blood pressure of -2.2 mm Hg in men, -3.3 mm Hg in women, and in diastolic blood pressure of -1.4 mm Hg in men and -2.2 mm Hg in women (overall average -2.26 mm Hg, population median -1.55 mm Hg). Antihypertensive medication, associated with high readings, rose by 0.5% to 11.4%. However, average falls in low and middle blood pressure readings were so similar to those in high readings and in the mean that no effect from improving treatment of hypertension was detected. Results in contrasted subgroups were consistent. Conclusions Blood pressure fell across 38 MONICA populations at all levels of readings, with no differential fall in high readings attributable to better control of hypertension. Despite the importance of medication to individuals, in that decade other determinants of blood pressure lowering must have been more pervasive and powerful in whole populations. PMID:16531419

  11. Trends in on-road vehicle emissions and ambient air quality in Atlanta, Georgia, USA, from the late 1990s through 2009

    PubMed Central

    Vijayaraghavan, Krish; DenBleyker, Allison; Ma, Lan; Lindhjem, Chris; Yarwood, Greg

    2014-01-01

    On-road vehicle emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) during 1995–2009 in the Atlanta Metropolitan Statistical Area were estimated using the Motor Vehicle Emission Simulator (MOVES) model and data from the National Emissions Inventories and the State of Georgia. Statistically significant downward trends (computed using the nonparametric Theil-Sen method) in annual on-road CO, NOx, and VOC emissions of 6.1%, 3.3%, and 6.0% per year, respectively, are noted during the 1995–2009 period despite an increase in total vehicle distance traveled. The CO and NOx emission trends are correlated with statistically significant downward trends in ambient air concentrations of CO and NOx in Atlanta ranging from 8.0% to 11.8% per year and from 5.8% to 8.7% per year, respectively, during similar time periods. Weather-adjusted summertime ozone concentrations in Atlanta exhibited a statistically significant declining trend of 2.3% per year during 2001– 2009. Although this trend coexists with the declining trends in on-road NOx, VOC, and CO emissions, identifying the cause of the downward trend in ozone is complicated by reductions in multiple precursors from different source sectors. Implications: Large reductions in on-road vehicle emissions of CO and NOx in Atlanta from the late 1990s to 2009, despite an increase in total vehicle distance traveled, contributed to a significant improvement in air quality through decreases in ambient air concentrations of CO and NOx during this time period. Emissions reductions in motor vehicles and other source sectors resulted in these improvements and the observed declining trend in ozone concentrations over the past decade. Although these historical trends cannot be extrapolated to the future because pollutant concentration contributions due to on-road vehicle emissions will likely become an increasingly smaller fraction of the atmospheric total, they provide an indication of the

  12. Rotation angle system of bidirectional reflectance distribution function measurement device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Houping; Feng, Guojin; Zheng, Chundi; Li, Ping; Wang, Yu

    2015-10-01

    This article described the rotation angle system of the bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) measurement device. A high-precision multidimensional angle platform device is built. The rotation angle system uses two scanning rotational mechanical arms and a two-dimensional coaxial turntable mechanical structure, each rotational axis are driven by high-power motor and completed closed-loop control with high-precision encoder. Rotation of the motors can be automatically measured in accordance with point by the control software. The detecting arm can be rotated to measure any point in hemisphere space, the rotary range of light arm is +/- 90 °, the rotary range of sample stage is 360 ° and the angular resolution is 0.01°. The rotation angle system meets the absolute positioning hemisphere space requirements of BRDF device. The experimental result shows that the rotation angle system met the high-precision positioning requirements for the BRDF absolute measurement.

  13. Measurements of AC Losses and Current Distribution in Superconducting Cables

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, Doan A; Ashworth, Stephen P; Duckworth, Robert C; Carter, Bill; Fleshler, Steven

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents our new experimental facility and techniques to measure ac loss and current distribution between the layers for High Temperature Superconducting (HTS) cables. The facility is powered with a 45 kVA three-phase power supply which can provide three-phase currents up to 5 kA per phase via high current transformers. The system is suitable for measurements at any frequency between 20 and 500 Hz to better understand the ac loss mechanisms in HTS cables. In this paper, we will report techniques and results for ac loss measurements carried out on several HTS cables with and without an HTS shielding layer. For cables without a shielding layer, care must be taken to control the effect of the magnetic fields from return currents on loss measurements. The waveform of the axial magnetic field was also measured by a small pick-up coil placed inside a two-layer cable. The temporal current distribution between the layers can be calculated from the waveform of the axial field.

  14. Interdecadal change of the controlling mechanisms for East Asian early summer rainfall variation around the mid-1990s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yim, So-Young; Wang, Bin; Kwon, MinHo

    2013-04-01

    East Asian (EA) summer monsoon shows considerable differences in the mean state and principal modes of interannual variation between early summer (May-June, MJ) and late summer (July-August, JA). The present study focuses on the early summer (MJ) precipitation variability. We find that the interannual variation of the MJ precipitation and the processes controlling the variation have been changed abruptly around the mid-1990s. The rainfall anomaly represented by the leading empirical orthogonal function has changed from a dipole-like pattern in pre-95 epoch (1979-1994) to a tripole-like pattern in post-95 epoch (1995-2010); the prevailing period of the corresponding principal component has also changed from 3-5 to 2-3 years. These changes are concurrent with the changes of the corresponding El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) evolutions. During the pre-95 epoch, the MJ EA rainfall anomaly is coupled to a slow decay of canonical ENSO events signified by an eastern Pacific warming, which induces a dipole rainfall feature over EA. On the other hand, during the post-95 epoch the anomalous MJ EA rainfall is significantly linked to a rapid decay of a central Pacific warming and a distinct tripolar sea surface temperature (SST) in North Atlantic. The central Pacific warming-induced Philippine Sea anticyclone induces an increased rainfall in southern China and decreased rainfall in central eastern China. The North Atlantic Oscillation-related tripolar North Atlantic SST anomaly induces a wave train that is responsible for the increase northern EA rainfall. Those two impacts form the tripole-like rainfall pattern over EA. Understanding such changes is important for improving seasonal to decadal predictions and long-term climate change in EA.

  15. Interdecadal change of the controlling mechanisms for East Asian early summer rainfall variation around the mid-1990s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yim, So-Young; Wang, Bin; Kwon, MinHo

    2014-03-01

    East Asian (EA) summer monsoon shows considerable differences in the mean state and principal modes of interannual variation between early summer (May-June, MJ) and late summer (July-August, JA). The present study focuses on the early summer (MJ) precipitation variability. We find that the interannual variation of the MJ precipitation and the processes controlling the variation have been changed abruptly around the mid-1990s. The rainfall anomaly represented by the leading empirical orthogonal function has changed from a dipole-like pattern in pre-95 epoch (1979-1994) to a tripole-like pattern in post-95 epoch (1995-2010); the prevailing period of the corresponding principal component has also changed from 3-5 to 2-3 years. These changes are concurrent with the changes of the corresponding El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) evolutions. During the pre-95 epoch, the MJ EA rainfall anomaly is coupled to a slow decay of canonical ENSO events signified by an eastern Pacific warming, which induces a dipole rainfall feature over EA. On the other hand, during the post-95 epoch the anomalous MJ EA rainfall is significantly linked to a rapid decay of a central Pacific warming and a distinct tripolar sea surface temperature (SST) in North Atlantic. The central Pacific warming-induced Philippine Sea anticyclone induces an increased rainfall in southern China and decreased rainfall in central eastern China. The North Atlantic Oscillation-related tripolar North Atlantic SST anomaly induces a wave train that is responsible for the increase northern EA rainfall. Those two impacts form the tripole-like rainfall pattern over EA. Understanding such changes is important for improving seasonal to decadal predictions and long-term climate change in EA.

  16. Can we reconcile differences in estimates of carbon fluxes from land-use change and forestry for the 1990s?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, A.; Penner, J. E.; Prather, M. J.; de Campos, C. P.; Houghton, R. A.; Kato, T.; Jain, A. K.; Yang, X.; Hurtt, G. C.; Frolking, S.; Fearon, M. G.; Chini, L. P.; Wang, A.; Price, D. T.

    2008-02-01

    The effect of Land Use Change and Forestry (LUCF) on terrestrial carbon fluxes can be regarded as a carbon credit or debit under the UNFCCC, but scientific uncertainty in the estimates for LUCF remains large. Here, we assess the LUCF estimates by examining a variety of models of different types with different land cover change maps in the 1990s. Annual carbon pools and their changes are separated into different components for separate geographical regions, while annual land cover change areas and carbon fluxes are disaggregated into different LUCF activities and the biospheric response due to CO2 fertilization and climate change. We developed a consolidated estimate of the terrestrial carbon fluxes that combines book-keeping models with process-based biogeochemical models and inventory estimates and yields an estimate of the global terrestrial carbon flux that is within the uncertainty range developed in the IPCC 4th Assessment Report. We examined the USA and Brazil as case studies in order to assess the cause of differences from the UNFCCC reported carbon fluxes. Major differences in the litter and soil organic matter components are found for the USA. Differences in Brazil result from assumptions about the LUC for agricultural purposes. The effects of CO2 fertilization and climate change also vary significantly in Brazil. Our consolidated estimate shows that the small sink in Latin America is within the uncertainty range from inverse models, but that the sink in the USA is significantly smaller than the inverse models estimates. Because there are different sources of errors at the country level, there is no easy reconciliation of different estimates of carbon fluxes at the global level. Clearly, further work is required to develop data sets for historical land cover change areas and models of biogeochemical changes for an accurate representation of carbon uptake or emissions due to LUC.

  17. Can we reconcile differences in estimates of carbon fluxes from land-use change and forestry for the 1990s?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, A.; Penner, J. E.; Prather, M. J.; de Campos, C. P.; Houghton, R. A.; Kato, T.; Jain, A. K.; Yang, X.; Hurtt, G. C.; Frolking, S.; Fearon, M. G.; Chini, L. P.; Wang, A.; Price, D. T.

    2008-06-01

    The effect of Land Use Change and Forestry (LUCF) on terrestrial carbon fluxes can be regarded as a carbon credit or debit under the UNFCCC, but scientific uncertainty in the estimates for LUCF remains large. Here, we assess the LUCF estimates by examining a variety of models of different types with different land cover change maps in the 1990s. Annual carbon pools and their changes are separated into different components for separate geographical regions, while annual land cover change areas and carbon fluxes are disaggregated into different LUCF activities and the biospheric response due to CO2 fertilization and climate change. We developed a consolidated estimate of the terrestrial carbon fluxes that combines book-keeping models with process-based biogeochemical models and inventory estimates and yields an estimate of the global terrestrial carbon flux that is within the uncertainty range developed in the IPCC 4th Assessment Report. We examined the USA and Brazil as case studies in order to assess the cause of differences from the UNFCCC reported carbon fluxes. Major differences in the litter and soil organic matter components are found for the USA. Differences in Brazil result from assumptions about the LUC for agricultural purposes. The effects of CO2 fertilization and climate change also vary significantly in Brazil. Our consolidated estimate shows that the small sink in Latin America is within the uncertainty range from inverse models, but that the sink in the USA is significantly smaller than the inverse models estimates. Because there are different sources of errors at the country level, there is no easy reconciliation of different estimates of carbon fluxes at the global level. Clearly, further work is required to develop data sets for historical land cover change areas and models of biogeochemical changes for an accurate representation of carbon uptake or emissions due to LUC.

  18. Comparison of Measured Dark Current Distributions with Calculated Damage Energy Distributions in HgCdTe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, C. J.; Marshall, P. W.; Howe, C. L.; Reed, R. A.; Weller, R. A.; Mendenhall, M.; Waczynski, A.; Ladbury, R.; Jordan, T. M.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a combined Monte Carlo and analytic approach to the calculation of the pixel-to-pixel distribution of proton-induced damage in a HgCdTe sensor array and compares the results to measured dark current distributions after damage by 63 MeV protons. The moments of the Coulombic, nuclear elastic and nuclear inelastic damage distributions were extracted from Monte Carlo simulations and combined to form a damage distribution using the analytic techniques first described in [1]. The calculations show that the high energy recoils from the nuclear inelastic reactions (calculated using the Monte Carlo code MCNPX [2]) produce a pronounced skewing of the damage energy distribution. While the nuclear elastic component (also calculated using the MCNPX) contributes only a small fraction of the total nonionizing damage energy, its inclusion in the shape of the damage across the array is significant. The Coulombic contribution was calculated using MRED [3-5], a Geant4 [4,6] application. The comparison with the dark current distribution strongly suggests that mechanisms which are not linearly correlated with nonionizing damage produced according to collision kinematics are responsible for the observed dark current increases. This has important implications for the process of predicting the on-orbit dark current response of the HgCdTe sensor array.

  19. Measurements over distributed high performance computing and storage systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Elizabeth; Myers, Tom

    1993-01-01

    Requirements are carefully described in descriptions of systems to be acquired but often there is no requirement to provide measurements and performance monitoring to ensure that requirements are met over the long term after acceptance. A set of measurements for various UNIX-based systems will be available at the 1992 Goddard Conference on Mass Storage Systems and Technologies. The authors invite others to contribute to the set of measurements. The framework for presenting the measurements of supercomputers, workstations, file servers, mass storage systems, and the networks that interconnect them are given. Production control and database systems are also included. Though other applications and third party software systems are not addressed, it is important to measure them as well. The capability to integrate measurements from all these components from different vendors, and from the third party software systems was recognized and there are efforts to standardize a framework to do this. The measurement activity falls into the domain of management standards. Standards work is ongoing for Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) systems management; AT&T, Digital, and Hewlett-Packard are developing management systems based on this architecture even though it is not finished. Another effort is in the UNIX International Performance Management Working Group. In addition, there are the Open Systems Foundation's Distributed Management Environment and the Object Management Group. A paper comparing the OSI systems management model and the Object Management Group model has been written. The IBM world has had a capability for measurement for various IBM systems since the 1970's and different vendors were able to develop tools for analyzing and viewing these measurements. Since IBM was the only vendor, the user groups were able to lobby IBM for the kinds of measurements needed. In the UNIX world of multiple vendors, a common set of measurements will not be as easy to get.

  20. Measured Air Distribution Effectiveness for Residential Mechanical Ventilation Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Sherman, Max; Sherman, Max H.; Walker, Iain S.

    2008-05-01

    The purpose of ventilation is dilute or remove indoor contaminants that an occupant is exposed to. In a multi-zone environment such as a house, there will be different dilution rates and different source strengths in every zone. Most US homes have central HVAC systems, which tend to mix the air thus the indoor conditions between zones. Different types of ventilation systems will provide different amounts of exposure depending on the effectiveness of their air distribution systems and the location of sources and occupants. This paper will report on field measurements using a unique multi-tracer measurement system that has the capacity to measure not only the flow of outdoor air to each zone, but zone-to-zone transport. The paper will derive seven different metrics for the evaluation of air distribution. Measured data from two homes with different levels of natural infiltration will be used to evaluate these metrics for three different ASHRAE Standard 62.2 compliant ventilation systems. Such information can be used to determine the effectiveness of different systems so that appropriate adjustments can be made in residential ventilation standards such as ASHRAE Standard 62.2.

  1. Scaling precipitation input to distributed hydrological models by measured snow distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voegeli, Christian; Lehning, Michael; Wever, Nander; Bavay, Mathias; Bühler, Yves; Marty, Mauro; Molnar, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Precise knowledge about the snow distribution in alpine terrain is crucial for various applications such as flood risk assessment, avalanche warning or water supply and hydropower. To simulate the seasonal snow cover development in alpine terrain, the spatially distributed, physics-based model Alpine3D is suitable. The model is often driven by spatial interpolations from automatic weather stations (AWS). As AWS are sparsely spread, the data needs to be interpolated, leading to errors in the spatial distribution of the snow cover - especially on subcatchment scale. With the recent advances in remote sensing techniques, maps of snow depth can be acquired with high spatial resolution and vertical accuracy. Here we use maps of the snow depth distribution, calculated from summer and winter digital surface models acquired with the airborne opto-electronic scanner ADS to preprocess and redistribute precipitation input data for Alpine3D to improve the accuracy of spatial distribution of snow depth simulations. A differentiation between liquid and solid precipitation is made, to account for different precipitation patterns that can be expected from rain and snowfall. For liquid precipitation, only large scale distribution patterns are applied to distribute precipitation in the simulation domain. For solid precipitation, an additional small scale distribution, based on the ADS data, is applied. The large scale patterns are generated using AWS measurements interpolated over the domain. The small scale patterns are generated by redistributing the large scale precipitation according to the relative snow depth in the ADS dataset. The determination of the precipitation phase is done using an air temperature threshold. Using this simple approach to redistribute precipitation, the accuracy of spatial snow distribution could be improved significantly. The standard deviation of absolute snow depth error could be reduced by a factor of 2 to less than 20 cm for the season 2011/12. The

  2. [Measuring pressure distribution on the human tibia in ski boots].

    PubMed

    Schaff, P; Hauser, W

    1987-09-01

    Pressure distribution inside shoes is of great importance for orthopaedic and biomechanical inquiries. Especially in sports, safety and comfort depend essentially on this quantity, which also determines whether a shoe is well suited for a certain discipline. Therefore, the measurement of pressure distribution allows detailed and objective statements about these factors. Using a set of newly developed thin and highly flexible measuring mats and the corresponding electronic equipment, such statements have become possible. First results with this method were obtained in alpine skiing. 8 different types of ski boots (sizes 5 and 8) worn by 14 subjects were tested on different foreward leans and temperatures using 7-point measuring mats (2 cm2/point) fixed between the boot shaft and the front of the lower leg of each leg. Additional measurements on three different types of boots using a 3 x 24-point mat (1 cm2/point) for the lower leg, as well as measurements underneath the foot with a 14-point (2 cm2/point) and a 80-point (1 cm2/point) mat were performed. A complementary determination of the force at the heel element of a ski binding and a registration of muscular activity (EMG) helped in the interpretation of the results. Some field research using telemetry completed our study. Considerable variations between different boots were found in value and location of pressure maxima. Traditional boots show high pressure values over the instep at foreward leans of 35 degrees and a rise of pressure underneath the forefoot while fixing the buckles, whereas minimal pressure over the instep, no compression of the forefoot and a pressure maximum near the upper end of the shaft are observed in rear entry boots. The force at the heel-important for binding release-varies widely between different boots at the same foreward lean. There was no asymmetry between the pressure distributions of right and left. The pressure distributions for different subjects measured in the same boot were

  3. Effect of weak measurement on entanglement distribution over noisy channels.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin-Wen; Yu, Sixia; Zhang, Deng-Yu; Oh, C H

    2016-01-01

    Being able to implement effective entanglement distribution in noisy environments is a key step towards practical quantum communication, and long-term efforts have been made on the development of it. Recently, it has been found that the null-result weak measurement (NRWM) can be used to enhance probabilistically the entanglement of a single copy of amplitude-damped entangled state. This paper investigates remote distributions of bipartite and multipartite entangled states in the amplitudedamping environment by combining NRWMs and entanglement distillation protocols (EDPs). We show that the NRWM has no positive effect on the distribution of bipartite maximally entangled states and multipartite Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states, although it is able to increase the amount of entanglement of each source state (noisy entangled state) of EDPs with a certain probability. However, we find that the NRWM would contribute to remote distributions of multipartite W states. We demonstrate that the NRWM can not only reduce the fidelity thresholds for distillability of decohered W states, but also raise the distillation efficiencies of W states. Our results suggest a new idea for quantifying the ability of a local filtering operation in protecting entanglement from decoherence. PMID:26935775

  4. Effect of weak measurement on entanglement distribution over noisy channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xin-Wen; Yu, Sixia; Zhang, Deng-Yu; Oh, C. H.

    2016-03-01

    Being able to implement effective entanglement distribution in noisy environments is a key step towards practical quantum communication, and long-term efforts have been made on the development of it. Recently, it has been found that the null-result weak measurement (NRWM) can be used to enhance probabilistically the entanglement of a single copy of amplitude-damped entangled state. This paper investigates remote distributions of bipartite and multipartite entangled states in the amplitudedamping environment by combining NRWMs and entanglement distillation protocols (EDPs). We show that the NRWM has no positive effect on the distribution of bipartite maximally entangled states and multipartite Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states, although it is able to increase the amount of entanglement of each source state (noisy entangled state) of EDPs with a certain probability. However, we find that the NRWM would contribute to remote distributions of multipartite W states. We demonstrate that the NRWM can not only reduce the fidelity thresholds for distillability of decohered W states, but also raise the distillation efficiencies of W states. Our results suggest a new idea for quantifying the ability of a local filtering operation in protecting entanglement from decoherence.

  5. Effect of weak measurement on entanglement distribution over noisy channels

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xin-Wen; Yu, Sixia; Zhang, Deng-Yu; Oh, C. H.

    2016-01-01

    Being able to implement effective entanglement distribution in noisy environments is a key step towards practical quantum communication, and long-term efforts have been made on the development of it. Recently, it has been found that the null-result weak measurement (NRWM) can be used to enhance probabilistically the entanglement of a single copy of amplitude-damped entangled state. This paper investigates remote distributions of bipartite and multipartite entangled states in the amplitudedamping environment by combining NRWMs and entanglement distillation protocols (EDPs). We show that the NRWM has no positive effect on the distribution of bipartite maximally entangled states and multipartite Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states, although it is able to increase the amount of entanglement of each source state (noisy entangled state) of EDPs with a certain probability. However, we find that the NRWM would contribute to remote distributions of multipartite W states. We demonstrate that the NRWM can not only reduce the fidelity thresholds for distillability of decohered W states, but also raise the distillation efficiencies of W states. Our results suggest a new idea for quantifying the ability of a local filtering operation in protecting entanglement from decoherence. PMID:26935775

  6. Measurement of Atomic Oscillator Strength Distribution from the Excited States

    SciTech Connect

    Hussain, Shahid; Saleem, M.; Baig, M. A.

    2008-10-22

    Saturation technique has been employed to measure the oscillator strength distribution in spectra of helium lithium using an electrical discharge cell a thermionic diode ion detector respectively. The photoabsorption cross sections in the discrete or bound region (commonly known as f-values) have been determined form the Rydberg series accessed from a particular excited state calibrating it with the absolute value of the photoionization cross section measured at the ionization threshold. The extracted discrete f-values merge into the oscillator strength densities, estimated from the measured photoionization cross sections at different photon energies above the first ionization threshold. The experimental data on helium and lithium show continuity between the discrete and the continuous oscillator strengths across the ionization threshold.

  7. Method for measuring the size distribution of airborne rhinovirus

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, M.L.; Goth-Goldstein, R.; Apte, M.G.; Fisk, W.J.

    2002-01-01

    About 50% of viral-induced respiratory illnesses are caused by the human rhinovirus (HRV). Measurements of the concentrations and sizes of bioaerosols are critical for research on building characteristics, aerosol transport, and mitigation measures. We developed a quantitative reverse transcription-coupled polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay for HRV and verified that this assay detects HRV in nasal lavage samples. A quantitation standard was used to determine a detection limit of 5 fg of HRV RNA with a linear range over 1000-fold. To measure the size distribution of HRV aerosols, volunteers with a head cold spent two hours in a ventilated research chamber. Airborne particles from the chamber were collected using an Andersen Six-Stage Cascade Impactor. Each stage of the impactor was analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR for HRV. For the first two volunteers with confirmed HRV infection, but with mild symptoms, we were unable to detect HRV on any stage of the impactor.

  8. On Measuring Cosmic Ray Energy Spectra with the Rapidity Distributions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bashindzhagyan, G.; Adams, J.; Chilingarian, A.; Drury, L.; Egorov, N.; Golubkov, S.; Korotkova, N.; Panasyuk, M.; Podorozhnyi, D.; Procqureur, J.

    2000-01-01

    An important goal of cosmic ray research is to measure the elemental energy spectra of galactic cosmic rays up to 10(exp 16) eV. This goal cannot be achieved with an ionization calorimeter because the required instrument is too massive for space flight. An alternate method will be presented. This method is based on measuring the primary particle energy by determining the angular distribution of secondaries produced in a target layer. The proposed technique can be used over a wide range of energies (10 (exp 11) -10 (exp 16) eV) and gives an energy resolution of 60% or better. Based on this technique, a conceptual design for a new instrument (KLEM) will be presented. Due to its light weight, this instrument can have a large aperture enabling the direct measurement of cosmic rays to 1016 eV.

  9. Measurement and calibration of differential Mueller matrix of distributed targets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarabandi, Kamal; Oh, Yisok; Ulaby, Fawwaz T.

    1992-01-01

    A rigorous method for calibrating polarimetric backscatter measurements of distributed targets is presented. By characterizing the radar distortions over the entire mainlobe of the antenna, the differential Mueller matrix is derived from the measured scattering matrices with a high degree of accuracy. It is shown that the radar distortions can be determined by measuring the polarimetric response of a metallic sphere over the main lobe of the antenna. Comparison of results obtained with the new algorithm with the results derived from the old calibration method show that the discrepancy between the two methods is less than 1 dB for the backscattering coefficients. The discrepancy is more drastic for the phase-difference statistics, indicating that removal of the radar distortions from the cross products of the scattering matrix elements cannot be accomplished with the traditional calibration methods.

  10. Measurement-device-independent entanglement-based quantum key distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xiuqing; Wei, Kejin; Ma, Haiqiang; Sun, Shihai; Liu, Hongwei; Yin, Zhenqiang; Li, Zuohan; Lian, Shibin; Du, Yungang; Wu, Lingan

    2016-05-01

    We present a quantum key distribution protocol in a model in which the legitimate users gather statistics as in the measurement-device-independent entanglement witness to certify the sources and the measurement devices. We show that the task of measurement-device-independent quantum communication can be accomplished based on monogamy of entanglement, and it is fairly loss tolerate including source and detector flaws. We derive a tight bound for collective attacks on the Holevo information between the authorized parties and the eavesdropper. Then with this bound, the final secret key rate with the source flaws can be obtained. The results show that long-distance quantum cryptography over 144 km can be made secure using only standard threshold detectors.

  11. Measurement of proton momentum distributions using a direct geometry instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senesi, R.; Kolesnikov, A. I.; Andreani, C.

    2014-12-01

    We report the results of inelastic neutron scattering measurements on bulk water and ice using the direct geometry SEQUOIA chopper spectrometer at the Spallation Neutron Source (USA), with incident energy Ei= 6 eV. In this set up the measurements allow to access the Deep Inelastic Neutron Scattering regime. The scattering is centred at the proton recoil energy given by the impulse approximation, and the shape of the recoil peak conveys information on the proton momentum distribution in the system. The comparison with the performance of inverse geometry instruments, such as VESUVIO at the ISIS source (UK), shows that complementary information can be accessed by the use of direct and inverse geometry instruments. Analysis of the neutron Compton profiles shows that the proton kinetic energy in ice at 271 K is larger than in room temperature liquid water, in agreement with previous measurements on VESUVIO.

  12. Distributed measurement of flow rate in conduits using heated fiber optic distributed temperature sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez, Raúl; Zubelzu, Sergio; Rodríguez-Sinobas, Leonor; Juana, Luis

    2016-04-01

    In some cases flow varies along conduits, such as in irrigated land drainage pipes and channels, irrigation laterals and others. Detailed knowledge of flow rate along the conduit makes possible analytical evaluation of water distribution and collection systems performance. Flow rate can change continuously in some systems, like in drainage pipes and channels, or abruptly, like in conduits bifurcations or emitter insertions. A heat pulse along the conduit makes possible to get flow rate from continuity and heat balance equations. Due to the great value of specific heat of water, temperature changes along conduit are smaller than the noise that involves the measurement process. This work presents a methodology that, dealing with the noise of distributed temperature measurements, leads to flow rate determination along pressurized pipes or open channel flows.

