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Sample records for 199mhg-perturbed angular correlation

  1. Angular correlations and high energy evolution

    SciTech Connect

    Kovner, Alex; Lublinsky, Michael

    2011-11-01

    We address the question of to what extent JIMWLK evolution is capable of taking into account angular correlations in a high energy hadronic wave function. Our conclusion is that angular (and indeed other) correlations in the wave function cannot be reliably calculated without taking into account Pomeron loops in the evolution. As an example we study numerically the energy evolution of angular correlations between dipole scattering amplitudes in the framework of the large N{sub c} approximation to JIMWLK evolution (the 'projectile dipole model'). Target correlations are introduced via averaging over an (isotropic) ensemble of anisotropic initial conditions. We find that correlations disappear very quickly with rapidity even inside the saturation radius. This is in accordance with our physical picture of JIMWLK evolution. The actual correlations inside the saturation radius in the target QCD wave function, on the other hand, should remain sizable at any rapidity.

  2. Probing Angular Correlations in Sequential Double Ionization

    SciTech Connect

    Fleischer, A.; Woerner, H. J.; Arissian, L.; Liu, L. R.; Meckel, M.; Rippert, A.; Doerner, R.; Villeneuve, D. M.; Corkum, P. B.; Staudte, A.

    2011-09-09

    We study electron correlation in sequential double ionization of noble gas atoms and HCl in intense, femtosecond laser pulses. We measure the photoelectron angular distributions of Ne{sup +} relative to the first electron in a pump-probe experiment with 8 fs, 800 nm, circularly polarized laser pulses at a peak intensity of a few 10{sup 15} W/cm{sup 2}. Using a linear-linear pump-probe setup, we further study He, Ar, and HCl. We find a clear angular correlation between the two ionization steps in the sequential double ionization intensity regime.

  3. (Perturbed angular correlations in zirconia ceramics)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    This is the progress report for the first year of the currently-approved three year funding cycle. We have carried on a vigorous program of experimental and theoretical research on microscopic properties of zirconia and ceria using the Perturbed Angular Correlation (PAC) experimental technique. The experimental method was described in the original proposal and in a number of references as well as several of the technical reports that accompany this progress report.

  4. Understanding GRETINA using angular correlation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Austin, Madeline

    2015-10-01

    The ability to trace the path of gamma rays through germanium is not only necessary for taking full advantage of GRETINA but also a promising possibility for homeland security defense against nuclear threats. This research tested the current tracking algorithm using the angular correlation method by comparing results from raw and tracked data to the theoretical model for Co-60. It was found that the current tracking method is unsuccessful in reproducing angular correlation. Variations to the tracking algorithm were made in the FM value, tracking angle, number of angles of separation observed, and window of coincidence in attempt to improve correlation results. From these variations it was observed that having a larger FM improved results, reducing the number of observational angles worsened correlation, and that overall larger tracking angles improved with larger windows of coincidence and vice-verse. Future research would be to refine the angle of measurement for raw data and to explore the possibility of an energy dependence by testing other elements. This work is supported by the United States Department of Energy, Office of Science, under Contract Number DE-AC02-06CH11357

  5. Angular correlation studies in noble gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coleman, P. G.

    1990-01-01

    There has been a recent revival of interest in the measurement of angular correlation of annihilation photons from the decay of positrons and positronium in gases. This revival has been stimulated by the possibility offered by the technique to shed new light on the apparently low positronium formation fraction in the heavier noble gases and to provide information on positronium quenching processes in gases such as oxygen. There is also the potential for learning about positronium slowing down in gases. This review focuses on experimental noble gas work and considers what new information has been, and may be, gained from these studies.

  6. Delocalized correlations in twin light beams with orbital angular momentum.

    PubMed

    Marino, A M; Boyer, V; Pooser, R C; Lett, P D; Lemons, K; Jones, K M

    2008-08-29

    We generate intensity-difference-squeezed Laguerre-Gauss twin beams of light carrying orbital angular momentum by using four-wave mixing in a hot atomic vapor. The conservation of orbital angular momentum in the four-wave mixing process is studied as well as the spatial distribution of the quantum correlations obtained with different configurations of orbital angular momentum. Intensity-difference squeezing of up to -6.7 dB is demonstrated with beams carrying orbital angular momentum. Delocalized spatial correlations between the twin beams are observed. PMID:18851611

  7. Fully digital time differential perturbed angular correlation (TDPAC) spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herden, C.; Röder, J.; Gardner, J. A.; Becker, K. D.

    2008-09-01

    A new generation time differential perturbed angular correlation (PAC) spectrometer has been designed and built. The design strategy and details of the data collection and reduction methodology are reported. First results obtained by the new spectrometer are reported and compared with PAC data obtained by more conventional means.

  8. Calculation of fusion product angular correlation coefficients for fusion plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, T.J.

    1987-08-01

    The angular correlation coefficients for fusion products are calculated in the cases of Maxwellian and beam-target plasmas. Measurement of these coefficients as a localized ion temperature or fast-ion diagnostic is discussed. 8 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Angular correlation in the two-electron continuum

    SciTech Connect

    Kheifets, A. S.; Bray, I.

    2006-02-15

    Following absorption of a single photon, angles of simultaneous emission of two electrons from a He(n {sup 1}S) atom become more correlated with increasing n. We find that the strength of this correlation is due to the two-electron continuum of the electron-impact ionization of the He{sup +}(ns) ion. The strength is determined by the width of the momentum profile of the ionic ns state but not the strength of the electron correlation in the He initial state. This can explain the increasing (over He) angular correlation strength found in double photoionization of targets such as Be, Ne, and H{sub 2}.

  10. High intensity positron beam and angular correlation experiments at Livermore

    SciTech Connect

    Howell, R.H.; Rosenberg, I.J.; Meyer, P.; Fluss, M.J.

    1985-03-01

    A positron beam apparatus that produces a variable energy positron beam with sufficient intensity to perform new positron experiments in an ultrahigh vacuum environment has been installed at the Lawrence Livermore 100 MeV electron linac. We have installed two large area position sensitive gamma-ray detectors to measure angular correlations in two dimensions and a separate highly collimated detector to measure positronium energy distributions by time-of-flight velocity determination. Data from measurements on single crystals of Cu will be described.

  11. Studying oxygen vacancies in ceramics by perturbed angular correlation spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Su, Han-Tzong; Wang, Ruiping; Fuchs, H.; Gardner, J.A. . Dept. of Physics); Evenson, W.E. . Dept. of Physics); Sommers, J.A. )

    1990-01-01

    Perturbed angular correlation measurements in tetragonal and cubic zirconia and in ceria are described. A physically reasonable and self-consistent interpretation of these data implies that oxygen vacancies are trapped at a second neighbor position by Cd in tetragonal zirconia and by In in ceria. For Cd in tetragonal zirconia, the vacancy trap energy is found to be 0.44 eV, and the energy barrier between adjacent trap sites is approximately 0.8 eV. The activation energy of an oxygen vacancy hopping between trap sites around {sup 111}Cd in ceria is found to be 0.55 eV. The activation energy for oxygen vacancy hopping in cubic zirconia, as detected by {sup 181}Ta PAC, is about 1.0 eV and independent of the Y concentration. 12 refs., 4 figs.

  12. Modes of correlated angular motion in live cells across three distinct time scales.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Andrew W; Kenwright, David A; Waigh, Thomas A; Woodman, Philip G; Allan, Victoria J

    2013-06-01

    Particle tracking experiments with high speed digital microscopy yield the positions and trajectories of lipid droplets inside living cells. Angular correlation analysis shows that the lipid droplets have uncorrelated motion at short time scales (τ < 1 ms) followed by anti-persistent motion for lag times in the range of 1 ⩽ τ ⩽ 10 ms. The angular correlation at longer time scales, τ > 10 ms, becomes persistent, indicating directed movement. The motion at all time scales is associated with the lipid droplets being tethered to and driven along the microtubule network. The point at which the angular correlation changes from anti-persistent to persistent motion corresponds to the cross over between sub-diffusive and super diffusive motion, as observed by mean square displacement analysis. Correct analysis of the angular correlations of the detector noise is found to be crucial in modelling the observed phenomena. PMID:23574726

  13. Angular correlations in gluon production at high energy

    SciTech Connect

    Kovner, Alex; Lublinsky, Michael

    2011-02-01

    We present a general, model independent argument demonstrating that gluons produced in high energy hadronic collision are necessarily correlated in rapidity and also in the emission angle. The strength of the correlation depends on the process and on the structure/model of the colliding particles. In particular we argue that it is strongly affected (and underestimated) by factorized approximations frequently used to quantify the effect.

  14. ISOTROPY IN THE TWO-POINT ANGULAR CORRELATION FUNCTION OF THE COSMIC MICROWAVE BACKGROUND

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Sophie

    2012-04-01

    We study the directional dependence of the angular two-point correlation function in maps of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). We propose two new statistics: one which measures the correlation of each point in the sky with a ring of points separated an angle {theta} away, and a second one that measures the missing angular correlation above 60 deg as a function of direction. Using these statistics, we find that most of the low power in cut-sky maps measured by the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe experiment comes from unusually low contributions from the directions of the lobes of the quadrupole and the octupole. These findings may aid a future explanation of why the CMB exhibits low power at large angular scales.

  15. Angular correlations in radiative cascades following resonant electron capture by highly charged ions

    SciTech Connect

    Matula, O.; Surzhykov, A.; Fritzsche, S.; Currell, F. J.

    2011-11-15

    We investigate the angular correlations between the photons emitted in the dielectronic recombination (DR) of initially hydrogenlike heavy ions. The theoretical analysis is performed based on a density-matrix approach and Dirac's relativistic theory. Special emphasis has been placed upon the effects of the higher-order, nondipole terms in the expansion of the electron-photon interaction. To illustrate these effects, we present and discuss detailed calculations for K-LL DR of initially hydrogenlike xenon, gold, and uranium. These computations show that the angular correlations are significantly affected by interference between the leading electric-dipole (E1) and the magnetic-quadrupole (M2) transitions.

  16. Vector correlation analysis for inelastic and reactive collisions between partners possessing spin and orbital angular momentum.

    PubMed

    Balint-Kurti, Gabriel G; Vasyutinskii, Oleg S

    2009-12-31

    A general reactive collision of the type A + B --> C + D is considered where both the collision partners (A and B) or the products (C and D) may possess internal, i.e., spin, orbital or rotational, angular momenta. Compact expressions are derived using a rigorous quantum mechanical analysis for the angular momentum anisotropy of either of the products (C or D) arising from an initially polarized distribution of the reactant angular momentum. The angular momentum distribution of the product is expressed in terms of canonical spherical tensors multiplied by anisotropy-transforming coefficients c(K(i)q(k))(K)(K(r),L). These coefficients act as transformation coefficients between the angular momentum anisotropy of the reactants and that of the product. They are independent of scattering angle but depend on the details of the scattering dynamics. The relationship between the coefficients c(K(i)q(k))(K)(K(r),L) and the body-fixed scattering S matrix is given and the methodology for the quantum mechanical calculation of the anisotropy-transforming coefficients is clearly laid out. The anisotropy-transforming coefficients are amenable to direct experimental measurement in a similar manner to vector correlation and alignment parameters in photodissociation processes. A key aspect of the theory is the use of projections of both reactant and product angular momenta onto the product recoil vector direction. An important new conservation rule is revealed through the analysis, namely that if the state multipole for reactant angular momentum distribution has a projection q(k) onto the product recoil vector the state multipoles for the product angular momentum distribution all have this same projection. Expressions are also presented for the distribution of the product angular momentum when its components are evaluated relative to the space-fixed Z-axis. Notes with detailed derivations of all the formulas are available as Supporting Information. PMID:19642631

  17. Theory and imaging applications of the angular correlation of multiply-scattered optical fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoover, Brian Gilday

    Through analysis of the field angular correlation the scattering of quasimonochromatic optical fields is considered as a coherence-based process well into the multiple scattering regime. Coherence analysis leads to the prediction of coherent effects in multiply-scattered light that can be applied to perform computed amplitude- phase imaging through turbid media and noninvasive laser material characterization. With the incentive of improved imaging through turbid media an experiment is described that directly compares the degradations, with the number of scattering mean free paths, of the field angular correlation and the correlation of the scattered wave with an unscattered reference wave, both of which can be used to form gates for imaging techniques in scattered light. Results for 20μ m polymer spheres show that the former correlation is consistently larger well into the multiple scattering regime (up to 10 mean free paths) for wavevector separations less than at least 50mm -1, and that the two correlations tend to merge in this scattering regime for larger wavevector separations. The implications of the results for imaging applications are considered. Complementary theoretical formulations of coherence effects in multiply-scattered fields are presented. Relations of the spatial coherence properties to the angular characteristics of the scattered field are established. A coherence-based model of multiple scattering processes is derived. The model predicts radiative-transfer-like behavior for restricted observational parameters, but also shows that the coherence-based process is required for an accurate description of the scattered field over an observational parameters. The applicability of the model to noninvasive laser material characterization is emphasized. A wavefront-sensor method is presented for measurement of the complex field angular correlation function of a three-dimensional turbid medium. The angular correlation function is measured at a series of

  18. Correlation of angular and lateral distributions of electrons in extensive air showers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giller, Maria; Śmiałkowski, Andrzej; Legumina, Remigiusz

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this paper is to explain the weak correlation of the angular and lateral deflections of electrons in extensive air showers in the primary energy range 1016-1019 eV, when compared with that in some models of electron propagation. We derive analytical formulae for the correlation coefficient in the multiple scattering model with energy losses and show a strong role of the ionisation in diminishing the correlation. By considering a Heitler-like model of an electromagnetic cascade we show also that the presence of photons, parent to electrons, causes a decrease of the correlation, roughly explaining quantitatively the small correlation in air showers.

  19. Matrix elements of explicitly correlated Gaussian basis functions with arbitrary angular momentum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joyce, Tennesse; Varga, Kálmán

    2016-05-01

    A new algorithm for calculating the Hamiltonian matrix elements with all-electron explicitly correlated Gaussian functions for quantum-mechanical calculations of atoms with arbitrary angular momentum is presented. The calculations are checked on several excited states of three and four electron systems. The presented formalism can be used as unified framework for high accuracy calculations of properties of small atoms and molecules.

  20. Effects of angular correlations on particle-particle propagation in infinite nuclear matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romero-Barrientos, J.; Arellano, H. F.

    2016-05-01

    The effect of angular correlations on self-consistent solutions for single-particle (sp) potentials in infinite nuclear matter is investigated. To this end we treat explicitly the angular dependence of the particle-particle (pp) propagator in Brueckner-Hartree-Fock (BHF) equation for the g matrix. It is observed that the exact angular dependence of the pp propagator yields highly fluctuating structures, posing stringent difficulties in the actual search of self-consistent solutions for the sp energy. A perturbative approach is presented to evaluate the effect of the angular correlations in the self-consistent solutions. Solutions at Fermi momenta kF in the range 1.20 - 1.75 fm-1 are reported using Argonne v 18 nucleon- nucleon potential. Although the sp potentials are sensitive to the treatment of the angular behaviour of the propagator, such sensitivity appears at momenta well above the Fermi surface. As a result, the saturation properties of symmetric nuclear matter differ marginally from those calculated using angle-averaged energy denominators in pp propagators.

  1. Measurements on B-hadron angular correlations at 7 TeV with the CMS experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sala, Leonardo; CMS Collaboration

    2012-09-01

    A measurement of the angular correlations between beauty and anti-beauty hadrons produced in LHC proton-proton collisions at √s = 7 TeV is presented, probing for the first time the small angular separation region. The B hadrons are identified by the presence of secondary vertices from their decays and their kinematics reconstructed combining the decay vertex with the primary interaction vertex. The results are compared with predictions based on perturbative QCD calculations at leading and next-to-leading order.

  2. The impact of angular separation on the performance of biplane correlation imaging for lung nodule detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasab, Nariman Majdi; Samei, Ehsan

    2006-03-01

    In this paper, we evaluate the performance of biplane correlation imaging (BCI) using a set of off-angle projections acquired from an anthropomorphic chest phantom. BCI reduces the effect of anatomical noise, which would otherwise impact the detection subtle lesions in planar images. BCI also minimizes the number of false positives (FPs) when used in conjunction with computer aided diagnosis (CAD) applied to a set of coronal chest x-ray projections by eliminating non-correlated nodule candidates. In BCI, two digital images of the chest are acquired within a short time interval from two slightly different posterior projections. The image data are then incorporated into the CAD algorithm in which nodules are detected by examining the geometrical correlation of the detected signals in the two views, thus largely "canceling" the impact of anatomical noise. Seventy-one low exposure posterior projections were acquired of an anthropomorphic chest phantom containing tissue equivalent lesions with small angular separations (0.32 degree) over a range of 20 degrees, [-10°, +10°], along the vertical axis. The data were analyzed to determine the accuracy of the technique as a function of angular separation. The results indicated that the best performance was obtained when the angular separation of the projection pair was greater than 6 degrees. Within the range of optimum angular separation, the number of FPs per image, FPpI, was ~1.1 with average sensitivity around 75% (supported by a grant from the NIH R01CA109074).

  3. Correlations among angular wave component amplitudes in elastic multiple-scattering random media.

    PubMed

    Hoover, Brian G; Deslauriers, Louis; Grannell, Shawn M; Ahmed, Rizwan E; Dilworth, David S; Athey, Brian D; Leith, Emmett N

    2002-02-01

    The propagation of scalar waves through random media that provide multiple elastic scattering is considered by derivation of an expression for the angular correlation of the scattered wave amplitudes. Coherent wave transmission is shown to occur through a mechanism similar to that responsible for coherent backscattering. While the properties of the scattered wave are generally consistent with radiative-transfer theory for sufficiently small incident and scattering angles, coherent transmission provides corrections to radiative-transfer results at larger angles. The theoretical angular correlation curves are fit, by specifying the probability densities of two random variables that correspond to material parameters, to measured data of laser light scattering from various polymer microsphere suspensions. PMID:11863685

  4. Soft gluon resummations in dijet azimuthal angular correlations in hadronic collisions.

    PubMed

    Sun, Peng; Yuan, C-P; Yuan, Feng

    2014-12-01

    We derive all order soft gluon resummation in dijet azimuthal angular correlation in hadronic collisions at the next-to-leading logarithmic level. The relevant coefficients for the Sudakov resummation factor, the soft and hard factors, are calculated. The theory predictions agree well with the experimental data from D0 Collaboration at the Tevatron. This provides a benchmark calculation for the transverse momentum dependent QCD resummation for jet productions in hadron collisions. PMID:25526118

  5. LACK OF ANGULAR CORRELATION AND ODD-PARITY PREFERENCE IN COSMIC MICROWAVE BACKGROUND DATA

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Jaiseung; Naselsky, Pavel

    2011-10-01

    We have investigated the angular correlation in the recent cosmic microwave background data. In addition to the known large-angle correlation anomaly, we find the lack of correlation at small angles with high statistical significance. We have investigated various non-cosmological contamination as well as the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) team's simulated data. However, we have not found a definite cause. In the angular power spectrum of WMAP data, there exists anomalous odd-parity preference at low multipoles. Noting the equivalence between the power spectrum and the correlation, we have investigated the association between the lack of large-angle correlation and the odd-parity preference. From our investigation, we find that the odd-parity preference at low multipoles is, in fact, a phenomenological origin of the lack of large-angle correlation. Further investigation is required to find out whether the origin of the anomaly is cosmological or due to unaccounted systematics. The data from the Planck surveyor, which has systematics distinct from WMAP, will greatly help us to resolve its origin.

  6. Angular momenta correlation in kinematically constrained reactions. II. Application to the B + OH BO + H system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alberti, Margarita; Gimenez, Xavier; Aguilar, Antonio; Gonzalez Urena, Angel

    Extensive quasi-classical trajectory (QCT) calculations have been carried out to study the disposal of both rotational and orbital angular momentum in the B + OH BO + H reaction. The potential energy surface (PES) of this reaction shows two minima associated with the HOB and HBO configurations. In addition, two distinct PESs were used each having a different geometrical structure of the HOB intermediate: bent for surface 1 and linear for surface 2. For the title reaction the product angular momentum disposal shows significant deviations from the kinematic limit expected for a heavy + heavy-light (HH L) reaction. The analysis of the product angular momenta distribution clearly indicates a correlation with the topology of the PES used. It was found that while the insertion mechanism associated with PES1 (HOB bent intermediate) favours a significant disposal into product rotational and orbital momenta, little disposal into both momenta is obtained for reactive trajectories occurring through the collinear HOB intermediate of PES2, for which BO is highly stretched. A simple modification of the conventional kinematic expressions, aimed at incorporating the effect of the dynamics into the angular momenta transfer, is proposed and tested. Modified expressions give results strongly consistent with those obtained from QCT calculations.

  7. Perturbed angular correlation experiments on the pressure-induced structural modification of bovine serum albumin.

    PubMed

    Ceolín, M

    2000-09-11

    The hydrodynamic behaviour of the bovine serum albumin (BSA) was studied by means of the Perturbed Angular Correlation (PAC) technique as a function of the hydrostatic pressure (up to 4.1 kbar) applied to the sample. The results have clearly shown that at moderated pressures (around 1.5 kbar) the BSA molecule suffers structural modifications which produces an increase of the molecular volume and the rotational correlation time of the molecule. About the reversibility of the process, our results indicate that the changes are fully irreversible. Our experiments are the first devoted to the study of the high-pressure behaviour of biological molecules using the PAC technique. PMID:10989128

  8. Angular correlations in the two-photon decay of heliumlike heavy ions

    SciTech Connect

    Surzhykov, A.; Fratini, F.; Volotka, A.; Santos, J. P.; Indelicato, P.; Plunien, G.; Stoehlker, Th.; Fritzsche, S.

    2010-04-15

    The two-photon decay of heavy, helium-like ions is investigated based on second-order perturbation theory and Dirac's relativistic equation. Special attention has been paid to the angular emission of the two photons (i.e., how the angular correlation function depends on the shell structure of the ions in their initial and final states). Moreover, the effects from the (electric and magnetic) nondipole terms in the expansion of the electron-photon interaction are discussed. Detailed calculations have been carried out for the two-photon decay of the 1s2s {sup 1}S{sub 0}, 1s2s {sup 3}S{sub 1}, and 1s2p {sup 3}P{sub 0} states of helium-like Xe{sup 52+}, Au{sup 77+}, and U{sup 90+} ions.

  9. Hyperspherical explicitly correlated Gaussian approach for four-body systems with finite angular momentum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rakshit, D.; Blume, D.

    2012-06-01

    It has been predicted that four-body systems with angular momentum L=1 and parity π=+1 exhibit four-body resonances [1,2] and Efimov physics [3]. To treat these phenomena in the hyperspherical framework, we extend the work of von Stecher and Greene [4] to finite angular momenta. In particular, we employ explicitly correlated Gaussian basis functions with global vectors to solve the hyperangular Schr"odinger equation for four-body systems with L^π=1^+ and 1^- symmetry. We apply the approach to four-fermion systems with unequal masses.[4pt] [1] K. M. Daily and D. Blume, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 170403 (2010).[0pt] [2] S. Gandolfi and J. Carlson, arXiv: 1006.5186v1.[0pt] [3] Y. Castin, C. Mora and L. Pricoupenko, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 223201 (2010).[0pt] [4] J. von Stecher and C. H. Greene, Phys. Rev. A. 80, 022504 (2009).

  10. Angular Correlation of Electrons Emitted by Double Auger Decay of K-Shell Ionized Neon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Matthew Philip

    2011-12-01

    We have investigated in detail the 4-body continuum state produced when core-ionized neon undergoes Double-Auger (DA) decay, using COLd Target Recoil Ion Momentum Spectroscopy (COLTRIMS ). We conducted the experiment at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory's Advanced Light Source (LBNL-ALS) beamline 11.0.2. The synchrotron operated in 2-bunch mode and outputted an elliptically polarized, pulsed photon beam (hn=872.9eV), sufficient to K-shell ionize neon just above threshold. Our analysis supports research showing that Auger electrons tend to share energy asymmetrically. We qualitatively compared this result to Photo-Double Ionization (PDI) of helium. Further, we confirm research that shows how Auger electrons that share energy symmetrically can be modeled by the elastic-like knock-out process plus Post-Collision Interaction ( PCI) effects. New observations include the angular correlation between the photo-electron and each respective Auger electron, for specific ranges of energy sharing. We identify a broad feature in the asymmetric case that shows a level of interaction between electrons that until recently, has disagreed with theory. Additionally, we consider the angular correlation between the photo-electron and the momentum sum of the Auger electrons. We observe that the angular correlation between this sum and the photo-electron in the highly asymmetric case is nearly identical to the correlation between just the fast-Auger and the photo-electron - as expected. In the case of symmetric energy sharing, the sum momentum vector appears to be isotropic, particularly for small angles of interaction. Finally, we acknowledge two novel methods of calibration. The first, uses well known line-energies to calibrate the spectrometer. These lines correspond to the decay channels of core-excited neon, Ne(1 s-13p). The second, describes a method to statistically weight list-mode data in order to calibrate it to well known physical features (e.g., isotropic distributions).

  11. Angular correlation of the cosmic microwave background in the Rh = ct Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melia, F.

    2014-01-01

    Context. The emergence of several unexpected large-scale features in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) has pointed to possible new physics driving the origin of density fluctuations in the early Universe and their evolution into the large-scale structure we see today. Aims: In this paper, we focus our attention on the possible absence of angular correlation in the CMB anisotropies at angles larger than ~60°, and consider whether this feature may be the signature of fluctuations expected in the Rh = ct Universe. Methods: We calculate the CMB angular correlation function for a fluctuation spectrum expected from growth in a Universe whose dynamics is constrained by the equation-of-state p = -ρ/3, where p and ρ are the total pressure and density, respectively. Results: We find that, though the disparity between the predictions of ΛCDM and the WMAP sky may be due to cosmic variance, it may also be due to an absence of inflation. The classic horizon problem does not exist in the Rh = ct Universe, so a period of exponential growth was not necessary in this cosmology in order to account for the general uniformity of the CMB (save for the aforementioned tiny fluctuations of 1 part in 100 000 in the WMAP relic signal). Conclusions: We show that the Rh = ct Universe without inflation can account for the apparent absence in CMB angular correlation at angles θ ≳ 60° without invoking cosmic variance, providing additional motivation for pursuing this cosmology as a viable description of nature.

  12. Perturbed angular correlation study of radiation-induced defects in Rh metal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chawda, M.; Patel, N.; Sebastian, K. C.; Somayajulu, D. R. S.; Sarkar, M.; Singh, R. P.; Murlithar, S.; Awasthi, D. K.

    2006-06-01

    Radiation-induced defects are studied in cubic rhodium metal, using the local probe technique 'Time differential perturbed angular correlation (TDPAC) at liquid N-2 temperature. Isochronal annealing was done at 300, 1073 and 1473 K temperatures. The irradiated sample showed two quadrupole interaction frequencies at 1150 and 93 MHz. The low frequency disappeared at room-temperature annealing, which was assigned to In trapped at a vacancy, whereas the higher frequency remained up to high temperatures and was attributed to In trapped at Rh-C complexes in the Rh matrix.

  13. Thermalization of positronium atoms studied with time-resolved angular correlation of annihilation radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takada, S.; Iwata, T.; Kawashima, K.; Saito, H.; Nagashima, Y.; Hyodo, T.

    2000-06-01

    Time dependence of the kinetic energy of positronium atoms in the free space between the grains of a pressed tablet (1 g/cm 3) of ultrafine silica powder (Cab-O-Sil EH-5) has been measured with time-resolved angular correlation of annihilation radiation (ACAR) apparatus. The apparatus has a momentum resolution of 1.29×10 -3 mc in full width at half maximum and a time resolution of 2.7 ns in full width at half maximum. It is found that the energy of positronium falls below 0.1e V in ˜10 ns after the formation.

  14. A Precision Measurement of Neutron Beta Decay Angular Correlations with Polarized Pulsed Cold Neutrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Pil-Neyo

    2004-05-01

    The abBA collaboration is developing an experiment to measure the neutron beta decay angular correlations, a, b, B, A, to 0.1the very high pulsed cold neutron intensities in a new nuclear physics beam line that is under construction at SNS. The design of the experiment is based on three important technical advances: the pulsed cold neutron beam, a polarized ^3He neutron spin filter, and large-area thin-dead layer silicon detectors. Both electrons and protons resulting from the decay will be guided in the spectrometer by electric and magnetic fields and then detected in coincidence with two 2π large-segmented silicon detectors. Measuring the correlations in the same apparatus provides a redundant measurement of λ=G_A/G_V. I will describe the experiment and report the status of the development.

  15. Angular correlation between photoelectrons and auger electrons from K-shell ionization of neon.

    PubMed

    Landers, A L; Robicheaux, F; Jahnke, T; Schöffler, M; Osipov, T; Titze, J; Lee, S Y; Adaniya, H; Hertlein, M; Ranitovic, P; Bocharova, I; Akoury, D; Bhandary, A; Weber, Th; Prior, M H; Cocke, C L; Dörner, R; Belkacem, A

    2009-06-01

    We have used cold target recoil ion momentum spectroscopy to study the continuum correlation between the photoelectron of core-photoionized neon and the subsequent Auger electron. We observe a strong angular correlation between the two electrons. Classical trajectory Monte Carlo calculations agree quite well with the photoelectron energy distribution that is shifted due to the potential change associated with Auger decay. However, a striking discrepancy results in the distribution of the relative angle between Auger and photoelectron. The classical model predicts a shift in photoelectron flux away from the Auger emission direction, and the data strikingly reveal that the flux is lost rather than diverted, indicating that the two-step interpretation of photoionization followed by Auger emission is insufficient to fully describe the core-photoionization process. PMID:19658860

  16. Angular Correlation between Photoelectrons and Auger Electrons from K-Shell Ionization of Neon

    SciTech Connect

    Landers, A. L.; Robicheaux, F.; Bhandary, A.; Jahnke, T.; Schoeffler, M.; Titze, J.; Akoury, D.; Doerner, R.; Osipov, T.; Lee, S. Y.; Adaniya, H.; Hertlein, M.; Weber, Th.; Prior, M. H.; Belkacem, A.; Ranitovic, P.; Bocharova, I.; Cocke, C. L.

    2009-06-05

    We have used cold target recoil ion momentum spectroscopy to study the continuum correlation between the photoelectron of core-photoionized neon and the subsequent Auger electron. We observe a strong angular correlation between the two electrons. Classical trajectory Monte Carlo calculations agree quite well with the photoelectron energy distribution that is shifted due to the potential change associated with Auger decay. However, a striking discrepancy results in the distribution of the relative angle between Auger and photoelectron. The classical model predicts a shift in photoelectron flux away from the Auger emission direction, and the data strikingly reveal that the flux is lost rather than diverted, indicating that the two-step interpretation of photoionization followed by Auger emission is insufficient to fully describe the core-photoionization process.

  17. Mitigating systematic errors in angular correlation function measurements from wide field surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrison, C. B.; Hildebrandt, H.

    2015-12-01

    We present an investigation into the effects of survey systematics such as varying depth, point spread function size, and extinction on the galaxy selection and correlation in photometric, multi-epoch, wide area surveys. We take the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Lensing Survey (CFHTLenS) as an example. Variations in galaxy selection due to systematics are found to cause density fluctuations of up to 10 per cent for some small fraction of the area for most galaxy redshift slices and as much as 50 per cent for some extreme cases of faint high-redshift samples. This results in correlations of galaxies against survey systematics of order ˜1 per cent when averaged over the survey area. We present an empirical method for mitigating these systematic correlations from measurements of angular correlation functions using weighted random points. These weighted random catalogues are estimated from the observed galaxy overdensities by mapping these to survey parameters. We are able to model and mitigate the effect of systematic correlations allowing for non-linear dependences of density on systematics. Applied to CFHTLenS, we find that the method reduces spurious correlations in the data by a factor of 2 for most galaxy samples and as much as an order of magnitude in others. Such a treatment is particularly important for an unbiased estimation of very small correlation signals, as e.g. from weak gravitational lensing magnification bias. We impose a criterion for using a galaxy sample in a magnification measurement of the majority of the systematic correlations show improvement and are less than 10 per cent of the expected magnification signal when combined in the galaxy cross-correlation. After correction the galaxy samples in CFHTLenS satisfy this criterion for zphot < 0.9 and will be used in a future analysis of magnification.

  18. Long-Range Near-Side Angular Correlations in Proton-Proton Interactions in CMS.

    SciTech Connect

    2010-09-21

    The CMS Collaboration Results on two-particle angular correlations for charged particles emitted in proton-proton collisions at center of mass energies of 0.9, 2.36 and 7TeV over a broad range of pseudorapidity (?) and azimuthal angle (f) are presented using data collected with the CMS detector at the LHC. Short-range correlations in ??, which are studied in minimum bias events, are characterized using a simple independent cluster parameterization in order to quantify their strength (cluster size) and their extent in ? (cluster decay width). Long-range azimuthal correlations are studied more differentially as a function of charged particle multiplicity and particle transverse momentum using a 980nb-1 data set at 7TeV. In high multiplicity events, a pronounced structure emerges in the two-dimensional correlation function for particles in intermediate pT’s of 1-3GeV/c, 2.0< |??|<4.8 and ?f˜0. This is the ?rst observation of such a ridge-like feature in two-particle correlation functions in pp or p-pbar collisions. EVO Universe, password "seminar"; Phone Bridge ID: 2330444 Password: 5142

  19. Neutron-neutron angular correlations in spontaneous and neutron-induced fission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogt, Ramona; Randrup, Jorgen

    2015-04-01

    For many years, the state of the art for treating fission in radiation transport codes has involved sampling from average distributions. However, such average fission models have limited interaction-by-interaction capabilities. Energy is not explicitly conserved and no correlations are available because all particles are emitted isotropically and independently. However, in a true fission event, the energies, momenta and multiplicities of emitted particles are correlated. Such correlations are interesting for many modern applications, including detecting small amounts of material and detector development. Event-by-event generation of complete fission events are particularly useful because it is possible to obtain the fission products as well as the prompt neutrons and photons emitted during the fission process, all with complete kinematic information. It is therefore possible to extract any desired correlation observables. Such codes, when included in broader Monte Carlo transport codes, like MCNP, can be made broadly available. We compare results from our fast event-by-event fission code FREYA (Fission Reaction Event Yield Algorithm) with available neutron-neutron angular correlation data and study the sensitivities of these observables to the model inputs. This work was done under the auspices of the US DOE by (RV) LLNL, Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344, and by (JR) LBNL, Contract DE-AC02-05CH11231. We acknowledge support of the Office of Defense Nuclear Nonproliferation Research and Development in DOE/NNSA.

  20. Long-Range Near-Side Angular Correlations in Proton-Proton Interactions in CMS.

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2011-10-06

    The CMS Collaboration Results on two-particle angular correlations for charged particles emitted in proton-proton collisions at center of mass energies of 0.9, 2.36 and 7TeV over a broad range of pseudorapidity (?) and azimuthal angle (f) are presented using data collected with the CMS detector at the LHC. Short-range correlations in ??, which are studied in minimum bias events, are characterized using a simple independent cluster parameterization in order to quantify their strength (cluster size) and their extent in ? (cluster decay width). Long-range azimuthal correlations are studied more differentially as a function of charged particle multiplicity and particle transverse momentum using a 980nb-1 data set at 7TeV. In high multiplicity events, a pronounced structure emerges in the two-dimensional correlation function for particles in intermediate pT?s of 1-3GeV/c, 2.0< |??|<4.8 and ?f?0. This is the ?rst observation of such a ridge-like feature in two-particle correlation functions in pp or p-pbar collisions. EVO Universe, password "seminar"; Phone Bridge ID: 2330444 Password: 5142

  1. Characteristics of angular cross correlations studied by light scattering from two-dimensional microsphere films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schroer, M. A.; Gutt, C.; Grübel, G.

    2014-07-01

    Recently the analysis of scattering patterns by angular cross-correlation analysis (CCA) was introduced to reveal the orientational order in disordered samples with special focus to future applications on x-ray free-electron laser facilities. We apply this CCA approach to ultra-small-angle light-scattering data obtained from two-dimensional monolayers of microspheres. The films were studied in addition by optical microscopy. This combined approach allows to calculate the cross-correlations of the scattering patterns, characterized by the orientational correlation function Ψl(q), as well as to obtain the real-space structure of the monolayers. We show that CCA is sensitive to the orientational order of monolayers formed by the microspheres which are not directly visible from the scattering patterns. By mixing microspheres of different radii the sizes of ordered monolayer domains is reduced. For these samples it is shown that Ψl(q) quantitatively describes the degree of hexagonal order of the two-dimensional films. The experimental CCA results are compared with calculations based on the microscopy images. Both techniques show qualitatively similar features. Differences can be attributed to the wave-front distortion of the laser beam in the experiment. This effect is discussed by investigating the effect of different wave fronts on the cross-correlation analysis results. The so-determined characteristics of the cross-correlation analysis will be also relevant for future x-ray-based studies.

  2. Magnetic interaction in NdScGe: a local investigation by perturbed angular correlation spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, S. N.; Dhar, S. K.

    2004-02-01

    The magnetic and electric hyperfine interactions for the 111Cd probe nucleus in the equi-atomic ferromagnetic compound NdScGe (T_{\\mathrm {c}}\\sim 200 K) have been investigated by the time differential perturbed angular correlation (TDPAC) technique. The Cd probe occupying the Sc site experiences a large magnetic hyperfine field with saturation value Bhf(0) = -8.5 T. By comparing the results with the hyperfine field data in Nd metal and estimates made with the RKKY interaction, we find an indication for sizeable spin polarization of the conduction electrons in NdScGe. In addition, we find evidence of lattice softening near the Curie temperature reflected by an abrupt decrease in the quadrupole interaction frequency ngrQ(T).

  3. Hyperfine magnetic field at Ta impurities in nickel: Perturbed angular correlation and first principle calculation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cekić, B. Dj.; Umićević, A. B.; Belošević-Čavor, J. N.; Koteski, V. J.; Ivanovski, V. N.; Stojković, M. N.

    2008-03-01

    The hyperfine magnetic field (H) in 0.2 at.% Hf-Ni alloy is measured at the 181Ta probe using the time-differential perturbed angular correlation (TDPAC) method, in the temperature range 78-675 K. The obtained value of 8.6 (3) T at room temperature is in good agreement with the previously reported measurements for similar Hf concentrations in Ni. X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) experiments confirmed that small atomic concentrations of Hf atoms (<1 at.%) mainly substitute on Ni lattice sites in the fcc crystal lattice without forming any intermetallic phase. In addition, ab-initio calculation using all-electron augmented plane waves plus local orbitals (APW+lo) formalism is performed and the obtained result for the hyperfine magnetic field at Ta site is in accordance with the measurement.

  4. The muon capture in {sup 16}O: the angular and polarization correlations

    SciTech Connect

    Karpeshin, F. F.; Isakov, V. I.

    2012-02-15

    Longitudinal polarization of the daughter nuclei {sup 16}N which arises in Micro-Sign {sup -} capture on {sup 16}O as a function of the recoil angle, together with the angular distribution and the alignment of the recoil nucleus are calculated. The neutrinos born escape mainly along the muon spin. The polarization is found to vary from zero (recoil momentum counter to the muon spin direction) up to 50% (along the muon spin direction). The results can be applied to the experimental tests of T conservation, to the analysis of the projects of constructing the powerful mono-energetic neutrino sources, to the experimental study of the pseudo-scalar form factor and the K-electron capture, and to other spin-polarization correlation experiments.

  5. Neural correlates for angular head velocity in the rat dorsal tegmental nucleus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bassett, J. P.; Taube, J. S.; Oman, C. M. (Principal Investigator)

    2001-01-01

    Many neurons in the rat lateral mammillary nuclei (LMN) fire selectively in relation to the animal's head direction (HD) in the horizontal plane independent of the rat's location or behavior. One hypothesis of how this representation is generated and updated is via subcortical projections from the dorsal tegmental nucleus (DTN). Here we report the type of activity in DTN neurons. The majority of cells (75%) fired as a function of the rat's angular head velocity (AHV). Cells exhibited one of two types of firing patterns: (1) symmetric, in which the firing rate was positively correlated with AHV during head turns in both directions, and (2) asymmetric, in which the firing rate was positively correlated with head turns in one direction and correlated either negatively or not at all in the opposite direction. In addition to modulation by AHV, some of the AHV cells (40.1%) were weakly modulated by the rat's linear velocity, and a smaller number were modulated by HD (11%) or head pitch (15.9%). Autocorrelation analyses indicated that with the head stationary, AHV cells displayed irregular discharge patterns. Because afferents from the DTN are the major source of information projecting to the LMN, these results suggest that AHV information from the DTN plays a significant role in generating the HD signal in LMN. A model is proposed showing how DTN AHV cells can generate and update the LMN HD cell signal.

  6. A new all-digital time differential {gamma}-{gamma} angular correlation spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Nagl, Matthias; Vetter, Ulrich; Uhrmacher, Michael; Hofsaess, Hans

    2010-07-15

    A new digital time differential perturbed angular correlation spectrometer, designed to measure the energy of and coincidence time between correlated detector signals, here correlated {gamma} photons, is presented. The system overcomes limitations of earlier digital approaches and features improved performance and handling. By consequently separating the data recording and evaluation, it permits the simultaneous measurement of decays with several {gamma}-ray cascades at once and avoids the necessity of premeasurement configuration. Tests showed that the spectrometer reaches a time resolution of 460 ps [using a {sup 60}Co sample and Lu{sub 1.8}Y{sub 0.2}SiO{sub 5}:Ce (LYSO) scintillators, otherwise better than 100 ps], an energy resolution that is equivalent to the limit of the used scintillation material, and a processing capability of more than 200 000 {gamma} quanta per detector and second. Other possible applications of the presented methods include nuclear spectroscopy, positron emission tomography, time of flight studies, lidar, and radar.

  7. Neural correlates for angular head velocity in the rat dorsal tegmental nucleus.

    PubMed

    Bassett, J P; Taube, J S

    2001-08-01

    Many neurons in the rat lateral mammillary nuclei (LMN) fire selectively in relation to the animal's head direction (HD) in the horizontal plane independent of the rat's location or behavior. One hypothesis of how this representation is generated and updated is via subcortical projections from the dorsal tegmental nucleus (DTN). Here we report the type of activity in DTN neurons. The majority of cells (75%) fired as a function of the rat's angular head velocity (AHV). Cells exhibited one of two types of firing patterns: (1) symmetric, in which the firing rate was positively correlated with AHV during head turns in both directions, and (2) asymmetric, in which the firing rate was positively correlated with head turns in one direction and correlated either negatively or not at all in the opposite direction. In addition to modulation by AHV, some of the AHV cells (40.1%) were weakly modulated by the rat's linear velocity, and a smaller number were modulated by HD (11%) or head pitch (15.9%). Autocorrelation analyses indicated that with the head stationary, AHV cells displayed irregular discharge patterns. Because afferents from the DTN are the major source of information projecting to the LMN, these results suggest that AHV information from the DTN plays a significant role in generating the HD signal in LMN. A model is proposed showing how DTN AHV cells can generate and update the LMN HD cell signal. PMID:11466446

  8. Herschel-ATLAS: The Angular Correlation Function of Submillimetre Galaxies at High and Low Redshift

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maddox, S. J.; Dunne, L.; Rigby, E.; Eales, S.; Cooray, A.; Scott, D.; Peacock, J. A.; Negrello, M.; Smith, D. J. B.; Benford, D.; Amblard, A.; Auld, R.; Baes, M.; Bonfield, D.; Burgarella, D.; Buttiglione, S.; Cava, A.; Clements, D.; Dariush, A.; deZotti, G.; Dye, S.; Frayer, D.; Fritz, J.; Gonzalez-Nuevo, J.; Herranz, D.

    2010-01-01

    We present measurements of the angular correlation function of galaxies selected from the first field of the H-ATLAS survey. Careful removal of the background from galactic cirrus is essential, and currently dominates the uncertainty in our measurements. For our 250 micrometer-selected sample we detect no significant clustering, consistent with the expectation that the 250 pm-selected sources are mostly normal galaxies at z < or equal to 1. For our 350 micrometer and 500 micrometer-selected samples we detect relatively strong clustering with correlation amplitudes A of 0.2 and 1.2 at 1', but with relatively large uncertainties. For samples which preferentially select high redshift galaxies at z approx. 2-3 we detect significant strong clustering, leading to an estimate of r(0) approx. 7-11/h Mpc. The slope of our clustering measurements is very steep. delta approx. 2. The measurements are consistent with the idea that sub-mm sources consist of a low redshift population of normal galaxies and a high redshift population of highly clustered star-bursting galaxies.

  9. Local structure reconstruction in hydrogenated amorphous silicon from angular correlation and synchrotron diffraction studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Britton, D. T.; Minani, E.; Knoesen, D.; Schut, H.; Eijt, S. W. H.; Furlan, F.; Giles, C.; Härting, M.

    2006-02-01

    Hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) is a widely used thin film semiconductor material which is still incompletely understood. It is generally assumed to form a continuous random network, with a high concentration of coordination defects (dangling bonds), which are hydrogen terminated. Neither the exact nature of these sites nor the degree of medium range order has been fully determined. In this paper, we present the first results for the local structure, from a combined study using angular correlation of positron annihilation radiation (ACAR) and synchrotron radiation diffraction. Reciprocal space information is obtained directly, for the mesoscale structure and the local defect structure, from the orientation dependent diffraction and 2D-ACAR patterns, respectively. Furthermore, inversion of both patterns yields a comparison of real space information through maps of the silicon-silicon pair correlation function and the electron-positron autocorrelation function B2 γ( r). From this information, it is possible to identify the dominant structural defect as a vacancy-size dangling bond cluster, around which the network strain is fully relaxed.

  10. Angular correlations in emission of prescission neutrons from {sup 235}U fission induced by slow polarized neutrons

    SciTech Connect

    Danilyan, G. V.; Wilpert, T.; Granz, P.; Krakhotin, V. A.; Mezei, F.; Novitsky, V. V.; Pavlov, V. S.; Russina, M. V.; Shatalov, P. B.

    2008-12-15

    A new approach to searching for and studying scission neutrons, which is based on the analysis of specific angular correlations in nuclear fission induced by polarized neutrons, is described and used to evaluate the fraction of scission neutrons in the total number of prompt neutrons of {sup 235}U fission emitted perpendicularly to the fission axis.

  11. Tunable angular-dependent magnetoresistance correlations in magnetic films and their implications for spin Hall magnetoresistance analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, L. K.; Zhang, Y.; Gu, L.; Cai, J. W.; Sun, L.

    2016-02-01

    Angular-dependent magnetoresistance (MR) is considered to be intrinsic to spintronic materials, represented by the classical anisotropic MR (AMR) phenomenon and the recently emerged spin Hall MR (SMR). So far, isotropic AMR, AMR with geometric size effect and interfacial effect, and SMR have been treated separately to explain distinct MR correlations observed in various systems. Current study shows all four types of MR correlations can be reproduced in Fe thin films depending on the film thickness, texture, interface, and morphology. Results suggest previous explanations of the thin-film MR correlations are incomplete and it is inappropriate to use a specific MR angular-dependent correlation as the sole criterion in determining the origin of AMR or ascertaining the exclusive existence of SMR.

  12. Time differential perturbed angular correlation (TDPAC) studies of the 133Ba ion uptake in bone crystals.

    PubMed

    Rimbert, J N; Kellershohn, C; Dumas, F; Hubert, C

    1981-03-01

    TDPAC measurements of the 356-81 keV gamma-ray cascade resulting from electron capture decay of 133Ba have been performed at room temperature on BaCl2 (aqueous solution and polycrystalline powder), and on samples where the 133Ba nucleus is bound to bone powder, and also to synthesised hydroxylapatite, all after absorption in vitro. As expected, the angular correlation is not perturbed in the solution. However, in the polycrystalline chloride the time dependence of the anisotropy of the cascade of 133Cs nuclide indicates that the decaying nucleus undergoes electric interactions due to different electric field gradients acting at the site of the nucleus. In 133Ba-bone powder the results show a static quadrupolar interaction differing with the absorption contact time during sample preparation, indicating that depth of 133Ba ion fixation in the bone crystal is dependent on this contact time. These results seem to be confirmed by the TDPAC measurements performed on 133Ba-hydroxylapatite samples where the contact times for absorption of active-ion 133Ba and hydroxylapatite in suspension were very different. PMID:7220599

  13. Perturbed angular correlation study of the ion exchange of indium into silicalite zeolites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramallo-López, J. M.; Requejo, F. G.; Rentería, M.; Bibiloni, A. G.; Miró, E. E.

    1999-09-01

    Two indium-containing silicalite zeolites (In/H ZSM5) catalysts prepared by wet impregnation and ionic exchange were characterized by the Perturbed Angular Correlation (PAC) technique using 111In as probe to determine the nature of the indium species. Some of these species take part in the catalytic reaction of the selective reduction (SCR) of NOx with methane. PAC experiments were performed at 500ºC in air before and after reduction reoxidation treatments on the catalysts in order to determine the origin of the different hyperfine interactions and then the degree of ionic exchange. Complementary catalytic activity characterizations were also performed. PAC experiments performed on the catalyst obtained by wet impregnation showed that all In-atoms form In2O3 crystallites while almost 70% of In-atoms form In2O3 in the catalyst obtained by ionic exchange. The PAC experiments of both catalysts performed after the reduction reoxidation treatment revealed the presence of two hyperfine interactions, different from those corresponding to indium in In2O3. These hyperfine interactions should be associated to disperse In species responsible of the catalytic activity located in the ionic exchange-sites of the zeolites.

  14. Inconsistent [ital K]-[ital L] x-ray angular correlations in uranium

    SciTech Connect

    Papp, T.; Maxwell, J.A.; Teesdale, W.J.; Campbell, J.L. )

    1993-01-01

    Angular correlations between [ital K][alpha][sub 1] x rays and subsequent [ital L][sub 3] x-ray transitions were measured using a [sup 233]Pa radionuclide source and high-resolution x-ray detectors. The results provide separately the values of [ital A][sub 22]([ital K][alpha][sub 1-][ital L][alpha][sub 1]) and [ital A][sub 22]([ital K][alpha][sub 1-][ital L][alpha][sub 2]) as opposed to the compound quantity [ital A][sub 22]([ital K][alpha][sub 1-][ital L][alpha]). For the [ital Ll] and [ital L][alpha][sub 2] transitions, the [ital A][sub 22] values agreed closely with those based upon theoretical (Hartree-Fock) [ital E]1 and [ital M]2 transition rates. For the less intense [ital L][beta][sub 6] and [ital L][beta][sub 2,15] transitions, agreement was also observed, although within larger uncertainties. In contrast, the value of [ital A][sub 22]([ital K][alpha][sub 1-][ital L][alpha][sub 1]) was 0.085[plus minus]0.007, which is somewhat larger than the predicted value of 0.073. Possible causes for this discrepancy are explored.

  15. Stability of erythrocyte ghosts: a gamma-ray perturbed angular correlation study.

    PubMed Central

    Kruse, C A; Tin, G W; Baldeschwieler, J D

    1983-01-01

    The structural integrity of erythrocyte ghosts made by the preswell and slow-dialysis techniques has been studied in vitro by use of gamma-ray perturbed angular correlation (PAC) techniques and also by standard in vitro leakage methods employing sequestered labeled markers. Complexes of 111In3+ and nitrilotriacetate were encapsulated in ghosts made from human, rabbit, rat, and mouse erythrocytes, and their leakage was monitored by both methods. In addition, 125I-labeled bovine serum albumin was encapsulated, and ghost integrity was monitored by conventional leakage measurements. With the PAC technique the percentage of material released from human ghosts was determined quantitatively, and the results were equivalent to those obtained by the conventional method. In addition, at various times after intravenous injection, tissue distribution of the ghosts in the mouse was studied. The percent injected dose per gram of tissue of the labeled surface proteins of erythrocyte ghosts in circulation approximated that of the entrapped labeled albumin. This suggests that the ghost membrane and contents are strongly associated in vivo. Large 125I-labeled bovine serum albumin molecules and small 111In3+-nitrilotriacetate complexes were delivered in high quantitites to the lung initially, and to the liver and spleen. Because erythrocyte ghosts have the ability to entrap a wide range of substances and deliver them to specific organs, ghosts may be preferable to other drug carriers or drug therapy for treatment of certain disorders. PMID:6572379

  16. Measurement and analysis of quadruple ({alpha}{gamma}{gamma}) angular correlations for high spin states of {sup 24}Mg.

    SciTech Connect

    Wiedenhover, I.; Wuosmaa, A. H.; Lister, C. J.; Carpenter, M. P.; Janssens, R. V. F.; Amro, H.; Caggiano, J.; Heinz, A.; Kondev, F. G.; Lauritsen, T.; Siem, S.; Sonzogni, A.; Bhattacharyya, P.; Devlin, M.; Sarantites, D. G.; Sobotka, L. G.

    2000-10-30

    The high-lying, {alpha}-decaying states in {sup 24}Mg have been studied by measuring the complete decay path of {alpha} and {gamma} emissions using five segmented Silicon detectors in conjunction with GAMMASPHERE. The authors analyzed the ({alpha}{gamma}) triple angular correlations and, for the first time, ({alpha}{gamma}{gamma}) quadruple correlations. The data analysis is based on a new Fourier transformation technique. The power of the technique is demonstrated.

  17. Di-Hadron Angular Correlation Dependence on Leading Hadron Identity in Relativistic Heavy Ion Collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kauder, Kolja

    A unique state of matter is created in ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) and the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), the Quark Gluon Plasma (QGP). It displays the properties of a near-perfect liquid of quarks and gluons (partons) interacting collectively via the strong force. Properties of this medium can be explored using high-energy probes created in the form of back-to-back pairs (jets) in hard scatterings. A distinct feature of the QGP is jet quenching, which describes the large energy loss of such probes observed in measurements of hadron distributions in head-on heavy ion collisions. A more differential measurement of jet quenching is achieved using di-hadron correlations, where relative angular distributions are studied with respect to a leading (high energy) "trigger" hadron. Two striking features found in di-hadron correlations are the emergence of a long-range plateau on the near-side (at small relative azimuth), the so-called "ridge", and a broadening and deformation of the away-side, back to back with the trigger. Using 200 GeV central gold-gold and minimum bias deuteron-gold collision data collected by the STAR detector at RHIC, a systematic study of the dependence of di-hadron correlation structures on the identity of the trigger particle is carried out in this work by statistically separating pion from non-pion (i.e. proton and kaon) triggers, offering new insights into the hadronization mechanisms in the QGP. The jet-like yield at small relative angles is found enhanced for leading pions in Au+Au data with respect to the d+Au reference, while leading non-pions (protons and kaons) do not elicit such an enhancement. These findings are discussed within the context of quark recombination. At large angles, the correlated yield is significantly higher for leading non-pions than pions. Parameters extracted from two-dimensional model fits are used to test consistency with the constituent quark scaling assumptions

  18. Three-hadron angular correlations in high-energy proton-proton and nucleus-nucleus collisions from perturbative QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Ayala, Alejandro; Ortiz, Antonio; Paic, Guy; Jalilian-Marian, Jamal; Magnin, J.; Tejeda-Yeomans, Maria Elena

    2011-08-15

    We study three-hadron azimuthal angular correlations in high-energy proton-proton and central nucleus-nucleus collisions at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) and the CERN Large Hadron Collider at midrapidity. We use the leading-order parton matrix elements for 2{yields}3 processes and include the effect of parton energy loss in the quark-gluon plasma using the modified fragmentation function approach. For the case when the produced hadrons have either the same or not too different momenta, we observe two away-side peaks at 2{pi}/3 and 4{pi}/3. We consider the dependence of the angular correlations on energy loss parameters that have been used in studies of single inclusive hadron production at RHIC. Our results on the angular dependence of the cross section agree well with preliminary data by the PHENIX Collaboration. We comment on the possible contribution of 2{yields}3 processes to dihadron angular correlations and how a comparison of the two processes may help characterize the plasma further.

  19. Studies of point-defect interactions in solids using perturbed angular correlations

    SciTech Connect

    Schuhmann, R.B.

    1988-01-01

    Vacancy defect production and migration in {sup 111}In doped Au, Pt and Ni following plastic deformation are studied via {sup 111}Cd perturbed {gamma}-{gamma} angular correlations (TDPAC). In all three metals, deformation produces the same defect species as are seen following irradiation. In Au, a particular In-vacancy complex which is probably a trapped divacancy exists in two distinct configurations. Thermal conversion from one configuration to the other occurs near 200K. In Pt, an In-vacancy complex exhibits a strongly temperature dependent electric field gradient, indicating the presence of local resonant modes. In Ni, a relaxed In-trivacancy complex forms via simple, single-step trapping of a migrating trivacancy. Once formed, the In-trivacancy complex in Ni can trap up to four guest H or D atoms. These are bound to the complex with an energy of {approximately}0.5 eV, irrespective of isotopic mass. By monitoring the damping of the TDPAC precession not associated with a bound defect, the author observed release of untrapped interstitial H from the lattice. These experiments give a consistent, microscopic picture of H diffusion and release from Ni. The use of BaF{sub 2} scintillators allows for an eightfold improvement in TDPAC time resolution. This makes possible experiments in systems previously inaccessible due to large precessional frequencies. The author demonstrates the utility of BaF{sub 2} in several examples, including {sup 100}RhNi, {sup 99}TcFe, {sup 101}RuFe, {sup 100}RhCo and {sup 100}RhFe, systems which had not been studied previously due to time resolution limitation. The Larmor frequency for {sup 100}RhFe, 5565 Mrad/s, is the highest frequency ever measured via TDPAC.

  20. Atomic jump frequencies in intermetallic compounds studied using perturbed angular correlation of gamma rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newhouse, Randal Leslie

    Atomic jump frequencies were determined in a variety of intermetallic compounds through analysis of nuclear relaxation of spectra measured using the nuclear hyperfine technique, perturbed angular correlation (PAC) of gamma rays. Observed at higher temperatures, this relaxation is attributed to fluctuations in the orientation or magnitude of electric field gradients (EFG) at nuclei of 111In/Cd probe atoms as the atoms make diffusive jumps. Jump frequencies were obtained by fitting dynamically relaxed PAC spectra using either an empirical relaxation function or using ab initio relaxation models created using the program PolyPacFit. Jump frequency activation enthalpies were determined from measurements over a range of temperatures. Diffusion was studied in the following systems: 1) Pseudo-binary alloys having the L12 crystal structure such as In3(La1-xPrx). The goal was to see how jump frequencies were affected by random disorder. 2) The family of layered phases, LanCoIn3n+2 ( n=0,1,2,3…∞). The goal was to see how jump frequencies varied with the spacing of Co layers, which were found to block diffusion. 3) Phases having the FeGa3 structure. The goal was to analyze dynamical relaxation for probe atoms having multiple inequivalent jump vectors. 4) Phases having the tetragonal Al4Ba structure. The goal was to search for effects in the PAC spectra caused by fluctuations in magnitudes of EFGs without fluctuations in orientations. Ab initio relaxation models were developed to simulate and fit dynamical relaxation for PAC spectra of FeGa3, and several phases with the Al4Ba structure in order to determine underlying microscopic jump frequencies. In the course of this work, site preferences also were observed for 111In/Cd probe atoms in several FeGa 3 and Al4Ba phases.

  1. Professional tennis players' serve: correlation between segmental angular momentums and ball velocity.

    PubMed

    Martin, Caroline; Kulpa, Richard; Delamarche, Paul; Bideau, Benoit

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of the study was to identify the relationships between segmental angular momentum and ball velocity between the following events: ball toss, maximal elbow flexion (MEF), racket lowest point (RLP), maximal shoulder external rotation (MER), and ball impact (BI). Ten tennis players performed serves recorded with a real-time motion capture. Mean angular momentums of the trunk, upper arm, forearm, and the hand-racket were calculated. The anteroposterior axis angular momentum of the trunk was significantly related with ball velocity during the MEF-RLP, RLP-MER, and MER-BI phases. The strongest relationships between the transverse-axis angular momentums and ball velocity followed a proximal-to-distal timing sequence that allows the transfer of angular momentum from the trunk (MEF-RLP and RLP-MER phases) to the upper arm (RLP-MER phase), forearm (RLP-MER and MER-BI phases), and the hand-racket (MER-BI phase). Since sequence is crucial for ball velocity, players should increase angular momentums of the trunk during MEF-MER, upper arm during RLP-MER, forearm during RLP-BI, and the hand-racket during MER-BI. PMID:23724603

  2. Normalization of the Matter Power Spectrum via Higher Order Angular Correlations of Luminous Red Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, Ashley J.; Brunner, Robert J.; Myers, Adam D.

    2008-08-01

    We present a novel technique with which to measure σ8. It relies on measuring the dependence of the second-order bias of a density field on σ8, using two separate techniques. Each technique employs area-averaged angular correlation functions (bar omegaN), one relying on the shape of bar omega2, the other relying on the amplitude of s3 (s3 = bar omega3/bar omega22). We confirm the validity of this method by testing it on a mock catalog drawn from Millennium Simulation data and finding a value of σ8 - σtrue8 = - 0.002 +/- 0.062. We create a catalog of photometrically selected LRGs from SDSS DR5 and separate it into three distinct data sets by photometric redshift, with median redshifts of 0.47, 0.53, and 0.61. Measurements of c2 and σ8 are made for each data set, with the assumption of a flat geometry and WMAP3 best-fit priors on Ωm, h, and Γ. We find, with increasing redshift, that c2 = 0.09 +/- 0.04, 0.09 +/- 0.05, and 0.09 +/- 0.03, and σ8 = 0.78 +/- 0.08, 0.80 +/- 0.09, and 0.80 +/- 0.09. We combine these three consistent σ8 measurements to produce σ8 = 0.79 +/- 0.05. Allowing the parameters Ωm, h, and Γ to vary within their WMAP3 1 σ error, we find that the best-fit value of σ8 does not change by more than 8%, and we are thus confident that our measurement is accurate to within 10%. We anticipate that future surveys, such as Pan-STARRS, DES, and LSST, will be able to employ this method in order to measure σ8 to great precision, and this will serve as an important check, complementarily, on the values determined via more established methods.

  3. Detailed Study of the Angular Correlations in the Prompt Neutron Emission in Spontaneous Fission of 252Cf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopatch, Yu.; Chietera, A.; Stuttgé, L.; Gönnenwein, F.; Mutterer, M.; Gagarski, A.; Guseva, I.; Chernysheva, E.; Dorvaux, O.; Hambsch, F.-J.; Hanappe, F.; Mezentseva, Z.; Telezhnikov, S.

    An experiment has been performed at IPHC Strasbourg, aimed at the detailed investigation of angular correlations in the neutron emission from spontaneous fission of 252Cf. Fission fragments were measured by the angle-sensitive double ionization chamber CODIS while neutrons were detected by a set of 60 DEMON scintillator counters. The main aim of the experiment is the observation of the correlation between the fragment spins and neutron emission anisotropy. Preliminary results, based on the Monte-Carlo simulations, as well as the preliminary analysis of the experimental data are shown.

  4. Angular correlations of projectilelike and fission fragments in the reaction [sup 16]O+[sup 238]U at 110 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Pagano, A.; Aiello, S.; De Filippo, E.; Lanzano, G.; Lo Nigro, S.; Milone, C. ); Mermaz, M.C. )

    1994-08-01

    In-plane and out-of-plane angular correlations of fission fragments detected in coincidence with projectilelike residues produced in the nuclear collisions [sup 16]O+[sup 238]U at 110 MeV have been investigated. The data present the essential features of a targetlike sequential fission process. A quantitative description of the experimental angular anisotropies requires the storage in the fissioning nucleus of a mean angular momentum in agreement with a dominant mass transfer mechanism.

  5. Longitudinal correlation properties of an optical field with broad angular and frequency spectra and their manifestation in interference microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Lyakin, D V; Ryabukho, V P

    2013-10-31

    The results of theoretical and experimental studies of the longitudinal correlation properties of an optical field with broad angular and frequency spectra and manifestations of these properties in interference microscopy are presented. The joint and competitive influence of the angular and frequency spectra of the object-probing field on the longitudinal resolution and on the amplitude of the interference microscope signals from the interfaces between the media inside a multilayer object is demonstrated. The method of compensating the so-called defocusing effect that arises in the interference microscopy using objectives with a large numerical aperture is experimentally demonstrated, which consists in using as a light source in the interference microscope an illuminating interferometer with a frequency-broadband light source. This method of compensation may be used as the basis of simultaneous determination of geometric thickness and refractive index of media forming a multilayer object. (optical fields)

  6. Is v3 necessary or even informative in describing angular correlation data from RHIC and the LHC?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, Lanny; Trainor, Thomas; Prindle, Duncan

    2013-10-01

    One of the more interesting observations from the heavy-ion program at RHIC and now at the LHC are long-range correlations on relative pseudorapidity at small azimuth opening angles. In 2010 Alver and Roland suggested that this so-called same-side ridge could be explained in terms of higher-order, azimuth cosine distributions generated by event-wise energy density fluctuations in the initial-state plus hydrodynamic flow. Applications of third- and higher-order harmonics in analysis of angular correlations from heavy-ion collisions have become ubiquitous in the literature. However, we question the introduction of ``higher harmonics'' to the 2D data description. Extending previous work we examine the necessity and utility of v3. We find that the net effect of v3 is to accommodate minor non-Gaussian structure in the same-side 2D peak for pt-integral correlations from RHIC. A single Gaussian hypothesis for those data is not falsified within statistics. Model ambiguities and instabilities resulting from v3 are discussed and resolved. Lastly, we demonstrate that the 0-1% angular correlation data for 2.76 TeV Pb-Pb collisions from ATLAS do not require a v3 component. Supported in part by the U.S. Dept. of Energy.

  7. CFHTLenS and RCSLenS: Testing Photometric Redshift Distributions Using Angular Cross-Correlations with Spectroscopic Galaxy Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, A.; Heymans, C.; Blake, C.; Hildebrandt, H.; Duncan, C. A. J.; Erben, T.; Nakajima, R.; Van Waerbeke, L.; Viola, M.

    2016-09-01

    We determine the accuracy of galaxy redshift distributions as estimated from photometric redshift probability distributions p(z). Our method utilises measurements of the angular cross-correlation between photometric galaxies and an overlapping sample of galaxies with spectroscopic redshifts. We describe the redshift leakage from a galaxy photometric redshift bin j into a spectroscopic redshift bin i using the sum of the p(z) for the galaxies residing in bin j. We can then predict the angular cross-correlation between photometric and spectroscopic galaxies due to intrinsic galaxy clustering when i ≠ j as a function of the measured angular cross-correlation when i = j. We also account for enhanced clustering arising from lensing magnification using a halo model. The comparison of this prediction with the measured signal provides a consistency check on the validity of using the summed p(z) to determine galaxy redshift distributions in cosmological analyses, as advocated by the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Lensing Survey (CFHTLenS). We present an analysis of the photometric redshifts measured by CFHTLenS, which overlaps the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS). We also analyse the Red-sequence Cluster Lensing Survey (RCSLenS), which overlaps both BOSS and the WiggleZ Dark Energy Survey. We find that the summed p(z) from both surveys are generally biased with respect to the true underlying distributions. If unaccounted for, this bias would lead to errors in cosmological parameter estimation from CFHTLenS by less than ˜4%. For photometric redshift bins which spatially overlap in 3-D with our spectroscopic sample, we determine redshift bias corrections which can be used in future cosmological analyses that rely on accurate galaxy redshift distributions.

  8. High angular momentum states of lithium atom, studied with symmetry-projected explicitly correlated Gaussian lobe functions

    SciTech Connect

    Strasburger, Krzysztof

    2014-07-28

    Method of construction of wave functions approximating eigenfunctions of the L{sup ^2} operator is proposed for high angular momentum states of few-electron atoms. Basis functions are explicitly correlated Gaussian lobes, projected onto irreducible representations of finite point groups. Variational calculations have been carried out for the lowest states of lithium atom, with quantum number L in the range from 1 to 8. Nonrelativistic energies accurate to several dozens of nanohartree have been obtained. For 2{sup 2}P, 3{sup 2}D, and 4{sup 2}F states they agree well with the reference results. Transition frequencies have been computed and compared with available experimental data.

  9. Angular correlation of annihilation radiation associated with vacancy defects in electron-irradiated 6H-SiC

    SciTech Connect

    Kawasuso, A.; Chiba, T.; Higuchi, T.

    2005-05-15

    Electron-positron momentum distributions associated with vacancy defects in 6H-SiC after irradiation with 2-MeV electrons and annealing at 1000 deg. C have been studied using angular correlation of annihilation radiation measurements. It was confirmed that the above vacancy defects have dangling bonds along the c axis and the rotational symmetry around it. The first-principles calculation suggested that the vacancy defects are attributable to either carbon-vacancy-carbon-antisite complexes or silicon-vacancy-nitrogen pairs, while isolated carbon vacancies, silicon vacancies, and nearest neighbor divacancies are ruled out.

  10. Proximal distributions from angular correlations: A measure of the onset of coarse-graining

    PubMed Central

    Dyer, Kippi M.; Pettitt, B. Montgomery

    2013-01-01

    In this work we examine and extend the theory of proximal radial distribution functions for molecules in solution. We point out two formal extensions, the first of which generalizes the proximal distribution function hierarchy approach to the complete, angularly dependent molecular pair distribution function. Second, we generalize from the traditional right-handed solute-solvent proximal distribution functions to the left-handed distributions. The resulting neighbor hierarchy convergence is shown to provide a measure of the coarse-graining of the internal solute sites with respect to the solvent. Simulation of the test case of a deca-alanine peptide shows that this coarse-graining measure converges at a length scale of approximately 5 amino acids for the system considered. PMID:24320368

  11. Proximal distributions from angular correlations: A measure of the onset of coarse-graining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyer, Kippi M.; Pettitt, B. Montgomery

    2013-12-01

    In this work we examine and extend the theory of proximal radial distribution functions for molecules in solution. We point out two formal extensions, the first of which generalizes the proximal distribution function hierarchy approach to the complete, angularly dependent molecular pair distribution function. Second, we generalize from the traditional right-handed solute-solvent proximal distribution functions to the left-handed distributions. The resulting neighbor hierarchy convergence is shown to provide a measure of the coarse-graining of the internal solute sites with respect to the solvent. Simulation of the test case of a deca-alanine peptide shows that this coarse-graining measure converges at a length scale of approximately 5 amino acids for the system considered.

  12. Angular dependence in proton-proton correlation functions in central 40Ca + 40Ca and 48Ca + 48Ca reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henzl, V.; Kilburn, M. A.; Chajęcki, Z.; Henzlova, D.; Lynch, W. G.; Brown, D.; Chbihi, A.; Coupland, D. D. S.; Danielewicz, P.; Desouza, R. T.; Famiano, M.; Herlitzius, C.; Hudan, S.; Lee, Jenny; Lukyanov, S.; Rogers, A. M.; Sanetullaev, A.; Sobotka, L. G.; Sun, Z. Y.; Tsang, M. B.; Vander Molen, A.; Verde, G.; Wallace, M. S.; Youngs, M.

    2012-01-01

    The angular dependence of proton-proton correlation functions is studied in central 40Ca+40Ca and 48Ca+48Ca nuclear reactions at E/A=80 MeV. Measurements were performed with the High Resolution Array (HiRA) complemented by the 4π Array at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory. A striking angular dependence in the laboratory frame is found within proton-proton correlation functions for both systems that greatly exceeds the measured and expected isospin dependent difference between the neutron-rich and neutron-deficient systems. Sources measured at backward angles reflect the participant zone of the reaction, while much larger sources observed at forward angles reflect the expanding, fragmenting, and evaporating projectile remnants. The decrease of the size of the source with increasing momentum is observed at backward angles while a weaker trend in the opposite direction is observed at forward angles. The results are compared to the theoretical calculations using the Boltzmann-Uehling-Uhlenbeck (BUU) transport model.

  13. Multipolarity of the 2-→1- , ground-state transition in 210Bi via multivariable angular correlation analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cieplicka-Oryńczak, N.; Szpak, B.; Leoni, S.; Fornal, B.; Bazzacco, D.; Blanc, A.; Bocchi, G.; Bottoni, S.; de France, G.; Jentschel, M.; Köster, U.; Mutti, P.; Simpson, G.; Soldner, T.; Ur, C.; Urban, W.

    2016-07-01

    The multipolarity of the main transition leading to the ground state in 210Bi was investigated using the angular correlations of γ rays. The analyzed γ -coincidence data were obtained from the 209Bi(n ,γ )210Bi experiment performed at Institut Laue-Langevin Grenoble at the PF1B cold-neutron facility. The EXILL (EXOGAM at the ILL) multidetector array, consisting of 16 high-purity germanium detectors, was used to detect γ transitions. The mixing ratio of the 320-keV γ ray was defined by minimizing a multivariable χΣ2 function constructed from the coefficients of angular correlation functions for seven pairs of strong transitions in 210Bi. As a result, the almost pure M 1 multipolarity of the 320-keV γ ray was obtained, with an E 2 admixture of less than 0.6% only (95% confidence limit). Based on this multipolarity the neutron-capture cross section leading to the ground state in 210Bi, that decays in turn to radiotoxic 210Po, was determined to be within the limits 21.3(9) and 21.5(9) mb. This result is important for nuclear reactor applications.

  14. Angular correlation functions of X-ray point-like sources in the full exposure XMM-LSS field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elyiv, A.; Clerc, N.; Plionis, M.; Surdej, J.; Pierre, M.; Basilakos, S.; Chiappetti, L.; Gandhi, P.; Gosset, E.; Melnyk, O.; Pacaud, F.

    2012-01-01

    Aims: Our aim is to study the large-scale structure of different types of AGN using the medium-deep XMM-LSS survey. Methods: We measure the two-point angular correlation function of 5700 and 2500 X-ray point-like sources over the 11 sq. deg. XMM-LSS field in the soft (0.5-2 keV) and hard (2-10 keV) bands. For the conversion from the angular to the spatial correlation function we used the Limber integral equation and the luminosity-dependent density evolution model of the AGN X-ray luminosity function. Results: We have found significant angular correlations with the power-law parameters γ = 1.81 ± 0.02, θ0 = 1.3'' ± 0.2'' for the soft, and γ = 2.00 ± 0.04, θ0 = 7.3'' ± 1.0'' for the hard bands. The amplitude of the correlation function w(θ) is higher in the hard than in the soft band for fx ≲ 10-14 erg s-1 cm-2 and lower above this flux limit. We confirm that the clustering strength θ0 grows with the flux limit of the sample, a trend which is also present in the amplitude of the spatial correlation function, but only for the soft band. In the hard band, it remains almost constant with r0 ≃ 10h-1 Mpc, irrespective of the flux limit. Our analysis of AGN subsamples with different hardness ratios shows that the sources with a hard-spectrum are more clustered than soft-spectrum ones. This result may be a hint that the two main types of AGN populate different environments. Finally, we find that our clustering results correspond to an X-ray selected AGN bias factor of 2.5 for the soft band sources (at a median bar{z} ≃ 1.1) and 3.3 for the hard band sources (at a median bar{z} ≃ 1), which translates into a host dark matter halo mass of 1013h-1M⊙ and 1013.7h-1M⊙ for the soft and hard bands, respectively. This paper is dedicated to the memory of Olivier Garcet who has initiated the present work just before his sudden death.