  13. Experimental Measurement-Device-Independent Quantum Key Distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yang; Chen, Teng-Yun; Wang, Liu-Jun; Liang, Hao; Shentu, Guo-Liang; Wang, Jian; Cui, Ke; Yin, Hua-Lei; Liu, Nai-Le; Li, Li; Ma, Xiongfeng; Pelc, Jason S.; Fejer, M. M.; Peng, Cheng-Zhi; Zhang, Qiang; Pan, Jian-Wei

    2013-09-01

    Quantum key distribution is proven to offer unconditional security in communication between two remote users with ideal source and detection. Unfortunately, ideal devices never exist in practice and device imperfections have become the targets of various attacks. By developing up-conversion single-photon detectors with high efficiency and low noise, we faithfully demonstrate the measurement-device-independent quantum-key-distribution protocol, which is immune to all hacking strategies on detection. Meanwhile, we employ the decoy-state method to defend attacks on a nonideal source. By assuming a trusted source scenario, our practical system, which generates more than a 25 kbit secure key over a 50 km fiber link, serves as a stepping stone in the quest for unconditionally secure communications with realistic devices.

  14. Measurement of probability distributions for internal stresses in dislocated crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkinson, Angus J.; Tarleton, Edmund; Vilalta-Clemente, Arantxa; Collins, David M.; Jiang, Jun; Britton, T. Benjamin

    2014-11-03

    Here, we analyse residual stress distributions obtained from various crystal systems using high resolution electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) measurements. Histograms showing stress probability distributions exhibit tails extending to very high stress levels. We demonstrate that these extreme stress values are consistent with the functional form that should be expected for dislocated crystals. Analysis initially developed by Groma and co-workers for X-ray line profile analysis and based on the so-called “restricted second moment of the probability distribution” can be used to estimate the total dislocation density. The generality of the results are illustrated by application to three quite different systems, namely, face centred cubic Cu deformed in uniaxial tension, a body centred cubic steel deformed to larger strain by cold rolling, and hexagonal InAlN layers grown on misfitting sapphire and silicon carbide substrates.

  15. Element Distribution in Silicon Refining: Thermodynamic Model and Industrial Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Næss, Mari K.; Kero, Ida; Tranell, Gabriella; Tang, Kai; Tveit, Halvard

    2014-11-01

    To establish an overview of impurity elemental distribution among silicon, slag, and gas/fume in the refining process of metallurgical grade silicon (MG-Si), an industrial measurement campaign was performed at the Elkem Salten MG-Si plant in Norway. Samples of in- and outgoing mass streams, i.e., tapped Si, flux and cooling materials, refined Si, slag, and fume, were analyzed by high-resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HR-ICP-MS), with respect to 62 elements. The elemental distributions were calculated and the experimental data compared with equilibrium estimations based on commercial and proprietary, published databases and carried out using the ChemSheet software. The results are discussed in terms of boiling temperatures, vapor pressures, redox potentials, and activities of the elements. These model calculations indicate a need for expanded databases with more and reliable thermodynamic data for trace elements in general and fume constituents in particular.

  16. Experimental measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Chen, Teng-Yun; Wang, Liu-Jun; Liang, Hao; Shentu, Guo-Liang; Wang, Jian; Cui, Ke; Yin, Hua-Lei; Liu, Nai-Le; Li, Li; Ma, Xiongfeng; Pelc, Jason S; Fejer, M M; Peng, Cheng-Zhi; Zhang, Qiang; Pan, Jian-Wei

    2013-09-27

    Quantum key distribution is proven to offer unconditional security in communication between two remote users with ideal source and detection. Unfortunately, ideal devices never exist in practice and device imperfections have become the targets of various attacks. By developing up-conversion single-photon detectors with high efficiency and low noise, we faithfully demonstrate the measurement-device-independent quantum-key-distribution protocol, which is immune to all hacking strategies on detection. Meanwhile, we employ the decoy-state method to defend attacks on a nonideal source. By assuming a trusted source scenario, our practical system, which generates more than a 25 kbit secure key over a 50 km fiber link, serves as a stepping stone in the quest for unconditionally secure communications with realistic devices. PMID:24116758

  17. Measurement of Baseline and Orientation between Distributed Aerospace Platforms

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Distributed platforms play an important role in aerospace remote sensing, radar navigation, and wireless communication applications. However, besides the requirement of high accurate time and frequency synchronization for coherent signal processing, the baseline between the transmitting platform and receiving platform and the orientation of platform towards each other during data recording must be measured in real time. In this paper, we propose an improved pulsed duplex microwave ranging approach, which allows determining the spatial baseline and orientation between distributed aerospace platforms by the proposed high-precision time-interval estimation method. This approach is novel in the sense that it cancels the effect of oscillator frequency synchronization errors due to separate oscillators that are used in the platforms. Several performance specifications are also discussed. The effectiveness of the approach is verified by simulation results. PMID:23844416

  18. Pulsed electro-acoustic (PEA) measurements of embedded charge distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dennison, J. R.; Pearson, Lee H.

    2013-09-01

    Knowledge of the spatial distribution and evolution of embedded charge in thin dielectric materials has important applications in semiconductor, high-power electronic device, high-voltage DC power cable insulation, high-energy and plasma physics apparatus, and spacecraft industries. Knowing how, where, and how much charge accumulates and how it redistributes and dissipates can predict destructive charging effects. Pulsed Electro-acoustic (PEA) measurements— and two closely related methods, Pressure Wave Propagation (PWP) and Laser Intensity Modulation (LIMM)— nondestructively probe such internal charge distributions. We review the instrumentation, methods, theory and signal processing of simple PEA experiments, as well as the related PPW and LIMM methods. We emphasize system improvements required to achieve high spatial resolution for in vacuo measurements of thin dielectrics charged using electron beam injection.

  19. Online residence time distribution measurement of thermochemical biomass pretreatment reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Sievers, David A.; Kuhn, Erik M.; Stickel, Jonathan J.; Tucker, Melvin P.; Wolfrum, Edward J.

    2015-11-03

    Residence time is a critical parameter that strongly affects the product profile and overall yield achieved from thermochemical pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass during production of liquid transportation fuels. The residence time distribution (RTD) is one important measure of reactor performance and provides a metric to use when evaluating changes in reactor design and operating parameters. An inexpensive and rapid RTD measurement technique was developed to measure the residence time characteristics in biomass pretreatment reactors and similar equipment processing wet-granular slurries. Sodium chloride was pulsed into the feed entering a 600 kg/d pilot-scale reactor operated at various conditions, and aqueous salt concentration was measured in the discharge using specially fabricated electrical conductivity instrumentation. This online conductivity method was superior in both measurement accuracy and resource requirements compared to offline analysis. Experimentally measured mean residence time values were longer than estimated by simple calculation and screw speed and throughput rate were investigated as contributing factors. In conclusion, a semi-empirical model was developed to predict the mean residence time as a function of operating parameters and enabled improved agreement.

  20. Online residence time distribution measurement of thermochemical biomass pretreatment reactors

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Sievers, David A.; Kuhn, Erik M.; Stickel, Jonathan J.; Tucker, Melvin P.; Wolfrum, Edward J.

    2015-11-03

    Residence time is a critical parameter that strongly affects the product profile and overall yield achieved from thermochemical pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass during production of liquid transportation fuels. The residence time distribution (RTD) is one important measure of reactor performance and provides a metric to use when evaluating changes in reactor design and operating parameters. An inexpensive and rapid RTD measurement technique was developed to measure the residence time characteristics in biomass pretreatment reactors and similar equipment processing wet-granular slurries. Sodium chloride was pulsed into the feed entering a 600 kg/d pilot-scale reactor operated at various conditions, and aqueous saltmore » concentration was measured in the discharge using specially fabricated electrical conductivity instrumentation. This online conductivity method was superior in both measurement accuracy and resource requirements compared to offline analysis. Experimentally measured mean residence time values were longer than estimated by simple calculation and screw speed and throughput rate were investigated as contributing factors. In conclusion, a semi-empirical model was developed to predict the mean residence time as a function of operating parameters and enabled improved agreement.« less

  1. A Model for Measurements of Lognormally Distributed Environmental Contaminants

    SciTech Connect

    Charles B. Davis, Danny Field, Thomas E. Gran

    2009-05-21

    This paper proposes a more nearly reasonable model for the actual measurement distribution, called here the “Davis Mixed Model” (DMM). The DMM is derived by multiplying the probability density function of unobservable actual concentrations (assumed LN) by the conditional density of measurements given the concentrations (assumed heteroscedastic normal), and then integrating to obtain the marginal distribution of the observable measurements. The DMM is complicated and analytically intractable; its probability density function (PDF) is itself an integral, for example, and closed-form expressions for percentiles, let alone estimators, do not exist. The DMM can be fit to data via Maximum Likelihood Estimation (MLE), however, and a fitted model can be used to generate data for evaluating the actual performance of candidate UTL or other estimation procedures. The Industrial Hygiene application motivating this work involves surface sampling surveys for removable beryllium (Be) contamination, with data from Inductively Coupled Plasma – Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-AES) analyses. Similar issues will arise quite generally with censored environmental data for other contaminants and analytical methods. The conclusions presented in this paper focus on the regions of the DMM parameter space arising in surveying numerous Department of Energy (DOE) facilities associated with the Nevada Test Site (NTS).

  2. Dynamic measurement rate allocation for distributed compressive video sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hung-Wei; Kang, Li-Wei; Lu, Chun-Shien

    2010-07-01

    We address an important issue of fully low-cost and low-complexity video encoding for use in resource limited sensors/devices. Conventional distributed video coding (DVC) does not actually meet this requirement because the acquisition of video sequences still relies on the high-cost mechanism (sampling + compression). Recently, we have proposed a distributed compressive video sensing (DCVS) framework to directly capture compressed video data called measurements, while exploiting correlations among successive frames for video reconstruction at the decoder. The core is to integrate the respective characteristics of DVC and compressive sensing (CS) to achieve CS-based single-pixel camera-compatible video encoder. At DCVS decoder, video reconstruction can be formulated as a convex unconstrained optimization problem via solving the sparse coefficients with respect to some basis functions. Nevertheless, the issue of measurement rate allocation has not been considered yet in the literature. Actually, different measurement rates should be adaptively assigned to different local regions by considering the sparsity of each region for improving reconstructed quality. This paper investigates dynamic measurement rate allocation in block-based DCVS, which can adaptively adjust measurement rates by estimating the sparsity of each block via feedback information. Simulation results have indicated the effectiveness of our scheme. It is worth noting that our goal is to develop a novel fully low-complexity video compression paradigm via the emerging compressive sensing and sparse representation technologies, and provide an alternative scheme adaptive to the environment, where raw video data is not available, instead of competing compression performances against the current compression standards (e.g., H.264/AVC) or DVC schemes which need raw data available for encoding.

  3. Measurement of non-volatile particle number size distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gkatzelis, G. I.; Papanastasiou, D. K.; Florou, K.; Kaltsonoudis, C.; Louvaris, E.; Pandis, S. N.

    2015-06-01

    An experimental methodology was developed to measure the non-volatile particle number concentration using a thermodenuder (TD). The TD was coupled with a high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer, measuring the chemical composition and mass size distribution of the submicrometer aerosol and a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) that provided the number size distribution of the aerosol in the range from 10 to 500 nm. The method was evaluated with a set of smog chamber experiments and achieved almost complete evaporation (> 98 %) of secondary organic as well as freshly nucleated particles, using a TD temperature of 400 °C and a centerline residence time of 15 s. This experimental approach was applied in a winter field campaign in Athens and provided a direct measurement of number concentration and size distribution for particles emitted from major pollution sources. During periods in which the contribution of biomass burning sources was dominant, more than 80 % of particle number concentration remained after passing through the thermodenuder, suggesting that nearly all biomass burning particles had a non-volatile core. These remaining particles consisted mostly of black carbon (60 % mass contribution) and organic aerosol, OA (40 %). Organics that had not evaporated through the TD were mostly biomass burning OA (BBOA) and oxygenated OA (OOA) as determined from AMS source apportionment analysis. For periods during which traffic contribution was dominant 50-60 % of the particles had a non-volatile core while the rest evaporated at 400 °C. The remaining particle mass consisted mostly of black carbon (BC) with an 80 % contribution, while OA was responsible for another 15-20 %. Organics were mostly hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA) and OOA. These results suggest that even at 400 °C some fraction of the OA does not evaporate from particles emitted from common combustion processes, such as biomass burning and car engines, indicating that a fraction of this type

  4. Effects of increased urbanization from 1970's to 1990's on storm-runoff characteristics in Perris Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Guay, J.R.

    1996-01-01

    Urban areas in Perris Valley, California, have more than tripled during the last 20 years. To quantify the effects of increased urbanization on storm runoff volumes and peak discharges, rainfall-runoff models of the basin were developed to simulate runoff for 1970-75 and 1990-93 conditions. Hourly rainfall data for 1949-93 were used with the rainfall-runoff models to simulate a long-term record of storm runoff. The hydrologic effects of increased urbanization from 1970-75 to 1990-93 were analyzed by comparing the simulated annual peak discharges and volumes, and storm runoff peaks, frequency of annual peak discharges and runoff volumes, and duration of storm peak discharges for each study period. A Log-Pearson Type-III frequency analysis was calculated using the simulated annual peaks to estimate the 2-, 5-, 10-, 25-, 50-, and 100-year recurrence intervals. The estimated 2-year discharge at the outlet of the basin was 646 cubic feet per second for the 1970-75 conditions and 1,328 cubic feet per second for the 1990-93 conditions. The 100-year discharge at the outlet of the basin was about 14,000 cubic feet per second for the 1970-75 and 1990-93 conditions. The station duration analysis used 925 model-simulated storm peaks from each basin to estimate the percent chance a peak discharge is exceeded. At the outlet of the basin, the chances of exceeding 100 cubic feet per second were about 33 percent under 1970-75 conditions and about 59 percent under 1990-93 conditions. The chance of exceeding 2,500 cubic feet per second at the outlet of the basin was less than 1 percent higher under the 1990-93 conditions than under the 1970-75 conditions. The increase in urbanization from the early 1970's to the early 1990's more than doubled the peak discharges with a 2-year return period. However, peak discharges with return periods greater than 50 years were not significantly affected by the change in urbanization.

  5. Emission Measure Distribution and Heating of Two Active Region Cores

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tripathi, Durgesh; Klimchuk, James A.; Mason, Helen E.

    2011-01-01

    Using data from the Extreme-ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer aboard Hinode, we have studied the coronal plasma in the core of two active regions. Concentrating on the area between opposite polarity moss, we found emission measure distributions having an approximate power-law form EM/T(exp 2.4) from log T = 5.55 up to a peak at log T = 6.57. The observations are explained extremely well by a simple nanoflare model. However, in the absence of additional constraints, the observations could possibly also be explained by steady heating.

  6. Measurement of three-jet distributions in photoproduction at HERA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ZEUS Collaboration; Breitweg, J.; Chekanov, S.; Derrick, M.; Krakauer, D.; Magill, S.; Musgrave, B.; Repond, J.; Stanek, R.; Yoshida, R.; Mattingly, M. C. K.; Abbiendi, G.; Anselmo, F.; Antonioli, P.; Bari, G.; Basile, M.; Bellagamba, L.; Boscherini, D.; Bruni, A.; Bruni, G.; Cara Romeo, G.; Castellini, G.; Cifarelli, L.; Cindolo, F.; Contin, A.; Coppola, N.; Corradi, M.; de Pasquale, S.; Giusti, P.; Iacobucci, G.; Laurenti, G.; Levi, G.; Margotti, A.; Massam, T.; Nania, R.; Palmonari, F.; Pesci, A.; Polini, A.; Sartorelli, G.; Zamora Garcia, Y.; Zichichi, A.; Amelung, C.; Bornheim, A.; Brock, I.; Coböken, K.; Crittenden, J.; Deffner, R.; Eckert, M.; Grothe, M.; Hartmann, H.; Heinloth, K.; Heinz, L.; Hilger, E.; Jakob, H.-P.; Kappes, A.; Katz, U. F.; Kerger, R.; Paul, E.; Pfeiffer, M.; Schnurbusch, H.; Weber, A.; Wieber, H.; Bailey, D. S.; Barret, O.; Cottingham, W. N.; Foster, B.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Heath, G. P.; Heath, H. F.; McFall, J. D.; Piccioni, D.; Scott, J.; Tapper, R. J.; Capua, M.; Mastroberardino, A.; Schioppa, M.; Susinno, G.; Jeoung, H. Y.; Kim, J. Y.; Lee, J. H.; Lim, I. T.; Ma, K. J.; Pac, M. Y.; Caldwell, A.; Cartiglia, N.; Jing, Z.; Liu, W.; Mellado, B.; Parsons, J. A.; Ritz, S.; Sacchi, R.; Sampson, S.; Sciulli, F.; Zhu, Q.; Borzemski, P.; Chwastowski, J.; Eskreys, A.; Figiel, J.; Klimek, K.; Przybycień , M. B.; Zawiejski, L.; Adamczyk, L.; Bednarek, B.; Jeleń , K.; Kisielewska, D.; Kowal, A. M.; Kowalski, T.; Przybycień , M.; Rulikowska-Zarȩ Bska, E.; Suszycki, L.; Zaja C, J.; Duliń Ski, Z.; Kotań Ski, A.; Bauerdick, L. A. T.; Behrens, U.; Beier, H.; Bienlein, J. K.; Burgard, C.; Desler, K.; Drews, G.; Fricke, U.; Goebel, F.; Göttlicher, P.; Graciani, R.; Haas, T.; Hain, W.; Hartner, G. F.; Hasell, D.; Hebbel, K.; Johnson, K. F.; Kasemann, M.; Koch, W.; Kötz, U.; Kowalski, H.; Lindemann, L.; Löhr, B.; Martínez, M.; Milewski, J.; Milite, M.; Monteiro, T.; Notz, D.; Pellegrino, A.; Pelucchi, F.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Rohde, M.; Roldán, J.; Ryan, J. J.; Saull, P. R. B.; Savin, A. A.; Schneekloth, U.; Schwarzer, O.; Selonke, F.; Sievers, M.; Stonjek, S.; Surrow, B.; Tassi, E.; Westphal, D.; Wolf, G.; Wollmer, U.; Youngman, C.; Zeuner, W.; Burow, B. D.; Coldewey, C.; Grabosch, H. J.; Lopez-Duran Viani, A.; Meyer, A.; Mönig, K.; Schlenstedt, S.; Straub, P. B.; Barbagli, G.; Gallo, E.; Pelfer, P.; Maccarrone, G.; Votano, L.; Bamberger, A.; Eisenhardt, S.; Markun, P.; Raach, H.; Wölfle, S.; Brook, N. H.; Bussey, P. J.; Doyle, A. T.; Lee, S. W.; MacDonald, N.; McCance, G. J.; Saxon, D. H.; Sinclair, L. E.; Skillicorn, I. O.; Strickland, E.; Waugh, R.; Bohnet, I.; Gendner, N.; Holm, U.; Meyer-Larsen, A.; Salehi, H.; Wick, K.; Garfagnini, A.; Gialas, I.; Gladilin, L. K.; Kçira, D.; Klanner, R.; Lohrmann, E.; Poelz, G.; Zetsche, F.; Bacon, T. C.; Cole, J. E.; Howell, G.; Lamberti, L.; Long, K. R.; Miller, D. B.; Prinias, A.; Sedgbeer, J. K.; Sideris, D.; Tapper, A. D.; Walker, R.; Mallik, U.; Wang, S. M.; Cloth, P.; Filges, D.; Ishii, T.; Kuze, M.; Suzuki, I.; Tokushuku, K.; Yamada, S.; Yamauchi, K.; Yamazaki, Y.; Ahn, S. H.; An, S. H.; Hong, S. J.; Lee, S. B.; Nam, S. W.; Park, S. K.; Lim, H.; Park, I. H.; Son, D.; Barreiro, F.; Fernández, J. P.; García, G.; Glasman, C.; Hernández, J. M.; Labarga, L.; del Peso, J.; Puga, J.; Redondo, I.; Terrón, J.; Corriveau, F.; Hanna, D. S.; Hartmann, J.; Murray, W. N.; Ochs, A.; Padhi, S.; Pinciuc, C.; Riveline, M.; Stairs, D. G.; St-Laurent, M.; Tsurugai, T.; Bashkirov, V.; Dolgoshein, B. A.; Stifutkin, A.; Bashindzhagyan, G. L.; Ermolov, P. F.; Golubkov, Yu. A.; Khein, L. A.; Korotkova, N. A.; Korzhavina, I. A.; Kuzmin, V. A.; Lukina, O. Yu.; Proskuryakov, A. S.; Shcheglova, L. M.; Solomin, A. N.; Zotkin, S. A.; Bokel, C.; Botje, M.; Brümmer, N.; Engelen, J.; Koffeman, E.; Kooijman, P.; van Sighem, A.; Tiecke, H.; Tuning, N.; Verkerke, W.; Vossebeld, J.; Wiggers, L.; de Wolf, E.; Acosta, D.; Bylsma, B.; Durkin, L. S.; Gilmore, J.; Ginsburg, C. M.; Kim, C. L.; Ling, T. Y.; Nylander, P.; Blaikley, H. E.; Cashmore, R. J.; Cooper-Sarkar, A. M.; Devenish, R. C. E.; Edmonds, J. K.; Große-Knetter, J.; Harnew, N.; Matsushita, T.; Noyes, V. A.; Quadt, A.; Ruske, O.; Sutton, M. R.; Walczak, R.; Waters, D. S.; Bertolin, A.; Brugnera, R.; Carlin, R.; dal Corso, F.; Dosselli, U.; Limentani, S.; Morandin, M.; Posocco, M.; Stanco, L.; Stroili, R.; Voci, C.; Iannotti, L.; Oh, B. Y.; Okrasiń Ski, J. R.; Toothacker, W. S.; Whitmore, J. J.; Iga, Y.; D'Agostini, G.; Marini, G.; Nigro, A.; Raso, M.; Cormack, C.; Hart, J. C.; McCubbin, N. A.; Shah, T. P.; Epperson, D.; Heusch, C.; Sadrozinski, H. F.-W.; Seiden, A.; Wichmann, R.; Williams, D. C.; Pavel, N.; Abramowicz, H.; Briskin, G.; Dagan, S.; Kananov, S.; Levy, A.; Abe, T.; Fusayasu, T.; Inuzuka, M.; Nagano, K.; Umemori, K.; Yamashita, T.; Hamatsu, R.; Hirose, T.; Homma, K.; Kitamura, S.; Nishimura, T.; Arneodo, M.; Cirio, R.; Costa, M.; Ferrero, M. I.; Maselli, S.; Monaco, V.; Peroni, C.; Petrucci, M. C.; Ruspa, M.; Solano, A.; Staiano, A.; Dardo, M.; Bailey, D. C.; Fagerstroem, C.-P.; Galea, R.; Koop, T.; Levman, G. M.; Martin, J. F.; Orr, R. S.; Polenz, S.; Sabetfakhri, A.; Simmons, D.; Butterworth, J. M.; Catterall, C. D.; Hayes, M. E.; Heaphy, E. A.; Jones, T. W.; Lane, J. B.; Wing, M.; Ciborowski, J.; Grzelak, G.; Nowak, R. J.; Pawlak, J. M.; Pawlak, R.; Smalska, B.; Tymieniecka, T.; Wróblewski, A. K.; Zakrzewski, J. A.; Zsolararnecki, A. F.; Adamus, M.; Gadaj, T.; Deppe, O.; Eisenberg, Y.; Hochman, D.; Karshon, U.; Badgett, W. F.; Chapin, D.; Cross, R.; Foudas, C.; Mattingly, S.; Reeder, D. D.; Smith, W. H.; Vaiciulis, A.; Wildschek, T.; Wodarczyk, M.; Deshpande, A.; Dhawan, S.; Hughes, V. W.; Bhadra, S.; Frisken, W. R.; Khakzad, M.; Menary, S.; Schmidke, W. B.

    1998-12-01

    The cross section for the photoproduction of events containing three jets with a three-jet invariant mass of M3J>50 GeV has been measured with the ZEUS detector at HERA. The three-jet angular distributions are inconsistent with a uniform population of the available phase space but are well described by parton shower models and ≀(ααs2) pQCD calculations. Comparisons with the parton shower model indicate a strong contribution from initial state radiation as well as a sensitivity to the effects of colour coherence.

  7. The optimization of measurement device independent quantum key distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Feng; Ma, Hai-Qiang; Jiao, Rong-Zhen

    2016-04-01

    Measurement device independent quantum key distribution (MDI-QKD) is a promising method for realistic quantum communication which could remove all the side-channel attacks from the imperfections of the devices. Here in this study, we theoretically analyzed the performance of the MDI-QKD system. The asymptotic case rate with the increment of the transmission distance at different polarization misalignment, background count rate and intensity is calculated respectively. The result may provide important parameters for practical application of quantum communications.

  8. Concrete deflection measurement using fiber optic distributed strain system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papes, Martin; Jaros, Jakub; Fajkus, Marcel; Hurta, Jan; Liner, Andrej; Hruby, David; Vasinek, Vladimir

    2015-07-01

    The monitoring of building structures deformations and testing of construction materials resilience are very important processes in the development and production of given materials and structures. Undesirable or excessive deformations of materials are phenomena which are unacceptable in construction, especially in supporting structures. These issues are currently monitored by electromechanical sensor in most cases. It is a classic technique when the sensor measures the material stress at the point of its installation. This paper deals with the concrete deflection measurement using fiber optic distributed strain system. This system uses optical fiere as a sensor and operates at the principle of measurement of Brillouin frequencies. The mechanical stress on the optical fiber causes shift of these frequencies. This change is subsequently converted to stress unit micro-strain. In our experiments, the optical fiber was embedded in concrete along its whole length. The advantage of this system is that the measurement is carrying out along the entire fiber length with spatial resolution around 50 cm, so it is possible continuously measure several thousands of points at the distance of several kilometers.

  9. Spatiotemporal measurement of surfactant distribution on gravity-capillary waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strickland, Stephen; Shearer, Michael; Daniels, Karen

    2015-11-01

    Materials adsorbed to the surface of a fluid - for instance, crude oil, biogenic slicks, or industrial/medical surfactants - will move in response to surface waves. Due to the difficulty of non-invasive measurement of the spatial distribution of a molecular monolayer, little is known about the dynamics that couple the surface waves and the evolving density field. We report measurements of the spatiotemporal dynamics of the density field of an insoluble surfactant driven by gravity-capillary waves in a shallow cylindrical container. Standing Faraday waves and traveling waves generated by the meniscus are superimposed to create a non-trivial surfactant density field. We measure both the height field of the surface using moire-imaging and the density field of the surfactant via the fluorescence of NBD-tagged phosphatidylcholine. Through phase-averaging stroboscopically-acquired images of the density field, we determine that the surfactant accumulates on the leading edge of the traveling meniscus waves and in the troughs of the standing Faraday waves. We fit the spatiotemporal variations in the two fields and report measurements of the wavenumbers as well as a temporal phase shift between the two fields. These measurements suggest that longitudinal waves contribute to the dynamics. Funded by NSF grant DMS-0968258.

  10. Measuring droplet size distributions from overlapping interferometric particle images.

    PubMed

    Bocanegra Evans, Humberto; Dam, Nico; van der Voort, Dennis; Bertens, Guus; van de Water, Willem

    2015-02-01

    Interferometric particle imaging provides a simple way to measure the probability density function (PDF) of droplet sizes from out-focus images. The optical setup is straightforward, but the interpretation of the data is a problem when particle images overlap. We propose a new way to analyze the images. The emphasis is not on a precise identification of droplets, but on obtaining a good estimate of the PDF of droplet sizes in the case of overlapping particle images. The algorithm is tested using synthetic and experimental data. We next use these methods to measure the PDF of droplet sizes produced by spinning disk aerosol generators. The mean primary droplet diameter agrees with predictions from the literature, but we find a broad distribution of satellite droplet sizes. PMID:25725854

  11. Photometer for measuring intensity and rhodopsin distributions in intact eyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Theodore P.; Webbers, Jacob P. P.

    1995-09-01

    We describe a photometer that measures light transmitted through excised eyes. The instrument, an ocular transmission photometer, employs sensitive single photon-counting techniques, and its usefulness has been tested by the study of the absorbance of rhodopsin in retinal rod cells in situ. We find that absorbances of rat rods agree well with those predicted by microspectrophotometry without making corrections for cellular mosaics. Additional tests of the ocular transmission photometer show that (a) the instrument is sensitive to subtle differences in rhodopsin absorbance, known to exist in specific locations in the rat retina, and (b) using the rate of rhodopsin bleaching as the measure of intensity, we can determine the intensity distribution at several locations across the rat retina.

  12. Microelectrode Measurements of the Activity Distribution in Nitrifying Bacterial Aggregates

    PubMed Central

    de Beer, D.; van den Heuvel, J. C.; Ottengraf, S. P. P.

    1993-01-01

    Microelectrodes for ammonium, oxygen, nitrate, and pH were used to study nitrifying aggregates grown in a fluidized-bed reactor. Local reactant fluxes and distribution of microbial activity could be determined from the microprofiles. The interfacial fluxes of the reactants closely reflected the stoichiometry of bacterial nitrification. Both ammonium consumption and nitrate production were localized in the outer shells, with a thickness of approximately 100 to 120 μm, of the aggregates. Under conditions in which ammonium and oxygen penetrated the whole aggregate, nitrification was restricted to this zone; oxygen was consumed in the central parts of the aggregates as well, probably because of oxidation of dead biomass. A sudden increase of the oxygen concentration to saturation (pure oxygen) was inhibitory to nitrification. The pH profiles showed acidification in the aggregates, but not to an inhibitory level. The distribution of activity was determined by the penetration depth of oxygen during aggregate development in the reactor. Mass transfer was significantly limited by the boundary layer surrounding the aggregates. Microelectrode measurements showed that the thickness of this layer was correlated with the diffusion coefficient of the species. Determination of the distribution of nitrifying activity required the use of ammonium or nitrate microelectrodes, whereas the use of oxygen microelectrodes alone would lead to erroneous results. Images PMID:16348875

  13. Survey of harmonics measurements in electrical distribution systems

    SciTech Connect

    Tolbert, L.M.; Hollis, H.D.; Hale, P.S. Jr.

    1996-09-01

    An assessment of the harmonics found in the electrical distribution system of several buildings in the three Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge plants in Tennessee has yielded several conclusions useful in the design of electrical distribution systems. A preliminary survey to determine where significant amounts of harmonic currents of voltages existed in the distribution system was performed at several buildings by comparing readings taken with true root-mean-square (RMS) multimeters and averaging multimeters (non-true RMS meters). From these measurements and subsequent calculations, facilities that appeared to have significant levels of harmonics present were analyzed with a power analyzer that could record waveforms and give the spectrum and magnitude of harmonics. Among the non-linear loads for which sample waveforms are illustrated are fluorescent lighting (both magnetic and electronic ballasts), variable frequency drives, switch mode power supplies, and uninterruptible power supplies. A discussion as to how various harmonic waveforms come about as a result of these nonlinear loads is also outlined in this paper.

  14. Airborne measurements of spatial NO2 distributions during AROMAT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meier, Andreas Carlos; Seyler, André; Schönhardt, Anja; Richter, Andreas; Ruhtz, Thomas; Lindemann, Carsten; Burrows, John P.

    2015-04-01

    Nitrogen oxides, NOx (NOx = NO + NO2) play a key role in tropospheric chemistry. In addition to their directly harmful effects on the respiratory system of living organisms, they influence the levels of tropospheric ozone and contribute to acid rain and eutrophication of ecosystems. As they are produced in combustion processes, they can serve as an indicator for anthropogenic air pollution. In September 2014 several European research groups conducted the ESA funded Airborne ROmanian Measurements of Aerosols and Trace gases (AROMAT) campaign to test and intercompare newly developed airborne observation sytsems dedicated to air quality satellite validation studies. The IUP Bremen contributed to this campaign with its Airborne imaging DOAS instrument for Measurements of Atmospheric Pollution (AirMAP) on board a Cessna 207 turbo, operated by the FU Berlin. AirMAP allows the retrieval of integrated NO2 column densities in a stripe below the aircraft at a fine spatial resolution of up to 30 x 80 m2, at a typical flight altitude. Measurements have been performed over the city of Bucharest, creating for the first time high spatial resolution maps of Bucharest's NO2 distribution in a time window of approx. 2 hours. The observations were synchronised with ground-based car MAX-DOAS measurements for comparison. In addition, measurements were taken over the city of Berlin, Germany and at the Rovinari power plant, Romania. In this work the results of the research flights will be presented and conclusions will be drawn on the quality of the measurements, their applicability for satellite data validation and possible improvements for future measurements.

  15. Vanadium in ambient air: concentrations in lung tissue from autopsies of Mexico City residents in the 1960s and 1990s.

    PubMed

    Fortoul, Teresa Imelda; Quan-Torres, Alma; Sánchez, Ivonne; López, Irma Elena; Bizarro, Patricia; Mendoza, Maria Luisa; Osorio, Liliana Saldivar; Espejel-Maya, Guadalupe; Avila-Casado, Maria del Carmen; Avila-Costa, Maria Rosa; Colin-Barenque, Laura; Villanueva, Daniel Navarro; Olaiz-Fernandez, Gustavo

    2002-01-01

    Vanadium concentrations in lung tissue were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry from autopsy specimens taken from residents of Mexico City during the 1960s and 1990s (20 males and 19 females, and 30 males and 18 females, respectively). Samples from the 1990s had significantly increased mean vanadium concentrations (mean +/- standard deviation: 1.36 +/- 0.08), compared with those from the 1960s (1.04 +/- 0.05). Concentrations were not correlated with gender, smoking habit, age, cause of death, or occupation. These findings suggest that vanadium in ambient air is increasing and it represents a potential health hazard for Mexico City residents. Air pollution monitoring efforts should include vanadium concentrations in suspended particles to follow-up the findings reported herein. Researchers need to acquire a better knowledge of the levels of airborne vanadium exposure at which risk to human health occurs. PMID:12641188

  16. Pitch angle distributions on ISS measured with Sileye-3 experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casolino, M.; Sileye3/Alteino Collaboration

    In this paper we study the pitch angle distribution of cosmic rays inside ISS. Data have bee obtained with Sileye-3/Alteino experiment, operational during April 2002 in the framework of the Soyuz-34 mission. The experiment is devoted to the study of the Light Flash (LF) phenomenon and the radiation environment on board manned spacecraft. Sileye-3 consists of an electroencephalograph to monitor brain activity of the astronaut during LF perception and a silicon telescope (AST) to measure cosmic rays. The cosmic ray telescope consists of 8 planes of silicon strip detectors (80*80*.380mm) triggered by two scintillators located on top and bottom of the silicon tower. Each silicon plane is divided in 32 strips of 2.5 mm pitch with an angular acceptance of 21.8 degrees and a resolution of ≃ 3^o. The silicon telescope is capable to identify nuclei from B to Ni and to measure LET in the 1keV/μm - 1000 keV/μm range. We study pitch angle distributions for galactic and trapped (protons in the South Atlantic Anomaly) component as a function of the orbit, the orientation of the station and the geomagnetic field.

  17. THE EMISSION MEASURE DISTRIBUTION OF IMPULSIVE PHASE FLARE FOOTPOINTS

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, D. R.; Hannah, I. G.; Fletcher, L.; Milligan, R. O.

    2013-04-10

    The temperature distribution of the emitting plasma is a crucial constraint when studying the heating of solar flare footpoints. However, determining this for impulsive phase footpoints has been difficult in the past due to insufficient spatial resolution to resolve the footpoints from the loop structures, and a lack of spectral and temporal coverage. We use the capabilities of Hinode/Extreme Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer to obtain the first emission measure distributions (EMDs) from impulsive phase footpoints in six flares. Observations with good spectral coverage were analyzed using a regularized inversion method to recover the EMDs. We find that the EMDs all share a peak temperature of around 8 MK, with lines formed around this temperature having emission measures (EMs) peaking between 10{sup 28} and 10{sup 29} cm{sup -5}, indicating a substantial presence of plasma at very high temperatures within the footpoints. An EMD gradient of EM(T) {approx} T is found in all events. Previous theoretical work on EM gradients shows this to be consistent with a scenario in which the deposited flare energy directly heats only the top layer of the flare chromosphere, while deeper layers are heated by conduction.

  18. Development of measuring system to measure standing pose of the foot using distributed triaxial force sensor.

    PubMed

    Nishi, Akimi; Tanaka, Noriko; Tsujiuchi, Nobutaka; Koizumi, Takayuki; Oshima, Hiroko; Minato, Kotaro; Yoshida, Masaki; Tsuchiya, Yotaro

    2006-01-01

    The bottom of a person's foot grips the floor for balance, and the action force and action moment work at the foot bottom when he maintains posture and when he moves. They are important indices in the evaluation and the medical attention of standing pose balance and gait disturbances. A lot of equipments to measure the floor reaction force have been researched. However, no floor reaction force meter exists that can measure distribution information force in three directions. This paper aims at the development of a system that can measure the standing pose of the foot that exists from a measuring instrument and that can measure the standing pose of foot distributed 6times4 three axis force sensors and software that displays and preserves the output of the sensor element. A time change of force that worked at the foot bottom is sought as a vector by outputting each sensor element. Moreover, an action vector is three dimensionally displayed whose data can be intuitively understood. The results of experiments show that the measuring system can measure the action force of the foot bottom as distribution information on force in three directions. PMID:17945646

  19. Formation Evaluation of High-Angle and Horizontal (HA/HZ) Well: 1990s' Issues, 2000s'Learnings, and 2010s' Directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaillot, Philippe; Mendoza, Alberto; Zhou, Jinjuan; Mardon, Duncan; Wertanen, Scott; Passey, Quinn

    2010-05-01

    The 1990s can be seen retrospectively as "the decade of the horizontal well," because it was during this period that sharper seismic imaging, new drilling technology and reliable geosteering were recognized as leading to increased hydrocarbon production from extended-reach wells with correspondingly lower unit costs. Subsequent advances in logging-while-drilling and in the deployment of wireline tools in the 2000s have allowed horizontal-well data broadly to match vertical-well databases in terms of the achievable range of along-hole measurements. However, tool environmental corrections in horizontal wells are more complex, particularly because of the 3D manifestations of differential invasion (of water-base mud filtrate) and of formation heterogeneity. The technological advances in data acquisition have widened still further the gap between our ability to measure along hole and our ability to interpret the resulting log data. Indeed, even with current logging technology, it may not be possible to evaluate accurately some of the parameters we wish to quantify. The interpretation of environmentally-corrected, horizontal-well logs can be far more difficult than for corresponding logs in vertical or even relatively high-angle wells. The situation is compounded by dipping beds and by undulating well trajectories. An overriding issue is the nature and scale of formation anisotropy, especially that which relates to formation resistivity. After having introduced industry-recognized issues related to formation evaluation in high-angle/ horizontal (HA/HZ) wells, this paper reviews current academic and industry research efforts to develop methods for faster modeling and inversion of tool response in more complex geometries and more realistic formations. A workflow that combines azimuthal nuclear and scalar resisistivity logging-while-drilling (LWD) logs to construct a common subsurface model is illustrated. Data include standard LWD triple-combo logs of wells with an

  20. Measurements of Gas Bubble Size Distributions in Flowing Liquid Mercury

    SciTech Connect

    Wendel, Mark W; Riemer, Bernie; Abdou, Ashraf A

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Pressure waves created in liquid mercury pulsed spallation targets have been shown to induce cavitation damage on the target container. One way to mitigate such damage would be to absorb the pressure pulse energy into a dispersed population of small bubbles, however, measuring such a population in mercury is difficult since it is opaque and the mercury is involved in a turbulent flow. Ultrasonic measurements have been attempted on these types of flows, but the flow noise can interfere with the measurement, and the results are unverifiable and often unrealistic. Recently, a flow loop was built and operated at Oak Ridge National Labarotory to assess the capability of various bubbler designs to deliver an adequate population of bubbles to mitigate cavitation damage. The invented diagnostic technique involves flowing the mercury with entrained gas bubbles in a steady state through a horizontal piping section with a glass-window observation port located on the top. The mercury flow is then suddenly stopped and the bubbles are allowed to settle on the glass due to buoyancy. Using a bright-field illumination and a high-speed camera, the arriving bubbles are detected and counted, and then the images can be processed to determine the bubble populations. After using this technique to collect data on each bubbler, bubble size distributions were built for the purpose of quantifying bubbler performance, allowing the selection of the best bubbler options. This paper presents the novel procedure, photographic technique, sample visual results and some example bubble size distributions. The best bubbler options were subsequently used in proton beam irradiation tests performed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The cavitation damage results from the irradiated test plates in contact with the mercury are available for correlation with the bubble populations. The most effective mitigating population can now be designed into prototypical geometries for implementation into

  1. Theoretical foundation for measuring the groundwater age distribution.

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, William Payton; Arnold, Bill Walter

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we use PFLOTRAN, a highly scalable, parallel, flow and reactive transport code to simulate the concentrations of 3H, 3He, CFC-11, CFC-12, CFC-113, SF6, 39Ar, 81Kr, 4He and themean groundwater age in heterogeneous fields on grids with an excess of 10 million nodes. We utilize this computational platform to simulate the concentration of multiple tracers in high-resolution, heterogeneous 2-D and 3-D domains, and calculate tracer-derived ages. Tracer-derived ages show systematic biases toward younger ages when the groundwater age distribution contains water older than the maximum tracer age. The deviation of the tracer-derived age distribution from the true groundwater age distribution increases with increasing heterogeneity of the system. However, the effect of heterogeneity is diminished as the mean travel time gets closer the tracer age limit. Age distributions in 3-D domains differ significantly from 2-D domains. 3D simulations show decreased mean age, and less variance in age distribution for identical heterogeneity statistics. High-performance computing allows for investigation of tracer and groundwater age systematics in high-resolution domains, providing a platform for understanding and utilizing environmental tracer and groundwater age information in heterogeneous 3-D systems. Groundwater environmental tracers can provide important constraints for the calibration of groundwater flow models. Direct simulation of environmental tracer concentrations in models has the additional advantage of avoiding assumptions associated with using calculated groundwater age values. This study quantifies model uncertainty reduction resulting from the addition of environmental tracer concentration data. The analysis uses a synthetic heterogeneous aquifer and the calibration of a flow and transport model using the pilot point method. Results indicate a significant reduction in the uncertainty in permeability with the addition of environmental tracer data, relative

  2. Warming, Contraction, and Freshening of Antarctic Bottom Water since the 1990s, with a Potential Ice-Sheet Melt Feedback.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Gregory; Purkey, Sarah; Rintoul, Stephen; Swift, James

    2013-04-01

    We analyze changes in Antarctic Bottom Waters (AABW) around the deep Southern Ocean using repeat section data collected between 1981 and 2012. The international World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) Hydrographic Program collected a global high-quality baseline of full-depth, accurate oceanographic transects in the 1980s and 1990s. Since the 2000s, some of these transects are being reoccupied, again through international collaboration, as part of GO-SHIP (The Global Ocean Ship-Based Hydrographic Investigations Program). The average dates of the first and last data used to estimate these trends are circa 1991 and 2008. Temperature analyses reveal a nearly global-scale signature of warming in the abyssal ocean ventilated from the Antarctic. In the deep basins around Antarctica, AABW warmed at a rate of 0.02 to 0.05 °C per decade below 4000 m. In addition, the waters between 1000 and 4000 m within and south of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current warmed at a rate of about 0.03 °C per decade. With this warming, cold, deep isotherms are sinking in the Southern Ocean. The 0 °C potential isotherm sinking rate is around 100 m per decade, implying a 8.2 (±2.6) Sv contraction rate of AABW, about 7% per decade. In addition to this contraction, AABW freshening is observed within the Indian and Pacific sectors of the Southern Ocean. The freshening signal is stronger closer to AABW sources. Its spatial pattern implies recent changes in AABW formation, perhaps partly owing to freshening of the shelf waters, which has been linked to increases in glacial ice sheet melt. The observed rate of water-mass freshening for AABW colder than 0°C in the Indian and Pacific Sectors of the Southern Ocean is about half of the estimated increase in mass lost by glacial ice sheets there in recent years. A positive feedback loop might link the AABW contraction and ice sheet melt-influenced freshening as follows: Increased ocean heat flux drives enhanced basal melt of floating ice shelves

  3. Asymmetries in coronal spectral lines and emission measure distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Tripathi, Durgesh; Klimchuk, James A.

    2013-12-10

    It has previously been argued that (1) spicules do not provide enough pre-heated plasma to fill the corona, and (2) even if they did, additional heating would be required to keep the plasma hot as it expands upward. Here we address whether spicules play an important role by injecting plasma at cooler temperatures (<2 MK), which then gets heated to coronal values at higher altitudes. We measure red-blue asymmetries in line profiles formed over a wide range of temperatures in the bright moss areas of two active regions. We derive emission measure distributions from the excess wing emission. We find that the asymmetries and emission measures are small and conclude that spicules do not inject an important (dominant) mass flux into the cores of active regions at temperatures >0.6 MK (log T > 5.8). These conclusions apply not only to spicules but also to any process that suddenly heats and accelerates chromospheric plasma (e.g., a chromospheric nanoflare). The traditional picture of coronal heating and chromospheric evaporation appears to remain the most likely explanation of the active region corona.

  4. Distributed Sensible Heat Flux Measurements for Wireless Sensor Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huwald, H.; Brauchli, T.; Lehning, M.; Higgins, C. W.

    2015-12-01

    The sensible heat flux component of the surface energy balance is typically computed using eddy covariance or two point profile measurements while alternative approaches such as the flux variance method based on convective scaling has been much less explored and applied. Flux variance (FV) certainly has a few limitations and constraints but may be an interesting and competitive method in low-cost and power limited wireless sensor networks (WSN) with the advantage of providing spatio-temporal sensible heat flux over the domain of the network. In a first step, parameters such as sampling frequency, sensor response time, and averaging interval are investigated. Then we explore the applicability and the potential of the FV method for use in WSN in a field experiment. Low-cost sensor systems are tested and compared against reference instruments (3D sonic anemometers) to evaluate the performance and limitations of the sensors as well as the method with respect to the standard calculations. Comparison experiments were carried out at several sites to gauge the flux measurements over different surface types (gravel, grass, water) from the low-cost systems. This study should also serve as an example of spatially distributed sensible heat flux measurements.

  5. Measurements of Infrared and Acoustic Source Distributions in Jet Plumes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agboola, Femi A.; Bridges, James; Saiyed, Naseem

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to use the linear phased array (LPA) microphones and infrared (IR) imaging to study the effects of advanced nozzle-mixing techniques on jet noise reduction. Several full-scale engine nozzles were tested at varying power cycles with the linear phased array setup parallel to the jet axis. The array consisted of 16 sparsely distributed microphones. The phased array microphone measurements were taken at a distance of 51.0 ft (15.5 m) from the jet axis, and the results were used to obtain relative overall sound pressure levels from one nozzle design to the other. The IR imaging system was used to acquire real-time dynamic thermal patterns of the exhaust jet from the nozzles tested. The IR camera measured the IR radiation from the nozzle exit to a distance of six fan diameters (X/D(sub FAN) = 6), along the jet plume axis. The images confirmed the expected jet plume mixing intensity, and the phased array results showed the differences in sound pressure level with respect to nozzle configurations. The results show the effects of changes in configurations to the exit nozzles on both the flows mixing patterns and radiant energy dissipation patterns. By comparing the results from these two measurements, a relationship between noise reduction and core/bypass flow mixing is demonstrated.

  6. Interdecadal changes on the seasonal prediction of the western North Pacific summer climate around the late 1970s and early 1990s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chaofan; Lu, Riyu; Dong, Buwen

    2016-04-01

    Identifying predictability and the corresponding sources for the western North Pacific (WNP) summer climate in the case of non-stationary teleconnections during recent decades benefits for further improvements of long-range prediction on the WNP and East Asian summers. In the past few decades, pronounced increases on the summer sea surface temperature (SST) and associated interannual variability are observed over the tropical Indian Ocean and eastern Pacific around the late 1970s and over the Maritime Continent and western-central Pacific around the early 1990s. These increases are associated with significant enhancements of the interannual variability for the lower-tropospheric wind over the WNP. In this study, we further assess interdecadal changes on the seasonal prediction of the WNP summer anomalies, using May-start retrospective forecasts from the ENSEMBLES multi-model project in the period 1960-2005. It is found that prediction of the WNP summer anomalies exhibits an interdecadal shift with higher prediction skills since the late 1970s, particularly after the early 1990s. Improvements of the prediction skills for SSTs after the late 1970s are mainly found around tropical Indian Ocean and the WNP. The better prediction of the WNP after the late 1970s may arise mainly from the improvement of the SST prediction around the tropical eastern Indian Ocean. The close teleconnections between the tropical eastern Indian Ocean and WNP summer variability work both in the model predictions and observations. After the early 1990s, on the other hand, the improvements are detected mainly around the South China Sea and Philippines for the lower-tropospheric zonal wind and precipitation anomalies, associating with a better description of the SST anomalies around the Maritime Continent. A dipole SST pattern over the Maritime Continent and the central equatorial Pacific Ocean is closely related to the WNP summer anomalies after the early 1990s. This teleconnection mode is quite

  7. A reference standard for bidirectional reflection distribution function and bidirectional transmission distribution function measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witherow, William K. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    A Lambertian reference standard for uniformly scattering a beam of light is constructed of a plate having a planar surface with a layer of glue disposed on the surface. An evenly packed layer of monodisperse spheres is set in the layer, and when the standard is used for bi-directional (BRDF) measurements, the spheres are coated with a layer of highly relective substance, such as gold or silver. When the standard is used for bi-directional transmittance distribution function (BTDF) measurements, the spheres are of a transparent material and are provided with a roughened surface, as by acid etching. In this case, the layer of glue is an optical cement, and the plate is of glass, with the spheres, the layer, and the plate all possessing a similar refractive index.

  8. Trends in on-road vehicle emissions and ambient air quality in Atlanta, Georgia, USA, from the late 1990s through 2009.

    PubMed

    Vijayaraghavan, Krish; DenBleyker, Allison; Ma, Lan; Lindhjem, Chris; Yarwood, Greg

    2014-07-01

    On-road vehicle emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NO(x)), and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) during 1995-2009 in the Atlanta Metropolitan Statistical Area were estimated using the Motor Vehicle Emission Simulator (MOVES) model and data from the National Emissions Inventories and the State of Georgia. Statistically significant downward trends (computed using the nonparametric Theil-Sen method) in annual on-road CO, NO(x), and VOC emissions of 6.1%, 3.3%, and 6.0% per year, respectively, are noted during the 1995-2009 period despite an increase in total vehicle distance traveled. The CO and NO(x) emission trends are correlated with statistically significant downward trends in ambient air concentrations of CO and NO(x) in Atlanta ranging from 8.0% to 11.8% per year and from 5.8% to 8.7% per year, respectively, during similar time periods. Weather-adjusted summertime ozone concentrations in Atlanta exhibited a statistically significant declining trend of 2.3% per year during 2001-2009. Although this trend coexists with the declining trends in on-road NO(x), VOC, and CO emissions, identifying the cause of the downward trend in ozone is complicated by reductions in multiple precursors from different source sectors. Implications: Large reductions in on-road vehicle emissions of CO and NO(x) in Atlanta from the late 1990s to 2009, despite an increase in total vehicle distance traveled, contributed to a significant improvement in air quality through decreases in ambient air concentrations of CO and NO(x) during this time period. Emissions reductions in motor vehicles and other source sectors resulted in these improvements and the observed declining trend in ozone concentrations over the past decade. Although these historical trends cannot be extrapolated to the future because pollutant concentration contributions due to on-road vehicle emissions will likely become an increasingly smaller fraction of the atmospheric total, they provide an indication of

  9. Low energy ion distribution measurements in Madison Symmetric Torus plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Titus, J. B. Mezonlin, E. D.; Johnson, J. A.

    2014-06-15

    Charge-exchange neutrals contain information about the contents of a plasma and can be detected as they escape confinement. The Florida A and M University compact neutral particle analyzer (CNPA), used to measure the contents of neutral particle flux, has been reconfigured, calibrated, and installed on the Madison Symmetric Torus (MST) for high temperature deuterium plasmas. The energy range of the CNPA has been extended to cover 0.34–5.2 keV through an upgrade of the 25 detection channels. The CNPA has been used on all types of MST plasmas at a rate of 20 kHz throughout the entire discharge (∼70 ms). Plasma parameter scans show that the ion distribution is most dependent on the plasma current. Magnetic reconnection events throughout these scans produce stronger poloidal electric fields, stronger global magnetic modes, and larger changes in magnetic energy all of which heavily influence the non-Maxwellian part of the ion distribution (the fast ion tail)

  10. Emission measure distribution for diffuse regions in solar active regions

    SciTech Connect

    Subramanian, Srividya; Tripathi, Durgesh; Klimchuk, James A.; Mason, Helen E.

    2014-11-01

    Our knowledge of the diffuse emission that encompasses active regions is very limited. In this paper we investigate two off-limb active regions, namely, AR 10939 and AR 10961, to probe the underlying heating mechanisms. For this purpose, we have used spectral observations from Hinode/EIS and employed the emission measure (EM) technique to obtain the thermal structure of these diffuse regions. Our results show that the characteristic EM distributions of the diffuse emission regions peak at log T = 6.25 and the coolward slopes are in the range 1.4-3.3. This suggests that both low- as well as high-frequency nanoflare heating events are at work. Our results provide additional constraints on the properties of these diffuse emission regions and their contribution to the background/foreground when active region cores are observed on-disk.

  11. Multipartite distribution property of one way discord beyond measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Si-Yuan; Zhang, Yu-Ran; Yang, Wen-Li; Fan, Heng

    2015-03-01

    We investigate the distribution property of one way discord in the multipartite system by introducing the concept of polygamy deficit for one way discord. The difference between one way discord and quantum discord is analogue to the one between entanglement of assistance and entanglement of formation. For tripartite pure states, two kinds of polygamy deficits are presented with the equivalent expressions and physical interpretations regardless of measurement. For four-partite pure states, we provide a condition which makes one way discord polygamy satisfied. In addition, we generalize these results to the case for N-partite pure states. Those results can be applicable to multipartite quantum systems and are complementary to our understanding of the shareability of quantum correlations.

  12. Distributed fibre optic strain measurements on a driven pile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woschitz, Helmut; Monsberger, Christoph; Hayden, Martin

    2016-05-01

    In civil engineering pile systems are used in unstable areas as a foundation of buildings or other structures. Among other parameters, the load capacity of the piles depends on their length. A better understanding of the mechanism of load-transfer to the soil would allow selective optimisation of the system. Thereby, the strain variations along the loaded pile are of major interest. In this paper, we report about a field trial using an optical backscatter reflectometer for distributed fibre-optic strain measurements along a driven pile. The most significant results gathered in a field trial with artificial pile loadings are presented. Calibration results show the performance of the fibre-optic system with variations in the strain-optic coefficient.

  13. Determination of particle size distributions from acoustic wave propagation measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Spelt, P.D.; Norato, M.A.; Sangani, A.S.; Tavlarides, L.L.