  15. Measurement of inclusive two-particle angular correlations in pp collisions with the ATLAS detector at the LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aad, G.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Abdelalim, A. A.; Abdesselam, A.; Abdinov, O.; Abi, B.; Abolins, M.; AbouZeid, O. S.; Abramowicz, H.; Abreu, H.; Acerbi, E.; Acharya, B. S.; Adamczyk, L.; Adams, D. L.; Addy, T. N.; Adelman, J.; Aderholz, M.; Adomeit, S.; Adragna, P.; Adye, T.; Aefsky, S.; Aguilar-Saavedra, J. A.; Aharrouche, M.; Ahlen, S. P.; Ahles, F.; Ahmad, A.; Ahsan, M.; Aielli, G.; Akdogan, T.; Akesson, T. P. A.; Akimoto, G.; Akimov, A. V.; Akiyama, A.; Alam, M. S.; Alam, M. A.; Albert, J.; Albrand, S.; Aleksa, M.; Aleksandrov, I. N.; Alessandria, F.; Alexa, C.; Alexander, G.; Alexandre, G.; Alexopoulos, T.; Alhroob, M.; Aliev, M.; Alimonti, G.; Alison, J.; Aliyev, M.; Allbrooke, B. M. M.; Allport, P. P.; Allwood-Spiers, S. E.; Almond, J.; Aloisio, A.; Alon, R.; Alonso, A.; Alvarez Gonzalez, B.; Alviggi, M. G.; Amako, K.; Amaral, P.; Amelung, C.; Ammosov, V. V.; Amorim, A.; Amoros, G.; Amram, N.; Anastopoulos, C.; Ancu, L. S.; Andari, N.; Andeen, T.; Anders, C. F.; Anders, G.; Anderson, K. J.; Andreazza, A.; Andrei, V.; Andrieux, M.-L.; Anduaga, X. S.; Angerami, A.; Anghinolfi, F.; Anisenkov, A.; Anjos, N.; Annovi, A.; Antonaki, A.; Antonelli, M.; Antonov, A.; Antos, J.; Anulli, F.; Aoun, S.; Aperio Bella, L.; Apolle, R.; Arabidze, G.; Aracena, I.; Arai, Y.; Arce, A. T. H.; Arfaoui, S.; Arguin, J.-F.; Arik, E.; Arik, M.; Armbruster, A. J.; Arnaez, O.; Arnault, C.; Artamonov, A.; Artoni, G.; Arutinov, D.; Asai, S.; Asfandiyarov, R.; Ask, S.; Asman, B.; Asquith, L.; Assamagan, K.; Astbury, A.; Astvatsatourov, A.; Aubert, B.; Auge, E.; Augsten, K.; Aurousseau, M.; Avolio, G.; Avramidou, R.; Axen, D.; Ay, C.; Azuelos, G.; Azuma, Y.; Baak, M. A.; Baccaglioni, G.; Bacci, C.; Bach, A. M.; Bachacou, H.; Bachas, K.; Backes, M.; Backhaus, M.; Badescu, E.; Bagnaia, P.; Bahinipati, S.; Bai, Y.; Bailey, D. C.; Bain, T.; Baines, J. T.; Baker, O. K.; Baker, M. D.; Baker, S.; Banas, E.; Banerjee, P.; Banerjee, Sw.; Banfi, D.; Bangert, A.; Bansal, V.; Bansil, H. S.; Barak, L.; Baranov, S. P.; Barashkou, A.; Barbaro Galtieri, A.; Barber, T.; Barberio, E. L.; Barberis, D.; Barbero, M.; Bardin, D. Y.; Barillari, T.; Barisonzi, M.; Barklow, T.; Barlow, N.; Barnett, B. M.; Barnett, R. M.; Baroncelli, A.; Barone, G.; Barr, A. J.; Barreiro, F.; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, J.; Barrillon, P.; Bartoldus, R.; Barton, A. E.; Bartsch, V.; Bates, R. L.; Batkova, L.; Batley, J. R.; Battaglia, A.; Battistin, M.; Bauer, F.; Bawa, H. S.; Beale, S.; Beau, T.; Beauchemin, P. H.; Beccherle, R.; Bechtle, P.; Beck, H. P.; Becker, S.; Beckingham, M.; Becks, K. H.; Beddall, A. J.; Beddall, A.; Bedikian, S.; Bednyakov, V. A.; Bee, C. P.; Begel, M.; Behar Harpaz, S.; Behera, P. K.; Beimforde, M.; Belanger-Champagne, C.; Bell, P. J.; Bell, W. H.; Bella, G.; Bellagamba, L.; Bellina, F.; Bellomo, M.; Belloni, A.; Beloborodova, O.; Belotskiy, K.; Beltramello, O.; Ben Ami, S.; Benary, O.; Benchekroun, D.; Benchouk, C.; Bendel, M.; Benekos, N.; Benhammou, Y.; Benhar Noccioli, E.; Benitez Garcia, J. A.; Benjamin, D. P.; Benoit, M.; Bensinger, J. R.; Benslama, K.; Bentvelsen, S.; Berge, D.; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E.; Berger, N.; Berghaus, F.; Berglund, E.; Beringer, J.; Bernat, P.; Bernhard, R.; Bernius, C.; Berry, T.; Bertella, C.; Bertin, A.; Bertinelli, F.; Bertolucci, F.; Besana, M. I.; Besson, N.; Bethke, S.; Bhimji, W.; Bianchi, R. M.; Bianco, M.; Biebel, O.; Bieniek, S. P.; Bierwagen, K.; Biesiada, J.; Biglietti, M.; Bilokon, H.; Bindi, M.; Binet, S.; Bingul, A.; Bini, C.; Biscarat, C.; Bitenc, U.; Black, K. M.; Blair, R. E.; Blanchard, J.-B.; Blanchot, G.; Blazek, T.; Blocker, C.; Blocki, J.; Blondel, A.; Blum, W.; Blumenschein, U.; Bobbink, G. J.; Bobrovnikov, V. B.; Bocchetta, S. S.; Bocci, A.; Boddy, C. R.; Boehler, M.; Boek, J.; Boelaert, N.; Bogaerts, J. A.; Bogdanchikov, A.; Bogouch, A.; Bohm, C.; Boisvert, V.; Bold, T.; Boldea, V.; Bolnet, N. M.; Bona, M.; Bondarenko, V. G.; Bondioli, M.; Boonekamp, M.; Booth, C. N.; Bordoni, S.; Borer, C.; Borisov, A.; Borissov, G.; Borjanovic, I.; Borri, M.; Borroni, S.; Bortolotto, V.; Bos, K.; Boscherini, D.; Bosman, M.; Boterenbrood, H.; Botterill, D.; Bouchami, J.; Boudreau, J.; Bouhova-Thacker, E. V.; Boumediene, D.; Bourdarios, C.; Bousson, N.; Boveia, A.; Boyd, J.; Boyko, I. R.; Bozhko, N. I.; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I.; Bracinik, J.; Braem, A.; Branchini, P.; Brandenburg, G. W.; Brandt, A.; Brandt, G.; Brandt, O.; Bratzler, U.; Brau, B.; Brau, J. E.; Braun, H. M.; Brelier, B.; Bremer, J.; Brenner, R.; Bressler, S.; Breton, D.; Britton, D.; Brochu, F. M.; Brock, I.; Brock, R.; Brodbeck, T. J.; Brodet, E.; Broggi, F.; Bromberg, C.; Bronner, J.; Brooijmans, G.; Brooks, W. K.; Brown, G.; Brown, H.; Bruckman de Renstrom, P. A.; Bruncko, D.; Bruneliere, R.; Brunet, S.; Bruni, A.; Bruni, G.; Bruschi, M.; Buanes, T.; Buat, Q.; Bucci, F.; Buchanan, J.; Buchanan, N. J.; Buchholz, P.; Buckingham, R. M.; Buckley, A. G.; Buda, S. I.; Budagov, I. A.; Budick, B.; Büscher, V.; Bugge, L.; Bulekov, O.; Bunse, M.; Buran, T.; Burckhart, H.; Burdin, S.; Burgess, T.; Burke, S.; Busato, E.; Bussey, P.; Buszello, C. P.; Butin, F.; Butler, B.; Butler, J. M.; Buttar, C. M.; Butterworth, J. M.; Buttinger, W.; Cabrera Urban, S.; Caforio, D.; Cakir, O.; Calafiura, P.; Calderini, G.; Calfayan, P.; Calkins, R.; Caloba, L. P.; Caloi, R.; Calvet, D.; Calvet, S.; Camacho Toro, R.; Camarri, P.; Cambiaghi, M.; Cameron, D.; Caminada, L. M.; Campana, S.; Campanelli, M.; Canale, V.; Canelli, F.; Canepa, A.; Cantero, J.; Capasso, L.; Capeans Garrido, M. D. M.; Caprini, I.; Caprini, M.; Capriotti, D.; Capua, M.; Caputo, R.; Caramarcu, C.; Cardarelli, R.; Carli, T.; Carlino, G.; Carminati, L.; Caron, B.; Caron, S.; Carrillo Montoya, G. D.; Carter, A. A.; Carter, J. R.; Carvalho, J.; Casadei, D.; Casado, M. P.; Cascella, M.; Caso, C.; Castaneda Hernandez, A. M.; Castaneda-Miranda, E.; Castillo Gimenez, V.; Castro, N. F.; Cataldi, G.; Cataneo, F.; Catinaccio, A.; Catmore, J. R.; Cattai, A.; Cattani, G.; Caughron, S.; Cauz, D.; Cavalleri, P.; Cavalli, D.; Cavalli-Sforza, M.; Cavasinni, V.; Ceradini, F.; Cerqueira, A. S.; Cerri, A.; Cerrito, L.; Cerutti, F.; Cetin, S. A.; Cevenini, F.; Chafaq, A.; Chakraborty, D.; Chan, K.; Chapleau, B.; Chapman, J. D.; Chapman, J. W.; Chareyre, E.; Charlton, D. G.; Chavda, V.; Chavez Barajas, C. A.; Cheatham, S.; Chekanov, S.; Chekulaev, S. V.; Chelkov, G. A.; Chelstowska, M. A.; Chen, C.; Chen, H.; Chen, S.; Chen, T.; Chen, X.; Cheng, S.; Cheplakov, A.; Chepurnov, V. F.; Cherkaoui El Moursli, R.; Chernyatin, V.; Cheu, E.; Cheung, S. L.; Chevalier, L.; Chiefari, G.; Chikovani, L.; Childers, J. T.; Chilingarov, A.; Chiodini, G.; Chisholm, A. S.; Chizhov, M. V.; Choudalakis, G.; Chouridou, S.; Christidi, I. A.; Christov, A.; Chromek-Burckhart, D.; Chu, M. L.; Chudoba, J.; Ciapetti, G.; Ciba, K.; Ciftci, A. K.; Ciftci, R.; Cinca, D.; Cindro, V.; Ciobotaru, M. D.; Ciocca, C.; Ciocio, A.; Cirilli, M.; Citterio, M.; Ciubancan, M.; Clark, A.; Clark, P. J.; Cleland, W.; Clemens, J. C.; Clement, B.; Clement, C.; Clifft, R. W.; Coadou, Y.; Cobal, M.; Coccaro, A.; Cochran, J.; Coe, P.; Cogan, J. G.; Coggeshall, J.; Cogneras, E.; Colas, J.; Colijn, A. P.; Collins, N. J.; Collins-Tooth, C.; Collot, J.; Colon, G.; Conde Muiño, P.; Coniavitis, E.; Conidi, M. C.; Consonni, M.; Consorti, V.; Constantinescu, S.; Conta, C.; Conventi, F.; Cook, J.; Cooke, M.; Cooper, B. D.; Cooper-Sarkar, A. M.; Copic, K.; Cornelissen, T.; Corradi, M.; Corriveau, F.; Cortes-Gonzalez, A.; Cortiana, G.; Costa, G.; Costa, M. J.; Costanzo, D.; Costin, T.; Côté, D.; Coura Torres, R.; Courneyea, L.; Cowan, G.; Cowden, C.; Cox, B. 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M.; Tykhonov, A.; Tylmad, M.; Tyndel, M.; Tzanakos, G.; Uchida, K.; Ueda, I.; Ueno, R.; Ugland, M.; Uhlenbrock, M.; Uhrmacher, M.; Ukegawa, F.; Unal, G.; Underwood, D. G.; Undrus, A.; Unel, G.; Unno, Y.; Urbaniec, D.; Usai, G.; Uslenghi, M.; Vacavant, L.; Vacek, V.; Vachon, B.; Vahsen, S.; Valenta, J.; Valente, P.; Valentinetti, S.; Valkar, S.; Valladolid Gallego, E.; Vallecorsa, S.; Valls Ferrer, J. A.; van der Graaf, H.; van der Kraaij, E.; Van Der Leeuw, R.; van der Poel, E.; van der Ster, D.; van Eldik, N.; van Gemmeren, P.; van Kesteren, Z.; van Vulpen, I.; Vanadia, M.; Vandelli, W.; Vandoni, G.; Vaniachine, A.; Vankov, P.; Vannucci, F.; Varela Rodriguez, F.; Vari, R.; Varnes, E. W.; Varouchas, D.; Vartapetian, A.; Varvell, K. E.; Vassilakopoulos, V. I.; Vazeille, F.; Vegni, G.; Veillet, J. J.; Vellidis, C.; Veloso, F.; Veness, R.; Veneziano, S.; Ventura, A.; Ventura, D.; Venturi, M.; Venturi, N.; Vercesi, V.; Verducci, M.; Verkerke, W.; Vermeulen, J. C.; Vest, A.; Vetterli, M. C.; Vichou, I.; Vickey, T.; Boeriu, O. E. Vickey; Viehhauser, G. H. A.; Viel, S.; Villa, M.; Villaplana Perez, M.; Vilucchi, E.; Vincter, M. G.; Vinek, E.; Vinogradov, V. B.; Virchaux, M.; Virzi, J.; Vitells, O.; Viti, M.; Vivarelli, I.; Vives Vaque, F.; Vlachos, S.; Vladoiu, D.; Vlasak, M.; Vlasov, N.; Volpini, G.; Vogel, A.; Vokac, P.; Volpi, G.; Volpi, M.; von der Schmitt, H.; von Loeben, J.; von Radziewski, H.; von Toerne, E.; Vorobel, V.; Vorobiev, A. P.; Vorwerk, V.; Vos, M.; Voss, R.; Voss, T. T.; Vossebeld, J. H.; Vranjes, N.; Milosavljevic, M. Vranjes; Vrba, V.; Vreeswijk, M.; Vu Anh, T.; Vuillermet, R.; Vukotic, I.; Wagner, W.; Wagner, P.; Wahlen, H.; Wakabayashi, J.; Walbersloh, J.; Walch, S.; Walder, J.; Walker, R.; Walkowiak, W.; Wall, R.; Waller, P.; Wang, C.; Wang, H.; Wang, H.; Wang, J.; Wang, J.; Wang, J. C.; Wang, R.; Wang, S. M.; Warburton, A.; Ward, C. P.; Warsinsky, M.; Watkins, P. M.; Watson, A. T.; Watson, I. J.; Watson, M. F.; Watts, G.; Watts, S.; Waugh, A. T.; Waugh, B. M.; Weber, M.; Weber, M. S.; Weber, P.; Weidberg, A. R.; Weigell, P.; Weingarten, J.; Weiser, C.; Wellenstein, H.; Wells, P. S.; Wen, M.; Wenaus, T.; Wendler, S.; Weng, Z.; Wengler, T.; Wenig, S.; Wermes, N.; Werner, M.; Werner, P.; Werth, M.; Wessels, M.; Weydert, C.; Whalen, K.; Wheeler-Ellis, S. J.; Whitaker, S. P.; White, A.; White, M. J.; Whitehead, S. R.; Whiteson, D.; Whittington, D.; Wicek, F.; Wicke, D.; Wickens, F. J.; Wiedenmann, W.; Wielers, M.; Wienemann, P.; Wiglesworth, C.; Wiik-Fuchs, L. A. M.; Wijeratne, P. A.; Wildauer, A.; Wildt, M. A.; Wilhelm, I.; Wilkens, H. G.; Will, J. Z.; Williams, E.; Williams, H. H.; Willis, W.; Willocq, S.; Wilson, J. A.; Wilson, M. G.; Wilson, A.; Wingerter-Seez, I.; Winkelmann, S.; Winklmeier, F.; Wittgen, M.; Wolter, M. W.; Wolters, H.; Wong, W. C.; Wooden, G.; Wosiek, B. K.; Wotschack, J.; Woudstra, M. J.; Wozniak, K. W.; Wraight, K.; Wright, C.; Wright, M.; Wrona, B.; Wu, S. L.; Wu, X.; Wu, Y.; Wulf, E.; Wunstorf, R.; Wynne, B. M.; Xella, S.; Xiao, M.; Xie, S.; Xie, Y.; Xu, C.; Xu, D.; Xu, G.; Yabsley, B.; Yacoob, S.; Yamada, M.; Yamaguchi, H.; Yamamoto, A.; Yamamoto, K.; Yamamoto, S.; Yamamura, T.; Yamanaka, T.; Yamaoka, J.; Yamazaki, T.; Yamazaki, Y.; Yan, Z.; Yang, H.; Yang, U. K.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Z.; Yanush, S.; Yao, Y.; Yasu, Y.; Ybeles Smit, G. V.; Ye, J.; Ye, S.; Yilmaz, M.; Yoosoofmiya, R.; Yorita, K.; Yoshida, R.; Young, C.; Youssef, S.; Yu, D.; Yu, J.; Yu, J.; Yuan, L.; Yurkewicz, A.; Zabinski, B.; Zaets, V. G.; Zaidan, R.; Zaitsev, A. M.; Zajacova, Z.; Zanello, L.; Zarzhitsky, P.; Zaytsev, A.; Zeitnitz, C.; Zeller, M.; Zeman, M.; Zemla, A.; Zendler, C.; Zenin, O.; Ženiš, T.; Zinonos, Z.; Zenz, S.; Zerwas, D.; Zevi della Porta, G.; Zhan, Z.; Zhang, D.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, X.; Zhang, Z.; Zhao, L.; Zhao, T.; Zhao, Z.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zheng, S.; Zhong, J.; Zhou, B.; Zhou, N.; Zhou, Y.; Zhu, C. G.; Zhu, H.; Zhu, J.; Zhu, Y.; Zhuang, X.; Zhuravlov, V.; Zieminska, D.; Zimmermann, R.; Zimmermann, S.; Zimmermann, S.; Ziolkowski, M.; Zitoun, R.; Živković, L.; Zmouchko, V. V.; Zobernig, G.; Zoccoli, A.; Zolnierowski, Y.; Zsenei, A.; zur Nedden, M.; Zutshi, V.; Zwalinski, L.; Ohsugi, T.

    2012-05-01

    We present a measurement of two-particle angular correlations in proton- proton collisions at √{s} = 900 GeV and 7 TeV. The collision events were collected during 2009 and 2010 with the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider using a single-arm minimum bias trigger. Correlations are measured for charged particles produced in the kinematic range of transverse momentum p T > 100 MeV and pseudorapidity | η| < 2.5. A complex structure in pseudorapidity and azimuth is observed at both collision energies. Results are compared to pythia 8 and herwig++ as well as to the AMBT2B, DW and Perugia 2011 tunes of pythia 6. The data are not satisfactorily described by any of these models.

  16. Angular Correlations Between Fragment Spin and Prompt Neutron Evaporation in Spontaneous Fission of 252Cf: CORA-Demon Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Prokhorova, E.; Goennenwein, F.; Kopatch, Yu.; Mutterer, M.; Hanappe, F.; Kinnard, V.; Stuttge, L.; Dorvaux, O.; Wollersheim, H.-J.

    2007-05-22

    A novel method to search for the anisotropic emission of prompt neutrons in the center-of-mass system of fission fragments is presented. The anisotropy is conjectured to be due to the large spins of fission fragments are known to carry. Triple neutron- neutron-fragment correlations in spontaneous fission of 252Cf were investigated in an exploratory experiment dubbed CORA-DEMON experiment. Fission fragments were intercepted in a double ionization chamber while neutrons were spotted in 2 two-dimensional cylindrical walls of Demon detectors with the target on the vertical cylinder axis. A new method of analysis of triple angular correlations between 2 neutrons and a fission fragment was applied. Preliminary results are reported.

  17. Angular Correlations Between Fragment Spin and Prompt Neutron Evaporation in Spontaneous Fission of 252Cf: CORA-Demon Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prokhorova, E.; Gönnenwein, F.; Kopatch, Yu.; Mutterer, M.; Hanappe, F.; Kinnard, V.; Stuttgé, L.; Dorvaux, O.; Wollersheim, H.-J.

    2007-05-01

    A novel method to search for the anisotropic emission of prompt neutrons in the center-of-mass system of fission fragments is presented. The anisotropy is conjectured to be due to the large spins of fission fragments are known to carry. Triple neutron- neutron-fragment correlations in spontaneous fission of 252Cf were investigated in an exploratory experiment dubbed CORA-DEMON experiment. Fission fragments were intercepted in a double ionization chamber while neutrons were spotted in 2 two-dimensional cylindrical walls of Demon detectors with the target on the vertical cylinder axis. A new method of analysis of triple angular correlations between 2 neutrons and a fission fragment was applied. Preliminary results are reported.

  18. Gamma Ray Emission Tomography and Angular Correlation Measurements to Study the Distribution and Binding Site of Selenium.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahni, Anwar

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. The distribution of ^ {75}Se in tissue equivalent materials was investigated employing Gamma ray Emission Topography with a rectilinear scanner utilizing NaI(Tl) and BGO detectors. The reconstructed images, using Filtered Back Projection and Iterative techniques were presented in 2D colour and 3D representations. Using a lead collimator of aperture 1.5 x 20 mm and 70 length, the distribution of selenium with variation of volume and concentration was examined and clearly seen. Several corrections such as background, scattering, attenuation compensation and X-ray characteristic suppression, were performed to improve the quality of the images which was evaluated in terms of the fidelity factor. The possibility of quantifying an image was considered with regard to spatial resolution and least detectable concentration. The spatial resolution was measured using two small vials containing the same concentration of selenium, the value obtained was the same as the width of the collimator aperture. The value of the least detectable concentration of selenium however, was difficult to find, due to the many ambiguous factors involved. The binding site of selenium which is based on quadrupole interaction with the surrounding electric field, was investigated employing Perturbed Angular Correlation (PAC) experiments using NaI(Tl) and BaF_2 detectors. Using NaI(Tl) detectors, it was difficult to observe the perturbation, due to the poor time resolution. The BaF_2 detector according to the literature has a shorter light emission decay time constant (0.6 ns), suggested that a better time resolution than that found with the NaI(Tl) detectors could be obtained. A Perturbed Angular Correlation experiment employing BaF _2 detectors and a fast-slow coincidence system was set up. The time differential PAC of selenium in solution showed an unperturbed angular correlation pattern. The main problem is the very short half life of the

  19. Perturbed Angular Correlation of the stretched cascade in the decay of 180mHf using a digital spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jäger, Markus; Butz, Tilman

    2012-05-01

    We report on the measurement of the nuclear quadrupole interaction (NQI) at Hf sites using the nuclear probe 180mHf in HfF4·HF·2H2O at 300 K by exploiting all possible start quanta in the stretched cascade with a digital Time Differential Perturbed Angular Correlation (TDPAC) spectrometer. With conventional spectrometers, multiple prompt start signals would paralyze the router. The gain in coincidence rate is about a factor of 5 compared to a conventional spectrometer using a single start only. With multiple starts 180mHf is a promising new isomeric nuclear probe in TDPAC experiments. As an additional feature we implemented the possibility to measure up to four cascades simultaneously in order to save data collection time or to measure isobaric contaminations like 111mCd and 111In.

  20. Nuclear quadrupole interaction at 181Ta in hafnium dioxide fiber: Time differential perturbed angular correlation measurements and ab initio calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, D.; Das, P.; Guin, R.; Das, S. K.

    2012-09-01

    The thermal behavior of hafnium dioxide fiber has been investigated with the aid of time differential perturbed angular correlation (TDPAC) technique along with XRD and SEM measurements. This study has proved a good thermal stability of the fibrous material up to 1173 K and the fiber loses its crystallinity to a meager extent at 1673 K. No phase transition has been observed up to 1673 K in this fiber. TDPAC parameters for the HfO2 fiber annealed at 1173 K are ωQ=124.6 (3) Mrad/s and η=0.36 (1). These values remain unaltered for the HfO2 fiber annealed even at 1673 K. Electronic structure calculations based on the density functional theory (DFT) for HfO2 doped with tantalum impurity have been performed and the calculated EFG parameters are in reasonable agreement with the experimental values.

  1. A Perturbed-Angular-Correlation Study of Hyperfine Interactions at 181Ta in α-Fe2O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasquevich, A. F.; Junqueira, A. C.; Carbonari, A. W.; Saxena, R. N.

    2004-11-01

    The hyperfine interactions at 181Ta ions on Fe3+ sites in α-Fe2O3 (hematite) were studied in the temperature range 11 1100 K by means of the perturbed angular correlation (PAC) technique. The 181Hf(β-)181Ta probe nuclei were introduced chemically into the sample during the preparation. The hyperfine interaction measurements allow to observe the magnetic phase transition and to characterize the supertransferred hyperfine magnetic field Bhf and the electric field gradient (EFG) at the impurity sites. The angles between Bhf and the principal axes of the EFG were determined. The Morin transition was also observed. The results are compared with those of similar experiments carried out using 111Cd probe.

  2. Dynamical evolution, hadronization and angular de-correlation of heavy flavor in a hot and dense QCD medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Shanshan; Qin, Guang-You; Bass, Steffen A.

    2014-12-01

    We study heavy flavor evolution and hadronization in relativistic heavy-ion collisions. The in-medium evolution of heavy quarks is described using our modified Langevin framework that incorporates both collisional and radiative energy loss mechanisms. The subsequent hadronization process for heavy quarks is calculated with a fragmentation plus recombination model. We find significant contribution from gluon radiation to heavy quark energy loss at high pT; the recombination mechanism can greatly enhance the D meson production at medium pT. Our calculation provides a good description of the D meson nuclear modification at the LHC. In addition, we explore the angular correlation functions of heavy flavor pairs which may provide us a potential candidate for distinguishing different energy loss mechanisms of heavy quarks inside the QGP.

  3. Wavefront propagation in turbulence: an unified approach to the derivation of angular correlation functions.

    PubMed

    Molodij, Guillaume

    2011-08-01

    A general expression of the spatial correlation functions of quantities related to the phase fluctuations of a wave that have propagated through the atmospheric turbulence are derived. A generalization of the method to integrand containing the product of an arbitrary number of hypergeometric functions is presented. The formalism is able to give the coefficients of phase-expansion functions orthogonal over an arbitrary circularly symmetric weighting function for an isotropic turbulence spectrum, as well as to describe the effect of the finite outer and inner scales of the turbulence and to describe the spherical propagation or to derive the effects of the analytical operators acting on the phase such as the derivatives of any order. The derivation of the generalized integrals with multiparameters is based on the Mellin transforms integration method. PMID:21811336

  4. Study of Positronium in Low-k Dielectric Films by means of 2D-Angular Correlation Experiments at a High-Intensity Slow-Positron Beam

    SciTech Connect

    Gessmann, T; Petkov, M P; Weber, M H; Lynn, K G; Rodbell, K P; Asoka-Kumar, P; Stoeffl, W; Howell, R H

    2001-06-20

    Depth-resolved measurements of the two-dimensional angular correlation of annihilation radiation (2D-ACAR) were performed at the high-intensity slow-positron beam of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. We studied the formation of positronium in thin films of methyl-silsesquioxane (MSSQ) spin-on glass containing open-volume defects in the size of voids. Samples with different average void sizes were investigated and positronium formation could be found in all cases. The width of the angular correlation related to the annihilation of parapositronium increased with the void size indicating the annihilation of non-thermalized parapositronium.

  5. Gluon correlations from a glasma flux-tube model compared to measured hadron correlations on transverse momentum (pt,pt) and angular differences (ηΔ,φΔ)

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Trainor, Thomas A.; Ray, R. L.

    2011-09-09

    A glasma flux-tube model has been proposed to explain strong elongation on pseudorapidity η of the same-side two-dimensional (2D) peak in minimum-bias angular correlations from √(sNN)=200 GeV Au-Au collisions. The same-side peak or “soft ridge” is said to arise from coupling of flux tubes to radial flow whereby gluons radiated transversely from flux tubes are boosted by radial flow to form a narrow structure or ridge on azimuth. In this study we test the theory conjecture by comparing measurements to predictions for particle production, spectra, and correlations from the glasma model and from conventional fragmentation processes. We conclude that themore » glasma model is contradicted by measured hadron yields, spectra, and correlations, whereas a two-component model of hadron production, including minimum-bias parton fragmentation, provides a quantitative description of most features of the data, although η elongation of the same-side 2D peak remains undescribed.« less

  6. A compact digital time differential perturbed angular correlation-spectrometer using field programmable gate arrays and various timestamp algorithms.

    PubMed

    Jäger, Markus; Iwig, Kornelius; Butz, Tilman

    2011-06-01

    A user-friendly fully digital time differential perturbed angular correlation (TDPAC)-spectrometer with six detectors and fast digitizers using field programmable gate arrays (FPGA) is described and performance data are given. The new spectrometer has an online data analysis feature, a compact size, and a time resolution such as conventional analog spectrometers. Its calculation intensive part was implemented inside the digitizer. This gives the possibility to change parameters (energy windows, constant fraction trigger delay) and see their influence immediately in the γ-γ correlation diagrams. Tests were performed which showed that the time resolution using a (60)Co source with energy window set at 1.17 MeV and 1.33 MeV is 265 ps with LaBr(3)(Ce) scintillators and 254 ps with BaF(2) scintillators. A true constant fraction algorithm turned out to be slightly better than the constant fraction of amplitude method. The spectrometer performance was tested with a TDPAC measurement using a (44)Ti in rutile source and a positron lifetime measurement using (22)Na. The maximum possible data rate of the spectrometer is 1.1 × 10(6) γ quanta per detector and second. PMID:21721728

  7. A compact digital time differential perturbed angular correlation-spectrometer using field programmable gate arrays and various timestamp algorithms

    SciTech Connect

    Jaeger, Markus; Butz, Tilman; Iwig, Kornelius

    2011-06-15

    A user-friendly fully digital time differential perturbed angular correlation (TDPAC)-spectrometer with six detectors and fast digitizers using field programmable gate arrays (FPGA) is described and performance data are given. The new spectrometer has an online data analysis feature, a compact size, and a time resolution such as conventional analog spectrometers. Its calculation intensive part was implemented inside the digitizer. This gives the possibility to change parameters (energy windows, constant fraction trigger delay) and see their influence immediately in the {gamma}-{gamma} correlation diagrams. Tests were performed which showed that the time resolution using a {sup 60}Co source with energy window set at 1.17 MeV and 1.33 MeV is 265 ps with LaBr{sub 3}(Ce) scintillators and 254 ps with BaF{sub 2} scintillators. A true constant fraction algorithm turned out to be slightly better than the constant fraction of amplitude method. The spectrometer performance was tested with a TDPAC measurement using a {sup 44}Ti in rutile source and a positron lifetime measurement using {sup 22}Na. The maximum possible data rate of the spectrometer is 1.1 x 10{sup 6} {gamma} quanta per detector and second.

  8. A compact digital time differential perturbed angular correlation-spectrometer using field programmable gate arrays and various timestamp algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jäger, Markus; Iwig, Kornelius; Butz, Tilman

    2011-06-01

    A user-friendly fully digital time differential perturbed angular correlation (TDPAC)-spectrometer with six detectors and fast digitizers using field programmable gate arrays (FPGA) is described and performance data are given. The new spectrometer has an online data analysis feature, a compact size, and a time resolution such as conventional analog spectrometers. Its calculation intensive part was implemented inside the digitizer. This gives the possibility to change parameters (energy windows, constant fraction trigger delay) and see their influence immediately in the γ-γ correlation diagrams. Tests were performed which showed that the time resolution using a 60Co source with energy window set at 1.17 MeV and 1.33 MeV is 265 ps with LaBr3(Ce) scintillators and 254 ps with BaF2 scintillators. A true constant fraction algorithm turned out to be slightly better than the constant fraction of amplitude method. The spectrometer performance was tested with a TDPAC measurement using a 44Ti in rutile source and a positron lifetime measurement using 22Na. The maximum possible data rate of the spectrometer is 1.1 × 106 γ quanta per detector and second.

  9. Angular Cross-correlation of Spitzer IRAC and Herschel Spire Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell-Wynne, Ketron; Cooray, A.; Wang, L.; HerMES Consortium

    2011-01-01

    The Spitzer Deep Wide-Field Survey (SDWFS) and the Herschel Multi-tiered Extragalactic Survey (HerMES) each provide deep and wide coverage, centered on the Bootes field, at infrared and sub-millimeter wavelengths. The SDWFS covers approximately 8.5 square degrees with sensitivities of galaxies out to z 3. From the public SDWFS source catalog, we remove stars and contaminants by concentration, using selection methods based on IRAC and optical colors; optical photometry is provided by the NOAO Deep Wide-Field Survey. Photometric redshifts of detected IRAC sources are then determined using the 1.6 micron spectral feature (or 'bump'). We classify three different kinds of bumps, (bump 1- bump 3), with redshifts ranging approximately from 0-1.3, 1.3-2, and 2-3 respectively. The number of bump 1 sources in the SDWFS catalogs were found to be in excess of 25,000 at the 5 sigma detection limit of the 3.6 micron channel of the IRAC instrument. Bump 2 and bump 3 source identification yielded similar, but slightly fewer counts. We also extract a separate catalog of 2500 or so dust-obscured galaxies (DOGs) at z 2 using 24 micron and r-band fluxes. As part of HerMES observations with SPIRE, the Bootes field contain more than 15,000 clearly detected SPIRE sources at 250 microns, In this paper we report on the cross correlation function of these bump sources with the source catalogs from three bands of the SPIRE instrument onboard Herschel. The aim is to broadly reconstruct the redshift distribution of SPIRE sources using redshift distributions of bump and DOGs in the bootes field and the relative clustering strengths.

  10. The odontoid process invagination in normal subjects, Chiari malformation and Basilar invagination patients: Pathophysiologic correlations with angular craniometry

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Jânio A.; Botelho, Ricardo V.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Craniometric studies have shown that both Chiari malformation (CM) and basilar invagination (BI) belong to a spectrum of malformations. A more precise method to differentiate between these types of CVJM is desirable. The Chamberlain's line violation (CLV) is the most common method to identify BI. The authors sought to clarify the real importance of CLV in the spectrum of craniovertebral junction malformations (CVJM) and to identify possible pathophysiological relationships. Methods: We evaluated the CLV in a sample of CVJM, BI, CM patients and a control group of normal subjects and correlated their data with craniocervical angular craniometry. Results: A total of 97 subjects were studied: 32 normal subjects, 41 CM patients, 9 basilar invagination type 1 (BI1) patients, and 15 basilar invagination type 2 (BI2) patients. The mean CLV violation in the groups were: The control group, 0.16 ± 0.45 cm; the CM group, 0.32 ± 0.48 cm; the BI1 group, 1.35 ± 0.5 cm; and the BI2 group, 1.98 ± 0.18 cm. There was strong correlation between CLV and Boogard's angle (R = 0.82, P = 0.000) and the clivus canal angle (R = 0.7, P = 0.000). Conclusions: CM's CLV is discrete and similar to the normal subjects. BI1 and BI2 presented with at least of 0.95 cm CLV and these violations were strongly correlated with a primary cranial angulation (clivus horizontalization) and an acute clivus canal angle (a secondary craniocervical angle). PMID:26229733

  11. D0 results on three-jet production, multijet cross-section ratios, and minimum bias angular correlations

    SciTech Connect

    Sawyer, Lee; /Louisiana Tech. U.

    2010-01-01

    We report the measurement of the cross-section for three-jet production and the ratio of inclusive three-jet to two-jet cross-sections, as well as a study of angular correlations in minimum bias events, based on data taken with the D0 experiment at the Fermilab Tevatron proton-antiproton collider. The differential inclusive three-jet cross section as a function of the invariant three-jetmass (M{sub 3jet}) is measured in p{bar p} collisions at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV using a data set corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 0.7 fb{sup -1}. The measurement is performed in three rapidity regions (|y| < 0.8, |y| < 1.6 and |y| < 2.4) and in three regions of the third (ordered in p{sub T}) jet transverse momenta (p{sub T3} > 40 GeV, p{sub T3} > 70 GeV, p{sub T3} > 100 GeV) for events with leading jet transverse momentum larger than 150 GeV and well separated jets. NLO QCD calculations are found to be in a reasonable agreement with the measured cross sections. Based on the same data set, we present the first measurement of ratios of multi-jet cross sections in p{bar p} collisions at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider. The ratio of inclusive trijet and dijet cross sections, R{sub 3/2}, has been measured as a function of the transverse jet momenta. The data are compared to QCD model predictions in different approximations. Finally, we present a new way to describe minimum bias events based on angular distributions in {approx}5 million minimum bias p{bar p} collisions collected between April 2002 and February 2006 with the D0 detector. We demonstrate that the distribution of {Delta}{phi} in the detector transverse plane between the leading track and all other tracks is a robust observable that can be used for tuning of multiple color interaction models. Pseudorapidity correlations of the {Delta}{phi} distributions are also studied.

  12. Low temperature structural modification in Rb2ZrF6: Investigations by perturbed angular correlation spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dey, S. K.; Dey, C. C.; Saha, S.

    2016-06-01

    Temperature dependent perturbed angular correlation (PAC) measurements in crystalline compounds Rb2ZrF6 and Cs2HfF6 have been performed in the temperature range 298-753 K. In Rb2ZrF6, four discrete quadrupole interaction frequencies have been observed at room temperature which correspond to four minor structural modifications. From previous measurements, on the other hand, two structural modifications of this compound were known. A displacive phase transition, probably, occurs at low temperature due to rotation of the ZrF62- octahedron and produces different structural modifications. From present measurements in Rb2ZrF6, two quadrupole interaction frequencies [ωQ=26.1(3) Mrad/s, η=0.55(2), δ=5(1)% and ωQ=148.7(3) Mrad/s, η=0.538(5), δ=1.2%] have been found at room temperature which were not found from previous studies. In Cs2HfF6, these new structural modifications have not been observed.

  13. Study of the equilibrium vacancy ensemble in aluminum using 1D- and 2D-angular correlation of annihilation radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Fluss, M.J.; Berko, S.; Chakraborty, B.; Hoffmann, K.R.; Lippel, P.; Siegel, R.W.

    1985-03-12

    One- and two-dimensional angular correlation of positron-electron annihilation radiation (1D and 2D-ACAR) data have been obtained between 293 and 903 K for single crystals of aluminum. The peak counting rates vs temperature, which were measured using the 1D-ACAR technique, provide a model independent value for the temperature dependence of the positron trapping probability. Using these results it is possible to strip out the Bloch state contribution from the observed 2D-ACAR surfaces and then compare the resulting defect ACAR surfaces to calculated 2D-ACAR surfaces for positrons annihilating from the Bloch, monovacancy, and divacancy-trapped states. The result of this comparison is that the presence of an increasing equilibrium divacancy population is consistent with the observed temperature dependence of ACAR data at high temperature in Al and that the present results when compared to earlier studies on Al indicate that the ratio of the trapping rates at divacancies and monovacancies is of order two.

  14. Oxidation of Hafnium and Diffusion of Hafnium Atoms in Hexagonal Close-Packed Hafnium; Microscopic Investigations by Perturbed Angular Correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dey, Chandi C.

    2012-11-01

    Time-differential perturbed angular correlation (TDPAC) studies in hafnium metal (~5%Zr) have been carried out at different temperatures. It is found that hafnium metal on heating at 873 K continuously for two days in air, transforms partially and abruptly to HfO2 while no component of oxide has been observed for heating up to 773 K and during initial heating at 873 K for 1 day. This result is strikingly different to that expected from the Arrhenius theory. Also, a strong nuclear relaxation effect has been observed at 873 K due to rapid fluctuation of hafnium atoms in hexagonal closepacked (hcp) hafnium. At this temperature, ~ 5% probe nuclei experience static perturbation due to monoclinic HfO2, ~ 50% experience fluctuating interaction, and ~ 5% produce static defect configuration of hcp hafnium. With lowering of temperature, defect configurations of hafnium increase at the cost of fluctuating interaction. An almost total fluctuating interaction observed in hcp hafnium at a temperature much lower than its melting point is another interesting phenomenon.

  15. PAC (perturbed angular correlation) analysis of defect motion by Blume's stochastic model for I = 5/2 electric quadrupole interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Evenson, W.E. . Dept. of Physics and Astronomy); Gardner, J.A.; Wang, Ruiping . Dept. of Physics); Su, Han-Tzong ); McKale, A.G. )

    1990-01-01

    Using Blume's stochastic model and the approach of Winkler and Gerdau, we have computed-time-dependent effects on perturbed angular correlation (PAC) spectra due to defect motion in solids in the case of I = (5/2) electric quadrupole interactions. We report detailed analysis for a family of simple models: XYZ + Z'' models, in which the symmetry axis of an axial efg is allowed to fluctuate among orientations along x, y, and z axes, and a static axial efg oriented along the z axis is added to the fluctuating efgs. When the static efg is zero, this model is termed the XYZ'' model. Approximate forms are given for G{sub 2}(t) in the slow and rapid fluctuation regimes, i.e. suitable for the low and high temperature regions, respectively. Where they adequately reflect the underlying physical processes, these expressions allow one to fit PAC data for a wide range of temperatures and dopant concentrations to a single model, thus increasing the uniqueness of the interpretation of the defect properties. Application of the models are given for zirconia and ceria ceramics. 14 refs.

  16. /sup 12/C(/sup 6/Li,d)/sup 16/O. -->. cap alpha. +/sup 12/C reaction mechanism by means of angular correlation measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Cunsolo, A.; Foti, A.; Imme, G.; Pappalardo, G.; Raciti, G.; Saunier, N.

    1980-06-01

    The particle-particle angular correlation method is applied to the reaction /sup 12/C(/sup 6/Li,d)/sup 16/O ..-->.. ..cap alpha..+/sup 12/C. Deuterons were detected at theta/sup lab//sub d/=10/sup 0/. Information on the reaction mechanism is obtained by analyzing the shape and the angular shift of the experimental data. A dominant direct transfer mechanism is found for the primary reaction. The ratios GAMMA..cap alpha../sub 0//GAMMA and the ..cap alpha..-reduced widths ..gamma cap alpha../sub 0/ are deduced.

  17. Measurement of $B\\bar{B}$ Angular Correlations based on Secondary Vertex Reconstruction at $\\sqrt{s}=7$ TeV

    SciTech Connect

    Khachatryan, Vardan; et al.

    2011-03-01

    A measurement of the angular correlations between beauty and anti-beauty hadrons (B B-bar) produced in pp collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV at the CERN LHC is presented, probing for the first time the region of small angular separation. The B hadrons are identified by the presence of displaced secondary vertices from their decays. The B hadron angular separation is reconstructed from the decay vertices and the primary-interaction vertex. The differential B B-bar production cross section, measured from a data sample collected by CMS and corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 3.1 inverse picobarns, shows that a sizable fraction of the B B-bar pairs are produced with small opening angles. These studies provide a test of QCD and further insight into the dynamics of b b-bar production.

  18. Temperature dependence of electric field gradient in LaCoO3 perovskite investigated by perturbed angular correlation spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Junqueira, Astrogildo C.; Carbonari, Artur W.; Saxena, Rajendra N.; Mestnik-Filho, José; Dogra, Rakesh

    2005-11-01

    The time differential perturbed angular correlation (TDPAC) technique was used to study the temperature dependence of electric field gradient (EFG) in LaCoO3 perovskite using {}^{111}\\mathrm {In}\\rightarrow {}^{111}\\mathrm {Cd} and {}^{181}\\mathrm {Hf} \\rightarrow {}^{181}\\mathrm {Ta} nuclear probes. The radioactive parent nuclei 111In and 181Hf were introduced into the oxide lattice through a chemical process during sample preparation and were found to occupy only the Co sites in LaCoO3. The PAC measurements with 111Cd and 181Ta probes were made in the temperature range of 4.2-1146 K and 4.2-1004 K, respectively. No long-range magnetic order was observed up to 4.2 K. The EFGs at 111Cd and 181Ta show very similar temperature dependences. They increase slowly between 4.2 and about 77 K and then decrease almost linearly with increasing temperature until about 500-600 K, where a broad peak-like structure is observed, followed by linear decrease at still higher temperatures. These discontinuities at about 77 K and 500-600 K have been interpreted as thermally activated spin state transitions from the low-spin (t2g6eg0) ground state configuration to the intermediate-spin (t2g5eg1) state and from the intermediate-spin to the high-spin (t2g4eg2) state of the Co3+ ion, confirming previous observation in other recent studies. An indication of a Jahn-Teller distortion, which stabilizes the intermediate-spin state with orbital ordering, is also pointed out.

  19. Initial measurements of the angular velocity of walking humans using an active millimeter-wave correlation interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zilevu, Kojo S.; Kammerman, Kelly L.; Nanzer, Jeffrey A.

    2013-05-01

    The design of a 29.5 GHz experimental active interferometer for the measurement of the angular velocity of moving humans is presented in this paper, as well as initial measurements of walking humans. Measurement of the angular motion of moving objects is a desirable function in remote security sensing applications. Doppler radar sensors are able to measure the signature of moving humans based on micro-Doppler analysis; however, a person moving with little to no radial velocity produces negligible Doppler returns. Measurement of the angular movement of humans can be done with traditional radar techniques however the process involves either continuous tracking with narrow beamwidth or angle-of arrival estimation algorithms. Recently, the authors presented a new method of measuring the angular velocity of moving objects using interferometry. The method measures the angular velocity of an object without tracking or complex processing. The frequency shift imparted on the signal response is proportional to the angular velocity of the object as it passes through the interferometer beam pattern. The experimental system consists of a transmitter and two separate receivers with two widely spaced antennas. The received signals in each of the two channels are downconverted and digitized, and post-processed offline. Initial results of a walking person passing through the interferometer beam pattern are presented, which verify the expected operation of the receiver derived from the initial theory.

  20. Angular correlations in beauty production at the Tevatron at sqrt(s) = 1.96 TeV

    SciTech Connect

    Wijngaarden, Daniel A

    2005-06-01

    Measurements of the b quark production cross section at the Tevatron and at Hera in the final decades of the 20th century have consistently yielded higher values than predicted by Next-to-Leading Order (NLO) QCD. This discrepancy has led to a large efforts by theorists to improve theoretical calculations of the cross sections and simulations of b quark production. As a result, the difference between theory and experiment has been much reduced. New measurements are needed to test the developments in the calculations and in event simulation. In this thesis, a measurement of angular correlations between b jets produced in the same event is presented. The angular separation between two b jets is directly sensitive to higher order contributions. In addition, the measurement does not depend strongly on fragmentation models or on the experimental luminosity and efficiency, which lead to a large uncertainty in measurements of the inclusive cross section. At the Tevatron, b{bar b} quark pairs are predominantly produced through the strong interaction. In leading order QCD, the b quarks are produced back to back in phase space. Next-to-leading order contributions involving a third particle in the final state allow production of b pairs that are very close together in phase space. The Leading Order and NLO contributions can be separated into three different processes: flavour creation, gluon splitting and flavour excitation. While the separation based on Feynman diagrams is ambiguous and the three processes are not each separately gauge invariant in NLO QCD, the distinction can be made explicitly in terms of event generators using LO matrix elements. Direct production of a b{bar b} quark pair in the hard scatter interaction is known as flavour creation. The quarks emerge nearly back to back in azimuth. In gluon splitting processes, a gluon is produced in the hard scatter interaction. The gluon subsequently splits into a b{bar b} quark pair. The quarks are very close in phase

  1. Time-differential perturbed angular correlation study of the electric field gradient in Ti2Rh MoSi2-type compound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wodniecki, P.; Kulińska, A.; Wodniecka, B.

    The electric field gradient (EFG) at the 181Hf→181Ta site in Ti2Rh C11 b -type compound was measured as a function of temperature using time-differential perturbed angular correlation (TDPAC) technique. The room temperature results show one EFG with the parameters of: ν Q =336(1) MHz→V zz =5.9×1017 V cm-2, η=0.1. Very week linear temperature dependence of this EFG was measured with the slope of 3.6 (2)×10-5 K-1. The results are compared with those for other isostructural compounds.

  2. Time-differential perturbed angular correlation study of the electric field gradient in Ti2Rh MoSi2-type compound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wodniecki, P.; Kulińska, A.; Wodniecka, B.

    2007-06-01

    The electric field gradient (EFG) at the 181Hf→181Ta site in Ti2Rh C11 b -type compound was measured as a function of temperature using time-differential perturbed angular correlation (TDPAC) technique. The room temperature results show one EFG with the parameters of: ν Q = 336(1) MHz→V zz =5.9 × 1017 V cm - 2, η = 0.1. Very week linear temperature dependence of this EFG was measured with the slope of 3.6 (2) × 10 - 5 K - 1. The results are compared with those for other isostructural compounds.

  3. Angular correlations between heavy and light fragments in the reaction sup 32 S+ sup 26 Mg at E sub lab =163. 5 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Cavallaro, S. ); Prete, G. ); Viesti, G. )

    1990-04-01

    Angular correlation measurements between heavy residues ({ital Z}{sub {ital R}}=23--13) and light fragments ({ital Z}{sub {ital L}}=2--10) have been performed for the reaction {sup 32}S+{sup 26}Mg at {ital E}{sub lab}=163.5 MeV. The binary nature of the mechanisms competing with fusion-evaporation is evidenced. Linear momentum analysis and velocity plots indicate contributions of binary reactions also for those elements that are generally believed to be produced by fusion-evaporation mechanisms.

  4. Measurement of Long-Range Near-Side Two-Particle Angular Correlations in p p Collisions at √{s }=13 TeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khachatryan, V.; Sirunyan, A. M.; Tumasyan, A.; Adam, W.; Asilar, E.; Bergauer, T.; Brandstetter, J.; Brondolin, E.; Dragicevic, M.; Erö, J.; Flechl, M.; Friedl, M.; Frühwirth, R.; Ghete, V. M.; Hartl, C.; Hörmann, N.; Hrubec, J.; Jeitler, M.; Knünz, V.; König, A.; Krammer, M.; Krätschmer, I.; Liko, D.; Matsushita, T.; Mikulec, I.; Rabady, D.; Rahbaran, B.; Rohringer, H.; Schieck, J.; Schöfbeck, R.; Strauss, J.; Treberer-Treberspurg, W.; Waltenberger, W.; Wulz, C.-E.; Mossolov, V.; Shumeiko, N.; Suarez Gonzalez, J.; Alderweireldt, S.; Cornelis, T.; de Wolf, E. A.; Janssen, X.; Knutsson, A.; Lauwers, J.; Luyckx, S.; van de Klundert, M.; van Haevermaet, H.; van Mechelen, P.; van Remortel, N.; van Spilbeeck, A.; Abu Zeid, S.; Blekman, F.; D'Hondt, J.; Daci, N.; de Bruyn, I.; Deroover, K.; Heracleous, N.; Keaveney, J.; Lowette, S.; Moreels, L.; Olbrechts, A.; Python, Q.; Strom, D.; Tavernier, S.; van Doninck, W.; van Mulders, P.; van Onsem, G. P.; van Parijs, I.; Barria, P.; Brun, H.; Caillol, C.; Clerbaux, B.; de Lentdecker, G.; Fasanella, G.; Favart, L.; Grebenyuk, A.; Karapostoli, G.; Lenzi, T.; Léonard, A.; Maerschalk, T.; Marinov, A.; Perniè, L.; Randle-Conde, A.; Seva, T.; Vander Velde, C.; Vanlaer, P.; Yonamine, R.; Zenoni, F.; Zhang, F.; Beernaert, K.; Benucci, L.; Cimmino, A.; Crucy, S.; Dobur, D.; Fagot, A.; Garcia, G.; Gul, M.; McCartin, J.; Ocampo Rios, A. A.; Poyraz, D.; Ryckbosch, D.; Salva, S.; Sigamani, M.; Tytgat, M.; van Driessche, W.; Yazgan, E.; Zaganidis, N.; Basegmez, S.; Beluffi, C.; Bondu, O.; Brochet, S.; Bruno, G.; Caudron, A.; Ceard, L.; da Silveira, G. G.; Delaere, C.; Favart, D.; Forthomme, L.; Giammanco, A.; Hollar, J.; Jafari, A.; Jez, P.; Komm, M.; Lemaitre, V.; Mertens, A.; Musich, M.; Nuttens, C.; Perrini, L.; Pin, A.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Popov, A.; Quertenmont, L.; Selvaggi, M.; Vidal Marono, M.; Beliy, N.; Hammad, G. H.; Aldá Júnior, W. L.; Alves, F. L.; Alves, G. A.; Brito, L.; Correa Martins Junior, M.; Hamer, M.; Hensel, C.; Moraes, A.; Pol, M. E.; Rebello Teles, P.; Belchior Batista Das Chagas, E.; Carvalho, W.; Chinellato, J.; Custódio, A.; da Costa, E. M.; de Jesus Damiao, D.; de Oliveira Martins, C.; Fonseca de Souza, S.; Huertas Guativa, L. M.; Malbouisson, H.; Matos Figueiredo, D.; Mora Herrera, C.; Mundim, L.; Nogima, H.; Prado da Silva, W. L.; Santoro, A.; Sznajder, A.; Tonelli Manganote, E. J.; Vilela Pereira, A.; Ahuja, S.; Bernardes, C. A.; de Souza Santos, A.; Dogra, S.; Tomei, T. R. Fernandez Perez; Gregores, E. M.; Mercadante, P. G.; Moon, C. S.; Novaes, S. F.; Padula, Sandra S.; Romero Abad, D.; Ruiz Vargas, J. C.; Aleksandrov, A.; Hadjiiska, R.; Iaydjiev, P.; Rodozov, M.; Stoykova, S.; Sultanov, G.; Vutova, M.; Dimitrov, A.; Glushkov, I.; Litov, L.; Pavlov, B.; Petkov, P.; Ahmad, M.; Bian, J. G.; Chen, G. M.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, M.; Cheng, T.; Du, R.; Jiang, C. H.; Plestina, R.; Romeo, F.; Shaheen, S. M.; Spiezia, A.; Tao, J.; Wang, C.; Wang, Z.; Zhang, H.; Asawatangtrakuldee, C.; Ban, Y.; Li, Q.; Liu, S.; Mao, Y.; Qian, S. J.; Wang, D.; Xu, Z.; Avila, C.; Cabrera, A.; Chaparro Sierra, L. F.; Florez, C.; Gomez, J. P.; Gomez Moreno, B.; Sanabria, J. C.; Godinovic, N.; Lelas, D.; Puljak, I.; Ribeiro Cipriano, P. M.; Antunovic, Z.; Kovac, M.; Brigljevic, V.; Kadija, K.; Luetic, J.; Micanovic, S.; Sudic, L.; Attikis, A.; Mavromanolakis, G.; Mousa, J.; Nicolaou, C.; Ptochos, F.; Razis, P. A.; Rykaczewski, H.; Bodlak, M.; Finger, M.; Finger, M.; El-Khateeb, E.; Elkafrawy, T.; Mohamed, A.; Salama, E.; Calpas, B.; Kadastik, M.; Murumaa, M.; Raidal, M.; Tiko, A.; Veelken, C.; Eerola, P.; Pekkanen, J.; Voutilainen, M.; Härkönen, J.; Karimäki, V.; Kinnunen, R.; Lampén, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Lehti, S.; Lindén, T.; Luukka, P.; Peltola, T.; Tuominen, E.; Tuominiemi, J.; Tuovinen, E.; Wendland, L.; Talvitie, J.; Tuuva, T.; Besancon, M.; Couderc, F.; Dejardin, M.; Denegri, D.; Fabbro, B.; Faure, J. L.; Favaro, C.; Ferri, F.; Ganjour, S.; Givernaud, A.; Gras, P.; Hamel de Monchenault, G.; Jarry, P.; Locci, E.; Machet, M.; Malcles, J.; Rander, J.; Rosowsky, A.; Titov, M.; Zghiche, A.; Antropov, I.; Baffioni, S.; Beaudette, F.; Busson, P.; Cadamuro, L.; Chapon, E.; Charlot, C.; Davignon, O.; Filipovic, N.; Granier de Cassagnac, R.; Jo, M.; Lisniak, S.; Mastrolorenzo, L.; Miné, P.; Naranjo, I. N.; Nguyen, M.; Ochando, C.; Ortona, G.; Paganini, P.; Pigard, P.; Regnard, S.; Salerno, R.; Sauvan, J. B.; Sirois, Y.; Strebler, T.; Yilmaz, Y.; Zabi, A.; Agram, J.-L.; Andrea, J.; Aubin, A.; Bloch, D.; Brom, J.-M.; Buttignol, M.; Chabert, E. C.; Chanon, N.; Collard, C.; Conte, E.; Coubez, X.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Gelé, D.; Goerlach, U.; Goetzmann, C.; Le Bihan, A.-C.; Merlin, J. A.; Skovpen, K.; van Hove, P.; Gadrat, S.; Beauceron, S.

    2016-04-01

    Results on two-particle angular correlations for charged particles produced in p p collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV are presented. The data were taken with the CMS detector at the LHC and correspond to an integrated luminosity of about 270 nb-1 . The correlations are studied over a broad range of pseudorapidity (|η | <2.4 ) and over the full azimuth (ϕ ) as a function of charged particle multiplicity and transverse momentum (pT ). In high-multiplicity events, a long-range (|Δ η | >2.0 ), near-side (Δ ϕ ≈0 ) structure emerges in the two-particle Δ η -Δ ϕ correlation functions. The magnitude of the correlation exhibits a pronounced maximum in the range 1.0 correlation strength similar to that found in earlier p p data at √{s }=7 TeV . The present measurement extends the study of near-side long-range correlations up to charged particle multiplicities Nch˜180 , a region so far unexplored in p p collisions. The observed long-range correlations are compared to those seen in p p , p Pb , and PbPb collisions at lower collision energies.

  5. Measurement of Long-Range Near-Side Two-Particle Angular Correlations in pp Collisions at sqrt[s]=13  TeV.

    PubMed

    Khachatryan, V; Sirunyan, A M; Tumasyan, A; Adam, W; Asilar, E; Bergauer, T; Brandstetter, J; Brondolin, E; Dragicevic, M; Erö, J; Flechl, M; Friedl, M; Frühwirth, R; Ghete, V M; Hartl, C; Hörmann, N; Hrubec, J; Jeitler, M; Knünz, V; König, A; Krammer, M; Krätschmer, I; Liko, D; Matsushita, T; Mikulec, I; Rabady, D; Rahbaran, B; Rohringer, H; Schieck, J; Schöfbeck, R; Strauss, J; Treberer-Treberspurg, W; Waltenberger, W; Wulz, C-E; Mossolov, V; Shumeiko, N; Suarez Gonzalez, J; Alderweireldt, S; Cornelis, T; De Wolf, E A; Janssen, X; Knutsson, A; Lauwers, J; Luyckx, S; Van De Klundert, M; Van Haevermaet, H; Van Mechelen, P; Van Remortel, N; Van Spilbeeck, A; Abu Zeid, S; Blekman, F; D'Hondt, J; Daci, N; De Bruyn, I; Deroover, K; Heracleous, N; Keaveney, J; Lowette, S; Moreels, L; Olbrechts, A; Python, Q; Strom, D; Tavernier, S; Van Doninck, W; Van Mulders, P; Van Onsem, G P; Van Parijs, I; Barria, P; Brun, H; Caillol, C; Clerbaux, B; De Lentdecker, G; Fasanella, G; Favart, L; Grebenyuk, A; Karapostoli, G; Lenzi, T; Léonard, A; Maerschalk, T; Marinov, A; Perniè, L; Randle-Conde, A; Seva, T; Vander Velde, C; Vanlaer, P; Yonamine, R; Zenoni, F; Zhang, F; Beernaert, K; Benucci, L; Cimmino, A; Crucy, S; Dobur, D; Fagot, A; Garcia, G; Gul, M; Mccartin, J; Ocampo Rios, A A; Poyraz, D; Ryckbosch, D; Salva, S; Sigamani, M; Tytgat, M; Van Driessche, W; Yazgan, E; Zaganidis, N; Basegmez, S; Beluffi, C; Bondu, O; Brochet, S; Bruno, G; Caudron, A; Ceard, L; Da Silveira, G G; Delaere, C; Favart, D; Forthomme, L; Giammanco, A; Hollar, J; Jafari, A; Jez, P; Komm, M; Lemaitre, V; Mertens, A; Musich, M; Nuttens, C; Perrini, L; Pin, A; Piotrzkowski, K; Popov, A; Quertenmont, L; Selvaggi, M; Vidal Marono, M; Beliy, N; Hammad, G H; Aldá Júnior, W L; Alves, F L; Alves, G A; Brito, L; Correa Martins Junior, M; Hamer, M; Hensel, C; Moraes, A; Pol, M E; Rebello Teles, P; Belchior Batista Das Chagas, E; Carvalho, W; Chinellato, J; Custódio, A; Da Costa, E M; De Jesus Damiao, D; De Oliveira Martins, C; Fonseca De Souza, S; Huertas Guativa, L M; Malbouisson, H; Matos Figueiredo, D; Mora Herrera, C; Mundim, L; Nogima, H; Prado Da Silva, W L; Santoro, A; Sznajder, A; Tonelli Manganote, E J; Vilela Pereira, A; Ahuja, S; Bernardes, C A; De Souza Santos, A; Dogra, S; Tomei, T R Fernandez Perez; Gregores, E M; Mercadante, P G; Moon, C S; Novaes, S F; Padula, Sandra S; Romero Abad, D; Ruiz Vargas, J C; Aleksandrov, A; Hadjiiska, R; Iaydjiev, P; Rodozov, M; Stoykova, S; Sultanov, G; Vutova, M; Dimitrov, A; Glushkov, I; Litov, L; Pavlov, B; Petkov, P; Ahmad, M; Bian, J G; Chen, G M; Chen, H S; Chen, M; Cheng, T; Du, R; Jiang, C H; Plestina, R; Romeo, F; Shaheen, S M; Spiezia, A; Tao, J; Wang, C; Wang, Z; Zhang, H; Asawatangtrakuldee, C; Ban, Y; Li, Q; Liu, S; Mao, Y; Qian, S J; Wang, D; Xu, Z; Avila, C; Cabrera, A; Chaparro Sierra, L F; Florez, C; Gomez, J P; Gomez Moreno, B; Sanabria, J C; Godinovic, N; Lelas, D; Puljak, I; Ribeiro Cipriano, P M; Antunovic, Z; Kovac, M; Brigljevic, V; Kadija, K; Luetic, J; Micanovic, S; Sudic, L; Attikis, A; Mavromanolakis, G; Mousa, J; Nicolaou, C; Ptochos, F; Razis, P A; Rykaczewski, H; Bodlak, M; Finger, M; Finger, M; El-Khateeb, E; Elkafrawy, T; Mohamed, A; Salama, E; Calpas, B; Kadastik, M; Murumaa, M; Raidal, M; Tiko, A; Veelken, C; Eerola, P; Pekkanen, J; Voutilainen, M; Härkönen, J; Karimäki, V; Kinnunen, R; Lampén, T; Lassila-Perini, K; Lehti, S; Lindén, T; Luukka, P; Peltola, T; Tuominen, E; Tuominiemi, J; Tuovinen, E; Wendland, L; Talvitie, J; Tuuva, T; Besancon, M; Couderc, F; Dejardin, M; Denegri, D; Fabbro, B; Faure, J L; Favaro, C; Ferri, F; Ganjour, S; Givernaud, A; Gras, P; Hamel de Monchenault, G; Jarry, P; Locci, E; Machet, M; Malcles, J; Rander, J; Rosowsky, A; Titov, M; Zghiche, A; Antropov, I; Baffioni, S; Beaudette, F; Busson, P; Cadamuro, L; Chapon, E; Charlot, C; Davignon, O; Filipovic, N; Granier de Cassagnac, R; Jo, M; Lisniak, S; Mastrolorenzo, L; Miné, P; Naranjo, I N; Nguyen, M; Ochando, C; Ortona, G; Paganini, P; Pigard, P; Regnard, S; Salerno, R; Sauvan, J B; Sirois, Y; Strebler, T; Yilmaz, Y; Zabi, A; Agram, J-L; Andrea, J; Aubin, A; Bloch, D; Brom, J-M; Buttignol, M; Chabert, E C; Chanon, N; Collard, C; Conte, E; Coubez, X; Fontaine, J-C; Gelé, D; Goerlach, U; Goetzmann, C; Le Bihan, A-C; Merlin, J A; Skovpen, K; Van Hove, P; Gadrat, S; Beauceron, S; Bernet, C; Boudoul, G; Bouvier, E; Carrillo Montoya, C A; Chierici, R; Contardo, D; Courbon, B; Depasse, P; El Mamouni, H; Fan, J; Fay, J; Gascon, S; Gouzevitch, M; Ille, B; Lagarde, F; Laktineh, I B; Lethuillier, M; Mirabito, L; Pequegnot, A L; Perries, S; Ruiz Alvarez, J D; Sabes, D; Sgandurra, L; Sordini, V; Vander Donckt, M; Verdier, P; Viret, S; Toriashvili, T; Tsamalaidze, Z; Autermann, C; Beranek, S; Feld, L; Heister, A; Kiesel, M K; Klein, K

    2016-04-29

    Results on two-particle angular correlations for charged particles produced in pp collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV are presented. The data were taken with the CMS detector at the LHC and correspond to an integrated luminosity of about 270  nb^{-1}. The correlations are studied over a broad range of pseudorapidity (|η|<2.4) and over the full azimuth (ϕ) as a function of charged particle multiplicity and transverse momentum (p_{T}). In high-multiplicity events, a long-range (|Δη|>2.0), near-side (Δϕ≈0) structure emerges in the two-particle Δη-Δϕ correlation functions. The magnitude of the correlation exhibits a pronounced maximum in the range 1.0correlation strength similar to that found in earlier pp data at sqrt[s]=7  TeV. The present measurement extends the study of near-side long-range correlations up to charged particle multiplicities N_{ch}∼180, a region so far unexplored in pp collisions. The observed long-range correlations are compared to those seen in pp, pPb, and PbPb collisions at lower collision energies. PMID:27176516

  6. Measurement of long-range near-side two-particle angular correlations in pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 13 TeV

    SciTech Connect

    Khachatryan, Vardan

    2015-10-13

    Our results on two-particle angular correlations for charged particles produced in pp collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV are presented. The data were taken with the CMS detector at the LHC and correspond to an integrated luminosity of about 270 nb-1. The correlations are studied over a broad range of pseudorapidity (|η| < 2.4) and over the full azimuth (Φ) as a function of charged particle multiplicity and transverse momentum (pT). In high-multiplicity events, a long-range (|Δη| > 2.0), near-side (ΔΦ≈ 0) structure emerges in the two-particle Dh–Df correlation functions. The magnitude of the correlation exhibits a pronounced maximum in the range 1.0 < pT < 2.0 GeV/c and an approximately linear increase with the charged particle multiplicity. The overall correlation strength at √s = 13 TeV is similar to that found in earlier pp data at √s = 7 TeV, but is measured up to much higher multiplicity values. We observed long-range correlations are compared to those seen in pp, pPb, and PbPb collisions at lower collision energies.

  7. Effects of momentum conservation and flow on angular correlations observed in experiments at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Pratt, Scott; Schlichting, Soeren; Gavin, Sean

    2011-08-15

    Correlations of azimuthal angles observed at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider have gained great attention due to the prospect of identifying fluctuations of parity-odd regions in the field sector of QCD. Whereas the observable of interest related to parity fluctuations involves subtracting opposite-sign from same-sign correlations, the STAR collaboration reported the same-sign and opposite-sign correlations separately. It is shown here how momentum conservation combined with collective elliptic flow contributes significantly to this class of correlations, although not to the difference between the opposite- and same-sign observables. The effects are modeled with a crude simulation of a pion gas. Although the simulation reproduces the scale of the correlation, the centrality dependence is found to be sufficiently different in character to suggest additional considerations beyond those present in the pion gas simulation presented here.

  8. Minijet deformation and charge-independent angular correlations on momentum subspace (η,ϕ) in Au-Au collisions at sNN=130 GeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, J.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Ahammed, Z.; Amonett, J.; Anderson, B. D.; Anderson, M.; Arkhipkin, D.; Averichev, G. S.; Bai, Y.; Balewski, J.; Barannikova, O.; Barnby, L. S.; Baudot, J.; Bekele, S.; Belaga, V. V.; Bellingeri-Laurikainen, A.; Bellwied, R.; Bezverkhny, B. I.; Bharadwaj, S.; Bhasin, A.; Bhati, A. K.; Bichsel, H.; Bielcik, J.; Bielcikova, J.; Bland, L. C.; Blyth, C. O.; Blyth, S.-L.; Bonner, B. E.; Botje, M.; Bouchet, J.; Brandin, A. V.; Bravar, A.; Bystersky, M.; Cadman, R. V.; Cai, X. Z.; Caines, H.; Sánchez, M. Calderón De La Barca; Castillo, J.; Catu, O.; Cebra, D.; Chajecki, Z.; Chaloupka, P.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chen, H. F.; Chen, J. H.; Chen, Y.; Cheng, J.; Cherney, M.; Chikanian, A.; Choi, H. A.; Christie, W.; Coffin, J. P.; Cormier, T. M.; Cosentino, M. R.; Cramer, J. G.; Crawford, H. J.; Das, D.; Das, S.; Daugherity, M.; Moura, M. M. De; Dedovich, T. G.; Dephillips, M.; Derevschikov, A. A.; Didenko, L.; Dietel, T.; Djawotho, P.; Dogra, S. M.; Dong, W. J.; Dong, X.; Draper, J. E.; Du, F.; Dunin, V. B.; Dunlop, J. C.; Mazumdar, M. R. Dutta; Eckardt, V.; Edwards, W. R.; Efimov, L. G.; Emelianov, V.; Engelage, J.; Eppley, G.; Erazmus, B.; Estienne, M.; Fachini, P.; Fatemi, R.; Fedorisin, J.; Filimonov, K.; Filip, P.; Finch, E.; Fine, V.; Fisyak, Y.; Fu, J.; Gagliardi, C. A.; Gaillard, L.; Gans, J.; Ganti, M. S.; Ghazikhanian, V.; Ghosh, P.; Gonzalez, J. E.; Gorbunov, Y. G.; Gos, H.; Grebenyuk, O.; Grosnick, D.; Guertin, S. M.; Guimaraes, K. S. F. F.; Guo, Y.; Gupta, A.; Gutierrez, T. D.; Haag, B.; Hallman, T. J.; Hamed, A.; Harris, J. W.; He, W.; Heinz, M.; Henry, T. W.; Hepplemann, S.; Hippolyte, B.; Hirsch, A.; Hjort, E.; Hoffmann, G. W.; Horner, M. J.; Huang, H. Z.; Huang, S. L.; Hughes, E. W.; Humanic, T. J.; Igo, G.; Ishihara, A.; Jacobs, P.; Jacobs, W. W.; Jakl, P.; Jia, F.; Jiang, H.; Jones, P. G.; Judd, E. G.; Kabana, S.; Kang, K.; Kapitan, J.; Kaplan, M.; Keane, D.; Kechechyan, A.; Khodyrev, V. Yu.; Kim, B. C.; Kiryluk, J.; Kisiel, A.; Kislov, E. M.; Klein, S. R.; Koetke, D. D.; Kollegger, T.; Kopytine, M.; Kotchenda, L.; Kouchpil, V.; Kowalik, K. L.; Kramer, M.; Kravtsov, P.; Kravtsov, V. I.; Krueger, K.; Kuhn, C.; Kulikov, A. I.; Kumar, A.; Kuznetsov, A. A.; Lamont, M. A. C.; Landgraf, J. M.; Lange, S.; Lapointe, S.; Laue, F.; Lauret, J.; Lebedev, A.; Lednicky, R.; Lee, C.-H.; Lehocka, S.; Levine, M. J.; Li, C.; Li, Q.; Li, Y.; Lin, G.; Lindenbaum, S. J.; Lisa, M. A.; Liu, F.; Liu, H.; Liu, J.; Liu, L.; Liu, Z.; Ljubicic, T.; Llope, W. J.; Long, H.; Longacre, R. S.; Lopez-Noriega, M.; Love, W. A.; Lu, Y.; Ludlam, T.; Lynn, D.; Ma, G. L.; Ma, J. G.; Ma, Y. G.; Magestro, D.; Mahapatra, D. P.; Majka, R.; Mangotra, L. K.; Manweiler, R.; Margetis, S.; Markert, C.; Martin, L.; Matis, H. S.; Matulenko, Yu. A.; McClain, C. J.; McShane, T. S.; Melnick, Yu.; Meschanin, A.; Miller, M. L.; Minaev, N. G.; Mioduszewski, S.; Mironov, C.; Mischke, A.; Mishra, D. K.; Mitchell, J.; Mohanty, B.; Molnar, L.; Moore, C. F.; Morozov, D. A.; Munhoz, M. G.; Nandi, B. K.; Nattrass, C.; Nayak, T. K.; Nelson, J. M.; Netrakanti, P. K.; Nikitin, V. A.; Nogach, L. V.; Nurushev, S. B.; Odyniec, G.; Ogawa, A.; Okorokov, V.; Oldenburg, M.; Olson, D.; Pachr, M.; Pal, S. K.; Panebratsev, Y.; Panitkin, S. Y.; Pavlinov, A. I.; Pawlak, T.; Peitzmann, T.; Perevoztchikov, V.; Perkins, C.; Peryt, W.; Petrov, V. A.; Phatak, S. C.; Picha, R.; Planinic, M.; Pluta, J.; Poljak, N.; Porile, N.; Porter, J.; Poskanzer, A. M.; Potekhin, M.; Potrebenikova, E.; Potukuchi, B. V. K. S.; Prindle, D.; Pruneau, C.; Putschke, J.; Rakness, G.; Raniwala, R.; Raniwala, S.; Ray, R. L.; Razin, S. V.; Reid, J. G.; Reinnarth, J.; Relyea, D.; Retiere, F.; Ridiger, A.; H. G., Ritter; Roberts, J. B.; Rogachevskiy, O. V.; Romero, J. L.; Rose, A.; Roy, C.; Ruan, L.; Russcher, M. J.; Sahoo, R.; Sakrejda, I.; Salur, S.; Sandweiss, J.; Sarsour, M.; Sazhin, P. S.; Schambach, J.; Scharenberg, R. P.; Schmitz, N.; Schweda, K.; Seger, J.; Selyuzhenkov, I.; Seyboth, P.; Shabetai, A.; Shahaliev, E.; Shao, M.; Sharma, M.; Shen, W. Q.; Shimanskiy, S. S.; Sichtermann, E.; Simon, F.; Singaraju, R. N.; Smirnov, N.; Snellings, R.; Sood, G.; Sorensen, P.; Sowinski, J.; Speltz, J.; Spinka, H. M.; Srivastava, B.; Stadnik, A.; Stanislaus, T. D. S.; Stock, R.; Stolpovsky, A.; Strikhanov, M.; Stringfellow, B.; Suaide, A. A. P.; Sugarbaker, E.; Sumbera, M.; Sun, Z.; Surrow, B.; Swanger, M.; Symons, T. J. M.; Toledo, A. Szanto De; Tai, A.; Takahashi, J.; Tang, A. H.; Tarnowsky, T.; Thein, D.; Thomas, J. H.; Timmins, A. R.; Timoshenko, S.; Tokarev, M.; Trainor, T. A.; Trentalange, S.; Tribble, R. E.; Tsai, O. D.; Ulery, J.; Ullrich, T.; Underwood, D. G.; Buren, G. Van; Kolk, N. Van Der; Leeuwen, M. Van; Molen, A. M. Vander; Varma, R.; Vasilevski, I. M.; Vasiliev, A. N.; Vernet, R.; Vigdor, S. E.; Viyogi, Y. P.; Vokal, S.; Voloshin, S. A.; Waggoner, W. T.; Wang, F.; Wang, G.; Wang, J. S.; Wang, X. L.; Wang, Y.; Watson, J. W.; Webb, J. C.; Westfall, G. D.; Wetzler, A.; , C. Whitten, Jr.; Wieman, H.; Wissink, S. W.; Witt, R.; Wood, J.; Wu, J.; Xu, N.; Xu, Q. H.; Xu, Z.; Yepes, P.; Yoo, I.-K.; Yurevich, V. I.; Zhan, W.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, W. M.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zhao, Y.; Zhong, C.; Zoulkarneev, R.; Zoulkarneeva, Y.; Zubarev, A. N.; Zuo, J. X.

    2006-06-01

    Measurements of two-particle correlations on angular difference variables η1-η2 (pseudorapidity) and ϕ1-ϕ2 (azimuth) are presented for all primary charged hadrons with transverse momentum 0.15≤pt≤2 GeV/c and |η|≤1.3 from Au-Au collisions at sNN=130 GeV. Large-amplitude correlations are observed over a broad range in relative angles where distinct structures appear on the same-side and away-side (i.e., relative azimuth less than π/2 or greater than π/2). The principal correlation structures include that associated with elliptic flow plus a strong, same-side peak. It is hypothesized that the latter results from correlated hadrons associated with semi-hard parton scattering in the early stage of the heavy-ion collision which produces a jet-like correlation peak at small relative angles. The width of the jet-like peak on η1-η2 increases by a factor 2.3 from peripheral to central collisions, suggesting strong coupling of semi-hard scattered partons to a longitudinally-expanding medium. The new methods of jet analysis introduced here provide access to scattered partons at low transverse momentum well below the kinematic range where perturbative quantum chromodynamics and standard fragmentation models are applicable.

  9. Microstructure quantification and correlation with flow stress of ultrafine grained commercially pure Al fabricated by equal channel angular pressing (ECAP)

    SciTech Connect

    Reihanian, M.; Ebrahimi, R.; Moshksar, M.M.; Terada, D.; Tsuji, N.

    2008-09-15

    Commercial purity Al was severely deformed by equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) up to eight passes using route B{sub C}. The deformation microstructure was characterized quantitatively by electron-backscattered diffraction (EBSD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The microstructural homogeneity was investigated by EBSD at various locations from center to surface of the samples on a longitudinal section parallel to the pressing direction. Structural parameters including mean boundary spacing, boundary misorientation angle and fraction of high angle grain boundaries were measured and characterized through the section of the ECAP samples. EBSD scans revealed a homogeneous ultrafine grained microstructure after 8 passes. The analysis showed that the fraction of high angle grain boundaries was more than 70% at most locations of the sample section. Also, an average boundary spacing of 380 nm was obtained by the linear intercept method. TEM analysis was used for more detailed characterization of the microstructure, such as low angle boundaries with misorientation angles smaller than 2 deg. Using the structural parameters-flow stress relationship, the flow stress was estimated based on the EBSD and TEM/Kikuchi-line analyses and compared with measured values.

  10. A Precision Measurement of Neutron {beta}-Decay Angular Correlations with Pulsed Cold Neutrons -- The abBA Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Seo, P.-N.; Bowman, J.D.; O'Donnell, J.M.; Mitchell, G.S.; Penttilae, S.I.; Wilburn, W.S.; Calarco, J.R.; Hersman, F.W.; Chupp, T.E.; Cianciolo, T.V.; Rykaczewski, K.P.; Young, G.R.; Desai, D.; Grzywacz, R.K.; Souza, R.T. de; Snow, W.M.; Frlez, E.; Pocanic, D.; Gentile, T.; Greene, G.L.

    2005-05-24

    The abBA collaboration is developing a new type of field-expansion spectrometer to measure neutron beta decay angular parameters, a, b, B, and A, to the 0.1% precision level. This precision will be achieved by combining three new technical approaches; a pulsed cold neutron beam, a 3He neutron spin filter, and segmented large-area thin-dead layer silicon detectors. Both the electron and proton resulting from the decay will be guided by electric and magnetic fields and detected in coincidence by two 2{pi} solid-angle silicon detectors. For the neutron polarization-dependent observables A and B, a novel precision neutron polarimetry technique has been developed. The parameters a and b will be obtained from the proton time-of-flight and the measured electron energy spectrum. Measurement of the four parameters in the same apparatus provides a redundant determination of parameter {lambda}=gA/gV, providing a test of the standard electroweak interaction.

  11. A Precision Measurement of Neutron β-Decay Angular Correlations with Pulsed Cold Neutrons — The abBA Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, P.-N.; Bowman, J. D.; Calarco, J. R.; Chupp, T. E.; Cianciolo, T. V.; Desai, D.; De Souza, R. T.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Frlež, E.; Gentile, T.; Greene, G. L.; Grzywacz, R. K.; Gudkov, V.; Hersman, F. W.; Jones, G. L.; Mitchell, G. S.; Penttilä, S. I.; Počanić, D.; Rykaczewski, K. P.; Snow, W. M.; Wilburn, W. S.; Young, G. R.

    2005-05-01

    The abBA collaboration is developing a new type of field-expansion spectrometer to measure neutron beta decay angular parameters, a, b, B, and A, to the 0.1% precision level. This precision will be achieved by combining three new technical approaches; a pulsed cold neutron beam, a 3He neutron spin filter, and segmented large-area thin-dead layer silicon detectors. Both the electron and proton resulting from the decay will be guided by electric and magnetic fields and detected in coincidence by two 2π solid-angle silicon detectors. For the neutron polarization-dependent observables A and B, a novel precision neutron polarimetry technique has been developed. The parameters a and b will be obtained from the proton time-of-flight and the measured electron energy spectrum. Measurement of the four parameters in the same apparatus provides a redundant determination of parameter λ=gA/gV, providing a test of the standard electroweak interaction.

  12. Radiative corrections to the Dalitz plot of charged and neutral baryon semileptonic decays with angular correlation between polarized emitted baryons and charged lepton

    SciTech Connect

    Manriquez, J. J. Torres; Martinez, A.; Neri, M.; Garcia, A.

    2008-07-02

    Because of the near future work of the NA48 experimental group, we have calculated the radiative corrections (RC) to the Dalitz plot of baryon semileptonic decays with angular correlation between polarized emitted baryons and charged leptons. This work covers the two cases, charged and neutral decaying baryons, and it is restricted to the so called three body region of the Dalitz plot. Also it is specialized at the c.m. frame of the emitted baryon. We consider terms up to ({alpha}/ product )(q/M{sub 1}){sup 0}, where q is the momentum transfer and M{sub 1} is the mass of the decaying baryon, and neglect terms of the order ({alpha}/ product )(q/M{sub 1}){sup n}, n = 1,2,.... The analytical expressions displayed are ready to obtain numerical results, suitable for a model-independent experimental analysis.

  13. Radiative corrections to the three-body region of the Dalitz plot of baryon semileptonic decays with angular correlation between polarized emitted baryons and charged leptons

    SciTech Connect

    Neri, M.; Martinez, A.; Torres, J. J.; Flores-Mendieta, Ruben; Garcia, A.