    1999-05-01

    The wave equations for the interior and exterior of the particles are ensemble averaged and combined with an analysis by Allegra and Hawley [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. {bold 51}, 1545 (1972)] for the interaction of a single particle with the incident wave to determine the phase speed and attenuation of sound waves propagating through dilute slurries. The theory is shown to compare very well with the measured attenuation. The inverse problem, i.e., the problem of determining the particle size distribution given the attenuation as a function of frequency, is examined using regularization techniques that have been successful for bubbly liquids. It is shown that, unlike the bubbly liquids, the success of solving the inverse problem is limited since it depends strongly on the nature of particles and the frequency range used in inverse calculations. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

  14. Measuring the Distribution and Excitation of Cometary Volatiles Using ALMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charnley, S. B.; Cordiner, M. A.; Remijan, A. J.; Boissier, J.; Milam, S. N.; Mumma, M. J.; Villanueva, G.; Paganini, L.; Bockelée-Morvan, D.; Biver, N.; Kuan, Y.-J.; Chuang, Y.-L.; Lis, D. C.; Crovisier, J.; Coulson, I.; Minniti, D.

    2015-12-01

    We present measurements of spatially and spectrally resolved CH3OH emission from the coma of comet C/2012 K1 (PanSTARRS) observed using the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) in June 2014. The CH3OH distribution is centrally peaked, with a spatial profile consistent with production from the sublimation of ices from the nucleus. From the detection of seven strong CH3OH lines in the J=7-6 band, the line-of-sight average rotational excitation temperature (Trot) is derived as a function of distance across the coma. At the CH3OH peak, we find Trot=92±6 K, falling to about 40 K at a distance of 1000 km.

  15. Surface contamination monitoring by the measurement of scattering distribution functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carosso, Paola A.; Pugel, Nancy J.

    1987-06-01

    This paper describes the use of Bidirectional Scattering Distribution Functions (BSDF) to quantify surface degradation, thus providing an effective method for contamination monitoring. This approach to contamination monitoring is based on the use of witness surfaces (mirrors or glass slides) located next to the critical surfaces. Contaminant accretion can be monitored during all phases of spacecraft fabrication, assembly, and testing. The method can be applied in other areas of contamination control such as monitoring of clean room environments. The BSDF can also prove extremely useful in establishing contamination control requirements and acceptability criteria. This paper describes the apparatus adopted to perform BSDF measurements and discusses some practical aspects of data collection. The results obtained in contamination monitoring programs performed at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center are presented. Some possible new applications of this monitoring technique are also addressed.

  16. Comparison of Raindrop Size Distribution Measurements by Collocated Disdrometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tokay, Ali; Petersen, Walter A.; Gatlin, Patrick; Wingo, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    An impact-type Joss-Waldvogel disdrometer (JWD), a two-dimensional video disdrometer (2DVD), and a laser optical OTT Particle Size and Velocity (PARSIVEL) disdrometer (PD) were used to measure the raindrop size distribution (DSD) over a 6-month period in Huntsville, Alabama. Comparisons indicate event rain totals for all three disdrometers that were in reasonable agreement with a reference rain gauge. In a relative sense, hourly composite DSDs revealed that the JWD was more sensitive to small drops (,1 mm), while the PD appeared to severely underestimate small drops less than 0.76mm in diameter. The JWD and 2DVD measured comparable number concentrations of midsize drops (1-3mm) and large drops (3-5 mm), while the PD tended to measure relatively higher drop concentrations at sizes larger than 2.44mm in diameter. This concentration disparity tended to occur when hourly rain rates and drop counts exceeded 2.5mm/h and 400/min, respectively. Based on interactions with the PD manufacturer, the partially inhomogeneous laser beam is considered the cause of the PD drop count overestimation. PD drop fall speeds followed the expected terminal fall speed relationship quite well, while the 2DVD occasionally measured slower drops for diameters larger than 2.4mm, coinciding with events where wind speeds were greater than 4m/s. The underestimation of small drops by the PD had a pronounced effect on the intercept and shape of parameters of gamma-fitted DSDs, while the overestimation of midsize and larger drops resulted in higher mean values for PD integral rain parameters

  17. Solar reflector soiling pattern distributions and reflectance measurement requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Kidney, K. )

    1990-10-01

    Short-term specular reflectance losses from optical surfaces used in the collection or concentration of solar energy results in significant reduction of these systems' output. Losses range from 0.1% to 1.0% per day, approaching asymptotes of 25% to 60% for periods greater than one year, depending onsite and season. To appropriately assess the value of a particular location for the production of power, consideration of the rates of soiling and strategies to minimize losses resulting from soiling must be considered. Strategies for measuring the optical performance of reflector materials to a specified degree of accuracy have been developed, according to the types of soiling patterns observed. It was found most soiling occurs with the accumulation of particulates in spots of different sizes, and the spot sizes follow a lognormal distribution. For most practical situations, it was determined that 10 measurements with a 1-cm-diameter beam are enough to place the average value within 3% of the true value, with a confidence level of 95%.

  18. Measuring artificial recharge with fiber optic distributed temperature sensing.

    PubMed

    Becker, Matthew W; Bauer, Brian; Hutchinson, Adam

    2013-01-01

    Heat was used as a tracer to measure infiltration rates from a recharge basin. The propagation of diurnal oscillation of surface water temperature into the basin bed was monitored along a transect using Fiber Optic Distributed Temperature Sensing (FODTS). The propagation rate was related to downward specific discharge using standard theory of heat advection and dispersion in saturated porous media. An estimate of the temporal variation of heat propagation was achieved using a wavelet transform to find the phase lag between the surface temperature diurnal oscillation and the correlated oscillation at 0.33 and 0.98 m below the bed surface. The wavelet results compared well to a constant velocity model of thermal advection and dispersion during periods of relatively constant discharge rates. The apparent dispersion of heat was found to be due primarily to hydrodynamic mechanisms rather than thermal diffusion. Specific discharge estimates using the FODTS technique also compared well to water balance estimates over a four month period, although there were occasional deviations that have yet to be adequately explained. The FODTS technique is superior to water balance in that it produces estimates of infiltration rate every meter along the cable transect, every half hour. These high resolution measurements highlighted areas of low infiltration and demonstrated the degradation of basin efficiency due to source waters of high suspended solids. FODTS monitoring promises to be a useful tool for diagnosing basin performance in an era of increasing groundwater demand. PMID:23110559

  19. Measurement of Gamma Energy Distributions and Multiplicities Using STEFF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, E.; Smith, A. G.; Pollitt, A. J.; Matarranz, J.; Tsekhanovich, I.; Soldner, T.; Koster, U.; Biswas, D. C.

    2014-05-01

    Prompt gamma-ray energy distributions and multiplicities released during thermally induced fission of 235U have been measured using STEFF (SpecTrometer for Exotic Fission Fragments). Thermal neutrons are provided by the high-flux reactor at the ILL, Grenoble. STEFF is a unique 2E2v device that uses a coincidence timing method to measure the emission of prompt gamma rays as a function of the fragment mass and energy. Following scission, the fission fragments contain excitation energy that is released via prompt neutron and gamma-ray emission as the fragment decays to the ground state. STEFF contains an array of 11 NaI detectors surrounding the uranium target providing a 6.8% photopeak detection efficiency for gamma rays released within 1 ns of the scission time. STEFF also consists of 7 NE213 detectors, which detect the emission of prompt neutrons, the release of which is associated with reduction of fragment energy and, to a lesser extent, fragment spin. This experiment acts as a direct response to the NEA high priority demand which requires more accurate knowledge of heating caused by gamma emission in the next generation of nuclear reactors.

  20. Upscaling of lysimeter measurements to regional groundwater nitrate distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klammler, Gernot; Fank, Johann; Kupfersberger, Hans; Rock, Gerhard

    2015-04-01

    For many European countries nitrate leaching from the soil zone into the aquifer due to surplus application of mineral fertilizer and animal manure by farmers constitutes the most important threat to groundwater quality. This is a diffuse pollution situation and measures to change agricultural production have to be investigated at the aquifer scale to safeguard drinking water supply from shallow groundwater resources Lysimeters are state-of-the-art measurements for water and solute fluxes through the unsaturated zone towards groundwater at the point scale, but due to regional heterogeneities (especially concerning soil conditions) lysimeters cannot provide aquifer-wide groundwater recharge and solute leaching. Thus, in this work the numerical simulation model SIMWASER/STOTRASIM (Stenitzer, 1988; Feichtinger, 1998) for quantifying groundwater recharge and nitrate leaching at aquifer scale is applied. Nevertheless, according to Groenendijk et al. (2014) a model calibration by means of lysimeter measurements is essential, since uncalibrated models are generally far from acceptable. Thus, a lysimeter provides the basis for the parameterization of numerical simulation models. To quantify also the impact on regional nitrate distribution in the groundwater, we couple the unsaturated zone model SIMWASER/STOTRASIM with the saturated groundwater flow and solute transport model FELOW (Diersch, 2009) sequentially. In principal, the problem could be solved by the 3 dimensional equation describing variable saturated groundwater flow and solute transport. However, this is computationally prohibitive due to the temporal and spatial scope of the task, particularly in the framework of running numerous simulations to compromise between conflicting interests (i.e. good groundwater status and high agricultural yield). To account for the unknown regional distribution of crops grown and amount, timing and kind of fertilizers used a stochastic tool (Klammler et al, 2011) is developed that

  1. Sensor intercomparison of distributed surface radiation measurement system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dou, Baocheng; Wen, Jianguang; Li, Xiuhong; Liu, Qiang; Xiao, Qing; Bai, Junhua; Peng, Jingjing; Lin, Xingwen; Zhang, Zhigang; Wu, Xiaodan; Cai, Erli; Zhang, Jialin; Chang, Chongyan

    2015-12-01

    The Wireless Sensor Networks of Coarse-resolution Pixel Parameters (CPP-WSN) was established to monitor the heterogeneity of coarse spatial resolution pixel, with consideration of different categories of land surface parameters in Huailai, Hebei province, China (40.349°N, 115.785°E). The observation network of radiation parameters (RadNet) in CPP-WSN was developed for multi-band radiation measurement and consisted of 6 nodes covering 2km*2km area to capture its heterogeneity. Each node employed four sensors to observe the five radiation parameters. The number and location of nodes in RadNet were determined through the representativeness-based sampling method. Thus, the RadNet is a distributed observation system with nodes work synchronously and measurements used together. The intercomparison experiment for RadNet is necessary and was conducted in Huailai Remote Sensing Station from 5th Aug to 10th Aug in 2012. Time series observations from various sensors were collected and analyzed. The maximum relative differences among sensors of UVR, SWR, LWR, PAR, and LST are 4.83%, 5.3%, 3.71%, 11%, and 0.54%, respectively. Sensor/parameter differences indeed exist and are considerable large for PAR, SWR, UVR, and LWR, which cannot be ignored. The linear normalization and quadratic polynomial normalization perform similar for CUV5/UVR, PQS1/PAR, CNR4/SWR, and SI-111/LST. As for CNR4/LWR, quadratic polynomial normalization show higher accuracy than linear normalization, especially in node2, node4, and node5. Thus, the LWR measured by CNR4 is proved to be nonlinear, and should be normalized with quadratic polynomial coefficients for higher precision.

  2. Measuring the effects of distributed database models on transaction availability measures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mukkamala, Ravi

    1991-01-01

    Data distribution, data replication, and system reliability are key factors in determining the availability measures for transactions in distributed database systems. In order to simplify the evaluation of these measures, database designers and researchers tend to make unrealistic assumptions about these factors. Here, the effect of such assumptions on the computational complexity and accuracy of such evaluations is investigated. A database system is represented with five parameters related to the above factors. Probabilistic analysis is employed to evaluate the availability of read-one and read-write transactions. Both the read-one/write-all and the majority-read/majority-write replication control policies are considered. It is concluded that transaction availability is more sensitive to variations in degrees of replication, less sensitive to data distribution, and insensitive to reliability variations in a heterogeneous system. The computational complexity of the evaluations is found to be mainly determined by the chosen distributed database model, while the accuracy of the results are not so much dependent on the models.

  3. Magnetic field probe for measuring surface current distributions on millimetre wave microstrip antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grzybowski, R. R.; Bansal, R.

    1991-01-01

    A magnetic field probe for measuring surface current distributions on millimeter wave microstrip antennas has been designed and fabricated. This current probe was tested by measuring the surface current distributions of printed microstrip dipole antennas. The current distributions obtained compared well with the theoretically expected distributions.

  4. Aerosol size distribution seasonal characteristics measured in Tiksi, Russian Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asmi, E.; Kondratyev, V.; Brus, D.; Laurila, T.; Lihavainen, H.; Backman, J.; Vakkari, V.; Aurela, M.; Hatakka, J.; Viisanen, Y.; Uttal, T.; Ivakhov, V.; Makshtas, A.

    2016-02-01

    Four years of continuous aerosol number size distribution measurements from the Arctic Climate Observatory in Tiksi, Russia, are analyzed. Tiksi is located in a region where in situ information on aerosol particle properties has not been previously available. Particle size distributions were measured with a differential mobility particle sizer (in the diameter range of 7-500 nm) and with an aerodynamic particle sizer (in the diameter range of 0.5-10 μm). Source region effects on particle modal features and number, and mass concentrations are presented for different seasons. The monthly median total aerosol number concentration in Tiksi ranges from 184 cm-3 in November to 724 cm-3 in July, with a local maximum in March of 481 cm-3. The total mass concentration has a distinct maximum in February-March of 1.72-2.38 μg m-3 and two minimums in June (0.42 μg m-3) and in September-October (0.36-0.57 μg m-3). These seasonal cycles in number and mass concentrations are related to isolated processes and phenomena such as Arctic haze in early spring, which increases accumulation and coarse-mode numbers, and secondary particle formation in spring and summer, which affects the nucleation and Aitken mode particle concentrations. Secondary particle formation was frequently observed in Tiksi and was shown to be slightly more common in marine, in comparison to continental, air flows. Particle formation rates were the highest in spring, while the particle growth rates peaked in summer. These results suggest two different origins for secondary particles, anthropogenic pollution being the important source in spring and biogenic emissions being significant in summer. The impact of temperature-dependent natural emissions on aerosol and cloud condensation nuclei numbers was significant: the increase in both the particle mass and the CCN (cloud condensation nuclei) number with temperature was found to be higher than in any previous study done over the boreal forest region. In addition

  5. Enthalpy Distributions of Arc Jet Flow Based on Measured Laser Induced Fluorescence, Heat Flux and Stagnation Pressure Distributions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suess, Leonard E.; Milhoan, James D.; Oelke, Lance; Godfrey, Dennis; Larin, Maksim Y.; Scott, Carl D.; Grinstead, Jay H.; DelPapa, Steven

    2011-01-01

    The centerline total enthalpy of arc jet flow is determined using laser induced fluorescence of oxygen and nitrogen atoms. Each component of the energy, kinetic, thermal, and chemical can be determined from LIF measurements. Additionally, enthalpy distributions are inferred from heat flux and pressure probe distribution measurements using an engineering formula. Average enthalpies are determined by integration over the radius of the jet flow, assuming constant mass flux and a mass flux distribution estimated from computational fluid dynamics calculations at similar arc jet conditions. The trends show favorable agreement, but there is an uncertainty that relates to the multiple individual measurements and assumptions inherent in LIF measurements.

  6. Soil Temperature Variability in Complex Terrain measured using Distributed a Fiber-Optic Distributed Temperature Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seyfried, M. S.; Link, T. E.

    2013-12-01

    Soil temperature (Ts) exerts critical environmental controls on hydrologic and biogeochemical processes. Rates of carbon cycling, mineral weathering, infiltration and snow melt are all influenced by Ts. Although broadly reflective of the climate, Ts is sensitive to local variations in cover (vegetative, litter, snow), topography (slope, aspect, position), and soil properties (texture, water content), resulting in a spatially and temporally complex distribution of Ts across the landscape. Understanding and quantifying the processes controlled by Ts requires an understanding of that distribution. Relatively few spatially distributed field Ts data exist, partly because traditional Ts data are point measurements. A relatively new technology, fiber optic distributed temperature system (FO-DTS), has the potential to provide such data but has not been rigorously evaluated in the context of remote, long term field research. We installed FO-DTS in a small experimental watershed in the Reynolds Creek Experimental Watershed (RCEW) in the Owyhee Mountains of SW Idaho. The watershed is characterized by complex terrain and a seasonal snow cover. Our objectives are to: (i) evaluate the applicability of fiber optic DTS to remote field environments and (ii) to describe the spatial and temporal variability of soil temperature in complex terrain influenced by a variable snow cover. We installed fiber optic cable at a depth of 10 cm in contrasting snow accumulation and topographic environments and monitored temperature along 750 m with DTS. We found that the DTS can provide accurate Ts data (+/- .4°C) that resolves Ts changes of about 0.03°C at a spatial scale of 1 m with occasional calibration under conditions with an ambient temperature range of 50°C. We note that there are site-specific limitations related cable installation and destruction by local fauna. The FO-DTS provide unique insight into the spatial and temporal variability of Ts in a landscape. We found strong seasonal

  7. THE COLD SHOULDER: EMISSION MEASURE DISTRIBUTIONS OF ACTIVE REGION CORES

    SciTech Connect

    Schmelz, J. T.; Pathak, S.

    2012-09-10

    The coronal heating mechanism for active region core loops is difficult to determine because these loops are often not resolved and cannot be studied individually. Rather, we concentrate on the 'inter-moss' areas between loop footpoints. We use observations from the Hinode EUV Imaging Spectrometer and the X-Ray Telescope to calculate the emission measure distributions of eight inter-moss areas in five different active regions. The combined data sets provide both high- and low-temperature constraints and ensure complete coverage in the temperature range appropriate for active regions. For AR 11113, the emission can be modeled with heating events that occur on timescales less than the cooling time. The loops in the core regions appear to be close to equilibrium and are consistent with steady heating. The other regions studied, however, appear to be dominated by nanoflare heating. Our results are consistent with the idea that active region age is an important parameter in determining whether steady or nanoflare heating is primarily responsible for the core emission, that is, older regions are more likely to be dominated by steady heating, while younger regions show more evidence of nanoflares.

  8. Device-independent quantum key distribution based on measurement inputs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahaman, Ramij; Parker, Matthew G.; Mironowicz, Piotr; Pawłowski, Marcin

    2015-12-01

    We provide an analysis of a family of device-independent quantum key distribution (QKD) protocols that has the following features. (a) The bits used for the secret key do not come from the results of the measurements on an entangled state but from the choices of settings. (b) Instead of a single security parameter (a violation of some Bell inequality) a set of them is used to estimate the level of trust in the secrecy of the key. The main advantage of these protocols is a smaller vulnerability to imperfect random number generators made possible by feature (a). We prove the security and the robustness of such protocols. We show that using our method it is possible to construct a QKD protocol which retains its security even if the source of randomness used by communicating parties is strongly biased. As a proof of principle, an explicit example of a protocol based on the Hardy's paradox is presented. Moreover, in the noiseless case, the protocol is secure in a natural way against any type of memory attack, and thus allows one to reuse the device in subsequent rounds. We also analyze the robustness of the protocol using semidefinite programming methods. Finally, we present a postprocessing method, and observe a paradoxical property that rejecting some random part of the private data can increase the key rate of the protocol.

  9. Aerosol size distribution seasonal characteristics measured in Tiksi, Russian Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asmi, E.; Kondratyev, V.; Brus, D.; Laurila, T.; Lihavainen, H.; Backman, J.; Vakkari, V.; Aurela, M.; Hatakka, J.; Viisanen, Y.; Uttal, T.; Ivakhov, V.; Makshtas, A.

    2015-07-01

    Four years of continuous aerosol number size distribution measurements from an Arctic Climate Observatory in Tiksi Russia are analyzed. Source region effects on particle modal features, and number and mass concentrations are presented for different seasons. The monthly median total aerosol number concentration in Tiksi ranges from 184 cm-3 in November to 724 cm-3 in July with a local maximum in March of 481 cm-3. The total mass concentration has a distinct maximum in February-March of 1.72-2.38 μg m-3 and two minimums in June of 0.42 μg m-3 and in September-October of 0.36-0.57 μg m-3. These seasonal cycles in number and mass concentrations are related to isolated aerosol sources such as Arctic haze in early spring which increases accumulation and coarse mode numbers, and biogenic emissions in summer which affects the smaller, nucleation and Aitken mode particles. The impact of temperature dependent natural emissions on aerosol and cloud condensation nuclei numbers was significant. Therefore, in addition to the precursor emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds, the frequent Siberian forest fires, although far are suggested to play a role in Arctic aerosol composition during the warmest months. During calm and cold months aerosol concentrations were occasionally increased by nearby aerosol sources in trapping inversions. These results provide valuable information on inter-annual cycles and sources of Arctic aerosols.

  10. Radiometric measurement of temperature distributions in solar cavity receivers

    SciTech Connect

    Thacher, E.F.; Giannola, P.S.

    1989-03-01

    An engineering tool incorporating a scanning infrared radiometer, an image digitizer, a microcomputer, and the software to drive the system was developed to allow remote mapping of the temperature distribution in solar cavity receivers. Using enclosure analysis, the infrared image processing program extracts the irradiance map from the radiosity map of the cavity to yield an emissive power map. Using the calibration curve of the radiometer and the emissivity of the surface of the cavity, the emissive power map is transformed into a temperature map. The system was tested by comparing its calculated temperatures to temperatures measured by thermocouples at several locations on the surfaces of heated model cavity receivers. The average relative error for the cavities ranged from 4.6%--34.9%, with the relative error on the base usually less than half that on the wall. Some work was also carried out to compensate the detected radiosity field for the system transfer function error of the scanner system. 8 refs., 57 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. Study on the changes in the East Asian precipitation in the mid-1990s using a high-resolution global downscaled atmospheric data set

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Eun-Chul; Yeh, Sang-Wook; Hong, Song-You; Kim, Jung-Eun; Wu, Renguang; Yoshimura, Kei

    2014-03-01

    A high-resolution global atmospheric data set (DA126) is used to understand the East Asian summer precipitation variability. It is found that a fine resolution of the DA126 precipitation data is able to reveal the detailed structures of the rainfall variability over East Asia and southern China in comparison with global analysis precipitation data sets such as the Climate Prediction Center Merged Analysis of Precipitation (CMAP). The first two empirical orthogonal functions (EOFs) of the DA126 precipitation data over East Asia accurately reflect a decadal shift in rainfall over southern China in the mid-1990s. Furthermore, the first EOF-related precipitation of the DA126 is related to the tropical Pacific sea surface temperature (SST) variability (i.e., El Niño/Southern Oscillation), and the second EOF-related precipitation is associated with the Indian Ocean SST variability. Consequently, the tropical Pacific and the Indian Ocean SSTs have different associations with the East Asian monsoon precipitation variability. However, it is difficult to find such a relationship in the first two EOFs of the CMAP data set over East Asia. Using the DA126 precipitation data set, our further analysis indicates that warming of both the tropical Pacific and the Indian Ocean causes an increase in the rainfall anomaly over southern China after the mid-1990s, which results in a decadal shift in the rainfall anomaly after the mid-1990s. In addition, the first EOF-related precipitation is associated with both the Pacific-Japan-like (PJ-like) pattern and the Eurasian-like pattern. In contrast, the second EOF-related precipitation is only associated with the PJ-like wave trains from the western Pacific to East Asia.

  12. Performance Measurement, Visualization and Modeling of Parallel and Distributed Programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yan, Jerry C.; Sarukkai, Sekhar R.; Mehra, Pankaj; Lum, Henry, Jr. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents a methodology for debugging the performance of message-passing programs on both tightly coupled and loosely coupled distributed-memory machines. The AIMS (Automated Instrumentation and Monitoring System) toolkit, a suite of software tools for measurement and analysis of performance, is introduced and its application illustrated using several benchmark programs drawn from the field of computational fluid dynamics. AIMS includes (i) Xinstrument, a powerful source-code instrumentor, which supports both Fortran77 and C as well as a number of different message-passing libraries including Intel's NX Thinking Machines' CMMD, and PVM; (ii) Monitor, a library of timestamping and trace -collection routines that run on supercomputers (such as Intel's iPSC/860, Delta, and Paragon and Thinking Machines' CM5) as well as on networks of workstations (including Convex Cluster and SparcStations connected by a LAN); (iii) Visualization Kernel, a trace-animation facility that supports source-code clickback, simultaneous visualization of computation and communication patterns, as well as analysis of data movements; (iv) Statistics Kernel, an advanced profiling facility, that associates a variety of performance data with various syntactic components of a parallel program; (v) Index Kernel, a diagnostic tool that helps pinpoint performance bottlenecks through the use of abstract indices; (vi) Modeling Kernel, a facility for automated modeling of message-passing programs that supports both simulation -based and analytical approaches to performance prediction and scalability analysis; (vii) Intrusion Compensator, a utility for recovering true performance from observed performance by removing the overheads of monitoring and their effects on the communication pattern of the program; and (viii) Compatibility Tools, that convert AIMS-generated traces into formats used by other performance-visualization tools, such as ParaGraph, Pablo, and certain AVS/Explorer modules.

  13. Noise Measurements of High Aspect Ratio Distributed Exhaust Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bridges, James

    2015-01-01

    This paper covers far-field acoustic measurements of a family of rectangular nozzles with aspect ratio 8, in the high subsonic flow regime. Several variations of nozzle geometry, commonly proposed for embedded exhaust systems, are explored, including bevels, slants, single broad chevrons and notches, and internal septae. Far-field acoustic results, presented previously for the simple rectangular nozzle, showed that increasing aspect ratio increases the high frequency noise, especially directed in the plane containing the minor axis of the nozzle. Detailed changes to the nozzle geometry generally made little difference in the noise, and the differences were greatest at low speed. Having an extended lip on one broad side ('bevel') did produce up to 3dB more noise in all directions, while extending the lip on the narrow side ('slant') produced up to 2dB more noise, primarily on the side with the extension. Adding a single, non-intrusive chevron, made no significant change to the noise, while inverting the chevron ('notch') produced up to 2dB increase in the noise. Having internal walls ('septae') within the nozzle, such as would be required for structural support or when multiple fan ducts are aggregated, reduced the noise of the rectangular jet, but could produce a highly directional shedding tone from the septae trailing edges. Finally, a nozzle with both septae and a beveled nozzle, representative of the exhaust system envisioned for a distributed propulsion aircraft with a common rectangular duct, produced almost as much noise as the beveled nozzle, with the septae not contributing much reduction in noise.

  14. Noise Measurements of High Aspect Ratio Distributed Exhaust Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bridges, James E.

    2015-01-01

    This paper covers far-field acoustic measurements of a family of rectangular nozzles with aspect ratio 8, in the high subsonic flow regime. Several variations of nozzle geometry, commonly found in embedded exhaust systems, are explored, including bevels, slants, single broad chevrons and notches, and internal septae. Far-field acoustic results, presented previously for the simple rectangular nozzle, showed that increasing aspect ratio increases the high frequency noise, especially directed in the plane containing the minor axis of the nozzle. Detailed changes to the nozzle geometry generally made little difference in the noise, and the differences were greatest at low speed. Having an extended lip on one broad side (bevel) did produce up to 3 decibels more noise in all directions, while extending the lip on the narrow side (slant) produced up to 2 decibels more noise, primarily on the side with the extension. Adding a single, non-intrusive chevron, made no significant change to the noise, while inverting the chevron (notch) produced up to 2decibels increase in the noise. Having internal walls (septae) within the nozzle, such as would be required for structural support or when multiple fan ducts are aggregated, reduced the noise of the rectangular jet, but could produce a highly directional shedding tone from the septae trailing edges. Finally, a nozzle with both septae and a beveled nozzle, representative of the exhaust system envisioned for a distributed electric propulsion aircraft with a common rectangular duct, produced almost as much noise as the beveled nozzle, with the septae not contributing much reduction in noise.