    2008-09-01

    We have calculated the radiative corrections to the Dalitz plot of baryon semileptonic decays with angular correlation between polarized emitted baryons and charged leptons. This work covers both charged and neutral decaying baryons and is restricted to the so-called three-body region of the Dalitz plot. Also it is specialized at the center-of-mass frame of the emitted baryon. We have considered terms up to order ({alpha}/{pi})(q/M{sub 1}){sup 0}, where q is the momentum transfer and M{sub 1} is the mass of the decaying baryon, and neglected terms of order ({alpha}/{pi})(q/M{sub 1}){sup n} for n{>=}1. The expressions displayed are ready to obtain numerical results, suitable for model-independent experimental analyses.

  14. Online time-differential perturbed angular correlation study with an 19O beam - Residence sites of oxygen atoms in highly oriented pyrolytic graphite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, W.; Ueno, H.; Watanabe, H.; Miyoshi, H.; Yoshimi, A.; Kameda, D.; Ito, T.; Shimada, K.; Kaihara, J.; Suda, S.; Kobayashi, Y.; Shinohara, A.; Ohkubo, Y.; Asahi, K.

    2008-01-01

    The online time-differential perturbed angular correlation (TDPAC) method was applied to a study of the physical states of a probe 19F, the β- decay product of 19O (t1/2 = 26.9 s), implanted in highly oriented pyrolytic graphite. The observed magnitude of the electric field gradient at the probe nucleus, ∣Vzz∣ = 2.91(17) × 1022 V m-2, suggests that the incident 19O atoms are stabilized at an interlayer position with point group C3v. Exhibiting observed TDPAC spectra having a clear sample-to-detector configuration dependence, we demonstrate the applicability of the present online method with a short-lived radioactive 19O beam.

  15. Dynamic lattice distortions in Sr2RuO4: microscopic studies by perturbed angular correlation spectroscopy and ab initio calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, S. N.; Rots, M.; Cottenier, S.

    2010-09-01

    Applying time differential perturbed angular correlation (TDPAC) spectroscopy and ab initio calculations, we have investigated possible lattice instabilities in Sr2RuO4 by studying the electric quadrupole interaction of a 111Cd probe at the Ru site. We find evidence for a dynamic lattice distortion, revealed from the observations of: (i) a rapidly fluctuating electric-field gradient (EFG) tensor showing non-Arrhenius relaxation, (ii) an anomalous temperature dependence of the quadrupole interaction frequency, and (iii) a monotonic increase of the EFG asymmetry (η) below 300 K. We argue that the observed dynamic lattice distortion is caused by strong spin fluctuations associated with the inherent magnetic instability in Sr2RuO4.

  16. Dynamic lattice distortions in Sr2RuO4: microscopic studies by perturbed angular correlation spectroscopy and ab initio calculations.

    PubMed

    Mishra, S N; Rots, M; Cottenier, S

    2010-09-29

    Applying time differential perturbed angular correlation (TDPAC) spectroscopy and ab initio calculations, we have investigated possible lattice instabilities in Sr(2)RuO(4) by studying the electric quadrupole interaction of a (111)Cd probe at the Ru site. We find evidence for a dynamic lattice distortion, revealed from the observations of: (i) a rapidly fluctuating electric-field gradient (EFG) tensor showing non-Arrhenius relaxation, (ii) an anomalous temperature dependence of the quadrupole interaction frequency, and (iii) a monotonic increase of the EFG asymmetry (η) below 300 K. We argue that the observed dynamic lattice distortion is caused by strong spin fluctuations associated with the inherent magnetic instability in Sr(2)RuO(4). PMID:21386555

  17. A weak magnetism observed in SnO2 doped with Fe by means of Perturbed Gamma-Gamma Angular Correlation and Mössbauer Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos, J. M.; Carbonari, A. W.; Martucci, T.; Costa, M. S.; Cabrera-Pasca, G. A.; Macedo, M. A. V.; Saxena, R. N.

    Nano-structured samples of SnO2 doped with Fe prepared by the sol-gel method were studied by the Perturbed Gamma-Gamma Angular Correlation (PAC) Spectroscopy using 111In (111Cd) probe nuclei as well as by 57Fe Mšssbauer spectroscopy. The samples were prepared from very pure metallic Sn and Fe. Carrier-free 111In nuclei were introduced during the sol-gel process of sample preparation for PAC measurements. The PAC measurements were carried out after annealing the samples at different temperatures and the results show a combined electric quadrupole and magnetic dipole interaction for probe nuclei that do not occupy the regular Sn sites. The hyperfine parameters revealed weak magnetic interactions.

  18. Angular Scaling In Jets

    SciTech Connect

    Jankowiak, Martin; Larkoski, Andrew J.; /SLAC

    2012-02-17

    We introduce a jet shape observable defined for an ensemble of jets in terms of two-particle angular correlations and a resolution parameter R. This quantity is infrared and collinear safe and can be interpreted as a scaling exponent for the angular distribution of mass inside the jet. For small R it is close to the value 2 as a consequence of the approximately scale invariant QCD dynamics. For large R it is sensitive to non-perturbative effects. We describe the use of this correlation function for tests of QCD, for studying underlying event and pile-up effects, and for tuning Monte Carlo event generators.

  19. Anomalous centrality evolution of two-particle angular correlations from Au-Au collisions at sNN=62 and 200 GeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agakishiev, G.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Ahammed, Z.; Alakhverdyants, A. V.; Alekseev, I.; Alford, J.; Anderson, B. D.; Anson, C. D.; Arkhipkin, D.; Averichev, G. S.; Balewski, J.; Beavis, D. R.; Behera, N. K.; Bellwied, R.; Betancourt, M. J.; Betts, R. R.; Bhasin, A.; Bhati, A. K.; Bichsel, H.; Bielcik, J.; Bielcikova, J.; Bland, L. C.; Bordyuzhin, I. G.; Borowski, W.; Bouchet, J.; Braidot, E.; Brandin, A. V.; Brovko, S. G.; Bruna, E.; Bueltmann, S.; Bunzarov, I.; Burton, T. P.; Cai, X. Z.; Caines, H.; Calderón de la Barca Sánchez, M.; Cebra, D.; Cendejas, R.; Cervantes, M. C.; Chaloupka, P.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chen, H. F.; Chen, J. H.; Chen, J. Y.; Chen, L.; Cheng, J.; Cherney, M.; Chikanian, A.; Christie, W.; Chung, P.; Codrington, M. J. M.; Corliss, R.; Cramer, J. G.; Crawford, H. J.; Cui, X.; Daugherity, M. S.; Davila Leyva, A.; De Silva, L. C.; Debbe, R. R.; Dedovich, T. G.; Deng, J.; Derevschikov, A. A.; Derradi de Souza, R.; Didenko, L.; Djawotho, P.; Dong, X.; Drachenberg, J. L.; Draper, J. E.; Du, C. M.; Dunlop, J. C.; Efimov, L. G.; Elnimr, M.; Engelage, J.; Eppley, G.; Estienne, M.; Eun, L.; Evdokimov, O.; Fatemi, R.; Fedorisin, J.; Fersch, R. G.; Filip, P.; Finch, E.; Fine, V.; Fisyak, Y.; Gagliardi, C. A.; Gangadharan, D. R.; Geurts, F.; Ghosh, P.; Gorbunov, Y. N.; Gordon, A.; Grebenyuk, O. G.; Grosnick, D.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, S.; Haag, B.; Hajkova, O.; Hamed, A.; Han, L.-X.; Hays-Wehle, J. P.; Heppelmann, S.; Hirsch, A.; Hoffmann, G. W.; Hofman, D. J.; Huang, B.; Huang, H. Z.; Humanic, T. J.; Huo, L.; Igo, G.; Jacobs, W. W.; Jena, C.; Joseph, J.; Judd, E. G.; Kabana, S.; Kang, K.; Kapitan, J.; Kauder, K.; Ke, H. W.; Keane, D.; Kechechyan, A.; Kettler, D.; Kikola, D. P.; Kiryluk, J.; Kisiel, A.; Kizka, V.; Klein, S. R.; Koetke, D. D.; Kollegger, T.; Konzer, J.; Koralt, I.; Koroleva, L.; Korsch, W.; Kotchenda, L.; Kravtsov, P.; Krueger, K.; Kumar, L.; Lamont, M. A. C.; Landgraf, J. M.; LaPointe, S.; Lauret, J.; Lebedev, A.; Lednicky, R.; Lee, J. H.; Leight, W.; LeVine, M. J.; Li, C.; Li, L.; Li, W.; Li, X.; Li, X.; Li, Y.; Li, Z. M.; Lima, L. M.; Lisa, M. A.; Liu, F.; Ljubicic, T.; Llope, W. J.; Longacre, R. S.; Lu, Y.; Lukashov, E. V.; Luo, X.; Ma, G. L.; Ma, Y. G.; Mahapatra, D. P.; Majka, R.; Mall, O. I.; Manweiler, R.; Margetis, S.; Markert, C.; Masui, H.; Matis, H. S.; McDonald, D.; McShane, T. S.; Meschanin, A.; Milner, R.; Minaev, N. G.; Mioduszewski, S.; Mitrovski, M. K.; Mohammed, Y.; Mohanty, B.; Mondal, M. M.; Morozov, B.; Morozov, D. A.; Munhoz, M. G.; Mustafa, M. K.; Naglis, M.; Nandi, B. K.; Nayak, T. K.; Nogach, L. V.; Nurushev, S. B.; Odyniec, G.; Ogawa, A.; Oh, K.; Ohlson, A.; Okorokov, V.; Oldag, E. W.; Oliveira, R. A. N.; Olson, D.; Pachr, M.; Page, B. S.; Pal, S. K.; Pandit, Y.; Panebratsev, Y.; Pawlak, T.; Pei, H.; Peitzmann, T.; Perkins, C.; Peryt, W.; Pile, P.; Planinic, M.; Pluta, J.; Plyku, D.; Poljak, N.; Porter, J.; Powell, C. B.; Prindle, D.; Pruneau, C.; Pruthi, N. K.; Pujahari, P. R.; Putschke, J.; Qiu, H.; Raniwala, R.; Raniwala, S.; Ray, R. L.; Redwine, R.; Reed, R.; Ritter, H. G.; Roberts, J. B.; Rogachevskiy, O. V.; Romero, J. L.; Ruan, L.; Rusnak, J.; Sahoo, N. R.; Sakrejda, I.; Salur, S.; Sandweiss, J.; Sangaline, E.; Sarkar, A.; Schambach, J.; Scharenberg, R. P.; Schaub, J.; Schmah, A. M.; Schmitz, N.; Schuster, T. R.; Seele, J.; Seger, J.; Selyuzhenkov, I.; Seyboth, P.; Shah, N.; Shahaliev, E.; Shao, M.; Sharma, M.; Shi, S. S.; Shou, Q. Y.; Sichtermann, E. P.; Simon, F.; Singaraju, R. N.; Skoby, M. J.; Smirnov, N.; Solanki, D.; Sorensen, P.; deSouza, U. G.; Spinka, H. M.; Srivastava, B.; Stanislaus, T. D. S.; Steadman, S. G.; Stevens, J. R.; Stock, R.; Strikhanov, M.; Stringfellow, B.; Suaide, A. A. P.; Suarez, M. C.; Sumbera, M.; Sun, X. M.; Sun, Y.; Sun, Z.; Surrow, B.; Svirida, D. N.; Symons, T. J. M.; Szanto de Toledo, A.; Takahashi, J.; Tang, A. H.; Tang, Z.; Tarini, L. H.; Tarnowsky, T.; Thein, D.; Thomas, J. H.; Tian, J.; Timmins, A. R.; Tlusty, D.; Tokarev, M.; Trainor, T. A.; Trentalange, S.; Tribble, R. E.; Tribedy, P.; Trzeciak, B. A.; Tsai, O. D.; Ullrich, T.; Underwood, D. G.; Van Buren, G.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G.; Vanfossen, J. A., Jr.; Varma, R.; Vasconcelos, G. M. S.; Vasiliev, A. N.; Videbæk, F.; Viyogi, Y. P.; Vokal, S.; Wada, M.; Walker, M.; Wang, F.; Wang, G.; Wang, H.; Wang, J. S.; Wang, Q.; Wang, X. L.; Wang, Y.; Webb, G.; Webb, J. C.; Westfall, G. D.; Whitten, C., Jr.; Wieman, H.; Wissink, S. W.; Witt, R.; Witzke, W.; Wu, Y. F.; Xiao, Z.; Xie, W.; Xu, H.; Xu, N.; Xu, Q. H.; Xu, W.; Xu, Y.; Xu, Z.; Xue, L.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Y.; Yepes, P.; Yip, K.; Yoo, I.-K.; Zawisza, M.; Zbroszczyk, H.; Zhan, W.; Zhang, J. B.; Zhang, S.; Zhang, W. M.; Zhang, X. P.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zhao, F.; Zhao, J.; Zhong, C.; Zhu, X.; Zhu, Y. H.; Zoulkarneeva, Y.

    2012-12-01

    We present two-dimensional (2D) two-particle angular correlations measured with the STAR detector on relative pseudorapidity η and azimuth ϕ for charged particles from Au-Au collisions at sNN=62 and 200 GeV with transverse momentum pt≥0.15 GeV/c, |η|≤1, and 2π in azimuth. Observed correlations include a same-side (relative azimuth <π/2) 2D peak, a closely related away-side azimuth dipole, and an azimuth quadrupole conventionally associated with elliptic flow. The same-side 2D peak and away-side dipole are explained by semihard parton scattering and fragmentation (minijets) in proton-proton and peripheral nucleus-nucleus collisions. Those structures follow N-N binary-collision scaling in Au-Au collisions until midcentrality, where a transition to a qualitatively different centrality trend occurs within one 10% centrality bin. Above the transition point the number of same-side and away-side correlated pairs increases rapidly relative to binary-collision scaling, the η width of the same-side 2D peak also increases rapidly (η elongation), and the ϕ width actually decreases significantly. Those centrality trends are in marked contrast with conventional expectations for jet quenching in a dense medium. The observed centrality trends are compared to perturbative QCD predictions computed in hijing, which serve as a theoretical baseline, and to the expected trends for semihard parton scattering and fragmentation in a thermalized opaque medium predicted by theoretical calculations and phenomenological models. We are unable to reconcile a semihard parton scattering and fragmentation origin for the observed correlation structure and centrality trends with heavy-ion collision scenarios that invoke rapid parton thermalization. If the collision system turns out to be effectively opaque to few-GeV partons the present observations would be inconsistent with the minijet picture discussed here.

  20. Long-range angular correlations of π, K and p in p-Pb collisions at √{sNN}=5.02 TeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abelev, B.; Adam, J.; Adamová, D.; Adare, A. M.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Aglieri Rinella, G.; Agnello, M.; Agocs, A. G.; Agostinelli, A.; Ahammed, Z.; Ahmad, N.; Ahmad Masoodi, A.; Ahmed, I.; Ahn, S. A.; Ahn, S. U.; Aimo, I.; Aiola, S.; Ajaz, M.; Akindinov, A.; Aleksandrov, D.; Alessandro, B.; Alexandre, D.; Alici, A.; Alkin, A.; Alme, J.; Alt, T.; Altini, V.; Altinpinar, S.; Altsybeev, I.; Alves Garcia Prado, C.; Andrei, C.; Andronic, A.; Anguelov, V.; Anielski, J.; Antičić, T.; Antinori, F.; Antonioli, P.; Aphecetche, L.; Appelshäuser, H.; Arbor, N.; Arcelli, S.; Armesto, N.; Arnaldi, R.; Aronsson, T.; Arsene, I. C.; Arslandok, M.; Augustinus, A.; Averbeck, R.; Awes, T. C.; Äystö, J.; Azmi, M. D.; Bach, M.; Badalà, A.; Baek, Y. W.; Bailhache, R.; Bala, R.; Baldisseri, A.; Baltasar Dos Santos Pedrosa, F.; Bán, J.; Baral, R. C.; Barbera, R.; Barile, F.; Barnaföldi, G. G.; Barnby, L. S.; Barret, V.; Bartke, J.; Basile, M.; Bastid, N.; Basu, S.; Bathen, B.; Batigne, G.; Batyunya, B.; Batzing, P. C.; Baumann, C.; Bearden, I. G.; Beck, H.; Bedda, C.; Behera, N. K.; Belikov, I.; Bellini, F.; Bellwied, R.; Belmont-Moreno, E.; Bencedi, G.; Beole, S.; Berceanu, I.; Bercuci, A.; Berdnikov, Y.; Berenyi, D.; Bergognon, A. A. E.; Bertens, R. A.; Berzano, D.; Betev, L.; Bhasin, A.; Bhati, A. K.; Bhom, J.; Bianchi, L.; Bianchi, N.; Bielčík, J.; Bielčíková, J.; Bilandzic, A.; Bjelogrlic, S.; Blanco, F.; Blanco, F.; Blau, D.; Blume, C.; Bock, F.; Bogdanov, A.; Bøggild, H.; Bogolyubsky, M.; Boldizsár, L.; Bombara, M.; Book, J.; Borel, H.; Borissov, A.; Bornschein, J.; Botje, M.; Botta, E.; Böttger, S.; Braidot, E.; Braun-Munzinger, P.; Bregant, M.; Breitner, T.; Broker, T. A.; Browning, T. A.; Broz, M.; Brun, R.; Bruna, E.; Bruno, G. E.; Budnikov, D.; Buesching, H.; Bufalino, S.; Buncic, P.; Busch, O.; Buthelezi, Z.; Caffarri, D.; Cai, X.; Caines, H.; Caliva, A.; Calvo Villar, E.; Camerini, P.; Canoa Roman, V.; Cara Romeo, G.; Carena, F.; Carena, W.; Carminati, F.; Casanova Díaz, A.; Castillo Castellanos, J.; Casula, E. A. R.; Catanescu, V.; Cavicchioli, C.; Ceballos Sanchez, C.; Cepila, J.; Cerello, P.; Chang, B.; Chapeland, S.; Charvet, J. L.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Cherney, M.; Cheshkov, C.; Cheynis, B.; Chibante Barroso, V.; Chinellato, D. D.; Chochula, P.; Chojnacki, M.; Choudhury, S.; Christakoglou, P.; Christensen, C. H.; Christiansen, P.; Chujo, T.; Chung, S. U.; Cicalo, C.; Cifarelli, L.; Cindolo, F.; Cleymans, J.; Colamaria, F.; Colella, D.; Collu, A.; Colocci, M.; Conesa Balbastre, G.; Conesa del Valle, Z.; Connors, M. E.; Contin, G.; Contreras, J. G.; Cormier, T. M.; Corrales Morales, Y.; Cortese, P.; Cortés Maldonado, I.; Cosentino, M. R.; Costa, F.; Crochet, P.; Cruz Albino, R.; Cuautle, E.; Cunqueiro, L.; Dainese, A.; Dang, R.; Danu, A.; Das, K.; Das, D.; Das, I.; Dash, A.; Dash, S.; De, S.; Delagrange, H.; Deloff, A.; Dénes, E.; Deppman, A.; de Barros, G. O. V.; De Caro, A.; de Cataldo, G.; de Cuveland, J.; De Falco, A.; De Gruttola, D.; De Marco, N.; De Pasquale, S.; de Rooij, R.; Diaz Corchero, M. A.; Dietel, T.; Divià, R.; Di Bari, D.; Di Giglio, C.; Di Liberto, S.; Di Mauro, A.; Di Nezza, P.; Djuvsland, Ø.; Dobrin, A.; Dobrowolski, T.; Dönigus, B.; Dordic, O.; Dubey, A. K.; Dubla, A.; Ducroux, L.; Dupieux, P.; Dutta Majumdar, A. K.; D Erasmo, G.; Elia, D.; Emschermann, D.; Engel, H.; Erazmus, B.; Erdal, H. A.; Eschweiler, D.; Espagnon, B.; Estienne, M.; Esumi, S.; Evans, D.; Evdokimov, S.; Eyyubova, G.; Fabris, D.; Faivre, J.; Falchieri, D.; Fantoni, A.; Fasel, M.; Fehlker, D.; Feldkamp, L.; Felea, D.; Feliciello, A.; Feofilov, G.; Fernández Téllez, A.; Ferreiro, E. G.; Ferretti, A.; Festanti, A.; Figiel, J.; Figueredo, M. A. S.; Filchagin, S.; Finogeev, D.; Fionda, F. M.; Fiore, E. M.; Floratos, E.; Floris, M.; Foertsch, S.; Foka, P.; Fokin, S.; Fragiacomo, E.; Francescon, A.; Frankenfeld, U.; Fuchs, U.; Furget, C.; Fusco Girard, M.; Gaardhøje, J. J.; Gagliardi, M.; Gago, A.; Gallio, M.; Gangadharan, D. R.; Ganoti, P.; Garabatos, C.; Garcia-Solis, E.; Gargiulo, C.; Garishvili, I.; Gerhard, J.; Germain, M.; Gheata, A.; Gheata, M.; Ghidini, B.; Ghosh, P.; Gianotti, P.; Giubellino, P.; Gladysz-Dziadus, E.; Glässel, P.; Goerlich, L.; Gomez, R.; González-Zamora, P.; Gorbunov, S.; Gotovac, S.; Graczykowski, L. K.; Grajcarek, R.; Grelli, A.; Grigoras, C.; Grigoras, A.; Grigoriev, V.; Grigoryan, A.; Grigoryan, S.; Grinyov, B.; Grion, N.; Grosse-Oetringhaus, J. F.; Grossiord, J.-Y.; Grosso, R.; Guber, F.; Guernane, R.; Guerzoni, B.; Guilbaud, M.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gulkanyan, H.; Gunji, T.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, R.; Khan, K. H.; Haake, R.; Haaland, Ø.; Hadjidakis, C.; Haiduc, M.; Hamagaki, H.; Hamar, G.; Hanratty, L. D.; Hansen, A.; Harris, J. W.

    2013-10-01

    Angular correlations between unidentified charged trigger particles and various species of charged associated particles (unidentified particles, pions, kaons, protons and antiprotons) are measured by the ALICE detector in p-Pb collisions at a nucleon-nucleon centre-of-mass energy of 5.02 TeV in the transverse-momentum range 0.3correlations expressed as associated yield per trigger particle are obtained in the pseudorapidity range |ηlab|<0.8. Fourier coefficients are extracted from the long-range correlations projected onto the azimuthal angle difference and studied as a function of pT and in intervals of event multiplicity. In high-multiplicity events, the second-order coefficient for protons, v2p, is observed to be smaller than that for pions, v2π, up to about pT=2 GeV/c. To reduce correlations due to jets, the per-trigger yield measured in low-multiplicity events is subtracted from that in high-multiplicity events. A two-ridge structure is obtained for all particle species. The Fourier decomposition of this structure shows that the second-order coefficients for pions and kaons are similar. The v2p is found to be smaller at low pT and larger at higher pT than v2π, with a crossing occurring at about 2 GeV/c. This is qualitatively similar to the elliptic-flow pattern observed in heavy-ion collisions. A mass ordering effect at low transverse momenta is consistent with expectations from hydrodynamic model calculations assuming a collectively expanding system.

  1. Detailed angular correlation analysis with 4{pi} spectrometers: Spin determinations and multipolarity mixing measurements in {sup 128}Ba

    SciTech Connect

    Wiedenhoever, I.; Vogel, O.; Klein, H.; Dewald, A.; von Brentano, P.; Gableske, J.; Nicolay, N.; Gelberg, A.; Wiedenhoever, I.; Janssens, R.V.; Carpenter, M.P.; Kruecken, R.; Petkov, P.; Gizon, A.; Gizon, J.; Bazzacco, D.; Rossi Alvarez, C.; Pavan, P.; de Angelis, G.; Lunardi, S.; Napoli, D.R.; Frauendorf, S.; Doenau, F.

    1998-08-01

    We analyze for the first time the full {gamma}{gamma} directional correlations from oriented states (DCO) in an experiment performed with the GASP detector array. Our analysis is based on a transformation of the directional information into expansion coefficients of an orthogonal basis. With this method, which we call SpeeDCO (spectral expansion of DCO), the complete DCO information is concentrated in 12 {gamma}{gamma} coincidence spectra. The analysis is applicable to all detector arrays which uniformly cover the solid angle. We show that the complete DCO information can be used for a reliable and unique determination of spins and multipolarity mixing ratios in weakly populated bands. We were able to establish the spins and the positive parity of the {Delta}I=1 {open_quotes}M1 band{close_quotes} in {sup 128}Ba and multipolarity mixing ratios of nine M1/E2 in-band transitions were derived as well. The measured values are in good agreement with those expected for a high-K rotational band. thinsp thinsp thinsp {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

  2. Harmonic decomposition of two particle angular correlations in Pb-Pb collisions at √{sNN} = 2.76 TeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aamodt, K.; Abelev, B.; Abrahantes Quintana, A.; Adamová, D.; Adare, A. M.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Aglieri Rinella, G.; Agocs, A. G.; Agostinelli, A.; Aguilar Salazar, S.; Ahammed, Z.; Ahmad, N.; Ahmad Masoodi, A.; Ahn, S. U.; Akindinov, A.; Aleksandrov, D.; Alessandro, B.; Alfaro Molina, R.; Alici, A.; Alkin, A.; Almaráz Aviña, E.; Alme, J.; Alt, T.; Altini, V.; Altinpinar, S.; Altsybeev, I.; Andrei, C.; Andronic, A.; Anguelov, V.; Anielski, J.; Antičić, T.; Antinori, F.; Antonioli, P.; Aphecetche, L.; Appelshäuser, H.; Arbor, N.; Arcelli, S.; Arend, A.; Armesto, N.; Arnaldi, R.; Aronsson, T.; Arsene, I. C.; Arslandok, M.; Asryan, A.; Augustinus, A.; Averbeck, R.; Awes, T. C.; Äystö, J.; Azmi, M. D.; Bach, M.; Badalà, A.; Baek, Y. W.; Bailhache, R.; Bala, R.; Baldini Ferroli, R.; Baldisseri, A.; Baldit, A.; Baltasar Dos Santos Pedrosa, F.; Bán, J.; Baral, R. C.; Barbera, R.; Barile, F.; Barnaföldi, G. G.; Barnby, L. S.; Barret, V.; Bartke, J.; Basile, M.; Bastid, N.; Bathen, B.; Batigne, G.; Batyunya, B.; Baumann, C.; Bearden, I. G.; Beck, H.; Belikov, I.; Bellini, F.; Bellwied, R.; Belmont-Moreno, E.; Beole, S.; Berceanu, I.; Bercuci, A.; Berdnikov, Y.; Berenyi, D.; Bergmann, C.; Betev, L.; Bhasin, A.; Bhati, A. K.; Bianchi, L.; Bianchi, N.; Bianchin, C.; Bielčík, J.; Bielčíková, J.; Bilandzic, A.; Biolcati, E.; Blanco, F.; Blanco, F.; Blau, D.; Blume, C.; Bock, N.; Bogdanov, A.; Bøggild, H.; Bogolyubsky, M.; Boldizsár, L.; Bombara, M.; Bombonati, C.; Book, J.; Borel, H.; Borissov, A.; Bortolin, C.; Bose, S.; Bossú, F.; Botje, M.; Böttger, S.; Boyer, B.; Braun-Munzinger, P.; Bregant, M.; Breitner, T.; Broz, M.; Brun, R.; Bruna, E.; Bruno, G. E.; Budnikov, D.; Buesching, H.; Bufalino, S.; Bugaiev, K.; Busch, O.; Buthelezi, Z.; Caffarri, D.; Cai, X.; Caines, H.; Calvo Villar, E.; Camerini, P.; Canoa Roman, V.; Cara Romeo, G.; Carena, F.; Carena, W.; Carminati, F.; Casanova Díaz, A.; Caselle, M.; Castillo Castellanos, J.; Casula, E. A. R.; Catanescu, V.; Cavicchioli, C.; Cepila, J.; Cerello, P.; Chang, B.; Chapeland, S.; Charvet, J. L.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Cherney, M.; Cheshkov, C.; Cheynis, B.; Chiavassa, E.; Chibante Barroso, V.; Chinellato, D. D.; Chochula, P.; Chojnacki, M.; Christakoglou, P.; Christensen, C. H.; Christiansen, P.; Chujo, T.; Chung, S. U.; Cicalo, C.; Cifarelli, L.; Cindolo, F.; Cleymans, J.; Coccetti, F.; Coffin, J.-P.; Colamaria, F.; Colella, D.; Conesa Balbastre, G.; Conesa Del Valle, Z.; Constantin, P.; Contin, G.; Contreras, J. G.; Cormier, T. M.; Corrales Morales, Y.; Cortés Maldonado, I.; Cortese, P.; Cosentino, M. R.; Costa, F.; Cotallo, M. E.; Crochet, P.; Cruz Alaniz, E.; Cuautle, E.; Cunqueiro, L.; Erasmo, G. D.; Dainese, A.; Dalsgaard, H. H.; Danu, A.; Das, D.; Das, I.; Das, K.; Dash, A.; Dash, S.; de, S.; de Azevedo Moregula, A.; de Barros, G. O. V.; de Caro, A.; de Cataldo, G.; de Cuveland, J.; de Falco, A.; de Gruttola, D.; De Marco, N.; de Pasquale, S.; de Rooij, R.; Del Castillo Sanchez, E.; Delagrange, H.; Deloff, A.; Demanov, V.; Dénes, E.; Deppman, A.; di Bari, D.; di Giglio, C.; di Liberto, S.; di Mauro, A.; di Nezza, P.; Dietel, T.; Divià, R.; Djuvsland, Ø.; Dobrin, A.; Dobrowolski, T.; Domínguez, I.; Dönigus, B.; Dordic, O.; Driga, O.; Dubey, A. K.; Ducroux, L.; Dupieux, P.; Dutta Majumdar, A. K.; Dutta Majumdar, M. R.; Elia, D.; Emschermann, D.; Engel, H.; Erdal, H. A.; Espagnon, B.; Estienne, M.; Esumi, S.; Evans, D.; Eyyubova, G.; Fabris, D.; Faivre, J.; Falchieri, D.; Fantoni, A.; Fasel, M.; Fearick, R.; Fedunov, A.; Fehlker, D.; Felea, D.; Fenton-Olsen, B.; Feofilov, G.; Fernández Téllez, A.; Ferreiro, E. G.; Ferretti, A.; Ferretti, R.; Figiel, J.; Figueredo, M. A. S.; Filchagin, S.; Fini, R.; Finogeev, D.; Fionda, F. M.; Fiore, E. M.; Floris, M.; Foertsch, S.; Foka, P.; Fokin, S.; Fragiacomo, E.; Fragkiadakis, M.; Frankenfeld, U.; Fuchs, U.; Furget, C.; Fusco Girard, M.; Gaardhøje, J. J.; Gagliardi, M.; Gago, A.; Gallio, M.; Gangadharan, D. R.; Ganoti, P.; Garabatos, C.; Garcia-Solis, E.; Garishvili, I.; Gerhard, J.; Germain, M.; Geuna, C.; Gheata, A.; Gheata, M.; Ghidini, B.; Ghosh, P.; Gianotti, P.; Girard, M. R.; Giubellino, P.; Gladysz-Dziadus, E.; Glässel, P.; Gomez, R.; González-Trueba, L. H.; González-Zamora, P.; Gorbunov, S.; Goswami, A.; Gotovac, S.; Grabski, V.; Graczykowski, L. K.; Grajcarek, R.; Grelli, A.; Grigoras, A.; Grigoras, C.; Grigoriev, V.; Grigoryan, A.; Grigoryan, S.; Grinyov, B.; Grion, N.; Grosse-Oetringhaus, J. F.; Grossiord, J.-Y.; Guber, F.; Guernane, R.; Guerra Gutierrez, C.; Guerzoni, B.; Guilbaud, M.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gunji, T.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, R.; Gutbrod, H.; Haaland, Ø.; Hadjidakis, C.; Haiduc, M.; Hamagaki, H.; Hamar, G.; Hanratty, L. D.; Harmanova, Z.; Harris, J. W.; Hartig, M.; Hasegan, D.; Hatzifotiadou, D.; Hayrapetyan, A.; Heide, M.; Helstrup, H.; Herghelegiu, A.; Herrera Corral, G.; Herrmann, N.; Hetland, K. F.; Hicks, B.; Hille, P. T.; Hippolyte, B.; Horaguchi, T.; Hori, Y.; Hristov, P.; Hřivnáčová, I.; Huang, M.; Huber, S.; Humanic, T. J.; Hwang, D. S.; Ichou, R.; Ilkaev, R.; Ilkiv, I.; Inaba, M.; Incani, E.; Innocenti, G. M.; Ippolitov, M.; Irfan, M.; Ivan, C.; Ivanov, A.; Ivanov, M.; Ivanov, V.; Ivanytskyi, O.; Jacobs, P. M.; Jancurová, L.; Jangal, S.; Janik, M. A.; Janik, R.; Jayarathna, P. H. S. Y.; Jena, S.; Jimenez Bustamante, R. T.; Jirden, L.; Jones, P. G.; Jung, H.; Jung, W.; Jusko, A.; Kalcher, S.; Kaliňák, P.; Kalisky, M.; Kalliokoski, T.; Kalweit, A.; Kanaki, K.; Kang, J. H.; Kaplin, V.; Karasu Uysal, A.; Karavichev, O.; Karavicheva, T.; Karpechev, E.; Kazantsev, A.; Kebschull, U.; Keidel, R.; Khan, M. M.; Khan, P.; Khan, S. A.; Khanzadeev, A.; Kharlov, Y.; Kileng, B.; Kim, B.; Kim, D. J.; Kim, D. W.; Kim, J. H.; Kim, J. S.; Kim, M.; Kim, S.; Kim, S. H.; Kim, T.; Kirsch, S.; Kisel, I.; Kiselev, S.; Kisiel, A.; Klay, J. L.; Klein, J.; Klein-Bösing, C.; Kliemant, M.; Kluge, A.; Knichel, M. L.; Koch, K.; Köhler, M. K.; Kolojvari, A.; Kondratiev, V.; Kondratyeva, N.; Konevskikh, A.; Kottachchi Kankanamge Don, C.; Kour, R.; Kowalski, M.; Kox, S.; Koyithatta Meethaleveedu, G.; Kral, J.; Králik, I.; Kramer, F.; Kraus, I.; Krawutschke, T.; Kretz, M.; Krivda, M.; Krizek, F.; Krus, M.; Kryshen, E.; Krzewicki, M.; Kucheriaev, Y.; Kuhn, C.; Kuijer, P. G.; Kurashvili, P.; Kurepin, A.; Kurepin, A. B.; Kuryakin, A.; Kushpil, S.; Kushpil, V.; Kweon, M. J.; Kwon, Y.; La Rocca, P.; Ladrón de Guevara, P.; Lakomov, I.; Lara, C.; Lardeux, A.; Larsen, D. T.; Lazzeroni, C.; Le Bornec, Y.; Lea, R.; Lechman, M.; Lee, K. S.; Lee, S. C.; Lefèvre, F.; Lehnert, J.; Leistam, L.; Lenhardt, M.; Lenti, V.; León Monzón, I.; León Vargas, H.; Lévai, P.; Li, X.; Lien, J.; Lietava, R.; Lindal, S.; Lindenstruth, V.; Lippmann, C.; Lisa, M. A.; Liu, L.; Loenne, P. I.; Loggins, V. R.; Loginov, V.; Lohn, S.; Lohner, D.; Loizides, C.; Loo, K. K.; Lopez, X.; López Torres, E.; Løvhøiden, G.; Lu, X.-G.; Luettig, P.; Lunardon, M.; Luo, J.; Luparello, G.; Luquin, L.; Luzzi, C.; Ma, R.; Maevskaya, A.; Mager, M.; Mahapatra, D. P.; Maire, A.; Malaev, M.; Maldonado Cervantes, I.; Malinina, L.; Mal'Kevich, D.; Malzacher, P.; Mamonov, A.; Manceau, L.; Manko, V.; Manso, F.; Manzari, V.; Mao, Y.; Marchisone, M.; Mareš, J.; Margagliotti, G. V.; Margotti, A.; Marín, A.; Markert, C.; Martashvili, I.; Martinengo, P.; Martínez, M. I.; Martínez Davalos, A.; Martínez García, G.; Martynov, Y.; Mas, A.; Masciocchi, S.; Masera, M.; Masoni, A.; Massacrier, L.; Mastromarco, M.; Mastroserio, A.; Matthews, Z. L.; Matyja, A.; Mayani, D.; Mayer, C.; Mazzoni, M. A.; Meddi, F.; Menchaca-Rocha, A.; Mercado Pérez, J.; Meres, M.; Miake, Y.; Michalon, A.; Midori, J.; Milano, L.; Milosevic, J.; Mischke, A.; Mishra, A. N.; Miśkowiec, D.; Mitu, C.; Mlynarz, J.; Mohanty, A. K.; Mohanty, B.; Molnar, L.; Montaño Zetina, L.; Monteno, M.; Montes, E.; Moon, T.; Morando, M.; Moreira de Godoy, D. A.; Moretto, S.; Morsch, A.; Muccifora, V.; Mudnic, E.; Müller, H.; Muhuri, S.; Munhoz, M. G.; Musa, L.; Musso, A.; Nagle, J. L.; Nandi, B. K.; Nania, R.; Nappi, E.; Nattrass, C.; Naumov, N. P.; Navin, S.; Nayak, T. K.; Nazarenko, S.; Nazarov, G.; Nedosekin, A.; Nicassio, M.; Nielsen, B. S.; Niida, T.; Nikolaev, S.; Nikolic, V.; Nikulin, S.; Nikulin, V.; Nilsen, B. S.; Nilsson, M. S.; Noferini, F.; Nomokonov, P.; Nooren, G.; Novitzky, N.; Nyanin, A.; Nyatha, A.; Nygaard, C.; Nystrand, J.; Obayashi, H.; Ochirov, A.; Oeschler, H.; Oh, S. K.; Oleniacz, J.; Oppedisano, C.; Ortiz Velasquez, A.; Ortona, G.; Oskarsson, A.; Otterlund, I.; Otwinowski, J.; Øvrebekk, G.; Oyama, K.; Pachmayer, Y.; Pachr, M.; Padilla, F.; Pagano, P.; Paić, G.; Painke, F.; Pajares, C.; Pal, S.; Pal, S. K.; Palaha, A.; Palmeri, A.; Pappalardo, G. S.; Park, W. J.; Passfeld, A.; Patalakha, D. I.; Paticchio, V.; Pavlinov, A.; Pawlak, T.; Peitzmann, T.; Pereira de Oliveira Filho, E.; Peresunko, D.; Pérez Lara, C. E.; Perez Lezama, E.; Perini, D.; Perrino, D.; Peryt, W.; Pesci, A.; Peskov, V.; Pestov, Y.; Petráček, V.; Petran, M.; Petris, M.; Petrov, P.; Petrovici, M.; Petta, C.; Piano, S.; Piccotti, A.; Pikna, M.; Pillot, P.; Pinazza, O.; Pinsky, L.; Pitz, N.; Piuz, F.; Piyarathna, D. B.; Płoskoń, M.; Pluta, J.; Pocheptsov, T.; Pochybova, S.; Podesta-Lerma, P. L. M.; Poghosyan, M. G.; Polichtchouk, B.; Pop, A.; Porteboeuf-Houssais, S.; Pospíšil, V.; Potukuchi, B.; Prasad, S. K.; Preghenella, R.; Prino, F.; Pruneau, C. A.; Pshenichnov, I.; Puddu, G.; Pulvirenti, A.; Punin, V.; Putiš, M.; Putschke, J.; Quercigh, E.; Qvigstad, H.; Rachevski, A.; Rademakers, A.; Radomski, S.; Räihä, T. S.; Rak, J.; Rakotozafindrabe, A.; Ramello, L.; Ramírez Reyes, A.; Raniwala, R.; Raniwala, S.; Räsänen, S. S.; Rascanu, B. T.; Rathee, D.; Read, K. F.; Real, J. S.; Redlich, K.; Reichelt, P.; Reicher, M.; Renfordt, R.; Reolon, A. R.; Reshetin, A.; Rettig, F.; Revol, J.-P.; Reygers, K.; Ricaud, H.; Riccati, L.; Ricci, R. A.; Richter, M.; Riedler, P.; Riegler, W.; Riggi, F.; Rodríguez Cahuantzi, M.; Rohr, D.; Röhrich, D.; Romita, R.; Ronchetti, F.; Rosnet, P.; Rossegger, S.; Rossi, A.; Roukoutakis, F.; Roy, C.; Roy, P.; Rubio Montero, A. J.; Rui, R.; Ryabinkin, E.; Rybicki, A.; Sadovsky, S.; Šafařík, K.; Sahu, P. K.; Saini, J.; Sakaguchi, H.; Sakai, S.; Sakata, D.; Salgado, C. A.; Sambyal, S.; Samsonov, V.; Sanchez Castro, X.; Šándor, L.; Sandoval, A.; Sano, M.; Sano, S.; Santo, R.; Santoro, R.; Sarkamo, J.; Scapparone, E.; Scarlassara, F.; Scharenberg, R. P.; Schiaua, C.; Schicker, R.; Schmidt, C.; Schmidt, H. R.; Schreiner, S.; Schuchmann, S.; Schukraft, J.; Schutz, Y.; Schwarz, K.; Schweda, K.; Scioli, G.; Scomparin, E.; Scott, P. A.; Scott, R.; Segato, G.; Selyuzhenkov, I.; Senyukov, S.; Serci, S.; Serradilla, E.; Sevcenco, A.; Sgura, I.; Shabratova, G.; Shahoyan, R.; Sharma, N.; Sharma, S.; Shigaki, K.; Shimomura, M.; Shtejer, K.; Sibiriak, Y.; Siciliano, M.; Sicking, E.; Siddhanta, S.; Siemiarczuk, T.; Silvermyr, D.; Simonetti, G.; Singaraju, R.; Singh, R.; Singha, S.; Sinha, B. C.; Sinha, T.; Sitar, B.; Sitta, M.; Skaali, T. B.; Skjerdal, K.; Smakal, R.; Smirnov, N.; Snellings, R.; Søgaard, C.; Soltz, R.; Son, H.; Song, J.; Song, M.; Soos, C.; Soramel, F.; Spyropoulou-Stassinaki, M.; Srivastava, B. K.; Stachel, J.; Stan, I.; Stefanek, G.; Stefanini, G.; Steinbeck, T.; Steinpreis, M.; Stenlund, E.; Steyn, G.; Stocco, D.; Stolpovskiy, M.; Strmen, P.; Suaide, A. A. P.; Subieta Vásquez, M. A.; Sugitate, T.; Suire, C.; Sukhorukov, M.; Sultanov, R.; Šumbera, M.; Susa, T.; Szanto de Toledo, A.; Szarka, I.; Szostak, A.; Tagridis, C.; Takahashi, J.; Tapia Takaki, J. D.; Tauro, A.; Tejeda Muñoz, G.; Telesca, A.; Terrevoli, C.; Thäder, J.; Thomas, D.; Thomas, J. H.; Tieulent, R.; Timmins, A. R.; Tlusty, D.; Toia, A.; Torii, H.; Tosello, F.; Traczyk, T.; Trzaska, W. H.; Tsuji, T.; Tumkin, A.; Turrisi, R.; Turvey, A. J.; Tveter, T. S.; Ulery, J.; Ullaland, K.; Ulrich, J.; Uras, A.; Urbán, J.; Urciuoli, G. M.; Usai, G. L.; Vajzer, M.; Vala, M.; Valencia Palomo, L.; Vallero, S.; van der Kolk, N.; van Leeuwen, M.; Vande Vyvre, P.; Vannucci, L.; Vargas, A.; Varma, R.; Vasileiou, M.; Vasiliev, A.; Vechernin, V.; Veldhoen, M.; Venaruzzo, M.; Vercellin, E.; Vergara, S.; Vernekohl, D. C.; Vernet, R.; Verweij, M.; Vickovic, L.; Viesti, G.; Vikhlyantsev, O.; Vilakazi, Z.; Villalobos Baillie, O.; Vinogradov, A.; Vinogradov, L.; Vinogradov, Y.; Virgili, T.; Viyogi, Y. P.; Vodopyanov, A.; Voloshin, K.; Voloshin, S.; Volpe, G.; von Haller, B.; Vranic, D.; Vrláková, J.; Vulpescu, B.; Vyushin, A.; Wagner, B.; Wagner, V.; Wan, R.; Wang, D.; Wang, M.; Wang, Y.; Wang, Y.; Watanabe, K.; Wessels, J. P.; Westerhoff, U.; Wiechula, J.; Wikne, J.; Wilde, M.; Wilk, A.; Wilk, G.; Williams, M. C. S.; Windelband, B.; Xaplanteris Karampatsos, L.; Yang, H.; Yasnopolskiy, S.; Yi, J.; Yin, Z.; Yokoyama, H.; Yoo, I.-K.; Yoon, J.; Yu, W.; Yuan, X.; Yushmanov, I.; Zach, C.; Zampolli, C.; Zaporozhets, S.; Zarochentsev, A.; Závada, P.; Zaviyalov, N.; Zbroszczyk, H.; Zelnicek, P.; Zgura, I.; Zhalov, M.; Zhang, X.; Zhou, D.; Zhou, F.; Zhou, Y.; Zhu, X.; Zichichi, A.; Zimmermann, A.; Zinovjev, G.; Zoccarato, Y.; Zynovyev, M.; Alice Collaboration

    2012-02-01

    Angular correlations between unidentified charged trigger (t) and associated (a) particles are measured by the ALICE experiment in Pb-Pb collisions at √{sNN} = 2.76 TeV for transverse momenta 0.25 < pTt,a < 15 GeV / c, where pTt >pTa. The shapes of the pair correlation distributions are studied in a variety of collision centrality classes between 0 and 50% of the total hadronic cross section for particles in the pseudorapidity interval | η | < 1.0. Distributions in relative azimuth Δϕ ≡ϕt -ϕa are analyzed for | Δη | ≡ |ηt -ηa | > 0.8, and are referred to as "long-range correlations". Fourier components VnΔ ≡ < cos (nΔϕ) > are extracted from the long-range azimuthal correlation functions. If particle pairs are correlated to one another through their individual correlation to a common symmetry plane, then the pair anisotropy VnΔ (pTt ,pTa) is fully described in terms of single-particle anisotropies vn (pT) as VnΔ (pTt ,pTa) =vn (pTt)vn (pTa). This expectation is tested for 1 ⩽ n ⩽ 5 by applying a global fit of all VnΔ (pTt ,pTa) to obtain the best values vn { GF } (pT). It is found that for 2 ⩽ n ⩽ 5, the fit agrees well with data up to pTa ˜ 3- 4 GeV / c, with a trend of increasing deviation as pTt and pTa are increased or as collisions become more peripheral. This suggests that no pair correlation harmonic can be described over the full 0.25

  3. Angular Momentum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shakur, Asif; Sinatra, Taylor

    2013-01-01

    The gyroscope in a smartphone was employed in a physics laboratory setting to verify the conservation of angular momentum and the nonconservation of rotational kinetic energy. As is well-known, smartphones are ubiquitous on college campuses. These devices have a panoply of built-in sensors. This creates a unique opportunity for a new paradigm in…

  4. Angular Cheilitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... the mouth. Overview Angular cheilitis (perlèche) is a chronic inflammatory condition of the corners of the mouth. Usually associated with a fungal ( Candidal ) or bacterial ( Staphylococcal ) infection, those ... people of all ages. Chronic pooling of saliva encourages fungal and bacterial growth, ...

  5. Studies of interaction between He and elements with mass number 140 in Fe by time-differential perturbed-angular-correlation measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohkubo, Yoshitaka; Taniguchi, Akihiro; Xu, Qiu; Tanigaki, Minoru; Sato, Koichi

    2014-08-01

    Room-temperature time-differential perturbed-angular-correlation (TDPAC) spectra of 140Ce arising through 140Ba-140La from 140Cs in He-doped Fe, unannealed and annealed in vacuum at various temperatures, were obtained in order to examine whether Ce (or rather, La and Ba) and He form complexes having a definite geometrical structure in Fe, as suggested by first-principles density-functional theory calculations. No clear signal of such complexes was observed in the TDPAC spectra. However, the TDPAC spectra indicate that Ce and He form complexes having a variety of geometrical structures. Comparison with reported TDPAC results on 111Cd arising from 111In in He-doped stainless steel shows that the parent atoms (La and Ba) of 140Ce trap He atoms more efficiently than In atoms do, indicating stronger bonding of He to the former atoms, while different from the present case, 111Cd (In)-He complexes form a unique geometrical structure.

  6. Electric field gradients at 181Ta probe in ZrNi: Results from perturbed angular correlation and first-principles calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dey, C. C.; Das, Rakesh; Srivastava, S. K.

    2015-07-01

    Results of temperature dependent perturbed angular correlation (PAC) measurements in the equiatomic ZrNi alloy have been reported for the first time using 181Hf probe. At room temperature, values of quadrupole frequency and asymmetry parameter for the major component (~80%) are found to be ωQ=26.8(4) Mrad/s, and η=0.413(7). The resulting electric field gradient comes out to be Vzz=2.99 ×1017 V/cm2 and this corresponds to the probe nuclei occupying the regular substitutional Zr sites. In ZrNi system, no magnetic interaction is observed down to 77 K indicating absence of any magnetism in this material. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) studies on an inactive but similarly prepared sample confirm the dominant presence of the orthorhombic ZrNi phase in the sample. A complementary density functional theory (DFT) calculation results in Vzz=-2.35×1017 V/cm2, η=0.46 at the 181Ta probe impurity site and zero magnetic moment on each atomic site, in close agreement with the experimental results. Furthermore, it is found that electric field gradient for the regular component follows a T3/2 temperature dependence between 77 and 353 K, beyond which it varies linearly with temperature.

  7. The source-sample stage of the new two-dimensional angular correlation of annihilation radiation spectrometer at Technische Universität München

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceeh, Hubert; Weber, Josef Andreas; Leitner, Michael; Böni, Peter; Hugenschmidt, Christoph

    2013-04-01

    Angular correlation of annihilation radiation (ACAR) is a well established technique for the investigation of the electronic structure. A major limitation of ACAR studies is the available positron flux at a small spot on the sample. For this reason, the focus of this work is put on the discussion of a newly developed source-sample stage of the new 2D-ACAR spectrometer at Technische Universität München which uses an optimized static magnetic field configuration to guide the positrons onto the sample. The achieved spot diameter is dFWHM = 5.4 mm, with a high efficiency over the whole energy spectrum of the 22Na positron source. The implications of the performance of the source-sample stage are discussed with regard to 2D-ACAR measurements of single crystalline α-quartz, which serves as a model system for the determination of the total resolution. A value of (1.53 × 1.64) mrad2 FWHM was achieved at room temperature.

  8. Electronic structure and orientation relationship of Li nanoclusters embedded in MgO studied by depth-selective positron annihilation two-dimensional angular correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falub, C. V.; Mijnarends, P. E.; Eijt, S. W.; van Huis, M. A.; van Veen, A.; Schut, H.

    2002-08-01

    Quantum-confined positrons are sensitive probes for determining the electronic structure of nanoclusters embedded in materials. In this work, a depth-selective positron annihilation 2D-ACAR (two-dimensional angular correlation of annihilation radiation) method is used to determine the electronic structure of Li nanoclusters formed by implantation of 1016-cm-2 30-keV 6Li ions in MgO (100) and (110) crystals and by subsequent annealing at 950 K. Owing to the difference between the positron affinities of lithium and MgO, the Li nanoclusters act as quantum dots for positrons. 2D-ACAR distributions for different projections reveal a semicoherent fitting of the embedded metallic Li nanoclusters to the host MgO lattice. Ab initio Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker calculations of the momentum density show that the anisotropies of the experimental distributions are consistent with an fcc crystal structure of the Li nanoclusters. The observed reduction of the width of the experimental 2D-ACAR distribution is attributed to positron trapping in vacancies associated with Li clusters. This work proposes a method for studying the electronic structure of metallic quantum dots embedded in an insulating material.

  9. The source-sample stage of the new two-dimensional angular correlation of annihilation radiation spectrometer at Technische Universitaet Muenchen

    SciTech Connect

    Ceeh, Hubert; Weber, Josef Andreas; Boeni, Peter; Leitner, Michael; Hugenschmidt, Christoph

    2013-04-15

    Angular correlation of annihilation radiation (ACAR) is a well established technique for the investigation of the electronic structure. A major limitation of ACAR studies is the available positron flux at a small spot on the sample. For this reason, the focus of this work is put on the discussion of a newly developed source-sample stage of the new 2D-ACAR spectrometer at Technische Universitaet Muenchen which uses an optimized static magnetic field configuration to guide the positrons onto the sample. The achieved spot diameter is d{sub FWHM}= 5.4 mm, with a high efficiency over the whole energy spectrum of the {sup 22}Na positron source. The implications of the performance of the source-sample stage are discussed with regard to 2D-ACAR measurements of single crystalline {alpha}-quartz, which serves as a model system for the determination of the total resolution. A value of (1.53 Multiplication-Sign 1.64) mrad{sup 2} FWHM was achieved at room temperature.

  10. Oxygen ordering in the high-Tc superconductor HgBa2CaCu2O6+δ as revealed by perturbed angular correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendonça, T. M.; Correia, J. G.; Haas, H.; Odier, P.; Tavares, P. B.; da Silva, M. R.; Lopes, A. M. L.; Pereira, A. M.; Gonçalves, J. N.; Amaral, J. S.; Darie, C.; Araujo, J. P.

    2011-09-01

    Lattice sites and collective ordering of oxygen atoms in HgBa2CaCu2O6+δ were studied using the perturbed angular correlation (PAC) technique at ISOLDE/CERN. The electric field gradients (EFG) at 199mHg nuclei have been measured as functions of oxygen doping on the Hg planes, above and below Tc. In comparison with the results obtained for oxygen and fluorine doping in Hg-1201, the analysis shows a different oxygen ordering exhibited by Hg-1212. Moreover, for all studied cases, the experimental results show that at a local scale there is non uniform oxygen distribution. A series of ab initio EFG calculations allowed to infer that at low concentrations, regions without oxygen coexist with regions where O2δ dumbbell molecules are located at the center of the Hg mesh. On the other side, at high concentrations, O2δ dumbbell molecules coexist with single Oδ atoms occupying the center of the Hg mesh. The present results suggest that oxygen sits on the Hg planes in the form of a molecule and not as a single atom.

  11. Magnetic behavior of La-doped Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} studied by perturbed angular correlation spectroscopy with {sup 111}Cd and {sup 140}Ce

    SciTech Connect

    Matos, I. T. Bosch-Santos, B.; Cabrera-Pasca, G. A.; Carbonari, A. W.

    2015-05-07

    In this paper, the local magnetic properties of La-doped Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} (5% and 10%) bulk and Nanoparticles (NPs) samples were studied by measuring hyperfine interactions in a wide range of temperature from 10 to 900 K with perturbed γ-γ angular correlation spectroscopy using {sup 111}In({sup 111}Cd) and {sup 140}La({sup 140}Ce) as probe nuclei. Results for the temperature dependence of the magnetic hyperfine field (B{sub hf}) for bulk and NP samples, pure and doped with La show that its behavior follows a second order Brillouin-like transition from which the Curie temperature (T{sub C}) was determined (T{sub C} ∼ 855 K). Results also show two different regions in NP samples: the core where a minor fraction of probe nuclei with well defined magnetic dipole frequency was observed and the shell where a major fraction with broad distributed electric quadrupolar frequency (surface effect in NP) was observed. The Verwey transition T{sub V} ∼ 120 K, due the order disorder phase, was also observed in all samples. The results are discussed in terms of the magnetic exchange interaction between Fe{sup 2+} and Fe{sup 3+} ions in the two regions of NP.

  12. Magnetic behavior of La-doped Fe3O4 studied by perturbed angular correlation spectroscopy with 111Cd and 140Ce

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matos, I. T.; Bosch-Santos, B.; Cabrera-Pasca, G. A.; Carbonari, A. W.

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, the local magnetic properties of La-doped Fe3O4 (5% and 10%) bulk and Nanoparticles (NPs) samples were studied by measuring hyperfine interactions in a wide range of temperature from 10 to 900 K with perturbed γ-γ angular correlation spectroscopy using 111In(111Cd) and 140La(140Ce) as probe nuclei. Results for the temperature dependence of the magnetic hyperfine field (Bhf) for bulk and NP samples, pure and doped with La show that its behavior follows a second order Brillouin-like transition from which the Curie temperature (TC) was determined (TC ˜ 855 K). Results also show two different regions in NP samples: the core where a minor fraction of probe nuclei with well defined magnetic dipole frequency was observed and the shell where a major fraction with broad distributed electric quadrupolar frequency (surface effect in NP) was observed. The Verwey transition TV ˜ 120 K, due the order disorder phase, was also observed in all samples. The results are discussed in terms of the magnetic exchange interaction between Fe2+ and Fe3+ ions in the two regions of NP.

  13. Gluon correlations from a glasma flux-tube model compared to measured hadron correlations on transverse momentum (pt,pt) and angular differences (ηΔΔ)

    SciTech Connect

    Trainor, Thomas A.; Ray, R. L.

    2011-09-09

    A glasma flux-tube model has been proposed to explain strong elongation on pseudorapidity η of the same-side two-dimensional (2D) peak in minimum-bias angular correlations from √(sNN)=200 GeV Au-Au collisions. The same-side peak or “soft ridge” is said to arise from coupling of flux tubes to radial flow whereby gluons radiated transversely from flux tubes are boosted by radial flow to form a narrow structure or ridge on azimuth. In this study we test the theory conjecture by comparing measurements to predictions for particle production, spectra, and correlations from the glasma model and from conventional fragmentation processes. We conclude that the glasma model is contradicted by measured hadron yields, spectra, and correlations, whereas a two-component model of hadron production, including minimum-bias parton fragmentation, provides a quantitative description of most features of the data, although η elongation of the same-side 2D peak remains undescribed.

  14. Determination of Sea Ice Thickness from Angular and Frequency Correlation Functions and by Genetic Algorithm: A Theoretical Study of New Instrument Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussein, Z. A.; Kuga, Y.; Ishimaru, A.; Jaruwatanadilok, S.; McDonald, K. C.; Holt, B.; Pak, K.; Jordan, R.; Perovich, D.; Sturm, M.

    2004-12-01

    Thickness and extent of Arctic sea ice play a critical role in Earth's climate and ocean circulation. An accurate measurement of these parameters on synoptic scales at regular intervals would enable characterization of this important component for the understanding of ocean circulation and global heat balance. Currently, IceSAT (laser altimeter) and EnviSAT (radar altimeter) and the upcoming CryoSAT (radar altimeter) measurement systems provide estimates of the sea ice freeboard, i.e. that portion of the ice that is above the sea level. The sea ice thickness and changes in thickness are inferred from these measurements. In this paper, we develop the theoretical basis for application of radar interferometry in the VHF band to the direct estimation of sea ice thickness. We employ angular and frequency correlation functions (ACF/FCF) of the electromagnetic wave scattered from sea-ice, using small perturbation and Kirchhoff rough surface scattering and Rayleigh volume scattering models. The medium is modeled as multi-layered stratification consisting of snow, sea ice (including spherical particles of air bubbles and brine inclusions), and sea water. Each surface interface is modeled as a rough surface with a Gaussian roughness spectrum. To characterize the ACF/FCF, the correlation between two waves with different frequencies, incidence and observation angles, is employed, forming a combined spatial- and frequency-domain interferometer. This technique exploits the difference in the correlation properties (phase matching conditions) of surface and volume scattering. The surface correlation function exhibits a strong correlation along a "memory line." The volume scattering shows a strong correlation at specific points - "memory dots." The effect of volume scattering can be suppressed by choosing appropriate combinations of frequencies and angles. The phase of the surface correlation function depends on the scattering geometry (location of the antennas), and provides

  15. Harmonic decomposition of two particle angular correlations in Pb Pb collisions at s_NN = 2.76 TeV

    SciTech Connect

    Aamodt, K.; Awes, Terry C; Read, Kenneth F; Silvermyr, David O; ALICE, Collaboration

    2012-01-01

    Angular correlations between unidentified charged trigger (t) and associated (a) particles are measured by the ALICE experiment in Pb-Pb collisions at {radical}s{sub NN} = 2.76 TeV for transverse momenta 0.25 < p{sub T}{sup t,a} < 15 GeV/c, where p{sub T}{sup t} > p{sub T}{sup a}. The shapes of the pair correlation distributions are studied in a variety of collision centrality classes between 0 and 50% of the total hadronic cross section for particles in the pseudorapidity interval |{eta}| < 1.0. Distributions in relative azimuth {Delta}{phi}{triple_bond}{phi}t-{phi}a are analyzed for |{Delta}{eta}|{triple_bond}|{eta}t-{eta}a| > 0.8, and are referred to as 'long-range correlations'. Fourier components Vn{Delta} {triple_bond} are extracted from the long-range azimuthal correlation functions. If particle pairs are correlated to one another through their individual correlation to a common symmetry plane, then the pair anisotropy V{sub n{Delta}}(p{sub T}{sup t},p{sub T}{sup a}) is fully described in terms of single-particle anisotropies vn(pT) as V{sub n{Delta}}(p{sub T}{sup t},p{sub T}{sup a}) = v{sub n}(p{sub T}{sup t})v{sub n}(p{sub T}{sup a}). This expectation is tested for 1 {le} n {le} 5 by applying a global fit of all V{sub n{Delta}}(p{sub T}{sup t},p{sub T}{sup a}) to obtain the best values vn{l_brace}GF{r_brace}(p{sub T}). It is found that for 2 {le} n {le} 5, the fit agrees well with data up to p{sub T}{sup a} {approx} 3-4 GeV/c, with a trend of increasing deviation as p{sub T}{sup t} and p{sub T}{sup a} are increased or as collisions become more peripheral. This suggests that no pair correlation harmonic can be described over the full 0.25 < pT < 15 GeV/c range using a single vn(pT) curve; such a description is however approximately possible for 2 {le} n {le} 5 when p{sub T}{sup a} < 4 GeV/c. For the n = 1 harmonic, however, a single v{sub 1}(pT) curve is not obtained even within the reduced range p{sub T}{sup a} < 4 GeV/c.

  16. Perturbed Angular Correlation Study of the Static and Dynamic Aspects of Cadmium and Mercury Atoms Inside and Attached to a C60 Fullerene Cage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Satyendra K.; Guin, Rashmohan; Banerjee, Debasish; Johnston, Karl; Das, Parnika; Butz, Tilman; Amaral, Vitor S.; Correia, Joao G.; Barbosa, Marcelo B.

    2014-11-01

    30 keV 111mCd and 50 keV 199mHg beams from ISOLDE were used to implant on preformed targets of C60 with a thickness of 1 mg cm-2. Endofullerene compounds, viz. 111mCd@C60 and 199mHg@C60 formed during implantation were separated by filtration through micropore filter paper followed by solvent extraction. Dried samples of the endofullerene compounds were counted for the time differential perturbed angular correlation (TDPAC) measurement using the coincidence of the 151 - 245 keV cascade of 111mCd and the 374 - 158 keV cascade of 199mHg on a six LaBr3(Ce) detector system coupled with digital electronics. The results for 111mCd@C60 indicate a single static component (27%) and a fast relaxing component (73%), the latter implying that the cadmium atom moves rapidly inside the cage at room temperature. The quadrupole interaction frequency and asymmetry parameter of the cadmium atom occupying the static site in C60 are wQ=8.21(36) Mrad s-1 and η = 0.41(9), respectively. The fast relaxation constant is 0.0031(4) ns-1. Similarly, mercury atoms also exhibit a single static and a fast component. The static site has a quadrupole frequency wQ=283.0(12.4) Mrad s-1 and η =0 with a fraction of 30%. The fast relaxation constant is 0.045(8) ns-1 with a fraction of 70%, very similar to that of cadmium.

  17. Hyperfine interaction measurements in LaCrO3 and LaFeO3 perovskites using perturbed angular correlation spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dogra, R.; Junqueira, A. C.; Saxena, R. N.; Carbonari, A. W.; Mestnik-Filho, J.; Moralles, M.

    2001-06-01

    The perturbed angular correlation (PAC) technique was used to study the hyperfine interactions in the antiferromagnetic and paramagnetic regions of the distorted perovskites LaCrO3 and LaFeO3. The dilute 111In-->111Cd nuclear probes were introduced into the samples through a chemical process. The present measurements cover the temperature ranges from 15 to 848 K for LaCrO3 and 77 to 1324 K for LaFeO3. Two distinct electric-quadrupole interactions were observed in each compound. The lower quadrupole frequency was assigned to the transition-metal atom site while the higher frequency was attributed to the lanthanum site in both cases. Temperature dependence of the electric-quadrupole interaction parameters indicated structural phase transitions at around 512 and 1223 K, respectively, in LaCrO3 and LaFeO3. The phase transitions were associated with the change from an orthorhombic to rhombohedral structure and characterized by a sudden increase in the electric field gradient Vzz and a decrease in the asymmetry parameter η for both sites. PAC spectra measured below the Néel temperature revealed that at 0 K the supertransferred magnetic hyperfine field on 111Cd at the Cr site in LaCrO3 (2.4 T) is much smaller than at the Fe site in LaFeO3 (19.4 T). The magnetic field on 111Cd at La sites in both compounds is of the order of 0.3 T. Additional measurements were made to determine the magnetic hyperfine field using the probe nucleus 140La-->140Ce. The result reconfirmed that a relatively weak hyperfine field is supertransferred to the probe atoms at La sites.

  18. Angular momentum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shakur, Asif; Sinatra, Taylor

    2013-12-01

    The gyroscope in a smartphone was employed in a physics laboratory setting to verify the conservation of angular momentum and the nonconservation of rotational kinetic energy. As is well-known, smartphones are ubiquitous on college campuses. These devices have a panoply of built-in sensors. This creates a unique opportunity for a new paradigm in the physics laboratory. Many traditional physics experiments can now be performed very conveniently in a pedagogically enlightening environment while simultaneously reducing the laboratory budget substantially by using student-owned smartphones.

  19. The XMM-Newton survey of the ELAIS-S1 field. I. Number counts, angular correlation function and X-ray spectral properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puccetti, S.; Fiore, F.; D'Elia, V.; Pillitteri, I.; Feruglio, C.; Grazian, A.; Brusa, M.; Ciliegi, P.; Comastri, A.; Gruppioni, C.; Mignoli, M.; Vignali, C.; Zamorani, G.; La Franca, F.; Sacchi, N.; Franceschini, A.; Berta, S.; Buttery, H.; Dias, J. E.

    2006-10-01

    Aims.The formation and evolution of cosmic structures can be probed by studying the evolution of the luminosity function of the Active Galactic Nuclei (AGNs), galaxies and clusters of galaxies and of the clustering of the X-ray active Universe, compared to the IR-UV active Universe. Methods: .To this purpose, we have surveyed with XMM-Newton the central ~0.6 deg2 region of the ELAIS-S1 field down to flux limits of ~5.5 × 10-16 erg~cm-2~s-1 (0.5-2 keV, soft band, S), ~2 × 10-15 erg~cm-2~s-1 (2-10 keV, hard band, H), and ~4 × 10-15 erg~cm-2~s-1 (5-10 keV, ultra hard band, HH). We present here the analysis of the XMM-Newton observations, the number counts in different energy bands and the clustering properties of the X-ray sources. Results: .We detect a total of 478 sources, 395 and 205 of which detected in the S and H bands respectively. We identified 7 clearly extended sources and estimated their redshift through X-ray spectral fits with thermal models. In four cases the redshift is consistent with z=0.4, so we may have detected a large scale structure formed by groups and clusters of galaxies through their hot intra-cluster gas emission. We have computed the angular correlation function of the sources in the S and H bands finding best fit correlation angles θ_0=5.2 ± 3.8 arcsec and θ_0=12.8 ± 7.8 arcsec in the two bands respectively. The correlation angle of H band sources is therefore formally ~2.5 times that of the S band sources, although the difference is at only ~1σ confidence level. A rough estimate of the present-day correlation length r0 can be obtained inverting the Limber equation and assuming an appropriate redshift distribution dN/dz. The results range between 12.8 and 9.8 h-1 Mpc in the S band and between 17.9 and 13.4 h-1 Mpc in the H band, with 30-40% statistical errors, assuming either smooth redshift distributions or redshift distributions with spikes accounting for the presence of significant structure at z=0.4. The relative density of the

  20. Radiative corrections to the three-body region of the Dalitz plot of baryon semileptonic decays with angular correlation between polarized emitted baryons and charged leptons: The initial-baryon rest frame case

    SciTech Connect

    Juarez-Leon, C.; Martinez, A.; Neri, M.; Torres, J. J.; Flores-Mendieta, Ruben; Garcia, A.

    2009-03-01

    We complement the results for the radiative corrections to the s-circumflex{sub 2}{center_dot}l-circumflex angular correlation of baryon semileptonic decays of Neri et al.[Phys. Rev. D 78, 054018 (2008)] with the final results in the rest frame of the decaying baryon. In addition, we present an analytical result which was not possible to obtain in Neri et al.'s work.

  1. Magnetic and Structural Properties of LANTHANUM(2-X) Strontium(x) Copper OXYGEN(4+DELTA) Studied with Time - Perturbed Angular Correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saylor, Janet Marie

    Structural and magnetic properties of the high temperature superconductor La_{2-x}Sr_{x} CuO_{4-y} have been studied with ^{111} In/^{111}Cd perturbed angular gammagamma-correlations (PAC). In these measurements ppm of the radioactive probe, ^{111}In, is diffused into small samples by heat treatment. During the 2.8 day half-life of ^{111}In, the hyperfine spectrum of the I = 5/2, 85 ns. excited state of ^{111}Cd can be studied. A number of complex combined magnetic-dipole -electric-quadrupole interactions are observed. These depend simply on the sample preparation which controls the types and concentration of oxygen defects which exist in the sample. In particular, we have found that vacuum annealing results in a unique PAC spectrum. In this case, which only occurs when the samples are nearly exactly oxygen stoichiometric, the ^{111}Cd probe sits at the La site with no oxygen defects nearby. The principle axis of the electric field gradient ( omega_{o} = 240 Mrad/s) is found to be nearly parallel to the tetragonal c-axis and perpendicular to the hyperfine field ( omega_{L} = 10 Mrad/s). The temperature dependence and orientation of the hyperfine field, the electric field gradient and its asymmetry parameter (eta~ 0.1) have been studied for lightly doped La_{2-x }Sr_{x}CuO _4. We found first that hyperfine field is proportional to bulk magnetization, and second that eta is proportional orthorhombic distortion (To = 530 K). This unique sensitivity of our probe to both the magnetic and structural phase transitions in La _2CuO_{4+delta }, combined with the microscopic information on oxygen stoichiometry it can provide, have made ^{111}In/^{111 }Cd PAC ideal for studies of complex phase diagram of La_{2-x}Sr _{x}CuO _4. Results from these investigations include the first microscopic determination of the oxygen stoichiometry of La_{2-x}Sr _{x}CuO _4 and observation of the maximum Neel temperature; measurement of the magnetic critical exponent, beta = 0.50(4), and the

  2. Measurement of the cross section and angular correlations for associated production of a Z boson with b hadrons in pp collisions at = 7 TeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatrchyan, S.; Khachatryan, V.; Sirunyan, A. M.; Tumasyan, A.; Adam, W.; Bergauer, T.; Dragicevic, M.; Erö, J.; Fabjan, C.; Friedl, M.; Frühwirth, R.; Ghete, V. M.; Hörmann, N.; Hrubec, J.; Jeitler, M.; Kiesenhofer, W.; Knünz, V.; Krammer, M.; Krätschmer, I.; Liko, D.; Mikulec, I.; Rabady, D.; Rahbaran, B.; Rohringer, C.; Rohringer, H.; Schöfbeck, R.; Strauss, J.; Taurok, A.; Treberer-Treberspurg, W.; Waltenberger, W.; Wulz, C.-E.; Mossolov, V.; Shumeiko, N.; Gonzalez, J. Suarez; Alderweireldt, S.; Bansal, M.; Bansal, S.; Cornelis, T.; De Wolf, E. A.; Janssen, X.; Knutsson, A.; Luyckx, S.; Mucibello, L.; Ochesanu, S.; Roland, B.; Rougny, R.; Staykova, Z.; Van Haevermaet, H.; Van Mechelen, P.; Van Remortel, N.; Van Spilbeeck, A.; Blekman, F.; Blyweert, S.; D'Hondt, J.; Kalogeropoulos, A.; Keaveney, J.; Maes, M.; Olbrechts, A.; Tavernier, S.; Van Doninck, W.; Van Mulders, P.; Van Onsem, G. P.; Villella, I.; Clerbaux, B.; De Lentdecker, G.; Favart, L.; Gay, A. P. R.; Hreus, T.; Léonard, A.; Marage, P. E.; Mohammadi, A.; Perniè, L.; Reis, T.; Seva, T.; Thomas, L.; Velde, C. Vander; Vanlaer, P.; Wang, J.; Adler, V.; Beernaert, K.; Benucci, L.; Cimmino, A.; Costantini, S.; Dildick, S.; Garcia, G.; Klein, B.; Lellouch, J.; Marinov, A.; Mccartin, J.; Rios, A. A. Ocampo; Ryckbosch, D.; Sigamani, M.; Strobbe, N.; Thyssen, F.; Tytgat, M.; Walsh, S.; Yazgan, E.; Zaganidis, N.; Basegmez, S.; Beluffi, C.; Bruno, G.; Castello, R.; Caudron, A.; Ceard, L.; Delaere, C.; du Pree, T.; Favart, D.; Forthomme, L.; Giammanco, A.; Hollar, J.; Jez, P.; Lemaitre, V.; Liao, J.; Militaru, O.; Nuttens, C.; Pagano, D.; Pin, A.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Popov, A.; Selvaggi, M.; Garcia, J. M. Vizan; Beliy, N.; Caebergs, T.; Daubie, E.; Hammad, G. H.; Alves, G. A.; Martins, M. Correa; Martins, T.; Pol, M. E.; Souza, M. H. G.; Aldá, W. L.; Carvalho, W.; Chinellato, J.; Custódio, A.; Da Costa, E. M.; De Jesus Damiao, D.; De Oliveira Martins, C.; De Souza, S. Fonseca; Malbouisson, H.; Malek, M.; Figueiredo, D. Matos; Mundim, L.; Nogima, H.; Da Silva, W. L. Prado; Santoro, A.; Sznajder, A.; Manganote, E. J. Tonelli; Pereira, A. Vilela; Bernardes, C. A.; Dias, F. A.; Tomei, T. R. Fernandez Perez; Gregores, E. M.; Lagana, C.; Mercadante, P. G.; Novaes, S. F.; Padula, Sandra S.; Genchev, V.; Iaydjiev, P.; Piperov, S.; Rodozov, M.; Sultanov, G.; Vutova, M.; Dimitrov, A.; Hadjiiska, R.; Kozhuharov, V.; Litov, L.; Pavlov, B.; Petkov, P.; Bian, J. G.; Chen, G. M.; Chen, H. S.; Jiang, C. H.; Liang, D.; Liang, S.; Meng, X.; Tao, J.; Wang, J.; Wang, X.; Wang, Z.; Xiao, H.; Xu, M.; Asawatangtrakuldee, C.; Ban, Y.; Guo, Y.; Li, Q.; Li, W.; Liu, S.; Mao, Y.; Qian, S. J.; Wang, D.; Zhang, L.; Zou, W.; Avila, C.; Montoya, C. A. Carrillo; Sierra, L. F. Chaparro; Gomez, J. P.; Moreno, B. Gomez; Sanabria, J. C.; Godinovic, N.; Lelas, D.; Plestina, R.; Polic, D.; Puljak, I.; Antunovic, Z.; Kovac, M.; Brigljevic, V.; Duric, S.; Kadija, K.; Luetic, J.; Mekterovic, D.; Morovic, S.; Tikvica, L.; Attikis, A.; Mavromanolakis, G.; Mousa, J.; Nicolaou, C.; Ptochos, F.; Razis, P. A.; Finger, M.; Finger, M.; Abdelalim, A. A.; Assran, Y.; Elgammal, S.; Kamel, A. Ellithi; Mahmoud, M. A.; Radi, A.; Kadastik, M.; Müntel, M.; Murumaa, M.; Raidal, M.; Rebane, L.; Tiko, A.; Eerola, P.; Fedi, G.; Voutilainen, M.; Härkönen, J.; Karimäki, V.; Kinnunen, R.; Kortelainen, M. J.; Lampén, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Lehti, S.; Lindén, T.; Luukka, P.; Mäenpää, T.; Peltola, T.; Tuominen, E.; Tuominiemi, J.; Tuovinen, E.; Wendland, L.; Korpela, A.; Tuuva, T.; Besancon, M.; Choudhury, S.; Couderc, F.; Dejardin, M.; Denegri, D.; Fabbro, B.; Faure, J. L.; Ferri, F.; Ganjour, S.; Givernaud, A.; Gras, P.; de Monchenault, G. Hamel; Jarry, P.; Locci, E.; Malcles, J.; Millischer, L.; Nayak, A.; Rander, J.; Rosowsky, A.; Titov, M.; Baffioni, S.; Beaudette, F.; Benhabib, L.; Bianchini, L.; Bluj, M.; Busson, P.; Charlot, C.; Daci, N.; Dahms, T.; Dalchenko, M.; Dobrzynski, L.; Florent, A.; de Cassagnac, R. Granier; Haguenauer, M.; Miné, P.; Mironov, C.; Naranjo, I. N.; Nguyen, M.; Ochando, C.; Paganini, P.; Sabes, D.; Salerno, R.; Sirois, Y.; Veelken, C.; Zabi, A.; Agram, J.-L.; Andrea, J.; Bloch, D.; Bodin, D.; Brom, J.-M.; Chabert, E. C.; Collard, C.; Conte, E.; Drouhin, F.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Gelé, D.; Goerlach, U.; Goetzmann, C.; Juillot, P.; Le Bihan, A.-C.; Van Hove, P.; Gadrat, S.; Beauceron, S.; Beaupere, N.; Boudoul, G.; Brochet, S.; Chasserat, J.; Chierici, R.; Contardo, D.; Depasse, P.; El Mamouni, H.; Fay, J.; Gascon, S.; Gouzevitch, M.; Ille, B.; Kurca, T.; Lethuillier, M.; Mirabito, L.; Perries, S.; Sgandurra, L.; Sordini, V.; Tschudi, Y.; Donckt, M. Vander; Verdier, P.; Viret, S.; Tsamalaidze, Z.; Autermann, C.; Beranek, S.; Calpas, B.; Edelhoff, M.; Feld, L.; Heracleous, N.; Hindrichs, O.; Klein, K.; Ostapchuk, A.; Perieanu, A.; Raupach, F.; Sammet, J.; Schael, S.; Sprenger, D.; Weber, H.; Wittmer, B.; Zhukov, V.; Ata, M.; Caudron, J.; Dietz-Laursonn, E.; Duchardt, D.; Erdmann, M.; Fischer, R.; Güth, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heidemann, C.; Hoepfner, K.; Klingebiel, D.; Kreuzer, P.; Merschmeyer, M.; Meyer, A.; Olschewski, M.; Padeken, K.; Papacz, P.; Pieta, H.; Reithler, H.; Schmitz, S. A.; Sonnenschein, L.; Steggemann, J.; Teyssier, D.; Thüer, S.; Weber, M.; Cherepanov, V.; Erdogan, Y.; Flügge, G.; Geenen, H.; Geisler, M.; Ahmad, W. Haj; Hoehle, F.; Kargoll, B.; Kress, T.; Kuessel, Y.; Lingemann, J.; Nowack, A.; Nugent, I. M.; Perchalla, L.; Pooth, O.; Stahl, A.; Martin, M. Aldaya; Asin, I.; Bartosik, N.; Behr, J.; Behrenhoff, W.; Behrens, U.; Bergholz, M.; Bethani, A.; Borras, K.; Burgmeier, A.; Cakir, A.; Calligaris, L.; Campbell, A.; Costanza, F.; Pardos, C. Diez; Dooling, S.; Dorland, T.; Eckerlin, G.; Eckstein, D.; Flucke, G.; Geiser, A.; Glushkov, I.; Gunnellini, P.; Habib, S.; Hauk, J.; Hellwig, G.; Horton, D.; Jung, H.; Kasemann, M.; Katsas, P.; Kleinwort, C.; Kluge, H.; Krämer, M.; Krücker, D.; Kuznetsova, E.; Lange, W.; Leonard, J.; Lipka, K.; Lohmann, W.; Lutz, B.; Mankel, R.; Marfin, I.; Melzer-Pellmann, I.-A.; Meyer, A. B.; Mnich, J.; Mussgiller, A.; Naumann-Emme, S.; Novgorodova, O.; Nowak, F.; Olzem, J.; Perrey, H.; Petrukhin, A.; Pitzl, D.; Placakyte, R.; Raspereza, A.; Cipriano, P. M. Ribeiro; Riedl, C.; Ron, E.; Sahin, M. Ö.; Salfeld-Nebgen, J.; Schmidt, R.; Schoerner-Sadenius, T.; Sen, N.; Stein, M.; Walsh, R.; Wissing, C.; Blobel, V.; Enderle, H.; Erfle, J.; Gebbert, U.; Görner, M.; Gosselink, M.; Haller, J.; Heine, K.; Höing, R. S.; Kaussen, G.; Kirschenmann, H.; Klanner, R.; Kogler, R.; Lange, J.; Marchesini, I.; Peiffer, T.; Pietsch, N.; Rathjens, D.; Sander, C.; Schettler, H.; Schleper, P.; Schlieckau, E.; Schmidt, A.; Schröder, M.; Schum, T.; Seidel, M.; Sibille, J.; Sola, V.; Stadie, H.; Steinbrück, G.; Thomsen, J.; Troendle, D.; Vanelderen, L.; Barth, C.; Baus, C.; Berger, J.; Böser, C.; Butz, E.; Chwalek, T.; De Boer, W.; Descroix, A.; Dierlamm, A.; Feindt, M.; Guthoff, M.; Hartmann, F.; Hauth, T.; Held, H.; Hoffmann, K. H.; Husemann, U.; Katkov, I.; Komaragiri, J. R.; Kornmayer, A.; Pardo, P. Lobelle; Martschei, D.; Müller, Th.; Niegel, M.; Nürnberg, A.; Oberst, O.; Ott, J.; Quast, G.; Rabbertz, K.; Ratnikov, F.; Röcker, S.; Schilling, F.-P.; Schott, G.; Simonis, H. J.; Stober, F. M.; Ulrich, R.; Wagner-Kuhr, J.; Wayand, S.; Weiler, T.; Zeise, M.; Anagnostou, G.; Daskalakis, G.; Geralis, T.; Kesisoglou, S.; Kyriakis, A.; Loukas, D.; Markou, A.; Markou, C.; Ntomari, E.; Gouskos, L.; Mertzimekis, T. J.; Panagiotou, A.; Saoulidou, N.; Stiliaris, E.; Aslanoglou, X.; Evangelou, I.; Flouris, G.; Foudas, C.; Kokkas, P.; Manthos, N.; Papadopoulos, I.; Paradas, E.; Bencze, G.; Hajdu, C.; Hidas, P.; Horvath, D.; Radics, B.; Sikler, F.; Veszpremi, V.; Vesztergombi, G.; Zsigmond, A. J.; Beni, N.; Czellar, S.; Molnar, J.; Palinkas, J.; Szillasi, Z.; Karancsi, J.; Raics, P.; Trocsanyi, Z. L.; Ujvari, B.; Swain, S. K.; Beri, S. B.; Bhatnagar, V.; Dhingra, N.; Gupta, R.; Kaur, M.; Mehta, M. Z.; Mittal, M.; Nishu, N.; Saini, L. K.; Sharma, A.; Singh, J. B.; Kumar, Ashok; Kumar, Arun; Ahuja, S.; Bhardwaj, A.; Choudhary, B. C.; Malhotra, S.; Naimuddin, M.; Ranjan, K.; Saxena, P.; Sharma, V.; Shivpuri, R. K.; Banerjee, S.; Bhattacharya, S.; Chatterjee, K.; Dutta, S.; Gomber, B.; Jain, Sa.; Jain, Sh.; Khurana, R.; Modak, A.; Mukherjee, S.; Roy, D.; Sarkar, S.; Sharan, M.; Singh, A. P.; Abdulsalam, A.; Dutta, D.; Kailas, S.; Kumar, V.; Mohanty, A. K.; Pant, L. M.; Shukla, P.; Topkar, A.; Aziz, T.; Chatterjee, R. M.; Ganguly, S.; Ghosh, S.; Guchait, M.; Gurtu, A.; Kole, G.; Kumar, S.; Maity, M.; Majumder, G.; Mazumdar, K.; Mohanty, G. B.; Parida, B.; Sudhakar, K.; Wickramage, N.; Banerjee, S.; Dugad, S.; Arfaei, H.; Bakhshiansohi, H.; Etesami, S. M.; Fahim, A.; Hesari, H.; Jafari, A.; Khakzad, M.; Najafabadi, M. Mohammadi; Mehdiabadi, S. Paktinat; Safarzadeh, B.; Zeinali, M.; Grunewald, M.; Abbrescia, M.; Barbone, L.; Calabria, C.; Chhibra, S. S.; Colaleo, A.; Creanza, D.; De Filippis, N.; De Palma, M.; Fiore, L.; Iaselli, G.; Maggi, G.; Maggi, M.; Marangelli, B.; My, S.; Nuzzo, S.; Pacifico, N.; Pompili, A.; Pugliese, G.; Selvaggi, G.; Silvestris, L.; Singh, G.; Venditti, R.; Verwilligen, P.; Zito, G.; Abbiendi, G.; Benvenuti, A. C.; Bonacorsi, D.; Braibant-Giacomelli, S.; Brigliadori, L.; Campanini, R.; Capiluppi, P.; Castro, A.; Cavallo, F. R.; Cuffiani, M.; Dallavalle, G. M.; Fabbri, F.; Fanfani, A.; Fasanella, D.; Giacomelli, P.; Grandi, C.; Guiducci, L.; Marcellini, S.; Masetti, G.; Meneghelli, M.; Montanari, A.; Navarria, F. L.; Odorici, F.; Perrotta, A.; Primavera, F.; Rossi, A. M.; Rovelli, T.; Siroli, G. P.; Tosi, N.; Travaglini, R.; Albergo, S.; Chiorboli, M.; Costa, S.; Giordano, F.; Potenza, R.; Tricomi, A.; Tuve, C.; Barbagli, G.; Ciulli, V.; Civinini, C.; D'Alessandro, R.; Focardi, E.; Frosali, S.; Gallo, E.; Gonzi, S.; Gori, V.; Lenzi, P.; Meschini, M.; Paoletti, S.; Sguazzoni, G.; Tropiano, A.; Benussi, L.; Bianco, S.; Fabbri, F.; Piccolo, D.; Fabbricatore, P.; Musenich, R.; Tosi, S.; Benaglia, A.; De Guio, F.; Di Matteo, L.; Fiorendi, S.; Gennai, S.; Ghezzi, A.; Govoni, P.; Lucchini, M. T.; Malvezzi, S.; Manzoni, R. A.; Martelli, A.; Menasce, D.; Moroni, L.; Paganoni, M.; Pedrini, D.; Ragazzi, S.; Redaelli, N.; de Fatis, T. Tabarelli; Buontempo, S.; Cavallo, N.; De Cosa, A.; Fabozzi, F.; Iorio, A. O. M.; Lista, L.; Meola, S.; Merola, M.; Paolucci, P.; Azzi, P.; Bacchetta, N.; Bisello, D.; Branca, A.; Carlin, R.; Checchia, P.; Dorigo, T.; Dosselli, U.; Fantinel, S.; Fanzago, F.; Galanti, M.; Gasparini, F.; Gasparini, U.; Giubilato, P.; Gozzelino, A.; Kanishchev, K.; Lacaprara, S.; Lazzizzera, I.; Margoni, M.; Meneguzzo, A. T.; Pazzini, J.; Pozzobon, N.; Ronchese, P.; Simonetto, F.; Torassa, E.; Tosi, M.; Vanini, S.; Zotto, P.; Zucchetta, A.; Zumerle, G.; Gabusi, M.; Ratti, S. P.; Riccardi, C.; Vitulo, P.; Biasini, M.; Bilei, G. M.; Fanò, L.; Lariccia, P.; Mantovani, G.; Menichelli, M.; Nappi, A.; Romeo, F.; Saha, A.; Santocchia, A.; Spiezia, A.; Androsov, K.; Azzurri, P.; Bagliesi, G.; Bernardini, J.; Boccali, T.; Broccolo, G.; Castaldi, R.; D'Agnolo, R. T.; Dell'Orso, R.; Fiori, F.; Foà, L.; Giassi, A.; Grippo, M. T.; Kraan, A.; Ligabue, F.; Lomtadze, T.; Martini, L.; Messineo, A.; Palla, F.; Rizzi, A.; Serban, A. T.; Spagnolo, P.; Squillacioti, P.; Tenchini, R.; Tonelli, G.; Venturi, A.; Verdini, P. G.; Vernieri, C.; Barone, L.; Cavallari, F.; Del Re, D.; Diemoz, M.; Grassi, M.; Longo, E.; Margaroli, F.; Meridiani, P.; Micheli, F.; Nourbakhsh, S.; Organtini, G.; Paramatti, R.; Rahatlou, S.; Soffi, L.; Amapane, N.; Arcidiacono, R.; Argiro, S.; Arneodo, M.; Biino, C.; Cartiglia, N.; Casasso, S.; Costa, M.; Demaria, N.; Mariotti, C.; Maselli, S.; Migliore, E.; Monaco, V.; Musich, M.; Obertino, M. M.; Ortona, G.; Pastrone, N.; Pelliccioni, M.; Potenza, A.; Romero, A.; Ruspa, M.; Sacchi, R.; Solano, A.; Staiano, A.; Tamponi, U.; Belforte, S.; Candelise, V.; Casarsa, M.; Cossutti, F.; Della Ricca, G.; Gobbo, B.; La Licata, C.; Marone, M.; Montanino, D.; Penzo, A.; Schizzi, A.; Zanetti, A.; Chang, S.; Kim, T. Y.; Nam, S. K.; Kim, D. H.; Kim, G. N.; Kim, J. E.; Kong, D. J.; Oh, Y. D.; Park, H.; Son, D. C.; Kim, J. Y.; Kim, Zero J.; Song, S.; Choi, S.; Gyun, D.; Hong, B.; Jo, M.; Kim, H.; Kim, T. J.; Lee, K. S.; Park, S. K.; Roh, Y.; Choi, M.; Kim, J. H.; Park, C.; Park, I. C.; Park, S.; Ryu, G.; Choi, Y.; Choi, Y. K.; Goh, J.; Kim, M. S.; Kwon, E.; Lee, B.; Lee, J.; Lee, S.; Seo, H.; Yu, I.; Grigelionis, I.; Juodagalvis, A.; Castilla-Valdez, H.; De La Cruz-Burelo, E.; Heredia-de La Cruz, I.; Lopez-Fernandez, R.; Martínez-Ortega, J.; Sanchez-Hernandez, A.; Villasenor-Cendejas, L. M.; Moreno, S. Carrillo; Valencia, F. Vazquez; Ibarguen, H. A. Salazar; Linares, E. Casimiro; Pineda, A. Morelos; Reyes-Santos, M. A.; Krofcheck, D.; Bell, A. J.; Butler, P. H.; Doesburg, R.; Reucroft, S.; Silverwood, H.; Ahmad, M.; Asghar, M. I.; Butt, J.; Hoorani, H. R.; Khalid, S.; Khan, W. A.; Khurshid, T.; Qazi, S.; Shah, M. A.; Shoaib, M.; Bialkowska, H.; Boimska, B.; Frueboes, T.; Górski, M.; Kazana, M.; Nawrocki, K.; Romanowska-Rybinska, K.; Szleper, M.; Wrochna, G.; Zalewski, P.; Brona, G.; Bunkowski, K.; Cwiok, M.; Dominik, W.; Doroba, K.; Kalinowski, A.; Konecki, M.; Krolikowski, J.; Misiura, M.; Wolszczak, W.; Almeida, N.; Bargassa, P.; Beirão Da Cruz E Silva, C.; Faccioli, P.; Parracho, P. G. Ferreira; Gallinaro, M.; Antunes, J. Rodrigues; Seixas, J.; Varela, J.; Vischia, P.; Bunin, P.; Gavrilenko, M.; Golutvin, I.; Gorbunov, I.; Kamenev, A.; Karjavin, V.; Konoplyanikov, V.; Kozlov, G.; Lanev, A.; Malakhov, A.; Matveev, V.; Moisenz, P.; Palichik, V.; Perelygin, V.; Shmatov, S.; Skatchkov, N.; Smirnov, V.; Zarubin, A.; Evstyukhin, S.; Golovtsov, V.; Ivanov, Y.; Kim, V.; Levchenko, P.; Murzin, V.; Oreshkin, V.; Smirnov, I.; Sulimov, V.; Uvarov, L.; Vavilov, S.; Vorobyev, A.; Vorobyev, An.; Andreev, Yu.; Dermenev, A.; Gninenko, S.; Golubev, N.; Kirsanov, M.; Krasnikov, N.; Pashenkov, A.; Tlisov, D.; Toropin, A.; Epshteyn, V.; Erofeeva, M.; Gavrilov, V.; Lychkovskaya, N.; Popov, V.; Safronov, G.; Semenov, S.; Spiridonov, A.; Stolin, V.; Vlasov, E.; Zhokin, A.; Andreev, V.; Azarkin, M.; Dremin, I.; Kirakosyan, M.; Leonidov, A.; Mesyats, G.; Rusakov, S. V.; Vinogradov, A.; Belyaev, A.; Boos, E.; Bunichev, V.; Dubinin, M.; Dudko, L.; Ershov, A.; Gribushin, A.; Klyukhin, V.; Kodolova, O.; Lokhtin, I.; Markina, A.; Obraztsov, S.; Petrushanko, S.; Savrin, V.; Azhgirey, I.; Bayshev, I.; Bitioukov, S.; Kachanov, V.; Kalinin, A.; Konstantinov, D.; Krychkine, V.; Petrov, V.; Ryutin, R.; Sobol, A.; Tourtchanovitch, L.; Troshin, S.; Tyurin, N.; Uzunian, A.; Volkov, A.; Adzic, P.; Djordjevic, M.; Ekmedzic, M.; Krpic, D.; Milosevic, J.; Aguilar-Benitez, M.; Maestre, J. Alcaraz; Battilana, C.; Calvo, E.; Cerrada, M.; Llatas, M. Chamizo; Colino, N.; De La Cruz, B.; Peris, A. Delgado; Vázquez, D. Domínguez; Bedoya, C. Fernandez; Ramos, J. P. Fernández; Ferrando, A.; Flix, J.; Fouz, M. C.; Garcia-Abia, P.; Lopez, O. Gonzalez; Lopez, S. Goy; Hernandez, J. M.; Josa, M. I.; Merino, G.; De Martino, E. Navarro; Pelayo, J. Puerta; Olmeda, A. Quintario; Redondo, I.; Romero, L.; Santaolalla, J.; Soares, M. S.; Willmott, C.; Albajar, C.; de Trocóniz, J. F.; Brun, H.; Cuevas, J.; Menendez, J. Fernandez; Folgueras, S.; Caballero, I. Gonzalez; Iglesias, L. Lloret; Gomez, J. Piedra; Cifuentes, J. A. Brochero; Cabrillo, I. J.; Calderon, A.; Chuang, S. H.; Campderros, J. Duarte; Fernandez, M.; Gomez, G.; Sanchez, J. Gonzalez; Graziano, A.; Jorda, C.; Virto, A. Lopez; Marco, J.; Marco, R.; Rivero, C. Martinez; Matorras, F.; Sanchez, F. J. Munoz; Rodrigo, T.; Rodríguez-Marrero, A. Y.; Ruiz-Jimeno, A.; Scodellaro, L.; Vila, I.; Cortabitarte, R. Vilar; Abbaneo, D.; Auffray, E.; Auzinger, G.; Bachtis, M.; Baillon, P.; Ball, A. H.; Barney, D.; Bendavid, J.; Benitez, J. F.; Bernet, C.; Bianchi, G.; Bloch, P.; Bocci, A.; Bonato, A.; Bondu, O.; Botta, C.; Breuker, H.; Camporesi, T.; Cerminara, G.; Christiansen, T.; Perez, J. A. 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W.; Boutle, S.; Cox, B.; Francis, B.; Goodell, J.; Hirosky, R.; Ledovskoy, A.; Lin, C.; Neu, C.; Wood, J.; Gollapinni, S.; Harr, R.; Karchin, P. E.; Don, C. Kottachchi Kankanamge; Lamichhane, P.; Sakharov, A.; Belknap, D. A.; Borrello, L.; Carlsmith, D.; Cepeda, M.; Dasu, S.; Friis, E.; Grothe, M.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Herndon, M.; Hervé, A.; Kaadze, K.; Klabbers, P.; Klukas, J.; Lanaro, A.; Loveless, R.; Mohapatra, A.; Mozer, M. U.; Ojalvo, I.; Pierro, G. A.; Polese, G.; Ross, I.; Savin, A.; Smith, W. H.; Swanson, J.

    2013-12-01

    A study of proton-proton collisions in which two b hadrons are produced in association with a Z boson is reported. The collisions were recorded at a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeVwith the CMS detector at the LHC, for an integrated luminosity of 5.2 fb-1. The b hadrons are identified by means of displaced secondary vertices, without the use of reconstructed jets, permitting the study of b-hadron pair production at small angular separation. Differential cross sections are presented as a function of the angular separation of the b hadrons and the Z boson. In addition, inclusive measurements are presented. For both the inclusive and differential studies, different ranges of Z boson momentum are considered, and each measurement is compared to the predictions from different event generators at leading-order and next-to-leading-order accuracy. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  3. Measurement of Long-Range Angular Correlation and Quadrupole Anisotropy of Pions and (Anti)Protons in Central d+Au Collisions at sqrt[s_{NN}]=200 GeV.

    PubMed

    Adare, A; Aidala, C; Ajitanand, N N; Akiba, Y; Akimoto, R; Al-Bataineh, H; Al-Ta'ani, H; Alexander, J; Andrews, K R; Angerami, A; Aoki, K; Apadula, N; Appelt, E; Aramaki, Y; Armendariz, R; Aschenauer, E C; Atomssa, E T; Averbeck, R; Awes, T C; Azmoun, B; Babintsev, V; Bai, M; Baksay, G; Baksay, L; Bannier, B; Barish, K N; Bassalleck, B; Basye, A T; Bathe, S; Baublis, V; Baumann, C; Bazilevsky, A; Belikov, S; Belmont, R; Ben-Benjamin, J; Bennett, R; Bhom, J H; Blau, D S; Bok, J S; Boyle, K; Brooks, M L; Broxmeyer, D; Buesching, H; Bumazhnov, V; Bunce, G; Butsyk, S; Campbell, S; Caringi, A; Castera, P; Chen, C-H; Chi, C Y; Chiu, M; Choi, I J; Choi, J B; Choudhury, R K; Christiansen, P; Chujo, T; Chung, P; Chvala, O; Cianciolo, V; Citron, Z; Cole, B A; Conesa Del Valle, Z; Connors, M; Csanád, M; Csörgő, T; Dahms, T; Dairaku, S; Danchev, I; Das, K; Datta, A; David, G; Dayananda, M K; Denisov, A; Deshpande, A; Desmond, E J; Dharmawardane, K V; Dietzsch, O; Dion, A; Donadelli, M; Drapier, O; Drees, A; Drees, K A; Durham, J M; Durum, A; Dutta, D; D'Orazio, L; Edwards, S; Efremenko, Y V; Ellinghaus, F; Engelmore, T; Enokizono, A; En'yo, H; Esumi, S; Fadem, B; Fields, D E; Finger, M; Finger, M; Fleuret, F; Fokin, S L; Fraenkel, Z; Frantz, J E; Franz, A; Frawley, A D; Fujiwara, K; Fukao, Y; Fusayasu, T; Gal, C; Garishvili, I; Glenn, A; Gong, H; Gong, X; Gonin, M; Goto, Y; Granier de Cassagnac, R; Grau, N; Greene, S V; Grim, G; Grosse Perdekamp, M; Gunji, T; Guo, L; Gustafsson, H-Å; Haggerty, J S; Hahn, K I; Hamagaki, H; Hamblen, J; Han, R; Hanks, J; Harper, C; Hashimoto, K; Haslum, E; Hayano, R; He, X; Heffner, M; Hemmick, T K; Hester, T; Hill, J C; Hohlmann, M; Hollis, R S; Holzmann, W; Homma, K; Hong, B; Horaguchi, T; Hori, Y; Hornback, D; Huang, S; Ichihara, T; Ichimiya, R; Iinuma, H; Ikeda, Y; Imai, K; Inaba, M; Iordanova, A; Isenhower, D; Ishihara, M; Issah, M; Ivanischev, D; Iwanaga, Y; Jacak, B V; Jia, J; Jiang, X; Jin, J; John, D; Johnson, B M; Jones, T; Joo, K S; Jouan, D; Jumper, D S; Kajihara, F; Kamin, J; Kaneti, S; Kang, B H; Kang, J H; Kang, J S; Kapustinsky, J; Karatsu, K; Kasai, M; Kawall, D; Kawashima, M; Kazantsev, A V; Kempel, T; Khanzadeev, A; Kijima, K M; Kikuchi, J; Kim, A; Kim, B I; Kim, D J; Kim, E-J; Kim, Y-J; Kim, Y K; Kinney, E; Kiss, Á; Kistenev, E; Kleinjan, D; Kline, P; Kochenda, L; Komkov, B; Konno, M; Koster, J; Kotov, D; Král, A; Kravitz, A; Kunde, G J; Kurita, K; Kurosawa, M; Kwon, Y; Kyle, G S; Lacey, R; Lai, Y S; Lajoie, J G; Lebedev, A; Lee, D M; Lee, J; Lee, K B; Lee, K S; Lee, S H; Lee, S R; Leitch, M J; Leite, M A L; Li, X; Lichtenwalner, P; Liebing, P; Lim, S H; Linden Levy, L A; Liška, T; Liu, H; Liu, M X; Love, B; Lynch, D; Maguire, C F; Makdisi, Y I; Malik, M D; Manion, A; Manko, V I; Mannel, E; Mao, Y; Masui, H; Matathias, F; McCumber, M; McGaughey, P L; McGlinchey, D; McKinney, C; Means, N; Mendoza, M; Meredith, B; Miake, Y; Mibe, T; Mignerey, A C; Miki, K; Milov, A; Mitchell, J T; Miyachi, Y; Mohanty, A K; Moon, H J; Morino, Y; Morreale, A; Morrison, D P; Motschwiller, S; Moukhanova, T V; Murakami, T; Murata, J; Nagamiya, S; Nagle, J L; Naglis, M; Nagy, M I; Nakagawa, I; Nakamiya, Y; Nakamura, K R; Nakamura, T; Nakano, K; Nam, S; Newby, J; Nguyen, M; Nihashi, M; Nouicer, R; Nyanin, A S; Oakley, C; O'Brien, E; Oda, S X; Ogilvie, C A; Oka, M; Okada, K; Onuki, Y; Oskarsson, A; Ouchida, M; Ozawa, K; Pak, R; Pantuev, V; Papavassiliou, V; Park, B H; Park, I H; Park, S K; Park, W J; Pate, S F; Patel, L; Pei, H; Peng, J-C; Pereira, H; Peressounko, D Yu; Petti, R; Pinkenburg, C; Pisani, R P; Proissl, M; Purschke, M L; Qu, H; Rak, J; Ravinovich, I; Read, K F; Rembeczki, S; Reygers, K; Riabov, V; Riabov, Y; Richardson, E; Roach, D; Roche, G; Rolnick, S D; Rosati, M; Rosen, C A; Rosendahl, S S E; Ružička, P; Sahlmueller, B; Saito, N; Sakaguchi, T; Sakashita, K; Samsonov, V; Sano, S; Sarsour, M; Sato, T; Savastio, M; Sawada, S; Sedgwick, K; Seele, J; Seidl, R; Seto, R; Sharma, D; Shein, I; Shibata, T-A; Shigaki, K; Shim, H H; Shimomura, M; Shoji, K; Shukla, P; Sickles, A; Silva, C L; Silvermyr, D; Silvestre, C; Sim, K S; Singh, B K; Singh, C P; Singh, V; Slunečka, M; Sodre, T; Soltz, R A; Sondheim, W E; Sorensen, S P; Sourikova, I V; Stankus, P W; Stenlund, E; Stoll, S P; Sugitate, T; Sukhanov, A; Sun, J; Sziklai, J; Takagui, E M; Takahara, A; Taketani, A; Tanabe, R; Tanaka, Y; Taneja, S; Tanida, K; Tannenbaum, M J; Tarafdar, S; Taranenko, A; Tennant, E; Themann, H; Thomas, D; Thomas, T L; Togawa, M; Toia, A; Tomášek, L; Tomášek, M; Torii, H; Towell, R S; Tserruya, I; Tsuchimoto, Y; Utsunomiya, K; Vale, C; Valle, H; van Hecke, H W; Vazquez-Zambrano, E; Veicht, A; Velkovska, J; Vértesi, R; Virius, M; Vossen, A; Vrba, V; Vznuzdaev, E; Wang, X R; Watanabe, D; Watanabe, K; Watanabe, Y; Watanabe, Y S; Wei, F; Wei, R; Wessels, J; White, S N; Winter, D; Woody, C L; Wright, R M; Wysocki, M; Yamaguchi, Y L; Yamaura, K; Yang, R; Yanovich, A; Ying, J; Yokkaichi, S; Yoo, J S; You, Z; Young, G R; Younus, I; Yushmanov, I E; Zajc, W A; Zelenski, A; Zhou, S

    2015-05-15

    We present azimuthal angular correlations between charged hadrons and energy deposited in calorimeter towers in central d+Au and minimum bias p+p collisions at sqrt[s_{NN}]=200 GeV. The charged hadron is measured at midrapidity |η|<0.35, and the energy is measured at large rapidity (-3.7<η<-3.1, Au-going direction). An enhanced near-side angular correlation across |Δη|>2.75 is observed in d+Au collisions. Using the event plane method applied to the Au-going energy distribution, we extract the anisotropy strength v_{2} for inclusive charged hadrons at midrapidity up to p_{T}=4.5 GeV/c. We also present the measurement of v_{2} for identified π^{±} and (anti)protons in central d+Au collisions, and observe a mass-ordering pattern similar to that seen in heavy-ion collisions. These results are compared with viscous hydrodynamic calculations and measurements from p+Pb at sqrt[s_{NN}]=5.02 TeV. The magnitude of the mass ordering in d+Au is found to be smaller than that in p+Pb collisions, which may indicate smaller radial flow in lower energy d+Au collisions. PMID:26024164

  4. Charge-multiplicity dependence of single-particle transverse-rapidity yt and pseudorapidity η densities and 2D angular correlations from 200 GeV p -p collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trainor, Thomas A.; Prindle, Duncan J.

    2016-01-01

    An established phenomenology and theoretical interpretation of p -p collision data at lower collision energies should provide a reference for p -p and other collision systems at higher energies, against which claims of novel physics may be tested. The description of p -p collisions at the relativistic heavy ion collider has remained incomplete even as claims for collectivity and other novelties in data from smaller systems at the large hadron collider have emerged recently. In this study we report the charge-multiplicity dependence of two-dimensional angular correlations and of single-particle (SP) densities on transverse rapidity yt and pseudorapidity η from 200 GeV p -p collisions. We define a comprehensive and self-consistent two-component (soft+hard ) model for hadron production and report a significant p -p nonjet quadrupole component as a third (angular-correlation) component. Our results have implications for p -p centrality, the underlying event, collectivity in small systems and the existence of flows in high-energy nuclear collisions.

  5. Measurement of long-range angular correlation and quadrupole anisotropy of pions and (anti)protons in central d+Au collisions at sNN=200 GeV

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Adare, A.; Aidala, C.; Ajitanand, N. N.; Akiba, Y.; Akimoto, R.; Al-Bataineh, H.; Al-Ta’ani, H.; Alexander, J.; Andrews, K. R.; Angerami, A.; et al

    2015-05-12

    In this study, we present azimuthal angular correlations between charged hadrons and energy deposited in calorimeter towers in central d+Au and aluminum bias p+p collisions at √sNN = 200 GeV. The charged hadron is measured at midrapidity lηl < 0.35, and the energy us measured at large rapidity (–3.7 < η < –3.1, Au-going direction). An enhanced near-side angular correlation across lΔηl > 2.75 is observed in d+Au collisions. Using the event plane method applied to the Au-going energy distribution, we extract the anisotropy strength v₂ for inclusive charged hadrons at midrapidity up to pT = 4.5 GeV/c. We alsomore » present the measurement of v₂ for identified π± and (anti)protons in central d+Au collisions, and observe a mass-ordering pattern similar to that seen in heavy ion collisions. These results are compared with viscous hydrodynamic calculations and measurements from p+Pb at √sNN = 5.02 TeV. The magnitude of the mass-ordering in d+Au is found to be smaller than that in p+Pb collisions, which may indicate smaller radial flow in lower energy d+Au collisions.« less

  6. T-odd angular correlations in the emission of prompt gamma rays and neutrons in nuclear fission induced by polarized neutrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danilyan, G. V.; Klenke, J.; Krakhotin, V. A.; Kopach, Yu. N.; Novitsky, V. V.; Pavlov, V. S.; Shatalov, P. B.

    2011-05-01

    Study of the T-odd three-vector correlation in the emission of prompt neutrons from 235U fission by polarized cold neutrons has been continued at the facility MEPHISTO of the FRM II reactor (Technical University of Munich). The sought correlation was not found within experimental error of 2.3 × 10-5. The upper limit for the asymmetry coefficient has been set to | D n | < 6 × 10-5 at 99% confidence level, whereas for ternary fission correlation coefficient D α = (170±20) × 10-5. This limit casts doubt on a model that explains the three-vector correlation in ternary fission by the Coriolis mechanism. At the same time, five-vector correlation in the emission of prompt fission neutrons has been measured, which describes the rotation of the fissioning nucleus at the moment it breaks (ROT effect). At the angle 22.5° to the fission axis, the correlation coefficient was found to be (1.57 ± 0.20) × 10-4, while at the angle of 67.5° it is zero within the experimental uncertainty. The existence of ROT effect in the emission of prompt fission neutrons can be explained by the anisotropy of neutron emission in the rest frame of the fragment (fission fragments are aligned with respect to the axis of deformation of the fissioning nucleus), similar to the mechanism of ROT effect in the emission of prompt γ-rays.

  7. Angular correlation measurements for {sup 12}C{sup 12}C,{sup 12}C{sup 12}C 3{sup -} scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Wuosmaa, A.H.; Betts, R.R.; Freer, M.

    1995-08-01

    Previous studies of inelastic {sup 12}C + {sup 12}C scattering to a variety of final states identified significant resonance behavior in a number of different reaction channels. These resonances can be interpreted as either potential scattering resonances, or as population of cluster structures in the compound nucleus {sup 24}Mg, or as some interplay between the two mechanisms. Currently, for many of these resonances the situation remains unclear. One example is a large peak observed in the excitation function for the 3{sup -} - g.s. excitation, identified in previous work performed at the Daresbury Laboratory in England. This peak is observed at the same center-of-mass energy as one observed in the O{sub 2}{sup +}-O{sub 2}{sup +} inelastic scattering channel. That structure was suggested to correspond to exotic deformed configurations in the compound nucleus {sup 24}Mg. As the peak in the 3{sup -} + g.s. exit channel occurs at precisely the same energy as the purported resonance, it is tempting to associate the two. Before such an association can be confirmed or ruled out, further information must be obtained about the 3{sup -} + g.s. structure. In particular, it is important to determine the angular momenta that dominate the 3{sup -} + g.s. structure.

  8. T-odd angular correlations in the emission of prompt gamma rays and neutrons in nuclear fission induced by polarized neutrons

    SciTech Connect

    Danilyan, G. V.; Klenke, J.; Krakhotin, V. A.; Kopach, Yu. N.; Novitsky, V. V.; Pavlov, V. S.; Shatalov, P. B.

    2011-05-15

    Study of the T-odd three-vector correlation in the emission of prompt neutrons from {sup 235}U fission by polarized cold neutrons has been continued at the facility MEPHISTO of the FRM II reactor (Technical University of Munich). The sought correlation was not found within experimental error of 2.3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -5}. The upper limit for the asymmetry coefficient has been set to vertical bar D{sub n} vertical bar < 6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -5} at 99% confidence level, whereas for ternary fission correlation coefficient D{sub {alpha}} = (170{+-}20) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -5}. This limit casts doubt on a model that explains the three-vector correlation in ternary fission by the Coriolis mechanism. At the same time, five-vector correlation in the emission of prompt fission neutrons has been measured, which describes the rotation of the fissioning nucleus at the moment it breaks (ROT effect). At the angle 22.5 Degree-Sign to the fission axis, the correlation coefficient was found to be (1.57 {+-} 0.20) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4}, while at the angle of 67.5 Degree-Sign it is zero within the experimental uncertainty. The existence of ROT effect in the emission of prompt fission neutrons can be explained by the anisotropy of neutron emission in the rest frame of the fragment (fission fragments are aligned with respect to the axis of deformation of the fissioning nucleus), similar to the mechanism of ROT effect in the emission of prompt {gamma}-rays.

  9. Communication: Direct comparison between theory and experiment for correlated angular and product-state distributions of the ground-state and stretching-excited O(3P) + CH4 reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czakó, Gábor

    2014-06-01

    Motivated by a recent experiment [H. Pan and K. Liu, J. Chem. Phys. 140, 191101 (2014)], we report a quasiclassical trajectory study of the O(3P) + CH4(vk = 0, 1) → OH + CH3 [k = 1 and 3] reactions on an ab initio potential energy surface. The computed angular distributions and cross sections correlated to the OH(v = 0, 1) + CH3(v = 0) coincident product states can be directly compared to experiment for O + CH4(v3 = 0, 1). Both theory and experiment show that the ground-state reaction is backward scattered, whereas the angular distributions shift toward sideways and forward directions upon antisymmetric stretching (v3) excitation of the reactant. Theory predicts similar behavior for the O + CH4(v1 = 1) reaction. The simulations show that stretching excitation enhances the reaction up to about 15 kcal/mol collision energy, whereas the O + CH4(vk = 1) reactions produce smaller cross sections for OH(v = 1) + CH3(v = 0) than those of O + CH4(v = 0) → OH(v = 0) + CH3(v = 0). The former finding agrees with experiment and the latter awaits for confirmation. The computed cold OH rotational distributions of O + CH4(v = 0) are in good agreement with experiment.

  10. Measurement of the energy, multiplicity and angular correlation of γ-rays from the thermal neutron capture reaction Gd(n, γ) using JPARC-ANNRI

    SciTech Connect

    Ou, Iwa; Yamada, Yoshiyuki; Yano, Takatomi; Mori, Takaaki; Kayano, Tsubasa; Sakuda, Makoto; Kimura, Atsushi; Harada, Hideo

    2014-05-02

    We conducted an experiment using the JPARC-ANNRI spectrometer to measure the energy, multiplicity and correlation of γ-rays from the neutron capture of natural gadolinium. We incorporated the GEANT4 Monte Carlo (MC) simulation into the detector, and compared the data with the results of the MC simulation. We report our data analysis and compare our data with those obtained by the MC simulation.

  11. Precision radiative corrections to the semileptonic Dalitz plot with angular correlation between polarized decaying and emitted baryons: Effects of the four-body region

    SciTech Connect

    Torres, J. J.; Neri, M.; Martinez, A.; Garcia, A.; Flores-Mendieta, Ruben

    2006-10-01

    Analytical radiative corrections of order ({alpha}/{pi})(q/M{sub 1}) are calculated for the four-body region of the Dalitz plot of baryon semileptonic decays when the s{sub 1}{center_dot}p{sub 2} correlation is present. Once the final result is available, it is possible to exhibit it in terms of the corresponding final result of the three-body region following a set of simple changes in the latter. We cover two cases, a charged and a neutral polarized decaying baryon.

  12. Precision radiative corrections to the semileptonic Dalitz plot with angular correlation between polarized decaying baryon and emitted charged lepton: Effects of the four-body region

    SciTech Connect

    Neri, M.; Martinez, A.; Garcia, A.; Torres, J. J.; Flores-Mendieta, Ruben

    2007-05-01

    Analytical radiative corrections of order ({alpha}/{pi})(q/M{sub 1}) are calculated for the four-body region of the Dalitz plot of baryon semileptonic decays when the s-circumflex{sub 1}{center_dot}l-circumflex correlation is present. Once the final result is available, it is possible to exhibit it in terms of the corresponding final result of the three-body region following a set of simple changes in the latter, except for a few exceptions. We cover two cases, a charged and a neutral polarized decaying baryon.

  13. PCI and interference effects in the energy and angular correlation between the photoelectron and the Auger electron for equal electron energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheinerman, S. A.; Schmidt, V.

    1997-04-01

    Photoionization in the inner shell of an atom followed by Auger decay is considered for the case of equal energies of the emitted electrons. Due to the indistinguishability of both electrons it is imperative to describe this process as resonance embedded in the double ionization continuum, i.e. within the one-step formulation. As a consequence, two amplitudes appear where either one of the two electrons with momenta 0953-4075/30/7/008/img1 and 0953-4075/30/7/008/img2 is connected to the photoprocess, and correspondingly the other to the Auger decay. We have accounted for the modification of these amplitudes by post-collision interaction (PCI). To elucidate our theoretical treatment we have selected a simple example and demonstrate how both exchange and PCI strongly modify by interference the energy- and angle-dependent correlation patterns of coincident two-electron emission.

  14. Challenging claims of ‘elliptic flow’ by comparing azimuth quadrupole and jet-related angular correlations from Au-Au collisions at \\sqrt{{{s}_{NN}}} = 62 and 200 GeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trainor, Thomas A.; Kettler, David T.; Prindle, Duncan J.; Ray, R. L.

    2015-02-01

    Background: A component of azimuth correlations from high-energy heavy ion collisions varying as cos (2φ ) and denoted by symbol v2 is conventionally interpreted to represent ‘elliptic flow,’ a hydrodynamic manifestation of the initial-state A-A overlap geometry. Several numerical methods are used to estimate v2, resulting in various combinations of ‘flow’ and ‘nonflow’ that reveal systematic biases in the v2 estimates. QCD jets contribute strongly to azimuth correlations and specifically to the cos (2φ ) component. Purpose: We question the extent of jet-related (‘nonflow’) bias in and hydrodynamic ‘flow’ interpretations of v2 measurements. Method: We introduce two-dimensional model fits to angular correlation data that distinguish accurately between jet-related correlation components and a nonjet (NJ) azimuth quadrupole that might represent ‘elliptic flow’ if that were relevant. We compare measured jet-related and ‘flow’-related data systematics and determine the jet-related contribution to v2 measurements. Results: Jet structure does introduce substantial bias to conventional v2 measurements, making interpretation difficult. The NJ quadrupole exhibits very simple systematics on centrality and collision energy—the two variables factorize. Within a Au-Au centrality interval where jets show no indication of rescattering or medium effects the NJ quadrupole amplitude rises to 60% of its maximum value. Conclusions: Disagreements between NJ quadrupole systematics and hydro theory expectations, the large quadrupole amplitudes observed in more-peripheral Au-Au collisions and a significant nonzero value in N-N ≈ p-p collisions strongly suggest that the NJ quadrupole does not arise from a hydrodynamic flow mechanism.

  15. Partonic orbital angular momentum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arash, Firooz; Taghavi-Shahri, Fatemeh; Shahveh, Abolfazl

    2013-04-01

    Ji's decomposition of nucleon spin is used and the orbital angular momentum of quarks and gluon are calculated. We have utilized the so called valon model description of the nucleon in the next to leading order. It is found that the average orbital angular momentum of quarks is positive, but small, whereas that of gluon is negative and large. Individual quark flavor contributions are also calculated. Some regularities on the total angular momentum of the quarks and gluon are observed.

  16. On Angular Momentum

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Schwinger, J.

    1952-01-26

    The commutation relations of an arbitrary angular momentum vector can be reduced to those of the harmonic oscillator. This provides a powerful method for constructing and developing the properties of angular momentum eigenvectors. In this paper many known theorems are derived in this way, and some new results obtained. Among the topics treated are the properties of the rotation matrices; the addition of two, three, and four angular momenta; and the theory of tensor operators.

  17. Angular Acceleration Without Torque?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufman, Richard D.

    2012-01-01

    Hardly. Just as Robert Johns qualitatively describes angular acceleration by an internal force in his article "Acceleration Without Force?" here we will extend the discussion to consider angular acceleration by an internal torque. As we will see, this internal torque is due to an internal force acting at a distance from an instantaneous center.2

  18. Angular Acceleration without Torque?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Richard D.

    2012-01-01

    Hardly. Just as Robert Johns qualitatively describes angular acceleration by an internal force in his article "Acceleration Without Force?" here we will extend the discussion to consider angular acceleration by an internal torque. As we will see, this internal torque is due to an internal force acting at a distance from an instantaneous center.

  19. Fermi-surface reconstruction from two-dimensional angular correlation of positron annihilation radiation (2D-ACAR) data using maximum-likelihood fitting of wavelet-like functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    G, A., Major; Fretwell, H. M.; Dugdale, S. B.; Alam, M. A.

    1998-11-01

    A novel method for reconstructing the Fermi surface from experimental two-dimensional angular correlation of positron annihilation radiation (2D-ACAR) projections is proposed. In this algorithm, the 3D electron momentum-density distribution is expanded in terms of a basis of wavelet-like functions. The parameters of the model, the wavelet coefficients, are determined by maximizing the likelihood function corresponding to the experimental data and the projections calculated from the model. In contrast to other expansions, in the case of that in terms of wavelets a relatively small number of model parameters are sufficient for representing the relevant parts of the 3D distribution, thus keeping computation times reasonably short. Unlike other reconstruction methods, this algorithm takes full account of the statistical information content of the data and therefore may help to reduce the amount of time needed for data acquisition. An additional advantage of wavelet expansion may be the possibility of retrieving the Fermi surface directly from the wavelet coefficients rather than indirectly using the reconstructed 3D distribution.

  20. DVL Angular Velocity Recorder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liebe, Wolfgang

    1944-01-01

    In many studies, especially of nonstationary flight motion, it is necessary to determine the angular velocities at which the airplane rotates about its various axes. The three-component recorder is designed to serve this purpose. If the angular velocity for one flight attitude is known, other important quantities can be derived from its time rate of change, such as the angular acceleration by differentiations, or - by integration - the angles of position of the airplane - that is, the angles formed by the airplane axes with the axis direction presented at the instant of the beginning of the motion that is to be investigated.

  1. Angular velocity discrimination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaiser, Mary K.

    1990-01-01

    Three experiments designed to investigate the ability of naive observers to discriminate rotational velocities of two simultaneously viewed objects are described. Rotations are constrained to occur about the x and y axes, resulting in linear two-dimensional image trajectories. The results indicate that observers can discriminate angular velocities with a competence near that for linear velocities. However, perceived angular rate is influenced by structural aspects of the stimuli.

  2. First-principles and time-differential γ-γ perturbed-angular-correlation spectroscopy study of structural and electronic properties of Ta-doped TiO2 semiconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darriba, G. N.; Errico, L. A.; Eversheim, P. D.; Fabricius, G.; Rentería, M.

    2009-03-01

    The, time-differential γ-γ perturbed-angular-correlation (TDPAC) technique using ion-implanted H181f(→T181a) tracers was applied to study the hyperfine interactions of T181a impurities in the rutile structure of TiO2 single crystals. The experiments were performed in air in the temperature range of 300-1273 K, allowing the electric-field-gradient (EFG) tensor characterization (in magnitude, asymmetry, and orientation) at T181a probe atoms located in defect-free cation sites of the structure. The measured EFG is parallel to the [001] crystal axis, as occurs at Ti sites, but normal to the EFG orientation observed at C111d impurities in TiO2 single crystals [L. A. Errico , Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 055503 (2002)]. In addition, ab initio calculations were performed using the full-potential augmented plane wave plus local orbital method that allow us to treat the electronic structure of the doped system and the atomic relaxations induced by the Ta impurity in a fully self-consistent way. We considered different dilutions of the doped system (using the supercell approach) and studied the electronic properties and structural atomic relaxation dependence on the charge state of the impurity. The accuracy of the calculations and the excellent agreement of the predicted magnitude, asymmetry, and orientation of the EFG tensor with the experimental results enable us to infer the EFG sign, not accessible with conventional TDPAC experiments. The comparison of the measured EFG at Ta sites with experimental and ab initio theoretical results reported in the literature at Cd, Ta, and Ti sites in TiO2 allowed us to obtain a deeper insight on the role played by metal impurities in oxide semiconductors.

  3. Angular momentum radio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thidé, B.; Tamburini, F.; Then, H.; Someda, C. G.; Mari, Elletra; Parisi, G.; Spinello, F.; Romanato, Fra

    2014-02-01

    Wireless communication amounts to encoding information onto physical observables carried by electromagnetic (EM) fields, radiating them into surrounding space, and detecting them remotely by an appropriate sensor connected to an informationdecoding receiver. Each observable is second order in the fields and fulfills a conservation law. In present-day radio only the EM linear momentum observable is fully exploited. A fundamental physical limitation of this observable, which represents the translational degrees of freedom of the charges (typically an oscillating current along a linear antenna) and the fields, is that it is single-mode. This means that a linear-momentum radio communication link comprising one transmitting and one receiving antenna, known as a single-input-single-output (SISO) link, can provide only one transmission channel per frequency (and polarization). In contrast, angular momentum, which represents the rotational degrees of freedom, is multi-mode, allowing an angular-momentum SISO link to accommodate an arbitrary number of independent transmission channels on one and the same frequency (and polarization). We describe the physical properties of EM angular momentum and how they can be exploited, discuss real-world experiments, and outline how the capacity of angular momentum links may be further enhanced by employing multi-port techniques, i.e., the angular momentum counterpart of linear-momentum multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO).

  4. Inclusion of angular momentum in FREYA

    SciTech Connect

    Randrup, Jørgen; Vogt, Ramona

    2015-05-18

    The event-by-event fission model FREYA generates large samples of complete fission events from which any observable can extracted, including fluctuations of the observables and the correlations between them. We describe here how FREYA was recently refined to include angular momentum throughout. Subsequently we present some recent results for both neutron and photon observables.

  5. Inclusion of Angular Momentum in FREYA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Randrup, Jørgen; Vogt, Ramona

    The event-by-event fission model FREYA generates large samples of complete fission events from which any observable can extracted, including fluctuations of the observables and the correlations between them. We describe here how FREYA was recently refined to include angular momentum throughout. Subsequently we present some recent results for both neutron and photon observables.

  6. Fluidic angular velocity sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berdahl, C. M. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    A fluidic sensor providing a differential pressure signal proportional to the angular velocity of a rotary input is described. In one embodiment the sensor includes a fluid pump having an impeller coupled to a rotary input. A housing forming a constricting fluid flow chamber is connected to the fluid input of the pump. The housing is provided with a fluid flow restrictive input to the flow chamber and a port communicating with the interior of the flow chamber. The differential pressure signal measured across the flow restrictive input is relatively noise free and proportional to the square of the angular velocity of the impeller. In an alternative embodiment, the flow chamber has a generally cylindrical configuration and plates having flow restrictive apertures are disposed within the chamber downstream from the housing port. In this embodiment, the differential pressure signal is found to be approximately linear with the angular velocity of the impeller.

  7. Metamaterial broadband angular selectivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Yichen; Ye, Dexin; Wang, Li; Celanovic, Ivan; Ran, Lixin; Joannopoulos, John D.; Soljačić, Marin

    2014-09-01

    We demonstrate how broadband angular selectivity can be achieved with stacks of one-dimensionally periodic photonic crystals, each consisting of alternating isotropic layers and effective anisotropic layers, where each effective anisotropic layer is constructed from a multilayered metamaterial. We show that by simply changing the structure of the metamaterials, the selective angle can be tuned to a broad range of angles; and, by increasing the number of stacks, the angular transmission window can be made as narrow as desired. As a proof of principle, we realize the idea experimentally in the microwave regime. The angular selectivity and tunability we report here can have various applications such as in directional control of electromagnetic emitters and detectors.

  8. "Angular" plasma cell cheilitis.

    PubMed

    da Cunha Filho, Roberto Rheingantz; Tochetto, Lucas Baldissera; Tochetto, Bruno Baldissera; de Almeida, Hiram Larangeira; Lorencette, Nádia Aparecida; Netto, José Fillus

    2014-03-01

    Plasma cell cheilitis is an extremely rare disease, characterized by erythematous-violaceous, ulcerated and asymptomatic plaques, which evolve slowly. The histological characteristics include dermal infiltrate composed of mature plasmocytes. We report a case of Plasma cell angular cheilitis in a 58-year-old male, localized in the lateral oral commissure. PMID:24656273

  9. Magnetic interactions in equi-atomic rare-earth intermetallic alloys RScGe (R = Ce, Pr, Nd and Gd) studied by time differential perturbed angular correlation spectroscopy and ab initio calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, S N

    2009-03-01

    Applying the time differential perturbed angular correlation (TDPAC) technique we have measured electric and magnetic hyperfine fields of the 111Cd impurity in equi-atomic rare-earth intermetallic alloys RScGe (R = Ce, Pr and Gd) showing antiferro- and ferromagnetism with unusually high ordering temperatures. The Cd nuclei occupying the Sc site show high magnetic hyperfine fields with saturation values Bhf(0) = 21 kG, 45 kG and 189 kG in CeScGe, PrScGe and GdScGe, respectively. By comparing the results with the hyperfine field data of Cd in rare-earth metals and estimations from the RKKY model, we find evidence for the presence of additional spin density at the probe nucleus, possibly due to spin polarization of Sc d band electrons. The principal electric field gradient component Vzz in CeScGe, PrScGe and GdScGe has been determined to be 5.3 × 1021 V m-2, 5.5 × 1021 V m-2 and 5.6 × 1021 V m-2, respectively. Supplementing the experimental measurements, we have carried out ab initio calculations for pure and Cd-doped RScGe compounds with R = Ce, Pr, Nd and Gd using the full potential linearized augmented plane wave (FLAPW) method based on density functional theory (DFT). From the total energies calculated with and without spin polarization we find ferrimagnetic ground states for CeScGe and PrScGe while NdScGe and GdScGe are ferromagnetic. In addition, we find a sizable magnetic moment at the Sc site, increasing from ≈0.10 μB in CeScGe to ≈0.3 μB in GdScGe, confirming the spin polarization of Sc d band electrons. The calculated electric field gradient and magnetic hyperfine fields of the Cd impurity closely agree with the experimental values. We believe spin polarization of Sc 3d band electrons, strongly hybridized with spin polarized 5d band electrons of the rare-earth, enables a long range Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida (RKKY) interaction between RE 4f moments which in turn leads to high magnetic ordering temperatures in RScGe compounds.

  10. Magnetic interactions in equi-atomic rare-earth intermetallic alloys RScGe (R = Ce, Pr, Nd and Gd) studied by time differential perturbed angular correlation spectroscopy and ab initio calculations.

    PubMed

    Mishra, S N

    2009-03-18

    Applying the time differential perturbed angular correlation (TDPAC) technique we have measured electric and magnetic hyperfine fields of the (111)Cd impurity in equi-atomic rare-earth intermetallic alloys RScGe (R = Ce, Pr and Gd) showing antiferro- and ferromagnetism with unusually high ordering temperatures. The Cd nuclei occupying the Sc site show high magnetic hyperfine fields with saturation values B(hf)(0) = 21 kG, 45 kG and 189 kG in CeScGe, PrScGe and GdScGe, respectively. By comparing the results with the hyperfine field data of Cd in rare-earth metals and estimations from the RKKY model, we find evidence for the presence of additional spin density at the probe nucleus, possibly due to spin polarization of Sc d band electrons. The principal electric field gradient component V(zz) in CeScGe, PrScGe and GdScGe has been determined to be 5.3 × 10(21) V m(-2), 5.5 × 10(21) V m(-2) and 5.6 × 10(21) V m(-2), respectively. Supplementing the experimental measurements, we have carried out ab initio calculations for pure and Cd-doped RScGe compounds with R = Ce, Pr, Nd and Gd using the full potential linearized augmented plane wave (FLAPW) method based on density functional theory (DFT). From the total energies calculated with and without spin polarization we find ferrimagnetic ground states for CeScGe and PrScGe while NdScGe and GdScGe are ferromagnetic. In addition, we find a sizable magnetic moment at the Sc site, increasing from ≈0.10 μ(B) in CeScGe to ≈0.3 μ(B) in GdScGe, confirming the spin polarization of Sc d band electrons. The calculated electric field gradient and magnetic hyperfine fields of the Cd impurity closely agree with the experimental values. We believe spin polarization of Sc 3d band electrons, strongly hybridized with spin polarized 5d band electrons of the rare-earth, enables a long range Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida (RKKY) interaction between RE 4f moments which in turn leads to high magnetic ordering temperatures in

  11. Angular momentum and star formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strittmatter, P. A.

    The present investigation is mainly concerned with the importance of high angular resolution observations in studies of star formation and, in particular, with elucidating the role which angular momentum plays in the process. A brief report is included on recent high angular resolution observations made with the Steward Observatory speckle camera system. A consideration of the angular momentum in interstellar clouds indicates that rotation precludes quasi-spherical contraction. A number of solutions to this angular momentum problem are examined, taking into account questions concerning the help provided by high angular resolution observations for an elucidation of the various possible scenarios of star formation. Technical aspects involved in obtaining suitable data are investigated. It is concluded that high angular resolution observations hold considerable promise for solving at least some of the problems associated with the role of angular momentum in star formation.

  12. Angular momentum projected semiclassics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasse, Rainer W.

    1987-06-01

    By using angular momentum projected plane waves as wave functions, we derive semiclassical expressions for the single-particle propagator, the partition function, the nonlocal density matrix, the single-particle density and the one particle-one hole level density for fixed angular momentum and fixed z-component or summed over the z-components. Other quantities can be deduced from the propagator. In coordinate space ( r, r') the relevant quantities depend on |r-r'| instead of | r- r'| and in Wigner space ( R, P) they become proportional to the angular momentum constraints δ(| R × P|/ h̵-l) and δ( R × P) z/ h̵-m) . As applications we calculate the single-particle and one-particle-one hole level densities for harmonic oscillator and Hill-Wheeler box potentials and the imaginary part of the optical potential and its volume integral with an underlying harmonic oscillator potential and a zero range two-body interaction.

  13. Ultrafast coherent control of angular momentum during a one-photon excitation

    SciTech Connect

    Malik, D. A.; Eppink, A. T. J. B.; Meerts, W. L.; Kimel, A. V.; Kirilyuk, A.; Rasing, Th.; Zande, W. J. van der

    2011-10-15

    The subpicosecond dynamics of angular momentum transfer in the excited rubidium 5p state is studied in real time by observing photoelectron angular distributions with velocity map imaging. Retrieving the populations of the degenerate Zeeman levels and reconstructing the angular momentum, we show that in the case of resonant excitation the angular momentum does not follow the momentary helicity of the electric field of the pulse. This is in contrast with off-resonant excitation where the angular momentum and pulse helicity are fully correlated. Our study shows how to generate and shape ultrashort pulses of orbital and spin angular momentum in a controllable way.

  14. Quark Orbital Angular Momentum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burkardt, Matthias

    2016-06-01

    Generalized parton distributions provide information on the distribution of quarks in impact parameter space. For transversely polarized nucleons, these impact parameter distributions are transversely distorted and this deviation from axial symmetry leads on average to a net transverse force from the spectators on the active quark in a DIS experiment. This force when acting along the whole trajectory of the active quark leads to transverse single-spin asymmetries. For a longitudinally polarized nucleon target, the transverse force implies a torque acting on the quark orbital angular momentum (OAM). The resulting change in OAM as the quark leaves the target equals the difference between the Jaffe-Manohar and Ji OAMs.

  15. Uniaxial angular accelerometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seleznev, A. V.; Shvab, I. A.

    1985-05-01

    The basic mechanical components of an angular accelerometer are the sensor, the damper, and the transducer. Penumatic dampers are simplest in construction, but the viscosity of air is very low and, therefore, dampers with special purpose oils having a high temperature stability (synthetic silicon or organosilicon oils) are most widely used. The most common types of viscous dampers are lamellar with meshed opposed arrays of fixed and movable vanes in the dashpot, piston dampers regulated by an adjustable-length capillary tube, and dampers with paddle wheel in closed tank. Another type of damper is an impact-inertial one with large masses absorbing the rotational energy upon collision with the sensor. Conventional measuring elements are resistive, capacitive, electromagnetic, photoelectric, and penumatic or hydraulic. Novel types of angular accelerometers are based on inertia of gas jets, electron beams, and ion beams, the piezoelectric effect in p-n junctions of diode and transistors, the electrokinetic effect in fluids, and cryogenic suspension of the sensor.

  16. Orbital angular momentum microlaser.

    PubMed

    Miao, Pei; Zhang, Zhifeng; Sun, Jingbo; Walasik, Wiktor; Longhi, Stefano; Litchinitser, Natalia M; Feng, Liang

    2016-07-29

    Structured light provides an additional degree of freedom for modern optics and practical applications. The effective generation of orbital angular momentum (OAM) lasing, especially at a micro- and nanoscale, could address the growing demand for information capacity. By exploiting the emerging non-Hermitian photonics design at an exceptional point, we demonstrate a microring laser producing a single-mode OAM vortex lasing with the ability to precisely define the topological charge of the OAM mode. The polarization associated with OAM lasing can be further manipulated on demand, creating a radially polarized vortex emission. Our OAM microlaser could find applications in the next generation of integrated optoelectronic devices for optical communications in both quantum and classical regimes. PMID:27471299

  17. Orbital angular momentum microlaser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miao, Pei; Zhang, Zhifeng; Sun, Jingbo; Walasik, Wiktor; Longhi, Stefano; Litchinitser, Natalia M.; Feng, Liang

    2016-07-01

    Structured light provides an additional degree of freedom for modern optics and practical applications. The effective generation of orbital angular momentum (OAM) lasing, especially at a micro- and nanoscale, could address the growing demand for information capacity. By exploiting the emerging non-Hermitian photonics design at an exceptional point, we demonstrate a microring laser producing a single-mode OAM vortex lasing with the ability to precisely define the topological charge of the OAM mode. The polarization associated with OAM lasing can be further manipulated on demand, creating a radially polarized vortex emission. Our OAM microlaser could find applications in the next generation of integrated optoelectronic devices for optical communications in both quantum and classical regimes.

  18. On the relation between angular momentum and angular velocity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, J. P.; Tavares, J. M.

    2007-01-01

    Students of mechanics usually have difficulties when they learn about the rotation of a rigid body. These difficulties are rooted in the relation between angular momentum and angular velocity, because these vectors are not parallel, and we need in general to utilize a rotating frame of reference or a time dependent inertia tensor. We discuss a series of problems that introduce both difficulties.

  19. Intrinsic Angular Momentum of Light.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santarelli, Vincent

    1979-01-01

    Derives a familiar torque-angular momentum theorem for the electromagnetic field, and includes the intrinsic torques exerted by the fields on the polarized medium. This inclusion leads to the expressions for the intrinsic angular momentum carried by the radiation traveling through a charge-free medium. (Author/MA)

  20. Angular signal radiography.

    PubMed

    Li, Panyun; Zhang, Kai; Bao, Yuan; Ren, Yuqi; Ju, Zaiqiang; Wang, Yan; He, Qili; Zhu, Zhongzhu; Huang, Wanxia; Yuan, Qingxi; Zhu, Peiping

    2016-03-21

    Microscopy techniques using visible photons, x-rays, neutrons, and electrons have made remarkable impact in many scientific disciplines. The microscopic data can often be expressed as the convolution of the spatial distribution of certain properties of the specimens and the inherent response function of the imaging system. The x-ray grating interferometer (XGI), which is sensitive to the deviation angle of the incoming x-rays, has attracted significant attention in the past years due to its capability in achieving x-ray phase contrast imaging with low brilliance source. However, the comprehensive and analytical theoretical framework is yet to be presented. Herein, we propose a theoretical framework termed angular signal radiography (ASR) to describe the imaging process of the XGI system in a classical, comprehensive and analytical manner. We demonstrated, by means of theoretical deduction and synchrotron based experiments, that the spatial distribution of specimens' physical properties, including absorption, refraction and scattering, can be extracted by ASR in XGI. Implementation of ASR in XGI offers advantages such as simplified phase retrieval algorithm, reduced overall radiation dose, and improved image acquisition speed. These advantages, as well as the limitations of the proposed method, are systematically investigated in this paper. PMID:27136780

  1. The Angular Gyrus

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    There is considerable interest in the structural and functional properties of the angular gyrus (AG). Located in the posterior part of the inferior parietal lobule, the AG has been shown in numerous meta-analysis reviews to be consistently activated in a variety of tasks. This review discusses the involvement of the AG in semantic processing, word reading and comprehension, number processing, default mode network, memory retrieval, attention and spatial cognition, reasoning, and social cognition. This large functional neuroimaging literature depicts a major role for the AG in processing concepts rather than percepts when interfacing perception-to-recognition-to-action. More specifically, the AG emerges as a cross-modal hub where converging multisensory information is combined and integrated to comprehend and give sense to events, manipulate mental representations, solve familiar problems, and reorient attention to relevant information. In addition, this review discusses recent findings that point to the existence of multiple subdivisions in the AG. This spatial parcellation can serve as a framework for reporting AG activations with greater definition. This review also acknowledges that the role of the AG cannot comprehensibly be identified in isolation but needs to be understood in parallel with the influence from other regions. Several interesting questions that warrant further investigations are finally emphasized. PMID:22547530

  2. Angular Clustering of Obscured Active Galactic Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gandhi, Poshak; Garcet, O.; Disseau, L.; Pacaud, F.; Pierre, M.; Gueguen, A.; Alloin, D.; Chiappetti, L.; Gosset, E.; Maccagni, D.; Surdej, J.; Valtchanov, I.

    2006-09-01

    We describe the properties of X-ray point-like sources detected over 4.2 sq. degs. of the largest contiguous survey with XMM-Newton to date (the XMM-LSS survey) to fluxes of F2-10 keV 8x10-15 erg/s/cm2 and F0.5-2 keV 2x10-15 erg/s/cm2 respectively. For 1200 sources in the soft band, we find a two-point angular correlation function (ACF) signal similar to previous work, but no correlation for 400 sources in the hard band. A sample of 200 faint sources with hard X-ray spectra does show a 2-3 sigma positive signal with a power-law normalization theta0>40 arcsec. We discuss implications, including the fact that a large correlation length for obscured AGN is inconsistent with simple AGN Unification based on orientation only.

  3. Nuclear structure at high angular momentum

    SciTech Connect

    Stephens, F.S.

    1980-06-01

    This review paper begins by discussing the limits faced in the attempts to get nuclei to hold very high angular momentum. The method presently used to produce nuclei with the maximum angular momentum is described. Then the physics of high-spin states is taken up; some properties of a purely collective, classical rotor are described, and the effects of coupling single-particle motion to this are considered. Next, backbending, its causes, and a new spectroscopy of bands and backbends at high spin values are discussed. Noncollective states occur when the nuclear angular momentum is carried by a few high-j particles and is aligned along a symmetry axis. There results an irregular yrast line, along which there are no collective transitions. Noncollective behavior in the lead region, the hafnium region, and the N = 82 region is examined. Then the discussion moves on to collective behavior and recent studies on continuum spectra. Evidence for rotation is given, and effective moments of inertia for this rotation are evaluated. Finally, current ..gamma..-ray energy correlation studies are described. 68 references, 36 figures. (RWR)

  4. Electromagnetically induced angular Talbot effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Tianhui; Yang, Guojian

    2015-12-01

    The discrete angular spectrum (angular Talbot effect) of a periodic grating illuminated by a suitable spherical wave front has been observed recently (Azaña and Chatellus 2104 Phys. Rev. Lett. 112 213902). In this paper we study the possibility of such a phenomenon being realized with a medium that has no macroperiodic structure itself. Tunable electromagnetically induced grating (EIG) could be such a kind of medium. We obtain an EIG based on the periodically modulated strong susceptibility due to the third-order nonlinear effect generated in a double Λ-type four-level atomic system, and show the angular Talbot effect of an amplitude EIG, as well as a hybrid EIG, as the condition of the discrete phase-modulation shift of the illumination light front is satisfied. EIG parameters are tunable and the EIG-based angular Talbot effect may have the same potential applications as its periodic grating counterpart has.

  5. Transverse angular momentum of photons

    SciTech Connect

    Aiello, Andrea

    2010-05-15

    We develop the quantum theory of transverse angular momentum of light beams. The theory applies to paraxial and quasiparaxial photon beams in vacuum and reproduces the known results for classical beams when applied to coherent states of the field. Both the Poynting vector, alias the linear momentum, and the angular-momentum quantum operators of a light beam are calculated including contributions from first-order transverse derivatives. This permits a correct description of the energy flow in the beam and the natural emergence of both the spin and the angular momentum of the photons. We show that for collimated beams of light, orbital angular-momentum operators do not satisfy the standard commutation rules. Finally, we discuss the application of our theory to some concrete cases.

  6. Angular Momentum Ejection and Recoil*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohia, O.; Coppi, B.

    2009-11-01

    The spontaneous rotation phenomenon observed in axisymmetric magnetically confined plasmas has been explained by the ``accretion theory'' [1] that considers the plasma angular momentum as gained from its interaction with the magnetic field and the surrounding material wall. The ejection of angular momentum to the wall, and the consequent recoil are attributed to modes excited at the edge while the transport of the (recoil) angular momentum from the edge toward the center is attributed to a different kind of mode. The toroidal phase velocity of the edge mode, to which the sign of the ejected angular momentum is related, is considered to change its direction in the transition from the H-regime to the L-regime. For the latter case, edge modes with phase velocity in the direction of vdi are driven by the temperature gradient of a cold ion population at the edge and damped on the ``hot'' ion population. The ``balanced'' double interaction [2] of the mode with the two populations, corresponding to a condition of marginal stability, leads to ejection of hot ions and loss of angular momentum in the direction of vdi while the cold population acquires angular momentum in the opposite direction. In the H-regime resistive ballooning modes with phase velocities in the direction of vde are viewed as the best candidates for the excited edge modes. *Sponsored in part by the U.S. DOE. [1] B. Coppi, Nucl. Fusion 42, 1 (2002) [2] B. Coppi and F. Pegoraro, Nucl. Fusion 17, 969 (1977)

  7. Long-range and short-range dihadron angular correlations in central PbPb collisions at a nucleon-nucleon center of mass energy of 2.76 TeV

    SciTech Connect

    Chatrchyan, Serguei; et al.

    2011-07-01

    First measurements of dihadron correlations for charged particles are presented for central PbPb collisions at a nucleon-nucleon center-of-mass energy of 2.76 TeV over a broad range in relative pseudorapidity, Delta(eta), and the full range of relative azimuthal angle, Delta(phi). The data were collected with the CMS detector, at the LHC. A broadening of the away-side (Delta(phi) approximately pi) azimuthal correlation is observed at all Delta(eta), as compared to the measurements in pp collisions. Furthermore, long-range dihadron correlations in Delta(eta) are observed for particles with similar phi values. This phenomenon, also known as the "ridge", persists up to at least |Delta(eta)| = 4. For particles with transverse momenta (pt) of 2-4 GeV/c, the ridge is found to be most prominent when these particles are correlated with particles of pt = 2-6 GeV/c, and to be much reduced when paired with particles of pt = 10-12 GeV/c.

  8. Uncertainty principle for angular position and angular momentum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franke-Arnold, Sonja; Barnett, Stephen M.; Yao, Eric; Leach, Jonathan; Courtial, Johannes; Padgett, Miles

    2004-08-01

    The uncertainty principle places fundamental limits on the accuracy with which we are able to measure the values of different physical quantities (Heisenberg 1949 The Physical Principles of the Quantum Theory (New York: Dover); Robertson 1929 Phys. Rev. 34 127). This has profound effects not only on the microscopic but also on the macroscopic level of physical systems. The most familiar form of the uncertainty principle relates the uncertainties in position and linear momentum. Other manifestations include those relating uncertainty in energy to uncertainty in time duration, phase of an electromagnetic field to photon number and angular position to angular momentum (Vaccaro and Pegg 1990 J. Mod. Opt. 37 17; Barnett and Pegg 1990 Phys. Rev. A 41 3427). In this paper, we report the first observation of the last of these uncertainty relations and derive the associated states that satisfy the equality in the uncertainty relation. We confirm the form of these states by detailed measurement of the angular momentum of a light beam after passage through an appropriate angular aperture. The angular uncertainty principle applies to all physical systems and is particularly important for systems with cylindrical symmetry.

  9. Time-differential perturbed-angular-correlation and emission Moessbauer studies on {sup 99}Ru dispersed in YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 6.8} and YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 6}

    SciTech Connect

    Ohkubo, Y.; Kobayashi, Y.; Harasawa, K.; Ambe, S.; Okada, T.; Ambe, F.; Asai, K.; Shibata, S.

    1995-06-29

    The hyperfine interactions at {sup 99}Ru({sup $IMP@99}Rh) dispersed in YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 6.8} and YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 6} were studied by means of time-differential perturbed-angular-correlation (TDPAC) and emission Moessbauer spectroscopy. The TDPAC and Moessbauer measurements show that Ru ions are in the tetravalent state and exclusively occupy the Cu-1 sites, which form one-dimensional Cu-O chains in the orthorhombic phase. The oxygen coordinations around the Ru ions are discussed on the basis of the observed electric field gradients at {sup 99}Ru in YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 6.8} and YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 6}. 35 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  10. The Angular Momentum of Light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrews, David L.; Babiker, Mohamed

    2012-11-01

    Preface D. L. Andrews and M. Babiker; 1. Light beams carrying orbital angular momentum J. B. Götte and S. M. Barnett; 2. Vortex transformation and vortex dynamics in optical fields G. Molina-Terriza; 3. Vector beams in free space E. J. Galvez; 4. Optical beams with orbital angular momentum in nonlinear media A. S. Desyatnikov and Y. S. Kivshar; 5. Ray optics, wave optics and quantum mechanics G. Nienhuis; 6. Quantum formulation of angle and orbital angular momentum J. B. Götte and S. M. Barnett; 7. Dynamic rotational frequency shift I. Bialynicki-Birula and Z. Bialynicka-Birula; 8. Spin-orbit interactions of light in isotropic media K. Y. Bliokh, A. Aiello and M. A. Alonso; 9. Quantum electrodynamics, angular momentum and chirality D. L. Andrews and M. Babiker; 10. Trapping of charged particles by Bessel beams I. Bialynicki-Birula, Z. Bialynicka-Birula and N. Drozd; 11. Theory of atoms in twisted light M. Babiker, D. L. Andrews and V. E. Lembessis; 12. An experimentalist's introduction to orbital angular momentum for quantum optics J. Romero, D. Giovannini, S. Franke-Arnold and M. J. Padgett; 13. Measurement of light's orbital angular momentum M. P. J. Lavery, J. Courtial and M. J. Padgett; 14. Efficient generation of optical twisters using helico-conical beams V. R. Daria, D. Palima and J. Glückstad; 15. Self similar modes of coherent diffusion with orbital angular momentum O. Firstenberg, M. Shuker, R. Pugatch and N. Davidson; 16. Dimensionality of azimuthal entanglement M. van Exter, E. Eliel and H. Woerdman; Index.

  11. Factors influencing perceived angular velocity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaiser, Mary K.; Calderone, Jack B.

    1991-01-01

    Angular velocity perception is examined for rotations both in depth and in the image plane and the influence of several object properties on this motion parameter is explored. Two major object properties are considered, namely, texture density which determines the rate of edge transitions for rotations in depth, i.e., the number of texture elements that pass an object's boundary per unit of time, and object size which determines the tangential linear velocities and 2D image velocities of texture elements for a given angular velocity. Results of experiments show that edge-transition rate biased angular velocity estimates only when edges were highly salient. Element velocities had an impact on perceived angular velocity; this bias was associated with 2D image velocity rather than 3D tangential velocity. Despite these biases judgements were most strongly determined by the true angular velocity. Sensitivity to this higher order motion parameter appeared to be good for rotations both in depth (y-axis) and parallel to the line of sight (z-axis).

  12. Phenomenology of preequilibrium angular distributions

    SciTech Connect

    Kalbach, C.; Mann, F.M.

    1980-05-01

    The systematics of continuum angular distributions from a wide variety of light ion nuclear reactions have been studied. To first order, the shape of the angular distributions have been found to depend only on the energy of the outgoing particle and on the division of the cross section into multi-step direct and multi-step compound parts. The angular distributions can be described in terms of Legendre polynomials with the reduced polynomial coefficients exhibiting a simple dependence on the outgoing particle energy. Two integer and four continuous parameters with universal values are needed to describe the coefficients for outgoing energies of 2 to 60 MeV in all the reaction types studied. This parameterization combined with a modified Griffin model computer code permits the calculation of double differential cross sections for light ion continuum reactions where no data is available.

  13. Variations in atmospheric angular momentum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosen, R. D.; Salstein, D. A.

    1981-01-01

    Twice-daily values of the atmosphere's angular momentum about the polar axis during the five years from 1976 through 1980 are presented in graphs and a table. The compilation is based on a global data set, incorporating 90 percent of the mass of the atmosphere. The relationship between changes in the angular momentum of the atmosphere and changes in the length of day is described, as are the main sources of error in the data. The variability in angular momentum is revealed in a preliminary fashion by means of a spectral decomposition. The data presented should stimulate comparisons with other measures of the length of day and so provide a basis for greater understanding of Earth-atmosphere interactions.

  14. Interferometric measurement of angular motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peña Arellano, Fabián Erasmo; Panjwani, Hasnain; Carbone, Ludovico; Speake, Clive C.

    2013-04-01

    This paper describes the design and realization of a homodyne polarization interferometer for measuring angular motion. The optical layout incorporates carefully designed cat's eye retroreflectors that maximize the measurable range of angular motion and facilitate initial alignment. The retroreflectors are optimized and numerically characterized in terms of defocus and spherical aberrations using Zemax software for optical design. The linearity of the measurement is then calculated in terms of the aberrations. The actual physical interferometer is realized as a compact device with optical components from stock and without relying on adjustable holders. Evaluation of its performance using a commercial autocollimator confirmed a reproducibility within 0.1%, a non-linearity of less than 1 ppm with respect to the autocollimator, an upper limit to its sensitivity of about 5 × 10-11 rad/sqrt{textrm {Hz}} from audioband down to 100 mHz and an angular measurement range of more than ±1°.

  15. Non-Colinearity of Angular Velocity and Angular Momentum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burr, A. F.

    1974-01-01

    Discusses the principles, construction, and operation of an apparatus which serves to demonstrate the non-colinearity of the angular velocity and momentum vectors as well as the inertial tensors. Applications of the apparatus to teaching of advanced undergraduate mechanics courses are recommended. (CC)

  16. Solar cell angular position transducer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandford, M. C.; Gray, D. L. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    An angular position transducer utilizing photocells and a light source is disclosed. The device uses a fully rotatable baffle which is connected via an actuator shaft to the body whose rotational displacement is to be measured. The baffle blocks the light path between the light source and the photocells so that a constant semicircular beam of light reaches the photocells. The current produced by the photocells is fed through a resistor, a differential amplifier measures the voltage drop across the resistor which indicates the angular position of the actuator shaft and hence of the object.

  17. Detection of an ENSO Signal in Seasonal Atmospheric Angular Momentum Varitations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gross, R. S.; Marcus, S. L.; Dickey, J. O.

    1996-01-01

    None. From Intro list: Investigate use of Earth rotation measurements as proxy measures of atmospheric angular momentum in global climate change studies. Examine role of observed length-of-day changes. Study observed changes in strength of seasonal lod signal. Investigate origin of this correlation by examining angular momentum of NCEP zonal winds.

  18. Noncontact measurement of angular deflection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryant, E. L.

    1978-01-01

    Technique for measuring instantaneous angular deflection of object requires no physical contact. Technique utilizes two flat refractors, converging lens, and different photocell. Distinction of method is its combination of optical and electromechanical components into feedback system in which measurement error is made to approach zero. Application is foreseen in measurement of torsional strain.

  19. The lunar angular momentum problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weidenschilling, S. J.

    1984-01-01

    Formation of the Moon by classical Darwin-type fission of a rapidly spinning proto-Earth is discussed. The relationship of angular momentum to accretion disks is examined. The co-accretion scenario and Darwin-type fission are compared and evaluated.

  20. Olympic Wrestling and Angular Momentum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carle, Mark

    1988-01-01

    Reported is the use of a wrestling photograph in a noncalculus introductory physics course. The photograph presents a maneuver that could serve as an example for a discussion on equilibrium, forces, torque, and angular motion. Provided are some qualitative thoughts as well as quantitative calculations. (YP)

  1. Plate tectonics conserves angular momentum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowin, C.

    2009-03-01

    A new combined understanding of plate tectonics, Earth internal structure, and the role of impulse in deformation of the Earth's crust is presented. Plate accelerations and decelerations have been revealed by iterative filtering of the quaternion history for the Euler poles that define absolute plate motion history for the past 68 million years, and provide an unprecedented precision for plate angular rotation variations with time at 2-million year intervals. Stage poles represent the angular rotation of a plate's motion between adjacent Euler poles, and from which the maximum velocity vector for a plate can be determined. The consistent maximum velocity variations, in turn, yield consistent estimates of plate accelerations and decelerations. The fact that the Pacific plate was shown to accelerate and decelerate, implied that conservation of plate tectonic angular momentum must be globally conserved, and that is confirmed by the results shown here (total angular momentum ~1.4 E+27 kgm2s-1). Accordingly, if a plate decelerates, other plates must increase their angular momentums to compensate. In addition, the azimuth of the maximum velocity vectors yields clues as to why the "bend" in the Emperor-Hawaiian seamount trend occurred near 46 Myr. This report summarizes processing results for 12 of the 14 major tectonic plates of the Earth (except for the Juan de Fuca and Philippine plates). Plate accelerations support the contention that plate tectonics is a product of torques that most likely are sustained by the sinking of positive density anomalies due to phase changes in subducted gabbroic lithosphere at depth in the upper lower mantle (above 1200 km depth). The tectonic plates are pulled along by the sinking of these positive mass anomalies, rather than moving at near constant velocity on the crests of convection cells driven by rising heat. These results imply that spreading centers are primarily passive reactive features, and fracture zones (and wedge-shaped sites

  2. Modeling of the angular dependence of plasma etching

    SciTech Connect

    Guo Wei; Sawin, Herbert H.