  15. MEASURING AND MODELING VARIATIONS IN DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM WATER QUALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The authors describe a field study that examined the effects of hydraulic mixing on water quality variations in a distribution system. Conducted at the North Penn Water Authority (average production of 5 mgd and 225 mi of distribution pipe), the study incorporated a field samplin...

  16. US National Health Data on Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders: A Research Agenda for the 1990s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Elena S. H.; Liu, William T.

    1992-01-01

    Explores ways to improve the capability of the National Center for Health Statistics to collect national health data on Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders. Standardized interview instruments and data collection procedures offer the possibility of capitalizing on the geographic distribution of these populations in the United States. (SLD)

  17. Warming and Freshening of Antarctic Bottom Water since the 1990s: Implications for Heat and Freshwater Budgets, Circulation Changes, and Sea Level Rise.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, G. C.; Purkey, S. G.

    2012-12-01

    Ocean heat uptake is a large contributor to global sea level rise. Salinity variability can make large local contributions. Ocean temperature and salinity changes are also closely linked to changes in air-sea fluxes of heat, freshwater, and momentum, as well as ocean circulation. Furthermore, since the oceans have absorbed the bulk of the energy gained by the climate system over the last few decades, analyses of ocean heat content changes, including their spatial and temporal variability, aid understanding and predicting climate change. Deep ocean heat content and salinity changes are difficult to assess because changes are small and data are sparse. The international World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) Hydrographic Program collected a high-quality baseline of full-depth, accurate oceanographic measurements, including temperature and salinity, during coast-to-coast trans-ocean expeditions in the 1980s and 1990s. Since the 2000s, a subset of these transects are being reoccupied, again through international collaboration, as part of what is now known as GO-SHIP (The Global Ocean Ship-Based Hydrographic Investigations Program). While the data analyzed were collected between 1980 and 2010, the average times of the first and last data used to estimate trends given here are 1992 and 2005. Temperature analyses reveal a nearly global-scale signature of warming in the abyssal ocean ventilated from the Antarctic. In the deep basins around Antarctica, the water warmed at a rate of 0.02 to 0.05 °C per decade below 4000 m, decreasing northward, for instance to approximately 0.002 °C per decade in the abyssal North Pacific. In addition, the waters between 1000 and 4000 m within and south of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current warmed at a rate of about 0.03 °C per decade on average. For comparison, the global average warming rate of the sea surface is about 0.3 °C per decade from 1992 to 2005. The deep warming implies that cold, deep isotherms are sinking in the Southern

  18. Determination of size distribution of elliptical microvessels from size distribution measurement of their section profiles.

    PubMed

    Krasnoperov, R A; Gerasimov, A N

    2003-01-01

    In transmission electron microscopy, microvessels (MVs) are studied as profiles on ultrathin sections. To determine MV sizes from measurements made on MV profiles, an assumption must be made about MV shape, a circular cylinder being used to approximate the latter on limited lengths. However, this model is irrelevant in case MVs have some flatness. The elliptical cylinder model is preferable, although relationships between the cylinder profile (two-dimensional; 2D) and its true (three-dimensional; 3D) sizes are not yet known. We have obtained the 2D/3D functions that express the relationships between such profile sizes as the minor radius (Y), major radius (X), axial ratio (X/Y), area (S), and perimeter (P) on the one hand, and the corresponding MV sizes (Y(0), X(0), X(0)/Y(0), S(0), and P(0)) on the other. The 2D/3D functions make it possible to derive elliptical MV sizes from section profile size distributions, probability density functions (PDFs) for the latter being determined. We have applied the 2D/3D functions in studying axial ratios of thyroid hemocapillaries. A factual X/Y frequency histogram has been constructed and fitted by theoretical X/Y PDFs plotted for different sets of capillary sizes. The thyroid capillaries have been revealed to be clustered, 72.7% of them having X(0)/Y(0) approximately 1.6, 17.6%, X(0)/Y(0) approximately 1.0, and 9.7%, X(0)/Y(0) approximately 3.2. The proposed technique is instrumental in precise modeling of microcirculatory network geometry. PMID:12524478

  19. LAND-USE CHANGE AND CARBON FLUX BETWEEN 1970S AND 1990S IN CENTRAL HIGHLANDS OF CHIAPAS, MEXICO

    EPA Science Inventory

    We present results of a study in an intensively impacted and highly fragmented landscape in which we apply field-measured carbon (C) density values to land-use/land-cover (LU/LC) statistics to estimate the flux of C between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere from the 1970s...

  20. Uncertainties Associated with Flux Measurements Due to Heterogeneous Contaminant Distributions

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mass flux and mass discharge measurements at contaminated sites have been applied to assist with remedial management, and can be divided into two broad categories: point-scale measurement techniques and pumping methods. Extrapolation across un-sampled space is necessary when usi...

  1. Decadal changes in climatological intraseasonal fluctuation of subseasonal evolution of summer precipitation over the Korean Peninsula in the mid-1990s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Wonmoo; Jhun, Jong-Ghap; Ha, Kyung-Ja; Kimoto, Masahide

    2011-05-01

    Decadal changes in the subseasonal evolution and the phase-locked climatological intraseasonal fluctuation of summertime rainfall over the Korean Peninsula before and after the mid-1990s are investigated. The activity and the migration speed of the monsoon rain band over the East Asian region are altered in the recent decade, resulting in the drier conditions in late spring and the earlier onset of Changma. In early August when a climatological monsoon break was clear in the earlier decade, the precipitation has increased dramatically with a meridional coherency. The response to the enhanced convection over the South China Sea and southeastern China provides a favorable condition for more precipitation in early August through the changes in moisture transport and tropical cyclone passage.

  2. Measurement of continuous distributions of ventilation-perfusion ratios - Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, P. D.; Saltzman, H. A.; West, J. B.

    1974-01-01

    The resolution of the technique considered is sufficient to describe smooth distributions containing blood flow to unventilated regions (shunt), ventilation to unperfused regions (dead space), and up to three additional modes over the range of finite ventilation-perfusion ratios. In particular, areas whose ventilation-perfusion ratios are low can be separated from unventilated regions and those whose ventilation-perfusion ratios are high can similarly be distinguished from unperfused areas.

  3. Inequality measures in kinetic exchange models of wealth distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Asim; Chatterjee, Arnab; Inoue, Jun-ichi; Chakrabarti, Bikas K.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we study the inequality indices for some models of wealth exchange. We calculated Gini index and newly introduced k-index and compare the results with reported empirical data available for different countries. We have found lower and upper bounds for the indices and discuss the efficiencies of the models. Some exact analytical calculations are given for a few cases. We also exactly compute the quantities for Gamma and double Gamma distributions.

  4. Measurement of NSLS distributed diode sputter ion pump characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Foerster, C.L.

    1984-01-01

    For the DI pump to have acceptable pumping speed, the pump must be glow discharge conditioned after the 150/sup 0/C max vacuum bakeout. Other DI pump conditioning procedures have not been investigated. Glow discharge conditioning of the system using the DI pump anode significantly improves the pumping speed at low pressures and high pressure pumping speed is slightly improved. The NSLS DI pump speed is not linear with pressure even though the average current is. Pumping speed drops to less than 25% of the high pressure speed at pressures below 10/sup -9/ torr, depending on the pump condition. The pumping speed is sufficiently close to its calculated value at high pressure. These results agree with actual ring experience with the distributed pump. The DI pump is most efficient pumping distributed gas loads from beam operation rather than gas loads introduced at the ends of the pump. Most of the gas load is distributed adjacent to the pump during beam operation due synchrotron radiation included desorption. 11 references, 5 figures.

  5. US National Health Data on Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders: a research agenda for the 1990s.

    PubMed Central

    Yu, E S; Liu, W T

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. In spite of over 30 years of periodic nationwide surveys, we have thus far only the most rudimentary estimates of the determinants of the health of Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders. This paper explores ways to improve the capability of the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) to collect national health data on these populations. METHODS. The NCHS "race" coding practices are reviewed, their limitations stated, ways to improve the numerator and denominator data discussed, and a research agenda presented. RESULTS. Resources can be intensified to produce better denominator data, and to improve the collection of detailed ethnicity information for the numerators, in at least the three states (California, New York, and Hawaii) where the majority of Asian/Pacific Islanders lived in 1990. Subsequently, these efforts should be extended to the 10 states where 79% of these individuals reside or to the top 15 metropolitan areas where they are concentrated. CONCLUSIONS. If the recommendations are implemented, several coordinated multisite, multiwave epidemiologic surveys can be conducted using standardized interview instruments and data collection procedures that will capitalize on the geographic distribution of Asian/Pacific Islanders. PMID:1456340

  6. Commingling in the distributions of fat-related measures in Punjabi families.

    PubMed

    Sharma, K; Byard, P J; Rao, D C

    1984-01-01

    The distribution of anthropometric measurements related to fatness levels is examined to determine if skewness alone accounts for the nonnormality of such measures. A mixture of two normal distributions or a single skewed distribution fit the data significantly better than a single normal in all cases. For maximum hip width, knee diameter, and weight, two skewed distributions give a better fit than one skewed distribution, rejecting the null hypothesis of a single distribution even when skewness is considered. There is evidence for three skewed component distributions for biceps skinfold. Abdomen circumference, upper arm circumference, triceps skinfold, and calf skinfold are best approximated by a one component log-normal distribution. Children and parents show slightly different patterns in skewness and kurtosis when considered separately, but differences between them do not account for the commingling found in the combined distributions. PMID:6479997

  7. MPL-Net Measurements of Aerosol and Cloud Vertical Distributions at Co-Located AERONET Sites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welton, Ellsworth J.; Campbell, James R.; Berkoff, Timothy A.; Spinhirne, James D.; Tsay, Si-Chee; Holben, Brent; Starr, David OC. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    In the early 1990s, the first small, eye-safe, and autonomous lidar system was developed, the Micropulse Lidar (MPL). The MPL acquires signal profiles of backscattered laser light from aerosols and clouds. The signals are analyzed to yield multiple layer heights, optical depths of each layer, average extinction-to-backscatter ratios for each layer, and profiles of extinction in each layer. In 2000, several MPL sites were organized into a coordinated network, called MPL-Net, by the Cloud and Aerosol Lidar Group at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) using funding provided by the NASA Earth Observing System. tn addition to the funding provided by NASA EOS, the NASA CERES Ground Validation Group supplied four MPL systems to the project, and the NASA TOMS group contributed their MPL for work at GSFC. The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program (ARM) also agreed to make their data available to the MPL-Net project for processing. In addition to the initial NASA and ARM operated sites, several other independent research groups have also expressed interest in joining the network using their own instruments. Finally, a limited amount of EOS funding was set aside to participate in various field experiments each year. The NASA Sensor Intercomparison and Merger for Biological and Interdisciplinary Oceanic Studies (SIMBIOS) project also provides funds to deploy their MPL during ocean research cruises. All together, the MPL-Net project has participated in four major field experiments since 2000. Most MPL-Net sites and field experiment locations are also co-located with sunphotometers in the NASA Aerosol Robotic Network. (AERONET). Therefore, at these locations data is collected on both aerosol and cloud vertical structure as well as column optical depth and sky radiance. Real-time data products are now available from most MPL-Net sites. Our real-time products are generated at times of AERONET aerosol optical depth (AOD) measurements. The AERONET AOD is used as input to our

  8. The Measurement of Pressure Through Tubes in Pressure Distribution Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hemke, Paul E

    1928-01-01

    The tests described in this report were made to determine the error caused by using small tubes to connect orifices on the surface of aircraft to central pressure capsules in making pressure distribution tests. Aluminum tubes of 3/16-inch inside diameter were used to determine this error. Lengths from 20 feet to 226 feet and pressures whose maxima varied from 2 inches to 140 inches of water were used. Single-pressure impulses for which the time of rise of pressure from zero to a maximum varied from 0.25 second to 3 seconds were investigated. The results show that the pressure recorded at the capsule on the far end of the tube lags behind the pressure at the orifice end and experiences also a change in magnitude. For the values used in these tests the time lag and pressure change vary principally with the time of rise of pressure from zero to a maximum and the tube length. Curves are constructed showing the time lag and pressure change. Empirical formulas are also given for computing the time lag. Analysis of pressure distribution tests made on airplanes in flight shows that the recorded pressures are slightly higher than the pressures at the orifice and that the time lag is negligible. The apparent increase in pressure is usually within the experimental error, but in the case of the modern pursuit type of airplane the pressure increase may be 5 per cent. For pressure-distribution tests on airships the analysis shows that the time lag and pressure change may be neglected.

  9. Measuring Technique of Bubble Size Distributions in Dough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maeda, Tatsurou; Do, Gab-Soo; Sugiyama, Junichi; Oguchi, Kosei; Tsuta, Mizuki

    A novel technique to recognize bubbles in bread dough and analyze their size distribution was developed by using a Micro-Slicer Image Processing System (MSIPS). Samples were taken from the final stage of the mixing process of bread dough which generally consists of four distinctive stages. Also, to investigate the effect of freeze preservation on the size distribution of bubbles, comparisons were made between fresh dough and the dough that had been freeze preserved at .30°C for three months. Bubbles in the dough samples were identified in the images of MSIPS as defocusing spots due to the difference in focal distance created by vacant spaces. In case of the fresh dough, a total of 910 bubbles were recognized and their maximum diameter ranged from 0.4 to 70.5μm with an average of 11.1μm. On the other hand, a total of 1,195 bubbles were recognized from the freeze-preserved sample, and the maximum diameter ranged from 0.9 to 32.7μm with an average of 6.7μm. Small bubbles with maximum diameters less than 10μm comprised approximately 59% and 78% of total bubbles for fresh and freeze-preserved dough samples, respectively. The results indicated that the bubble size of frozen dough is smaller than that of unfrozen one. The proposed method can provide a novel tool to investigate the effects of mixing and preservation treatments on the size, morphology and distribution of bubbles in bread dough.

  10. Measuring Hydrogen Distributions in Iron and Steel Using Neutrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griesche, A.; Dabah, E.; Kannengiesser, T.; Hilger, A.; Kardjilov, N.; Manke, I.; Schillinger, B.

    Neutron tomography has been applied to investigate the mechanism of hydrogen assisted cracking in technical iron and supermartensitic steel. Rectangular technical iron block samples showed blistering due to intense hydrogen charging and the tomographic method revealed in situ the spatial distribution of hydrogen and cracks. Hydrogen accumulated in a small region around cracks and the cracks are filled with hydrogen gas. Cracks close to the surface contained no hydrogen. Hydrogenous tensile test samples of supermartensitic steel were pulled until rupture and showed hydrogen accumulations at the notch base and in the plastically deformed region around the fracture surface.

  11. Finite difference identification of noisy distributed systems using scanning measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, R. O.

    1975-01-01

    Most of the present-day literature concerned with identification theory and techniques is directed toward lumped parameter systems, and many comprehensive surveys of the field are available. Relatively little has appeared in the literature concerning distributed identification, and even more noticeable is the scarcity of papers dealing with systems described by the one-dimensional wave equation. Perdeauville and Goodson were perhaps the first researchers with a workable but time consuming method for the identification of coefficients of the wave equation. Fairman and Shen, also considering the wave equation, used the technique of finite differencing to approximate spatial derivatives, and Poisson filter chains to approximate temporal derivatives.

  12. The measurement of the size distribution of artificial fogs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deepak, A.; Cliff, W. C.; Mcdonald, J. R.; Ozarski, R.; Thomson, J. A. L.; Huffaker, R. M.

    1974-01-01

    The size-distribution of the fog droplets at various fog particle concentrations in fog chamber was determined by two methods: (1) the Stokes' velocity photographic method and (2) using the active scattering particle spectrometer. It is shown that the two techniques are accurate in two different ranges of particle size - the former in the radii range (0.1 micrometers to 10.0 micrometers), and the latter for radii greater than 10.0 micrometers. This was particularly true for high particle concentration, low visibility fogs.

  13. Strain distribution in the East African Rift from GPS measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stamps, S. D.; Saria, E.; Calais, E.; Delvaux, D.; Ebinger, C.; Combrinck, L.

    2008-12-01

    Rifting of continental lithosphere is a fundamental process that controls the growth and evolution of continents and the birth of ocean basins. Most rifting models assume that stretching results from far-field lithospheric stresses from plate motions, but there is evidence that asthenospheric processes play an active role in rifting, possibly through viscous coupling and/or the added buoyancy and thermal weakening from melt intrusions. The distribution of strain during rifting is a key observable to constrain such models but is however poorly known. The East African Rift (EAR) offers a unique opportunity to quantify strain distribution along and across an active continental rift and to compare a volcanic (Eastern branch) and a non-volcanic (Western branch) segment. In 2006, we established and first surveyed a network of 35 points across Tanzania and installed one continuous station in Dar Es Salaam (TANZ), followed in 2008 by a second occupation campaign. We present a preliminary velocity field for the central part of the EAR, spanning both the Western and Eastern rift branches. We compare our results with a recent kinematic model of the EAR (Stamps et al., GRL, 2008) and discuss its significance for understanding rifting processes.

  14. How protective is breast feeding against diarrhoeal disease in infants in 1990s England? A case‐control study

    PubMed Central

    Quigley, M A; Cumberland, P; Cowden, J M; Rodrigues, L C

    2006-01-01

    Aims To assess the effect of several measures of infant feeding on diarrhoeal disease, and whether these effects vary according to markers of social deprivation. Methods Case‐control study of diarrhoeal disease cases presenting to 34 general practices in England. Controls were stratified on age group, area deprivation index for the practice, and whether or not the practice was in London. Data were available on 304 infants (167 cases and 137 controls). Results After adjustment for confounders, breast feeding was associated with significantly less diarrhoeal disease. Associations were striking even in infants aged ⩾ 6 months. They did not vary by social class, but were greater in those living in rented council accommodation and in more crowded households. The effect of receiving no breast milk was stronger in more deprived areas than in less deprived areas. The effect of not receiving exclusive breast milk was stronger in more deprived areas than in less deprived areas. In formula fed infants, there was significantly more diarrhoeal disease in those not sterilising bottles/teats with steam or chemicals. The protective effect of breast feeding did not persist beyond two months after breast feeding had stopped. Conclusions Breast feeding protects against diarrhoeal disease in infants in England although the degree of protection may vary across infants and wear off after breast feeding cessation. Education about the benefits of breast feeding and the risks of inadequate sterilisation should be targeted at carers in deprived areas or households. PMID:16308409

  15. Freshwater Variability in the Arctic Ocean and Subpolar North Atlantic: a Comparison from the 1990s to Present

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horn, Myriel; Rabe, Benjamin; Schauer, Ursula

    2016-04-01

    A significant increase in liquid freshwater content has been observed in the Arctic Ocean over the last 20 years, whereas the Arctic sea ice volume shrank significantly. In contrast, the North Atlantic became more saline in recent years. Both regions are of great importance for the global ocean circulation and climate, and salinity changes may have a profound impact on the global climate. We found that for the period between 1992 and 2013, the liquid freshwater content of the subpolar North Atlantic, calculated from objectively mapped in-situ salinity measurements, and the total freshwater content of the Arctic Ocean, i.e. the liquid freshwater content and freshwater stored in sea ice, are significantly negative correlated (r=-0.77). Moreover, the amount of the anomalies are of the same size. Furthermore, the time series hint at multi-decadal oscillations. The highest negative correlation with the total freshwater content of the Arctic Ocean can be found in the Irminger and Labrador Seas, while we observed a positive correlation east of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge at the path of the North Atlantic Current, which is the source of Atlantic Water entering the Arctic Ocean through the Nordic Seas. We suggest a redistribution of freshwater as a response to frequent changes in atmospheric pressure patterns. Under certain conditions the freshwater is re-routed and kept in the Arctic Ocean, while it is released under other conditions. We conclude that decadal scale changes of the freshwater content in the North Atlantic, particularly those in the deep water formation sites like the Labrador Sea, are originating in the Arctic Ocean.

  16. Cultural competence--an essential hybrid for delivering high quality care in the 1990's and beyond.

    PubMed Central

    Lavizzo-Mourey, R. J.; MacKenzie, E.

    1996-01-01

    Establishing guidelines for culturally competent medical care will help all physicians to fulfill their mandate to meet the health care needs of the individual patient as well as of patient populations, and to lower costs by encouraging a healing partnership with the patient, thus increasing patient responsibility for his or her own health. Being culturally sensitive is not enough. Nor is simply classifying patients according to race adequate. Many researchers in social science and health services increasingly agree that race in our heterogeneous U.S. population has limited biological meaning and more often than not is just a poor proxy for culture or socioeconomic status. Guidelines and quality indicators that seek to measure and improve cultural competence must take into account, in an integrated fashion, these three necessary components in the delivery of high-quality services to populations: 1) the health-related cultural factors; 2) the incidence and prevalence of diseases in the population; and 3) treatment outcomes peculiar to that population. To be culturally competent is to incorporate and integrate these critical factors into caring for diverse populations. If health care systems, individually and collectively, are to provide care of high quality that is cost-effective to all populations, researchers and funders of research must invest in an aggressive agenda that pursues two directions: the validation of existing quality indicators in minority populations, and the development of new quality indicators that assess the organization's ability to develop culturally competent care. Only in this way will those of us in the medical profession be able to fulfill our calling to relieve suffering without discriminating against some populations. PMID:8725573

  17. Methodologies for measuring residual stress distributions in epitaxial thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, M.; Ruan, H. H.; Zhang, L. C.

    2013-01-01

    Residual stresses in a thin film deposited on a dissimilar substrate can bring about various interface or subsurface damages, such as delamination, dislocation, twinning and cracking. In high performance integrated circuits and MEMS, a too high residual stress can significantly alter their electronic properties. A proper residual stress characterization needs the description of full stress tensors and their variations with thickness. The problem is that film thickness measurement requires different means, and that direct measurement techniques to fulfill the tasks are not straightforward. This paper provides a simple method using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman scattering for the measurement of residual stresses and their thickness dependence. Using the epitaxial silicon film on a sapphire substrate as an example, this paper demonstrates that the improved XRD technique can make use of multiple diffraction peaks to give rise to a highly accurate stress tensor. The co-existence of silicon and sapphire peaks in a Raman spectrum then allows a simultaneous measurement of film thickness from the peak intensity ratio and the residual stress from the peak shift. The paper also concludes the relation between film thickness and residual stresses.

  18. MEASUREMENT OF HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY DISTRIBUTIONS: A MANUAL OF PRACTICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The ability of hydrologists to perform field measurements of aquifer hydraulic properties must be enhanced in order to significantly improve the capacity to solve groundwater contamination problems at Superfund and other sites. The primary purpose of this manual is to provide ne...

  19. MEASUREMENT OF HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY DISTRIBUTIONS: A MANUAL OF PRACTICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The ability of hydrologists to perform field measurements of aquifer hydraulic properties must be enhanced in order to significantly improve the capacity to solve groundwater contamination problems at Superfund and other sites. he primary purpose of this manual is to provide new ...

  20. Measurements over distributed high performance computing and storage systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Elizabeth; Myers, Tom

    1993-01-01

    A strawman proposal is given for a framework for presenting a common set of metrics for supercomputers, workstations, file servers, mass storage systems, and the networks that interconnect them. Production control and database systems are also included. Though other applications and third part software systems are not addressed, it is important to measure them as well.

  1. Measuring the Distributional Effects of Public Education in Peru.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selden, Thomas M.; Wasylenko, Michael J.

    Data from the 1985-86 Peru Living Standards Survey were used to analyze the targeting of public education expenditures and the effects on enrollment of public school fees and reduced travel time to secondary schools. This chapter also focuses on strengths and weaknesses of using either an estimation-based measure of benefit or a…

  2. Measuring urea persistence, distribution and transport on coastal plain soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The persistence and mobility of urea, an organic form of nitrogen present in animal manures and commercial fertilizers, has rarely been studied and measured, because it is assumed to undergo rapid hydrolysis to ammonia. However, preliminary studies have shown urea to exist in leachate and runoff sev...

  3. Aerosol mobility imaging for rapid size distribution measurements

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Jian; Hering, Susanne Vera; Spielman, Steven Russel; Kuang, Chongai

    2016-07-19

    A parallel plate dimensional electrical mobility separator and laminar flow water condensation provide rapid, mobility-based particle sizing at concentrations typical of the remote atmosphere. Particles are separated spatially within the electrical mobility separator, enlarged through water condensation, and imaged onto a CCD array. The mobility separation distributes particles in accordance with their size. The condensation enlarges size-separated particles by water condensation while they are still within the gap of the mobility drift tube. Once enlarged the particles are illuminated by a laser. At a pre-selected frequency, typically 10 Hz, the position of all of the individual particles illuminated by the laser are captured by CCD camera. This instantly records the particle number concentration at each position. Because the position is directly related to the particle size (or mobility), the particle size spectra is derived from the images recorded by the CCD.

  4. An optical fiber sensing technique for temperature distribution measurements in microwave heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wada, Daichi; Sugiyama, Jun-ichi; Zushi, Hiroaki; Murayama, Hideaki

    2015-08-01

    We introduce an optical fiber sensing technique that can measure the temperature distributions along a fiber during microwave heating. We used a long-length fiber Bragg grating (FBG) as an electromagnetic-immune sensor and interrogated temperature distributions along the FBG by an optical frequency domain reflectometry. Water in a glass tube with a length of 820 mm was heated in a microwave oven, and its temperature distribution along the glass tube was measured using the sensing system. The temperature distribution was obtained in 5 mm intervals. Infrared radiometry was also used to compare the temperature measurement results. Time and spatial variations of the temperature distribution profiles were monitored for several microwave input powers. The results clearly depict inhomogeneous temperature profiles. The applicability and effectiveness of the optical fiber distributed measurement technique in microwave heating are demonstrated.

  5. In situ potential distribution measurement in an all-vanadium flow battery.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qinghua; Turhan, Ahmet; Zawodzinski, Thomas A; Mench, Matthew M

    2013-07-18

    An experimental method for measurement of local redox potential within multilayer electrodes was developed and applied to all-vanadium redox flow batteries (VRFBs). Through-plane measurement at the positive side reveals several important phenomena including potential distribution, concentration distribution of active species and the predominant reaction location within the porous carbon electrodes. PMID:23736771

  6. 10 CFR 431.193 - Test procedures for measuring energy consumption of distribution transformers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... procedures for measuring the energy efficiency of distribution transformers for purposes of EPCA are... EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Distribution Transformers Test Procedures... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Test procedures for measuring energy consumption...

  7. 10 CFR 431.193 - Test procedures for measuring energy consumption of distribution transformers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... procedures for measuring the energy efficiency of distribution transformers for purposes of EPCA are... EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Distribution Transformers Test Procedures... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Test procedures for measuring energy consumption...

  8. 10 CFR 431.193 - Test procedures for measuring energy consumption of distribution transformers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... procedures for measuring the energy efficiency of distribution transformers for purposes of EPCA are... EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Distribution Transformers Test Procedures... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Test procedures for measuring energy consumption...

  9. 10 CFR 431.193 - Test procedures for measuring energy consumption of distribution transformers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... procedures for measuring the energy efficiency of distribution transformers for purposes of EPCA are... EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Distribution Transformers Test Procedures... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Test procedures for measuring energy consumption...

  10. 10 CFR 431.193 - Test procedures for measuring energy consumption of distribution transformers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... procedures for measuring the energy efficiency of distribution transformers for purposes of EPCA are... EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Distribution Transformers Test Procedures... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Test procedures for measuring energy consumption...