    2009-11-15

    An understanding of the angular dependence of etching yield is essential to investigate the origins of sidewall roughness during plasma etching. In this article the angular dependence of polysilicon etching in Cl{sub 2} plasma was modeled as a combination of individual angular-dependent etching yields for ion-initiated processes including physical sputtering, ion-induced etching, vacancy generation, and removal. The modeled etching yield exhibited a maximum at {approx}60 degree sign off-normal ion angle at low flux ratio, indicative of physical sputtering. It transformed to the angular dependence of ion-induced etching with the increase in the neutral-to-ion flux ratio. Good agreement between the modeling and the experiments was achieved for various flux ratios and ion energies. The variation of etching yield in response to the ion angle was incorporated in the three-dimensional profile simulation and qualitative agreement was obtained. The surface composition was calculated and compared to x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis. The modeling indicated a Cl areal density of 3x10{sup 15} atoms/cm{sup 2} on the surface that is close to the value determined by the XPS analysis. The response of Cl fraction to ion energy and flux ratio was modeled and correlated with the etching yields. The complete mixing-layer kinetics model with the angular dependence effect will be used for quantitative surface roughening analysis using a profile simulator in future work.

  3. On Dunkl angular momenta algebra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feigin, Misha; Hakobyan, Tigran

    2015-11-01

    We consider the quantum angular momentum generators, deformed by means of the Dunkl operators. Together with the reflection operators they generate a subalgebra in the rational Cherednik algebra associated with a finite real reflection group. We find all the defining relations of the algebra, which appear to be quadratic, and we show that the algebra is of Poincaré-Birkhoff-Witt (PBW) type. We show that this algebra contains the angular part of the Calogero-Moser Hamiltonian and that together with constants it generates the centre of the algebra. We also consider the gl( N ) version of the subalge-bra of the rational Cherednik algebra and show that it is a non-homogeneous quadratic algebra of PBW type as well. In this case the central generator can be identified with the usual Calogero-Moser Hamiltonian associated with the Coxeter group in the harmonic confinement.

  4. Neoclassical Angular Momentum Flux Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, S. K.; Chan, V. S.

    2004-11-01

    The toroidal angular momentum flux in neoclassical transport theory of small rotations depends on the second order (in ion poloidal gyroradius over plasma scale length) ion distribution function. Owing to the complexity of the calculation, the result obtained a long time ago for circular cross-section tokamak plasmas in the banana regime [M.N. Rosenbluth, et al., Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research (IAEA, Vienna, 1971), Vol. 1, p. 495] has never been reproduced. Using a representation of the angular momentum flux based on the solution of an adjoint equation to the usual linearized drift kinetic equation, and performing systematically a large-aspect-ratio expansion, we have obtained the flux for flux surfaces of arbitrary shape. We have found the same analytic form for the temperature gradient driven part of the flux, but the overall numerical multiplier is different and has the opposite sign. Implications for rotations in discharges with no apparent momentum input will be discussed.

  5. Phonons with orbital angular momentum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayub, M. K.; Ali, S.; Mendonca, J. T.

    2011-10-01

    Ion accoustic waves or phonon modes are studied with orbital angular momentum (OAM) in an unmagnetized collissionless uniform plasma, whose constituents are the Boltzmann electrons and inertial ions. For this purpose, we have employed the fluid equations to obtain a paraxial equation in terms of ion density perturbations and discussed its Gaussian beam and Laguerre-Gauss (LG) beam solutions. Furthermore, an approximate solution for the electrostatic potential problem is presented, allowing to express the components of the electric field in terms of LG potential perturbations. The energy flux due to phonons is also calculated and the corresponding OAM is derived. Numerically, it is shown that the parameters such as azimuthal angle, radial and angular mode numbers, and beam waist, strongly modify the profiles of the phonon LG potential. The present results should be helpful in understanding the phonon mode excitations produced by Brillouin backscattering of laser beams in a uniform plasma.

  6. Phonons with orbital angular momentum

    SciTech Connect

    Ayub, M. K.; Ali, S.; Mendonca, J. T.

    2011-10-15

    Ion accoustic waves or phonon modes are studied with orbital angular momentum (OAM) in an unmagnetized collissionless uniform plasma, whose constituents are the Boltzmann electrons and inertial ions. For this purpose, we have employed the fluid equations to obtain a paraxial equation in terms of ion density perturbations and discussed its Gaussian beam and Laguerre-Gauss (LG) beam solutions. Furthermore, an approximate solution for the electrostatic potential problem is presented, allowing to express the components of the electric field in terms of LG potential perturbations. The energy flux due to phonons is also calculated and the corresponding OAM is derived. Numerically, it is shown that the parameters such as azimuthal angle, radial and angular mode numbers, and beam waist, strongly modify the profiles of the phonon LG potential. The present results should be helpful in understanding the phonon mode excitations produced by Brillouin backscattering of laser beams in a uniform plasma.

  7. NUCLEI AT HIGH ANGULAR MOMENTUM

    SciTech Connect

    Diamond, R.M.; Stephens, F.S.

    1980-06-01

    It appears that most nuclei show a compromise between purely collective and purely non-collective behavior at very high spins.non~collective behavior in nuclei has been seen only as high as 36 or 37{bar h}, at which point a more collective structure seems to develop. The concepts underlying the study of high angular momentum states are discussed. The factors that limit angular momentum in nuclei are considered. The currently emerging state of physics of very high spin states is reviewed. The detailed calculations currently made for high spin states are described, focusing not on the calculations themselves, but on the physical input to them and results that come out. Production of high-spin states using heavy-ion reactions is reviewed. Studies of {gamma}-rays de-exciting the evaporation residues from heavy-ion reactions are covered. Two types of {gamma} rays occur: those that cool the nucleus to or toward the yrast line, called "statistical," and those that are more or less parallel to the yrast line and remove the angular momentum, called "yrast~like." Collective rotation, in simplest form the motion of a deformed nucleus around an axis perpendicular to its symmetry axis, is also covered.

  8. Achromatic orbital angular momentum generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouchard, Frédéric; Mand, Harjaspreet; Mirhosseini, Mohammad; Karimi, Ebrahim; Boyd, Robert W.

    2014-12-01

    We describe a novel approach for generating light beams that carry orbital angular momentum (OAM) by means of total internal reflection in an isotropic medium. A continuous space-varying cylindrically symmetric reflector, in the form of two glued hollow axicons, is used to introduce a nonuniform rotation of polarization into a linearly polarized input beam. This device acts as a full spin-to-orbital angular momentum convertor. It functions by switching the helicity of the incoming beam's polarization, and by conservation of total angular momentum thereby generates a well-defined value of OAM. Our device is broadband, since the phase shift due to total internal reflection is nearly independent of wavelength. We verify the broad-band behaviour by measuring the conversion efficiency of the device for three different wavelengths corresponding to the RGB colours, red, green and blue. An average conversion efficiency of 95% for these three different wavelengths is observed. This device may find applications in imaging from micro- to astronomical systems where a white vortex beam is needed.

  9. Two-dimensional angular filter array for angular domain imaging with 3D printed angular filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ng, Eldon; Carson, Jeffrey J. L.

    2013-02-01

    Angular Domain Imaging (ADI) is a technique that is capable of generating two dimensional shadowgrams of attenuating targets embedded in a scattering medium. In ADI, an angular filter array (AFA) is positioned between the sample and the detector to distinguish between quasi-ballistic photons and scattered photons. An AFA is a series of micro-channels with a high aspect ratio. Previous AFAs from our group were constructed by micro-machining the micro-channels into a silicon wafer, limiting the imaging area to a one dimensional line. Two dimensional images were acquired via scanning. The objective of this work was to extend the AFA design to two dimensions to allow for two dimensional imaging with minimal scanning. The second objective of this work was to perform an initial characterization of the imaging capabilities of the 2D AFA. Our approach was to use rapid 3D prototyping techniques to generate an array of micro-channels. The imaging capabilities were then evaluated by imaging a 0.9 mm graphite rod submerged in a scattering media. Contrast was observed to improve when a second angular filter array was placed in front of the sample to mask the incoming light.

  10. Plate tectonics conserves angular momentum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowin, C.

    2010-03-01

    A new combined understanding of plate tectonics, Earth internal structure, and the role of impulse in deformation of the Earth's crust is presented. Plate accelerations and decelerations have been revealed by iterative filtering of the quaternion history for the Euler poles that define absolute plate motion history for the past 68 million years, and provide an unprecedented precision for plate angular rotation variations with time at 2-million year intervals. Stage poles represent the angular rotation of a plate's motion between adjacent Euler poles, and from which the maximum velocity vector for a plate can be determined. The consistent maximum velocity variations, in turn, yield consistent estimates of plate accelerations and decelerations. The fact that the Pacific plate was shown to accelerate and decelerate, implied that conservation of plate tectonic angular momentum must be globally conserved, and that is confirmed by the results shown here (total angular momentum ~1.4+27 kg m2 s-1). Accordingly, if a plate decelerates, other plates must increase their angular momentums to compensate. In addition, the azimuth of the maximum velocity vectors yields clues as to why the "bend" in the Emperor-Hawaiian seamount trend occurred near 46 Myr. This report summarizes processing results for 12 of the 14 major tectonic plates of the Earth (except for the Juan de Fuca and Philippine plates). Plate accelerations support the contention that plate tectonics is a product of torques that most likely are sustained by the sinking of positive density anomalies revealed by geoid anomalies of the degree 4-10 packet of the Earth's spherical harmonic coefficients. These linear positive geoid anomalies underlie plate subduction zones and are presumed due to phase changes in subducted gabbroic lithosphere at depth in the upper lower mantle (above 1200 km depth). The tectonic plates are pulled along by the sinking of these positive mass anomalies, rather than moving at near constant

  11. Uncertainty relations for angular momentum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dammeier, Lars; Schwonnek, René; Werner, Reinhard F.

    2015-09-01

    In this work we study various notions of uncertainty for angular momentum in the spin-s representation of SU(2). We characterize the ‘uncertainty regions’ given by all vectors, whose components are specified by the variances of the three angular momentum components. A basic feature of this set is a lower bound for the sum of the three variances. We give a method for obtaining optimal lower bounds for uncertainty regions for general operator triples, and evaluate these for small s. Further lower bounds are derived by generalizing the technique by which Robertson obtained his state-dependent lower bound. These are optimal for large s, since they are saturated by states taken from the Holstein-Primakoff approximation. We show that, for all s, all variances are consistent with the so-called vector model, i.e., they can also be realized by a classical probability measure on a sphere of radius \\sqrt{s(s+1)}. Entropic uncertainty relations can be discussed similarly, but are minimized by different states than those minimizing the variances for small s. For large s the Maassen-Uffink bound becomes sharp and we explicitly describe the extremalizing states. Measurement uncertainty, as recently discussed by Busch, Lahti and Werner for position and momentum, is introduced and a generalized observable (POVM) which minimizes the worst case measurement uncertainty of all angular momentum components is explicitly determined, along with the minimal uncertainty. The output vectors for the optimal measurement all have the same length r(s), where r(s)/s\\to 1 as s\\to ∞ .

  12. Variable Distance Angular Symbology Reader

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schramm, Harry F., Jr. (Inventor); Corder, Eric L. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A variable distance angular symbology, reader utilizes at least one light source to direct light through a beam splitter and onto a target. A target may be angled relative to the impinging light beam up to and maybe even greater than 45deg. A reflected beam from the target passes through the beam splitter and is preferably directed 90deg relative to the light source through a telecentric lens to a scanner which records an image of the target such as a direct part marking code.

  13. Two-axis angular effector

    DOEpatents

    Vaughn, Mark R.; Robinett, III, Rush D.; Phelan, John R.; Van Zuiden, Don M.

    1997-01-21

    A new class of coplanar two-axis angular effectors. These effectors combine a two-axis rotational joint analogous to a Cardan joint with linear actuators in a manner to produce a wider range of rotational motion about both axes defined by the joint. This new class of effectors also allows design of robotic manipulators having very high strength and efficiency. These effectors are particularly suited for remote operation in unknown surroundings, because of their extraordinary versatility. An immediate application is to the problems which arise in nuclear waste remediation.

  14. Measurement of long-range angular correlation and quadrupole anisotropy of pions and (anti)protons in central d+Au collisions at sNN=200 GeV

    SciTech Connect

    Adare, A.; Aidala, C.; Ajitanand, N. N.; Akiba, Y.; Akimoto, R.; Al-Bataineh, H.; Al-Ta’ani, H.; Alexander, J.; Andrews, K. R.; Angerami, A.; Aoki, K.; Apadula, N.; Appelt, E.; Aramaki, Y.; Armendariz, R.; Aschenauer, E. C.; Atomssa, E. T.; Averbeck, R.; Awes, T. C.; Azmoun, B.; Babintsev, V.; Bai, M.; Baksay, G.; Baksay, L.; Bannier, B.; Barish, K. N.; Bassalleck, B.; Basye, A. T.; Bathe, S.; Baublis, V.; Baumann, C.; Bazilevsky, A.; Belikov, S.; Belmont, R.; Ben-Benjamin, J.; Bennett, R.; Bhom, J. H.; Blau, D. S.; Bok, J. S.; Boyle, K.; Brooks, M. L.; Broxmeyer, D.; Buesching, H.; Bumazhnov, V.; Bunce, G.; Butsyk, S.; Campbell, S.; Caringi, A.; Castera, P.; Chen, C. -H.; Chi, C. Y.; Chiu, M.; Choi, I. J.; Choi, J. B.; Choudhury, R. K.; Christiansen, P.; Chujo, T.; Chung, P.; Chvala, O.; Cianciolo, V.; Citron, Z.; Cole, B. A.; Conesa del Valle, Z.; Connors, M.; Csanád, M.; Csörgő, T.; Dahms, T.; Dairaku, S.; Danchev, I.; Das, K.; Datta, A.; David, G.; Dayananda, M. K.; Denisov, A.; Deshpande, A.; Desmond, E. J.; Dharmawardane, K. V.; Dietzsch, O.; Dion, A.; Donadelli, M.; Drapier, O.; Drees, A.; Drees, K. A.; Durham, J. M.; Durum, A.; Dutta, D.; D’Orazio, L.; Edwards, S.; Efremenko, Y. V.; Ellinghaus, F.; Engelmore, T.; Enokizono, A.; En’yo, H.; Esumi, S.; Fadem, B.; Fields, D. E.; Finger, M.; Finger, M.; Fleuret, F.; Fokin, S. L.; Fraenkel, Z.; Frantz, J. E.; Franz, A.; Frawley, A. D.; Fujiwara, K.; Fukao, Y.; Fusayasu, T.; Gal, C.; Garishvili, I.; Glenn, A.; Gong, H.; Gong, X.; Gonin, M.; Goto, Y.; Granier de Cassagnac, R.; Grau, N.; Greene, S. V.; Grim, G.; Grosse Perdekamp, M.; Gunji, T.; Guo, L.; Gustafsson, H. -Å.; Haggerty, J. S.; Hahn, K. I.; Hamagaki, H.; Hamblen, J.; Han, R.; Hanks, J.; Harper, C.; Hashimoto, K.; Haslum, E.; Hayano, R.; He, X.; Heffner, M.; Hemmick, T. K.; Hester, T.; Hill, J. C.; Hohlmann, M.; Hollis, R. S.; Holzmann, W.; Homma, K.; Hong, B.; Horaguchi, T.; Hori, Y.; Hornback, D.; Huang, S.; Ichihara, T.; Ichimiya, R.; Iinuma, H.; Ikeda, Y.; Imai, K.; Inaba, M.; Iordanova, A.; Isenhower, D.; Ishihara, M.; Issah, M.; Ivanischev, D.; Iwanaga, Y.; Jacak, B. V.; Jia, J.; Jiang, X.; Jin, J.; John, D.; Johnson, B. M.; Jones, T.; Joo, K. S.; Jouan, D.; Jumper, D. S.; Kajihara, F.; Kamin, J.; Kaneti, S.; Kang, B. H.; Kang, J. H.; Kang, J. S.; Kapustinsky, J.; Karatsu, K.; Kasai, M.; Kawall, D.; Kawashima, M.; Kazantsev, A. V.; Kempel, T.; Khanzadeev, A.; Kijima, K. M.; Kikuchi, J.; Kim, A.; Kim, B. I.; Kim, D. J.; Kim, E. -J.; Kim, Y. -J.; Kim, Y. K.; Kinney, E.; Kiss, Á.; Kistenev, E.; Kleinjan, D.; Kline, P.; Kochenda, L.; Komkov, B.; Konno, M.; Koster, J.; Kotov, D.; Král, A.; Kravitz, A.; Kunde, G. J.; Kurita, K.; Kurosawa, M.; Kwon, Y.; Kyle, G. S.; Lacey, R.; Lai, Y. S.; Lajoie, J. G.; Lebedev, A.; Lee, D. M.; Lee, J.; Lee, K. B.; Lee, K. S.; Lee, S. H.; Lee, S. R.; Leitch, M. J.; Leite, M. A. L.; Li, X.; Lichtenwalner, P.; Liebing, P.; Lim, S. H.; Linden Levy, L. A.; Liška, T.; Liu, H.; Liu, M. X.; Love, B.; Lynch, D.; Maguire, C. F.; Makdisi, Y. I.; Malik, M. D.; Manion, A.; Manko, V. I.; Mannel, E.; Mao, Y.; Masui, H.; Matathias, F.; McCumber, M.; McGaughey, P. L.; McGlinchey, D.; McKinney, C.; Means, N.; Mendoza, M.; Meredith, B.; Miake, Y.; Mibe, T.; Mignerey, A. C.; Miki, K.; Milov, A.; Mitchell, J. T.; Miyachi, Y.; Mohanty, A. K.; Moon, H. J.; Morino, Y.; Morreale, A.; Morrison, D. P.; Motschwiller, S.; Moukhanova, T. V.; Murakami, T.; Murata, J.; Nagamiya, S.; Nagle, J. L.; Naglis, M.; Nagy, M. I.; Nakagawa, I.; Nakamiya, Y.; Nakamura, K. R.; Nakamura, T.; Nakano, K.; Nam, S.; Newby, J.; Nguyen, M.; Nihashi, M.; Nouicer, R.; Nyanin, A. S.; Oakley, C.; O’Brien, E.; Oda, S. X.; Ogilvie, C. A.; Oka, M.; Okada, K.; Onuki, Y.; Oskarsson, A.; Ouchida, M.; Ozawa, K.; Pak, R.; Pantuev, V.; Papavassiliou, V.; Park, B. H.; Park, I. H.; Park, S. K.; Park, W. J.; Pate, S. F.; Patel, L.; Pei, H.; Peng, J. -C.; Pereira, H.; Peressounko, D. Yu.; Petti, R.; Pinkenburg, C.; Pisani, R. P.; Proissl, M.; Purschke, M. L.; Qu, H.; Rak, J.; Ravinovich, I.; Read, K. F.; Rembeczki, S.; Reygers, K.; Riabov, V.; Riabov, Y.; Richardson, E.; Roach, D.; Roche, G.; Rolnick, S. D.; Rosati, M.; Rosen, C. A.; Rosendahl, S. S. E.; Ružička, P.; Sahlmueller, B.; Saito, N.; Sakaguchi, T.; Sakashita, K.; Samsonov, V.; Sano, S.; Sarsour, M.; Sato, T.; Savastio, M.; Sawada, S.; Sedgwick, K.; Seele, J.; Seidl, R.; Seto, R.; Sharma, D.; Shein, I.; Shibata, T. -A.; Shigaki, K.; Shim, H. H.; Shimomura, M.; Shoji, K.; Shukla, P.; Sickles, A.; Silva, C. L.; Silvermyr, D.; Silvestre, C.; Sim, K. S.; Singh, B. K.; Singh, C. P.; Singh, V.; Slunečka, M.; Sodre, T.; Soltz, R. A.; Sondheim, W. E.; Sorensen, S. P.; Sourikova, I. V.; Stankus, P. W.; Stenlund, E.; Stoll, S. P.; Sugitate, T.; Sukhanov, A.; Sun, J.; Sziklai, J.

    2015-05-12

    In this study, we present azimuthal angular correlations between charged hadrons and energy deposited in calorimeter towers in central d+Au and aluminum bias p+p collisions at √sNN = 200 GeV. The charged hadron is measured at midrapidity lηl < 0.35, and the energy us measured at large rapidity (–3.7 < η < –3.1, Au-going direction). An enhanced near-side angular correlation across lΔηl > 2.75 is observed in d+Au collisions. Using the event plane method applied to the Au-going energy distribution, we extract the anisotropy strength v₂ for inclusive charged hadrons at midrapidity up to pT = 4.5 GeV/c. We also present the measurement of v₂ for identified π± and (anti)protons in central d+Au collisions, and observe a mass-ordering pattern similar to that seen in heavy ion collisions. These results are compared with viscous hydrodynamic calculations and measurements from p+Pb at √sNN = 5.02 TeV. The magnitude of the mass-ordering in d+Au is found to be smaller than that in p+Pb collisions, which may indicate smaller radial flow in lower energy d+Au collisions.

  15. Controlling neutron orbital angular momentum.

    PubMed

    Clark, Charles W; Barankov, Roman; Huber, Michael G; Arif, Muhammad; Cory, David G; Pushin, Dmitry A

    2015-09-24

    The quantized orbital angular momentum (OAM) of photons offers an additional degree of freedom and topological protection from noise. Photonic OAM states have therefore been exploited in various applications ranging from studies of quantum entanglement and quantum information science to imaging. The OAM states of electron beams have been shown to be similarly useful, for example in rotating nanoparticles and determining the chirality of crystals. However, although neutrons--as massive, penetrating and neutral particles--are important in materials characterization, quantum information and studies of the foundations of quantum mechanics, OAM control of neutrons has yet to be achieved. Here, we demonstrate OAM control of neutrons using macroscopic spiral phase plates that apply a 'twist' to an input neutron beam. The twisted neutron beams are analysed with neutron interferometry. Our techniques, applied to spatially incoherent beams, demonstrate both the addition of quantum angular momenta along the direction of propagation, effected by multiple spiral phase plates, and the conservation of topological charge with respect to uniform phase fluctuations. Neutron-based studies of quantum information science, the foundations of quantum mechanics, and scattering and imaging of magnetic, superconducting and chiral materials have until now been limited to three degrees of freedom: spin, path and energy. The optimization of OAM control, leading to well defined values of OAM, would provide an additional quantized degree of freedom for such studies. PMID:26399831

  16. Useful angular selectivity in oblique columnar aluminum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ditchburn, R. J.; Smith, G. B.

    1991-03-01

    A useful magnitude of angular selective transmittance of incident unpolarized light is demonstrated in obliquely deposited aluminum. Required deposition procedures and anisotropic optical properties are discussed. Angular selectivity is very strong at visible wavelengths but both experiment and theory indicate that a single oblique layer with well defined columns gives high transmittance at near-infrared wavelengths compared with normal films. There are ways of reducing this to enhance the energy control capability. Both solar and luminous angular selectivity are reported.

  17. The Angular Momentum of the Solar System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cang, Rongquin; Guo, Jianpo; Hu, Juanxiu; He, Chaoquiong

    2016-05-01

    The angular momentum of the Solar System is a very important physical quantity to the formation and evolution of the Solar System. Previously, the spin angular momentum of the Sun and the orbital angular momentum of the Eight Giant Planets were only taken into consideration, when researchers calculated the angular momentum of the Solar System. Nowadays, it seems narrow and conservative. Using Eggleton's code, we calculate the rotational inertia of the Sun. Furthermore, we obtain that the spin angular momentum of the Sun is 1.8838 x 10^41 kg m^2 s^-1. Besides the spin angular momentum of the Sun and the orbital angular momentum of the Eight Giant Planets, we also account for the orbital angular momentum of the Asteroid Belt, the Kuiper Belt, the Oort Cloud, the Ninth Giant Planet and the Solar Companion. We obtain that the angular momentum of the whole Solar System is 3.3212 x 10^45 kg m^2 s^-1.

  18. Configuration interaction calculations with infinite angular = expansions

    SciTech Connect

    Goldman, S.P.; Glickman, T.

    1996-05-01

    The Modified Configuration Interaction (MCI) method improves the angular convergence of Configuration Interaction (CI) calculations by several orders of magnitude by mixing a priori a large number of angular basis functions. With MCI one can therefore use basis functions with very large angular momentum quantum numbers, overcoming an important limitation of conventional CI. Although this is desirable given the excellent convergence obtained, the large number of angular integrations and the calculation of n-j symbols with large values of l to high accuracy, make the angular calculations lengthy. In this work a new angular representation for CI calculations is presented that is much more efficient and powerful. Instead of the large number of angular functions of MCI the authors use a basis set containing an infinite linear combination of angular functions. All the necessary integrations involving these infinite expansions are done in closed form and are actually easy and fast to compute. The linear coefficients in the angular expansion are optimized in terms of a few non-linear parameters. Several examples will be presented with applications to two-electron systems.

  19. Accuracy of visual estimates of joint angle and angular velocity using criterion movements.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Craig S; Knudson, Duane; Clayburn, Colby; Haywood, Philip

    2005-06-01

    A descriptive study to document undergraduate physical education majors' (22.8 +/- 2.4 yr. old) estimates of sagittal plane elbow angle and angular velocity of elbow flexion visually was performed. 42 subjects rated videotape replays of 30 movements organized into three speeds of movement and two criterion elbow angles. Video images of the movements were analyzed with Peak Motus to measure actual values of elbow angles and peak angular velocity. Of the subjects 85.7% had speed ratings significantly correlated with true peak elbow angular velocity in all three angular velocity conditions. Few (16.7%) subjects' ratings of elbow angle correlated significantly with actual angles. Analysis of the subjects with good ratings showed the accuracy of visual ratings was significantly related to speed, with decreasing accuracy for slower speeds of movement. The use of criterion movements did not improve the small percentage of novice observers who could accurately estimate body angles during movement. PMID:16060418

  20. Dynamic Composition Determination in Heterogeneous Ensembles using Angular Autocorrelation Functions as Signatures

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Dongsheng; Xu, Zhijie; Ahzi, Said

    2013-06-04

    Signatures of heterogeneous ensembles composed of multiple types of random oriented particles are represented by the angular autocorrelation functions of the systems. These signatures are retrieved by averaging oversampled angular correlation functions calculated from high throughput X-ray diffraction patterns. Using a component signature matrix, the composition of the heterogeneous system will be directly calculated from the signature of the ensemble. This is the first attempt to determine dynamic composition of a heterogeneous ensemble by fluctuation X-ray scattering using the angular autocorrelation functions as signatures.

  1. Interannual variation of global atmospheric angular momentum

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Tsing-Chang; Yen, Ming-Cheng; Tribbia, J.J.

    1996-10-01

    The relative atmospheric angular momentum (RAM) integrated over the globe is an explicit variable representing the state of the atmospheric general circulation. After removing the annual, semiannual, and higher-frequency components, the filtered global RAM time series for the past 14 years (1979-92) is highly correlated with both the Southern Oscillation index and the tropical Pacific sea surface temperature averaged over Area NINO-3 (5{degrees}S-5{degrees}N, 150{degrees}W-90{degrees}W). The interannual variation of global RAM is coherent with the poleward propagation of RAM anomalies. The global RAM anomalies reach their minimum values when westerly anomalies emerge in the Tropics and higher latitudes during a cold El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) event. On the other hand, global RAM anomalies attain their maximum values when westerly anomalies arrive at the subtropics of both hemispheres during a warm ENSO event. It is demonstrated that the poleward propagation of RAM anomalies results from the flip-flop oscillation of the anomalous circulation between cold and warm ENSO events. 11 refs., 3 figs.

  2. The validity of an assessment of maximum angular velocity of knee extension (KE) using a gyroscope.

    PubMed

    Arai, Takeshi; Obuchi, Shuichi; Shiba, Yoshitaka; Omuro, Kazuya; Inaba, Yasuko; Kojima, Motonaga

    2012-01-01

    Although it is more important to assess the muscular power of the lower extremities than the strength, no simplified method for doing so has been found. The aim of this study was to assess the validity of the assessment of the angular velocity of KE using a gyroscope. Participants included 105 community-dwelling older people (55 women, 50 men, age ± standard deviation (SD) 75±5.3). Pearson correlation coefficients and Spearman rank-correlation coefficients were used to examine the relationships between the angular velocity of KE and functional performance measurements, a self-efficacy scale and health-related quality of life (HRQOL). The data from the gyroscope were significantly correlated with some physical functions such as muscle strength (r=0.304, p<0.01), and walking velocity (r=0.543, p<0.001). In addition, the joint angular velocity was significantly correlated with self-efficacy (r=0.219-0.329, p<0.01-0.05) and HRQOL (r=0.207-0.359, p<0.01-0.05). The absolute value of the correlation coefficient of angular velocity tended to be greater than that of the muscle strength for mobility functions such as walking velocity and the timed-up-and-go (TUG) test. In conclusion, it was found that the assessment of the angular velocity of the knee joint using a gyroscope could be a feasible and meaningful measurement in the geriatrics field. PMID:22100108

  3. Angular distributions of molecular Auger electrons: The case of C 1s Auger emission in CO

    SciTech Connect

    Semenov, S. K.; Kuznetsov, V. V.; Cherepkov, N. A.; Bolognesi, P.; Feyer, V.; Lahmam-Bennani, A.; Casagrande, M. E. Staicu; Avaldi, L.

    2007-03-15

    The results of a study of the Auger-electron-photoelectron angular correlations in the case of the C 1s ionization of the CO molecule are presented and compared with theoretical calculations in the Hartree-Fock approximation based on the two-step model. The measurements have been performed at two photon energies, 305 and 318 eV, respectively, and at three angles of photoelectron emission relative to the light polarization vector: namely, 0 degree sign , 30 degree sign , and 60 degree sign . A general agreement is found between theory and experiment for the coincidence angular distributions and the relative magnitudes of the Auger-electron-photoelectron angular correlations. However, both experiment and theory show that the Auger-electron-photoelectron angular correlations are not sufficiently sensitive to the details of the Auger-electron wave function to allow a 'complete' Auger experiment in molecules. On the other hand, our calculations demonstrate that the Auger-electron angular distribution measured in the molecular frame is very sensitive to the individual contributions of different partial waves of the Auger electron. Therefore we conclude that the complete experiment for the Auger decay in molecules can be realized only measuring the Auger-electron angular distributions in the molecular frame.

  4. Angular distribution and atomic effects in condensed phase photoelectron spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, R.F.

    1981-11-01

    A general concept of condensed phase photoelectron spectroscopy is that angular distribution and atomic effects in the photoemission intensity are determined by different mechanisms, the former being determined largely by ordering phenomena such as crystal momentum conservation and photoelectron diffraction while the latter are manifested in the total (angle-integrated) cross section. In this work, the physics of the photoemission process is investigated in several very different experiments to elucidate the mechanisms of, and correlation between, atomic and angular distribution effects. Theoretical models are discussed and the connection betweeen the two effects is clearly established. The remainder of this thesis, which describes experiments utilizing both angle-resolved and angle-integrated photoemission in conjunction with synchrotron radiation in the energy range 6 eV less than or equal to h ..nu.. less than or equal to 360 eV and laboratory sources, is divided into three parts.

  5. Angular-Rate Estimation Using Quaternion Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Azor, Ruth; Bar-Itzhack, Y.; Deutschmann, Julie K.; Harman, Richard R.

    1998-01-01

    In most spacecraft (SC) there is a need to know the SC angular rate. Precise angular rate is required for attitude determination, and a coarse rate is needed for attitude control damping. Classically, angular rate information is obtained from gyro measurements. These days, there is a tendency to build smaller, lighter and cheaper SC, therefore the inclination now is to do away with gyros and use other means and methods to determine the angular rate. The latter is also needed even in gyro equipped satellites when performing high rate maneuvers whose angular-rate is out of range of the on board gyros or in case of gyro failure. There are several ways to obtain the angular rate in a gyro-less SC. When the attitude is known, one can differentiate the attitude in whatever parameters it is given and use the kinematics equation that connects the derivative of the attitude with the satellite angular-rate and compute the latter. Since SC usually utilize vector measurements for attitude determination, the differentiation of the attitude introduces a considerable noise component in the computed angular-rate vector.

  6. Mean Angular Momenta of Primary Photofission Products

    SciTech Connect

    Bezshyyko, O.A.; Kadenko, I.M.; Plujko, V.A.; Yermolenko, R.V.; Mazur, V.M.; Strilchuk, N.V.; Vishnevsky, I.M.; Zheltonozhsky, V.A.

    2005-05-24

    Isomer ratios and mean angular momenta for photofission products of 237Np and 238U are obtained. The technique of gamma-ray spectrometry for isomeric ratio determination was used. Fissionable nuclei were irradiated by bremsstrahlung spectrum of microtron M-30 with electron energy 16 MeV. Calculations of mean angular momenta were performed by modified version of the EMPIRE II code.

  7. Orbital angular momentum in the nucleon

    SciTech Connect

    Garvey, Gerald T.

    2010-05-15

    Analysis of the measured value of the integrated d-bar-u-bar asymmetry (I{sub fas} = 0.147 +- 0.027) in the nucleon show it to arise from nucleon fluctuations into baryon plus pion. Requiring angular momentum conservation in these fluctuations shows the associated orbital angular momentum is equal to the value of the flavor asymmetry.

  8. The angular momentum of the Oort cloud

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weissman, Paul R.

    1991-01-01

    An evaluation is made of the work of Marochnik et al. (1988), which estimated that the angular momentum of the Oort cloud is 2-3 orders of magnitude greater than the planetary system's total angular momentum. It is noted that most of the angular momentum in the currently observed Oort cloud is the result of the effects of external perturbers over the solar system's history, and it is demonstrated that the total current angular momentum is probably in the 6.0 x 10 to the 50th to 1.1 x 10 to the 51st g sq cm/sec range; original angular momentum was probably a factor of 5 below such values.

  9. The angular momentum of the Oort cloud

    SciTech Connect

    Weissman, P.R. )

    1991-01-01

    An evaluation is made of the work of Marochnik et al. (1988), which estimated that the angular momentum of the Oort cloud is 2-3 orders of magnitude greater than the planetary system's total angular momentum. It is noted that most of the angular momentum in the currently observed Oort cloud is the result of the effects of external perturbers over the solar system's history, and it is demonstrated that the total current angular momentum is probably in the 6.0 x 10 to the 50th to 1.1 x 10 to the 51st g sq cm/sec range; original angular momentum was probably a factor of 5 below such values. 21 refs.

  10. Correlation Plenoptic Imaging.

    PubMed

    D'Angelo, Milena; Pepe, Francesco V; Garuccio, Augusto; Scarcelli, Giuliano

    2016-06-01

    Plenoptic imaging is a promising optical modality that simultaneously captures the location and the propagation direction of light in order to enable three-dimensional imaging in a single shot. However, in standard plenoptic imaging systems, the maximum spatial and angular resolutions are fundamentally linked; thereby, the maximum achievable depth of field is inversely proportional to the spatial resolution. We propose to take advantage of the second-order correlation properties of light to overcome this fundamental limitation. In this Letter, we demonstrate that the correlation in both momentum and position of chaotic light leads to the enhanced refocusing power of correlation plenoptic imaging with respect to standard plenoptic imaging. PMID:27314718

  11. Correlation Plenoptic Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Angelo, Milena; Pepe, Francesco V.; Garuccio, Augusto; Scarcelli, Giuliano

    2016-06-01

    Plenoptic imaging is a promising optical modality that simultaneously captures the location and the propagation direction of light in order to enable three-dimensional imaging in a single shot. However, in standard plenoptic imaging systems, the maximum spatial and angular resolutions are fundamentally linked; thereby, the maximum achievable depth of field is inversely proportional to the spatial resolution. We propose to take advantage of the second-order correlation properties of light to overcome this fundamental limitation. In this Letter, we demonstrate that the correlation in both momentum and position of chaotic light leads to the enhanced refocusing power of correlation plenoptic imaging with respect to standard plenoptic imaging.

  12. Hyperfine Magnetic Field Measurements in the Heusler Alloys COBALT(2)-TITANIUM-Z, COBALT(2)-MAGNESIUM-Z (z = Silicon, Germanium, and Tin) and COBALT(2)-MAGNESIUM- Gallium Using the Moessbauer Effect (me) and the Time Differential Perturbed Angular Correlation (tdpac) Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lahamer, Amer Said

    1990-01-01

    Measurements of the hyperfine magnetic field in a series of Heusler alloys were performed. The probes were in (^{119}Sn) and cadmium (^{111}Cd). These measurements were performed at the University of Cincinnati in Cincinnati, Ohio. Two techniques were used. The first technique was the Mossbauer effect, which was used to measure the hyperfine magnetic field on ^{119 }Sn in Co_2TiZ (Z = Si, Ge, and Sn), and the second technique was the Time Differential Perturbed Angular Correlation which was used to measure the hyperfine magnetic field on ^ {111}Cd in the Co_2MnZ (Z = Si, Ge, Sn, and Ga). The probes are expected to go to the Z sites of the alloys. The hyperfine magnetic field measurements on ^{119}Sn in Co _2TiZ (Z = Si, Ge, and Sn) alloys were done at room, dry ice and liquid nitrogen temperatures by using the Mossbauer effect technique. The data were fitted by using a least squares fit from which three parameters were extracted. These parameters are the isomer shift, the quadrupole splitting and the hyperfine magnetic field. Temperature variation measurements of the hyperfine magnetic field were performed on ^{111 }Cd in Co_2MnZ (Z = Si, Ge, Sn, and Ga) alloys. The data were fitted again by using a least squares fit from which the Larmor frequency which is related to the hyperfine magnetic field was extracted. Also the Fourier Transforms were taken of the data, on the one hand to confirm the results of the least squares fit and on the other hand to look for more frequencies. Results of the Fourier Transforms show that some of the probe, ^{111}In, did go to the Co site in the Co_2MnZ (Z = Ga, Si, and Ge) alloys. The hmf on ^{111 }Cd in the Co site of these alloys is found to be 68 kOe which is consistent with the value found in the literature. Two theoretical models were examined for the trends of hyperfine magnetic field on ^{119 }Sn and ^{111}Cd in Co_2MnZ (Z = Si, Ge, Sn, and Ga) alloys. These are the Campbell and Blandin model and the Stearns' overlap model

  13. A Comparative Time Differential Perturbed Angular Correlation Study of the Nuclear Quadrupole Interaction in HfF4·HF·2H2O Using 180mHf and 181Hf(β-)181Ta as Nuclear Probes: Is Ta an Innocent Spy?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butz, Tilman; Das, Satyendra K.; Manzhur, Yurij

    2009-02-01

    We report on a comparative study of the nuclear quadrupole interaction of the nuclear probes 180mHf and 181Hf(β -)181Ta in HfF4・HF・2H2O using time differential perturbed angular correlations (TDPAC) at 300 K. For the first probe, assuming a Lorentzian frequency distribution, we obtained ωQ= 103(4) Mrad/s, an asymmetry parameter η = 0.68(3), a linewidth δ = 7.3(3.9)%, and full anisotropy within experimental accuracy. For the second probe, assuming a Lorentzian frequency distribution, we obtained three fractions: (1) with 56.5(7)%, ωQ= 126.64(4) Mrad/s and η = 0.9241(4) with a rather small distribution δ = 0.40(8)% which is attributed to HfF4・HF・2H2O; (2) with 4.6(4)%, ωQ = 161.7(3) Mrad/s and η = 0.761(4) assuming no line broadening which is tentatively attributed to a small admixture of Hf2OF6・H2O; (3) the remainder of 39.0(7)% accounts for a rapid loss of anisotropy and is modelled by a perturbation function with a sharp frequency multiplied by an exponential factor exp(-λ t) with λ = 0.55(2) ns-1. Whereas the small admixture of Hf2OF6・H2O escapes detection by the 180mHf probe, there is no rapid loss of roughly half the anisotropy as is the case with 181Hf(β -)181Ta. This loss could in principle be due to fluctuating electric field gradients originating from movements of nearest neighbour HF adducts and/or H2O molecules after nuclear transmutation to the foreign atom Ta which are absent for the isomeric probe. Alternatively, paramagnetic Ta ions could lead to fluctuating magnetic dipole fields which, when combined with fluctuating electric field gradients, could also lead to a rapid loss of anisotropy. In any case, Ta is not an "innocent spy" in this compound. Although 180mHf is not a convenient probe for conventional spectrometers, the use of fast digitizers and software coincidences would allow to use all γ -quanta in the stretched cascade which would greatly improve the efficiency of the spectrometer. 180mHf could also serve as a Pu

  14. Angular momentum in the Local Group

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, A.; Laflamme, R.

    1994-04-01

    We briefly review models for the Local Group and the acquisition of its angular momentum. We describe early attempts to understand the origin of the spin of the galaxies discussing the hypothesis that the Local Group has little angular momentum. Finally we show that using Peebles` least action principle there should be a rather large amount of orbital angular momentum compared to the magnitude of the spin of its galaxies. Therefore the Local Group cannot be thought as tidally isolated. Using Peebles` trajectories we give a possible set of trajectories for Local Group galaxies which would predict their spin.

  15. Stellar Angular Diameter Relations for Microlensing Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Arthur; Boyajian, Tabetha S.; von Braun, Kaspar

    2016-01-01

    Determining the physical properties of microlensing events depends on having accurate angular radii of the source star. Using long-baseline optical interferometry we are able to determine the angular sizes of nearby stars with uncertainties less than 2 percent. We present empirical estimates of angular diameters for both dwarfs/subgiants and giant stars as functions of five color indices which are relevant to planned microlensing surveys. We find in all considered colors that metallicity does not play a statistically significant role in predicting stellar size for the samples of stars considered.

  16. Angular momentum dependence of complex fragment emission

    SciTech Connect

    Sobotka, L.G.; Sarantites, D.G.; Li, Z.; Dines, E.L.; Halbert, M.L.; Hensley, D.C.; Lisle, J.C.; Schmitt, R.P.; Majka, Z.; Nebbia, G.

    1987-12-01

    The angular momentum dependence of large fragment production in long-lived reactions is studied by measurements of fragment cross sections from reactions with substantially different angular momentum distributions and the coincident ..gamma..-ray multiplicity distributions. The results indicate that the primary l-wave distributions move to larger mean values and decrease in width and skewness with increasing mass symmetry in the decay channel. The results also confirm that the partition of angular momentum kinetic energy relaxed heavy-ion reactions is that expected for a rigidly rotating intermediate.

  17. Optical Mixing of Rydberg Angular Momenta

    SciTech Connect

    Corless, J.D.; Stroud, C.R., Jr.

    1997-07-01

    When optical frequency fields are used to couple a ground state to a Rydberg state, the resonant dipole coupling is to a low angular momentum state. Higher angular momentum states are typically thought not to play a role in the excitation. The extremely large dipole matrix elements coupling Rydberg states of the same n but differing l , however, allow optical fields of modest strengths to produce Rabi frequencies larger than optical frequencies. We demonstrate that these optical fields can therefore readily excite the higher angular momentum states, and we examine the consequences of this coupling. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  18. A demonstration of the conservation of the orbital angular momentum of Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pellizza, Leonardo J.; Mayochi, Mariano G.; Ciocci Brazzano, Ligia; Pedrosa, Susana E.

    2015-12-01

    We describe a simple but quantitative experiment to demonstrate the conservation of angular momentum. We measure the correlation of the apparent radius and angular velocity of the Sun with respect to the stars, due to the conservation of the angular momentum of Earth in its orbit. We also determine the direction of Earth's angular momentum vector and show that it is conserved. The experiment can be performed using a small telescope and a digital camera. It is conceptually simple, allowing students to get direct physical insight from the data. The observations are performed near the resolution limit imposed by the atmosphere, and in the presence of strong competing effects. These effects necessitate a careful experimental setup and allow students to improve their skills in experimentation.

  19. Gravitational waves carrying orbital angular momentum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bialynicki-Birula, Iwo; Bialynicka-Birula, Zofia

    2016-02-01

    Spinorial formalism is used to map every electromagnetic wave into the gravitational wave (within the linearized gravity). In this way we can obtain the gravitational counterparts of Bessel, Laguerre-Gauss, and other light beams carrying orbital angular momentum.

  20. Calculates Angular Quadrature Weights and Cosines.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1988-02-18

    DSNQUAD calculates the angular quadrature weights and cosines for use in CCC-254/ANISN-ORNL. The subroutines in DSNQUAD were lifted from the XSDRN-PM code, which is supplied with the CCC-475/ SCALIAS-77 package.

  1. A new integrated optical angular velocity sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciminelli, Caterina; Peluso, Francesco; Armenise, Mario N.

    2005-03-01

    Very compact and low-cost rotation sensors are strongly required for any moving systems in several applications. Integrated optical angular velocity sensors seem to be very promising in terms of low cost, compactness, light weight and high-performance. In the paper a new integrated optical angular velocity sensor having a passive resonant configuration is proposed. Preliminary results are really encouraging and demonstrate the possibility of using the sensor in gyro systems for satellite applications.

  2. Angular performance measure for tighter uncertainty relations

    SciTech Connect

    Hradil, Z.; Rehacek, J.; Klimov, A. B.; Rigas, I.; Sanchez-Soto, L. L.

    2010-01-15

    The uncertainty principle places a fundamental limit on the accuracy with which we can measure conjugate quantities. However, the fluctuations of these variables can be assessed in terms of different estimators. We propose an angular performance that allows for tighter uncertainty relations for angle and angular momentum. The differences with previous bounds can be significant for particular states and indeed may be amenable to experimental measurement with the present technology.

  3. Angular wander measurements of maser clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mutel, Robert L.

    Angular wander measurements of the relative positions of closely spaced maser features provides a powerful probe of interstellar turbulence associated with regions of star formation. Differential angular wander is easily measured in a maser complex and can strongly distinguish between shallow and steep power-law turbulence. The best candidates for such measurements appear to be the 6 and 12 GHz type II methanol masers.

  4. Geometric absorption of electromagnetic angular momentum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konz, C.; Benford, Gregory

    2003-10-01

    Circularly polarized electromagnetic fields carry both energy and angular momentum. We investigate the conditions under which a circularly polarized wave field transfers angular momentum to a perfectly conducting macroscopic object, using exact electromagnetic wave theory in a steady-state calculation. We find that axisymmetric perfect conductors cannot absorb or radiate angular momentum when illuminated. However, any asymmetry allows absorption. A rigorous, steady-state solution of the boundary value problem for the reflection from a perfectly conducting infinite wedge shows that waves convey angular momentum at the edges of asymmetries. Conductors can also radiate angular momentum, so their geometric absorption coefficient for angular momentum can be negative. Such absorption or radiation depends solely on the specific geometry of the conductor. The geometric absorption coefficient can be as high as 0.8, and the coefficient for radiation can be -0.4, larger than typical material absorption coefficients. We apply the results to recent experiments which spun roof-shaped aluminum sheets with polarized microwave beams. Applications of geometric, instead of material, absorption can be quite varied. Though experiments testing these ideas will be simpler at microwavelengths, the ideas work for optical ones as well.

  5. A detection system with broad angular acceptance for particle identification and angular distribution measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carnelli, P. F. F.; Arazi, A.; Fernández Niello, J. O.; Capurro, O. A.; Cardona, M. A.; de Barbará, E.; Figueira, J. M.; Hojman, D.; Martí, G. V.; Martinez Heimann, D.; Negri, A. E.; Pacheco, A. J.

    2013-10-01

    A new detection system for time-optimized heavy-ion angular distribution measurements has been designed and constructed. This device is composed by an ionization chamber with a segmented-grid anode and three position-sensitive silicon detectors. This particular arrangement allows identifying reaction products emitted within a 30° wide angular range with better than 1° angular resolution. As a demonstration of its capabilities, angular distributions of the elastic scattering cross-section and the production of alpha particles in the 7Li+27Al system, at an energy above the Coulomb barrier, are presented.

  6. Magnetic field and angular momentum evolution models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallet, F.

    2013-11-01

    The magnetic field in young stellar object is clearly the most important component when one dealing with the angular momentum evolution of solar-like stars. It controls this latter one from the pre-main sequence, during the ``disk locking'' phase where the stars magnetically interact with their surrounding disk, to the main-sequence through powerful stellar winds that remove angular momentum from the stellar surface. We present new models for the rotational evolution of solar-like stars between 1 Myr and 10 Gyr with the aim to reproduce the distributions of rotational periods observed for star forming regions and young open clusters within this age range. Our simulations are produced by a recent model dedicated to the study of the angular momentum evolution of solar-type stars. This model include a new wind braking law based on recent numerical simulations of magnetized stellar winds and a specific dynamo and mass-loss prescription are used to link the angular momentum loss-rate to angular velocity evolution. The model additionally allows for a core/envelope decoupling with an angular momentum transfer between these two regions. Since this former model didn't include any physical star/disk interaction description, two star/disk interaction processes are eventually added to it in order to reproduce the apparent small angular velocities to which the stellar surface is subject during the disk accretion phase. We have developed rotational evolution models for slow, median and fast rotators including two star/disk interaction scenarios that are the magnetospheric ejection and the accretion powered stellar winds processes. The models appear to fail at reproducing the rotational behaviour of solar-type stars except when a more intense magnetic field is used during the disk accretion phase.

  7. The Evershed Effect with 0.2 arcsec Angular Resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Márquez, I.; Bonet, J. A.; Sánchez Almeida, J.; Domínguez Cerdeña, I.

    2006-12-01

    We present a preliminary analysis of penumbral spectra observed with unprecedented angular resolution (0.2 arcsec) using the new Swedish 1-m Solar Telescope. The use of a non-magnetic line allows us to measure Doppler shifts without magnetic contamination. The observed Doppler shifts depend on the part of the line used for measuring, indicating that the velocity structure of penumbrae remains unresolved even with our resolution. We find a correlation between upflows and bright filaments. This association is not specific of the outer penumbra but it also occurs in the inner penumbra. The existence of such correlation was originally reported by tet{m1 BS69}, and it is suggestive of energy transport by convection in penumbrae.

  8. Ultrafast angular momentum transfer in multisublattice ferrimagnets.

    PubMed

    Bergeard, N; López-Flores, V; Halté, V; Hehn, M; Stamm, C; Pontius, N; Beaurepaire, E; Boeglin, C

    2014-01-01

    Femtosecond laser pulses can be used to induce ultrafast changes of the magnetization in magnetic materials. However, one of the unsolved questions is that of conservation of the total angular momentum during the ultrafast demagnetization. Here we report the ultrafast transfer of angular momentum during the first hundred femtoseconds in ferrimagnetic Co0.8Gd0.2 and Co0.74Tb0.26 films. Using time-resolved X-ray magnetic circular dichroism allowed for time-resolved determination of spin and orbital momenta for each element. We report an ultrafast quenching of the magnetocrystalline anisotropy and show that at early times the demagnetization in ferrimagnetic alloys is driven by the local transfer of angular momenta between the two exchange-coupled sublattices while the total angular momentum stays constant. In Co0.74Tb0.26 we have observed a transfer of the total angular momentum to an external bath, which is delayed by ~150 fs. PMID:24614016

  9. Dirac Green function for angular projection potentials.

    PubMed

    Zeller, Rudolf

    2015-11-25

    The aim of this paper is twofold: first, it is shown that the angular dependence of the Dirac Green function can be described analytically for potentials with non-local dependence on the angular variables if they are chosen as projection potentials in angular momentum space. Because the local dependence on the radial variable can be treated to any precision with present computing capabilities, this means that the Green function can be calculated practically exactly. Second, it is shown that a result of this kind not only holds for a single angular projection potential but also more generally, for instance if space is divided into non-overlapping cells and a separate angular projection potential is used in each cell. This opens the way for relativistic density-functional calculations within a different perspective than the conventional one. Instead of trying to obtain the density for a given potential approximately as well as possible, the density is determined exactly for non-local potentials which can approximate arbitrary local potentials as well as desired. PMID:26523824

  10. An orbital angular momentum spectrometer for electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvey, Tyler; Grillo, Vincenzo; McMorran, Benjamin

    2016-05-01

    With the advent of techniques for preparation of free-electron and neutron orbital angular momentum (OAM) states, a basic follow-up question emerges: how do we measure the orbital angular momentum state distribution in matter waves? Control of both the energy and helicity of light has produced a range of spectroscopic applications, including molecular fingerprinting and magnetization mapping. Realization of an analogous dual energy-OAM spectroscopy with matter waves demands control of both initial and final energy and orbital angular momentum states: unlike for photons, final state post-selection is necessary for particles that cannot be annihilated. We propose a magnetic field-based mechanism for quantum non-demolition measurement of electron OAM. We show that OAM-dependent lensing is produced by an operator of form U =exp iLzρ2/ℏb2 where ρ =√{x2 +y2 } is the radial position operator, Lz is the orbital angular momentum operator along z, and b is the OAM dispersion length. We can physically realize this operator as a term in the time evolution of an electron in magnetic round lens. We discuss prospects and practical challenges for implementation of a lensing orbital angular momentum measurement. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Science, Basic Energy Sciences (BES), under the Early Career Research Program Award # DE-SC0010466.

  11. Angular momentum conservation for dynamical black holes

    SciTech Connect

    Hayward, Sean A.

    2006-11-15

    Angular momentum can be defined by rearranging the Komar surface integral in terms of a twist form, encoding the twisting around of space-time due to a rotating mass, and an axial vector. If the axial vector is a coordinate vector and has vanishing transverse divergence, it can be uniquely specified under certain generic conditions. Along a trapping horizon, a conservation law expresses the rate of change of angular momentum of a general black hole in terms of angular momentum densities of matter and gravitational radiation. This identifies the transverse-normal block of an effective gravitational-radiation energy tensor, whose normal-normal block was recently identified in a corresponding energy conservation law. Angular momentum and energy are dual, respectively, to the axial vector and a previously identified vector, the conservation equations taking the same form. Including charge conservation, the three conserved quantities yield definitions of an effective energy, electric potential, angular velocity and surface gravity, satisfying a dynamical version of the so-called first law of black-hole mechanics. A corresponding zeroth law holds for null trapping horizons, resolving an ambiguity in taking the null limit.

  12. Dirac Green function for angular projection potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeller, Rudolf

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this paper is twofold: first, it is shown that the angular dependence of the Dirac Green function can be described analytically for potentials with non-local dependence on the angular variables if they are chosen as projection potentials in angular momentum space. Because the local dependence on the radial variable can be treated to any precision with present computing capabilities, this means that the Green function can be calculated practically exactly. Second, it is shown that a result of this kind not only holds for a single angular projection potential but also more generally, for instance if space is divided into non-overlapping cells and a separate angular projection potential is used in each cell. This opens the way for relativistic density-functional calculations within a different perspective than the conventional one. Instead of trying to obtain the density for a given potential approximately as well as possible, the density is determined exactly for non-local potentials which can approximate arbitrary local potentials as well as desired.

  13. Variation in Angular Velocity and Angular Acceleration of a Particle in Rectilinear Motion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mashood, K. K.; Singh, V. A.

    2012-01-01

    We discuss the angular velocity ([image omitted]) and angular acceleration ([image omitted]) associated with a particle in rectilinear motion with constant acceleration. The discussion was motivated by an observation that students and even teachers have difficulty in ascribing rotational motion concepts to a particle when the trajectory is a…

  14. Characterization of thigh and shank segment angular velocity during jump landing tasks commonly used to evaluate risk for ACL injury.

    PubMed

    Dowling, Ariel V; Favre, Julien; Andriacchi, Thomas P

    2012-09-01

    The dynamic movements associated with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury during jump landing suggest that limb segment angular velocity can provide important information for understanding the conditions that lead to an injury. Angular velocity measures could provide a quick and simple method of assessing injury risk without the constraints of a laboratory. The objective of this study was to assess the inter-subject variations and the sensitivity of the thigh and shank segment angular velocity in order to determine if these measures could be used to characterize jump landing mechanisms. Additionally, this study tested the correlation between angular velocity and the knee abduction moment. Thirty-six healthy participants (18 male) performed drop jumps with bilateral and unilateral landing. Thigh and shank angular velocities were measured by a wearable inertial-based system, and external knee moments were measured using a marker-based system. Discrete parameters were extracted from the data and compared between systems. For both jumping tasks, the angular velocity curves were well defined movement patterns with high inter-subject similarity in the sagittal plane and moderate to good similarity in the coronal and transverse planes. The angular velocity parameters were also able to detect differences between the two jumping tasks that were consistent across subjects. Furthermore, the coronal angular velocities were significantly correlated with the knee abduction moment (R of 0.28-0.51), which is a strong indicator of ACL injury risk. This study suggested that the thigh and shank angular velocities, which describe the angular dynamics of the movement, should be considered in future studies about ACL injury mechanisms. PMID:22938373

  15. Slow-roll inflation and BB-mode angular power spectrum of CMB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malsawmtluangi, N.; Suresh, P. K.

    2016-05-01

    The BB-mode correlation angular power spectrum of CMB is obtained by considering the primordial gravitational waves in the squeezed vacuum state for various inflationary models and results are compared with the joint analysis of the BICEP2/Keck Array and Planck 353 GHz data. The present results may constrain several models of inflation.

  16. Energy angular momentum closed-loop guidance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patera, Russell P.

    2015-03-01

    A novel guidance algorithm for launch vehicle ascent to the desired mission orbit is proposed. The algorithm uses total specific energy and orbital angular momentum as new state vector parameters. These parameters are ideally suited for the ascent guidance task, since the guidance algorithm steers the launch vehicle along a pre-flight optimal trajectory in energy angular momentum space. The guidance algorithm targets apogee, perigee, inclination and right ascension of ascending node. Computational complexities are avoided by eliminating time in the guidance computation and replacing it with angular momentum magnitude. As a result, vehicle acceleration, mass, thrust, length of motor burns, and staging times are also eliminated from the pitch plane guidance calculations. The algorithm does not involve launch vehicle or target state propagation, which results in minimal computational effort. Proof of concept of the new algorithm is presented using several numerical examples that illustrate performance results.

  17. Inequalities for angular derivatives and boundary interpolation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolotnikov, Vladimir; Elin, Mark; Shoikhet, David

    2013-03-01

    The classical Julia-Wolff-Carathéodory theorem asserts that the angular derivative of a holomorphic self-mapping of the open unit disk (Schur function) at its boundary fixed point is a positive number. Cowen and Pommerenke (J Lond Math Soc 26:271-289, 1982) proved that if a Schur function has several boundary regular fixed (or mutual contact) points, then the angular derivatives at these points are subject to certain inequalities. We develop a unified approach to establish relations between angular derivatives of Schur functions with a prescribed (possibly, infinite) collection of either mutual contact points or boundary fixed points. This approach yields diverse inequalities improving both classical and more recent results. We apply them to study the Nevanlinna-Pick interpolation problem with boundary data. Our methods lead to fairly explicit formulas describing the set of solutions.

  18. Improved numerical projection of angular momentum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Mara, Kevin; Johnson, Calvin

    2015-10-01

    Nuclear many-body states have good angular momenta, but many theoretical building blocks such as deformed Slater determinants do not. Hence one must numerically project out states of good angular momenta, usually through a computationally taxing three-dimensional integral. We took an existing code for angular-momentum projected Hartree-Fock and improved its performance, partly through judicious ordering of the loops, precomputing arrays of important combinatorics, and careful application of parallelization. We also investigated a novel inversion scheme. This work is potentially applicable to multiple approaches in many-body calculations, and should also be generalizable to particle number projection. Supported by SDSU Summer Undergraduate Research Program and by DOE Award Number DE-FG02-96ER40985.

  19. Electromagnetic angular momentum transport in Saturn's rings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goertz, C. K.; Morfill, G. E.; Ip, W.; Gruen, E.; Havnes, O.

    1986-01-01

    It is shown here that submicrometer dust particles sporadically elevated above Saturn's ring are subject to electromagnetic forces which will reduce their angular momentum inside synchronous orbit and increase it outside. When the dust is reabsorbed by the ring the angular momentum of the ring is decreased (increased) inside (outside) of synchronous orbit. For the case of the spokes in Saturn's B-ring it is estimated that the timescale for transporting ring material due to this angular momentum coupling effect is comparable to the viscous transport time or even smaller. It is suggested that the minimum in the optical depth of the B-ring at synchronous orbit is due to this effect.

  20. Angular momentum conservation in dipolar energy transfer.

    PubMed

    Guo, Dong; Knight, Troy E; McCusker, James K

    2011-12-23

    Conservation of angular momentum is a familiar tenet in science but has seldom been invoked to understand (or predict) chemical processes. We have developed a general formalism based on Wigner's original ideas concerning angular momentum conservation to interpret the photo-induced reactivity of two molecular donor-acceptor assemblies with physical properties synthetically tailored to facilitate intramolecular energy transfer. Steady-state and time-resolved spectroscopic data establishing excited-state energy transfer from a rhenium(I)-based charge-transfer state to a chromium(III) acceptor can be fully accounted for by Förster theory, whereas the corresponding cobalt(III) adduct does not undergo an analogous reaction despite having a larger cross-section for dipolar coupling. Because this pronounced difference in reactivity is easily explained within the context of the angular momentum conservation model, this relatively simple construct may provide a means for systematizing a broad range of chemical reactions. PMID:22194572

  1. Synthetic aperture methods for angular scatter imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guenther, Drake A.; Ranganathan, Karthik; McAllister, Michael J.; Rigby, K. W.; Walker, William F.

    2004-04-01

    Angular scatter offers a new source of tissue contrast and an opportunity for tissue characterization in ultrasound imaging. We have previously described the application of the translating apertures algorithm (TAA) to coherently acquire angular scatter data over a range of scattering angles. While this approach works well at the focus, it suffers from poor depth of field (DOF) due to a finite aperture size. Furthermore, application of the TAA with large focused apertures entails a tradeoff between spatial resolution and scattering angle resolution. While large multielement apertures improve spatial resolution, they encompass many permutations of transmit/receive element pairs. This results in the simultaneous interrogation of multiple scattering angles, limiting angular resolution. We propose a synthetic aperture imaging scheme that achieves both high spatial resolution and high angular resolution. In backscatter acquisition mode, we transmit successively from single transducer elements, while receiving on the same element. Other scattering angles are interrogated by successively transmitting and receiving on different single elements chosen with the appropriate spatial separation between them. Thus any given image is formed using only transmit/receive element pairs at a single separation. This synthetic aperture approach minimizes averaging across scattering angles, and yields excellent angular resolution. Likewise, synthetic aperture methods allow us to build large effective apertures to maintain a high spatial resolution. Synthetic dynamic focusing and dynamic apodization are applied to further improve spatial resolution and DOF. We present simulation results and experimental results obtained using a GE Logiq 700MR system modified to obtain synthetic aperture TAA data. Images of wire targets exhibit high DOF and spatial resolution. We also present a novel approach for combining angular scatter data to effectively reduce grating lobes. With this approach we have

  2. Time-resolved orbital angular momentum spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Noyan, Mehmet A.; Kikkawa, James M.

    2015-07-20

    We introduce pump-probe magneto-orbital spectroscopy, wherein Laguerre-Gauss optical pump pulses impart orbital angular momentum to the electronic states of a material and subsequent dynamics are studied with 100 fs time resolution. The excitation uses vortex modes that distribute angular momentum over a macroscopic area determined by the spot size, and the optical probe studies the chiral imbalance of vortex modes reflected off the sample. First observations in bulk GaAs yield transients that evolve on time scales distinctly different from population and spin relaxation, as expected, but with surprisingly large lifetimes.

  3. Absolute angular positioning in ultrahigh vacuum

    SciTech Connect

    Schief, H.; Marsico, V.; Kern, K.

    1996-05-01

    Commercially available angular resolvers, which are routinely used in machine tools and robotics, are modified and adapted to be used under ultrahigh-vacuum (UHV) conditions. They provide straightforward and reliable measurements of angular positions for any kind of UHV sample manipulators. The corresponding absolute reproducibility is on the order of 0.005{degree}, whereas the relative resolution is better than 0.001{degree}, as demonstrated by high-resolution helium-reflectivity measurements. The mechanical setup and possible applications are discussed. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  4. Angular momentum in spin-phonon processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garanin, D. A.; Chudnovsky, E. M.

    2015-07-01

    Quantum theory of spin relaxation in the elastic environment is revised with account of the concept of a phonon spin recently introduced by Zhang and Niu [L. Zhang and Q. Niu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 085503 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.112.085503]. Similar to the case of the electromagnetic field, the division of the angular momentum associated with elastic deformations into the orbital part and the part due to phonon spins proves to be useful for the analysis of the balance of the angular momentum. Such analysis sheds important light on microscopic processes leading to the Einstein-de Haas effect.

  5. On the vector model of angular momentum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saari, Peeter

    2016-09-01

    Instead of (or in addition to) the common vector diagram with cones, we propose to visualize the peculiarities of quantum mechanical angular momentum by a completely quantized 3D model. It spotlights the discrete eigenvalues and noncommutativity of components of angular momentum and corresponds to outcomes of measurements—real or computer-simulated. The latter can be easily realized by an interactive worksheet of a suitable program package of algebraic calculations. The proposed complementary method of visualization helps undergraduate students to better understand the counterintuitive properties of this quantum mechanical observable.

  6. Angular distribution of emission from hyperbolic metamaterials

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Lei; Livenere, J. E.; Zhu, G.; Tumkur, T. U.; Hu, H.; Cortes, C. L.; Jacob, Z.; Prokes, S. M.; Noginov, M. A.

    2014-01-01

    We have studied angular distribution of emission of dye molecules deposited on lamellar metal/dielectric and Si/Ag nanowire based metamaterials with hyperbolic dispersion. In agreement with the theoretical prediction, the emission pattern of dye on top of lamellar metamaterial is similar to that on top of metal. At the same time, the effective medium model predicts the emission patterns of the nanowire array and the dye film deposited on glass to be nearly identical to each other. This is not the case of our experiment. We tentatively explain the nearly Lambertian (∝cosθ) angular distribution of emission of the nanowire based sample by a surface roughness. PMID:25476126

  7. Angular Resolution of Multi-Lisa Constellations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yan; Gong, Xue-Fei

    2010-04-01

    In this article, we present a detailed derivation of the angular resolution of arbitrary sets of LISA (Laser Interferometer Space Antenna) constellations with a toy model for gravitational wave signals, and further generalized to more complicated cases with slowly varying gravitational wave signals of well-defined frequency at any time instant. For future space-borne LISA-like gravitational wave detectors, our results may serve as a conservative quick estimate of the detector's angular resolution and hopefully moreover a reference for the configuration designs.

  8. An investigation of angular stiffness and damping coefficients of an axial spline coupling in high-speed rotating machinery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ku, C.-P. Roger; Walton, James F., Jr.; Lund, Jorgen W.

    1994-01-01

    This paper provided an opportunity to quantify the angular stiffness and equivalent viscous damping coefficients of an axial spline coupling used in high-speed turbomachinery. A unique test methodology and data reduction procedures were developed. The bending moments and angular deflections transmitted across an axial spline coupling were measured while a nonrotating shaft was excited by an external shaker. A rotor dynamics computer program was used to simulate the test conditions and to correlate the angular stiffness and damping coefficients. In addition, sensitivity analyses were performed to show that the accuracy of the dynamic coefficients do not rely on the accuracy of the data reduction procedures.

  9. On the relationship between joint angular velocity and motor cortical discharge during reaching.

    PubMed

    Reina, G A; Moran, D W; Schwartz, A B

    2001-06-01

    Single-unit activity in area M1 was recorded in awake, behaving monkeys during a three-dimensional (3D) reaching task performed in a virtual reality environment. This study compares motor cortical discharge rate to both the hand's velocity and the arm's joint angular velocities. Hand velocity is considered a parameter of extrinsic space because it is measured in the Cartesian coordinate system of the monkey's workspace. Joint angular velocity is considered a parameter of intrinsic space because it is measured relative to adjacent arm/body segments. In the initial analysis, velocity was measured as the difference in hand position or joint posture between the beginning and ending of the reach. Cortical discharge rate was taken as the mean activity between these two times. This discharge rate was compared through a regression analysis to either an extrinsic-coordinate model based on the three components of hand velocity or to an intrinsic-coordinate model based on seven joint angular velocities. The model showed that velocities about four degrees-of-freedom (elbow flexion/extension, shoulder flexion/extension, shoulder internal/external rotation, and shoulder adduction/abduction) were those best represented in the sampled population of recorded activity. Patterns of activity recorded across the cortical population at each point in time throughout the task were used in a second analysis to predict the temporal profiles of joint angular velocity and hand velocity. The population of cortical units from area M1 matched the hand velocity and three of the four major joint angular velocities. However, shoulder adduction/abduction could not be predicted even though individual cells showed good correlation to movement on this axis. This was also the only major degree-of-freedom not well correlated to hand velocity, suggesting that the other apparent relations between joint angular velocity and neuronal activity may be due to intrinsic-extrinsic correlations inherent in

  10. Angular momenta, dynamical masses, and mergers of brightest cluster galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Jimmy; Tran, Kim-Vy; Brough, Sarah; Gebhardt, Karl; Von der Linden, Anja; Couch, Warrick J.; Sharp, Rob

    2013-12-01

    Using the VIMOS integral field unit (IFU) spectrograph on the Very Large Telescope, we have spatially mapped the kinematic properties of 10 nearby brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) and 4 BCG companion galaxies located within a redshift of z = 0.1. In the hierarchical formation model, these massive galaxies (10{sup 10.5} M {sub ☉} < M {sub dyn} < 10{sup 11.9} M {sub ☉}) are expected to undergo more mergers than lower mass galaxies, and simulations show that dry minor mergers can remove angular momentum. We test whether BCGs have low angular momenta by using the λ {sub Re} parameter developed by the SAURON and ATLAS{sup 3D} teams and combine our kinematics with Sloan Digital Sky Survey photometry to analyze the BCGs' merger status. We find that 30% (3/10) of the BCGs and 100% of the companion galaxies (4/4) are fast rotators as defined by the ATLAS{sup 3D} criteria. Our fastest rotating BCG has a λ {sub Re} = 0.35 ± 0.05. We increase the number of BCGs analyzed from 1 in the combined SAURON and ATLAS{sup 3D} surveys to 11 BCGs total and find that above M {sub dyn} ∼ 11.5 M {sub ☉}, virtually all galaxies, regardless of environment, are slow rotators. To search for signs of recent merging, we analyze the photometry of each system and use the G – M {sub 20} selection criteria to identify mergers. We find that 40% ± 20% of our BCGs are currently undergoing or have recently undergone a merger (within 0.2 Gyr). Surprisingly, we find no correlation between galaxies with high angular momentum and morphological signatures of merging.

  11. Angular distribution of turbulence in wave space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coleman, G.; Ferziger, J. H.; Bertoglio, J. P.

    1987-01-01

    An alternative to the one-point closure model for turbulence, the large eddy simulation (LES), together with its more exact relative, direct numerical simulation (DNS) are discussed. These methods are beginning to serve as partial substitutes for turbulence experiments. The eddy damped quasi-normal Markovian (EDQNM) theory is reviewed. Angular distribution of the converted data was examined in relationship to EDQNM.

  12. Spacecraft Angular State Estimation After Sensor Failure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, Frank (Technical Monitor); BarItzhack, Itzhack Y.; Harman, Richard R.

    2002-01-01

    This work describes two algorithms for computing the angular rate and attitude in case of a gyro failure in a spacecraft (SC) with a special mission profile. The source of the problem is presented, two algorithms are suggested, an observability study is carried out, and the efficiency of the algorithms is demonstrated.

  13. A Novel Permanent Magnetic Angular Acceleration Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Hao; Feng, Hao

    2015-01-01

    Angular acceleration is an important parameter for status monitoring and fault diagnosis of rotary machinery. Therefore, we developed a novel permanent magnetic angular acceleration sensor, which is without rotation angle limitations and could directly measure the instantaneous angular acceleration of the rotating system. The sensor rotor only needs to be coaxially connected with the rotating system, which enables convenient sensor installation. For the cup structure of the sensor rotor, it has a relatively small rotational inertia. Due to the unique mechanical structure of the sensor, the output signal of the sensor can be directed without a slip ring, which avoids signal weakening effect. In this paper, the operating principle of the sensor is described, and simulated using finite element method. The sensitivity of the sensor is calibrated by torsional pendulum and angle sensor, yielding an experimental result of about 0.88 mV/(rad·s−2). Finally, the angular acceleration of the actual rotating system has been tested, using both a single-phase asynchronous motor and a step motor. Experimental result confirms the operating principle of the sensor and indicates that the sensor has good practicability. PMID:26151217

  14. The Role of Angularity in Route Choice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, Alasdair

    The paths of 2425 individual motorcycle trips made in London were analyzed in order to uncover the route choice decisions made by drivers. The paths were derived from global positioning system (GPS) data collected by a courier company for each of their drivers, using algorithms developed for the purpose of this paper. Motorcycle couriers were chosen due to the fact that they both know streets very well and that they do not rely on the GPS to guide their navigation. Each trace was mapped to the underlying road network, and two competing hypotheses for route choice decisions were compared: (a) that riders attempt to minimize the Manhattan distance between locations and (b) that they attempt to minimize the angular distance. In each case, the distance actually traveled was compared to the minimum possible either block or angular distance through the road network. It is usually believed that drivers who know streets well will navigate trips that reduce Manhattan distance; however, here it is shown that angularity appears to play an important role in route choice. 63% of trips made took the minimum possible angular distance between origin and destination, while 51% of trips followed the minimum possible block distance. This implies that impact of turns on cognitive distance plays an important role in decision making, even when a driver has good knowledge of the spatial network.

  15. Heteromodal conceptual processing in the angular gyrus

    PubMed Central

    Bonner, Michael F.; Peelle, Jonathan E.; Cook, Philip A.; Grossman, Murray

    2013-01-01

    Concepts bind together the features commonly associated with objects and events to form networks in long-term semantic memory. These conceptual networks are the basis of human knowledge and underlie perception, imagination, and the ability to communicate about experiences and the contents of the environment. Although it is often assumed that this distributed semantic information is integrated in higher-level heteromodal association cortices, open questions remain about the role and anatomic basis of heteromodal representations in semantic memory. Here we used combined neuroimaging evidence from functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to characterize the cortical networks underlying concept representation. Using a lexical decision task, we examined the processing of concepts in four semantic categories that varied on their sensory-motor feature associations (sight, sound, manipulation, and abstract). We found that the angular gyrus was activated across all categories regardless of their modality-specific feature associations, consistent with a heteromodal account for the angular gyrus. Exploratory analyses suggested that categories with weighted sensory-motor features additionally recruited modality-specific association cortices. Furthermore, DTI tractography identified white matter tracts connecting these regions of modality-specific functional activation with the angular gyrus. These findings are consistent with a distributed semantic network that includes a heteromodal, integrative component in the angular gyrus in combination with sensory-motor feature representations in modality-specific association cortices. PMID:23333416

  16. A Novel Permanent Magnetic Angular Acceleration Sensor.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hao; Feng, Hao

    2015-01-01

    Angular acceleration is an important parameter for status monitoring and fault diagnosis of rotary machinery. Therefore, we developed a novel permanent magnetic angular acceleration sensor, which is without rotation angle limitations and could directly measure the instantaneous angular acceleration of the rotating system. The sensor rotor only needs to be coaxially connected with the rotating system, which enables convenient sensor installation. For the cup structure of the sensor rotor, it has a relatively small rotational inertia. Due to the unique mechanical structure of the sensor, the output signal of the sensor can be directed without a slip ring, which avoids signal weakening effect. In this paper, the operating principle of the sensor is described, and simulated using finite element method. The sensitivity of the sensor is calibrated by torsional pendulum and angle sensor, yielding an experimental result of about 0.88 mV/(rad·s(-2)). Finally, the angular acceleration of the actual rotating system has been tested, using both a single-phase asynchronous motor and a step motor. Experimental result confirms the operating principle of the sensor and indicates that the sensor has good practicability. PMID:26151217

  17. Molecular above-threshold-ionization angular distributions with intense circularly polarized attosecond XUV laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Kai-Jun; Bandrauk, André D.

    2012-05-01

    Photoionization of aligned and fixed nuclei three-dimensional H2+ and two-dimensional H2 by intense circularly polarized attosecond extreme ultraviolet laser pulses is investigated from numerical solutions of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation. Molecular above-threshold-ionization angular distributions are found to be rotated with respect to the two laser perpendicular polarizations or, equivalently the symmetry axes of the molecule. The angle of rotation is critically sensitive to laser wavelength λ, photoelectron energy Een, and molecular internuclear distance R. The correlated interaction of the two electrons in H2 is shown to also influence such angular distribution rotations in different electronic states.

  18. Angular momentum evolution of Algol binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibanoǧlu, C.; Soydugan, F.; Soydugan, E.; Dervişoǧlu, A.

    2006-11-01

    We have compiled the well-determined absolute parameters of Algol-type binaries. The lists contain the parameters of 74 detached and 61 semidetached close binaries. The double-lined eclipsing binaries provide not only the most accurate determinations of stellar mass, radius and temperatures but also distance-independent luminosity for each of their individual components. The distributions of the primary and secondary masses of detached binaries (DBs) are similar, whilst the secondary masses of the semidetached binaries (SDBs) are mostly smaller than 2 Msolar with a peak in the M2-bin (0.21-1.0). The components of the DBs are almost all located in the main-sequence band. On the contrary, the secondary components of the SDBs have larger radii and luminosity with respect to the same mass and the same effective temperature of main-sequence counterparts. They occupy a region of the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram between terminal-age main sequence and giants. Moreover, the total angular momenta and specific angular momenta are larger for the SDBs of orbital periods with P > 5 d than those of the shorter period ones. The specific angular momenta of SDBs with periods longer than 5 d are 65 per cent greater than that of the short period group with the same mass. The DBs and the SDBs with orbital periods longer and shorter than 5 d are separated into three groups in the J/M5/3 - q diagram. The SDBs with mass ratios greater than 0.3 and P > 5 d have almost the same angular momentum to those of DBs. However, the SDBs with short periods have the smallest angular momentum even though they have the same mass ratios. This result reveals that angular momentum loss (AML) considerably affects the evolution of close binary systems. Recently, Chen, Li & Qian suggested that, in addition to magnetic braking, a circumbinary disc may play an important role in AML from Algol-type binaries. Their calculations indicated that the evolution of Algol-type binaries can be significantly affected by

  19. Miniaturized photoelectric angular sensor with simplified design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumbravescu, Niculae; Schiaua, Silviu

    1999-09-01

    In building the movable elements of robots, peripheral devices and measuring apparata, increasing the resolution of the angular sensor systems, based on incremental rotary encoders, is essential, together with decreasing the complexity, dimensions and weight. Especially when the angular sensor is integrated in a measuring system, belonging to a programmed light airplane for surveillance, the key issue is to reduce both dimensions and weight. This can be done using a simplified design, which consists in the following solutions: replacement of the fragile Cr on glass substrate, 1.5 mm thick (normally used for the fabrication of incremental disks), with light Cr on polycarbonate substrate, with only 0.15 mm thick; the absence of collimating optics (based on microlenses, used in IR emitter-photocell receiver assembly), as a result of the good coupling efficiency (due to the possible approaching of these elements at minimum 0.45 mm); the shrinkage of the disk's diameters to only 14 mm; the use of surface mounting devices and the related surface mounting technology, enabling to reduce dimensions and weight. The maximum number of slits on a 14 mm diameter dividing disk, usually obtained in a Cr on polycarbonate version, being approx. 1000, no problem occurs in our case, for 360 slits. The requested angular resolution (only 0.5 degrees for the light airplane), using the whole classical '4x digital multiplication' is not necessary, but a lower one of only 2x, resulting in a simplified electronics. The proposed design permitted, that an original arrangement, for building a small size, lightweight, heavy-duty incremental transducer based angular sensor system, to be obtained, useful not only in avionics, but also in robotics, or other special applications. Besides, extending the number of fixed gratings (masks) allows, that many primary signals to be derived, and a further increase in resolution of even 6 angular minutes to be obtained from the initial 360 slits.