  11. Determination of soil moisture distribution from impedance and gravimetric measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ungar, Stephen G.; Layman, Robert; Campbell, Jeffrey E.; Walsh, John; Mckim, Harlan J.

    1992-01-01

    Daily measurements of the soil dielectric properties at 5 and 10 cm were obtained at five locations throughout the First ISLSCP Field Experiment (FIFE) test site during the 1987 intensive field campaigns (IFCs). An automated vector voltmeter was used to monitor the complex electrical impedance, at 10 MHz, of cylindrical volumes of soil delineated by specially designed soil moisture probes buried at these locations. The objective of this exercise was to test the hypothesis that the soil impedance is sensitive to the moisture content of the soil and that the imaginary part (that is, capacitive reactance) can be used to calculate the volumetric water content of the soil. These measurements were compared with gravimetric samples collected at these locations by the FIFE staff science team.

  12. Snowflake Size Distribution Measurements in South Central Ontario, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokay, A.; Bringi, V. N.; Huang, G.; Schoenhuber, M.; Bashor, P. G.; Hudak, D.; Jackson, G. S.; Petersen, W. A.

    2007-05-01

    In support of NASA's Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission ground validation program, NASA's two laser optical disdrometers (Parsivel) and Colodaro State University (CSU) two-dimensional video disdrometer (2dvd) were deployed to a well-equipped precipitation observation site in South Central Ontario, Canada. The instruments were collocated and have been operating since late November 2006. So far, there has been numerous lake effect and synoptic winter storms over the site. In one event, parsivel disdrometers recorded 50 cm of snowfall. In addition, there have been at least 10 storms where the snow accumulation exceeded 4 cm. The leading objective of this study was to compare the parsivel and 2dvd size and fall velocity measurements for selected cases and relate the findings to the physical processes within and below the cloud. Unlike 2dvd, parsivel measures the maximum dimension of the snowflake in a single plane, while the fall velocity is calculated from the duration of the flake within the laser beam. The 2dvd samples the same flake in two planes from which fall velocity is obtained. The 2dvd also measures the maximum width and height in both planes. At the time of this abstract, two parsivels and 2dvd were operated nearly continuously for almost three months and preliminary data analysis is encouraging. The field site, which is known as Centre for Atmospheric Research Experiments (CARE), is an atmospheric research facility operated by the Air Quality Research Branch of the Meteorological Service of Canada and is located 80 km north of Toronto, Ontario, Canada in a rural agricultural and forested region. During the past three winters, a field campaign was conduced in support of Canadian CloudSat/CALIPSO validation project (c3vp). However, 2006-07 winter was the first since the satellites were in orbit. The coordinated efforts of aircraft missions over the CARE facility during the Intensive Operation Periods will enhance our understanding of cold cloud

  13. Fission Fragment Angular Distributions measured with a Time Projection Chamber

    SciTech Connect

    Kleinrath, Verena

    2015-04-28

    The subject is presented in a series of slides with the following organization: Introduction (What is anisotropy? Relevance (Theory and ratio cross section), Previous measurements); Experiment (Particle tracking in the fissionTPC, Neutron time of flight, Data analysis & uncertainty calculation, Preliminary result for 235U); and Future Work (Refine 235U result, Process 239Pu data).

  14. Atomic hydrogen and nitrogen distributions from atmosphere explorer measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breig, Edward L.

    1992-01-01

    We were selective as to our approach to research activities, and devoted primary attention to two investigations concerning the global behavior of atomic hydrogen in the Earth's upper atmosphere. We derive the thermospheric concentration of H by applying the condition of charge-exchange equilibrium between hydrogen and oxygen atoms and ions to in-situ measurements of F-region composition and temperature from the series of Atmosphere Explorer (AE) aeronomy satellites. Progress and accomplishments on these chosen research projects are summarized.

  15. Drop Size Distribution Measurements Supporting the NASA Global Precipitation Measurement Mission: Infrastructure and Preliminary Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petersen, Walter A.; Carey, Lawerence D.; Gatlin, Patrick N.; Wingo, Matthew; Tokay, Ali; Wolff, David B.; Bringi, V. N.

    2011-01-01

    Global Precipitation Measurement Mission (GPM) retrieval algorithm validation requires datasets that characterize the 4-D structure, variability, and correlation properties of hydrometeor particle size distributions (PSD) and accumulations over satellite fields of view (5 -- 50 km). Key to this process is the combined use of disdrometer and polarimetric radar platforms. Here the disdrometer measurements serve as a reference for up-scaling dual-polarimetric radar observations of the PSD to the much larger volumetric sampling domain of the radar. The PSD observations thus derived provide a much larger data set for assessing DSD variability, and satellite-based precipitation retrieval algorithm assumptions, in all three spatial dimensions for a range of storm types and seasons. As one component of this effort, the GPM Ground Validation program recently acquired five 3rd generation 2D Video disdrometers as part of its Disdrometer and Radar Observations of Precipitation Facility (DROP), currently hosted in northern Alabama by the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center and the University of Alabama in Huntsville. These next-generation 2DVDs were operated and evaluated in different phases of data collection under the scanning domain of the UAH ARMOR C-band dual-polarimetric radar. During this period approximately 7500 minutes of PSD data were collected and processed to create gamma size distribution parameters using a truncated method of moments approach. After creating the gamma parameter datasets the DSDs were then used as input to T-matrix code for computation of polarimetric radar moments at C-band. The combined dataset was then analyzed with two basic objectives in mind: 1) the investigation of seasonal variability in the rain PSD parameters as observed by the 2DVDs; 2) the use of combined polarimetric moments and observed gamma distribution parameters in a functional form to retrieve PSD parameters in 4-D using the ARMOR radar for precipitation occurring in different

  16. Measurement of Vertical Temperature Distribution Using a Single Pair of Loudspeaker and Microphone with Acoustic Reflection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Ikumi; Mizutani, Koichi; Wakatsuki, Naoto; Kawabe, Satoshi

    2009-07-01

    It is important to maintain an adequate indoor temperature for comfortable working conditions, improvement of the rate of production of farm goods grown in greenhouses, and for saving energy. Thus, it is necessary to measure the temperature distribution to realize efficient air-conditioning systems. However, we have to use many conventional instruments to measure the temperature distribution. We proposed a measurement system for vertical temperature distribution using a single pair of loudspeaker (SP) and microphone (MIC), and acoustic reflectors. This system consists of SP, MIC, and multiple acoustic reflectors, and it can be used to determine the temperature distribution from the mean temperature of the area bounded by two reflectors. In experiments, the vertical temperature distribution was measured using five sound probes in a large facility every 20 s for 24 h. From the results of this experiment, it was verified that this system can be used to measure the vertical temperature distribution from the mean temperature of each area bounded by two reflectors. This system could be used to measure the change in the temperature distribution over time. We constructed a simple system to measure the vertical temperature distribution.

  17. Refinement of background environmental monitoring measurements using meteorological frequency distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, P.E. )

    1991-01-01

    Since the Radiological Environmental Monitoring Program's inception in 1969, the direct radiation monitoring network around the Oyster Creek nuclear generating station has incorporated both monthly and quarterly thermoluminescent dosimetry (TLD). In 1988, the environmental controls department of GPU Nuclear decided to eliminate the monthly TLD network for scientific and economic reasons. The most obvious scientific basis on which to designate TLD stations is by meteorology. It would be the plume path that dictates off-site direct radiation contribution from the plant and not simply distance from the site. Through meteorological and statistical analysis of existing TLD results, the appropriate basis for designating TLD stations has been accomplished that will provide the most accurate and comprehensive data on environmental measurement of releases from Oyster Creek.

  18. Global distribution of stratospheric aerosols by satellite measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCormick, M. P.

    1982-01-01

    A description is given of the first-ever global stratospheric aerosol climatology which is being developed by the earth-orbiting SAM II and SAGE satellite-based sensors. These sensors use the technique of solar occulation; that is, for every spacecraft sunrise and sunset, the modulation of solar intensity caused by the intervening earth-limb is measured. These data are mathematically inverted to yield vertical profiles of aerosol extinction coefficients with 1 km resolution. The data show seasonal variations which are similar in each hemisphere, with strong correlation between aerosol extinction and the corresponding temperature field. Typical values of extinction in the stratosphere are found to be about 0.0001 to 0.0002 per km at 1 micrometer; stratospheric optical depths at this wavelength are about 0.002. The peak extinction in the stratospheric aerosol layer follows the tropopause with altitude, with peak extinction ratios about 10 km above the local tropopause.

  19. The distribution of free electrons in the inner galaxy from pulsar dispersion measures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harding, D. S.; Harding, A. K.

    1981-01-01

    The dispersion measures of a sample of 149 pulsars in the inner Galaxy (absolute value of l 50 deg) were statistically analyzed to deduce the large-scale distribution of free thermal electrons in this region. The dispersion measure distribution of these pulsars shows significant evidence for a decrease in the electron scale height from a local value greater than the pulsar scale height to a value less than the pulsar scale height at galactocentric radii inside of approximately 7 kpc. An increase in the electron density (to a value around .15/cu cm at 4 to 5 kpc) must accompany such a decrease in scale height. There is also evidence for a large-scale warp in the electron distribution below the b + 0 deg plane inside the Solar circle. A model is proposed for the electron distribution which incorporates these features and Monte Carlo generated dispersion measure distributions are presented for parameters which best reproduce the observed pulsar distributions.

  20. A simple derivation and classification of common probability distributions based on information symmetry and measurement scale.

    PubMed

    Frank, S A; Smith, E

    2011-03-01

    Commonly observed patterns typically follow a few distinct families of probability distributions. Over one hundred years ago, Karl Pearson provided a systematic derivation and classification of the common continuous distributions. His approach was phenomenological: a differential equation that generated common distributions without any underlying conceptual basis for why common distributions have particular forms and what explains the familial relations. Pearson's system and its descendants remain the most popular systematic classification of probability distributions. Here, we unify the disparate forms of common distributions into a single system based on two meaningful and justifiable propositions. First, distributions follow maximum entropy subject to constraints, where maximum entropy is equivalent to minimum information. Second, different problems associate magnitude to information in different ways, an association we describe in terms of the relation between information invariance and measurement scale. Our framework relates the different continuous probability distributions through the variations in measurement scale that change each family of maximum entropy distributions into a distinct family. From our framework, future work in biology can consider the genesis of common patterns in a new and more general way. Particular biological processes set the relation between the information in observations and magnitude, the basis for information invariance, symmetry and measurement scale. The measurement scale, in turn, determines the most likely probability distributions and observed patterns associated with particular processes. This view presents a fundamentally derived alternative to the largely unproductive debates about neutrality in ecology and evolution. PMID:21265914

  1. Environment in the 1990s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goudie, Andrew

    1990-01-01

    Traces the history of futuristic predictions of environmental changes. Focuses on particular documents published on environmental change predictions. Identifies particular instances of environmental change, such as the rate of species loss and the greenhouse effect. Maintains that predictions of future environmental changes are fraught with…

  2. Parenting in the 1990s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferri, Elsa; Smith, Kate

    This study examined family formation, employment, child-care arrangements, parenting, family activities, and attitudes and values of British parents. Subjects were nearly 6,000 British 33-year-old married parents, originally subjects in the longitudinal National Child Development Study, which traced the lives of all those in Great Britain born in…

  3. SCOLT History 1990s-2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClendon, Lynne

    2015-01-01

    The Southern Conference on Language Teaching (SCOLT), like many other language-related organizations, flourishes in the context of periodic educational agendas and reforms, in turn, influenced by economic, political, and social ideologies of the time, and it is therefore instructive to revisit briefly the educational landscape of the previous two…

  4. Contraception in the 1990s.

    PubMed

    Shoupe, D

    1996-06-01

    Contraceptive technology has recently provided the market place with new barrier methods, new progestin oral contraceptives, an injectable contraceptive, the female condom, new male condoms, and the contraceptive implant. During the last decade, epidemiologists have clearly defined the non-contraceptive benefits of current contraceptive methods that include decreased infections, protection from various cancers, protection from many gynecologic problems that lead to surgery, as well as symptomatic relief from many gynecologic conditions. In conjunction with medical specialists, contraceptive researchers have established the increased safety and benefits of various contraceptive choices in women with medical conditions that, until recently, were contra-indications for their use. That these advances have occurred despite multiple legal and scientific assaults gives hope that the field will continue to grow. PMID:8818532

  5. Issues for the 1990s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiner, Edith; Brown, Arnold

    1986-01-01

    Discussed are the issues now emerging that seem likely to dominate thinking, planning, and decision-making in the United States and elsewhere during the next decade. These include campus unrest, China as a world economic force, controlling health-care, birth defects, role of the computer in education, and human language/computer language. (RM)

  6. Tuberculosis in the 1990s.

    PubMed

    Bass, J B

    1995-02-01

    The steady decline in tuberculosis case rate reversed in the mid-1980s, and tuberculosis cases have increased dramatically since that time. Important factors contributing to this increase are the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic and tuberculosis occurring in foreign-born persons. Tuberculosis outbreaks have occurred in HIV clinics and wards, prisons, homeless shelters, nursing homes, and health care facilities. Some of the outbreaks have involved strains of tuberculosis resistant to multiple antituberculosis drugs. Recent recommendations for initial therapy of tuberculosis include the use of four drugs and directly observed therapy in an effort to prevent the emergence of further drug resistance. PMID:7771659

  7. Isotope geochemistry in 1990s

    SciTech Connect

    Billo, S.M.

    1995-12-31

    The intense interest in radioactive minerals as a source of atomic energy, and their application in searching for ore deposits and also in gamma-ray and neutron logging oil wells, have opened new vistas in every science. Many minerals containing elements of high atomic weight are radioactive, and emit a radiation which affects a photographic plate and may be detected by means of a sensitive phosphorescent screen. Most of the elements as found in nature are a mixture of isotopes. isotopes are atoms of one element which have different masses. Uranium, thorium, potassium, and rubidium isotopes are also used to date minerals and rocks. Organic materials that have been in equilibrium with CO{sub 2}-photosynthetic cycle during the past 50,000 years are dated by carbon-14 method. The stable isotopes of H{sub 2}, C, N{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, and S are intimately associated with the atmosphere, hydrosphere, and lithosphere and are used in probing water resources.

  8. Thermoreflectance-based in-depth stress distribution measurement technique for single-crystal silicon structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyake, Shugo; Kato, Takaaki; Taguchi, Hideyuki; Namazu, Takahiro

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we suggest a new stress measurement technique based on the thermoreflectance method for the estimation of the in-depth stress distribution of fabricated silicon devices. Changing the modulated intensity of a heating laser beam of the frequency-domain thermoreflectance method (FD-TRM) can vary the estimation depth optionally. We developed a measurement system on the basis of the FD-TRM and demonstrated in-depth stress measurement for a single-crystal silicon (SCS) sample. The result measured at a modulation frequency of 3 MHz showed the phase distribution of the TR signal corresponding to the stress distribution determined by 632-nm-excited Raman spectroscopy. In addition, it was found that the phase distribution changed depending on the modulation frequency. The FD-TRM can be a powerful technique for estimating the in-depth stress distribution of silicon materials.

  9. Measurement of energy distribution in flowing hydrogen microwave plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, R.; Morin, T.; Finzel, M.; Hawley, M. C.

    1985-01-01

    An electrothermal propulsion concept utilizing a microwave plasma system as the mechanism to convert electromagnetic energy into kinetic energy of a flowing gas is investigated. A calorimetry system enclosing a microwave plasma system has been developed to accurately measure the energy inputs and outputs of the microwave plasma system. The rate of energy transferred to the gas can be determined to within + or - 1.8 W from an energy balance around the microwave plasma system. The percentage of the power absorbed by the microwave plasma system transferred to the hydrogen gas as it flows through the system is found to increase with the increasing flow rate, to decrease with the increasing pressure, and to be independent of the absorbed power. An upper bound for the hydrogen gas temperature is estimated from the energy content, heat capacity, and flow rate of the gas stream. A lower bound for an overall heat-transfer coefficient is then calculated, characterizing the energy loss from the hydrogen gas stream to the air cooling of the plasma discharge tube wall. The heat-transfer coefficient is found to increase with the increasing flow rate and pressure and to be independent of the absorbed power. This result indicates that a convective-type mechanism is responsible for the energy transfer.

  10. EGR distribution and fluctuation probe based on CO2 measurements

    DOEpatents

    Parks, II, James E.; Partridge, Jr., William P.; Yoo, Ji Hyung

    2015-06-30

    A diagnostic system having a laser, an EGR probe, a detector and a processor. The laser may be a swept-.lamda. laser having a sweep range including a significant CO.sub.2 feature and substantially zero absorption regions. The sweep range may extend from about 2.708 .mu.m to about 2.7085 .mu.m. The processor may determine CO.sub.2 concentration as a function of the detector output signal. The processor may normalize the output signal as a function of the zero absorption regions. The system may include a plurality of EGR probes receiving light from a single laser. The system may include a separate detector for each probe. Alternatively, the system may combine the light returning from the different probes into a composite beam that is measured by a single detector. A unique modulation characteristic may be introduced into each light beam before combination so that the processor can discriminate between them in the composite beam.

  11. Sixteen Years of Ulysses Interstellar Dust Measurements in the Solar System. I. Mass Distribution and Gas-to-dust Mass Ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krüger, Harald; Strub, Peter; Grün, Eberhard; Sterken, Veerle J.

    2015-10-01

    In the early 1990s, contemporary interstellar dust penetrating deep into the heliosphere was identified with the in situ dust detector on board the Ulysses spacecraft. Between 1992 and the end of 2007 Ulysses monitored the interstellar dust stream. The interstellar grains act as tracers of the physical conditions in the local interstellar medium (ISM) surrounding our solar system. Earlier analyses of the Ulysses interstellar dust data measured between 1992 and 1998 implied the existence of a population of “big” interstellar grains (up to 10-13 kg). The derived gas-to-dust-mass ratio was smaller than the one derived from astronomical observations, implying a concentration of interstellar dust in the very local ISM. In this paper we analyze the entire data set from 16 yr of Ulysses interstellar dust measurements in interplanetary space. This paper concentrates on the overall mass distribution of interstellar dust. An accompanying paper investigates time-variable phenomena in the Ulysses interstellar dust data, and in a third paper we present the results from dynamical modeling of the interstellar dust flow applied to Ulysses. We use the latest values for the interstellar hydrogen and helium densities, the interstellar helium flow speed of {v}{ISM∞ }=23.2 {km} {{{s}}}-1, and the ratio of radiation pressure to gravity, β, calculated for astronomical silicates. We find a gas-to-dust mass ratio in the local interstellar cloud of {R}{{g}/{{d}}}={193}-57+85, and a dust density of (2.1 ± 0.6) × 10-24 kg m-3. For a higher inflow speed of 26 {km} {{{s}}}-1, the gas-to-dust mass ratio is 20% higher, and, accordingly, the dust density is lower by the same amount. The gas-to-dust mass ratio derived from our new analysis is compatible with the value most recently determined from astronomical observations. We confirm earlier results that the very local ISM contains “big” (i.e., ≈1 μm sized) interstellar grains. We find a dust density in the local ISM that is a

  12. Vertical profile and aerosol size distribution measurements in Iceland (LOAC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dagsson Waldhauserova, Pavla; Olafsson, Haraldur; Arnalds, Olafur; Renard, Jean-Baptiste; Vignelles, Damien; Verdier, Nicolas

    2014-05-01

    Cold climate and high latitudes regions contain important dust sources where dust is frequently emitted, foremost from glacially-derived sediments of riverbeds or ice-proximal areas (Arnalds, 2010; Bullard, 2013). Iceland is probably the most active dust source in the arctic/sub-arctic region (Dagsson-Waldhauserova, 2013). The frequency of days with suspended dust exceeds 34 dust days annually. Icelandic dust is of volcanic origin; it is very dark in colour and contains sharp-tipped shards with bubbles. Such properties allow even large particles to be easily transported long distances. Thus, there is a need to better understand the spatial and temporal variability of these dusts. Two launch campaigns of the Light Optical Aerosols Counter (LOAC) were conducted in Iceland with meteorological balloons. LOAC use a new optical design that allows to retrieve the size concentrations in 19 size classes between 0.2 and 100 microm, and to provide an estimate of the main nature of aerosols. Vertical stratification and aerosol composition of the subarctic atmosphere was studied in detail. The July 2011 launch represented clean non-dusty season with low winds while the November 2013 launch was conducted during the high winds after dusty period. For the winter flight (performed from Reykjavik), the nature of aerosols strongly changed with altitude. In particular, a thin layer of volcanic dust was observed at an altitude of 1 km. Further LOAC measurements are needed to understand the implication of Icelandic dust to the Arctic warming and climate change. A new campaign of LAOC launches is planned for May 2014. Reference: Arnalds, O., 2010. Dust sources and deposition of aeolian materials in Iceland. Icelandic Agricultural Sciences 23, 3-21. Bullard, J.E., 2013. Contemporary glacigenic inputs to the dust cycle. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 38, 71-89. Dagsson-Waldhauserova, P., Arnalds O., Olafsson H. 2013. Long-term frequency and characteristics of dust storm events in

  13. Pressure-Distribution Measurements on O-2H Airplane in Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearson, H A

    1937-01-01

    Results are given of pressure-distribution measurements made over two different horizontal tail surfaces and the right wing cellule, including the slipstream area, of an observation-type biplane. Measurements were also taken of air speed, control-surface positions, control-stick forces, angular velocities, and accelerations during various abrupt maneuvers. These maneuvers consisted of push-downs and pull-ups from level flight, dive pull-outs, and aileron rolls with various thrust conditions. The results from the pressure-distribution measurements over the wing cellule are given on charts showing the variation of individual rib coefficients with wing coefficients; the data from the tail-surface pressure-distribution measurements are given mainly as total loads and moments. These data are supplemented by time histories of the measured quantities and isometric views of the rib pressure distributions occurring in abrupt maneuvers.

  14. The co-production of a "relevant" expertise administrative and scientific cooperation in the French water policies elaboration and implementation since the 1990s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deroubaix, J. F.

    2008-08-01

    This paper aims at understanding the social and political uses of the principle of integrated management and its possible impacts on the elaboration and implementation processes of public policies in the French water management sector. The academic and political innovations developed by scientists and agents of the administration these last 25 years are analysed, using some of the theoretical tools developed by the science studies and public policy analysis. We first focus on the construction of intellectual public policy communities such as the GIP Hydro systems, at the origin of large interdisciplinary research programs in the 1990s. A common cognitive framework is clearly built during this period on the good governance of the aquatic ecosystems and on the corresponding needs and practices of research. The second part of the paper focuses on the possibilities to build political communities and more or less integrated expertises in the decision making processes concerning various issues related to water management. Eutrophication and its inscription on the French political agenda is a very significant case for analysing the difficulty to build such a political community. On the contrary, when there is an opportunity for policy evaluation, which was the case concerning the management of wetlands in France or the implementation of compulsory flows on the French rivers, these communities can emerge. However, the type of integrated expertise and management proposed in these cases of policy evaluations much depends on their methodological choices.

  15. Disaggregated analysis of US energy consumption in the 1990s: Evidence of the effects of the internet and rapid economic growth

    SciTech Connect

    Murtishaw, Scott; Schipper, Lee

    2001-07-01

    This paper decomposes US energy use from 1988 to 1998 and attributes the changes in energy use to three underlying factors: activity, structure, and intensity. For this study we use a bottom-up methodology, by separately decomposing delivered energy use in six sectors: travel, freight, manufacturing industries, non-manufacturing industries, residential, and services. The most commonly used indicator of energy efficiency in the total economy, the ratio of energy consumed to unit of GDP (E/GDP) created can often be misleading. The rapid decline in the E/GDP ratio in recent years has been used to support assertions that the Internet and information technologies in general have enabled improvements in energy efficiencies. However, our disaggregate analysis suggests that energy intensities on average are falling more slowly than ever before while actual energy use increased faster than at any time since 1970. The decline in the E/GDP ratio in the mid-to late 1990s owes much more to structural changes in the demand for energy services than to falling energy intensities.

  16. Fission prompt gamma-ray multiplicity distribution measurements and simulations at DANCE

    SciTech Connect

    Chyzh, A; Wu, C Y; Ullmann, J; Jandel, M; Bredeweg, T; Couture, A; Norman, E

    2010-08-24

    The nearly energy independence of the DANCE efficiency and multiplicity response to {gamma} rays makes it possible to measure the prompt {gamma}-ray multiplicity distribution in fission. We demonstrate this unique capability of DANCE through the comparison of {gamma}-ray energy and multiplicity distribution between the measurement and numerical simulation for three radioactive sources {sup 22}Na, {sup 60}Co, and {sup 88}Y. The prospect for measuring the {gamma}-ray multiplicity distribution for both spontaneous and neutron-induced fission is discussed.

  17. A directional wave measurement attack against the Kish key distribution system

    PubMed Central

    Gunn, Lachlan J.; Allison, Andrew; Abbott, Derek

    2014-01-01

    The Kish key distribution system has been proposed as a classical alternative to quantum key distribution. The idealized Kish scheme elegantly promises secure key distribution by exploiting thermal noise in a transmission line. However, we demonstrate that it is vulnerable to nonidealities in its components, such as the finite resistance of the transmission line connecting its endpoints. We introduce a novel attack against this nonideality using directional wave measurements, and experimentally demonstrate its efficacy. PMID:25248868

  18. Complete velocity distribution in river cross-sections measured by acoustic instruments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cheng, R.T.; Gartner, J.W.

    2003-01-01

    To fully understand the hydraulic properties of natural rivers, velocity distribution in the river cross-section should be studied in detail. The measurement task is not straightforward because there is not an instrument that can measure the velocity distribution covering the entire cross-section. Particularly, the velocities in regions near the free surface and in the bottom boundary layer are difficult to measure, and yet the velocity properties in these regions play the most significant role in characterizing the hydraulic properties. To further characterize river hydraulics, two acoustic instruments, namely, an acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP), and a "BoogieDopp" (BD) were used on fixed platforms to measure the detailed velocity profiles across the river. Typically, 20 to 25 stations were used to represent a river cross-section. At each station, water velocity profiles were measured independently and/or concurrently by an ADCP and a BD. The measured velocity properties were compared and used in computation of river discharge. In a tow-tank evaluation of a BD, it has been confirmed that BD is capable of measuring water velocity at about 11 cm below the free-surface. Therefore, the surface velocity distribution across the river was extracted from the BD velocity measurements and used to compute the river discharge. These detailed velocity profiles and the composite velocity distribution were used to assess the validity of the classic theories of velocity distributions, conventional river discharge measurement methods, and for estimates of channel bottom roughness.

  19. Distributed sensor for water and pH measurements using fiber optics and swellable polymeric systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michie, W. C.; Culshaw, B.; McKenzie, I.; Konstantakis, M.; Graham, N. B.; Moran, C.; Santos, F.; Bergqvist, E.; Carlstrom, B.

    1995-01-01

    We report on the design, construction and test of a generic form of sensor for making distributed measurements of a range of chemical parameters. The technique combines optical time-domain reflectometry with chemically sensitive water-swellable polymers (hydrogels). Initial experiments have concentrated on demonstrating a distributed water detector; however, gels have been developed that enable this sensor to be

  20. Measure the color distribution of a cotton sample using image analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The most commonly used measurement of cotton color is by the colorimeter principal that reports the sample’s color grade. However, the color distribution and variation within the sample are not reported. Obtaining color distributions of cotton samples will enable a more comprehensive evaluation of...

  1. The Effects of Diverse Test Score Distribution Characteristics on the Estimation of the Rasch Measurement Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cypress, Beulah K.

    The potential of the Rasch model to develop scores, on a ratio scale, suitable for interindividual comparisons, from intact groups with disparate distribution characteristics was investigated. The specific problems studied were: (1) the effects of skewed test score distributions on the ability parameter of the Rasch measurement model; (2) the…

  2. Institutional Research: Its Place in the 1990's. Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the North East Association for Institutional Research (17th, Albany, New York, October 21-23, 1990).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North East Association for Institutional Research.

    This document contains papers presented at a conference addressing the direction for the institutional research profession in the 1990s. Papers are as follows: "Reassessing Admission Policies at Public Universities: Cognitive vs. Non-Cognitive Predictors of 'Academic Success'" (Marios H. Agrotes); "Accommodating Team Member Cognitive Styles"…

  3. Developments in Microcomputing--Discovering New Opportunities for Libraries in the 1990s. Festschrift in Honour of Richard De Gennero. Papers presented at the International Essen Symposium (12th, Essen, West Germany, October 23-26, 1989).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helal, Ahmed H., Ed.; Weiss, Joachim W., Ed.

    The 16 papers in this collection explore the microcomputer revolution as it affects library information systems: (1) "HyperMedia/Multimedia Technology and New Opportunities for Libraries in the 1990s" (Ching-chih Chen); (2) "Use of CD-ROMs in West German Libraries" (David I. Raitt and Ching-chih Chen); (3) "Purposes of Interactive Optical Discs…

  4. Integrating Family in Social Progress and Development: Implementing Family-Specific Recommendations of Global Conferences of the 1990s. Final Report of the United Nations International Seminar (6th, Vienna International Centre, Austria, November 11-12, 1996).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Rosalind W.

    Family-specific recommendations emerging from six United Nations global conferences held in the 1990s may be seen as an agenda for developing family policies. This report presents the work of the Sixth International Seminar, focusing on how and by whom these policies are to be implemented. The three areas selected for attention are: (1) commitment…

  5. "Honey, I'm Home": Changes in Living Arrangements in the Late 1990s. New Federalism National Survey of America's Families, Series B, No. B-38. Assessing the New Federalism: An Urban Institute Program To Assess Changing Social Policies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acs, Gregory; Nelson, Sandi

    This brief uses data from the first two waves of the National Survey of America's Families to examine how living arrangements for families with children changed between 1997-99. During the late 1990s, welfare reform efforts centered on moving families from welfare to work. Lost in the discussions of declining caseloads and post-welfare employment…

  6. Variations of Low-energy Ion Distributions Measured in the Heliosheath

    SciTech Connect

    Decker, R. B.; Roelof, E. C.; Hill, M. E.; Krimigis, S. M.

    2010-12-30

    This report is an update of low-energy ion intensities and angular distributions measured recently by the Low Energy Charged Particle instruments on the Voyager 1 and 2 spacecraft in the inner heliosheath.

  7. FIELD COMPARISONS OF DUAL SMPS-APS SYSTEMS TO MEASURE INDOOR-OUTDOOR PARTICLE SIZE DISTRIBUTIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Simultaneous measurements of particle size distributions across multiple locations can provide critical information to accurately assess human exposure to particles. These data are very useful to describe indoor-outdoor particle relationships, outdoor particle penetration thro...

  8. Distributed deformation measurement of large space deployable mechanism based on FBG sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Yanfang; Zhou, Zude; Liu, Yi; Liu, Mingyao; Li, Ruiya; Li, Tianliang

    2015-10-01

    Space deployable mechanisms are widely used, important and multi-purpose components in aerospace fields. In order to ensure the mechanism in normal situation after unfolded, detecting the deformation caused by huge temperature difference in real-time is necessary. This paper designed a deployable mechanism setup, completed its distributed deformation measurement by means of fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors and BP neural network, proved the mechanism distributed strain takes place sequence and FBG sensor is capable for space deployable mechanisms deformation measuring.

  9. Measuring skewness of red blood cell deformability distribution by laser ektacytometry

    SciTech Connect

    Nikitin, S Yu; Priezzhev, A V; Lugovtsov, A E; Ustinov, V D

    2014-08-31

    An algorithm is proposed for measuring the parameters of red blood cell deformability distribution based on laser diffractometry of red blood cells in shear flow (ektacytometry). The algorithm is tested on specially prepared samples of rat blood. In these experiments we succeeded in measuring the mean deformability, deformability variance and skewness of red blood cell deformability distribution with errors of 10%, 15% and 35%, respectively. (laser biophotonics)

  10. Getting something out of nothing in the measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Yong-Gang; Cai, Qing-Yu; Yang, Hai-Feng; Hu, Yao-Hua

    2015-11-01

    Because of the monogamy of entanglement, the measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution is immune to the side-information leaking of the measurement devices. When the correlated measurement outcomes are generated from the dark counts, no entanglement is actually obtained. However, secure key bits can still be proven to be generated from these measurement outcomes. Especially, we will give numerical studies on the contributions of dark counts to the key generation rate in practical decoy state MDI-QKD where a signal source, a weaker decoy source and a vacuum decoy source are used by either legitimate key distributer.

  11. Two-dimensional automatic measurement for nozzle flow distribution using improved ultrasonic sensor.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Changyuan; Zhao, Chunjiang; Wang, Xiu; Wang, Ning; Zou, Wei; Li, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Spray deposition and distribution are affected by many factors, one of which is nozzle flow distribution. A two-dimensional automatic measurement system, which consisted of a conveying unit, a system control unit, an ultrasonic sensor, and a deposition collecting dish, was designed and developed. The system could precisely move an ultrasonic sensor above a pesticide deposition collecting dish to measure the nozzle flow distribution. A sensor sleeve with a PVC tube was designed for the ultrasonic sensor to limit its beam angle in order to measure the liquid level in the small troughs. System performance tests were conducted to verify the designed functions and measurement accuracy. A commercial spray nozzle was also used to measure its flow distribution. The test results showed that the relative error on volume measurement was less than 7.27% when the liquid volume was 2 mL in trough, while the error was less than 4.52% when the liquid volume was 4 mL or more. The developed system was also used to evaluate the flow distribution of a commercial nozzle. It was able to provide the shape and the spraying width of the flow distribution accurately. PMID:26501288

  12. Two-Dimensional Automatic Measurement for Nozzle Flow Distribution Using Improved Ultrasonic Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Zhai, Changyuan; Zhao, Chunjiang; Wang, Xiu; Wang, Ning; Zou, Wei; Li, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Spray deposition and distribution are affected by many factors, one of which is nozzle flow distribution. A two-dimensional automatic measurement system, which consisted of a conveying unit, a system control unit, an ultrasonic sensor, and a deposition collecting dish, was designed and developed. The system could precisely move an ultrasonic sensor above a pesticide deposition collecting dish to measure the nozzle flow distribution. A sensor sleeve with a PVC tube was designed for the ultrasonic sensor to limit its beam angle in order to measure the liquid level in the small troughs. System performance tests were conducted to verify the designed functions and measurement accuracy. A commercial spray nozzle was also used to measure its flow distribution. The test results showed that the relative error on volume measurement was less than 7.27% when the liquid volume was 2 mL in trough, while the error was less than 4.52% when the liquid volume was 4 mL or more. The developed system was also used to evaluate the flow distribution of a commercial nozzle. It was able to provide the shape and the spraying width of the flow distribution accurately. PMID:26501288

  13. Measuring maximal eigenvalue distribution of Wishart random matrices with coupled lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fridman, Moti; Pugatch, Rami; Nixon, Micha; Friesem, Asher A.; Davidson, Nir

    2012-02-01

    We determined the probability distribution of the combined output power from 25 coupled fiber lasers and show that it agrees well with the Tracy-Widom and Majumdar-Vergassola distributions of the largest eigenvalue of Wishart random matrices with no fitting parameters. This was achieved with 500 000 measurements of the combined output power from the fiber lasers, that continuously changes with variations of the fiber lasers lengths. We show experimentally that for small deviations of the combined output power over its mean value the Tracy-Widom distribution is correct, while for large deviations the Majumdar-Vergassola distribution is correct.

  14. Measurement and prediction of aromatic solute distribution coefficients for aqueous-organic solvent systems. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, J.R.; Luthy, R.G.

    1984-06-01

    Experimental and modeling activities were performed to assess techniques for measurement and prediction of distribution coefficients for aromatic solutes between water and immiscible organic solvents. Experiments were performed to measure distribution coefficients in both clean water and wastewater systems, and to assess treatment of a wastewater by solvent extraction. The theoretical portions of this investigation were directed towards development of techniques for prediction of solute-solvent/water distribution coefficients. Experiments were performed to assess treatment of a phenolic-laden coal conversion wastewater by solvent extraction. The results showed that solvent extraction for recovery of phenolic material offered several wastewater processing advantages. Distribution coefficients were measured in clean water and wastewater systems for aromatic solutes of varying functionality with different solvent types. It was found that distribution coefficients for these compounds in clean water systems were not statistically different from distribution coefficients determined in a complex coal conversion process wastewater. These and other aromatic solute distribution coefficient data were employed for evaluation of modeling techniques for prediction of solute-solvent/water distribution coefficients. Eight solvents were selected in order to represent various chemical classes: toluene and benzene (aromatics), hexane and heptane (alkanes), n-octanol (alcohols), n-butyl acetate (esters), diisopropyl ether (ethers), and methylisobutyl ketone (ketones). The aromatic solutes included: nonpolar compounds such as benzene, toluene and naphthalene, phenolic compounds such as phenol, cresol and catechol, nitrogenous aromatics such as aniline, pyridine and aminonaphthalene, and other aromatic solutes such as naphthol, quinolinol and halogenated compounds. 100 references, 20 figures, 34 tables.

  15. Proximal distributions from angular correlations: A measure of the onset of coarse-graining

    PubMed Central

    Dyer, Kippi M.; Pettitt, B. Montgomery

    2013-01-01

    In this work we examine and extend the theory of proximal radial distribution functions for molecules in solution. We point out two formal extensions, the first of which generalizes the proximal distribution function hierarchy approach to the complete, angularly dependent molecular pair distribution function. Second, we generalize from the traditional right-handed solute-solvent proximal distribution functions to the left-handed distributions. The resulting neighbor hierarchy convergence is shown to provide a measure of the coarse-graining of the internal solute sites with respect to the solvent. Simulation of the test case of a deca-alanine peptide shows that this coarse-graining measure converges at a length scale of approximately 5 amino acids for the system considered. PMID:24320368

  16. Proximal distributions from angular correlations: A measure of the onset of coarse-graining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyer, Kippi M.; Pettitt, B. Montgomery

    2013-12-01

    In this work we examine and extend the theory of proximal radial distribution functions for molecules in solution. We point out two formal extensions, the first of which generalizes the proximal distribution function hierarchy approach to the complete, angularly dependent molecular pair distribution function. Second, we generalize from the traditional right-handed solute-solvent proximal distribution functions to the left-handed distributions. The resulting neighbor hierarchy convergence is shown to provide a measure of the coarse-graining of the internal solute sites with respect to the solvent. Simulation of the test case of a deca-alanine peptide shows that this coarse-graining measure converges at a length scale of approximately 5 amino acids for the system considered.

  17. Measurement of temperature distributions in large pool fires with the use of directional flame thermometers

    SciTech Connect

    KOSKI,JORMAN A.

    2000-05-09

    Temperatures inside the flame zone of large regulatory pool fires measured during tests of radioactive materials packages vary widely with both time and position. Measurements made with several Directional Flame Thermometers, in which a thermocouple is attached to a thin metal sheet that quickly approaches flame temperatures, have been used to construct fire temperature distributions and cumulative probability distributions. As an aid to computer simulations of these large fires, these distributions are presented. The distributions are constructed by sorting fire temperature data into bins 10 C wide. A typical fire temperature distribution curve has a gradual increase starting at about 600 C, with the number of observations increasing to a peak near 1000 C, followed by an abrupt decrease in frequency, with no temperatures observed above 1200 C.

  18. Substance abuse studies and prevention efforts among Arabs in the 1990s in Israel, Jordan and the Palestinian Authority--a literature review.

    PubMed

    Weiss, S; Sawa, G H; Abdeen, Z; Yanai, J

    1999-02-01

    This paper is the result of a collaborative project of Israeli, Jordanian and Palestinian scientists gathered to reveal the current extent of substance abuse and efforts at prevention among Arabs in Israel, Jordan and the Palestinian Authority territories, in order to identify needs and suggest future collaborative activities and directions for regional cooperation. The article provides data and covers the current state of substance abuse prevention and research among Moslems, Christians and Druze in the trilateral region in the 1990s by reviewing prevention materials and studies published in the professional literature, as well as in reports and Doctoral and Master's theses in Arabic, which have been located in academic libraries and other institutions, in the framework of a comprehensive search. This manuscript is the first to summarize Jordanian and Palestinian findings in the substance abuse domain. The review shows that most of the Israeli research in the Arab sector deals with alcohol use among youth, that the majority of Jordanian studies focus on illicit drug use, that the research among Palestinians is in its infancy, and that comprehensive prevention programs are lacking in the trilateral region. It describes the key results of most of the 12 Israeli studies among Arabs, 11 Jordanian studies and four Palestinian studies. It reveals that drug abuse among Israeli Arab students is probably more prevalent than among Jewish adolescents, that the typical Jordanian drug addict has a higher level of education than the typical Palestinian drug addict, and that the Palestinian is more likely to be a multiple drug user. Recommendations for future activities include organization of a regional collaborative workshop in order to establish data collection systems for basic statistics relevant to drug abuse and development of comprehensive prevention programs, as well as studies in the substance abuse domain concerning knowledge, attitudes and behavior among the general

  19. A comparison of magnetic resonance methods for spatially resolved T2 distribution measurements in porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vashaee, S.; Marica, F.; Newling, B.; Balcom, B. J.

    2015-05-01

    Naturally occurring porous media are usually characterized by a distribution of pore sizes. If the material is fluid saturated, the 1H magnetic resonance (MR) signal depends on the pore size, the surface relaxivity and the fluid itself. Measurement of the transverse relaxation time T2 is a well-established technique to characterize material samples by means of MR. T2 distribution measurements, including T2 distribution mapping, are widely employed in clinical applications and in petroleum engineering. T2 distribution measurements are the most basic measurement employed to determine the fluid-matrix properties in MR core analysis. Three methods for T2 distribution mapping, namely spin-echo single point imaging (SE-SPI), DANTE-Z Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) and adiabatic inversion CPMG are compared in terms of spatial resolution, minimum observable T2 and sensitivity. Bulk CPMG measurement is considered to be the gold standard for T2 determination. Bulk measurement of uniform samples is compared to the three spatially resolved measurements. SE-SPI is an imaging method, which measures spatially resolved T2s in samples of interest. A variant is introduced in this work that employs pre-equalized magnetic field gradient waveforms and is therefore able to measure shorter T2s than previously reported. DANTE-Z CPMG and adiabatic inversion CPMG are faster, non-imaging, local T2 distribution measurements. The DANTE-Z pulse train and adiabatic inversion pulse are compared in terms of T1 or T2 relaxation time effects during the RF pulse application, minimum pulse duration, requisite RF pulse power, and inversion profile quality. In addition to experimental comparisons, simulation results are presented.

  20. Analysis of anisotropic suprathermal ion distributions using multidirectional measurements of escaping neutral atom fluxes

    SciTech Connect

    Goncharov, P. R.; Ozaki, T.; Veshchev, E. A.; Sudo, S.

    2008-10-15

    A feasible approach in obtaining experimental data on the angular dependence of the ion distribution function in a fusion plasma is to perform angle-resolved measurements of kinetic energy spectra of escaping neutral atoms. A general calculation scheme has been developed and realized as a FORTRAN code that has a predictive force to simulate the experimentally measurable anisotropic distributions and random samples of escaping neutral atom kinetic energies for any given angle-dependent ion distribution law, electron density, and temperature profiles, plasma composition, magnetic surface structure, and experiment geometry on any toroidal plasma device with magnetic confinement. As a particular application of the method to a specific experiment, measured signals for all 20 channels of the angle-resolved multisightline neutral particle analyzer on Large Helical Device have been numerically simulated for certain predefined model fast ion distribution functions.

  1. Analysis of anisotropic suprathermal ion distributions using multidirectional measurements of escaping neutral atom fluxes.

    PubMed

    Goncharov, P R; Ozaki, T; Veshchev, E A; Sudo, S

    2008-10-01

    A feasible approach in obtaining experimental data on the angular dependence of the ion distribution function in a fusion plasma is to perform angle-resolved measurements of kinetic energy spectra of escaping neutral atoms. A general calculation scheme has been developed and realized as a FORTRAN code that has a predictive force to simulate the experimentally measurable anisotropic distributions and random samples of escaping neutral atom kinetic energies for any given angle-dependent ion distribution law, electron density, and temperature profiles, plasma composition, magnetic surface structure, and experiment geometry on any toroidal plasma device with magnetic confinement. As a particular application of the method to a specific experiment, measured signals for all 20 channels of the angle-resolved multisightline neutral particle analyzer on Large Helical Device have been numerically simulated for certain predefined model fast ion distribution functions. PMID:19044624

  2. Residence Time Distribution Measurement and Analysis of Pilot-Scale Pretreatment Reactors for Biofuels Production: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Sievers, D.; Kuhn, E.; Tucker, M.; Stickel, J.; Wolfrum, E.

    2013-06-01

    Measurement and analysis of residence time distribution (RTD) data is the focus of this study where data collection methods were developed specifically for the pretreatment reactor environment. Augmented physical sampling and automated online detection methods were developed and applied. Both the measurement techniques themselves and the produced RTD data are presented and discussed.

  3. Measurement of doubly differential electron distributions induced by atomic collisions: Apparatus and related instrumental effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernardi, G.; Suárez, S.; Fregenal, D.; Focke, P.; Meckbach, W.

    1996-05-01

    We describe the experimental setup at Centro Atómico Bariloche for the measurement of doubly differential electron distributions, in energy and angle of emission, induced by atomic collisions. We present detailed information about the performance of the equipment including a discussion of instrumental effects that could have affected the measured spectra.

  4. Measuring Distributive Justice Preferences of Finnish University Students via the State Budget

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Venetoklis, Takis

    2007-01-01

    We measure the distributive justice preferences of students within eight departments in the faculty of Social Sciences at the University of Turku, Finland. We use the Finnish government's annual budget and its specific appropriations as a proxy to measure the students' underlying preferences. We test whether the type of studies of the respondents…

  5. A practical divergence measure for survival distributions that can be estimated from Kaplan-Meier curves.

    PubMed

    Cox, Trevor F; Czanner, Gabriela

    2016-06-30

    This paper introduces a new simple divergence measure between two survival distributions. For two groups of patients, the divergence measure between their associated survival distributions is based on the integral of the absolute difference in probabilities that a patient from one group dies at time t and a patient from the other group survives beyond time t and vice versa. In the case of non-crossing hazard functions, the divergence measure is closely linked to the Harrell concordance index, C, the Mann-Whitney test statistic and the area under a receiver operating characteristic curve. The measure can be used in a dynamic way where the divergence between two survival distributions from time zero up to time t is calculated enabling real-time monitoring of treatment differences. The divergence can be found for theoretical survival distributions or can be estimated non-parametrically from survival data using Kaplan-Meier estimates of the survivor functions. The estimator of the divergence is shown to be generally unbiased and approximately normally distributed. For the case of proportional hazards, the constituent parts of the divergence measure can be used to assess the proportional hazards assumption. The use of the divergence measure is illustrated on the survival of pancreatic cancer patients. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26842429

  6. A 128-channel picoammeter system and its application on charged particle beam current distribution measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Deyang Liu, Junliang; Xue, Yingli; Zhang, Mingwu; Cai, Xiaohong; Hu, Jianjun; Dong, Jinmei; Li, Xin

    2015-11-15

    A 128-channel picoammeter system is constructed based on instrumentation amplifiers. Taking advantage of a high electric potential and narrow bandwidth in DC energetic charged beam measurements, a current resolution better than 5 fA can be achieved. Two sets of 128-channel strip electrodes are implemented on printed circuit boards and are employed for ion and electron beam current distribution measurements. Tests with 60 keV O{sup 3+} ions and 2 keV electrons show that it can provide exact boundaries when a positive charged particle beam current distribution is measured.

  7. A 128-channel picoammeter system and its application on charged particle beam current distribution measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Deyang; Liu, Junliang; Xue, Yingli; Zhang, Mingwu; Cai, Xiaohong; Hu, Jianjun; Dong, Jinmei; Li, Xin

    2015-11-01

    A 128-channel picoammeter system is constructed based on instrumentation amplifiers. Taking advantage of a high electric potential and narrow bandwidth in DC energetic charged beam measurements, a current resolution better than 5 fA can be achieved. Two sets of 128-channel strip electrodes are implemented on printed circuit boards and are employed for ion and electron beam current distribution measurements. Tests with 60 keV O3+ ions and 2 keV electrons show that it can provide exact boundaries when a positive charged particle beam current distribution is measured.

  8. Cluster mass fraction and size distribution determined by fs-time-resolved measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Xiaohui; Wang, Xiaoming; Shim, Bonggu; Arefiev, Alexey; Tushentsov, Mikhail; Breizman, Boris; Downer, Mike

    2009-11-01

    Characterization of supersonic gas jets is important for accurate interpretation and control of laser-cluster experiments. While average size and total atomic density can be found by standard Rayleigh scatter and interferometry, cluster mass fraction and size distribution are usually difficult to measure. Here we determine the cluster fraction and the size distribution with fs-time-resolved refractive index and absorption measurements in cluster gas jets after ionization and heating by an intense pump pulse. The fs-time-resolved refractive index measured with frequency domain interferometer (FDI) shows different contributions from monomer plasma and cluster plasma in the time domain, enabling us to determine the cluster fraction. The fs-time-resolved absorption measured by a delayed probe shows the contribution from clusters of various sizes, allowing us to find the size distribution.

  9. Effectiveness of survey points' density and distribution on vegetation coverage field measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, Y. J.; Gao, L.; Wang, J. A.; Li, N.

    2009-10-01

    Vegetation coverage is a widely used parameter to measure global and regional environment change. Evaluating the accuracy and efficiency of vegetation coverage using digital photography under various survey points' densities and distribution patterns has an important referential significance for providing an optimized field measurement method. The vegetation field measurement was carried out in a sample with Artemisia ordosica shrubs in Mu Us sandy land using vertical hoisting digital camera, with four densities and nine distribution patterns of survey points. The results showed that: different density of survey points led to a slight accuracy difference, and the precision improves as the density increases. The sample size had great impact on the precision. Different point distribution patterns led to significantly different results. "Diamond" pattern can get relatively higher degree of accuracy with least points and shortest walking distance in field survey. It's the best choice that could meet the requirements of the maximum precision and minimum workload in the vegetation field measurement.

  10. Real-time measurement of RFR energy distribution in the Macaca mulatta head

    SciTech Connect

    Burr, J.G.; Krupp, J.H.

    1980-01-01

    Temperature increases due to absorption of 1.2 GHz, CW, 70 mW/cm2, radio frequency (RF) energy, were measured in 3.3-cm-radius homogeneous muscle-equivalent spheres, M. mulatta cadaver heads (both detached from and attached to the body) and living, anesthetized M. mulatta heads. Temperatures were measured with a Vitek, Model 101 Electrothermia Monitor and temperature distributions were compared to theoretical predictions from a thermal-response model of a simulated cranial structure. The results show that the thermal response model accurately predicts the temperature distribution in muscle-equivalent spheres, the distribution of temperature in detached M. mulatta heads when exposed from the back of the head, and the distribution of temperature in attached M. mulatta cadaver heads for animals oriented with body parallel to the H-field. The temperature distribution in the detached M. mulatta heads varies markedly with exposure orientation, ie, facing forward, backward, or to the side. The orientation of the M. mulatta cadaver body significantly affects the temperature distribution in the head - with H-field orientation showing high, nonuniform values, and E-field orientation showing low, uniform values. In live animals blood flow produces a significant short-term effect on the temperature distribution in the midbrain, but not the cortex. Midbrain temperatures are both significantly higher and lower than the comparable cadaver measurements, depending on location.

  11. Probable errors in width distributions of sea ice leads measured along a transect

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Key, J.; Peckham, S.

    1991-01-01

    The degree of error expected in the measurement of widths of sea ice leads along a single transect are examined in a probabilistic sense under assumed orientation and width distributions, where both isotropic and anisotropic lead orientations are examined. Methods are developed for estimating the distribution of 'actual' widths (measured perpendicular to the local lead orientation) knowing the 'apparent' width distribution (measured along the transect), and vice versa. The distribution of errors, defined as the difference between the actual and apparent lead width, can be estimated from the two width distributions, and all moments of this distribution can be determined. The problem is illustrated with Landsat imagery and the procedure is applied to a submarine sonar transect. Results are determined for a range of geometries, and indicate the importance of orientation information if data sampled along a transect are to be used for the description of lead geometries. While the application here is to sea ice leads, the methodology can be applied to measurements of any linear feature.

  12. Measurement of fragment mass distributions in neutron-induced fission reactions at intermediate energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simutkin, V. D.; Ryzhov, I. V.; Tutin, G. A.; Vaishnene, L. A.; Blomgren, J.; Pomp, S.; Österlund, M.; Andersson, P.; Bevilacqua, R.; Meulders, J. P.; Prieels, R.

    2009-10-01

    Fragment mass distributions from neutron-induced fission of 232Th and 238U have been measured at quasi-monoenergetic neutron beam of the Louvain-la-Neuve cyclotron facility CYCLONE. The measurements have been carried out making use of a multi-section Frisch-gridded ionization chamber. The measurement technique as well as the data processing is described. Preliminary data on primary fragment mass yields are given for an incident neutron energy of 32.8 MeV.

  13. Measurement of the ambient organic aerosol volatility distribution: application during the Finokalia Aerosol Measurement Experiment (FAME-2008)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, B. H.; Kostenidou, E.; Hildebrandt, L.; Riipinen, I.; Engelhart, G. J.; Mohr, C.; Decarlo, P. F.; Mihalopoulos, N.; Prevot, A. S. H.; Baltensperger, U.; Pandis, S. N.

    2010-07-01

    A variable residence time thermodenuder (TD) was combined with an Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS) and a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS) to measure the volatility distribution of aged organic aerosol in the Eastern Mediterranean during the Finokalia Aerosol Measurement Experiment in May of 2008 (FAME-2008). A new method for the quantification of the organic aerosol volatility distribution was developed combining measurements of all three instruments together with an aerosol dynamics model. Challenges in the interpretation of ambient thermodenuder-AMS measurements include the potential resistances to mass transfer during particle evaporation, the effects of particle size on the evaporated mass fraction, the changes in the AMS collection efficiency and particle density as the particles evaporate partially in the TD, and finally potential losses inside the TD. Our proposed measurement and data analysis method accounts for all of these problems combining the AMS and SMPS measurements. The AMS collection efficiency of the aerosol that passed through the TD was found to be approximately 10% lower than the collection efficiency of the aerosol that passed through the bypass. The organic aerosol measured at Finokalia is approximately 2 orders of magnitude less volatile than fresh laboratory-generated biogenic secondary organic aerosol. This low volatility is consistent with its highly oxygenated AMS mass spectrum. The results are found to be highly sensitive to the mass accommodation coefficient of the evaporating species.

  14. Development of a simplified optical technique for the simultaneous measurement of particle size distribution and velocity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, J. L.

    1983-01-01

    Existing techniques were surveyed, an experimental procedure was developed, a laboratory test model was fabricated, limited data were recovered for proof of principle, and the relationship between particle size distribution and amplitude measurements was illustrated in an effort to develop a low cost, simplified optical technique for measuring particle size distributions and velocities in fluidized bed combustors and gasifiers. A He-Ne laser illuminated Rochi Rulings (range 10 to 500 lines per inch). Various samples of known particle size distributions were passed through the fringe pattern produced by the rulings. A photomultiplier tube converted light from the fringe volume to an electrical signal which was recorded using an oscilloscope and camera. The signal amplitudes were correlated against the known particle size distributions. The correlation holds true for various samples.