  20. Neutron angular distribution in plutonium-240 spontaneous fission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcath, Matthew J.; Shin, Tony H.; Clarke, Shaun D.; Peerani, Paolo; Pozzi, Sara A.

    2016-09-01

    Nuclear safeguards applications require accurate fission models that exhibit prompt neutron anisotropy. In the laboratory reference frame, an anisotropic neutron angular distribution is observed because prompt fission neutrons carry momentum from fully accelerated fission fragments. A liquid organic scintillation detector array was used with pulse shape discrimination techniques to produce neutron-neutron cross-correlation time distributions and angular distributions from spontaneous fission in a 252Cf, a 0.84 g 240Pueff metal, and a 1.63 g 240Pueff metal sample. The effect of cross-talk, estimated with MCNPX-PoliMi simulations, is removed from neutron-neutron coincidences as a function of the angle between detector pairs. Fewer coincidences were observed at detector angles near 90°, relative to higher and lower detector angles. As light output threshold increases, the observed anisotropy increases due to spectral effects arising from fission fragment momentum transfer to emitted neutrons. Stronger anisotropy was observed in Cf-252 spontaneous fission prompt neutrons than in Pu-240 neutrons.

  1. Evaluating angular deflections from the digital gradient sensing method with rigid-motion deleted

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Rui

    2016-06-01

    The digital gradient sensing method is used for measuring small angular deflections of light rays due to local stresses in transparent planar solids. The method is based on two-dimensional (2D) digital image correlation (DIC) to measure the angular deflection of light rays; however, when a specimen is subjected to loading, deformation measurement from DIC is not perfect because of the existence of small in-plane and out-of-plane motions of the test sample surface that occurred after loading. These disadvantages will lead to errors in the measured angular deflections. The influence of unavoidable in-plane and out-of-plane motions was discussed, and a method to eliminate the influence to show the pure stress gradient of polymethy methacrylate is demonstrated.

  2. Ultra-sensitive and super-resolving angular rotation measurement based on photon orbital angular momentum using parity measurement.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zijing; Qiao, Tianyuan; Ma, Kun; Cen, Longzhu; Zhang, Jiandong; Wang, Feng; Zhao, Yuan

    2016-08-15

    Photon orbital angular momentum has led to many novel insights and applications in quantum measurement. Photon orbital angular momentum can increase the resolution and sensitivity of angular rotation measurement. However, quantum measurement strategy can further surpass this limit and improve the resolution of angular rotation measurement. This Letter proposes and demonstrates a parity measurement method in angular rotation measurement scheme for the first time. Parity measurement can make the resolution superior to the limit of the existing method. The sensitivity can be improved with higher orbital angular momentum photons. Moreover, this Letter gives a detailed discussion of the change of resolution and sensitivity in the presence of photon loss. PMID:27519107

  3. Development of an optical fiber sensor for angular displacement measurements.

    PubMed

    Jung, Gu-In; Kim, Ji-Sun; Lee, Tae-Hee; Choi, Ju-Hyeon; Oh, Han-Byeol; Kim, A-Hee; Eom, Gwang-Moon; Lee, Jeong-Hwan; Chung, Soon-Cheol; Park, Jong-Rak; Lee, Young-Jae; Park, Hee-Jung; Jun, Jae-Hoon

    2014-01-01

    For diagnostic and therapeutic purposes, the joint angle measurement of a patient after an accident or a surgical operation is significant for monitoring and evaluating the recovering process. This paper proposed an optical fiber sensor for the measurement of angular displacement. The effect of beveled fiber angle on the detected light signal was investigated to find an appropriate mathematical model. Beveled fiber tips redirected the light over a range of angles away from the fiber axis. Inverse polynomial models were applied to directly obtain and display the joint angle change in real time with the Lab-VIEW program. The actual joint angle correlated well with the calculated LabVIEW output angle over the test range. The proposed optical sensor is simple, cost effective, small in size, and can evaluate the joint angle in real time. This method is expected to be useful in the field of rehabilitation and sport science. PMID:24211963

  4. Weak measurements with orbital-angular-momentum pointer states.

    PubMed

    Puentes, G; Hermosa, N; Torres, J P

    2012-07-27

    Weak measurements are a unique tool for accessing information about weakly interacting quantum systems with minimal back action. Joint weak measurements of single-particle operators with pointer states characterized by a two-dimensional Gaussian distribution can provide, in turn, key information about quantum correlations that can be relevant for quantum information applications. Here we demonstrate that by employing two-dimensional pointer states endowed with orbital angular momentum (OAM), it is possible to extract weak values of the higher order moments of single-particle operators, an inaccessible quantity with Gaussian pointer states only. We provide a specific example that illustrates the advantages of our method both in terms of signal enhancement and information retrieval. PMID:23006067

  5. The Effects of Angular Momentum on Halo Profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lentz, Erik W.; Quinn, Thomas R.; Rosenberg, Leslie J.

    2016-05-01

    The near universality of DM halo density profiles provided by N-body simulations proved to be robust against changes in total mass density, power spectrum, and some forms of initial velocity dispersion. Here we study the effects of coherently spinning up an isolated DM-only progenitor on halo structure. Halos with spins within several standard deviations of the simulated mean (λ ≲ 0.20) produce profiles with negligible deviations from the universal form. Only when the spin becomes quite large (λ ≳ 0.20) do departures become evident. The angular momentum distribution also exhibits a near universal form, which is also independent of halo spin up to λ ≲ 0.20. A correlation between these epidemic profiles and the presence of a strong bar in the virialized halo is also observed. These bar structures bear resemblance to the radial orbit instability in the rotationless limit.

  6. Angular description for 3D scattering centers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhalla, Rajan; Raynal, Ann Marie; Ling, Hao; Moore, John; Velten, Vincent J.

    2006-05-01

    The electromagnetic scattered field from an electrically large target can often be well modeled as if it is emanating from a discrete set of scattering centers (see Fig. 1). In the scattering center extraction tool we developed previously based on the shooting and bouncing ray technique, no correspondence is maintained amongst the 3D scattering center extracted at adjacent angles. In this paper we present a multi-dimensional clustering algorithm to track the angular and spatial behaviors of 3D scattering centers and group them into features. The extracted features for the Slicy and backhoe targets are presented. We also describe two metrics for measuring the angular persistence and spatial mobility of the 3D scattering centers that make up these features in order to gather insights into target physics and feature stability. We find that features that are most persistent are also the most mobile and discuss implications for optimal SAR imaging.

  7. Phenomenological Determination of the Orbital Angular Momentum

    SciTech Connect

    Ramsey, Gordon P.

    2009-08-04

    Measurements involving the gluon spin, {delta}G(x, t) and the corresponding asymmetry, A(x,t) = {delta}G(x,t)/G(x,t) play an important role in quantitative understanding of proton structure. We have modeled the asymmetry perturbatively and calculated model corrections to obtain information about non-perturbative spin-orbit effects. These models are consistent with existing COMPASS and HERMES data on the gluon asymmetry. The J{sub z} = (1/2) sum rule is used to generate values of orbital angular momentum at LO and NLO. For models consistent with data, the orbital angular momentum is small. Our studies specify accuracy that future measurements should achieve to constrain theoretical models for nucleon structure.

  8. Precompound nucleon angular distributions in the continuum

    SciTech Connect

    Blann, M.; Scobel, W.; Plechaty, E.

    1985-08-01

    Angular distributions for nucleon induced reactions (incident energies 14 to 90 MeV) leading to precompound nucleon emission in the continuum (emitted particle energies 9-70 MeV) are calculated based on nucleon-nucleon scattering kinematics for an incident nucleon on a Fermi gas. Analytic expressions due to Kikuchi and Kawai are used for the single scattering kernel. The geometry dependent hybrid model is used to generate the differential cross sections for first, second, etc. order scattering, these weightings being used to fold the single scattering kernel. Results are found to reproduce all experimental angular distributions quite well at angles in the 20/sup 0/ to 90/sup 0/ range. Ad-hoc modifications to approximate quantal effects and Coulomb deflections are explored, but the results do not seem to offer a consistent means of reproducing back angle yields, and give generally poorer results at very forward angles.

  9. Performance criteria for dosimeter angular response

    SciTech Connect

    Roberson, P.L.; Fox, R. A.; Cummings, F. M.; McDonald, J. C.; Jones, K.L.

    1988-06-01

    This report provides criteria for evaluating the response of personnel dosimeters to radiation at nonperpendicular incidence. The US Department of Energy Laboratory Accreditation Program (DOELAP) ensures that dosimetry systems at DOE facilities meet acceptable standards for precision and accuracy. In the past, these standards were limited to tests for system variability, energy dependence, and level of detection. The proposed criteria will broaden the scope of DOELAP to include the angular response of personnel dosimeters. Because occupational exposures in the workplace are rarely due to radiation from only one direction, dosimeters must accurately assign individual dose equivalent from irradiation at any forward angle of incidence. Including an angular response criterion in DOELAP would improve the quality of personnel monitoring provided that the criterion is developed from appropriate dose quantities. This report provides guidance for assigning individual dose equivalents for radiation fields at nonperpendicular incidence to the dosimeter. 21 refs., 10 figs., 10 tabs.

  10. From transverse angular momentum to photonic wheels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aiello, Andrea; Banzer, Peter; Neugebauer, Martin; Leuchs, Gerd

    2015-12-01

    Scientists have known for more than a century that light possesses both linear and angular momenta along the direction of propagation. However, only recent advances in optics have led to the notion of spinning electromagnetic fields capable of carrying angular momenta transverse to the direction of motion. Such fields enable numerous applications in nano-optics, biosensing and near-field microscopy, including three-dimensional control over atoms, molecules and nanostructures, and allowing for the realization of chiral nanophotonic interfaces and plasmonic devices. Here, we report on recent developments of optics with light carrying transverse spin. We present both the underlying principles and the latest achievements, and also highlight new capabilities and future applications emerging from this young yet already advanced field of research.

  11. Satellite Angular Rate Estimation From Vector Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Azor, Ruth; Bar-Itzhack, Itzhack Y.; Harman, Richard R.

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents an algorithm for estimating the angular rate vector of a satellite which is based on the time derivatives of vector measurements expressed in a reference and body coordinate. The computed derivatives are fed into a spacial Kalman filter which yields an estimate of the spacecraft angular velocity. The filter, named Extended Interlaced Kalman Filter (EIKF), is an extension of the Kalman filter which, although being linear, estimates the state of a nonlinear dynamic system. It consists of two or three parallel Kalman filters whose individual estimates are fed to one another and are considered as known inputs by the other parallel filter(s). The nonlinear dynamics stem from the nonlinear differential equation that describes the rotation of a three dimensional body. Initial results, using simulated data, and real Rossi X ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) data indicate that the algorithm is efficient and robust.

  12. The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marriage, Tobias; Ali, A.; Amiri, M.; Appel, J. W.; Araujo, D.; Bennett, C. L.; Boone, F.; Chan, M.; Cho, H.; Chuss, D. T.; Colazo, F.; Crowe, E.; Denis, K.; Dünner, R.; Eimer, J.; Essinger-Hileman, T.; Gothe, D.; Halpern, M.; Harrington, K.; Hilton, G.; Hinshaw, G. F.; Huang, C.; Irwin, K.; Jones, G.; Karakla, J.; Kogut, A. J.; Larson, D.; Limon, M.; Lowry, L.; Mehrle, N.; Miller, A. D.; Miller, N.; Moseley, S. H.; Novak, G.; Reintsema, C.; Rostem, K.; Stevenson, T.; Towner, D.; U-Yen, K.; Wagner, E.; Watts, D.; Wollack, E.; Xu, Z.; Zeng, L.

    2014-01-01

    Some of the most compelling inflation models predict a background of primordial gravitational waves (PGW) detectable by their imprint of a curl-like "B-mode" pattern in the polarization of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB). The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS) is a novel array of telescopes to measure the B-mode signature of the PGW. By targeting the largest angular scales (>2°) with a multifrequency array, novel polarization modulation and detectors optimized for both control of systematics and sensitivity, CLASS sets itself apart in the field of CMB polarization surveys and opens an exciting new discovery space for the PGW and inflation. This poster presents an overview of the CLASS project.

  13. Behavior of nuclei at high angular momentum

    SciTech Connect

    Stephens, F.S.

    1982-07-01

    The present report begins with a brief overview of nuclear shapes and level structures at high-spin values. The new spectroscopy associated with angular-momentum alignments is described, and some of the exciting possibilities of this spectroscopy are explored. Nuclear moments of inertia are discussed and a somewhat different one is defined, together with a method for measuring it and some early results. Finally a few comments on the future prospects for high-spin physics are offered.

  14. Diaphyseal angular deformities in three foals.

    PubMed

    White, K K

    1983-02-01

    Angular limb deformities in 3 foals were found to originate in the diaphyseal region of the 3rd metacarpal (2) and metatarsal (1) bones. In each case, treatment consisted of wedge ostectomy followed by compression plating. Two foals survived for useful performance; the 3rd was euthanatized because of ischemia of the operated limb. The condition appeared to resemble a similar syndrome in man involving tibial curvature. PMID:6826451

  15. Time-dependent photoelectron angular distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiangyang

    1999-09-01

    I show that the angular distribution of electrons photoionized from gas phase targets by short light pulses is time-dependent, when the orbital momentum composition of the photocurrent changes with excitation energy so evolves with the time of detection. A theory of time- dependent photoionization is outlined and general formulas of time-dependent photoelectron flux and angular distribution are given. Two general propagator methods suitable to describe the time-dependent photoionization and scattering processes are developed. The photoionization process is viewed as a local excitation followed by a half scattering. The local excitation process is solved theoretically in a small region around the target core. This approach has been generalized to describe the evolution of a wavepacket in an unbound system. An asymptotic propagator theorem is discovered and used to derive analytic expressions for asymptotic propagators. The origin of the time dependence is explored by parameterizing the time delay and orbital momentum coupling in a two channel model. K-shell photoionization of N2 and CO are calculated with this time- dependent photoionization theory, implemented using a multiple scattering model. Numerical results demonstrate that the time dependence of photoelectron angular distributions is a realistic effect.

  16. Angular Fock coefficients: Refinement and further development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liverts, Evgeny Z.; Barnea, Nir

    2015-10-01

    The angular coefficients ψk ,p(α ,θ ) of the Fock expansion characterizing the S -state wave function of the two-electron atomic system are calculated in hyperspherical angular coordinates α and θ . To solve the problem the Fock recurrence relations separated into the independent individual equations associated with definite power j of the nucleus charge Z are applied. The "pure" j components of the angular Fock coefficients, orthogonal to the hyperspherical harmonics Yk l, are found for even values of k . To this end, the specific coupling equation is proposed and applied. Effective techniques for solving the individual equations with the simplest nonseparable and separable right-hand sides are proposed. Some mistakes or misprints made earlier in representations of ψ2 ,0, are noted and corrected. All j components of ψ4 ,1 and the majority of components and subcomponents of ψ3 ,0 are calculated and presented. All calculations are carried out with the help of Wolfram Mathematica.

  17. The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrington, Kathleen; Marriange, Tobias; Aamir, Ali; Appel, John W.; Bennett, Charles L.; Boone, Fletcher; Brewer, Michael; Chan, Manwei; Chuss, David T.; Colazo, Felipe; Denis, Kevin; Moseley, Samuel H.; Rostem, Karwan; Wollack, Edward

    2016-01-01

    The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS) is a four telescope array designed to characterize relic primordial gravitational waves from in ation and the optical depth to reionization through a measurement of the polarized cosmic microwave background (CMB) on the largest angular scales. The frequencies of the four CLASS telescopes, one at 38 GHz, two at 93 GHz, and one dichroic system at 145/217 GHz, are chosen to avoid spectral regions of high atmospheric emission and span the minimum of the polarized Galactic foregrounds: synchrotron emission at lower frequencies and dust emission at higher frequencies. Low-noise transition edge sensor detectors and a rapid front-end polarization modulator provide a unique combination of high sensitivity, stability, and control of systematics. The CLASS site, at 5200 m in the Chilean Atacama desert, allows for daily mapping of up to 70% of the sky and enables the characterization of CMB polarization at the largest angular scales. Using this combination of a broad frequency range, large sky coverage, control over systematics, and high sensitivity, CLASS will observe the reionization and recombination peaks of the CMB E- and B-mode power spectra. CLASS will make a cosmic variance limited measurement of the optical depth to reionization and will measure or place upper limits on the tensor-to-scalar ratio, r, down to a level of 0.01 (95% C.L.).

  18. A Neural Circuit for Angular Velocity Computation

    PubMed Central

    Snider, Samuel B.; Yuste, Rafael; Packer, Adam M.

    2010-01-01

    In one of the most remarkable feats of motor control in the animal world, some Diptera, such as the housefly, can accurately execute corrective flight maneuvers in tens of milliseconds. These reflexive movements are achieved by the halteres, gyroscopic force sensors, in conjunction with rapidly tunable wing steering muscles. Specifically, the mechanosensory campaniform sensilla located at the base of the halteres transduce and transform rotation-induced gyroscopic forces into information about the angular velocity of the fly's body. But how exactly does the fly's neural architecture generate the angular velocity from the lateral strain forces on the left and right halteres? To explore potential algorithms, we built a neuromechanical model of the rotation detection circuit. We propose a neurobiologically plausible method by which the fly could accurately separate and measure the three-dimensional components of an imposed angular velocity. Our model assumes a single sign-inverting synapse and formally resembles some models of directional selectivity by the retina. Using multidimensional error analysis, we demonstrate the robustness of our model under a variety of input conditions. Our analysis reveals the maximum information available to the fly given its physical architecture and the mathematics governing the rotation-induced forces at the haltere's end knob. PMID:21228902

  19. A neural circuit for angular velocity computation.

    PubMed

    Snider, Samuel B; Yuste, Rafael; Packer, Adam M

    2010-01-01

    In one of the most remarkable feats of motor control in the animal world, some Diptera, such as the housefly, can accurately execute corrective flight maneuvers in tens of milliseconds. These reflexive movements are achieved by the halteres, gyroscopic force sensors, in conjunction with rapidly tunable wing steering muscles. Specifically, the mechanosensory campaniform sensilla located at the base of the halteres transduce and transform rotation-induced gyroscopic forces into information about the angular velocity of the fly's body. But how exactly does the fly's neural architecture generate the angular velocity from the lateral strain forces on the left and right halteres? To explore potential algorithms, we built a neuromechanical model of the rotation detection circuit. We propose a neurobiologically plausible method by which the fly could accurately separate and measure the three-dimensional components of an imposed angular velocity. Our model assumes a single sign-inverting synapse and formally resembles some models of directional selectivity by the retina. Using multidimensional error analysis, we demonstrate the robustness of our model under a variety of input conditions. Our analysis reveals the maximum information available to the fly given its physical architecture and the mathematics governing the rotation-induced forces at the haltere's end knob. PMID:21228902

  20. Optical angular momentum in a rotating frame.

    PubMed

    Speirits, Fiona C; Lavery, Martin P J; Padgett, Miles J; Barnett, Stephen M

    2014-05-15

    It is well established that light carrying orbital angular momentum (OAM) can be used to induce a mechanical torque causing an object to spin. We consider the complementary scenario: will an observer spinning relative to the beam axis measure a change in OAM as a result of their rotational velocity? Remarkably, although a linear Doppler shift changes the linear momentum of a photon, the angular Doppler shift induces no change in the angular momentum. Further, we examine the rotational Doppler shift in frequency imparted to the incident light due to the relative motion of the beam with respect to the observer and consider what must happen to the measured wavelength if the speed of light c is to remain constant. We show specifically that the OAM of the incident beam is not affected by the rotating observer and that the measured wavelength is shifted by a factor equal and opposite to that of the frequency shift induced by the rotational Doppler effect. PMID:24978243

  1. Resolution analysis of an angular domain imaging system with two dimensional angular filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ng, Eldon; Carson, Jeffrey J. L.

    2013-02-01

    Angular Domain Imaging (ADI) employs an angular filter to distinguish between quasi-ballistic and scattered photons based on trajectory. A 2D angular filter array was constructed using 3D printing technology to generate an array of micro-channels 500 μm x 500 μm with a length of 12 cm. The main barrier to 2D imaging with the 2D angular filter array was the shadows cast on the image by the 500 μm walls of the angular filter. The objective of this work was to perform a resolution analysis of the 2D angular filter array. The approach was to position the AFA with a two dimensional positioning stage to obtain images of areas normally obstructed by the walls of the AFA. A digital light processor was also incorporated to generate various light patterns to improve the contrast of the images. A resolution analysis was completed by imaging a knife edge submerged in various uniform scattering media (Intralipid® dilutions with water). The edge response functions obtained were then used to compute the line spread function and the theoretical resolution of the imaging system. The theoretical system resolution was measured to be between 110 μm - 180 μm when the scattering level was at or below 0.7% Intralipid®. The theoretical resolution was in agreement with a previous resolution analysis of a silicon-based angular filter with a similar aspect ratio. The measured resolution was also found to be smaller than the size of an individual channel, suggesting that the resolution of an AFA based ADI system is not dependent on the size of the micro-channel.

  2. Angular Momentum and Galaxy Formation Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanowsky, Aaron J.; Fall, S. Michael

    2012-12-01

    Motivated by a new wave of kinematical tracers in the outer regions of early-type galaxies (ellipticals and lenticulars), we re-examine the role of angular momentum in galaxies of all types. We present new methods for quantifying the specific angular momentum j, focusing mainly on the more challenging case of early-type galaxies, in order to derive firm empirical relations between stellar j sstarf and mass M sstarf (thus extending earlier work by Fall). We carry out detailed analyses of eight galaxies with kinematical data extending as far out as 10 effective radii, and find that data at two effective radii are generally sufficient to estimate total j sstarf reliably. Our results contravene suggestions that ellipticals could harbor large reservoirs of hidden j sstarf in their outer regions owing to angular momentum transport in major mergers. We then carry out a comprehensive analysis of extended kinematic data from the literature for a sample of ~100 nearby bright galaxies of all types, placing them on a diagram of j sstarf versus M sstarf. The ellipticals and spirals form two parallel j sstarf-M sstarf tracks, with log-slopes of ~0.6, which for the spirals are closely related to the Tully-Fisher relation, but for the ellipticals derives from a remarkable conspiracy between masses, sizes, and rotation velocities. The ellipticals contain less angular momentum on average than spirals of equal mass, with the quantitative disparity depending on the adopted K-band stellar mass-to-light ratios of the galaxies: it is a factor of ~3-4 if mass-to-light ratio variations are neglected for simplicity, and ~7 if they are included. We decompose the spirals into disks and bulges and find that these subcomponents follow j sstarf-M sstarf trends similar to the overall ones for spirals and ellipticals. The lenticulars have an intermediate trend, and we propose that the morphological types of galaxies reflect disk and bulge subcomponents that follow separate, fundamental j sstarf

  3. ANGULAR MOMENTUM AND GALAXY FORMATION REVISITED

    SciTech Connect

    Romanowsky, Aaron J.; Fall, S. Michael

    2012-12-15

    Motivated by a new wave of kinematical tracers in the outer regions of early-type galaxies (ellipticals and lenticulars), we re-examine the role of angular momentum in galaxies of all types. We present new methods for quantifying the specific angular momentum j, focusing mainly on the more challenging case of early-type galaxies, in order to derive firm empirical relations between stellar j{sub *} and mass M{sub *} (thus extending earlier work by Fall). We carry out detailed analyses of eight galaxies with kinematical data extending as far out as 10 effective radii, and find that data at two effective radii are generally sufficient to estimate total j{sub *} reliably. Our results contravene suggestions that ellipticals could harbor large reservoirs of hidden j{sub *} in their outer regions owing to angular momentum transport in major mergers. We then carry out a comprehensive analysis of extended kinematic data from the literature for a sample of {approx}100 nearby bright galaxies of all types, placing them on a diagram of j{sub *} versus M{sub *}. The ellipticals and spirals form two parallel j{sub *}-M{sub *} tracks, with log-slopes of {approx}0.6, which for the spirals are closely related to the Tully-Fisher relation, but for the ellipticals derives from a remarkable conspiracy between masses, sizes, and rotation velocities. The ellipticals contain less angular momentum on average than spirals of equal mass, with the quantitative disparity depending on the adopted K-band stellar mass-to-light ratios of the galaxies: it is a factor of {approx}3-4 if mass-to-light ratio variations are neglected for simplicity, and {approx}7 if they are included. We decompose the spirals into disks and bulges and find that these subcomponents follow j{sub *}-M{sub *} trends similar to the overall ones for spirals and ellipticals. The lenticulars have an intermediate trend, and we propose that the morphological types of galaxies reflect disk and bulge subcomponents that follow

  4. Asymmetric angular-selective thermal emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakr, Enas; Dhaka, Shailja; Bermel, Peter

    2016-03-01

    Thermal emission from blackbodies and flat metallic surfaces is non-directional, following the Lambert cosine law. However, highly directional thermal emission could be useful for improving the efficiency of a broad range of different applications, including thermophotovoltaics, spectroscopy and infra-red light sources. This is particularly true if strong symmetry breaking could ensure emission only in one particular direction. In this work, we investigate the possibility of tailoring asymmetric thermal emission using structured metasurfaces. These are built from surface grating unit elements that support asymmetric localization of thermal surface plasmon polaritons. The angular dependence of emissivity is studied using a rigorous coupled wave analysis (RCWA) of absorption, plus Kirchhoff's law of thermal radiation. It is further validated using a direct thermal simulation of emission originating from the metal. Asymmetric angular selectivity with near-blackbody emissivity is demonstrated for different shallow blazed grating structures. We study the effect of changing the period, depth and shape of the grating unit cell on the direction angle, angular spread, and magnitude of coupled radiation mode. In particular, a periodic sawtooth structure with a period of 1.5λ and angle of 8°was shown to create significant asymmetry of at least a factor of 3. Such structures can be considered arbitrary directional sources that can be carefully patterned on metallic surfaces to yield thermal lenses with designed focal lengths, targeted to particular concentration ratios. The benefit of this approach is that it can enhance the view factor between thermal emitters and receivers, without restricting the area ratio or separation distance.

  5. Lunar influence on equatorial atmospheric angular momentum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bizouard, Christian; Zotov, Leonid; Sidorenkov, Nikolay

    2014-11-01

    This study investigates the relationship between the equatorial atmospheric angular momentum oscillation in the nonrotating frame and the quasi-diurnal lunar tidal potential. Between 2 and 30 days, the corresponding equatorial component, called Celestial Atmospheric Angular Momentum (CEAM), is mostly constituted of prograde circular motions, especially of a harmonic at 13.66 days, a sidelobe at 13.63 days, and of a weekly broadband variation. A simple equilibrium tide model explains the 13.66 day pressure term as a result of the O1 lunar tide. The powerful episodic fluctuations between 5 and 8 days possibly reflect an atmospheric normal mode excited by the tidal waves Q1 (6.86 days) and σ1 (7.095 days). The lunar tidal influence on the spectral band from 2 to 30 days is confirmed by two specific features, not occurring for seasonal band dominated by the solar thermal effect. First, Northern and Southern Hemispheres contribute equally and synchronously to the CEAM wind term. Second, the pressure and wind terms are proportional, which follows from angular momentum budget considerations where the topographic and friction torques on the solid Earth are much smaller than the one resulting from the equatorial bulge. Such a configuration is expected for the case of tidally induced circulation, where the surface pressure variation is tesseral and cannot contribute to the topographic torque, and tidal winds blow only at high altitudes. The likely effects of the lunar-driven atmospheric circulation on Earth's nutation are estimated and discussed in light of the present-day capabilities of space geodetic techniques.

  6. Characterization of the angular memory effect of scattered light in biological tissues.

    PubMed

    Schott, Sam; Bertolotti, Jacopo; Léger, Jean-Francois; Bourdieu, Laurent; Gigan, Sylvain

    2015-05-18

    High resolution optical microscopy is essential in neuroscience but suffers from scattering in biological tissues and therefore grants access to superficial brain layers only. Recently developed techniques use scattered photons for imaging by exploiting angular correlations in transmitted light and could potentially increase imaging depths. But those correlations ('angular memory effect') are of a very short range and should theoretically be only present behind and not inside scattering media. From measurements on neural tissues and complementary simulations, we find that strong forward scattering in biological tissues can enhance the memory effect range and thus the possible field-of-view by more than an order of magnitude compared to isotropic scattering for ∼1 mm thick tissue layers. PMID:26074598

  7. Test of the conserved vector current hypothesis by a {beta}-ray angular distribution measurement in the mass-8 system

    SciTech Connect

    Sumikama, T.; Matsuta, K.; Ogura, M.; Iwakoshi, T.; Nakashima, Y.; Fujiwara, H.; Fukuda, M.; Mihara, M.; Nagatomo, T.; Minamisono, K.; Yamaguchi, T.; Minamisono, T.

    2011-06-15

    The {beta}-ray angular correlations for the spin alignments of {sup 8}Li and {sup 8}B have been observed in order to test the conserved vector current (CVC) hypothesis. The alignment correlation terms were combined with the known {beta}-{alpha} angular correlation terms to determine all the matrix elements contributing to the correlation terms. The weak magnetism term, 7.5{+-}0.2, deduced from the {beta}-ray correlation terms was consistent with the CVC prediction 7.3{+-}0.2, deduced from the analog-{gamma} decay measurement based on the CVC hypothesis. However, there was no consistent CVC prediction for the second-forbidden term associated with the weak vector current. The experimental value for the second-forbidden term was 1.0{+-}0.3, while the CVC prediction was 0.1{+-}0.4 or 2.1{+-}0.5.

  8. Angular distributions of neutron-nucleus collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Mukhopadhyay, Tapan; Lahiri, Joydev; Basu, D. N.

    2011-06-15

    We derive the total and the differential cross sections with respect to angle for neutron-induced reactions from an analytical model having a simple functional form to demonstrate the quantitative agreement with the measured cross sections. The energy dependence of the neutron-nucleus interaction cross sections are estimated successfully for energies ranging from 5 to 600 MeV. In this work, the effect of the imaginary part of the nuclear potential is treated more appropriately compared to our earlier work. The angular distributions for neutron scattering also agree reasonably well with the experimental data at forward angles.

  9. Linear and angular retroreflecting interferometric alignment target

    DOEpatents

    Maxey, L. Curtis

    2001-01-01

    The present invention provides a method and apparatus for measuring both the linear displacement and angular displacement of an object using a linear interferometer system and an optical target comprising a lens, a reflective surface and a retroreflector. The lens, reflecting surface and retroreflector are specifically aligned and fixed in optical connection with one another, creating a single optical target which moves as a unit that provides multi-axis displacement information for the object with which it is associated. This displacement information is useful in many applications including machine tool control systems and laser tracker systems, among others.

  10. Convert Acoustic Resonances to Orbital Angular Momentum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Xue; Li, Yong; Liang, Bin; Cheng, Jian-chun; Zhang, Likun

    2016-07-01

    We use acoustic resonances in a planar layer of half-wavelength thickness to twist wave vectors of an in-coming plane wave into a spiral phase dislocation of an outgoing vortex beam with orbital angular momentum (OAM). The mechanism is numerically and experimentally demonstrated by producing an airborne Bessel-like vortex beam. Our acoustic resonance-based OAM production differs from existing means for OAM production by enormous phased spiral sources or by elaborate spiral profiles. Our study can advance the capability of generating phase dislocated wave fields for further applications of acoustic OAM.

  11. Convert Acoustic Resonances to Orbital Angular Momentum.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xue; Li, Yong; Liang, Bin; Cheng, Jian-Chun; Zhang, Likun

    2016-07-15

    We use acoustic resonances in a planar layer of half-wavelength thickness to twist wave vectors of an in-coming plane wave into a spiral phase dislocation of an outgoing vortex beam with orbital angular momentum (OAM). The mechanism is numerically and experimentally demonstrated by producing an airborne Bessel-like vortex beam. Our acoustic resonance-based OAM production differs from existing means for OAM production by enormous phased spiral sources or by elaborate spiral profiles. Our study can advance the capability of generating phase dislocated wave fields for further applications of acoustic OAM. PMID:27472113

  12. Isoresistive dynamometer measurement of trunk muscle velocity at different angular phases of flexion and extension.

    PubMed

    Surakka, J; Alanen, E; Aunola, S; Karppi, S L

    2001-07-01

    Isoresistive trunk muscle dynamometer is a potentially useful piece of equipment in evaluation of trunk muscle velocity, but to date, studies analysing the possibilities and limitations of such measurements are scarce. The aim of this study was to analyse the trunk muscle velocity in repetitive flexion and extension movements at three different angular phases, using an isoresistive trunk muscle dynamometer, and to assess the reliability of the measurements. The study population consisted of 120 healthy, sedentary men and women who volunteered for the study. The measurements were carried out before and after a 22-week training intervention programme. The results show that the peak velocities of the phases between 15 and 35 degrees in flexion and 20-0 degrees in extension (i.e. the second phases) correlated highly (r=0.99 in flexion and in extension) with the peak velocity of the whole movement ranging from -5 to 55 degrees in flexion and 40 to -20 degrees in extension. Correlations were high, both before and after the intervention. The LISREL model analysis showed high reliability of measurement for the second angular phases (in flexion and extension). According to the model, the correlation between the first and second measurement (with a 22-week training intervention in between) was 0.78 in flexion and 0.81 in extension. In conclusion, the angular phases from 15 to 35 degrees in flexion and from 20 to 0 degrees in extension represent the peak velocity of the whole movement. Negative residual correlations between the first and last angular phases in the LISREL model reflect the way of performing the movement: the faster the start the slower the end, and vice versa. PMID:11442583

  13. Ghost imaging with entangled photons and orbital angular momentum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padgett, Miles

    We utilise the position and orbital angular momentum (OAM) correlations between the signal and idler photons generated in the down-conversion process to obtain ghost images of a phase object. By using an OAM phase filter, which is non-local with respect to the object, the ghost images exhibit isotropic edge-enhancement. The strong spatial correlations between the signal and idler photons generated by spontaneous parametric downconversion have been widely utilised in many different imaging systems. The use of a scanning single element detector to recover the spatial information in the signal and idler beams fundamentally limits the detection efficiency of the imaging system to a maximum of 1/N where N is the number of pixels in the image. Our approach overcomes this limitation by replacing the scanning detector by an intensified CCD camera, therefore detecting all photons irrespective of their position within the image. Using a camera in this way, coupled with the OAM edge-enhancement and image reconstruction techniques allows us to obtain images of phase objects with an average of fewer than one photon per image pixel.

  14. The Evershed Effect Observed with 0.2" Angular Resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez Almeida, J.; Márquez, I.; Bonet, J. A.; Domínguez Cerdeña, I.

    2007-04-01

    We present an analysis of the Evershed effect observed with a resolution of 0.2". Using the new Swedish 1 m Solar Telescope and its Littrow spectrograph, we scan a significant part of a sunspot penumbra. Spectra of the nonmagnetic line Fe I λ7090.4 allows us to measure Doppler shifts without magnetic contamination. The observed line profiles are asymmetric. The Doppler shift depends on the part of the line used for measuring, indicating that the velocity structure of penumbrae remains unresolved, even with our angular resolution. The observed line profiles are properly reproduced if two components with velocities between zero and several km s-1 coexist in the resolution elements. Using Doppler shifts at fixed line depths, we find a local correlation between upflows and bright structures and between downflows and dark structures. This association is not specific to the outer penumbra, but it also occurs in the inner penumbra. The existence of such a correlation was originally reported in 1969 by Beckers and Schröter, and it is suggestive of energy transport by convection in penumbrae.

  15. Axions and the galactic angular momentum distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banik, N.; Sikivie, P.

    2013-12-01

    We analyze the behavior of axion dark matter before it falls into a galactic gravitational potential well. The axions thermalize sufficiently fast by gravitational self-interactions that almost all go to their lowest-energy state consistent with the total angular momentum acquired from tidal torquing. That state is a state of rigid rotation on the turnaround sphere. It predicts the occurrence and detailed properties of the caustic rings of dark matter for which observational evidence had been found earlier. We show that the vortices in the axion Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) are attractive, unlike those in superfluid He4 and dilute gases. We expect that a large fraction of the vortices in the axion BEC join into a single big vortex along the rotation axis of the galaxy. The resulting enhancement of caustic rings explains the typical size of the rises in the Milky Way rotation curve attributed to caustic rings. We show that baryons and ordinary cold dark matter particles are entrained by the axion BEC and acquire the same velocity distribution. The resulting baryonic angular momentum distribution gives a good qualitative fit to the distributions observed in dwarf galaxies. We give estimates of the minimum fraction of dark matter that is composed of axions.

  16. Practical scaling law for photoelectron angular distributions

    SciTech Connect

    Guo Dongsheng; Zhang Jingtao; Xu Zhizhan; Li Xiaofeng; Fu Panming; Freeman, R.R.

    2003-10-01

    A practical scaling law that predicts photoelectron angular distributions (PADs) is derived using angular distribution formulas which explicitly contain spontaneous emission. The scaling law is used to analyze recent PAD measurements in above-threshold ionization, and to predict results of future experiments. Our theoretical and numerical studies show that, in the non-relativistic regime and long-wavelength approximation, the shapes of PADs are determined by only three dimensionless numbers: (1) u{sub p}{identical_to}U{sub p}/({Dirac_h}/2{pi}){omega}, the ponderomotive number (ponderomotive energy in units of laser photon energy); (2) {epsilon}{sub b}{identical_to}E{sub b}/({Dirac_h}/2{pi}){omega}, the binding number (atomic binding energy in units of the laser photon energy); (3) j, the absorbed-photon number. The scaling law is shown to be useful in predictions of results from strong-field Kapitza-Dirac effect measurements; specifically, the application of this scaling law to recently reported Kapitza-Dirac diffraction is discussed. Possible experimental tests to verify the scaling law are suggested.

  17. Axial-conductances angular filter investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hannan, P. W.; Pedersen, J. F.

    1984-04-01

    This report describes the concept, analysis, design, construction, and tests of an angular filter using an axial-conductance medium. The filter provides rejection that increases with incidence angle in the E plane. It is essentially invisible at broadside incidence, does not have critical tolerances on dimensions or materials, and operates over a wide frequency band. Analysis of an ideal homogeneous axial-conductance medium shows that the optimum value for the axial loss tangent is unity. With this value, the homogeneous medium provides approximately 8 dB of absorptive rejection per wavelength of filter thickness at a 45 E-plane incidence angle. Analysis of a practical inhomogeneous axial-conductance medium shows that some loss is introduced at broadside incidence, and that two types of waves can exist in the medium when only one wave is incident at an oblique angle. When the practical medium has dimensions that are properly chosen, its broadside loss can be negligible, and its rejection versus incidence angle can approximate that of the ideal medium. Tests of inhomogeneous samples in simulator wave guide confirm these analytical results. A screen printing method for depositing thick-film resistive ink on thin dielectric sheets has been investigated. With this method a 5x5 foot angular filter, designed for operation at 10 GHz, has been constructed containing over 70,000 axial-conductance elements.

  18. Modulation of the Seasonal Cycle in the Earth's Atmospheric, Oceanic, and Mantle Angular Momentum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gross, R. S.; Marcus, S. L.; Dickey, J. O.

    2001-05-01

    Global warming, by definition, changes the atmospheric temperature field. Since this temperature change is not expected to occur uniformly, either geographically, or with height in the atmosphere, changes can be expected in the pole-to-equator temperature gradient which, by the thermal wind equation, will cause changes in the atmospheric zonal wind field and hence in the wind-driven axial component of the atmospheric angular momentum (AAM). Since length-of-day (LOD) changes are known to be largely caused by changes in the angular momentum of the atmospheric winds, concomitant changes in LOD can also be expected to occur. On interannual time scales numerous studies have shown that AAM and LOD variations are correlated with the Southern Oscillation Index (SOI). Here, observed changes in the strengths of the annual and semiannual AAM and LOD signals are analyzed and are also shown to be significantly correlated with the SOI. This correlation between the SOI and the modulation of the seasonal AAM and LOD signals demonstrates a linkage between seasonal AAM and LOD (and hence seasonal zonal wind) variability and the El Nino / Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phenomenon, a linkage that can only arise through non-linear interactions. Results for the modulation of the seasonal cycle in oceanic angular momentum will also be reported and discussed.

  19. Top Quark Spin Correlations - Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Parke, Stephen J.; /Fermilab

    2012-02-01

    The top quark decay width (G{sub F}m{sub t}{sup 3} {approx} 1 GeV) is much larger than the QCD hadronization scale ({Lambda}{sub QCD} {approx} 0.1 GeV) and much larger than the spin decorrelation scale ({Lambda}{sub QCD}{sup 2}/m{sub t} {approx} 0.1 MeV). Therefore, spin correlations in top quark pair production are reflected in angular correlations of the decay products, see [1] and [2].

  20. Polarization of molecular angular momentum in the chemical reactions Li + HF and F + HD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasilnikov, Mikhail B.; Popov, Ruslan S.; Roncero, Octavio; De Fazio, Dario; Cavalli, Simonetta; Aquilanti, Vincenzo; Vasyutinskii, Oleg S.

    2013-06-01

    The quantum mechanical approach to vector correlation of angular momentum orientation and alignment in chemical reactions [G. Balint-Kurti and O. S. Vasyutinskii, J. Phys. Chem. A 113, 14281 (2009)], 10.1021/jp902796v is applied to the molecular reagents and products of the Li + HF [L. Gonzalez-Sanchez, O. S. Vasyutinskii, A. Zanchet, C. Sanz-Sanz, and O. Roncero, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 13, 13656 (2011)], 10.1039/c0cp02452j and F + HD [D. De Fazio, J. Lucas, V. Aquilanti, and S. Cavalli, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 13, 8571 (2011)], 10.1039/c0cp02738c reactions for which accurate scattering information has become recently available through time-dependent and time-independent approaches. Application of the theory to two important particular cases of the reactive collisions has been considered: (i) the influence of the angular momentum polarization of reactants in the entrance channel on the spatial distribution of the products in the exit channel and (ii) angular momentum polarization of the products of the reaction between unpolarized reactants. In the former case, the role of the angular momentum alignment of the reactants is shown to be large, particularly when the angular momentum is perpendicular to the reaction scattering plane. In the latter case, the orientation and alignment of the product angular momentum was found to be significant and strongly dependent on the scattering angle. The calculation also reveals significant differences between the vector correlation properties of the two reactions under study which are due to difference in the reaction mechanisms. In the case of F + HD reaction, the branching ratio between HF and DF production points out interest in the insight gained into the detailed dynamics, when information is available either from exact quantum mechanical calculations or from especially designed experiments. Also, the geometrical arrangement for the experimental determination of the product angular momentum orientation and alignment based

  1. Dependence of electric potentials at trench surfaces on ion angular distribution in plasma etching processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palov, A. P.; Mankelevich, Yu A.; Rakhimova, T. V.; Baklanov, M. R.

    2016-03-01

    Ion-stimulated etching of dielectrics in radio frequency plasma results in positive charging of a trench bottom because of the significant difference in the angular distribution functions of ions and electrons. They are anisotropic for ions and quasi-isotropic for electrons. The charging leads to a decrease in the energy of the ions bombarding the trench bottom and to undesirable sputtering of the walls near the trench bottom because of the curving of the ion trajectories. This process is normally investigated by Monte Carlo methods in the absence of experimental data. In this paper the analytical dependence of the ion flux bombarding the trench bottom on a trench aspect ratio and ion angular distribution function is obtained. Numerical calculations of the electric potential on the trench bottom for a set of trench aspect ratios and angles of the ion angular distribution function were performed based on a Monte Carlo method to demonstrate the ion flux and electric potential correlated well with each other. The proposed formula for an ion flux is suggested to be helpful for analyzing charging the trenches with different aspect ratios in plasma with an arbitrary angular ion distribution function.

  2. Angular Distributions of Drell-Yan Dimuons at Fermilab E-906/SeaQuest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramson, Bryan; Fermilab E-906/SeaQuest Collaboration

    2015-10-01

    Transverse momentum dependent (TMD) parton distribution functions (PDF), fragmentation functions, and their necessary theoretical framework provide a rich foundation from which to build a more descriptive, quantitative understanding of QCD and hadron structure. Fortuitously, TMD sensitive analyses of leptonic angular distributions have been a fixture in Drell-Yan experiments since the π+W CERN NA-10 of the 1980's, with particular focus on the violation of the Lam-Tung relation through a non-zero cos (2 ϕ) modulation in the angular distributions of the final-state leptons. The cos (2 ϕ) modulation is sensitive to the correlation between the motion and spin of transversely polarized (anti)quarks within their encompassing unpolarized hadron, described by the Boer-Mulders TMD PDF. In the mid-1990's, Fermilab E-866/NuSea investigated angular distributions of p+p and p+d Drell-Yan and found that the relative strength of the cos (2 ϕ) modulation, as compared to pion-induced Drell-Yan, is reduced. Fermilab E-906/SeaQuest provides an ideal laboratory in which to measure the cos (2 ϕ) modulation at a higher target xBj than possible with E-866. Recent progress in the analysis of the angular distributions from SeaQuest Drell-Yan dimuons will be shown.

  3. Small angular displacement measurement based on an autocollimator and a common-path compensation principle

    SciTech Connect

    Li Ke; Kuang Cuifang; Liu Xu

    2013-01-15

    A novel method for small angular displacement measurement based on an autocollimator and a common-path compensation principle by using single CCD detector was proposed. The principles of the angular displacement measurement and the common-path compensation were analyzed. The feasibility of measurement method was verified and the experimental results revealed that the linear correlativity between the relative displacement of the measuring beam spot and the angular displacement is 0.99996. And the measurement resolution is about 0.03 arcsec. To test the compensation's effect, a series of experiments introducing three different interferences from system and external environment were performed. The experimental results indicated that the standard deviations of the measuring beam spot's angular drift were improved by at least 25.0% to at most 80.0% in x direction while by at least 28.2% to at most 95.6% in y direction. Thus, the stability of the system and the measurement resolution were improved.

  4. A spectral analysis of the earth's angular momentum budget

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eubanks, T. M.; Steppe, J. A.; Dickey, J. O.; Callahan, P. S.

    1985-01-01

    The exchange of angular momentum between the solid earth and the atmosphere from January 1976 through March 1982 is investigated using estimates of the earth's rotation from optical astrometry and lunar laser ranging and meteorological estimates of the atmospheric angular momentum M(atm). The physics of the earth's angular momentum budget is described, and earth rotation measurements are related to changes in the angular momentum of the fluid parts of the earth. The availability and reliability of earth rotation and M(atm) data are reported, and the possibility of estimating the exchange of angular momentum with the oceans and with the core is examined. Estimates of the power spectrum, cospectral coherence, and linear transfer functions and an analysis of the unmodeled part of the angular momentum budget are presented and discussed. The amplitude and phase of the semiannual, monthly, and fortnightly tidal variations in the length of day are estimated after removing observed atmospheric excitation.

  5. Motion fading is driven by perceived, not actual angular velocity.

    PubMed

    Kohler, P J; Caplovitz, G P; Hsieh, P-J; Sun, J; Tse, P U

    2010-06-01

    After prolonged viewing of a slowly drifting or rotating pattern under strict fixation, the pattern appears to slow down and then momentarily stop. Here we examine the relationship between such 'motion fading' and perceived angular velocity. Using several different dot patterns that generate emergent virtual contours, we demonstrate that whenever there is a difference in the perceived angular velocity of two patterns of dots that are in fact rotating at the same angular velocity, there is also a difference in the time to undergo motion fading for those two patterns. Conversely, whenever two patterns show no difference in perceived angular velocity, even if in fact rotating at different angular velocities, we find no difference in the time to undergo motion fading. Thus, motion fading is driven by the perceived rather than actual angular velocity of a rotating stimulus. PMID:20371254

  6. Angular momenta creation in relativistic electron-positron plasma.

    PubMed

    Tatsuno, T; Berezhiani, V I; Pekker, M; Mahajan, S M

    2003-07-01

    Creation of angular momentum in a relativistic electron-positron plasma is explored. It is shown that a chain of angular momentum carrying vortices is a robust asymptotic state sustained by the generalized nonlinear Schrödinger equation characteristic to the system. The results may suggest a possible electromagnetic origin of angular momenta when it is applied to the MeV epoch of the early Universe. PMID:12935260

  7. Peculiarities of Angular Distribution of Electrons at Si <100> Channeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogdanov, O. V.; Pivovarov, Yu L.; Takabayashi, Y.; Tukhfatullin, T. A.

    2012-05-01

    The properties of both angular and spatial distribution of 255 MeV electrons at <100> channeling in silicon crystal has been investigated experimentally at the linac injector of SAGA light source and by computer simulations. The simulation of trajectories, angular and spatial distributions of electrons on the screen monitor has been performed taking into account initial spatial as well as angular beam divergence of electron beam. Both experimental data and simulations show the brilliant effect of so-called "doughnut scattering".

  8. Noncontacting method for measuring angular deflection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryant, E. L. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    An apparatus is described for indicating the instantaneous angular deflection of an object about a selected axis without mechanical contact with the object. Light from a light source is transmitted through a flat refractor to a converging lens which focuses the light through another flat refractor onto a differential photocell. The first flat refractor is attached to the object such that when the object is deflected about the selected axis the refractor is also deflected about that axis. The two flat refractors are identical and they are placed an equal distance from the converging lens as are the light source and the photocell. The output of the photocell which is a function of image displacement is fed to a high gain amplifier that drives a galvanometer which rotates the second flat refractor. The second refractor is rotated so that the image displacement is very nearly zero making the galvanometer current a measure of the deflection of the object about the selected axis.

  9. Arbitrarily tunable orbital angular momentum of photons

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Yue; Gao, Xu-Zhen; Ren, Zhi-Cheng; Wang, Xi-Lin; Tu, Chenghou; Li, Yongnan; Wang, Hui-Tian

    2016-01-01

    Orbital angular momentum (OAM) of photons, as a new fundamental degree of freedom, has excited a great diversity of interest, because of a variety of emerging applications. Arbitrarily tunable OAM has gained much attention, but its creation remains still a tremendous challenge. We demonstrate the realization of well-controlled arbitrarily tunable OAM in both theory and experiment. We present the concept of general OAM, which extends the OAM carried by the scalar vortex field to the OAM carried by the azimuthally varying polarized vector field. The arbitrarily tunable OAM we presented has the same characteristics as the well-defined integer OAM: intrinsic OAM, uniform local OAM and intensity ring, and propagation stability. The arbitrarily tunable OAM has unique natures: it is allowed to be flexibly tailored and the radius of the focusing ring can have various choices for a desired OAM, which are of great significance to the benefit of surprising applications of the arbitrary OAM. PMID:27378234

  10. Colliding particles carrying nonzero orbital angular momentum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, Igor P.

    2011-05-01

    Photons carrying nonzero orbital angular momentum (twisted photons) are well-known in optics. Recently, using Compton backscattering to boost optical twisted photons to high energies was suggested. Twisted electrons in the intermediate energy range have also been produced recently. Thus, collisions involving energetic twisted particles seem to be feasible and represent a new tool in high-energy physics. Here we discuss some generic features of scattering processes involving twisted particles in the initial and/or final state. In order to avoid additional complications arising from nontrivial polarization states, we focus here on scalar fields only. We show that processes involving twisted particles allow one to perform a Fourier analysis of the plane-wave cross section with respect to the azimuthal angles of the initial particles. In addition, using twisted states, one can probe the autocorrelation function of the amplitude, which is inaccessible in the plane-wave collisions. Finally, we discuss prospects for experimental study of these effects.

  11. Internal reflection sensors with high angular resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shavirin, I.; Strelkov, O.; Vetskous, A.; Norton-Wayne, L.; Harwood, R.

    1996-07-01

    We discuss the use of total internal reflection for the production of sensors with high angular resolution. These sensors are intended for measurement of the angle between a sensor's axis and the direction to a source of radiation or reflecting object. Sensors of this type are used in controlling the position of machine parts in robotics and industry, orienting space vehicles and astronomic devices in relation to the Sun, and as autocollimators for checking angles of deviation. This kind of sensor was used in the Apollo space vehicle some 20 years ago. Using photodetectors with linear and area CCD arrays has opened up new application possibilities for appropriately designed sensors. A generalized methodology is presented applicable to a wide range of tasks. Some modifications that can improve the performance of the basic design are described.

  12. Passive optical element with selective angular reflection

    SciTech Connect

    Tremblay, C.; Rheault, F.; Boulay, R.; Tremblay, R.

    1987-02-01

    This work is related to the development of passive selective transmission materials that will contribute to regularize the solar thermal gain. We propose an original solution to the problem of seasonal control of energetic input into buildings through windows. A passive optical element with selective angular reflection is used to solve this problem. This optical element allows sunlight to enter windows during the fall and winter, whereas, owing to the different astronomical path of the sun, it stops and rejects direct sunlight by means of the optical effect called total internal reflection (TIR) during the central spring-Summer period. The purpose of this paper is to describe the optical element in some detail, to develop the principal design equations, and give the results of the optimization of optical and geometrical parameters.

  13. Wideband phase-locked angular modulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, L.

    1989-01-01

    A phase-locked loop (PLL) angular modulator scheme has been proposed which has the characteristics of wideband modulation frequency response. The modulator design is independent of the PLL closed-loop transfer function H(s), thereby allowing independent optimization of the loop's parameters as well as the modulator's parameters. A phase modulator implementing the proposed scheme was built to phase modulate a low-noise phase-locked signal source at the output frequency of 2290 MHz. The measurement results validated the analysis by demonstrating that the resulting baseband modulation bandwidth exceeded that of the phase-locked loop by over an order of magnitude. However, it is expected to be able to achieve much wider response still.

  14. Angular relation of axes in perceptual space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bucher, Urs

    1992-01-01

    The geometry of perceptual space needs to be known to model spatial orientation constancy or to create virtual environments. To examine one main aspect of this geometry, the angular relation between the three spatial axes was measured. Experiments were performed consisting of a perceptual task in which subjects were asked to set independently their apparent vertical and horizontal plane. The visual background provided no other stimuli to serve as optical direction cues. The task was performed in a number of different body tilt positions with pitches and rolls varied in steps of 30 degs. The results clearly show the distortion of orthogonality of the perceptual space for nonupright body positions. Large interindividual differences were found. Deviations from orthogonality up to 25 deg were detected in the pitch as well as in the roll direction. Implications of this nonorthogonality on further studies of spatial perception and on the construction of virtual environments for human interaction is also discussed.

  15. Optical communication beyond orbital angular momentum.

    PubMed

    Trichili, Abderrahmen; Rosales-Guzmán, Carmelo; Dudley, Angela; Ndagano, Bienvenu; Ben Salem, Amine; Zghal, Mourad; Forbes, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Mode division multiplexing (MDM) is mooted as a technology to address future bandwidth issues, and has been successfully demonstrated in free space using spatial modes with orbital angular momentum (OAM). To further increase the data transmission rate, more degrees of freedom are required to form a densely packed mode space. Here we move beyond OAM and demonstrate multiplexing and demultiplexing using both the radial and azimuthal degrees of freedom. We achieve this with a holographic approach that allows over 100 modes to be encoded on a single hologram, across a wide wavelength range, in a wavelength independent manner. Our results offer a new tool that will prove useful in realizing higher bit rates for next generation optical networks. PMID:27283799

  16. Optical communication beyond orbital angular momentum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trichili, Abderrahmen; Rosales-Guzmán, Carmelo; Dudley, Angela; Ndagano, Bienvenu; Ben Salem, Amine; Zghal, Mourad; Forbes, Andrew

    2016-06-01

    Mode division multiplexing (MDM) is mooted as a technology to address future bandwidth issues, and has been successfully demonstrated in free space using spatial modes with orbital angular momentum (OAM). To further increase the data transmission rate, more degrees of freedom are required to form a densely packed mode space. Here we move beyond OAM and demonstrate multiplexing and demultiplexing using both the radial and azimuthal degrees of freedom. We achieve this with a holographic approach that allows over 100 modes to be encoded on a single hologram, across a wide wavelength range, in a wavelength independent manner. Our results offer a new tool that will prove useful in realizing higher bit rates for next generation optical networks.

  17. Optical communication beyond orbital angular momentum

    PubMed Central

    Trichili, Abderrahmen; Rosales-Guzmán, Carmelo; Dudley, Angela; Ndagano, Bienvenu; Ben Salem, Amine; Zghal, Mourad; Forbes, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Mode division multiplexing (MDM) is mooted as a technology to address future bandwidth issues, and has been successfully demonstrated in free space using spatial modes with orbital angular momentum (OAM). To further increase the data transmission rate, more degrees of freedom are required to form a densely packed mode space. Here we move beyond OAM and demonstrate multiplexing and demultiplexing using both the radial and azimuthal degrees of freedom. We achieve this with a holographic approach that allows over 100 modes to be encoded on a single hologram, across a wide wavelength range, in a wavelength independent manner. Our results offer a new tool that will prove useful in realizing higher bit rates for next generation optical networks. PMID:27283799

  18. Coherent control of photoelectron wavepacket angular interferograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hockett, P.; Wollenhaupt, M.; Baumert, T.

    2015-11-01

    Coherent control over photoelectron wavepackets, via the use of polarization-shaped laser pulses, can be understood as a time and polarization-multiplexed process, where the final (time-integrated) observable coherently samples all instantaneous states of the light-matter interaction. In this work, we investigate this multiplexing via computation of the observable photoelectron angular interferograms resulting from multi-photon atomic ionization with polarization-shaped laser pulses. We consider the polarization sensitivity of both the instantaneous and cumulative continuum wavefunction; the nature of the coherent control over the resultant photoelectron interferogram is thus explored in detail. Based on this understanding, the use of coherent control with polarization-shaped pulses as a methodology for a highly multiplexed coherent quantum metrology is also investigated, and defined in terms of the information content of the observable.

  19. Chiral symmetries associated with angular momentum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, M.; Kleinert, M.

    2014-03-01

    In quantum mechanics courses, symmetries of a physical system are usually introduced as operators which commute with the Hamiltonian. In this paper we will consider chiral symmetries which anticommute with the Hamiltonian. Typically, introductory courses at the (under)graduate level do not discuss these simple, useful and beautiful symmetries at all. The first time a student encounters them is when the Dirac equation is discussed in a course on relativistic quantum mechanics, or when particle-hole symmetry is studied in the context of superconductivity. In this paper, we will show how chiral symmetries can be simply elucidated using the theory of angular momentum, which is taught in virtually all introductory quantum mechanics courses.

  20. Angular momentum effects in subbarrier fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Halbert, M.L.; Beene, J.R.; Hensley, D.C.; Honkanen, K.; Semkow, T.M.; Abenante, V.; Sarantites, D.G.; Li, Z.

    1988-01-01

    Angular-momentum distributions sigma/sub L/ for the compound nucleus /sup 164/Yb were deduced from measurements of ..gamma..-ray multiplicity for all significant evaporation residues from fusion of /sup 64/Ni and /sup 100/Mo at and below the Coulomb barrier. The excitation functions can be reproduced with coupled-channels calculations only if additional coupling beyond the known inelastic strengths is included. Even with this augmented coupling, however, at the lowest bombarding energies the experimental sigma/sub L/ extend to higher L values than the predictions. Single-barrier penetration models for a potential with an energy-dependent depth and shape fitted to the excitation function likewise underestimate the role of high-L partial waves. Somewhat better success is achieved with models in which fission is allowed to occur at distances comparable with or even larger than the Coulomb barrier radius. 24 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Arbitrarily tunable orbital angular momentum of photons.

    PubMed

    Pan, Yue; Gao, Xu-Zhen; Ren, Zhi-Cheng; Wang, Xi-Lin; Tu, Chenghou; Li, Yongnan; Wang, Hui-Tian

    2016-01-01

    Orbital angular momentum (OAM) of photons, as a new fundamental degree of freedom, has excited a great diversity of interest, because of a variety of emerging applications. Arbitrarily tunable OAM has gained much attention, but its creation remains still a tremendous challenge. We demonstrate the realization of well-controlled arbitrarily tunable OAM in both theory and experiment. We present the concept of general OAM, which extends the OAM carried by the scalar vortex field to the OAM carried by the azimuthally varying polarized vector field. The arbitrarily tunable OAM we presented has the same characteristics as the well-defined integer OAM: intrinsic OAM, uniform local OAM and intensity ring, and propagation stability. The arbitrarily tunable OAM has unique natures: it is allowed to be flexibly tailored and the radius of the focusing ring can have various choices for a desired OAM, which are of great significance to the benefit of surprising applications of the arbitrary OAM. PMID:27378234

  2. Angular biasing in implicit Monte-Carlo

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmerman, G.B.

    1994-10-20

    Calculations of indirect drive Inertial Confinement Fusion target experiments require an integrated approach in which laser irradiation and radiation transport in the hohlraum are solved simultaneously with the symmetry, implosion and burn of the fuel capsule. The Implicit Monte Carlo method has proved to be a valuable tool for the two dimensional radiation transport within the hohlraum, but the impact of statistical noise on the symmetric implosion of the small fuel capsule is difficult to overcome. We present an angular biasing technique in which an increased number of low weight photons are directed at the imploding capsule. For typical parameters this reduces the required computer time for an integrated calculation by a factor of 10. An additional factor of 5 can also be achieved by directing even smaller weight photons at the polar regions of the capsule where small mass zones are most sensitive to statistical noise.

  3. Angular Approach Scanning Ion Conductance Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Shevchuk, Andrew; Tokar, Sergiy; Gopal, Sahana; Sanchez-Alonso, Jose L; Tarasov, Andrei I; Vélez-Ortega, A Catalina; Chiappini, Ciro; Rorsman, Patrik; Stevens, Molly M; Gorelik, Julia; Frolenkov, Gregory I; Klenerman, David; Korchev, Yuri E

    2016-05-24

    Scanning ion conductance microscopy (SICM) is a super-resolution live imaging technique that uses a glass nanopipette as an imaging probe to produce three-dimensional (3D) images of cell surface. SICM can be used to analyze cell morphology at nanoscale, follow membrane dynamics, precisely position an imaging nanopipette close to a structure of interest, and use it to obtain ion channel recordings or locally apply stimuli or drugs. Practical implementations of these SICM advantages, however, are often complicated due to the limitations of currently available SICM systems that inherited their design from other scanning probe microscopes in which the scan assembly is placed right above the specimen. Such arrangement makes the setting of optimal illumination necessary for phase contrast or the use of high magnification upright optics difficult. Here, we describe the designs that allow mounting SICM scan head on a standard patch-clamp micromanipulator and imaging the sample at an adjustable approach angle. This angle could be as shallow as the approach angle of a patch-clamp pipette between a water immersion objective and the specimen. Using this angular approach SICM, we obtained topographical images of cells grown on nontransparent nanoneedle arrays, of islets of Langerhans, and of hippocampal neurons under upright optical microscope. We also imaged previously inaccessible areas of cells such as the side surfaces of the hair cell stereocilia and the intercalated disks of isolated cardiac myocytes, and performed targeted patch-clamp recordings from the latter. Thus, our new, to our knowledge, angular approach SICM allows imaging of living cells on nontransparent substrates and a seamless integration with most patch-clamp setups on either inverted or upright microscopes, which would facilitate research in cell biophysics and physiology. PMID:27224490

  4. Generation of correlated UV and visible rainbows.

    PubMed

    Wu, Guang; Li, Wenxue; Wu, E; Zeng, Heping

    2010-01-18

    We demonstrate concurrent frequency up-conversion and down-conversion in a quadratic nonlinear medium for the generation of correlated ultraviolet and visible rainbows with one-to-one angular and spectral correspondence, facilitating generation of continuously tunable and photon-momentum-dependent multi-wavelength UV and visible twin photons. PMID:20173921

  5. Angular distribution of scattered electrons associated with collimated bremsstrahlung and the tagging technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maximon, L. C.; Ahrens, J.; Dugger, M.

    2009-05-01

    We investigate the angular correlation between a bremsstrahlung photon and its corresponding post-bremsstrahlung electron within the context of a magnetic tagging spectrometer with the aim of improving the instrument's efficiency. Our results are given in terms of angular distributions of the post-bremsstrahlung electron associated with photons that pass through a circular collimator centered in the forward direction. We start from the fully differential Bethe-Heitler (first Born approximation) cross-section, including the Molière screening correction, which is then integrated over the photon azimuthal angle and over the photon polar angle defined by the collimator. These integrations are performed analytically, making no high energy or small angle approximations. To obtain numerical values from the results of these integrations a multiprecision program is used to avoid severe problems of cancellations, especially at high energies (above 1 GeV). Making use of the angular correlation between the electron and the photon, we show that it is possible to increase the usable photon flux if we avoid the detection of electrons with large angles that have no photon partner passing the collimator. This can be accomplished by limiting the size of the electron detectors in the plane perpendicular to the bend plane.

  6. Ways to improve your correlation functions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamilton, A. J. S.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes a number of ways to improve on the standard method for measuring the two-point correlation function of large scale structure in the Universe. Issues addressed are: (1) the problem of the mean density, and how to solve it; (2) how to estimate the uncertainty in a measured correlation function; (3) minimum variance pair weighting; (4) unbiased estimation of the selection function when magnitudes are discrete; and (5) analytic computation of angular integrals in background pair counts.

  7. Probing QCD at high energy via correlations

    SciTech Connect

    Jalilian-Marian, Jamal

    2011-04-26

    A hadron or nucleus at high energy or small x{sub Bj} contains many gluons and may be described as a Color Glass Condensate. Angular and rapidity correlations of two particles produced in high energy hadron-hadron collisions is a sensitive probe of high gluon density regime of QCD. Evolution equations which describe rapidity dependence of these correlation functions are derived from a QCD effective action.

  8. Angular distribution of products of ternary nuclear fission induced by cold polarized neutrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bunakov, V. E.; Kadmensky, S. G.; Kadmensky, S. S.

    2008-11-01

    Within quantum fission theory, angular distributions of products originating from the ternary fission of nuclei that is induced by polarized cold and thermal neutrons are investigated on the basis of a nonevaporative mechanism of third-particle emission and a consistent description of fission-channel coupling. It is shown that the inclusion of Coriolis interaction both in the region of the discrete and in the region of the continuous spectrum of states of the system undergoing fission leads to T-odd correlations in the aforementioned angular distributions. The properties of the TRI and ROT effects discovered recently, which are due to the interference between the fission amplitudes of neutron resonances, are explored. The results obtained here are compared with their counterparts from classic calculations based on the trajectory method.

  9. A dual-heterodyne laser interferometer for simultaneous measurement of linear and angular displacements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Hao; Duan, Hui-Zong; Li, Lin-Tao; Liang, Yu-Rong; Luo, Jun; Yeh, Hsien-Chi

    2015-12-01

    Picometer laser interferometry is an essential tool for ultra-precision measurements in frontier scientific research and advanced manufacturing. In this paper, we present a dual-heterodyne laser interferometer for simultaneously measuring linear and angular displacements with resolutions of picometer and nanoradian, respectively. The phase measurement method is based on cross-correlation analysis and realized by a PXI-bus data acquisition system. By implementing a dual-heterodyne interferometer with a highly symmetric optical configuration, low frequency noises caused by the environmental fluctuations can be suppressed to very low levels via common-mode noise rejection. Experimental results for the dual-heterodyne interferometer configuration presented demonstrate that the noise levels of the linear and angular displacement measurements are approximately 1 pm/Hz1/2 and 0.5 nrad/Hz1/2 at 1 Hz.

  10. Sideways-peaked angular distributions in hadron-induced multifragmentation: Shock waves, geometry, or kinematics?

    SciTech Connect

    Hsi, W.; Kwiatkowski, K.; Wang, G.; Bracken, D.S.; Cornell, E.; Ginger, D.S.; Viola, V.E.; Yoder, N.R.; Korteling, R.G.; Gimeno-Nogues, F.; Ramakrishnan, E.; Rowland, D.; Yennello, S.J.; Huang, R.; Lynch, W.G.; Tsang, M.B.; Xi, H.; Breuer, H.; Morley, K.B.; Gushue, S.; Remsberg, L.P.; Friedman, W.A.; Botvina, A.

    1998-07-01

    Exclusive studies of sideways-peaked angular distributions for intermediate-mass fragments (IMFs) produced in hadron-induced reactions have been performed with the Indiana silicon sphere (ISiS) detector array. The effect becomes prominent for beam momenta above about 10thinspGeV/c. Both the magnitude of the effect and the peak angle increase as a function of fragment multiplicity and charge. When gated on IMF kinetic energy, the angular distributions evolve from forward peaked to nearly isotropic as the fragment energy decreases. Fragment-fragment correlation studies show no evidence for a preferred angle that might signal a fast dynamic breakup mechanism. Moving-source and intranuclear cascade simulations suggest a possible kinematic origin arising from significant transverse momentum imparted to the recoil nucleus during the fast cascade. A two-step cascade and statistical multifragmentation calculation is consistent with the data. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

  11. Angular distribution of products of ternary nuclear fission induced by cold polarized neutrons

    SciTech Connect

    Bunakov, V. E. Kadmensky, S. G. Kadmensky, S. S.

    2008-11-15

    Within quantum fission theory, angular distributions of products originating from the ternary fission of nuclei that is induced by polarized cold and thermal neutrons are investigated on the basis of a non-evaporative mechanism of third-particle emission and a consistent description of fission-channel coupling. It is shown that the inclusion of Coriolis interaction both in the region of the discrete and in the region of the continuous spectrum of states of the system undergoing fission leads to T-odd correlations in the aforementioned angular distributions. The properties of the TRI and ROT effects discovered recently, which are due to the interference between the fission amplitudes of neutron resonances, are explored. The results obtained here are compared with their counterparts from classic calculations based on the trajectory method.

  12. Fast two-position initial alignment for SINS using velocity plus angular rate measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Guobin

    2015-10-01

    An improved two-position initial alignment model for strapdown inertial navigation system is proposed. In addition to the velocity, angular rates are incorporated as measurements. The measurement equations in full three channels are derived in both navigation and body frames and the latter of which is found to be preferred. The cross-correlation between the process and the measurement noises is analyzed and addressed in the Kalman filter. The incorporation of the angular rates, without introducing additional device or external signal, speeds up the convergence of estimating the attitudes, especially the heading. In the simulation study, different algorithms are tested with different initial errors, and the advantages of the proposed method compared to the conventional one are validated by the simulation results.

  13. Modification of the DSN radio frequency angular tropospheric refraction model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berman, A. L.

    1977-01-01

    The previously derived DSN Radio Frequency Angular Tropospheric Refraction Model contained an assumption which was subsequently seen to be at a variance with the theoretical basis of angular refraction. The modification necessary to correct the model is minor in that the value of a constant is changed.

  14. Spatial Angular Compounding for Elastography without the Incompressibility Assumption

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Min; Varghese, Tomy

    2007-01-01

    Spatial-angular compounding is a new technique that enables the reduction of noise artifacts in ultrasound elastography. Previous results using spatial angular compounding, however, were based on the use of the tissue incompressibility assumption. Compounded elastograms were obtained from a spatially-weighted average of local strain estimated from radiofrequency echo signals acquired at different insonification angles. In this paper, we present a new method for reducing the noise artifacts in the axial strain elastogram utilizing a least-squares approach on the angular displacement estimates that does not use the incompressibility assumption. This method produces axial strain elastograms with higher image quality, compared to noncompounded axial strain elastograms, and is referred to as the least-squares angular-compounding approach for elastography. To distinguish between these two angular compounding methods, the spatial-angular compounding with angular weighting based on the tissue incompressibility assumption is referred to as weighted compounding. In this paper, we compare the performance of the two angular-compounding techniques for elastography using beam steering on a linear-array transducer. Quantitative experimental results demonstrate that least-squares compounding provides comparable but smaller improvements in both the elastographic signal-to-noise ratio and the contrast-to-noise ratio, as compared to the weighted-compounding method. Ultrasound simulation results suggest that the least-squares compounding method performs better and provide accurate and robust results when compared to the weighted compounding method, in the case where the incompressibility assumption does not hold. PMID:16761786

  15. Quark and Gluon Orbital Angular Momentum: Where Are We?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorcé, Cédric; Liu, Keh-Fei

    2016-06-01

    The orbital angular momentum of quarks and gluons contributes significantly to the proton spin budget and attracted a lot of attention in the recent years, both theoretically and experimentally. We summarize the various definitions of parton orbital angular momentum together with their relations with parton distributions functions. In particular, we highlight current theoretical puzzles and give some prospects.

  16. One particularity of energy-angular secondary electrons spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borisov, S. S.; Zaitsev, S. I.

    2006-05-01

    In this work we discuss the problems of the energy-angular spectrum of backscattered and true secondary electrons simulation using the discrete (DLA) and the continuous (CLA) loss approximations. The presence of an angular spectrum artefact - the deviation from the sinusoidal distribution over the range of 177-18O° from the beam direction is shown.

  17. Angular distribution of light scattered from heavily doped silica fibres

    SciTech Connect

    Alekseev, V V; Likhachev, M E; Bubnov, M M; Salganskii, M Yu; Khopin, V F; Gur'yanov, Aleksei N; Dianov, Evgenii M

    2011-10-31

    This paper describes an experimental setup for precision measurements of the angular distribution of light scattered by optical fibres in a wide angular range and demonstrates that the models of anomalous scattering proposed to date need to be refined. We have found and interpreted a discrepancy between the Rayleigh scattering coefficients measured by different techniques.

  18. Comparison of spatial and angular clustering of X-ray AGN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koutoulidis, L.; Plionis, M.; Georgantopoulos, I.; Georgakakis, A.; Akylas, A.; Basilakos, S.; Mountrichas, G.

    2016-05-01

    The angular correlation function is a powerful tool for deriving the clustering properties of active galactic nuclei (AGN) and hence the mass of the corresponding dark matter halos in which they reside. However, recent studies based on the application of the angular correlation function on X-ray samples, yield results that are apparently inconsistent with those based on the direct estimation of the spatial correlation function. The goal of the present paper is to attempt to investigate this issue by analysing a well-defined sample. To this end we use the hard-band (2-10 keV) X-ray selected sources of the Chandra AEGIS fields, chosen because of the availability of accurately derived flux sensitivity maps. In particular we use the 186 hard-band sources with spectroscopic redshifts in the range z = 0.3-1.3, a range selected in order to contain the bulk of the AGN while minimizing the contribution of unknown clustering and luminosity evolution from very high redshifts. Using the projected spatial auto-correlation function, we derive a comoving clustering length of x0 = 5.4 ± 1.0h-1 Mpc (for γ = 1.8), which is consistent with results in the literature. We further derive the angular correlation function and corresponding spatial clustering length using the Limber's inversion equation and a novel parametrization of the clustering evolution model that also takes the bias evolution of the host dark matter halo into account. The Limber's inverted spatial comoving clustering length of x0 = 5.5 ± 1.2h-1 Mpc at a median redshift of z ≃ 0.75 matches the clustering length that is directly measured from the spatial correlation function analysis, but after introducing a significant non-linear contribution to the growing mode of perturbations; this contribution is estimated independently from literature results of x0 at different redshifts. Therefore, using this sample of hard X-ray AGN and our clustering evolution parametrization, we find an excellent consistency between the

  19. Methods for measuring and transporting angular momentum in general relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nichols, David; Flanagan, Eanna; Stein, Leo; Vines, Justin

    2016-03-01

    For an observer in a curved spacetime, elements of the dual space of the set of linearized Poincare transformations from the observer's tangent space to itself can naturally be interpreted as local linear and angular momenta. We give an operational procedure by which the observer can measure such local linear and angular momenta from the local spacetime geometry. These momenta can be interpreted as approximate versions of the linear and angular momenta of the spacetime about the observer's location. The measurement algorithm allows for a more accurate determination of the linear and angular momentum of stationary, asymptotically flat systems than previous proposals do. We also describe a prescription by which observers at different locations can compare values of their measured linear and angular momentum by using a specific transport equation, which refines previous proposals. These operational definitions may also prove useful for clarifying the physical interpretation of Bondi-Metzner-Sachs asymptotic charges in asymptotically flat spacetimes.

  20. High-dimensional quantum nature of ghost angular Young's diffraction

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Lixiang; Leach, Jonathan; Jack, Barry; Padgett, Miles J.; Franke-Arnold, Sonja; She Weilong

    2010-09-15

    We propose a technique to characterize the dimensionality of entangled sources affected by any environment, including phase and amplitude masks or atmospheric turbulence. We illustrate this technique on the example of angular ghost diffraction using the orbital angular momentum (OAM) spectrum generated by a nonlocal double slit. We realize a nonlocal angular double slit by placing single angular slits in the paths of the signal and idler modes of the entangled light field generated by parametric down-conversion. Based on the observed OAM spectrum and the measured Shannon dimensionality spectrum of the possible quantum channels that contribute to Young's ghost diffraction, we calculate the associated dimensionality D{sub total}. The measured D{sub total} ranges between 1 and 2.74 depending on the opening angle of the angular slits. The ability to quantify the nature of high-dimensional entanglement is vital when considering quantum information protocols.

  1. CLASS: The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Essinger-Hileman, Thomas; Ali, Aamir; Amiri, Mandana; Appel, John W.; Araujo, Derek; Bennett, Charles L.; Boone, Fletcher; Chan, Manwei; Cho, Hsiao-Mei; Chuss, David T.; Colazo, Felipe; Crowe, Erik; Denis, Kevin; Dunner, Rolando; Eimer, Joseph; Gothe, Dominik; Halpern, Mark; Kogut, Alan J.; Miller, Nathan; Moseley, Samuel; Rostem, Karwan; Stevenson, Thomas; Towner, Deborah; U-Yen, Kongpop; Wollack, Edward

    2014-01-01

    The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS) is an experiment to measure the signature of a gravitational wave background from inflation in the polarization of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). CLASS is a multi-frequency array of four telescopes operating from a high-altitude site in the Atacama Desert in Chile. CLASS will survey 70% of the sky in four frequency bands centered at 38, 93, 148, and 217 GHz, which are chosen to straddle the Galactic-foreground minimum while avoiding strong atmospheric emission lines. This broad frequency coverage ensures that CLASS can distinguish Galactic emission from the CMB. The sky fraction of the CLASS survey will allow the full shape of the primordial B-mode power spectrum to be characterized, including the signal from reionization at low-length. Its unique combination of large sky coverage, control of systematic errors, and high sensitivity will allow CLASS to measure or place upper limits on the tensor-to-scalar ratio at a level of r = 0:01 and make a cosmic-variance-limited measurement of the optical depth to the surface of last scattering, tau. (c) (2014) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.

  2. Semiclassical model for attosecond angular streaking.

    PubMed

    Smolarski, M; Eckle, P; Keller, U; Dörner, R

    2010-08-16

    Attosecond angular streaking is a new technique to achieve unsurpassed time accuracy of only a few attoseconds. Recently this has been successfully used to set an upper limit on the electron tunneling delay time in strong laser field ionization. The measurement technique can be modeled with either the time-dependent Schrödinger equation (TDSE) or a more simple semiclassical approach that describes the process in two steps in analogy to the three-step model in high harmonic generation (HHG): step one is the tunnel ionization and step two is the classical motion in the strong laser field. Here we describe in detail a semiclassical model which is based on the ADK theory for the tunneling step, with subsequent classical propagation of the electron in the laser field. We take into account different ellipticities of the laser field and a possible wavelength-dependent ellipticity that is typically observed for pulses in the two-optical-cycle regime. This semiclassical model shows excellent agreement with the experimental result. PMID:20721150

  3. Angular Synchronization by Eigenvectors and Semidefinite Programming

    PubMed Central

    Singer, A.

    2010-01-01

    The angular synchronization problem is to obtain an accurate estimation (up to a constant additive phase) for a set of unknown angles θ1, …, θn from m noisy measurements of their offsets θi − θj mod 2π. Of particular interest is angle recovery in the presence of many outlier measurements that are uniformly distributed in [0, 2π) and carry no information on the true offsets. We introduce an efficient recovery algorithm for the unknown angles from the top eigenvector of a specially designed Hermitian matrix. The eigenvector method is extremely stable and succeeds even when the number of outliers is exceedingly large. For example, we successfully estimate n = 400 angles from a full set of m=(4002) offset measurements of which 90% are outliers in less than a second on a commercial laptop. The performance of the method is analyzed using random matrix theory and information theory. We discuss the relation of the synchronization problem to the combinatorial optimization problem Max-2-Lin mod L and present a semidefinite relaxation for angle recovery, drawing similarities with the Goemans-Williamson algorithm for finding the maximum cut in a weighted graph. We present extensions of the eigenvector method to other synchronization problems that involve different group structures and their applications, such as the time synchronization problem in distributed networks and the surface reconstruction problems in computer vision and optics. PMID:21179593

  4. Millimetre Wave with Rotational Orbital Angular Momentum

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chao; Ma, Lu

    2016-01-01

    Orbital angular momentum (OAM) has been widely studied in fibre and short-range communications. The implementation of millimetre waves with OAM is expected to increase the communication capacity. Most experiments demonstrate the distinction of OAM modes by receiving all of the energy in the surface vertical to the radiation axis in space. However, the reception of OAM is difficult in free space due to the non-zero beam angle and divergence of energy. The reception of OAM in the space domain in a manner similar to that in optical fibres (i.e., receiving all of the energy rings vertical to the radiation axis) is impractical, especially for long-distance transmission. Here, we fabricate a prototype of the antenna and demonstrate that rather than in the space domain, the OAM can be well received in the time domain via a single antenna by rotating the OAM wave at the transmitter, i.e., the radio wave with rotational OAM. The phase and frequency measured in the experiment reveal that for different OAM modes, the received signals act as a commonly used orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) signal in the time domain. This phase rotation has promising prospects for use in the practical reception of different OAMs of millimetre waves in long-distance transmission. PMID:27596746

  5. The missing angular momentum of superconductors.

    PubMed

    Hirsch, J E

    2008-06-11

    We point out that the Meissner effect, the process by which a superconductor expels magnetic field from its interior, represents an unsolved puzzle within the London-Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer theoretical framework used to describe the physics of conventional superconductors, because it appears to give rise to non-conservation of angular momentum. Possible ways to avoid this inconsistency within the conventional theory of superconductivity are argued to be far-fetched. Consequently, we argue that unless/until a consistent explanation is put forth, the existence of the Meissner effect represents an anomaly that casts doubt on the validity of the conventional framework. Instead, we point out that three elements of the unconventional theory of hole superconductivity (that are not part of the conventional theory) allow for a consistent explanation of the Meissner effect, namely: (i) that the charge distribution in superconductors is macroscopically inhomogeneous, (ii) that superconducting electrons reside in mesoscopic orbits of radius 2λ(L) (λ(L) = London penetration depth), and (iii) that spin-orbit coupling plays an essential role in superconductivity. PMID:21694324

  6. Angular velocity and centripetal acceleration relationship

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monteiro, Martín; Cabeza, Cecilia; Marti, Arturo C.; Vogt, Patrik; Kuhn, Jochen

    2014-05-01

    During the last few years, the growing boom of smartphones has given rise to a considerable number of applications exploiting the functionality of the sensors incorporated in these devices. A sector that has unexpectedly taken advantage of the power of these tools is physics teaching, as reflected in several recent papers. In effect, the use of smartphones has been proposed in several physics experiments spanning mechanics, electromagnetism, optics, oscillations, and waves, among other subjects. Although mechanical experiments have received considerable attention, most of them are based on the use of the accelerometer. An aspect that has received less attention is the use of rotation sensors or gyroscopes. An additional advance in the use of these devices is given by the possibility of obtaining data using the accelerometer and the gyroscope simultaneously. The aim of this paper is to consider the relation between the centripetal acceleration and the angular velocity. Instead of using a formal laboratory setup, in this experiment a smartphone is attached to the floor of a merry-go-round, found in many playgrounds. Several experiments were performed with the roundabout rotating in both directions and with the smart-phone at different distances from the center. The coherence of the measurements is shown.

  7. Cyclic transformation of orbital angular momentum modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlederer, Florian; Krenn, Mario; Fickler, Robert; Malik, Mehul; Zeilinger, Anton

    2016-04-01

    The spatial modes of photons are one realization of a QuDit, a quantum system that is described in a D-dimensional Hilbert space. In order to perform quantum information tasks with QuDits, a general class of D-dimensional unitary transformations is needed. Among these, cyclic transformations are an important special case required in many high-dimensional quantum communication protocols. In this paper, we experimentally demonstrate a cyclic transformation in the high-dimensional space of photonic orbital angular momentum (OAM). Using simple linear optical components, we show a successful four-fold cyclic transformation of OAM modes. Interestingly, our experimental setup was found by a computer algorithm. In addition to the four-cyclic transformation, the algorithm also found extensions to higher-dimensional cycles in a hybrid space of OAM and polarization. Besides being useful for quantum cryptography with QuDits, cyclic transformations are key for the experimental production of high-dimensional maximally entangled Bell-states.

  8. Millimetre Wave with Rotational Orbital Angular Momentum.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chao; Ma, Lu

    2016-01-01

    Orbital angular momentum (OAM) has been widely studied in fibre and short-range communications. The implementation of millimetre waves with OAM is expected to increase the communication capacity. Most experiments demonstrate the distinction of OAM modes by receiving all of the energy in the surface vertical to the radiation axis in space. However, the reception of OAM is difficult in free space due to the non-zero beam angle and divergence of energy. The reception of OAM in the space domain in a manner similar to that in optical fibres (i.e., receiving all of the energy rings vertical to the radiation axis) is impractical, especially for long-distance transmission. Here, we fabricate a prototype of the antenna and demonstrate that rather than in the space domain, the OAM can be well received in the time domain via a single antenna by rotating the OAM wave at the transmitter, i.e., the radio wave with rotational OAM. The phase and frequency measured in the experiment reveal that for different OAM modes, the received signals act as a commonly used orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) signal in the time domain. This phase rotation has promising prospects for use in the practical reception of different OAMs of millimetre waves in long-distance transmission. PMID:27596746

  9. Quantum numbers of the X (3872 ) state and orbital angular momentum in its ρ0J /ψ decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aaij, R.; Adeva, B.; Adinolfi, M.; Affolder, A.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Akar, S.; Albrecht, J.; Alessio, F.; Alexander, M.; Ali, S.; Alkhazov, G.; Alvarez Cartelle, P.; Alves, A. A.; Amato, S.; Amerio, S.; Amhis, Y.; An, L.; Anderlini, L.; Anderson, J.; Andreotti, M.; Andrews, J. E.; Appleby, R. B.; Aquines Gutierrez, O.; Archilli, F.; d'Argent, P.; Artamonov, A.; Artuso, M.; Aslanides, E.; Auriemma, G.; Baalouch, M.; Bachmann, S.; Back, J. J.; Badalov, A.; Baesso, C.; Baldini, W.; Barlow, R. J.; Barschel, C.; Barsuk, S.; Barter, W.; Batozskaya, V.; Battista, V.; Bay, A.; Beaucourt, L.; Beddow, J.; Bedeschi, F.; Bediaga, I.; Bel, L. J.; Belyaev, I.; Ben-Haim, E.; Bencivenni, G.; Benson, S.; Benton, J.; Berezhnoy, A.; Bernet, R.; Bertolin, A.; Bettler, M.-O.; van Beuzekom, M.; Bien, A.; Bifani, S.; Bird, T.; Birnkraut, A.; Bizzeti, A.; Blake, T.; Blanc, F.; Blouw, J.; Blusk, S.; Bocci, V.; Bondar, A.; Bondar, N.; Bonivento, W.; Borghi, S.; Borsato, M.; Bowcock, T. J. V.; Bowen, E.; Bozzi, C.; Braun, S.; Brett, D.; Britsch, M.; Britton, T.; Brodzicka, J.; Brook, N. H.; Bursche, A.; Buytaert, J.; Cadeddu, S.; Calabrese, R.; Calvi, M.; Calvo Gomez, M.; Campana, P.; Campora Perez, D.; Capriotti, L.; Carbone, A.; Carboni, G.; Cardinale, R.; Cardini, A.; Carniti, P.; Carson, L.; Carvalho Akiba, K.; Casanova Mohr, R.; Casse, G.; Cassina, L.; Castillo Garcia, L.; Cattaneo, M.; Cauet, Ch.; Cavallero, G.; Cenci, R.; Charles, M.; Charpentier, Ph.; Chefdeville, M.; Chen, S.; Cheung, S.-F.; Chiapolini, N.; Chrzaszcz, M.; Cid Vidal, X.; Ciezarek, G.; Clarke, P. E. L.; Clemencic, M.; Cliff, H. V.; Closier, J.; Coco, V.; Cogan, J.; Cogneras, E.; Cogoni, V.; Cojocariu, L.; Collazuol, G.; Collins, P.; Comerma-Montells, A.; Contu, A.; Cook, A.; Coombes, M.; Coquereau, S.; Corti, G.; Corvo, M.; Couturier, B.; Cowan, G. A.; Craik, D. C.; Crocombe, A.; Cruz Torres, M.; Cunliffe, S.; Currie, R.; D'Ambrosio, C.; Dalseno, J.; David, P. N. Y.; Davis, A.; De Bruyn, K.; De Capua, S.; De Cian, M.; De Miranda, J. M.; De Paula, L.; De Silva, W.; De Simone, P.; Dean, C.-T.; Decamp, D.; Deckenhoff, M.; Del Buono, L.; Déléage, N.; Derkach, D.; Deschamps, O.; Dettori, F.; Dey, B.; Di Canto, A.; Di Ruscio, F.; Dijkstra, H.; Donleavy, S.; Dordei, F.; Dorigo, M.; Dosil Suárez, A.; Dossett, D.; Dovbnya, A.; Dreimanis, K.; Dufour, L.; Dujany, G.; Dupertuis, F.; Durante, P.; Dzhelyadin, R.; Dziurda, A.; Dzyuba, A.; Easo, S.; Egede, U.; Egorychev, V.; Eidelman, S.; Eisenhardt, S.; Eitschberger, U.; Ekelhof, R.; Eklund, L.; El Rifai, I.; Elsasser, Ch.; Ely, S.; Esen, S.; Evans, H. M.; Evans, T.; Falabella, A.; Färber, C.; Farinelli, C.; Farley, N.; Farry, S.; Fay, R.; Ferguson, D.; Fernandez Albor, V.; Ferrari, F.; Ferreira Rodrigues, F.; Ferro-Luzzi, M.; Filippov, S.; Fiore, M.; Fiorini, M.; Firlej, M.; Fitzpatrick, C.; Fiutowski, T.; Fol, P.; Fontana, M.; Fontanelli, F.; Forty, R.; Francisco, O.; Frank, M.; Frei, C.; Frosini, M.; Fu, J.; Furfaro, E.; Gallas Torreira, A.; Galli, D.; Gallorini, S.; Gambetta, S.; Gandelman, M.; Gandini, P.; Gao, Y.; García Pardiñas, J.; Garofoli, J.; Garra Tico, J.; Garrido, L.; Gascon, D.; Gaspar, C.; Gastaldi, U.; Gauld, R.; Gavardi, L.; Gazzoni, G.; Geraci, A.; Gerick, D.; Gersabeck, E.; Gersabeck, M.; Gershon, T.; Ghez, Ph.; Gianelle, A.; Gianı, S.; Gibson, V.; Giubega, L.; Gligorov, V. V.; Göbel, C.; Golubkov, D.; Golutvin, A.; Gomes, A.; Gotti, C.; Grabalosa Gándara, M.; Graciani Diaz, R.; Granado Cardoso, L. A.; Graugés, E.; Graverini, E.; Graziani, G.; Grecu, A.; Greening, E.; Gregson, S.; Griffith, P.; Grillo, L.; Grünberg, O.; Gui, B.; Gushchin, E.; Guz, Yu.; Gys, T.; Hadjivasiliou, C.; Haefeli, G.; Haen, C.; Haines, S. C.; Hall, S.; Hamilton, B.; Hampson, T.; Han, X.; Hansmann-Menzemer, S.; Harnew, N.; Harnew, S. T.; Harrison, J.; He, J.; Head, T.; Heijne, V.; Hennessy, K.; Henrard, P.; Henry, L.; Hernando Morata, J. A.; van Herwijnen, E.; Heß, M.; Hicheur, A.; Hill, D.; Hoballah, M.; Hombach, C.; Hulsbergen, W.; Humair, T.; Hussain, N.; Hutchcroft, D.; Hynds, D.; Idzik, M.; Ilten, P.; Jacobsson, R.; Jaeger, A.; Jalocha, J.; Jans, E.; Jawahery, A.; Jing, F.; John, M.; Johnson, D.; Jones, C. R.; Joram, C.; Jost, B.; Jurik, N.; Kandybei, S.; Kanso, W.; Karacson, M.; Karbach, T. M.; Karodia, S.; Kelsey, M.; Kenyon, I. R.; Kenzie, M.; Ketel, T.; Khanji, B.; Khurewathanakul, C.; Klaver, S.; Klimaszewski, K.; Kochebina, O.; Kolpin, M.; Komarov, I.; Koopman, R. F.; Koppenburg, P.; Korolev, M.; Kravchuk, L.; Kreplin, K.; Kreps, M.; Krocker, G.; Krokovny, P.; Kruse, F.; Kucewicz, W.; Kucharczyk, M.; Kudryavtsev, V.; Kurek, K.; Kvaratskheliya, T.; La Thi, V. N.; Lacarrere, D.; Lafferty, G.; Lai, A.; Lambert, D.; Lambert, R. W.; Lanfranchi, G.; Langenbruch, C.; Langhans, B.; Latham, T.; Lazzeroni, C.; Le Gac, R.; van Leerdam, J.; Lees, J.-P.; Lefèvre, R.; Leflat, A.; Lefrançois, J.; Leroy, O.; Lesiak, T.; Leverington, B.; Li, Y.; Likhomanenko, T.; Liles, M.; Lindner, R.; Linn, C.; Lionetto, F.; Liu, B.; Lohn, S.; Longstaff, I.; Lopes, J. H.; Lowdon, P.; Lucchesi, D.; Luo, H.; Lupato, A.; Luppi, E.; Lupton, O.; Machefert, F.; Maciuc, F.; Maev, O.; Maguire, K.; Malde, S.; Malinin, A.; Manca, G.; Mancinelli, G.; Manning, P.; Mapelli, A.; Maratas, J.; Marchand, J. F.; Marconi, U.; Marin Benito, C.; Marino, P.; Märki, R.; Marks, J.; Martellotti, G.; Martinelli, M.; Martinez Santos, D.; Martinez Vidal, F.; Martins Tostes, D.; Massafferri, A.; Matev, R.; Mathad, A.; Mathe, Z.; Matteuzzi, C.; Mauri, A.; Maurin, B.; Mazurov, A.; McCann, M.; McCarthy, J.; McNab, A.; McNulty, R.; Meadows, B.; Meier, F.; Meissner, M.; Merk, M.; Milanes, D. A.; Minard, M.-N.; Mitzel, D. S.; Molina Rodriguez, J.; Monteil, S.; Morandin, M.; Morawski, P.; Mordà, A.; Morello, M. J.; Moron, J.; Morris, A. B.; Mountain, R.; Muheim, F.; Müller, J.; Müller, K.; Müller, V.; Mussini, M.; Muster, B.; Naik, P.; Nakada, T.; Nandakumar, R.; Nasteva, I.; Needham, M.; Neri, N.; Neubert, S.; Neufeld, N.; Neuner, M.; Nguyen, A. D.; Nguyen, T. D.; Nguyen-Mau, C.; Niess, V.; Niet, R.; Nikitin, N.; Nikodem, T.; Ninci, D.; Novoselov, A.; O'Hanlon, D. P.; Oblakowska-Mucha, A.; Obraztsov, V.; Ogilvy, S.; Okhrimenko, O.; Oldeman, R.; Onderwater, C. J. G.; Osorio Rodrigues, B.; Otalora Goicochea, J. M.; Otto, A.; Owen, P.; Oyanguren, A.; Palano, A.; Palombo, F.; Palutan, M.; Panman, J.; Papanestis, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Pappalardo, L. L.; Parkes, C.; Passaleva, G.; Patel, G. D.; Patel, M.; Patrignani, C.; Pearce, A.; Pellegrino, A.; Penso, G.; Pepe Altarelli, M.; Perazzini, S.; Perret, P.; Pescatore, L.; Petridis, K.; Petrolini, A.; Petruzzo, M.; Picatoste Olloqui, E.; Pietrzyk, B.; Pilař, T.; Pinci, D.; Pistone, A.; Playfer, S.; Plo Casasus, M.; Poikela, T.; Polci, F.; Poluektov, A.; Polyakov, I.; Polycarpo, E.; Popov, A.; Popov, D.; Popovici, B.; Potterat, C.; Price, E.; Price, J. D.; Prisciandaro, J.; Pritchard, A.; Prouve, C.; Pugatch, V.; Puig Navarro, A.; Punzi, G.; Qian, W.; Quagliani, R.; Rachwal, B.; Rademacker, J. H.; Rakotomiaramanana, B.; Rama, M.; Rangel, M. S.; Raniuk, I.; Rauschmayr, N.; Raven, G.; Redi, F.; Reichert, S.; Reid, M. M.; dos Reis, A. C.; Ricciardi, S.; Richards, S.; Rihl, M.; Rinnert, K.; Rives Molina, V.; Robbe, P.; Rodrigues, A. B.; Rodrigues, E.; Rodriguez Lopez, J. A.; Rodriguez Perez, P.; Roiser, S.; Romanovsky, V.; Romero Vidal, A.; Rotondo, M.; Rouvinet, J.; Ruf, T.; Ruiz, H.; Ruiz Valls, P.; Saborido Silva, J. J.; Sagidova, N.; Sail, P.; Saitta, B.; Salustino Guimaraes, V.; Sanchez Mayordomo, C.; Sanmartin Sedes, B.; Santacesaria, R.; Santamarina Rios, C.; Santimaria, M.; Santovetti, E.; Sarti, A.; Satriano, C.; Satta, A.; Saunders, D. M.; Savrina, D.; Schiller, M.; Schindler, H.; Schlupp, M.; Schmelling, M.; Schmelzer, T.; Schmidt, B.; Schneider, O.; Schopper, A.; Schune, M.-H.; Schwemmer, R.; Sciascia, B.; Sciubba, A.; Semennikov, A.; Sepp, I.; Serra, N.; Serrano, J.; Sestini, L.; Seyfert, P.; Shapkin, M.; Shapoval, I.; Shcheglov, Y.; Shears, T.; Shekhtman, L.; Shevchenko, V.; Shires, A.; Silva Coutinho, R.; Simi, G.; Sirendi, M.; Skidmore, N.; Skillicorn, I.; Skwarnicki, T.; Smith, E.; Smith, E.; Smith, J.; Smith, M.; Snoek, H.; Sokoloff, M. D.; Soler, F. J. P.; Soomro, F.; Souza, D.; Souza De Paula, B.; Spaan, B.; Spradlin, P.; Sridharan, S.; Stagni, F.; Stahl, M.; Stahl, S.; Steinkamp, O.; Stenyakin, O.; Sterpka, F.; Stevenson, S.; Stoica, S.; Stone, S.; Storaci, B.; Stracka, S.; Straticiuc, M.; Straumann, U.; Stroili, R.; Sun, L.; Sutcliffe, W.; Swientek, K.; Swientek, S.; Syropoulos, V.; Szczekowski, M.; Szczypka, P.; Szumlak, T.; T'Jampens, S.; Tekampe, T.; Teklishyn, M.; Tellarini, G.; Teubert, F.; Thomas, C.; Thomas, E.; van Tilburg, J.; Tisserand, V.; Tobin, M.; Todd, J.; Tolk, S.; Tomassetti, L.; Tonelli, D.; Topp-Joergensen, S.; Torr, N.; Tournefier, E.; Tourneur, S.; Trabelsi, K.; Tran, M. T.; Tresch, M.; Trisovic, A.; Tsaregorodtsev, A.; Tsopelas, P.; Tuning, N.; Ukleja, A.; Ustyuzhanin, A.; Uwer, U.; Vacca, C.; Vagnoni, V.; Valenti, G.; Vallier, A.; Vazquez Gomez, R.; Vazquez Regueiro, P.; Vázquez Sierra, C.; Vecchi, S.; Velthuis, J. J.; Veltri, M.; Veneziano, G.; Vesterinen, M.; Viaud, B.; Vieira, D.; Vieites Diaz, M.; Vilasis-Cardona, X.; Vollhardt, A.; Volyanskyy, D.; Voong, D.; Vorobyev, A.; Vorobyev, V.; Voß, C.; de Vries, J. A.; Waldi, R.; Wallace, C.; Wallace, R.; Walsh, J.; Wandernoth, S.; Wang, J.; Ward, D. R.; Watson, N. K.; Websdale, D.; Weiden, A.; Whitehead, M.; Wiedner, D.; Wilkinson, G.; Wilkinson, M.; Williams, M.; Williams, M. P.; Williams, M.; Wilson, F. F.; Wimberley, J.; Wishahi, J.; Wislicki, W.; Witek, M.; Wormser, G.; Wotton, S. A.; Wright, S.; Wyllie, K.; Xie, Y.; Xu, Z.; Yang, Z.; Yuan, X.; Yushchenko, O.; Zangoli, M.; Zavertyaev, M.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, Y.; Zhelezov, A.; Zhokhov, A.; Zhong, L.; LHCb Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    Angular correlations in B+→X (3872 )K+ decays, with X (3872 )→ρ0J /ψ , ρ0→π+π- and J /ψ →μ+μ-, are used to measure orbital angular momentum contributions and to determine the JP C value of the X (3872 ) meson. The data correspond to an integrated luminosity of 3.0 fb-1 of proton-proton collisions collected with the LHCb detector. This determination, for the first time performed without assuming a value for the orbital angular momentum, confirms the quantum numbers to be JP C=1++. The X (3872 ) is found to decay predominantly through an S wave and an upper limit of 4% at 95% C.L. is set on the D-wave contribution.

  10. Angular Distribution and Angular Dispersion in Collision of 19F+27Al at 114 MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qi; Dong, Yu-Chuan; Li, Song-Lin; Duan, Li-Min; Xu, Hu-Shan; Xu, Hua-Gen; Chen, Ruo-Fu; Wu, He-Yu; Han, Jian-Long; Li, Zhi-Chang; Lu, Xiu-Qin; Zhao, Kui; Liu, Jian-Cheng; Sergey, Yu-Kun

    2004-10-01

    Angular distributions of fragments B, C, N, O, F, Ne, Na, Mg and Al induced by the collision of 19F+27Al at 114 MeV have been measured. Angular dispersion parameters are extracted from the experimental data and compared with the theoretical ones. The dynamic dispersions for dissipative products depend strongly on the charge number Z of the fragments.

  11. Angular analysis of the B 0 → K *0 μ + μ - decay using 3 fb-1 of integrated luminosity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aaij, R.; Abellán Beteta, C.; Adeva, B.; Adinolfi, M.; Affolder, A.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Akar, S.; Albrecht, J.; Alessio, F.; Alexander, M.; Ali, S.; Alkhazov, G.; Alvarez Cartelle, P.; Alves, A. A.; Amato, S.; Amerio, S.; Amhis, Y.; An, L.; Anderlini, L.; Andreassi, G.; Andreotti, M.; Andrews, J. E.; Appleby, R. B.; Aquines Gutierrez, O.; Archilli, F.; d'Argent, P.; Artamonov, A.; Artuso, M.; Aslanides, E.; Auriemma, G.; Baalouch, M.; Bachmann, S.; Back, J. J.; Badalov, A.; Baesso, C.; Baldini, W.; Barlow, R. J.; Barschel, C.; Barsuk, S.; Barter, W.; Batozskaya, V.; Battista, V.; Bay, A.; Beaucourt, L.; Beddow, J.; Bedeschi, F.; Bediaga, I.; Bel, L. J.; Bellee, V.; Belloli, N.; Belyaev, I.; Ben-Haim, E.; Bencivenni, G.; Benson, S.; Benton, J.; Berezhnoy, A.; Bernet, R.; Bertolin, A.; Bettler, M.-O.; van Beuzekom, M.; Bifani, S.; Billoir, P.; Bird, T.; Birnkraut, A.; Bizzeti, A.; Blake, T.; Blanc, F.; Blouw, J.; Blusk, S.; Bocci, V.; Bondar, A.; Bondar, N.; Bonivento, W.; Borghi, S.; Borisyak, M.; Borsato, M.; Bowcock, T. J. V.; Bowen, E.; Bozzi, C.; Braun, S.; Britsch, M.; Britton, T.; Brodzicka, J.; Brook, N. H.; Buchanan, E.; Burr, C.; Bursche, A.; Buytaert, J.; Cadeddu, S.; Calabrese, R.; Calvi, M.; Calvo Gomez, M.; Campana, P.; Campora Perez, D.; Capriotti, L.; Carbone, A.; Carboni, G.; Cardinale, R.; Cardini, A.; Carniti, P.; Carson, L.; Carvalho Akiba, K.; Casse, G.; Cassina, L.; Castillo Garcia, L.; Cattaneo, M.; Cauet, Ch.; Cavallero, G.; Cenci, R.; Charles, M.; Charpentier, Ph.; Chefdeville, M.; Chen, S.; Cheung, S.-F.; Chiapolini, N.; Chrzaszcz, M.; Cid Vidal, X.; Ciezarek, G.; Clarke, P. E. L.; Clemencic, M.; Cliff, H. V.; Closier, J.; Coco, V.; Cogan, J.; Cogneras, E.; Cogoni, V.; Cojocariu, L.; Collazuol, G.; Collins, P.; Comerma-Montells, A.; Contu, A.; Cook, A.; Coombes, M.; Coquereau, S.; Corti, G.; Corvo, M.; Couturier, B.; Cowan, G. A.; Craik, D. C.; Crocombe, A.; Cruz Torres, M.; Cunliffe, S.; Currie, R.; D'Ambrosio, C.; Dall'Occo, E.; Dalseno, J.; David, P. N. Y.; Davis, A.; De Aguiar Francisco, O.; De Bruyn, K.; De Capua, S.; De Cian, M.; De Miranda, J. M.; De Paula, L.; De Simone, P.; Dean, C.-T.; Decamp, D.; Deckenhoff, M.; Del Buono, L.; Déléage, N.; Demmer, M.; Derkach, D.; Deschamps, O.; Dettori, F.; Dey, B.; Di Canto, A.; Di Ruscio, F.; Dijkstra, H.; Donleavy, S.; Dordei, F.; Dorigo, M.; Dosil Suárez, A.; Dovbnya, A.; Dreimanis, K.; Dufour, L.; Dujany, G.; Dungs, K.; Durante, P.; Dzhelyadin, R.; Dziurda, A.; Dzyuba, A.; Easo, S.; Egede, U.; Egorychev, V.; Eidelman, S.; Eisenhardt, S.; Eitschberger, U.; Ekelhof, R.; Eklund, L.; El Rifai, I.; Elsasser, Ch.; Ely, S.; Esen, S.; Evans, H. M.; Evans, T.; Fabianska, M.; Falabella, A.; Färber, C.; Farley, N.; Farry, S.; Fay, R.; Ferguson, D.; Fernandez Albor, V.; Ferrari, F.; Ferreira Rodrigues, F.; Ferro-Luzzi, M.; Filippov, S.; Fiore, M.; Fiorini, M.; Firlej, M.; Fitzpatrick, C.; Fiutowski, T.; Fleuret, F.; Fohl, K.; Fol, P.; Fontana, M.; Fontanelli, F.; Forshaw, D. C.; Forty, R.; Frank, M.; Frei, C.; Frosini, M.; Fu, J.; Furfaro, E.; Gallas Torreira, A.; Galli, D.; Gallorini, S.; Gambetta, S.; Gandelman, M.; Gandini, P.; Gao, Y.; García Pardiñas, J.; Garra Tico, J.; Garrido, L.; Gascon, D.; Gaspar, C.; Gauld, R.; Gavardi, L.; Gazzoni, G.; Gerick, D.; Gersabeck, E.; Gersabeck, M.; Gershon, T.; Ghez, Ph.; Gianì, S.; Gibson, V.; Girard, O. G.; Giubega, L.; Gligorov, V. V.; Göbel, C.; Golubkov, D.; Golutvin, A.; Gomes, A.; Gotti, C.; Grabalosa Gándara, M.; Graciani Diaz, R.; Granado Cardoso, L. A.; Graugés, E.; Graverini, E.; Graziani, G.; Grecu, A.; Greening, E.; Griffith, P.; Grillo, L.; Grünberg, O.; Gui, B.; Gushchin, E.; Guz, Yu.; Gys, T.; Hadavizadeh, T.; Hadjivasiliou, C.; Haefeli, G.; Haen, C.; Haines, S. C.; Hall, S.; Hamilton, B.; Han, X.; Hansmann-Menzemer, S.; Harnew, N.; Harnew, S. T.; Harrison, J.; He, J.; Head, T.; Heijne, V.; Heister, A.; Hennessy, K.; Henrard, P.; Henry, L.; Hernando Morata, J. A.; van Herwijnen, E.; Heß, M.; Hicheur, A.; Hill, D.; Hoballah, M.; Hombach, C.; Hulsbergen, W.; Humair, T.; Hushchyn, M.; Hussain, N.; Hutchcroft, D.; Hynds, D.; Idzik, M.; Ilten, P.; Jacobsson, R.; Jaeger, A.; Jalocha, J.; Jans, E.; Jawahery, A.; John, M.; Johnson, D.; Jones, C. R.; Joram, C.; Jost, B.; Jurik, N.; Kandybei, S.; Kanso, W.; Karacson, M.; Karbach, T. M.; Karodia, S.; Kecke, M.; Kelsey, M.; Kenyon, I. R.; Kenzie, M.; Ketel, T.; Khairullin, E.; Khanji, B.; Khurewathanakul, C.; Kirn, T.; Klaver, S.; Klimaszewski, K.; Kochebina, O.; Kolpin, M.; Komarov, I.; Koopman, R. F.; Koppenburg, P.; Kozeiha, M.; Kravchuk, L.; Kreplin, K.; Kreps, M.; Krokovny, P.; Kruse, F.; Krzemien, W.; Kucewicz, W.; Kucharczyk, M.; Kudryavtsev, V.; Kuonen, A. K.; Kurek, K.; Kvaratskheliya, T.; Lacarrere, D.; Lafferty, G.; Lai, A.; Lambert, D.; Lanfranchi, G.; Langenbruch, C.; Langhans, B.; Latham, T.; Lazzeroni, C.; Le Gac, R.; van Leerdam, J.; Lees, J.-P.; Lefèvre, R.; Leflat, A.; Lefrançois, J.; Lemos Cid, E.; Leroy, O.; Lesiak, T.; Leverington, B.; Li, Y.; Likhomanenko, T.; Liles, M.; Lindner, R.; Linn, C.; Lionetto, F.; Liu, B.; Liu, X.; Loh, D.; Longstaff, I.; Lopes, J. H.; Lucchesi, D.; Lucio Martinez, M.; Luo, H.; Lupato, A.; Luppi, E.; Lupton, O.; Lusiani, A.; Machefert, F.; Maciuc, F.; Maev, O.; Maguire, K.; Malde, S.; Malinin, A.; Manca, G.; Mancinelli, G.; Manning, P.; Mapelli, A.; Maratas, J.; Marchand, J. F.; Marconi, U.; Marin Benito, C.; Marino, P.; Marks, J.; Martellotti, G.; Martin, M.; Martinelli, M.; Martinez Santos, D.; Martinez Vidal, F.; Martins Tostes, D.; Massacrier, L. M.; Massafferri, A.; Matev, R.; Mathad, A.; Mathe, Z.; Matteuzzi, C.; Mauri, A.; Maurin, B.; Mazurov, A.; McCann, M.; McCarthy, J.; McNab, A.; McNulty, R.; Meadows, B.; Meier, F.; Meissner, M.; Melnychuk, D.; Merk, M.; Michielin, E.; Milanes, D. A.; Minard, M.-N.; Mitzel, D. S.; Molina Rodriguez, J.; Monroy, I. A.; Monteil, S.; Morandin, M.; Morawski, P.; Mordà, A.; Morello, M. J.; Moron, J.; Morris, A. B.; Mountain, R.; Muheim, F.; Müller, D.; Müller, J.; Müller, K.; Müller, V.; Mussini, M.; Muster, B.; Naik, P.; Nakada, T.; Nandakumar, R.; Nandi, A.; Nasteva, I.; Needham, M.; Neri, N.; Neubert, S.; Neufeld, N.; Neuner, M.; Nguyen, A. D.; Nguyen, T. D.; Nguyen-Mau, C.; Niess, V.; Niet, R.; Nikitin, N.; Nikodem, T.; Novoselov, A.; O'Hanlon, D. P.; Oblakowska-Mucha, A.; Obraztsov, V.; Ogilvy, S.; Okhrimenko, O.; Oldeman, R.; Onderwater, C. J. G.; Osorio Rodrigues, B.; Otalora Goicochea, J. M.; Otto, A.; Owen, P.; Oyanguren, A.; Palano, A.; Palombo, F.; Palutan, M.; Panman, J.; Papanestis, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Pappalardo, L. L.; Pappenheimer, C.; Parker, W.; Parkes, C.; Passaleva, G.; Patel, G. D.; Patel, M.; Patrignani, C.; Pearce, A.; Pellegrino, A.; Penso, G.; Pepe Altarelli, M.; Perazzini, S.; Perret, P.; Pescatore, L.; Petridis, K.; Petrolini, A.; Petruzzo, M.; Picatoste Olloqui, E.; Pietrzyk, B.; Pikies, M.; Pinci, D.; Pistone, A.; Piucci, A.; Playfer, S.; Plo Casasus, M.; Poikela, T.; Polci, F.; Poluektov, A.; Polyakov, I.; Polycarpo, E.; Popov, A.; Popov, D.; Popovici, B.; Potterat, C.; Price, E.; Price, J. D.; Prisciandaro, J.; Pritchard, A.; Prouve, C.; Pugatch, V.; Puig Navarro, A.; Punzi, G.; Qian, W.; Quagliani, R.; Rachwal, B.; Rademacker, J. H.; Rama, M.; Ramos Pernas, M.; Rangel, M. S.; Raniuk, I.; Rauschmayr, N.; Raven, G.; Redi, F.; Reichert, S.; dos Reis, A. C.; Renaudin, V.; Ricciardi, S.; Richards, S.; Rihl, M.; Rinnert, K.; Rives Molina, V.; Robbe, P.; Rodrigues, A. B.; Rodrigues, E.; Rodriguez Lopez, J. A.; Rodriguez Perez, P.; Roiser, S.; Romanovsky, V.; Romero Vidal, A.; Ronayne, J. W.; Rotondo, M.; Ruf, T.; Ruiz Valls, P.; Saborido Silva, J. J.; Sagidova, N.; Saitta, B.; Salustino Guimaraes, V.; Sanchez Mayordomo, C.; Sanmartin Sedes, B.; Santacesaria, R.; Santamarina Rios, C.; Santimaria, M.; Santovetti, E.; Sarti, A.; Satriano, C.; Satta, A.; Saunders, D. M.; Savrina, D.; Schael, S.; Schiller, M.; Schindler, H.; Schlupp, M.; Schmelling, M.; Schmelzer, T.; Schmidt, B.; Schneider, O.; Schopper, A.; Schubiger, M.; Schune, M.-H.; Schwemmer, R.; Sciascia, B.; Sciubba, A.; Semennikov, A.; Sergi, A.; Serra, N.; Serrano, J.; Sestini, L.; Seyfert, P.; Shapkin, M.; Shapoval, I.; Shcheglov, Y.; Shears, T.; Shekhtman, L.; Shevchenko, V.; Shires, A.; Siddi, B. G.; Silva Coutinho, R.; Silva de Oliveira, L.; Simi, G.; Sirendi, M.; Skidmore, N.; Skwarnicki, T.; Smith, E.; Smith, E.; Smith, I. T.; Smith, J.; Smith, M.; Snoek, H.; Sokoloff, M. D.; Soler, F. J. P.; Soomro, F.; Souza, D.; Souza De Paula, B.; Spaan, B.; Spradlin, P.; Sridharan, S.; Stagni, F.; Stahl, M.; Stahl, S.; Stefkova, S.; Steinkamp, O.; Stenyakin, O.; Stevenson, S.; Stoica, S.; Stone, S.; Storaci, B.; Stracka, S.; Straticiuc, M.; Straumann, U.; Sun, L.; Sutcliffe, W.; Swientek, K.; Swientek, S.; Syropoulos, V.; Szczekowski, M.; Szumlak, T.; T'Jampens, S.; Tayduganov, A.; Tekampe, T.; Tellarini, G.; Teubert, F.; Thomas, C.; Thomas, E.; van Tilburg, J.; Tisserand, V.; Tobin, M.; Todd, J.; Tolk, S.; Tomassetti, L.; Tonelli, D.; Topp-Joergensen, S.; Torr, N.; Tournefier, E.; Tourneur, S.; Trabelsi, K.; Traill, M.; Tran, M. T.; Tresch, M.; Trisovic, A.; Tsaregorodtsev, A.; Tsopelas, P.; Tuning, N.; Ukleja, A.; Ustyuzhanin, A.; Uwer, U.; Vacca, C.; Vagnoni, V.; Valenti, G.; Vallier, A.; Vazquez Gomez, R.; Vazquez Regueiro, P.; Vázquez Sierra, C.; Vecchi, S.; van Veghel, M.; Velthuis, J. J.; Veltri, M.; Veneziano, G.; Vesterinen, M.; Viaud, B.; Vieira, D.; Vieites Diaz, M.; Vilasis-Cardona, X.; Volkov, V.; Vollhardt, A.; Voong, D.; Vorobyev, A.; Vorobyev, V.; Voß, C.; de Vries, J. A.; Waldi, R.; Wallace, C.; Wallace, R.; Walsh, J.; Wang, J.; Ward, D. R.; Watson, N. K.; Websdale, D.; Weiden, A.; Whitehead, M.; Wicht, J.; Wilkinson, G.; Wilkinson, M.; Williams, M.; Williams, M. P.; Williams, M.; Williams, T.; Wilson, F. F.; Wimberley, J.; Wishahi, J.; Wislicki, W.; Witek, M.; Wormser, G.; Wotton, S. A.; Wraight, K.; Wright, S.; Wyllie, K.; Xie, Y.; Xu, Z.; Yang, Z.; Yu, J.; Yuan, X.; Yushchenko, O.; Zangoli, M.; Zavertyaev, M.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, Y.; Zhelezov, A.; Zhokhov, A.; Zhong, L.; Zhukov, V.; Zucchelli, S.

    2016-02-01

    An angular analysis of the B 0 → K *0(→ K + π -) μ + μ - decay is presented. The dataset corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 3.0 fb-1 of pp collision data collected at the LHCb experiment. The complete angular information from the decay is used to determine CP-averaged observables and CP asymmetries, taking account of possible contamination from decays with the K + π - system in an S-wave configuration. The angular observables and their correlations are reported in bins of q 2, the invariant mass squared of the dimuon system. The observables are determined both from an unbinned maximum likelihood fit and by using the principal moments of the angular distribution. In addition, by fitting for q 2-dependent decay amplitudes in the region 1.1 < q 2 < 6.0 GeV2/ c 4, the zero-crossing points of several angular observables are computed. A global fit is performed to the complete set of CP-averaged observables obtained from the maximum likelihood fit. This fit indicates differences with predictions based on the Standard Model at the level of 3.4 standard deviations. These differences could be explained by contributions from physics beyond the Standard Model, or by an unexpectedly large hadronic effect that is not accounted for in the Standard Model predictions. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  12. Superadditive correlation.

    PubMed

    Giraud, B G; Heumann, J M; Lapedes, A S

    1999-05-01

    The fact that correlation does not imply causation is well known. Correlation between variables at two sites does not imply that the two sites directly interact, because, e.g., correlation between distant sites may be induced by chaining of correlation between a set of intervening, directly interacting sites. Such "noncausal correlation" is well understood in statistical physics: an example is long-range order in spin systems, where spins which have only short-range direct interactions, e.g., the Ising model, display correlation at a distance. It is less well recognized that such long-range "noncausal" correlations can in fact be stronger than the magnitude of any causal correlation induced by direct interactions. We call this phenomenon superadditive correlation (SAC). We demonstrate this counterintuitive phenomenon by explicit examples in (i) a model spin system and (ii) a model continuous variable system, where both models are such that two variables have multiple intervening pathways of indirect interaction. We apply the technique known as decimation to explain SAC as an additive, constructive interference phenomenon between the multiple pathways of indirect interaction. We also explain the effect using a definition of the collective mode describing the intervening spin variables. Finally, we show that the SAC effect is mirrored in information theory, and is true for mutual information measures in addition to correlation measures. Generic complex systems typically exhibit multiple pathways of indirect interaction, making SAC a potentially widespread phenomenon. This affects, e.g., attempts to deduce interactions by examination of correlations, as well as, e.g., hierarchical approximation methods for multivariate probability distributions, which introduce parameters based on successive orders of correlation. PMID:11969452

  13. Angular dependent light emission from planar waveguides

    SciTech Connect

    Peter, Jaison; Prabhu, Radhakrishna; Radhakrishnan, P.; Vallabhan, C. P. G.; Nampoori, V. P. N.; Kailasnath, M.

    2015-01-07

    We have investigated the angular dependence of amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) and laser emission from an asymmetric and free-standing polymer thin films doped with rhodamine 6G, which is transversely pumped by a pulsed Nd:YAG laser. A semi-leaky waveguide or quasi-waveguide structure has been developed by spin coating technique. In these waveguides, the light was confined by the film/air-film/glass substrate interfaces. At the film/substrate interface, a portion of light will reflect back into the film (guided mode) and the remaining refracted to the substrate resulting in cutoff modes. A blue-shift in ASE has been observed when the pump power was increased from 8 to 20 mW allowing a limited range of tuning of emission wavelength. To study the directionality of the ASE from the waveguide, we have measured the output intensity and FWHM of emission spectra as a function of viewing angle (θ) from the plane parallel to film. From the detailed examination of the output emission spectra, as +θ increases from 0° there has been an initial decrease in output intensity, but at a particular angle ≈10° an increase in output intensity was observed. This additional peak in output intensity as +θ is a clear indication of coexistence of the cutoff mode. We also present a compact solid-state laser based on leaky mode propagation from the dye-doped polymer free-standing film (∼50 μm thickness) waveguide. The partial reflections from the broad lateral surfaces of the free-standing films provided the optical feedback for the laser emission with high directionality. For a pump power of 22 mW, an intense line with FWHM <0.2 nm was observed at 578 nm.

  14. The link between the assembly of the inner dark matter halo and the angular momentum evolution of galaxies in the EAGLE simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zavala, Jesús; Frenk, Carlos S.; Bower, Richard; Schaye, Joop; Theuns, Tom; Crain, Robert A.; Trayford, James W.; Schaller, Matthieu; Furlong, Michelle

    2016-08-01

    We explore the co-evolution of the specific angular momentum of dark matter haloes and the cold baryons that comprise the galaxies within. We study over 2000 galaxies within the reference cosmological hydrodynamical simulation of the `Evolution and Assembly of GaLaxies and their Environments' (EAGLE) project. We employ a methodology within which the evolutionary history of a system is specified by the time-evolving properties of the Lagrangian particles that define it at z = 0. We find a strong correlation between the evolution of the specific angular momentum of today's stars (cold gas) and that of the inner (whole) dark matter halo they are associated with. This link is particularly strong for the stars formed before the epoch of maximum expansion and subsequent collapse of the central dark matter halo (turnaround). Spheroids are assembled primarily from stars formed prior to turnaround, and suffer a net loss of angular momentum associated with the strong merging activity during the assembly of the inner dark matter halo. Stellar discs retain their specific angular momentum since they are comprised of stars formed mainly after turnaround, from gas that mostly preserves the high specific angular momentum it acquired by tidal torques during the linear growth of the halo. Since the specific angular momentum loss of the stars is tied to the galaxy's morphology today, it may be possible to use our results to predict, statistically, the maximum loss of specific angular momentum of the inner part of a halo given the morphology of the galaxy it hosts.

  15. Angular magnetoresistance in semiconducting undoped amorphous carbon thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sagar, Rizwan Ur Rehman; Saleemi, Awais Siddique; Zhang, Xiaozhong

    2015-05-01

    Thin films of undoped amorphous carbon thin film were fabricated by using Chemical Vapor Deposition and their structure was investigated by using High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy and Raman Spectroscopy. Angular magnetoresistance (MR) has been observed for the first time in these undoped amorphous carbon thin films in temperature range of 2 ˜ 40 K. The maximum magnitude of angular MR was in the range of 9.5% ˜ 1.5% in 2 ˜ 40 K. The origin of this angular MR was also discussed.

  16. How orbital angular momentum affects beam shifts in optical reflection

    SciTech Connect

    Merano, M.; Hermosa, N.; Woerdman, J. P.; Aiello, A.

    2010-08-15

    It is well known that reflection of a Gaussian light beam (TEM{sub 00}) by a planar dielectric interface leads to four beam shifts when compared to the geometrical-optics prediction. These are the spatial Goos-Haenchen (GH) shift, the angular GH shift, the spatial Imbert-Fedorov (IF) shift, and the angular IF shift. We report here, theoretically and experimentally, that endowing the beam with orbital angular momentum leads to coupling of these four shifts; this is described by a 4x4 mixing matrix.

  17. Angular momentum evolution during star and planetary system formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, Claire L.; Greaves, Jane S.

    2014-01-01

    We focused on analysing the role played by protoplanetary disks in the evolution of angular momentum during star formation. If all the angular momentum contained within collapsing pre-stellar cores was conserved during their formation, proto-stars would reach rotation rates exceeding their break-up velocities before they reached the main sequence (Bodenheimer 1995). In order to avoid this occuring, methods by which proto-stars can lose angular momentum must exist. Angular momentum can be transferred from star to disk via stellar magnetic field lines through a process called magnetic braking (Camenzind 1990; Königl 1991). Alternatively, the stellar angular momentum can be lost from the star-disk system entirely via stellar- or disk-winds (e.g. Pelletier & Pudritz 1992; Matt & Pudritz 2005). The proportion of lost stellar angular momentum retained within the protoplanetary disk is important to studies of planetary system formation. If the bulk motion within the disk remains Keplerian, any increase of angular momentum in the disk causes an outward migration of disk material and an expansion of the disk. Therefore, an increase in disk angular momentum may cause a reduction in the disk surface density, often used to indicate the disk's ability to form planets. We made use of multi-wavelength data available in the literature to directly calculate the stellar and disk angular momenta for two nearby regions of star formation. Namely, these were the densely populated and highly irradiated Orion Nebula Cluster (ONC) and the comparitively sparse Taurus-Auriga region. Due to the limited size of the ONC dataset, we produced an average surface density profile for the region. We modelled the stars as solid body rotators due to their fully convective nature (Krishnamurthi et al. 1997) and assumed the disks are flat and undergo Keplerian rotation about the same rotation axis as the star. We observed the older disks within each of the two star forming regions to be preferentially

  18. Angular vibrations of cryogenically cooled double-crystal monochromators.

    PubMed

    Sergueev, I; Döhrmann, R; Horbach, J; Heuer, J

    2016-09-01

    The effect of angular vibrations of the crystals in cryogenically cooled monochromators on the beam performance has been studied theoretically and experimentally. A simple relation between amplitude of the vibrations and size of the focused beam is developed. It is shown that the double-crystal monochromator vibrations affect not only the image size but also the image position along the optical axis. Several methods to measure vibrations with the X-ray beam are explained and analyzed. The methods have been applied to systematically study angular crystal vibrations at monochromators installed at the PETRA III light source. Characteristic values of the amplitudes of angular vibrations for different monochromators are presented. PMID:27577762

  19. Electro-optic analyzer of angular momentum hyperentanglement.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ziwen; Chen, Lixiang

    2016-01-01

    Characterizing a high-dimensional entanglement is fundamental in quantum information applications. Here, we propose a theoretical scheme to analyze and characterize the angular momentum hyperentanglement that two photons are entangled simultaneously in spin and orbital angular momentum. Based on the electro-optic sampling with a proposed hyper-entanglement analyzer and the simple matrix operation using Cramer rule, our simulations show that it is possible to retrieve effectively both the information about the degree of polarization entanglement and the spiral spectrum of high-dimensional orbital angular momentum entanglement. PMID:26911530

  20. Angular magnetoresistance in semiconducting undoped amorphous carbon thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Sagar, Rizwan Ur Rehman; Saleemi, Awais Siddique; Zhang, Xiaozhong

    2015-05-07

    Thin films of undoped amorphous carbon thin film were fabricated by using Chemical Vapor Deposition and their structure was investigated by using High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy and Raman Spectroscopy. Angular magnetoresistance (MR) has been observed for the first time in these undoped amorphous carbon thin films in temperature range of 2 ∼ 40 K. The maximum magnitude of angular MR was in the range of 9.5% ∼ 1.5% in 2 ∼ 40 K. The origin of this angular MR was also discussed.

  1. Electro-optic analyzer of angular momentum hyperentanglement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Ziwen; Chen, Lixiang

    2016-02-01

    Characterizing a high-dimensional entanglement is fundamental in quantum information applications. Here, we propose a theoretical scheme to analyze and characterize the angular momentum hyperentanglement that two photons are entangled simultaneously in spin and orbital angular momentum. Based on the electro-optic sampling with a proposed hyper-entanglement analyzer and the simple matrix operation using Cramer rule, our simulations show that it is possible to retrieve effectively both the information about the degree of polarization entanglement and the spiral spectrum of high-dimensional orbital angular momentum entanglement.

  2. Detection of a spinning object using light's orbital angular momentum.

    PubMed

    Lavery, Martin P J; Speirits, Fiona C; Barnett, Stephen M; Padgett, Miles J

    2013-08-01

    The linear Doppler shift is widely used to infer the velocity of approaching objects, but this shift does not detect rotation. By analyzing the orbital angular momentum of the light scattered from a spinning object, we observed a frequency shift proportional to product of the rotation frequency of the object and the orbital angular momentum of the light. This rotational frequency shift was still present when the angular momentum vector was parallel to the observation direction. The multiplicative enhancement of the frequency shift may have applications for the remote detection of rotating bodies in both terrestrial and astronomical settings. PMID:23908234

  3. Electro-optic analyzer of angular momentum hyperentanglement

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Ziwen; Chen, Lixiang

    2016-01-01

    Characterizing a high-dimensional entanglement is fundamental in quantum information applications. Here, we propose a theoretical scheme to analyze and characterize the angular momentum hyperentanglement that two photons are entangled simultaneously in spin and orbital angular momentum. Based on the electro-optic sampling with a proposed hyper-entanglement analyzer and the simple matrix operation using Cramer rule, our simulations show that it is possible to retrieve effectively both the information about the degree of polarization entanglement and the spiral spectrum of high-dimensional orbital angular momentum entanglement. PMID:26911530

  4. Control of Angular Intervals for Angle-Multiplexed Holographic Memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinoshita, Nobuhiro; Muroi, Tetsuhiko; Ishii, Norihiko; Kamijo, Koji; Shimidzu, Naoki

    2009-03-01

    In angle-multiplexed holographic memory, the full width at half maximum of the Bragg selectivity curves is dependent on the angle formed between the medium and incident laser beams. This indicates the possibility of high density and high multiplexing number by varying the angular intervals between adjacent holograms. We propose an angular interval scheduling for closely stacking holograms into medium even when the angle range is limited. We obtained bit error rates of the order of 10-4 under the following conditions: medium thickness of 1 mm, laser beam wavelength of 532 nm, and angular multiplexing number of 300.

  5. Scanning Twyman interferometer for measuring small angular displacement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Jianguo; Tong, Yue

    2010-12-01

    We present a simple but effective method for measuring small angular displacement based on a scanning Twyman interferometer ,in which, one of the two mirrors is mounted on the piezoelectric ceramic (PZT) droved by saw-tooth voltage, the status of interference fringes changes from static to dynamic. A photoelectric detector detects this dynamic photo-signal and changes into electronic signal. The signal is inputted into an oscillograph. The oscillogram will present interference crests. The method for measuring small angular displacement is based on the linear relation between the angular displacement and the crest shift on the oscillogram.

  6. Scanning Twyman interferometer for measuring small angular displacement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Jianguo; Tong, Yue

    2011-05-01

    We present a simple but effective method for measuring small angular displacement based on a scanning Twyman interferometer ,in which, one of the two mirrors is mounted on the piezoelectric ceramic (PZT) droved by saw-tooth voltage, the status of interference fringes changes from static to dynamic. A photoelectric detector detects this dynamic photo-signal and changes into electronic signal. The signal is inputted into an oscillograph. The oscillogram will present interference crests. The method for measuring small angular displacement is based on the linear relation between the angular displacement and the crest shift on the oscillogram.

  7. Generation and detection of orbital angular momentum via metasurface.

    PubMed

    Jin, Jinjin; Luo, Jun; Zhang, Xiaohu; Gao, Hui; Li, Xiong; Pu, Mingbo; Gao, Ping; Zhao, Zeyu; Luo, Xiangang

    2016-01-01

    Beams carrying orbital angular momentum possess a significant potential for modern optical technologies ranging from classical and quantum communication to optical manipulation. In this paper, we theoretically design and experimentally demonstrate an ultracompact array of elliptical nanoholes, which could convert the circularly polarized light into the cross-polarized vortex beam. To measure the topological charges of orbital angular momentum in a simple manner, another elliptical nanoholes array is designed to generate reference beam as a reference light. This approach may provide a new way for the generation and detection of orbital angular momentum in a compact device. PMID:27052796

  8. Generation and detection of orbital angular momentum via metasurface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Jinjin; Luo, Jun; Zhang, Xiaohu; Gao, Hui; Li, Xiong; Pu, Mingbo; Gao, Ping; Zhao, Zeyu; Luo, Xiangang

    2016-04-01

    Beams carrying orbital angular momentum possess a significant potential for modern optical technologies ranging from classical and quantum communication to optical manipulation. In this paper, we theoretically design and experimentally demonstrate an ultracompact array of elliptical nanoholes, which could convert the circularly polarized light into the cross-polarized vortex beam. To measure the topological charges of orbital angular momentum in a simple manner, another elliptical nanoholes array is designed to generate reference beam as a reference light. This approach may provide a new way for the generation and detection of orbital angular momentum in a compact device.

  9. Turbulent equipartition and homogenization of plasma angular momentum.

    PubMed

    Gürcan, O D; Diamond, P H; Hahm, T S

    2008-04-01

    A physical model of turbulent equipartition (TEP) of plasma angular momentum is developed. We show that using a simple, model insensitive ansatz of conservation of total angular momentum, a TEP pinch of angular momentum can be obtained. We note that this term corresponds to a part of the pinch velocity previously calculated using quasilinear gyrokinetic theory. We observe that the nondiffusive TEP flux is inward, and therefore may explain the peakedness of the rotation profiles observed in certain experiments. Similar expressions for linear toroidal momentum and flow are computed and it is noted that there is an additional effect due the radial profile of moment of inertia density. PMID:18517961

  10. Angular resolution of air-shower array-telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linsley, J.

    1985-01-01

    A fundamental limit on the angular resolution of air shower array-telescopes is set by the finite number of shower particles coupled with the finite thickness of the particle swarm. Consequently the angular resolution which can be achieved in practice depends in a determinant manner on the size and number of detectors in an array-telescope, as well as on the detector separation and the timing resolution. It is also necessary to examine the meaning of particle density in whatever type of detector is used. Results are given which can be used to predict the angular resolution of a given instrument for showers of various sizes, and to compare different instruments.

  11. Indirect precise angular control using four-wave mixing

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Wei; Ding, Dong-Sheng; Shi, Bao-Sen Guo, Guang-Can; Jiang, Yun-Kun

    2014-04-28

    Here, we show indirect precise angular control using a four-wave mixing (FWM) process. This was performed with a superposition of light with orbital angular momentum in an M-Type configuration of a hot {sup 85}Rb atomic ensemble. A gear-shaped interference pattern is observed at FWM light with a donut-shaped input signal. The gear could be rotated and is controlled through the change of the polarization of the pump laser. Our experimental results that are based on nonlinear coherent interactions have applications in image processing and precise angular control.

  12. Generation and detection of orbital angular momentum via metasurface

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Jinjin; Luo, Jun; Zhang, Xiaohu; Gao, Hui; Li, Xiong; Pu, Mingbo; Gao, Ping; Zhao, Zeyu; Luo, Xiangang

    2016-01-01

    Beams carrying orbital angular momentum possess a significant potential for modern optical technologies ranging from classical and quantum communication to optical manipulation. In this paper, we theoretically design and experimentally demonstrate an ultracompact array of elliptical nanoholes, which could convert the circularly polarized light into the cross-polarized vortex beam. To measure the topological charges of orbital angular momentum in a simple manner, another elliptical nanoholes array is designed to generate reference beam as a reference light. This approach may provide a new way for the generation and detection of orbital angular momentum in a compact device. PMID:27052796

  13. Washington Correlator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, David M.; Boboltz, David

    2013-01-01

    This report summarizes the activities of the Washington Correlator for 2012. The Washington Correlator provides up to 80 hours of attended processing per week plus up to 40 hours of unattended operation, primarily supporting Earth Orientation and astrometric observations. In 2012, the major programs supported include the IVS-R4, IVS-INT, APSG, and CRF observing sessions.

  14. Correlation transfer: Development and application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dougherty, R. L.; Ackerson, B. J.; Reguigui, N. M.; Dorri-Nowkoorani, F.; Nobbmann, U.

    1994-12-01

    A correlation transfer equation for multiple scattering of light through suspensions of diffusing particles is derived from multiple scattering theory. Because of the formal similarity between the correlation equation and the radiative transfer equation, radiative transport solution techniques are applied to obtain solutions for the field correlation function in isotropic one-dimensional media. A three-term Legendre expansion for the angularly dependent single scattering function (g(sup 1)) in the correlation integral equation is used to obtain approximate numerical solutions for the correlation function. Graphical results are presented for the correlation in both the forward and backward directions for a finite medium and for backscattering in the case of an infinite medium. Experimental results are also presented and they show improved agreement with the three-term Legendre expansion of g(sup 1) as compared to the one or two-term expansions. Correlation transfer results are shown to agree well with both the diffusion limit and the single scattering limit predictions.

  15. A high precision instrument to measure angular and binocular deviation introduced by aircraft windscreens by using a shadow casting technique

    SciTech Connect

    Shivananju, B. N.; Yamdagni, S.; Vasu, R. M.; Asokan, S.

    2012-12-15

    Objects viewed through transparent sheets with residual non-parallelism and irregularity appear shifted and distorted. This distortion is measured in terms of angular and binocular deviation of an object viewed through the transparent sheet. The angular and binocular deviations introduced are particularly important in the context of aircraft windscreens and canopies as they can interfere with decision making of pilots especially while landing, leading to accidents. In this work, we have developed an instrument to measure both the angular and binocular deviations introduced by transparent sheets. This instrument is especially useful in the qualification of aircraft windscreens and canopies. It measures the deviation in the geometrical shadow cast by a periodic dot pattern trans-illuminated by the distorted light beam from the transparent test specimen compared to the reference pattern. Accurate quantification of the shift in the pattern is obtained by cross-correlating the reference shadow pattern with the specimen shadow pattern and measuring the location of the correlation peak. The developed instrument is handy to use and computes both angular and binocular deviation with an accuracy of less than {+-}0.1 mrad ( Almost-Equal-To 0.036 mrad) and has an excellent repeatability with an error of less than 2%.

  16. Capillary-scale direct measurement of hemoglobin concentration of erythrocytes using photothermal angular light scattering.

    PubMed

    Kim, Uihan; Song, Jaewoo; Lee, Donghak; Ryu, Suho; Kim, Soocheol; Hwang, Jaehyun; Joo, Chulmin

    2015-12-15

    We present a direct, rapid and chemical-free detection method for hemoglobin concentration ([Hb]), based on photothermal angular light scattering. The iron oxides contained in hemoglobin molecules exhibit high absorption of 532-nm light and generate heat under the illumination of 532-nm light, which subsequently alters the refractive index of blood. We measured this photothermal change in refractive index by employing angular light scattering spectroscopy with the goal of quantifying [Hb] in blood samples. Highly sensitive [Hb] measurement of blood samples was performed by monitoring the shifts in angularly dispersed scattering patterns from the blood-loaded microcapillary tubes. Our system measured [Hb] over the range of 0.35-17.9 g/dL with a detection limit of ~0.12 g/dL. Our sensor was characterized by excellent correlation with a reference hematology analyzer (r>0.96), and yielded a precision of 0.63 g/dL for a blood sample of 9.0 g/dL. PMID:26176206

  17. Virtual Lesion of Angular Gyrus Disrupts the Relationship between Visuoproprioceptive Weighting and Realignment

    PubMed Central

    Block, Hannah; Bastian, Amy; Celnik, Pablo

    2013-01-01

    Posterior parietal cortex is thought to be involved in multisensory processes such as sensory weighting (how much different modalities are represented in sensory integration) and realignment (recalibrating the estimates given by unisensory inputs relative to each other, e.g., when viewing the hand through prisms). Sensory weighting and realignment are biologically independent but can be correlated such that the lowest-weighted modality realigns most. This is important for movement precision because it results in the brain’s estimate of hand position favoring the more reliable (higher-weighted) modality. It is unknown if this interaction is an emergent property of separate neural pathways for weighting and realignment or if it is actively mediated by a common substrate. We applied disruptive TMS to the angular gyrus near the intraparietal sulcus (PGa) before participants performed a task with misaligned visual and proprioceptive information about hand position. Visuoproprioceptive weighting and realignment were unaffected. However, the relationship between weighting and realignment, found in control conditions, was absent after TMS in the angular gyrus location. This suggests that a specific region in the angular gyrus actively mediates the interaction between visuoproprioceptive weighting and realignment and may thus play a role in the decreased movement precision associated with posterior parietal lesions. PMID:23249345

  18. The SAMI Galaxy Survey: the link between angular momentum and optical morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cortese, L.; Fogarty, L. M. R.; Bekki, K.; van de Sande, J.; Couch, W.; Catinella, B.; Colless, M.; Obreschkow, D.; Taranu, D.; Tescari, E.; Barat, D.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Bloom, J.; Bryant, J. J.; Cluver, M.; Croom, S. M.; Drinkwater, M. J.; d'Eugenio, F.; Konstantopoulos, I. S.; Lopez-Sanchez, A.; Mahajan, S.; Scott, N.; Tonini, C.; Wong, O. I.; Allen, J. T.; Brough, S.; Goodwin, M.; Green, A. W.; Ho, I.-T.; Kelvin, L. S.; Lawrence, J. S.; Lorente, N. P. F.; Medling, A. M.; Owers, M. S.; Richards, S.; Sharp, R.; Sweet, S. M.

    2016-08-01

    We investigate the relationship between stellar and gas specific angular momentum j, stellar mass M★ and optical morphology for a sample of 488 galaxies extracted from the SAMI Galaxy Survey. We find that j, measured within one effective radius, monotonically increases with M★ and that, for M★ > 109.5 M⊙, the scatter in this relation strongly correlates with optical morphology (i.e., visual classification and Sérsic index). These findings confirm that massive galaxies of all types lie on a plane relating mass, angular momentum and stellar light distribution, and suggest that the large-scale morphology of a galaxy is regulated by its mass and dynamical state. We show that the significant scatter in the M★ - j relation is accounted for by the fact that, at fixed stellar mass, the contribution of ordered motions to the dynamical support of galaxies varies by at least a factor of three. Indeed, the stellar spin parameter (quantified via λR) correlates strongly with Sérsic and concentration indices. This correlation is particularly strong once slow-rotators are removed from the sample, showing that late-type galaxies and early-type fast rotators form a continuous class of objects in terms of their kinematic properties.

  19. Angular radiation models for Earth-atmosphere system. Volume 1: Shortwave radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suttles, J. T.; Green, R. N.; Minnis, P.; Smith, G. L.; Staylor, W. F.; Wielicki, B. A.; Walker, I. J.; Young, D. F.; Taylor, V. R.; Stowe, L. L.

    1988-01-01

    Presented are shortwave angular radiation models which are required for analysis of satellite measurements of Earth radiation, such as those fro the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE). The models consist of both bidirectional and directional parameters. The bidirectional parameters are anisotropic function, standard deviation of mean radiance, and shortwave-longwave radiance correlation coefficient. The directional parameters are mean albedo as a function of Sun zenith angle and mean albedo normalized to overhead Sun. Derivation of these models from the Nimbus 7 ERB (Earth Radiation Budget) and Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) data sets is described. Tabulated values and computer-generated plots are included for the bidirectional and directional modes.

  20. Time-division multiplexing of the orbital angular momentum of light.

    PubMed

    Karimi, Ebrahim; Marrucci, Lorenzo; de Lisio, Corrado; Santamato, Enrico

    2012-01-15

    We present an optical setup for generating a sequence of light pulses in which the orbital angular momentum (OAM) degree of freedom is correlated with the temporal one. The setup is based on a single q plate within a ring optical resonator. By this approach, we demonstrate the generation of a train of pulses carrying increasing values of OAM, or, alternatively, of a controlled temporal sequence of pulses having prescribed OAM superposition states. Finally, we exhibit an "OAM-to-time conversion" apparatus that divides different input OAM states into different time bins. The latter application provides a simple approach to digital spiral spectroscopy of pulsed light. PMID:22854442

  1. Modeling channel interference in an orbital angular momentum-multiplexed laser link

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anguita, Jaime A.; Neifeld, Mark A.; Vasic, Bane V.

    2009-08-01

    We study the effects of optical turbulence on the energy crosstalk among constituent orbital angular momentum (OAM) states in a vortex-based multi-channel laser communication link and determine channel interference in terms of turbulence strength and OAM state separation. We characterize the channel interference as a function of C2n and transmit OAM state, and propose probability models to predict the random fluctuations in the received signals for such architecture. Simulations indicate that turbulence-induced channel interference is mutually correlated across receive channels.

  2. Heralded phase-contrast imaging using an orbital angular momentum phase-filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aspden, Reuben S.; Morris, Peter A.; He, Ruiqing; Chen, Qian; Padgett, Miles J.

    2016-05-01

    We utilise the position and orbital angular momentum (OAM) correlations between the signal and idler photons generated in the down-conversion process to obtain ghost images of a phase object. By using an OAM phase filter, which is non-local with respect to the object, the images exhibit isotropic edge-enhancement. This imaging technique is the first demonstration of a full-field, phase-contrast imaging system with non-local edge enhancement, and enables imaging of phase objects using significantly fewer photons than standard phase-contrast imaging techniques.

  3. Many-Body Theory of Ultrafast Demagnetization and Angular Momentum Transfer in Ferromagnetic Transition Metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Töws, W.; Pastor, G. M.

    2015-11-01

    Exact calculated time evolutions in the framework of a many-electron model of itinerant magnetism provide new insights into the laser-induced ultrafast demagnetization observed in ferromagnetic (FM) transition metal thin films. The interplay between local spin-orbit interactions and interatomic hopping is shown to be at the origin of the observed postexcitation breakdown of FM correlations between highly stable local magnetic moments. The mechanism behind spin- and angular-momentum transfer is revealed from a microscopic perspective by rigorously complying with all fundamental conservation laws. An energy-resolved analysis of the time evolution shows that the efficiency of the demagnetization process reaches almost 100% in the excited states.

  4. Speckle reduction in optical coherence tomography by "path length encoded" angular compounding.

    PubMed

    Iftimia, N; Bouma, B E; Tearney, G J

    2003-04-01

    Speckle, the dominant factor reducing image quality in optical coherence tomography (OCT), limits the ability to identify cellular structures that are essential for diagnosis of a variety of diseases. We describe a new high-speed method for implementing angular compounding by path length encoding (ACPE) for reducing speckle in OCT images. By averaging images obtained at different incident angles, with each image encoded by path length, ACPE maintains high-speed image acquisition and requires minimal modifications to OCT probe optics. ACPE images obtained from tissue phantoms and human skin in vivo demonstrate a qualitative improvement over traditional OCT and an increased SNR that correlates well with theory. PMID:12683852

  5. Lateral Magnification-Angular Magnification Relationship for a Simple Magnifier.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keating, Michael P.

    1980-01-01

    Discusses the lateral magnification-angular magnification relationship in the case of a simple magnifying lens. This discussion intends to show how the relationship can be treated in undergraduate optics courses as well as in many general physics courses. (HM)

  6. Two-color ghost imaging with enhanced angular resolving power

    SciTech Connect

    Karmakar, Sanjit; Shih, Yanhua

    2010-03-15

    This article reports an experimental demonstration on nondegenerate, two-color, biphoton ghost imaging which reproduced a ghost image with enhanced angular resolving power by means of a greater field of view compared with that of classical imaging. With the same imaging magnification, the enhanced angular resolving power and field of view compared with those of classical imaging are 1.25:1 and 1.16:1, respectively. The enhancement of angular resolving power depends on the ratio between the idler and the signal photon frequencies, and the enhancement of the field of view depends mainly on the same ratio and also on the distances of the object plane and the imaging lens from the two-photon source. This article also reports the possibility of reproducing a ghost image with the enhancement of the angular resolving power by means of a greater imaging amplification compared with that of classical imaging.

  7. Demonstrating the Direction of Angular Velocity in Circular Motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demircioglu, Salih; Yurumezoglu, Kemal; Isik, Hakan

    2015-09-01

    Rotational motion is ubiquitous in nature, from astronomical systems to household devices in everyday life to elementary models of atoms. Unlike the tangential velocity vector that represents the instantaneous linear velocity (magnitude and direction), an angular velocity vector is conceptually more challenging for students to grasp. In physics classrooms, the direction of an angular velocity vector is taught by the right-hand rule, a mnemonic tool intended to aid memory. A setup constructed for instructional purposes may provide students with a more easily understood and concrete method to observe the direction of the angular velocity. This article attempts to demonstrate the angular velocity vector using the observable motion of a screw mounted to a remotely operated toy car.

  8. Angular Momentum Evolution of Young Solar-type Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amard, Louis; Palacios, Ana; Charbonnel, Corinne

    2016-01-01

    We present stellar evolution models of young solar-type stars including self consistent treatment of rotational mixing and extraction of angular momentum (AM) by magnetized wind including the most up-to-date physic of AM transport.

  9. Stellar diameters and temperatures. IV. Predicting stellar angular diameters

    SciTech Connect

    Boyajian, Tabetha S.; Van Belle, Gerard; Von Braun, Kaspar

    2014-03-01

    The number of stellar angular diameter measurements has greatly increased over the past few years due to innovations and developments in the field of long baseline optical interferometry. We use a collection of high-precision angular diameter measurements for nearby, main-sequence stars to develop empirical relations that allow the prediction of stellar angular sizes as a function of observed photometric color. These relations are presented for a combination of 48 broadband color indices. We empirically show for the first time a dependence on metallicity of these relations using Johnson (B – V) and Sloan (g – r) colors. Our relations are capable of predicting diameters with a random error of less than 5% and represent the most robust and empirical determinations of stellar angular sizes to date.

  10. INTERNAL GRAVITY WAVES IN MASSIVE STARS: ANGULAR MOMENTUM TRANSPORT

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, T. M.; Lin, D. N. C.; McElwaine, J. N.; Lau, H. H. B. E-mail: lin@ucolick.org E-mail: hblau@astro.uni-bonn.de

    2013-07-20

    We present numerical simulations of internal gravity waves (IGW) in a star with a convective core and extended radiative envelope. We report on amplitudes, spectra, dissipation, and consequent angular momentum transport by such waves. We find that these waves are generated efficiently and transport angular momentum on short timescales over large distances. We show that, as in Earth's atmosphere, IGW drive equatorial flows which change magnitude and direction on short timescales. These results have profound consequences for the observational inferences of massive stars, as well as their long term angular momentum evolution. We suggest IGW angular momentum transport may explain many observational mysteries, such as: the misalignment of hot Jupiters around hot stars, the Be class of stars, Ni enrichment anomalies in massive stars, and the non-synchronous orbits of interacting binaries.

  11. Grating angle magnification enhanced angular sensor and scanner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sun, Ke-Xun (Inventor); Byer, Robert L. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    An angular magnification effect of diffraction is exploited to provide improved sensing and scanning. This effect is most pronounced for a normal or near-normal incidence angle in combination with a grazing diffraction angle, so such configurations are preferred. Angular sensitivity can be further enhanced because the width of the diffracted beam can be substantially less than the width of the incident beam. Normal incidence configurations with two symmetric diffracted beams are preferred, since rotation and vertical displacement can be readily distinguished. Increased sensitivity to vertical displacement can be provided by incorporating an interferometer into the measurement system. Quad cell detectors can be employed to provide sensitivity to rotation about the grating surface normal. A 2-D grating can be employed to provide sensitivity to angular displacements in two different planes (e.g., pitch and yaw). Combined systems can provide sensitivity to vertical displacement and to all three angular degrees of freedom.

  12. Differential reflective fiber-optic angular displacement sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shan, Mingguang; Min, Rui; Zhong, Zhi; Wang, Ying; Zhang, Yabin

    2015-05-01

    Using the characteristic that the distance apart between the emitting fiber and receiving fiber only shifts the angular-power curve, a differential reflective fiber-optic sensor for angular displacement measurement is presented through subtraction of two power signals from two receiving fibers placed on both sides of one emitting fiber. A theoretical model is established to characterize the performance of the differential reflective fiber-optic angular displacement sensor. The measurements made indicate that the general behavior of the experimental results agrees with that of the theoretical results, and the sensor can improve sensitivity by about 120%, resulting in the significant improvement of anti-interference capability, which will be more suitable for high accuracy bipolar absolute angular displacement measurement. Design guidelines are also suggested to achieve desired sensor performances.

  13. Quantum optimal control of photoelectron spectra and angular distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goetz, R. Esteban; Karamatskou, Antonia; Santra, Robin; Koch, Christiane P.

    2016-01-01

    Photoelectron spectra and photoelectron angular distributions obtained in photoionization reveal important information on, e.g., charge transfer or hole coherence in the parent ion. Here we show that optimal control of the underlying quantum dynamics can be used to enhance desired features in the photoelectron spectra and angular distributions. To this end, we combine Krotov's method for optimal control theory with the time-dependent configuration interaction singles formalism and a splitting approach to calculate photoelectron spectra and angular distributions. The optimization target can account for specific desired properties in the photoelectron angular distribution alone, in the photoelectron spectrum, or in both. We demonstrate the method for hydrogen and then apply it to argon under strong XUV radiation, maximizing the difference of emission into the upper and lower hemispheres, in order to realize directed electron emission in the XUV regime.

  14. Comparison of Ramsauer and Optical Model Neutron Angular Distributions

    SciTech Connect

    McNabb, D P; Anderson, J D; Bauer, R W; Dietrich, F S; Grimes, S M; Hagmann, C A

    2004-04-20

    In a recent paper it has been shown that the nuclear Ramsauer model does not do well in representing details of the angular distribution of neutron elastic scattering for incident energies of less than 60 MeV for {sup 208}Pb. We show that the default angular bin dispersion most widely used in Monte Carlo transport codes is such that the observed differences in angular shapes are on too fine a scale to affect transport calculations. The effect of increasing the number of Monte Carlo angle bins is studied to determine the dispersion necessary for calculations to be sensitive to the observed discrepancies in angular distributions. We also show that transport calculations are sensitive to differences in the elastic scattering cross section given by recent fits of {sup 208}Pb data compared with older fits.

  15. Effect of angular momentum conservation on hydrodynamic simulations of colloids.

    PubMed

    Yang, Mingcheng; Theers, Mario; Hu, Jinglei; Gompper, Gerhard; Winkler, Roland G; Ripoll, Marisol

    2015-07-01

    In contrast to most real fluids, angular momentum is not a locally conserved quantity in some mesoscopic simulation methods. Here we quantify the importance of this conservation in the flow fields associated with different colloidal systems. The flow field is analytically calculated with and without angular momentum conservation for the multiparticle collision dynamics (MPC) method, and simulations are performed to verify the predictions. The flow field generated around a colloidal particle moving under an external force with slip boundary conditions depends on the conservation of angular momentum, and the amplitude of the friction force is substantially affected. Interestingly, no dependence on the angular momentum conservation is found for the flow fields generated around colloids under the influence of phoretic forces. Moreover, circular Couette flow between a no-slip and a slip cylinder is investigated, which allows us to validate one of the two existing expressions for the MPC stress tensor. PMID:26274301

  16. Design and Implementation of a Digital Angular Rate Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Li-Feng; Peng, Zhen; Zhang, Fu-Xue

    2010-01-01

    With the aim of detecting the attitude of a rotating carrier, the paper presents a novel, digital angular rate sensor. The sensor consists of micro-sensing elements (gyroscope and accelerometer), signal processing circuit and micro-processor (DSP2812). The sensor has the feature of detecting three angular rates of a rotating carrier at the same time. The key techniques of the sensor, including sensing construction, sensing principles, and signal processing circuit design are presented. The test results show that the sensor can sense rolling, pitch and yaw angular rate at the same time and the measurement error of yaw (or pitch) angular rate and rolling rate of the rotating carrier is less than 0.5%. PMID:22163427

  17. Fabrication of the planar angular rotator using the CMOS process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Ching-Liang; Chang, Chien-Liu; Chen, Hung-Lin; Chang, Pei-Zen

    2002-05-01

    In this investigation we propose a novel planar angular rotator fabricated by the conventional complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) process. Following the 0.6 μm single poly triple metal (SPTM) CMOS process, the device is completed by a simple maskless, post-process etching step. The rotor of the planar angular rotator rotates around its geometric center with electrostatic actuation. The proposed design adopts an intelligent mechanism including the slider-crank system to permit simultaneous motion. The CMOS planar angular rotator could be driven with driving voltages of around 40 V. The design proposed here has a shorter response time and longer life, without problems of friction and wear, compared to the more common planar angular micromotor.

  18. The angular momentum dependence of complex fragment emission

    SciTech Connect

    Sobtka, L.G.; Sarantites, D.G.; Li, Z.; Dines, E.L.; Halbert, M.L.; Hensley, D.C.; Schmitt, R.P.; Majka, Z.; Nebbia, G.; Griffin, H.C.