  15. Unfolding the fission prompt gamma-ray energy and multiplicity distribution measured by DANCE

    SciTech Connect

    Chyzh, A; Wu, C Y; Bredeweg, T; Couture, A; Jandel, M; Ullmann, J; Laptev, A

    2010-10-16

    The nearly energy independence of the {gamma}-ray efficiency and multiplicity response for the DANCE array, the unusual characteristic elucidated in our early technical report (LLNL-TR-452298), gives one a unique opportunity to derive the true prompt {gamma}-ray energy and multiplicity distribution in fission from the measurement. This unfolding procedure for the experimental data will be described in details and examples will be given to demonstrate the feasibility of reconstruction of the true distribution.

  16. Measurement Of Kinetic Energy Distribution Of Positive Ions From Electron Induced Dissociation Of Pyrimidine Molecule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milosavljevic, A. R.; Maljkovic, J. B.; Sevic, D.; Cadez, I.; Marinkovic, B. P.

    2010-07-01

    We report preliminary results on measurements of kinetic energy distribution of positive ions formed upon electron induced dissociative ionization of gaseous pyrimidine molecule (C4H4N2). The kinetic energy spectra were recorded without precedent mass/charge analysis, for different incident electron energies (50-250 eV) and different detection angles (40-90) with respect to the incident beam direction. An influence of the residual gas background to the recorded distributions has been investigated.

  17. Have I Been a Data Scientist from the Start? Parallels from the Geographic Information Science Community in the Early 1990s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, D. J.

    2013-12-01

    In the early 1990s the author came of age as the technology driving the geographic information system or GIS was beginning to successfully 'handle' geospatial data at a range of scales and formats, and a wide array of information technology products emerged from an expanding GIS industry. However, that small community struggled to reflect the diverse research efforts at play in understanding the deeper issues surrounding geospatial data, and the impediments to that effective use of that data. It was from this need that geographic information science or GIScience arose, to ensure in part that GIS did not fall into the trap of being a technology in search of applications, a one-time, one-off, non-intellectual 'bag of tricks' with no substantive theory underpinning it, and suitable only for a static period of time (e.g., Goodchild, 1992). The community has since debated the issue of "tool versus science' which has also played a role in defining GIS as an actual profession. In turn, GIS has contributed to "methodological versus substantive" questions in science, leading to understandings of how the Earth works versus how the Earth should look. In the author's experience, the multidimensional structuring and scaling data, with integrative and innovative approaches to analyzing, modeling, and developing extensive and spatial data from selected places on land and at sea, have revealed how theory and application are in no way mutually exclusive, and it may often be application that advances theory, rather than vice versa. Increasingly, both the system and science of geographic information have welcomed strong collaborations among computer scientists, information scientists, and domain scientists to solve complex scientific questions. As such, they have paralleled the emergence and acceptance of "data science." And now that we are squarely in an era of regional- to global-scale observation and simulation of the Earth, produce data that are too big, move too fast, and do not

  18. Rényi entropy and complexity measure for skew-gaussian distributions and related families

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Contreras-Reyes, Javier E.

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, we provide the Rényi entropy and complexity measure for a novel, flexible class of skew-gaussian distributions and their related families, as a characteristic form of the skew-gaussian Shannon entropy. We give closed expressions considering a more general class of closed skew-gaussian distributions and the weighted moments estimation method. In addition, closed expressions of Rényi entropy are presented for extended skew-gaussian and truncated skew-gaussian distributions. Finally, additional inequalities for skew-gaussian and extended skew-gaussian Rényi and Shannon entropies are reported.

  19. Laser-dust interaction and dust size distribution measurements on DIII-D

    SciTech Connect

    Smirnov, R. D.; West, W. P.; Krasheninnikov, S. I.; Pigarov, A. Yu.; Rosenberg, M.; Bray, B. D.

    2007-11-15

    The determination of dust radius distributions from the measurement of laser scattering intensity in tokamaks is presented. The analysis takes into account non-Rayleigh regimes of light scattering for different complex refractive indices of dust materials, as well as dust evaporation due to heating by laser radiation. The model is applied to calculate the dust particle radius distribution in tokamaks during normal plasma operation. It is shown that a relatively small amount of large dust particles in the distribution may play a significant role for estimation of the dust mass inventory in tokamaks.

  20. A Security Proof of Measurement Device Independent Quantum Key Distribution: From the View of Information Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Fang-Yi; Yin, Zhen-Qiang; Li, Hong-Wei; Chen, Wei; Wang, Shuang; Wen, Hao; Zhao, Yi-Bo; Han, Zheng-Fu

    2014-07-01

    Although some ideal quantum key distribution protocols have been proved to be secure, there have been some demonstrations that practical quantum key distribution implementations were hacked due to some real-life imperfections. Among these attacks, detector side channel attacks may be the most serious. Recently, a measurement device independent quantum key distribution protocol [Phys. Rev. Lett. 108 (2012) 130503] was proposed and all detector side channel attacks are removed in this scheme. Here a new security proof based on quantum information theory is given. The eavesdropper's information of the sifted key bits is bounded. Then with this bound, the final secure key bit rate can be obtained.

  1. Dynamic measurement of inside strain distributions in adhesively bonded joints by embedded fiber Bragg grating sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murayama, Hideaki; Ning, Xiaoguang; Kageyama, Kazuro; Wada, Daichi; Igawa, Hirotaka

    2014-05-01

    Long-length fiber Bragg grating (FBG) with the length of about 100 mm was embedded onto the surface of a carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP) substrate and two CFRP adherends were joined by adhesive to form an adhesive bonded single-lap joint. The joint was subjected to 0.5 Hz cyclic tensile load and longitudinal strain distributions along FBG were measured at 5 Hz by the fiber-optic distributed sensing system based on optical frequency domain reflectometry (OFDR). We could successfully monitor the strain distributions accurately with high spatial resolution of around 1 mm.

  2. Probability distributions for quantum stress tensors measured in a finite time interval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fewster, Christopher J.; Ford, L. H.

    2015-11-01

    A meaningful probability distribution for measurements of a quantum stress tensor operator can only be obtained if the operator is averaged in time or in spacetime. This averaging can be regarded as a description of the measurement process. Realistic measurements can be expected to begin and end at finite times, which means that they are described by functions with compact support, which we will also take to be smooth. Here we study the probability distributions for stress tensor operators averaged with such functions of time, in the vacuum state of a massless free field. Our primary aim is to understand the asymptotic form of the distribution which describes the probability of large vacuum fluctuations. Our approach involves asymptotic estimates for the high moments of the distribution. These estimates in turn may be used to obtain estimates for the asymptotic form of the probability distribution. Our results show that averaging over a finite interval results in a probability distribution which falls more slowly than for the case of Lorentzian averaging, and both fall more slowly than exponentially. This indicates that vacuum fluctuations effects can dominate over thermal fluctuations in some circumstances.

  3. High precision, high sensitivity distributed displacement and temperature measurements using OFDR-based phase tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gifford, Dawn K.; Froggatt, Mark E.; Kreger, Stephen T.

    2011-05-01

    Optical Frequency Domain Reflectometry is used to measure distributed displacement and temperature change with very high sensitivity and precision by measuring the phase change of an optical fiber sensor as a function of distance with high spatial resolution and accuracy. A fiber containing semi-continuous Bragg gratings was used as the sensor. The effective length change, or displacement, in the fiber caused by small temperature changes was measured as a function of distance with a precision of 2.4 nm and a spatial resolution of 1.5 mm. The temperature changes calculated from this displacement were measured with precision of 0.001 C with an effective sensor gauge length of 12 cm. These results demonstrate that the method employed of continuously tracking the phase change along the length of the fiber sensor enables high resolution distributed measurements that can be used to detect very small displacements, temperature changes, or strains.

  4. Retarding field analyzer for ion energy distribution measurements at a radio-frequency biased electrode

    SciTech Connect

    Gahan, D.; Hopkins, M. B.; Dolinaj, B.

    2008-03-15

    A retarding field energy analyzer designed to measure ion energy distributions impacting a radio-frequency biased electrode in a plasma discharge is examined. The analyzer is compact so that the need for differential pumping is avoided. The analyzer is designed to sit on the electrode surface, in place of the substrate, and the signal cables are fed out through the reactor side port. This prevents the need for modifications to the rf electrode--as is normally the case for analyzers built into such electrodes. The capabilities of the analyzer are demonstrated through experiments with various electrode bias conditions in an inductively coupled plasma reactor. The electrode is initially grounded and the measured distributions are validated with the Langmuir probe measurements of the plasma potential. Ion energy distributions are then given for various rf bias voltage levels, discharge pressures, rf bias frequencies - 500 kHz to 30 MHz, and rf bias waveforms - sinusoidal, square, and dual frequency.

  5. Effect of electrode density and measurement noise on the spatial resolution of cortical potential distribution.

    PubMed

    Ryynänen, Outi R M; Hyttinen, Jari A K; Laarne, Päivi H; Malmivuo, Jaakko A

    2004-09-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the spatial resolution of electroencephalography (EEG) by means of inverse cortical EEG solution. The main interest was to study how the number of measurement electrodes and the amount of measurement noise affects the spatial resolution. A three-layer spherical head model was used to obtain the source-field relationship of cortical potentials and scalp EEG field. Singular value decomposition was used to evaluate the spatial resolution with various measurement noise estimates. The results suggest that as the measurement noise increases the advantage of dense electrode systems is decreased. With low realistic measurement noise, a more accurate inverse cortical potential distribution can be obtained with an electrode system where the distance between two electrodes is as small as 16 mm, corresponding to as many as 256 measurement electrodes. In clinical measurement environments, it is always beneficial to have at least 64 measurement electrodes. PMID:15376503

  6. Results on the neutron energy distribution measurements at the RECH-1 Chilean nuclear reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguilera, P.; Molina, F.; Romero-Barrientos, J.

    2016-07-01

    Neutron activations experiments has been perform at the RECH-1 Chilean Nuclear Reactor to measure its neutron flux energy distribution. Samples of pure elements was activated to obtain the saturation activities for each reaction. Using - ray spectroscopy we identify and measure the activity of the reaction product nuclei, obtaining the saturation activities of 20 reactions. GEANT4 and MCNP was used to compute the self shielding factor to correct the cross section for each element. With the Expectation-Maximization algorithm (EM) we were able to unfold the neutron flux energy distribution at dry tube position, near the RECH-1 core. In this work, we present the unfolding results using the EM algorithm.

  7. Velocity-space synthesis of ISEE-1 measurements of the three dimensional electron distribution function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitzenreiter, R. J.; Scudder, J. D.

    1981-01-01

    A computer package which produces contour plots of the three dimensional electron distribution function measured by an electron spectrometer aboard ISEE-1 is described. Examples of the contour plots and an explanation of how to use the program, including the necessary computer code for running the program on the GSFC 360/91 computer is presented. The method by which the discrete measurements of the distribution function, given by points on the four dimensional surface are synthesized into a smooth surface in a three dimensional space which can be contoured is described. The velocity components are parallel and perpendicular to the magnetic field, respectively, in the proper frame of the electrons.

  8. Two-Nucleon Momentum Distributions Measured in 3He(e,e'pp)n

    SciTech Connect

    R.A. Niyazov; L.B. Weinstein; et al

    2004-02-01

    We have measured the 3He(e,e'pp)n reaction at 2.2 GeV over a wide kinematic range. The kinetic energy distribution for ''fast'' nucleons (p > 250 MeV/c) peaks where two nucleons each have 20% or less, and the third nucleon has most of the transferred energy. These fast pp and pn pairs are back-to-back with little momentum along the three-momentum transfer, indicating that they are spectators. Experimental and theoretical evidence indicates that we have measured distorted two-nucleon momentum distributions by striking the third nucleon and detecting the spectator correlated pair.

  9. Measurement Technique of Dose Rate Distribution of Ionization Sources with Unstable in Time Beam Parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stuchebrov, S. G.; Miloichikova, I. A.; Danilova, I. B.

    2016-01-01

    The article describes a new technique for the average values of radiation dose measurement for the unstable gamma-ray sources which are used in non-destructive testing. The method is based on usage of different types of compact accumulative dosimeters. Spatially distributed position sensitive dosimetry system based on compact sensitive elements was created. Size and spatial resolution of the system of the dosimetry system are chosen taking into account sources characteristics. The proposed method has been tested on the measurement of dose distribution of several sources of X-ray and gamma-radiation based on X-ray tubes, electronic accelerator betatrons and linear electron accelerators.

  10. Two-nucleon momentum distributions measured in 3He(e,e'pp)n.

    PubMed

    Niyazov, R A; Weinstein, L B; Adams, G; Ambrozewicz, P; Anciant, E; Anghinolfi, M; Asavapibhop, B; Asryan, G; Audit, G; Auger, T; Avakian, H; Bagdasaryan, H; Ball, J P; Barrow, S; Battaglieri, M; Beard, K; Bektasoglu, M; Bellis, M; Benmouna, N; Berman, B L; Bertozzi, W; Bianchi, N; Biselli, A S; Boiarinov, S; Bonner, B E; Bouchigny, S; Bradford, R; Branford, D; Brooks, W K; Burkert, V D; Butuceanu, C; Calarco, J R; Carman, D S; Carnahan, B; Cetina, C; Chen, S; Ciciani, L; Cole, P L; Coleman, A; Cords, D; Corvisiero, P; Crabb, D; Crannell, H; Cummings, J P; De Sanctis, E; Dashyan, N; DeVita, R; Degtyarenko, P V; Denizli, H; Dennis, L; Dharmawardane, K V; Dhuga, K S; Djalali, C; Dodge, G E; Doughty, D; Dragovitsch, P; Dugger, M; Dytman, S; Dzyubak, O P; Eckhause, M; Egiyan, H; Egiyan, K S; Elouadrhiri, L; Empl, A; Eugenio, P; Fatemi, R; Feuerbach, R J; Ficenec, J; Forest, T A; Funsten, H; Gavalian, G; Gilad, S; Gilfoyle, G P; Giovanetti, K L; Girard, P; Gordon, C I O; Gothe, R W; Griffioen, K; Guidal, M; Guillo, M; Guo, L; Gyurjyan, V; Hadjidakis, C; Hakobyan, R S; Hardie, J; Heddle, D; Hersman, F W; Hicks, K; Holtrop, M; Hu, J; Hyde-Wright, C E; Ilieva, Y; Ingram, W; Ito, M M; Jenkins, D; Joo, K; Juengst, H G; Kelley, J H; Kellie, J; Khandaker, M; Kim, D H; Kim, K Y; Kim, K; Kim, M S; Kim, W; Klein, A; Klein, F J; Klimenko, A V; Klusman, M; Kossov, M; Kramer, L H; Kuang, Y; Kuhn, S E; Kuhn, J; Lachniet, J; Laget, J M; Langheinrich, J; Lawrence, D; Li, Ji; Livingston, K; Lukashin, K; Manak, J J; Marchand, C; McAleer, S; McLauchlan, S; McNabb, J W C; Mecking, B A; Mehrabyan, S; Melone, J J; Mestayer, M D; Meyer, C A; Mikhailov, K; Mirazita, M; Miskimen, R; Morand, L; Morrow, S A; Muccifora, V; Mueller, J; Mutchler, G S; Napolitano, J; Nasseripour, R; Nelson, S O; Niccolai, S; Niculescu, G; Niculescu, I; Niczyporuk, B B; Nozar, M; O'Rielly, G V; Osipenko, M; Park, K; Pasyuk, E; Peterson, G; Philips, S A; Pivnyuk, N; Pocanic, D; Pogorelko, O; Polli, E; Pozdniakov, S; Preedom, B M; Price, J W; Prok, Y; Protopopescu, D; Qin, L M; Raue, B A; Riccardi, G; Ricco, G; Ripani, M; Ritchie, B G; Ronchetti, F; Rossi, P; Rowntree, D; Rubin, P D; Sabatié, F; Sabourov, K; Salgado, C; Santoro, J P; Sapunenko, V; Schumacher, R A; Serov, V S; Shafi, A; Sharabian, Y G; Shaw, J; Simionatto, S; Skabelin, A V; Smith, E S; Smith, L C; Sober, D I; Spraker, M; Stavinsky, A; Stepanyan, S; Stoler, P; Strakovsky, I I; Strauch, S; Taiuti, M; Taylor, S; Tedeschi, D J; Thoma, U; Thompson, R; Todor, L; Tur, C; Ungaro, M; Vineyard, M F; Vlassov, A V; Wang, K; Weller, H; Weygand, D P; Whisnant, C S; Wolin, E; Wood, M H; Yegneswaran, A; Yun, J; Zhang, B

    2004-02-01

    We have measured the 3He(e,e'pp)n reaction at 2.2 GeV over a wide kinematic range. The kinetic energy distribution for "fast" nucleons (p>250 MeV/c) peaks where two nucleons each have 20% or less, and the third nucleon has most of the transferred energy. These fast pp and pn pairs are back to back with little momentum along the three-momentum transfer, indicating that they are spectators. Calculations by Sargsian and by Laget also indicate that we have measured distorted two-nucleon momentum distributions by striking one nucleon and detecting the spectator correlated pair. PMID:14995301

  11. Measurement of Bubble Size Distribution Based on Acoustic Propagation in Bubbly Medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xiongjun; Hsiao, Chao-Tsung; Choi, Jin-Keun; Chahine, Georges

    2013-03-01

    Acoustic properties are strongly affected by bubble size distribution in a bubbly medium. Measurement of the acoustic transmission becomes increasingly difficulty as the void fraction of the bubbly medium increases due to strong attenuation, while acoustic reflection can be measured more easily with increasing void fraction. The ABS ACOUSTIC BUBBLE SPECTROMETER®\\copyright, an instrument for bubble size measurement that is under development tries to take full advantage of the properties of acoustic propagation in bubbly media to extract bubble size distribution. Properties of both acoustic transmission and reflection in the bubbly medium from a range of short single-frequency bursts of acoustic waves at different frequencies are measured in an effort to deduce the bubble size distribution. With the combination of both acoustic transmission and reflection, assisted with validations from photography, the ABS ACOUSTIC BUBBLE SPECTROMETER®\\copyright has the potential to measure bubble size distributions in a wider void fraction range. This work was sponsored by Department of Energy SBIR program

  12. A hybrid fiber-optic sensing system for down-hole pressure and distributed temperature measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ke; Zhou, Xinlei; Yang, Bokai; Peng, Wei; Yu, Qingxu

    2015-10-01

    A hybrid fiber-optic sensing technique, combining the extrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometer (EFPI) based pressure sensor with the incoherent optical frequency domain reflectometry (IOFDR) based distributed temperature sensor (DTS), is presented for down-hole measurements. By using a laser diode as the common light source, a highly integrated hybrid EFPI/DTS sensing system has been developed with a single fiber. With the injection current of the laser diode below lasing threshold, the broadband spontaneous emission light is used for EFPI based pressure sensing; while with the injection current above the threshold, the stimulated emission light is used for Raman based distributed temperature sensing. There is no overlap between the spectral range of the reflected light from the EFPI sensor and the spectral range of the Raman scattered light. Pressure and distributed temperature can thus be measured by using wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM) technology. Experimental results show that both the pressure and the distributed temperature are measured with little interference. Furthermore, the pressure measurement can be compensated by the measured temperature values.

  13. Baseline measures for net-proton distributions in high energy heavy-ion collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Netrakanti, P. K.; Luo, X. F.; Mishra, D. K.; Mohanty, B.; Mohanty, A.; Xu, N.

    2016-03-01

    We report a systematic comparison of the recently measured cumulants of the net-proton distributions for 0-5% central Au + Au collisions in the first phase of the Beam Energy Scan (BES) Program at the Relativistic Heavy Collider facility to various kinds of possible baseline measures. These baseline measures correspond to an assumption that the proton and anti-proton distributions follow Poisson statistics, Binomial statistics, obtained from a transport model calculation and from a hadron resonance gas model. The higher order cumulant net-proton data for the center of mass energies (√{sNN}) of 19.6 and 27 GeV are observed to deviate from most of the baseline measures studied. The deviations are predominantly due to the difference in shape of the proton distributions between data and those obtained in the baseline measures. We also present a detailed study on the relevance of the independent production approach as a baseline for comparison with the measurements at various beam energies. Our studies point to the need of either more detailed baseline models for the experimental measurements or a description via QCD calculations in order to extract the exact physics process that leads to deviation of the data from the baselines presented.

  14. Airborne Tunable Diode Laser Measurements of Formaldehyde During TRACE-P: Distributions and Measurement Box-Model Comparisons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fried, A.; Crawford, J.; Olson, J. R.; Walega, J.; Wert, B.; Potter, W.

    2002-12-01

    Measurements of the important reactive intermediate formaldehyde (CH2O) were acquired by tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy onboard NASA's DC-8 aircraft during the Transport and Chemical Evolution over the Pacific Study (TRACE-P). One-minute measurements (N = 6917) were acquired on every research flight, and this rather extensive database has allowed us to map out the distributions of CH2O, produced by photochemical processing of hydrocarbon precursors from Asia, over the Pacific Ocean. This dataset has also provided an additional opportunity to test our current understanding of photochemical box models through extensive measurement-model comparisons (N = 4472) under a variety of conditions. The present talk will present both aspects. In addition to a comparison for the full dataset, the present talk will also examine regions where the box-model fails to capture the observed CH2O structure. A brief discussion of measurement and model variance will also be presented.

  15. Temperature Grid Sensor for the Measurement of Spatial Temperature Distributions at Object Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Schäfer, Thomas; Schubert, Markus; Hampel, Uwe

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents results of the development and application of a new temperature grid sensor based on the wire-mesh sensor principle. The grid sensor consists of a matrix of 256 Pt1000 platinum chip resistors and an associated electronics that measures the grid resistances with a multiplexing scheme at high speed. The individual sensor elements can be spatially distributed on an object surface and measure transient temperature distributions in real time. The advantage compared with other temperature field measurement approaches such as infrared cameras is that the object under investigation can be thermally insulated and the radiation properties of the surface do not affect the measurement accuracy. The sensor principle is therefore suited for various industrial monitoring applications. Its applicability for surface temperature monitoring has been demonstrated through heating and mixing experiments in a vessel. PMID:23353141

  16. Local T2 distribution measurements with DANTE-Z slice selection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrov, Oleg V.; Balcom, Bruce J.

    2012-02-01

    A CPMG pulse sequence incorporated with a DANTE-Z slice selection scheme for measuring spatially-resolved T2 distributions has been presented. The DANTE-Z pulse train with sinc-modulated pulses selects a single, quasi-rectangular slice of less than 0.8 cm wide at an arbitrary position over a 6-cm long sample. The measured T2 distributions are of almost the same quality as regular (bulk) CPMG measurements, with the lower T2 limit being as good as c.a. 0.5 ms. The sequence can be found useful as a supplement or alternative to MRI-based techniques for T2 mapping in short relaxation time samples (water-saturated rocks, building materials, wood, food products, rubbers, etc.), particularly when T2 is required to be measured at only few positions along the sample and the resolution of ˜1 cm is acceptable.

  17. Modelling NPA measurements of alpha-particle distributions in JET and TFTR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McClements, K. G.; Dendy, R. O.; Gondhalekar, A.

    1997-11-01

    Neutral particle analyser (NPA) measurements of the DT fusion alpha-particle energy distribution function are simulated by geometrically weighted spatial line integrals of the time-evolving population. The latter is modelled semi-analytically using a simplified Fokker-Planck equation, where the alpha-particle source term is derived from measured fusion reactivity, and plasma collisionality from measured electron density and temperature profiles. This model [1] is benchmarked by zero-free-parameters agreement with TFTR tritium beam blip results [2]. We can thus quantify the differences between the measured NPA spectrum and the local alpha-particle distribution in the plasma core. [1] K G McClements et al, JET Report JET-R(97)02. [2] S S Medley et al, Plasma Phys Contr Fusion 38, 1779 (1996). This work was supported in part by the UK Department of Trade and Industry and Euratom

  18. Latitudinal distribution of solar wind as deduced from Lyman alpha measurements - an improved method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Summanen, T.; Lallement, R.; Bertaux, J. L.; Kyrola, E.

    1993-08-01

    In this work we examine the possibility of deducing the latitudinal distribution of the solar ionization rate using Prognoz 6 Lyman-alpha data in a more general and flexible way than previously examined. Using a so-called hot model for the hydrogen distribution and the optically thin model for the resonance scattering, theoretical Lyman-alpha intensity for the interstellar hydrogen is calculated and compared with the intensity data measured by Prognoz 6. Varying the latitudinal dependence of the ionization rate, the distributions which produce the best fit with the data are analyzed for four different measuring sessions. As a result, we get four ionization rate distributions that have two common features. The ionization rate is enhanced near the solar equator, and large broad plateaus exist around heliographic latitudes +/- 30 to +/- 70 deg. The latitudinal distribution of the average ionization rate about the solar minimum deviates clearly from the spherically symmetric and sinusoidally with the latitude-varying models used so far. The growth of the solar wind mass flux from the solar polar areas toward the equator corresponds to the earlier results found from Lyman-alpha measurements.

  19. Measurement of the distribution of [3H]bicuculline microinjected into the rat hypothalamus.

    PubMed

    Segura, T; Martin, D S; Sheridan, P J; Haywood, J R

    1992-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure the distribution of a radiolabeled drug [3H]bicuculline methylchloride ([3H]BMC) following microinjection into the supraoptic nuclei (SON) and the dorsal hypothalamus of conscious rats. The anteroposterior (AP) distribution was measured using liquid-scintillation counting while computer-assisted densitometry was used to measure the mediolateral (ML) and dorsoventral (DV) distribution of silver grains on autoradiograms. Following a 50-nl microinjection into the SON, 90% of the detected tracer was found within 0.6 +/- 0.1 mm (n = 5) of the injection site. Using the same volume, the pattern of distribution of 90% of the detected tracer in the SON was not significantly altered when rats received a microinfusion over 10 min (n = 5) or a bolus microinjection with a 10 min waiting period (n = 6) prior to death. Following a 100-nl microinfusion over 20 min into the dorsal hypothalamus, 90% of the detected radiolabel was found within 0.6 +/- 0.1 mm (n = 7) of the injection site, in a spherical pattern of distribution. Although caution must be used in extrapolating these results to other drugs, these data suggest that intraparenchymal microinjections of 50- and 100-nl volumes are suitable for drug localization in studies using microinjection techniques for conscious rats. PMID:1564952

  20. Measurements of Aerosol Charge and Size Distribution for Graphite, Gold, Palladium, and Silver Nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Simones, Matthew P.; Gutti, Veera R.; Meyer, Ryan M.; Loyalka, Sudarshan K.

    2011-11-01

    The role of charge on aerosol evolution and hence the nuclear source term has been an issue of interest, and there is a need for both experimental techniques and modeling for quantifying this role. Our focus here is on further exploration of a tandem differential mobility analyzer (TDMA) technique to simultaneously measure both the size and charge (positive, negative and neutral) dependent aerosol distributions. We have generated graphite, gold, silver, and palladium nanoparticles (aerosol) using a spark generator. We measure the electrical mobility-size distributions for these aerosols using a TDMA, and from these data we deduce the full charge-size distributions. We observe asymmetry in the particle size distributions for negative and positive charges. This asymmetry could have a bearing on the dynamics of charged aerosols, indicating that the assumption of symmetry for size distributions of negatively and positively charged particles in source term simulations may not be always appropriate. Also, the experimental technique should find applications in measurements of aerosol rate processes that are affected by both particle charge and size (e.g. coagulation, deposition, resuspension), and hence in modeling and simulation of the nuclear source term.