    1987-01-01

    Large fragment (A > 4) production at high angular momentum is studied via the reaction, 200 MeV /sup 45/Sc + /sup 65/Cu. Comparisons of the fragment yields from this reaction (high angular momentum) to those from /sup 93/Nb + Be (low angular momentum) are used to verify the strong angular momentum dependence of large fragment production predicted by equilibrium models. Details of the coincident ..gamma..-ray distributions not only confirm a rigidly rotating intermediate but also indicate that the widths of the primary L-wave distributions decrease with increasing symmetry in the decay channel. These data are used to test the asymmetry and L-wave dependence of emission barriers calculated from a rotating, finite range corrected, liquid drop model. 21 refs., 10 figs.

  19. Coherent angular momentum states for the two-dimensional oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bracken, A. J.; McAnally, D. S.; Ódúndún, O. A.

    1987-02-01

    Coherent angular momentum states are defined for the two-dimensional isotropic harmonic oscillator. They share many attractive properties with the familiar (Cartesian) coherent states, but are in general distinct from those states. The probabilities of obtaining particular values for the radial and angular momentum quantum numbers follow independent Poisson distributions in the new states, but not in the old. In a quasiclassical description of the oscillator, corresponding to a given classical trajectory, the uncertainty in the angular momentum of the system is smaller if the new states are used rather than the old. The new states are the natural analogs of the coherent angular momentum states introduced for the three-dimensional oscillator by Bracken and Leemon [A. J. Bracken and H. I. Leemon, J. Math. Phys. 22, 719 (1981)].

  20. Test-retest reliability of lower limb isokinetic endurance in COPD: A comparison of angular velocities

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, Fernanda; Lépine, Pierre-Alexis; Garceau-Bolduc, Corine; Coats, Valérie; Allard, Étienne; Maltais, François; Saey, Didier

    2015-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to determine and compare the test-retest reliability of quadriceps isokinetic endurance testing at two knee angular velocities in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Methods After one familiarization session, 14 patients with moderate to severe COPD (mean age 65±4 years; forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) 55%±18% predicted) performed two quadriceps isokinetic endurance tests on two separate occasions within a 5–7-day interval. Quadriceps isokinetic endurance tests consisted of 30 maximal knee extensions at angular velocities of 90° and 180° per second, performed in random order. Test-retest reliability was assessed for peak torque, muscle endurance, work slope, work fatigue index, and changes in FEV1 for dyspnea and leg fatigue from rest to the end of the test. The intraclass correlation coefficient, minimal detectable change, and limits of agreement were calculated. Results High test-retest reliability was identified for peak torque and muscle total work at both velocities. Work fatigue index was considered reliable at 90° per second but not at 180° per second. A lower reliability was identified for dyspnea and leg fatigue scores at both angular velocities. Conclusion Despite a limited sample size, our findings support the use of a 30-maximal repetition isokinetic muscle testing procedure at angular velocities of 90° and 180° per second in patients with moderate to severe COPD. Endurance measurement (total isokinetic work) at 90° per second was highly reliable, with a minimal detectable change at the 95% confidence level of 10%. Peak torque and fatigue index could also be assessed reliably at 90° per second. Evaluation of dyspnea and leg fatigue using the modified Borg scale of perceived exertion was poorly reliable and its clinical usefulness is questionable. These results should be useful in the design and interpretation of future interventions aimed at improving muscle

  1. Firing Properties of Rat Lateral Mammillary Single Units: Head Direction, Head Pitch, and Angular Head Velocity

    PubMed Central

    Stackman, Robert W.; Taube, Jeffrey S.

    2006-01-01

    Many neurons in the rat anterodorsal thalamus (ADN) and postsubiculum (PoS) fire selectively when the rat points its head in a specific direction in the horizontal plane, independent of the animal’s location and ongoing behavior. The lateral mammillary nuclei (LMN) are interconnected with both the ADN and PoS and, therefore, are in a pivotal position to influence ADN/PoS neurophysiology. To further understand how the head direction (HD) cell signal is generated, we recorded single neurons from the LMN of freely moving rats. The majority of cells discharged as a function of one of three types of spatial correlates: (1) directional heading, (2) head pitch, or (3) angular head velocity (AHV). LMN HD cells exhibited higher peak firing rates and greater range of directional firing than that of ADN and PoS HD cells. LMN HD cells were modulated by angular head velocity, turning direction, and anticipated the rat’s future HD by a greater amount of time (~95 msec) than that previously reported for ADN HD cells (~25 msec). Most head pitch cells discharged when the rostrocaudal axis of the rat’s head was orthogonal to the horizontal plane. Head pitch cell firing was independent of the rat’s location, directional heading, and its body orientation (i.e., the cell discharged whenever the rat pointed its head up, whether standing on all four limbs or rearing). AHV cells were categorized as fast or slow AHV cells depending on whether their firing rate increased or decreased in proportion to angular head velocity. These data demonstrate that LMN neurons code direction and angular motion of the head in both horizontal and vertical planes and support the hypothesis that the LMN play an important role in processing both egocentric and allocentric spatial information. PMID:9787007

  2. Toroidal angular momentum transport with non-axisymmetric magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seol, J.; Park, B. H.

    2016-05-01

    In this study, we calculate the radial transport of the toroidal angular momentum in the presence of non-axisymmetric magnetic fields. It is shown that the radial transport of the toroidal angular momentum, R 2 ∇ ζ . V , is proportional to the first order of gyro-radius. This implies that the neoclassical toroidal viscosity caused by asymmetric magnetic fields can change the toroidal rotation significantly.

  3. Effects of angular misalignment on optical klystron undulator radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, G.; Prakash, Bramh; Gehlot, Mona

    2015-11-01

    In this paper ,we analyze the important effects of optical klystron undulator radiation with an angular offset of the relativistic electron beam in the second undulator section. An anlytical expression for the undulator radiation is obtained through a transparent and simple procedure.It is shown that the effects of the angular offset is more severe for longer undulator lengths and with higher dispersive field strengths.Both these effects are less pronounced for undulators with large K values.

  4. Quark Orbital Angular Momentum and Exclusive Processes at HERMES

    SciTech Connect

    Ellinghaus, F.

    2006-11-17

    A first attempt for a model-dependent extraction of the orbital angular momentum of quarks in the nucleon has been made, based on HERMES data on exclusive processes and their description in terms of generalized parton distributions. An overview of the HERMES data on hard exclusive electroproduction of real photons (Deeply-Virtual Compton Scattering) and mesons is given, focusing on the measurements relevant to the extraction of quark orbital angular momentum.

  5. Alignment of angular velocity sensors for a vestibular prosthesis.

    PubMed

    Digiovanna, Jack; Carpaneto, Jacopo; Micera, Silvestro; Merfeld, Daniel M

    2012-01-01

    Vestibular prosthetics transmit angular velocities to the nervous system via electrical stimulation. Head-fixed gyroscopes measure angular motion, but the gyroscope coordinate system will not be coincident with the sensory organs the prosthetic replaces. Here we show a simple calibration method to align gyroscope measurements with the anatomical coordinate system. We benchmarked the method with simulated movements and obtain proof-of-concept with one healthy subject. The method was robust to misalignment, required little data, and minimal processing. PMID:22329908

  6. Alignment of angular velocity sensors for a vestibular prosthesis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Vestibular prosthetics transmit angular velocities to the nervous system via electrical stimulation. Head-fixed gyroscopes measure angular motion, but the gyroscope coordinate system will not be coincident with the sensory organs the prosthetic replaces. Here we show a simple calibration method to align gyroscope measurements with the anatomical coordinate system. We benchmarked the method with simulated movements and obtain proof-of-concept with one healthy subject. The method was robust to misalignment, required little data, and minimal processing. PMID:22329908

  7. Analysis of Flow Angularity Repeatability Tests in the NTF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hemsch, Michael J.

    2006-01-01

    An extensive data base of flow angularity repeatability measurements from four NTF check standard model tests is analyzed for statistical consistency and to characterize the results for prediction of angle-of-attack uncertainty for customer tests. A procedure for quality assurance for flow angularity measurements during customer tests is also presented. The efficacy of the procedure is tested using results from a customer test.

  8. Duality between spatial and angular shift in optical reflection

    SciTech Connect

    Aiello, A.; Merano, M.; Woerdman, J. P.

    2009-12-15

    We report a unified representation of the spatial and angular Goos-Haenchen and Imbert-Fedorov shifts that occur when a light beam reflects from a plane interface. We thus reveal the dual nature of spatial and angular shifts in optical beam reflection. In the Goos-Haenchen case we show theoretically and experimentally that this unification naturally arises in the context of reflection from a lossy surface (e.g., a metal).

  9. Angular Impulse and Balance Regulation During the Golf Swing.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Travis J; Wilcox, Rand R; McNitt-Gray, Jill L

    2016-08-01

    Our aim was to determine how skilled players regulate linear and angular impulse while maintaining balance during the golf swing. Eleven highly-skilled golf players performed swings with a 6-iron and driver. Components contributing to linear and angular impulse generated by the rear and target legs (resultant horizontal reaction force [RFh], RFh-angle, and moment arm) were quantified and compared across the group and within a player (α = .05). Net angular impulse generated by both the rear and target legs was greater for the driver than the 6-iron. Mechanisms used to regulate angular impulse generation between clubs varied across players and required coordination between the legs. Increases in net angular impulse with a driver involved increases in target leg RFh. Rear leg RFh-angle was maintained between clubs whereas target leg RFh became more aligned with the target line. Net linear impulse perpendicular to the target line remained near zero, preserving balance, while net linear impulse along the target line decreased in magnitude. These results indicate that the net angular impulse was regulated between clubs by coordinating force generation of the rear and target legs while sustaining balance throughout the task. PMID:26958870

  10. The Evolution of the Angular Momentum Distribution during Star Formation.

    PubMed

    Tomisaka

    2000-01-01

    If the angular momentum of the molecular cloud core were conserved during the star formation process, a newborn star would rotate much faster than its fission speed. This constitutes the angular momentum problem of newborn stars. In this Letter, the angular momentum transfer in the contraction of a rotating magnetized cloud is studied with axisymmetric MHD simulations. Because of the large dynamic range covered by the nested-grid method, the structure of the cloud in the range from 10 AU to 0.1 pc is explored. First, the cloud experiences a runaway collapse, and a disk forms perpendicularly to the magnetic field, in which the central density increases greatly in a finite timescale. In this phase, the specific angular momentum j of the disk decreases to about one-third of the initial cloud. After the central density of the disk exceeds approximately 1010 cm-3, the infall on to the central object develops. In this accretion stage, the rotation motion and thus the toroidal magnetic field drive the outflow. The angular momentum of the central object is transferred efficiently by the outflow as well as by the effect of the magnetic stress. In 7000 yr from the core formation, the specific angular momentum of the central 0.17 M middle dot in circle decreases a factor of 10-4 from the initial value (i.e., from 1020 to 1016 cm2 s-1). PMID:10587491

  11. Effects of angular confinement and concentration to realistic solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Höhn, O. Kraus, T.; Bläsi, B.; Schwarz, U. T.

    2015-01-21

    In standard solar cells, light impinges under a very small angular range, whereas the solar cell emits light into the whole half space. Due to this expansion of etendué, entropy is generated, which limits the maximal efficiency of solar cells. This limit can be overcome by either increasing the angle of incidence by concentration or by decreasing the angle of emission by an angularly confining element or by a combination of both. In an ideal solar cell with radiative recombination as the only loss mechanism, angular confinement and concentration are thermodynamically equivalent. It is shown that concentration in a device, where non-radiative losses such as Shockley-Read-Hall and Auger recombination are considered, is not equivalent to angular confinement. As soon as non-radiative losses are considered, the gain in efficiency due to angular confinement drops significantly in contrast to the gain caused by concentration. With the help of detailed balance calculations, it is furthermore shown that angular confinement can help to increase the efficiency of solar cells under concentrated sunlight even if no measurable gain is expected for the solar cell under 1-sun-illumination. Our analysis predicts a relative gain of 3.14% relative in efficiency for a realistic solar cell with a concentration factor of 500.

  12. Two methods for examining angular response of personnel dosimeters

    SciTech Connect

    Plato, P.; Leib, R.; Miklos, J.

    1988-06-01

    The American National Standard ANSI N13.11-1983 is used to test the accuracy (bias plus precision) of dosimetry processors as part of the dosimetry accreditation program of the National Voluntary Laboratory Accreditation Program (NVLAP). Section 3.8 of the ANSI N13.11-1983 standard requires that a study of the angular response of a dosimeter be carried out once, although no pass/fail criterion is given for angular response. The NVLAP accreditation program excluded Section 3.8, and thus no angular response data have been generated in an organized fashion. The objective of this project is to examine the feasibility of two alternative methods to test the angular response of personnel dosimeters. The first alternative involves static irradiations with the dosimeters at fixed angles to a radiation source. The second alternative involves dynamic irradiations with the dosimeters mounted on a rotating phantom. A Panasonic UD-802 personnel dosimetry system** was used to generate data to examine both alternatives. The results lead to two major conclusions. Firstly, Section 3.8 of the ANSI N13.11-1983 standard should be amended to require a pass/fail test for angular response. Secondly, a comparison between angular response data generated with a fixed or a rotating phantom shows that the rotating phantom is the more cost-effective method.

  13. Angular-velocity control approach for stance-control orthoses.

    PubMed

    Lemaire, Edward D; Goudreau, Louis; Yakimovich, Terris; Kofman, Jonathan

    2009-10-01

    Currently, stance-control knee orthoses require external control mechanisms to control knee flexion during stance and allow free knee motion during the swing phase of gait. A new angular-velocity control approach that uses a rotary-hydraulic device to resist knee flexion when the knee angular velocity passes a preset threshold is presented. This angular-velocity approach for orthotic stance control is based on the premise that knee-flexion angular velocity during a knee-collapse event, such as a stumble or fall, is greater than that during walking. The new hydraulic knee-flexion control device does not require an external control mechanism to switch from free motion to stance control mode. Functional test results demonstrated that the hydraulic angular-velocity activated knee joint provided free knee motion during walking, engaged upon knee collapse, and supported body weight while the end-user recovered to a safe body position. The joint was tested to 51.6 Nm in single loading tests and passed 200,000 repeated loading cycles with a peak load of 88 Nm per cycle. The hydraulic, angular velocity activation approach has potential to improve safety and security for people with lower extremity weakness or when recovering from joint trauma. PMID:19497821

  14. Generation of angular momentum in cold gravitational collapse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benhaiem, D.; Joyce, M.; Sylos Labini, F.; Worrakitpoonpon, T.

    2016-01-01

    During the violent relaxation of a self-gravitating system, a significant fraction of its mass may be ejected. If the time-varying gravitational field also breaks spherical symmetry, this mass can potentially carry angular momentum. Thus, starting initial configurations with zero angular momentum can, in principle, lead to a bound virialised system with non-zero angular momentum. Using numerical simulations we explore here how much angular momentum can be generated in a virialised structure in this way, starting from configurations of cold particles that are very close to spherically symmetric. For the initial configurations in which spherical symmetry is broken only by the Poissonian fluctuations associated with the finite particle number N, with N in range 103 to 105, we find that the relaxed structures have standard "spin" parameters λ ~ 10-3, and decreasing slowly with N. For slightly ellipsoidal initial conditions, in which the finite-N fluctuations break the residual reflection symmetries, we observe values λ ~ 10-2, i.e. of the same order of magnitude as those reported for elliptical galaxies. The net angular momentum vector is typically aligned close to normal to the major semi-axis of the triaxial relaxed structure and of the ejected mass. This simple mechanism may provide an alternative, or complement, to the so-called tidal torque theory for understanding the origin of angular momentum in astrophysical structures.

  15. REVIEW ARTICLE: Angular selective window coatings: theory and experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mbise, G. W.; LeBellac, D.; Niklasson, G. A.; Granqvist, C. G.

    1997-08-01

    This review is devoted to the angular selectivity that can be obtained in thin films prepared under conditions such that they contain inclined absorbing regions of sizes much smaller than the wavelength of visible light. The films are of considerable interest as window coatings for energy-conscious architecture and, potentially, in the automotive sector. The theoretical basis for modelling the optical properties is presented, comprising rigorous bounds on the dielectric function, effective medium theories pertinent to different microgeometries and equations for treating the optics of anisotropic thin films. Experimental data are reported for films made by oblique-angle evaporation of Cr and for reactive and non-reactive oblique-angle sputtering of Cr, Al, Ti and W. The highest angular selectivity was obtained with evaporated Cr, whereas the highest luminous transmittance, combined with some angular selectivity, was found with reactively sputtered Al. Films made from Ti showed angular selectivity mainly in the infrared, whereas films made from W could display angular selective electrochromism. Samples of several types were subjected to elaborate theoretical analysis using effective-medium theories and it was seen that theory and experiment could be reconciled using plausible parameters to specify the microstructures of the films. Thus it appears that the angular, spectral and polarization dependences of obliquely deposited films can be understood, at least approximately, in terms of conceptually simple theoretical models.

  16. Read-only high accuracy volume holographic optical correlator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Tian; Li, Jingming; Cao, Liangcai; He, Qingsheng; Jin, Guofan

    2011-10-01

    A read-only volume holographic correlator (VHC) is proposed. After the recording of all of the correlation database pages by angular multiplexing, a stand-alone read-only high accuracy VHC will be separated from the VHC recording facilities which include the high-power laser and the angular multiplexing system. The stand-alone VHC has its own low power readout laser and very compact and simple structure. Since there are two lasers that are employed for recording and readout, respectively, the optical alignment tolerance of the laser illumination on the SLM is very sensitive. The twodimensional angular tolerance is analyzed based on the theoretical model of the volume holographic correlator. The experimental demonstration of the proposed read-only VHC is introduced and discussed.

  17. Angular distribution in two-photon double ionization of helium by intense attosecond soft-x-ray pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barna, Imre F.; Wang, Jianyi; Burgdörfer, Joachim

    2006-02-01

    We investigate two-photon double ionization of helium by intense (≈1015W/cm2) ultrashort (≈300as) soft-x-ray pulses (E=91.6eV) . The time-dependent two-electron Schrödinger equation is solved using a coupled channel method. We show that for ultrashort pulses the angular distribution of ejected electrons depends on the pulse duration and provides insight into the role of electron correlations in the two-electron photoemission process. The angular distribution at energies near the “independent-electron” peaks is close to dipolar while it acquires in the “valley” of correlated emission a significant quadrupolar component within a few hundred attoseconds.

  18. Microneurographically recorded Ia discharge from the tibial nerve mainly transmits the angular velocity of the ankle joint in humans.

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, S; Iwase, S; Mano, T; Fukuda, H; Mochida, J

    2004-08-01

    Investigations of the Ia afferent discharge in clarifying problems in disused and malused skeletal muscles have been carried out mainly in muscles of the upper extremities. However, such problems actually occur more frequently in the antigravity muscles of the lower extremities, such as the triceps surae muscle. An analysis of microneurographically recorded Ia discharges from the tibial nerve innervating the triceps surae muscle during dynamic movement of the ankle joint indicated that they mainly transmitted information on the angular velocity of the joint. However, the information on the position sense of the joint was not as well transmitted through Ia discharges. There was no correlation between the joint angle and the static response. However, the dynamic response of a Ia afferent was well correlated to the angular velocity. It is concluded that the human proprioception of the triceps surae muscle was not dependent on the position of the ankle joint, but largely on its movement by the stretching of the muscle. PMID:15631694

  19. Probing the anisotropic behaviors of black phosphorus by transmission electron microscopy, angular-dependent Raman spectra, and electronic transport measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Wanglin; Ma, Xiaomeng; Fei, Zhen; Zhou, Jianguang; Zhang, Zhiyong; Jin, Chuanhong; Zhang, Ze

    2015-07-01

    In this study, we correlated the angular dependence of the Raman response of black phosphorus to its crystallographic orientation by using transmission electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. It was found that the intensity of the Ag 2 mode reached a maximum when the polarization direction of the incident light was parallel to the zigzag crystallographic orientation. Notably, it was further confirmed that the zigzag crystallographic direction exhibited superior conductance and carrier mobility. Because of the lattice extension along the armchair direction, an intensification of the anisotropic Raman response was observed. This work provides direct evidence of the correlation between anisotropic properties and crystallographic direction and represents a turning point in the discussion of the angular-dependent electronic properties of black phosphorus.

  20. The Angular Momentum of Baryons and Dark Matter Halos Revisited

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kimm, Taysun; Devriendt, Julien; Slyz, Adrianne; Pichon, Christophe; Kassin, Susan A.; Dubois, Yohan

    2011-01-01

    Recent theoretical studies have shown that galaxies at high redshift are fed by cold, dense gas filaments, suggesting angular momentum transport by gas differs from that by dark matter. Revisiting this issue using high-resolution cosmological hydrodynamics simulations with adaptive-mesh refinement (AMR), we find that at the time of accretion, gas and dark matter do carry a similar amount of specific angular momentum, but that it is systematically higher than that of the dark matter halo as a whole. At high redshift, freshly accreted gas rapidly streams into the central region of the halo, directly depositing this large amount of angular momentum within a sphere of radius r = 0.1R(sub vir). In contrast, dark matter particles pass through the central region unscathed, and a fraction of them ends up populating the outer regions of the halo (r/R(sub vir) > 0.1), redistributing angular momentum in the process. As a result, large-scale motions of the cosmic web have to be considered as the origin of gas angular momentum rather than its virialised dark matter halo host. This generic result holds for halos of all masses at all redshifts, as radiative cooling ensures that a significant fraction of baryons remain trapped at the centre of the halos. Despite this injection of angular momentum enriched gas, we predict an amount for stellar discs which is in fair agreement with observations at z=0. This arises because the total specific angular momentum of the baryons (gas and stars) remains close to that of dark matter halos. Indeed, our simulations indicate that any differential loss of angular momentum amplitude between the two components is minor even though dark matter halos continuously lose between half and two-thirds of their specific angular momentum modulus as they evolve. In light of our results, a substantial revision of the standard theory of disc formation seems to be required. We propose a new scenario where gas efficiently carries the angular momentum generated

  1. Correlation effects in elastic e-N2 scattering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huo, Winifred M.; Lima, Marco A. P.; Gibson, Thomas L.; Mckoy, Vincent

    1987-01-01

    The Schwinger multichannel formulation has been applied to study the role of electron correlation in low-energy e-N2 scattering. For the five nonresonant partial-wave channels studied here, angular correlation is found to be much more important than radial correlation. The calculated total and differential cross sections agree well with experiment except for the differential cross sections at 1.5 eV.

  2. athena: Tree code for second-order correlation functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilbinger, Martin; Bonnett, Christopher; Coupon, Jean

    2014-02-01

    athena is a 2d-tree code that estimates second-order correlation functions from input galaxy catalogues. These include shear-shear correlations (cosmic shear), position-shear (galaxy-galaxy lensing) and position-position (spatial angular correlation). Written in C, it includes a power-spectrum estimator implemented in Python; this script also calculates the aperture-mass dispersion. A test data set is available.

  3. Angular correlation measurements for 4-{alpha} decaying states in {sup 16}O

    SciTech Connect

    Wuosmaa, A.H.; Back, B.B.; Betts, R.R.

    1995-08-01

    Previous measurements of the {sup 12}C({sup 12}C,{sup 8}Be){sup 16}O{sup *}(4 {alpha}) reaction identified discrete levels in {sup 16}O which decay by breakup into 4 {alpha} particles through a number of different decay sequences, including {sup 16}O{sup *} {yields} {sup 8}Be + {sup 8}Be and {alpha} + {sup 12}C (O{sub 2}{sup +}). These states are observed in a range of excitation energies where resonances are observed in inelastic {alpha} + {sup 12}C scattering leading to the {sup 8}Be + {sup 8}Be and {alpha} + {sup 12}C final states. These resonances were associated with 4 {alpha}-particle chain configurations in {sup 16}O. Should the states populated in the {sup 12}C + {sup 12}C reaction possess this same extended structure, it would serve as an important piece of evidence supporting the idea that even more deformed structures are formed in the {sup 24}Mg compound system. In order to more firmly make this association, it is important to determine the spins of the states populated in the {sup 12}C + {sup 12}C reaction.

  4. Smoothed dissipative particle dynamics with angular momentum conservation

    SciTech Connect

    Müller, Kathrin Fedosov, Dmitry A. Gompper, Gerhard

    2015-01-15

    Smoothed dissipative particle dynamics (SDPD) combines two popular mesoscopic techniques, the smoothed particle hydrodynamics and dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) methods, and can be considered as an improved dissipative particle dynamics approach. Despite several advantages of the SDPD method over the conventional DPD model, the original formulation of SDPD by Español and Revenga (2003) [9], lacks angular momentum conservation, leading to unphysical results for problems where the conservation of angular momentum is essential. To overcome this limitation, we extend the SDPD method by introducing a particle spin variable such that local and global angular momentum conservation is restored. The new SDPD formulation (SDPD+a) is directly derived from the Navier–Stokes equation for fluids with spin, while thermal fluctuations are incorporated similarly to the DPD method. We test the new SDPD method and demonstrate that it properly reproduces fluid transport coefficients. Also, SDPD with angular momentum conservation is validated using two problems: (i) the Taylor–Couette flow with two immiscible fluids and (ii) a tank-treading vesicle in shear flow with a viscosity contrast between inner and outer fluids. For both problems, the new SDPD method leads to simulation predictions in agreement with the corresponding analytical theories, while the original SDPD method fails to capture properly physical characteristics of the systems due to violation of angular momentum conservation. In conclusion, the extended SDPD method with angular momentum conservation provides a new approach to tackle fluid problems such as multiphase flows and vesicle/cell suspensions, where the conservation of angular momentum is essential.

  5. Smoothed dissipative particle dynamics with angular momentum conservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Kathrin; Fedosov, Dmitry A.; Gompper, Gerhard

    2015-01-01

    Smoothed dissipative particle dynamics (SDPD) combines two popular mesoscopic techniques, the smoothed particle hydrodynamics and dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) methods, and can be considered as an improved dissipative particle dynamics approach. Despite several advantages of the SDPD method over the conventional DPD model, the original formulation of SDPD by Español and Revenga (2003) [9], lacks angular momentum conservation, leading to unphysical results for problems where the conservation of angular momentum is essential. To overcome this limitation, we extend the SDPD method by introducing a particle spin variable such that local and global angular momentum conservation is restored. The new SDPD formulation (SDPD+a) is directly derived from the Navier-Stokes equation for fluids with spin, while thermal fluctuations are incorporated similarly to the DPD method. We test the new SDPD method and demonstrate that it properly reproduces fluid transport coefficients. Also, SDPD with angular momentum conservation is validated using two problems: (i) the Taylor-Couette flow with two immiscible fluids and (ii) a tank-treading vesicle in shear flow with a viscosity contrast between inner and outer fluids. For both problems, the new SDPD method leads to simulation predictions in agreement with the corresponding analytical theories, while the original SDPD method fails to capture properly physical characteristics of the systems due to violation of angular momentum conservation. In conclusion, the extended SDPD method with angular momentum conservation provides a new approach to tackle fluid problems such as multiphase flows and vesicle/cell suspensions, where the conservation of angular momentum is essential.

  6. Measurement of angular velocity in the perception of rotation.

    PubMed

    Barraza, José F; Grzywacz, Norberto M

    2002-09-01

    Humans are sensitive to the parameters of translational motion, namely, direction and speed. At the same time, people have special mechanisms to deal with more complex motions, such as rotations and expansions. One wonders whether people may also be sensitive to the parameters of these complex motions. Here, we report on a series of experiments that explore whether human subjects can use angular velocity to evaluate how fast a rotational motion is. In four experiments, subjects were required to perform a task of speed-of-rotation discrimination by comparing two annuli of different radii in a temporal 2AFC paradigm. Results showed that humans could rely on a sensitive measurement of angular velocity to perform this discrimination task. This was especially true when the quality of the rotational signal was high (given by the number of dots composing the annulus). When the signal quality decreased, a bias towards linear velocity of 5-80% appeared, suggesting the existence of separate mechanisms for angular and linear velocity. This bias was independent from the reference radius. Finally, we asked whether the measurement of angular velocity required a rigid rotation, that is, whether the visual system makes only one global estimate of angular velocity. For this purpose, a random-dot disk was built such that all the dots were rotating with the same tangential speed, irrespectively of radius. Results showed that subjects do not estimate a unique global angular velocity, but that they perceive a non-rigid disk, with angular velocity falling inversely proportionally with radius. PMID:12367744

  7. The angular and energy distribution of the primary electron beam.

    PubMed

    Keall, P J; Hoban, P W

    1994-09-01

    The angular distribution for electron beams produced by the Siemens KD-2 linear accelerator has been found by simulating electron transport through the scattering foils and air using two methods: Fermi-Eyges multiple Coulomb scattering calculations, and EGS4 Monte Carlo simulations. Fermi-Eyges theory gives solutions where both the angular and spatial fluence distributions are Gaussian, with the angular standard deviation being invariant with off-axis distance. The EGS4 results show slightly non-Gaussian angular and lateral distributions as a result of the use of Moliére theory rather than Fermi-Eyges multiple scattering theory, as well as the simulation of discrete bremsstrahlung and Møller interactions. However, the results from both methods are very similar. The angular standard deviations obtained by these methods agree very closely with those found experimentally. The similar shape of the Monte Carlo and Fermi-Eyges results indicate that a Gaussian approximation to the incident angular distribution will be adequate for use in treatment planning algorithms. Furthermore, the angular standard deviation may be determined using Fermi-Eyges theory as an alternative to experimental methods. Both Monte Carlo simulations, and Fermi-Eyges theory predict that the mean electron angle is proportional to off axis distance for all useful field sizes. For a 15 MeV electron beam, an effective source position of 99 cm and 98 cm from the nominal 100 SSD plane was obtained from Fermi-Eyges and Monte Carlo results respectively for a 15 MeV beam. The effective source position found experimentally for this energy was 98 cm.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7980200

  8. Scalar and tensor spherical harmonics expansion of the velocity correlation in homogeneous anisotropic turbulence

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Rubinstein, Robert; Kurien, Susan; Cambon, Claude

    2015-06-22

    The representation theory of the rotation group is applied to construct a series expansion of the correlation tensor in homogeneous anisotropic turbulence. The resolution of angular dependence is the main analytical difficulty posed by anisotropic turbulence; representation theory parametrises this dependence by a tensor analogue of the standard spherical harmonics expansion of a scalar. As a result, the series expansion is formulated in terms of explicitly constructed tensor bases with scalar coefficients determined by angular moments of the correlation tensor.

  9. Fission decay of N=Z nuclei at high angular momentum: {sup 60}Zn

    SciTech Connect

    Oertzen, W. von; Zherebchevsky, V.; Gebauer, B.; Schulz, Ch.; Thummerer, S.; Wilpert, Th.; Kamanin, D.; Royer, G.

    2008-10-15

    Using a unique two-arm detector system for heavy ions (the BRS, binary reaction spectrometer), coincident fission events have been measured from the decay of {sup 60}Zn compound nuclei formed at 88 MeV excitation energy in the reactions with {sup 36}Ar beams on a {sup 24}Mg target at E{sub lab}({sup 36}Ar)=195 MeV. The detectors consisted of two large-area position-sensitive (x,y) gas telescopes with Bragg-ionization chambers. From the binary coincidences in the two detectors, inclusive and exclusive cross sections for fission channels with differing losses of charge were obtained. Narrow out-of-plane correlations corresponding to coplanar decay are observed for two fragments emitted in binary events, and in the data for ternary decay with missing charges from 4 up to 8. After subtraction of broad components, these narrow correlations are interpreted as a ternary fission process at high angular momentum through an elongated shape. The lighter mass in the neck region consists dominantly of two or three {alpha} particles. Differential cross sections for the different mass splits for binary and ternary fission are presented. The relative yields of the binary and ternary events are explained using the statistical model based on the extended Hauser-Feshbach formalism for compound nucleus decay. The ternary fission process can be described by the decay of hyper-deformed states with angular momenta around 4552({Dirac_h}/2{pi})

  10. [Metric and angular variables of the mandibular ramus on panoramic radiographs, as indicators for chronologic age].

    PubMed

    Espina-Fereira, Angela; Ortega, Ana Isabel; Barrios, Fernando Alonso; Maldonado, Yadelsy Jackelina; Fereira, José Luis

    2007-12-01

    This paper had as goals to identify the presence of age indicators in the mandibular ramus and to study their applicability in estimating the chronological age of children between the ages of 6 and 12 years. For this, a sample of 128 individuals (70 males and 58 females) was selected, all without chronic or acute sicknesses. An evaluation was made of the metric and angular variables of the mandibular ramus on panoramic radiographs of the oral cavity. The Greulich-Pyle method was applied to estimate the skeletal age, and the Demirjian et al. method was applied to estimate the dental age. A positive correlation, statistically significant, could be observed between the metric variables studied and the chronological age; nevertheless, the angular variables did not show correlation with the chronological age. Regression models were built using metric variables of the mandibular ramus in order to estimate the age, which made a significant contribution to the calculation of the age. A consistent subestimation of the skeletal age and an overestimation of the dental age were found in both sexes. It was evident that a combination of the dental age, the skeletal age and the metric variables obtained in the mandibular ramus, increases the precision for calculating the chronological age, when compared to separate-made estimations of the dental and skeletal age. The proposed regression models can be used for estimating the age of cadavers in advanced states of decomposition and in living individuals without valid identification documents. PMID:18271388

  11. Evolution of particle angularity in natural and laboratory debris flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mclaughlin, M. K.; Arabnia, O.; Sklar, L. S.

    2014-12-01

    The sizes of particles entrained in debris flows influence flow dynamics, affecting erosive power and runout distance. Particle size distributions evolve due to wear by abrasion and fracturing, and by gains or losses of sediment mass during transport. To tease apart these factors, we need a better understanding of the controls on rates and patterns of particle wear in debris flows. Here we focus on changes in particle angularity with travel distance, combining laboratory experiments with field study of a rocky debris flow at Inyo Creek, Sierra Nevada California. Angularity can indicate proximity to sediment source, assuming abrasion leads to progressive smoothing of particle surfaces. However, particle fracture can create fresh angular surfaces, confounding estimates of travel distance from angularity. This study is a component of an ongoing set of experiments using a 4 m diameter rotating drum to create near-prototype-scale debris flows. We load the drum with 1.7 Mg of highly angular granodiorite clasts, with median b-axis diameter of 100 mm. The 0.75 m deep, shearing mass flows at 1 m/s. After each 250 m travel distance, we measure mass and length of principal axes for every particle >19 mm, and sieve all smaller particles, to track evolution of the size distribution. We document the angularity of subsamples of selected particle sizes, using several techniques, including analysis of 2D photographs, 3D laser scans, and hand-placed equilibrium points. We use the same techniques in analyzing particles collected in the field study of the downstream evolution of rock clasts along a 1 km length of Inyo Creek. In this catchment, underlain by granodiorite, sediment transport is dominated by debris flows, which leave deposits on the bed and channel margins at slopes >20%. Preliminary laboratory results show rapid smoothing of large particle surfaces combined with creation of smaller angular particles by fracture. In contrast, downstream evolution of angularity in the

  12. On the angular dependence and scattering model of polar mesospheric summer echoes at VHF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sommer, Svenja; Stober, Gunter; Chau, Jorge L.

    2016-01-01

    We present measurements of the angular dependence of polar mesospheric summer echoes (PMSE) with the Middle Atmosphere Alomar Radar System in Northern Norway (69.30° N, 16.04° E). Our results are based on multireceiver and multibeam observations using beam pointing directions with off-zenith angles up to 25° as well as on spatial correlation analysis (SCA) from vertical beam observations. We consider a beam filling effect at the upper and lower boundaries of PMSE in tilted beams, which determines the effective mean angle of arrival. Comparing the average power of the vertical beam to the oblique beams suggests that PMSE are mainly not as aspect sensitive as in contrast to previous studies. However, from SCA, times of enhanced correlation are found, indicating aspect sensitivity or a localized scattering mechanism. Our results suggest that PMSE consist of nonhomogeneous isotropic scattering and previously reported aspect sensitivity values might have been influenced by the inhomogeneous nature of PMSE.

  13. Joint mean angle of arrival, angular and Doppler spreads estimation in macrocell environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rejeb, Nessrine Ben; Bousnina, Inès; Ben Salah, Mohamed Bassem; Samet, Abdelaziz

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, we propose a new low-complexity joint estimator of the mean angle of arrival (AoA), the angular spread (AS), and the maximum Doppler spread (DS) for single-input multiple-output (SIMO) wireless channel configurations in a macrocell environment. The non-line-of-sight (NLOS) case is considered. The space-time correlation matrix is used to jointly estimate the three parameters. Closed-form expressions are developed for the desired parameters using the modules and the phases of the cross-correlation coefficients. Simulation results show that our approach offers a better tradeoff between computational complexity and accuracy than the most recent estimators in the literature.

  14. Energy and daylight performance of angular selective glazings

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, R.; Beltran,; Lee, E.S.; Rubin, M.; Selkowitz, S.E.

    1998-11-01

    This paper presents the results of a study investigating the energy and daylight performance of anisotropic angular selective glazings. The DOE-2.1E energy simulation program was used to determine the annual cooling, lighting and total electricity use, and peak electric demand. RADIANCE, a lighting simulation program, was used to determine daylight illuminance levels and distribution. We simulated a prototypical commercial office building module located in Blythe, California. We chose three hypothetical conventional windows for comparison: a single-pane tinted window, a double-pane low-E window, and a double-pane spectrally selective window. Daylighting controls were used. No interior shades were modeled in order to isolate the energy effects of the angular selective glazing. Our results show that the energy performance of the prototype angular selective windows is about the same as conventional windows for a 9.14 m (30 ft) deep south-facing perimeter zone with a large-area window in the hot, sunny climate of Blythe. It is theoretically possible to tune the angular selectivity of the glazing to achieve annual cooling energy reductions of 18%, total electricity use reductions of 15%, and peak electric demand reductions of 11% when compared to a conventional glazing with the same solar-optical properties at normal incidence. Angular selective glazings can provide more uniformly distributed daylight, particularly in the area next to the window, which will result in a more visually comfortable work environment.

  15. Optical orbital angular momentum for optical communication and its measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ke, Xi-zheng; Lv, Hong; Wu, Jing-zhi; Hu, Shu-qiao

    2009-07-01

    The beam with orbital angular momentum is a present domestic and foreign research key direction. Its application and development will bring the profound influence in the optical communications field. At the same time, light's orbital angular momentum promises potential applications in both classical and quantum optical communication. The research progress of the beam with orbital angular momentum and encoding information as light's OAM for free-space optical communication were reviewed in this article, the existing design method, mechanism and description methods of encoding information as light's OAM were discussed. In quantum communication, qudits can be encoded in photons using their OAM for creating high-dimensional entanglement based on entangled photon pairs from SPDC. In this paper, light's OAM is used as information carrier for classical and quantum communication, which is promising to ensures the security of atmospheric laser communication, improves the density and precision of information transmission. It is apparent that an efficient way to measure the orbital angular momentum of individual photons and light beams with good efficiency would be of potentially great importance for optical communications and quantum information. In view of the above, the measurements of orbital angular momentum of individual photons and light beams are analyzed and discussed in detail.

  16. Comparison of Ramsauer and Optical Model Neutron Angular Distributions

    SciTech Connect

    McNabb, D P; Anderson, J D; Bauer, R W; Dietrich, F S; Grimes, S M; Hagmann, C A

    2004-09-30

    The nuclear Ramsauer model is a semi-classical, analytic approximation to nucleon-nucleus scattering that reproduces total cross section data at the 1% level for A > 40, E{sub n} = 5-60 MeV with 7-10 parameters. A quick overview of the model is given, demonstrating the model's utility in nuclear data evaluation. The Ramsauer model predictions for reaction cross section, elastic cross section, and elastic scattering angular distributions are considered. In a recent paper it has been shown that the nuclear Ramsauer model does not do well in predicting details of the angular distribution of neutron elastic scattering for incident energies of less than 60 MeV for {sup 208}Pb. However, in this contribution it is demonstrated that the default angular bin dispersion most widely used in Monte Carlo transport codes is such that the observed differences in angular shapes are on too fine a scale to affect transport calculations. Simple studies indicate that 512-2048 bins are necessary to achieve the dispersion required for calculations to be sensitive to the observed discrepancies in angular distributions.

  17. Comparison of Ramsauer and Optical Model Neutron Angular Distributions

    SciTech Connect

    McNabb, D.P.; Anderson, J.D.; Bauer, R.W.; Dietrich, F.S.; Hagmann, C.A.; Grimes, S.M.

    2005-05-24

    The nuclear Ramsauer model is a semi-classical, analytic approximation to nucleon-nucleus scattering that reproduces total cross-section data at the 1% level for A > 40, En = 5-60 MeV with 7-10 parameters. A quick overview of the model is given, demonstrating the model's utility in nuclear data evaluation. The Ramsauer model predictions for reaction cross section, elastic cross section, and elastic scattering angular distributions are considered. In a recent paper it has been shown that the nuclear Ramsauer model does not do well in predicting details of the angular distribution of neutron elastic scattering for incident energies of less than 60 MeV for 208Pb. However, in this contribution it is demonstrated that the default angular bin dispersion most widely used in Monte Carlo transport codes is such that the observed differences in angular shapes are on too fine a scale to affect transport calculations. Simple studies indicate that 512-2048 bins are necessary to achieve the dispersion required for calculations to be sensitive to the observed discrepancies in angular distributions.

  18. Estimates of mass and angular momentum in the oort cloud.

    PubMed

    Marochnik, L S; Mukhin, L M; Sagdeev, R Z

    1988-10-28

    Estimates can be made of unseen mass (in the form of cometary nuclei) at the heliocentric distances between 3 x 10(3) and 2 x 10(4) astronomical units(AU) under the assumptions (i) that the Oort cloud is a rarefied halo surrounding the core (dense, inner cometary cloud) and (ii) that the mass and albedo of comet Halley is typical for comets both in the core and the Oort cloud populations. The mass appears to be approximately 0.03 solar masses, with angular momentum of the order of 10(52) to 10(53) g-cm(2)/s. This mass is of the order of the total mass of the planetary system before the loss of volatiles. This leads to an estimate of a mass M(o) approximately 100 M( plus sign in circle) (where M( plus sign in circle) is the mass of Earth) concentrated in the Oort cloud (r > 2 x 10(4) AU) with an angular momentum that may exceed the present angular momentum of the whole planetary system by one order of magnitude. The present angular momentum of the Oort cloud appears to be of the same order as the total angular momentum of the planetary system before the loss of volatiles. PMID:17815893

  19. Astrophysical applications of high angular resolution array-telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linsley, J.

    1985-01-01

    The air shower array-telescopes which are currently being used to search for and study point sources of UHE gamma-rays have angular resolution similar to 1 deg, limited by either the small total area of particle detectors or poor timing resolution. As the signal to noise ratio depends sensitively on the angular resolution, it seems certain that this figure will quickly be surpassed when second generation instruments come into operation. Since the trajectories of galactic cosmic rays with E 100,000 GeV are practically straight lines on scales of 1 A.U. or less, these new instruments will be able to observe a shadow cast by the Moon (angular diameter 0.5 deg). Although the angular diameter of the Sun is practically the same, its shadow will be more complex because of its magnetic field. Thus, high angular resolution observations of the Sun afford a means of investigating the solar magnetic field, and also the charge composition of cosmic rays, including the ratio of antiprotons to protons.

  20. Is the angular momentum of an electron conserved in a uniform magnetic field?

    PubMed

    Greenshields, Colin R; Stamps, Robert L; Franke-Arnold, Sonja; Barnett, Stephen M

    2014-12-12

    We show that an electron moving in a uniform magnetic field possesses a time-varying "diamagnetic" angular momentum. Surprisingly this means that the kinetic angular momentum of the electron may vary with time, despite the rotational symmetry of the system. This apparent violation of angular momentum conservation is resolved by including the angular momentum of the surrounding fields. PMID:25541755

  1. A Computational Technique to Determine the Angular Displacement, Velocity and Momentum of a Human Body.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hay, James G.; Wilson, Barry D.

    The angular momentum of a human body derived from both the angular velocity and angular displacement, utilizing cinematographic records has not been adequately assessed, prior to this study. Miller (1970) obtained the angular momentum but only during the airborne phase of activity. The method used by Ramey (1973) involved a force platform, but…

  2. Correlative Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burnett, T. L.; McDonald, S. A.; Gholinia, A.; Geurts, R.; Janus, M.; Slater, T.; Haigh, S. J.; Ornek, C.; Almuaili, F.; Engelberg, D. L.; Thompson, G. E.; Withers, P. J.

    2014-04-01

    Increasingly researchers are looking to bring together perspectives across multiple scales, or to combine insights from different techniques, for the same region of interest. To this end, correlative microscopy has already yielded substantial new insights in two dimensions (2D). Here we develop correlative tomography where the correlative task is somewhat more challenging because the volume of interest is typically hidden beneath the sample surface. We have threaded together x-ray computed tomography, serial section FIB-SEM tomography, electron backscatter diffraction and finally TEM elemental analysis all for the same 3D region. This has allowed observation of the competition between pitting corrosion and intergranular corrosion at multiple scales revealing the structural hierarchy, crystallography and chemistry of veiled corrosion pits in stainless steel. With automated correlative workflows and co-visualization of the multi-scale or multi-modal datasets the technique promises to provide insights across biological, geological and materials science that are impossible using either individual or multiple uncorrelated techniques.

  3. Correlative tomography.

    PubMed

    Burnett, T L; McDonald, S A; Gholinia, A; Geurts, R; Janus, M; Slater, T; Haigh, S J; Ornek, C; Almuaili, F; Engelberg, D L; Thompson, G E; Withers, P J

    2014-01-01

    Increasingly researchers are looking to bring together perspectives across multiple scales, or to combine insights from different techniques, for the same region of interest. To this end, correlative microscopy has already yielded substantial new insights in two dimensions (2D). Here we develop correlative tomography where the correlative task is somewhat more challenging because the volume of interest is typically hidden beneath the sample surface. We have threaded together x-ray computed tomography, serial section FIB-SEM tomography, electron backscatter diffraction and finally TEM elemental analysis all for the same 3D region. This has allowed observation of the competition between pitting corrosion and intergranular corrosion at multiple scales revealing the structural hierarchy, crystallography and chemistry of veiled corrosion pits in stainless steel. With automated correlative workflows and co-visualization of the multi-scale or multi-modal datasets the technique promises to provide insights across biological, geological and materials science that are impossible using either individual or multiple uncorrelated techniques. PMID:24736640

  4. Correlative Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Burnett, T. L.; McDonald, S. A.; Gholinia, A.; Geurts, R.; Janus, M.; Slater, T.; Haigh, S. J.; Ornek, C.; Almuaili, F.; Engelberg, D. L.; Thompson, G. E.; Withers, P. J.

    2014-01-01

    Increasingly researchers are looking to bring together perspectives across multiple scales, or to combine insights from different techniques, for the same region of interest. To this end, correlative microscopy has already yielded substantial new insights in two dimensions (2D). Here we develop correlative tomography where the correlative task is somewhat more challenging because the volume of interest is typically hidden beneath the sample surface. We have threaded together x-ray computed tomography, serial section FIB-SEM tomography, electron backscatter diffraction and finally TEM elemental analysis all for the same 3D region. This has allowed observation of the competition between pitting corrosion and intergranular corrosion at multiple scales revealing the structural hierarchy, crystallography and chemistry of veiled corrosion pits in stainless steel. With automated correlative workflows and co-visualization of the multi-scale or multi-modal datasets the technique promises to provide insights across biological, geological and materials science that are impossible using either individual or multiple uncorrelated techniques. PMID:24736640

  5. The link between the assembly of the inner dark matter halo and the angular momentum evolution of galaxies in the EAGLE simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zavala, Jesús; Frenk, Carlos S.; Bower, Richard; Schaye, Joop; Theuns, Tom; Crain, Robert A.; Trayford, James W.; Schaller, Matthieu; Furlong, Michelle

    2016-08-01

    We explore the co-evolution of the specific angular momentum of dark matter haloes and the cold baryons that comprise the galaxies within. We study over two thousand central galaxies within the reference cosmological hydrodynamical simulation of the "Evolution and Assembly of GaLaxies and their Environments" (EAGLE) project. We employ a methodology within which the evolutionary history of a system is specified by the time-evolving properties of the Lagrangian particles that define it at z=0. We find a strong correlation between the evolution of the specific angular momentum of today's stars (cold gas) and that of the inner (whole) dark matter halo they are associated with. This link is particularly strong for the stars formed before the epoch of maximum expansion and subsequent collapse of the central dark matter halo (turnaround). Spheroids are typically assembled primarily from stars formed prior to turnaround, and are therefore destined to suffer a net loss of angular momentum associated with the strong merging activity during the assembly of the inner dark matter halo. Stellar discs retain their specific angular momentum since they are comprised of stars formed mainly after turnaround, from gas that mostly preserves the high specific angular momentum it acquired by tidal torques during the linear growth of the halo. Since the specific angular momentum loss of the stars is tied to the galaxy's morphology today, it may be possible to use our results to predict, statistically, the assembly history of a halo given the morphology of the galaxy it hosts.

  6. Active motion assisted by correlated stochastic torques.

    PubMed

    Weber, Christian; Radtke, Paul K; Schimansky-Geier, Lutz; Hänggi, Peter

    2011-07-01

    The stochastic dynamics of an active particle undergoing a constant speed and additionally driven by an overall fluctuating torque is investigated. The random torque forces are expressed by a stochastic differential equation for the angular dynamics of the particle determining the orientation of motion. In addition to a constant torque, the particle is supplemented by random torques, which are modeled as an Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process with given correlation time τ(c). These nonvanishing correlations cause a persistence of the particles' trajectories and a change of the effective spatial diffusion coefficient. We discuss the mean square displacement as a function of the correlation time and the noise intensity and detect a nonmonotonic dependence of the effective diffusion coefficient with respect to both correlation time and noise strength. A maximal diffusion behavior is obtained if the correlated angular noise straightens the curved trajectories, interrupted by small pirouettes, whereby the correlated noise amplifies a straightening of the curved trajectories caused by the constant torque. PMID:21867138

  7. Exclusive studies of angular distributions in GeV hadron-induced reactions with {sup 197}Au

    SciTech Connect

    Hsi, W.; Kwiatkowski, K.; Wang, G.; Bracken, D.S.; Cornell, E.; Ginger, D.S.; Viola, V.E.; Korteling, R.G.; Morley, K.B.; Huang, R.; Lynch, W.G.; Tsang, M.B.; Xi, H.; Gimeno-Nogues, F.; Ramakrishnan, E.; Rowland, D.; Yennello, S.J.; Breuer, H.; Gushue, S.; Remsberg, L.P.; Botvina, A.; Friedman, W.A.

    1999-09-01

    Exclusive studies of angular distributions for intermediate-mass fragments (IMFs) produced in GeV hadron-induced reactions have been performed with the Indiana Silicon Sphere (ISiS) 4{pi} detector array. Special emphasis has been given to understanding the origin of sideways peaking, which becomes prominent in the angular distributions for beam momenta above about 10 GeV/c. Both the magnitude of the effect and the peak angle increase as a function of fragment multiplicity and charge. When gated on IMF kinetic energy, the angular distributions evolve from forward-peaked to near isotropy as the fragment kinetic energy decreases. Fragment-fragment angular-correlation analyses show no obvious evidence for a dynamic mechanism that might signal shock wave effects or the breakup of exotic geometric shapes such as bubbles or toroids. Moving-source and intranuclear cascade simulations suggest that the observed sideways peaking is of kinematic origin, arising from significant transverse momentum imparted to the heavy recoil nucleus during the fast cascade stage of the collision. A two-step cascade and statistical multifragmentation calculation is consistent with this assumption. {copyright} {ital 1999} {ital The American Physical Society}

  8. Exclusive studies of angular distributions in GeV hadron-induced reactions with [sup 197]Au

    SciTech Connect

    Hsi, W.; Kwiatkowski, K.; Wang, G.; Bracken, D.S.; Cornell, E.; Ginger, D.S.; Viola, V.E. ); Korteling, R.G. V5A I56); Morley, K.B. ); Huang, R.; Lynch, W.G.; Tsang, M.B.; Xi, H. ); Gimeno-Nogues, F.; Ramakrishnan, E.; Rowland, D.; Yennello, S.J. ); Breuer, H. ); Gushue, S.; Remsberg, L.P. ); Botvin

    1999-09-01

    Exclusive studies of angular distributions for intermediate-mass fragments (IMFs) produced in GeV hadron-induced reactions have been performed with the Indiana Silicon Sphere (ISiS) 4[pi] detector array. Special emphasis has been given to understanding the origin of sideways peaking, which becomes prominent in the angular distributions for beam momenta above about 10 GeV/c. Both the magnitude of the effect and the peak angle increase as a function of fragment multiplicity and charge. When gated on IMF kinetic energy, the angular distributions evolve from forward-peaked to near isotropy as the fragment kinetic energy decreases. Fragment-fragment angular-correlation analyses show no obvious evidence for a dynamic mechanism that might signal shock wave effects or the breakup of exotic geometric shapes such as bubbles or toroids. Moving-source and intranuclear cascade simulations suggest that the observed sideways peaking is of kinematic origin, arising from significant transverse momentum imparted to the heavy recoil nucleus during the fast cascade stage of the collision. A two-step cascade and statistical multifragmentation calculation is consistent with this assumption. [copyright] [ital 1999] [ital The American Physical Society

  9. Two-dimensional angular transmission characterization of CPV modules.

    PubMed

    Herrero, R; Domínguez, C; Askins, S; Antón, I; Sala, G

    2010-11-01

    This paper proposes a fast method to characterize the two-dimensional angular transmission function of a concentrator photovoltaic (CPV) system. The so-called inverse method, which has been used in the past for the characterization of small optical components, has been adapted to large-area CPV modules. In the inverse method, the receiver cell is forward biased to produce a Lambertian light emission, which reveals the reverse optical path of the optics. Using a large-area collimator mirror, the light beam exiting the optics is projected on a Lambertian screen to create a spatially resolved image of the angular transmission function. An image is then obtained using a CCD camera. To validate this method, the angular transmission functions of a real CPV module have been measured by both direct illumination (flash CPV simulator and sunlight) and the inverse method, and the comparison shows good agreement. PMID:21165081

  10. Free falling and rising of spherical and angular particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahmani, M.; Wachs, A.

    2014-08-01

    Direct numerical simulations of freely falling and rising particles in an infinitely long domain, with periodic lateral boundary conditions, are performed. The focus is on characterizing the free motion of cubical and tetrahedral particles for different Reynolds numbers, as an extension to the well-studied behaviour of freely falling and rising spherical bodies. The vortical structure of the wake, dynamics of particle movement, and the interaction of the particle with its wake are studied. The results reveal mechanisms of path instabilities for angular particles, which are different from those for spherical ones. The rotation of the particle plays a more significant role in the transition to chaos for angular particles. Following a framework similar to that of Mougin and Magnaudet ["Wake-induced forces and torques on a zigzagging/spiralling bubble," J. Fluid Mech. 567, 185-194 (2006)], the balance of forces and torques acting on particles is discussed to gain more insight into the path instabilities of angular particles.

  11. On-chip noninterference angular momentum multiplexing of broadband light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Haoran; Li, Xiangping; Zhang, Qiming; Gu, Min

    2016-05-01

    Angular momentum division has emerged as a physically orthogonal multiplexing method in high-capacity optical information technologies. However, the typical bulky elements used for information retrieval from the overall diffracted field, based on the interference method, impose a fundamental limit toward realizing on-chip multiplexing. We demonstrate noninterference angular momentum multiplexing by using a mode-sorting nanoring aperture with a chip-scale footprint as small as 4.2 micrometers by 4.2 micrometers, where nanoring slits exhibit a distinctive outcoupling efficiency on tightly confined plasmonic modes. The nonresonant mode-sorting sensitivity and scalability of our approach enable on-chip parallel multiplexing over a bandwidth of 150 nanometers in the visible wavelength range. The results offer the possibility of ultrahigh-capacity and miniaturized nanophotonic devices harnessing angular momentum division.

  12. Angular Alignment Testing of Laser Mirror Mounts Under Temperature Cycling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bullock, K. T.; DeYoung, R. J.; Sandford, S. P.

    1997-01-01

    A number of commercial and custom-built laser mirror mounts were tested for angular alignment sensitivity during temperature cycling from room temperature (20 C) to 40 C. A Nd:YAG laser beam was reflected off a mirror that was held by the mount under test and was directed to a position-sensitive detector. Horizontal and vertical movement of the reflected beam was recorded, and the angular movement, as a function of temperature (coefficient of thermal tilt (CTT)) was calculated from these data. In addition, the amount of hysteresis in the movement after cycling from room temperature to 40 C and back was determined. All commercial mounts showed greater angular movement than the simpler National Aeronautics and Space Administration Lidar Atmospheric Sensing Experiment (NASA LASE) custom mirror mounts.

  13. Angular trapping of a mirror using radiation pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelley, David B.

    Alignment control in gravitational-wave detectors has consistently proven to be a difficult problem due to the stringent noise contamination requirement for the gravitational wave readout and the radiation-pressure induced angular instability in Fabry-Perot cavities (Sidles-Sigg instability). In this thesis, I present optical springs as a tool to damp the motion of a mirror. I discuss the design and implementation of a single degree-of-freedom optical spring system and the importance of the photothermal effect in properly predicting optical spring behavior. I also present the development and implementation of an angular control scheme, attempting to damp two degrees of freedom with two optical cavities. I then extend this understanding into a plausible concept for implementing optical-spring-based angular control in the Advanced LIGO detectors.

  14. Angular Momentum Transport in Turbulent Flow between Independently Rotating Cylinders

    SciTech Connect

    Paoletti, M. S.; Lathrop, D. P.

    2011-01-14

    We present measurements of the angular momentum flux (torque) in Taylor-Couette flow of water between independently rotating cylinders for all regions of the ({Omega}{sub 1}, {Omega}{sub 2}) parameter space at high Reynolds numbers, where {Omega}{sub 1} ({Omega}{sub 2}) is the inner (outer) cylinder angular velocity. We find that the Rossby number Ro=({Omega}{sub 1}-{Omega}{sub 2})/{Omega}{sub 2} fully determines the state and torque G as compared to G(Ro={infinity}){identical_to}G{sub {infinity}.} The ratio G/G{sub {infinity}} is a linear function of Ro{sup -1} in four sections of the parameter space. For flows with radially increasing angular momentum, our measured torques greatly exceed those of previous experiments [Ji et al., Nature (London), 444, 343 (2006)], but agree with the analysis of Richard and Zahn [Astron. Astrophys. 347, 734 (1999)].

  15. Orbital and spin angular momentum in conical diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berry, M. V.; Jeffrey, M. R.; Mansuripur, M.

    2005-11-01

    The angular momentum Jinc of a light beam can be changed by passage through a slab of crystal. When the beam is incident along the optic axis of a biaxial crystal, which may also possess optical activity (chirality), the final angular momentum J can have both orbital (Jorb) and spin (Jsp) contributions, which we calculate paraxially exactly for arbitrary biaxiality and chirality and initially uniformly polarized beams with circular symmetry. For the familiar special case of a non-chiral crystal with fully developed conical-refraction rings, J is purely orbital and equal to Jinc/2, reflecting an interesting singularity structure in the beam. Explicit formulas and numerical computations are presented for a Gaussian incident beam. The change in angular momentum results in a torque on the crystal, along the axis of the incident beam. An additional, much larger, torque, about an axis lying in the slab, arises from the offset of the cone of conical refraction relative to the incident beam.

  16. Nuclear pairing at finite temperature and angular momentum

    SciTech Connect

    Dang, N. Dinh; Hung, N. Quang

    2009-01-28

    We propose an approach to nuclear pairing at finite temperature and angular momentum. This approach includes the effects due to the quasiparticle-number fluctuation and dynamic coupling to pair vibrations within the self-consistent quasiparticle random-phase approximation. The pairing gaps, total energies, and heat capacities are calculated within a doubly folded multilevel model as well as several realistic nuclei. The results obtained show that, in the region of moderate and strong couplings, the sharp transition between the superconducting and normal phases is smoothed out. This is manifested in a thermal pairing gap, which does not collapse at a critical temperature predicted by the conventional Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer's (BCS) theory, but has a tail extended to high temperatures. Moreover, this approach also predicts the appearance of a thermally assisted pairing at finite angular momentum. The effect of backbending of the momentum of inertia as a function of the square of angular velocity is also discussed.

  17. Microbeam High Angular Resolution Diffraction Applied to Optoelectronic Devices

    SciTech Connect

    Kazimirov, A.; Bilderback, D. H.; Sirenko, A. A.; Cai, Z.-H.; Lai, B.

    2007-01-19

    Collimating perfect crystal optics in a combination with the X-ray focusing optics has been applied to perform high angular resolution microbeam diffraction and scattering experiments on micron-size optoelectronic devices produced by modern semiconductor technology. At CHESS, we used capillary optics and perfect Si/Ge crystal(s) arrangement to perform X-ray standing waves, high angular-resolution diffraction and high resolution reciprocal space mapping analysis. At the APS, 2ID-D microscope beamline, we employed a phase zone plate producing a beam with the size of 240 nm in the horizontal plane and 350 nm in the vertical (diffraction) plane and a perfect Si (004) analyzer crystal to perform diffraction analysis of selectively grown InGaAsP and InGaAlAs-based waveguides with arc sec angular resolution.

  18. Investigation of fluctuations in angular velocity in magnetic memory devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meshkis, Y. A.; Potsyus, Z. Y.

    1973-01-01

    The fluctuations in the angular velocity of individual assemblies of a precision mechanical system were analyzed. The system was composed of an electric motor and a magnetic drum which were connected by a flexible coupling. A dynamic model was constructed which took into account the absence of torsion in the rigid shafts of the electric motor drive rotor and the magnetic drum. The motion was described by Lagrange differential equations of the second kind. Curves are developed to show the nature of amplitude fluctuation of the magnetic drum angular velocity at a specific excitation frequency. Additional curves show the amplitudes of fluctuation of the magnetic drum angular velocity compared to the quantity of damping at specific frequencies.

  19. A quantum memory for orbital angular momentum photonic qubits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicolas, A.; Veissier, L.; Giner, L.; Giacobino, E.; Maxein, D.; Laurat, J.

    2014-03-01

    Among the optical degrees of freedom, the orbital angular momentum of light provides unique properties, including mechanical torque action, which has applications for light manipulation, enhanced sensitivity in imaging techniques and potential high-density information coding for optical communication systems. Recent years have also seen a tremendous interest in exploiting orbital angular momentum at the single-photon level in quantum information technologies. In pursuing this endeavour, we demonstrate here the implementation of a quantum memory for quantum bits encoded in this optical degree of freedom. We generate various qubits with computer-controlled holograms, store and retrieve them on demand using a dynamic electromagnetically induced transparency protocol. We further analyse the retrieved states by quantum tomography and thereby demonstrate fidelities exceeding the classical benchmark, confirming the quantum functioning of our storage process. Our results provide an essential capability for future networks exploring the promises of orbital angular momentum of photons for quantum information applications.

  20. On-chip noninterference angular momentum multiplexing of broadband light.

    PubMed

    Ren, Haoran; Li, Xiangping; Zhang, Qiming; Gu, Min

    2016-05-13

    Angular momentum division has emerged as a physically orthogonal multiplexing method in high-capacity optical information technologies. However, the typical bulky elements used for information retrieval from the overall diffracted field, based on the interference method, impose a fundamental limit toward realizing on-chip multiplexing. We demonstrate noninterference angular momentum multiplexing by using a mode-sorting nanoring aperture with a chip-scale footprint as small as 4.2 micrometers by 4.2 micrometers, where nanoring slits exhibit a distinctive outcoupling efficiency on tightly confined plasmonic modes. The nonresonant mode-sorting sensitivity and scalability of our approach enable on-chip parallel multiplexing over a bandwidth of 150 nanometers in the visible wavelength range. The results offer the possibility of ultrahigh-capacity and miniaturized nanophotonic devices harnessing angular momentum division. PMID:27056843

  1. Zebra tape identification for the instantaneous angular speed computation and angular resampling of motorbike valve train measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivola, Alessandro; Troncossi, Marco

    2014-02-01

    An experimental test campaign was performed on the valve train of a racing motorbike engine in order to get insight into the dynamic of the system. In particular the valve motion was acquired in cold test conditions by means of a laser vibrometer able to acquire displacement and velocity signals. The valve time-dependent measurements needed to be referred to the camshaft angular position in order to analyse the data in the angular domain, as usually done for rotating machines. To this purpose the camshaft was fitted with a zebra tape whose dark and light stripes were tracked by means of an optical probe. Unfortunately, both manufacturing and mounting imperfections of the employed zebra tape, resulting in stripes with slightly different widths, precluded the possibility to directly obtain the correct relationship between camshaft angular position and time. In order to overcome this problem, the identification of the zebra tape was performed by means of the original and practical procedure that is the focus of the present paper. The method consists of three main steps: namely, an ad-hoc test corresponding to special operating conditions, the computation of the instantaneous angular speed, and the final association of the stripes with the corresponding shaft angular position. The results reported in the paper demonstrate the suitability of the simple procedure for the zebra tape identification performed with the final purpose to implement a computed order tracking technique for the data analysis.

  2. Angular momentum in molecular quantum mechanical integral evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunlap, Brett I.

    2005-01-01

    Solid-harmonic derivatives of quantum-mechanical integrals over Gaussian transforms of scalar, or radial, atomic basis functions create angular momentum about each center. Generalized Gaunt coefficients limit the amount of cross differentiation for multi-center integrals to ensure that cross differentiation does not affect the total angular momentum. The generalized Gaunt coefficients satisfy a number of other selection rules, which are exploited in a new computer code for computing forces in analytic density-functional theory based on robust and variational fitting of the Kohn-Sham potential. Two-center exponents are defined for four or more solid-harmonic differentiations of matrix elements. Those differentiations can either build up angular momentum about the centers or give forces on molecular potential-energy surfaces, thus generalized Gaunt coefficients of order greater than the number of centers are considered. These 4- j generalized Gaunt coefficients and two-center exponents are used to compute the first derivatives of all integrals involving all the Gaussian exponents on a triplet of centers at once. First all angular factors are contracted with the corresponding part of the linear-combination-of-atomic-orbitals density matrix. This intermediate quantity is then reused for the nuclear attraction integral and the integrals corresponding to each basis function in the analytic fit of the Kohn-Sham potential in the muffin-tin-like, but analytic, Slater-Roothaan method that allows molecules to dissociate into atoms having any desired energy, including the experimental electronic energy. The energy is stationary in all respects and all forces precisely agree with a previous code in tests on small molecules. During geometry optimization of an icosahedral C 720 fullerene computing these angular factors and transforming them via the 4- j generalized Gaunt coefficient takes more than sixty percent of the total computer time. These same angular factors could be used

  3. Pump/Probe Angular Dependence of Hanle Electromagnetically Induced Transparency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Richard; Campbell, Kaleb; Crescimanno, Michael; Bali, Samir

    2015-05-01

    We investigate the dependence of Hanle Electromagnetically Induced Transparency (EIT) on angular separation between pump and probe field propagation directions in room-temperature Rb vapor. We observe the FWHM of the probe transmission spectrum and the amplitude of the EIT signal while varying the angular separation from 0 to 1 milliradian. Following the work of Ref., we examine potential applications in information storage and retrieval. We are grateful to Miami University for their generous financial support, and to the Miami University Instrumentation lab for their invaluable contributions.

  4. Effect of Orbital Angular Momentum on Nondiffracting Ultrashort Optical Pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ornigotti, Marco; Conti, Claudio; Szameit, Alexander

    2015-09-01

    We introduce a new class of nondiffracting optical pulses possessing orbital angular momentum. By generalizing the X -wave solution of the Maxwell equation, we discover the coupling between angular momentum and the temporal degrees of freedom of ultrashort pulses. The spatial twist of propagation invariant light pulse turns out to be directly related to the number of optical cycles. Our results may trigger the development of novel multilevel classical and quantum transmission channels free of dispersion and diffraction. They may also find application in the manipulation of nanostructured objects by ultrashort pulses and for novel approaches to the spatiotemporal measurements in ultrafast photonics.

  5. Wave propagation in bianisotropic metamaterials: angular selective transmission.

    PubMed

    Chang, Po-Han; Kuo, Chih-Yu; Chern, Ruey-Lin

    2014-10-20

    We investigate the basic features of wave propagation in bianisotropic metamaterials characterized by asymmetric magnetoelectric tensors with zero diagonal elements. The wave propagation is described by a biquadratic dispersion relation with two elliptically polarized eigenwaves. In particular, the bianisotropic media may possess a hybrid character of the elliptic and hyperbolic dispersions. For a wave incident from vacuum onto a bianisotropic medium, there exist an ordinary and an inversion critical angle, leading to angular selective transmission. A standard and a complementary type of angular selective transmissions are illustrated with the incidence of Gaussian beams based on Fourier integral formulation. PMID:25401604

  6. Video-analysis Interface for Angular Joint Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mondani, M.; Ghersi, I.; Miralles, M. T.

    2016-04-01

    Real-time quantification of joint articular movement is instrumental in the comprehensive assessment of significant biomechanical gestures. The development of an interface, based on an automatic algorithm for 3D-motion analysis, is presented in this work. The graphical interface uses open-source libraries for video processing, and its use is intuitive. The proposed method is low-cost, of acceptable precision (|εθ| < 1°), and minimally invasive. It allows to obtain angular movement of joints in different planes, synchronized with the video of the gesture, as well as to make comparisons and calculate parameters of interest from the acquired angular kinematics.

  7. Scalable broadband OPCPA in Lithium Niobate with signal angular dispersion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tóth, György; Pálfalvi, László; Tokodi, Levente; Hebling, János; Fülöp, József András

    2016-07-01

    Angular dispersion of the signal beam is proposed for efficient, scalable high-power few-cycle pulse generation in LiNbO3 by optical parametric chirped-pulse amplification (OPCPA) in the 1.4 to 2.1 μm wavelength range. An optimized double-grating setup can provide the required angular dispersion. Calculations predict 16.8 fs (3 cycles) pulses with 13 TW peak power. Further scalability of the scheme towards the 100-TW power level is feasible by using efficient, cost-effective, compact diode-pumped solid-state lasers for pumping directly at 1 μm, without second-harmonic generation.

  8. Ultranegative angular dispersion of diffraction in quasiordered biophotonic structures.

    PubMed

    Liu, Feng; Dong, Biqin; Zhao, Fangyuan; Hu, Xinhua; Liu, Xiaohan; Zi, Jian

    2011-04-11

    We report that a three-dimensional quasiordered photonic structure, found in the cuticles of beetle H. sexmaculata, can diffract light in a "wrong" way and its angular dispersion is about one order of magnitude larger than that of a conventional diffraction grating. A new diffraction type of photonic bandgap (from an anticrossing of longitudinal and transverse modes) and additional disorder effect are found to play important roles in this phenomenon. Mimicking the structure could lead to novel optical devices with ultralarge angular dispersion. PMID:21503085

  9. Radio source orientation and the angular diameter-redshift relation

    SciTech Connect

    Onuora, L.I. )

    1991-08-01

    The effect of a nonrandom source orientation on the angular diameter-redshift relation was considered for the 3CR sample of Laing et al., based on the 'unified' scheme of Barthel. For an inhomogeneous sample of objects displaying milliarcsecond scale structure, it was found that there was no evidence for a systematic variation for orientation angle with redshift. However, if it was assumed that quasars are closer to the line of sight than powerful extended radio galaxies, then the observed angular size-redshift relation could be interpreted in terms of source orientation, rather than linear size evolution. 14 refs.

  10. Effect of Orbital Angular Momentum on Nondiffracting Ultrashort Optical Pulses.

    PubMed

    Ornigotti, Marco; Conti, Claudio; Szameit, Alexander

    2015-09-01

    We introduce a new class of nondiffracting optical pulses possessing orbital angular momentum. By generalizing the X-wave solution of the Maxwell equation, we discover the coupling between angular momentum and the temporal degrees of freedom of ultrashort pulses. The spatial twist of propagation invariant light pulse turns out to be directly related to the number of optical cycles. Our results may trigger the development of novel multilevel classical and quantum transmission channels free of dispersion and diffraction. They may also find application in the manipulation of nanostructured objects by ultrashort pulses and for novel approaches to the spatiotemporal measurements in ultrafast photonics. PMID:26382668

  11. Orbital angular momentum and generalized transverse momentum distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yong; Liu, Keh-Fei; Yang, Yi-Bo

    2016-03-01

    We show that, when boosted to the infinite momentum frame, the quark and gluon orbital angular momentum operators defined in the nucleon spin sum rule of Chen et al. are the same as those whose matrix elements correspond to the moments of generalized transverse momentum distributions. This completes the connection between the infinite momentum limit of each term in that sum rule and experimentally measurable observables. We also show that these orbital angular momentum operators can be defined locally and discuss the strategies of calculating them in lattice QCD.

  12. Anion Photoelectron Angular Distributions: Electron Scattering Resonances in Photodetachment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mabbs, Richard

    2012-06-01

    To a large degree the photoelectron angular distributions (PAD) of anionic species represent signatures of the bound parent orbital. However, these angular distributions are also influenced by interaction of the outgoing electron with the neutral (atomic, molecular or cluster) residue. The electron kinetic energy evolution (eKE) of the PAD is presented for a number of different species (from molecular to cluster anion), showing the often striking effect of excitation of temporary excited anionic states. These cases highlight the influence of different types of electron-molecule scattering resonances in photodetachment dynamics. Additionally, the possibility of using the eKE evolution of the PAD for structural elucidation is discussed.

  13. Irrotational and zero angular momentum ellipsoids in the Dirichlet problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondratev, B. P.

    1986-05-01

    Two classes of new exact solutions are found in the Dirichlet problem of the oscillations of a self-gravitating fluid ellipsoidal mass with linear velocity field. These solutions describe irrotational ellipsoids and ellipsoids with zero angular momentum (which are adjoint in the sense of a theorem due to Dedekind). For elliposoids with stationary boundary surface it is established that irrotational and zero angular momentum figures exist not only when the ellipsoids rotate around the central symmetry axis (Chandrasekhar considered this special case) but also for an inclined position of the rotation axis.

  14. Relaxation of the Angular Velocity of Pulsars after Glitches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sedrakian, D. M.; Hayrapetyan, M. V.; Baghdasaryan, D.

    2014-03-01

    The rotational dynamics of superfluid neutron stars is examined in order to study the relaxation of the angular velocity of pulsars after glitches. The motion of the neutron-proton vortex system is investigated taking the sphericity of the superfluid core and vortex pinning and depinning into account. A relaxation solution is obtained for the angular rotation velocity of pulsars after glitches. In order to compare this solution with observational data for the Vela pulsar, the inverse problem of finding the initial distribution of vortices immediately after a glitch is solved.

  15. Angular velocity response of nanoparticles dispersed in liquid crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Pin-Chun; Shih, Wen-Pin

    2013-06-01

    A hybrid material of nanoparticles dispersed in liquid crystal changed capacitance after spinning beyond threshold angular velocity. Once the centrifugal force of nanoparticles overcomes the attractive force between liquid crystals, the nanoparticles begin to move. The order of highly viscous liquid crystals is disturbed by the nanoparticles' penetrative movement, and the dielectric constant of the liquid crystal cell changes as a result. We found that the angular velocity response of nanoparticles dispersed in liquid crystal with higher working temperature and nanoparticles' density provided higher sensitivity. The obtained results are important for the continuous improvement of liquid-crystal-based inertial sensors or nano-viscometers.

  16. Angular sensitivity of gated microchannel plate framing cameras

    SciTech Connect

    Landen, O. L.; Lobban, A.; Tutt, T.; Bell, P. M.; Costa, R.; Hargrove, D. R.; Ze, F.

    2001-01-01

    Gated, microchannel-plate-based (MCP) framing cameras have been deployed worldwide for 0.2--9 keV x-ray imaging and spectroscopy of transient plasma phenomena. For a variety of spectroscopic and imaging applications, the angular sensitivity of MCPs must be known for correctly interpreting the data. We present systematic measurements of angular sensitivity at discrete relevant photon energies and arbitrary MCP gain. The results can been accurately predicted by using a simple two-dimensional approximation to the three-dimensional MCP geometry and by averaging over all possible photon ray paths.

  17. Angular Sensitivity of Gated Micro-Channel Plate Framing Cameras

    SciTech Connect

    Landen, O L; Lobban, A; Tutt, T; Bell, P M; Costa, R; Ze, F

    2000-07-24

    Gated, microchannel-plate-based (MCP) framing cameras have been deployed worldwide for 0.2 - 9 keV x-ray imaging and spectroscopy of transient plasma phenomena. For a variety of spectroscopic and imaging applications, the angular sensitivity of MCPs must be known for correctly interpreting the data. We present systematic measurements of angular sensitivity at discrete relevant photon energies and arbitrary MCP gain. The results can been accurately predicted by using a simple 2D approximation to the 3D MCP geometry and by averaging over all possible photon ray paths.

  18. Angular dependence of anisotropic magnetoresistance in magnetic systems

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Steven S.-L. Zhang, Shufeng

    2014-05-07

    Anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR), whose physical origin is attributed to the combination of spin dependent scattering and spin orbital coupling (SOC), usually displays simple angular dependence for polycrystalline ferromagnetic metals. By including generic spin dependent scattering and spin Hall (SH) terms in the Ohm's law, we explicitly show that various magneto-transport phenomena such as anomalous Hall (AH), SH, planar Hall (PH) and AMR could be quantitatively related for bulk polycrystalline ferromagnetic metals. We also discuss how AMR angular dependence is affected by the presence of interfacial SOC in magnetic layered structure.

  19. Angular Momentum of a Magnetically Trapped Atomic Condensate

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, P.; Jen, H. H.; Sun, C. P.; You, L.

    2007-01-19

    For an atomic condensate in an axially symmetric magnetic trap, the sum of the axial components of the orbital angular momentum and the hyperfine spin is conserved. Inside an Ioffe-Pritchard trap (IPT) whose magnetic field (B field) is not axially symmetric, the difference of the two becomes surprisingly conserved. In this Letter we investigate the relationship between the values of the sum or difference angular momentums for an atomic condensate inside a magnetic trap and the associated gauge potential induced by the adiabatic approximation. Our result provides significant new insight into the vorticity of magnetically trapped atomic quantum gases.

  20. Creation of orbital angular momentum states with chiral polaritonic lenses.

    PubMed

    Dall, Robert; Fraser, Michael D; Desyatnikov, Anton S; Li, Guangyao; Brodbeck, Sebastian; Kamp, Martin; Schneider, Christian; Höfling, Sven; Ostrovskaya, Elena A

    2014-11-14

    Controlled transfer of orbital angular momentum to an exciton-polariton Bose-Einstein condensate spontaneously created under incoherent, off resonant excitation conditions is a long-standing challenge in the field of microcavity polaritonics. We demonstrate, experimentally and theoretically, a simple and efficient approach to the generation of nontrivial orbital angular momentum states by using optically induced potentials-chiral polaritonic lenses. These lenses are produced by a structured optical pump with a spatial distribution of intensity that breaks the chiral symmetry of the system. PMID:25432029